Science.gov

Sample records for absolute frequency accuracy

  1. Cavity ring-down spectroscopy of Doppler-broadened absorption line with sub-MHz absolute frequency accuracy.

    PubMed

    Cheng, C-F; Sun, Y R; Pan, H; Lu, Y; Li, X-F; Wang, J; Liu, A-W; Hu, S-M

    2012-04-23

    A continuous-wave cavity ring-down spectrometer has been built for precise determination of absolute frequencies of Doppler-broadened absorption lines. Using a thermo-stabilized Fabry-Pérot interferometer and Rb frequency references at the 780 nm and 795 nm, 0.1 - 0.6 MHz absolute frequency accuracy has been achieved in the 775-800 nm region. A water absorption line at 12579 cm(-1) is studied to test the performance of the spectrometer. The line position at zero-pressure limit is determined with an uncertainty of 0.3 MHz (relative accuracy of 0.8 × 10(-9)).

  2. High-accuracy absolute distance measurement with a mode-resolved optical frequency comb

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Voigt, Dirk; van den Berg, Steven A.; Lešundák, Adam; van Eldik, Sjoerd; Bhattacharya, Nandini

    2016-04-01

    Optical interferometry enables highly accurate non-contact displacement measurement. The optical phase ambiguity needs to be resolved for absolute distance ranging. In controlled laboratory conditions and for short distances it is possible to track a non-interrupted displacement from a reference position to a remote target. With large distances covered in field applications this may not be feasible, e.g. in structure monitoring, large scale industrial manufacturing or aerospace navigation and attitude control. We use an optical frequency comb source to explore absolute distance measurement by means of a combined spectral and multi-wavelength homodyne interferometry. This relaxes the absolute distance ambiguity to a few tens of centimeters, covered by simpler electronic distance meters, while maintaining highly accurate optical phase measuring capability. A virtually imaged phased array spectrometer records a spatially dispersed interferogram in a single exposure and allows for resolving the modes of our near infrared comb source with 1 GHz mode separation. This enables measurements with direct traceability of the atomic clock referenced comb source. We observed agreement within 500 nm in comparison with a commercial displacement interferometer for target distances up to 50 m. Furthermore, we report on current work toward applicability in less controlled conditions. A filter cavity decimates the comb source to an increased mode separation larger than 20 GHz. A simple grating spectrometer then allows to record mode-resolved interferograms.

  3. Achieving Climate Change Absolute Accuracy in Orbit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wielicki, Bruce A.; Young, D. F.; Mlynczak, M. G.; Thome, K. J; Leroy, S.; Corliss, J.; Anderson, J. G.; Ao, C. O.; Bantges, R.; Best, F.; Bowman, K.; Brindley, H.; Butler, J. J.; Collins, W.; Dykema, J. A.; Doelling, D. R.; Feldman, D. R.; Fox, N.; Huang, X.; Holz, R.; Huang, Y.; Jennings, D.; Jin, Z.; Johnson, D. G.; Jucks, K.; Kato, S.; Kratz, D. P.; Liu, X.; Lukashin, C.; Mannucci, A. J.; Phojanamongkolkij, N.; Roithmayr, C. M.; Sandford, S.; Taylor, P. C.; Xiong, X.

    2013-01-01

    The Climate Absolute Radiance and Refractivity Observatory (CLARREO) mission will provide a calibration laboratory in orbit for the purpose of accurately measuring and attributing climate change. CLARREO measurements establish new climate change benchmarks with high absolute radiometric accuracy and high statistical confidence across a wide range of essential climate variables. CLARREO's inherently high absolute accuracy will be verified and traceable on orbit to Système Internationale (SI) units. The benchmarks established by CLARREO will be critical for assessing changes in the Earth system and climate model predictive capabilities for decades into the future as society works to meet the challenge of optimizing strategies for mitigating and adapting to climate change. The CLARREO benchmarks are derived from measurements of the Earth's thermal infrared spectrum (5-50 micron), the spectrum of solar radiation reflected by the Earth and its atmosphere (320-2300 nm), and radio occultation refractivity from which accurate temperature profiles are derived. The mission has the ability to provide new spectral fingerprints of climate change, as well as to provide the first orbiting radiometer with accuracy sufficient to serve as the reference transfer standard for other space sensors, in essence serving as a "NIST [National Institute of Standards and Technology] in orbit." CLARREO will greatly improve the accuracy and relevance of a wide range of space-borne instruments for decadal climate change. Finally, CLARREO has developed new metrics and methods for determining the accuracy requirements of climate observations for a wide range of climate variables and uncertainty sources. These methods should be useful for improving our understanding of observing requirements for most climate change observations.

  4. Monolithically integrated absolute frequency comb laser system

    SciTech Connect

    Wanke, Michael C.

    2016-07-12

    Rather than down-convert optical frequencies, a QCL laser system directly generates a THz frequency comb in a compact monolithically integrated chip that can be locked to an absolute frequency without the need of a frequency-comb synthesizer. The monolithic, absolute frequency comb can provide a THz frequency reference and tool for high-resolution broad band spectroscopy.

  5. Simultaneously improving the sensitivity and absolute accuracy of CPT magnetometer.

    PubMed

    Liang, Shang-Qing; Yang, Guo-Qing; Xu, Yun-Fei; Lin, Qiang; Liu, Zhi-Heng; Chen, Zheng-Xiang

    2014-03-24

    A new method to improve the sensitivity and absolute accuracy simultaneously for coherent population trapping (CPT) magnetometer based on the differential detection method is presented. Two modulated optical beams with orthogonal circular polarizations are applied, in one of which two magnetic resonances are excited simultaneously by modulating a 3.4GHz microwave with Larmor frequency. When a microwave frequency shift is introduced, the difference in the power transmitted through the cell in each beam shows a low noise resonance. The sensitivity of 2pT/Hz @ 10Hz is achieved. Meanwhile, the absolute accuracy of ± 0.5nT within the magnetic field ranging from 20000nT to 100000nT is realized.

  6. Multi-channel absolute distance measurement system with sub ppm-accuracy and 20 m range using frequency scanning interferometry and gas absorption cells.

    PubMed

    Dale, John; Hughes, Ben; Lancaster, Andrew J; Lewis, Andrew J; Reichold, Armin J H; Warden, Matthew S

    2014-10-06

    We present an implementation of an absolute distance measurement system which uses frequency scanning interferometry (FSI). The technique, referred to as dynamic FSI, uses two frequency scanning lasers, a gas absorption cell and a reference interferometer to determine the unknown optical path length difference (OPD) of one or many measurement interferometers. The gas absorption cell is the length reference for the measurement system and is traceable to international standards through knowledge of the frequencies of its absorption features. The OPD of the measurement interferometers can vary during the measurement and the variation is measured at the sampling rate of the system (2.77 MHz in the system described here). The system is shown to measure distances from 0.2 m to 20 m with a combined relative uncertainty of 0.41 × 10⁻⁶ at the two sigma level (k = 2). It will be shown that within a scan the change in OPD of the measurement interferometer can be determined to a resolution of 40 nm.

  7. Individual Differences in Absolute and Relative Metacomprehension Accuracy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maki, Ruth H.; Shields, Micheal; Wheeler, Amanda Easton; Zacchilli, Tammy Lowery

    2005-01-01

    The authors investigated absolute and relative metacomprehension accuracy as a function of verbal ability in college students. Students read hard texts, revised texts, or a mixed set of texts. They then predicted their performance, took a multiple-choice test on the texts, and made posttest judgments about their performance. With hard texts,…

  8. Absolute distance measurement using frequency-sweeping heterodyne interferometer calibrated by an optical frequency comb.

    PubMed

    Wu, Xuejian; Wei, Haoyun; Zhang, Hongyuan; Ren, Libing; Li, Yan; Zhang, Jitao

    2013-04-01

    We present a frequency-sweeping heterodyne interferometer to measure an absolute distance based on a frequency-tunable diode laser calibrated by an optical frequency comb (OFC) and an interferometric phase measurement system. The laser frequency-sweeping process is calibrated by the OFC within a range of 200 GHz and an accuracy of 1.3 kHz, which brings about a precise temporal synthetic wavelength of 1.499 mm. The interferometric phase measurement system consisting of the analog signal processing circuit and the digital phase meter achieves a phase difference resolution better than 0.1 deg. As the laser frequency is sweeping, the absolute distance can be determined by measuring the phase difference variation of the interference signals. In the laboratory condition, our experimental scheme realizes micrometer accuracy over meter distance.

  9. Constraint on Absolute Accuracy of Metacomprehension Assessments: The Anchoring and Adjustment Model vs. the Standards Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kwon, Heekyung

    2011-01-01

    The objective of this study is to provide a systematic account of three typical phenomena surrounding absolute accuracy of metacomprehension assessments: (1) the absolute accuracy of predictions is typically quite low; (2) there exist individual differences in absolute accuracy of predictions as a function of reading skill; and (3) postdictions…

  10. HST Stellar Standards with 1% Accuracy in Absolute Flux

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bohlin, R. C.

    2007-04-01

    Free of any atmospheric contamination, the {Hubble Space Telescope} provides the best available spectrophotometry from the far-UV to the near-IR for stars as faint as V˜16. The HST CALSPEC standard star network is based on three standard candles: the hot, pure hydrogen white dwarf (WD) stars G 191B2B, GD 153, and GD 71, which have Hubeny NLTE flux calculations that require the atomic physics for only one atom. These model flux distributions are normalized to the absolute flux for Vega of 3.46×10-9 erg cm-2 s-1 Å-1 at 5556 Å using precise Landolt V band photometry and the V bandpass function corrected for atmospheric transmission by M. Cohen. The three primary WD standards provide absolute flux calibrations for FOS, STIS and NICMOS spectrophotometry from these instruments on the HST. About 32 stellar spectral energy distributions (SEDs) have been constructed with a primary pedigree from the STIS data, which extends from 1150 Å for the hot stars to a long wavelength limit of 1 μm. NICMOS grism spectrophotometry provides an extension to 1.9 μm in the IR for 17 of the HST standards and longward to 2.5 μm for a few of the brighter stars. Included among these HST standards are Vega, the Sloan standard BD+17 4708, three bright solar analog candidates, three cool stars of type M or later, and five hot WDs. In addition, four K giants and four main sequence A-stars have NICMOS spectrophotometry from 0.8-2.5 μm. The WD fluxes are compared to their modeled SEDs and demonstrate an internal precision of 1-2%, while the A-stars agree with the Cohen IR fluxes to ˜2%. Three solar analog candidate stars differ from the solar spectrum by up to 10% in the region of heavy line blanketing from 3000-4000 Å and show differences in shape of ˜5% in the IR around 1.8 μm.

  11. MSTAR: an absolute metrology sensor with sub-micron accuracy for space-based applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Peters, Robert D.; Lay, Oliver P.; Dubovitsky, Serge; Burger, Johan P.; Jeganathan, Muthu

    2004-01-01

    The MSTAR sensor is a new system for measuring absolute distance, capable of resolving the integer cycle ambiguity of standard interferometers, and making it possible to measure distance with subnanometer accuracy.

  12. Speed and Accuracy of Absolute Pitch Judgments: Some Latter-Day Results.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carroll, John B.

    Nine subjects, 5 of whom claimed absolute pitch (AP) ability were instructed to rapidly strike notes on the piano to match randomized tape-recorded piano notes. Stimulus set sizes were 64, 16, or 4 consecutive semitones, or 7 diatonic notes of a designated octave. A control task involved motor movements to notes announced in advance. Accuracy,…

  13. The assessment of protective behavioral strategies: comparing the absolute frequency and contingent frequency response scales.

    PubMed

    Kite, Benjamin A; Pearson, Matthew R; Henson, James M

    2013-12-01

    The purpose of the present studies was to examine the effects of response scale on the observed relationships between protective behavioral strategies (PBS) measures and alcohol-related outcomes. We reasoned that an "absolute frequency" scale (stem: "how many times …"; response scale: 0 times to 11+ times) conflates the frequency of using PBS with the frequency of consuming alcohol; thus, we hypothesized that the use of an absolute frequency response scale would result in positive relationships between types of PBS and alcohol-related outcomes. Alternatively, a "contingent frequency" scale (stem: "When drinking … how often …"; response scale: never to always) does not conflate frequency of alcohol use with use of PBS; therefore, we hypothesized that use of a contingent frequency scale would result in negative relationships between use of PBS and alcohol-related outcomes. Two published measures of PBS were used across studies: the Protective Behavioral Strategies Survey (PBSS) and the Strategy Questionnaire (SQ). Across three studies, we demonstrate that when measured using a contingent frequency response scale, PBS measures relate negatively to alcohol-related outcomes in a theoretically consistent manner; however, when PBS measures were measured on an absolute frequency response scale, they were nonsignificantly or positively related to alcohol-related outcomes. We discuss the implications of these findings for the assessment of PBS.

  14. A novel absolute measurement for the low-frequency figure correction of aspheric surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Wei-Cheng; Chang, Shenq-Tsong; Ho, Cheng-Fang; Kuo, Ching-Hsiang; Chung, Chien-Kai; Hsu, Wei-Yao; Tseng, Shih-Feng; Sung, Cheng-Kuo

    2015-07-01

    This study proposes an absolute measurement method with a computer-generated hologram (CGHs) to assist the identification of manufacturing form error, and gravity and mounting resulted distortions for a 300 mm aspherical mirror. This method adopts the frequency of peaks and valleys of each Zernike coefficient grabbed by the measurement with various orientations of the mirror in horizontal optical-axis configuration. In addition, the rotational-symmetric aberration (spherical aberration) is calibrated with random ball test method. According to the measured absolute surface figure, a high accuracy aspherical surface with peak to valley (P-V) value of 1/8 wave @ 632.8 nm was fabricated after surface figure correction with the reconstructed error map.

  15. Using AIRS and IASI Data to Evaluate Absolute Radiometric Accuracy and Stability for Climate Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Aumann, Hartmut H.; Pagano, Thomas S.

    2008-01-01

    The creation of multi-decadal data sets for climate research requires better than 100 mK absolute calibration accuracy for the full range of spectral temperatures encountered under global conditions. Validation that this accuracy is achieved by the operational hyperspectral sounders from polar orbit is facilitated by comparing data from two instruments. Extreme radiometric calibration stability is critical to allow a long time series of noisy, but presumably long-term accurate truth measurements to be used for the validation of absolute accuracy at the 100 mK level. We use the RTGSST in the tropical oceans as ground truth. The difference between the AIRS derived sst2616 and the RTGSST based on six years of data shows a systematic cold bias of about 250 mK, but better than 4 mK/year stability. The double difference between AIRS and the RTGSST and IASI and the RTGSST with less than one year of data already allows statements at the 100 mK absolute level. It shows a 60 mK difference between the AIRS and the IASI calibration at 2616 cm-(sup 1) and 300 K, with a statistically insignificant 20 mK shift in six months.

  16. Noninvasive absolute cerebral oximetry with frequency-domain near-infrared spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hallacoglu, Bertan

    Near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) measurements of absolute concentrations of oxy-hemoglobin and deoxy-hemoglobin in the human brain can provide critical information about cerebral physiology in terms of cerebral blood volume, blood flow, oxygen delivery, and metabolic rate of oxygen. We developed several frequency domain NIRS data acquisition and analysis methods aimed at absolute measurements of hemoglobin concentration and saturation in cerebral tissue of adult human subjects. Extensive experimental investigations were carried out in various homogenous and two-layered tissue-mimicking phantoms, and biological tissues. The advantages and limitations of commonly used homogenous models and inversion strategies were thoroughly investigated. Prior to human subjects, extensive studies were carried out in in vivo animal models. In rabbits, absolute hemoglobin oxygen desaturation was shown to depend strongly on surgically induced testicular torsion. Methods developed in this study were then adapted for measurements in the rat brain. Absolute values were demonstrated to discern cerebrovascular impairment in a rat model of diet-induced vascular cognitive impairment. These results facilitated the development of clinically useful optical measures of cerebrovascular health. In a large group of human subjects, employing a homogeneous model for absolute measurements was shown to be reliable and robust. However, it was also shown to be limited due to the relatively thick extracerebral tissue. The procedure we develop in this work and the thesis thereof performs a nonlinear inversion procedure with six unknown parameters with no other prior knowledge for the retrieval of the optical coefficients and top layer thickness with high accuracy on two-layered media. Our absolute measurements of cerebral hemoglobin concentration and saturation are based on the discrimination of extracerebral and cerebral tissue layers, and they can enhance the impact of NIRS for cerebral hemodynamics and

  17. Investigating the Accuracy of Teachers' Word Frequency Intuitions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCrostie, James

    2007-01-01

    Previous research has found that native English speakers can judge, with a relatively high degree of accuracy, the frequency of words in the English language. However, there has been little investigation of the ability to judge the frequency of high and middle frequency words. Similarly, the accuracy of EFL teachers' frequency judgements remains…

  18. High Accuracy, Absolute, Cryogenic Refractive Index Measurements of Infrared Lens Materials for JWST NIRCam using CHARMS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leviton, Douglas; Frey, Bradley

    2005-01-01

    The current refractive optical design of the James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) Near Infrared Camera (NIRCam) uses three infrared materials in its lenses: LiF, BaF2, and ZnSe. In order to provide the instrument s optical designers with accurate, heretofore unavailable data for absolute refractive index based on actual cryogenic measurements, two prismatic samples of each material were measured using the cryogenic, high accuracy, refraction measuring system (CHARMS) at NASA GSFC, densely covering the temperature range from 15 to 320 K and wavelength range from 0.4 to 5.6 microns. Measurement methods are discussed and graphical and tabulated data for absolute refractive index, dispersion, and thermo-optic coefficient for these three materials are presented along with estimates of uncertainty. Coefficients for second order polynomial fits of measured index to temperature are provided for many wavelengths to allow accurate interpolation of index to other wavelengths and temperatures.

  19. A high-accuracy signal processing algorithm for frequency scanned interferometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Shuai; Yang, Liangen; Wang, Xuanze; Zhai, Zhongsheng; Liu, Wenchao

    2013-10-01

    A high-accuracy signal processing algorithm was designed for the absolute distance measurement system performed with frequency scanned interferometry. The system uses frequency-modulated laser as light source and consists of two interferometers: the reference interferometer is used to compensate the errors and the measurement interferometer is used to measure the displacement. The reference interferometer and the measurement interferometer are used to measure synchronously. The principle of the measuring system and the current modulation circuit were presented. The smoothing convolution was used for processing the signals. The optical path difference of the reference interferometer has been calibrated, so the absolute distance can be measured by acquiring the phase information extracted from interference signals produced while scanning the laser frequency. Finally, measurement results of absolute distances ranging from 0.1m to 0.5m were presented. The experimental results demonstrated that the proposed algorithm had major computing advantages.

  20. Single-track absolute position encoding method based on spatial frequency of stripes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiang, Xiansong; Lu, Yancong; Wei, Chunlong; Zhou, Changhe

    2014-11-01

    A new method of single-track absolute position encoding based on spatial frequency of stripes is proposed. Instead of using pseudorandom-sequence arranged stripes as in conventional situations, this kind of encoding method stores the location information in the frequency space of the stripes, which means the spatial frequency of stripes varies with position and indicates position. This encoding method has a strong fault-tolerant capability with single-stripe detecting errors. The method can be applied to absolute linear encoders, absolute photoelectric angle encoders or two-dimensional absolute linear encoders. The measuring apparatus includes a CCD image sensor and a microscope system, and the method of decoding this frequency code is based on FFT algorithm. This method should be highly interesting for practical applications as an absolute position encoding method.

  1. Femtosecond frequency comb measurement of absolute frequencies and hyperfine coupling constants in cesium vapor

    SciTech Connect

    Stalnaker, Jason E.; Mbele, Vela; Gerginov, Vladislav; Fortier, Tara M.; Diddams, Scott A.; Hollberg, Leo; Tanner, Carol E.

    2010-04-15

    We report measurements of absolute transition frequencies and hyperfine coupling constants for the 8S{sub 1/2}, 9S{sub 1/2}, 7D{sub 3/2}, and 7D{sub 5/2} states in {sup 133}Cs vapor. The stepwise excitation through either the 6P{sub 1/2} or 6P{sub 3/2} intermediate state is performed directly with broadband laser light from a stabilized femtosecond laser optical-frequency comb. The laser beam is split, counterpropagated, and focused into a room-temperature Cs vapor cell. The repetition rate of the frequency comb is scanned and we detect the fluorescence on the 7P{sub 1/2,3/2{yields}}6S{sub 1/2} branches of the decay of the excited states. The excitations to the different states are isolated by the introduction of narrow-bandwidth interference filters in the laser beam paths. Using a nonlinear least-squares method we find measurements of transition frequencies and hyperfine coupling constants that are in agreement with other recent measurements for the 8S state and provide improvement by 2 orders of magnitude over previously published results for the 9S and 7D states.

  2. Handheld Reflective Foil Emissometer with 0.007 Absolute Accuracy at 0.05

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van der Ham, E. W. M.; Ballico, M. J.

    2014-07-01

    The development and performance of a handheld emissometer for the measurement of the emissivity of highly reflective metallic foils used for the insulation of domestic and commercial buildings are described. Reflective roofing insulation based on a thin coating of metal on a more robust substrate is very widely used in hotter climates to reduce the radiant heat transfer between the ceiling and roof in commercial and residential buildings. The required normal emissivity of these foils is generally below 0.05, so stray reflected ambient infrared radiation (IR) makes traditional reflectance-based measurements of emissivity very difficult to achieve with the required accuracy. Many manufacturers apply additional coatings onto the metallic foil to reduce visible glare during installation on a roof, and to provide protection to the thin reflective layer; however, this layer can also substantially increase the IR emissivity. The system as developed at the National Measurement Institute, Australia (NMIA) is based on the principle of measurement of the modulation in thermal infrared radiation, as the sample is thermally modulated by hot and cold air streams. A commercial infrared to band radiation thermometer with a highly specialized stray and reflected radiation shroud attachment is used as the detector system, allowing for convenient handheld field measurements. The performance and accuracy of the system have been compared with NMIA's reference emissometer systems for a number of typical material samples, demonstrating its capability to measure the absolute thermal emissivity of these very highly reflective foils with an uncertainty of better than.

  3. Accuracy of High Frequency Maximum Usable Frequencies (MUF) Prediction.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-09-15

    Supplement 1 (NTP6 Supp. 1). This is a Navy publication designed to provide the operating personnel, establishing ship, shore and aircraft...OBCTIVE Assess the accuracy of predicted MJFs by prediction programs, commonly used in Navy applications, using a previously assembled data base of...Publication NTSS Navy Tactical Sounder System PROPHET Propagation Forecasting Terminal RADC Rome Air Development Center RMS Root Mean Square SRI Stanford

  4. Enhanced Lamb dip for absolute laser frequency stabilization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Siegman, A. E.; Byer, R. L.; Wang, S. C.

    1972-01-01

    Enhanced Lamb dip width is 5 MHz and total depth is 10 percent of peak power. Present configuration is useful as frequency standard in near infrared. Technique extends to other lasers, for which low pressure narrow linewidth gain tubes can be constructed.

  5. Observational constraints on atmospheric radiaitve feedbacks: absolute accuracy and next-generation observing systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dykema, J. A.; Hanssen, L. M.; Mekhontsev, S.; Anderson, J.

    2012-12-01

    The central role of atmospheric radiative feedbacks to understanding and projecting climate change calls for a robust observational system. Recent studies have shown the value of space-based measurements for putting quantitative constraints on a range of radiative feedback processes through a fingerprinting method applied to long-term observational records. More recent work has suggested the value of demonstrably accurate measurements to disentangle model error from observational uncertainties within reanalysis systems, potentially yielding improved representations of feedback processes within just a few years. Both of these methods rely on space-based measurements that can be objectively tested for accuracy on-orbit. A new class of mission has been proposed that incorporates the same type of empirical tests for accuracy as used in the laboratory into a space-based sensor. One example of such a mission is the Climate Absolute Radiance and Refractivity Observatory (CLARREO), a new mission suggested by the 2006 National Research Council Decadal Survey. CLARREO includes three sensor types: thermal infrared, microwave, and reflected shortwave. This paper presents a laboratory demonstration of prototype systems for testing the on-orbit accuracy of a thermal infrared sensor for CLARREO. These systems utilize infrared lasers to provide monochromatic light sources to quantitatively determine the optical properties of materials. These infrared optical properties are major determinants of the on-orbit radiometric performance of a thermal infrared sensor. For this reason, reliable quantitative information (including uncertainty) that tracks any changes in relevant infrared materials over the mission lifetime is essential to objective assessment of instrument accuracy. The practicality of mid-infrared lasers for these applications is due to the availability and continued evolution of compact, high-efficiency Quantum Cascade Lasers (QCLs). These lasers can provide over 100 m

  6. High-accuracy absolute rotation rate measurements with a large ring laser gyro: establishing the scale factor.

    PubMed

    Hurst, Robert B; Mayerbacher, Marinus; Gebauer, Andre; Schreiber, K Ulrich; Wells, Jon-Paul R

    2017-02-01

    Large ring lasers have exceeded the performance of navigational gyroscopes by several orders of magnitude and have become useful tools for geodesy. In order to apply them to tests in fundamental physics, remaining systematic errors have to be significantly reduced. We derive a modified expression for the Sagnac frequency of a square ring laser gyro under Earth rotation. The modifications include corrections for dispersion (of both the gain medium and the mirrors), for the Goos-Hänchen effect in the mirrors, and for refractive index of the gas filling the cavity. The corrections were measured and calculated for the 16  m2 Grossring laser located at the Geodetic Observatory Wettzell. The optical frequency and the free spectral range of this laser were measured, allowing unique determination of the longitudinal mode number, and measurement of the dispersion. Ultimately we find that the absolute scale factor of the gyroscope can be estimated to an accuracy of approximately 1 part in 108.

  7. High-precision absolute distance and vibration measurement with frequency scanned interferometry

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, H.-J.; Deibel, Jason; Nyberg, Sven; Riles, Keith

    2005-07-01

    We report high-precision absolute distance and vibration measurements performed with frequency scanned interferometry using a pair of single-mode optical fibers. Absolute distance was determined by counting the interference fringes produced while scanning the laser frequency. A high-finesse Fabry-Perot interferometer was used to determine frequency changes during scanning. Two multiple-distance-measurement analysis techniques were developed to improve distance precision and to extract the amplitude and frequency of vibrations. Under laboratory conditions, measurement precision of {approx}50 nm was achieved for absolute distances ranging from 0.1 to 0.7 m by use of the first multiple-distance-measurement technique. The second analysis technique has the capability to measure vibration frequencies ranging from 0.1 to 100 Hz with an amplitude as small as a few nanometers without a priori knowledge.

  8. High-precision absolute distance and vibration measurement with frequency scanned interferometry.

    PubMed

    Yang, Hai-Jun; Deibel, Jason; Nyberg, Sven; Riles, Keith

    2005-07-01

    We report high-precision absolute distance and vibration measurements performed with frequency scanned interferometry using a pair of single-mode optical fibers. Absolute distance was determined by counting the interference fringes produced while scanning the laser frequency. A high-finesse Fabry-Perot interferometer was used to determine frequency changes during scanning. Two multiple-distance-measurement analysis techniques were developed to improve distance precision and to extract the amplitude and frequency of vibrations. Under laboratory conditions, measurement precision of approximately 50 nm was achieved for absolute distances ranging from 0.1 to 0.7 m by use of the first multiple-distance-measurement technique. The second analysis technique has the capability to measure vibration frequencies ranging from 0.1 to 100 Hz with an amplitude as small as a few nanometers without a priori knowledge.

  9. Absolute distance measurement with micrometer accuracy using a Michelson interferometer and the iterative synthetic wavelength principle.

    PubMed

    Alzahrani, Khaled; Burton, David; Lilley, Francis; Gdeisat, Munther; Bezombes, Frederic; Qudeisat, Mohammad

    2012-02-27

    We present a novel system that can measure absolute distances of up to 300 mm with an uncertainty of the order of one micrometer, within a timeframe of 40 seconds. The proposed system uses a Michelson interferometer, a tunable laser, a wavelength meter and a computer for analysis. The principle of synthetic wave creation is used in a novel way in that the system employs an initial low precision estimate of the distance, obtained using a triangulation, or time-of-flight, laser system, or similar, and then iterates through a sequence of progressively smaller synthetic wavelengths until it reaches micrometer uncertainties in the determination of the distance. A further novel feature of the system is its use of Fourier transform phase analysis techniques to achieve sub-wavelength accuracy. This method has the major advantages of being relatively simple to realize, offering demonstrated high relative precisions better than 5 × 10(-5). Finally, the fact that this device does not require a continuous line-of-sight to the target as is the case with other configurations offers significant advantages.

  10. Measuring absolute frequencies beyond the GPS limit via long-haul optical frequency dissemination.

    PubMed

    Clivati, Cecilia; Cappellini, Giacomo; Livi, Lorenzo F; Poggiali, Francesco; de Cumis, Mario Siciliani; Mancini, Marco; Pagano, Guido; Frittelli, Matteo; Mura, Alberto; Costanzo, Giovanni A; Levi, Filippo; Calonico, Davide; Fallani, Leonardo; Catani, Jacopo; Inguscio, Massimo

    2016-05-30

    Global Positioning System (GPS) dissemination of frequency standards is ubiquitous at present, providing the most widespread time and frequency reference for the majority of industrial and research applications worldwide. On the other hand, the ultimate limits of the GPS presently curb further advances in high-precision, scientific and industrial applications relying on this dissemination scheme. Here, we demonstrate that these limits can be reliably overcome even in laboratories without a local atomic clock by replacing the GPS with a 642-km-long optical fiber link to a remote primary caesium frequency standard. Through this configuration we stably address the 1S0-3P0 clock transition in an ultracold gas of 173Yb, with a precision that exceeds the possibilities of a GPS-based measurement, dismissing the need for a local clock infrastructure to perform beyond-GPS high-precision tasks. We also report an improvement of two orders of magnitude in the accuracy on the transition frequency reported in literature.

  11. Absolute frequency measurement of rubidium 5S-7S two-photon transitions.

    PubMed

    Morzyński, Piotr; Wcisło, Piotr; Ablewski, Piotr; Gartman, Rafał; Gawlik, Wojciech; Masłowski, Piotr; Nagórny, Bartłomiej; Ozimek, Filip; Radzewicz, Czesław; Witkowski, Marcin; Ciuryło, Roman; Zawada, Michał

    2013-11-15

    We report the absolute frequency measurements of rubidium 5S-7S two-photon transitions with a cw laser digitally locked to an atomic transition and referenced to an optical frequency comb. The narrow, two-photon transition, 5S-7S (760 nm), insensitive to first-order in a magnetic field, is a promising candidate for frequency reference. The performed tests yielded more accurate transition frequencies than previously reported.

  12. Absolute thickness metrology with submicrometer accuracy using a low-coherence distance measuring interferometer.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Yang; Schmidt, Greg; Moore, Duncan T; Ellis, Jonathan D

    2015-09-01

    Absolute physical thickness across the sample aperture is critical in determining the index of a refraction profile from the optical path length profile for gradient index (GRIN) materials, which have a designed inhomogeneous refractive index. Motivated by this application, instrumentation was established to measure the absolute thickness of samples with nominally plane-parallel surfaces up to 50 mm thick. The current system is capable of measuring absolute thickness with 120 nm (1σ) repeatability and submicrometer expanded measurement uncertainty. Beside GRIN materials, this method is also capable of measuring other inhomogeneous and opaque materials.

  13. Frequency-scanning interferometry for dynamic absolute distance measurement using Kalman filter.

    PubMed

    Tao, Long; Liu, Zhigang; Zhang, Weibo; Zhou, Yangli

    2014-12-15

    We propose a frequency-scanning interferometry using the Kalman filtering technique for dynamic absolute distance measurement. Frequency-scanning interferometry only uses a single tunable laser driven by a triangle waveform signal for forward and backward optical frequency scanning. The absolute distance and moving speed of a target can be estimated by the present input measurement of frequency-scanning interferometry and the previously calculated state based on the Kalman filter algorithm. This method not only compensates for movement errors in conventional frequency-scanning interferometry, but also achieves high-precision and low-complexity dynamic measurements. Experimental results of dynamic measurements under static state, vibration and one-dimensional movement are presented.

  14. 3D absolute shape measurement of live rabbit hearts with a superfast two-frequency phase-shifting technique

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yajun; Laughner, Jacob I.; Efimov, Igor R.; Zhang, Song

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents a two-frequency binary phase-shifting technique to measure three-dimensional (3D) absolute shape of beating rabbit hearts. Due to the low contrast of the cardiac surface, the projector and the camera must remain focused, which poses challenges for any existing binary method where the measurement accuracy is low. To conquer this challenge, this paper proposes to utilize the optimal pulse width modulation (OPWM) technique to generate high-frequency fringe patterns, and the error-diffusion dithering technique to produce low-frequency fringe patterns. Furthermore, this paper will show that fringe patterns produced with blue light provide the best quality measurements compared to fringe patterns generated with red or green light; and the minimum data acquisition speed for high quality measurements is around 800 Hz for a rabbit heart beating at 180 beats per minute. PMID:23482151

  15. Quantifying discipline practices using absolute versus relative frequencies: clinical and research implications for child welfare.

    PubMed

    Lindhiem, Oliver; Shaffer, Anne; Kolko, David J

    2014-01-01

    In the parent intervention outcome literatures, discipline practices are generally quantified as absolute frequencies or, less commonly, as relative frequencies. These differences in methodology warrant direct comparison as they have critical implications for study results and conclusions among treatments targeted at reducing parental aggression and harsh discipline. In this study, we directly compared the absolute frequency method and the relative frequency method for quantifying physically aggressive, psychologically aggressive, and nonaggressive discipline practices. Longitudinal data over a 3-year period came from an existing data set of a clinical trial examining the effectiveness of a psychosocial treatment in reducing parental physical and psychological aggression and improving child behavior (N = 139). Discipline practices (aggressive and nonaggressive) were assessed using the Conflict Tactics Scale. The two methods yielded different patterns of results, particularly for nonaggressive discipline strategies. We suggest that each method makes its own unique contribution to a more complete understanding of the association between parental aggression and intervention effects.

  16. Absolute frequency measurement at 10-16 level based on the international atomic time

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hachisu, H.; Fujieda, M.; Kumagai, M.; Ido, T.

    2016-06-01

    Referring to International Atomic Time (TAI), we measured the absolute frequency of the 87Sr lattice clock with its uncertainty of 1.1 x 10-15. Unless an optical clock is continuously operated for the five days of the TAI grid, it is required to evaluate dead time uncertainty in order to use the available five-day average of the local frequency reference. We homogeneously distributed intermittent measurements over the five-day grid of TAI, by which the dead time uncertainty was reduced to low 10-16 level. Three campaigns of the five (or four)-day consecutive measurements have resulted in the absolute frequency of the 87Sr clock transition of 429 228 004 229 872.85 (47) Hz, where the systematic uncertainty of the 87Sr optical frequency standard amounts to 8.6 x 10-17.

  17. Absolute and relative height-pixel accuracy of SRTM-GL1 over the South American Andean Plateau

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Satge, Frédéric; Denezine, Matheus; Pillco, Ramiro; Timouk, Franck; Pinel, Sébastien; Molina, Jorge; Garnier, Jérémie; Seyler, Frédérique; Bonnet, Marie-Paule

    2016-11-01

    Previously available only over the Continental United States (CONUS), the 1 arc-second mesh size (spatial resolution) SRTM-GL1 (Shuttle Radar Topographic Mission - Global 1) product has been freely available worldwide since November 2014. With a relatively small mesh size, this digital elevation model (DEM) provides valuable topographic information over remote regions. SRTM-GL1 is assessed for the first time over the South American Andean Plateau in terms of both the absolute and relative vertical point-to-point accuracies at the regional scale and for different slope classes. For comparison, SRTM-v4 and GDEM-v2 Global DEM version 2 (GDEM-v2) generated by ASTER (Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer) are also considered. A total of approximately 160,000 ICESat/GLAS (Ice, Cloud and Land Elevation Satellite/Geoscience Laser Altimeter System) data are used as ground reference measurements. Relative error is often neglected in DEM assessments due to the lack of reference data. A new methodology is proposed to assess the relative accuracies of SRTM-GL1, SRTM-v4 and GDEM-v2 based on a comparison with ICESat/GLAS measurements. Slope values derived from DEMs and ICESat/GLAS measurements from approximately 265,000 ICESat/GLAS point pairs are compared using quantitative and categorical statistical analysis introducing a new index: the False Slope Ratio (FSR). Additionally, a reference hydrological network is derived from Google Earth and compared with river networks derived from the DEMs to assess each DEM's potential for hydrological applications over the region. In terms of the absolute vertical accuracy on a global scale, GDEM-v2 is the most accurate DEM, while SRTM-GL1 is more accurate than SRTM-v4. However, a simple bias correction makes SRTM-GL1 the most accurate DEM over the region in terms of vertical accuracy. The relative accuracy results generally did not corroborate the absolute vertical accuracy. GDEM-v2 presents the lowest statistical

  18. Dynamic frequency-domain interferometer for absolute distance measurements with high resolution.

    PubMed

    Weng, Jidong; Liu, Shenggang; Ma, Heli; Tao, Tianjiong; Wang, Xiang; Liu, Cangli; Tan, Hua

    2014-11-01

    A unique dynamic frequency-domain interferometer for absolute distance measurement has been developed recently. This paper presents the working principle of the new interferometric system, which uses a photonic crystal fiber to transmit the wide-spectrum light beams and a high-speed streak camera or frame camera to record the interference stripes. Preliminary measurements of harmonic vibrations of a speaker, driven by a radio, and the changes in the tip clearance of a rotating gear wheel show that this new type of interferometer has the ability to perform absolute distance measurements both with high time- and distance-resolution.

  19. Dynamic frequency-domain interferometer for absolute distance measurements with high resolution

    SciTech Connect

    Weng, Jidong; Liu, Shenggang; Ma, Heli; Tao, Tianjiong; Wang, Xiang; Liu, Cangli; Tan, Hua

    2014-11-15

    A unique dynamic frequency-domain interferometer for absolute distance measurement has been developed recently. This paper presents the working principle of the new interferometric system, which uses a photonic crystal fiber to transmit the wide-spectrum light beams and a high-speed streak camera or frame camera to record the interference stripes. Preliminary measurements of harmonic vibrations of a speaker, driven by a radio, and the changes in the tip clearance of a rotating gear wheel show that this new type of interferometer has the ability to perform absolute distance measurements both with high time- and distance-resolution.

  20. Measurement of absolute transition frequencies of {sup 87}Rb to nS and nD Rydberg states by means of electromagnetically induced transparency

    SciTech Connect

    Mack, Markus; Karlewski, Florian; Hattermann, Helge; Hoeckh, Simone; Jessen, Florian; Cano, Daniel; Fortagh, Jozsef

    2011-05-15

    We report the measurement of absolute excitation frequencies of {sup 87}Rb to nS and nD Rydberg states. The Rydberg transition frequencies are obtained by observing electromagnetically induced transparency on a rubidium vapor cell. The accuracy of the measurement of each state is < or approx. 1 MHz, which is achieved by frequency stabilizing the two diode lasers employed for the spectroscopy to a frequency comb and a frequency comb calibrated wavelength meter, respectively. Based on the spectroscopic data we determine the quantum defects of {sup 87}Rb, and compare it with previous measurements on {sup 85}Rb. We determine the ionization frequency from the 5S{sub 1/2}(F=1) ground state of {sup 87}Rb to 1010.029 164 6(3)THz, providing the binding energy of the ground state with an accuracy improved by two orders of magnitude.

  1. Absolute Binding Free Energy Calculations: On the Accuracy of Computational Scoring of Protein-ligand Interactions

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Nidhi; Warshel, Arieh

    2010-01-01

    Calculating the absolute binding free energies is a challenging task. Reliable estimates of binding free energies should provide a guide for rational drug design. It should also provide us with deeper understanding of the correlation between protein structure and its function. Further applications may include identifying novel molecular scaffolds and optimizing lead compounds in computer-aided drug design. Available options to evaluate the absolute binding free energies range from the rigorous but expensive free energy perturbation to the microscopic Linear Response Approximation (LRA/β version) and its variants including the Linear Interaction Energy (LIE) to the more approximated and considerably faster scaled Protein Dipoles Langevin Dipoles (PDLD/S-LRA version), as well as the less rigorous Molecular Mechanics Poisson–Boltzmann/Surface Area (MM/PBSA) and Generalized Born/Surface Area (MM/GBSA) to the less accurate scoring functions. There is a need for an assessment of the performance of different approaches in terms of computer time and reliability. We present a comparative study of the LRA/β, the LIE, the PDLD/S-LRA/β and the more widely used MM/PBSA and assess their abilities to estimate the absolute binding energies. The LRA and LIE methods perform reasonably well but require specialized parameterization for the non-electrostatic term. On the average, the PDLD/S-LRA/β performs effectively. Our assessment of the MM/PBSA is less optimistic. This approach appears to provide erroneous estimates of the absolute binding energies due to its incorrect entropies and the problematic treatment of electrostatic energies. Overall, the PDLD/S-LRA/β appears to offer an appealing option for the final stages of massive screening approaches. PMID:20186976

  2. Frequency Comparison of Two High-Accuracy Al+ Optical Clocks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chou, C. W.; Hume, D. B.; Koelemeij, J. C. J.; Wineland, D. J.; Rosenband, T.

    2010-02-01

    We have constructed an optical clock with a fractional frequency inaccuracy of 8.6×10-18, based on quantum logic spectroscopy of an Al+ ion. A simultaneously trapped Mg+ ion serves to sympathetically laser cool the Al+ ion and detect its quantum state. The frequency of the S01↔P03 clock transition is compared to that of a previously constructed Al+ optical clock with a statistical measurement uncertainty of 7.0×10-18. The two clocks exhibit a relative stability of 2.8×10-15τ-1/2, and a fractional frequency difference of -1.8×10-17, consistent with the accuracy limit of the older clock.

  3. Absolute positioning by multi-wavelength interferometry referenced to the frequency comb of a femtosecond laser.

    PubMed

    Wang, Guochao; Jang, Yoon-Soo; Hyun, Sangwon; Chun, Byung Jae; Kang, Hyun Jay; Yan, Shuhua; Kim, Seung-Woo; Kim, Young-Jin

    2015-04-06

    A multi-wavelength interferometer utilizing the frequency comb of a femtosecond laser as the wavelength ruler is tested for its capability of ultra-precision positioning for machine axis control. The interferometer uses four different wavelengths phase-locked to the frequency comb and then determines the absolute position through a multi-channel scheme of detecting interference phases in parallel so as to enable fast, precise and stable measurements continuously over a few meters of axis-travel. Test results show that the proposed interferometer proves itself as a potential candidate of absolute-type position transducer needed for next-generation ultra-precision machine axis control, demonstrating linear errors of less than 61.9 nm in peak-to-valley over a 1-meter travel with an update rate of 100 Hz when compared to an incremental-type He-Ne laser interferometer.

  4. A Laser Frequency Comb System for Absolute Calibration of the VTT Echelle Spectrograph

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Doerr, H.-P.; Steinmetz, T.; Holzwarth, R.; Kentischer, T.; Schmidt, W.

    2012-10-01

    A wavelength calibration system based on a laser frequency comb (LFC) was developed in a co-operation between the Kiepenheuer-Institut für Sonnenphysik, Freiburg, Germany and the Max-Planck-Institut für Quantenoptik, Garching, Germany for permanent installation at the German Vacuum Tower Telescope (VTT) on Tenerife, Canary Islands. The system was installed successfully in October 2011. By simultaneously recording the spectra from the Sun and the LFC, for each exposure a calibration curve can be derived from the known frequencies of the comb modes that is suitable for absolute calibration at the meters per second level. We briefly summarize some topics in solar physics that benefit from absolute spectroscopy and point out the advantages of LFC compared to traditional calibration techniques. We also sketch the basic setup of the VTT calibration system and its integration with the existing echelle spectrograph.

  5. Accuracy, Precision, Sensitivity, and Specificity of Noninvasive ICP Absolute Value Measurements.

    PubMed

    Krakauskaite, Solventa; Petkus, Vytautas; Bartusis, Laimonas; Zakelis, Rolandas; Chomskis, Romanas; Preiksaitis, Aidanas; Ragauskas, Arminas; Matijosaitis, Vaidas; Petrikonis, Kestutis; Rastenyte, Daiva

    2016-01-01

    An innovative absolute intracranial pressure (ICP) value measurement method has been validated by multicenter comparative clinical studies. The method is based on two-depth transcranial Doppler (TCD) technology and uses intracranial and extracranial segments of the ophthalmic artery as pressure sensors. The ophthalmic artery is used as a natural pair of "scales" that compares ICP with controlled pressure Pe, which is externally applied to the orbit. To balance the scales, ICP = Pe a special two-depth TCD device was used as a pressure balance indicator. The proposed method is the only noninvasive ICP measurement method that does not need patient-specific calibration.

  6. Subnanometer absolute displacement measurement using a frequency comb referenced dual resonance tracking Fabry-Perot interferometer.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Minhao; Wei, Haoyun; Zhao, Shijie; Wu, Xuejian; Li, Yan

    2015-05-10

    Fabry-Perot (F-P) interferometry is a traceable high-resolution method for displacement metrology that has no nonlinearity. Compared with the single resonance tracking F-P interferometry, the dual resonance tracking (DRT) F-P interferometer system is able to realize tens of millimeters measurement range while maintaining the intrinsic high resolution. A DRT F-P system is thus developed for absolute displacement measurement in metrology applications. Two external cavity diode lasers (ECDLs) are simultaneously locked to two resonances of a high-finesse F-P cavity using the Pound-Drever-Hall locking scheme. The absolute optical frequencies of the locked ECDLs are measured using a reference diode laser, with the frequency stabilized and controlled by an optical frequency comb. The absolute cavity resonance order numbers are investigated. The measurement range is experimentally tested to achieve 20 mm, while the resolution reaches ~10 pm level, mainly limited by the mechanical stability of the F-P cavity. Compared with the measurement results from a self-developed displacement-angle heterodyne interferometer, the displacement residuals are within 10 nm in the range of 20 mm. This high-resolution interferometer may become a candidate for length metrology such as in Watt balance or Joule balance projects.

  7. Absolute frequency stabilization of an injection-seeded optical parametric oscillator

    SciTech Connect

    Plusquellic, D.F.; Votava, O.; Nesbitt, D.J.

    1996-03-01

    A method is described that provides absolute frequency stabilization and calibration of the signal and idler waves generated by an injection-seeded optical parametric oscillator (OPO). The method makes use of a He{endash}Ne stabilized transfer cavity (TC) to control the frequencies of the cw sources used to seed both the pump laser and OPO cavity. The TC serves as a stable calibration source for the signal and idler waves by providing marker fringes as the seed laser is scanned. Additionally, an acoustic-optic modulator (AOM) is used to shift the OPO seed laser{close_quote}s frequency before locking it onto the TC. The sidebands of the AOM are tunable over more than one free spectral range of the TC, thereby permitting stabilization of the signal and idler waves at any frequency. A {plus_minus}25-MHz residual error in the absolute frequency stabilities of the pump, signal, and idler waves is experimentally demonstrated, which is roughly 30{percent} of the 160-MHz near-transform-limited linewidths of the signal and idler pulses. {copyright} {ital 1996 Optical Society of America.}

  8. Approximating relational observables by absolute quantities: a quantum accuracy-size trade-off

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miyadera, Takayuki; Loveridge, Leon; Busch, Paul

    2016-05-01

    The notion that any physical quantity is defined and measured relative to a reference frame is traditionally not explicitly reflected in the theoretical description of physical experiments where, instead, the relevant observables are typically represented as ‘absolute’ quantities. However, the emergence of the resource theory of quantum reference frames as a new branch of quantum information science in recent years has highlighted the need to identify the physical conditions under which a quantum system can serve as a good reference. Here we investigate the conditions under which, in quantum theory, an account in terms of absolute quantities can provide a good approximation of relative quantities. We find that this requires the reference system to be large in a suitable sense.

  9. Absolute accuracy of the Cyberware WB4 whole-body scanner

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Daanen, Hein A. M.; Taylor, Stacie E.; Brunsman, Matthew A.; Nurre, Joseph H.

    1997-03-01

    The Cyberware WB4 whole body scanner is one of the first scanning systems in the world that generates a high resolution data set of the outer surface of the human body. The Computerized Anthropometric Research and Design (CARD) Laboratory of Wright-Patterson AFB intends to use the scanner to enable quick and reliable acquisition of anthropometric data. For this purpose, a validation study was initiated to check the accuracy, reliability and errors of the system. A calibration object, consisting of two boxes and a cylinder, was scanned in several locations in the scanning space. The object dimensions in the resulting scans compared favorably to the actual dimensions of the calibration object.

  10. Correction to Method of Establishing the Absolute Radiometric Accuracy of Remote Sensing Systems While On-orbit Using Characterized Stellar Sources

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bowen, Howard S.; Cunningham, Douglas M.

    2007-01-01

    The contents include: 1) Brief history of related events; 2) Overview of original method used to establish absolute radiometric accuracy of remote sensing instruments using stellar sources; and 3) Considerations to improve the stellar calibration approach.

  11. Absolute frequency measurement with uncertainty below 1× 10^{-15} using International Atomic Time

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hachisu, Hidekazu; Petit, Gérard; Ido, Tetsuya

    2017-01-01

    The absolute frequency of the ^{87}Sr clock transition measured in 2015 (Jpn J Appl Phys 54:112401, 2015) was reevaluated using an improved frequency link to the SI second. The scale interval of International Atomic Time (TAI) that we used as the reference was calibrated for an evaluation interval of 5 days instead of the conventional interval of 1 month which is regularly employed in Circular T. The calibration on a 5-day basis removed the uncertainty in assimilating the TAI scale of the 5-day mean to that of the 1-month mean. The reevaluation resulted in the total uncertainty of 10^{-16} level for the first time without local cesium fountains. Since there are presumably no correlations among systematic shifts of cesium fountains worldwide, the measurement is not limited by the systematic uncertainty of a specific primary frequency standard.

  12. Use of the absolute phase in frequency modulated continuous wave plasma reflectometry

    SciTech Connect

    Cunningham, G.

    2008-08-15

    In frequency modulated continuous wave reflectometry, used for density profile measurement in fusion plasmas, it is usual to measure the beat frequency between the launched wave and the reflected wave, and from this to calculate the position of the reflecting layer in the plasma. The absolute phase of the beat signal is usually neglected. The reason is that the phase shift between sweeps is usually comparable with or more than 2{pi}, leading to an ambiguity that is impossible to resolve. However, recent observations on the MAST tokamak have shown that, under quiet plasma conditions (this term has to be defined), the phase shift between sweeps is small compared with 2{pi} and the phase ambiguity can be readily resolved. The reflectometer signal is then being analyzed as an interferometer signal would normally be, and there is a substantial improvement in spatial resolution. The method is illustrated by application to small edge localized mode precursor and allows what is believed to be the first quantitative measurement of the displacement of the plasma boundary by such a precursor mode. The errors in both the absolute phase measurement and the more conventional frequency measurement are also estimated.

  13. A dedicated pistonphone for absolute calibration of infrasound sensors at very low frequencies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Wen; He, Longbiao; Zhang, Fan; Rong, Zuochao; Jia, Shushi

    2016-02-01

    Aimed at the absolute calibration of infrasound sensors at very low frequencies, an upgraded and improved infrasonic pistonphone has been developed. The pistonphone was designed such that a very narrow clearance between the piston and its guide was realized based on an automatically-centered clearance-sealing structure, and a large volume rigid-walled chamber was also adopted, which improved the leakage time-constant of the chamber. A composite feedback control system was applied to the electromagnetic vibrator to control the precise motion of the piston. Performance tests and uncertainty analysis show that the leakage time-constant is so large, and the distortion of the sound pressure is so small, that the pistonphone can be used as a standard infrasound source in the frequency range from 0.001 Hz to 20 Hz. The low frequency property of the pistonphone has been verified through calibrating low frequency microphones. Comparison tests with the reciprocity method have shown that the pressure sensitivities from the pistonphone are not only reliable at common frequencies but also have smaller uncertainties at low frequencies.

  14. Precision and accuracy in the quantitative analysis of biological samples by accelerator mass spectrometry: application in microdose absolute bioavailability studies.

    PubMed

    Gao, Lan; Li, Jing; Kasserra, Claudia; Song, Qi; Arjomand, Ali; Hesk, David; Chowdhury, Swapan K

    2011-07-15

    Determination of the pharmacokinetics and absolute bioavailability of an experimental compound, SCH 900518, following a 89.7 nCi (100 μg) intravenous (iv) dose of (14)C-SCH 900518 2 h post 200 mg oral administration of nonradiolabeled SCH 900518 to six healthy male subjects has been described. The plasma concentration of SCH 900518 was measured using a validated LC-MS/MS system, and accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) was used for quantitative plasma (14)C-SCH 900518 concentration determination. Calibration standards and quality controls were included for every batch of sample analysis by AMS to ensure acceptable quality of the assay. Plasma (14)C-SCH 900518 concentrations were derived from the regression function established from the calibration standards, rather than directly from isotopic ratios from AMS measurement. The precision and accuracy of quality controls and calibration standards met the requirements of bioanalytical guidance (U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Food and Drug Administration, Center for Drug Evaluation and Research, Center for Veterinary Medicine. Guidance for Industry: Bioanalytical Method Validation (ucm070107), May 2001. http://www.fda.gov/downloads/Drugs/GuidanceCompilanceRegulatoryInformation/Guidances/ucm070107.pdf ). The AMS measurement had a linear response range from 0.0159 to 9.07 dpm/mL for plasma (14)C-SCH 900158 concentrations. The CV and accuracy were 3.4-8.5% and 94-108% (82-119% for the lower limit of quantitation (LLOQ)), respectively, with a correlation coefficient of 0.9998. The absolute bioavailability was calculated from the dose-normalized area under the curve of iv and oral doses after the plasma concentrations were plotted vs the sampling time post oral dose. The mean absolute bioavailability of SCH 900518 was 40.8% (range 16.8-60.6%). The typical accuracy and standard deviation in AMS quantitative analysis of drugs from human plasma samples have been reported for the first time, and the impact of these

  15. Absolute measurements of the high-frequency magnetic dynamics in high-{Tc} superconductors

    SciTech Connect

    Hayden, S.M.; Aeppli, G.; Dai, P.; Mook, H.A.; Perring, T.G.; Cheong, S.W.; Fisk, Z.; Dogan, F.; Mason, T.E.

    1997-08-07

    The authors review recent measurements of the high-frequency dynamic magnetic susceptibility in the high-T{sub c} superconducting systems La{sub 2{minus}x}Sr{sub x}CuO{sub 4} and YBa{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub 6+x}. Experiments were performed using the chopper spectrometers HET and MARI at the ISIS spallation source. The authors have placed their measurements on an absolute intensity scale, this allows systematic trends to be seen and comparisons with theory to be made. They find that the insulating S = 1/2 antiferromagnetic parent compounds show a dramatic renormalization in the spin wave intensity. The effect of doping on the response is to cause broadenings in wave vector and large redistributions of spectral weight in frequency.

  16. Absolute and relative surface profile interferometry using multiple frequency-scanned lasers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peca, Marek; Psota, Pavel; Vojtíšek, Petr; Lédl, Vít.

    2016-11-01

    An interferometer has been used to measure the surface profile of generic object. Frequency scanning interferometry has been employed to provide unambiguous phase readings, to suppress etalon fringes, and to supersede phase-shifting. The frequency scan has been performed in three narrow wavelength bands, each generated by a temperature tuned laser diode. It is shown, that for certain portions of measured object, it was possible to get absolute phase measurement, counting all wave periods from the point of zero path difference, yielding precision of 2.7nm RMS over 11.75mm total path difference. For the other areas where steep slopes were present in object geometry, a relative measurement is still possible, at measured surface roughness comparable to that of machining process (the same 2.7nm RMS). It is concluded, that areas containing steep slopes exhibit systematic error, attributed to a combined factors of dispersion and retrace error.

  17. SU-E-T-89: Accuracy of Absolute Three-Dimensional Dose Distribution Measurement Using the Delta4

    SciTech Connect

    Uehara, R; Tachibana, H; Ohyoshi, H; Matsumoto, S; Baba, H; Tanaka, F; Ariji, T

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: In this study, we investigated the accuracy of the absolute dose distribution measurement using the Delta4 phantom compared to the measurements using a ionization chamber and EDR2 film Methods: Several conventional and intensity-modulated radiation therapy plans were used to compare the dose distribution measured using the Delta4 phantom to the absolute point dose using the chamber and the relative two-dimensional dose distribution using the EDR2 film. For the absolute dose distribution evaluation, the measurements using the Delta4, the chamber and the film were performed in similar measurement geometry. For point dose measurement using the chamber, an acrylic slab phantom with the PTW Semiflex chamber was inserted into the Delta4 phantom, alternative to the Delta4 main unit. Similarly, for dose distribution measurement using the film, the EDR2 film sandwiched with two acrylic slab phantoms were inserted to the phantom. Dose difference and gamma analysis were done for point dose and relative dose distribution comparisons, respectively. Results: The point dose measurements show slight negative systematic dose difference of −0.5 ± 0.1% and −1.0 ± 0.4% in the conventional and the IMRT plans, respectively. The additional measurement for direction dependency for Delta4 shows similar negative systematic dose difference even the phantom analysis software consider the directional dependency. The pass rate of the gamma evaluation was 77.7 ± 5.8% and 88.8±3.3% in the conventional and the IMRT plans, respectively. Conclusions: The Delta4 phantom shows a 1%-systematic dose difference derived from directional dependency and lower resolution compared to the film. Thus it is necessary to comprehensively evaluate the phantom to verify the IMRT/VMAT plans. Especially, the dosimetry tool is needed to have high resolution and high measurement accuracy in IMRT/VMAT-SBRT plan with small fields using intensity modulation in which the analysis area is limited and the

  18. Two-modality laser diode interferometer for high-accuracy measurement of long-range absolute distance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Bofan; Li, Zhongliang; Wang, Xiangzhao; Bu, Peng

    2010-08-01

    This paper presents a two-modality laser diode (LD) interferometer which combine as two-wavelength sinusoidal phase modulating (SPM) interferometer with a wavelength scanning interferometer (WSI) for measurement of distance over long range with high accuracy. Moreover, the intensity modulation due to power changes of LD is suppressed by appropriately choosing the modulation amplitude of injection current (IC) of LD. Triangle wave is used to modulate the IC of one LD with that of the other LD being constant at first. Thus the interferometer works as a wavelength scanning interferometer. An initial estimate of the distance can be obtained from the phase change of the interference signal. Then sinusoidal wave is used for modulating IC of both LDs to realize a two-wavelength SPM interferometer. However, the modulation of the IC of two LDs results in not only the wavelength modulation but also the intensity modulation. This intensity modulation will cause a measured phase error. To eliminate this error, SPM depths are appropriately chosen, therefore the distance to be measured can be accurately obtained with synthetic-wavelength algorithm. Experimental results indicate that an absolute distance measurement accuracy of 1μm can be achieved over the range of 40mm to 100mm.

  19. Auto-elimination of fiber optical path-length drift in a frequency scanning interferometer for absolute distance measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tao, Long; Liu, Zhigang; Zhang, Weibo

    2015-09-01

    Because of its compact size and portability, optical fiber has been wildly used as optical paths in frequency-scanning interferometers for high-precision absolute distance measurements. However, since the fiber is sensitive to ambient temperature, its length and refractive index change with temperature, resulting in an optical path length drift that influences the repeatability of measurements. To improve the thermal stability of the measurement system, a novel frequency-scanning interferometer composed of two Michelson-type interferometers sharing a common fiber optical path is proposed. One interferometer defined as origin interferometer is used to monitor the drift of the measurement origin due to the optical path length drift of the optical fiber under on-site environment. The other interferometer defined as measurement interferometer is used to measure the distance to the target. Because the optical path length drift of the fiber appears in both interferometers, its influence can be eliminated by subtracting the optical path difference of the origin interferometer from the optical path difference of the measurement interferometer. A prototype interferometer was developed in our research, and experimental results demonstrate its robustness and stability. Under on-site environment, an accuracy about 4 μm was achieved for a distance of about 1 m.

  20. Simplified fringe order correction for absolute phase maps recovered with multiple-spatial-frequency fringe projections

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ding, Yi; Peng, Kai; Lu, Lei; Zhong, Kai; Zhu, Ziqi

    2017-02-01

    Various kinds of fringe order errors may occur in the absolute phase maps recovered with multi-spatial-frequency fringe projections. In existing methods, multiple successive pixels corrupted by fringe order errors are detected and corrected pixel-by-pixel with repeating searches, which is inefficient for applications. To improve the efficiency of multiple successive fringe order corrections, in this paper we propose a method to simplify the error detection and correction by the stepwise increasing property of fringe order. In the proposed method, the numbers of pixels in each step are estimated to find the possible true fringe order values, repeating the search in detecting multiple successive errors can be avoided for efficient error correction. The effectiveness of our proposed method is validated by experimental results.

  1. Correlation of symptom clusters of schizophrenia with absolute powers of main frequency bands in quantitative EEG

    PubMed Central

    Gross, Andres; Joutsiniemi, Sirkka-Liisa; Rimon, Ranan; Appelberg, Björn

    2006-01-01

    Background Research of QEEG activity power spectra has shown intriguing results in patients with schizophrenia. Different symptom clusters have been correlated to QEEG frequency bands. The findings have been to some extent inconsistent. Replication of the findings of previous research is thus an important task. In the current study we investigated the correlations between the absolute powers of delta, theta, alpha, and beta frequency bands over the fronto-central scalp area (FC) with the PANSS subscales and the Liddle's factors in 16 patients with schizophrenia. The authors hypothesised a priori the correlations reported by Harris et al (1999) of PANSS negative subscale with delta power, Liddle's psychomotor poverty with delta and beta powers, disorganisation with delta power and reality distortion with alpha power on the midline FC. Methods The sample consisted of 16 patients with chronic schizophrenia considered as having insufficient clinical response to conventional antipsychotic treatment and evidencing a relapse. The correlations between quantitative electroencephalography (QEEG) absolute powers of delta (1.5–3.0 Hz), theta (3.0–7.5 Hz), alpha (7.5–12.5 Hz), and beta (12.5–20.0 Hz) frequency bands over the fronto-central scalp area (FC) with PANSS subscales and Liddle's factors (reality distortion, disorganisation, psychomotor poverty) were investigated. Results Significant positive correlations were found between the beta and psychomotor poverty (p < 0.05). Trends towards positive correlations (p < 0.1) were observed between delta and PANSS negative subscale and psychomotor poverty. Alpha did not correlate with reality distortion and delta did not correlate with disorganisation. Post hoc analysis revealed correlations of the same magnitude between beta and psychopathology generally over FC. Conclusion The a priori hypothesis was partly supported by the correlation of the beta and psychomotor poverty. Liddle's factors showed correlations of the same

  2. Frequency-range discriminations and absolute pitch in black-capped chickadees (Poecile atricapillus), mountain chickadees (Poecile gambeli), and zebra finches (Taeniopygia guttata).

    PubMed

    Lee, Tiffany T Y; Charrier, Isabelle; Bloomfield, Laurie L; Weisman, Ronald G; Sturdy, Christopher B

    2006-08-01

    The acoustic frequency ranges in birdsongs provide important absolute pitch cues for the recognition of conspecifics. Black-capped chickadees (Poecile atricapillus), mountain chickadees (Poecile gambeli), and zebra finches (Taeniopygia guttata) were trained to sort tones contiguous in frequency into 8 ranges on the basis of associations between response to the tones in each range and reward. All 3 species acquired accurate frequency-range discriminations, but zebra finches acquired the discrimination in fewer trials and to a higher standard than black-capped or mountain chickadees, which did not differ appreciably in the discrimination. Chickadees' relatively poorer accuracy was traced to poorer discrimination of tones in the higher frequency ranges. During transfer tests, the discrimination generalized to novel tones when the training tones were included, but not when they were omitted.

  3. Accurate absolute frequencies of the {nu}{sub 1}+{nu}{sub 3} band of {sup 13}C{sub 2}H{sub 2} determined using an infrared mode-locked Cr:YAG laser frequency comb

    SciTech Connect

    Madej, Alan A.; Bernard, John E.; John Alcock, A.; Czajkowski, Andrzej; Chepurov, Sergei

    2006-04-15

    Absolute frequency measurements, with up to 1x10{sup -11} level accuracies, are presented for 60 lines of the P and R branches for the {nu}{sub 1}+{nu}{sub 3} band of {sup 13}C{sub 2}H{sub 2} at 1.5 {mu}m (194 THz). The measurements were made using cavity-enhanced, diode-laser-based saturation spectroscopy. With one laser system stabilized to the P(16) line and a second laser system stabilized to the line whose frequency was to be determined, a Cr:YAG frequency comb was employed to accurately measure the tetrahertz level frequency intervals. The results are compared with recent work from other groups and indicate that these lines would form a basis for a high-quality atlas of reference frequencies for this region of the spectrum.

  4. A simple setup to simultaneously measure the resonant frequency and the absolute dissipation factor of a quartz crystal microbalance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodahl, Michael; Kasemo, Bengt

    1996-09-01

    An experimental setup is described that can simultaneously measure the absolute dissipation factor and the resonant frequency of a short-circuited quartz crystal microbalance. The crystal is driven at approximately its resonant frequency by a signal generator which is intermittently disconnected by a relay, causing the crystal oscillation amplitude to decay exponentially. The decay is measured using a ferrite toroid transformer. One of the crystal leads is fed through the center of the ferrite toroid and thereby acts as the primary winding of the transformer. The secondary winding of the transformer is connected to a digitizing oscilloscope which records the decay of the crystal oscillation. From the recorded decay curve, the absolute dissipation factor (calculated from the decay time constant) and the series resonant frequency of the freely oscillating crystal are obtained. Alternatively, the dissipation factor and resonant frequency can be measured for the crystal oscillating under open-circuit conditions, i.e., in the parallel mode. The measurements are automated.

  5. Frequency Diverse Array Radar: Signal Characterization and Measurement Accuracy

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-03-25

    DEPARTMENT OF THE AIR FORCE AIR UNIVERSITY AIR FORCE INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY Wright-Patterson Air Force Base, Ohio APPROVED FOR PUBLIC RELEASE; DISTRIBUTION ...Flight Lieutenant, RAAF 25 March 2010 APPROVED FOR PUBLIC RELEASE; DISTRIBUTION UNLIMITED. AFIT/GE/ENG/10-04 FREQUENCY DIVERSE ARRAY RADAR: SIGNAL...146 7.2.4 Planar and Distributed Aperture Geometries

  6. Absolute frequency measurement of the {{}^{1}}{{\\text{S}}_{0}} – {{}^{3}}{{\\text{P}}_{0}} transition of 171Yb

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pizzocaro, Marco; Thoumany, Pierre; Rauf, Benjamin; Bregolin, Filippo; Milani, Gianmaria; Clivati, Cecilia; Costanzo, Giovanni A.; Levi, Filippo; Calonico, Davide

    2017-02-01

    We report the absolute frequency measurement of the unperturbed transition {{}1}{{\\text{S}}0} – {{}3}{{\\text{P}}0} at 578 nm in 171Yb realized in an optical lattice frequency standard relative to a cryogenic caesium fountain. The measurement result is 518 295 836 590 863.59(31) Hz with a relative standard uncertainty of 5.9× {{10}-16} . This value is in agreement with the ytterbium frequency recommended as a secondary representation of the second in the International System of Units.

  7. An evaluation of the accuracy of geomagnetic data obtained from an unattended, automated, quasi-absolute station

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Herzog, D.C.

    1990-01-01

    A comparison is made of geomagnetic calibration data obtained from a high-sensitivity proton magnetometer enclosed within an orthogonal bias coil system, with data obtained from standard procedures at a mid-latitude U.S. Geological Survey magnetic observatory using a quartz horizontal magnetometer, a Ruska magnetometer, and a total field magnetometer. The orthogonal coil arrangement is used with the proton magnetometer to provide Deflected-Inclination-Deflected-Declination (DIDD) data from which quasi-absolute values of declination, horizontal intensity, and vertical intensity can be derived. Vector magnetometers provide the ordinate values to yield baseline calibrations for both the DIDD and standard observatory processes. Results obtained from a prototype system over a period of several months indicate that the DIDD unit can furnish adequate absolute field values for maintaining observatory calibration data, thus providing baseline control for unattended, remote stations. ?? 1990.

  8. High-accuracy interferometer with a prism pair for measurement of the absolute refractive index of glass

    SciTech Connect

    Hori, Yasuaki; Hirai, Akiko; Minoshima, Kaoru; Matsumoto, Hirokazu

    2009-04-10

    We propose a variable-path interferometric technique for the measurement of the absolute refractive index of optical glasses. We use two interferometers to decide the ratio between changes in the optical path in a prism-shaped sample glass and in air resulting from displacement of the sample. The method allows precise measurements to be made without prior knowledge of the properties of the sample. The combined standard uncertainty of the proposed method is 1.6x10{sup -6}.

  9. Absolute frequency list of the ν3-band transitions of methane at a relative uncertainty level of 10(-11).

    PubMed

    Okubo, Sho; Nakayama, Hirotaka; Iwakuni, Kana; Inaba, Hajime; Sasada, Hiroyuki

    2011-11-21

    We determine the absolute frequencies of 56 rotation-vibration transitions of the ν(3) band of CH(4) from 88.2 to 90.5 THz with a typical uncertainty of 2 kHz corresponding to a relative uncertainty of 2.2 × 10(-11) over an average time of a few hundred seconds. Saturated absorption lines are observed using a difference-frequency-generation source and a cavity-enhanced absorption cell, and the transition frequencies are measured with a fiber-laser-based optical frequency comb referenced to a rubidium atomic clock linked to the international atomic time. The determined value of the P(7) F(2)((2)) line is consistent with the International Committee for Weights and Measures recommendation within the uncertainty.

  10. High-accuracy global time and frequency transfer with a space-borne hydrogen maser clock

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Decher, R.; Allan, D. W.; Alley, C. O.; Baugher, C.; Duncan, B. J.; Vessot, R. F. C.; Winkler, G. M. R.

    1983-01-01

    A proposed system for high-accuracy global time and frequency transfer using a hydrogen maser clock in a space vehicle is discussed. Direct frequency transfer with a accuracy of 10 to the minus 14th power and time transfer with an estimated accuracy of 1 nsec are provided by a 3-link microwave system. A short pulse laser system is included for subnanosecond time transfer and system calibration. The results of studies including operational aspects, error sources, data flow, system configuration, and implementation requirements for an initial demonstration experiment using the Space Shuttle are discussed.

  11. Ultra-low-frequency vertical vibration isolator based on a two-stage beam structure for absolute gravimetry.

    PubMed

    Wang, G; Wu, K; Hu, H; Li, G; Wang, L J

    2016-10-01

    To reduce seismic and environmental vibration noise, ultra-low-frequency vertical vibration isolation systems play an important role in absolute gravimetry. For this purpose, an isolator based on a two-stage beam structure is proposed and demonstrated. The isolator has a simpler and more robust structure than the present ultra-low-frequency vertical active vibration isolators. In the system, two beams are connected to a frame using flexural pivots. The upper beam is suspended from the frame with a normal hex spring and the lower beam is suspended from the upper one using a zero-length spring. The pivot of the upper beam is not vertically above the pivot of the lower beam. With this special design, the attachment points of the zero-length spring to the beams can be moved to adjust the effective stiffness. A photoelectric detector is used to detect the angle between the two beams, and a voice coil actuator attached to the upper beam is controlled by a feedback circuit to keep the angle at a fixed value. The system can achieve a natural period of 100 s by carefully moving the attachment points of the zero-length spring to the beams and tuning the feedback parameters. The system has been used as an inertial reference in the T-1 absolute gravimeter. The experiment results demonstrate that the system has significant vibration isolation performance that holds promise in applications such as absolute gravimeters.

  12. Ultra-low-frequency vertical vibration isolator based on a two-stage beam structure for absolute gravimetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, G.; Wu, K.; Hu, H.; Li, G.; Wang, L. J.

    2016-10-01

    To reduce seismic and environmental vibration noise, ultra-low-frequency vertical vibration isolation systems play an important role in absolute gravimetry. For this purpose, an isolator based on a two-stage beam structure is proposed and demonstrated. The isolator has a simpler and more robust structure than the present ultra-low-frequency vertical active vibration isolators. In the system, two beams are connected to a frame using flexural pivots. The upper beam is suspended from the frame with a normal hex spring and the lower beam is suspended from the upper one using a zero-length spring. The pivot of the upper beam is not vertically above the pivot of the lower beam. With this special design, the attachment points of the zero-length spring to the beams can be moved to adjust the effective stiffness. A photoelectric detector is used to detect the angle between the two beams, and a voice coil actuator attached to the upper beam is controlled by a feedback circuit to keep the angle at a fixed value. The system can achieve a natural period of 100 s by carefully moving the attachment points of the zero-length spring to the beams and tuning the feedback parameters. The system has been used as an inertial reference in the T-1 absolute gravimeter. The experiment results demonstrate that the system has significant vibration isolation performance that holds promise in applications such as absolute gravimeters.

  13. Quantum frequency bridge: high-accuracy characterization of a nearly-noiseless parametric frequency converter.

    PubMed

    Burenkov, Ivan A; Gerrits, Thomas; Lita, Adriana; Nam, Sae Woo; Krister Shalm, L; Polyakov, Sergey V

    2017-01-23

    We demonstrate an efficient and inherently ultra-low noise frequency conversion via a parametric sum frequency generation. Due to the wide separation between the input and pump frequencies and the low pump frequency relative to the input photons, the upconversion results in only ≈100 background photons per hour. To measure such a low rate, we introduced a dark count reduction algorithm for an optical transition edge sensor.

  14. Absolute frequency measurement of the 674-nm {sup 88}Sr{sup +} clock transition using a femtosecond optical frequency comb

    SciTech Connect

    Margolis, H.S.; Huang, G.; Barwood, G.P.; Lea, S.N.; Klein, H.A.; Rowley, W.R.C.; Gill, P.; Windeler, R.S.

    2003-03-01

    The frequency of the 5s {sup 2}S{sub 1/2}-4d {sup 2}D{sub 5/2} electric quadrupole transition at 674 nm in a single, trapped, laser-cooled {sup 88}Sr{sup +} ion has been measured with respect to the Systeme International (SI) second using a femtosecond laser optical frequency comb. The measured frequency of 444 779 044 095.52 kHz, with an estimated standard uncertainty of 0.10 kHz, is more accurate than, and in agreement with, the value previously measured using a conventional frequency chain.

  15. Accuracy and Fluency in List and Context Reading of Skilled and RD Groups: Absolute and Relative Performance Levels.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jenkins, Joseph R.; Fuchs, Lynn S.; van den Broek, Paul; Espin, Christine; Deno, Stanley L.

    2003-01-01

    Twenty-four students with reading difficulties (grade 4) and 85 skilled readers completed a reading comprehension test, read aloud a folktale, and read aloud a list of the folktale's words. Skilled readers read three times more correct words per minute in context and showed higher accuracy and rates on all measures. (Contains references.)…

  16. High-resolution absolute frequency referenced fiber optic sensor for quasi-static strain sensing

    SciTech Connect

    Lam, Timothy T.-Y.; Chow, Jong H.; Shaddock, Daniel A.; Littler, Ian C. M.; Gagliardi, Gianluca; Gray, Malcolm B.; McClelland, David E.

    2010-07-20

    We present a quasi-static fiber optic strain sensing system capable of resolving signals below nanostrain from 20 mHz. A telecom-grade distributed feedback CW diode laser is locked to a fiber Fabry-Perot sensor, transferring the detected signals onto the laser. An H{sup 13}C{sup 14}N absorption line is then used as a frequency reference to extract accurate low-frequency strain signals from the locked system.

  17. Absolute group refractive index measurement of air by dispersive interferometry using frequency comb.

    PubMed

    Yang, L J; Zhang, H Y; Li, Y; Wei, H Y

    2015-12-28

    The absolute group refractive index of air at 1563 nm is measured by dispersive interferometry, and a combined uncertainty of 1.2 × 10(-8) is achieved. The group refractive index of air is calculated from the dispersive interferograms of the two beams passing through the inner and outer regions of a vacuum cell by fast-Fourier-transform. Experimental results show that the discrepancies between our method and modified Edlén equation are less than 3.43 × 10(-8) and 4.4 × 10(-8) for short-term and long-term experiments, respectively. The interferogram update rate is 15 ms, which makes it suitable for application of real-time monitoring. Furthermore, it is promising to improve the measurement uncertainty to 3.0 × 10(-9) by changing the material of the vacuum cell and measuring its length more accurately through optical interferometry.

  18. Mean Expected Error in Prediction of Total Body Water: A True Accuracy Comparison between Bioimpedance Spectroscopy and Single Frequency Regression Equations

    PubMed Central

    Abtahi, Shirin; Abtahi, Farhad; Ellegård, Lars; Johannsson, Gudmundur; Bosaeus, Ingvar

    2015-01-01

    For several decades electrical bioimpedance (EBI) has been used to assess body fluid distribution and body composition. Despite the development of several different approaches for assessing total body water (TBW), it remains uncertain whether bioimpedance spectroscopic (BIS) approaches are more accurate than single frequency regression equations. The main objective of this study was to answer this question by calculating the expected accuracy of a single measurement for different EBI methods. The results of this study showed that all methods produced similarly high correlation and concordance coefficients, indicating good accuracy as a method. Even the limits of agreement produced from the Bland-Altman analysis indicated that the performance of single frequency, Sun's prediction equations, at population level was close to the performance of both BIS methods; however, when comparing the Mean Absolute Percentage Error value between the single frequency prediction equations and the BIS methods, a significant difference was obtained, indicating slightly better accuracy for the BIS methods. Despite the higher accuracy of BIS methods over 50 kHz prediction equations at both population and individual level, the magnitude of the improvement was small. Such slight improvement in accuracy of BIS methods is suggested insufficient to warrant their clinical use where the most accurate predictions of TBW are required, for example, when assessing over-fluidic status on dialysis. To reach expected errors below 4-5%, novel and individualized approaches must be developed to improve the accuracy of bioimpedance-based methods for the advent of innovative personalized health monitoring applications. PMID:26137489

  19. Improve the Absolute Accuracy of Ozone Intensities in the 9-11 μm Region via Mw/ir Multi-Wavelength Spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Shanshan; Drouin, Brian

    2016-06-01

    Ozone (O_3) is crucial for studies of air quality, human and crop health, and radiative forcing. Spectroscopic remote sensing techniques have been extensively employed to investigate ozone globally and regionally. Infrared intensities of ≤1% accuracy are desired by the remote sensing community. The accuracy of the current state-of-the-art infrared ozone intensities is on the order of 4-10%, resulting in ad hoc intensity scaling factors for consistent atmospheric retrievals. The large uncertainties on the infrared ozone intensities arise from the fact that pure ozone is very difficult to generate and sustain in the laboratory. Best estimates have employed IR/UV cross beam experiments to determine the accurate O_3 volume mixing ratio of the sample through its standard cross section value at 254 nm. This presentation reports our effort to improve the absolute accuracy of ozone intensities in the 9-11 μm region via a transfer of the precision of the rotational dipole moment onto the infrared measurement (MW/IR). Our approach was to use MW/IR cross beam experiments and determine the O_3 mixing ratio through alternately measuring pure rotation ozone lines from 692 to 779 GHz. The uncertainty of these pure rotation line intensities is better than 0.1%. The sample cell was a slow flow cross cell and the total pressure inside the sample cell was maintained constant through a proportional-integral-derivative (PID) flow control. Five infrared O_3 spectra were obtained, with a path length of 3.74 m, pressures ranging from 30 to 120 mTorr, and mixing ratio ranging from 0.5 to 0.9. A multi spectrum fitting technique was employed to fit all the FTS spectra simultaneously. The results show that we can determine intensities of the 9.6μm band with absolute accuracy better than 4%.

  20. Mode-resolved frequency comb interferometry for high-accuracy long distance measurement

    PubMed Central

    van den Berg, Steven. A.; van Eldik, Sjoerd; Bhattacharya, Nandini

    2015-01-01

    Optical frequency combs have developed into powerful tools for distance metrology. In this paper we demonstrate absolute long distance measurement using a single femtosecond frequency comb laser as a multi-wavelength source. By applying a high-resolution spectrometer based on a virtually imaged phased array, the frequency comb modes are resolved spectrally to the level of an individual mode. Having the frequency comb stabilized against an atomic clock, thousands of accurately known wavelengths are available for interferometry. From the spectrally resolved output of a Michelson interferometer a distance is derived. The presented measurement method combines spectral interferometry, white light interferometry and multi-wavelength interferometry in a single scheme. Comparison with a fringe counting laser interferometer shows an agreement within <10−8 for a distance of 50 m. PMID:26419282

  1. Mode-resolved frequency comb interferometry for high-accuracy long distance measurement.

    PubMed

    van den Berg, Steven A; van Eldik, Sjoerd; Bhattacharya, Nandini

    2015-09-30

    Optical frequency combs have developed into powerful tools for distance metrology. In this paper we demonstrate absolute long distance measurement using a single femtosecond frequency comb laser as a multi-wavelength source. By applying a high-resolution spectrometer based on a virtually imaged phased array, the frequency comb modes are resolved spectrally to the level of an individual mode. Having the frequency comb stabilized against an atomic clock, thousands of accurately known wavelengths are available for interferometry. From the spectrally resolved output of a Michelson interferometer a distance is derived. The presented measurement method combines spectral interferometry, white light interferometry and multi-wavelength interferometry in a single scheme. Comparison with a fringe counting laser interferometer shows an agreement within <10(-8) for a distance of 50 m.

  2. SU-E-T-189: First Experimental Verification of the Accuracy of Absolute Dose Reconstruction From PET-CT Imaging of Yttrium 90 Microspheres

    SciTech Connect

    Veltchev, I; Fourkal, E; Doss, M; Ma, C; Meyer, J; Yu, M; Horwitz, E

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: In the past few years there have been numerous proposals for 3D dose reconstruction from the PET-CT imaging of patients undergoing radioembolization treatment of the liver with yttrium-90 microspheres. One of the most promising techniques uses convolution of the measured PET activity distribution with a pre-calculated Monte Carlo dose deposition kernel. The goal of the present study is to experimentally verify the accuracy of this method and to analyze the significance of various error sources. Methods: Optically stimulated luminescence detectors (OSLD) were used (NanoDot, Landauer) in this experiment. Two detectors were mounted on the central axis of a cylinder filled with water solution of yttrium-90 chloride. The total initial activity was 90mCi. The cylinder was inserted in a larger water phantom and scanned on a Siemens Biograph 16 Truepoint PET-CT scanner. Scans were performed daily over a period of 20 days to build a calibration curve for the measured absolute activity spanning 7 yttrium-90 half-lives. The OSLDs were mounted in the phantom for a predetermined period of time in order to record 2Gy dose. The measured dose was then compared to the dose reconstructed from the activity density at the location of each dosimeter. Results: Thorough error analysis of the dose reconstruction algorithm takes into account the uncertainties in the absolute PET activity, branching ratios, and nonlinearity of the calibration curve. The measured dose for 105-minute exposure on day 10 of the experiment was 219(11)cGy, while the reconstructed dose at the location of the detector was 215(47)cGy. Conclusion: We present the first experimental verification of the accuracy of the convolution algorithm for absolute dose reconstruction of yttrium-90 microspheres. The excellent agreement between the measured and calculated point doses will encourage the broad clinical adoption of the convolution-based dose reconstruction algorithm, making future quantitative dose

  3. Radio frequency cavity analysis, measurement, and calibration of absolute Dee voltage for K-500 superconducting cyclotron at VECC, Kolkata

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Som, Sumit; Seth, Sudeshna; Mandal, Aditya; Paul, Saikat; Duttagupta, Anjan

    2013-02-01

    Variable Energy Cyclotron Centre has commissioned a K-500 superconducting cyclotron for various types of nuclear physics experiments. The 3-phase radio-frequency system of superconducting cyclotron has been developed in the frequency range 9-27 MHz with amplitude and phase stability of 100 ppm and ±0.20, respectively. The analysis of the RF cavity has been carried out using 3D Computer Simulation Technology (CST) Microwave Studio code and various RF parameters and accelerating voltages ("Dee" voltage) are calculated from simulation. During the RF system commissioning, measurement of different RF parameters has been done and absolute Dee voltage has been calibrated using a CdTe X-ray detector along with its accessories and known X-ray source. The present paper discusses about the measured data and the simulation result.

  4. Radio frequency cavity analysis, measurement, and calibration of absolute Dee voltage for K-500 superconducting cyclotron at VECC, Kolkata.

    PubMed

    Som, Sumit; Seth, Sudeshna; Mandal, Aditya; Paul, Saikat; Duttagupta, Anjan

    2013-02-01

    Variable Energy Cyclotron Centre has commissioned a K-500 superconducting cyclotron for various types of nuclear physics experiments. The 3-phase radio-frequency system of superconducting cyclotron has been developed in the frequency range 9-27 MHz with amplitude and phase stability of 100 ppm and ±0.2(0), respectively. The analysis of the RF cavity has been carried out using 3D Computer Simulation Technology (CST) Microwave Studio code and various RF parameters and accelerating voltages ("Dee" voltage) are calculated from simulation. During the RF system commissioning, measurement of different RF parameters has been done and absolute Dee voltage has been calibrated using a CdTe X-ray detector along with its accessories and known X-ray source. The present paper discusses about the measured data and the simulation result.

  5. Absolute distance measurement by multi-heterodyne interferometry using a frequency comb and a cavity-stabilized tunable laser.

    PubMed

    Wu, Hanzhong; Zhang, Fumin; Liu, Tingyang; Balling, Petr; Qu, Xinghua

    2016-05-20

    In this paper, we develop a multi-heterodyne system capable of absolute distance measurement using a frequency comb and a tunable diode laser locked to a Fabry-Perot cavity. In a series of subsequent measurements, numerous beat components can be obtained by downconverting the optical frequency into the RF region with multi-heterodyne interferometry. The distances can be measured via the mode phases with a series of synthetic wavelengths. The comparison with the reference interferometer shows an agreement within 1.5 μm for the averages of five measurements and 2.5 μm for the single measurement, which is at the 10-8 relative precision level.

  6. In vitro measurements of absolute blood oxygen saturation using pulsed near-infrared photoacoustic spectroscopy: accuracy and resolution.

    PubMed

    Laufer, Jan; Elwell, Clare; Delpy, Dave; Beard, Paul

    2005-09-21

    Pulsed photoacoustic spectroscopy was used to measure blood oxygen saturation in vitro. An optical parametric oscillator laser system provided nanosecond excitation pulses over the wavelength range 740-1040 nm which were used to generate photoacoustic signals in a cuvette through which a saline suspension of red blood cells was circulated. The signal amplitude and the effective attenuation coefficient were extracted from the photoacoustic signals as a function of wavelength to provide photoacoustic spectra of the blood. From these, the relative concentrations of oxy- and deoxyhaemoglobin, and therefore blood oxygen saturation (SO2), were determined using forward models of the absorbed energy distribution based on diffusion theory. A standard linear model of the dependence of absorbance on the concentration of chromophores was also used to calculate the blood oxygen saturation from the signal amplitude spectra. The diffusion approximation model was shown to produce the highest accuracy in blood SO2. The photoacoustically determined oxygen saturation was found to have an accuracy of +/-4% SO2 for signal amplitude data and +/-2.5% SO2 for effective attenuation spectra. The smallest change in oxygen saturation that can be measured using this technique was +/-1% SO2.

  7. Absolute frequency of cesium 6S-8S 822 nm two-photon transition by a high-resolution scheme.

    PubMed

    Wu, Chien-Ming; Liu, Tze-Wei; Wu, Ming-Hsuan; Lee, Ray-Kuang; Cheng, Wang-Yau

    2013-08-15

    We present an alternative scheme for determining the frequencies of cesium (Cs) atom 6S-8S Doppler-free transitions. With the use of a single electro-optical crystal, we simultaneously narrow the laser linewidth, lock the laser frequency, and resolve a narrow spectrum point by point. The error budget for this scheme is presented, and we prove that the transition frequency obtained from the Cs cell at room temperature and with one-layer μ-metal shielding is already very near that for the condition of zero collision and zero magnetic field. We point out that a sophisticated linewidth measurement could be a good guidance for choosing a suitable Cs cell for better frequency accuracy.

  8. Measurement of absolute frequency of continuous-wave terahertz radiation in real time using a free-running, dual-wavelength mode-locked, erbium-doped fibre laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Guoqing; Mizuguchi, Tatsuya; Zhao, Xin; Minamikawa, Takeo; Mizuno, Takahiko; Yang, Yuli; Li, Cui; Bai, Ming; Zheng, Zheng; Yasui, Takeshi

    2017-02-01

    A single, free-running, dual-wavelength mode-locked, erbium-doped fibre laser was exploited to measure the absolute frequency of continuous-wave terahertz (CW-THz) radiation in real time using dual THz combs of photo-carriers (dual PC-THz combs). Two independent mode-locked laser beams with different wavelengths and different repetition frequencies were generated from this laser and were used to generate dual PC-THz combs having different frequency spacings in photoconductive antennae. Based on the dual PC-THz combs, the absolute frequency of CW-THz radiation was determined with a relative precision of 1.2 × 10‑9 and a relative accuracy of 1.4 × 10‑9 at a sampling rate of 100 Hz. Real-time determination of the absolute frequency of CW-THz radiation varying over a few tens of GHz was also demonstrated. Use of a single dual-wavelength mode-locked fibre laser, in place of dual mode-locked lasers, greatly reduced the size, complexity, and cost of the measurement system while maintaining the real-time capability and high measurement precision.

  9. Measurement of absolute frequency of continuous-wave terahertz radiation in real time using a free-running, dual-wavelength mode-locked, erbium-doped fibre laser

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Guoqing; Mizuguchi, Tatsuya; Zhao, Xin; Minamikawa, Takeo; Mizuno, Takahiko; Yang, Yuli; Li, Cui; Bai, Ming; Zheng, Zheng; Yasui, Takeshi

    2017-01-01

    A single, free-running, dual-wavelength mode-locked, erbium-doped fibre laser was exploited to measure the absolute frequency of continuous-wave terahertz (CW-THz) radiation in real time using dual THz combs of photo-carriers (dual PC-THz combs). Two independent mode-locked laser beams with different wavelengths and different repetition frequencies were generated from this laser and were used to generate dual PC-THz combs having different frequency spacings in photoconductive antennae. Based on the dual PC-THz combs, the absolute frequency of CW-THz radiation was determined with a relative precision of 1.2 × 10−9 and a relative accuracy of 1.4 × 10−9 at a sampling rate of 100 Hz. Real-time determination of the absolute frequency of CW-THz radiation varying over a few tens of GHz was also demonstrated. Use of a single dual-wavelength mode-locked fibre laser, in place of dual mode-locked lasers, greatly reduced the size, complexity, and cost of the measurement system while maintaining the real-time capability and high measurement precision. PMID:28186148

  10. Absolute Frequency Measurements with a Set of Transportable HE-NE/CH4 Optical Frequency Standards and Prospects for Future Design and Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gubin, M.; Kovalchuk, E.; Petrukhin, E.; Shelkovnikov, A.; Tyurikov, D.; Gamidov, R.; Erdogan, C.; Sahin, E.; Felder, R.; Gill, P.; Lea, S. N.; Kramer, G.; Lipphardt, B.

    2002-04-01

    The accumulated results of absolute frequency measurements (AFM) carried out in 1997-2000 with transportable double-mode He-Ne/CH4 optical frequency standards (λ = 3 .39μm) in a collaboration of several laboratories are presented. The performance of this secondary optical frequency standard is estimated on the level of 10-13 (in repeatability), and 1 × 10-14/s (in stability). The next steps towards He-Ne/CH4 standards with one order of magnitude better performance, including devices based on monolithic zerodur resonators, are discussed. Important applications of transportable He-Ne/CH4 optical frequency standards have appeared now due to dramatic progress in the field of optical frequency measurements. Used to stabilize the repetition rate of a Ti:Sa fs laser, these compact secondary standards can transfer their performance into the whole optical range covered by a fs comb. Thus they can play the role of a narrow spectrum interrogative oscillator for super-accurate optical or microwave frequency standards substituting in some tasks a H-maser or oscillators based on cryogenic sapphire resonators.

  11. On the absolute accuracy of Zernike polynomials to characterize the corneal surface and the optical aberrations of the human eye

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carvalho, Luis A.

    2005-06-01

    Zernike Polynomials have been successfully used for many years in optics. Nevertheless there are some recent discussions regarding their accuracy when applied to surfaces such as the human cornea. A set of synthetic surfaces resembling several common corneal anomalies was sampled and was also used to compute the optical path difference using a simple ray-tracing procedure. The Root Mean Square Error between the Zernike Polynomials fit and the theoretical elevation and WF error surface was computed for both surfaces and for all number of Zernike terms. We have found that RMSE for the simplest, most symmetric corneal surface (spherical shape) and for the most complex shape (post-radial keratotomy) both the optical path difference and surface elevation, for 1 through 36 Zernike terms, range from: 421.4 to 0.8 microns, and 421.4 to 8.2 microns, respectively; mean RMSE for maximum Zernike terms for both surfaces were 4.5 microns. Computations in this work suggest that, for surfaces such as post-RK, keratoconus or post-keratoplasty, even more than 36 terms may be necessary in order to obtain minimum precision requirements. We suggest that the number of Zernike Polynomial should not be a global fixed conventional value but rather based on specific surface properties.

  12. Drug Treated Schizophrenia, Schizoaffective and Bipolar Disorder Patients Evaluated by qEEG Absolute Spectral Power and Mean Frequency Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Wix-Ramos, Richard; Moreno, Xiomara; Capote, Eduardo; González, Gilbert; Uribe, Ezequiel

    2014-01-01

    Objective Research of electroencephalograph (EEG) power spectrum and mean frequency has shown inconsistent results in patients with schizophrenic, schizoaffective and bipolar disorders during medication when compared to normal subjects thus; the characterization of these parameters is an important task. Methods We applied quantitative EEG (qEEG) to investigate 38 control, 15 schizophrenic, 7 schizoaffective and 11 bipolar disorder subjects which remaine under the administration of psychotropic drugs (except control group). Absolute spectral power (ASP), mean frequency and hemispheric electrical asymmetry were measured by 19 derivation qEEG. Group mean values were compared with non parametrical Mann-Whitney test and spectral EEG maps with z-score method at p < 0.05. Results Most frequent drug treatments for schizophrenic patients were neuroleptic+antiepileptic (40% of cases) or 2 neuroleptics (33.3%). Schizoaffective patients received neuroleptic+benzodiazepine (71.4%) and for bipolar disorder patients neuroleptic+antiepileptic (81.8%). Schizophrenic (at all derivations except for Fp1, Fp2, F8 and T6) and schizoaffective (only at C3) show higher values of ASP (+57.7% and +86.1% respectively) compared to control group. ASP of bipolar disorder patients did not show differences against control group. The mean frequency was higher at Fp1 (+14.2%) and Fp2 (+17.4%) in bipolar disorder patients than control group, but no differences were found in frequencies between schizophrenic or schizoaffective patients against the control group. Majority of spectral differences were found at the left hemisphere in schizophrenic and schizoaffective but not in bipolar disorder subjects. Conclusion The present report contributes to characterize quantitatively the qEEG in drug treated schizophrenic, schizoaffective or bipolar disorder patients. PMID:24851121

  13. Assessing the impact of measurement frequency on accuracy and uncertainty of water quality data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Helm, Björn; Schiffner, Stefanie; Krebs, Peter

    2014-05-01

    Physico-chemical water quality is a major objective for the evaluation of the ecological state of a river water body. Physical and chemical water properties are measured to assess the river state, identify prevalent pressures and develop mitigating measures. Regularly water quality is assessed based on weekly to quarterly grab samples. The increasing availability of online-sensor data measured at a high frequency allows for an enhanced understanding of emission and transport dynamics, as well as the identification of typical and critical states. In this study we present a systematic approach to assess the impact of measurement frequency on the accuracy and uncertainty of derived aggregate indicators of environmental quality. High frequency measured (10 min-1 and 15 min-1) data on water temperature, pH, turbidity, electric conductivity and concentrations of dissolved oxygen nitrate, ammonia and phosphate are assessed in resampling experiments. The data is collected at 14 sites in eastern and northern Germany representing catchments between 40 km2 and 140 000 km2 of varying properties. Resampling is performed to create series of hourly to quarterly frequency, including special restrictions like sampling at working hours or discharge compensation. Statistical properties and their confidence intervals are determined in a bootstrapping procedure and evaluated along a gradient of sampling frequency. For all variables the range of the aggregate indicators increases largely in the bootstrapping realizations with decreasing sampling frequency. Mean values of electric conductivity, pH and water temperature obtained with monthly frequency differ in average less than five percent from the original data. Mean dissolved oxygen, nitrate and phosphate had in most stations less than 15 % bias. Ammonia and turbidity are most sensitive to the increase of sampling frequency with up to 30 % in average and 250 % maximum bias at monthly sampling frequency. A systematic bias is recognized

  14. Frequency Comparison of Two High-Accuracy Al{sup +} Optical Clocks

    SciTech Connect

    Chou, C. W.; Hume, D. B.; Koelemeij, J. C. J.; Wineland, D. J.; Rosenband, T.

    2010-02-19

    We have constructed an optical clock with a fractional frequency inaccuracy of 8.6x10{sup -18}, based on quantum logic spectroscopy of an Al{sup +} ion. A simultaneously trapped Mg{sup +} ion serves to sympathetically laser cool the Al{sup +} ion and detect its quantum state. The frequency of the {sup 1}S{sub 0}reversible{sup 3}P{sub 0} clock transition is compared to that of a previously constructed Al{sup +} optical clock with a statistical measurement uncertainty of 7.0x10{sup -18}. The two clocks exhibit a relative stability of 2.8x10{sup -15}tau{sup -1/2}, and a fractional frequency difference of -1.8x10{sup -17}, consistent with the accuracy limit of the older clock.

  15. Absolute Zero

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Donnelly, Russell J.; Sheibley, D.; Belloni, M.; Stamper-Kurn, D.; Vinen, W. F.

    2006-12-01

    Absolute Zero is a two hour PBS special attempting to bring to the general public some of the advances made in 400 years of thermodynamics. It is based on the book “Absolute Zero and the Conquest of Cold” by Tom Shachtman. Absolute Zero will call long-overdue attention to the remarkable strides that have been made in low-temperature physics, a field that has produced 27 Nobel Prizes. It will explore the ongoing interplay between science and technology through historical examples including refrigerators, ice machines, frozen foods, liquid oxygen and nitrogen as well as much colder fluids such as liquid hydrogen and liquid helium. A website has been established to promote the series: www.absolutezerocampaign.org. It contains information on the series, aimed primarily at students at the middle school level. There is a wealth of material here and we hope interested teachers will draw their student’s attention to this website and its substantial contents, which have been carefully vetted for accuracy.

  16. Easy Absolute Values? Absolutely

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, Sharon E.; Mittag, Kathleen Cage

    2015-01-01

    The authors teach a problem-solving course for preservice middle-grades education majors that includes concepts dealing with absolute-value computations, equations, and inequalities. Many of these students like mathematics and plan to teach it, so they are adept at symbolic manipulations. Getting them to think differently about a concept that they…

  17. Accuracy assessment of high frequency 3D ultrasound for digital impression-taking of prepared teeth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heger, Stefan; Vollborn, Thorsten; Tinschert, Joachim; Wolfart, Stefan; Radermacher, Klaus

    2013-03-01

    Silicone based impression-taking of prepared teeth followed by plaster casting is well-established but potentially less reliable, error-prone and inefficient, particularly in combination with emerging techniques like computer aided design and manufacturing (CAD/CAM) of dental prosthesis. Intra-oral optical scanners for digital impression-taking have been introduced but until now some drawbacks still exist. Because optical waves can hardly penetrate liquids or soft-tissues, sub-gingival preparations still need to be uncovered invasively prior to scanning. High frequency ultrasound (HFUS) based micro-scanning has been recently investigated as an alternative to optical intra-oral scanning. Ultrasound is less sensitive against oral fluids and in principal able to penetrate gingiva without invasively exposing of sub-gingival preparations. Nevertheless, spatial resolution as well as digitization accuracy of an ultrasound based micro-scanning system remains a critical parameter because the ultrasound wavelength in water-like media such as gingiva is typically smaller than that of optical waves. In this contribution, the in-vitro accuracy of ultrasound based micro-scanning for tooth geometry reconstruction is being investigated and compared to its extra-oral optical counterpart. In order to increase the spatial resolution of the system, 2nd harmonic frequencies from a mechanically driven focused single element transducer were separated and corresponding 3D surface models were calculated for both fundamentals and 2nd harmonics. Measurements on phantoms, model teeth and human teeth were carried out for evaluation of spatial resolution and surface detection accuracy. Comparison of optical and ultrasound digital impression taking indicate that, in terms of accuracy, ultrasound based tooth digitization can be an alternative for optical impression-taking.

  18. High accuracy microwave frequency measurement based on single-drive dual-parallel Mach-Zehnder modulator.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Ying; Pang, Xiaodan; Deng, Lei; Yu, Xianbin; Zheng, Xiaoping; Zhou, Bingkun; Monroy, Idelfonso Tafur

    2011-12-12

    A novel approach for broadband microwave frequency measurement by employing a single-drive dual-parallel Mach-Zehnder modulator is proposed and experimentally demonstrated. Based on bias manipulations of the modulator, conventional frequency-to-power mapping technique is developed by performing a two-stage frequency measurement cooperating with digital signal processing. In the experiment, 10 GHz measurement range is guaranteed and the average uncertainty of estimated microwave frequency is 5.4 MHz, which verifies the measurement accuracy is significantly improved by achieving an unprecedented 10(-3) relative error. This high accuracy frequency measurement technique is a promising candidate for high-speed electronic warfare and defense applications.

  19. The Quantitative Relationship Between ISO 15197 Accuracy Criteria and Mean Absolute Relative Difference (MARD) in the Evaluation of Analytical Performance of Self-Monitoring of Blood Glucose (SMBG) Systems.

    PubMed

    Pardo, Scott; Simmons, David A

    2016-09-01

    The relationship between International Organization for Standardization (ISO) accuracy criteria and mean absolute relative difference (MARD), 2 methods for assessing the accuracy of blood glucose meters, is complex. While lower MARD values are generally better than higher MARD values, it is not possible to define a particular MARD value that ensures a blood glucose meter will satisfy the ISO accuracy criteria. The MARD value that ensures passing the ISO accuracy test can be described only as a probabilistic range. In this work, a Bayesian model is presented to represent the relationship between ISO accuracy criteria and MARD. Under the assumptions made in this work, there is nearly a 100% chance of satisfying ISO 15197:2013 accuracy requirements if the MARD value is between 3.25% and 5.25%.

  20. Absolute Photometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hartig, George

    1990-12-01

    The absolute sensitivity of the FOS will be determined in SV by observing 2 stars at 3 epochs, first in 3 apertures (1.0", 0.5", and 0.3" circular) and then in 1 aperture (1.0" circular). In cycle 1, one star, BD+28D4211 will be observed in the 1.0" aperture to establish the stability of the sensitivity and flat field characteristics and improve the accuracy obtained in SV. This star will also be observed through the paired apertures since these are not calibrated in SV. The stars will be observed in most detector/grating combinations. The data will be averaged to form the inverse sensitivity functions required by RSDP.

  1. Low numeracy predicts reduced accuracy of retrospective reports of frequency of sexual behavior.

    PubMed

    McAuliffe, Timothy L; DiFranceisco, Wayne; Reed, Barbara R

    2010-12-01

    Assessment of the frequency of sexual behavior relies on participants' ability to arithmetically aggregate information over time and across partners. This study examines the effect of numeracy (arithmetic skills) on the accuracy of retrospective reports of sexual behavior. For 91 days, the participants completed daily reports about their sexual activity. Participants then completed a survey on sexual behavior over the same period. The discrepancies between the survey-based and the diary-based measures of frequency of vaginal and anal intercourse were evaluated. Multiple regression analysis showed that the discrepancy between retrospective and diary measurements of sexual intercourse increased with lower numeracy (P = 0.026), lower education (P = 0.001), aggregate question format compared to partner-by-partner format (P = 0.031) and higher frequency of intercourse occasions (P < 0.001). Lower numeracy led to a 1.5-fold increase (adjusted mean = 14.1-20.9) in the discrepancy for those using the aggregate question format and a 2.0-fold increase (adjusted mean = 3.7-7.6) for those using the partner-by-partner format.

  2. Utilisation of multi-frequency VEMPs improves diagnostic accuracy for Meniere's disease.

    PubMed

    Maxwell, Rebecca; Jerin, Claudia; Gürkov, Robert

    2017-01-01

    To determine whether vestibular evoked myogenic potential (VEMP) measurements that combine the VEMP 500/1000 Hz frequency tuning ratio and the inter-aural asymmetry ratio can reliably detect unilateral Meniere's disease ears as compared to healthy controls. Forty-two consecutive patients with certain unilateral Meniere's disease (as confirmed using a locally enhanced inner ear MRI (LEIM)) were assessed. Cervical vestibular evoked myogenic potentials (cVEMP) and ocular vestibular evoked myogenic potentials (oVEMP) were recorded at 500 and 1000 Hz. The VEMP amplitudes, asymmetry ratios, and the 500/1000 Hz amplitude ratios were compared with those of 21 age-matched healthy controls. A multi-frequency VEMPs score that combined: (1) the cVEMP 500/1000 Hz amplitude ratio, (2) the oVEMP 500/1000 Hz amplitude ratio, (3) the 500 Hz cVEMP asymmetry ratio, (4) the 1000 Hz cVEMP asymmetry ratio, produced a ROC curve with an area under the curve (AUC) of 0.814. The inclusion of audiology data further improved the result to 0.906. This score can be used to discriminate with a good degree of clinical accuracy between Meniere's ears (unilateral) and those of healthy controls. Multi-frequency VEMP analysis offers a simple, cost-effective solution to the diagnostic difficulties presented by Meniere's disease.

  3. Ranging with frequency-shifted feedback lasers: from μm-range accuracy to MHz-range measurement rate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, J. I.; Ogurtsov, V. V.; Bonnet, G.; Yatsenko, L. P.; Bergmann, K.

    2016-12-01

    We report results on ranging based on frequency-shifted feedback (FSF) lasers with two different implementations: (1) An Ytterbium-fiber system for measurements in an industrial environment with accuracy of the order of 1 μm, achievable over a distance of the order of meters with potential to reach an accuracy of better than 100 nm; (2) A semiconductor laser system for a high rate of measurements with an accuracy of 2 mm @ 1 MHz or 75 μm @ 1 kHz and a limit of the accuracy of ≥10 μm. In both implementations, the distances information is derived from a frequency measurement. The method is therefore insensitive to detrimental influence of ambient light. For the Ytterbium-fiber system, a key feature is the injection of a single-frequency laser, phase modulated at variable frequency Ω, into the FSF-laser cavity. The frequency Ω_{max} at which the detector signal is maximal yields the distance. The semiconductor FSF-laser system operates without external injection seeding. In this case, the key feature is frequency counting that allows convenient choice of either accuracy or speed of measurements simply by changing the duration of the interval during which the frequency is measured by counting.

  4. High frequency rTMS over the left parietal lobule increases non-word reading accuracy.

    PubMed

    Costanzo, Floriana; Menghini, Deny; Caltagirone, Carlo; Oliveri, Massimiliano; Vicari, Stefano

    2012-09-01

    Increasing evidence in the literature supports the usefulness of Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation (TMS) in studying reading processes. Two brain regions are primarily involved in phonological decoding: the left superior temporal gyrus (STG), which is associated with the auditory representation of spoken words, and the left inferior parietal lobe (IPL), which operates in phonological computation. This study aimed to clarify the specific contribution of IPL and STG to reading aloud and to evaluate the possibility of modulating healthy participants' task performance using high frequency repetitive TMS (hf-rTMS). The main finding is that hf-rTMS over the left IPL improves non-word reading accuracy (fewer errors), whereas hf-rTMS over the right STG selectively decreases text-reading accuracy (more errors). These results confirm the prevalent role of the left IPL in grapheme-to-phoneme conversion. The non-word reading improvement after Left-IPL stimulation provide a direct link between left IPL activation and advantages in sublexical procedures, mainly involved in non-word reading. Results indicate also the specific involvement of STG in reading morphologically complex words and in processing the representation of the text. The text reading impairment after stimulation of the right STG can be interpreted in light of an inhibitory influence on the homologous area. In sum, data document that hf-rTMS is effective in modulating the reading accuracy of expert readers and that the modulation is task related and site specific. These findings suggest new perspectives for the treatment of reading disorders.

  5. NPL Cs fountain frequency standards and the quest for the ultimate accuracy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Szymaniec, K.; Lea, S. N.; Gibble, K.; Park, S. E.; Liu, K.; Głowacki, P.

    2016-06-01

    NPL operates a system of two primary caesium fountain clocks consisting of a fully characterised standard NPL-CsF2 together with a new standard NPL-CsF3, which has recently become operational. Both fountains feature a single-stage vapour-loaded magneto-optical trap as the source of cold atoms and an approximate cancellation of the potentially large cold collision frequency shift. As a result, the collision-shift type-B uncertainty is less than 10-16. Subsequently, more subtle systematic effects, including the frequency shifts from distributed cavity phase, microwave lensing and collisions with background gas have also been evaluated at the level of 10-16 or below. Now, as several systematic effects contribute to the fountains’ uncertainty budgets similarly, further significant improvement of their accuracies is expected to be even more difficult. The short-term stability of these standards is also a significant factor limiting the overall precision as many days or even weeks of averaging is required for the type-A statistical uncertainty to approach the declared type-B systematic uncertainty. Going forward, further improvements in the reliability and robustness of operation of fountain standards is one of our priorities.

  6. 10 kHz accuracy of an optical frequency reference based on (12)C2H2-filled large-core kagome photonic crystal fibers.

    PubMed

    Knabe, Kevin; Wu, Shun; Lim, Jinkang; Tillman, Karl A; Light, Philip S; Couny, Francois; Wheeler, Natalie; Thapa, Rajesh; Jones, Andrew M; Nicholson, Jeffrey W; Washburn, Brian R; Benabid, Fetah; Corwin, Kristan L

    2009-08-31

    Saturated absorption spectroscopy reveals the narrowest features so far in molecular gas-filled hollow-core photonic crystal fiber. The 48-68 mum core diameter of the kagome-structured fiber used here allows for 8 MHz full-width half-maximum sub-Doppler features, and its wavelength-insensitive transmission is suitable for high-accuracy frequency measurements. A fiber laser is locked to the (12)C2H2 nu(1); + nu(3) P(13) transition inside kagome fiber, and compared with frequency combs based on both a carbon nanotube fiber laser and a Cr:forsterite laser, each of which are referenced to a GPS-disciplined Rb oscillator. The absolute frequency of the measured line center agrees with those measured in power build-up cavities to within 9.3 kHz (1 sigma error), and the fractional frequency instability is less than 1.2 x 10(-11) at 1 s averaging time.

  7. Absolute airborne gravimetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baumann, Henri

    This work consists of a feasibility study of a first stage prototype airborne absolute gravimeter system. In contrast to relative systems, which are using spring gravimeters, the measurements acquired by absolute systems are uncorrelated and the instrument is not suffering from problems like instrumental drift, frequency response of the spring and possible variation of the calibration factor. The major problem we had to resolve were to reduce the influence of the non-gravitational accelerations included in the measurements. We studied two different approaches to resolve it: direct mechanical filtering, and post-processing digital compensation. The first part of the work describes in detail the different mechanical passive filters of vibrations, which were studied and tested in the laboratory and later in a small truck in movement. For these tests as well as for the airborne measurements an absolute gravimeter FG5-L from Micro-G Ltd was used together with an Inertial navigation system Litton-200, a vertical accelerometer EpiSensor, and GPS receivers for positioning. These tests showed that only the use of an optical table gives acceptable results. However, it is unable to compensate for the effects of the accelerations of the drag free chamber. The second part describes the strategy of the data processing. It is based on modeling the perturbing accelerations by means of GPS, EpiSensor and INS data. In the third part the airborne experiment is described in detail, from the mounting in the aircraft and data processing to the different problems encountered during the evaluation of the quality and accuracy of the results. In the part of data processing the different steps conducted from the raw apparent gravity data and the trajectories to the estimation of the true gravity are explained. A comparison between the estimated airborne data and those obtained by ground upward continuation at flight altitude allows to state that airborne absolute gravimetry is feasible and

  8. Fundamental limits on the accuracy of demographic inference based on the sample frequency spectrum

    PubMed Central

    Terhorst, Jonathan; Song, Yun S.

    2015-01-01

    The sample frequency spectrum (SFS) of DNA sequences from a collection of individuals is a summary statistic that is commonly used for parametric inference in population genetics. Despite the popularity of SFS-based inference methods, little is currently known about the information theoretic limit on the estimation accuracy as a function of sample size. Here, we show that using the SFS to estimate the size history of a population has a minimax error of at least O(1/log s), where s is the number of independent segregating sites used in the analysis. This rate is exponentially worse than known convergence rates for many classical estimation problems in statistics. Another surprising aspect of our theoretical bound is that it does not depend on the dimension of the SFS, which is related to the number of sampled individuals. This means that, for a fixed number s of segregating sites considered, using more individuals does not help to reduce the minimax error bound. Our result pertains to populations that have experienced a bottleneck, and we argue that it can be expected to apply to many populations in nature. PMID:26056264

  9. Absolute Distance Measurement with the MSTAR Sensor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lay, Oliver P.; Dubovitsky, Serge; Peters, Robert; Burger, Johan; Ahn, Seh-Won; Steier, William H.; Fetterman, Harrold R.; Chang, Yian

    2003-01-01

    The MSTAR sensor (Modulation Sideband Technology for Absolute Ranging) is a new system for measuring absolute distance, capable of resolving the integer cycle ambiguity of standard interferometers, and making it possible to measure distance with sub-nanometer accuracy. The sensor uses a single laser in conjunction with fast phase modulators and low frequency detectors. We describe the design of the system - the principle of operation, the metrology source, beamlaunching optics, and signal processing - and show results for target distances up to 1 meter. We then demonstrate how the system can be scaled to kilometer-scale distances.

  10. High-Accuracy Measurement of the Blackbody Radiation Frequency Shift of the Ground-State Hyperfine Transition in Cs133

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jefferts, S. R.; Heavner, T. P.; Parker, T. E.; Shirley, J. H.; Donley, E. A.; Ashby, N.; Levi, F.; Calonico, D.; Costanzo, G. A.

    2014-02-01

    We report a high-accuracy direct measurement of the blackbody radiation shift of the Cs133 ground-state hyperfine transition. This frequency shift is one of the largest systematic frequency biases encountered in realizing the current definition of the International System of Units (SI) second. Uncertainty in the blackbody radiation frequency shift correction has led to its being the focus of intense theoretical effort by a variety of research groups. Our experimental measurement of the shift used three primary frequency standards operating at different temperatures. We achieved an uncertainty a factor of five smaller than the previous best direct measurement. These results tend to validate the claimed accuracy of the recently calculated values.

  11. Measurement of plasma wave frequency from absolute stimulated Raman scattering near the quarter-critical surface in a laser plasma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Villeneuve, D. M.; Bernard, J. E.; Baldis, H. A.

    1987-12-01

    Thomson scattering techniques were used to measure the frequency of plasma waves near the quarter-critical surface in a well-diagnosed plasma irradiated by a nanosecond CO2 laser with intensity ˜1014 W/cm2. The frequency ωp was shown to be less than ω0/2, in disagreement with the commonly used estimate ωp=ω0/2+ (9)/(8) (ve/c)2ω0. The theory of Afeyan and Williams [Phys. Fluids 28, 3397 (1985)] gives better agreement, and shows that the density scale length is more important than the temperature in determining the frequency shift.

  12. Dispersive white light combined with a frequency-modulated continuous-wave interferometer for high-resolution absolute measurements of distance.

    PubMed

    Rovati, L; Minoni, U; Docchio, F

    1997-06-15

    A nonincremental interferometer for the absolute measurement of distances is presented. The measuring technique is based on both dispersive white-light (DWL) interferometry and frequency-modulated continuous-wave (FMCW) interferometry. The proposed configuration integrates both techniques in the same interferometer by use of a single laser diode. This solution enables the results from the coarse measurements from the FMCW interferometer to be combined with the fine readouts from the DWL interferometer. Preliminary experimental results confirm the capability of the system to combine the advantages of the two techniques.

  13. Spatial and temporal analysis on the distribution of active radio-frequency identification (RFID) tracking accuracy with the Kriging method.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xin; Shannon, Jeremy; Voun, Howard; Truijens, Martijn; Chi, Hung-Lin; Wang, Xiangyu

    2014-10-29

    Radio frequency identification (RFID) technology has already been applied in a number of areas to facilitate the tracking process. However, the insufficient tracking accuracy of RFID is one of the problems that impedes its wider application. Previous studies focus on examining the accuracy of discrete points RFID, thereby leaving the tracking accuracy of the areas between the observed points unpredictable. In this study, spatial and temporal analysis is applied to interpolate the continuous distribution of RFID tracking accuracy based on the Kriging method. An implementation trial has been conducted in the loading and docking area in front of a warehouse to validate this approach. The results show that the weak signal area can be easily identified by the approach developed in the study. The optimum distance between two RFID readers and the effect of the sudden removal of readers are also presented by analysing the spatial and temporal variation of RFID tracking accuracy. This study reveals the correlation between the testing time and the stability of RFID tracking accuracy. Experimental results show that the proposed approach can be used to assist the RFID system setup process to increase tracking accuracy.

  14. Spatial and Temporal Analysis on the Distribution of Active Radio-Frequency Identification (RFID) Tracking Accuracy with the Kriging Method

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Xin; Shannon, Jeremy; Voun, Howard; Truijens, Martijn; Chi, Hung-Lin; Wang, Xiangyu

    2014-01-01

    Radio frequency identification (RFID) technology has already been applied in a number of areas to facilitate the tracking process. However, the insufficient tracking accuracy of RFID is one of the problems that impedes its wider application. Previous studies focus on examining the accuracy of discrete points RFID, thereby leaving the tracking accuracy of the areas between the observed points unpredictable. In this study, spatial and temporal analysis is applied to interpolate the continuous distribution of RFID tracking accuracy based on the Kriging method. An implementation trial has been conducted in the loading and docking area in front of a warehouse to validate this approach. The results show that the weak signal area can be easily identified by the approach developed in the study. The optimum distance between two RFID readers and the effect of the sudden removal of readers are also presented by analysing the spatial and temporal variation of RFID tracking accuracy. This study reveals the correlation between the testing time and the stability of RFID tracking accuracy. Experimental results show that the proposed approach can be used to assist the RFID system setup process to increase tracking accuracy. PMID:25356648

  15. Accuracy of Haplotype Frequency Estimation for Biallelic Loci, via the Expectation-Maximization Algorithm for Unphased Diploid Genotype Data

    PubMed Central

    Fallin, Daniele; Schork, Nicholas J.

    2000-01-01

    Haplotype analyses have become increasingly common in genetic studies of human disease because of their ability to identify unique chromosomal segments likely to harbor disease-predisposing genes. The study of haplotypes is also used to investigate many population processes, such as migration and immigration rates, linkage-disequilibrium strength, and the relatedness of populations. Unfortunately, many haplotype-analysis methods require phase information that can be difficult to obtain from samples of nonhaploid species. There are, however, strategies for estimating haplotype frequencies from unphased diploid genotype data collected on a sample of individuals that make use of the expectation-maximization (EM) algorithm to overcome the missing phase information. The accuracy of such strategies, compared with other phase-determination methods, must be assessed before their use can be advocated. In this study, we consider and explore sources of error between EM-derived haplotype frequency estimates and their population parameters, noting that much of this error is due to sampling error, which is inherent in all studies, even when phase can be determined. In light of this, we focus on the additional error between haplotype frequencies within a sample data set and EM-derived haplotype frequency estimates incurred by the estimation procedure. We assess the accuracy of haplotype frequency estimation as a function of a number of factors, including sample size, number of loci studied, allele frequencies, and locus-specific allelic departures from Hardy-Weinberg and linkage equilibrium. We point out the relative impacts of sampling error and estimation error, calling attention to the pronounced accuracy of EM estimates once sampling error has been accounted for. We also suggest that many factors that may influence accuracy can be assessed empirically within a data set—a fact that can be used to create “diagnostics” that a user can turn to for assessing potential

  16. Lexical Frequency and Third-Graders' Stress Accuracy in Derived English Word Production

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jarmulowicz, Linda; Taran, Valentina L.; Hay, Sarah E.

    2008-01-01

    This study examined the effects of lexical frequency on children's production of accurate primary stress in words derived with nonneutral English suffixes. Forty-four third-grade children participated in an elicited derived word task in which they produced high-frequency, low-frequency, and nonsense-derived words with stress-changing suffixes…

  17. Measurement of the absolute accuracy (to <0.5%) of a clip-level beam profiler using Fresnel diffraction by a wide slit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnston, Thomas F., Jr.; Fleischer, John M.

    1995-04-01

    By comparing the measured width of an optical test patten to the known width, the absolute error of a clip-level profiler is determined to be (-0.1 +/- 0.3)%. An expanded fundamental mode beam illuminates a pair of opposed knife edges (a wide slit) to generate the test pattern by Fresnel diffraction. Analysis of the diffraction pattern gives 18.2% as the appropriate clip level to read the geometrical shadow width between edges (with additional small adjustments for illumination non-uniformity and the finite size of the scanning aperture). The separation between the edges is determined by mechanical translation edge to edge through a focused beam. 3

  18. Accurate absolute reference frequencies from 1511 to 1545 nm of the {nu}{sub 1}+{nu}{sub 3} band of {sup 12}C{sub 2}H{sub 2} determined with laser frequency comb interval measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Madej, Alan A.; Alcock, A. John; Czajkowski, Andrzej; Bernard, John E.; Chepurov, Sergei

    2006-10-15

    Absolute frequency measurements, with uncertainties as low as 2 kHz (1x10{sup -11}), are presented for the {nu}{sub 1}+{nu}{sub 3} band of {sup 12}C{sub 2}H{sub 2} at 1.5 {mu}m (194-198 THz). The measurements were made using cavity-enhanced, diode-laser-based saturation spectroscopy. With one laser system stabilized to the P(16) line of {sup 13}C{sub 2}H{sub 2} and a system stabilized to the line in {sup 12}C{sub 2}H{sub 2} whose frequency was to be determined, a Cr:YAG laser-based frequency comb was employed to measure the frequency intervals. The systematic uncertainty is notably reduced relative to that of previous studies, and the region of measured lines has been extended. Improved molecular constants are obtained.

  19. Saturated CO{sub 2} absorption near 1.6 μm for kilohertz-accuracy transition frequencies

    SciTech Connect

    Burkart, Johannes Romanini, Daniele; Campargue, Alain; Kassi, Samir; Sala, Tommaso; Marangoni, Marco

    2015-05-21

    Doppler-free saturated-absorption Lamb dips were measured on weak rovibrational lines of {sup 12}C{sup 16}O{sub 2} between 6189 and 6215 cm{sup −1} at sub-Pa pressures using optical feedback frequency stabilized cavity ring-down spectroscopy. By referencing the laser source to an optical frequency comb, transition frequencies for ten lines of the 30013←00001 band P-branch and two lines of the 31113←01101 hot band R-branch were determined with an accuracy of a few parts in 10{sup 11}. Involving rotational quantum numbers up to 42, the data were used for improving the upper level spectroscopic constants. These results provide a highly accurate reference frequency grid over the spectral interval from 1599 to 1616 nm.

  20. High Accuracy Optical Inverse Square Law Experiment Using Inexpensive Light to Frequency Converters

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wanser, Keith H.; Mahrley, Steve; Tanner, Joshua

    2012-01-01

    In this paper we report on the use of two different light to frequency converters, four different light sources, three of which are novel and inexpensive, and a hand held digital multimeter with a frequency counter, suitable for making accurate and rapid determination of the optical inverse square law exponent of -2 to better than [plus or…

  1. 40 CFR 91.328 - Measurement equipment accuracy/calibration frequency table.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... subpart. (3) Check the fuel flow measurement instrument to insure that the specifications in Table 2 in... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Measurement equipment accuracy... (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM MARINE SPARK-IGNITION ENGINES Emission...

  2. 40 CFR 91.328 - Measurement equipment accuracy/calibration frequency table.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... subpart. (3) Check the fuel flow measurement instrument to insure that the specifications in Table 2 in... 40 Protection of Environment 21 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Measurement equipment accuracy... (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM MARINE SPARK-IGNITION ENGINES Emission...

  3. 40 CFR 90.328 - Measurement equipment accuracy/calibration frequency table.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... found in Table 2 in Appendix A of this subpart. (3) Check the fuel flow measurement instrument to insure... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Measurement equipment accuracy... (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM NONROAD SPARK-IGNITION ENGINES AT OR BELOW...

  4. 40 CFR 91.328 - Measurement equipment accuracy/calibration frequency table.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... subpart. (3) Check the fuel flow measurement instrument to insure that the specifications in Table 2 in... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2014-07-01 2013-07-01 true Measurement equipment accuracy... (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM MARINE SPARK-IGNITION ENGINES Emission...

  5. 40 CFR 90.328 - Measurement equipment accuracy/calibration frequency table.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... found in Table 2 in Appendix A of this subpart. (3) Check the fuel flow measurement instrument to insure... 40 Protection of Environment 21 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Measurement equipment accuracy... (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM NONROAD SPARK-IGNITION ENGINES AT OR BELOW...

  6. 40 CFR 90.328 - Measurement equipment accuracy/calibration frequency table.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... found in Table 2 in Appendix A of this subpart. (3) Check the fuel flow measurement instrument to insure... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2014-07-01 2013-07-01 true Measurement equipment accuracy... (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM NONROAD SPARK-IGNITION ENGINES AT OR BELOW...

  7. 40 CFR 90.328 - Measurement equipment accuracy/calibration frequency table.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... found in table 2 in appendix A of this subpart. (3) Check the fuel flow measurement instrument to insure... 40 Protection of Environment 21 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Measurement equipment accuracy... (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM NONROAD SPARK-IGNITION ENGINES AT OR BELOW...

  8. 40 CFR 91.328 - Measurement equipment accuracy/calibration frequency table.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... subpart. (3) Check the fuel flow measurement instrument to insure that the specifications in Table 2 in... 40 Protection of Environment 21 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Measurement equipment accuracy... (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM MARINE SPARK-IGNITION ENGINES Emission...

  9. Magic radio-frequency dressing of nuclear spins in high-accuracy optical clocks.

    PubMed

    Zanon-Willette, Thomas; de Clercq, Emeric; Arimondo, Ennio

    2012-11-30

    A Zeeman-insensitive optical clock atomic transition is engineered when nuclear spins are dressed by a nonresonant radio-frequency field. For fermionic species as (87)Sr, (171)Yb, and (199)Hg, particular ratios between the radio-frequency driving amplitude and frequency lead to "magic" magnetic values where a net cancelation of the Zeeman clock shift and a complete reduction of first-order magnetic variations are produced within a relative uncertainty below the 10(-18) level. An Autler-Townes continued fraction describing a semiclassical radio-frequency dressed spin is numerically computed and compared to an analytical quantum description including higher-order magnetic field corrections to the dressed energies.

  10. Low-frequency rTMS over the Parieto-frontal network during a sensorimotor task: The role of absolute beta power in the sensorimotor integration.

    PubMed

    Gongora, Mariana; Bittencourt, Juliana; Teixeira, Silmar; Basile, Luis F; Pompeu, Fernando; Droguett, Enrique López; Arias-Carrion, Oscar; Budde, Henning; Cagy, Mauricio; Velasques, Bruna; Nardi, Antonio Egídio; Ribeiro, Pedro

    2016-01-12

    Several studies have demonstrated that Repetitive Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation (rTMS) promotes alterations in the Central Nervous System circuits and networks. The focus of the present study is to examine the absolute beta power patterns in the Parieto-frontal network. We hypothesize that rTMS alters the mechanisms of the sensorimotor integration process during a visuomotor task. Twelve young healthy volunteers performed a visuomotor task involving decision making recorded (Catch a ball in a free fall) by Electroencephalography. rTMS was applied on the Superior Parietal Cortex (SPC; Brodmann area [BA] 7) with low-frequency (1 Hz - 15 min - 80% Resting Motor Threshold). For each Frontal and Parietal region, a two-way ANOVA was used to compare the absolute beta power before and after TMS for each condition of the study (Rest 1, Task and Rest 2). The results demonstrated interactions (TMS vs. Condition) for the Frontal electrodes: Fp1, Fp2 and F7 and an effect of TMS (before and after) for F4.The results for the Parietal region showed a main effect of Condition for the P3, PZ and P4 electrodes. Thus, our paradigm was useful to better understand the reorganization and neural plasticity mechanisms in the parieto-frontal network during the sensorimotor integration process.

  11. Absolute atomic oxygen and nitrogen densities in radio-frequency driven atmospheric pressure cold plasmas: Synchrotron vacuum ultra-violet high-resolution Fourier-transform absorption measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Niemi, K.; O'Connell, D.; Gans, T.; Oliveira, N. de; Joyeux, D.; Nahon, L.; Booth, J. P.

    2013-07-15

    Reactive atomic species play a key role in emerging cold atmospheric pressure plasma applications, in particular, in plasma medicine. Absolute densities of atomic oxygen and atomic nitrogen were measured in a radio-frequency driven non-equilibrium plasma operated at atmospheric pressure using vacuum ultra-violet (VUV) absorption spectroscopy. The experiment was conducted on the DESIRS synchrotron beamline using a unique VUV Fourier-transform spectrometer. Measurements were carried out in plasmas operated in helium with air-like N{sub 2}/O{sub 2} (4:1) admixtures. A maximum in the O-atom concentration of (9.1 {+-} 0.7) Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 20} m{sup -3} was found at admixtures of 0.35 vol. %, while the N-atom concentration exhibits a maximum of (5.7 {+-} 0.4) Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 19} m{sup -3} at 0.1 vol. %.

  12. A high accuracy ultrasonic distance measurement system using binary frequency shift-keyed signal and phase detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, S. S.; Huang, C. F.; Huang, K. N.; Young, M. S.

    2002-10-01

    A highly accurate binary frequency shift-keyed (BFSK) ultrasonic distance measurement system (UDMS) for use in isothermal air is described. This article presents an efficient algorithm which combines both the time-of-flight (TOF) method and the phase-shift method. The proposed method can obtain larger range measurement than the phase-shift method and also get higher accuracy compared with the TOF method. A single-chip microcomputer-based BFSK signal generator and phase detector was designed to record and compute the TOF, two phase shifts, and the resulting distance, which were then sent to either an LCD to display or a PC to calibrate. Experiments were done in air using BFSK with the frequencies of 40 and 41 kHz. Distance resolution of 0.05% of the wavelength corresponding to the frequency of 40 kHz was obtained. The range accuracy was found to be within ±0.05 mm at a range of over 6000 mm. The main advantages of this UDMS system are high resolution, low cost, narrow bandwidth requirement, and ease of implementation.

  13. High-accuracy self-correction of refractive index of air using two-color interferometry of optical frequency combs.

    PubMed

    Minoshima, Kaoru; Arai, Kaoru; Inaba, Hajime

    2011-12-19

    Long-path pulse-to-pulse interferometers of two-color frequency combs are developed using fundamental and second harmonics of a mode-locked fiber laser. Interferometric phase difference between two-color frequency combs was precisely measured by stabilizing the fundamental fringe phase by controlling the repetition frequency of the comb, and a stability of 10(-10) for 1000 s was achieved in the measurement of an optical path length difference between two wavelengths. In long-term measurements performed for 10 h, results of phase variation of interferometric measurements were highly consistent with the fluctuations in the calculated difference of refractive indices of air at two wavelengths with an accuracy of 10(-10). The difference between the measured optical distances corresponding to two wavelengths and the optical distance corresponding to the fundamental wavelength were used in the two-color method; high-accuracy self-correction of the fluctuation of refractive index of air was performed with an uncertainty of 5 × 10(-8) for 10-h measurements when the maximum refractive index change was on the order of 10(-6).

  14. High-accuracy long-distance measurements in air with a frequency comb laser.

    PubMed

    Cui, M; Zeitouny, M G; Bhattacharya, N; van den Berg, S A; Urbach, H P; Braat, J J M

    2009-07-01

    We experimentally demonstrate that a femtosecond frequency comb laser can be applied as a tool for long-distance measurement in air. Our method is based on the measurement of cross correlation between individual pulses in a Michelson interferometer. From the position of the correlation functions, distances of up to 50 m have been measured. We have compared this measurement to a counting laser interferometer, showing an agreement with the measured distance within 2 microm (4x10(-8) at 50 m).

  15. Accuracy in dynamic laser speckle: optimum size of speckles for temporal and frequency analyses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Braga, Roberto A.; González-Peña, Rolando J.

    2016-12-01

    The dynamic laser-speckle phenomenon has been used as a potential tool to monitor the activity of many biological and nonbiological samples; however, a key tailoring of the experimental configuration must be taken into account to avoid wrong measurements, since the general rules addressed to speckle as information cannot be directly adopted in dynamic laser-speckle monitoring. The speckle/pixel size ratio is provided by the f-number and by the magnification of the macro lens, and attention is mainly directed toward adjusting a speckle/pixel ratio higher than 1. However, a speckle/pixel ratio much higher than one does not mean an optimum adjustment. This work tested different apertures with fixed magnification yielding to monitor a drying paint process. The outcomes were evaluated in the time and frequency domains. The highest speckle/pixel size ratio was not the best to monitor the process using the dynamic laser speckle under frequency analysis. Tailoring of the devices must take into account the optimum speckle/pixel size ratio, which could vary depending on the application, and the known Nyquist theorem cannot be considered as a sufficient condition since the setup of the optical camera with its macro and iris must also be adjusted in accordance with the frequency response.

  16. Influence of the boundary conditions on the accuracy of diffusion theory in frequency-resolved spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Le Pommellec, Jean-Yves J.; L'Huillier, Jean-Pierre

    2003-10-01

    A detailed investigation of the use of time-resolved reflectance and frequency-resolved reflectance for the optical characterization of scattering medium such as breast tissues based on the diffusion equation has been performed. Two different boundary conditions were imposed at the air-tissue interface : the first use the" zero real surface" (ZRS) , the second refers to the " zero extrapolated surface" (ZES). To simplify the preliminary analysis, the tissues have been assimilated to a semi-infinite geometry or a slab sufficiently thick. Among the results, the computation showed that at low frequency approximation, the determination of the phase angle shift is independent of whatever boundary conditions is applied. Consequently breast tissue optical properties would be retrieved by means of frequency resolved data (modulation and phase) recorded at two different radial distances. For modulated light at f~20 MHz, and using a model accounting for simple ZRS formulation. Under thes approximations discrepancies are within 3% for a μa and 0.5% for μ's.

  17. Using known map category marginal frequencies to improve estimates of thematic map accuracy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Card, D. H.

    1982-01-01

    By means of two simple sampling plans suggested in the accuracy-assessment literature, it is shown how one can use knowledge of map-category relative sizes to improve estimates of various probabilities. The fact that maximum likelihood estimates of cell probabilities for the simple random sampling and map category-stratified sampling were identical has permitted a unified treatment of the contingency-table analysis. A rigorous analysis of the effect of sampling independently within map categories is made possible by results for the stratified case. It is noted that such matters as optimal sample size selection for the achievement of a desired level of precision in various estimators are irrelevant, since the estimators derived are valid irrespective of how sample sizes are chosen.

  18. Extremely high-accuracy correction of air refractive index using two-colour optical frequency combs.

    PubMed

    Wu, Guanhao; Takahashi, Mayumi; Arai, Kaoru; Inaba, Hajime; Minoshima, Kaoru

    2013-01-01

    Optical frequency combs have become an essential tool for distance metrology, showing great advantages compared with traditional laser interferometry. However, there is not yet an appropriate method for air refractive index correction to ensure the high performance of such techniques when they are applied in air. In this study, we developed a novel heterodyne interferometry technique based on two-colour frequency combs for air refractive index correction. In continuous 500-second tests, a stability of 1.0 × 10(-11) was achieved in the measurement of the difference in the optical distance between two wavelengths. Furthermore, the measurement results and the calculations are in nearly perfect agreement, with a standard deviation of 3.8 × 10(-11) throughout the 10-hour period. The final two-colour correction of the refractive index of air over a path length of 61 m was demonstrated to exhibit an uncertainty better than 1.4 × 10(-8), which is the best result ever reported without precise knowledge of environmental parameters.

  19. Extremely high-accuracy correction of air refractive index using two-colour optical frequency combs

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Guanhao; Takahashi, Mayumi; Arai, Kaoru; Inaba, Hajime; Minoshima, Kaoru

    2013-01-01

    Optical frequency combs have become an essential tool for distance metrology, showing great advantages compared with traditional laser interferometry. However, there is not yet an appropriate method for air refractive index correction to ensure the high performance of such techniques when they are applied in air. In this study, we developed a novel heterodyne interferometry technique based on two-colour frequency combs for air refractive index correction. In continuous 500-second tests, a stability of 1.0 × 10−11 was achieved in the measurement of the difference in the optical distance between two wavelengths. Furthermore, the measurement results and the calculations are in nearly perfect agreement, with a standard deviation of 3.8 × 10−11 throughout the 10-hour period. The final two-colour correction of the refractive index of air over a path length of 61 m was demonstrated to exhibit an uncertainty better than 1.4 × 10−8, which is the best result ever reported without precise knowledge of environmental parameters. PMID:23719387

  20. Accuracy of growth model parameters: effects of frequency and duration of data collection, and missing information.

    PubMed

    Aggrey, Samuel E

    2008-01-01

    This study was done to compare the accuracy of prediction of growth parameters using the Gompertz model when (1) data was collected infrequently, (2) data collection was truncated, and (3) data was missing. Initial growth rate and rate of decay were reduced by half when the model was fitted to data collected biweekly compared to data collected weekly. This reduction led to an increase in age of maximum growth and subsequently over-predicted the asymptotic body weight. When only part of the growth duration was used for prediction, both the initial growth rate and rate of decay were reduced. The degree of data truncation also affected sexual dimorphism of the parameters estimated. Using pre-asymptotic data for growth parameter prediction does not allow the intrinsic efficiency of growth to be determined accurately. However, using growth data with body weights missing at different phases of the growth curve does not seem to significantly affect the predicted growth parameters. Speculative or diagnostic conclusions on intrinsic growth should be done with data collected at short intervals to avoid potential inaccuracies in the prediction of initial growth rate, exponential decay rate, age of maximum growth and asymptotic weight.

  1. On the accuracy of the Eddington approximation for radiative transfer in the microwave frequencies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kummerow, Christian

    1993-01-01

    The paper examines how well an Eddington approximation can reproduce brightness temperatures obtained from a more complete, N-stream discrete ordinate solution in the microwave regime. Radiation propagation through a plane parallel medium is considered. Although model discrepancies are complicated functions of the cloud constituents, the differences between an eight-stream discrete ordinate solution and an analytical Eddington solution were found to be generally small, ranging from 0 to 6 K when only one uniform layer of hydrometeors was considered. When realistic multilayered cloud hydrometeor profiles were used, the differences between these two models never exceeded 3 K over the entire range of microwave frequencies considered (6.6-183 GHz). The models agreed to within 0.2 K in the absence of scattering constituents.

  2. Adaptive switching frequency buck DC—DC converter with high-accuracy on-chip current sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jinguang, Jiang; Fei, Huang; Zhihui, Xiong

    2015-05-01

    A current-mode PWM buck DC—DC converter is proposed. With the high-accuracy on-chip current sensor, the switching frequency can be selected automatically according to load requirements. This method improves efficiency and obtains an excellent transient response. The high accuracy of the current sensor is achieved by a simple switch technique without an amplifier. This has the direct benefit of reducing power dissipation and die size. Additionally, a novel soft-start circuit is presented to avoid the inrush current at the starting up state. Finally, this DC—DC converter is fabricated with the 0.5 μm standard CMOS process. The chip occupies 3.38 mm2. The accuracy of the proposed current sensor can achieve 99.5% @ 200 mA. Experimental results show that the peak efficiency is 91.8%. The input voltage ranges from 5 to 18 V, while a 2 A load current can be obtained. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (No. 41274047), the Natural Science Foundation of Jiangsu Province (No. BK2012639), the Science and Technology Enterprises in Jiangsu Province Technology Innovation Fund (No. BC2012121), and the Changzhou Science and Technology Support (Industrial) Project (No. CE20120074).

  3. Effect of norepinephrine dosage and calibration frequency on accuracy of pulse contour-derived cardiac output

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Introduction Continuous cardiac output monitoring is used for early detection of hemodynamic instability and guidance of therapy in critically ill patients. Recently, the accuracy of pulse contour-derived cardiac output (PCCO) has been questioned in different clinical situations. In this study, we examined agreement between PCCO and transcardiopulmonary thermodilution cardiac output (COTCP) in critically ill patients, with special emphasis on norepinephrine (NE) administration and the time interval between calibrations. Methods This prospective, observational study was performed with a sample of 73 patients (mean age, 63 ± 13 years) requiring invasive hemodynamic monitoring on a non-cardiac surgery intensive care unit. PCCO was recorded immediately before calibration by COTCP. Bland-Altman analysis was performed on data subsets comparing agreement between PCCO and COTCP according to NE dosage and the time interval between calibrations up to 24 hours. Further, central artery stiffness was calculated on the basis of the pulse pressure to stroke volume relationship. Results A total of 330 data pairs were analyzed. For all data pairs, the mean COTCP (±SD) was 8.2 ± 2.0 L/min. PCCO had a mean bias of 0.16 L/min with limits of agreement of -2.81 to 3.15 L/min (percentage error, 38%) when compared to COTCP. Whereas the bias between PCCO and COTCP was not significantly different between NE dosage categories or categories of time elapsed between calibrations, interchangeability (percentage error <30%) between methods was present only in the high NE dosage subgroup (≥0.1 μg/kg/min), as the percentage errors were 40%, 47% and 28% in the no NE, NE < 0.1 and NE ≥ 0.1 μg/kg/min subgroups, respectively. PCCO was not interchangeable with COTCP in subgroups of different calibration intervals. The high NE dosage group showed significantly increased central artery stiffness. Conclusions This study shows that NE dosage, but not the time interval between calibrations, has an

  4. Absolute and relative emission spectroscopy study of 3 cm wide planar radio frequency atmospheric pressure bio-plasma source

    SciTech Connect

    Deng, Xiaolong; Nikiforov, Anton Yu Leys, Christophe; Ionita, Eusebiu-Rosini; Dinescu, Gheorghe

    2015-08-03

    The dynamics of low power atmospheric pressure radio frequency discharge generated in Ar gas in long gap of 3 cm is investigated. This plasma source is characterized and analyzed for possible large scale biomedical applications where low gas temperature and potential-less effluent are required. The discharge forms a homogenous glow-like afterglow in ambient air at input power of 30 W with low gas temperature of 330 K, which is desirable in biomedical applications. With absolute calibrated spectroscopy of the discharge, electron density of 0.4 × 10{sup 18} m{sup −3} and electron temperature of 1.5 eV are obtained from continuum Bremsstrahlung radiation of the source. Time and spatial resolved emission spectroscopy is used to analyze discharge generation mechanism and active species formation. It is found that discharge dynamics strongly correlates with the discharge current waveform. Strong Ar(2p) excited states emission is observed nearby the electrodes surface on a distance up to 200 μm in the plasma sheath region at 10 ns after the current peak, whereas OH(A) emission is uniform along of the interelectrode gap.

  5. Absolute Summ

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Phillips, Alfred, Jr.

    Summ means the entirety of the multiverse. It seems clear, from the inflation theories of A. Guth and others, that the creation of many universes is plausible. We argue that Absolute cosmological ideas, not unlike those of I. Newton, may be consistent with dynamic multiverse creations. As suggested in W. Heisenberg's uncertainty principle, and with the Anthropic Principle defended by S. Hawking, et al., human consciousness, buttressed by findings of neuroscience, may have to be considered in our models. Predictability, as A. Einstein realized with Invariants and General Relativity, may be required for new ideas to be part of physics. We present here a two postulate model geared to an Absolute Summ. The seedbed of this work is part of Akhnaton's philosophy (see S. Freud, Moses and Monotheism). Most important, however, is that the structure of human consciousness, manifest in Kenya's Rift Valley 200,000 years ago as Homo sapiens, who were the culmination of the six million year co-creation process of Hominins and Nature in Africa, allows us to do the physics that we do. .

  6. Acousto-optical pulsar processor frequency scale calibration for increase accuracy measurement of time of arrival radioemission impulses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Esepkina, Nelli A.; Lavrov, Aleksandr P.; Molodyakov, Sergey A.

    2006-04-01

    The acousto-optical processor (AOP) is based on an acousto-optical spectrum analyzer with a CCD photodetector operating in special pipeline mode (shift-and-add mode), which allows spectral components of the input signal to be added with controlled time delay immediately in the CCD photodetector. The proposed AOP was successfully used on radiotelescope RT-64 (Kalyazin Radio Astronomy Observatory FIAN) for the observation of pulsars at 1 .4 GHz in 45 MHz bandwidth. The AOP frequency scale calibration allows increasing accuracy of measurement of time of arrival radioemission pulses. Experimental results on investigation of AOP work on RT-64 and radioemission pulses profiles for pulsar PSR 1937+21 are submitted.

  7. Improvement of orbit determination accuracy for Beidou Navigation Satellite System with Two-way Satellite Time Frequency Transfer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tang, Chengpan; Hu, Xiaogong; Zhou, Shanshi; Guo, Rui; He, Feng; Liu, Li; Zhu, Lingfeng; Li, Xiaojie; Wu, Shan; Zhao, Gang; Yu, Yang; Cao, Yueling

    2016-10-01

    The Beidou Navigation Satellite System (BDS) manages to estimate simultaneously the orbits and clock offsets of navigation satellites, using code and carrier phase measurements of a regional network within China. The satellite clock offsets are also directly measured with Two-way Satellite Time Frequency Transfer (TWSTFT). Satellite laser ranging (SLR) residuals and comparisons with the precise ephemeris indicate that the radial error of GEO satellites is much larger than that of IGSO and MEO satellites and that the BDS orbit accuracy is worse than GPS. In order to improve the orbit determination accuracy for BDS, a new orbit determination strategy is proposed, in which the satellite clock measurements from TWSTFT are fixed as known values, and only the orbits of the satellites are solved. However, a constant systematic error at the nanosecond level can be found in the clock measurements, which is obtained and then corrected by differencing the clock measurements and the clock estimates from orbit determination. The effectiveness of the new strategy is verified by a GPS regional network orbit determination experiment. With the IGS final clock products fixed, the orbit determination and prediction accuracy for GPS satellites improve by more than 50% and the 12-h prediction User Range Error (URE) is better than 0.12 m. By processing a 25-day of measurement from the BDS regional network, an optimal strategy for the satellite-clock-fixed orbit determination is identified. User Equivalent Ranging Error is reduced by 27.6% for GEO satellites, but no apparent reduction is found for IGSO/MEO satellites. The SLR residuals exhibit reductions by 59% and 32% for IGSO satellites but no reductions for GEO and MEO satellites.

  8. Absolute Antenna Calibration at the US National Geodetic Survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mader, G. L.; Bilich, A. L.

    2012-12-01

    Geodetic GNSS applications routinely demand millimeter precision and extremely high levels of accuracy. To achieve these accuracies, measurement and instrument biases at the centimeter to millimeter level must be understood. One of these biases is the antenna phase center, the apparent point of signal reception for a GNSS antenna. It has been well established that phase center patterns differ between antenna models and manufacturers; additional research suggests that the addition of a radome or the choice of antenna mount can significantly alter those a priori phase center patterns. For the more demanding GNSS positioning applications and especially in cases of mixed-antenna networks, it is all the more important to know antenna phase center variations as a function of both elevation and azimuth in the antenna reference frame and incorporate these models into analysis software. Determination of antenna phase center behavior is known as "antenna calibration". Since 1994, NGS has computed relative antenna calibrations for more than 350 antennas. In recent years, the geodetic community has moved to absolute calibrations - the IGS adopted absolute antenna phase center calibrations in 2006 for use in their orbit and clock products, and NGS's CORS group began using absolute antenna calibration upon the release of the new CORS coordinates in IGS08 epoch 2005.00 and NAD 83(2011,MA11,PA11) epoch 2010.00. Although NGS relative calibrations can be and have been converted to absolute, it is considered best practice to independently measure phase center characteristics in an absolute sense. Consequently, NGS has developed and operates an absolute calibration system. These absolute antenna calibrations accommodate the demand for greater accuracy and for 2-dimensional (elevation and azimuth) parameterization. NGS will continue to provide calibration values via the NGS web site www.ngs.noaa.gov/ANTCAL, and will publish calibrations in the ANTEX format as well as the legacy ANTINFO

  9. Increasing Accuracy: A New Design and Algorithm for Automatically Measuring Weights, Travel Direction and Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) of Penguins.

    PubMed

    Afanasyev, Vsevolod; Buldyrev, Sergey V; Dunn, Michael J; Robst, Jeremy; Preston, Mark; Bremner, Steve F; Briggs, Dirk R; Brown, Ruth; Adlard, Stacey; Peat, Helen J

    2015-01-01

    A fully automated weighbridge using a new algorithm and mechanics integrated with a Radio Frequency Identification System is described. It is currently in use collecting data on Macaroni penguins (Eudyptes chrysolophus) at Bird Island, South Georgia. The technology allows researchers to collect very large, highly accurate datasets of both penguin weight and direction of their travel into or out of a breeding colony, providing important contributory information to help understand penguin breeding success, reproductive output and availability of prey. Reliable discrimination between single and multiple penguin crossings is demonstrated. Passive radio frequency tags implanted into penguins allow researchers to match weight and trip direction to individual birds. Low unit and operation costs, low maintenance needs, simple operator requirements and accurate time stamping of every record are all important features of this type of weighbridge, as is its proven ability to operate 24 hours a day throughout a breeding season, regardless of temperature or weather conditions. Users are able to define required levels of accuracy by adjusting filters and raw data are automatically recorded and stored allowing for a range of processing options. This paper presents the underlying principles, design specification and system description, provides evidence of the weighbridge's accurate performance and demonstrates how its design is a significant improvement on existing systems.

  10. Increasing Accuracy: A New Design and Algorithm for Automatically Measuring Weights, Travel Direction and Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) of Penguins

    PubMed Central

    Afanasyev, Vsevolod; Buldyrev, Sergey V.; Dunn, Michael J.; Robst, Jeremy; Preston, Mark; Bremner, Steve F.; Briggs, Dirk R.; Brown, Ruth; Adlard, Stacey; Peat, Helen J.

    2015-01-01

    A fully automated weighbridge using a new algorithm and mechanics integrated with a Radio Frequency Identification System is described. It is currently in use collecting data on Macaroni penguins (Eudyptes chrysolophus) at Bird Island, South Georgia. The technology allows researchers to collect very large, highly accurate datasets of both penguin weight and direction of their travel into or out of a breeding colony, providing important contributory information to help understand penguin breeding success, reproductive output and availability of prey. Reliable discrimination between single and multiple penguin crossings is demonstrated. Passive radio frequency tags implanted into penguins allow researchers to match weight and trip direction to individual birds. Low unit and operation costs, low maintenance needs, simple operator requirements and accurate time stamping of every record are all important features of this type of weighbridge, as is its proven ability to operate 24 hours a day throughout a breeding season, regardless of temperature or weather conditions. Users are able to define required levels of accuracy by adjusting filters and raw data are automatically recorded and stored allowing for a range of processing options. This paper presents the underlying principles, design specification and system description, provides evidence of the weighbridge’s accurate performance and demonstrates how its design is a significant improvement on existing systems. PMID:25894763

  11. An Empirical Prior Improves Accuracy for Bayesian Estimation of Transcription Factor Binding Site Frequencies within Gene Promoters

    PubMed Central

    Ramsey, Stephen A.

    2015-01-01

    A Bayesian method for sampling from the distribution of matches to a precompiled transcription factor binding site (TFBS) sequence pattern (conditioned on an observed nucleotide sequence and the sequence pattern) is described. The method takes a position frequency matrix as input for a set of representative binding sites for a transcription factor and two sets of noncoding, 5′ regulatory sequences for gene sets that are to be compared. An empirical prior on the frequency A (per base pair of gene-vicinal, noncoding DNA) of TFBSs is developed using data from the ENCODE project and incorporated into the method. In addition, a probabilistic model for binding site occurrences conditioned on λ is developed analytically, taking into account the finite-width effects of binding sites. The count of TFBS β (conditioned on the observed sequence) is sampled using Metropolis–Hastings with an information entropy-based move generator. The derivation of the method is presented in a step-by-step fashion, starting from specific conditional independence assumptions. Empirical results show that the newly proposed prior on β improves accuracy for estimating the number of TFBS within a set of promoter sequences. PMID:27812284

  12. Phase-coherent transfer and retrieval of terahertz frequency standard over 20 km optical fiber with 4 × 10-18 accuracy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nagano, Shigeo; Kumagai, Motohiro; Ito, Hiroyuki; Kajita, Masatoshi; Hanado, Yuko

    2017-01-01

    We demonstrate a terahertz (THz) frequency reference transfer with high accuracy and stability. Phase information of the THz frequency standard is coherently duplicated onto an optical carrier as an intermediary for exploiting low-loss optical-fiber technology. The transferred information on the optical carrier is retrieved into the THz domain without phase decoherence. The THz reference transfer system, which comprises frequency-comb-based THz-to-optical and optical-to-THz synthesizers connected by a 20 km phase-noise-compensated fiber, is operated with 4 × 10-18 fractional frequency accuracy at 0.3 THz. This THz reference transfer is available for the remote frequency calibration of diverse instruments working in the THz region.

  13. Visualization tool for improved accuracy in needle placement during percutaneous radio-frequency ablation of liver tumors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stüdeli, Thomas; Kalkofen, Denis; Risholm, Petter; Ali, Wajid; Freudenthal, Adinda; Samset, Eigil

    2008-03-01

    The European research network "Augmented reality in Surgery" (ARIS*ER) developed a system that supports percutaneous radio frequency ablation of liver tumors. The system provides interventionists, during placement and insertion of the RFA needle, with information from pre-operative CT images and real-time tracking data. A visualization tool has been designed that aims to support (1) exploration of the abdomen, (2) planning of needle trajectory and (3) insertion of the needle in the most efficient way. This work describes a first evaluation of the system, where user performances and feedback of two visualization concepts of the tool - needle view and user view - are compared. After being introduced to the system, ten subjects performed three needle placements with both concepts. Task fulfillment rate, time for completion of task, special incidences, accuracy of needle placement recorded and analyzed. The results show ambiguous results with beneficial and less favorable effects on user performance and workload of both concepts. Effects depend on characteristics of intra-operative tasks as well as on task complexities depending on tumor location. The results give valuable input for the next design steps.

  14. Single-frequency receivers as master permanent stations in GNSS networks: precision and accuracy of the positioning in mixed networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dabove, Paolo; Manzino, Ambrogio Maria

    2015-04-01

    The use of GPS/GNSS instruments is a common practice in the world at both a commercial and academic research level. Since last ten years, Continuous Operating Reference Stations (CORSs) networks were born in order to achieve the possibility to extend a precise positioning more than 15 km far from the master station. In this context, the Geomatics Research Group of DIATI at the Politecnico di Torino has carried out several experiments in order to evaluate the achievable precision obtainable with different GNSS receivers (geodetic and mass-market) and antennas if a CORSs network is considered. This work starts from the research above described, in particular focusing the attention on the usefulness of single frequency permanent stations in order to thicken the existing CORSs, especially for monitoring purposes. Two different types of CORSs network are available today in Italy: the first one is the so called "regional network" and the second one is the "national network", where the mean inter-station distances are about 25/30 and 50/70 km respectively. These distances are useful for many applications (e.g. mobile mapping) if geodetic instruments are considered but become less useful if mass-market instruments are used or if the inter-station distance between master and rover increases. In this context, some innovative GNSS networks were developed and tested, analyzing the performance of rover's positioning in terms of quality, accuracy and reliability both in real-time and post-processing approach. The use of single frequency GNSS receivers leads to have some limits, especially due to a limited baseline length, the possibility to obtain a correct fixing of the phase ambiguity for the network and to fix the phase ambiguity correctly also for the rover. These factors play a crucial role in order to reach a positioning with a good level of accuracy (as centimetric o better) in a short time and with an high reliability. The goal of this work is to investigate about the

  15. High-accuracy photoreceiver frequency response measurements at 1.55 µm by use of a heterodyne phase-locked loop.

    PubMed

    Dennis, Tasshi; Hale, Paul D

    2011-10-10

    We demonstrate a high-accuracy heterodyne measurement system for characterizing the magnitude of the frequency response of high-speed 1.55 µm photoreceivers from 2 MHz to greater than 50 GHz. At measurement frequencies below 2 GHz, we employ a phase-locked loop with a double-heterodyne detection scheme, which enables precise tuning of the heterodyne beat frequency with an RF synthesizer. At frequencies above 2 GHz the system is operated in free-run mode with thermal tuning of the laser beat frequency. We estimate the measurement uncertainties for the low frequency range and compare the measured high-frequency response of a photoreceiver to a measurement using electro-optic sampling.

  16. Absolute transition probabilities of phosphorus.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, M. H.; Roig, R. A.; Bengtson, R. D.

    1971-01-01

    Use of a gas-driven shock tube to measure the absolute strengths of 21 P I lines and 126 P II lines (from 3300 to 6900 A). Accuracy for prominent, isolated neutral and ionic lines is estimated to be 28 to 40% and 18 to 30%, respectively. The data and the corresponding theoretical predictions are examined for conformity with the sum rules.-

  17. Absolute multilateration between spheres

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muelaner, Jody; Wadsworth, William; Azini, Maria; Mullineux, Glen; Hughes, Ben; Reichold, Armin

    2017-04-01

    Environmental effects typically limit the accuracy of large scale coordinate measurements in applications such as aircraft production and particle accelerator alignment. This paper presents an initial design for a novel measurement technique with analysis and simulation showing that that it could overcome the environmental limitations to provide a step change in large scale coordinate measurement accuracy. Referred to as absolute multilateration between spheres (AMS), it involves using absolute distance interferometry to directly measure the distances between pairs of plain steel spheres. A large portion of each sphere remains accessible as a reference datum, while the laser path can be shielded from environmental disturbances. As a single scale bar this can provide accurate scale information to be used for instrument verification or network measurement scaling. Since spheres can be simultaneously measured from multiple directions, it also allows highly accurate multilateration-based coordinate measurements to act as a large scale datum structure for localized measurements, or to be integrated within assembly tooling, coordinate measurement machines or robotic machinery. Analysis and simulation show that AMS can be self-aligned to achieve a theoretical combined standard uncertainty for the independent uncertainties of an individual 1 m scale bar of approximately 0.49 µm. It is also shown that combined with a 1 µm m‑1 standard uncertainty in the central reference system this could result in coordinate standard uncertainty magnitudes of 42 µm over a slender 1 m by 20 m network. This would be a sufficient step change in accuracy to enable next generation aerospace structures with natural laminar flow and part-to-part interchangeability.

  18. Swarm's Absolute Scalar Magnetometers Burst Mode Results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coisson, P.; Vigneron, P.; Hulot, G.; Crespo Grau, R.; Brocco, L.; Lalanne, X.; Sirol, O.; Leger, J. M.; Jager, T.; Bertrand, F.; Boness, A.; Fratter, I.

    2014-12-01

    Each of the three Swarm satellites embarks an Absolute Scalar Magnetometer (ASM) to provide absolute scalar measurements of the magnetic field with high accuracy and stability. Nominal data acquisition of these ASMs is 1 Hz. But they can also run in a so-called "burst mode" and provide data at 250 Hz. During the commissioning phase of the mission, seven burst mode acquisition campaigns have been run simultaneously for all satellites, obtaining a total of ten days of burs-mode data. These campaigns allowed the identification of issues related to the operations of the piezo-electric motor and the heaters connected to the ASM, that do not impact the nominal 1 Hz scalar data. We analyze the burst mode data to identify high frequency geomagnetic signals, focusing the analysis in two regions: the low latitudes, where we seek signatures of ionospheric irregularities, and the high latitudes, to identify high frequency signals related to polar region currents. Since these campaigns have been conducted during the initial months of the mission, the three satellites where still close to each other, allowing to analyze the spatial coherency of the signals. Wavelet analysis have revealed 31 Hz signals appearing in the night-side in the equatorial region.

  19. Assessment of the accuracy of PPP for very-high-frequency dynamic, satellite positioning and earthquake modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moschas, F.; Avallone, A.; Moschonas, N.; Saltogianni, V.; Stiros, S.

    2012-04-01

    With the advent of various GPS/GNSS Point Positioning techniques, it became possible to model the dynamic displacement history of specific points during large and rather moderate earthquakes using satellite positioning, 1Hz and occasionally 10Hz sampling data. While there is evidence that the obtained data are precise, experience from monitoring of engineering structures like bridges, indicates that GPS/GNSS records are contaminated by coloured (mostly background noise) noise even in the cases of differential-type analysis of the satellite signals. This made the necessary the assessment of the results of different PPP processing using supervised learning techniques. Our work was based on a modification of an experiment first made to assess the potential of GPS to measure oscillations of civil engineering structures. A 10Hz GNSS antenna-receiver unit was mounted on the top of a vertical rod, fixed on the ground and forced to controlled oscillations. Oscillations were also recorded by a robotic theodolite and an accelerometer, and the whole experiment was video-recorded. A second 10Hz GNSS antenna-receiver unit was left on stable ground, in a nearby position. The rod was forced to semi-static motion (bending) and then was left to oscillate freely until still, and the whole movement was recorded by all sensors. GNSS data were analyzed both in kinematic mode and in PPP mode, using the GIPSY-OASIS II (http://gipsy-oasis.jpl.nasa.gov) (only GPS) and the PPP CRCS facility (GPS + GLONAS). Recorded PPP and differential kinematic processing coordinates (apparent displacements) were found to follow the real motion, but to be contaminated by a long-period noise. On the contrary, the short-period component of the apparent PPP displacements, obtained using high-pass filtering, were very much consistent with the real motion, with sub-mm mean deviation, though occasionally contaminated by clipping. The assessment of the very-high frequency GPS noise will provide useful information

  20. Absolute optical metrology : nanometers to kilometers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dubovitsky, Serge; Lay, O. P.; Peters, R. D.; Liebe, C. C.

    2005-01-01

    We provide and overview of the developments in the field of high-accuracy absolute optical metrology with emphasis on space-based applications. Specific work on the Modulation Sideband Technology for Absolute Ranging (MSTAR) sensor is described along with novel applications of the sensor.

  1. Teaching Absolute Value Meaningfully

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wade, Angela

    2012-01-01

    What is the meaning of absolute value? And why do teachers teach students how to solve absolute value equations? Absolute value is a concept introduced in first-year algebra and then reinforced in later courses. Various authors have suggested instructional methods for teaching absolute value to high school students (Wei 2005; Stallings-Roberts…

  2. Absolute Standards for Climate Measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leckey, J.

    2016-10-01

    In a world of changing climate, political uncertainty, and ever-changing budgets, the benefit of measurements traceable to SI standards increases by the day. To truly resolve climate change trends on a decadal time scale, on-orbit measurements need to be referenced to something that is both absolute and unchanging. One such mission is the Climate Absolute Radiance and Refractivity Observatory (CLARREO) that will measure a variety of climate variables with an unprecedented accuracy to definitively quantify climate change. In the CLARREO mission, we will utilize phase change cells in which a material is melted to calibrate the temperature of a blackbody that can then be observed by a spectrometer. A material's melting point is an unchanging physical constant that, through a series of transfers, can ultimately calibrate a spectrometer on an absolute scale. CLARREO consists of two primary instruments: an infrared (IR) spectrometer and a reflected solar (RS) spectrometer. The mission will contain orbiting radiometers with sufficient accuracy to calibrate other space-based instrumentation and thus transferring the absolute traceability. The status of various mission options will be presented.

  3. Observation and Absolute Frequency Measurements of the {sup 1}S{sub 0}-{sup 3}P{sub 0} Optical Clock Transition in Neutral Ytterbium

    SciTech Connect

    Hoyt, C.W.; Barber, Z.W.; Oates, C.W.; Fortier, T.M.; Diddams, S.A.; Hollberg, L.

    2005-08-19

    We report the direct excitation of the highly forbidden (6s{sup 2}){sup 1}S{sub 0}{r_reversible}(6s6p){sup 3}P{sub 0} optical transition in two odd isotopes of neutral ytterbium. As the excitation laser frequency is scanned, absorption is detected by monitoring the depletion from an atomic cloud at {approx}70 {mu}K in a magneto-optical trap. The measured frequency in {sup 171}Yb (F=1/2) is 518 295 836 591.6{+-}4.4 kHz. The measured frequency in {sup 173}Yb (F=5/2) is 518 294 576 847.6{+-}4.4 kHz. Measurements are made with a femtosecond-laser frequency comb calibrated by the National Institute of Standards and Technology cesium fountain clock and represent nearly a 10{sup 6}-fold reduction in uncertainty. The natural linewidth of these J=0 to J=0 transitions is calculated to be {approx}10 mHz, making them well suited to support a new generation of optical atomic clocks based on confinement in an optical lattice.

  4. Absolutely classical spin states

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bohnet-Waldraff, F.; Giraud, O.; Braun, D.

    2017-01-01

    We introduce the concept of "absolutely classical" spin states, in analogy to absolutely separable states of bipartite quantum systems. Absolutely classical states are states that remain classical (i.e., a convex sum of projectors on coherent states of a spin j ) under any unitary transformation applied to them. We investigate the maximal size of the ball of absolutely classical states centered on the maximally mixed state and derive a lower bound for its radius as a function of the total spin quantum number. We also obtain a numerical estimate of this maximal radius and compare it to the case of absolutely separable states.

  5. Absolute CF{sub 2} density and gas temperature measurements by absorption spectroscopy in dual-frequency capacitively coupled CF{sub 4}/Ar plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Wen-Yao; Xu, Yong Peng, Fei; Gong, Fa-Ping; Li, Xiao-Song; Zhu, Ai-Min; Liu, Yong-Xin; Wang, You-Nian

    2014-10-15

    Broadband ultraviolet absorption spectroscopy has been used to determine the CF{sub 2} radical density in dual-frequency capacitively coupled CF{sub 4}/Ar plasmas, using the CF{sub 2} A{sup ~1}B{sub 1}←X{sup ~1}A{sub 1} system of absorption spectrum. The rotational temperature of ground state CF{sub 2} and excited state CF was also estimated by using A{sup ~1}B{sub 1}←X{sup ~1}A{sub 1} system and B{sup 2}Δ−X{sup 2}Π system, respectively. The translational gas temperature was deduced from the Doppler width of the Ar{sup *}({sup 3}P{sub 2}) and Ar{sup *}({sup 3}P{sub 0}) metastable atoms absorption line by using the tunable diode laser absorption spectroscopy. The rotational temperatures of the excited state CF are about 100 K higher than those of ground state CF{sub 2}, and about 200 K higher than the translational gas temperatures. The dependences of the radical CF{sub 2} density, electron density, electron temperature, rotational temperature, and gas temperature on the high frequency power and pressure have been analyzed. Furthermore, the production and loss mechanisms of CF{sub 2} radical and the gas heating mechanisms have also been discussed.

  6. Report on BIPM/CIPM key comparison CCAUV.U-K4: absolute calibration of medical hydrophones in the frequency range 0.5 MHz to 20 MHz

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rajagopal, S.; Fury, C. R.; Zeqiri, B.; Brandt, M.; Wilkens, V.; Koch, C.; Matsuda, Y.; Yoshioka, M.; Ping, Y.; Yan, Z.; Wenping, B.; Costa-Felix, R. P. B.; Oliveira, E. G.

    2016-01-01

    The key compariosn CCAUV.U-K4 involved measurement of end-of-cable loaded sensitivity in units of volts/pascal of two travelling standards, 1 mm element diamater medical hydrophones at medical ultrasound frequencies. This is a repetition of key comparison CCAUV.U-K2 but the scope has been extended upwards to 20 MHz and downwards to 0.5 MHz. The reduction in the lower frequency provided an overlap with the underwater acoustics key comparison CCAUV.W-K1 which covers the range 1 kHz to 0.5 MHz. The results are analysed and presented in terms of degrees of equivalence, suitable for entry in the BIPM key comparison database. Main text To reach the main text of this paper, click on Final Report. Note that this text is that which appears in Appendix B of the BIPM key comparison database kcdb.bipm.org/. The final report has been peer-reviewed and approved for publication by the CCAUV, according to the provisions of the CIPM Mutual Recognition Arrangement (CIPM MRA).

  7. Absolute CF2 density and gas temperature measurements by absorption spectroscopy in dual-frequency capacitively coupled CF4/Ar plasmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Wen-Yao; Xu, Yong; Liu, Yong-Xin; Peng, Fei; Gong, Fa-Ping; Li, Xiao-Song; Zhu, Ai-Min; Wang, You-Nian

    2014-10-01

    Broadband ultraviolet absorption spectroscopy has been used to determine the CF2 radical density in dual-frequency capacitively coupled CF4/Ar plasmas, using the CF2 A ˜ 1 B 1 ← X ˜ 1 A 1 system of absorption spectrum. The rotational temperature of ground state CF2 and excited state CF was also estimated by using A ˜ 1 B 1 ← X ˜ 1 A 1 system and B 2 Δ - X 2 Π system, respectively. The translational gas temperature was deduced from the Doppler width of the Ar*(3P2) and Ar*(3P0) metastable atoms absorption line by using the tunable diode laser absorption spectroscopy. The rotational temperatures of the excited state CF are about 100 K higher than those of ground state CF2, and about 200 K higher than the translational gas temperatures. The dependences of the radical CF2 density, electron density, electron temperature, rotational temperature, and gas temperature on the high frequency power and pressure have been analyzed. Furthermore, the production and loss mechanisms of CF2 radical and the gas heating mechanisms have also been discussed.

  8. Arbitrary optical frequency synthesis traced to an optical frequency comb

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cai, Zihang; Zhang, Weipeng; Yang, Honglei; Li, Yan; Wei, Haoyun

    2016-11-01

    An arbitrary optical frequency synthesizer with a broad tuning range and high frequency accuracy is presented. The system includes an external cavity diode laser (ECDL) as the output laser, an Erbium-doped optical frequency comb being a frequency reference, and a control module. The optical frequency from the synthesizer can be continuously tuned by the large-scale trans-tooth switch and the fine intra-tooth adjustment. Robust feedback control by regulating the current and PZT voltage enables the ECDL to phase-lock to the Erbium-doped optical frequency comb, therefore to keep stable frequency output. In the meanwhile, the absolute frequency of the synthesizer is determined by the repetition rate, the offset frequency and the beat frequency. All the phase lock loops in the system are traced back to a Rubidium clock. A powerful and friendly software is developed to make the operation convenient by integrating the functions of frequency setting, tuning, tracing, locking and measuring into a LabVIEW interface. The output frequency tuning span and the uncertainty of the system are evaluated as >6 THz and <3 kHz, respectively. The arbitrary optical frequency synthesizer will be a versatile tool in diverse applications, such as synthetic wavelength based absolute distance measurement and frequency-stabilized Cavity Ring-Down Spectroscopy.

  9. The Absolute Gravimeter FG5 - Adjustment and Residual Data Evaluation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Orlob, M.; Braun, A.; Henton, J.; Courtier, N.; Liard, J.

    2009-05-01

    The most widely used method of direct terrestrial gravity determination is performed by using a ballistic absolute gravimeter. Today, the FG5 (Micro-g LaCoste; Lafayette, CO) is the most common free-fall absolute gravimeter. It uses the Michelson-type interferometer to determine the absolute gravity value with accuracies up to one part- per-billion of g. Furthermore, absolute gravimeter measurements can be used to assist in the validation and interpretation of temporal variations of the global gravity field, e.g. from the GRACE mission. In addition, absolute gravimetry allows for monitoring gravity changes which are caused by subsurface mass redistributions and/or vertical displacements. In this study,adjustment software was developed and applied to the raw data sets of FG5#106 and FG5#236, made available by Natural Resources Canada. Both data sets have been collected at the same time and place which leads to an intercomparison of the instruments performance. The adjustment software was validated against the official FG5 software package developed by Micro-g Lacoste. In order to identify potential environmental or instrument disturbances in the observed time series, a Lomb- Scargle periodogram analysis was employed. The absolute gravimeter FG5 is particularly sensitive to low frequencies between 0-3Hz. Hence, the focus of the analysis is to detect signals in the band of 0-100 Hz. An artificial signal was added to the measurements for demonstration purposes. Both the performance of the adjustment software and the Lomb-Scargle analysis will be discussed.

  10. Optomechanics for absolute rotation detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davuluri, Sankar

    2016-07-01

    In this article, we present an application of optomechanical cavity for the absolute rotation detection. The optomechanical cavity is arranged in a Michelson interferometer in such a way that the classical centrifugal force due to rotation changes the length of the optomechanical cavity. The change in the cavity length induces a shift in the frequency of the cavity mode. The phase shift corresponding to the frequency shift in the cavity mode is measured at the interferometer output to estimate the angular velocity of absolute rotation. We derived an analytic expression to estimate the minimum detectable rotation rate in our scheme for a given optomechanical cavity. Temperature dependence of the rotation detection sensitivity is studied.

  11. Effect of Image-Guidance Frequency on Geometric Accuracy and Setup Margins in Radiotherapy for Locally Advanced Lung Cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Higgins, Jane; Bezjak, Andrea; Hope, Andrew; Panzarella, Tony; Li, Winnie; Cho, John B.C.; Craig, Tim; Brade, Anthony; Sun, Alexander; Bissonnette, Jean-Pierre

    2011-08-01

    Purpose: To assess the relative effectiveness of five image-guidance (IG) frequencies on reducing patient positioning inaccuracies and setup margins for locally advanced lung cancer patients. Methods and Materials: Daily cone-beam computed tomography data for 100 patients (4,237 scans) were analyzed. Subsequently, four less-than-daily IG protocols were simulated using these data (no IG, first 5-day IG, weekly IG, and alternate-day IG). The frequency and magnitude of residual setup error were determined. The less-than-daily IG protocols were compared against the daily IG, the assumed reference standard. Finally, the population-based setup margins were calculated. Results: With the less-than-daily IG protocols, 20-43% of fractions incurred residual setup errors {>=}5 mm; daily IG reduced this to 6%. With the exception of the first 5-day IG, reductions in systematic error ({Sigma}) occurred as the imaging frequency increased and only daily IG provided notable random error ({sigma}) reductions ({Sigma} = 1.5-2.2 mm, {sigma} = 2.5-3.7 mm; {Sigma} = 1.8-2.6 mm, {sigma} = 2.5-3.7 mm; and {Sigma} = 0.7-1.0 mm, {sigma} = 1.7-2.0 mm for no IG, first 5-day IG, and daily IG, respectively. An overall significant difference in the mean setup error was present between the first 5-day IG and daily IG (p < .0001). The derived setup margins were 5-9 mm for less-than-daily IG and were 3-4 mm with daily IG. Conclusion: Daily cone-beam computed tomography substantially reduced the setup error and could permit setup margin reduction and lead to a reduction in normal tissue toxicity for patients undergoing conventionally fractionated lung radiotherapy. Using first 5-day cone-beam computed tomography was suboptimal for lung patients, given the inability to reduce the random error and the potential for the systematic error to increase throughout the treatment course.

  12. Phased-array ultrasound technology enhances accuracy of dual frequency ultrasound measurements - towards improved ultrasound bone diagnostics.

    PubMed

    Linder, Hans; Malo, Markus K H; Liukkonen, Jukka; Jurvelin, Jukka S; Töyräs, Juha

    2016-08-01

    Overlying soft tissues attenuate ultrasound backscattered from bone, complicating diagnostics of osteoporosis at the most important fracture sites. Dual-frequency ultrasound technique (DFUS) has been proposed to solve this problem through determination of thickness and composition of overlying soft tissue. This study applies DFUS technique for the first time with a phased-array transducer to investigate if the thickness of two interfering layers (oil and water) can be accurately determined in a variety of configurations. Results indicate that DFUS may be used with phased-array ultrasound systems, making them a suitable combination to consider in future development of clinical in vivo ultrasound methodologies.

  13. Accuracy of time-domain and frequency-domain methods used to characterize catchment transit time distributions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Godsey, S. E.; Kirchner, J. W.

    2008-12-01

    The mean residence time - the average time that it takes rainfall to reach the stream - is a basic parameter used to characterize catchment processes. Heterogeneities in these processes lead to a distribution of travel times around the mean residence time. By examining this travel time distribution, we can better predict catchment response to contamination events. A catchment system with shorter residence times or narrower distributions will respond quickly to contamination events, whereas systems with longer residence times or longer-tailed distributions will respond more slowly to those same contamination events. The travel time distribution of a catchment is typically inferred from time series of passive tracers (e.g., water isotopes or chloride) in precipitation and streamflow. Variations in the tracer concentration in streamflow are usually damped compared to those in precipitation, because precipitation inputs from different storms (with different tracer signatures) are mixed within the catchment. Mathematically, this mixing process is represented by the convolution of the travel time distribution and the precipitation tracer inputs to generate the stream tracer outputs. Because convolution in the time domain is equivalent to multiplication in the frequency domain, it is relatively straightforward to estimate the parameters of the travel time distribution in either domain. In the time domain, the parameters describing the travel time distribution are typically estimated by maximizing the goodness of fit between the modeled and measured tracer outputs. In the frequency domain, the travel time distribution parameters can be estimated by fitting a power-law curve to the ratio of precipitation spectral power to stream spectral power. Differences between the methods of parameter estimation in the time and frequency domain mean that these two methods may respond differently to variations in data quality, record length and sampling frequency. Here we evaluate how

  14. Sub-MHz accuracy measurement of the S(2) 2-0 transition frequency of D2 by Comb-Assisted Cavity Ring Down spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mondelain, D.; Kassi, S.; Sala, T.; Romanini, D.; Gatti, D.; Campargue, A.

    2016-08-01

    The line position of the very weak S(2) transition of deuterium in the 2-0 band has been measured with a Comb-Assisted Cavity Ring Down spectrometer. The high sensitivity spectra were recorded at 5 and 10 mbar with a Noise Equivalent Absorption, αmin, of 8 × 10-11 cm-1. The line positions at 5 and 10 mbar were measured with sub-MHz accuracy (460 and 260 kHz, respectively). After correction of the line pressure-shift, the frequency at zero pressure of the S(2) transition of the first overtone band was determined to be 187 104 299.51 ± 0.50 MHz. This value agrees within 1.7 MHz with the frequency obtained from the best available ab initio calculations and corresponds to only 15% of the claimed theoretical uncertainty.

  15. Estimating Absolute Site Effects

    SciTech Connect

    Malagnini, L; Mayeda, K M; Akinci, A; Bragato, P L

    2004-07-15

    The authors use previously determined direct-wave attenuation functions as well as stable, coda-derived source excitation spectra to isolate the absolute S-wave site effect for the horizontal and vertical components of weak ground motion. They used selected stations in the seismic network of the eastern Alps, and find the following: (1) all ''hard rock'' sites exhibited deamplification phenomena due to absorption at frequencies ranging between 0.5 and 12 Hz (the available bandwidth), on both the horizontal and vertical components; (2) ''hard rock'' site transfer functions showed large variability at high-frequency; (3) vertical-motion site transfer functions show strong frequency-dependence, and (4) H/V spectral ratios do not reproduce the characteristics of the true horizontal site transfer functions; (5) traditional, relative site terms obtained by using reference ''rock sites'' can be misleading in inferring the behaviors of true site transfer functions, since most rock sites have non-flat responses due to shallow heterogeneities resulting from varying degrees of weathering. They also use their stable source spectra to estimate total radiated seismic energy and compare against previous results. they find that the earthquakes in this region exhibit non-constant dynamic stress drop scaling which gives further support for a fundamental difference in rupture dynamics between small and large earthquakes. To correct the vertical and horizontal S-wave spectra for attenuation, they used detailed regional attenuation functions derived by Malagnini et al. (2002) who determined frequency-dependent geometrical spreading and Q for the region. These corrections account for the gross path effects (i.e., all distance-dependent effects), although the source and site effects are still present in the distance-corrected spectra. The main goal of this study is to isolate the absolute site effect (as a function of frequency) by removing the source spectrum (moment-rate spectrum) from

  16. Motor demand-dependent improvement in accuracy following low-frequency transcranial magnetic stimulation of left motor cortex

    PubMed Central

    Hines, Benjamin; Shuster, Linda; Pergami, Paola; Mathes, Adam

    2011-01-01

    The role of primary motor cortex (M1) in the control of voluntary movements is still unclear. In brain functional imaging studies of unilateral hand performance, bilateral M1 activation is inconsistently observed, and disruptions of M1 using repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) lead to variable results in the hand motor performance. As the motor tasks differed qualitatively in these studies, it is conceivable that M1 contribution differs depending on the level of skillfulness. The objective of the present study was to determine whether M1 contribution to hand motor performance differed depending on the level of precision of the motor task. Here, we used low-frequency rTMS of left M1 to determine its effect on the performance of a pointing task that allows the parametric increase of the level of precision and thereby increase the level of required precision quantitatively. We found that low-frequency rTMS improved performance in both hands for the task with the highest demand on precision, whereas performance remained unchanged for the tasks with lower demands. These results suggest that the functional relevance of M1 activity for motor performance changes as a function of motor demand. The bilateral effect of rTMS to left M1 would also support the notion of M1 functions at a higher level in motor control by integrating afferent input from nonprimary motor areas. PMID:21734109

  17. Absolute nuclear material assay

    DOEpatents

    Prasad, Manoj K [Pleasanton, CA; Snyderman, Neal J [Berkeley, CA; Rowland, Mark S [Alamo, CA

    2012-05-15

    A method of absolute nuclear material assay of an unknown source comprising counting neutrons from the unknown source and providing an absolute nuclear material assay utilizing a model to optimally compare to the measured count distributions. In one embodiment, the step of providing an absolute nuclear material assay comprises utilizing a random sampling of analytically computed fission chain distributions to generate a continuous time-evolving sequence of event-counts by spreading the fission chain distribution in time.

  18. Absolute nuclear material assay

    DOEpatents

    Prasad, Manoj K.; Snyderman, Neal J.; Rowland, Mark S.

    2010-07-13

    A method of absolute nuclear material assay of an unknown source comprising counting neutrons from the unknown source and providing an absolute nuclear material assay utilizing a model to optimally compare to the measured count distributions. In one embodiment, the step of providing an absolute nuclear material assay comprises utilizing a random sampling of analytically computed fission chain distributions to generate a continuous time-evolving sequence of event-counts by spreading the fission chain distribution in time.

  19. Sub-nanometer periodic nonlinearity error in absolute distance interferometers.

    PubMed

    Yang, Hongxing; Huang, Kaiqi; Hu, Pengcheng; Zhu, Pengfei; Tan, Jiubin; Fan, Zhigang

    2015-05-01

    Periodic nonlinearity which can result in error in nanometer scale has become a main problem limiting the absolute distance measurement accuracy. In order to eliminate this error, a new integrated interferometer with non-polarizing beam splitter is developed. This leads to disappearing of the frequency and/or polarization mixing. Furthermore, a strict requirement on the laser source polarization is highly reduced. By combining retro-reflector and angel prism, reference and measuring beams can be spatially separated, and therefore, their optical paths are not overlapped. So, the main cause of the periodic nonlinearity error, i.e., the frequency and/or polarization mixing and leakage of beam, is eliminated. Experimental results indicate that the periodic phase error is kept within 0.0018°.

  20. The Absolute Vector Magnetometers on Board Swarm, Lessons Learned From Two Years in Space.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hulot, G.; Leger, J. M.; Vigneron, P.; Brocco, L.; Olsen, N.; Jager, T.; Bertrand, F.; Fratter, I.; Sirol, O.; Lalanne, X.

    2015-12-01

    ESA's Swarm satellites carry 4He absolute magnetometers (ASM), designed by CEA-Léti and developed in partnership with CNES. These instruments are the first-ever space-born magnetometers to use a common sensor to simultaneously deliver 1Hz independent absolute scalar and vector readings of the magnetic field. They have provided the very high accuracy scalar field data nominally required by the mission (for both science and calibration purposes, since each satellite also carries a low noise high frequency fluxgate magnetometer designed by DTU), but also very useful experimental absolute vector data. In this presentation, we will report on the status of the instruments, as well as on the various tests and investigations carried out using these experimental data since launch in November 2013. In particular, we will illustrate the advantages of flying ASM instruments on space-born magnetic missions for nominal data quality checks, geomagnetic field modeling and science objectives.

  1. The study of absolute distance measurement based on the self-mixing interference in laser diode

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Ting-ting; Zhang, Chuang

    2009-07-01

    In this work, an absolute distance measurement method based on the self-mixing interference is presented. The principles of the method used three-mirror cavity equivalent model are studied in this paper, and the mathematical model is given. Wavelength modulation of the laser beam is obtained by saw-tooth modulating the infection current of the laser diode. Absolute distance of the external target is determined by Fourier analysis method. The frequency of signal from PD is linearly dependent on absolute distance, but also affected by temperature and fluctuation of current source. A dual-path method which uses the reference technique for absolute distance measurement has been proposed. The theoretical analysis shows that the method can eliminate errors resulting from distance-independent variations in the setup. Accuracy and stability can be improved. Simulated results show that a resolution of +/-0.2mm can be achieved for absolute distance ranging from 250mm to 500mm. In the same measurement range, the resolution we obtained is better than other absolute distance measurement system proposed base on self-mixing interference.

  2. Stimulus Probability Effects in Absolute Identification

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kent, Christopher; Lamberts, Koen

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated the effect of stimulus presentation probability on accuracy and response times in an absolute identification task. Three schedules of presentation were used to investigate the interaction between presentation probability and stimulus position within the set. Data from individual participants indicated strong effects of…

  3. Swept Frequency Laser Metrology System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zhao, Feng (Inventor)

    2010-01-01

    A swept frequency laser ranging system having sub-micron accuracy that employs multiple common-path heterodyne interferometers, one coupled to a calibrated delay-line for use as an absolute reference for the ranging system. An exemplary embodiment uses two laser heterodyne interferometers to create two laser beams at two different frequencies to measure distance and motions of target(s). Heterodyne fringes generated from reflections off a reference fiducial X(sub R) and measurement (or target) fiducial X(sub M) are reflected back and are then detected by photodiodes. The measured phase changes Delta phi(sub R) and Delta phi (sub m) resulting from the laser frequency swept gives target position. The reference delay-line is the only absolute reference needed in the metrology system and this provides an ultra-stable reference and simple/economical system.

  4. Absolute Temperature Monitoring Using RF Radiometry in the MRI Scanner

    PubMed Central

    El-Sharkawy, AbdEl-Monem M.; Sotiriadis, Paul P.; Bottomley, Paul A.; Atalar, Ergin

    2007-01-01

    Temperature detection using microwave radiometry has proven value for noninvasively measuring the absolute temperature of tissues inside the body. However, current clinical radiometers operate in the gigahertz range, which limits their depth of penetration. We have designed and built a noninvasive radiometer which operates at radio frequencies (64 MHz) with ∼100-kHz bandwidth, using an external RF loop coil as a thermal detector. The core of the radiometer is an accurate impedance measurement and automatic matching circuit of 0.05 Ω accuracy to compensate for any load variations. The radiometer permits temperature measurements with accuracy of ±0.1°K, over a tested physiological range of 28° C–40° C in saline phantoms whose electric properties match those of tissue. Because 1.5 T magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scanners also operate at 64 MHz, we demonstrate the feasibility of integrating our radiometer with an MRI scanner to monitor RF power deposition and temperature dosimetry, obtaining coarse, spatially resolved, absolute thermal maps in the physiological range. We conclude that RF radiometry offers promise as a direct, noninvasive method of monitoring tissue heating during MRI studies and thereby providing an independent means of verifying patient-safe operation. Other potential applications include titration of hyper- and hypo-therapies. PMID:18026562

  5. Absolute and relative blindsight.

    PubMed

    Balsdon, Tarryn; Azzopardi, Paul

    2015-03-01

    The concept of relative blindsight, referring to a difference in conscious awareness between conditions otherwise matched for performance, was introduced by Lau and Passingham (2006) as a way of identifying the neural correlates of consciousness (NCC) in fMRI experiments. By analogy, absolute blindsight refers to a difference between performance and awareness regardless of whether it is possible to match performance across conditions. Here, we address the question of whether relative and absolute blindsight in normal observers can be accounted for by response bias. In our replication of Lau and Passingham's experiment, the relative blindsight effect was abolished when performance was assessed by means of a bias-free 2AFC task or when the criterion for awareness was varied. Furthermore, there was no evidence of either relative or absolute blindsight when both performance and awareness were assessed with bias-free measures derived from confidence ratings using signal detection theory. This suggests that both relative and absolute blindsight in normal observers amount to no more than variations in response bias in the assessment of performance and awareness. Consideration of the properties of psychometric functions reveals a number of ways in which relative and absolute blindsight could arise trivially and elucidates a basis for the distinction between Type 1 and Type 2 blindsight.

  6. Absolute neutrino mass scale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Capelli, Silvia; Di Bari, Pasquale

    2013-04-01

    Neutrino oscillation experiments firmly established non-vanishing neutrino masses, a result that can be regarded as a strong motivation to extend the Standard Model. In spite of being the lightest massive particles, neutrinos likely represent an important bridge to new physics at very high energies and offer new opportunities to address some of the current cosmological puzzles, such as the matter-antimatter asymmetry of the Universe and Dark Matter. In this context, the determination of the absolute neutrino mass scale is a key issue within modern High Energy Physics. The talks in this parallel session well describe the current exciting experimental activity aiming to determining the absolute neutrino mass scale and offer an overview of a few models beyond the Standard Model that have been proposed in order to explain the neutrino masses giving a prediction for the absolute neutrino mass scale and solving the cosmological puzzles.

  7. Scanning micro-resonator direct-comb absolute spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gambetta, Alessio; Cassinerio, Marco; Gatti, Davide; Laporta, Paolo; Galzerano, Gianluca

    2016-10-01

    Direct optical Frequency Comb Spectroscopy (DFCS) is proving to be a fundamental tool in many areas of science and technology thanks to its unique performance in terms of ultra-broadband, high-speed detection and frequency accuracy, allowing for high-fidelity mapping of atomic and molecular energy structure. Here we present a novel DFCS approach based on a scanning Fabry-Pérot micro-cavity resonator (SMART) providing a simple, compact and accurate method to resolve the mode structure of an optical frequency comb. The SMART approach, while drastically reducing system complexity, allows for a straightforward absolute calibration of the optical-frequency axis with an ultimate resolution limited by the micro-resonator resonance linewidth and can be used in any spectral region from UV to THz. We present an application to high-precision spectroscopy of acetylene at 1.54 μm, demonstrating performances comparable or even better than current state-of-the-art DFCS systems in terms of sensitivity, optical bandwidth and frequency-resolution.

  8. Scanning micro-resonator direct-comb absolute spectroscopy

    PubMed Central

    Gambetta, Alessio; Cassinerio, Marco; Gatti, Davide; Laporta, Paolo; Galzerano, Gianluca

    2016-01-01

    Direct optical Frequency Comb Spectroscopy (DFCS) is proving to be a fundamental tool in many areas of science and technology thanks to its unique performance in terms of ultra-broadband, high-speed detection and frequency accuracy, allowing for high-fidelity mapping of atomic and molecular energy structure. Here we present a novel DFCS approach based on a scanning Fabry-Pérot micro-cavity resonator (SMART) providing a simple, compact and accurate method to resolve the mode structure of an optical frequency comb. The SMART approach, while drastically reducing system complexity, allows for a straightforward absolute calibration of the optical-frequency axis with an ultimate resolution limited by the micro-resonator resonance linewidth and can be used in any spectral region from UV to THz. We present an application to high-precision spectroscopy of acetylene at 1.54 μm, demonstrating performances comparable or even better than current state-of-the-art DFCS systems in terms of sensitivity, optical bandwidth and frequency-resolution. PMID:27752132

  9. On the accuracy of a one-dimensional approach to the solution of kinetic equations with velocity-dependent collision frequencies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parkhomenko, A. I.; Shalagin, A. M.

    2014-11-01

    The solution of many problems in light-induced gas kinetics can be simplified significantly using quantum kinetic equations in the context of the so-called one-dimensional approximation, in which the initial equations are averaged over transverse (relative to the direction of radiation) velocities. The errors introduced in such an approach are usually assumed to be small; however, this has been confirmed quantitatively only on the basis of the simplest (two- and three-level) particle models. We analyze the accuracy of the one-dimensional approximation for multilevel particles quantitatively for the light-induced drift (LID) effect in cesium atoms in the atmosphere of inert buffer gases. It is shown that in the case of the so-called "normal" LID, one-dimensional kinetic equations can always be used instead of three-dimensional equations without a risk of losing some important fine details in the dependence of the drift velocity on the radiation frequency. In the case of anomalous LID, the error of the one-dimensional approximation is also insignificant, but it can be disregarded only in the case of light buffer particles. For comparable masses of resonant and buffer particles, the one-dimensional approximation may give a noticeable error in determination of drift velocity amplitudes; however, the positions of drift velocity zeros and extrema depending on radiation-frequency detuning can be described successfully. Results show that the error introduced by using the one-dimensional approximation for multilevel particles turns out to be more significant than for the simplest particle models.

  10. On the accuracy of a one-dimensional approach to the solution of kinetic equations with velocity-dependent collision frequencies

    SciTech Connect

    Parkhomenko, A. I. Shalagin, A. M.

    2014-11-15

    The solution of many problems in light-induced gas kinetics can be simplified significantly using quantum kinetic equations in the context of the so-called one-dimensional approximation, in which the initial equations are averaged over transverse (relative to the direction of radiation) velocities. The errors introduced in such an approach are usually assumed to be small; however, this has been confirmed quantitatively only on the basis of the simplest (two- and three-level) particle models. We analyze the accuracy of the one-dimensional approximation for multilevel particles quantitatively for the light-induced drift (LID) effect in cesium atoms in the atmosphere of inert buffer gases. It is shown that in the case of the so-called “normal” LID, one-dimensional kinetic equations can always be used instead of three-dimensional equations without a risk of losing some important fine details in the dependence of the drift velocity on the radiation frequency. In the case of anomalous LID, the error of the one-dimensional approximation is also insignificant, but it can be disregarded only in the case of light buffer particles. For comparable masses of resonant and buffer particles, the one-dimensional approximation may give a noticeable error in determination of drift velocity amplitudes; however, the positions of drift velocity zeros and extrema depending on radiation-frequency detuning can be described successfully. Results show that the error introduced by using the one-dimensional approximation for multilevel particles turns out to be more significant than for the simplest particle models.

  11. The absolute path command

    SciTech Connect

    Moody, A.

    2012-05-11

    The ap command traveres all symlinks in a given file, directory, or executable name to identify the final absolute path. It can print just the final path, each intermediate link along with the symlink chan, and the permissions and ownership of each directory component in the final path. It has functionality similar to "which", except that it shows the final path instead of the first path. It is also similar to "pwd", but it can provide the absolute path to a relative directory from the current working directory.

  12. Evaluation of the accuracy of brain optical properties estimation at different ages using the frequency-domain multi-distance method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dehaes, Mathieu; Grant, P. Ellen; Sliva, Danielle D.; Roche-Labarbe, Nadège; Pienaar, Rudolph; Boas, David A.; Franceschini, Maria Angela; Selb, Juliette

    2011-03-01

    NIRS is safe, non-invasive and offers the possibility to record local hemodynamic parameters at the bedside, avoiding the transportation of neonates and critically ill patients. In this work, we evaluate the accuracy of the frequency-domain multi-distance (FD-MD) method to retrieve brain optical properties from neonate to adult. Realistic measurements are simulated using a 3D Monte Carlo modeling of light propagation. Height different ages were investigated: a term newborn of 38 weeks gestational age, two infants of 6 and 12 months of age, a toddler of 2 year (yr.) old, two children of 5 and 10 years of age, a teenager of 14 yr. old, and an adult. Measurements are generated at multiple distances on the right parietal area of head models and fitted to a homogeneous FD-MD model to estimate the brain optical properties. In the newborn, infants, toddler and 5 yr. old child models, the error was dominated by the head curvature, while the superficial layer in the 10 yr. old child, teenager and adult heads. The influence of the CSF is also evaluated. In this case, absorption coefficients suffer from an additional error. In all cases, measurements at 5 mm provided worse estimation because of the diffusion approximation.

  13. Superheterodyne configuration for two-wavelength interferometry applied to absolute distance measurement.

    PubMed

    Le Floch, Sébastien; Salvadé, Yves; Droz, Nathalie; Mitouassiwou, Rostand; Favre, Patrick

    2010-02-01

    We present a new superheterodyne technique for long-distance measurements by two-wavelength interferometry (TWI). While conventional systems use two acousto-optic modulators to generate two different heterodyne frequencies, here the two frequencies result from synchronized sweeps of optical and radio frequencies. A distributed feedback laser source is injected in an intensity modulator that is driven at the half-wave voltage mode. A radio-frequency signal is applied to this intensity modulator to generate two optical sidebands around the optical carrier. This applied radio frequency consists of a digital ramp between 13 and 15 GHz, with 1 ms duration and with an accuracy of better than 1 ppm. Simultaneously, the laser source is frequency modulated by a current modulation that is synchronized on the radio-frequency ramp as well as on a triangle waveform. These two frequency-swept optical signals at the output of the modulator illuminate a Michelson interferometer and create two distinct distance-dependent heterodyne frequencies on the photodetector. The superheterodyne signal is then detected and bandpass filtered to retrieve the absolute distance measurement. Experiments between 1 and 15 m confirm the validity of this new concept, leading to a distance accuracy of +/- 50 microm for a 1 ms acquisition time.

  14. Superheterodyne configuration for two-wavelength interferometry applied to absolute distance measurement

    SciTech Connect

    Le Floch, Sebastien; Salvade, Yves; Droz, Nathalie; Mitouassiwou, Rostand; Favre, Patrick

    2010-02-01

    We present a new superheterodyne technique for long-distance measurements by two-wavelength interferometry (TWI). While conventional systems use two acousto-optic modulators to generate two different heterodyne frequencies, here the two frequencies result from synchronized sweeps of optical and radio frequencies. A distributed feedback laser source is injected in an intensity modulator that is driven at the half-wave voltage mode. A radio-frequency signal is applied to this intensity modulator to generate two optical sidebands around the optical carrier. This applied radio frequency consists of a digital ramp between 13 and 15 GHz, with 1 ms duration and with an accuracy of better than 1 ppm. Simultaneously, the laser source is frequency modulated by a current modulation that is synchronized on the radio-frequency ramp as well as on a triangle waveform. These two frequency-swept optical signals at the output of the modulator illuminate a Michelson interferometer and create two distinct distance-dependent heterodyne frequencies on the photodetector. The superheterodyne signal is then detected and bandpass filtered to retrieve the absolute distance measurement. Experiments between 1 and 15 m confirm the validity of this new concept, leading to a distance accuracy of {+-} 50 {mu}m for a 1 ms acquisition time.

  15. Short communication: The combined use of linkage disequilibrium-based haploblocks and allele frequency-based haplotype selection methods enhances genomic evaluation accuracy in dairy cattle.

    PubMed

    Jónás, Dávid; Ducrocq, Vincent; Croiseau, Pascal

    2017-04-01

    The construction and use of haploblocks [adjacent single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) in strong linkage disequilibrium] for genomic evaluation is advantageous, because the number of effects to be estimated can be reduced without discarding relevant genomic information. Furthermore, haplotypes (the combination of 2 or more SNP) can increase the probability of capturing the quantitative trait loci effect compared with individual SNP markers. With regards to haplotypes, the allele frequency parameter is also of interest, because as a selection criterion, it allows the number of rare alleles to be reduced, and the effects of those alleles are usually difficult to estimate. We have proposed a simple pipeline that simultaneously incorporates linkage disequilibrium and allele frequency information in genomic evaluation, and here we present the first results obtained with this procedure. We used a population of 2,235 progeny-tested bulls from the Montbéliarde breed for the tests. Phenotype data were available in the form of daughter yield deviations on 5 production traits, and genotype data were available from the 50K SNP chip. We conducted a classical validation study by splitting the population into training (80% oldest animals) and validation (20% youngest animals) sets to emulate a real-life scenario in which the selection candidates had no available phenotype data. We measured all reported parameters for the validation set. Our results proved that the proposed method was indeed advantageous, and that the accuracy of genomic evaluation could be improved. Compared with results from a genomic BLUP analysis, correlations between daughter yield deviations (a proxy for true) and genomic estimated breeding values increased by an average of 2.7 percentage points for the 5 traits. Inflation of the genomic evaluation of the selection candidates was also significantly reduced. The proposed method outperformed the other SNP and haplotype-based tests we had evaluated in a

  16. What do we mean by accuracy in geomagnetic measurements?

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Green, A.W.

    1990-01-01

    High accuracy is what distinguishes measurements made at the world's magnetic observatories from other types of geomagnetic measurements. High accuracy in determining the absolute values of the components of the Earth's magnetic field is essential to studying geomagnetic secular variation and processes at the core mantle boundary, as well as some magnetospheric processes. In some applications of geomagnetic data, precision (or resolution) of measurements may also be important. In addition to accuracy and resolution in the amplitude domain, it is necessary to consider these same quantities in the frequency and space domains. New developments in geomagnetic instruments and communications make real-time, high accuracy, global geomagnetic observatory data sets a real possibility. There is a growing realization in the scientific community of the unique relevance of geomagnetic observatory data to the principal contemporary problems in solid Earth and space physics. Together, these factors provide the promise of a 'renaissance' of the world's geomagnetic observatory system. ?? 1990.

  17. Absolute Calibration Accuracy for Hyperspectral Imagers in the Solar Reflective

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thome, Kurtis

    2009-01-01

    The characterization and calibration of hyperspectral imagers is a challenging one that is expected to become even more challenging as needs increase for highly-accurate radiometric data from such systems. The preflight calibration of the Advanced Responsive Tactically Effective Military Imaging Spectrometer (ARTEMIS) is used as an example of the difficulties to calibrate hyperspectrally. Results from a preflight solar radiation-based calibration are presented with a discussion of the uncertainties in such a method including the NISI-traceable and SItraceable aspects. Expansion on the concept of solar-based calibration is given with descriptions of methods that view the solar disk directly, illuminate a solar diffuser that is part of the sensor's inflight calibration, and illuminate an external diffuser that is imaged by the sensor. The results of error analysis show that it is feasible to achieve preflight calibration using the sun as a source at the same level of uncertainty as those of lamp-based approaches. The error analysis is evaluated and verified through the solar-radiation-based calibration of several of laboratory grade radiometers. Application of these approaches to NASA's upcoming CLARREO mission are discussed including proposed methods for significantly reducing the uncertainties to allow CLARREO data to be used for climate data records.

  18. Absolute ultrasonic displacement amplitude measurements with a submersible electrostatic acoustic transducer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yost, William T.; Cantrell, John H.

    1992-01-01

    An experimental technique for absolute measurement of ultrasonic wave particle displacement amplitudes in liquids is reported. The technique is capable of measurements over a frequency range of two decades with a sensitivity less than one angstrom. The technique utilizes a previously reported submersible electrostatic acoustic transducer (ESAT) featuring a conductive membrane stretched over a recessed electrode. An uncertainty analysis shows that the displacement amplitude of an ultrasonic plane wave incident on the ESAT can be experimentally determined to better than 2.3-4 percent, depending on frequency, in the frequency range of 0.5-15 MHz. Membranes with lower and more uniform areal densities can improve the accuracy and extend the operation to higher frequencies.

  19. Positioning, alignment and absolute pointing of the ANTARES neutrino telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fehr, F.; Distefano, C.; Antares Collaboration

    2010-01-01

    A precise detector alignment and absolute pointing is crucial for point-source searches. The ANTARES neutrino telescope utilises an array of hydrophones, tiltmeters and compasses for the relative positioning of the optical sensors. The absolute calibration is accomplished by long-baseline low-frequency triangulation of the acoustic reference devices in the deep-sea with a differential GPS system at the sea surface. The absolute pointing can be independently verified by detecting the shadow of the Moon in cosmic rays.

  20. Electronic Absolute Cartesian Autocollimator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leviton, Douglas B.

    2006-01-01

    An electronic absolute Cartesian autocollimator performs the same basic optical function as does a conventional all-optical or a conventional electronic autocollimator but differs in the nature of its optical target and the manner in which the position of the image of the target is measured. The term absolute in the name of this apparatus reflects the nature of the position measurement, which, unlike in a conventional electronic autocollimator, is based absolutely on the position of the image rather than on an assumed proportionality between the position and the levels of processed analog electronic signals. The term Cartesian in the name of this apparatus reflects the nature of its optical target. Figure 1 depicts the electronic functional blocks of an electronic absolute Cartesian autocollimator along with its basic optical layout, which is the same as that of a conventional autocollimator. Referring first to the optical layout and functions only, this or any autocollimator is used to measure the compound angular deviation of a flat datum mirror with respect to the optical axis of the autocollimator itself. The optical components include an illuminated target, a beam splitter, an objective or collimating lens, and a viewer or detector (described in more detail below) at a viewing plane. The target and the viewing planes are focal planes of the lens. Target light reflected by the datum mirror is imaged on the viewing plane at unit magnification by the collimating lens. If the normal to the datum mirror is parallel to the optical axis of the autocollimator, then the target image is centered on the viewing plane. Any angular deviation of the normal from the optical axis manifests itself as a lateral displacement of the target image from the center. The magnitude of the displacement is proportional to the focal length and to the magnitude (assumed to be small) of the angular deviation. The direction of the displacement is perpendicular to the axis about which the

  1. Many-wavelength interferometry with thousands of lasers for absolute distance measurement.

    PubMed

    van den Berg, S A; Persijn, S T; Kok, G J P; Zeitouny, M G; Bhattacharya, N

    2012-05-04

    We demonstrate a new technique for absolute distance measurement with a femtosecond frequency comb laser, based on unraveling the output of an interferometer to distinct comb modes with 1 GHz spacing. From the fringe patterns that are captured with a camera, a distance is derived by combining spectral and homodyne interferometry, exploiting about 9000 continuous wave lasers. This results in a measurement accuracy far within an optical fringe (λ/30), combined with a large range of nonambiguity (15 cm). Our technique merges multiwavelength interferometry and spectral interferometry, within a single scheme.

  2. Absolute-structure reports.

    PubMed

    Flack, Howard D

    2013-08-01

    All the 139 noncentrosymmetric crystal structures published in Acta Crystallographica Section C between January 2011 and November 2012 inclusive have been used as the basis of a detailed study of the reporting of absolute structure. These structure determinations cover a wide range of space groups, chemical composition and resonant-scattering contribution. Defining A and D as the average and difference of the intensities of Friedel opposites, their level of fit has been examined using 2AD and selected-D plots. It was found, regardless of the expected resonant-scattering contribution to Friedel opposites, that the Friedel-difference intensities are often dominated by random uncertainty and systematic error. An analysis of data collection strategy is provided. It is found that crystal-structure determinations resulting in a Flack parameter close to 0.5 may not necessarily be from crystals twinned by inversion. Friedifstat is shown to be a robust estimator of the resonant-scattering contribution to Friedel opposites, very little affected by the particular space group of a structure nor by the occupation of special positions. There is considerable confusion in the text of papers presenting achiral noncentrosymmetric crystal structures. Recommendations are provided for the optimal way of treating noncentrosymmetric crystal structures for which the experimenter has no interest in determining the absolute structure.

  3. Climate Absolute Radiance and Refractivity Observatory (CLARREO)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leckey, John P.

    2015-01-01

    The Climate Absolute Radiance and Refractivity Observatory (CLARREO) is a mission, led and developed by NASA, that will measure a variety of climate variables with an unprecedented accuracy to quantify and attribute climate change. CLARREO consists of three separate instruments: an infrared (IR) spectrometer, a reflected solar (RS) spectrometer, and a radio occultation (RO) instrument. The mission will contain orbiting radiometers with sufficient accuracy, including on orbit verification, to calibrate other space-based instrumentation, increasing their respective accuracy by as much as an order of magnitude. The IR spectrometer is a Fourier Transform spectrometer (FTS) working in the 5 to 50 microns wavelength region with a goal of 0.1 K (k = 3) accuracy. The FTS will achieve this accuracy using phase change cells to verify thermistor accuracy and heated halos to verify blackbody emissivity, both on orbit. The RS spectrometer will measure the reflectance of the atmosphere in the 0.32 to 2.3 microns wavelength region with an accuracy of 0.3% (k = 2). The status of the instrumentation packages and potential mission options will be presented.

  4. FT-IR spectra of 18O-, and 13C-enriched CO2 in the ν3 region: High accuracy frequency calibration and spectroscopic constants for 16O12C18O, 18O12C18O, and 16O13C16O

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elliott, Ben M.; Sung, Keeyoon; Miller, Charles E.

    2015-06-01

    In this report, we extend our Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy measurements of CO2 in the ν3 region (2200-2450 cm-1, 65-75 THz) to the 18O-, and 13C-substituted isotopologues, using the JPL Bruker IFS-125HR Fourier Transform Spectrometer (JPL-FTS). High quality (S/N ∼ 2000) spectra were obtained separately for each of the 18O-, and 13C-isotopically enriched samples. The absolute wavenumber accuracies were better than 3 × 10-6 cm-1 (∼100 kHz) for strong, isolated transitions, calibrated against the highest accuracy reported CO and 16O12C16O (626) frequency measurements. The JPL-FTS performance and calibration procedure is shown to be reliable and consistent, achievable through vigorous maintenance of the optical alignment and regular monitoring of its instrumental line shape function. Effective spectroscopic constant fits of the 00011 ← 00001 fundamental bands for 16O12C18O (628), 18O12C18O (828), and 16O13C16O (636) were obtained with RMS residuals of 2.9 × 10-6 cm-1, 2.8 × 10-6 cm-1, and 2.9 × 10-6 cm-1, respectively. The observed bands encompassed 79 lines over the Jmax range of P67/R67, 47 lines over P70/R62, and 60 lines over P70/R70 for 628, 828, and 636, respectively. These results complement our recent work on the 17O-enriched isotopologues (Elliott et al., 2014), providing additional high-quality frequency measurements for atmospheric remote sensing applications.

  5. Absolute Equilibrium Entropy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shebalin, John V.

    1997-01-01

    The entropy associated with absolute equilibrium ensemble theories of ideal, homogeneous, fluid and magneto-fluid turbulence is discussed and the three-dimensional fluid case is examined in detail. A sigma-function is defined, whose minimum value with respect to global parameters is the entropy. A comparison is made between the use of global functions sigma and phase functions H (associated with the development of various H-theorems of ideal turbulence). It is shown that the two approaches are complimentary though conceptually different: H-theorems show that an isolated system tends to equilibrium while sigma-functions allow the demonstration that entropy never decreases when two previously isolated systems are combined. This provides a more complete picture of entropy in the statistical mechanics of ideal fluids.

  6. Absolute measurement of length with nanometric resolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Apostol, D.; Garoi, F.; Timcu, A.; Damian, V.; Logofatu, P. C.; Nascov, V.

    2005-08-01

    Laser interferometer displacement measuring transducers have a well-defined traceability route to the definition of the meter. The laser interferometer is de-facto length scale for applications in micro and nano technologies. However their physical unit -half lambda is too large for nanometric resolution. Fringe interpolation-usual technique to improve the resolution-lack of reproducibility could be avoided using the principles of absolute distance measurement. Absolute distance refers to the use of interferometric techniques for determining the position of an object without the necessity of measuring continuous displacements between points. The interference pattern as produced by the interference of two point-like coherent sources is fitted to a geometric model so as to determine the longitudinal location of the target by minimizing least square errors. The longitudinal coordinate of the target was measured with accuracy better than 1 nm, for a target position range of 0.4μm.

  7. Absolute and relative dosimetry for ELIMED

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cirrone, G. A. P.; Cuttone, G.; Candiano, G.; Carpinelli, M.; Leonora, E.; Lo Presti, D.; Musumarra, A.; Pisciotta, P.; Raffaele, L.; Randazzo, N.; Romano, F.; Schillaci, F.; Scuderi, V.; Tramontana, A.; Cirio, R.; Marchetto, F.; Sacchi, R.; Giordanengo, S.; Monaco, V.

    2013-07-01

    The definition of detectors, methods and procedures for the absolute and relative dosimetry of laser-driven proton beams is a crucial step toward the clinical use of this new kind of beams. Hence, one of the ELIMED task, will be the definition of procedures aiming to obtain an absolute dose measure at the end of the transport beamline with an accuracy as close as possible to the one required for clinical applications (i.e. of the order of 5% or less). Relative dosimetry procedures must be established, as well: they are necessary in order to determine and verify the beam dose distributions and to monitor the beam fluence and the energetic spectra during irradiations. Radiochromic films, CR39, Faraday Cup, Secondary Emission Monitor (SEM) and transmission ionization chamber will be considered, designed and studied in order to perform a fully dosimetric characterization of the ELIMED proton beam.

  8. Accuracy estimation of the O162+ transition frequencies targeting the search for the variation in the proton-electron mass ratio

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kajita, Masatoshi

    2017-02-01

    We estimate the Stark and Zeeman shifts in the transition frequencies of the O162+ molecular ion as a step in the search for the variation in the proton-to-electron mass ratio μ . The X2Π v =21 -a4Π v =0 or the X2Π v =21 -a4Π v =1 transition frequencies (THz region) of the O162+ molecular ion have particularly high sensitivity to the variation in μ . Note also that the Stark shift in the O162+ transition frequencies is expected to be much smaller than that for heteronuclear diatomic molecules. However, the actual systematic uncertainties for the O162+ transition frequencies have never been estimated. We estimated the Stark and Zeeman shifts in the different O162+ transition frequencies. When the molecular ions in a string crystal formed in a linear trap (trap electric field <0.1 V/cm, and Stark shift <10-20 ) are used, the X2Π1 /2(v ,J ) =(0 ,1 /2 ) -(v',1 /2 ) (v'≥1 ) transition frequencies are most advantageous for the search for the variation in μ (" close=")v ,J )">Δ μ /μ <10-17 because the Zeeman shift is easily suppressed to lower than 10-18 and the electric quadrupole shift is zero. On the other hand, the X2Π1 /2(0 ,1 /2 ) transition frequency has another merit in that the positive Stark shift induced by the trap electric field can be canceled by the quadratic Doppler shift. Therefore, the measurement using molecular ions in a Coulomb crystal broadened in the radial direction is also possible, when the Zeeman shift is effectively eliminated.

  9. C2H2 absolutely optical frequency-stabilized and 40 GHz repetition-rate-stabilized, regeneratively mode-locked picosecond erbium fiber laser at 1.53 microm.

    PubMed

    Nakazawa, Masataka; Kasai, Keisuke; Yoshida, Masato

    2008-11-15

    We have succeeded in the simultaneous stabilization of the optical frequency and repetition rate of a regeneratively mode-locked picosecond erbium-doped fiber ring laser. The optical frequency was locked to the molecular absorption of C2H2 in the 1.5 microm band, and the repetition rate was stabilized to a 40 GHz synthesizer by using a microwave phase-locked loop. The optical frequency stability of the pulse train reached 2x10(-11) for tau=10-100 s. The key to success is the independent control of the repetition rate without disturbing the optical cavity condition.

  10. Asteroid absolute magnitudes and slope parameters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tedesco, Edward F.

    1991-01-01

    A new listing of absolute magnitudes (H) and slope parameters (G) has been created and published in the Minor Planet Circulars; this same listing will appear in the 1992 Ephemerides of Minor Planets. Unlike previous listings, the values of the current list were derived from fits of data at the V band. All observations were reduced in the same fashion using, where appropriate, a single basis default value of 0.15 for the slope parameter. Distances and phase angles were computed for each observation. The data for 113 asteroids was of sufficiently high quality to permit derivation of their H and G. These improved absolute magnitudes and slope parameters will be used to deduce the most reliable bias-corrected asteroid size-frequency distribution yet made.

  11. Accuracy verification of the Lynx Mobile Mapper system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Puente, I.; González-Jorge, H.; Riveiro, B.; Arias, P.

    2013-02-01

    LiDAR technology is one of the most effective and reliable means of data collection. Given the increasing use of LiDAR data for close range metrology applications such as deformation monitoring and infrastructure inspection, it becomes necessary to test the relative accuracy, boresight calibration of both LiDAR sensors and performance of navigation solution (or absolute accuracy) of any mobile laser scanning system employed for this purpose. Therefore, the paper's primary contribution is a set of tests for the characterization and evaluation of any mobile laser scanning system based on two LiDAR sensors. We present experimental results of the Lynx Mobile Mapper system from Optech Inc. Employing a low-cost calibration standard, we demonstrated sub-cm accuracy of targets at distances up to 10 m. Also, we introduce boresighting results derived from the Lynx system. Moreover, the global system's accuracy is tested with a series of rigorous experiments operated at a maximum scan frequency of 200 Hz, pulse repetition frequency of 500 kHz per sensor and a 360° scanning field of view. Assuring good GPS conditions, we proved a good global performance of the system, which makes it suitable for very accurate applications.

  12. The 1994 international transatlantic two-way satellite time and frequency transfer experiment: Preliminary results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Deyoung, James A.; Klepczynski, William J.; Mckinley, Angela Davis; Powell, William M.; Mai, Phu V.; Hetzel, P.; Bauch, A.; Davis, J. A.; Pearce, P. R.; Baumont, Francoise S.

    1995-01-01

    The international transatlantic time and frequency transfer experiment was designed by participating laboratories and has been implemented during 1994 to test the international communications path involving a large number of transmitting stations. This paper will present empirically determined clock and time scale differences, time and frequency domain instabilities, and a representative power spectral density analysis. The experiments by the method of co-location which will allow absolute calibration of the participating laboratories have been performed. Absolute time differences and accuracy levels of this experiment will be assessed in the near future.

  13. Force correcting atom centred potentials for generalised gradient approximated density functional theory: Approaching hybrid functional accuracy for geometries and harmonic frequencies in small chlorofluorocarbons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anatole von Lilienfeld, O.

    2013-08-01

    Generalised gradient approximated (GGA) density functional theory (DFT) typically overestimates polarisability and bond-lengths, and underestimates force constants of covalent bonds. To overcome this problem we show that one can use empirical force correcting atom centred potentials (FCACPs), parametrised for every nuclear species. Parameters are obtained through minimisation of a penalty functional that explicitly encodes hybrid DFT forces and static polarisabilities of reference molecules. For hydrogen, fluorine, chlorine and carbon the respective reference molecules consist of H2, F2, Cl2 and CH4. The transferability of this approach is assessed for harmonic frequencies in a small set of chlorofluorocarbon molecules. Numerical evidence, gathered for CF4, CCl4, CCl3F, CCl2F2, CClF3, ClF, HF, HCl, CFH3, CF2H2, CF3H, CHCl3, CH2Cl2 and CH3Cl indicates that the GGA+FCACP level of theory yields harmonic frequencies that are significantly more consistent with hybrid DFT values, as well as slightly reduced molecular polarisability.

  14. Monochromator-Based Absolute Calibration of Radiation Thermometers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keawprasert, T.; Anhalt, K.; Taubert, D. R.; Hartmann, J.

    2011-08-01

    A monochromator integrating-sphere-based spectral comparator facility has been developed to calibrate standard radiation thermometers in terms of the absolute spectral radiance responsivity, traceable to the PTB cryogenic radiometer. The absolute responsivity calibration has been improved using a 75 W xenon lamp with a reflective mirror and imaging optics to a relative standard uncertainty at the peak wavelength of approximately 0.17 % ( k = 1). Via a relative measurement of the out-of-band responsivity, the spectral responsivity of radiation thermometers can be fully characterized. To verify the calibration accuracy, the absolutely calibrated radiation thermometer is used to measure Au and Cu freezing-point temperatures and then to compare the obtained results with the values obtained by absolute methods, resulting in T - T 90 values of +52 mK and -50 mK for the gold and copper fixed points, respectively.

  15. Wavelength-modulated differential photoacoustic radar imager (WM-DPARI): accurate monitoring of absolute hemoglobin oxygen saturation.

    PubMed

    Choi, Sung Soo Sean; Lashkari, Bahman; Dovlo, Edem; Mandelis, Andreas

    2016-07-01

    Accurate monitoring of blood oxy-saturation level (SO2 ) in human breast tissues is clinically important for predicting and evaluating possible tumor growth at the site. In this work, four different non-invasive frequency-domain photoacoustic (PA) imaging modalities were compared for their absolute SO2 characterization capability using an in-vitro sheep blood circulation system. Among different PA modes, a new WM-DPAR imaging modality could estimate the SO2 with great accuracy when compared to a commercial blood gas analyzer. The developed WM-DPARI theory was further validated by constructing SO2 tomographic images of a blood-containing plastisol phantom.

  16. Wavelength-modulated differential photoacoustic radar imager (WM-DPARI): accurate monitoring of absolute hemoglobin oxygen saturation

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Sung Soo Sean; Lashkari, Bahman; Dovlo, Edem; Mandelis, Andreas

    2016-01-01

    Accurate monitoring of blood oxy-saturation level (SO2) in human breast tissues is clinically important for predicting and evaluating possible tumor growth at the site. In this work, four different non-invasive frequency-domain photoacoustic (PA) imaging modalities were compared for their absolute SO2 characterization capability using an in-vitro sheep blood circulation system. Among different PA modes, a new WM-DPAR imaging modality could estimate the SO2 with great accuracy when compared to a commercial blood gas analyzer. The developed WM-DPARI theory was further validated by constructing SO2 tomographic images of a blood-containing plastisol phantom. PMID:27446691

  17. Cryogenic, Absolute, High Pressure Sensor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chapman, John J. (Inventor); Shams. Qamar A. (Inventor); Powers, William T. (Inventor)

    2001-01-01

    A pressure sensor is provided for cryogenic, high pressure applications. A highly doped silicon piezoresistive pressure sensor is bonded to a silicon substrate in an absolute pressure sensing configuration. The absolute pressure sensor is bonded to an aluminum nitride substrate. Aluminum nitride has appropriate coefficient of thermal expansion for use with highly doped silicon at cryogenic temperatures. A group of sensors, either two sensors on two substrates or four sensors on a single substrate are packaged in a pressure vessel.

  18. Investigation into the propagation of Omega very low frequency signals and techniques for improvement of navigation accuracy including differential and composite omega

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1973-01-01

    An analysis of Very Low Frequency propagation in the atmosphere in the 10-14 kHz range leads to a discussion of some of the more significant causes of phase perturbation. The method of generating sky-wave corrections to predict the Omega phase is discussed. Composite Omega is considered as a means of lane identification and of reducing Omega navigation error. A simple technique for generating trapezoidal model (T-model) phase prediction is presented and compared with the Navy predictions and actual phase measurements. The T-model prediction analysis illustrates the ability to account for the major phase shift created by the diurnal effects on the lower ionosphere. An analysis of the Navy sky-wave correction table is used to provide information about spatial and temporal correlation of phase correction relative to the differential mode of operation.

  19. Vibrational Frequencies and Spectroscopic Constants for 1(sup 3)A' HNC and 1(sup 3)A' HOC+ from High-Accuracy Quartic Force Fields

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fortenberry, Ryan C.; Crawford, T. Daniel; Lee, Timothy J.

    2014-01-01

    The spectroscopic constants and vibrational frequencies for the 1(sup 3)A' states of HNC, DNC, HOC+, and DOC+ are computed and discussed in this work. The reliable CcCR quartic force field based on high-level coupled cluster ab initio quantum chemical computations is exclusively utilized to provide the anharmonic potential. Then, second order vibrational perturbation theory and vibrational configuration interaction methods are employed to treat the nuclear Schroedinger equation. Second-order perturbation theory is also employed to provide spectroscopic data for all molecules examined. The relationship between these molecules and the corresponding 1(sup 3)A' HCN and HCO+ isomers is further developed here. These data are applicable to laboratory studies involving formation of HNC and HOC+ as well as astronomical observations of chemically active astrophysical environments.

  20. Mapping and improving frequency, accuracy, and interpretation of land cover change: Classifying coastal Louisiana with 1990, 1993, 1996, and 1999 Landsat Thematic Mapper image data

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nelson, G.; Ramsey, Elijah W.; Rangoonwala, A.

    2005-01-01

    Landsat Thematic Mapper images and collateral data sources were used to classify the land cover of the Mermentau River Basin within the chenier coastal plain and the adjacent uplands of Louisiana, USA. Landcover classes followed that of the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration's Coastal Change Analysis Program; however, classification methods needed to be developed to meet these national standards. Our first classification was limited to the Mermentau River Basin (MRB) in southcentral Louisiana, and the years of 1990, 1993, and 1996. To overcome problems due to class spectral inseparable, spatial and spectra continuums, mixed landcovers, and abnormal transitions, we separated the coastal area into regions of commonality and applying masks to specific land mixtures. Over the three years and 14 landcover classes (aggregating the cultivated land and grassland, and water and floating vegetation classes), overall accuracies ranged from 82% to 90%. To enhance landcover change interpretation, three indicators were introduced as Location Stability, Residence stability, and Turnover. Implementing methods substantiated in the multiple date MRB classification, we spatially extended the classification to the entire Louisiana coast and temporally extended the original 1990, 1993, 1996 classifications to 1999 (Figure 1). We also advanced the operational functionality of the classification and increased the credibility of change detection results. Increased operational functionality that resulted in diminished user input was for the most part gained by implementing a classification logic based on forbidden transitions. The logic detected and corrected misclassifications and mostly alleviated the necessity of subregion separation prior to the classification. The new methods provided an improved ability for more timely detection and response to landcover impact. ?? 2005 IEEE.

  1. Swarm Absolute Scalar Magnetometers first in-orbit results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fratter, Isabelle; Léger, Jean-Michel; Bertrand, François; Jager, Thomas; Hulot, Gauthier; Brocco, Laura; Vigneron, Pierre

    2016-04-01

    The ESA Swarm mission will provide the best ever survey of the Earth's magnetic field and its temporal evolution. This will be achieved by a constellation of three identical satellites, launched together on the 22nd of November 2013. In order to observe the magnetic field thoroughly, each satellite carries two magnetometers: a Vector Field Magnetometer (VFM) coupled with a star tracker camera, to measure the direction of the magnetic field in space, and an Absolute Scalar Magnetometer (ASM), to measure its intensity. The ASM is the French contribution to the Swarm mission. This new generation instrument was designed by CEA-Leti and developed in close partnership with CNES, with scientific support from IPGP. Its operating principle is based on the atomic spectroscopy of the helium 4 metastable state. It makes use of the Zeeman's effect to transduce the magnetic field into a frequency, the signal being amplified by optical pumping. The primary role of the ASM is to provide absolute measurements of the magnetic field's strength at 1 Hz, for the in-flight calibration of the VFM. As the Swarm magnetic reference, the ASM scalar performance is crucial for the mission's success. Thanks to its innovative design, the ASM offers the best precision, resolution and absolute accuracy ever attained in space, with similar performance all along the orbit. In addition, thanks to an original architecture, the ASM implements on an experimental basis a capacity for providing simultaneously vector measurements at 1 Hz. This new feature makes it the first instrument capable of delivering both scalar and vector measurements simultaneously at the same point. Swarm offers a unique opportunity to validate the ASM vector data in orbit by comparison with the VFM's. Furthermore, the ASM can provide scalar data at a much higher sampling rate, when run in "burst" mode at 250 Hz, with a 100 Hz measurement bandwidth. An analysis of the spectral content of the magnetic field above 1 Hz becomes thus

  2. Elevation correction factor for absolute pressure measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Panek, Joseph W.; Sorrells, Mark R.

    1996-01-01

    With the arrival of highly accurate multi-port pressure measurement systems, conditions that previously did not affect overall system accuracy must now be scrutinized closely. Errors caused by elevation differences between pressure sensing elements and model pressure taps can be quantified and corrected. With multi-port pressure measurement systems, the sensing elements are connected to pressure taps that may be many feet away. The measurement system may be at a different elevation than the pressure taps due to laboratory space or test article constraints. This difference produces a pressure gradient that is inversely proportional to height within the interface tube. The pressure at the bottom of the tube will be higher than the pressure at the top due to the weight of the tube's column of air. Tubes with higher pressures will exhibit larger absolute errors due to the higher air density. The above effect is well documented but has generally been taken into account with large elevations only. With error analysis techniques, the loss in accuracy from elevation can be easily quantified. Correction factors can be applied to maintain the high accuracies of new pressure measurement systems.

  3. Clock time is absolute and universal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shen, Xinhang

    2015-09-01

    A critical error is found in the Special Theory of Relativity (STR): mixing up the concepts of the STR abstract time of a reference frame and the displayed time of a physical clock, which leads to use the properties of the abstract time to predict time dilation on physical clocks and all other physical processes. Actually, a clock can never directly measure the abstract time, but can only record the result of a physical process during a period of the abstract time such as the number of cycles of oscillation which is the multiplication of the abstract time and the frequency of oscillation. After Lorentz Transformation, the abstract time of a reference frame expands by a factor gamma, but the frequency of a clock decreases by the same factor gamma, and the resulting multiplication i.e. the displayed time of a moving clock remains unchanged. That is, the displayed time of any physical clock is an invariant of Lorentz Transformation. The Lorentz invariance of the displayed times of clocks can further prove within the framework of STR our earth based standard physical time is absolute, universal and independent of inertial reference frames as confirmed by both the physical fact of the universal synchronization of clocks on the GPS satellites and clocks on the earth, and the theoretical existence of the absolute and universal Galilean time in STR which has proved that time dilation and space contraction are pure illusions of STR. The existence of the absolute and universal time in STR has directly denied that the reference frame dependent abstract time of STR is the physical time, and therefore, STR is wrong and all its predictions can never happen in the physical world.

  4. Length measurement in absolute scale via low-dispersion optical cavity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pravdova, Lenka; Lesundak, Adam; Smid, Radek; Hrabina, Jan; Rerucha, Simon; Cip, Ondrej

    2016-12-01

    We report on the length measuring instrument with the absolute scale that was based on the combination of an optical frequency comb and a passive optical cavity. The time spacing of short femtosecond pulses, generated by the optical frequency comb, is optically phase locked onto the cavity free spectral range with a derivative spectroscopy technique so that the value of the repetition frequency of the femtosecond laser is tied to and determines the measured displacement. The instantaneous value of the femtosecond pulse train frequency is counted by a frequency counter. This counted value corresponds to the length given by the spacing between the two mirrors of the passive cavity. The phase lock between the femtosecond pulsed beam and the passive cavity is possible due to the low-dispersion of the cavity mirrors, where the silver coating on the mirrors was used to provide the low dispersion for the broadband radiation of the comb. Every reflection on the output mirror feeds a portion of the beam back to the cavity so that the output beam is a result of multiple interfering components. The parameters of the output beam are given not only by the parameters of the mirrors but mainly by the absolute distance between the mirror surfaces. Thus, one cavity mirror can be considered as the reference starting point of the distance to be measured and the other mirror is the measuring probe surveying the unknown distance. The measuring mirror of the experimental setup of the low-dispersion cavity is mounted on a piezoelectric actuator which provides small changes in the cavity length we used to test the length measurement method. For the verification of the measurement accuracy a reference incremental interferometer was integrated into our system so that the displacement of the piezoelectric actuator could be obtained with both measuring methods simultaneously.

  5. Database applicaton for absolute spectrophotometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bochkov, Valery V.; Shumko, Sergiy

    2002-12-01

    32-bit database application with multidocument interface for Windows has been developed to calculate absolute energy distributions of observed spectra. The original database contains wavelength calibrated observed spectra which had been already passed through apparatus reductions such as flatfielding, background and apparatus noise subtracting. Absolute energy distributions of observed spectra are defined in unique scale by means of registering them simultaneously with artificial intensity standard. Observations of sequence of spectrophotometric standards are used to define absolute energy of the artificial standard. Observations of spectrophotometric standards are used to define optical extinction in selected moments. FFT algorithm implemented in the application allows performing convolution (deconvolution) spectra with user-defined PSF. The object-oriented interface has been created using facilities of C++ libraries. Client/server model with Windows Socket functionality based on TCP/IP protocol is used to develop the application. It supports Dynamic Data Exchange conversation in server mode and uses Microsoft Exchange communication facilities.

  6. Four Years of Absolutely Calibrated Hyperspectral Data from the Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS) on the Eos Aqua

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Aumann, Hartmut H.; Broberg, Steve; Elliott, Denis; Gregorich, Dave

    2006-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation reviews four years of absolute calibration of hyperspectral data from the AIRS instrument located on the EOS AQUA spacecraft. The following topics are discussed: 1) A quick overview of AIRS; 2) What absolute calibration accuracy and stability are required for climate applications?; 3) Validating of radiance accuracy and stability: Results from four years of AIRS data; and 4) Conclusions.

  7. Absolute classification with unsupervised clustering

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jeon, Byeungwoo; Landgrebe, D. A.

    1992-01-01

    An absolute classification algorithm is proposed in which the class definition through training samples or otherwise is required only for a particular class of interest. The absolute classification is considered as a problem of unsupervised clustering when one cluster is known initially. The definitions and statistics of the other classes are automatically developed through the weighted unsupervised clustering procedure, which is developed to keep the cluster corresponding to the class of interest from losing its identity as the class of interest. Once all the classes are developed, a conventional relative classifier such as the maximum-likelihood classifier is used in the classification.

  8. Absolute Radiometric Calibration of EUNIS-06

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thomas, R. J.; Rabin, D. M.; Kent, B. J.; Paustian, W.

    2007-01-01

    The Extreme-Ultraviolet Normal-Incidence Spectrometer (EUNIS) is a soundingrocket payload that obtains imaged high-resolution spectra of individual solar features, providing information about the Sun's corona and upper transition region. Shortly after its successful initial flight last year, a complete end-to-end calibration was carried out to determine the instrument's absolute radiometric response over its Longwave bandpass of 300 - 370A. The measurements were done at the Rutherford-Appleton Laboratory (RAL) in England, using the same vacuum facility and EUV radiation source used in the pre-flight calibrations of both SOHO/CDS and Hinode/EIS, as well as in three post-flight calibrations of our SERTS sounding rocket payload, the precursor to EUNIS. The unique radiation source provided by the Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt (PTB) had been calibrated to an absolute accuracy of 7% (l-sigma) at 12 wavelengths covering our bandpass directly against the Berlin electron storage ring BESSY, which is itself a primary radiometric source standard. Scans of the EUNIS aperture were made to determine the instrument's absolute spectral sensitivity to +- 25%, considering all sources of error, and demonstrate that EUNIS-06 was the most sensitive solar E W spectrometer yet flown. The results will be matched against prior calibrations which relied on combining measurements of individual optical components, and on comparisons with theoretically predicted 'insensitive' line ratios. Coordinated observations were made during the EUNIS-06 flight by SOHO/CDS and EIT that will allow re-calibrations of those instruments as well. In addition, future EUNIS flights will provide similar calibration updates for TRACE, Hinode/EIS, and STEREO/SECCHI/EUVI.

  9. MAGSAT: Vector magnetometer absolute sensor alignment determination

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Acuna, M. H.

    1981-01-01

    A procedure is described for accurately determining the absolute alignment of the magnetic axes of a triaxial magnetometer sensor with respect to an external, fixed, reference coordinate system. The method does not require that the magnetic field vector orientation, as generated by a triaxial calibration coil system, be known to better than a few degrees from its true position, and minimizes the number of positions through which a sensor assembly must be rotated to obtain a solution. Computer simulations show that accuracies of better than 0.4 seconds of arc can be achieved under typical test conditions associated with existing magnetic test facilities. The basic approach is similar in nature to that presented by McPherron and Snare (1978) except that only three sensor positions are required and the system of equations to be solved is considerably simplified. Applications of the method to the case of the MAGSAT Vector Magnetometer are presented and the problems encountered discussed.

  10. An estimate of global absolute dynamic topography

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tai, C.-K.; Wunsch, C.

    1984-01-01

    The absolute dynamic topography of the world ocean is estimated from the largest scales to a short-wavelength cutoff of about 6700 km for the period July through September, 1978. The data base consisted of the time-averaged sea-surface topography determined by Seasat and geoid estimates made at the Goddard Space Flight Center. The issues are those of accuracy and resolution. Use of the altimetric surface as a geoid estimate beyond the short-wavelength cutoff reduces the spectral leakage in the estimated dynamic topography from erroneous small-scale geoid estimates without contaminating the low wavenumbers. Comparison of the result with a similarly filtered version of Levitus' (1982) historical average dynamic topography shows good qualitative agreement. There is quantitative disagreement, but it is within the estimated errors of both methods of calculation.

  11. Micron Accurate Absolute Ranging System: Range Extension

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smalley, Larry L.; Smith, Kely L.

    1999-01-01

    The purpose of this research is to investigate Fresnel diffraction as a means of obtaining absolute distance measurements with micron or greater accuracy. It is believed that such a system would prove useful to the Next Generation Space Telescope (NGST) as a non-intrusive, non-contact measuring system for use with secondary concentrator station-keeping systems. The present research attempts to validate past experiments and develop ways to apply the phenomena of Fresnel diffraction to micron accurate measurement. This report discusses past research on the phenomena, and the basis of the use Fresnel diffraction distance metrology. The apparatus used in the recent investigations, experimental procedures used, preliminary results are discussed in detail. Continued research and equipment requirements on the extension of the effective range of the Fresnel diffraction systems is also described.

  12. Absolute Spectrophotometry of 237 Open Cluster Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clampitt, L.; Burstein, D.

    1994-12-01

    We present absolute spectrophotometry of 237 stars in 7 nearby open clusters: Hyades, Pleiades, Alpha Persei, Praesepe, Coma Berenices, IC 4665, and M 39. The observations were taken using the Wampler single-channel scanner (Wampler 1966) on the Crossley 0.9m telescope at Lick Observatory from July 1973 through December 1974. 21 bandpasses spanning the spectral range 3500 Angstroms to 7780 Angstroms were observed for each star, with bandwiths ranging from 32Angstroms to 64 Angstroms. Data are standardized to the Hayes--Latham (1975) system. Our measurements are compared to filter colors on the Johnson BV, Stromgren ubvy, and Geneva U V B_1 B_2 V_1 G systems, as well as to spectrophotometry of a few stars published by Gunn, Stryker & Tinsley and in the Spectrophotometric Standards Catalog (Adelman; as distributed by the NSSDC). Both internal and external comparisons to the filter systems indicate a formal statistical accuracy per bandpass of 0.01 to 0.02 mag, with apparent larger ( ~ 0.03 mag) differences in absolute calibration between this data set and existing spectrophotometry. These data will comprise part of the spectrophotometry that will be used to calibrate the Beijing-Arizona-Taipei-Connecticut Color Survey of the Sky (see separate paper by Burstein et al. at this meeting).

  13. Absolute GPS Positioning Using Genetic Algorithms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramillien, G.

    A new inverse approach for restoring the absolute coordinates of a ground -based station from three or four observed GPS pseudo-ranges is proposed. This stochastic method is based on simulations of natural evolution named genetic algorithms (GA). These iterative procedures provide fairly good and robust estimates of the absolute positions in the Earth's geocentric reference system. For comparison/validation, GA results are compared to the ones obtained using the classical linearized least-square scheme for the determination of the XYZ location proposed by Bancroft (1985) which is strongly limited by the number of available observations (i.e. here, the number of input pseudo-ranges must be four). The r.m.s. accuracy of the non -linear cost function reached by this latter method is typically ~10-4 m2 corresponding to ~300-500-m accuracies for each geocentric coordinate. However, GA can provide more acceptable solutions (r.m.s. errors < 10-5 m2), even when only three instantaneous pseudo-ranges are used, such as a lost of lock during a GPS survey. Tuned GA parameters used in different simulations are N=1000 starting individuals, as well as Pc=60-70% and Pm=30-40% for the crossover probability and mutation rate, respectively. Statistical tests on the ability of GA to recover acceptable coordinates in presence of important levels of noise are made simulating nearly 3000 random samples of erroneous pseudo-ranges. Here, two main sources of measurement errors are considered in the inversion: (1) typical satellite-clock errors and/or 300-metre variance atmospheric delays, and (2) Geometrical Dilution of Precision (GDOP) due to the particular GPS satellite configuration at the time of acquisition. Extracting valuable information and even from low-quality starting range observations, GA offer an interesting alternative for high -precision GPS positioning.

  14. Relativistic Absolutism in Moral Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vogt, W. Paul

    1982-01-01

    Discusses Emile Durkheim's "Moral Education: A Study in the Theory and Application of the Sociology of Education," which holds that morally healthy societies may vary in culture and organization but must possess absolute rules of moral behavior. Compares this moral theory with current theory and practice of American educators. (MJL)

  15. High-accuracy measurement of 240-m distance in an optical tunnel by use of a compact femtosecond laser.

    PubMed

    Minoshima, K; Matsumoto, H

    2000-10-20

    A high-accuracy optical distance meter with a mode-locked femtosecond laser is proposed for distance measurements in a 310-m-long optical tunnel. We measured the phase shift of the optical beat component between longitudinal modes of a mode-locked laser. A high resolution of 50 microm at 240-m distance was obtained without cyclic error correction. The group refractive index of air is automatically extracted to an accuracy of 6 parts per million (ppm) by two-color measurement with the pulses of fundamental and second-harmonic wavelengths. Finally, an absolute mechanical distance of 240 m was obtained to within 8-ppm accuracy by use of a series of beat frequencies with the advantage of a wide range of intermode frequency, together with the results of the two-color measurement.

  16. Absolute calibration of optical flats

    DOEpatents

    Sommargren, Gary E.

    2005-04-05

    The invention uses the phase shifting diffraction interferometer (PSDI) to provide a true point-by-point measurement of absolute flatness over the surface of optical flats. Beams exiting the fiber optics in a PSDI have perfect spherical wavefronts. The measurement beam is reflected from the optical flat and passed through an auxiliary optic to then be combined with the reference beam on a CCD. The combined beams include phase errors due to both the optic under test and the auxiliary optic. Standard phase extraction algorithms are used to calculate this combined phase error. The optical flat is then removed from the system and the measurement fiber is moved to recombine the two beams. The newly combined beams include only the phase errors due to the auxiliary optic. When the second phase measurement is subtracted from the first phase measurement, the absolute phase error of the optical flat is obtained.

  17. The Absolute Spectrum Polarimeter (ASP)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kogut, A. J.

    2010-01-01

    The Absolute Spectrum Polarimeter (ASP) is an Explorer-class mission to map the absolute intensity and linear polarization of the cosmic microwave background and diffuse astrophysical foregrounds over the full sky from 30 GHz to 5 THz. The principal science goal is the detection and characterization of linear polarization from an inflationary epoch in the early universe, with tensor-to-scalar ratio r much greater than 1O(raised to the power of { -3}) and Compton distortion y < 10 (raised to the power of{-6}). We describe the ASP instrument and mission architecture needed to detect the signature of an inflationary epoch in the early universe using only 4 semiconductor bolometers.

  18. Physics of negative absolute temperatures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abraham, Eitan; Penrose, Oliver

    2017-01-01

    Negative absolute temperatures were introduced into experimental physics by Purcell and Pound, who successfully applied this concept to nuclear spins; nevertheless, the concept has proved controversial: a recent article aroused considerable interest by its claim, based on a classical entropy formula (the "volume entropy") due to Gibbs, that negative temperatures violated basic principles of statistical thermodynamics. Here we give a thermodynamic analysis that confirms the negative-temperature interpretation of the Purcell-Pound experiments. We also examine the principal arguments that have been advanced against the negative temperature concept; we find that these arguments are not logically compelling, and moreover that the underlying "volume" entropy formula leads to predictions inconsistent with existing experimental results on nuclear spins. We conclude that, despite the counterarguments, negative absolute temperatures make good theoretical sense and did occur in the experiments designed to produce them.

  19. High accuracy OMEGA timekeeping

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Imbier, E. A.

    1982-01-01

    The Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory (SAO) operates a worldwide satellite tracking network which uses a combination of OMEGA as a frequency reference, dual timing channels, and portable clock comparisons to maintain accurate epoch time. Propagational charts from the U.S. Coast Guard OMEGA monitor program minimize diurnal and seasonal effects. Daily phase value publications of the U.S. Naval Observatory provide corrections to the field collected timing data to produce an averaged time line comprised of straight line segments called a time history file (station clock minus UTC). Depending upon clock location, reduced time data accuracies of between two and eight microseconds are typical.

  20. Strategy for the absolute neutron emission measurement on ITER.

    PubMed

    Sasao, M; Bertalot, L; Ishikawa, M; Popovichev, S

    2010-10-01

    Accuracy of 10% is demanded to the absolute fusion measurement on ITER. To achieve this accuracy, a functional combination of several types of neutron measurement subsystem, cross calibration among them, and in situ calibration are needed. Neutron transport calculation shows the suitable calibration source is a DT/DD neutron generator of source strength higher than 10(10) n/s (neutron/second) for DT and 10(8) n/s for DD. It will take eight weeks at the minimum with this source to calibrate flux monitors, profile monitors, and the activation system.

  1. NMR shielding constants in PH3, absolute shielding scale, and the nuclear magnetic moment of 31P.

    PubMed

    Lantto, Perttu; Jackowski, Karol; Makulski, Włodzimierz; Olejniczak, Małgorzata; Jaszuński, Michał

    2011-09-29

    Ab initio values of the absolute shielding constants of phosphorus and hydrogen in PH(3) were determined, and their accuracy is discussed. In particular, we analyzed the relativistic corrections to nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) shielding constants, comparing the constants computed using the four-component Dirac-Hartree-Fock approach, the four-component density functional theory (DFT), and the Breit-Pauli perturbation theory (BPPT) with nonrelativistic Hartree-Fock or DFT reference functions. For the equilibrium geometry, we obtained σ(P) = 624.309 ppm and σ(H) = 29.761 ppm. Resonance frequencies of both nuclei were measured in gas-phase NMR experiments, and the results were extrapolated to zero density to provide the frequency ratio for an isolated PH(3) molecule. This ratio, together with the computed shielding constants, was used to determine a new value of the nuclear magnetic dipole moment of (31)P: μ(P) = 1.1309246(50) μ(N).

  2. An absolute photometric system at 10 and 20 microns

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rieke, G. H.; Lebofsky, M. J.; Low, F. J.

    1985-01-01

    Two new direct calibrations at 10 and 20 microns are presented in which terrestrial flux standards are referred to infrared standard stars. These measurements give both good agreement and higher accuracy when compared with previous direct calibrations. As a result, the absolute calibrations at 10 and 20 microns have now been determined with accuracies of 3 and 8 percent, respectively. A variety of absolute calibrations based on extrapolation of stellar spectra from the visible to 10 microns are reviewed. Current atmospheric models of A-type stars underestimate their fluxes by about 10 percent at 10 microns, whereas models of solar-type stars agree well with the direct calibrations. The calibration at 20 microns can probably be determined to about 5 percent by extrapolation from the more accurate result at 10 microns. The photometric system at 10 and 20 microns is updated to reflect the new absolute calibration, to base its zero point directly on the colors of A0 stars, and to improve the accuracy in the comparison of the standard stars.

  3. Absolute Calibration of the Radio Astronomy Flux Density Scale at 22 to 43 GHz Using Planck

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Partridge, B.; López-Caniego, M.; Perley, R. A.; Stevens, J.; Butler, B. J.; Rocha, G.; Walter, B.; Zacchei, A.

    2016-04-01

    The Planck mission detected thousands of extragalactic radio sources at frequencies from 28 to 857 GHz. Planck's calibration is absolute (in the sense that it is based on the satellite’s annual motion around the Sun and the temperature of the cosmic microwave background), and its beams are well characterized at sub-percent levels. Thus, Planck's flux density measurements of compact sources are absolute in the same sense. We have made coordinated Very Large Array (VLA) and Australia Telescope Compact Array (ATCA) observations of 65 strong, unresolved Planck sources in order to transfer Planck's calibration to ground-based instruments at 22, 28, and 43 GHz. The results are compared to microwave flux density scales currently based on planetary observations. Despite the scatter introduced by the variability of many of the sources, the flux density scales are determined to 1%-2% accuracy. At 28 GHz, the flux density scale used by the VLA runs 2%-3% ± 1.0% below Planck values with an uncertainty of +/- 1.0%; at 43 GHz, the discrepancy increases to 5%-6% ± 1.4% for both ATCA and the VLA.

  4. [Accuracy evaluation of the TRMM satellite-based precipitation data over the mid-high latitudes].

    PubMed

    Cai, Yan-Cong; Jin, Chang-Jie; Wang, An-Zhi; Guan, De-Xin; Wu, Jia-Bing; Yuan, Feng-Hui; Xu, Lei-Lei; Bu, Chang-Qian

    2014-11-01

    Satellite-based precipitation product plays a significant role in analyzing spatial pattern of precipitation. TRMM 3B42 (3B42), as one of important precipitation products, is a key forcing factor for ecological, climate and hydrological models with its sufficient spatial and temporal scales. At present, there is still limited knowledge of accuracy and error structure of new version 3B42 V7, especially the lack of evaluating its accuracy in regions of mid-high latitudes, which restricts its application in the field of ecology, climate and hydrology. Based on 3B42 V7 product and data obtained from 53 weather stations in the period of 1998-2012 over Inner Mongolia, the paper evaluated the accuracy of 3B42 and revealed the spatial distribution of accuracy evaluation indices and its influencing factors. The result of overall accuracy evaluation indicated that there was overestimation of the amount of precipitation by 3B42 at daily, monthly and annual timescales. Error of 3B42 increased with the increasing timescale, and mean error and mean absolute error of daily precipitation were just -0.06 and 0.88 mm, respectively. It showed good performance for detecting the occurrence of rain events with equitable threat score (ETS) of 0.23, but slightly overestimated the frequency of rainy events. Moreover, altitude and average annual precipitation had impacts on data accuracy. The absolute error of precipitation decreased and yet the ability of detecting rain events be- came weak with the increasing altitude, while the effect of average annual precipitation on data accuracy was opposite.

  5. Absolute calibration of optical tweezers

    SciTech Connect

    Viana, N.B.; Mazolli, A.; Maia Neto, P.A.; Nussenzveig, H.M.; Rocha, M.S.; Mesquita, O.N.

    2006-03-27

    As a step toward absolute calibration of optical tweezers, a first-principles theory of trapping forces with no adjustable parameters, corrected for spherical aberration, is experimentally tested. Employing two very different setups, we find generally very good agreement for the transverse trap stiffness as a function of microsphere radius for a broad range of radii, including the values employed in practice, and at different sample chamber depths. The domain of validity of the WKB ('geometrical optics') approximation to the theory is verified. Theoretical predictions for the trapping threshold, peak position, depth variation, multiple equilibria, and 'jump' effects are also confirmed.

  6. Sound source localization identification accuracy: bandwidth dependencies.

    PubMed

    Yost, William A; Zhong, Xuan

    2014-11-01

    Sound source localization accuracy using a sound source identification task was measured in the front, right quarter of the azimuth plane as rms (root-mean-square) error (degrees) for stimulus conditions in which the bandwidth (1/20 to 2 octaves wide) and center frequency (250, 2000, 4000 Hz) of 200-ms noise bursts were varied. Tones of different frequencies (250, 2000, 4000 Hz) were also used. As stimulus bandwidth increases, there is an increase in sound source localization identification accuracy (i.e., rms error decreases). Wideband stimuli (>1 octave wide) produce best sound source localization accuracy (~6°-7° rms error), and localization accuracy for these wideband noise stimuli does not depend on center frequency. For narrow bandwidths (<1 octave) and tonal stimuli, accuracy does depend on center frequency such that highest accuracy is obtained for low-frequency stimuli (centered on 250 Hz), worse accuracy for mid-frequency stimuli (centered on 2000 Hz), and intermediate accuracy for high-frequency stimuli (centered on 4000 Hz).

  7. Absolute Gravity Datum in the Age of Cold Atom Gravimeters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Childers, V. A.; Eckl, M. C.

    2014-12-01

    The international gravity datum is defined today by the International Gravity Standardization Net of 1971 (IGSN-71). The data supporting this network was measured in the 1950s and 60s using pendulum and spring-based gravimeter ties (plus some new ballistic absolute meters) to replace the prior protocol of referencing all gravity values to the earlier Potsdam value. Since this time, gravimeter technology has advanced significantly with the development and refinement of the FG-5 (the current standard of the industry) and again with the soon-to-be-available cold atom interferometric absolute gravimeters. This latest development is anticipated to provide improvement in the range of two orders of magnitude as compared to the measurement accuracy of technology utilized to develop ISGN-71. In this presentation, we will explore how the IGSN-71 might best be "modernized" given today's requirements and available instruments and resources. The National Geodetic Survey (NGS), along with other relevant US Government agencies, is concerned about establishing gravity control to establish and maintain high order geodetic networks as part of the nation's essential infrastructure. The need to modernize the nation's geodetic infrastructure was highlighted in "Precise Geodetic Infrastructure, National Requirements for a Shared Resource" National Academy of Science, 2010. The NGS mission, as dictated by Congress, is to establish and maintain the National Spatial Reference System, which includes gravity measurements. Absolute gravimeters measure the total gravity field directly and do not involve ties to other measurements. Periodic "intercomparisons" of multiple absolute gravimeters at reference gravity sites are used to constrain the behavior of the instruments to ensure that each would yield reasonably similar measurements of the same location (i.e. yield a sufficiently consistent datum when measured in disparate locales). New atomic interferometric gravimeters promise a significant

  8. When Does Choice of Accuracy Measure Alter Imputation Accuracy Assessments?

    PubMed Central

    Ramnarine, Shelina; Zhang, Juan; Chen, Li-Shiun; Culverhouse, Robert; Duan, Weimin; Hancock, Dana B.; Hartz, Sarah M.; Johnson, Eric O.; Olfson, Emily; Schwantes-An, Tae-Hwi; Saccone, Nancy L.

    2015-01-01

    Imputation, the process of inferring genotypes for untyped variants, is used to identify and refine genetic association findings. Inaccuracies in imputed data can distort the observed association between variants and a disease. Many statistics are used to assess accuracy; some compare imputed to genotyped data and others are calculated without reference to true genotypes. Prior work has shown that the Imputation Quality Score (IQS), which is based on Cohen’s kappa statistic and compares imputed genotype probabilities to true genotypes, appropriately adjusts for chance agreement; however, it is not commonly used. To identify differences in accuracy assessment, we compared IQS with concordance rate, squared correlation, and accuracy measures built into imputation programs. Genotypes from the 1000 Genomes reference populations (AFR N = 246 and EUR N = 379) were masked to match the typed single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) coverage of several SNP arrays and were imputed with BEAGLE 3.3.2 and IMPUTE2 in regions associated with smoking behaviors. Additional masking and imputation was conducted for sequenced subjects from the Collaborative Genetic Study of Nicotine Dependence and the Genetic Study of Nicotine Dependence in African Americans (N = 1,481 African Americans and N = 1,480 European Americans). Our results offer further evidence that concordance rate inflates accuracy estimates, particularly for rare and low frequency variants. For common variants, squared correlation, BEAGLE R2, IMPUTE2 INFO, and IQS produce similar assessments of imputation accuracy. However, for rare and low frequency variants, compared to IQS, the other statistics tend to be more liberal in their assessment of accuracy. IQS is important to consider when evaluating imputation accuracy, particularly for rare and low frequency variants. PMID:26458263

  9. An ultrasonic system for measurement of absolute myocardial thickness using a single transducer.

    PubMed

    Pitsillides, K F; Longhurst, J C

    1995-03-01

    We have developed an ultrasonic instrument that can measure absolute regional myocardial wall motion throughout the cardiac cycle using a single epicardial piezoelectric transducer. The methods in place currently that utilize ultrasound to measure myocardial wall thickness are the transit-time sonomicrometer (TTS) and, more recently, the Doppler echo displacement method. Both methods have inherent disadvantages. To address the need for an instrument that can measure absolute dimensions of myocardial wall at any depth, an ultrasonic single-crystal sonomicrometer (SCS) system was developed. This system can identify and track the boundary of the endocardial muscle-blood interface. With this instrument, it is possible to obtain, from a single epicardial transducer, measurement of myocardial wall motion that is calibrated in absolute dimensional units. The operating principles of the proposed myocardial dimension measurement system are as follows. A short duration ultrasonic burst having a frequency of 10 MHz is transmitted from the piezoelectric transducer. Reflected echoes are sampled at two distinct time intervals to generate reference and interface sample volumes. During steady state, the two sample volumes are adjusted so that the reference volume remains entirely within the myocardium, whereas half of the interface sampled volume is located within the myocardium. After amplification and filtering, the true root mean square values of both signals are compared and an error signal is generated. A closed-loop circuit uses the integrated error signal to continuously adjust the position of the two sample volumes. We have compared our system in vitro against a known signal and in vivo against the two-crystal TTS system during control, suppression (ischemia), and enhancement (isoproterenol) of myocardial function. Results were obtained in vitro for accuracy (> 99%), signal linearity (r = 0.99), and frequency response to heart rates > 450 beats/min, and in vivo data were

  10. Broad-band frequency references in the near-infrared: Accurate dual comb spectroscopy of methane and acetylene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zolot, A. M.; Giorgetta, F. R.; Baumann, E.; Swann, W. C.; Coddington, I.; Newbury, N. R.

    2013-03-01

    The Doppler-limited spectra of methane between 176 THz and 184 THz (5870-6130 cm-1) and acetylene between 193 THz and 199 THz (6430-6630 cm-1) are acquired via comb-tooth resolved dual comb spectroscopy with frequency accuracy traceable to atomic standards. A least squares analysis of the measured absorbance and phase line shapes provides line center frequencies with absolute accuracy of 0.2 MHz, or less than one thousandth of the room temperature Doppler width. This accuracy is verified through comparison with previous saturated absorption spectroscopy of 37 strong isolated lines of acetylene. For the methane spectrum, the center frequencies of 46 well-isolated strong lines are determined with similar high accuracy, along with the center frequencies for 1107 non-isolated lines at lower accuracy. The measured methane line-center frequencies have an uncertainty comparable to the few available laser heterodyne measurements in this region but span a much larger optical bandwidth, marking the first broad-band measurements of the methane 2ν3 region directly referenced to atomic frequency standards. This study demonstrates the promise of dual comb spectroscopy to obtain high resolution broadband spectra that are comparable to state-of-the-art Fourier-transform spectrometer measurements but with much improved frequency accuracy.Work of the US government, not subject to US copyright.

  11. Cosmology with negative absolute temperatures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vieira, J. P. P.; Byrnes, Christian T.; Lewis, Antony

    2016-08-01

    Negative absolute temperatures (NAT) are an exotic thermodynamical consequence of quantum physics which has been known since the 1950's (having been achieved in the lab on a number of occasions). Recently, the work of Braun et al. [1] has rekindled interest in negative temperatures and hinted at a possibility of using NAT systems in the lab as dark energy analogues. This paper goes one step further, looking into the cosmological consequences of the existence of a NAT component in the Universe. NAT-dominated expanding Universes experience a borderline phantom expansion (w < -1) with no Big Rip, and their contracting counterparts are forced to bounce after the energy density becomes sufficiently large. Both scenarios might be used to solve horizon and flatness problems analogously to standard inflation and bouncing cosmologies. We discuss the difficulties in obtaining and ending a NAT-dominated epoch, and possible ways of obtaining density perturbations with an acceptable spectrum.

  12. Dual-comb spectroscopy using frequency-doubled combs around 775 nm.

    PubMed

    Potvin, Simon; Genest, Jérôme

    2013-12-16

    Two frequency-doubled combs are generated by nonlinear frequency conversion to realize spectroscopic measurements around 775 nm. Frequency-doubled interferograms are corrected in real-time by monitoring the relative instabilities between the combs at their fundamental frequency. Rubidium absorption lines are used to demonstrate the technique's accuracy and serve as absolute references to calibrate the frequency grid of computed spectra. The method allows frequency-doubled interferograms to be averaged without distortion during long periods of time. The calibrated frequency grid is validated by the measurement of the oxygen A-band. Moreover, the measurement analysis of the acetylene ν(1) + 3ν(3) overtone band has revealed some discrepancies with previous publications.

  13. Estimated accuracy of ground-based liquid water measurements during FIRE

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Snider, Jack B.

    1990-01-01

    Since on goal of the First ISCCP Regional Experiment (FIRE) project is to improve our understanding of the relationships between cloud microphysics and cloud reflectivity, it is important that the accuracy of remote liquid measurements by microwave radiometry be thoroughly understood. The question is particularly relevant since the uncertainty in the absolute value of the radiometric liquid measurement is greatest at low liquid water contents (less than 0.1 mm). However it should be stressed that although uncertainty exists in the absolute value of liquid, it is well known that the observed radiometric signal is proportional to the amount of liquid in the antenna beam. As a result, changes in amounts of liquid are known to greater accuracy than the absolute value, which may contain a bias. Here, an assessment of the liquid measurement accuracy attained at San Nicolas Island (SNI) is presented. The vapor and liquid water data shown were computed from the radiometric brightness temperatures using statistical retrieval algorithms. The retrieval coefficients were derived from the 69 soundings made by Colorado State University during the SNI observations. Sources of error in the vapor and liquid measurements include cross-talk in the retrieval algorithms (not a factor at low liquid contents), uncertainties in the brightness temperature measurement, and uncertainties in the vapor and liquid attenuation coefficients. The relative importance of these errors is discussed. For the retrieval of path-integrated liquid water, the greatest uncertainty is caused by the temperature dependence of the absorption at microwave frequencies. As a result, the accuracy of statistical retrieval of liquid depends to large measure upon how representative the a priori radiosonde data are of the conditions prevailing during the measurements. The microwave radiometer measurements at SNI were supplemented by an infrared (IR) radiometer modified for measurement of cloud-base temperature. Thus

  14. Alaska national hydrography dataset positional accuracy assessment study

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Arundel, Samantha; Yamamoto, Kristina H.; Constance, Eric; Mantey, Kim; Vinyard-Houx, Jeremy

    2013-01-01

    Initial visual assessments Wide range in the quality of fit between features in NHD and these new image sources. No statistical analysis has been performed to actually quantify accuracy Determining absolute accuracy is cost prohibitive (must collect independent, well defined test points) Quantitative analysis of relative positional error is feasible.

  15. Frequency noise in frequency swept fiber laser.

    PubMed

    Pedersen, Anders Tegtmeier; Rottwitt, Karsten

    2013-04-01

    This Letter presents a measurement of the spectral content of frequency shifted pulses generated by a lightwave synthesized frequency sweeper. We found that each pulse is shifted in frequency with very high accuracy. We also discovered that noise originating from light leaking through the acousto- optical modulators and forward propagating Brillouin scattering appear in the spectrum.

  16. Mathematical Model for Absolute Magnetic Measuring Systems in Industrial Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fügenschuh, Armin; Fügenschuh, Marzena; Ludszuweit, Marina; Mojsic, Aleksandar; Sokół, Joanna

    2015-09-01

    Scales for measuring systems are either based on incremental or absolute measuring methods. Incremental scales need to initialize a measurement cycle at a reference point. From there, the position is computed by counting increments of a periodic graduation. Absolute methods do not need reference points, since the position can be read directly from the scale. The positions on the complete scales are encoded using two incremental tracks with different graduation. We present a new method for absolute measuring using only one track for position encoding up to micrometre range. Instead of the common perpendicular magnetic areas, we use a pattern of trapezoidal magnetic areas, to store more complex information. For positioning, we use the magnetic field where every position is characterized by a set of values measured by a hall sensor array. We implement a method for reconstruction of absolute positions from the set of unique measured values. We compare two patterns with respect to uniqueness, accuracy, stability and robustness of positioning. We discuss how stability and robustness are influenced by different errors during the measurement in real applications and how those errors can be compensated.

  17. Absolute calibration and beam background of the Squid Polarimeter

    SciTech Connect

    Blaskiewicz, M.M.; Cameron, P.R.; Shea, T.J.

    1996-12-31

    The problem of beam background in Squid Polarimetry is not without residual benefits. The authors may deliberately generate beam background by gently kicking the beam at the spin tune frequency. This signal may be used to accomplish a simple and accurate absolute calibration of the polarimeter. The authors present details of beam background calculations and their application to polarimeter calibration, and suggest a simple proof-of-principle accelerator experiment.

  18. The absolute radiometric calibration of the advanced very high resolution radiometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Slater, P. N.; Teillet, P. M.; Ding, Y.

    1988-01-01

    The need for independent, redundant absolute radiometric calibration methods is discussed with reference to the Thematic Mapper. Uncertainty requirements for absolute calibration of between 0.5 and 4 percent are defined based on the accuracy of reflectance retrievals at an agricultural site. It is shown that even very approximate atmospheric corrections can reduce the error in reflectance retrieval to 0.02 over the reflectance range 0 to 0.4.

  19. Absolute magnitude calibration using trigonometric parallax - Incomplete, spectroscopic samples

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ratnatunga, Kavan U.; Casertano, Stefano

    1991-01-01

    A new numerical algorithm is used to calibrate the absolute magnitude of spectroscopically selected stars from their observed trigonometric parallax. This procedure, based on maximum-likelihood estimation, can retrieve unbiased estimates of the intrinsic absolute magnitude and its dispersion even from incomplete samples suffering from selection biases in apparent magnitude and color. It can also make full use of low accuracy and negative parallaxes and incorporate censorship on reported parallax values. Accurate error estimates are derived for each of the fitted parameters. The algorithm allows an a posteriori check of whether the fitted model gives a good representation of the observations. The procedure is described in general and applied to both real and simulated data.

  20. Determination of absolute internal conversion coefficients using the SAGE spectrometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sorri, J.; Greenlees, P. T.; Papadakis, P.; Konki, J.; Cox, D. M.; Auranen, K.; Partanen, J.; Sandzelius, M.; Pakarinen, J.; Rahkila, P.; Uusitalo, J.; Herzberg, R.-D.; Smallcombe, J.; Davies, P. J.; Barton, C. J.; Jenkins, D. G.

    2016-03-01

    A non-reference based method to determine internal conversion coefficients using the SAGE spectrometer is carried out for transitions in the nuclei of 154Sm, 152Sm and 166Yb. The Normalised-Peak-to-Gamma method is in general an efficient tool to extract internal conversion coefficients. However, in many cases the required well-known reference transitions are not available. The data analysis steps required to determine absolute internal conversion coefficients with the SAGE spectrometer are presented. In addition, several background suppression methods are introduced and an example of how ancillary detectors can be used to select specific reaction products is given. The results obtained for ground-state band E2 transitions show that the absolute internal conversion coefficients can be extracted using the methods described with a reasonable accuracy. In some cases of less intense transitions only an upper limit for the internal conversion coefficient could be given.

  1. Improved accuracies for satellite tracking

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kammeyer, P. C.; Fiala, A. D.; Seidelmann, P. K.

    1991-01-01

    A charge coupled device (CCD) camera on an optical telescope which follows the stars can be used to provide high accuracy comparisons between the line of sight to a satellite, over a large range of satellite altitudes, and lines of sight to nearby stars. The CCD camera can be rotated so the motion of the satellite is down columns of the CCD chip, and charge can be moved from row to row of the chip at a rate which matches the motion of the optical image of the satellite across the chip. Measurement of satellite and star images, together with accurate timing of charge motion, provides accurate comparisons of lines of sight. Given lines of sight to stars near the satellite, the satellite line of sight may be determined. Initial experiments with this technique, using an 18 cm telescope, have produced TDRS-4 observations which have an rms error of 0.5 arc second, 100 m at synchronous altitude. Use of a mosaic of CCD chips, each having its own rate of charge motion, in the focal place of a telescope would allow point images of a geosynchronous satellite and of stars to be formed simultaneously in the same telescope. The line of sight of such a satellite could be measured relative to nearby star lines of sight with an accuracy of approximately 0.03 arc second. Development of a star catalog with 0.04 arc second rms accuracy and perhaps ten stars per square degree would allow determination of satellite lines of sight with 0.05 arc second rms absolute accuracy, corresponding to 10 m at synchronous altitude. Multiple station time transfers through a communications satellite can provide accurate distances from the satellite to the ground stations. Such observations can, if calibrated for delays, determine satellite orbits to an accuracy approaching 10 m rms.

  2. On the Orientation Error of IMU: Investigating Static and Dynamic Accuracy Targeting Human Motion

    PubMed Central

    Ricci, Luca; Taffoni, Fabrizio

    2016-01-01

    The accuracy in orientation tracking attainable by using inertial measurement units (IMU) when measuring human motion is still an open issue. This study presents a systematic quantification of the accuracy under static conditions and typical human dynamics, simulated by means of a robotic arm. Two sensor fusion algorithms, selected from the classes of the stochastic and complementary methods, are considered. The proposed protocol implements controlled and repeatable experimental conditions and validates accuracy for an extensive set of dynamic movements, that differ in frequency and amplitude of the movement. We found that dynamic performance of the tracking is only slightly dependent on the sensor fusion algorithm. Instead, it is dependent on the amplitude and frequency of the movement and a major contribution to the error derives from the orientation of the rotation axis w.r.t. the gravity vector. Absolute and relative errors upper bounds are found respectively in the range [0.7° ÷ 8.2°] and [1.0° ÷ 10.3°]. Alongside dynamic, static accuracy is thoroughly investigated, also with an emphasis on convergence behavior of the different algorithms. Reported results emphasize critical issues associated with the use of this technology and provide a baseline level of performance for the human motion related application. PMID:27612100

  3. On the Orientation Error of IMU: Investigating Static and Dynamic Accuracy Targeting Human Motion.

    PubMed

    Ricci, Luca; Taffoni, Fabrizio; Formica, Domenico

    2016-01-01

    The accuracy in orientation tracking attainable by using inertial measurement units (IMU) when measuring human motion is still an open issue. This study presents a systematic quantification of the accuracy under static conditions and typical human dynamics, simulated by means of a robotic arm. Two sensor fusion algorithms, selected from the classes of the stochastic and complementary methods, are considered. The proposed protocol implements controlled and repeatable experimental conditions and validates accuracy for an extensive set of dynamic movements, that differ in frequency and amplitude of the movement. We found that dynamic performance of the tracking is only slightly dependent on the sensor fusion algorithm. Instead, it is dependent on the amplitude and frequency of the movement and a major contribution to the error derives from the orientation of the rotation axis w.r.t. the gravity vector. Absolute and relative errors upper bounds are found respectively in the range [0.7° ÷ 8.2°] and [1.0° ÷ 10.3°]. Alongside dynamic, static accuracy is thoroughly investigated, also with an emphasis on convergence behavior of the different algorithms. Reported results emphasize critical issues associated with the use of this technology and provide a baseline level of performance for the human motion related application.

  4. ON A SUFFICIENT CONDITION FOR ABSOLUTE CONTINUITY.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    The formulation of a condition which yields absolute continuity when combined with continuity and bounded variation is the problem considered in the...Briefly, the formulation is achieved through a discussion which develops a proof by contradiction of a sufficiently theorem for absolute continuity which uses in its hypothesis the condition of continuity and bounded variation .

  5. Introducing the Mean Absolute Deviation "Effect" Size

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gorard, Stephen

    2015-01-01

    This paper revisits the use of effect sizes in the analysis of experimental and similar results, and reminds readers of the relative advantages of the mean absolute deviation as a measure of variation, as opposed to the more complex standard deviation. The mean absolute deviation is easier to use and understand, and more tolerant of extreme…

  6. Enhancing and evaluating diagnostic accuracy.

    PubMed

    Swets, J A; Getty, D J; Pickett, R M; D'Orsi, C J; Seltzer, S E; McNeil, B J

    1991-01-01

    Techniques that may enhance diagnostic accuracy in clinical settings were tested in the context of mammography. Statistical information about the relevant features among those visible in a mammogram and about their relative importances in the diagnosis of breast cancer was the basis of two decision aids for radiologists: a checklist that guides the radiologist in assigning a scale value to each significant feature of the images of a particular case, and a computer program that merges those scale values optimally to estimate a probability of malignancy. A test set of approximately 150 proven cases (including normals and benign and malignant lesions) was interpreted by six radiologists, first in their usual manner and later with the decision aids. The enhancing effect of these feature-analytic techniques was analyzed across subsets of cases that were restricted progressively to more and more difficult cases, where difficulty was defined in terms of the radiologists' judgements in the standard reading condition. Accuracy in both standard and enhanced conditions decreased regularly and substantially as case difficulty increased, but differentially, such that the enhancement effect grew regularly and substantially. For the most difficult case sets, the observed increases in accuracy translated into an increase of about 0.15 in sensitivity (true-positive proportion) for a selected specificity (true-negative proportion) of 0.85 or a similar increase in specificity for a selected sensitivity of 0.85. That measured accuracy can depend on case-set difficulty to different degrees for two diagnostic approaches has general implications for evaluation in clinical medicine. Comparative, as well as absolute, assessments of diagnostic performances--for example, of alternative imaging techniques--may be distorted by inadequate treatments of this experimental variable. Subset analysis, as defined and illustrated here, can be useful in alleviating the problem.

  7. Absolute instability of the Gaussian wake profile

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hultgren, Lennart S.; Aggarwal, Arun K.

    1987-01-01

    Linear parallel-flow stability theory has been used to investigate the effect of viscosity on the local absolute instability of a family of wake profiles with a Gaussian velocity distribution. The type of local instability, i.e., convective or absolute, is determined by the location of a branch-point singularity with zero group velocity of the complex dispersion relation for the instability waves. The effects of viscosity were found to be weak for values of the wake Reynolds number, based on the center-line velocity defect and the wake half-width, larger than about 400. Absolute instability occurs only for sufficiently large values of the center-line wake defect. The critical value of this parameter increases with decreasing wake Reynolds number, thereby indicating a shrinking region of absolute instability with decreasing wake Reynolds number. If backflow is not allowed, absolute instability does not occur for wake Reynolds numbers smaller than about 38.

  8. Assessing and Ensuring GOES-R Magnetometer Accuracy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carter, Delano R.; Todirita, Monica; Kronenwetter, Jeffrey; Chu, Donald

    2016-01-01

    The GOES-R magnetometer subsystem accuracy requirement is 1.7 nanoteslas (nT). During quiet times (100 nT), accuracy is defined as absolute mean plus 3 sigma. During storms (300 nT), accuracy is defined as absolute mean plus 2 sigma. Error comes both from outside the magnetometers, e.g. spacecraft fields and misalignments, as well as inside, e.g. zero offset and scale factor errors. Because zero offset and scale factor drift over time, it will be necessary to perform annual calibration maneuvers. To predict performance before launch, we have used Monte Carlo simulations and covariance analysis. Both behave as expected, and their accuracy predictions agree within 30%. With the proposed calibration regimen, both suggest that the GOES-R magnetometer subsystem will meet its accuracy requirements.

  9. Assessing and Ensuring GOES-R Magnetometer Accuracy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kronenwetter, Jeffrey; Carter, Delano R.; Todirita, Monica; Chu, Donald

    2016-01-01

    The GOES-R magnetometer accuracy requirement is 1.7 nanoteslas (nT). During quiet times (100 nT), accuracy is defined as absolute mean plus 3 sigma. During storms (300 nT), accuracy is defined as absolute mean plus 2 sigma. To achieve this, the sensor itself has better than 1 nT accuracy. Because zero offset and scale factor drift over time, it is also necessary to perform annual calibration maneuvers. To predict performance, we used covariance analysis and attempted to corroborate it with simulations. Although not perfect, the two generally agree and show the expected behaviors. With the annual calibration regimen, these predictions suggest that the magnetometers will meet their accuracy requirements.

  10. Absolute positioning using DORIS tracking of the SPOT-2 satellite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Watkins, M. M.; Ries, J. C.; Davis, G. W.

    1992-01-01

    The ability of the French DORIS system operating on the SPOT-2 satellite to provide absolute site positioning at the 20-30-centimeter level using 80 d of data is demonstrated. The accuracy of the vertical component is comparable to that of the horizontal components, indicating that residual troposphere error is not a limiting factor. The translation parameters indicate that the DORIS network realizes a geocentric frame to about 50 nm in each component. The considerable amount of data provided by the nearly global, all-weather DORIS network allowed this complex parameterization required to reduce the unmodeled forces acting on the low-earth satellite. Site velocities with accuracies better than 10 mm/yr should certainly be possible using the multiyear span of the SPOT series and Topex/Poseidon missions.

  11. Remote ultrasound palpation for robotic interventions using absolute elastography.

    PubMed

    Schneider, Caitlin; Baghani, Ali; Rohling, Robert; Salcudean, Septimiu

    2012-01-01

    Although robotic surgery has addressed many of the challenges presented by minimally invasive surgery, haptic feedback and the lack of knowledge of tissue stiffness is an unsolved problem. This paper presents a system for finding the absolute elastic properties of tissue using a freehand ultrasound scanning technique, which utilizes the da Vinci Surgical robot and a custom 2D ultrasound transducer for intraoperative use. An external exciter creates shear waves in the tissue, and a local frequency estimation method computes the shear modulus. Results are reported for both phantom and in vivo models. This system can be extended to any 6 degree-of-freedom tracking method and any 2D transducer to provide real-time absolute elastic properties of tissue.

  12. Oblique-incidence sounder measurements with absolute propagation delay timing

    SciTech Connect

    Daehler, M.

    1990-05-03

    Timing from the Global Position Satellite (GPS) system has been applied to HF oblique incidence sounder measurements to produce ionograms whose propagation delay time scale is absolutely calibrated. Such a calibration is useful for interpreting ionograms in terms of the electron density true-height profile for the ionosphere responsible for the propagation. Use of the time variations in the shape of the electron density profile, in conjunction with an HF propagation model, is expected to provide better near-term (1-24 hour) HF propagation forecasts than are available from current updating systems, which use only the MUF. Such a capability may provide the basis for HF frequency management techniques which are more efficient than current methods. Absolute timing and other techniques applicable to automatic extraction of the electron-density profile from an ionogram will be discussed.

  13. An absolute sensitivity calibration of the JET VUV SPRED spectrometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lawson, K. D.; Coffey, I. H.; Zacks, J.; Stamp, M. F.; contributors, JET-EFDA

    2009-04-01

    The determination of a good relative and absolute sensitivity calibration for wideband VUV spectrometers is challenging. On JET, the possible T and Be contamination of the VUV spectrometer precludes its removal to a synchrotron source and, consequently, a range of alternative in situ techniques have been investigated in depth. This has resulted in a reliable calibration for the complete spectral range, the relative calibration at short wavelengths being particularly accurate. At these wavelengths, a novel approach is used, in which the calibration is extended using a number of Na- and Li-like metal doublets. At longer wavelengths, the Li-like doublets of Ar and Ne have been used in conjunction with CII, CIII and CIV line intensity ratios. Unexplained discrepancies between the measured and modelled C results have meant that the exceptional short wavelength accuracy has not be repeated at these longer wavelengths. The absolute sensitivity has been determined from branching ratios to an absolutely calibrated visible spectrometer. The long term stability of the calibration is discussed.

  14. Absolute Pitch in Boreal Chickadees and Humans: Exceptions that Test a Phylogenetic Rule

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weisman, Ronald G.; Balkwill, Laura-Lee; Hoeschele, Marisa; Moscicki, Michele K.; Bloomfield, Laurie L.; Sturdy, Christopher B.

    2010-01-01

    This research examined generality of the phylogenetic rule that birds discriminate frequency ranges more accurately than mammals. Human absolute pitch chroma possessors accurately tracked transitions between frequency ranges. Independent tests showed that they used note naming (pitch chroma) to remap the tones into ranges; neither possessors nor…

  15. Absolute quantitation of protein posttranslational modification isoform.

    PubMed

    Yang, Zhu; Li, Ning

    2015-01-01

    Mass spectrometry has been widely applied in characterization and quantification of proteins from complex biological samples. Because the numbers of absolute amounts of proteins are needed in construction of mathematical models for molecular systems of various biological phenotypes and phenomena, a number of quantitative proteomic methods have been adopted to measure absolute quantities of proteins using mass spectrometry. The liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) coupled with internal peptide standards, i.e., the stable isotope-coded peptide dilution series, which was originated from the field of analytical chemistry, becomes a widely applied method in absolute quantitative proteomics research. This approach provides more and more absolute protein quantitation results of high confidence. As quantitative study of posttranslational modification (PTM) that modulates the biological activity of proteins is crucial for biological science and each isoform may contribute a unique biological function, degradation, and/or subcellular location, the absolute quantitation of protein PTM isoforms has become more relevant to its biological significance. In order to obtain the absolute cellular amount of a PTM isoform of a protein accurately, impacts of protein fractionation, protein enrichment, and proteolytic digestion yield should be taken into consideration and those effects before differentially stable isotope-coded PTM peptide standards are spiked into sample peptides have to be corrected. Assisted with stable isotope-labeled peptide standards, the absolute quantitation of isoforms of posttranslationally modified protein (AQUIP) method takes all these factors into account and determines the absolute amount of a protein PTM isoform from the absolute amount of the protein of interest and the PTM occupancy at the site of the protein. The absolute amount of the protein of interest is inferred by quantifying both the absolute amounts of a few PTM

  16. A microwave position sensor with submillimeter accuracy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stelzer, A.; Diskus, C. G.; Lubke, K.; Thim, H. W.

    1999-12-01

    Design and characteristics of a prototype distance sensor are presented in this paper. The radar front-end operates at 35 GHz and applies six-port technology and direct frequency measurement. The sensor makes use of both frequency-modulated continuous wave and interferometer principles and is capable of measuring distance with a very high accuracy of ±0.1 mm.

  17. Absolute realization of low BRDF value

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Zilong; Liao, Ningfang; Li, Ping; Wang, Yu

    2010-10-01

    Low BRDF value is widespread used in many critical domains such as space and military fairs. These values below 0.1 Sr-1 . So the Absolute realization of these value is the most critical issue in the absolute measurement of BRDF. To develop the Absolute value realization theory of BRDF , defining an arithmetic operators of BRDF , achieving an absolute measurement Eq. of BRDF based on radiance. This is a new theory method to solve the realization problem of low BRDF value. This theory method is realized on a self-designed common double orientation structure in space. By designing an adding structure to extend the range of the measurement system and a control and processing software, Absolute realization of low BRDF value is achieved. A material of low BRDF value is measured in this measurement system and the spectral BRDF value are showed within different angles allover the space. All these values are below 0.4 Sr-1 . This process is a representative procedure about the measurement of low BRDF value. A corresponding uncertainty analysis of this measurement data is given depend on the new theory of absolute realization and the performance of the measurement system. The relative expand uncertainty of the measurement data is 0.078. This uncertainty analysis is suitable for all measurements using the new theory of absolute realization and the corresponding measurement system.

  18. Accuracy of the correlation method of the thermal neutron absorption cross-section determination for rocks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krynicka, Ewa

    1995-08-01

    The influence of various random errors on the accuracy of thermal neutron absorption cross-sections determined by a correlation method is discussed. It is considered either as an absolute accuracy, when all experimental errors arc taken into account, or as an experimental assay accuracy, when the reference moderator parameters are assumed as the invariant data fixed for all experiments. The estimated accuracy is compared with the accuracy of results obtained for the same rock sample by Czubek's measurement method.

  19. Absolute determination of local tropospheric OH concentrations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Armerding, Wolfgang; Comes, Franz-Josef

    1994-01-01

    Long path absorption (LPA) according to Lambert Beer's law is a method to determine absolute concentrations of trace gases such as tropospheric OH. We have developed a LPA instrument which is based on a rapid tuning of the light source which is a frequency doubled dye laser. The laser is tuned across two or three OH absorption features around 308 nm with a scanning speed of 0.07 cm(exp -1)/microsecond and a repetition rate of 1.3 kHz. This high scanning speed greatly reduces the fluctuation of the light intensity caused by the atmosphere. To obtain the required high sensitivity the laser output power is additionally made constant and stabilized by an electro-optical modulator. The present sensitivity is of the order of a few times 10(exp 5) OH per cm(exp 3) for an acquisition time of a minute and an absorption path length of only 1200 meters so that a folding of the optical path in a multireflection cell was possible leading to a lateral dimension of the cell of a few meters. This allows local measurements to be made. Tropospheric measurements have been carried out in 1991 resulting in the determination of OH diurnal variation at specific days in late summer. Comparison with model calculations have been made. Interferences are mainly due to SO2 absorption. The problem of OH self generation in the multireflection cell is of minor extent. This could be shown by using different experimental methods. The minimum-maximum signal to noise ratio is about 8 x 10(exp -4) for a single scan. Due to the small size of the absorption cell the realization of an open air laboratory is possible in which by use of an additional UV light source or by additional fluxes of trace gases the chemistry can be changed under controlled conditions allowing kinetic studies of tropospheric photochemistry to be made in open air.

  20. Absolute Position of Targets Measured Through a Chamber Window Using Lidar Metrology Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kubalak, David; Hadjimichael, Theodore; Ohl, Raymond; Slotwinski, Anthony; Telfer, Randal; Hayden, Joseph

    2012-01-01

    Lidar is a useful tool for taking metrology measurements without the need for physical contact with the parts under test. Lidar instruments are aimed at a target using azimuth and elevation stages, then focus a beam of coherent, frequency modulated laser energy onto the target, such as the surface of a mechanical structure. Energy from the reflected beam is mixed with an optical reference signal that travels in a fiber path internal to the instrument, and the range to the target is calculated based on the difference in the frequency of the returned and reference signals. In cases when the parts are in extreme environments, additional steps need to be taken to separate the operator and lidar from that environment. A model has been developed that accurately reduces the lidar data to an absolute position and accounts for the three media in the testbed air, fused silica, and vacuum but the approach can be adapted for any environment or material. The accuracy of laser metrology measurements depends upon knowing the parameters of the media through which the measurement beam travels. Under normal conditions, this means knowledge of the temperature, pressure, and humidity of the air in the measurement volume. In the past, chamber windows have been used to separate the measuring device from the extreme environment within the chamber and still permit optical measurement, but, so far, only relative changes have been diagnosed. The ability to make accurate measurements through a window presents a challenge as there are a number of factors to consider. In the case of the lidar, the window will increase the time-of-flight of the laser beam causing a ranging error, and refract the direction of the beam causing angular positioning errors. In addition, differences in pressure, temperature, and humidity on each side of the window will cause slight atmospheric index changes and induce deformation and a refractive index gradient within the window. Also, since the window is a

  1. Error analysis in newborn screening: can quotients support the absolute values?

    PubMed

    Arneth, Borros; Hintz, Martin

    2017-03-01

    Newborn screening is performed using modern tandem mass spectrometry, which can simultaneously detect a variety of analytes, including several amino acids and fatty acids. Tandem mass spectrometry measures the diagnostic parameters as absolute concentrations and produces fragments which are used as markers of specific substances. Several prominent quotients can also be derived, which are quotients of two absolute measured concentrations. In this study, we determined the precision of both the absolute concentrations and the derived quotients. First, the measurement error of the absolute concentrations and the measurement error of the ratios were practically determined. Then, the Gaussian theory of error calculation was used. Finally, these errors were compared with one another. The practical analytical accuracies of the quotients were significantly higher (e.g., coefficient of variation (CV) = 5.1% for the phenylalanine to tyrosine (Phe/Tyr) quotient and CV = 5.6% for the Fisher quotient) than the accuracies of the absolute measured concentrations (mean CVs = 12%). According to our results, the ratios are analytically correct and, from an analytical point of view, can support the absolute values in finding the correct diagnosis.

  2. Frequency comb metrology with an optical parametric oscillator.

    PubMed

    Balskus, K; Schilt, S; Wittwer, V J; Brochard, P; Ploetzing, T; Jornod, N; McCracken, R A; Zhang, Z; Bartels, A; Reid, D T; Südmeyer, T

    2016-04-18

    We report on the first demonstration of absolute frequency comb metrology with an optical parametric oscillator (OPO) frequency comb. The synchronously-pumped OPO operated in the 1.5-µm spectral region and was referenced to an H-maser atomic clock. Using different techniques, we thoroughly characterized the frequency noise power spectral density (PSD) of the repetition rate frep, of the carrier-envelope offset frequency fCEO, and of an optical comb line νN. The comb mode optical linewidth at 1557 nm was determined to be ~70 kHz for an observation time of 1 s from the measured frequency noise PSD, and was limited by the stability of the microwave frequency standard available for the stabilization of the comb repetition rate. We achieved a tight lock of the carrier envelope offset frequency with only ~300 mrad residual integrated phase noise, which makes its contribution to the optical linewidth negligible. The OPO comb was used to measure the absolute optical frequency of a near-infrared laser whose second-harmonic component was locked to the F = 2→3 transition of the 87Rb D2 line at 780 nm, leading to a measured transition frequency of νRb = 384,228,115,346 ± 16 kHz. We performed the same measurement with a commercial fiber-laser comb operating in the 1.5-µm region. Both the OPO comb and the commercial fiber comb achieved similar performance. The measurement accuracy was limited by interferometric noise in the fibered setup of the Rb-stabilized laser.

  3. Cosmic backgrounds of relic gravitons and their absolute normalization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giovannini, Massimo

    2014-11-01

    Provided the consistency relations are not violated, the recent BICEP2 observations pin down the absolute normalization, the spectral slope and the maximal frequency of the cosmic graviton background produced during inflation. The properly normalized spectra are hereby computed from the lowest frequencies (of the order of the present Hubble rate) up to the highest frequency range in the GHz region. Deviations from the conventional paradigm cannot be excluded and are examined by allowing for different physical possibilities including, in particular, a running of the tensor spectral index, an explicit breaking of the consistency relations and a spike in the high-frequency tail of the spectrum coming either from a post-inflationary phase dominated by a stiff fluid or from the contribution of waterfall fields in a hybrid inflationary context. The direct determinations of the tensor to scalar ratio at low frequencies, if confirmed by the forthcoming observations, will also affect and constrain the high-frequency uncertainties. The limits on the cosmic graviton backgrounds coming from wide-band interferometers (such as LIGO/Virgo, LISA and BBO/DECIGO) together with a more accurate scrutiny of the tensor B-mode polarization at low frequencies will set direct bounds on the post-inflationary evolution and on other unconventional completions of the standard lore.

  4. Methods to calibrate the absolute receive sensitivity of single-element, focused transducers.

    PubMed

    Rich, Kyle T; Mast, T Douglas

    2015-09-01

    Absolute pressure measurements of acoustic emissions by single-element, focused passive cavitation detectors would be facilitated by improved wideband receive calibration techniques. Here, calibration methods were developed to characterize the absolute, frequency-dependent receive sensitivity of a spherically focused, single-element transducer using pulse-echo and pitch-catch techniques. Validation of these calibration methods on a focused receiver were made by generating a pulse from a small diameter source at the focus of the transducer and comparing the absolute pressure measured by a calibrated hydrophone to that of the focused transducer using the receive sensitivities determined here.

  5. Measurement accuracies in band-limited extrapolation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kritikos, H. N.

    1982-01-01

    The problem of numerical instability associated with extrapolation algorithms is addressed. An attempt is made to estimate the bounds for the acceptable errors and to place a ceiling on the measurement accuracy and computational accuracy needed for the extrapolation. It is shown that in band limited (or visible angle limited) extrapolation the larger effective aperture L' that can be realized from a finite aperture L by over sampling is a function of the accuracy of measurements. It is shown that for sampling in the interval L/b absolute value of xL, b1 the signal must be known within an error e sub N given by e sub N squared approximately = 1/4(2kL') cubed (e/8b L/L')(2kL') where L is the physical aperture, L' is the extrapolated aperture, and k = 2pi lambda.

  6. Absolute flatness testing of skip-flat interferometry by matrix analysis in polar coordinates.

    PubMed

    Han, Zhi-Gang; Yin, Lu; Chen, Lei; Zhu, Ri-Hong

    2016-03-20

    A new method utilizing matrix analysis in polar coordinates has been presented for absolute testing of skip-flat interferometry. The retrieval of the absolute profile mainly includes three steps: (1) transform the wavefront maps of the two cavity measurements into data in polar coordinates; (2) retrieve the profile of the reflective flat in polar coordinates by matrix analysis; and (3) transform the profile of the reflective flat back into data in Cartesian coordinates and retrieve the profile of the sample. Simulation of synthetic surface data has been provided, showing the capability of the approach to achieve an accuracy of the order of 0.01 nm RMS. The absolute profile can be retrieved by a set of closed mathematical formulas without polynomial fitting of wavefront maps or the iterative evaluation of an error function, making the new method more efficient for absolute testing.

  7. IMPROVEMENT OF SMVGEAR II ON VECTOR AND SCALAR MACHINES THROUGH ABSOLUTE ERROR TOLERANCE CONTROL (R823186)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The computer speed of SMVGEAR II was improved markedly on scalar and vector machines with relatively little loss in accuracy. The improvement was due to a method of frequently recalculating the absolute error tolerance instead of keeping it constant for a given set of chemistry. ...

  8. Demonstrating the Error Budget for the Climate Absolute Radiance and Refractivity Observatory Through Solar Irradiance Measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thome, Kurtis; McCorkel, Joel; McAndrew, Brendan

    2016-01-01

    The Climate Absolute Radiance and Refractivity Observatory (CLARREO) mission addresses the need to observe highaccuracy, long-term climate change trends and to use decadal change observations as a method to determine the accuracy of climate change. A CLARREO objective is to improve the accuracy of SI-traceable, absolute calibration at infrared and reflected solar wavelengths to reach on-orbit accuracies required to allow climate change observations to survive data gaps and observe climate change at the limit of natural variability. Such an effort will also demonstrate National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) approaches for use in future spaceborne instruments. The current work describes the results of laboratory and field measurements with the Solar, Lunar for Absolute Reflectance Imaging Spectroradiometer (SOLARIS) which is the calibration demonstration system (CDS) for the reflected solar portion of CLARREO. SOLARIS allows testing and evaluation of calibration approaches, alternate design and/or implementation approaches and components for the CLARREO mission. SOLARIS also provides a test-bed for detector technologies, non-linearity determination and uncertainties, and application of future technology developments and suggested spacecraft instrument design modifications. Results of laboratory calibration measurements are provided to demonstrate key assumptions about instrument behavior that are needed to achieve CLARREO's climate measurement requirements. Absolute radiometric response is determined using laser-based calibration sources and applied to direct solar views for comparison with accepted solar irradiance models to demonstrate accuracy values giving confidence in the error budget for the CLARREO reflectance retrieval.

  9. Electrical Noise and the Measurement of Absolute Temperature, Boltzmann's Constant and Avogadro's Number.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ericson, T. J.

    1988-01-01

    Describes an apparatus capable of measuring absolute temperatures of a tungsten filament bulb up to normal running temperature and measuring Botzmann's constant to an accuracy of a few percent. Shows that electrical noise techniques are convenient to demonstrate how the concept of temperature is related to the micro- and macroscopic world. (CW)

  10. A New Gimmick for Assigning Absolute Configuration.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ayorinde, F. O.

    1983-01-01

    A five-step procedure is provided to help students in making the assignment absolute configuration less bothersome. Examples for both single (2-butanol) and multi-chiral carbon (3-chloro-2-butanol) molecules are included. (JN)

  11. Magnifying absolute instruments for optically homogeneous regions

    SciTech Connect

    Tyc, Tomas

    2011-09-15

    We propose a class of magnifying absolute optical instruments with a positive isotropic refractive index. They create magnified stigmatic images, either virtual or real, of optically homogeneous three-dimensional spatial regions within geometrical optics.

  12. The Simplicity Argument and Absolute Morality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mijuskovic, Ben

    1975-01-01

    In this paper the author has maintained that there is a similarity of thought to be found in the writings of Cudworth, Emerson, and Husserl in his investigation of an absolute system of morality. (Author/RK)

  13. Absolute cross sections of compound nucleus reactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Capurro, O. A.

    1993-11-01

    The program SEEF is a Fortran IV computer code for the extraction of absolute cross sections of compound nucleus reactions. When the evaporation residue is fed by its parents, only cumulative cross sections will be obtained from off-line gamma ray measurements. But, if one has the parent excitation function (experimental or calculated), this code will make it possible to determine absolute cross sections of any exit channel.

  14. Kelvin and the absolute temperature scale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Erlichson, Herman

    2001-07-01

    This paper describes the absolute temperature scale of Kelvin (William Thomson). Kelvin found that Carnot's axiom about heat being a conserved quantity had to be abandoned. Nevertheless, he found that Carnot's fundamental work on heat engines was correct. Using the concept of a Carnot engine Kelvin found that Q1/Q2 = T1/T2. Thermometers are not used to obtain absolute temperatures since they are calculated temperatures.

  15. Method of differential-phase/absolute-amplitude QAM

    DOEpatents

    Dimsdle, Jeffrey William

    2008-10-21

    A method of quadrature amplitude modulation involving encoding phase differentially and amplitude absolutely, allowing for a high data rate and spectral efficiency in data transmission and other communication applications, and allowing for amplitude scaling to facilitate data recovery; amplitude scale tracking to track-out rapid and severe scale variations and facilitate successful demodulation and data retrieval; 2.sup.N power carrier recovery; incoherent demodulation where coherent carrier recovery is not possible or practical due to signal degradation; coherent demodulation; multipath equalization to equalize frequency dependent multipath; and demodulation filtering.

  16. Method of differential-phase/absolute-amplitude QAM

    DOEpatents

    Dimsdle, Jeffrey William

    2007-07-03

    A method of quadrature amplitude modulation involving encoding phase differentially and amplitude absolutely, allowing for a high data rate and spectral efficiency in data transmission and other communication applications, and allowing for amplitude scaling to facilitate data recovery; amplitude scale tracking to track-out rapid and severe scale variations and facilitate successful demodulation and data retrieval; 2.sup.N power carrier recovery; incoherent demodulation where coherent carrier recovery is not possible or practical due to signal degradation; coherent demodulation; multipath equalization to equalize frequency dependent multipath; and demodulation filtering.

  17. Method of differential-phase/absolute-amplitude QAM

    DOEpatents

    Dimsdle, Jeffrey William

    2007-10-02

    A method of quadrature amplitude modulation involving encoding phase differentially and amplitude absolutely, allowing for a high data rate and spectral efficiency in data transmission and other communication applications, and allowing for amplitude scaling to facilitate data recovery; amplitude scale tracking to track-out rapid and severe scale variations and facilitate successful demodulation and data retrieval; 2.sup.N power carrier recovery; incoherent demodulation where coherent carrier recovery is not possible or practical due to signal degradation; coherent demodulation; multipath equalization to equalize frequency dependent multipath; and demodulation filtering.

  18. Method of differential-phase/absolute-amplitude QAM

    SciTech Connect

    Dimsdle, Jeffrey William

    2009-09-01

    A method of quadrature amplitude modulation involving encoding phase differentially and amplitude absolutely, allowing for a high data rate and spectral efficiency in data transmission and other communication applications, and allowing for amplitude scaling to facilitate data recovery; amplitude scale tracking to track-out rapid and severe scale variations and facilitate successful demodulation and data retrieval; 2.sup.N power carrier recovery; incoherent demodulation where coherent carrier recovery is not possible or practical due to signal degradation; coherent demodulation; multipath equalization to equalize frequency dependent multipath; and demodulation filtering.

  19. Method of differential-phase/absolute-amplitude QAM

    DOEpatents

    Dimsdle, Jeffrey William

    2007-07-17

    A method of quadrature amplitude modulation involving encoding phase differentially and amplitude absolutely, allowing for a high data rate and spectral efficiency in data transmission and other communication applications, and allowing for amplitude scaling to facilitate data recovery; amplitude scale tracking to track-out rapid and severe scale variations and facilitate successful demodulation and data retrieval; 2.sup.N power carrier recovery; incoherent demodulation where coherent carrier recovery is not possible or practical due to signal degradation; coherent demodulation; multipath equalization to equalize frequency dependent multipath; and demodulation filtering.

  20. Precision spectroscopy with a frequency-comb-calibrated solar spectrograph

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Doerr, H.-P.

    2015-06-01

    The measurement of the velocity field of the plasma at the solar surface is a standard diagnostic tool in observational solar physics. Detailed information about the energy transport as well as on the stratification of temperature, pressure and magnetic fields in the solar atmosphere are encoded in Doppler shifts and in the precise shape of the spectral lines. The available instruments deliver data of excellent quality and precision. However, absolute wavelength calibration in solar spectroscopy was so far mostly limited to indirect methods and in general suffers from large systematic uncertainties of the order of 100 m/s. During the course of this thesis, a novel wavelength calibration system based on a laser frequency comb was deployed to the solar Vacuum Tower Telescope (VTT), Tenerife, with the goal of enabling highly accurate solar wavelength measurements at the level of 1 m/s on an absolute scale. The frequency comb was developed in a collaboration between the Kiepenheuer-Institute for Solar Physics, Freiburg, Germany and the Max Planck Institute for Quantum Optics, Garching, Germany. The efforts cumulated in the new prototype instrument LARS (Lars is an Absolute Reference Spectrograph) for solar precision spectroscopy which is in preliminary scientific operation since~2013. The instrument is based on the high-resolution echelle spectrograph of the VTT for which feed optics based on single-mode optical fibres were developed for this project. The setup routinely achieves an absolute calibration accuracy of 60 cm/s and a repeatability of 2.5 cm/s. An unprecedented repeatability of only 0.32 cm/s could be demonstrated with a differential calibration scheme. In combination with the high spectral resolving power of the spectrograph of 7x10^5 and virtually absent internal scattered light, LARS provides a spectral purity and fidelity that previously was the domain of Fourier-transform spectrometers only. The instrument therefore provides unique capabilities for

  1. Assessing and ensuring GOES-R magnetometer accuracy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carter, Delano; Todirita, Monica; Kronenwetter, Jeffrey; Dahya, Melissa; Chu, Donald

    2016-05-01

    The GOES-R magnetometer subsystem accuracy requirement is 1.7 nanoteslas (nT). During quiet times (100 nT), accuracy is defined as absolute mean plus 3 sigma error per axis. During storms (300 nT), accuracy is defined as absolute mean plus 2 sigma error per axis. Error comes both from outside the magnetometers, e.g. spacecraft fields and misalignments, as well as inside, e.g. zero offset and scale factor errors. Because zero offset and scale factor drift over time, it will be necessary to perform annual calibration maneuvers. To predict performance before launch, we have used Monte Carlo simulations and covariance analysis. With the proposed calibration regimen, both suggest that the magnetometer subsystem will meet its accuracy requirements.

  2. Virtual pitch extraction from harmonic structures by absolute-pitch musicians

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hsieh, I.-Hui; Saberi, Kourosh

    2009-03-01

    The ability of absolute-pitch (AP) musicians to identify or produce virtual pitch from harmonic structures without feedback or an external acoustic referent was examined in three experiments. Stimuli consisted of pure tones, missing-fundamental harmonic complexes, or piano notes highpass filtered to remove their fundamental frequency and lower harmonics. Results of Experiment I showed that relative to control (non-AP) musicians, AP subjects easily (>90%) identified pitch of harmonic complexes in a 12-alternative forced-choice task. Increasing harmonic order (i.e., lowest harmonic number in the complex), however, resulted in a monotonic decline in performance. Results suggest that AP musicians use two pitch cues from harmonic structures: 1) spectral spacing between harmonic components, and 2) octave-related cues to note identification in individually resolved harmonics. Results of Experiment II showed that highpass filtered piano notes are identified by AP subjects at better than 75% accuracy even when the note’s energy is confined to the 4th and higher harmonics. Identification of highpass piano notes also appears to be better than that expected from pure or complex tones, possibly due to contributions from familiar timbre cues to note identity. Results of Experiment III showed that AP subjects can adjust the spectral spacing between harmonics of a missing-fundamental complex to accurately match the expected spacing from a target musical note. Implications of these findings for mechanisms of AP encoding are discussed.

  3. Accuracy of the Cloud Integrating Nephelometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gerber, Hermann E.

    2004-01-01

    Potential error sources for measurements with the Cloud Integrating Nephelometer (CIN) are discussed and analyzed, including systematic errors of the measurement approach, flow and particle-trajectory deviations at flight velocity, ice-crystal breakup on probe surfaces, and errors in calibration and developing scaling constants. It is concluded that errors are minimal, and that the accuracy of the CIN should be close to the systematic behavior of the CIN derived in Gerber et al (2000). Absolute calibration of the CIN with a transmissometer operating co-located in a mountain-top cloud shows that the earlier scaling constant for the optical extinction coefficient obtained by other means is within 5% of the absolute calibration value, and that the CIN measurements on the Citation aircraft flights during the CRYSTAL-FACE study are accurate.

  4. Jasminum flexile flower absolute from India--a detailed comparison with three other jasmine absolutes.

    PubMed

    Braun, Norbert A; Kohlenberg, Birgit; Sim, Sherina; Meier, Manfred; Hammerschmidt, Franz-Josef

    2009-09-01

    Jasminum flexile flower absolute from the south of India and the corresponding vacuum headspace (VHS) sample of the absolute were analyzed using GC and GC-MS. Three other commercially available Indian jasmine absolutes from the species: J. sambac, J. officinale subsp. grandiflorum, and J. auriculatum and the respective VHS samples were used for comparison purposes. One hundred and twenty-one compounds were characterized in J. flexile flower absolute, with methyl linolate, benzyl salicylate, benzyl benzoate, (2E,6E)-farnesol, and benzyl acetate as the main constituents. A detailed olfactory evaluation was also performed.

  5. Geolocation Accuracy Evaluations of OrbView-3, EROS-A, and SPOT-5 Imagery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bresnahan, Paul

    2007-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation evaluates absolute geolocation accuracy of OrbView-3, EROS-A, and SPOT-5 by comparing test imagery-derived ground coordinates to Ground Control Points using SOCET set photogrammetric software.

  6. Improvement in absolute calibration accuracy of Landsat-5 TM with Landsat-7 ETM+ data

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Chander, G.; Markham, B.L.; Micijevic, E.; Teillet, P.M.; Helder, D.L.; ,

    2005-01-01

    The ability to detect and quantify changes in the Earth's environment depends on satellites sensors that can provide calibrated, consistent measurements of Earth's surface features through time. A critical step in this process is to put image data from subsequent generations of sensors onto a common radiometric scale. To evaluate Landsat-5 (L5) Thematic Mapper's (TM) utility in this role, image pairs from the L5 TM and Landsat-7 (L7) Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus (ETM+) sensors were compared. This approach involves comparison of surface observations based on image statistics from large common areas observed eight days apart by the two sensors. The results indicate a significant improvement in the consistency of L5 TM data with respect to L7 ETM+ data, achieved using a revised Look-Up-Table (LUT) procedure as opposed to the historical Internal Calibrator (IC) procedure previously used in the L5 TM product generation system. The average percent difference in reflectance estimates obtained from the L5 TM agree with those from the L7 ETM+ in the Visible and Near Infrared (VNIR) bands to within four percent and in the Short Wave Infrared (SWIR) bands to within six percent.

  7. Radiometric absolute noise-temperature measurement system features improved accuracy and calibration ease

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brown, W.; Ewen, H.; Haroules, G.

    1970-01-01

    Radiometric receiver system, which measures noise temperatures in degrees Kelvin, does not require cryogenic noise sources for routine operation. It eliminates radiometer calibration errors associated with RF attenuation measurements. Calibrated noise source is required only for laboratory adjustment and calibration.

  8. Absolute Radiometric Calibration of ALS Intensity Data: Effects on Accuracy and Target Classification

    PubMed Central

    Kaasalainen, Sanna; Pyysalo, Ulla; Krooks, Anssi; Vain, Ants; Kukko, Antero; Hyyppä, Juha; Kaasalainen, Mikko

    2011-01-01

    Radiometric calibration of airborne laser scanning (ALS) intensity data aims at retrieving a value related to the target scattering properties, which is independent on the instrument or flight parameters. The aim of a calibration procedure is also to be able to compare results from different flights and instruments, but practical applications are sparsely available, and the performance of calibration methods for this purpose needs to be further assessed. We have studied the radiometric calibration with data from three separate flights and two different instruments using external calibration targets. We find that the intensity data from different flights and instruments can be compared to each other only after a radiometric calibration process using separate calibration targets carefully selected for each flight. The calibration is also necessary for target classification purposes, such as separating vegetation from sand using intensity data from different flights. The classification results are meaningful only for calibrated intensity data. PMID:22346660

  9. Universal Cosmic Absolute and Modern Science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kostro, Ludwik

    The official Sciences, especially all natural sciences, respect in their researches the principle of methodic naturalism i.e. they consider all phenomena as entirely natural and therefore in their scientific explanations they do never adduce or cite supernatural entities and forces. The purpose of this paper is to show that Modern Science has its own self-existent, self-acting, and self-sufficient Natural All-in Being or Omni-Being i.e. the entire Nature as a Whole that justifies the scientific methodic naturalism. Since this Natural All-in Being is one and only It should be considered as the own scientifically justified Natural Absolute of Science and should be called, in my opinion, the Universal Cosmic Absolute of Modern Science. It will be also shown that the Universal Cosmic Absolute is ontologically enormously stratified and is in its ultimate i.e. in its most fundamental stratum trans-reistic and trans-personal. It means that in its basic stratum. It is neither a Thing or a Person although It contains in Itself all things and persons with all other sentient and conscious individuals as well, On the turn of the 20th century the Science has begun to look for a theory of everything, for a final theory, for a master theory. In my opinion the natural Universal Cosmic Absolute will constitute in such a theory the radical all penetrating Ultimate Basic Reality and will substitute step by step the traditional supernatural personal Absolute.

  10. Analysis of absolute flatness testing in sub-stitching interferometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jia, Xin; Xu, Fuchao; Xie, Weimin; Xing, Tingwen

    2016-09-01

    Sub-aperture stitching is an effective way to extend the lateral and vertical dynamic range of a conventional interferometer. The test accuracy can be achieved by removing the error of reference surface by the absolute testing method. When the testing accuracy (repeatability and reproducibility) is close to 1nm, in addition to the reference surface, other factors will also affect the measuring accuracy such as environment, zoom magnification, stitching precision, tooling and fixture, the characteristics of optical materials and so on. In the thousand level cleanroom, we establish a good environment system. Long time stability, temperature controlled at 22°+/-0.02°.The humidity and noise are controlled in a certain range. We establish a stitching system in the clean room. The vibration testing system is used to test the vibration. The air pressure testing system is also used. In the motion system, we control the tilt error no more than 4 second to reduce the error. The angle error can be tested by the autocollimator and double grating reading head.

  11. Inviscid instability of the Batchelor vortex: Absolute-convective transition and spatial branches

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olendraru, Cornel; Sellier, Antoine; Rossi, Maurice; Huerre, Patrick

    1999-07-01

    The main objective of the study is to examine the spatio-temporal instability properties of the Batchelor q-vortex, as a function of swirl ratio q and external axial flow parameter a. The inviscid dispersion relation between complex axial wave number and frequency is determined by numerical integration of the Howard-Gupta ordinary differential equation. The absolute-convective nature of the instability is then ascertained by application of the Briggs-Bers zero-group-velocity criterion. A moderate amount of swirl is found to promote the onset of absolute instability. In the case of wakes, transition from convective to absolute instability always takes place via the helical mode of azimuthal wave number m=-1. For sufficiently large swirl, co-flowing wakes become absolutely unstable. In the case of jets, transition from absolute to convective instability occurs through various helical modes, the transitional azimuthal wave number m being negative but sensitive to increasing swirl. For sufficiently large swirl, weakly co-flowing jets become absolutely unstable. These results are in good qualitative and quantitative agreement with those obtained by Delbende et al. through a direct numerical simulation of the linear response. Finally, the spatial (complex axial wave number, real frequency) instability characteristics are illustrated for the case of zero-external flow swirling jets.

  12. Partial avoidance contingencies: Absolute omission and punishment probabilities1

    PubMed Central

    Flye, Barbaba L.; Gibbon, John

    1979-01-01

    Avoidance contingencies were defined by the absolute probability of the conjunction of responding or not responding with shock or no shock. The “omission” probability (ρ00) is the probability of no response and no shock. The “punishment” probability (ρ11) is the probability of both a response and a shock. The traditional avoidance contingency never omits shock on nonresponse trials (ρ00=0) and never presents shock on response trials (ρ11=0). Rats were trained on a discrete-trial paradigm with no intertrial interval. The first lever response changed an auditory stimulus for the remainder of the trial. Shocks were delivered only at the end of each trial cycle. After initial training under the traditional avoidance contingency, one group of rats experienced changes in omission probability (ρ00>0), holding punishment probability at zero. The second group of rats were studied under different punishment probability values (ρ11>0), holding omission probability at zero. Data from subjects in the omission group looked similar, showing graded decrements in responding with increasing probability of omission. These subjects approximately “matched” their nonresponse frequencies to the programmed probability of shock omission on nonresponse trials, producing a very low and approximately constant conditional probability of shock given no response. Subjects in the punishment group showed different sensitivity to increasing absolute punishment probability. Some subjects decreased responding to low values as punishment probability increased, while others continued to respond at substantial levels even when shock was inevitable on all trials (noncontingent shock schedule). These results confirm an asymmetry between two dimensions of partial avoidance contingencies. When the consequences of not responding included occasional omission of shock, all subjects showed graded sensitivity to changes in omission frequency. When the consequences of responding included

  13. Quantitative standards for absolute linguistic universals.

    PubMed

    Piantadosi, Steven T; Gibson, Edward

    2014-01-01

    Absolute linguistic universals are often justified by cross-linguistic analysis: If all observed languages exhibit a property, the property is taken to be a likely universal, perhaps specified in the cognitive or linguistic systems of language learners and users. In many cases, these patterns are then taken to motivate linguistic theory. Here, we show that cross-linguistic analysis will very rarely be able to statistically justify absolute, inviolable patterns in language. We formalize two statistical methods--frequentist and Bayesian--and show that in both it is possible to find strict linguistic universals, but that the numbers of independent languages necessary to do so is generally unachievable. This suggests that methods other than typological statistics are necessary to establish absolute properties of human language, and thus that many of the purported universals in linguistics have not received sufficient empirical justification.

  14. Absolute flux density calibrations of radio sources: 2.3 GHz

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Freiley, A. J.; Batelaan, P. D.; Bathker, D. A.

    1977-01-01

    A detailed description of a NASA/JPL Deep Space Network program to improve S-band gain calibrations of large aperture antennas is reported. The program is considered unique in at least three ways; first, absolute gain calibrations of high quality suppressed-sidelobe dual mode horns first provide a high accuracy foundation to the foundation to the program. Second, a very careful transfer calibration technique using an artificial far-field coherent-wave source was used to accurately obtain the gain of one large (26 m) aperture. Third, using the calibrated large aperture directly, the absolute flux density of five selected galactic and extragalactic natural radio sources was determined with an absolute accuracy better than 2 percent, now quoted at the familiar 1 sigma confidence level. The follow-on considerations to apply these results to an operational network of ground antennas are discussed. It is concluded that absolute gain accuracies within + or - 0.30 to 0.40 db are possible, depending primarily on the repeatability (scatter) in the field data from Deep Space Network user stations.

  15. Accuracy metrics for judging time scale algorithms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Douglas, R. J.; Boulanger, J.-S.; Jacques, C.

    1994-01-01

    Time scales have been constructed in different ways to meet the many demands placed upon them for time accuracy, frequency accuracy, long-term stability, and robustness. Usually, no single time scale is optimum for all purposes. In the context of the impending availability of high-accuracy intermittently-operated cesium fountains, we reconsider the question of evaluating the accuracy of time scales which use an algorithm to span interruptions of the primary standard. We consider a broad class of calibration algorithms that can be evaluated and compared quantitatively for their accuracy in the presence of frequency drift and a full noise model (a mixture of white PM, flicker PM, white FM, flicker FM, and random walk FM noise). We present the analytic techniques for computing the standard uncertainty for the full noise model and this class of calibration algorithms. The simplest algorithm is evaluated to find the average-frequency uncertainty arising from the noise of the cesium fountain's local oscillator and from the noise of a hydrogen maser transfer-standard. This algorithm and known noise sources are shown to permit interlaboratory frequency transfer with a standard uncertainty of less than 10(exp -15) for periods of 30-100 days.

  16. Absolutely relative or relatively absolute: violations of value invariance in human decision making.

    PubMed

    Teodorescu, Andrei R; Moran, Rani; Usher, Marius

    2016-02-01

    Making decisions based on relative rather than absolute information processing is tied to choice optimality via the accumulation of evidence differences and to canonical neural processing via accumulation of evidence ratios. These theoretical frameworks predict invariance of decision latencies to absolute intensities that maintain differences and ratios, respectively. While information about the absolute values of the choice alternatives is not necessary for choosing the best alternative, it may nevertheless hold valuable information about the context of the decision. To test the sensitivity of human decision making to absolute values, we manipulated the intensities of brightness stimuli pairs while preserving either their differences or their ratios. Although asked to choose the brighter alternative relative to the other, participants responded faster to higher absolute values. Thus, our results provide empirical evidence for human sensitivity to task irrelevant absolute values indicating a hard-wired mechanism that precedes executive control. Computational investigations of several modelling architectures reveal two alternative accounts for this phenomenon, which combine absolute and relative processing. One account involves accumulation of differences with activation dependent processing noise and the other emerges from accumulation of absolute values subject to the temporal dynamics of lateral inhibition. The potential adaptive role of such choice mechanisms is discussed.

  17. On the accuracy of the MB-pol many-body potential for water: Interaction energies, vibrational frequencies, and classical thermodynamic and dynamical properties from clusters to liquid water and ice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reddy, Sandeep K.; Straight, Shelby C.; Bajaj, Pushp; Huy Pham, C.; Riera, Marc; Moberg, Daniel R.; Morales, Miguel A.; Knight, Chris; Götz, Andreas W.; Paesani, Francesco

    2016-11-01

    The MB-pol many-body potential has recently emerged as an accurate molecular model for water simulations from the gas to the condensed phase. In this study, the accuracy of MB-pol is systematically assessed across the three phases of water through extensive comparisons with experimental data and high-level ab initio calculations. Individual many-body contributions to the interaction energies as well as vibrational spectra of water clusters calculated with MB-pol are in excellent agreement with reference data obtained at the coupled cluster level. Several structural, thermodynamic, and dynamical properties of the liquid phase at atmospheric pressure are investigated through classical molecular dynamics simulations as a function of temperature. The structural properties of the liquid phase are in nearly quantitative agreement with X-ray diffraction data available over the temperature range from 268 to 368 K. The analysis of other thermodynamic and dynamical quantities emphasizes the importance of explicitly including nuclear quantum effects in the simulations, especially at low temperature, for a physically correct description of the properties of liquid water. Furthermore, both densities and lattice energies of several ice phases are also correctly reproduced by MB-pol. Following a recent study of DFT models for water, a score is assigned to each computed property, which demonstrates the high and, in many respects, unprecedented accuracy of MB-pol in representing all three phases of water.

  18. Absolute Entropy and Energy of Carbon Dioxide Using the Two-Phase Thermodynamic Model.

    PubMed

    Huang, Shao-Nung; Pascal, Tod A; Goddard, William A; Maiti, Prabal K; Lin, Shiang-Tai

    2011-06-14

    The two-phase thermodynamic (2PT) model is used to determine the absolute entropy and energy of carbon dioxide over a wide range of conditions from molecular dynamics trajectories. The 2PT method determines the thermodynamic properties by applying the proper statistical mechanical partition function to the normal modes of a fluid. The vibrational density of state (DoS), obtained from the Fourier transform of the velocity autocorrelation function, converges quickly, allowing the free energy, entropy, and other thermodynamic properties to be determined from short 20-ps MD trajectories. The anharmonic effects in the vibrations are accounted for by the broadening of the normal modes into bands from sampling the velocities over the trajectory. The low frequency diffusive modes, which lead to finite DoS at zero frequency, are accounted for by considering the DoS as a superposition of gas-phase and solid-phase components (two phases). The analytical decomposition of the DoS allows for an evaluation of properties contributed by different types of molecular motions. We show that this 2PT analysis leads to accurate predictions of entropy and energy of CO2 over a wide range of conditions (from the triple point to the critical point of both the vapor and the liquid phases along the saturation line). This allows the equation of state of CO2 to be determined, which is limited only by the accuracy of the force field. We also validated that the 2PT entropy agrees with that determined from thermodynamic integration, but 2PT requires only a fraction of the time. A complication for CO2 is that its equilibrium configuration is linear, which would have only two rotational modes, but during the dynamics it is never exactly linear, so that there is a third mode from rotational about the axis. In this work, we show how to treat such linear molecules in the 2PT framework.

  19. Absolute properties of the triple star HP Aurigae

    SciTech Connect

    Lacy, Claud H. Sandberg; Burks, Charles L.; Torres, Guillermo; Wolf, Marek E-mail: clburks@email.uark.edu E-mail: wolf@cesnet.cz

    2014-01-01

    New photometric, spectroscopic, and eclipse timing observations of the eclipsing binary star HP Aur allow for very accurate orbital determinations, even in the presence of a third body and transient starspot activity. The eclipsing binary masses are determined to an accuracy of ±0.4% and the radii to ±0.6%. The masses are 0.9543 ± 0.0041 and 0.8094 ± 0.0036 solar masses, and the radii are 1.0278 ± 0.0042 and 0.7758 ± 0.0034 solar radii, respectively. The orbital period in the outer orbit is accurately determined for the first time: 4.332 ± 0.011 yr. A comparison with current theories of stellar evolution shows that the components' absolute properties can be well-matched by the current models at an age of about 7 billion years.

  20. Landsat-5 TM reflective-band absolute radiometric calibration

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Chander, G.; Helder, D.L.; Markham, B.L.; Dewald, J.D.; Kaita, E.; Thome, K.J.; Micijevic, E.; Ruggles, T.A.

    2004-01-01

    The Landsat-5 Thematic Mapper (TM) sensor provides the longest running continuous dataset of moderate spatial resolution remote sensing imagery, dating back to its launch in March 1984. Historically, the radiometric calibration procedure for this imagery used the instrument's response to the Internal Calibrator (IC) on a scene-by-scene basis to determine the gain and offset of each detector. Due to observed degradations in the IC, a new procedure was implemented for U.S.-processed data in May 2003. This new calibration procedure is based on a lifetime radiometric calibration model for the instrument's reflective bands (1-5 and 7) and is derived, in part, from the IC response without the related degradation effects and is tied to the cross calibration with the Landsat-7 Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus. Reflective-band absolute radiometric accuracy of the instrument tends to be on the order of 7% to 10%, based on a variety of calibration methods.

  1. Assignment of absolute stereostructures through quantum mechanics electronic and vibrational circular dichroism calculations.

    PubMed

    Dai, Peng; Jiang, Nan; Tan, Ren-Xiang

    2016-01-01

    Elucidation of absolute configuration of chiral molecules including structurally complex natural products remains a challenging problem in organic chemistry. A reliable method for assigning the absolute stereostructure is to combine the experimental circular dichroism (CD) techniques such as electronic and vibrational CD (ECD and VCD), with quantum mechanics (QM) ECD and VCD calculations. The traditional QM methods as well as their continuing developments make them more applicable with accuracy. Taking some chiral natural products with diverse conformations as examples, this review describes the basic concepts and new developments of QM approaches for ECD and VCD calculations in solution and solid states.

  2. Optical scanning extrinsic Fabry-Perot interferometer for absolute microdisplacement measurement.

    PubMed

    Li, T; May, R G; Wang, A; Claus, R O

    1997-12-01

    We report an optical-scanning, dual-fiber, extrinsic Fabry-Perot interferometer system for absolute measurement of microdisplacement. The system involves two air-gapped Fabry-Perot cavities, formed by fiber end faces, functioning as sensing and reference elements. Taking the scanning wavelength as an interconverter to compare the gap length of the sensing head with the reference-cavity length yields the absolute measurement of the sensing-cavity length. The measurement is independent of the wavelength-scanning accuracy, and the reference-cavity length can be self-calibrated simply by one's changing the sensing-head length by an accurate value.

  3. Absolute distance measurement with an optical feedback interferometer.

    PubMed

    Gouaux, F; Servagent, N; Bosch, T

    1998-10-01

    An important use of the self-mixing effect inside a frequency-modulated single-mode laser diode is in laser velocimetry and range-finding applications. The optical beam reflected by a target and injected into the laser diode cavity modulated by a reshaped current is mixed with the light inside the cavity, causing variations of the optical output power. A theoretical analysis of this effect is proposed, based on the determination of the beat frequencies of the optical power variations, to improve the accuracy of laser distance measurement. A resolution of ?1.5 mm from 50 cm to 2 m is obtained when thermal effects are taken into account.

  4. The new Absolute Quantum Gravimeter (AQG): first results and perspectives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bonvalot, Sylvain; Le Moigne, Nicolas; Merlet, Sebastien; Desruelle, Bruno; Lautier-Gaud, Jean; Menoret, Vincent; Vermeulen, Pierre

    2016-04-01

    Cold atom gravimetry represents one of the most innovative evolution in gravity instrumentation since the last 20 years. The concept of measuring the gravitational acceleration by dropping atoms and the development of the first instrumental devices during this last decade quickly revealed the promising perspectives of this new generation of gravity meters enabling accurate and absolute measurements of the Earth's gravity field for a wide range of applications (geophysics, geodesy, metrology, etc.). The Absolute Quantum Gravimeter (AQG) gravity meter, developed by MUQUANS (Talence, France - http://www.muquans.com/) with the support of RESIF, the French Seismologic and Geodetic Network (http://www.resif.fr/) belongs to this new generation of instruments. It also represents the first commercial device based on the utilization of advanced matter-wave interferometry techniques, which allow to characterize precisely the vertical acceleration experienced by a cloud of cold atoms. Recently, the first operational unit (AQG01) has been achieved as a compact transportable gravimeter with the aim of satisfying absolute gravity measurements in laboratory conditions under the following specifications: measurements the μGal level at a few Hz cycling frequency, sensitivity of 50μGal/√Hz, immunity to ground vibrations, easy and quickness of operation, automated continuous data acquisition for several months, etc. In order to evaluate the current performances of the AQG01, several experiments are carried out in collaboration between RESIF user's teams and the MUQUANS manufacturer on different reference gravity sites and laboratories in France. These measurements performed in indoor conditions including simultaneous observations with classical reference gravity instruments (corner-cube absolute gravity meters, relative superconducting meters) as well with the Cold Atom Gravity meter (CAG) developed by LNE-SYRTE, lead to a first objective characterization of the performances of

  5. Improvement in Rayleigh Scattering Measurement Accuracy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fagan, Amy F.; Clem, Michelle M.; Elam, Kristie A.

    2012-01-01

    Spectroscopic Rayleigh scattering is an established flow diagnostic that has the ability to provide simultaneous velocity, density, and temperature measurements. The Fabry-Perot interferometer or etalon is a commonly employed instrument for resolving the spectrum of molecular Rayleigh scattered light for the purpose of evaluating these flow properties. This paper investigates the use of an acousto-optic frequency shifting device to improve measurement accuracy in Rayleigh scattering experiments at the NASA Glenn Research Center. The frequency shifting device is used as a means of shifting the incident or reference laser frequency by 1100 MHz to avoid overlap of the Rayleigh and reference signal peaks in the interference pattern used to obtain the velocity, density, and temperature measurements, and also to calibrate the free spectral range of the Fabry-Perot etalon. The measurement accuracy improvement is evaluated by comparison of Rayleigh scattering measurements acquired with and without shifting of the reference signal frequency in a 10 mm diameter subsonic nozzle flow.

  6. Comparative vs. Absolute Judgments of Trait Desirability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hofstee, Willem K. B.

    1970-01-01

    Reversals of trait desirability are studied. Terms indicating conservativw behavior appeared to be judged relatively desirable in comparative judgement, while traits indicating dynamic and expansive behavior benefited from absolute judgement. The reversal effect was shown to be a general one, i.e. reversals were not dependent upon the specific…

  7. New Techniques for Absolute Gravity Measurements.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-01-07

    Hammond, J.A. (1978) Bollettino Di Geofisica Teorica ed Applicata Vol. XX. 8. Hammond, J. A., and Iliff, R. L. (1979) The AFGL absolute gravity system...International Gravimetric Bureau, No. L:I-43. 7. Hammond. J.A. (1978) Bollettino Di Geofisica Teorica ed Applicata Vol. XX. 8. Hammond, J.A., and

  8. An Absolute Electrometer for the Physics Laboratory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Straulino, S.; Cartacci, A.

    2009-01-01

    A low-cost, easy-to-use absolute electrometer is presented: two thin metallic plates and an electronic balance, usually available in a laboratory, are used. We report on the very good performance of the device that allows precise measurements of the force acting between two charged plates. (Contains 5 footnotes, 2 tables, and 6 figures.)

  9. Absolute Positioning Using the Global Positioning System

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1994-04-01

    Global Positioning System ( GPS ) has becom a useful tool In providing relativ survey...Includes the development of a low cost navigator for wheeled vehicles. ABSTRACT The Global Positioning System ( GPS ) has become a useful tool In providing...technique of absolute or point positioning involves the use of a single Global Positioning System ( GPS ) receiver to determine the three-dimenslonal

  10. Accuracy of WAAS-enabled GPS for the determination of position and speed over ground.

    PubMed

    Witte, T H; Wilson, A M

    2005-08-01

    The Global Positioning System (GPS) offers many advantages over conventional methods for the determination of subject speed during biomechanical studies. Recent advances in GPS technology, in particular the implementation of the Wide-Angle Augmentation System and European Geostationary Navigation Overlay Service (WAAS/EGNOS), mean that small, highly portable units are available offering the potential of superior accuracy in the determination of both position and speed. This study set out to examine the accuracy of a WAAS-enabled GPS unit for the determination of position and speed. Comparison with the new and published data showed significant enhancements in both position and speed accuracy over a non-WAAS system. Position data collected during straight line cycling showed significantly lower sample-to-sample variation (mean absolute deviation from straight line 0.11 vs. 0.78 m) and greater repeatability from trial to trial (mean absolute deviation from actual path 0.37 vs. 4.8 m) for the WAAS-enabled unit compared to the non-WAAS unit. The speed determined by the WAAS-enabled GPS receiver during cycling in a straight line was within 0.2 ms(-1) of the actual speed measured for 57% of the values with 82% lying within 0.4 ms(-1), however, the data tended towards underestimation of speed during circle cycling, with 65% of values within 0.2 ms(-1) and 87% within 0.4 ms(-1) of the actual value. Local dGPS and dual frequency techniques are more accurate still, however, traditional differential GPS (dGPS), employing FM radio transmission of correction data to a separate receiver, now offers no advantage over WAAS and appears redundant.

  11. GEOSPATIAL DATA ACCURACY ASSESSMENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    The development of robust accuracy assessment methods for the validation of spatial data represent's a difficult scientific challenge for the geospatial science community. The importance and timeliness of this issue is related directly to the dramatic escalation in the developmen...

  12. Landsat wildland mapping accuracy

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Todd, William J.; Gehring, Dale G.; Haman, J. F.

    1980-01-01

    A Landsat-aided classification of ten wildland resource classes was developed for the Shivwits Plateau region of the Lake Mead National Recreation Area. Single stage cluster sampling (without replacement) was used to verify the accuracy of each class.

  13. [Design and accuracy analysis of upper slicing system of MSCT].

    PubMed

    Jiang, Rongjian

    2013-05-01

    The upper slicing system is the main components of the optical system in MSCT. This paper focuses on the design of upper slicing system and its accuracy analysis to improve the accuracy of imaging. The error of slice thickness and ray center by bearings, screw and control system were analyzed and tested. In fact, the accumulated error measured is less than 1 microm, absolute error measured is less than 10 microm. Improving the accuracy of the upper slicing system contributes to the appropriate treatment methods and success rate of treatment.

  14. Accuracy control in Monte Carlo radiative calculations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Almazan, P. Planas

    1993-01-01

    The general accuracy law that rules the Monte Carlo, ray-tracing algorithms used commonly for the calculation of the radiative entities in the thermal analysis of spacecraft are presented. These entities involve transfer of radiative energy either from a single source to a target (e.g., the configuration factors). or from several sources to a target (e.g., the absorbed heat fluxes). In fact, the former is just a particular case of the latter. The accuracy model is later applied to the calculation of some specific radiative entities. Furthermore, some issues related to the implementation of such a model in a software tool are discussed. Although only the relative error is considered through the discussion, similar results can be derived for the absolute error.

  15. Inertial Measures of Motion for Clinical Biomechanics: Comparative Assessment of Accuracy under Controlled Conditions – Changes in Accuracy over Time

    PubMed Central

    Lebel, Karina; Boissy, Patrick; Hamel, Mathieu; Duval, Christian

    2015-01-01

    Background Interest in 3D inertial motion tracking devices (AHRS) has been growing rapidly among the biomechanical community. Although the convenience of such tracking devices seems to open a whole new world of possibilities for evaluation in clinical biomechanics, its limitations haven’t been extensively documented. The objectives of this study are: 1) to assess the change in absolute and relative accuracy of multiple units of 3 commercially available AHRS over time; and 2) to identify different sources of errors affecting AHRS accuracy and to document how they may affect the measurements over time. Methods This study used an instrumented Gimbal table on which AHRS modules were carefully attached and put through a series of velocity-controlled sustained motions including 2 minutes motion trials (2MT) and 12 minutes multiple dynamic phases motion trials (12MDP). Absolute accuracy was assessed by comparison of the AHRS orientation measurements to those of an optical gold standard. Relative accuracy was evaluated using the variation in relative orientation between modules during the trials. Findings Both absolute and relative accuracy decreased over time during 2MT. 12MDP trials showed a significant decrease in accuracy over multiple phases, but accuracy could be enhanced significantly by resetting the reference point and/or compensating for initial Inertial frame estimation reference for each phase. Interpretation The variation in AHRS accuracy observed between the different systems and with time can be attributed in part to the dynamic estimation error, but also and foremost, to the ability of AHRS units to locate the same Inertial frame. Conclusions Mean accuracies obtained under the Gimbal table sustained conditions of motion suggest that AHRS are promising tools for clinical mobility assessment under constrained conditions of use. However, improvement in magnetic compensation and alignment between AHRS modules are desirable in order for AHRS to reach their

  16. Measurement Accuracy Limitation Analysis on Synchrophasors

    SciTech Connect

    Zhao, Jiecheng; Zhan, Lingwei; Liu, Yilu; Qi, Hairong; Gracia, Jose R; Ewing, Paul D

    2015-01-01

    This paper analyzes the theoretical accuracy limitation of synchrophasors measurements on phase angle and frequency of the power grid. Factors that cause the measurement error are analyzed, including error sources in the instruments and in the power grid signal. Different scenarios of these factors are evaluated according to the normal operation status of power grid measurement. Based on the evaluation and simulation, the errors of phase angle and frequency caused by each factor are calculated and discussed.

  17. Overlay accuracy fundamentals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kandel, Daniel; Levinski, Vladimir; Sapiens, Noam; Cohen, Guy; Amit, Eran; Klein, Dana; Vakshtein, Irina

    2012-03-01

    Currently, the performance of overlay metrology is evaluated mainly based on random error contributions such as precision and TIS variability. With the expected shrinkage of the overlay metrology budget to < 0.5nm, it becomes crucial to include also systematic error contributions which affect the accuracy of the metrology. Here we discuss fundamental aspects of overlay accuracy and a methodology to improve accuracy significantly. We identify overlay mark imperfections and their interaction with the metrology technology, as the main source of overlay inaccuracy. The most important type of mark imperfection is mark asymmetry. Overlay mark asymmetry leads to a geometrical ambiguity in the definition of overlay, which can be ~1nm or less. It is shown theoretically and in simulations that the metrology may enhance the effect of overlay mark asymmetry significantly and lead to metrology inaccuracy ~10nm, much larger than the geometrical ambiguity. The analysis is carried out for two different overlay metrology technologies: Imaging overlay and DBO (1st order diffraction based overlay). It is demonstrated that the sensitivity of DBO to overlay mark asymmetry is larger than the sensitivity of imaging overlay. Finally, we show that a recently developed measurement quality metric serves as a valuable tool for improving overlay metrology accuracy. Simulation results demonstrate that the accuracy of imaging overlay can be improved significantly by recipe setup optimized using the quality metric. We conclude that imaging overlay metrology, complemented by appropriate use of measurement quality metric, results in optimal overlay accuracy.

  18. Cooled Ion Frequency Standard

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-09-27

    on Frequency Standards and Metrology, Ancona , Italy (Springer Verlag, 1988) to be published. 8. "High Accuracy Spectroscopy of Stored Ions," D.J...Wineland, W.M. Itano, J.S. Bergquist, J.J. Bollinger, F. Diedrich and S.L. Gilbert, Proc. 4th Symp. on Frequency Standards and Metrology, Ancona , Italy...Proc. 4th Symp. on Frequency Standards and Metrology, Ancona , Italy (Springer Verlag, 1988) to be published. 10. "Quantative Study of Laser Cooling in

  19. Absolute Radiation Thermometry in the NIR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bünger, L.; Taubert, R. D.; Gutschwager, B.; Anhalt, K.; Briaudeau, S.; Sadli, M.

    2017-04-01

    A near infrared (NIR) radiation thermometer (RT) for temperature measurements in the range from 773 K up to 1235 K was characterized and calibrated in terms of the "Mise en Pratique for the definition of the Kelvin" (MeP-K) by measuring its absolute spectral radiance responsivity. Using Planck's law of thermal radiation allows the direct measurement of the thermodynamic temperature independently of any ITS-90 fixed-point. To determine the absolute spectral radiance responsivity of the radiation thermometer in the NIR spectral region, an existing PTB monochromator-based calibration setup was upgraded with a supercontinuum laser system (0.45 μm to 2.4 μm) resulting in a significantly improved signal-to-noise ratio. The RT was characterized with respect to its nonlinearity, size-of-source effect, distance effect, and the consistency of its individual temperature measuring ranges. To further improve the calibration setup, a new tool for the aperture alignment and distance measurement was developed. Furthermore, the diffraction correction as well as the impedance correction of the current-to-voltage converter is considered. The calibration scheme and the corresponding uncertainty budget of the absolute spectral responsivity are presented. A relative standard uncertainty of 0.1 % (k=1) for the absolute spectral radiance responsivity was achieved. The absolute radiometric calibration was validated at four temperature values with respect to the ITS-90 via a variable temperature heatpipe blackbody (773 K ...1235 K) and at a gold fixed-point blackbody radiator (1337.33 K).

  20. Accuracy analysis of the space shuttle solid rocket motor profile measuring device

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Estler, W. Tyler

    1989-01-01

    The Profile Measuring Device (PMD) was developed at the George C. Marshall Space Flight Center following the loss of the Space Shuttle Challenger. It is a rotating gauge used to measure the absolute diameters of mating features of redesigned Solid Rocket Motor field joints. Diameter tolerance of these features are typically + or - 0.005 inches and it is required that the PMD absolute measurement uncertainty be within this tolerance. In this analysis, the absolute accuracy of these measurements were found to be + or - 0.00375 inches, worst case, with a potential accuracy of + or - 0.0021 inches achievable by improved temperature control.

  1. High-Frequency and Very-high-Frequency (HF&VHF) above-groundelectromagnetic impedance measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Frangos, William; Becker, Alex; Lee, K.H.

    2002-09-20

    We have field-tested an apparatus for measuring the electromagnetic impedance above the ground at a plurality of frequencies in the 0.3 - 30 MHz range. This window in the frequency spectrum, which lies between frequencies used for GPR and those used for conventional loop-loop EM soundings, has not been used because of difficulties in fielding equipment for making absolute and accurate measurements. Model and physical parameter studies however confirm that data in this frequency band can be used to construct high-resolution maps of electrical conductivity and permittivity of near-surface material. Our equipment was assembled using commercial electric and magnetic antennas. The magnetic loop source is excited by a conventional signal generator - power amplifier assembly. Signal detection is accomplished using RF lock-in amplifiers. All system elements are appropriately isolated by optic - fiber links. We estimate a measurement accuracy of about {+-} 10% for an 8-m separation between source and detector. Field tests were done at the University of California Richmond Field Station where the near surface electrical structure is well known. The experimental data at this site are mainly a function of electrical conductivity. In this context, we have obtained good agreement with the known local variations in resistivity both with depth and with position along a 35-m traverse. Additional tests in more resistive regimes where dielectric permittivity is not negligible yield spectral data compatible with the less well known near-surface electrical properties.

  2. Assessing Sensor Accuracy for Non-Adjunct Use of Continuous Glucose Monitoring

    PubMed Central

    Patek, Stephen D.; Ortiz, Edward Andrew; Breton, Marc D.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Background: The level of continuous glucose monitoring (CGM) accuracy needed for insulin dosing using sensor values (i.e., the level of accuracy permitting non-adjunct CGM use) is a topic of ongoing debate. Assessment of this level in clinical experiments is virtually impossible because the magnitude of CGM errors cannot be manipulated and related prospectively to clinical outcomes. Materials and Methods: A combination of archival data (parallel CGM, insulin pump, self-monitoring of blood glucose [SMBG] records, and meals for 56 pump users with type 1 diabetes) and in silico experiments was used to “replay” real-life treatment scenarios and relate sensor error to glycemic outcomes. Nominal blood glucose (BG) traces were extracted using a mathematical model, yielding 2,082 BG segments each initiated by insulin bolus and confirmed by SMBG. These segments were replayed at seven sensor accuracy levels (mean absolute relative differences [MARDs] of 3–22%) testing six scenarios: insulin dosing using sensor values, threshold, and predictive alarms, each without or with considering CGM trend arrows. Results: In all six scenarios, the occurrence of hypoglycemia (frequency of BG levels ≤50 mg/dL and BG levels ≤39 mg/dL) increased with sensor error, displaying an abrupt slope change at MARD =10%. Similarly, hyperglycemia (frequency of BG levels ≥250 mg/dL and BG levels ≥400 mg/dL) increased and displayed an abrupt slope change at MARD=10%. When added to insulin dosing decisions, information from CGM trend arrows, threshold, and predictive alarms resulted in improvement in average glycemia by 1.86, 8.17, and 8.88 mg/dL, respectively. Conclusions: Using CGM for insulin dosing decisions is feasible below a certain level of sensor error, estimated in silico at MARD=10%. In our experiments, further accuracy improvement did not contribute substantively to better glycemic outcomes. PMID:25436913

  3. Absolute Transition Probabilities of Lines in the Spectra of Astrophysical Atoms, Molecules, and Ions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parkinson, W. H.; Smith, P. L.; Yoshino, K.

    1984-01-01

    Progress in the investigation of absolute transition probabilities (A-values or F values) for ultraviolet lines is reported. A radio frequency ion trap was used for measurement of transition probabilities for intersystem lines seen in astronomical spectra. The intersystem line at 2670 A in Al II, which is seen in pre-main sequence stars and symbiotic stars, was studied.

  4. Diode-laser-based high-precision absolute distance interferometer of 20 m range.

    PubMed

    Pollinger, Florian; Meiners-Hagen, Karl; Wedde, Martin; Abou-Zeid, Ahmed

    2009-11-10

    We present a hybrid absolute distance measurement method that is based on a combination of frequency sweeping, variable synthetic, and two-wavelength, fixed synthetic wavelength interferometry. Both experiments were realized by two external cavity diode lasers. The measurement uncertainty was experimentally and theoretically demonstrated to be smaller than 12 microm at a measurement distance of 20 m.

  5. Absolute Memory for Tempo in Musicians and Non-Musicians

    PubMed Central

    Brandimonte, Maria A.; Bruno, Nicola

    2016-01-01

    The ability to remember tempo (the perceived frequency of musical pulse) without external references may be defined, by analogy with the notion of absolute pitch, as absolute tempo (AT). Anecdotal reports and sparse empirical evidence suggest that at least some individuals possess AT. However, to our knowledge, no systematic assessments of AT have been performed using laboratory tasks comparable to those assessing absolute pitch. In the present study, we operationalize AT as the ability to identify and reproduce tempo in the absence of rhythmic or melodic frames of reference and assess these abilities in musically trained and untrained participants. We asked 15 musicians and 15 non-musicians to listen to a seven-step `tempo scale’ of metronome beats, each associated to a numerical label, and then to perform two memory tasks. In the first task, participants heard one of the tempi and attempted to report the correct label (identification task), in the second, they saw one label and attempted to tap the correct tempo (production task). A musical and visual excerpt was presented between successive trials as a distractor to prevent participants from using previous tempi as anchors. Thus, participants needed to encode tempo information with the corresponding label, store the information, and recall it to give the response. We found that more than half were able to perform above chance in at least one of the tasks, and that musical training differentiated between participants in identification, but not in production. These results suggest that AT is relatively wide-spread, relatively independent of musical training in tempo production, but further refined by training in tempo identification. We propose that at least in production, the underlying motor representations are related to tactus, a basic internal rhythmic period that may provide a body-based reference for encoding tempo. PMID:27760198

  6. Absolute Memory for Tempo in Musicians and Non-Musicians.

    PubMed

    Gratton, Irene; Brandimonte, Maria A; Bruno, Nicola

    2016-01-01

    The ability to remember tempo (the perceived frequency of musical pulse) without external references may be defined, by analogy with the notion of absolute pitch, as absolute tempo (AT). Anecdotal reports and sparse empirical evidence suggest that at least some individuals possess AT. However, to our knowledge, no systematic assessments of AT have been performed using laboratory tasks comparable to those assessing absolute pitch. In the present study, we operationalize AT as the ability to identify and reproduce tempo in the absence of rhythmic or melodic frames of reference and assess these abilities in musically trained and untrained participants. We asked 15 musicians and 15 non-musicians to listen to a seven-step `tempo scale' of metronome beats, each associated to a numerical label, and then to perform two memory tasks. In the first task, participants heard one of the tempi and attempted to report the correct label (identification task), in the second, they saw one label and attempted to tap the correct tempo (production task). A musical and visual excerpt was presented between successive trials as a distractor to prevent participants from using previous tempi as anchors. Thus, participants needed to encode tempo information with the corresponding label, store the information, and recall it to give the response. We found that more than half were able to perform above chance in at least one of the tasks, and that musical training differentiated between participants in identification, but not in production. These results suggest that AT is relatively wide-spread, relatively independent of musical training in tempo production, but further refined by training in tempo identification. We propose that at least in production, the underlying motor representations are related to tactus, a basic internal rhythmic period that may provide a body-based reference for encoding tempo.

  7. Landau damping with high frequency impedance

    SciTech Connect

    Blaskiewicz,M.

    2009-05-04

    Coupled bunch longitudinal stability in the presence of high frequency impedances is considered. A frequency domain technique is developed and compared with simulations. The frequency domain technique allows for absolute stability tests and is applied to the problem of longitudinal stability in RHIC with the new 56 MHz RF system.

  8. Dichotomy and perceptual distortions in absolute pitch ability

    PubMed Central

    Athos, E. Alexandra; Levinson, Barbara; Kistler, Amy; Zemansky, Jason; Bostrom, Alan; Freimer, Nelson; Gitschier, Jane

    2007-01-01

    Absolute pitch (AP) is the rare ability to identify the pitch of a tone without the aid of a reference tone. Understanding both the nature and genesis of AP can provide insights into neuroplasticity in the auditory system. We explored factors that may influence the accuracy of pitch perception in AP subjects both during the development of the trait and in later age. We used a Web-based survey and a pitch-labeling test to collect perceptual data from 2,213 individuals, 981 (44%) of whom proved to have extraordinary pitch-naming ability. The bimodal distribution in pitch-naming ability signifies AP as a distinct perceptual trait, with possible implications for its genetic basis. The wealth of these data has allowed us to uncover unsuspected note-naming irregularities suggestive of a “perceptual magnet” centered at the note “A.” In addition, we document a gradual decline in pitch-naming accuracy with age, characterized by a perceptual shift in the “sharp” direction. These findings speak both to the process of acquisition of AP and to its stability. PMID:17724340

  9. Dichotomy and perceptual distortions in absolute pitch ability.

    PubMed

    Athos, E Alexandra; Levinson, Barbara; Kistler, Amy; Zemansky, Jason; Bostrom, Alan; Freimer, Nelson; Gitschier, Jane

    2007-09-11

    Absolute pitch (AP) is the rare ability to identify the pitch of a tone without the aid of a reference tone. Understanding both the nature and genesis of AP can provide insights into neuroplasticity in the auditory system. We explored factors that may influence the accuracy of pitch perception in AP subjects both during the development of the trait and in later age. We used a Web-based survey and a pitch-labeling test to collect perceptual data from 2,213 individuals, 981 (44%) of whom proved to have extraordinary pitch-naming ability. The bimodal distribution in pitch-naming ability signifies AP as a distinct perceptual trait, with possible implications for its genetic basis. The wealth of these data has allowed us to uncover unsuspected note-naming irregularities suggestive of a "perceptual magnet" centered at the note "A." In addition, we document a gradual decline in pitch-naming accuracy with age, characterized by a perceptual shift in the "sharp" direction. These findings speak both to the process of acquisition of AP and to its stability.

  10. Prospects for the Moon as an SI-Traceable Absolute Spectroradiometric Standard for Satellite Remote Sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cramer, C. E.; Stone, T. C.; Lykke, K.; Woodward, J. T.

    2015-12-01

    The Earth's Moon has many physical properties that make it suitable for use as a reference light source for radiometric calibration of remote sensing satellite instruments. Lunar calibration has been successfully applied to many imagers in orbit, including both MODIS instruments and NPP-VIIRS, using the USGS ROLO model to predict the reference exoatmospheric lunar irradiance. Sensor response trending was developed for SeaWIFS with a relative accuracy better than 0.1 % per year with lunar calibration techniques. However, the Moon rarely is used as an absolute reference for on-orbit calibration, primarily due to uncertainties in the ROLO model absolute scale of 5%-10%. But this limitation lies only with the models - the Moon itself is radiometrically stable, and development of a high-accuracy absolute lunar reference is inherently feasible. A program has been undertaken by NIST to collect absolute measurements of the lunar spectral irradiance with absolute accuracy <1 % (k=2), traceable to SI radiometric units. Initial Moon observations were acquired from the Whipple Observatory on Mt. Hopkins, Arizona, elevation 2367 meters, with continuous spectral coverage from 380 nm to 1040 nm at ~3 nm resolution. The lunar spectrometer acquired calibration measurements several times each observing night by pointing to a calibrated integrating sphere source. The lunar spectral irradiance at the top of the atmosphere was derived from a time series of ground-based measurements by a Langley analysis that incorporated measured atmospheric conditions and ROLO model predictions for the change in irradiance resulting from the changing Sun-Moon-Observer geometry throughout each night. Two nights were selected for further study. An extensive error analysis, which includes instrument calibration and atmospheric correction terms, shows a combined standard uncertainty under 1 % over most of the spectral range. Comparison of these two nights' spectral irradiance measurements with predictions

  11. Numerical accuracy assessment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boerstoel, J. W.

    1988-12-01

    A framework is provided for numerical accuracy assessment. The purpose of numerical flow simulations is formulated. This formulation concerns the classes of aeronautical configurations (boundaries), the desired flow physics (flow equations and their properties), the classes of flow conditions on flow boundaries (boundary conditions), and the initial flow conditions. Next, accuracy and economical performance requirements are defined; the final numerical flow simulation results of interest should have a guaranteed accuracy, and be produced for an acceptable FLOP-price. Within this context, the validation of numerical processes with respect to the well known topics of consistency, stability, and convergence when the mesh is refined must be done by numerical experimentation because theory gives only partial answers. This requires careful design of text cases for numerical experimentation. Finally, the results of a few recent evaluation exercises of numerical experiments with a large number of codes on a few test cases are summarized.

  12. From Hubble's NGSL to Absolute Fluxes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heap, Sara R.; Lindler, Don

    2012-01-01

    Hubble's Next Generation Spectral Library (NGSL) consists of R-l000 spectra of 374 stars of assorted temperature, gravity, and metallicity. Each spectrum covers the wavelength range, 0.18-1.00 microns. The library can be viewed and/or downloaded from the website, http://archive.stsci.edu/prepds/stisngsll. Stars in the NGSL are now being used as absolute flux standards at ground-based observatories. However, the uncertainty in the absolute flux is about 2%, which does not meet the requirements of dark-energy surveys. We are therefore developing an observing procedure that should yield fluxes with uncertainties less than 1 % and will take part in an HST proposal to observe up to 15 stars using this new procedure.

  13. Consistent thermostatistics forbids negative absolute temperatures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dunkel, Jörn; Hilbert, Stefan

    2014-01-01

    Over the past 60 years, a considerable number of theories and experiments have claimed the existence of negative absolute temperature in spin systems and ultracold quantum gases. This has led to speculation that ultracold gases may be dark-energy analogues and also suggests the feasibility of heat engines with efficiencies larger than one. Here, we prove that all previous negative temperature claims and their implications are invalid as they arise from the use of an entropy definition that is inconsistent both mathematically and thermodynamically. We show that the underlying conceptual deficiencies can be overcome if one adopts a microcanonical entropy functional originally derived by Gibbs. The resulting thermodynamic framework is self-consistent and implies that absolute temperature remains positive even for systems with a bounded spectrum. In addition, we propose a minimal quantum thermometer that can be implemented with available experimental techniques.

  14. Computer processing of spectrograms for absolute intensities.

    PubMed

    Guttman, A; Golden, J; Galbraith, H J

    1967-09-01

    A computer program was developed to process photographically recorded spectra for absolute intensity. Test and calibration films are subjected to densitometric scans that provide digitally recorded densities on magnetic tapes. The nonlinear calibration data are fitted by least-squares cubic polynomials to yield a good approximation to the monochromatic H&D curves for commonly used emulsions (2475 recording film, Royal-X, Tri-X, 4-X). Several test cases were made. Results of these cases show that the machine processed absolute intensities are accurate to within 15%o. Arbitrarily raising the sensitivity threshold by 0.1 density units above gross fog yields cubic polynomial fits to the H&D curves that are radiometrically accurate within 10%. In addition, curves of gamma vs wavelength for 2475, Tri-X, and 4-X emulsions were made. These data show slight evidence of the photographic Purkinje effect in the 2475 emulsion.

  15. An absolute measure for a key currency

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oya, Shunsuke; Aihara, Kazuyuki; Hirata, Yoshito

    It is generally considered that the US dollar and the euro are the key currencies in the world and in Europe, respectively. However, there is no absolute general measure for a key currency. Here, we investigate the 24-hour periodicity of foreign exchange markets using a recurrence plot, and define an absolute measure for a key currency based on the strength of the periodicity. Moreover, we analyze the time evolution of this measure. The results show that the credibility of the US dollar has not decreased significantly since the Lehman shock, when the Lehman Brothers bankrupted and influenced the economic markets, and has increased even relatively better than that of the euro and that of the Japanese yen.

  16. Probing absolute spin polarization at the nanoscale.

    PubMed

    Eltschka, Matthias; Jäck, Berthold; Assig, Maximilian; Kondrashov, Oleg V; Skvortsov, Mikhail A; Etzkorn, Markus; Ast, Christian R; Kern, Klaus

    2014-12-10

    Probing absolute values of spin polarization at the nanoscale offers insight into the fundamental mechanisms of spin-dependent transport. Employing the Zeeman splitting in superconducting tips (Meservey-Tedrow-Fulde effect), we introduce a novel spin-polarized scanning tunneling microscopy that combines the probing capability of the absolute values of spin polarization with precise control at the atomic scale. We utilize our novel approach to measure the locally resolved spin polarization of magnetic Co nanoislands on Cu(111). We find that the spin polarization is enhanced by 65% when increasing the width of the tunnel barrier by only 2.3 Å due to the different decay of the electron orbitals into vacuum.

  17. Absolute rotation detection by Coriolis force measurement using optomechanics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davuluri, Sankar; Li, Yong

    2016-10-01

    In this article, we present an application of the optomechanical cavities for absolute rotation detection. Two optomechanical cavities, one in each arm, are placed in a Michelson interferometer. The interferometer is placed on a rotating table and is moved with a uniform velocity of \\dot{\\bar{y}} with respect to the rotating table. The Coriolis force acting on the interferometer changes the length of the optomechanical cavity in one arm, while the length of the optomechanical cavity in the other arm is not changed. The phase shift corresponding to the change in the optomechanical cavity length is measured at the interferometer output to estimate the angular velocity of the absolute rotation. An analytic expression for the minimum detectable rotation rate corresponding to the standard quantum limit of measurable Coriolis force in the interferometer is derived. Squeezing technique is discussed to improve the rotation detection sensitivity by a factor of \\sqrt{{γ }m/{ω }m} at 0 K temperature, where {γ }m and {ω }m are the damping rate and angular frequency of the mechanical oscillator. The temperature dependence of the rotation detection sensitivity is studied.

  18. A method to estimate the absolute ultrasonic nonlinearity parameter from relative measurements.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jongbeom; Song, Dong-Gi; Jhang, Kyung-Young

    2017-02-17

    The ultrasonic nonlinearity parameter, β, is determined from the displacement amplitude of the second-order harmonic frequency component generated during the propagation of ultrasonic waves through a material. This parameter is generally referred to as the absolute parameter. Meanwhile, it is difficult to measure the small displacement amplitude of the second-order harmonic component; therefore, most studies measure the relative parameter determined from the detected signal amplitude. However, for quantitative assessment of material degradation, the absolute parameter is still required. This study proposes a method to estimate the absolute parameter for damaged material by measuring the relative parameter. This method is based on the fact that the fractional ratio of the relative parameters between different materials is identical to that of the absolute parameters after compensation for material dependent differences such as the wavenumber and detection-sensitivity. In order to experimentally verify the method, the relative parameters of heat-treated Al6061-T6 alloy specimens with different aging times were measured to compare with absolute parameters directly measured by piezo-electric detection. The results show that the fluctuations of both parameters with respect to aging time were very similar to each other, and that the absolute parameters estimated by the proposed method were in good agreement with those measured directly.

  19. Improving metacomprehension accuracy in an undergraduate course context.

    PubMed

    Wiley, Jennifer; Griffin, Thomas D; Jaeger, Allison J; Jarosz, Andrew F; Cushen, Patrick J; Thiede, Keith W

    2016-12-01

    Students tend to have poor metacomprehension when learning from text, meaning they are not able to distinguish between what they have understood well and what they have not. Although there are a good number of studies that have explored comprehension monitoring accuracy in laboratory experiments, fewer studies have explored this in authentic course contexts. This study investigated the effect of an instructional condition that encouraged comprehension-test-expectancy and self-explanation during study on metacomprehension accuracy in the context of an undergraduate course in research methods. Results indicated that when students received this instructional condition, relative metacomprehension accuracy was better than in a comparison condition. In addition, differences were also seen in absolute metacomprehension accuracy measures, strategic study behaviors, and learning outcomes. The results of the current study demonstrate that a condition that has improved relative metacomprehension accuracy in laboratory contexts may have value in real classroom contexts as well. (PsycINFO Database Record

  20. Silicon Absolute X-Ray Detectors

    SciTech Connect

    Seely, John F.; Korde, Raj; Sprunck, Jacob; Medjoubi, Kadda; Hustache, Stephanie

    2010-06-23

    The responsivity of silicon photodiodes having no loss in the entrance window, measured using synchrotron radiation in the 1.75 to 60 keV range, was compared to the responsivity calculated using the silicon thickness measured using near-infrared light. The measured and calculated responsivities agree with an average difference of 1.3%. This enables their use as absolute x-ray detectors.

  1. Simple and accurate empirical absolute volume calibration of a multi-sensor fringe projection system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gdeisat, Munther; Qudeisat, Mohammad; AlSa`d, Mohammed; Burton, David; Lilley, Francis; Ammous, Marwan M. M.

    2016-05-01

    This paper suggests a novel absolute empirical calibration method for a multi-sensor fringe projection system. The optical setup of the projector-camera sensor can be arbitrary. The term absolute calibration here means that the centre of the three dimensional coordinates in the resultant calibrated volume coincides with a preset centre to the three-dimensional real-world coordinate system. The use of a zero-phase fringe marking spot is proposed to increase depth calibration accuracy, where the spot centre is determined with sub-pixel accuracy. Also, a new method is proposed for transversal calibration. Depth and transversal calibration methods have been tested using both single sensor and three-sensor fringe projection systems. The standard deviation of the error produced by this system is 0.25 mm. The calibrated volume produced by this method is 400 mm×400 mm×140 mm.

  2. Negative absolute temperature for mobile particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Braun, Simon; Ronzheimer, Philipp; Schreiber, Michael; Hodgman, Sean; Bloch, Immanuel; Schneider, Ulrich

    2013-05-01

    Absolute temperature is usually bound to be strictly positive. However, negative absolute temperature states, where the occupation probability of states increases with their energy, are possible in systems with an upper energy bound. So far, such states have only been demonstrated in localized spin systems with finite, discrete spectra. We realized a negative absolute temperature state for motional degrees of freedom with ultracold bosonic 39K atoms in an optical lattice, by implementing the attractive Bose-Hubbard Hamiltonian. This new state strikingly revealed itself by a quasimomentum distribution that is peaked at maximum kinetic energy. The measured kinetic energy distribution and the extracted negative temperature indicate that the ensemble is close to degeneracy, with coherence over several lattice sites. The state is as stable as a corresponding positive temperature state: The negative temperature stabilizes the system against mean-field collapse driven by negative pressure. Negative temperatures open up new parameter regimes for cold atoms, enabling fundamentally new many-body states. Additionally, they give rise to several counterintuitive effects such as heat engines with above unity efficiency.

  3. Measurement of absolute gravity acceleration in Firenze

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Angelis, M.; Greco, F.; Pistorio, A.; Poli, N.; Prevedelli, M.; Saccorotti, G.; Sorrentino, F.; Tino, G. M.

    2011-01-01

    This paper reports the results from the accurate measurement of the acceleration of gravity g taken at two separate premises in the Polo Scientifico of the University of Firenze (Italy). In these laboratories, two separate experiments aiming at measuring the Newtonian constant and testing the Newtonian law at short distances are in progress. Both experiments require an independent knowledge on the local value of g. The only available datum, pertaining to the italian zero-order gravity network, was taken more than 20 years ago at a distance of more than 60 km from the study site. Gravity measurements were conducted using an FG5 absolute gravimeter, and accompanied by seismic recordings for evaluating the noise condition at the site. The absolute accelerations of gravity at the two laboratories are (980 492 160.6 ± 4.0) μGal and (980 492 048.3 ± 3.0) μGal for the European Laboratory for Non-Linear Spectroscopy (LENS) and Dipartimento di Fisica e Astronomia, respectively. Other than for the two referenced experiments, the data here presented will serve as a benchmark for any future study requiring an accurate knowledge of the absolute value of the acceleration of gravity in the study region.

  4. System for absolute measurements by interferometric sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Norton, Douglas A.

    1993-03-01

    The most common problem of interferometric sensors is their inability to measure absolute path imbalance. Presented in this paper is a signal processing system that gives absolute, unambiguous reading of optical path difference for almost any style of interferometric sensor. Key components are a wide band (incoherent) optical source, a polychromator, and FFT electronics. Advantages include no moving parts in the signal processor, no active components at the sensor location, and the use of standard single mode fiber for sensor illumination and signal transmission. Actual absolute path imbalance of the interferometer is determined without using fringe counting or other inferential techniques. The polychromator extracts the interference information that occurs at each discrete wavelength within the spectral band of the optical source. The signal processing consists of analog and digital filtering, Fast Fourier analysis, and a peak detection and interpolation algorithm. This system was originally designed for use in a remote pressure sensing application that employed a totally passive fiber optic interferometer. A performance qualification was made using a Fabry-Perot interferometer and a commercially available laser interferometer to measure the reference displacement.

  5. Chemical composition of French mimosa absolute oil.

    PubMed

    Perriot, Rodolphe; Breme, Katharina; Meierhenrich, Uwe J; Carenini, Elise; Ferrando, Georges; Baldovini, Nicolas

    2010-02-10

    Since decades mimosa (Acacia dealbata) absolute oil has been used in the flavor and perfume industry. Today, it finds an application in over 80 perfumes, and its worldwide industrial production is estimated five tons per year. Here we report on the chemical composition of French mimosa absolute oil. Straight-chain analogues from C6 to C26 with different functional groups (hydrocarbons, esters, aldehydes, diethyl acetals, alcohols, and ketones) were identified in the volatile fraction. Most of them are long-chain molecules: (Z)-heptadec-8-ene, heptadecane, nonadecane, and palmitic acid are the most abundant, and constituents such as 2-phenethyl alcohol, methyl anisate, and ethyl palmitate are present in smaller amounts. The heavier constituents were mainly triterpenoids such as lupenone and lupeol, which were identified as two of the main components. (Z)-Heptadec-8-ene, lupenone, and lupeol were quantified by GC-MS in SIM mode using external standards and represents 6%, 20%, and 7.8% (w/w) of the absolute oil. Moreover, odorant compounds were extracted by SPME and analyzed by GC-sniffing leading to the perception of 57 odorant zones, of which 37 compounds were identified by their odorant description, mass spectrum, retention index, and injection of the reference compound.

  6. Constrained Least Absolute Deviation Neural Networks

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Zhishun; Peterson, Bradley S.

    2008-01-01

    It is well known that least absolute deviation (LAD) criterion or L1-norm used for estimation of parameters is characterized by robustness, i.e., the estimated parameters are totally resistant (insensitive) to large changes in the sampled data. This is an extremely useful feature, especially, when the sampled data are known to be contaminated by occasionally occurring outliers or by spiky noise. In our previous works, we have proposed the least absolute deviation neural network (LADNN) to solve unconstrained LAD problems. The theoretical proofs and numerical simulations have shown that the LADNN is Lyapunov-stable and it can globally converge to the exact solution to a given unconstrained LAD problem. We have also demonstrated its excellent application value in time-delay estimation. More generally, a practical LAD application problem may contain some linear constraints, such as a set of equalities and/or inequalities, which is called constrained LAD problem, whereas the unconstrained LAD can be considered as a special form of the constrained LAD. In this paper, we present a new neural network called constrained least absolute deviation neural network (CLADNN) to solve general constrained LAD problems. Theoretical proofs and numerical simulations demonstrate that the proposed CLADNN is Lyapunov stable and globally converges to the exact solution to a given constrained LAD problem, independent of initial values. The numerical simulations have also illustrated that the proposed CLADNN can be used to robustly estimate parameters for nonlinear curve fitting, which is extensively used in signal and image processing. PMID:18269958

  7. Prelaunch absolute radiometric calibration of the reflective bands on the LANDSAT-4 protoflight Thematic Mapper

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barker, J. L.; Ball, D. L.; Leung, K. C.; Walker, J. A.

    1984-01-01

    The results of the absolute radiometric calibration of the LANDSAT 4 thematic mapper, as determined during pre-launch tests with a 122 cm integrating sphere, are presented. Detailed results for the best calibration of the protoflight TM are given, as well as summaries of other tests performed on the sensor. The dynamic range of the TM is within a few per cent of that required in all bands, except bands 1 and 3. Three detectors failed to pass the minimum SNR specified for their respective bands: band 5, channel 3 (dead), band 2, and channels 2 and 4 (noisy or slow response). Estimates of the absolute calibration accuracy for the TM show that the detectors are typically calibrated to 5% absolute error for the reflective bands; 10% full-scale accuracy was specified. Ten tests performed to transfer the detector absolute calibration to the internal calibrator show a 5% range at full scale in the transfer calibration; however, in two cases band 5 showed a 10% and a 7% difference.

  8. On the accuracy of the Head Impact Telemetry (HIT) System used in football helmets.

    PubMed

    Jadischke, Ron; Viano, David C; Dau, Nathan; King, Albert I; McCarthy, Joe

    2013-09-03

    On-field measurement of head impacts has relied on the Head Impact Telemetry (HIT) System, which uses helmet mounted accelerometers to determine linear and angular head accelerations. HIT is used in youth and collegiate football to assess the frequency and severity of helmet impacts. This paper evaluates the accuracy of HIT for individual head impacts. Most HIT validations used a medium helmet on a Hybrid III head. However, the appropriate helmet is large based on the Hybrid III head circumference (58 cm) and manufacturer's fitting instructions. An instrumented skull cap was used to measure the pressure between the head of football players (n=63) and their helmet. The average pressure with a large helmet on the Hybrid III was comparable to the average pressure from helmets used by players. A medium helmet on the Hybrid III produced average pressures greater than the 99th percentile volunteer pressure level. Linear impactor tests were conducted using a large and medium helmet on the Hybrid III. Testing was conducted by two independent laboratories. HIT data were compared to data from the Hybrid III equipped with a 3-2-2-2 accelerometer array. The absolute and root mean square error (RMSE) for HIT were computed for each impact (n=90). Fifty-five percent (n=49) had an absolute error greater than 15% while the RMSE was 59.1% for peak linear acceleration.

  9. High-Accuracy Quartic Force Field Calculations for the Spectroscopic Constants and Vibrational Frequencies of 1(exp 1)A' l-C3H(-): A Possible Link to Lines Observed in the Horsehead Nebula PDR

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fortenberry, Ryan C.; Huang, Xinchuan; Crawford, T. Daniel; Lee, Timothy J.

    2013-01-01

    It has been shown that rotational lines observed in the Horsehead nebula photon-dominated-region (PDR) are probably not caused by l-C3H+, as was originally suggested. In the search for viable alternative candidate carriers, quartic force fields are employed here to provide highly accurate rotational constants, as well as fundamental vibrational frequencies, for another candidate carrier: 1 (sup 1)A' C3H(-). The ab initio computed spectroscopic constants provided in this work are, compared to those necessary to define the observed lines, as accurate as the computed spectroscopic constants for many of the known interstellar anions. Additionally, the computed D-eff for C3H(-) is three times closer to the D deduced from the observed Horsehead nebula lines relative to l-C3H(+). As a result, 1 (sup 1)A' C3H(-). is a more viable candidate for these observed rotational transitions and would be the seventh confirmed interstellar anion detected within the past decade and the first C(sub n)H(-) molecular anion with an odd n.

  10. Sound source localization identification accuracy: Level and duration dependencies.

    PubMed

    Yost, William A

    2016-07-01

    Sound source localization accuracy for noises was measured for sources in the front azimuthal open field mainly as a function of overall noise level and duration. An identification procedure was used in which listeners identify which loudspeakers presented a sound. Noises were filtered and differed in bandwidth and center frequency. Sound source localization accuracy depended on the bandwidth of the stimuli, and for the narrow bandwidths, accuracy depended on the filter's center frequency. Sound source localization accuracy did not depend on overall level or duration.

  11. The combined effect of nonlinear filtration and window size on the accuracy of tissue displacement estimation using detected echo signals.

    PubMed

    Behar, Vera; Adam, Dan; Lysyansky, Peter; Friedman, Zvi

    2004-03-01

    In cardiac elastography, the regional strain and strain rate imaging is based on displacement estimation of tissue sections within the heart muscle carried out with various block-matching techniques (cross-correlation, sum of absolute differences, sum of squared differences, etc.). The accuracy of these techniques depends on a combination of ultrasonic imaging parameters such as ultrasonic frequency of interrogation, signal-to-noise ratio, size of a kernel used in a block-matching algorithm, type of data and speckle decorrelation. In this paper, we discuss the possibility to enhance the accuracy of the displacement estimation via nonlinear filtering of B-mode images before block-matching operation. The combined effect of a filter algorithm and a kernel size on the accuracy of the displacement estimation is analyzed using a 36-frame sequence of grayscale B-mode images of a human heart acquired by an ultrasound system operating at 1.77 MHz. It is shown that the nonlinear filtering of images enables to obtain the desired accuracy (less than one pixel) of the displacement estimation with smaller kernels than without filtering. These results are obtained for two filters--an adaptive anisotropic diffusion filter and a nonlinear Gaussian filter chain.

  12. Accuracy Study of the Space-Time CE/SE Method for Computational Aeroacoustics Problems Involving Shock Waves

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wang, Xiao Yen; Chang, Sin-Chung; Jorgenson, Philip C. E.

    1999-01-01

    The space-time conservation element and solution element(CE/SE) method is used to study the sound-shock interaction problem. The order of accuracy of numerical schemes is investigated. The linear model problem.govemed by the 1-D scalar convection equation, sound-shock interaction problem governed by the 1-D Euler equations, and the 1-D shock-tube problem which involves moving shock waves and contact surfaces are solved to investigate the order of accuracy of numerical schemes. It is concluded that the accuracy of the CE/SE numerical scheme with designed 2nd-order accuracy becomes 1st order when a moving shock wave exists. However, the absolute error in the CE/SE solution downstream of the shock wave is on the same order as that obtained using a fourth-order accurate essentially nonoscillatory (ENO) scheme. No special techniques are used for either high-frequency low-amplitude waves or shock waves.

  13. Inertial Measures of Motion for Clinical Biomechanics: Comparative Assessment of Accuracy under Controlled Conditions - Effect of Velocity

    PubMed Central

    Lebel, Karina; Boissy, Patrick; Hamel, Mathieu; Duval, Christian

    2013-01-01

    Background Inertial measurement of motion with Attitude and Heading Reference Systems (AHRS) is emerging as an alternative to 3D motion capture systems in biomechanics. The objectives of this study are: 1) to describe the absolute and relative accuracy of multiple units of commercially available AHRS under various types of motion; and 2) to evaluate the effect of motion velocity on the accuracy of these measurements. Methods The criterion validity of accuracy was established under controlled conditions using an instrumented Gimbal table. AHRS modules were carefully attached to the center plate of the Gimbal table and put through experimental static and dynamic conditions. Static and absolute accuracy was assessed by comparing the AHRS orientation measurement to those obtained using an optical gold standard. Relative accuracy was assessed by measuring the variation in relative orientation between modules during trials. Findings Evaluated AHRS systems demonstrated good absolute static accuracy (mean error < 0.5o) and clinically acceptable absolute accuracy under condition of slow motions (mean error between 0.5o and 3.1o). In slow motions, relative accuracy varied from 2o to 7o depending on the type of AHRS and the type of rotation. Absolute and relative accuracy were significantly affected (p<0.05) by velocity during sustained motions. The extent of that effect varied across AHRS. Interpretation Absolute and relative accuracy of AHRS are affected by environmental magnetic perturbations and conditions of motions. Relative accuracy of AHRS is mostly affected by the ability of all modules to locate the same global reference coordinate system at all time. Conclusions Existing AHRS systems can be considered for use in clinical biomechanics under constrained conditions of use. While their individual capacity to track absolute motion is relatively consistent, the use of multiple AHRS modules to compute relative motion between rigid bodies needs to be optimized according to

  14. High accuracy time transfer synchronization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wheeler, Paul J.; Koppang, Paul A.; Chalmers, David; Davis, Angela; Kubik, Anthony; Powell, William M.

    1995-01-01

    In July 1994, the U.S. Naval Observatory (USNO) Time Service System Engineering Division conducted a field test to establish a baseline accuracy for two-way satellite time transfer synchronization. Three Hewlett-Packard model 5071 high performance cesium frequency standards were transported from the USNO in Washington, DC to Los Angeles, California in the USNO's mobile earth station. Two-Way Satellite Time Transfer links between the mobile earth station and the USNO were conducted each day of the trip, using the Naval Research Laboratory(NRL) designed spread spectrum modem, built by Allen Osborne Associates(AOA). A Motorola six channel GPS receiver was used to track the location and altitude of the mobile earth station and to provide coordinates for calculating Sagnac corrections for the two-way measurements, and relativistic corrections for the cesium clocks. This paper will discuss the trip, the measurement systems used and the results from the data collected. We will show the accuracy of using two-way satellite time transfer for synchronization and the performance of the three HP 5071 cesium clocks in an operational environment.

  15. Accuracy Assessment of Altimeter Derived Geostrophic Velocities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leben, R. R.; Powell, B. S.; Born, G. H.; Guinasso, N. L.

    2002-12-01

    Along track sea surface height anomaly gradients are proportional to cross track geostrophic velocity anomalies allowing satellite altimetry to provide much needed satellite observations of changes in the geostrophic component of surface ocean currents. Often, surface height gradients are computed from altimeter data archives that have been corrected to give the most accurate absolute sea level, a practice that may unnecessarily increase the error in the cross track velocity anomalies and thereby require excessive smoothing to mitigate noise. Because differentiation along track acts as a high-pass filter, many of the path length corrections applied to altimeter data for absolute height accuracy are unnecessary for the corresponding gradient calculations. We report on a study to investigate appropriate altimetric corrections and processing techniques for improving geostrophic velocity accuracy. Accuracy is assessed by comparing cross track current measurements from two moorings placed along the descending TOPEX/POSEIDON ground track number 52 in the Gulf of Mexico to the corresponding altimeter velocity estimates. The buoys are deployed and maintained by the Texas Automated Buoy System (TABS) under Interagency Contracts with Texas A&M University. The buoys telemeter observations in near real-time via satellite to the TABS station located at the Geochemical and Environmental Research Group (GERG) at Texas A&M. Buoy M is located in shelf waters of 57 m depth with a second, Buoy N, 38 km away on the shelf break at 105 m depth. Buoy N has been operational since the beginning of 2002 and has a current meter at 2m depth providing in situ measurements of surface velocities coincident with Jason and TOPEX/POSEIDON altimeter over flights. This allows one of the first detailed comparisons of shallow water near surface current meter time series to coincident altimetry.

  16. Demonstrating the error budget for the climate absolute radiance and refractivity observatory through solar irradiance measurements (Conference Presentation)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thome, Kurtis J.; McCorkel, Joel; Angal, Amit

    2016-09-01

    The goal of the Climate Absolute Radiance and Refractivity Observatory (CLARREO) mission is to provide high-accuracy data for evaluation of long-term climate change trends. Essential to the CLARREO project is demonstration of SI-traceable, reflected measurements that are a factor of 10 more accurate than current state-of-the-art sensors. The CLARREO approach relies on accurate, monochromatic absolute radiance calibration in the laboratory transferred to orbit via solar irradiance knowledge. The current work describes the results of field measurements with the Solar, Lunar for Absolute Reflectance Imaging Spectroradiometer (SOLARIS) that is the calibration demonstration system (CDS) for the reflected solar portion of CLARREO. Recent measurements of absolute spectral solar irradiance using SOLARIS are presented. The ground-based SOLARIS data are corrected to top-of-atmosphere values using AERONET data collected within 5 km of the SOLARIS operation. The SOLARIS data are converted to absolute irradiance using laboratory calibrations based on the Goddard Laser for Absolute Measurement of Radiance (GLAMR). Results are compared to accepted solar irradiance models to demonstrate accuracy values giving confidence in the error budget for the CLARREO reflectance retrieval.

  17. Frequency standard stability for Doppler measurements on-board the shuttle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harton, P. L.

    1974-01-01

    The short and long term stability characteristics of crystal and atomic standards are described. Emphasis is placed on crystal oscillators because of the selection which was made for the shuttle baseline and the complexities which are introduced by the shuttle environment. Attention is given, first, to the definitions of stability and the application of these definitions to the shuttle system and its mission. Data from time domain measurements are used to illustrate the definitions. Results of a literature survey to determine environmental effects on frequency reference sources are then presented. Finally, methods of standard frequency dissemination over radio frequency carriers are noted as a possible means of measuring absolute accuracy and long term stability characteristics during on one way Doppler equipment.

  18. Recent progress of the research work on frequency and time at the NIM. [China

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bingying, H.

    1979-01-01

    Chinese activities reported include (1) research and development on the primary cesium beam standard and the high precision crystal oscillator; (2) keeping the atomic time and calibrating frequency standards; (3) determining methods for transferring the standard frequency at the highest precision. The primary beam installation gives an accuracy of 1.2 x 10 to the minus 12 power (1 sigma). Improvements are being made to attain an uncertainity goal of the order of 10 to the minus 13 power. Two experiments conducted are described. One involved standard frequency transfer via TV color subcarrier; the other involved time synchronization via Symphonie satellite. The best results are the random fluctuation of direct measurement data is 1 sigma sub r (RMS) 10 ns, and the absolute error of clock synchronization is 1 sigma sub A (RMS) 30 ns.

  19. Distance measurement using frequency scanning interferometry with mode-hoped laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Medhat, M.; Sobee, M.; Hussein, H. M.; Terra, O.

    2016-06-01

    In this paper, frequency scanning interferometry is implemented to measure distances up to 5 m absolutely. The setup consists of a Michelson interferometer, an external cavity tunable diode laser, and an ultra-low expansion (ULE) Fabry-Pérot (FP) cavity to measure the frequency scanning range. The distance is measured by acquiring simultaneously the interference fringes from, the Michelson and the FP interferometers, while scanning the laser frequency. An online fringe processing technique is developed to calculate the distance from the fringe ratio while removing the parts result from the laser mode-hops without significantly affecting the measurement accuracy. This fringe processing method enables accurate distance measurements up to 5 m with measurements repeatability ±3.9×10-6 L. An accurate translation stage is used to find the FP cavity free-spectral-range and therefore allow accurate measurement. Finally, the setup is applied for the short distance calibration of a laser distance meter (LDM).

  20. Communication: Probing the absolute configuration of chiral molecules at aqueous interfaces

    SciTech Connect

    Lotze, Stephan Versluis, Jan; Olijve, Luuk L. C.; Schijndel, Luuk van; Milroy, Lech G.; Voets, Ilja K.; Bakker, Huib J.

    2015-11-28

    We demonstrate that the enantiomers of chiral macromolecules at an aqueous interface can be distinguished with monolayer sensitivity using heterodyne-detected vibrational sum-frequency generation (VSFG). We perform VSFG spectroscopy with a polarization combination that selectively probes chiral molecular structures. By using frequencies far detuned from electronic resonances, we probe the chiral macromolecular structures with high surface specificity. The phase of the sum-frequency light generated by the chiral molecules is determined using heterodyne detection. With this approach, we can distinguish right-handed and left-handed helical peptides at a water-air interface. We thus show that heterodyne-detected VSFG is sensitive to the absolute configuration of complex, interfacial macromolecules and has the potential to determine the absolute configuration of enantiomers at interfaces.

  1. Communication: Probing the absolute configuration of chiral molecules at aqueous interfaces.

    PubMed

    Lotze, Stephan; Versluis, Jan; Olijve, Luuk L C; van Schijndel, Luuk; Milroy, Lech G; Voets, Ilja K; Bakker, Huib J

    2015-11-28

    We demonstrate that the enantiomers of chiral macromolecules at an aqueous interface can be distinguished with monolayer sensitivity using heterodyne-detected vibrational sum-frequency generation (VSFG). We perform VSFG spectroscopy with a polarization combination that selectively probes chiral molecular structures. By using frequencies far detuned from electronic resonances, we probe the chiral macromolecular structures with high surface specificity. The phase of the sum-frequency light generated by the chiral molecules is determined using heterodyne detection. With this approach, we can distinguish right-handed and left-handed helical peptides at a water-air interface. We thus show that heterodyne-detected VSFG is sensitive to the absolute configuration of complex, interfacial macromolecules and has the potential to determine the absolute configuration of enantiomers at interfaces.

  2. Multi-Channel Optical Coherence Elastography Using Relative and Absolute Shear-Wave Time of Flight

    PubMed Central

    Elyas, Eli; Grimwood, Alex; Erler, Janine T.; Robinson, Simon P.; Cox, Thomas R.; Woods, Daniel; Clowes, Peter; De Luca, Ramona; Marinozzi, Franco; Fromageau, Jérémie; Bamber, Jeffrey C.

    2017-01-01

    Elastography, the imaging of elastic properties of soft tissues, is well developed for macroscopic clinical imaging of soft tissues and can provide useful information about various pathological processes which is complementary to that provided by the original modality. Scaling down of this technique should ply the field of cellular biology with valuable information with regard to elastic properties of cells and their environment. This paper evaluates the potential to develop such a tool by modifying a commercial optical coherence tomography (OCT) device to measure the speed of shear waves propagating in a three-dimensional (3D) medium. A needle, embedded in the gel, was excited to vibrate along its long axis and the displacement as a function of time and distance from the needle associated with the resulting shear waves was detected using four M-mode images acquired simultaneously using a commercial four-channel swept-source OCT system. Shear-wave time of arrival (TOA) was detected by tracking the axial OCT-speckle motion using cross-correlation methods. Shear-wave speed was then calculated from inter-channel differences of TOA for a single burst (the relative TOA method) and compared with the shear-wave speed determined from positional differences of TOA for a single channel over multiple bursts (the absolute TOA method). For homogeneous gels the relative method provided shear-wave speed with acceptable precision and accuracy when judged against the expected linear dependence of shear modulus on gelatine concentration (R2 = 0.95) and ultimate resolution capabilities limited by 184μm inter-channel distance. This overall approach shows promise for its eventual provision as a research tool in cancer cell biology. Further work is required to optimize parameters such as vibration frequency, burst length and amplitude, and to assess the lateral and axial resolutions of this type of device as well as to create 3D elastograms. PMID:28107368

  3. The IAG solar flux atlas: Accurate wavelengths and absolute convective blueshift in standard solar spectra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reiners, A.; Mrotzek, N.; Lemke, U.; Hinrichs, J.; Reinsch, K.

    2016-03-01

    We present a new solar flux atlas with the aim of understanding wavelength precision and accuracy in solar benchmark data. The atlas covers the wavelength range 405-2300 nm and was observed at the Institut für Astrophysik, Göttingen (IAG), with a Fourier transform spectrograph (FTS). In contrast to other FTS atlases, the entire visible wavelength range was observed simultaneously using only one spectrograph setting. We compare the wavelength solution of the new atlas to the Kitt Peak solar flux atlases and to the HARPS frequency-comb calibrated solar atlas. Comparison reveals systematics in the two Kitt Peak FTS atlases resulting from their wavelength scale construction, and shows consistency between the IAG and the HARPS atlas. We conclude that the IAG atlas is precise and accurate on the order of ± 10 m s-1 in the wavelength range 405-1065 nm, while the Kitt Peak atlases show deviations as large as several ten to 100 m s-1. We determine absolute convective blueshift across the spectrum from the IAG atlas and report slight differences relative to results from the Kitt Peak atlas that we attribute to the differences between wavelength scales. We conclude that benchmark solar data with accurate wavelength solution are crucial to better understand the effect of convection on stellar radial velocity measurements, which is one of the main limitations of Doppler spectroscopy at m s -1 precision. Data (FITS files of the spectra) and Table A.1 are only available at the CDS via anonymous ftp to http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (ftp://130.79.128.5) or via http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr/viz-bin/qcat?J/A+A/587/A65

  4. Multi-Channel Optical Coherence Elastography Using Relative and Absolute Shear-Wave Time of Flight.

    PubMed

    Elyas, Eli; Grimwood, Alex; Erler, Janine T; Robinson, Simon P; Cox, Thomas R; Woods, Daniel; Clowes, Peter; De Luca, Ramona; Marinozzi, Franco; Fromageau, Jérémie; Bamber, Jeffrey C

    2017-01-01

    Elastography, the imaging of elastic properties of soft tissues, is well developed for macroscopic clinical imaging of soft tissues and can provide useful information about various pathological processes which is complementary to that provided by the original modality. Scaling down of this technique should ply the field of cellular biology with valuable information with regard to elastic properties of cells and their environment. This paper evaluates the potential to develop such a tool by modifying a commercial optical coherence tomography (OCT) device to measure the speed of shear waves propagating in a three-dimensional (3D) medium. A needle, embedded in the gel, was excited to vibrate along its long axis and the displacement as a function of time and distance from the needle associated with the resulting shear waves was detected using four M-mode images acquired simultaneously using a commercial four-channel swept-source OCT system. Shear-wave time of arrival (TOA) was detected by tracking the axial OCT-speckle motion using cross-correlation methods. Shear-wave speed was then calculated from inter-channel differences of TOA for a single burst (the relative TOA method) and compared with the shear-wave speed determined from positional differences of TOA for a single channel over multiple bursts (the absolute TOA method). For homogeneous gels the relative method provided shear-wave speed with acceptable precision and accuracy when judged against the expected linear dependence of shear modulus on gelatine concentration (R2 = 0.95) and ultimate resolution capabilities limited by 184μm inter-channel distance. This overall approach shows promise for its eventual provision as a research tool in cancer cell biology. Further work is required to optimize parameters such as vibration frequency, burst length and amplitude, and to assess the lateral and axial resolutions of this type of device as well as to create 3D elastograms.

  5. A fast RCS accuracy assessment method for passive radar calibrators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Yongsheng; Li, Chuanrong; Tang, Lingli; Ma, Lingling; Liu, QI

    2016-10-01

    In microwave radar radiometric calibration, the corner reflector acts as the standard reference target but its structure is usually deformed during the transportation and installation, or deformed by wind and gravity while permanently installed outdoor, which will decrease the RCS accuracy and therefore the radiometric calibration accuracy. A fast RCS accuracy measurement method based on 3-D measuring instrument and RCS simulation was proposed in this paper for tracking the characteristic variation of the corner reflector. In the first step, RCS simulation algorithm was selected and its simulation accuracy was assessed. In the second step, the 3-D measuring instrument was selected and its measuring accuracy was evaluated. Once the accuracy of the selected RCS simulation algorithm and 3-D measuring instrument was satisfied for the RCS accuracy assessment, the 3-D structure of the corner reflector would be obtained by the 3-D measuring instrument, and then the RCSs of the obtained 3-D structure and corresponding ideal structure would be calculated respectively based on the selected RCS simulation algorithm. The final RCS accuracy was the absolute difference of the two RCS calculation results. The advantage of the proposed method was that it could be applied outdoor easily, avoiding the correlation among the plate edge length error, plate orthogonality error, plate curvature error. The accuracy of this method is higher than the method using distortion equation. In the end of the paper, a measurement example was presented in order to show the performance of the proposed method.

  6. Absolute Calibration of the AXAF Telescope Effective Area

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kellogg, E.; Cohen, L.; Edgar, R.; Evans, I.; Freeman, M.; Gaetz, T.; Jerius, D.; McDermott, W. C.; McKinnon, P.; Murray, S.; Podgorski, W.; Schwartz, D.; VanSpeybroeck, L.; Wargelin, B.; Zombeck, M.; Weisskopf, M.; Elsner, R.; ODell, S.; Tennant, A.; Kolodziejczak, J.

    1997-01-01

    The prelaunch calibration of AXAF encompasses many aspects of the telescope. In principle, all that is needed is the complete point response function. This is, however, a function of energy, off-axis angle of the source, and operating mode of the facility. No single measurement would yield the entire result. Also, any calibration made prior to launch will be affected by changes in conditions after launch, such as the change from one g to zero g. The reflectivity of the mirror and perhaps even the detectors can change as well, for example by addition or removal of small amounts of material deposited on their surfaces. In this paper, we give a broad view of the issues in performing such a calibration, and discuss how they are being addressed in prelaunch preparation of AXAF. As our title indicates, we concentrate here on the total throughput of the observatory. This can be thought of as the integral of the point response function, i.e. the encircled energy, out ot the largest practical solid angle for an observation. Since there is no standard x-ray source in the sky whose flux is known to the -1% accuracy we are trying to achieve, we must do this calibration on the ground. we also must provide a means for monitoring any possible changes in this calibration from pre-launch until on-orbit operation can transfer the calibration to a celestial x-ray source whose emission is stable. In this paper, we analyze the elements of the absolute throughput calibration, which we call Effective Area. We review the requirements for calibrations of components or subsystems of the AXAF facility, including mirror, detectors, and gratings. We show how it is necessary to calibrate this ground-based detection system at standard man-made x-ray sources, such as electron storage rings. We present the status of all these calibrations, with indications of the measurements remaining to be done, even though the measurements on the AXAF flight optics and detectors will have been completed by the

  7. Brownian motion: Absolute negative particle mobility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ros, Alexandra; Eichhorn, Ralf; Regtmeier, Jan; Duong, Thanh Tu; Reimann, Peter; Anselmetti, Dario

    2005-08-01

    Noise effects in technological applications, far from being a nuisance, can be exploited with advantage - for example, unavoidable thermal fluctuations have found application in the transport and sorting of colloidal particles and biomolecules. Here we use a microfluidic system to demonstrate a paradoxical migration mechanism in which particles always move in a direction opposite to the net acting force (`absolute negative mobility') as a result of an interplay between thermal noise, a periodic and symmetric microstructure, and a biased alternating-current electric field. This counterintuitive phenomenon could be used for bioanalytical purposes, for example in the separation and fractionation of colloids, biological molecules and cells.

  8. Arbitrary segments of absolute negative mobility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Ruyin; Nie, Linru; Chen, Chongyang; Wang, Chaojie

    2017-01-01

    In previous research work, investigators have reported only one or two segments of absolute negative mobility (ANM) in a periodic potential. In fact, many segments of ANM also occur in the system considered here. We investigate transport of an inertial particle in a gating ratchet periodic potential subjected to a constant bias force. Our numerical results show that its mean velocity can decrease with the bias force increasing, i.e. ANM phenomenon. Furthermore, the ANM can take place arbitrary segments, even up to more than thirty. Intrinsic physical mechanism and conditions for arbitrary segments of ANM to occur are discussed in detail.

  9. Absolute quantification of myocardial blood flow.

    PubMed

    Yoshinaga, Keiichiro; Manabe, Osamu; Tamaki, Nagara

    2016-07-21

    With the increasing availability of positron emission tomography (PET) myocardial perfusion imaging, the absolute quantification of myocardial blood flow (MBF) has become popular in clinical settings. Quantitative MBF provides an important additional diagnostic or prognostic information over conventional visual assessment. The success of MBF quantification using PET/computed tomography (CT) has increased the demand for this quantitative diagnostic approach to be more accessible. In this regard, MBF quantification approaches have been developed using several other diagnostic imaging modalities including single-photon emission computed tomography, CT, and cardiac magnetic resonance. This review will address the clinical aspects of PET MBF quantification and the new approaches to MBF quantification.

  10. An absolute radius scale for Saturn's rings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nicholson, Philip D.; Cooke, Maren L.; Pelton, Emily

    1990-01-01

    Radio and stellar occultation observations of Saturn's rings made by the Voyager spacecraft are discussed. The data reveal systematic discrepancies of almost 10 km in some parts of the rings, limiting some of the investigations. A revised solution for Saturn's rotation pole has been proposed which removes the discrepancies between the stellar and radio occultation profiles. Corrections to previously published radii vary from -2 to -10 km for the radio occultation, and +5 to -6 km for the stellar occultation. An examination of spiral density waves in the outer A Ring supports that the revised absolute radii are in error by no more than 2 km.

  11. Absolute Rate Theories of Epigenetic Stability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walczak, Aleksandra M.; Onuchic, Jose N.; Wolynes, Peter G.

    2006-03-01

    Spontaneous switching events in most characterized genetic switches are rare, resulting in extremely stable epigenetic properties. We show how simple arguments lead to theories of the rate of such events much like the absolute rate theory of chemical reactions corrected by a transmission factor. Both the probability of the rare cellular states that allow epigenetic escape, and the transmission factor, depend on the rates of DNA binding and unbinding events and on the rates of protein synthesis and degradation. Different mechanisms of escape from the stable attractors occur in the nonadiabatic, weakly adiabatic and strictly adiabatic regimes, characterized by the relative values of those input rates.

  12. Absolute rate theories of epigenetic stability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walczak, Aleksandra M.; Onuchic, José N.; Wolynes, Peter G.

    2005-12-01

    Spontaneous switching events in most characterized genetic switches are rare, resulting in extremely stable epigenetic properties. We show how simple arguments lead to theories of the rate of such events much like the absolute rate theory of chemical reactions corrected by a transmission factor. Both the probability of the rare cellular states that allow epigenetic escape and the transmission factor depend on the rates of DNA binding and unbinding events and on the rates of protein synthesis and degradation. Different mechanisms of escape from the stable attractors occur in the nonadiabatic, weakly adiabatic, and strictly adiabatic regimes, characterized by the relative values of those input rates. rate theory | stochastic gene expression | gene switches

  13. Absolute method of measuring magnetic susceptibility

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Thorpe, A.; Senftle, F.E.

    1959-01-01

    An absolute method of standardization and measurement of the magnetic susceptibility of small samples is presented which can be applied to most techniques based on the Faraday method. The fact that the susceptibility is a function of the area under the curve of sample displacement versus distance of the magnet from the sample, offers a simple method of measuring the susceptibility without recourse to a standard sample. Typical results on a few substances are compared with reported values, and an error of less than 2% can be achieved. ?? 1959 The American Institute of Physics.

  14. Absolute Priority for a Vehicle in VANET

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shirani, Rostam; Hendessi, Faramarz; Montazeri, Mohammad Ali; Sheikh Zefreh, Mohammad

    In today's world, traffic jams waste hundreds of hours of our life. This causes many researchers try to resolve the problem with the idea of Intelligent Transportation System. For some applications like a travelling ambulance, it is important to reduce delay even for a second. In this paper, we propose a completely infrastructure-less approach for finding shortest path and controlling traffic light to provide absolute priority for an emergency vehicle. We use the idea of vehicular ad-hoc networking to reduce the imposed travelling time. Then, we simulate our proposed protocol and compare it with a centrally controlled traffic light system.

  15. Frequency-agile, rapid scanning cavity ring-down spectroscopy (FARS-CRDS) measurements of the (30012)←(00001) near-infrared carbon dioxide band

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Long, D. A.; Wójtewicz, S.; Miller, C. E.; Hodges, J. T.

    2015-08-01

    We present new high accuracy measurements of the (30012)←(00001) CO2 band near 1575 nm recorded with a frequency-agile, rapid scanning cavity ring-down spectrometer. The resulting spectra were fit with the partially correlated, quadratic-speed-dependent Nelkin-Ghatak profile with line mixing. Significant differences were observed between the fitted line shape parameters and those found in existing databases, which are based upon more simplistic line profiles. Absolute transition frequencies, which were referenced to an optical frequency comb, are given, as well as the other line shape parameters needed to model this line profile. These high accuracy measurements should allow for improved atmospheric retrievals of greenhouse gas concentrations by current and future remote sensing missions.

  16. A Method for Selecting between Fisher's Linear Classification Functions and Least Absolute Deviation in Predictive Discriminant Analysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meshbane, Alice; Morris, John D.

    A method for comparing the cross-validated classification accuracy of Fisher's linear classification functions (FLCFs) and the least absolute deviation is presented under varying data conditions for the two-group classification problem. With this method, separate-group as well as total-sample proportions of current classifications can be compared…

  17. Accuracy of Stokes integration for geoid computation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ismail, Zahra; Jamet, Olivier; Altamimi, Zuheir

    2014-05-01

    Geoid determination by remove-compute-restore (RCR) technique involves the application of Stokes's integral on reduced gravity anomalies. Reduced gravity anomalies are obtained through interpolation after removing low degree gravity signal from space spherical harmonic model and high frequency from topographical effects and cover a spectre ranging from degree 150-200. Stokes's integral is truncated to a limited region around the computation point producing an error that will be reducing by a modification of Stokes's kernel. We study Stokes integral accuracy on synthetic signal of various frequency ranges, produced with EGM2008 spherical harmonic coefficients up to degree 2000. We analyse the integration error according to the frequency range of signal, the resolution of gravity anomaly grid and the radius of Stokes integration. The study shows that the behaviour of the relative errors is frequency independent. The standard Stokes kernel is though insufficient to produce 1cm geoid accuracy without a removal of the major part of the gravity signal up to degree 600. The Integration over an area of radius greater than 3 degree does not improve accuracy improvement. The results are compared to a similar experiment using the modified Stokes kernel formula (Ellmann2004, Sjöberg2003). References: Ellmann, A. (2004) The geoid for the Baltic countries determined by least-squares modification of Stokes formula. Sjöberg, LE (2003). A general model of modifying Stokes formula and its least-squares solution Journal of Geodesy, 77. 459-464.

  18. A new determination of the Geneva photometric passbands and their absolute calibration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rufener, F.; Nicolet, B.

    The consensus regarding the absolute calibrations of the spectra of alpha Lyr and subdwarfs provoked a revision of the calibration of the Geneva photometric system passbands. The alterations made to the earlier version by Rufener and Maeder (1971) are smaller than plus or minus -5 percent. The new response functions are presented in tabular form for an equiphotonic flux. An absolute spectrophotometric adjustment allows to obtain for each entry of the Geneva catalog (28,000 stars) a corresponding spectrophotometric description in SI units. The definition and the means of computing the necessary quasi-isophotal frequencies or wavelengths are given. The coherence of the Geneva catalog with several sets of absolute spectrophotometric data is examined. A correction for the entire Gunn and Stryker (1983) catalog is proposed.

  19. The effects of domain knowledge on metacomprehension accuracy.

    PubMed

    Griffin, Thomas D; Jee, Benjamin D; Wiley, Jennifer

    2009-10-01

    In the present research, we examined the relationship between readers' domain knowledge and their ability to judge their comprehension of novel domain-related material. Participants with varying degrees of baseball knowledge read five texts on baseball-related topics and five texts on non-baseball-related topics, predicted their performance, and completed tests for each text. Baseball knowledge was positively related to absolute accuracy within the baseball domain but was unrelated to relative accuracy within the baseball domain. Also, the readers showed a general underconfidence bias, but the bias was less extreme for higher knowledge readers. The results challenge common assumptions that experts' metacognitive judgments are less accurate than novices'. Results involving topic familiarity ratings and a no-reading control group suggest that higher knowledge readers are not more likely to ignore text-specific cues in favor of a domain familiarity heuristic, but they do appear to make more effective use of domain familiarity in predicting absolute performance levels.

  20. Linear ultrasonic motor for absolute gravimeter.

    PubMed

    Jian, Yue; Yao, Zhiyuan; Silberschmidt, Vadim V

    2017-02-01

    Thanks to their compactness and suitability for vacuum applications, linear ultrasonic motors are considered as substitutes for classical electromagnetic motors as driving elements in absolute gravimeters. Still, their application is prevented by relatively low power output. To overcome this limitation and provide better stability, a V-type linear ultrasonic motor with a new clamping method is proposed for a gravimeter. In this paper, a mechanical model of stators with flexible clamping components is suggested, according to a design criterion for clamps of linear ultrasonic motors. After that, an effect of tangential and normal rigidity of the clamping components on mechanical output is studied. It is followed by discussion of a new clamping method with sufficient tangential rigidity and a capability to facilitate pre-load. Additionally, a prototype of the motor with the proposed clamping method was fabricated and the performance tests in vertical direction were implemented. Experimental results show that the suggested motor has structural stability and high dynamic performance, such as no-load speed of 1.4m/s and maximal thrust of 43N, meeting the requirements for absolute gravimeters.

  1. Why to compare absolute numbers of mitochondria.

    PubMed

    Schmitt, Sabine; Schulz, Sabine; Schropp, Eva-Maria; Eberhagen, Carola; Simmons, Alisha; Beisker, Wolfgang; Aichler, Michaela; Zischka, Hans

    2014-11-01

    Prompted by pronounced structural differences between rat liver and rat hepatocellular carcinoma mitochondria, we suspected these mitochondrial populations to differ massively in their molecular composition. Aiming to reveal these mitochondrial differences, we came across the issue on how to normalize such comparisons and decided to focus on the absolute number of mitochondria. To this end, fluorescently stained mitochondria were quantified by flow cytometry. For rat liver mitochondria, this approach resulted in mitochondrial protein contents comparable to earlier reports using alternative methods. We determined similar protein contents for rat liver, heart and kidney mitochondria. In contrast, however, lower protein contents were determined for rat brain mitochondria and for mitochondria from the rat hepatocellular carcinoma cell line McA 7777. This result challenges mitochondrial comparisons that rely on equal protein amounts as a typical normalization method. Exemplarily, we therefore compared the activity and susceptibility toward inhibition of complex II of rat liver and hepatocellular carcinoma mitochondria and obtained significant discrepancies by either normalizing to protein amount or to absolute mitochondrial number. Importantly, the latter normalization, in contrast to the former, demonstrated a lower complex II activity and higher susceptibility toward inhibition in hepatocellular carcinoma mitochondria compared to liver mitochondria. These findings demonstrate that solely normalizing to protein amount may obscure essential molecular differences between mitochondrial populations.

  2. The absolute threshold of cone vision

    PubMed Central

    Koeing, Darran; Hofer, Heidi

    2013-01-01

    We report measurements of the absolute threshold of cone vision, which has been previously underestimated due to sub-optimal conditions or overly strict subjective response criteria. We avoided these limitations by using optimized stimuli and experimental conditions while having subjects respond within a rating scale framework. Small (1′ fwhm), brief (34 msec), monochromatic (550 nm) stimuli were foveally presented at multiple intensities in dark-adapted retina for 5 subjects. For comparison, 4 subjects underwent similar testing with rod-optimized stimuli. Cone absolute threshold, that is, the minimum light energy for which subjects were just able to detect a visual stimulus with any response criterion, was 203 ± 38 photons at the cornea, ∼0.47 log units lower than previously reported. Two-alternative forced-choice measurements in a subset of subjects yielded consistent results. Cone thresholds were less responsive to criterion changes than rod thresholds, suggesting a limit to the stimulus information recoverable from the cone mosaic in addition to the limit imposed by Poisson noise. Results were consistent with expectations for detection in the face of stimulus uncertainty. We discuss implications of these findings for modeling the first stages of human cone vision and interpreting psychophysical data acquired with adaptive optics at the spatial scale of the receptor mosaic. PMID:21270115

  3. [Estimation of absolute risk for fracture].

    PubMed

    Fujiwara, Saeko

    2009-03-01

    Osteoporosis treatment aims to prevent fractures and maintain the QOL of the elderly. However, persons at high risk of future fracture cannot be effectively identified on the basis of bone density (BMD) alone, although BMD is used as an diagnostic criterion. Therefore, the WHO recommended that absolute risk for fracture (10-year probability of fracture) for each individual be evaluated and used as an index for intervention threshold. The 10-year probability of fracture is calculated based on age, sex, BMD at the femoral neck (body mass index if BMD is not available), history of previous fractures, parental hip fracture history, smoking, steroid use, rheumatoid arthritis, secondary osteoporosis and alcohol consumption. The WHO has just announced the development of a calculation tool (FRAX: WHO Fracture Risk Assessment Tool) in February this year. Fractures could be prevented more effectively if, based on each country's medical circumstances, an absolute risk value for fracture to determine when to start medical treatment is established and persons at high risk of fracture are identified and treated accordingly.

  4. Absolute stereochemistry of altersolanol A and alterporriols.

    PubMed

    Kanamaru, Saki; Honma, Miho; Murakami, Takanori; Tsushima, Taro; Kudo, Shinji; Tanaka, Kazuaki; Nihei, Ken-Ichi; Nehira, Tatsuo; Hashimoto, Masaru

    2012-02-01

    The absolute stereochemistry of altersolanol A (1) was established by observing a positive exciton couplet in the circular dichroism (CD) spectrum of the C3,C4-O-bis(2-naphthoyl) derivative 10 and by chemical correlations with known compound 8. Before the discussion, the relative stereochemistry of 1 was confirmed by X-ray crystallographic analysis. The shielding effect at C7'-OMe group by C1-O-benzoylation established the relative stereochemical relationship between the C8-C8' axial bonding and the C1-C4/C1'-C4' polyol moieties of alterporriols E (3), an atropisomer of the C8-C8' dimer of 1. As 3 could be obtained by dimerization of 1 in vitro, the absolute configuration of its central chirality elements (C1-C4) must be identical to those of 1. Spectral comparison between the experimental and theoretical CD spectra supported the above conclusion. Axial stereochemistry of novel C4-O-deoxy dimeric derivatives, alterporriols F (4) and G (5), were also revealed by comparison of their CD spectra to those of 2 and 3.

  5. Absolute Electron Extraction Efficiency of Liquid Xenon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kamdin, Katayun; Mizrachi, Eli; Morad, James; Sorensen, Peter

    2016-03-01

    Dual phase liquid/gas xenon time projection chambers (TPCs) currently set the world's most sensitive limits on weakly interacting massive particles (WIMPs), a favored dark matter candidate. These detectors rely on extracting electrons from liquid xenon into gaseous xenon, where they produce proportional scintillation. The proportional scintillation from the extracted electrons serves to internally amplify the WIMP signal; even a single extracted electron is detectable. Credible dark matter searches can proceed with electron extraction efficiency (EEE) lower than 100%. However, electrons systematically left at the liquid/gas boundary are a concern. Possible effects include spontaneous single or multi-electron proportional scintillation signals in the gas, or charging of the liquid/gas interface or detector materials. Understanding EEE is consequently a serious concern for this class of rare event search detectors. Previous EEE measurements have mostly been relative, not absolute, assuming efficiency plateaus at 100%. I will present an absolute EEE measurement with a small liquid/gas xenon TPC test bed located at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory.

  6. Standardization of the cumulative absolute velocity

    SciTech Connect

    O'Hara, T.F.; Jacobson, J.P. )

    1991-12-01

    EPRI NP-5930, A Criterion for Determining Exceedance of the Operating Basis Earthquake,'' was published in July 1988. As defined in that report, the Operating Basis Earthquake (OBE) is exceeded when both a response spectrum parameter and a second damage parameter, referred to as the Cumulative Absolute Velocity (CAV), are exceeded. In the review process of the above report, it was noted that the calculation of CAV could be confounded by time history records of long duration containing low (nondamaging) acceleration. Therefore, it is necessary to standardize the method of calculating CAV to account for record length. This standardized methodology allows consistent comparisons between future CAV calculations and the adjusted CAV threshold value based upon applying the standardized methodology to the data set presented in EPRI NP-5930. The recommended method to standardize the CAV calculation is to window its calculation on a second-by-second basis for a given time history. If the absolute acceleration exceeds 0.025g at any time during each one second interval, the earthquake records used in EPRI NP-5930 have been reanalyzed and the adjusted threshold of damage for CAV was found to be 0.16g-set.

  7. Alternatives to accuracy and bias metrics based on percentage errors for radiation belt modeling applications

    SciTech Connect

    Morley, Steven Karl

    2016-07-01

    This report reviews existing literature describing forecast accuracy metrics, concentrating on those based on relative errors and percentage errors. We then review how the most common of these metrics, the mean absolute percentage error (MAPE), has been applied in recent radiation belt modeling literature. Finally, we describe metrics based on the ratios of predicted to observed values (the accuracy ratio) that address the drawbacks inherent in using MAPE. Specifically, we define and recommend the median log accuracy ratio as a measure of bias and the median symmetric accuracy as a measure of accuracy.

  8. Extracting infrared absolute reflectance from relative reflectance measurements.

    PubMed

    Berets, Susan L; Milosevic, Milan

    2012-06-01

    Absolute reflectance measurements are valuable to the optics industry for development of new materials and optical coatings. Yet, absolute reflectance measurements are notoriously difficult to make. In this paper, we investigate the feasibility of extracting the absolute reflectance from a relative reflectance measurement using a reference material with known refractive index.

  9. A Conceptual Approach to Absolute Value Equations and Inequalities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ellis, Mark W.; Bryson, Janet L.

    2011-01-01

    The absolute value learning objective in high school mathematics requires students to solve far more complex absolute value equations and inequalities. When absolute value problems become more complex, students often do not have sufficient conceptual understanding to make any sense of what is happening mathematically. The authors suggest that the…

  10. Accuracy and coverage of the modernized Polish Maritime differential GPS system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Specht, Cezary

    2011-01-01

    The DGPS navigation service augments The NAVSTAR Global Positioning System by providing localized pseudorange correction factors and ancillary information which are broadcast over selected marine reference stations. The DGPS service position and integrity information satisfy requirements in coastal navigation and hydrographic surveys. Polish Maritime DGPS system has been established in 1994 and modernized (in 2009) to meet the requirements set out in IMO resolution for a future GNSS, but also to preserve backward signal compatibility of user equipment. Having finalized installation of the new technology L1, L2 reference equipment performance tests were performed.The paper presents results of the coverage modeling and accuracy measuring campaign based on long-term signal analyses of the DGPS reference station Rozewie, which was performed for 26 days in July 2009. Final results allowed to verify the coverage area of the differential signal from reference station and calculated repeatable and absolute accuracy of the system, after the technical modernization. Obtained field strength level area and position statistics (215,000 fixes) were compared to past measurements performed in 2002 (coverage) and 2005 (accuracy), when previous system infrastructure was in operation.So far, no campaigns were performed on differential Galileo. However, as signals, signal processing and receiver techniques are comparable to those know from DGPS. Because all satellite differential GNSS systems use the same transmission standard (RTCM), maritime DGPS Radiobeacons are standardized in all radio communication aspects (frequency, binary rate, modulation), then the accuracy results of differential Galileo can be expected as a similar to DGPS.Coverage of the reference station was calculated based on unique software, which calculate the signal strength level based on transmitter parameters or field signal strength measurement campaign, done in the representative points. The software works

  11. Soccer-specific accuracy and validity of the local position measurement (LPM) system.

    PubMed

    Frencken, Wouter G P; Lemmink, Koen A P M; Delleman, Nico J

    2010-11-01

    Limited data is available on accuracy and validity of video-based, GPS and electronic tracking systems, particularly with reference to curved courses and short high intensity running activities. The main goal of this study was to assess soccer-specific accuracy and validity of the radio-frequency based local position measurement (LPM) system (1000Hz) for measuring distance and speed during walking and sprinting. Three males walked and sprinted 4 soccer-specific courses 10 times each. Distance and speed recorded by LPM were compared to actual distance and speed measured by measuring tape and timing gates. In addition, accuracy was assessed. The static accuracy (SD of the mean) is 1cm for devices put on the pitch and 2-3 cm when worn by participants. LPM underestimates actual distance (mean difference at most -1.6%). Coefficient of variation becomes larger at higher speed and increased turning angle. With regard to speed, validity correlations are high (range: 0.71-0.97). The LPM speed is significantly and systematically lower, although absolute and relative differences are small, between -0.1 km h⁻¹ (-1.3%) and -0.6 km h⁻¹ (-3.9%). The typical error of the estimate increases with increased speed, but does not increase with increased turning angle. Because the reported differences are small, we conclude that the LPM-system produces highly accurate position and speed data in static and dynamic conditions and is a valid tool for player tracking in soccer and ball team sports in general.

  12. Precision absolute value amplifier for a precision voltmeter

    DOEpatents

    Hearn, William E.; Rondeau, Donald J.

    1985-01-01

    Bipolar inputs are afforded by the plus inputs of first and second differential input amplifiers. A first gain determining resister is connected between the minus inputs of the differential amplifiers. First and second diodes are connected between the respective minus inputs and the respective outputs of the differential amplifiers. First and second FETs have their gates connected to the outputs of the amplifiers, while their respective source and drain circuits are connected between the respective minus inputs and an output lead extending to a load resister. The output current through the load resister is proportional to the absolute value of the input voltage difference between the bipolar input terminals. A third differential amplifier has its plus input terminal connected to the load resister. A second gain determining resister is connected between the minus input of the third differential amplifier and a voltage source. A third FET has its gate connected to the output of the third amplifier. The source and drain circuit of the third transistor is connected between the minus input of the third amplifier and a voltage-frequency converter, constituting an output device. A polarity detector is also provided, comprising a pair of transistors having their inputs connected to the outputs of the first and second differential amplifiers. The outputs of the polarity detector are connected to gates which switch the output of the voltage-frequency converter between up and down counting outputs.

  13. Precision absolute-value amplifier for a precision voltmeter

    DOEpatents

    Hearn, W.E.; Rondeau, D.J.

    1982-10-19

    Bipolar inputs are afforded by the plus inputs of first and second differential input amplifiers. A first gain determining resistor is connected between the minus inputs of the differential amplifiers. First and second diodes are connected between the respective minus inputs and the respective outputs of the differential amplifiers. First and second FETs have their gates connected to the outputs of the amplifiers, while their respective source and drain circuits are connected between the respective minus inputs and an output lead extending to a load resistor. The output current through the load resistor is proportional to the absolute value of the input voltage difference between the bipolar input terminals. A third differential amplifier has its plus input terminal connected to the load resistor. A second gain determining resistor is connected between the minus input of the third differential amplifier and a voltage source. A third FET has its gate connected to the output of the third amplifier. The source and drain circuit of the third transistor is connected between the minus input of the third amplifier and a voltage-frequency converter, constituting an output device. A polarity detector is also provided, comprising a pair of transistors having their inputs connected to the outputs of the first and second differential amplifiers. The outputs of the polarity detector are connected to gates which switch the output of the voltage-frequency converter between up and down counting outputs.

  14. The development of a stepped frequency microwave radiometer and its application to remote sensing of the Earth

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harrington, R. F.

    1980-01-01

    The design, development, application, and capabilities of a variable frequency microwave radiometer are described. This radiometer demonstrated the versatility, accuracy, and stability required to provide contributions to the geophysical understanding of ocean and ice processes. A closed-loop feedback method was used, whereby noise pulses were added to the received electromagnetic radiation to achieve a null balance in a Dicke switched radiometer. Stability was achieved through the use of a constant temperature enclosure around the low loss microwave front end. The Dicke reference temperature was maintained to an absolute accuracy of 0.1 K using a closed-loop proportional temperature controller. A microprocessor based digital controller operates the radiometer and records the data on computer compatible tapes. This radiometer exhibits an absolute accuracy of better than 0.5 K when the sensitivity is 0.1 K. The sensitivity varies between 0.0125 K and 1.25 K depending upon the bandwidth and integration time selected by the digital controller. Remote sensing experiments were conducted from an aircraft platform and the first radiometeric mapping of an ocean polar front; exploratory experiments to measure the thickness of lake ice; first discrimination between first year and multiyear ice below 10 GHz; and the first known measurements of frequency sensitive characteristics of sea ice.

  15. Absolute pitch among students at the Shanghai Conservatory of Music: a large-scale direct-test study.

    PubMed

    Deutsch, Diana; Li, Xiaonuo; Shen, Jing

    2013-11-01

    This paper reports a large-scale direct-test study of absolute pitch (AP) in students at the Shanghai Conservatory of Music. Overall note-naming scores were very high, with high scores correlating positively with early onset of musical training. Students who had begun training at age ≤5 yr scored 83% correct not allowing for semitone errors and 90% correct allowing for semitone errors. Performance levels were higher for white key pitches than for black key pitches. This effect was greater for orchestral performers than for pianists, indicating that it cannot be attributed to early training on the piano. Rather, accuracy in identifying notes of different names (C, C#, D, etc.) correlated with their frequency of occurrence in a large sample of music taken from the Western tonal repertoire. There was also an effect of pitch range, so that performance on tones in the two-octave range beginning on Middle C was higher than on tones in the octave below Middle C. In addition, semitone errors tended to be on the sharp side. The evidence also ran counter to the hypothesis, previously advanced by others, that the note A plays a special role in pitch identification judgments.

  16. Blackbody radiation shift in ^87Rb frequency standard

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Safronova, Marianna; Safronova, U. I.

    2010-03-01

    The operation of atomic clocks is generally carried out at room temperature, whereas the definition of the second refers to the clock transition in an atom at absolute zero. This implies that the clock transition frequency should be corrected in practice for the effect of finite temperature of which the leading contributor is the blackbody radiation (BBR) shift. Experimental measurements of the BBR shifts are difficult. In this work, we have calculated the blackbody radiation shift of the ground-state hyperfine microwave transition in ^87Rb using the relativistic all-order method and evaluated the accuracy of our final value. Particular care is taken to accurately account for the contributions from highly-excited states. Various Rb atomic properties, including E1, E2, and E3 ground state polarizabilities, np and nd E1 polarizabilities, and hyperfine constants are also calculated. The results are compared with experiment and other theory where available.

  17. Ridge-spotting: A new test for Pacific absolute plate motion models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wessel, Paul; Müller, R. Dietmar

    2016-06-01

    Relative plate motions provide high-resolution descriptions of motions of plates relative to other plates. Yet geodynamically, motions of plates relative to the mantle are required since such motions can be attributed to forces (e.g., slab pull and ridge push) acting upon the plates. Various reference frames have been proposed, such as the hot spot reference frame, to link plate motions to a mantle framework. Unfortunately, both accuracy and precision of absolute plate motion models lag behind those of relative plate motion models. Consequently, it is paramount to use relative plate motions in improving our understanding of absolute plate motions. A new technique called "ridge-spotting" combines absolute and relative plate motions and examines the viability of proposed absolute plate motion models. We test the method on six published Pacific absolute plate motions models, including fixed and moving hot spot models as well as a geodynamically derived model. Ridge-spotting reconstructs the Pacific-Farallon and Pacific-Antarctica ridge systems over the last 80 Myr. All six absolute plate motion models predict large amounts of northward migration and monotonic clockwise rotation for the Pacific-Farallon ridge. A geodynamic implication of our ridge migration predictions is that the suggestion that the Pacific-Farallon ridge may have been pinned by a large mantle upwelling is not supported. Unexpected or erratic ridge behaviors may be tied to limitations in the models themselves or (for Indo-Atlantic models) discrepancies in the plate circuits used to project models into the Pacific realm. Ridge-spotting is promising and will be extended to include more plates and other ocean basins.

  18. Use of Absolute and Comparative Performance Feedback in Absolute and Comparative Judgments and Decisions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moore, Don A.; Klein, William M. P.

    2008-01-01

    Which matters more--beliefs about absolute ability or ability relative to others? This study set out to compare the effects of such beliefs on satisfaction with performance, self-evaluations, and bets on future performance. In Experiment 1, undergraduate participants were told they had answered 20% correct, 80% correct, or were not given their…

  19. Absolute activity measurement of radon gas at IRA-METAS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spring, Philippe; Nedjadi, Youcef; Bailat, Claude; Triscone, Gilles; Bochud, François

    2006-12-01

    This paper describes the system of the Swiss national metrological institute (IRA-METAS) for the absolute standardisation of radon gas. This method relies on condensing radon under vacuum conditions within a specified cold area using a cryogenerator, and detecting its alpha particles with an ion-implanted silicon detector, through a very accurately defined solid angle. The accuracy of this defined solid angle standardisation technique was corroborated by another primary measurement method involving 4 πγ NaI(Tl) integral counting and Monte Carlo efficiency calculations. The 222Rn standard submitted by IRA-METAS to the Système International de Référence (SIR) at the Bureau International des Poids et Mesures (BIPM) has also been found to be consistent with an analogous standard submitted by the German national metrological institute (PTB). IRA-METAS is able to deliver radon standards, with activities ranging from a few kBq to 350 kBq, in NIST-Type ampoules, and glass or steel containers usable for calibrating radon-measuring instruments.

  20. Droplet digital PCR for absolute quantification of pathogens.

    PubMed

    Gutiérrez-Aguirre, Ion; Rački, Nejc; Dreo, Tanja; Ravnikar, Maja

    2015-01-01

    The recent advent of different digital PCR (dPCR) platforms is enabling the expansion of this technology for research and diagnostic applications worldwide. The main principle of dPCR, as in other PCR-based methods including quantitative PCR (qPCR), is the specific amplification of a nucleic acid target. The distinctive feature of dPCR is the separation of the reaction mixture into thousands to millions of partitions which is followed by a real time or end point detection of the amplification. The distribution of target sequences into partitions is described by the Poisson distribution, thus allowing accurate and absolute quantification of the target from the ratio of positive against all partitions at the end of the reaction. This omits the need to use reference materials with known target concentrations and increases the accuracy of quantification at low target concentrations compared to qPCR. dPCR has also shown higher resilience to inhibitors in a number of different types of samples. In this chapter we describe the droplet digital PCR (ddPCR) workflow for the detection and quantification of pathogens using the droplet digital Bio-Rad platform QX100. We present as an example the quantification of the quarantine plant pathogenic bacterium, Erwinia amylovora.

  1. Alignment and absolute wavelength calibration of imaging Bragg spectrometers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bertschinger, G.; Marchuk, O.; Barnsley, R.

    2016-11-01

    In the present and the next generation of fusion devices, imaging Bragg spectrometers are key diagnostics to measure plasma parameters in the hot core, especially ion temperature and plasma rotation. The latter quantities are routinely obtained using the Doppler-width and -shift of the emitted spectral lines, respectively. Line shift measurements require absolute accuracies Δλ/λ of about 10 ppm, where λ-is the observed wavelength. For ITER and the present fusion devices, spectral lines of He-and H-like argon, iron, and krypton as well as Ne-like tungsten are foreseen for the measurements. For these lines, Kα lines can be found, some in higher order, which fit into the narrow energy window of the spectrometers. For arbitrary wavelength settings, Kα lines are also used to measure the miscut of the spherical crystals; afterwards the spectrometers can be set according to the geometrical imaging properties using coordinate measurement machines. For the spectrometers measuring Lyα lines of H-like ions, fluorescence targets can provide in situ localized calibration lines on the spectra. The fluorescence targets are used best in transmission and are excited by the thermal x-ray radiation of the plasma. An analytic theory of fluorescence is worked out.

  2. Absolute nonlocality via distributed computing without communication

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Czekaj, Ł.; Pawłowski, M.; Vértesi, T.; Grudka, A.; Horodecki, M.; Horodecki, R.

    2015-09-01

    Understanding the role that quantum entanglement plays as a resource in various information processing tasks is one of the crucial goals of quantum information theory. Here we propose an alternative perspective for studying quantum entanglement: distributed computation of functions without communication between nodes. To formalize this approach, we propose identity games. Surprisingly, despite no signaling, we obtain that nonlocal quantum strategies beat classical ones in terms of winning probability for identity games originating from certain bipartite and multipartite functions. Moreover we show that, for a majority of functions, access to general nonsignaling resources boosts success probability two times in comparison to classical ones for a number of large enough outputs. Because there are no constraints on the inputs and no processing of the outputs in the identity games, they detect very strong types of correlations: absolute nonlocality.

  3. In vivo absorption spectroscopy for absolute measurement.

    PubMed

    Furukawa, Hiromitsu; Fukuda, Takashi

    2012-10-01

    In in vivo spectroscopy, there are differences between individual subjects in parameters such as tissue scattering and sample concentration. We propose a method that can provide the absolute value of a particular substance concentration, independent of these individual differences. Thus, it is not necessary to use the typical statistical calibration curve, which assumes an average level of scattering and an averaged concentration over individual subjects. This method is expected to greatly reduce the difficulties encountered during in vivo measurements. As an example, for in vivo absorption spectroscopy, the method was applied to the reflectance measurement in retinal vessels to monitor their oxygen saturation levels. This method was then validated by applying it to the tissue phantom under a variety of absorbance values and scattering efficiencies.

  4. Determining Absolute Zero Using a Tuning Fork

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goldader, Jeffrey D.

    2008-04-01

    The Celsius and Kelvin temperature scales, we tell our students, are related. We explain that a change in temperature of 1°C corresponds to a change of 1 Kelvin and that atoms and molecules have zero kinetic energy at zero Kelvin, -273°C. In this paper, we will show how students can derive the relationship between the Celsius and Kelvin temperature scales using a simple, well-known physics experiment. By making multiple measurements of the speed of sound at different temperatures, using the classic physics experiment of determining the speed of sound with a tuning fork and variable-length tube, they can determine the temperature at which the speed of sound is zero—absolute zero.

  5. Absolute measurements of fast neutrons using yttrium.

    PubMed

    Roshan, M V; Springham, S V; Rawat, R S; Lee, P; Krishnan, M

    2010-08-01

    Yttrium is presented as an absolute neutron detector for pulsed neutron sources. It has high sensitivity for detecting fast neutrons. Yttrium has the property of generating a monoenergetic secondary radiation in the form of a 909 keV gamma-ray caused by inelastic neutron interaction. It was calibrated numerically using MCNPX and does not need periodic recalibration. The total yttrium efficiency for detecting 2.45 MeV neutrons was determined to be f(n) approximately 4.1x10(-4) with an uncertainty of about 0.27%. The yttrium detector was employed in the NX2 plasma focus experiments and showed the neutron yield of the order of 10(8) neutrons per discharge.

  6. Measured and modelled absolute gravity in Greenland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nielsen, E.; Forsberg, R.; Strykowski, G.

    2012-12-01

    Present day changes in the ice volume in glaciated areas like Greenland will change the load on the Earth and to this change the lithosphere will respond elastically. The Earth also responds to changes in the ice volume over a millennial time scale. This response is due to the viscous properties of the mantle and is known as Glaical Isostatic Adjustment (GIA). Both signals are present in GPS and absolute gravity (AG) measurements and they will give an uncertainty in mass balance estimates calculated from these data types. It is possible to separate the two signals if both gravity and Global Positioning System (GPS) time series are available. DTU Space acquired an A10 absolute gravimeter in 2008. One purpose of this instrument is to establish AG time series in Greenland and the first measurements were conducted in 2009. Since then are 18 different Greenland GPS Network (GNET) stations visited and six of these are visited more then once. The gravity signal consists of three signals; the elastic signal, the viscous signal and the direct attraction from the ice masses. All of these signals can be modelled using various techniques. The viscous signal is modelled by solving the Sea Level Equation with an appropriate ice history and Earth model. The free code SELEN is used for this. The elastic signal is modelled as a convolution of the elastic Greens function for gravity and a model of present day ice mass changes. The direct attraction is the same as the Newtonian attraction and is calculated as this. Here we will present the preliminary results of the AG measurements in Greenland. We will also present modelled estimates of the direct attraction, the elastic and the viscous signals.

  7. Absolute bioavailability of quinine formulations in Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Babalola, C P; Bolaji, O O; Ogunbona, F A; Ezeomah, E

    2004-09-01

    This study compared the absolute bioavailability of quinine sulphate as capsule and as tablet against the intravenous (i.v.) infusion of the drug in twelve male volunteers. Six of the volunteers received intravenous infusion over 4 h as well as the capsule formulation of the drug in a cross-over manner, while the other six received the tablet formulation. Blood samples were taken at predetermined time intervals and plasma analysed for quinine (QN) using reversed-phase HPLC method. QN was rapidly absorbed after the two oral formulations with average t(max) of 2.67 h for both capsule and tablet. The mean elimination half-life of QN from the i.v. and oral dosage forms varied between 10 and 13.5 hr and were not statistically different (P > 0.05). On the contrary, the maximum plasma concentration (C(max)) and area under the curve (AUC) from capsule were comparable to those from i.v. (P > 0.05), while these values were markedly higher than values from tablet formulation (P < 0.05). The therapeutic QN plasma levels were not achieved with the tablet formulation. The absolute bioavailability (F) were 73% (C.l., 53.3 - 92.4%) and 39 % (C.I., 21.7 - 56.6%) for the capsule and tablet respectively and the difference was significant (P < 0.05). The subtherapeutic levels obtained from the tablet form used in this study may cause treatment failure during malaria and caution should be taken when predictions are made from results obtained from different formulations of QN.

  8. Test Plan for a Calibration Demonstration System for the Reflected Solar Instrument for the Climate Absolute Radiance and Refractivity Observatory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thome, Kurtis; McCorkel, Joel; Hair, Jason; McAndrew, Brendan; Daw, Adrian; Jennings, Donald; Rabin, Douglas

    2012-01-01

    The Climate Absolute Radiance and Refractivity Observatory (CLARREO) mission addresses the need to observe high-accuracy, long-term climate change trends and to use decadal change observations as the most critical method to determine the accuracy of climate change. One of the major objectives of CLARREO is to advance the accuracy of SI traceable absolute calibration at infrared and reflected solar wavelengths. This advance is required to reach the on-orbit absolute accuracy required to allow climate change observations to survive data gaps while remaining sufficiently accurate to observe climate change to within the uncertainty of the limit of natural variability. While these capabilities exist at NIST in the laboratory, there is a need to demonstrate that it can move successfully from NIST to NASA and/or instrument vendor capabilities for future spaceborne instruments. The current work describes the test plan for the Solar, Lunar for Absolute Reflectance Imaging Spectroradiometer (SOLARIS) which is the calibration demonstration system (CDS) for the reflected solar portion of CLARREO. The goal of the CDS is to allow the testing and evaluation of calibration approaches , alternate design and/or implementation approaches and components for the CLARREO mission. SOLARIS also provides a test-bed for detector technologies, non-linearity determination and uncertainties, and application of future technology developments and suggested spacecraft instrument design modifications. The end result of efforts with the SOLARIS CDS will be an SI-traceable error budget for reflectance retrieval using solar irradiance as a reference and methods for laboratory-based, absolute calibration suitable for climate-quality data collections. The CLARREO mission addresses the need to observe high-accuracy, long-term climate change trends and advance the accuracy of SI traceable absolute calibration. The current work describes the test plan for the SOLARIS which is the calibration demonstration

  9. A quantitative mode-resolved frequency comb spectrometer.

    PubMed

    Hébert, Nicolas Bourbeau; Scholten, Sarah K; White, Richard T; Genest, Jérôme; Luiten, Andre N; Anstie, James D

    2015-06-01

    We have developed a frequency-comb spectrometer that records 35-nm (4 THz) spectra with 2-pm (250 MHz) spectral sampling and an absolute frequency accuracy of 2 kHz. We achieve a signal-to-noise ratio of ~400 in a measurement time of 8.2 s. The spectrometer is based on a commercial frequency comb decimated by a variable-length, low-finesse Fabry Pérot filter cavity to fully resolve the comb modes as imaged by a virtually imaged phased array (VIPA), diffraction grating and near-IR camera. By tuning the cavity length, spectra derived from all unique decimated combs are acquired and then interleaved to achieve frequency sampling at the comb repetition rate of 250 MHz. We have validated the performance of the spectrometer by comparison with a previous high-precision absorption measurement of H13C14N near 1543 nm. We find excellent agreement, with deviations from the expected line centers and widths of, at most, 1 pm (125 MHz) and 3 pm (360 MHz), respectively.

  10. Intermittent optical frequency measurements to reduce the dead time uncertainty of frequency link

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hachisu, Hidekazu; Ido, Tetsuya

    2015-11-01

    The absolute frequency of the 87Sr lattice clock transition was evaluated with an uncertainty of 1.1 × 10-15 using a frequency link to the international atomic time (TAI). The frequency uncertainty of a hydrogen maser used as a transfer oscillator was reduced by homogeneously distributed intermittent measurement over a five-day grid of TAI. Three sets of four or five days measurements as well as systematic uncertainty of the clock at 8.6 × 10-17 have resulted in an absolute frequency of 87Sr 1S0-3P0 clock transition to be 429 228 004 229 872.85 (47) Hz.

  11. Fully distributed absolute blood flow velocity measurement for middle cerebral arteries using Doppler optical coherence tomography

    PubMed Central

    Qi, Li; Zhu, Jiang; Hancock, Aneeka M.; Dai, Cuixia; Zhang, Xuping; Frostig, Ron D.; Chen, Zhongping

    2016-01-01

    Doppler optical coherence tomography (DOCT) is considered one of the most promising functional imaging modalities for neuro biology research and has demonstrated the ability to quantify cerebral blood flow velocity at a high accuracy. However, the measurement of total absolute blood flow velocity (BFV) of major cerebral arteries is still a difficult problem since it is related to vessel geometry. In this paper, we present a volumetric vessel reconstruction approach that is capable of measuring the absolute BFV distributed along the entire middle cerebral artery (MCA) within a large field-of-view. The Doppler angle at each point of the MCA, representing the vessel geometry, is derived analytically by localizing the artery from pure DOCT images through vessel segmentation and skeletonization. Our approach could achieve automatic quantification of the fully distributed absolute BFV across different vessel branches. Experiments on rodents using swept-source optical coherence tomography showed that our approach was able to reveal the consequences of permanent MCA occlusion with absolute BFV measurement. PMID:26977365

  12. Frequency sweep jitter and wander of a Vernier-Tuned Distributed Bragg Reflector (VT-DBR) laser at 1550 nm in OCT applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martens Biersach, R. C.; Derickson, Dennis; Ensher, Jason

    2015-07-01

    The short-term jitter and longer-term wander of the frequency sweep profile of a Vernier-Tuned Distributed Bragg Reflector (VT-DBR) laser at 1550 nm used in OCT applications is characterized in this work. The VT-DBR has demonstrated success in source-swept OCT (SSOCT), performing both intensity [1] and phase-sensitive [2] OCT. The purpose of this paper is to investigate one of the unique aspects of the VT-DBR laser that makes it successful in OCT: the stability of the linear optical frequency sweep of the source. Jitter measurements of the optical frequency sweep are recorded using a 3-cavity 100 GHz free spectral range (FSR) solid etalon. A gas absorption reference cell is used for wander characterization. We report that the VT-DBR jitters by no more than 82 MHz RMS in optical frequency while sweeping at an 8 kHz repetition rate. Longer-term wander provides insight into the accuracy of the VT-DBR selfcalibration routine which produces an intrinsically linear optical frequency sweep. Over an 8-hour data collection period, the system maintains a linear sweep with an optical frequency step of 105 MHz per 2.5 ns with +/- 3 kHz per 2.5 ns (+/- 0.03%) peak-to-peak deviation. We find that the absolute frequency drifts by 325 MHz (2.6pm) over the same 8- hour period with ambient temperature fluctuations of no more than 5 °C. Results show that using calibration with a gas reference cell, picometer absolute wavelength accuracy of the laser can be achieved at any time for a single sweep. Stability and accuracy limits are thought to be due to electronic drive circuitry in the current design.

  13. Integrated Navigation System Design for Micro Planetary Rovers: Comparison of Absolute Heading Estimation Algorithms and Nonlinear Filtering

    PubMed Central

    Ilyas, Muhammad; Hong, Beomjin; Cho, Kuk; Baeg, Seung-Ho; Park, Sangdeok

    2016-01-01

    This paper provides algorithms to fuse relative and absolute microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) navigation sensors, suitable for micro planetary rovers, to provide a more accurate estimation of navigation information, specifically, attitude and position. Planetary rovers have extremely slow speed (~1 cm/s) and lack conventional navigation sensors/systems, hence the general methods of terrestrial navigation may not be applicable to these applications. While relative attitude and position can be tracked in a way similar to those for ground robots, absolute navigation information is hard to achieve on a remote celestial body, like Moon or Mars, in contrast to terrestrial applications. In this study, two absolute attitude estimation algorithms were developed and compared for accuracy and robustness. The estimated absolute attitude was fused with the relative attitude sensors in a framework of nonlinear filters. The nonlinear Extended Kalman filter (EKF) and Unscented Kalman filter (UKF) were compared in pursuit of better accuracy and reliability in this nonlinear estimation problem, using only on-board low cost MEMS sensors. Experimental results confirmed the viability of the proposed algorithms and the sensor suite, for low cost and low weight micro planetary rovers. It is demonstrated that integrating the relative and absolute navigation MEMS sensors reduces the navigation errors to the desired level. PMID:27223293

  14. Integrated Navigation System Design for Micro Planetary Rovers: Comparison of Absolute Heading Estimation Algorithms and Nonlinear Filtering.

    PubMed

    Ilyas, Muhammad; Hong, Beomjin; Cho, Kuk; Baeg, Seung-Ho; Park, Sangdeok

    2016-05-23

    This paper provides algorithms to fuse relative and absolute microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) navigation sensors, suitable for micro planetary rovers, to provide a more accurate estimation of navigation information, specifically, attitude and position. Planetary rovers have extremely slow speed (~1 cm/s) and lack conventional navigation sensors/systems, hence the general methods of terrestrial navigation may not be applicable to these applications. While relative attitude and position can be tracked in a way similar to those for ground robots, absolute navigation information is hard to achieve on a remote celestial body, like Moon or Mars, in contrast to terrestrial applications. In this study, two absolute attitude estimation algorithms were developed and compared for accuracy and robustness. The estimated absolute attitude was fused with the relative attitude sensors in a framework of nonlinear filters. The nonlinear Extended Kalman filter (EKF) and Unscented Kalman filter (UKF) were compared in pursuit of better accuracy and reliability in this nonlinear estimation problem, using only on-board low cost MEMS sensors. Experimental results confirmed the viability of the proposed algorithms and the sensor suite, for low cost and low weight micro planetary rovers. It is demonstrated that integrating the relative and absolute navigation MEMS sensors reduces the navigation errors to the desired level.

  15. Radiocarbon dating accuracy improved

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scientists have extended the accuracy of carbon-14 (14C) dating by correlating dates older than 8,000 years with uranium-thorium dates that span from 8,000 to 30,000 years before present (ybp, present = 1950). Edouard Bard, Bruno Hamelin, Richard Fairbanks and Alan Zindler, working at Columbia University's Lamont-Doherty Geological Observatory, dated corals from reefs off Barbados using both 14C and uranium-234/thorium-230 by thermal ionization mass spectrometry techniques. They found that the two age data sets deviated in a regular way, allowing the scientists to correlate the two sets of ages. The 14C dates were consistently younger than those determined by uranium-thorium, and the discrepancy increased to about 3,500 years at 20,000 ybp.

  16. Accuracy Test of Microsoft Kinect for Human Morphologic Measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Molnár, B.; Toth, C. K.; Detrekői, A.

    2012-08-01

    The Microsoft Kinect sensor, a popular gaming console, is widely used in a large number of applications, including close-range 3D measurements. This low-end device is rather inexpensive compared to similar active imaging systems. The Kinect sensors include an RGB camera, an IR projector, an IR camera and an audio unit. The human morphologic measurements require high accuracy with fast data acquisition rate. To achieve the highest accuracy, the depth sensor and the RGB camera should be calibrated and co-registered to achieve high-quality 3D point cloud as well as optical imagery. Since this is a low-end sensor, developed for different purpose, the accuracy could be critical for 3D measurement-based applications. Therefore, two types of accuracy test are performed: (1) for describing the absolute accuracy, the ranging accuracy of the device in the range of 0.4 to 15 m should be estimated, and (2) the relative accuracy of points depending on the range should be characterized. For the accuracy investigation, a test field was created with two spheres, while the relative accuracy is described by sphere fitting performance and the distance estimation between the sphere center points. Some other factors can be also considered, such as the angle of incidence or the material used in these tests. The non-ambiguity range of the sensor is from 0.3 to 4 m, but, based on our experiences, it can be extended up to 20 m. Obviously, this methodology raises some accuracy issues which make accuracy testing really important.

  17. Absolute Depth Sensitivity in Cat Primary Visual Cortex under Natural Viewing Conditions

    PubMed Central

    Pigarev, Ivan N.; Levichkina, Ekaterina V.

    2016-01-01

    Mechanisms of 3D perception, investigated in many laboratories, have defined depth either relative to the fixation plane or to other objects in the visual scene. It is obvious that for efficient perception of the 3D world, additional mechanisms of depth constancy could operate in the visual system to provide information about absolute distance. Neurons with properties reflecting some features of depth constancy have been described in the parietal and extrastriate occipital cortical areas. It has also been shown that, for some neurons in the visual area V1, responses to stimuli of constant angular size differ at close and remote distances. The present study was designed to investigate whether, in natural free gaze viewing conditions, neurons tuned to absolute depths can be found in the primary visual cortex (area V1). Single-unit extracellular activity was recorded from the visual cortex of waking cats sitting on a trolley in front of a large screen. The trolley was slowly approaching the visual scene, which consisted of stationary sinusoidal gratings of optimal orientation rear-projected over the whole surface of the screen. Each neuron was tested with two gratings, with spatial frequency of one grating being twice as high as that of the other. Assuming that a cell is tuned to a spatial frequency, its maximum response to the grating with a spatial frequency twice as high should be shifted to a distance half way closer to the screen in order to attain the same size of retinal projection. For hypothetical neurons selective to absolute depth, location of the maximum response should remain at the same distance irrespective of the type of stimulus. It was found that about 20% of neurons in our experimental paradigm demonstrated sensitivity to particular distances independently of the spatial frequencies of the gratings. We interpret these findings as an indication of the use of absolute depth information in the primary visual cortex. PMID:27547179

  18. Absolute distance measurement by chirped pulse interferometry using a femtosecond pulse laser.

    PubMed

    Wu, Hanzhong; Zhang, Fumin; Liu, Tingyang; Meng, Fei; Li, Jianshuang; Qu, Xinghua

    2015-11-30

    We propose here a method for absolute distance measurement by chirped pulse interferometry using frequency comb. The principle is introduced, and the distance can be measured via the shift of the widest fringe. The experimental results show an agreement within 26 μm in a range up to 65 m, corresponding to a relative precision of 4 × 10-7, compared with a reference distance meter.

  19. Absolute Depth Sensitivity in Cat Primary Visual Cortex under Natural Viewing Conditions.

    PubMed

    Pigarev, Ivan N; Levichkina, Ekaterina V

    2016-01-01

    Mechanisms of 3D perception, investigated in many laboratories, have defined depth either relative to the fixation plane or to other objects in the visual scene. It is obvious that for efficient perception of the 3D world, additional mechanisms of depth constancy could operate in the visual system to provide information about absolute distance. Neurons with properties reflecting some features of depth constancy have been described in the parietal and extrastriate occipital cortical areas. It has also been shown that, for some neurons in the visual area V1, responses to stimuli of constant angular size differ at close and remote distances. The present study was designed to investigate whether, in natural free gaze viewing conditions, neurons tuned to absolute depths can be found in the primary visual cortex (area V1). Single-unit extracellular activity was recorded from the visual cortex of waking cats sitting on a trolley in front of a large screen. The trolley was slowly approaching the visual scene, which consisted of stationary sinusoidal gratings of optimal orientation rear-projected over the whole surface of the screen. Each neuron was tested with two gratings, with spatial frequency of one grating being twice as high as that of the other. Assuming that a cell is tuned to a spatial frequency, its maximum response to the grating with a spatial frequency twice as high should be shifted to a distance half way closer to the screen in order to attain the same size of retinal projection. For hypothetical neurons selective to absolute depth, location of the maximum response should remain at the same distance irrespective of the type of stimulus. It was found that about 20% of neurons in our experimental paradigm demonstrated sensitivity to particular distances independently of the spatial frequencies of the gratings. We interpret these findings as an indication of the use of absolute depth information in the primary visual cortex.

  20. Measurement of absolute displacement by a double-modulation technique based on a Michelson interferometer.

    PubMed

    Chang, L W; Chien, P Y; Lee, C T

    1999-05-01

    A novel method is presented for of measuring absolute displacement with a synthesized wavelength interferometer. The optical phase of the interferometer is simultaneously modulated with a frequency-modulated laser diode and optical path-length difference. The error signal originating from the intensity modulation of the source is eliminated by a signal processing circuit. In addition, a lock-in technique is used to demodulate the envelope of the interferometric signal. The displacement signal is derived by the self-mixing technique.

  1. Evaluating the Accuracy and Large Inaccuracy of Two Continuous Glucose Monitoring Systems

    PubMed Central

    Leelarathna, Lalantha; Nodale, Marianna; Allen, Janet M.; Elleri, Daniela; Kumareswaran, Kavita; Haidar, Ahmad; Caldwell, Karen; Wilinska, Malgorzata E.; Acerini, Carlo L.; Evans, Mark L.; Murphy, Helen R.; Dunger, David B.

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Objective This study evaluated the accuracy and large inaccuracy of the Freestyle® Navigator (FSN) (Abbott Diabetes Care, Alameda, CA) and Dexcom® SEVEN® PLUS (DSP) (Dexcom, Inc., San Diego, CA) continuous glucose monitoring (CGM) systems during closed-loop studies. Research Design and Methods Paired CGM and plasma glucose values (7,182 data pairs) were collected, every 15–60 min, from 32 adults (36.2±9.3 years) and 20 adolescents (15.3±1.5 years) with type 1 diabetes who participated in closed-loop studies. Levels 1, 2, and 3 of large sensor error with increasing severity were defined according to absolute relative deviation greater than or equal to±40%,±50%, and±60% at a reference glucose level of ≥6 mmol/L or absolute deviation greater than or equal to±2.4 mmol/L,±3.0 mmol/L, and±3.6 mmol/L at a reference glucose level of <6 mmol/L. Results Median absolute relative deviation was 9.9% for FSN and 12.6% for DSP. Proportions of data points in Zones A and B of Clarke error grid analysis were similar (96.4% for FSN vs. 97.8% for DSP). Large sensor over-reading, which increases risk of insulin over-delivery and hypoglycemia, occurred two- to threefold more frequently with DSP than FSN (once every 2.5, 4.6, and 10.7 days of FSN use vs. 1.2, 2.0, and 3.7 days of DSP use for Level 1–3 errors, respectively). At Levels 2 and 3, large sensor errors lasting 1 h or longer were absent with FSN but persisted with DSP. Conclusions FSN and DSP differ substantially in the frequency and duration of large inaccuracy despite only modest differences in conventional measures of numerical and clinical accuracy. Further evaluations are required to confirm that FSN is more suitable for integration into closed-loop delivery systems. PMID:23256605

  2. Spline-based high-accuracy piecewise-polynomial phase-to-sinusoid amplitude converters.

    PubMed

    Petrinović, Davor; Brezović, Marko

    2011-04-01

    We propose a method for direct digital frequency synthesis (DDS) using a cubic spline piecewise-polynomial model for a phase-to-sinusoid amplitude converter (PSAC). This method offers maximum smoothness of the output signal. Closed-form expressions for the cubic polynomial coefficients are derived in the spectral domain and the performance analysis of the model is given in the time and frequency domains. We derive the closed-form performance bounds of such DDS using conventional metrics: rms and maximum absolute errors (MAE) and maximum spurious free dynamic range (SFDR) measured in the discrete time domain. The main advantages of the proposed PSAC are its simplicity, analytical tractability, and inherent numerical stability for high table resolutions. Detailed guidelines for a fixed-point implementation are given, based on the algebraic analysis of all quantization effects. The results are verified on 81 PSAC configurations with the output resolutions from 5 to 41 bits by using a bit-exact simulation. The VHDL implementation of a high-accuracy DDS based on the proposed PSAC with 28-bit input phase word and 32-bit output value achieves SFDR of its digital output signal between 180 and 207 dB, with a signal-to-noise ratio of 192 dB. Its implementation requires only one 18 kB block RAM and three 18-bit embedded multipliers in a typical field-programmable gate array (FPGA) device.

  3. Linear and Nonlinear Molecular Spectroscopy with Laser Frequency Combs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Picque, Nathalie

    2013-06-01

    The regular pulse train of a mode-locked femtosecond laser can give rise to a comb spectrum of millions of laser modes with a spacing precisely equal to the pulse repetition frequency. Laser frequency combs were conceived a decade ago as tools for the precision spectroscopy of atomic hydrogen. They are now becoming enabling tools for an increasing number of applications, including molecular spectroscopy. Recent experiments of multi-heterodyne frequency comb Fourier transform spectroscopy (also called dual-comb spectroscopy) have demonstrated that the precisely spaced spectral lines of a laser frequency comb can be harnessed for new techniques of linear absorption spectroscopy. The first proof-of-principle experiments have demonstrated a very exciting potential of dual-comb spectroscopy without moving parts for ultra-rapid and ultra-sensitive recording of complex broad spectral bandwidth molecular spectra. Compared to conventional Michelson-based Fourier transform spectroscopy, recording times could be shortened from seconds to microseconds, with intriguing prospects for spectroscopy of short lived transient species. The resolution improves proportionally to the measurement time. Therefore longer recordings allow high resolution spectroscopy of molecules with extreme precision, since the absolute frequency of each laser comb line can be known with the accuracy of an atomic clock. Moreover, since laser frequency combs involve intense ultrashort laser pulses, nonlinear interactions can be harnessed. Broad spectral bandwidth ultra-rapid nonlinear molecular spectroscopy and imaging with two laser frequency combs is demonstrated with coherent Raman effects and two-photon excitation. Real-time multiplex accessing of hyperspectral images may dramatically expand the range of applications of nonlinear microscopy. B. Bernhardt et al., Nature Photonics 4, 55-57 (2010); A. Schliesser et al. Nature Photonics 6, 440-449 (2012); T. Ideguchi et al. arXiv:1201.4177 (2012) T

  4. Calibration of the Reflected Solar Instrument for the Climate Absolute Radiance and Refractivity Observatory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thome, Kurtis; Barnes, Robert; Baize, Rosemary; O'Connell, Joseph; Hair, Jason

    2010-01-01

    The Climate Absolute Radiance and Refractivity Observatory (CLARREO) plans to observe climate change trends over decadal time scales to determine the accuracy of climate projections. The project relies on spaceborne earth observations of SI-traceable variables sensitive to key decadal change parameters. The mission includes a reflected solar instrument retrieving at-sensor reflectance over the 320 to 2300 nm spectral range with 500-m spatial resolution and 100-km swath. Reflectance is obtained from the ratio of measurements of the earth s surface to those while viewing the sun relying on a calibration approach that retrieves reflectance with uncertainties less than 0.3%. The calibration is predicated on heritage hardware, reduction of sensor complexity, adherence to detector-based calibration standards, and an ability to simulate in the laboratory on-orbit sources in both size and brightness to provide the basis of a transfer to orbit of the laboratory calibration including a link to absolute solar irradiance measurements.

  5. Thermocouple Calibration and Accuracy in a Materials Testing Laboratory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lerch, B. A.; Nathal, M. V.; Keller, D. J.

    2002-01-01

    A consolidation of information has been provided that can be used to define procedures for enhancing and maintaining accuracy in temperature measurements in materials testing laboratories. These studies were restricted to type R and K thermocouples (TCs) tested in air. Thermocouple accuracies, as influenced by calibration methods, thermocouple stability, and manufacturer's tolerances were all quantified in terms of statistical confidence intervals. By calibrating specific TCs the benefits in accuracy can be as great as 6 C or 5X better compared to relying on manufacturer's tolerances. The results emphasize strict reliance on the defined testing protocol and on the need to establish recalibration frequencies in order to maintain these levels of accuracy.

  6. Quantifying the Climate-Scale Accuracy of Satellite Cloud Retrievals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roberts, Y.; Wielicki, B. A.; Sun-Mack, S.; Minnis, P.; Liang, L.; Di Girolamo, L.

    2014-12-01

    Instrument calibration and cloud retrieval algorithms have been developed to minimize retrieval errors on small scales. However, measurement uncertainties and assumptions within retrieval algorithms at the pixel level may alias into decadal-scale trends of cloud properties. We first, therefore, quantify how instrument calibration changes could alias into cloud property trends. For a perfect observing system the climate trend accuracy is limited only by the natural variability of the climate variable. Alternatively, for an actual observing system, the climate trend accuracy is additionally limited by the measurement uncertainty. Drifts in calibration over time may therefore be disguised as a true climate trend. We impose absolute calibration changes to MODIS spectral reflectance used as input to the CERES Cloud Property Retrieval System (CPRS) and run the modified MODIS reflectance through the CPRS to determine the sensitivity of cloud properties to calibration changes. We then use these changes to determine the impact of instrument calibration changes on trend uncertainty in reflected solar cloud properties. Secondly, we quantify how much cloud retrieval algorithm assumptions alias into cloud optical retrieval trends by starting with the largest of these biases: the plane-parallel assumption in cloud optical thickness (τC) retrievals. First, we collect liquid water cloud fields obtained from Multi-angle Imaging Spectroradiometer (MISR) measurements to construct realistic probability distribution functions (PDFs) of 3D cloud anisotropy (a measure of the degree to which clouds depart from plane-parallel) for different ISCCP cloud types. Next, we will conduct a theoretical study with dynamically simulated cloud fields and a 3D radiative transfer model to determine the relationship between 3D cloud anisotropy and 3D τC bias for each cloud type. Combining these results provides distributions of 3D τC bias by cloud type. Finally, we will estimate the change in

  7. Absolute calibration of forces in optical tweezers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dutra, R. S.; Viana, N. B.; Maia Neto, P. A.; Nussenzveig, H. M.

    2014-07-01

    Optical tweezers are highly versatile laser traps for neutral microparticles, with fundamental applications in physics and in single molecule cell biology. Force measurements are performed by converting the stiffness response to displacement of trapped transparent microspheres, employed as force transducers. Usually, calibration is indirect, by comparison with fluid drag forces. This can lead to discrepancies by sizable factors. Progress achieved in a program aiming at absolute calibration, conducted over the past 15 years, is briefly reviewed. Here we overcome its last major obstacle, a theoretical overestimation of the peak stiffness, within the most employed range for applications, and we perform experimental validation. The discrepancy is traced to the effect of primary aberrations of the optical system, which are now included in the theory. All required experimental parameters are readily accessible. Astigmatism, the dominant effect, is measured by analyzing reflected images of the focused laser spot, adapting frequently employed video microscopy techniques. Combined with interface spherical aberration, it reveals a previously unknown window of instability for trapping. Comparison with experimental data leads to an overall agreement within error bars, with no fitting, for a broad range of microsphere radii, from the Rayleigh regime to the ray optics one, for different polarizations and trapping heights, including all commonly employed parameter domains. Besides signaling full first-principles theoretical understanding of optical tweezers operation, the results may lead to improved instrument design and control over experiments, as well as to an extended domain of applicability, allowing reliable force measurements, in principle, from femtonewtons to nanonewtons.

  8. What is Needed for Absolute Paleointensity?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Valet, J. P.

    2015-12-01

    Many alternative approaches to the Thellier and Thellier technique for absolute paleointensity have been proposed during the past twenty years. One reason is the time consuming aspect of the experiments. Another reason is to avoid uncertainties in determinations of the paleofield which are mostly linked to the presence of multidomain grains. Despite great care taken by these new techniques, there is no indication that they always provide the right answer and in fact sometimes fail. We are convinced that the most valid approach remains the original double heating Thellier protocol provided that natural remanence is controlled by pure magnetite with a narrow distribution of small grain sizes, mostly single domains. The presence of titanium, even in small amount generates biases which yield incorrect field values. Single domain grains frequently dominate the magnetization of glass samples, which explains the success of this selective approach. They are also present in volcanic lava flows but much less frequently, and therefore contribute to the low success rate of most experiments. However the loss of at least 70% of the magnetization at very high temperatures prior to the Curie point appears to be an essential prerequisite that increases the success rate to almost 100% and has been validated from historical flows and from recent studies. This requirement can easily be tested by thermal demagnetization while low temperature experiments can document the detection of single domain magnetite using the δFC/δZFC parameter as suggested (Moskowitz et al, 1993) for biogenic magnetite.

  9. Gyrokinetic Statistical Absolute Equilibrium and Turbulence

    SciTech Connect

    Jian-Zhou Zhu and Gregory W. Hammett

    2011-01-10

    A paradigm based on the absolute equilibrium of Galerkin-truncated inviscid systems to aid in understanding turbulence [T.-D. Lee, "On some statistical properties of hydrodynamical and magnetohydrodynamical fields," Q. Appl. Math. 10, 69 (1952)] is taken to study gyrokinetic plasma turbulence: A finite set of Fourier modes of the collisionless gyrokinetic equations are kept and the statistical equilibria are calculated; possible implications for plasma turbulence in various situations are discussed. For the case of two spatial and one velocity dimension, in the calculation with discretization also of velocity v with N grid points (where N + 1 quantities are conserved, corresponding to an energy invariant and N entropy-related invariants), the negative temperature states, corresponding to the condensation of the generalized energy into the lowest modes, are found. This indicates a generic feature of inverse energy cascade. Comparisons are made with some classical results, such as those of Charney-Hasegawa-Mima in the cold-ion limit. There is a universal shape for statistical equilibrium of gyrokinetics in three spatial and two velocity dimensions with just one conserved quantity. Possible physical relevance to turbulence, such as ITG zonal flows, and to a critical balance hypothesis are also discussed.

  10. Absolute flux measurements for swift atoms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fink, M.; Kohl, D. A.; Keto, J. W.; Antoniewicz, P.

    1987-01-01

    While a torsion balance in vacuum can easily measure the momentum transfer from a gas beam impinging on a surface attached to the balance, this measurement depends on the accommodation coefficients of the atoms with the surface and the distribution of the recoil. A torsion balance is described for making absolute flux measurements independent of recoil effects. The torsion balance is a conventional taut suspension wire design and the Young modulus of the wire determines the relationship between the displacement and the applied torque. A compensating magnetic field is applied to maintain zero displacement and provide critical damping. The unique feature is to couple the impinging gas beam to the torsion balance via a Wood's horn, i.e., a thin wall tube with a gradual 90 deg bend. Just as light is trapped in a Wood's horn by specular reflection from the curved surfaces, the gas beam diffuses through the tube. Instead of trapping the beam, the end of the tube is open so that the atoms exit the tube at 90 deg to their original direction. Therefore, all of the forward momentum of the gas beam is transferred to the torsion balance independent of the angle of reflection from the surfaces inside the tube.

  11. Absolute Geodetic Rotation Measurement Using Atom Interferometry

    SciTech Connect

    Stockton, J. K.; Takase, K.; Kasevich, M. A.

    2011-09-23

    We demonstrate a cold-atom interferometer gyroscope which overcomes accuracy and dynamic range limitations of previous atom interferometer gyroscopes. We show how the instrument can be used for precise determination of latitude, azimuth (true north), and Earth's rotation rate. Spurious noise terms related to multiple-path interferences are suppressed by employing a novel time-skewed pulse sequence. Extended versions of this instrument appear capable of meeting the stringent requirements for inertial navigation, geodetic applications of Earth's rotation rate determination, and tests of general relativity.

  12. Reticence, Accuracy and Efficacy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oreskes, N.; Lewandowsky, S.

    2015-12-01

    James Hansen has cautioned the scientific community against "reticence," by which he means a reluctance to speak in public about the threat of climate change. This may contribute to social inaction, with the result that society fails to respond appropriately to threats that are well understood scientifically. Against this, others have warned against the dangers of "crying wolf," suggesting that reticence protects scientific credibility. We argue that both these positions are missing an important point: that reticence is not only a matter of style but also of substance. In previous work, Bysse et al. (2013) showed that scientific projections of key indicators of climate change have been skewed towards the low end of actual events, suggesting a bias in scientific work. More recently, we have shown that scientific efforts to be responsive to contrarian challenges have led scientists to adopt the terminology of a "pause" or "hiatus" in climate warming, despite the lack of evidence to support such a conclusion (Lewandowsky et al., 2015a. 2015b). In the former case, scientific conservatism has led to under-estimation of climate related changes. In the latter case, the use of misleading terminology has perpetuated scientific misunderstanding and hindered effective communication. Scientific communication should embody two equally important goals: 1) accuracy in communicating scientific information and 2) efficacy in expressing what that information means. Scientists should strive to be neither conservative nor adventurous but to be accurate, and to communicate that accurate information effectively.

  13. Groves model accuracy study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peterson, Matthew C.

    1991-08-01

    The United States Air Force Environmental Technical Applications Center (USAFETAC) was tasked to review the scientific literature for studies of the Groves Neutral Density Climatology Model and compare the Groves Model with others in the 30-60 km range. The tasking included a request to investigate the merits of comparing accuracy of the Groves Model to rocketsonde data. USAFETAC analysts found the Groves Model to be state of the art for middle-atmospheric climatological models. In reviewing previous comparisons with other models and with space shuttle-derived atmospheric densities, good density vs altitude agreement was found in almost all cases. A simple technique involving comparison of the model with range reference atmospheres was found to be the most economical way to compare the Groves Model with rocketsonde data; an example of this type is provided. The Groves 85 Model is used routinely in USAFETAC's Improved Point Analysis Model (IPAM). To create this model, Dr. Gerald Vann Groves produced tabulations of atmospheric density based on data derived from satellite observations and modified by rocketsonde observations. Neutral Density as presented here refers to the monthly mean density in 10-degree latitude bands as a function of altitude. The Groves 85 Model zonal mean density tabulations are given in their entirety.

  14. Demodulation Algorithms for the Ofdm Signals in the Time- and Frequency-Scattering Channels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bochkov, G. N.; Gorokhov, K. V.; Kolobkov, A. V.

    2016-06-01

    We consider a method based on the generalized maximum-likelihood rule for solving the problem of reception of the signals with orthogonal frequency division multiplexing of their harmonic components (OFDM signals) in the time- and frequency-scattering channels. The coherent and incoherent demodulators effectively using the time scattering due to the fast fading of the signal are developed. Using computer simulation, we performed comparative analysis of the proposed algorithms and well-known signal-reception algorithms with equalizers. The proposed symbolby-symbol detector with decision feedback and restriction of the number of searched variants is shown to have the best bit-error-rate performance. It is shown that under conditions of the limited accuracy of estimating the communication-channel parameters, the incoherent OFDMsignal detectors with differential phase-shift keying can ensure a better bit-error-rate performance compared with the coherent OFDM-signal detectors with absolute phase-shift keying.

  15. Absolute nuclear material assay using count distribution (LAMBDA) space

    DOEpatents

    Prasad, Mano K.; Snyderman, Neal J.; Rowland, Mark S.

    2015-12-01

    A method of absolute nuclear material assay of an unknown source comprising counting neutrons from the unknown source and providing an absolute nuclear material assay utilizing a model to optimally compare to the measured count distributions. In one embodiment, the step of providing an absolute nuclear material assay comprises utilizing a random sampling of analytically computed fission chain distributions to generate a continuous time-evolving sequence of event-counts by spreading the fission chain distribution in time.

  16. Absolute nuclear material assay using count distribution (LAMBDA) space

    DOEpatents

    Prasad, Manoj K [Pleasanton, CA; Snyderman, Neal J [Berkeley, CA; Rowland, Mark S [Alamo, CA

    2012-06-05

    A method of absolute nuclear material assay of an unknown source comprising counting neutrons from the unknown source and providing an absolute nuclear material assay utilizing a model to optimally compare to the measured count distributions. In one embodiment, the step of providing an absolute nuclear material assay comprises utilizing a random sampling of analytically computed fission chain distributions to generate a continuous time-evolving sequence of event-counts by spreading the fission chain distribution in time.

  17. Absolute calibration for complex-geometry biomedical diffuse optical spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mastanduno, Michael A.; Jiang, Shudong; El-Ghussein, Fadi; diFlorio-Alexander, Roberta; Pogue, Brian W.; Paulsen, Keith D.

    2013-03-01

    We have presented methodology to calibrate data in NIRS/MRI imaging versus an absolute reference phantom and results in both phantoms and healthy volunteers. This method directly calibrates data to a diffusion-based model, takes advantage of patient specific geometry from MRI prior information, and generates an initial guess without the need for a large data set. This method of calibration allows for more accurate quantification of total hemoglobin, oxygen saturation, water content, scattering, and lipid concentration as compared with other, slope-based methods. We found the main source of error in the method to be derived from incorrect assignment of reference phantom optical properties rather than initial guess in reconstruction. We also present examples of phantom and breast images from a combined frequency domain and continuous wave MRI-coupled NIRS system. We were able to recover phantom data within 10% of expected contrast and within 10% of the actual value using this method and compare these results with slope-based calibration methods. Finally, we were able to use this technique to calibrate and reconstruct images from healthy volunteers. Representative images are shown and discussion is provided for comparison with existing literature. These methods work towards fully combining the synergistic attributes of MRI and NIRS for in-vivo imaging of breast cancer. Complete software and hardware integration in dual modality instruments is especially important due to the complexity of the technology and success will contribute to complex anatomical and molecular prognostic information that can be readily obtained in clinical use.

  18. A nonmusical paradigm for identifying absolute pitch possessors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ross, David A.; Olson, Ingrid R.; Marks, Lawrence E.; Gore, John C.

    2004-09-01

    The ability to identify and reproduce sounds of specific frequencies is remarkable and uncommon. The etiology and defining characteristics of this skill, absolute pitch (AP), have been very controversial. One theory suggests that AP requires a specific type of early musical training and that the ability to encode and remember tones depends on these learned musical associations. An alternate theory argues that AP may be strongly dependent on hereditary factors and relatively independent of musical experience. To date, it has been difficult to test these hypotheses because all previous paradigms for identifying AP have required subjects to employ knowledge of musical nomenclature. As such, these tests are insensitive to the possibility of discovering AP in either nonmusicians or musicians of non-Western training. Based on previous literature in pitch memory, a paradigm is presented that is intended to distinguish between AP possessors and nonpossessors independent of the subjects' musical experience. The efficacy of this method is then tested with 20 classically defined AP possessors and 22 nonpossessors. Data from these groups strongly support the validity of the paradigm. The use of a nonmusical paradigm to identify AP may facilitate research into many aspects of this phenomenon.

  19. Interpretation of the Arcade 2 Absolute Sky Brightness Measurement

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Seiffert, M.; Fixsen, D. J.; Kogut, A.; Levin, S. M.; Limon, M.; Lubin, P. M.; Mirel, P.; Singal, J.; Villela, T.; Wollack, E.; Wuensche, C. A.

    2011-01-01

    We use absolutely calibrated data between 3 and 90 GHz from the 2006 balloon flight of the ARCADE 2 instrument, along with previous measurements at other frequencies to constrain models of extragalactic emission. Such emission is a combination of the cosmic microwave background (CMB) monopole, Galactic foreground emission, the integrated contribution of radio emission from external galaxies, any spectral distortions present in the CMB, and any other extragalactic source. After removal of estimates of foreground emission from our own Galaxy, and an estimated contribution of external galaxies, we present fits to a combination of the flat-spectrum CMB and potential spectral distortions in the CMB. We find 217 upper limits to CMB spectral distortions of u < 6x10(exp -4) and [Y(sub ff)] < 1x10(exp -4). We also find a significant detection of a residual signal beyond that, which can be explained by the CMB plus the integrated radio emission from galaxies estimated from existing surveys. This residual signal may be due to an underestimated galactic foreground contribution, an unaccounted for contribution of a background of radio sources, or some combination of both. The residual signal is consistent with emission in the form of a power law with amplitUde 18.4 +/- 2.1 K at 0.31 GHz and a spectral index of -2.57 +/- 0.05.

  20. Absolute and Convective Instability of a Liquid Jet

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lin, S. P.; Hudman, M.; Chen, J. N.

    1999-01-01

    The existence of absolute instability in a liquid jet has been predicted for some time. The disturbance grows in time and propagates both upstream and downstream in an absolutely unstable liquid jet. The image of absolute instability is captured in the NASA 2.2 sec drop tower and reported here. The transition from convective to absolute instability is observed experimentally. The experimental results are compared with the theoretical predictions on the transition Weber number as functions of the Reynolds number. The role of interfacial shear relative to all other relevant forces which cause the onset of jet breakup is explained.

  1. Absolute calorimetric calibration of low energy brachytherapy sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stump, Kurt E.

    the current instrument to direct further work in this field. It has been found that for sources with powers above approximately 2 muW the instrument is able to determine the source power in agreement to within less than 7% of what is expected based upon the current source strength standard. For lower power sources, the agreement is still within the uncertainty of the power measurement, but the calorimeter noise dominates. Thus, to provide absolute calibration of lower power sources additional measures must be taken. The conclusion of this thesis describes these measures and how they will improve the factors that limit the current instrument. The results of the work presented in this thesis establish the methodology of active radiometric calorimetey for the absolute calibration of radioactive sources. The method is an improvement over previous techniques in that there is no reliance upon the thermal properties of the materials used or the heat flow pathways on the source measurements. The initial work presented here will help to shape future refinements of this technique to allow lower power sources to be calibrated with high precision and high accuracy.

  2. High Accuracy Wavelength Calibration For A Scanning Visible Spectrometer

    SciTech Connect

    Filippo Scotti and Ronald Bell

    2010-07-29

    Spectroscopic applications for plasma velocity measurements often require wavelength accuracies ≤ 0.2Â. An automated calibration for a scanning spectrometer has been developed to achieve a high wavelength accuracy overr the visible spectrum, stable over time and environmental conditions, without the need to recalibrate after each grating movement. The method fits all relevant spectrometer paraameters using multiple calibration spectra. With a steping-motor controlled sine-drive, accuracies of ~0.025 Â have been demonstrated. With the addition of high resolution (0.075 aresec) optical encoder on the grading stage, greater precision (~0.005 Â) is possible, allowing absolute velocity measurements with ~0.3 km/s. This level of precision requires monitoring of atmospheric temperature and pressure and of grating bulk temperature to correct for changes in the refractive index of air and the groove density, respectively.

  3. Ozone absorption coefficients' role in Dobson instrument ozone measurement accuracy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Basher, R. E.

    1982-11-01

    The differences of 10% or more between the laboratory measurements of UV absorption coefficients by different investigators indicate accuracies that are quite inadequate for current needs in the measurement of atmospheric ozone. The standard band-integrated set of coefficients now used with the Dobson instrument are mutually consistent to about 2%, but their absolute accuracy is still in question. The accurate calculation of band-integrated coefficients must take account of their dependence on source spectral irradiance, atmospheric spectral transmittance, mean ozone temperature, and instrument spectral transmittance. A careful examination shows that Komhyr's (1980) case for an error of about +5% in the standard Dobson AD ozone estimation is subject to large uncertainties and certain lacks of independence. The obvious solution to this accuracy problem lies in better laboratory measurements of ozone absorption.

  4. Determination of allele frequency in pooled DNA: comparison of three PCR-based methods.

    PubMed

    Wilkening, Stefan; Hemminki, Kari; Thirumaran, Ranjit Kumar; Bermejo, Justo Lorenzo; Bonn, Stefan; Försti, Asta; Kumar, Rajiv

    2005-12-01

    Determination of allele frequency in pooled DNA samples is a powerful and efficient tool for large-scale association studies. In this study, we tested and compared three PCR-based methods for accuracy, reproducibility, cost, and convenience. The methods compared were: (i) real-time PCR with allele-specific primers, (ii) real-time PCR with allele-specific TaqMan probes, and (iii) quantitative sequencing. Allele frequencies of three single nucleotide polymorphisms in three different genes were estimated from pooled DNA. The pools were made of genomic DNA samples from 96 cases with basal cell carcinoma of the skin and 96 healthy controls with known genotypes. In this study, the allele frequency estimation made by real-time PCR with allele-specific primers had the smallest median deviation (MD) from the real allele frequency with 1.12% (absolute percentage points) and was also the cheapest method. However; this method required the most time for optimization and showed the highest variation between replicates (SD = 6.47%). Quantitative sequencing, the simplest method, was found to have intermediate accuracies (MD = 1.44%, SD = 4.2%). Real-time PCR with TaqMan probes, a convenient but very expensive method, had an MD of 1.47% and the lowest variation between replicates (SD = 3.18%).

  5. Climate Change Accuracy: Requirements and Economic Value

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wielicki, B. A.; Cooke, R.; Mlynczak, M. G.; Lukashin, C.; Thome, K. J.; Baize, R. R.

    2014-12-01

    Higher than normal accuracy is required to rigorously observe decadal climate change. But what level is needed? How can this be quantified? This presentation will summarize a new more rigorous and quantitative approach to determining the required accuracy for climate change observations (Wielicki et al., 2013, BAMS). Most current global satellite observations cannot meet this accuracy level. A proposed new satellite mission to resolve this challenge is CLARREO (Climate Absolute Radiance and Refractivity Observatory). CLARREO is designed to achieve advances of a factor of 10 for reflected solar spectra and a factor of 3 to 5 for thermal infrared spectra (Wielicki et al., Oct. 2013 BAMS). The CLARREO spectrometers are designed to serve as SI traceable benchmarks for the Global Satellite Intercalibration System (GSICS) and to greatly improve the utility of a wide range of LEO and GEO infrared and reflected solar passive satellite sensors for climate change observations (e.g. CERES, MODIS, VIIIRS, CrIS, IASI, Landsat, SPOT, etc). Providing more accurate decadal change trends can in turn lead to more rapid narrowing of key climate science uncertainties such as cloud feedback and climate sensitivity. A study has been carried out to quantify the economic benefits of such an advance as part of a rigorous and complete climate observing system. The study concludes that the economic value is $12 Trillion U.S. dollars in Net Present Value for a nominal discount rate of 3% (Cooke et al. 2013, J. Env. Sys. Dec.). A brief summary of these two studies and their implications for the future of climate science will be presented.

  6. Absolute Plate Velocities from Seismic Anisotropy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kreemer, Corné; Zheng, Lin; Gordon, Richard

    2015-04-01

    The orientation of seismic anisotropy inferred beneath plate interiors may provide a means to estimate the motions of the plate relative to the sub-asthenospheric mantle. Here we analyze two global sets of shear-wave splitting data, that of Kreemer [2009] and an updated and expanded data set, to estimate plate motions and to better understand the dispersion of the data, correlations in the errors, and their relation to plate speed. We also explore the effect of using geologically current plate velocities (i.e., the MORVEL set of angular velocities [DeMets et al. 2010]) compared with geodetically current plate velocities (i.e., the GSRM v1.2 angular velocities [Kreemer et al. 2014]). We demonstrate that the errors in plate motion azimuths inferred from shear-wave splitting beneath any one tectonic plate are correlated with the errors of other azimuths from the same plate. To account for these correlations, we adopt a two-tier analysis: First, find the pole of rotation and confidence limits for each plate individually. Second, solve for the best fit to these poles while constraining relative plate angular velocities to consistency with the MORVEL relative plate angular velocities. The SKS-MORVEL absolute plate angular velocities (based on the Kreemer [2009] data set) are determined from the poles from eight plates weighted proportionally to the root-mean-square velocity of each plate. SKS-MORVEL indicates that eight plates (Amur, Antarctica, Caribbean, Eurasia, Lwandle, Somalia, Sundaland, and Yangtze) have angular velocities that differ insignificantly from zero. The net rotation of the lithosphere is 0.25±0.11° Ma-1 (95% confidence limits) right-handed about 57.1°S, 68.6°E. The within-plate dispersion of seismic anisotropy for oceanic lithosphere (σ=19.2° ) differs insignificantly from that for continental lithosphere (σ=21.6° ). The between-plate dispersion, however, is significantly smaller for oceanic lithosphere (σ=7.4° ) than for continental

  7. Absolute measurements of night-time electron density using ISR gyro lines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhatt, Asti; Kelley, Michael; Nicolls, Michael; Sulzer, Michael

    2012-07-01

    Gyro line in Incoherent Scatter Spectrum is the underused cousin of the more popular Plasma line. This is because it is very weak during the day and stronger during dawn and dusk hours. When the electron density is such that the electron plasma frequency drops below the electron gyro frequency, the gyro line frequency becomes proportional to the electron density. This is during a time when the plasma line is no longer detected, and we have no other means for getting precise measurements for absolute electron density. In this paper, we will present a linear equation for the gyro line frequency and measurements from the Arecibo radar in Puerto Rico, showing comparison with the plasma line data and derived electron density.

  8. Orion Absolute Navigation System Progress and Challenge

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holt, Greg N.; D'Souza, Christopher

    2012-01-01

    The absolute navigation design of NASA's Orion vehicle is described. It has undergone several iterations and modifications since its inception, and continues as a work-in-progress. This paper seeks to benchmark the current state of the design and some of the rationale and analysis behind it. There are specific challenges to address when preparing a timely and effective design for the Exploration Flight Test (EFT-1), while still looking ahead and providing software extensibility for future exploration missions. The primary onboard measurements in a Near-Earth or Mid-Earth environment consist of GPS pseudo-range and delta-range, but for future explorations missions the use of star-tracker and optical navigation sources need to be considered. Discussions are presented for state size and composition, processing techniques, and consider states. A presentation is given for the processing technique using the computationally stable and robust UDU formulation with an Agee-Turner Rank-One update. This allows for computational savings when dealing with many parameters which are modeled as slowly varying Gauss-Markov processes. Preliminary analysis shows up to a 50% reduction in computation versus a more traditional formulation. Several state elements are discussed and evaluated, including position, velocity, attitude, clock bias/drift, and GPS measurement biases in addition to bias, scale factor, misalignment, and non-orthogonalities of the accelerometers and gyroscopes. Another consideration is the initialization of the EKF in various scenarios. Scenarios such as single-event upset, ground command, and cold start are discussed as are strategies for whole and partial state updates as well as covariance considerations. Strategies are given for dealing with latent measurements and high-rate propagation using multi-rate architecture. The details of the rate groups and the data ow between the elements is discussed and evaluated.

  9. Evaluation of the Absolute Regional Temperature Potential

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shindell, D. T.

    2012-01-01

    The Absolute Regional Temperature Potential (ARTP) is one of the few climate metrics that provides estimates of impacts at a sub-global scale. The ARTP presented here gives the time-dependent temperature response in four latitude bands (90-28degS, 28degS-28degN, 28-60degN and 60-90degN) as a function of emissions based on the forcing in those bands caused by the emissions. It is based on a large set of simulations performed with a single atmosphere-ocean climate model to derive regional forcing/response relationships. Here I evaluate the robustness of those relationships using the forcing/response portion of the ARTP to estimate regional temperature responses to the historic aerosol forcing in three independent climate models. These ARTP results are in good accord with the actual responses in those models. Nearly all ARTP estimates fall within +/-20%of the actual responses, though there are some exceptions for 90-28degS and the Arctic, and in the latter the ARTP may vary with forcing agent. However, for the tropics and the Northern Hemisphere mid-latitudes in particular, the +/-20% range appears to be roughly consistent with the 95% confidence interval. Land areas within these two bands respond 39-45% and 9-39% more than the latitude band as a whole. The ARTP, presented here in a slightly revised form, thus appears to provide a relatively robust estimate for the responses of large-scale latitude bands and land areas within those bands to inhomogeneous radiative forcing and thus potentially to emissions as well. Hence this metric could allow rapid evaluation of the effects of emissions policies at a finer scale than global metrics without requiring use of a full climate model.

  10. Absolute Radiometric Calibration of KOMPSAT-3A

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahn, H. Y.; Shin, D. Y.; Kim, J. S.; Seo, D. C.; Choi, C. U.

    2016-06-01

    This paper presents a vicarious radiometric calibration of the Korea Multi-Purpose Satellite-3A (KOMPSAT-3A) performed by the Korea Aerospace Research Institute (KARI) and the Pukyong National University Remote Sensing Group (PKNU RSG) in 2015.The primary stages of this study are summarized as follows: (1) A field campaign to determine radiometric calibrated target fields was undertaken in Mongolia and South Korea. Surface reflectance data obtained in the campaign were input to a radiative transfer code that predicted at-sensor radiance. Through this process, equations and parameters were derived for the KOMPSAT-3A sensor to enable the conversion of calibrated DN to physical units, such as at-sensor radiance or TOA reflectance. (2) To validate the absolute calibration coefficients for the KOMPSAT-3A sensor, we performed a radiometric validation with a comparison of KOMPSAT-3A and Landsat-8 TOA reflectance using one of the six PICS (Libya 4). Correlations between top-of-atmosphere (TOA) radiances and the spectral band responses of the KOMPSAT-3A sensors at the Zuunmod, Mongolia and Goheung, South Korea sites were significant for multispectral bands. The average difference in TOA reflectance between KOMPSAT-3A and Landsat-8 image over the Libya 4, Libya site in the red-green-blue (RGB) region was under 3%, whereas in the NIR band, the TOA reflectance of KOMPSAT-3A was lower than the that of Landsat-8 due to the difference in the band passes of two sensors. The KOMPSAT-3Aensor includes a band pass near 940 nm that can be strongly absorbed by water vapor and therefore displayed low reflectance. Toovercome this, we need to undertake a detailed analysis using rescale methods, such as the spectral bandwidth adjustment factor.

  11. Absolute Instability near the Band Edge of Traveling-Wave Amplifiers.

    PubMed

    Hung, D M H; Rittersdorf, I M; Zhang, P; Chernin, D; Lau, Y Y; Antonsen, T M; Luginsland, J W; Simon, D H; Gilgenbach, R M

    2015-09-18

    Applying the Briggs-Bers "pole-pinch" criterion to the exact transcendental dispersion relation of a dielectric traveling wave tube (TWT), we find that there is no absolute instability regardless of the beam current. We extend this analysis to the circuit band edges of a linear beam TWT by approximating the circuit mode as a hyperbola in the frequency-wave-number (ω-k) plane and consider the weak coupling limit. For an operating mode whose group velocity is in the same direction as the beam mode, we find that the lower band edge is not subjected to absolute instability. At the upper band edge, we find a threshold beam current beyond which absolute instability is excited. The nonexistence of absolute instability in a linear beam TWT and the existence in a gyrotron TWT, both at the lower band edge, is contrasted. The general study given here is applicable to some contemporary TWTs such as metamaterial-based and advanced Smith-Purcell TWTs.

  12. System for absolute measurement of electrolytic conductivity in aqueous solutions based on van der Pauw's theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Bing; Lin, Zhen; Zhang, Xiao; Yu, Xiang; Wei, Jiali; Wang, Xiaoping

    2014-05-01

    Based on an innovative application of van der Pauw's theory, a system was developed for the absolute measurement of electrolytic conductivity in aqueous solutions. An electrolytic conductivity meter was designed that uses a four-electrode system with an axial-radial two-dimensional adjustment structure coupled to an ac voltage excitation source and signal collecting circuit. The measurement accuracy, resolution and repeatability of the measurement system were examined through a series of experiments. Moreover, the measurement system and a high-precision electrolytic conductivity meter were compared using some actual water samples.

  13. Laser induced deflection technique for absolute thin film absorption measurement: optimized concepts and experimental results

    SciTech Connect

    Muehlig, Christian; Kufert, Siegfried; Bublitz, Simon; Speck, Uwe

    2011-03-20

    Using experimental results and numerical simulations, two measuring concepts of the laser induced deflection (LID) technique are introduced and optimized for absolute thin film absorption measurements from deep ultraviolet to IR wavelengths. For transparent optical coatings, a particular probe beam deflection direction allows the absorption measurement with virtually no influence of the substrate absorption, yielding improved accuracy compared to the common techniques of separating bulk and coating absorption. For high-reflection coatings, where substrate absorption contributions are negligible, a different probe beam deflection is chosen to achieve a better signal-to-noise ratio. Various experimental results for the two different measurement concepts are presented.

  14. Predictions of Ligand Selectivity from Absolute Binding Free Energy Calculations

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Binding selectivity is a requirement for the development of a safe drug, and it is a critical property for chemical probes used in preclinical target validation. Engineering selectivity adds considerable complexity to the rational design of new drugs, as it involves the optimization of multiple binding affinities. Computationally, the prediction of binding selectivity is a challenge, and generally applicable methodologies are still not available to the computational and medicinal chemistry communities. Absolute binding free energy calculations based on alchemical pathways provide a rigorous framework for affinity predictions and could thus offer a general approach to the problem. We evaluated the performance of free energy calculations based on molecular dynamics for the prediction of selectivity by estimating the affinity profile of three bromodomain inhibitors across multiple bromodomain families, and by comparing the results to isothermal titration calorimetry data. Two case studies were considered. In the first one, the affinities of two similar ligands for seven bromodomains were calculated and returned excellent agreement with experiment (mean unsigned error of 0.81 kcal/mol and Pearson correlation of 0.75). In this test case, we also show how the preferred binding orientation of a ligand for different proteins can be estimated via free energy calculations. In the second case, the affinities of a broad-spectrum inhibitor for 22 bromodomains were calculated and returned a more modest accuracy (mean unsigned error of 1.76 kcal/mol and Pearson correlation of 0.48); however, the reparametrization of a sulfonamide moiety improved the agreement with experiment. PMID:28009512

  15. Characterizing flow in oil reservoir rock using SPH: absolute permeability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holmes, David W.; Williams, John R.; Tilke, Peter; Leonardi, Christopher R.

    2016-04-01

    In this paper, a three-dimensional smooth particle hydrodynamics (SPH) simulator for modeling grain scale fluid flow in porous rock is presented. The versatility of the SPH method has driven its use in increasingly complex areas of flow analysis, including flows related to permeable rock for both groundwater and petroleum reservoir research. While previous approaches to such problems using SPH have involved the use of idealized pore geometries (cylinder/sphere packs etc), in this paper we detail the characterization of flow in models with geometries taken from 3D X-ray microtomographic imaging of actual porous rock; specifically 25.12 % porosity dolomite. This particular rock type has been well characterized experimentally and described in the literature, thus providing a practical `real world' means of verification of SPH that will be key to its acceptance by industry as a viable alternative to traditional reservoir modeling tools. The true advantages of SPH are realized when adding the complexity of multiple fluid phases, however, the accuracy of SPH for single phase flow is, as yet, under developed in the literature and will be the primary focus of this paper. Flow in reservoir rock will typically occur in the range of low Reynolds numbers, making the enforcement of no-slip boundary conditions an important factor in simulation. To this end, we detail the development of a new, robust, and numerically efficient method for implementing no-slip boundary conditions in SPH that can handle the degree of complexity of boundary surfaces, characteristic of an actual permeable rock sample. A study of the effect of particle density is carried out and simulation results for absolute permeability are presented and compared to those from experimentation showing good agreement and validating the method for such applications.

  16. a Portable Apparatus for Absolute Measurements of the Earth's Gravity.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zumberge, Mark Andrew

    We have developed a new, portable apparatus for making absolute measurements of the acceleration due to the earth's gravity. We use the method of interferometrically determining the acceleration of a freely falling corner -cube prism. The falling object is surrounded by a chamber which is driven vertically inside a fixed vacuum chamber. This falling chamber is servoed to track the falling corner -cube to shield it from drag due to background gas. In addition, the drag-free falling chamber removes the need for a magnetic release, shields the falling object from electrostatic forces, and provides a means of both gently arresting the falling object and quickly returning it to its start position, to allow rapid acquisition of data. A synthesized long period isolation device reduces the noise due to seismic oscillations. A new type of Zeeman laser is used as the light source in the interferometer, and is compared with the wavelength of an iodine stabilized laser. The times of occurrence of 45 interference fringes are measured to within 0.2 nsec over a 20 cm drop and are fit to a quadratic by an on-line minicomputer. 150 drops can be made in ten minutes resulting in a value of g having a precision of 3 to 6 parts in 10('9). Systematic errors have been determined to be less than 5 parts in 10('9) through extensive tests. Three months of gravity data have been obtained with a reproducibility ranging from 5 to 10 parts in 10('9). The apparatus has been designed to be easily portable. Field measurements are planned for the immediate future. An accuracy of 6 parts in 10('9) corresponds to a height sensitivity of 2 cm. Vertical motions in the earth's crust and tectonic density changes that may precede earthquakes are to be investigated using this apparatus.

  17. Redefinition of the crater-density and absolute-age boundaries for the chronostratigraphic system of Mars

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Werner, S.C.; Tanaka, K.L.

    2011-01-01

    For the boundaries of each chronostratigraphic epoch on Mars, we present systematically derived crater-size frequencies based on crater counts of geologic referent surfaces and three proposed " standard" crater size-frequency production distributions as defined by (a) a simple -2 power law, (b) Neukum and Ivanov, (c) Hartmann. In turn, these crater count values are converted to model-absolute ages based on the inferred cratering rate histories. We present a new boundary definition for the Late Hesperian-Early Amazonian transition. Our fitting of crater size-frequency distributions to the chronostratigraphic record of Mars permits the assignment of cumulative counts of craters down to 100. m, 1. km, 2. km, 5. km, and 16. km diameters to martian epochs. Due to differences in the " standard" crater size-frequency production distributions, a generalized crater-density-based definition to the chronostratigraphic system cannot be provided. For the diameter range used for the boundary definitions, the resulting model absolute age fits vary within 1.5% for a given set of production function and chronology model ages. Crater distributions translated to absolute ages utilizing different curve descriptions can result in absolute age differences exceeding 10%. ?? 2011 Elsevier Inc.

  18. In-flight quality and accuracy of attitude measurements from the CHAMP advanced stellar compass

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jørgensen, Peter S.; Jørgensen, John L.; Denver, Troelz; Betto, Maurizio

    2005-01-01

    The German geo-observations satellite CHAMP carries highly accurate vector instruments. The orientation of these relative to the inertial reference frame is obtained using star trackers. These advanced stellar compasses (ASC) are fully autonomous units, which provide, in real time, the absolute attitude with accuracy in the arc second range. In order to investigate the in-flight accuracy of the ASC, the terminology to characterize noise and biases is introduced. Relative instrument accuracy (RIA) and absolute instrument accuracy (AIA) can in principle be determined in-flight. However problems with modeling external noise sources often arise. The special CHAMP configuration with two star tracker cameras mounted fixed together provides an excellent opportunity to determine the AIA in-flight using the inter boresight angle.

  19. Design and Development of Thermistor based Power Meter at 140 GHz Frequency Band

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roy, Rajesh; Kush, Abhimanyue Kumar; Dixit, Rajendra Prasad

    2011-12-01

    Design and development of thermistor based power meter at 140 gigahertz (GHz) frequency band have been presented. Power meter comprises power sensor, amplifier circuit and dialog based graphical user interface in visual C++ for the average power measurement. The output power level of a component or system is very critical design factor. Thus there was a need of a power meter for the development of millimeter wave components at 140 GHz frequency band. Power sensor has been designed and developed using NTC (Negative Temperature Coefficient) thermistors. The design aims at developing a direct, simple and inexpensive power meter that can be used to measure absolute power at 140 GHz frequency band. Due to absorption of 140 GHz frequencies, resistance of thermistor changes to a new value. This change in resistance of thermistor can be converted to a dc voltage change and amplified voltage change can be fed to computer through data acquisition card. Dialog based graphical user interface (GUI) has been developed in visual C++ language for average power measurement in dBm. WR6 standard rectangular waveguide is the input port for the sensor of power meter. Temperature compensation has been achieved. Moderate sensor return loss greater than 20 dB has been found over the frequency range 110 to 170 GHz. The response time of the power sensor is 10 second. Average power accuracy is better than ±0.25 dB within the power range from -10 to 10 dBm at 140 GHz frequency band.

  20. Determination of Absolute Zero Using a Computer-Based Laboratory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Amrani, D.

    2007-01-01

    We present a simple computer-based laboratory experiment for evaluating absolute zero in degrees Celsius, which can be performed in college and undergraduate physical sciences laboratory courses. With a computer, absolute zero apparatus can help demonstrators or students to observe the relationship between temperature and pressure and use…

  1. A Global Forecast of Absolute Poverty and Employment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hopkins, M. J. D.

    1980-01-01

    Estimates are made of absolute poverty and employment under the hypothesis that existing trends continue. Concludes that while the number of people in absolute poverty is not likely to decline by 2000, the proportion will fall. Jobs will have to grow 3.9% per year in developing countries to achieve full employment. (JOW)

  2. Absolute Humidity and the Seasonality of Influenza (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shaman, J. L.; Pitzer, V.; Viboud, C.; Grenfell, B.; Goldstein, E.; Lipsitch, M.

    2010-12-01

    Much of the observed wintertime increase of mortality in temperate regions is attributed to seasonal influenza. A recent re-analysis of laboratory experiments indicates that absolute humidity strongly modulates the airborne survival and transmission of the influenza virus. Here we show that the onset of increased wintertime influenza-related mortality in the United States is associated with anomalously low absolute humidity levels during the prior weeks. We then use an epidemiological model, in which observed absolute humidity conditions temper influenza transmission rates, to successfully simulate the seasonal cycle of observed influenza-related mortality. The model results indicate that direct modulation of influenza transmissibility by absolute humidity alone is sufficient to produce this observed seasonality. These findings provide epidemiological support for the hypothesis that absolute humidity drives seasonal variations of influenza transmission in temperate regions. In addition, we show that variations of the basic and effective reproductive numbers for influenza, caused by seasonal changes in absolute humidity, are consistent with the general timing of pandemic influenza outbreaks observed for 2009 A/H1N1 in temperate regions. Indeed, absolute humidity conditions correctly identify the region of the United States vulnerable to a third, wintertime wave of pandemic influenza. These findings suggest that the timing of pandemic influenza outbreaks is controlled by a combination of absolute humidity conditions, levels of susceptibility and changes in population mixing and contact rates.

  3. Novalis' Poetic Uncertainty: A "Bildung" with the Absolute

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mika, Carl

    2016-01-01

    Novalis, the Early German Romantic poet and philosopher, had at the core of his work a mysterious depiction of the "absolute." The absolute is Novalis' name for a substance that defies precise knowledge yet calls for a tentative and sensitive speculation. How one asserts a truth, represents an object, and sets about encountering things…

  4. Robust control design with real parameter uncertainty using absolute stability theory. Ph.D. Thesis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    How, Jonathan P.; Hall, Steven R.

    1993-01-01

    The purpose of this thesis is to investigate an extension of mu theory for robust control design by considering systems with linear and nonlinear real parameter uncertainties. In the process, explicit connections are made between mixed mu and absolute stability theory. In particular, it is shown that the upper bounds for mixed mu are a generalization of results from absolute stability theory. Both state space and frequency domain criteria are developed for several nonlinearities and stability multipliers using the wealth of literature on absolute stability theory and the concepts of supply rates and storage functions. The state space conditions are expressed in terms of Riccati equations and parameter-dependent Lyapunov functions. For controller synthesis, these stability conditions are used to form an overbound of the H2 performance objective. A geometric interpretation of the equivalent frequency domain criteria in terms of off-axis circles clarifies the important role of the multiplier and shows that both the magnitude and phase of the uncertainty are considered. A numerical algorithm is developed to design robust controllers that minimize the bound on an H2 cost functional and satisfy an analysis test based on the Popov stability multiplier. The controller and multiplier coefficients are optimized simultaneously, which avoids the iteration and curve-fitting procedures required by the D-K procedure of mu synthesis. Several benchmark problems and experiments on the Middeck Active Control Experiment at M.I.T. demonstrate that these controllers achieve good robust performance and guaranteed stability bounds.

  5. Absolute radiometric calibration of advanced remote sensing systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Slater, P. N.

    1982-01-01

    The distinction between the uses of relative and absolute spectroradiometric calibration of remote sensing systems is discussed. The advantages of detector-based absolute calibration are described, and the categories of relative and absolute system calibrations are listed. The limitations and problems associated with three common methods used for the absolute calibration of remote sensing systems are addressed. Two methods are proposed for the in-flight absolute calibration of advanced multispectral linear array systems. One makes use of a sun-illuminated panel in front of the sensor, the radiance of which is monitored by a spectrally flat pyroelectric radiometer. The other uses a large, uniform, high-radiance reference ground surface. The ground and atmospheric measurements required as input to a radiative transfer program to predict the radiance level at the entrance pupil of the orbital sensor are discussed, and the ground instrumentation is described.

  6. A developmental study of latent absolute pitch memory.

    PubMed

    Jakubowski, Kelly; Müllensiefen, Daniel; Stewart, Lauren

    2017-03-01

    The ability to recall the absolute pitch level of familiar music (latent absolute pitch memory) is widespread in adults, in contrast to the rare ability to label single pitches without a reference tone (overt absolute pitch memory). The present research investigated the developmental profile of latent absolute pitch (AP) memory and explored individual differences related to this ability. In two experiments, 288 children from 4 to12 years of age performed significantly above chance at recognizing the absolute pitch level of familiar melodies. No age-related improvement or decline, nor effects of musical training, gender, or familiarity with the stimuli were found in regard to latent AP task performance. These findings suggest that latent AP memory is a stable ability that is developed from as early as age 4 and persists into adulthood.

  7. Effective Frequency Technique

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kirk, C. Laurence; Weng, Chi Y.

    2002-01-01

    An effective monochromatic frequency technique is described to represent the effects of finite spectral bandwidth for active and passive measurements centered on an absorption line, a trough region, or a slowly varying spectral feature. For Gaussian and rectangular laser line shapes, the effective frequency is shown to have a simple form which depends only on the instrumental line shape and bandwidth and not on the absorption line profile. The technique yields accuracies better than 0.1% for bandwidths less than 0.2 times the atmospheric line width.

  8. Absolute calibration of an ultraviolet spectrometer using a stabilized laser and a cryogenic cavity radiometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jauniskis, L.; Foukal, P.; Kochling, H.

    1992-01-01

    We carry out the calibration of an ultraviolet spectrometer by using a cryogenic electrical-substitution radiometer and intensity-stabilized laser sources. A comparison of the error budgets for the laser-based calibration described here and for a calibration using a type-FEL tungsten spectral-irradiance standard indicates that this technique could provide an improvement of a factor of about three in the uncertainty of the spectrometer calibration, resulting in an absolute accuracy (standard deviation of three) of about 1 percent at 257 nm. The technique described here might significantly improve the accuracy of calibrations on NASA ozone-monitoring and solar ultraviolet-monitoring spectrophotometers when used to complement present procedures that employ lamps and the SURF II synchrotron ultraviolet radiation facility at the National Institute of Standards and Technology.

  9. Absolute calibration of an ultraviolet spectrometer using a stabilized laser and a cryogenic cavity radiometer.

    PubMed

    Jauniskis, L; Foukal, P; Kochling, H

    1992-09-20

    We carry out the calibration of an ultraviolet spectrometer by using a cryogenic electrical-substitution radiometer and intensity-stabilized laser sources. A comparison of the error budgets for the laser-based calibration described here and for a calibration using a type-FEL tungsten spectral-irradiance standard indicates that this technique could provide an improvement of a factor of ~3 in the uncertainty of the spectrometer calibration, resulting in an absolute accuracy (standard deviation of 3) of ~1% at 257 nm. The technique described here might significantly improve the accuracy of calibrations on NASA ozone-monitoring and solar ultraviolet-monitoring spectrophotometers when used to complement present procedures that employ lamps and the SURF II synchrotron ultraviolet radiation facility at the National Institute of Standards and Technology.

  10. Preliminary assessment of the accuracy and precision of TOPEX/POSEIDON altimeter data with respect to the large-scale ocean circulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wunsch, Carl; Stammer, Detlef

    1994-01-01

    TOPEX/POSEIDON sea surface height measurements are examined for quantitative consistency with known elements of the oceanic general circulation and its variability. Project-provided corrections were accepted but are at tested as part of the overall results. The ocean was treated as static over each 10-day repeat cycle and maps constructed of the absolute sea surface topography from simple averages in 2 deg x 2 deg bins. A hybrid geoid model formed from a combination of the recent Joint Gravity Model-2 and the project-provided Ohio State University geoid was used to estimate the absolute topography in each 10-day period. Results are examined in terms of the annual average, seasonal average, seasonal variations, and variations near the repeat period. Conclusion are as follows: the orbit error is now difficult to observe, having been reduced to a level at or below the level of other error sources; the geoid dominates the error budget of the estimates of the absolute topography; the estimated seasonal cycle is consistent with prior estimates; shorter-period variability is dominated on the largest scales by an oscillation near 50 days in spherical harmonics Y(sup m)(sub 1)(theta, lambda) with an amplitude near 10 cm, close to the simplest alias of the M(sub 2) tide. This spectral peak and others visible in the periodograms support the hypothesis that the largest remaining time-dependent errors lie in the tidal models. Though discrepancies attribute to the geoid are within the formal uncertainties of the good estimates, removal of them is urgent for circulation studies. Current gross accuracy of the TOPEX/POSEIDON mission is in the range of 5-10 cm, distributed overbroad band of frequencies and wavenumbers. In finite bands, accuracies approach the 1-cm level, and expected improvements arising from extended mission duration should reduce these numbers by nearly an order of magnitude.

  11. Three-dimensional convective and absolute instabilities in pressure-driven two-layer channel flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sahu, Kirti; Matar, Omar

    2011-11-01

    A generalized linear stability analysis of three-dimensional disturbance in a pressure-driven two-layer channel flow, focusing on the range of parameters for which Squire's theorem does not exist is considered. Three-dimensional linear stability equations, in which both the spatial wavenumber and temporal frequency are complex, are derived and solved using an efficient spectral collocation method. A Briggs-type analysis is then carried out to delineate the boundaries between convective and absolute instabilities in m-Re space. We find that although three-dimensional disturbances are temporally more unstable than the two-dimensional disturbances, absolute modes of instability are most unstable for two-dimensional disturbances. An energy ``budget'' analysis also shows that the most dangerous modes are ``interfacial'' ones.

  12. A new method to calibrate the absolute sensitivity of a soft X-ray streak camera

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Jian; Liu, Shenye; Li, Jin; Yang, Zhiwen; Chen, Ming; Guo, Luting; Yao, Li; Xiao, Shali

    2016-12-01

    In this paper, we introduce a new method to calibrate the absolute sensitivity of a soft X-ray streak camera (SXRSC). The calibrations are done in the static mode by using a small laser-produced X-ray source. A calibrated X-ray CCD is used as a secondary standard detector to monitor the X-ray source intensity. In addition, two sets of holographic flat-field grating spectrometers are chosen as the spectral discrimination systems of the SXRSC and the X-ray CCD. The absolute sensitivity of the SXRSC is obtained by comparing the signal counts of the SXRSC to the output counts of the X-ray CCD. Results show that the calibrated spectrum covers the range from 200 eV to 1040 eV. The change of the absolute sensitivity in the vicinity of the K-edge of the carbon can also be clearly seen. The experimental values agree with the calculated values to within 29% error. Compared with previous calibration methods, the proposed method has several advantages: a wide spectral range, high accuracy, and simple data processing. Our calibration results can be used to make quantitative X-ray flux measurements in laser fusion research.

  13. Observing Gravity Change in the Fennoscandian Uplift Area with the Hanover Absolute Gravimeter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Timmen, Ludger; Gitlein, Olga; Klemann, Volker; Wolf, Detlef

    2012-08-01

    The Nordic countries Norway, Sweden, Finland and Denmark are a key study region for research of glacial isostasy. In addition, such research offers a unique opportunity for absolute gravimetry to show its capability as a geodetic tool for geophysical research. Within a multi-national cooperation, annual absolute gravity measurements have been performed in Fennoscandia by IfE since 2003. For the Hanover gravimeter FG5-220, overall accuracy of ±30 nm/s2 is indicated for a single station determination. First results of linear gravity changes are derived for ten stations in the central and southern part of the uplift area. Comparing with the rates predicted by glacial rebound modelling, the gravity trends of the absolute measurements differ by 3.8 nm/s2 per year (root-mean-square discrepancy) from the uplift model. The mean difference between observed and predicted rates is 0.8 nm/s2 per year only. A proportionality factor of -1.63 ± 0.20 nm/s2 per mm has been obtained, which describes the mean ratio between the observational gravity and height rates.

  14. A new absolute reference for atmospheric longwave irradiance measurements with traceability to SI units

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gröbner, J.; Reda, I.; Wacker, S.; Nyeki, S.; Behrens, K.; Gorman, J.

    2014-06-01

    Two independently designed and calibrated absolute radiometers measuring downwelling longwave irradiance were compared during two field campaigns in February and October 2013 at Physikalisch Meteorologisches Observatorium Davos/World Radiation Center (PMOD/WRC). One absolute cavity pyrgeometer (ACP) developed by NREL and up to four Integrating Sphere Infrared Radiometers (IRIS) developed by PMOD/WRC took part in these intercomparisons. The internal consistency of the IRIS radiometers and the agreement with the ACP were within ±1 W m-2, providing traceability of atmospheric longwave irradiance to the international system of units with unprecedented accuracy. Measurements performed during the two field campaigns and over the past 4 years have shown that the World Infrared Standard Group (WISG) of pyrgeometers is underestimating clear-sky atmospheric longwave irradiance by 2 to 6 W m-2, depending on the amount of integrated water vapor (IWV). This behavior is an instrument-dependent feature and requires an individual sensitivity calibration of each pyrgeometer with respect to an absolute reference such as IRIS or ACP. For IWV larger than 10 mm, an average sensitivity correction of +6.5% should be applied to the WISG in order to be consistent with the longwave reference represented by the ACP and IRIS radiometers. A concerted effort at international level will need to be implemented in order to correct measurements of atmospheric downwelling longwave irradiance traceable to the WISG.

  15. Verification of 235U mass content in nuclear fuel plates by an absolute method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    El-Gammal, W.

    2007-01-01

    Nuclear Safeguards is referred to a verification System by which a State can control all nuclear materials (NM) and nuclear activities under its authority. An effective and efficient Safeguards System must include a system of measurements with capabilities sufficient to verify such NM. Measurements of NM using absolute methods could eliminate the dependency on NM Standards, which are necessary for other relative or semi-absolute methods. In this work, an absolute method has been investigated to verify the 235U mass content in nuclear fuel plates of Material Testing Reactor (MTR) type. The most intense gamma-ray signature at 185.7 keV emitted after α-decay of the 235U nuclei was employed in the method. The measuring system (an HPGe-spectrometer) was mathematically calibrated for efficiency using the general Monte Carlo transport code MCNP-4B. The calibration results and the measured net count rate were used to estimate the 235U mass content in fuel plates at different detector-to-fuel plate distances. Two sets of fuel plates, containing natural and low enriched uranium, were measured at the Fuel Fabrication Facility. Average accuracies for the estimated 235U masses of about 2.62% and 0.3% are obtained for the fuel plates containing natural and low enriched uranium; respectively, with a precision of about 3%.

  16. Temperature-dependent Absolute Refractive Index Measurements of Synthetic Fused Silica

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leviton, Douglas B.; Frey, Bradley J.

    2006-01-01

    Using the Cryogenic, High-Accuracy Refraction Measuring System (CHARMS) at NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center, we have measured the absolute refractive index of five specimens taken from a very large boule of Corning 7980 fused silica from temperatures ranging from 30 to 310 K at wavelengths from 0.4 to 2.6 microns with an absolute uncertainty of plus or minus 1 x 10 (exp -5). Statistical variations in derived values of the thermo-optic coefficient (dn/dT) are at the plus or minus 2 x 10 (exp -8)/K level. Graphical and tabulated data for absolute refractive index, dispersion, and thermo-optic coefficient are presented for selected wavelengths and temperatures along with estimates of uncertainty in index. Coefficients for temperature-dependent Sellmeier fits of measured refractive index are also presented to allow accurate interpolation of index to other wavelengths and temperatures. We compare our results to those from an independent investigation (which used an interferometric technique for measuring index changes as a function of temperature) whose samples were prepared from the same slugs of material from which our prisms were prepared in support of the Kepler mission. We also compare our results with sparse cryogenic index data from measurements of this material from the literature.

  17. Absolutely nondestructive discrimination of Huoshan Dendrobium nobile species with miniature near-infrared (NIR) spectrometer engine.

    PubMed

    Hu, Tian; Yang, Hai-Long; Tang, Qing; Zhang, Hui; Nie, Lei; Li, Lian; Wang, Jin-Feng; Liu, Dong-Ming; Jiang, Wei; Wang, Fei; Zang, Heng-Chang

    2014-10-01

    As one very precious traditional Chinese medicine (TCM), Huoshan Dendrobium has not only high price, but also significant pharmaceutical efficacy. However, different species of Huoshan Dendrobium exhibit considerable difference in pharmaceutical efficacy, so rapid and absolutely non-destructive discrimination of Huoshan Dendrobium nobile according to different species is crucial to quality control and pharmaceutical effect. In this study, as one type of miniature near-infrared (NIR) spectrometer, MicroNIR 1700 was used for absolutely nondestructive determination of NIR spectra of 90 batches of Dendrobium from five species of differ- ent commodity grades. The samples were intact and not smashed. Soft independent modeling of class analogy (SIMCA) pattern recognition based on principal component analysis (PCA) was used to classify and recognize different species of Dendrobium samples. The results indicated that the SIMCA qualitative models established with pretreatment method of standard normal variate transformation (SNV) in the spectra range selected by Qs method had 100% recognition rates and 100% rejection rates. This study demonstrated that a rapid and absolutely non-destructive analytical technique based on MicroNIR 1700 spectrometer was developed for successful discrimination of five different species of Huoshan Dendrobium with acceptable accuracy.

  18. Test Expectancy Affects Metacomprehension Accuracy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thiede, Keith W.; Wiley, Jennifer; Griffin, Thomas D.

    2011-01-01

    Background: Theory suggests that the accuracy of metacognitive monitoring is affected by the cues used to judge learning. Researchers have improved monitoring accuracy by directing attention to more appropriate cues; however, this is the first study to more directly point students to more appropriate cues using instructions regarding tests and…

  19. Preliminary OARE absolute acceleration measurements on STS-50

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blanchard, Robert C.; Nicholson, John Y.; Ritter, James

    1993-01-01

    On-orbit Orbital Acceleration Research Experiment (OARE) data on STS-50 was examined in detail during a 2-day time period. Absolute acceleration levels were derived at the OARE location, the orbiter center-of-gravity, and at the STS-50 spacelab Crystal Growth Facility. The tri-axial OARE raw acceleration measurements (i.e., telemetered data) during the interval were filtered using a sliding trimmed mean filter in order to remove large acceleration spikes (e.g., thrusters) and reduce the noise. Twelve OARE measured biases in each acceleration channel during the 2-day interval were analyzed and applied to the filtered data. Similarly, the in situ measured x-axis scale factors in the sensor's most sensitive range were also analyzed and applied to the data. Due to equipment problem(s) on this flight, both y- and z- axis sensitive range scale factors were determined in a separate process (using the OARE maneuver data) and subsequently applied to the data. All known significant low-frequency corrections at the OARE location (i.e., both vertical and horizontal gravity-gradient, and rotational effects) were removed from the filtered data in order to produce the acceleration components at the orbiter's center-of-gravity, which are the aerodynamic signals along each body axes. Results indicate that there is a force of unknown origin being applied to the Orbiter in addition to the aerodynamic forces. The OARE instrument and all known gravitational and electromagnetic forces were reexamined, but none produce the observed effect. Thus, it is tentatively concluded that the Orbiter is creating the environment observed.

  20. High-precision laser-assisted absolute determination of x-ray diffraction angles

    SciTech Connect

    Kubicek, K.; Braun, J.; Bruhns, H.; Crespo Lopez-Urrutia, J. R.; Mokler, P. H.; Ullrich, J.

    2012-01-15

    A novel technique for absolute wavelength determination in high-precision crystal x-ray spectroscopy recently introduced has been upgraded reaching unprecedented accuracies. The method combines visible laser beams with the Bond method, where Bragg angles ({theta} and -{theta}) are determined without any x-ray reference lines. Using flat crystals this technique makes absolute x-ray wavelength measurements feasible even at low x-ray fluxes. The upgraded spectrometer has been used in combination with first experiments on the 1s2p {sup 1}P{sub 1}{yields} 1s{sup 2} {sup 1}S{sub 0} w-line in He-like argon. By resolving a minute curvature of the x-ray lines the accuracy reaches there the best ever reported value of 1.5 ppm. The result is sensitive to predicted second-order QED contributions at the level of two-electron screening and two-photon radiative diagrams and will allow for the first time to benchmark predicted binding energies for He-like ions at this level of precision.