Science.gov

Sample records for absolute frequency dependence

  1. Frequency-domain analysis of absolute gravimeters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Svitlov, S.

    2012-12-01

    An absolute gravimeter is analysed as a linear time-invariant system in the frequency domain. Frequency responses of absolute gravimeters are derived analytically based on the propagation of the complex exponential signal through their linear measurement functions. Depending on the model of motion and the number of time-distance coordinates, an absolute gravimeter is considered as a second-order (three-level scheme) or third-order (multiple-level scheme) low-pass filter. It is shown that the behaviour of an atom absolute gravimeter in the frequency domain corresponds to that of the three-level corner-cube absolute gravimeter. Theoretical results are applied for evaluation of random and systematic measurement errors and optimization of an experiment. The developed theory agrees with known results of an absolute gravimeter analysis in the time and frequency domains and can be used for measurement uncertainty analyses, building of vibration-isolation systems and synthesis of digital filtering algorithms.

  2. Monolithically integrated absolute frequency comb laser system

    DOEpatents

    Wanke, Michael C.

    2016-07-12

    Rather than down-convert optical frequencies, a QCL laser system directly generates a THz frequency comb in a compact monolithically integrated chip that can be locked to an absolute frequency without the need of a frequency-comb synthesizer. The monolithic, absolute frequency comb can provide a THz frequency reference and tool for high-resolution broad band spectroscopy.

  3. Molecular iodine absolute frequencies. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Sansonetti, C.J.

    1990-06-25

    Fifty specified lines of {sup 127}I{sub 2} were studied by Doppler-free frequency modulation spectroscopy. For each line the classification of the molecular transition was determined, hyperfine components were identified, and one well-resolved component was selected for precise determination of its absolute frequency. In 3 cases, a nearby alternate line was selected for measurement because no well-resolved component was found for the specified line. Absolute frequency determinations were made with an estimated uncertainty of 1.1 MHz by locking a dye laser to the selected hyperfine component and measuring its wave number with a high-precision Fabry-Perot wavemeter. For each line results of the absolute measurement, the line classification, and a Doppler-free spectrum are given.

  4. The correction of vibration in frequency scanning interferometry based absolute distance measurement system for dynamic measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Cheng; Liu, Guodong; Liu, Bingguo; Chen, Fengdong; Zhuang, Zhitao; Xu, Xinke; Gan, Yu

    2015-10-01

    Absolute distance measurement systems are of significant interest in the field of metrology, which could improve the manufacturing efficiency and accuracy of large assemblies in fields such as aircraft construction, automotive engineering, and the production of modern windmill blades. Frequency scanning interferometry demonstrates noticeable advantages as an absolute distance measurement system which has a high precision and doesn't depend on a cooperative target. In this paper , the influence of inevitable vibration in the frequency scanning interferometry based absolute distance measurement system is analyzed. The distance spectrum is broadened as the existence of Doppler effect caused by vibration, which will bring in a measurement error more than 103 times bigger than the changes of optical path difference. In order to decrease the influence of vibration, the changes of the optical path difference are monitored by a frequency stabilized laser, which runs parallel to the frequency scanning interferometry. The experiment has verified the effectiveness of this method.

  5. Primacy and frequency effects in absolute judgments of visual velocity.

    PubMed

    Sokolov, A; Pavlova, M; Ehrenstein, W H

    2000-07-01

    In absolute judgment tasks, identical stimuli are rated higher (or lower) when presented in a series of more frequent small (or large) stimuli. Using visual stimuli differing in velocity, we show that this conventional frequency effect is largely modulated by the primacy effect--that is, by the stimuli occurring on the early trials of a run. In Experiment 1, a frequency-like primacy effect was obtained with equal-frequent velocities. Identical velocities were rated faster when mainly slow rather than fast ones occurred on initial trials. In Experiment 2, we contrasted the frequency effect and the primacy effect: In runs with frequent slow velocities, mainly fast ones occurred earlier, whereas in runs with infrequent slow velocities, mainly slow ones did so. Lack of differences of ratings in the two conditions suggests that the two effects canceled each other. In Experiment 3, when mainly frequent velocities occurred earlier, the conventional frequency effect was obtained. We conclude that the conventional frequency effect represents a combination of the primacy effect and the pure frequency effect.

  6. Noninvasive absolute cerebral oximetry with frequency-domain near-infrared spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hallacoglu, Bertan

    Near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) measurements of absolute concentrations of oxy-hemoglobin and deoxy-hemoglobin in the human brain can provide critical information about cerebral physiology in terms of cerebral blood volume, blood flow, oxygen delivery, and metabolic rate of oxygen. We developed several frequency domain NIRS data acquisition and analysis methods aimed at absolute measurements of hemoglobin concentration and saturation in cerebral tissue of adult human subjects. Extensive experimental investigations were carried out in various homogenous and two-layered tissue-mimicking phantoms, and biological tissues. The advantages and limitations of commonly used homogenous models and inversion strategies were thoroughly investigated. Prior to human subjects, extensive studies were carried out in in vivo animal models. In rabbits, absolute hemoglobin oxygen desaturation was shown to depend strongly on surgically induced testicular torsion. Methods developed in this study were then adapted for measurements in the rat brain. Absolute values were demonstrated to discern cerebrovascular impairment in a rat model of diet-induced vascular cognitive impairment. These results facilitated the development of clinically useful optical measures of cerebrovascular health. In a large group of human subjects, employing a homogeneous model for absolute measurements was shown to be reliable and robust. However, it was also shown to be limited due to the relatively thick extracerebral tissue. The procedure we develop in this work and the thesis thereof performs a nonlinear inversion procedure with six unknown parameters with no other prior knowledge for the retrieval of the optical coefficients and top layer thickness with high accuracy on two-layered media. Our absolute measurements of cerebral hemoglobin concentration and saturation are based on the discrimination of extracerebral and cerebral tissue layers, and they can enhance the impact of NIRS for cerebral hemodynamics and

  7. Frequency dependent squeezed light at audio frequencies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miller, John

    2015-04-01

    Following successful implementation in the previous generation of instruments, squeezed states of light represent a proven technology for the reduction of quantum noise in ground-based interferometric gravitational-wave detectors. As a result of lower noise and increased circulating power, the current generation of detectors places one further demand on this technique - that the orientation of the squeezed ellipse be rotated as function of frequency. This extension allows previously negligible quantum radiation pressure noise to be mitigated in addition to quantum shot noise. I will present the results of an experiment which performs the appropriate rotation by reflecting the squeezed state from a detuned high-finesse optical cavity, demonstrating frequency dependent squeezing at audio frequencies for the first time and paving the way for broadband quantum noise reduction in Advanced LIGO. Further, I will indicate how a realistic implementation of this approach will impact Advanced LIGO both alone and in combination with other potential upgrades.

  8. Femtosecond frequency comb measurement of absolute frequencies and hyperfine coupling constants in cesium vapor

    SciTech Connect

    Stalnaker, Jason E.; Mbele, Vela; Gerginov, Vladislav; Fortier, Tara M.; Diddams, Scott A.; Hollberg, Leo; Tanner, Carol E.

    2010-04-15

    We report measurements of absolute transition frequencies and hyperfine coupling constants for the 8S{sub 1/2}, 9S{sub 1/2}, 7D{sub 3/2}, and 7D{sub 5/2} states in {sup 133}Cs vapor. The stepwise excitation through either the 6P{sub 1/2} or 6P{sub 3/2} intermediate state is performed directly with broadband laser light from a stabilized femtosecond laser optical-frequency comb. The laser beam is split, counterpropagated, and focused into a room-temperature Cs vapor cell. The repetition rate of the frequency comb is scanned and we detect the fluorescence on the 7P{sub 1/2,3/2{yields}}6S{sub 1/2} branches of the decay of the excited states. The excitations to the different states are isolated by the introduction of narrow-bandwidth interference filters in the laser beam paths. Using a nonlinear least-squares method we find measurements of transition frequencies and hyperfine coupling constants that are in agreement with other recent measurements for the 8S state and provide improvement by 2 orders of magnitude over previously published results for the 9S and 7D states.

  9. Absolute frequency of an atomic hydrogen maser clock

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Peters, H. E.; Hall, R. G.; Percival, D. B.

    1972-01-01

    An accurate determination was made of the unperturbed atomic hydrogen ground state hyperfine transition frequency (F=1,m=0 - F=0,m=0) in reference to present world wide realizations of internationally defined time interval. In relation to the international atomic time system, the composite value is 1,420,405,751.7755 plus or minus 0.0031 HZ.

  10. Age Dependent Absolute Plate and Plume Motion Modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heaton, D. E.; Koppers, A. A. P.

    2015-12-01

    Current absolute plate motion (APM) models from 80 - 0 Ma are constrained by the location of mantle plume related hotspot seamounts, in particular those of the Hawaiian-Emperor and Louisville seamount trails. Originally the 'fixed' hotspot hypothesis was developed to explain past plate motion based on linear age progressive intra-plate volcanism. However, now that 'moving' hotspots are accepted, it is becoming clear that APM models need to be corrected for individual plume motion vectors. For older seamount trails that were active between roughly 50 and 80 Ma the APM models that use 'fixed' hotspots overestimate the measured age progression in those trails, while APM models corrected for 'moving' hotspots underestimate those age progressions. These mismatches are due to both a lack of reliable ages in the older portions of both the Hawaii and Louisville seamount trails and insufficient APM modeling constraints from other seamount trails in the Pacific Basin. Seamounts are difficult to sample and analyze because many are hydrothermally altered and have low potassium concentrations. New 40Ar/39Ar Age results from International Ocean Drilling Project (IODP) Expedition 330 Sites U1372 (n=18), U1375 (n=3), U1376 (n=15) and U1377 (n=7) aid in constraining the oldest end of the Louisville Seamount trail. A significant observation in this study is that the age range recovered in the drill cores match the range of ages that were acquired on dredging cruises at the same seamounts (e.g. Koppers et al., 2011). This is important for determining the inception age of a seamount. The sections recovered from IODP EXP 330 are in-situ volcanoclastic breccia and lava flows. Comparing the seismic interpretations of Louisville guyots (Contreras-Reyes et al., 2010), Holes U1372, U1373 and U1374 penetrated the extrusive and volcanoclastic sections of the seamount. The ages obtained are consistent over stratigraphic intervals >100-450 m thick, providing evidence that these seamounts

  11. Simple iodine reference at 1064 nm for absolute laser frequency determination in space applications.

    PubMed

    Kokuyama, Wataru; Numata, Kenji; Camp, Jordan

    2010-11-10

    Using an iodine cell with fixed gas pressure, we built a simple frequency reference at 1064 nm with 10 MHz absolute accuracy and used it to demonstrate deterministic phase locking between two single-frequency lasers. The reference was designed to be as simple as possible, and it does not use a cooler or frequency modulator. This system should be useful, especially for space interferometric missions such as the Laser Interferometer Space Antenna.

  12. CONTROLLING ABSOLUTE FREQUENCY OF FEEDBACK IN A SELF-CONTROLLED SITUATION ENHANCES MOTOR LEARNING.

    PubMed

    Tsai, Min-Jen; Jwo, Hank

    2015-12-01

    The guidance hypothesis suggested that excessive extrinsic feedback facilitates motor performance but blocks the processing of intrinsic information. The present study tested the tenet of guidance hypothesis in self-controlled feedback by controlling the feedback frequency. The motor learning effect of limiting absolute feedback frequency was examined. Thirty-six participants (25 men, 11 women; M age=25.1 yr., SD=2.2) practiced a hand-grip force control task on a dynamometer by the non-dominant hand with varying amounts of feedback. They were randomly assigned to: (a) Self-controlled, (b) Yoked with self-controlled, and (c) Limited self-controlled conditions. In acquisition, two-way analysis of variance indicated significantly lower absolute error in both the yoked and limited self-controlled groups than the self-controlled group. The effect size of absolute error between trials with feedback and without feedback in the limited self-controlled condition was larger than that of the self-controlled condition. In the retention and transfer tests, the Limited self-controlled feedback group had significantly lower absolute error than the other two groups. The results indicated an increased motor learning effect of limiting absolute frequency of feedback in the self-controlled condition.

  13. Calibration-free absolute frequency response measurement of directly modulated lasers based on additional modulation.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Shangjian; Zou, Xinhai; Wang, Heng; Zhang, Yali; Lu, Rongguo; Liu, Yong

    2015-10-15

    A calibration-free electrical method is proposed for measuring the absolute frequency response of directly modulated semiconductor lasers based on additional modulation. The method achieves the electrical domain measurement of the modulation index of directly modulated lasers without the need for correcting the responsivity fluctuation in the photodetection. Moreover, it doubles measuring frequency range by setting a specific frequency relationship between the direct and additional modulation. Both the absolute and relative frequency response of semiconductor lasers are experimentally measured from the electrical spectrum of the twice-modulated optical signal, and the measured results are compared to those obtained with conventional methods to check the consistency. The proposed method provides calibration-free and accurate measurement for high-speed semiconductor lasers with high-resolution electrical spectrum analysis.

  14. Absolute frequency measurement at 10-16 level based on the international atomic time

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hachisu, H.; Fujieda, M.; Kumagai, M.; Ido, T.

    2016-06-01

    Referring to International Atomic Time (TAI), we measured the absolute frequency of the 87Sr lattice clock with its uncertainty of 1.1 x 10-15. Unless an optical clock is continuously operated for the five days of the TAI grid, it is required to evaluate dead time uncertainty in order to use the available five-day average of the local frequency reference. We homogeneously distributed intermittent measurements over the five-day grid of TAI, by which the dead time uncertainty was reduced to low 10-16 level. Three campaigns of the five (or four)-day consecutive measurements have resulted in the absolute frequency of the 87Sr clock transition of 429 228 004 229 872.85 (47) Hz, where the systematic uncertainty of the 87Sr optical frequency standard amounts to 8.6 x 10-17.

  15. Quantifying discipline practices using absolute versus relative frequencies: clinical and research implications for child welfare.

    PubMed

    Lindhiem, Oliver; Shaffer, Anne; Kolko, David J

    2014-01-01

    In the parent intervention outcome literatures, discipline practices are generally quantified as absolute frequencies or, less commonly, as relative frequencies. These differences in methodology warrant direct comparison as they have critical implications for study results and conclusions among treatments targeted at reducing parental aggression and harsh discipline. In this study, we directly compared the absolute frequency method and the relative frequency method for quantifying physically aggressive, psychologically aggressive, and nonaggressive discipline practices. Longitudinal data over a 3-year period came from an existing data set of a clinical trial examining the effectiveness of a psychosocial treatment in reducing parental physical and psychological aggression and improving child behavior (N = 139). Discipline practices (aggressive and nonaggressive) were assessed using the Conflict Tactics Scale. The two methods yielded different patterns of results, particularly for nonaggressive discipline strategies. We suggest that each method makes its own unique contribution to a more complete understanding of the association between parental aggression and intervention effects.

  16. Absolute frequency synthesis of pulsed coherent light waves through phase-modulation active optical feedback.

    PubMed

    Shimizu, K; Horiguchi, T; Koyamada, Y

    1996-11-15

    A novel method for the broadband absolute frequency synthesis of pulsed coherent lightwaves is demonstrated. It is based on pulse recirculation around an active optical feedback ring containing a delay-line fiber, an external phase modulator, an acousto-optic frequency shifter (AOFS), and a high-finesse Fabry-Perot étalon. The modulation frequency F(M) and the frequency shift F(AO) that are due to AOFS are designed so that their sum or difference equals the free-spectral range of the étalon and F(AO) is set at larger than the half-width at full maximum of its resonant peaks. If one of the peak frequencies is tuned to the frequency of the initial pulse, the frequency of the recirculating pulse jumps to the next peak for each round trip. In the experiment the absolute frequency is synthesized over a frequency span of 700 GHz around the initial stabilized frequency of the master laser.

  17. High precision absolute distance measurement with the fiber femtosecond optical frequency comb

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Jiashuai; Wu, Tengfei; Liang, Zhiguo; Wang, Yu; Han, Jibo

    2016-01-01

    The absolute distance measurement was experimentally demonstrated by using the fiber femtosecond optical frequency comb in air. The technique is based on the measurement of cross correlation between reference and measurement optical pulses. This method can achieve accuracy better than the commercial laser interferometer. It is attained sub-micrometer resolution in large scale measurement by using the fiber femtosecond optical frequency comb. It will be benefit for future laser lidar and satellite formation flying mission.

  18. Radio frequency controlled synthetic wavelength sweep for absolute distance measurement by optical interferometry

    SciTech Connect

    Le Floch, Sebastien; Salvade, Yves; Mitouassiwou, Rostand; Favre, Patrick

    2008-06-01

    We present a new technique applied to the variable optical synthetic wavelength generation in optical interferometry. It consists of a chain of optical injection locking among three lasers: first a distributed-feedback laser is used as a master to injection lock an intensity-modulated laser that is directly modulated around 15 GHz by a radio frequency generator on a sideband. A second distributed-feedback laser is injection locked on another sideband of the intensity-modulated laser. The variable synthetic wavelength for absolute distance measurement is simply generated by sweeping the radio frequency over a range of several hundred megahertz, which corresponds to the locking range of the two slave lasers. In this condition, the uncertainty of the variable synthetic wavelength is equivalent to the radio frequency uncertainty. This latter has a relative accuracy of 10{sup -7} or better, resulting in a resolution of {+-}25 {mu}m for distances exceeding tens of meters. The radio frequency generator produces a linear frequency sweep of 1 ms duration (i.e., exactly equal to one absolute distance measurement acquisition time), with frequency steps of about 1 MHz. Finally, results of absolute distance measurements for ranges up to 10 m are presented.

  19. Accurate determination of absolute carrier-envelope phase dependence using photo-ionization.

    PubMed

    Sayler, A M; Arbeiter, M; Fasold, S; Adolph, D; Möller, M; Hoff, D; Rathje, T; Fetić, B; Milošević, D B; Fennel, T; Paulus, G G

    2015-07-01

    The carrier-envelope phase (CEP) dependence of few-cycle above-threshold ionization (ATI) of Xe is calibrated for use as a reference measurement for determining and controlling the absolute CEP in other interactions. This is achieved by referencing the CEP-dependent ATI measurements of Xe to measurements of atomic H, which are in turn referenced to ab initio calculations for atomic H. This allows for the accurate determination of the absolute CEP dependence of Xe ATI, which enables relatively easy determination of the offset between the relative CEP measured and/or controlled by typical devices and the absolute CEP in the interaction. PMID:26125386

  20. Dynamic frequency-domain interferometer for absolute distance measurements with high resolution

    SciTech Connect

    Weng, Jidong; Liu, Shenggang; Ma, Heli; Tao, Tianjiong; Wang, Xiang; Liu, Cangli; Tan, Hua

    2014-11-15

    A unique dynamic frequency-domain interferometer for absolute distance measurement has been developed recently. This paper presents the working principle of the new interferometric system, which uses a photonic crystal fiber to transmit the wide-spectrum light beams and a high-speed streak camera or frame camera to record the interference stripes. Preliminary measurements of harmonic vibrations of a speaker, driven by a radio, and the changes in the tip clearance of a rotating gear wheel show that this new type of interferometer has the ability to perform absolute distance measurements both with high time- and distance-resolution.

  1. A Laser Frequency Comb System for Absolute Calibration of the VTT Echelle Spectrograph

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Doerr, H.-P.; Steinmetz, T.; Holzwarth, R.; Kentischer, T.; Schmidt, W.

    2012-10-01

    A wavelength calibration system based on a laser frequency comb (LFC) was developed in a co-operation between the Kiepenheuer-Institut für Sonnenphysik, Freiburg, Germany and the Max-Planck-Institut für Quantenoptik, Garching, Germany for permanent installation at the German Vacuum Tower Telescope (VTT) on Tenerife, Canary Islands. The system was installed successfully in October 2011. By simultaneously recording the spectra from the Sun and the LFC, for each exposure a calibration curve can be derived from the known frequencies of the comb modes that is suitable for absolute calibration at the meters per second level. We briefly summarize some topics in solar physics that benefit from absolute spectroscopy and point out the advantages of LFC compared to traditional calibration techniques. We also sketch the basic setup of the VTT calibration system and its integration with the existing echelle spectrograph.

  2. Effects of knowledge of results (KR) frequency in the learning of a timing skill: absolute versus relative KR frequency.

    PubMed

    Vieira, Márcio M; Ugrinowitsch, Herbert; Oliveira, Fernanda S; Gallo, Lívia G; Benda, Rodolfo N

    2012-10-01

    The interaction between the amount of practice and frequency of Knowledge of Results (KR) was investigated in a timing skill. In the acquisition phase the task involved 90 trials of releasing a knob and transporting three tennis balls from three near recipients to three far ones in a specific sequence and target time. The retention test performed 24 hr. later had the same sequence of transport but a new target time was required. In both phases, absolute error and standard deviation plus constant error was measured. The five groups differed in relation to frequency of KR and amount of practice. The results showed that intermediate frequencies as well as higher frequencies of KR elicited better performance during the retention test. PMID:23265002

  3. Effects of knowledge of results (KR) frequency in the learning of a timing skill: absolute versus relative KR frequency.

    PubMed

    Vieira, Márcio M; Ugrinowitsch, Herbert; Oliveira, Fernanda S; Gallo, Lívia G; Benda, Rodolfo N

    2012-10-01

    The interaction between the amount of practice and frequency of Knowledge of Results (KR) was investigated in a timing skill. In the acquisition phase the task involved 90 trials of releasing a knob and transporting three tennis balls from three near recipients to three far ones in a specific sequence and target time. The retention test performed 24 hr. later had the same sequence of transport but a new target time was required. In both phases, absolute error and standard deviation plus constant error was measured. The five groups differed in relation to frequency of KR and amount of practice. The results showed that intermediate frequencies as well as higher frequencies of KR elicited better performance during the retention test.

  4. Comb-calibrated frequency-modulated continuous-wave ladar for absolute distance measurements.

    PubMed

    Baumann, Esther; Giorgetta, Fabrizio R; Coddington, Ian; Sinclair, Laura C; Knabe, Kevin; Swann, William C; Newbury, Nathan R

    2013-06-15

    We demonstrate a comb-calibrated frequency-modulated continuous-wave laser detection and ranging (FMCW ladar) system for absolute distance measurements. The FMCW ladar uses a compact external cavity laser that is swept quasi-sinusoidally over 1 THz at a 1 kHz rate. The system simultaneously records the heterodyne FMCW ladar signal and the instantaneous laser frequency at sweep rates up to 3400 THz/s, as measured against a free-running frequency comb (femtosecond fiber laser). Demodulation of the ladar signal against the instantaneous laser frequency yields the range to the target with 1 ms update rates, bandwidth-limited 130 μm resolution and a ~100 nm accuracy that is directly linked to the counted repetition rate of the comb. The precision is <100 nm at the 1 ms update rate and reaches ~6 nm for a 100 ms average. PMID:23938965

  5. Absolute frequency references at 1529 and 1560 nm using modulation transfer spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Martinez de Escobar, Y Natali; Palacios Álvarez, Silvana; Coop, Simon; Vanderbruggen, Thomas; Kaczmarek, Krzysztof T; Mitchell, Morgan W

    2015-10-15

    We demonstrate a double optical frequency reference (1529 and 1560 nm) for the telecom C-band using 87Rb modulation transfer spectroscopy. The two reference frequencies are defined by the 5S(1/2)F=2→5P(3/2)F'=3 two-level and 5S(1/2)F=2→5P(3/2)F'=3→4D(5/2)F''=4 ladder transitions. We examine the sensitivity of the frequency stabilization to probe power and magnetic field fluctuations, calculate its frequency shift due to residual amplitude modulation, and estimate its shift due to gas collisions. The short-term Allan deviation was estimated from the error signal slope for the two transitions. Our scheme provides a simple and high performing system for references at these important wavelengths. We estimate that an absolute accuracy of ∼1 kHz is realistic. PMID:26469606

  6. Frequency-dependent viability in mutant strains of Drosophila melanogaster.

    PubMed

    Curtsinger, J W; Sheen, F M

    1991-01-01

    We investigated the effects of genotypic frequencies on egg-to-adult viabilities in pairwise combinations of four strains of Drosophila melanogaster. The experiments involved mixture of a total of 42,000 eggs in varying proportions under controlled densities and observation of surviving adults. Viabilities were found to depend on frequencies in several genotypic combinations. In the most extreme case, the absolute viability of cn;bw females increased monotonically from 54% when common to 70% when rare. The results illustrate several statistical and methodological problems that might explain why some experiments have failed to detect frequency-dependent viabilities. These problems include heterogeneity between replications, sex differences in susceptibility to competition, and strong dependence of the experimental outcome on the choice of competitor genotypes. PMID:1901577

  7. Measuring absolute frequencies beyond the GPS limit via long-haul optical frequency dissemination.

    PubMed

    Clivati, Cecilia; Cappellini, Giacomo; Livi, Lorenzo F; Poggiali, Francesco; de Cumis, Mario Siciliani; Mancini, Marco; Pagano, Guido; Frittelli, Matteo; Mura, Alberto; Costanzo, Giovanni A; Levi, Filippo; Calonico, Davide; Fallani, Leonardo; Catani, Jacopo; Inguscio, Massimo

    2016-05-30

    Global Positioning System (GPS) dissemination of frequency standards is ubiquitous at present, providing the most widespread time and frequency reference for the majority of industrial and research applications worldwide. On the other hand, the ultimate limits of the GPS presently curb further advances in high-precision, scientific and industrial applications relying on this dissemination scheme. Here, we demonstrate that these limits can be reliably overcome even in laboratories without a local atomic clock by replacing the GPS with a 642-km-long optical fiber link to a remote primary caesium frequency standard. Through this configuration we stably address the 1S0-3P0 clock transition in an ultracold gas of 173Yb, with a precision that exceeds the possibilities of a GPS-based measurement, dismissing the need for a local clock infrastructure to perform beyond-GPS high-precision tasks. We also report an improvement of two orders of magnitude in the accuracy on the transition frequency reported in literature. PMID:27410109

  8. Measuring absolute frequencies beyond the GPS limit via long-haul optical frequency dissemination.

    PubMed

    Clivati, Cecilia; Cappellini, Giacomo; Livi, Lorenzo F; Poggiali, Francesco; de Cumis, Mario Siciliani; Mancini, Marco; Pagano, Guido; Frittelli, Matteo; Mura, Alberto; Costanzo, Giovanni A; Levi, Filippo; Calonico, Davide; Fallani, Leonardo; Catani, Jacopo; Inguscio, Massimo

    2016-05-30

    Global Positioning System (GPS) dissemination of frequency standards is ubiquitous at present, providing the most widespread time and frequency reference for the majority of industrial and research applications worldwide. On the other hand, the ultimate limits of the GPS presently curb further advances in high-precision, scientific and industrial applications relying on this dissemination scheme. Here, we demonstrate that these limits can be reliably overcome even in laboratories without a local atomic clock by replacing the GPS with a 642-km-long optical fiber link to a remote primary caesium frequency standard. Through this configuration we stably address the 1S0-3P0 clock transition in an ultracold gas of 173Yb, with a precision that exceeds the possibilities of a GPS-based measurement, dismissing the need for a local clock infrastructure to perform beyond-GPS high-precision tasks. We also report an improvement of two orders of magnitude in the accuracy on the transition frequency reported in literature.

  9. The dependency of timbre on fundamental frequency.

    PubMed

    Marozeau, Jeremy; de Cheveigné, Alain; McAdams, Stephen; Winsberg, Suzanne

    2003-11-01

    The dependency of the timbre of musical sounds on their fundamental frequency (F0) was examined in three experiments. In experiment I subjects compared the timbres of stimuli produced by a set of 12 musical instruments with equal F0, duration, and loudness. There were three sessions, each at a different F0. In experiment II the same stimuli were rearranged in pairs, each with the same difference in F0, and subjects had to ignore the constant difference in pitch. In experiment III, instruments were paired both with and without an F0 difference within the same session, and subjects had to ignore the variable differences in pitch. Experiment I yielded dissimilarity matrices that were similar at different F0's, suggesting that instruments kept their relative positions within timbre space. Experiment II found that subjects were able to ignore the salient pitch difference while rating timbre dissimilarity. Dissimilarity matrices were symmetrical, suggesting further that the absolute displacement of the set of instruments within timbre space was small. Experiment III extended this result to the case where the pitch difference varied from trial to trial. Multidimensional scaling (MDS) of dissimilarity scores produced solutions (timbre spaces) that varied little across conditions and experiments. MDS solutions were used to test the validity of signal-based predictors of timbre, and in particular their stability as a function of F0. Taken together, the results suggest that timbre differences are perceived independently from differences of pitch, at least for F0 differences smaller than an octave. Timbre differences can be measured between stimuli with different F0's. PMID:14650028

  10. A dedicated pistonphone for absolute calibration of infrasound sensors at very low frequencies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Wen; He, Longbiao; Zhang, Fan; Rong, Zuochao; Jia, Shushi

    2016-02-01

    Aimed at the absolute calibration of infrasound sensors at very low frequencies, an upgraded and improved infrasonic pistonphone has been developed. The pistonphone was designed such that a very narrow clearance between the piston and its guide was realized based on an automatically-centered clearance-sealing structure, and a large volume rigid-walled chamber was also adopted, which improved the leakage time-constant of the chamber. A composite feedback control system was applied to the electromagnetic vibrator to control the precise motion of the piston. Performance tests and uncertainty analysis show that the leakage time-constant is so large, and the distortion of the sound pressure is so small, that the pistonphone can be used as a standard infrasound source in the frequency range from 0.001 Hz to 20 Hz. The low frequency property of the pistonphone has been verified through calibrating low frequency microphones. Comparison tests with the reciprocity method have shown that the pressure sensitivities from the pistonphone are not only reliable at common frequencies but also have smaller uncertainties at low frequencies.

  11. Absolute frequency measurement for the emission transitions of molecular iodine in the 982 - 985 nm range

    SciTech Connect

    Matyugin, Yu A; Ignatovich, S M; Kuznetsov, Sergei A; Nesterenko, M I; Okhapkin, M V; Pivtsov, V S; Skvortsov, Mikhail N; Bagaev, Sergei N

    2012-03-31

    We report high-precision frequency measurements of the separate hyperfine structure (HFS) components of the emission B - X system transitions of {sup 127}I{sub 2} molecules in the 982 - 985 nm range. To resolve the HFS of the emission lines, advantage was taken of the method of three-level laser spectroscopy. The function of exciting radiation was fulfilled by the second harmonic of a cw Nd : YAG laser, and the probe radiation in the 968 - 998 nm range was generated by an external-cavity diode laser. The output Nd : YAG laser frequency was locked to an HFS component of the absorption transition and the probing laser radiation to the emission transition component. When both frequencies were locked to HFS components with a common upper level, the output diode laser frequency was precisely equal to the emission transition frequency. The output frequency of the thus stabilised diode laser was measured with the help of a femtosecond optical frequency synthesiser based on a Ti : sapphire laser. We present the results of the absolute frequency measurements of 20 HFS components belonging to six vibrational - rotational transitions of the B - X system of iodine [R56(32 - 48)a1, P58(32 - 48)a1, P85(33 - 48)a1, R87(33 - 48a1, R88(33 - 48)a10] and all 15 components of the R86(33 - 48) line. The relative measurement uncertainty is equal to 7 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -10} and is determined by the frequency instability of the diode laser radiation.

  12. Absolute molecular transition frequencies measured by three cavity-enhanced spectroscopy techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cygan, A.; Wójtewicz, S.; Kowzan, G.; Zaborowski, M.; Wcisło, P.; Nawrocki, J.; Krehlik, P.; Śliwczyński, Ł.; Lipiński, M.; Masłowski, P.; Ciuryło, R.; Lisak, D.

    2016-06-01

    Absolute frequencies of unperturbed 12C16O transitions from the near-infrared (3-0) band were measured with uncertainties five-fold lower than previously available data. The frequency axis of spectra was linked to the primary frequency standard. Three different cavity enhanced absorption and dispersion spectroscopic methods and various approaches to data analysis were used to estimate potential systematic instrumental errors. Except for a well established frequency-stabilized cavity ring-down spectroscopy, we applied the cavity mode-width spectroscopy and the one-dimensional cavity mode-dispersion spectroscopy for measurement of absorption and dispersion spectra, respectively. We demonstrated the highest quality of the dispersion line shape measured in optical spectroscopy so far. We obtained line positions of the Doppler-broadened R24 and R28 transitions with relative uncertainties at the level of 10-10. The pressure shifting coefficients were measured and the influence of the line asymmetry on unperturbed line positions was analyzed. Our dispersion spectra are the first demonstration of molecular spectroscopy with both axes of the spectra directly linked to the primary frequency standard, which is particularly desirable for the future reference-grade measurements of molecular spectra.

  13. Frequency-dependent force fields for QMMM calculations.

    PubMed

    Harczuk, Ignat; Vahtras, Olav; Ågren, Hans

    2015-03-28

    We outline the construction of frequency-dependent polarizable force fields. The force fields are derived from analytic response theory for different frequencies using a generalization of the LoProp algorithm giving a decomposition of a molecular dynamical polarizability to localized atomic dynamical polarizabilities. These force fields can enter in a variety of applications - we focus on two such applications in this work: firstly, they can be incorporated in a physical, straightforward, way for current existing methods that use polarizable embeddings, and we can show, for the first time, the effect of the frequency dispersion within the classical environment of a quantum mechanics-molecular mechanics (QMMM) method. Our methodology is here evaluated for some test cases comprising water clusters and organic residues. Secondly, together with a modified Silberstein-Applequist procedure for interacting inducible point-dipoles, these frequency-dependent polarizable force fields can be used for a classical determination of frequency-dependent cluster polarizabilities. We evaluate this methodology by comparing with the corresponding results obtained from quantum mechanics or QMMM where the absolute mean [small alpha, Greek, macron] is determined with respect to the size of the QM and MM parts of the total system.

  14. Frequency-dependent force fields for QMMM calculations.

    PubMed

    Harczuk, Ignat; Vahtras, Olav; Ågren, Hans

    2015-03-28

    We outline the construction of frequency-dependent polarizable force fields. The force fields are derived from analytic response theory for different frequencies using a generalization of the LoProp algorithm giving a decomposition of a molecular dynamical polarizability to localized atomic dynamical polarizabilities. These force fields can enter in a variety of applications - we focus on two such applications in this work: firstly, they can be incorporated in a physical, straightforward, way for current existing methods that use polarizable embeddings, and we can show, for the first time, the effect of the frequency dispersion within the classical environment of a quantum mechanics-molecular mechanics (QMMM) method. Our methodology is here evaluated for some test cases comprising water clusters and organic residues. Secondly, together with a modified Silberstein-Applequist procedure for interacting inducible point-dipoles, these frequency-dependent polarizable force fields can be used for a classical determination of frequency-dependent cluster polarizabilities. We evaluate this methodology by comparing with the corresponding results obtained from quantum mechanics or QMMM where the absolute mean [small alpha, Greek, macron] is determined with respect to the size of the QM and MM parts of the total system. PMID:25714984

  15. Absolute distance measurement with extension of nonambiguity range using the frequency comb of a femtosecond laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jang, Yoon-Soo; Lee, Keunwoo; Han, Seongheum; Lee, Joohyung; Kim, Young-Jin; Kim, Seung-Woo

    2014-12-01

    We revisit the method of synthetic wavelength interferometry (SWI) for absolute measurement of long distances using the radio-frequency harmonics of the pulse repetition rate of a mode-locked femtosecond laser. Our intention here is to extend the nonambiguity range (NAR) of the SWI method using a coarse virtual wavelength synthesized by shifting the pulse repetition rate. The proposed concept of NAR extension is experimentally verified by measuring a ˜13-m distance with repeatability of 9.5 μm (root-mean-square). The measurement precision is estimated to be 31.2 μm in comparison with an incremental He-Ne laser interferometer. This extended SWI method is found to be well suited for long-distance measurements demanded in the fields of large-scale precision engineering, geodetic survey, and future space missions.

  16. Improved Absolute Frequency Measurement of the 171Yb Optical Lattice Clock towards a Candidate for the Redefinition of the Second

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yasuda, Masami; Inaba, Hajime; Kohno, Takuya; Tanabe, Takehiko; Nakajima, Yoshiaki; Hosaka, Kazumoto; Akamatsu, Daisuke; Onae, Atsushi; Suzuyama, Tomonari; Amemiya, Masaki; Hong, Feng-Lei

    2012-10-01

    We demonstrate an improved absolute frequency measurement of the 1S0–3P0 clock transition at 578 nm in 171Yb atoms in a one-dimensional optical lattice. The clock laser linewidth is reduced to ≈2 Hz by phase-locking the laser to an ultrastable neodymium-doped yttrium aluminum garnet (Nd:YAG) laser at 1064 nm through an optical frequency comb with an intracavity electrooptic modulator to achieve a high servo bandwidth. The absolute frequency is determined as 518 295 836 590 863.1(2.0) Hz relative to the SI second, and will be reported to the International Committee for Weights and Measures.

  17. Correlation of symptom clusters of schizophrenia with absolute powers of main frequency bands in quantitative EEG

    PubMed Central

    Gross, Andres; Joutsiniemi, Sirkka-Liisa; Rimon, Ranan; Appelberg, Björn

    2006-01-01

    Background Research of QEEG activity power spectra has shown intriguing results in patients with schizophrenia. Different symptom clusters have been correlated to QEEG frequency bands. The findings have been to some extent inconsistent. Replication of the findings of previous research is thus an important task. In the current study we investigated the correlations between the absolute powers of delta, theta, alpha, and beta frequency bands over the fronto-central scalp area (FC) with the PANSS subscales and the Liddle's factors in 16 patients with schizophrenia. The authors hypothesised a priori the correlations reported by Harris et al (1999) of PANSS negative subscale with delta power, Liddle's psychomotor poverty with delta and beta powers, disorganisation with delta power and reality distortion with alpha power on the midline FC. Methods The sample consisted of 16 patients with chronic schizophrenia considered as having insufficient clinical response to conventional antipsychotic treatment and evidencing a relapse. The correlations between quantitative electroencephalography (QEEG) absolute powers of delta (1.5–3.0 Hz), theta (3.0–7.5 Hz), alpha (7.5–12.5 Hz), and beta (12.5–20.0 Hz) frequency bands over the fronto-central scalp area (FC) with PANSS subscales and Liddle's factors (reality distortion, disorganisation, psychomotor poverty) were investigated. Results Significant positive correlations were found between the beta and psychomotor poverty (p < 0.05). Trends towards positive correlations (p < 0.1) were observed between delta and PANSS negative subscale and psychomotor poverty. Alpha did not correlate with reality distortion and delta did not correlate with disorganisation. Post hoc analysis revealed correlations of the same magnitude between beta and psychopathology generally over FC. Conclusion The a priori hypothesis was partly supported by the correlation of the beta and psychomotor poverty. Liddle's factors showed correlations of the same

  18. Short-latency ocular following in humans is dependent on absolute (rather than relative) binocular disparity.

    PubMed

    Yang, D-S; Miles, F A

    2003-06-01

    A previous study showed that the initial ocular following responses elicited by sudden motion of a large random-dot pattern were only modestly attenuated when that whole pattern was shifted out of the plane of fixation by altering its horizontal binocular disparity, but the same disparity applied to a restricted region of the dots had a much more powerful effect [Vision Research 41 (2001) 3371]. Thus, if the dots were partitioned into horizontal bands, for example, and alternate bands were moved in opposite directions to the left or right then ocular following was very weak, but if the (conditioning) dots moving in one direction were all shifted out of the plane of fixation (by applying horizontal disparity to them) then strong ocular following was now seen in the direction of motion of the (test) dots in the plane of fixation, i.e., moving images became much less effective when they were given binocular disparity. We sought to determine if the greater impact of disparity with the partitioned images was because there were additional relative disparity cues. We used a similar partitioned display and found that the dependence of ocular following on the absolute disparity of the conditioning stimulus had a Gaussian form with an x-offset that was close to zero disparity and, importantly, this offset was almost unaffected by changing the absolute disparity of the test stimulus. We conclude from this that it is the absolute--rather than the relative--disparity that is important, and that ocular following has a strong preference for moving images whose absolute disparities are close to zero. This is consistent with the idea that ocular following selectively stabilizes the retinal images of objects in and around the plane of fixation and works in harmony with disparity vergence, which uses absolute disparity to bring objects of interest into the plane of fixation [Archives of Ophthalmology 55 (1956) 848].

  19. Kinship as a frequency dependent strategy

    PubMed Central

    Ji, Ting; Zheng, Xiu-Deng; He, Qiao-Qiao; Wu, Jia-Jia; Tao, Yi

    2016-01-01

    Humans divide themselves up into separate cultures, which is a unique and ubiquitous characteristic of our species. Kinship norms are one of the defining features of such societies. Here we show how norms of marital residence can evolve as a frequency-dependent strategy, using real-world cases from southwestern China and an evolutionary game model. The process of kinship change has occurred in the past and is also occurring now in southwestern China. Our data and models show how transitions between residence types can occur both as response to changing costs and benefits of co-residence with kin, and also due to the initial frequency of the strategies adopted by others in the population: patrilocal societies can become matrilocal, and neolocal societies can become duolocal. This illustrates how frequency-dependent selection plays a role both in the maintenance of group-level cultural diversity and in cultural extinction. PMID:26998333

  20. Frequency-dependent selection by predators.

    PubMed

    Allen, J A

    1988-07-01

    Sometimes predators tend to concentrate on common varieties of prey and overlook rare ones. Within prey species, this could result in the fitness of each variety being inversely related to its frequency in the population. Such frequency-dependent or 'apostatic' selection by predators hunting by sight could maintain polymorphism for colour pattern, and much of the supporting evidence for this idea has come from work on birds and artificial prey. These and other studies have shown that the strength of the observed selection is affected by prey density, palatability, coloration and conspicuousness. When the prey density is very high, selection becomes 'anti-apostatic': predators preferentially remove rare prey. There is still much to be learned about frequency-dependent selection by predators on artificial prey: work on natural polymorphic prey has hardly begun. PMID:2905488

  1. Kinship as a frequency dependent strategy.

    PubMed

    Ji, Ting; Zheng, Xiu-Deng; He, Qiao-Qiao; Wu, Jia-Jia; Mace, Ruth; Tao, Yi

    2016-02-01

    Humans divide themselves up into separate cultures, which is a unique and ubiquitous characteristic of our species. Kinship norms are one of the defining features of such societies. Here we show how norms of marital residence can evolve as a frequency-dependent strategy, using real-world cases from southwestern China and an evolutionary game model. The process of kinship change has occurred in the past and is also occurring now in southwestern China. Our data and models show how transitions between residence types can occur both as response to changing costs and benefits of co-residence with kin, and also due to the initial frequency of the strategies adopted by others in the population: patrilocal societies can become matrilocal, and neolocal societies can become duolocal. This illustrates how frequency-dependent selection plays a role both in the maintenance of group-level cultural diversity and in cultural extinction. PMID:26998333

  2. Incorporating spatial dependence in regional frequency analysis

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Zhuo; Yan, Jun; Zhang, Xuebin

    2014-01-01

    The efficiency of regional frequency analysis (RFA) is undermined by intersite dependence, which is usually ignored in parameter estimation. We propose a spatial index flood model where marginal generalized extreme value distributions are joined by an extreme-value copula characterized by a max-stable process for the spatial dependence. The parameters are estimated with a pairwise likelihood constructed from bivariate marginal generalized extreme value distributions. The estimators of model parameters and return levels can be more efficient than those from the traditional index flood model when the max-stable process fits the intersite dependence well. Through simulation, we compared the pairwise likelihood method with an L-moment method and an independence likelihood method under various spatial dependence models and dependence levels. The pairwise likelihood method was found to be the most efficient in mean squared error if the dependence model was correctly specified. When the dependence model was misspecified within the max-stable models, the pairwise likelihood method was still competitive relative to the other two methods. When the dependence model was not a max-stable model, the pairwise likelihood method led to serious bias in estimating the shape parameter and return levels, especially when the dependence was strong. In an illustration with annual maximum precipitation data from Switzerland, the pairwise likelihood method yielded remarkable reduction in the standard errors of return level estimates in comparison to the L-moment method. PMID:25745273

  3. Temperature-dependent Absolute Refractive Index Measurements of Synthetic Fused Silica

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leviton, Douglas B.; Frey, Bradley J.

    2006-01-01

    Using the Cryogenic, High-Accuracy Refraction Measuring System (CHARMS) at NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center, we have measured the absolute refractive index of five specimens taken from a very large boule of Corning 7980 fused silica from temperatures ranging from 30 to 310 K at wavelengths from 0.4 to 2.6 microns with an absolute uncertainty of plus or minus 1 x 10 (exp -5). Statistical variations in derived values of the thermo-optic coefficient (dn/dT) are at the plus or minus 2 x 10 (exp -8)/K level. Graphical and tabulated data for absolute refractive index, dispersion, and thermo-optic coefficient are presented for selected wavelengths and temperatures along with estimates of uncertainty in index. Coefficients for temperature-dependent Sellmeier fits of measured refractive index are also presented to allow accurate interpolation of index to other wavelengths and temperatures. We compare our results to those from an independent investigation (which used an interferometric technique for measuring index changes as a function of temperature) whose samples were prepared from the same slugs of material from which our prisms were prepared in support of the Kepler mission. We also compare our results with sparse cryogenic index data from measurements of this material from the literature.

  4. Real-Time Determination of Absolute Frequency in Continuous-Wave Terahertz Radiation with a Photocarrier Terahertz Frequency Comb Induced by an Unstabilized Femtosecond Laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Minamikawa, Takeo; Hayashi, Kenta; Mizuguchi, Tatsuya; Hsieh, Yi-Da; Abdelsalam, Dahi Ghareab; Mizutani, Yasuhiro; Yamamoto, Hirotsugu; Iwata, Tetsuo; Yasui, Takeshi

    2016-05-01

    A practical method for the absolute frequency measurement of continuous-wave terahertz (CW-THz) radiation uses a photocarrier terahertz frequency comb (PC-THz comb) because of its ability to realize real-time, precise measurement without the need for cryogenic cooling. However, the requirement for precise stabilization of the repetition frequency ( f rep) and/or use of dual femtosecond lasers hinders its practical use. In this article, based on the fact that an equal interval between PC-THz comb modes is always maintained regardless of the fluctuation in f rep, the PC-THz comb induced by an unstabilized laser was used to determine the absolute frequency f THz of CW-THz radiation. Using an f rep-free-running PC-THz comb, the f THz of the frequency-fixed or frequency-fluctuated active frequency multiplier chain CW-THz source was determined at a measurement rate of 10 Hz with a relative accuracy of 8.2 × 10-13 and a relative precision of 8.8 × 10-12 to a rubidium frequency standard. Furthermore, f THz was correctly determined even when fluctuating over a range of 20 GHz. The proposed method enables the use of any commercial femtosecond laser for the absolute frequency measurement of CW-THz radiation.

  5. The study of the nonlinear correction of the FMCW absolute distance measurement using frequency-sampling and precision analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Cheng; Gan, Yu; Chen, Fengdong; Liu, Bingguo; Zhuang, Zhitao; Xu, Xinke; Liu, Guodong

    2014-12-01

    This article uses the external cavity laser to realize FMCW high precision absolute distance measurement, as the external cavity laser owns the advantage of large tuning range of frequency. Firstly, aim at the problem of nonlinear tuning of the external cavity laser, a study of method of frequency-sampling has been shown. Secondly, in this article the mathematical model of the absolute dis tance measurement system has been established, and the sources of the errors of the FMCW absolute distance measurement has been analyzed, and the accuracy model has been established. Finally, a ball which is put at a distance about 3 meters is measured, and the random error is 0.3479μm, the standard uncertainty of measurement system is 0.3479μm+3.141Rppm.

  6. Frequency-dependent numerical dynamics in mosquitofish.

    PubMed Central

    Horth, Lisa; Travis, Joseph

    2002-01-01

    Altering the genetic composition of a population can alter several aspects of its numerical dynamics. Whether natural populations routinely contain the genetic variation capable of affecting the stability of those dynamics is less clear. Here we report a study of experimental populations of mosquitofish (Gambusia holbrooki), designed to examine this issue. The experiment examined the numerical effects of varying the initial relative frequency of a rare male genotype. A higher relative frequency of the rare, melanic genotype produced higher mortality rates in melanic males, higher mortality rates in females, higher juvenile abundance, and fewer fluctuations in the numbers of females across time. This work demonstrates that a natural population can harbour genetic variants in a single gender that are capable of inducing qualitative differences in the numerical dynamics of the opposite gender, through the effects of negative frequency-dependent selection. PMID:12427317

  7. Anomalous frequency dependent diamagnetism in metal silicide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dahal, Ashutosh; Gunasekera, Jagat; Harriger, Leland; Singh, David J.; Singh, Deepak K.; Leland Harriger Collaboration

    Discovery of superconductivity in PbO-type FeSe has generated a lot of interest. Among the samples we synthesize with similar structure, NiSi has showed anomalous but very interesting results. Nickel silicides are important electronic materials that have been used as contacts for field effect transistors, as interconnects and in nanoelectronic devices. The magnetic properties of NiSi are not well known, however. In this presentation, we report a highly unusual magnetic phenomenon in NiSi. The ac susceptibility measurements on NiSi reveal strong frequency dependence of static and dynamic susceptibilities that are primarily diamagnetic at room temperature. The static susceptibility is found to exhibit a strong frequency dependence of the diamagnetic response below 100K, while dynamic susceptibility showed peak type feature at 10KHz frequency around 50K. Detailed neutron scattering measurements on high quality powder sample of NiSi on SPINS cold spectrometer further revealed an inelastic peak around 1.5meV, even though no magnetic order is detected. The inelastic peak dissipates above 100K, which is where the static susceptibility starts to diverge with frequency. Research is supported by U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Basic Energy Sciences under Grant No. DE-SC0014461.

  8. Absolute frequency measurement of an acetylene stabilized laser using a selected single mode from a femtosecond fiber laser comb.

    PubMed

    Ryu, Han Young; Lee, Sung Hun; Lee, Won Kyu; Moon, Han Seb; Suh, Ho Suhng

    2008-03-01

    We performed an absolute frequency measurement of an acetylene stabilized laser utilizing a femtosecond injection locking technique that can select one component among the fiber laser comb modes. The injection locking scheme has all the fiber configurations. Femtosecond comb lines of 250 MHz spacing based on the fiber femtosecond laser were used for injection locking of a distributed feedback (DFB) laser operating at 1542 nm as a frequency reference. The comb injected DFB laser serves as a selection filter of optical comb modes and an amplifier for amplification of the selected mode. The DFB laser injection locked to the desired comb mode was used to evaluate the frequency stability and absolute frequency measurement of an acetylene stabilized laser. The frequency stability of the acetylene stabilized laser was measured to be 1.1 x 10(-12) for a 1 s averaging time, improving to 6.9 x 10(-14) after 512 s. The absolute frequency of the laser stabilized on the P(16) transition of (13)C(2)H(2) was measured to be 194 369 569 385.7 kHz.

  9. Frequency dependent thermal expansion in binary viscoelasticcomposites

    SciTech Connect

    Berryman, James G.

    2007-12-01

    The effective thermal expansion coefficient beta* of abinary viscoelastic composite is shown to be frequency dependent even ifthe thermal expansion coefficients beta A and beta B of both constituentsare themselves frequency independent. Exact calculations for binaryviscoelastic systems show that beta* is related to constituent valuesbeta A, beta B, volume fractions, and bulk moduli KA, KB, as well as tothe overall bulk modulus K* of the composite system. Then, beta* isdetermined for isotropic systems by first bounding (or measuring) K* andtherefore beta*. For anisotropic systems with hexagonal symmetry, theprincipal values of the thermal expansion beta*perp and beta*para can bedetermined exactly when the constituents form a layered system. In allthe examples studied, it is shown explicitly that the eigenvectors of thethermoviscoelastic system possess non-negative dissipation -- despite thecomplicated analytical behavior of the frequency dependent thermalexpansivities themselves. Methods presented have a variety ofapplications from fluid-fluid mixtures to fluid-solid suspensions, andfrom fluid-saturated porous media to viscoelastic solid-solidcomposites.

  10. Possibility of the effect of absolute negative conductivity in quantum superlattice exposed to the high-frequency electromagnetic radiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kryuchkov, S. V.; Kukhar', E. I.

    2015-07-01

    Current density in superlattice placed in quantizing electric field and in high-frequency field of electromagnetic wave was calculated. The calculations were performed by taking into account an inelastic scattering of charge carriers by phonons. Possibility of the effect of absolute negative conductivity, i.e. the effect of appearance of electric current flowing in opposite direction than that of vector of quantizing electric field intensity, was shown. Such effect in graphene superlattices was discussed.

  11. Time dependent corrections to absolute gravity determinations in the establishment of modern gravity control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dykowski, Przemyslaw; Krynski, Jan

    2015-04-01

    The establishment of modern gravity control with the use of exclusively absolute method of gravity determination has significant advantages as compared to the one established mostly with relative gravity measurements (e.g. accuracy, time efficiency). The newly modernized gravity control in Poland consists of 28 fundamental stations (laboratory) and 168 base stations (PBOG14 - located in the field). Gravity at the fundamental stations was surveyed with the FG5-230 gravimeter of the Warsaw University of Technology, and at the base stations - with the A10-020 gravimeter of the Institute of Geodesy and Cartography, Warsaw. This work concerns absolute gravity determinations at the base stations. Although free of common relative measurement errors (e.g. instrumental drift) and effects of network adjustment, absolute gravity determinations for the establishment of gravity control require advanced corrections due to time dependent factors, i.e. tidal and ocean loading corrections, atmospheric corrections and hydrological corrections that were not taken into account when establishing the previous gravity control in Poland. Currently available services and software allow to determine high accuracy and high temporal resolution corrections for atmospheric (based on digital weather models, e.g. ECMWF) and hydrological (based on hydrological models, e.g. GLDAS/Noah) gravitational and loading effects. These corrections are mostly used for processing observations with Superconducting Gravimeters in the Global Geodynamics Project. For the area of Poland the atmospheric correction based on weather models can differ from standard atmospheric correction by even ±2 µGal. The hydrological model shows the annual variability of ±8 µGal. In addition the standard tidal correction may differ from the one obtained from the local tidal model (based on tidal observations). Such difference at Borowa Gora Observatory reaches the level of ±1.5 µGal. Overall the sum of atmospheric and

  12. DPOAE generation dependence on primary frequencies ratio

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Botti, Teresa; Sisto, Renata; Moleti, Arturo; D'Amato, Luisa; Sanjust, Filippo

    2015-12-01

    Two different mechanisms are responsible for the DPOAE generation. The nonlinear distortion wave-fixed mechanism generates the DPOAE Zero-Latency (ZL) component, as a backward traveling wave from the "overlap" region. Linear reflection of the forward DP wave (IDP) generates the DPOAE Long-Latency (LL) component through a place-fixed mechanism. ZL and LL components add up vectorially to generate the DPOAE recorded in the ear canal. The 2f1 - f2 and 2f2 - f1 DPOAE intensity depends on the stimulus level and on the primary frequency ratio r = f2/f1, where f1 and f2 are the primary stimuli frequencies. Here we study the behavior of the ZL and LL DPOAE components as a function of r by both numerical and laboratory experiments, measuring DPAOEs with an equal primary levels (L1 = L2) paradigm in the range [35, 75] dB SPL, with r ranging in [1.1, 1.45]. Numerical simulations of a nonlocal nonlinear model have been performed without cochlear roughness, to suppress the linear reflection mechanism. In this way the model solution at the base represents the DPOAE ZL component, and the solution at the corresponding DPOAE tonotopic place corresponds to the IDP. This technique has been not effectual to study the 2f2 - f1 DPOAE, as a consequence of its generation mechanism. While the 2f1 - f2 generation place is known to be the tonotopic place x(f2), the 2f2 - f1 DPOAE one has to be assumed basal to its corresponding reflection place. That is because ZL components generated in x(f2) cannot significantly pass through their resonant place. Moreover increasing the ratio r, 2f2 - f1 ZL and LL generation place approach each other, because the overlap region of primary tones decreases. Consequently, the distinction between the two places becomes complicated. DPOAEs have been measured in six young normal-hearing subjects. DPOAE ZL and LL components have been separated by a time-frequency filtering method based on the wavelet transform 1. due to their different phase gradient delay

  13. Absolute frequency list of the ν3-band transitions of methane at a relative uncertainty level of 10(-11).

    PubMed

    Okubo, Sho; Nakayama, Hirotaka; Iwakuni, Kana; Inaba, Hajime; Sasada, Hiroyuki

    2011-11-21

    We determine the absolute frequencies of 56 rotation-vibration transitions of the ν(3) band of CH(4) from 88.2 to 90.5 THz with a typical uncertainty of 2 kHz corresponding to a relative uncertainty of 2.2 × 10(-11) over an average time of a few hundred seconds. Saturated absorption lines are observed using a difference-frequency-generation source and a cavity-enhanced absorption cell, and the transition frequencies are measured with a fiber-laser-based optical frequency comb referenced to a rubidium atomic clock linked to the international atomic time. The determined value of the P(7) F(2)((2)) line is consistent with the International Committee for Weights and Measures recommendation within the uncertainty.

  14. Ultra-low-frequency vertical vibration isolator based on a two-stage beam structure for absolute gravimetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, G.; Wu, K.; Hu, H.; Li, G.; Wang, L. J.

    2016-10-01

    To reduce seismic and environmental vibration noise, ultra-low-frequency vertical vibration isolation systems play an important role in absolute gravimetry. For this purpose, an isolator based on a two-stage beam structure is proposed and demonstrated. The isolator has a simpler and more robust structure than the present ultra-low-frequency vertical active vibration isolators. In the system, two beams are connected to a frame using flexural pivots. The upper beam is suspended from the frame with a normal hex spring and the lower beam is suspended from the upper one using a zero-length spring. The pivot of the upper beam is not vertically above the pivot of the lower beam. With this special design, the attachment points of the zero-length spring to the beams can be moved to adjust the effective stiffness. A photoelectric detector is used to detect the angle between the two beams, and a voice coil actuator attached to the upper beam is controlled by a feedback circuit to keep the angle at a fixed value. The system can achieve a natural period of 100 s by carefully moving the attachment points of the zero-length spring to the beams and tuning the feedback parameters. The system has been used as an inertial reference in the T-1 absolute gravimeter. The experiment results demonstrate that the system has significant vibration isolation performance that holds promise in applications such as absolute gravimeters.

  15. 3D absolute shape measurement of live rabbit hearts with a superfast two-frequency phase-shifting technique

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yajun; Laughner, Jacob I.; Efimov, Igor R.; Zhang, Song

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents a two-frequency binary phase-shifting technique to measure three-dimensional (3D) absolute shape of beating rabbit hearts. Due to the low contrast of the cardiac surface, the projector and the camera must remain focused, which poses challenges for any existing binary method where the measurement accuracy is low. To conquer this challenge, this paper proposes to utilize the optimal pulse width modulation (OPWM) technique to generate high-frequency fringe patterns, and the error-diffusion dithering technique to produce low-frequency fringe patterns. Furthermore, this paper will show that fringe patterns produced with blue light provide the best quality measurements compared to fringe patterns generated with red or green light; and the minimum data acquisition speed for high quality measurements is around 800 Hz for a rabbit heart beating at 180 beats per minute. PMID:23482151

  16. Absolute backscatter coefficient estimates of tissue-mimicking phantoms in the 5–50 MHz frequency range

    PubMed Central

    McCormick, Matthew M.; Madsen, Ernest L.; Deaner, Meagan E.; Varghese, Tomy

    2011-01-01

    Absolute backscatter coefficients in tissue-mimicking phantoms were experimentally determined in the 5–50 MHz frequency range using a broadband technique. A focused broadband transducer from a commercial research system, the VisualSonics Vevo 770, was used with two tissue-mimicking phantoms. The phantoms differed regarding the thin layers covering their surfaces to prevent desiccation and regarding glass bead concentrations and diameter distributions. Ultrasound scanning of these phantoms was performed through the thin layer. To avoid signal saturation, the power spectra obtained from the backscattered radio frequency signals were calibrated by using the signal from a liquid planar reflector, a water-brominated hydrocarbon interface with acoustic impedance close to that of water. Experimental values of absolute backscatter coefficients were compared with those predicted by the Faran scattering model over the frequency range 5–50 MHz. The mean percent difference and standard deviation was 54% ± 45% for the phantom with a mean glass bead diameter of 5.40 μm and was 47% ± 28% for the phantom with 5.16 μm mean diameter beads. PMID:21877789

  17. High-resolution absolute frequency referenced fiber optic sensor for quasi-static strain sensing

    SciTech Connect

    Lam, Timothy T.-Y.; Chow, Jong H.; Shaddock, Daniel A.; Littler, Ian C. M.; Gagliardi, Gianluca; Gray, Malcolm B.; McClelland, David E.

    2010-07-20

    We present a quasi-static fiber optic strain sensing system capable of resolving signals below nanostrain from 20 mHz. A telecom-grade distributed feedback CW diode laser is locked to a fiber Fabry-Perot sensor, transferring the detected signals onto the laser. An H{sup 13}C{sup 14}N absorption line is then used as a frequency reference to extract accurate low-frequency strain signals from the locked system.

  18. Spectral Properties of THz Quantum-Cascade Lasers: Frequency Noise, Phase-Locking and Absolute Frequency Measurement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ravaro, Marco; Jagtap, Vishal; Manquest, Christophe; Gellie, Pierre; Santarelli, Giorgio; Sirtori, Carlo; Khanna, Suraj P.; Linfield, Edmund H.; Barbieri, Stefano

    2013-06-01

    Quantum cascade lasers combine desirable features, namely high optical power and compactness, as no other coherent source in the field of THz generation. While their maximum operating temperature is progressively increasing, getting close to the range accessible by Peltier cooling, their range of application is expanding into new fields, such us molecular spectroscopy and their use as local oscillators. These applications would benefit from the investigation and improvement of the laser coherence properties. In this contribution we report the exploitation of electro-optic coherent detection based on a near-IR frequency comb to measure the frequency noise of a free running 2.5 THz quantum cascade laser. An intrinsic linewidth quantum limit of ~230 Hz has been measured, in good agreement with the Schawlow-Townes theoretical prediction. The same detection scheme is then exploited to phase-lock the quantum cascade laser line to a multiple of the comb tooth spacing, while a second comb allows to precisely measure the THz frequency. Such a dual frequency comb experimental setup thus yields a narrow line THz emission traceable to a microwave frequency standard.

  19. Absolute distance measurement by multi-heterodyne interferometry using a frequency comb and a cavity-stabilized tunable laser.

    PubMed

    Wu, Hanzhong; Zhang, Fumin; Liu, Tingyang; Balling, Petr; Qu, Xinghua

    2016-05-20

    In this paper, we develop a multi-heterodyne system capable of absolute distance measurement using a frequency comb and a tunable diode laser locked to a Fabry-Perot cavity. In a series of subsequent measurements, numerous beat components can be obtained by downconverting the optical frequency into the RF region with multi-heterodyne interferometry. The distances can be measured via the mode phases with a series of synthetic wavelengths. The comparison with the reference interferometer shows an agreement within 1.5 μm for the averages of five measurements and 2.5 μm for the single measurement, which is at the 10-8 relative precision level. PMID:27411152

  20. Size-dependent absolute quantum yields for size-separated colloidally-stable silicon nanocrystals.

    PubMed

    Mastronardi, Melanie L; Maier-Flaig, Florian; Faulkner, Daniel; Henderson, Eric J; Kübel, Christian; Lemmer, Uli; Ozin, Geoffrey A

    2012-01-11

    Size-selective precipitation was used to successfully separate colloidally stable allylbenzene-capped silicon nanocrystals into several visible emitting monodisperse fractions traversing the quantum size effect range of 1-5 nm. This enabled the measurement of the absolute quantum yield and lifetime of photoluminescence of allylbenzene-capped silicon nanocrystals as a function of size. The absolute quantum yield and lifetime are found to monotonically decrease with decreasing nanocrystal size, which implies that nonradiative vibrational and surface defect effects overwhelm spatial confinement effects that favor radiative relaxation. Visible emission absolute quantum yields as high as 43% speak well for the development of "green" silicon nanocrystal color-tunable light emitting diodes that can potentially match the performance of their toxic heavy metal chalcogenide counterparts.

  1. Discrete diffusion Monte Carlo for frequency-dependent radiative transfer

    SciTech Connect

    Densmore, Jeffrey D; Kelly, Thompson G; Urbatish, Todd J

    2010-11-17

    Discrete Diffusion Monte Carlo (DDMC) is a technique for increasing the efficiency of Implicit Monte Carlo radiative-transfer simulations. In this paper, we develop an extension of DDMC for frequency-dependent radiative transfer. We base our new DDMC method on a frequency-integrated diffusion equation for frequencies below a specified threshold. Above this threshold we employ standard Monte Carlo. With a frequency-dependent test problem, we confirm the increased efficiency of our new DDMC technique.

  2. Absolute gauge block calibration using ultra-precise optical frequency synthesizer locked to a femtosecond comb.

    PubMed

    Hussein, Hatem; Farid, Niveen; Terra, Osama

    2015-02-01

    In this paper, we report a gauge block (GB) calibration that is traceable to the SI unit of time, the second. Four ultra-stable optical telecommunication wavelengths near 1556 nm are obtained by locking a narrow-tuning-range fiber laser to a fiber-based femtosecond frequency comb. Since the GB calibration system does not operate at this region of spectrum, the superior frequency stability of the laser is transferred to the 778 nm region by using a waveguide periodically poled lithium niobate crystal. After applying the locking scheme, the stability and accuracy of the laser become better than 8×10(-12). The frequency-doubled light is sent through 30 m optical fiber to a GB interferometer, which is installed at a different laboratory in the same building. Using this calibration scheme, a GB with a nominal length of 100 mm is calibrated with an uncertainty of ±52  nm. This uncertainty value is still comparable to or even better than other metrology laboratories for a similar block length.

  3. Frequency dependence of capnography in anesthetized rabbits.

    PubMed

    Ioan, I; Demoulin, B; Duvivier, C; Leblanc, A L; Bonabel, C; Marchal, F; Schweitzer, C; Varechova, S

    2014-01-01

    Aspirative capnography may be of help to diagnose early childhood asthma, but clinical usefulness in young children is limited by the relatively high respiratory rate. This study aimed to characterize the [Formula: see text] time course during airway constriction in 8 anesthetized rabbits, artificially ventilated at 30, 60 and 80breaths/min. Methacholine was inhaled to double the respiratory resistance measured at 8Hz by the forced oscillation technique. The capnogram shape changed in response to both methacholine and ventilatory frequency. Slope of phase II, the peak of first-order time derivative and trough of the second-order time derivative of the [Formula: see text] signal, were significantly attenuated after methacholine compared with baseline at all breathing rates (p<0.02). Moreover, significant correlations between respiratory reactance and resistance were observed with the phase III slope and the angle described by phase II and phase III (p<0.01). It is concluded that capnography may be useful to identify acute airway changes related to bronchoconstriction, even at high breathing frequencies. PMID:24035836

  4. Gravitational constant is likely dependent on the absolute velocity of galaxy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Shao-Guang

    ({2) -1}m (({2) -1}\\underline{m}) and only arises when ({2) -1}m(A) and ({2) -1}m(B) to be superposed. Though the turn-advance values U of ({2) -1}m had been counteracted, but when ({2) -1}m(A) superposes with ({2) -1}m (B) the ne(0) (A) of ({2) -1}m (A) and the ne (0) (B) of ({2) -1} m(B) can interact directly. The interaction shows as the piπ exchange force with the short-distance and saturation characters as the covalence. One nucleon has two ({2) -1}m (nuclear valences), the nuclear structure stability is dependent on the conjugation state of nuclear valences (to constitute nucleus). When two nuclear valences of all nucleons are conjugated entirely in the valences saturation state, then it is most stabilization and this element in a large natural abundance. The cubic with 4 angles, hexagon with 6 angles, double floor hexagon with 10 angles and three floor hexagon with 14 angles four kinds formation are all nuclear valences in saturation state, each angle also may be two or four particles, so that these elements: He (4) , Li, Be, B, C (12) , N (14) , O (16) , Ne (20) , Mg (24) , Si (28) , Fe (56) , Ni (58) , Ni (62) , Sn (112) ,Pb (208) are abundance, it accord to the fact. The charge q is the turn quantity U, and the mass m is absolute value of U. From \\underline{P} • \\underline{P} = 0: m (0) = e (0) = ±± (1/2 (1/2) ) (E (0) /c (2) ), q _{0} = e _{0} (nuυ _{0} (0) nuυ) = 2 (1/2) 2 e (0) = 2 (1/2) 2 q (0) . The electromagnetic (weak) interaction constant is alphaα = q _{℮} q _{℮} /h c (betaβ = q (0) q (0) /h c). The electronic outside layer is one _{0}nuυ (1 q (0) ) and one e = 9 e _{0} (nuυ _{0} (0) nuυ) = 9 q _{0}, q _{℮} = 9.5q _{0} = 19*2 (1/2) q (0) . The alphaα / betaβ = (q _{℮} (2) / h c) / (q (0) (2) /h c) = (19 *2 (1/2) ) (2) = 722. To take alphaα = 1/137.0302, then betaβ = alphaα / 722 = 1.010756*10 (-5) , alphaα is about 10 _{0}nuυ /(10 _{0}nuυ + 1359 nuυ _{0}). Because of the ne (0) of nucleon inside layer (5) m, (4) m

  5. Frequency-dependent ultrasound-induced transformation in E. coli.

    PubMed

    Deeks, Jeremy; Windmill, James; Agbeze-Onuma, Maduka; Kalin, Robert M; Argondizza, Peter; Knapp, Charles W

    2014-12-01

    Ultrasound-enhanced gene transfer (UEGT) is continuing to gain interest across many disciplines; however, very few studies investigate UEGT efficiency across a range of frequencies. Using a variable frequency generator, UEGT was tested in E. coli at six ultrasonic frequencies. Results indicate frequency can significantly influence UEGT efficiency positively and negatively. A frequency of 61 kHz improved UEGT efficiency by ~70 % higher, but 99 kHz impeded UEGT to an extent worse than no ultrasound exposure. The other four frequencies (26, 133, 174, and 190 kHz) enhanced transformation compared to no ultrasound, but efficiencies did not vary. The influence of frequency on UEGT efficiency was observed across a range of operating frequencies. It is plausible that frequency-dependent dynamics of mechanical and chemical energies released during cavitational-bubble collapse (CBC) are responsible for observed UEGT efficiencies.

  6. Frequency-Dependent Attenuation of Blasting Vibration Waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Junru; Lu, Wenbo; Yan, Peng; Chen, Ming; Wang, Gaohui

    2016-10-01

    The dominant frequency, in addition to the peak particle velocity, is a critical factor for assessing adverse effects of the blasting vibration on surrounding structures; however, it has not been fully considered in blasting design. Therefore, the dominant frequency-dependent attenuation mechanism of blast-induced vibration is investigated in the present research. Starting with blasting vibration induced by a spherical charge propagating in an infinite viscoelastic medium, a modified expression of the vibration amplitude spectrum was derived to reveal the frequency dependency of attenuation. Then, ground vibration induced by more complex and more commonly used cylindrical charge that propagates in a semi-infinite viscoelastic medium was analyzed by numerical simulation. Results demonstrate that the absorptive property of the medium results in the frequency attenuation versus distance, whereas a rapid drop or fluctuation occurs during the attenuation of ground vibration. Fluctuation usually appears at moderate to far field, and the dominant frequency generally decreases to half the original value when rapid drop occurs. The decay rate discrepancy between different frequency components and the multimodal structure of vibration spectrum lead to the unsmooth frequency-dependent attenuation. The above research is verified by two field experiments. Furthermore, according to frequency-based vibration standards, frequency drop and fluctuation should be considered when evaluating blast safety. An optimized piecewise assessment is proposed for more accurate evaluation: With the frequency drop point as the breakpoint, the assessment is divided into two independent sections along the propagating path.

  7. Frequency-dependent FDTD methods using Z transforms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sullivan, Dennis M.

    1992-01-01

    While the frequency-dependent finite-difference time-domain, or (FD)2TD, method can correctly calculate EM propagation through media whose dielectric properties are frequency-dependent, more elaborate applications lead to greater (FD)2TD complexity. Z-transform theory is presently used to develop the mathematical bases of the (FD)2TD method, simultaneously obtaining a clearer formulation and allowing researchers to draw on the existing literature of systems analysis and signal-processing.

  8. Frequency-Dependent Selection Predicts Patterns of Radiations and Biodiversity

    PubMed Central

    Melián, Carlos J.; Alonso, David; Vázquez, Diego P.; Regetz, James; Allesina, Stefano

    2010-01-01

    Most empirical studies support a decline in speciation rates through time, although evidence for constant speciation rates also exists. Declining rates have been explained by invoking pre-existing niches, whereas constant rates have been attributed to non-adaptive processes such as sexual selection and mutation. Trends in speciation rate and the processes underlying it remain unclear, representing a critical information gap in understanding patterns of global diversity. Here we show that the temporal trend in the speciation rate can also be explained by frequency-dependent selection. We construct a frequency-dependent and DNA sequence-based model of speciation. We compare our model to empirical diversity patterns observed for cichlid fish and Darwin's finches, two classic systems for which speciation rates and richness data exist. Negative frequency-dependent selection predicts well both the declining speciation rate found in cichlid fish and explains their species richness. For groups like the Darwin's finches, in which speciation rates are constant and diversity is lower, speciation rate is better explained by a model without frequency-dependent selection. Our analysis shows that differences in diversity may be driven by incipient species abundance with frequency-dependent selection. Our results demonstrate that genetic-distance-based speciation and frequency-dependent selection are sufficient to explain the high diversity observed in natural systems and, importantly, predict decay through time in speciation rate in the absence of pre-existing niches. PMID:20865126

  9. Easy Absolute Values? Absolutely

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, Sharon E.; Mittag, Kathleen Cage

    2015-01-01

    The authors teach a problem-solving course for preservice middle-grades education majors that includes concepts dealing with absolute-value computations, equations, and inequalities. Many of these students like mathematics and plan to teach it, so they are adept at symbolic manipulations. Getting them to think differently about a concept that they…

  10. Intermittency and transient chaos from simple frequency-dependent selection.

    PubMed

    Gavrilets, S; Hastings, A

    1995-08-22

    Frequency-dependent selection is an important determinant of the evolution of gametophytic self-incompatibility systems in plants, aposematic (warning) and cryptic coloration, systems of mimicry, competitive interactions among members of a population, mating preferences, predator-prey and host-parasite interactions, aggression and other behavioural traits. Past theoretical studies of frequency-dependent selection have shown it to be a plausible mechanism for the maintenance of genetic variability in natural populations. Here, through an analysis of a simple deterministic model for frequency-dependent selection, we demonstrate that complex dynamic behaviour is possible under a broad range of parameter values. In particular we show that the model exhibits not only cycles and chaos but also, for a more restricted set of parameters, transient chaos and intermittency: alterations between an apparently deterministic behaviour and apparently chaotic fluctuations. This behaviour, which has not been stressed within the population genetics literature, provides an explanation for erratic dynamics of gene frequencies.

  11. LASER APPLICATIONS AND OTHER TOPICS IN QUANTUM ELECTRONICS: Comparison of the absolute frequencies of He—Ne/CH4 lasers with a transportable M101 laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Domnin, Yurii S.; Tatarenkov, V. M.

    1994-07-01

    The correctness of the determination of the laser frequencies recommended for reproduction of the unit of length was checked by absolute and relative comparisons of the frequencies with the aid of an M101 laser at the All-Russia Scientific-Research Institute of Physicotechnical and Radio Engineering Measurements. The frequency of this laser was measured with a laser chain at this Institute and also with apparatus from other countries. The results of the comparison confirmed the correctness of the recommended reference frequencies of the lasers.

  12. Context-dependent utility overrides absolute memory as a determinant of choice

    PubMed Central

    Pompilio, Lorena; Kacelnik, Alex

    2009-01-01

    A core problem of decision theories is that although decisionmakers’ preferences depend on learning, their choices could be driven either by learned representations of the physical properties of each alternative (for instance reward sizes) or of the benefit (utility and fitness) experienced from them. Physical properties are independent of the subject’s state and context, but utility depends on both. We show that starlings’ choices are better explained by memory for context-dependent utility than by representations of the alternatives’ physical properties, even when the decisionmakers’ state is controlled and they have accurate knowledge about the options’ physical properties. Our results support the potential universality of utility-driven preference control. PMID:19966285

  13. Pressure dependence of the absolute rate constant for the reaction OH + C2H2 from 228 to 413 K

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Michael, J. V.; Nava, D. F.; Payne, W. A.; Stief, L. J.; Borkowski, R. P.

    1980-01-01

    The pressure dependence of the absolute rate constant for the reaction of the hydroxyl radical with acetylene, important in both atmospheric and combustion chemistry, is determined for temperatures between 228 and 413 K. The flash photolysis-resonance fluorescence technique was employed at five temperatures over wide ranges of pressure and acetylene concentrations, with the OH produced by water photolysis and hydroxyl resonance fluorescent photons measured by multiscaling techniques. Results indicate that, except at the lowest temperature, the bimolecular rate constant for the reaction depends strongly on total pressure, with the pressure effect becoming more pronounced with increasing temperature. At limiting high pressures, the rate constant is found to be equal to 6.83 + or - 1.19 x 10 to the -12th exp (-646 + or - 47/T) cu cm/molecule per sec, where T is the temperature. Results thus demonstrate the importance of environmental conditions in theoretical studies of atmospheric and combustion product compositions

  14. Frequency dependent elastic impedance inversion for interstratified dispersive elastic parameters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zong, Zhaoyun; Yin, Xingyao; Wu, Guochen

    2016-08-01

    The elastic impedance equation is extended to frequency dependent elastic impedance equation by taking partial derivative to frequency. With this equation as the forward solver, a practical frequency dependent elastic impedance inversion approach is presented to implement the estimation of the interstratified dispersive elastic parameters which makes full use of the frequency information of elastic impedances. Three main steps are included in this approach. Firstly, the elastic Bayesian inversion is implemented for the estimation of elastic impedances from different incident angle. Secondly, with those estimated elastic impedances, their variations are used to estimate P-wave velocity and S-wave velocity. Finally, with the prior elastic impedance and P-wave and S-wave velocity information, the frequency dependent elastic variation with incident angle inversion is presented for the estimation of the interstratified elastic parameters. With this approach, the interstratified elastic parameters rather than the interface information can be estimated, making easier the interpretation of frequency dependent seismic attributes. The model examples illustrate the feasibility and stability of the proposed method in P-wave velocity dispersion and S-wave velocity dispersion estimation. The field data example validates the possibility and efficiency in hydrocarbon indication of the estimated P-wave velocity dispersion and S-wave velocity dispersion.

  15. AC Magnetic Field Frequency Dependence of Magnetoacoustic Emission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Namkung, M.; Wincheski, B.; Fulton, J. P.; DeNale, R.

    1992-01-01

    Our recent study has proved a strong correlation between the low-frequency AC applied magnetic field amplitude dependence of the asymmetry of the magnetoacoustic emission (MAE) burst and the strength of the domain wall-defect interaction in iron-base ferromagnets. For the present study the AC magnetic field frequency dependence of the asymmetry has been investigated in the range of 1 to 200 Hz. When represented by the third moment of the rectified acoustic emission pulses, the asymmetry becomes a bell-shaped function of frequency with its center located around 25 Hz. This experiment has been performed with low carbon, high yield stress steel specimens of three different levels of domain wall-defect interaction strength. The results show that the increase in the interaction strength causes a vertical down shift of the asymmetry in the entire frequency range investigated.

  16. Absolute optical frequency measurements of the cesium D1 transitions and their effect on alpha, the fine-structured constant

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Calkins, Keith Gordon

    The fine-structure constant or electromagnetic coupling constant, alpha e, is a dimensionless ratio which unites many physics subfields. Although known precisely via experiments in each subfield, there is disagreement within and between subfields. In particular, precise values obtained via electron ge - 2 experiments which depend heavily on QED calculations have not always been in agreement with those obtained via muon g mu - 2 experiments. Also, solid state measurements (quantum hall effect and AC Josephson effect) often disagree with neutronic hmn measurements. alphae is often said to vary with energy but the question remains as to whether or not its low energy value is stable now or has been stable over the history of the universe. Improved precision helps resolve these issues as they relate to physics, possibly beyond the standard model. The Optical Frequency Measurements group in the Time and Frequency Division at the National Institute of Science and Technology (NIST, Boulder, CO) developed and maintains a femtosecond laser frequency comb which is calibrated with respect to the cesium fountain clock implementation of the second. A single frequency component of the femtosecond laser comb is used together with a solid state diode laser and cesium thermal beam to precisely measure the cesium D1 F ∈ {3,4} transition frequencies. The value of fD1centroid = 335 116 048 748.1(2.4) kHz obtained for the transition centroid is over fifteen times more precise than the most recent previous measurement. A precise value for the cesium D1 hyperfine splitting fHFe = 1 167 723.6(4.7) kHz is reported as well. This value is also over fifteen times more precise than the most recent previous measurement. These new neutral 133Cs 6s 2 S½ → 6p 2 P½ transition (D1) frequencies, when combined with the 2002 CODATA values of the Rydberg, proton/electron mass ratio, cesium atomic mass, and cesium recoil frequency, provide an almost QED-free value of alpha: alphae = 1/137.036 0000

  17. Frequency-dependent effective hydraulic conductivity of strongly heterogeneous media.

    PubMed

    Caspari, E; Gurevich, B; Müller, T M

    2013-10-01

    The determination of the transport properties of heterogeneous porous rocks, such as an effective hydraulic conductivity, arises in a range of geoscience problems, from groundwater flow analysis to hydrocarbon reservoir modeling. In the presence of formation-scale heterogeneities, nonstationary flows, induced by pumping tests or propagating elastic waves, entail localized pressure diffusion processes with a characteristic frequency depending on the pressure diffusivity and size of the heterogeneity. Then, on a macroscale, a homogeneous equivalent medium exists, which has a frequency-dependent effective conductivity. The frequency dependence of the conductivity can be analyzed with Biot's equations of poroelasticity. In the quasistatic frequency regime of this framework, the slow compressional wave is a proxy for pressure diffusion processes. This slow compressional wave is associated with the out-of-phase motion of the fluid and solid phase, thereby creating a relative fluid-solid displacement vector field. Decoupling of the poroelasticity equations gives a diffusion equation for the fluid-solid displacement field valid in a poroelastic medium with spatial fluctuations in hydraulic conductivity. Then, an effective conductivity is found by a Green's function approach followed by a strong-contrast perturbation theory suggested earlier in the context of random dielectrics. This theory leads to closed-form expressions for the frequency-dependent effective conductivity as a function of the one- and two-point probability functions of the conductivity fluctuations. In one dimension, these expressions are consistent with exact solutions in both low- and high-frequency limits for arbitrary conductivity contrast. In 3D, the low-frequency limit depends on the details of the microstructure. However, the derived approximation for the effective conductivity is consistent with the Hashin-Shtrikman bounds.

  18. Frequency-dependent viscoelasticity measurement by atomic force microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Nan; Wong, Kenneth Kar Ho; de Bruyn, John R.; Hutter, Jeffrey L.

    2009-02-01

    We demonstrate a new technique for investigating viscoelastic properties of soft materials using the atomic force microscope. A small oscillatory voltage is added to the deflection signal of the atomic force microscope causing a vertical oscillatory sample motion. Monitoring the amplitude and phase of this motion allows determination of the viscous and elastic moduli of the sample as a function of frequency during contact imaging. This technique is applied to suspended poly(vinyl alcohol) nanofibers and poly(vinyl alcohol) hydrogels, giving results similar to those measured using traditional static methods. However, the moduli of both the fibers and the hydrogels show a significant frequency dependence. The Young's modulus of the fibers increases with frequency, while for the viscoelastic hydrogels, the storage modulus dominates the mechanical response at low frequency whereas the loss modulus dominates at high frequency.

  19. Divergences in the vacuum energy for frequency-dependent interactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vassilevich, D. V.

    2009-03-01

    We propose a method for determining ultraviolet divergences in the vacuum energy for systems whose spectrum of perturbations is defined through a nonlinear spectrum problem, i.e., when the fluctuation operator itself depends on the frequency. The method is applied to the plasma shell model, which describes some properties of the interaction of electromagnetic field with fullerenes. We formulate a scalar model, which simplifies the matrix structure, but keeps the frequency dependence of the plasma shell, and calculate the ultraviolet divergences in the case when the plasma sheet is slightly curved. The divergent terms are expressed in terms of surface integrals of corresponding invariants.

  20. Measurement of absolute transition frequencies of {sup 87}Rb to nS and nD Rydberg states by means of electromagnetically induced transparency

    SciTech Connect

    Mack, Markus; Karlewski, Florian; Hattermann, Helge; Hoeckh, Simone; Jessen, Florian; Cano, Daniel; Fortagh, Jozsef

    2011-05-15

    We report the measurement of absolute excitation frequencies of {sup 87}Rb to nS and nD Rydberg states. The Rydberg transition frequencies are obtained by observing electromagnetically induced transparency on a rubidium vapor cell. The accuracy of the measurement of each state is < or approx. 1 MHz, which is achieved by frequency stabilizing the two diode lasers employed for the spectroscopy to a frequency comb and a frequency comb calibrated wavelength meter, respectively. Based on the spectroscopic data we determine the quantum defects of {sup 87}Rb, and compare it with previous measurements on {sup 85}Rb. We determine the ionization frequency from the 5S{sub 1/2}(F=1) ground state of {sup 87}Rb to 1010.029 164 6(3)THz, providing the binding energy of the ground state with an accuracy improved by two orders of magnitude.

  1. Frequency-dependent Lg Q within the continental United States

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Erickson, D.; McNamara, D.E.; Benz, H.M.

    2004-01-01

    Frequency-dependent crustal attenuation (1/Q) is determined for seven distinct physiographic/tectonic regions of the continental United States using high-quality Lg waveforms recorded on broadband stations in the frequency band 0.5 to 16 Hz. Lg attenuation is determined from time-domain amplitude measurements in one-octave frequency bands centered on the frequencies 0.75, 1.0, 3.0, 6.0, and 12.0 Hz. Modeling errors are determined using a delete-j jackknife resampling technique. The frequency-dependent quality factor is modeled in the form of Q = Q0 fη. Regions were initially selected based on tectonic provinces but were eventually limited and adjusted to maximize ray path coverage in each area. Earthquake data was recorded on several different networks and constrained to events occurring within the crust (<40 km depth) and at least mb 3.5 in size. A singular value decomposition inversion technique was applied to the data to simultaneously solve for source and receiver terms along with Q for each region at specific frequencies. The lowest crustal Q was observed in northern and southern California where Q is described by the functions Q = 152(±37)f0.72(±0.16) and Q = 105(±26)f0.67(±0.16), respectively. The Basin and Range Province, Pacific Northwest, and Rocky Mountain states also display lower Q and a strong frequency dependence characterized by the functions Q = 200(±40)f0.68(±0.12), Q = 152(±49)f0.76(±0.18), and Q = 166(±37)f0.61(±0.14), respectively. In contrast, in the central and northeast United States Q functions are Q = 640(±225)f0.344(±0.22) and Q = 650(±143)f0.36(±0.14), respectively, show a high crustal Q and a weaker frequency dependence. These results improve upon previous Lg modeling by subdividing the United States into smaller, distinct tectonic regions and using significantly more data that provide improved constraints on frequency-dependent attenuation and errors. A detailed attenuation map of the continental United States can

  2. Frequency dependent Lg attenuation in south-central Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McNamara, D.E.

    2000-01-01

    The characteristics of seismic energy attenuation are determined using high frequency Lg waves from 27 crustal earthquakes, in south-central Alaska. Lg time-domain amplitudes are measured in five pass-bands and inverted to determine a frequency-dependent quality factor, Q(f), model for south-central Alaska. The inversion in this study yields the frequency-dependent quality factor, in the form of a power law: Q(f) = Q0fη = 220(±30) f0.66(±0.09) (0.75≤f≤12Hz). The results from this study are remarkably consistent with frequency dependent quality factor estimates, using local S-wave coda, in south-central Alaska. The consistency between S-coda Q(f) and Lg Q(f) enables constraints to be placed on the mechanism of crustal attenuation in south-central Alaska. For the range of frequencies considered in this study both scattering and intrinsic attenuation mechanisms likely play an equal role.

  3. Frequency and temperature dependence of dielectric properties of chicken meat

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Dielectric properties of chicken breast meat were measured with an open-ended coaxial-line probe between 200 MHz and 20 GHz at temperatures ranging from -20 degree C to +25 degree C. At a given temperature, the frequency dependence of the dielectric constant reveals two relaxations while those of th...

  4. Orientation Tuning Depends on Spatial Frequency in Mouse Visual Cortex

    PubMed Central

    Yuste, Rafael

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The response properties of neurons to sensory stimuli have been used to identify their receptive fields and to functionally map sensory systems. In primary visual cortex, most neurons are selective to a particular orientation and spatial frequency of the visual stimulus. Using two-photon calcium imaging of neuronal populations from the primary visual cortex of mice, we have characterized the response properties of neurons to various orientations and spatial frequencies. Surprisingly, we found that the orientation selectivity of neurons actually depends on the spatial frequency of the stimulus. This dependence can be easily explained if one assumed spatially asymmetric Gabor-type receptive fields. We propose that receptive fields of neurons in layer 2/3 of visual cortex are indeed spatially asymmetric, and that this asymmetry could be used effectively by the visual system to encode natural scenes. PMID:27699210

  5. Orientation Tuning Depends on Spatial Frequency in Mouse Visual Cortex

    PubMed Central

    Yuste, Rafael

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The response properties of neurons to sensory stimuli have been used to identify their receptive fields and to functionally map sensory systems. In primary visual cortex, most neurons are selective to a particular orientation and spatial frequency of the visual stimulus. Using two-photon calcium imaging of neuronal populations from the primary visual cortex of mice, we have characterized the response properties of neurons to various orientations and spatial frequencies. Surprisingly, we found that the orientation selectivity of neurons actually depends on the spatial frequency of the stimulus. This dependence can be easily explained if one assumed spatially asymmetric Gabor-type receptive fields. We propose that receptive fields of neurons in layer 2/3 of visual cortex are indeed spatially asymmetric, and that this asymmetry could be used effectively by the visual system to encode natural scenes.

  6. Effects of Frequency-Dependent Membrane Capacitance on Neural Excitability

    PubMed Central

    Grill, Warren M.

    2015-01-01

    Objective Models of excitable cells consider the membrane specific capacitance as a ubiquitous and constant parameter. However, experimental measurements show that the membrane capacitance declines with increasing frequency, i.e., exhibits dispersion. We quantified the effects of frequency-dependent membrane capacitance, c(f), on the excitability of cells and nerve fibers across the frequency range from dc to hundreds of kilohertz. Approach We implemented a model of c(f) using linear circuit elements, and incorporated it into several models of neurons with different channel kinetics: the Hodgkin-Huxley (HH) model of an unmyelinated axon, the McIntyre-Richardson-Grill (MRG) of a mammalian myelinated axon, and a model of a cortical neuron from prefrontal cortex. We calculated thresholds for excitation and kHz frequency conduction block, the conduction velocity, recovery cycle, strength-distance relationship and firing rate. Main results The impact of c(f) on activation thresholds depended on the stimulation waveform and channel kinetics. We observed no effect using rectangular pulse stimulation, and a reduction for frequencies of 10 kHz and above using sinusoidal signals only for the MRG model. c(f) had minimal impact on the recovery cycle and the strength-distance relationship, whereas the conduction velocity increased by up to 7.9% and 1.7% for myelinated and unmyelinated fibers, respectively. Block thresholds declined moderately when incorporating c(f), the effect was greater at higher frequencies, and the maximum reduction was 11.5%. Finally, c(f) marginally altered the firing pattern of a model of a prefrontal cortex cell, reducing the median interspike interval by less than 2%. Significance This is the first comprehensive analysis of the effects of dispersive capacitance on neural excitability, and as the interest on stimulation with kHz signals gains more attention, it defines the regions over which frequency-dependent membrane capacitance, c(f), should be

  7. Determining the frequency dependence of elastic properties of fractured rocks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahrens, Benedikt; Renner, Jörg

    2016-04-01

    In the brittle crust, rocks often contain joints or faults on various length scales that have a profound effect on fluid flow and heat transport, as well as on the elastic properties of rocks. Improving the understanding of the effect of fractures and the role of stress state and heterogeneity along the fractures on elastic properties of rocks is potentially important for the characterization of deep geothermal reservoirs. Seismic surveys, typically covering a frequency range of about 1 to 1000 Hz, are a valuable tool to investigate fractured rocks but the extraction of fracture properties remains difficult. The elementary frequency-dependent interaction between fractured rock matrix and viscous pore fluids and the resulting effects on wave propagation require well-founded dispersion analyses of heterogeneous rocks. In this laboratory study, we investigate the stress dependence of the effective elastic properties of fractured reservoir rocks over a broad frequency range. To assess the effect of faults on the effective elastic properties, we performed cyclic axial loading tests on intact and fractured samples of Solnhofen limestone and Padang granodiorite. The samples contained an idealized fault, which was created by stacking two sample discs on top of each other that experienced various surface treatments to vary their roughness. The dynamic loading tests were conducted with frequencies up to 10 Hz and amplitudes reaching 10% of the statically applied stress. Simultaneously, P- and S-wave measurements were performed in the ultrasonic frequency range (above 100 kHz) with a total of 16 sensors, whose positioning above and below the samples guarantees a wide range of transmission and reflection angles. Preliminary results of static and dynamic elastic properties of intact Padang granodiorite show a pronounced increase in Young's moduli and Poisson's ratio with increasing axial stress. Stress relaxation is accompanied by a decrease of the modulus and the Poisson

  8. Improving Planck calibration by including frequency-dependent relativistic corrections

    SciTech Connect

    Quartin, Miguel; Notari, Alessio E-mail: notari@ffn.ub.es

    2015-09-01

    The Planck satellite detectors are calibrated in the 2015 release using the 'orbital dipole', which is the time-dependent dipole generated by the Doppler effect due to the motion of the satellite around the Sun. Such an effect has also relativistic time-dependent corrections of relative magnitude 10{sup −3}, due to coupling with the 'solar dipole' (the motion of the Sun compared to the CMB rest frame), which are included in the data calibration by the Planck collaboration. We point out that such corrections are subject to a frequency-dependent multiplicative factor. This factor differs from unity especially at the highest frequencies, relevant for the HFI instrument. Since currently Planck calibration errors are dominated by systematics, to the point that polarization data is currently unreliable at large scales, such a correction can in principle be highly relevant for future data releases.

  9. Improving Planck calibration by including frequency-dependent relativistic corrections

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Quartin, Miguel; Notari, Alessio

    2015-09-01

    The Planck satellite detectors are calibrated in the 2015 release using the "orbital dipole", which is the time-dependent dipole generated by the Doppler effect due to the motion of the satellite around the Sun. Such an effect has also relativistic time-dependent corrections of relative magnitude 10-3, due to coupling with the "solar dipole" (the motion of the Sun compared to the CMB rest frame), which are included in the data calibration by the Planck collaboration. We point out that such corrections are subject to a frequency-dependent multiplicative factor. This factor differs from unity especially at the highest frequencies, relevant for the HFI instrument. Since currently Planck calibration errors are dominated by systematics, to the point that polarization data is currently unreliable at large scales, such a correction can in principle be highly relevant for future data releases.

  10. A geographic cline induced by negative frequency-dependent selection

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Establishment of geographic morph frequency clines is difficult to explain in organisms with limited gene flow. Balancing selection, such as negative frequency-dependent selection (NFDS), is instead suggested to establish a morph frequency cline on a geographic scale at least theoretically. Here we tested whether a large-scale smooth cline in morph frequency is established by NFDS in the female-dimorphic damselfly, Ischnura senegalensis, where andromorphs and gynomorphs are maintained by NFDS. Results We found a large-scale latitudinal cline in the morph frequency: andromorph frequency ranged from 0.05 (South) to 0.79 (North). Based on the empirical data on the numbers of eggs, the number of ovariole, abdomen length and latitude, the potential fitness of andromorphs was estimated to be lower than that of gynomorphs in the south, and higher in the north, suggesting the gene-by-environment interaction. From the morph-specific latitudinal cline in potential fitness, the frequency of andromorphs was expected to shift from 0 to 1 without NFDS, because a morph with higher potential fitness wins completely and the two morphs will switch at some point. In contrast, NFDS led to the coexistence of two morphs with different potential fitness in a certain geographic range along latitude due to rare morph advantage, and resulted in a smooth geographic cline of morph frequency. Conclusion Our results provide suggestive evidence that the combination of NFDS and gene-by-environment interaction, i.e., multi-selection pressure on color morphs, can explain the geographic cline in morph frequency in the current system. PMID:21917171

  11. The frequency dependence of scattering imprints on pulsar observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Geyer, M.; Karastergiou, A.

    2016-11-01

    Observations of pulsars across the radio spectrum are revealing a dependence of the characteristic scattering time (τ) on frequency, which is more complex than the simple power law with a theoretically predicted power-law index. In this paper, we investigate these effects using simulated pulsar data at frequencies below 300 MHz. We investigate different scattering mechanisms, namely isotropic and anisotropic scattering, by thin screens along the line of sight, and the particular frequency-dependent impact on pulsar profiles and scattering time-scales of each. We also consider how the screen shape, location and offset along the line of sight lead to specific observable effects. We evaluate how well forward fitting techniques perform in determining τ. We investigate the systematic errors in τ associated with the use of an incorrect fitting method and with the determination of an off-pulse baseline. Our simulations provide examples of average pulse profiles at various frequencies. Using these, we compute spectra of τ and mean flux for different scattering setups. We identify setups that lead to deviations from the simple theoretical picture. This work provides a framework for interpretation of upcoming low-frequency data, both in terms of modelling the interstellar medium and understanding intrinsic emission properties of pulsars.

  12. Input-Dependent Frequency Modulation of Cortical Gamma Oscillations Shapes Spatial Synchronization and Enables Phase Coding

    PubMed Central

    Lowet, Eric; Roberts, Mark; Hadjipapas, Avgis; Peter, Alina; van der Eerden, Jan; De Weerd, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Fine-scale temporal organization of cortical activity in the gamma range (∼25–80Hz) may play a significant role in information processing, for example by neural grouping (‘binding’) and phase coding. Recent experimental studies have shown that the precise frequency of gamma oscillations varies with input drive (e.g. visual contrast) and that it can differ among nearby cortical locations. This has challenged theories assuming widespread gamma synchronization at a fixed common frequency. In the present study, we investigated which principles govern gamma synchronization in the presence of input-dependent frequency modulations and whether they are detrimental for meaningful input-dependent gamma-mediated temporal organization. To this aim, we constructed a biophysically realistic excitatory-inhibitory network able to express different oscillation frequencies at nearby spatial locations. Similarly to cortical networks, the model was topographically organized with spatially local connectivity and spatially-varying input drive. We analyzed gamma synchronization with respect to phase-locking, phase-relations and frequency differences, and quantified the stimulus-related information represented by gamma phase and frequency. By stepwise simplification of our models, we found that the gamma-mediated temporal organization could be reduced to basic synchronization principles of weakly coupled oscillators, where input drive determines the intrinsic (natural) frequency of oscillators. The gamma phase-locking, the precise phase relation and the emergent (measurable) frequencies were determined by two principal factors: the detuning (intrinsic frequency difference, i.e. local input difference) and the coupling strength. In addition to frequency coding, gamma phase contained complementary stimulus information. Crucially, the phase code reflected input differences, but not the absolute input level. This property of relative input-to-phase conversion, contrasting with latency

  13. Neural correlates of stimulus spatial frequency-dependent contrast detection

    PubMed Central

    Meng, Jianjun; Liu, Ruilong; Wang, Ke; Hua, Tianmiao; Lu, Zhong-Lin; Xi, Minmin

    2016-01-01

    Psychophysical studies on human and non-human vertebrate species have shown that visual contrast sensitivity function (CSF) peaks at a certain stimulus spatial frequency and declines in both lower and higher spatial frequencies. The underlying neural substrate and mechanisms remain in debate. Here, we investigated the role of primary visual cortex (V1: area 17) in spatial frequency-dependent contrast detection in cats. Perceptual CSFs of three cats were measured using a two-alternative forced choice task. The responses of V1 neurons to their optimal visual stimuli in a range of luminance contrast levels (from 0 to 1.0) were recorded subsequently using in vivo extracellular single-unit recording techniques. The contrast sensitivity of each neuron was determined. The neuronal CSF for each cat was constructed from the mean contrast sensitivity of neurons with different preferred stimulus spatial frequencies. Results (1) The perceptual and neuronal CSFs of each of the three cats exhibited a similar shape with peak amplitude near 0.4 c/deg. (2) The neuronal CSF of each cat was highly correlated with its perceptual CSF. (3) V1 neurons with different preferred stimulus spatial frequencies had different contrast gains. Conclusion (1) Contrast detection of visual stimuli with different spatial frequencies may likely involve population coding of V1 neurons with different preferred stimulus spatial frequencies. (2) Difference in contrast-gain may underlie the observed contrast sensitivity variation of V1 neurons with different preferred stimulus spatial frequencies, possibly from either evolution or postnatal visual experiences. PMID:23314692

  14. Frequency Dependent Topological Patterns of Resting-State Brain Networks

    PubMed Central

    Qian, Long; Zhang, Yi; Zheng, Li; Shang, Yuqing; Gao, Jia-Hong; Liu, Yijun

    2015-01-01

    The topological organization underlying brain networks has been extensively investigated using resting-state fMRI, focusing on the low frequency band from 0.01 to 0.1 Hz. However, the frequency specificities regarding the corresponding brain networks remain largely unclear. In the current study, a data-driven method named complementary ensemble empirical mode decomposition (CEEMD) was introduced to separate the time series of each voxel into several intrinsic oscillation rhythms with distinct frequency bands. Our data indicated that the whole brain BOLD signals could be automatically divided into five specific frequency bands. After applying the CEEMD method, the topological patterns of these five temporally correlated networks were analyzed. The results showed that global topological properties, including the network weighted degree, network efficiency, mean characteristic path length and clustering coefficient, were observed to be most prominent in the ultra-low frequency bands from 0 to 0.015 Hz. Moreover, the saliency of small-world architecture demonstrated frequency-density dependency. Compared to the empirical mode decomposition method (EMD), CEEMD could effectively eliminate the mode-mixing effects. Additionally, the robustness of CEEMD was validated by the similar results derived from a split-half analysis and a conventional frequency division method using the rectangular window band-pass filter. Our findings suggest that CEEMD is a more effective method for extracting the intrinsic oscillation rhythms embedded in the BOLD signals than EMD. The application of CEEMD in fMRI data analysis will provide in-depth insight in investigations of frequency specific topological patterns of the dynamic brain networks. PMID:25927525

  15. Solar cycle dependence of ion cyclotron wave frequencies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lessard, Marc R.; Lindgren, Erik A.; Engebretson, Mark J.; Weaver, Carol

    2015-06-01

    Electromagnetic ion cyclotron (EMIC) waves have been studied for decades, though remain a fundamentally important topic in heliospheric physics. The connection of EMIC waves to the scattering of energetic particles from Earth's radiation belts is one of many topics that motivate the need for a deeper understanding of characteristics and occurrence distributions of the waves. In this study, we show that EMIC wave frequencies, as observed at Halley Station in Antarctica from 2008 through 2012, increase by approximately 60% from a minimum in 2009 to the end of 2012. Assuming that these waves are excited in the vicinity of the plasmapause, the change in Kp in going from solar minimum to near solar maximum would drive increased plasmapause erosion, potentially shifting the generation region of the EMIC to lower L and resulting in the higher frequencies. A numerical estimate of the change in plasmapause location, however, implies that it is not enough to account for the shift in EMIC frequencies that are observed at Halley Station. Another possible explanation for the frequency shift, however, is that the relative density of heavier ions in the magnetosphere (that would be associated with increased solar activity) could account for the change in frequencies. In terms of effects on radiation belt dynamics, the shift to higher frequencies tends to mean that these waves will interact with less energetic electrons, although the details involved in this process are complex and depend on the specific plasma and gyrofrequencies of all populations, including electrons. In addition, the change in location of the generation region to lower L shells means that the waves will have access to higher number fluxes of resonant electrons. Finally, we show that a sunlit ionosphere can inhibit ground observations of EMIC waves with frequencies higher than ˜0.5 Hz and note that the effect likely has resulted in an underestimate of the solar-cycle-driven frequency changes described here.

  16. Frequency-dependent complex modulus of the uterus: preliminary results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kiss, Miklos Z.; Hobson, Maritza A.; Varghese, Tomy; Harter, Josephine; Kliewer, Mark A.; Hartenbach, Ellen M.; Zagzebski, James A.

    2006-08-01

    The frequency-dependent complex moduli of human uterine tissue have been characterized. Quantification of the modulus is required for developing uterine ultrasound elastography as a viable imaging modality for diagnosing and monitoring causes for abnormal uterine bleeding and enlargement, as well assessing the integrity of uterine and cervical tissue. The complex modulus was measured in samples from hysterectomies of 24 patients ranging in age from 31 to 79 years. Measurements were done under small compressions of either 1 or 2%, at low pre-compression values (either 1 or 2%), and over a frequency range of 0.1-100 Hz. Modulus values of cervical tissue monotonically increased from approximately 30-90 kPa over the frequency range. Normal uterine tissue possessed modulus values over the same range, while leiomyomas, or uterine fibroids, exhibited values ranging from approximately 60-220 kPa.

  17. Frequency-dependent graded reflectivity mirror: characterization and laser implementation.

    PubMed

    Keselbrener, M; Ruschin, S

    1999-10-20

    We present a theoretical and experimental investigation of a new family of variable reflectivity mirrors, based on frustrated total internal reflection and interference effects. These mirrors are sensitive to frequency in the sense that their transverse reflectivity distribution changes significantly as a function of the frequency of light. The mirror reported here shows total power reflectivity changes of 50% within 8.0 GHz. The mirror was tested as the output coupler of an unstable resonator in a Nd:YAG laser working in the free-running regime. This configuration was compared with the standard stable multimode resonator configuration. The beam divergence was reduced by more than 1 order of magnitude and the output power was reduced by only 10%. The laser resonator mode competition that is due to the frequency-dependent mirror reflectivity distribution is discussed. PMID:18324158

  18. Frequency-dependence stabilizes competitive interactions among four annual plants.

    PubMed

    Harpole, W Stanley; Suding, Katharine N

    2007-12-01

    It is the combination of large fitness differences and strong stabilizing mechanisms that often constitute niche-based explanations for species abundance patterns. Despite the importance of this assumption to much of community ecology, empirical evidence is surprisingly limited. Empirical tests are critical because many abundance patterns are also consistent with neutral-based alternatives (that assume no fitness differences or stabilization). We quantified interactions of four annual grassland species in two-species mixtures at varying frequencies. We found evidence of strong negative frequency-dependent stabilization, where scaled population growth rates increased with decreasing frequency for all four species. There was also a consistent competitive hierarchy among these species indicative of strong fitness differences that, in most cases, suggested potential competitive exclusion despite the observed strong stabilization.

  19. Frequency-dependent Lg-wave attenuation in northern Morocco

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Noriega, Raquel; Ugalde, Arantza; Villaseñor, Antonio; Harnafi, Mimoun

    2015-11-01

    Frequency-dependent attenuation (Q- 1) in the crust of northern Morocco is estimated from Lg-wave spectral amplitude measurements every quarter octave in the frequency band 0.8 to 8 Hz. This study takes advantage of the improved broadband data coverage in the region provided by the deployment of the IberArray seismic network. Earthquake data consist of 71 crustal events with magnitudes 4 ≤ mb ≤ 5.5 recorded on 110 permanent and temporary seismic stations between January 2008 and December 2013 with hypocentral distances between 100 and 900 km. 1274 high-quality Lg waveforms provide dense path coverage of northern Morocco, crossing a region with a complex structure and heterogeneous tectonic setting as a result of continuous interactions between the African and Eurasian plates. We use two different methods: the coda normalization (CN) analysis, that allows removal of the source and site effects from the Lg spectra, and the spectral amplitude decay (SAD) method, that simultaneously inverts for source, site, and path attenuation terms. The CN and SAD methods return similar results, indicating that the Lg Q models are robust to differences in the methodologies. Larger errors and no significant frequency dependence are observed for frequencies lower than 1.5 Hz. For distances up to 400 km and the frequency band 1.5 ≤ ƒ (Hz) ≤ 4.5, the model functions Q(f) = (529- 22+ 23)(f/1.5)0.23 ± 0.06 and Q(f) = (457- 7+ 7)(f/1.5)0.44 ± 0.02 are obtained using the CN and SAD methods, respectively. A change in the frequency dependence is observed above 4.5 Hz for both methods which may be related to the influence of the Sn energy on the Lg window. The frequency-dependent Q- 1 estimates represent an average attenuation beneath a broad region including the Rif and Tell mountains, the Moroccan and Algerian mesetas, the Atlas Mountains and the Sahara Platform structural domains, and correlate well with areas of moderate seismicity where intermediate Q values have been obtained.

  20. Frequency-range discriminations and absolute pitch in black-capped chickadees (Poecile atricapillus), mountain chickadees (Poecile gambeli), and zebra finches (Taeniopygia guttata).

    PubMed

    Lee, Tiffany T Y; Charrier, Isabelle; Bloomfield, Laurie L; Weisman, Ronald G; Sturdy, Christopher B

    2006-08-01

    The acoustic frequency ranges in birdsongs provide important absolute pitch cues for the recognition of conspecifics. Black-capped chickadees (Poecile atricapillus), mountain chickadees (Poecile gambeli), and zebra finches (Taeniopygia guttata) were trained to sort tones contiguous in frequency into 8 ranges on the basis of associations between response to the tones in each range and reward. All 3 species acquired accurate frequency-range discriminations, but zebra finches acquired the discrimination in fewer trials and to a higher standard than black-capped or mountain chickadees, which did not differ appreciably in the discrimination. Chickadees' relatively poorer accuracy was traced to poorer discrimination of tones in the higher frequency ranges. During transfer tests, the discrimination generalized to novel tones when the training tones were included, but not when they were omitted.

  1. Frequency-range discriminations and absolute pitch in black-capped chickadees (Poecile atricapillus), mountain chickadees (Poecile gambeli), and zebra finches (Taeniopygia guttata).

    PubMed

    Lee, Tiffany T Y; Charrier, Isabelle; Bloomfield, Laurie L; Weisman, Ronald G; Sturdy, Christopher B

    2006-08-01

    The acoustic frequency ranges in birdsongs provide important absolute pitch cues for the recognition of conspecifics. Black-capped chickadees (Poecile atricapillus), mountain chickadees (Poecile gambeli), and zebra finches (Taeniopygia guttata) were trained to sort tones contiguous in frequency into 8 ranges on the basis of associations between response to the tones in each range and reward. All 3 species acquired accurate frequency-range discriminations, but zebra finches acquired the discrimination in fewer trials and to a higher standard than black-capped or mountain chickadees, which did not differ appreciably in the discrimination. Chickadees' relatively poorer accuracy was traced to poorer discrimination of tones in the higher frequency ranges. During transfer tests, the discrimination generalized to novel tones when the training tones were included, but not when they were omitted. PMID:16893259

  2. FREQUENCY DEPENDENCE OF PULSE WIDTH FOR 150 RADIO NORMAL PULSARS

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, J. L.; Wang, H. G.

    2014-11-01

    The frequency dependence of the pulse width is studied for 150 normal pulsars, mostly selected from the European Pulsar Network, for which the 10% multifrequency pulse widths can be well fit with the Thorsett relationship W {sub 10} = Aν{sup μ} + W {sub 10,} {sub min}. The relative fraction of pulse width change between 0.4 GHz and 4.85 GHz, η = (W {sub 4.85} – W {sub 0.4})/W {sub 0.4}, is calculated in terms of the best-fit relationship for each pulsar. It is found that 81 pulsars (54%) have η < –10% (group A), showing considerable profile narrowing at high frequencies, 40 pulsars (27%) have –10% ≤η ≤ 10% (group B), meaning a marginal change in pulse width, and 29 pulsars (19%) have η > 10% (group C), showing a remarkable profile broadening at high frequencies. The fractions of the group-A and group-C pulsars suggest that the profile narrowing phenomenon at high frequencies is more common than the profile broadening phenomenon, but a large fraction of the group-B and group-C pulsars (a total of 46%) is also revealed. The group-C pulsars, together with a portion of group-B pulsars with slight pulse broadening, can hardly be explained using the conventional radius-to-frequency mapping, which only applies to the profile narrowing phenomenon. Based on a recent version of the fan beam model, a type of broadband emission model, we propose that the diverse frequency dependence of pulse width is a consequence of different types of distribution of emission spectra across the emission region. The geometrical effect predicting a link between the emission beam shrinkage and spectrum steepening is tested but disfavored.

  3. Removal of interference from fetal MEG by frequency dependent subtraction

    PubMed Central

    Vrba, J.; McCubbin, J.; Govindan, R.B.; Vairavan, S.; Murphy, P.; Preissl, H.; Lowery, C.L.; Eswaran, H.

    2011-01-01

    Fetal magnetoencephalography (fMEG) recordings are contaminated by maternal and fetal magnetocardiography (MCG) signals and by other biological and environmental interference. Currently, all methods for the attenuation of these signals are based on a time-domain approach. We have developed and tested a frequency dependent procedure for removal of MCG and other interference from the fMEG recordings. The method uses a set of reference channels and performs subtraction of interference in the frequency domain (SUBTR). The interference-free frequency domain signals are converted back to the time domain. We compare the performance of the frequency dependent approach with our present approach for MCG attenuation based on orthogonal projection (OP). SUBTR has an advantage over OP and similar template approaches because it removes not only the MCG but also other small amplitude biological interference, avoids the difficulties with inaccurate determination of the OP operator, provides more consistent and stable fMEG results, does not cause signal redistribution, and if references are selected judiciously, it does not reduce fMEG signal amplitude. SUBTR was found to perform well in simulations and on real fMEG recordings, and has a potential to improve the detection of fetal brain signals. The SUBTR removes interference without the need for a model of the individual interference sources. The method may be of interest for any sensor array noise reduction application where signal-free reference channels are available. PMID:21930216

  4. Direct measurements of the frequency-dependent dielectrophoresis force.

    PubMed

    Wei, Ming-Tzo; Junio, Joseph; Ou-Yang, H Daniel

    2009-01-01

    Dielectrophoresis (DEP), the phenomenon of directed motion of electrically polarizable particles in a nonuniform electric field, is promising for applications in biochemical separation and filtration. For colloidal particles in suspension, the relaxation of the ionic species in the shear layer gives rise to a frequency-dependent, bidirectional DEP force in the radio frequency range. However, quantification methods of the DEP force on individual particles with the pico-Newton resolution required for the development of theories and design of device applications are lacking. We report the use of optical tweezers as a force sensor and a lock-in phase-sensitive technique for analysis of the particle motion in an amplitude modulated DEP force. The coherent detection and sensing scheme yielded not only unprecedented sensitivity for DEP force measurements, but also provided a selectivity that clearly distinguishes the pure DEP force from all the other forces in the system, including electrophoresis, electro-osmosis, heat-induced convection, and Brownian forces, all of which can hamper accurate measurements through other existing methods. Using optical tweezers-based force transducers already developed in our laboratory, we have results that quantify the frequency-dependent DEP force and the crossover frequency of individual particles with this new experimental method. PMID:19693384

  5. Mechanotransduction of Ultrasound is Frequency Dependent Below the Cavitation Threshold

    PubMed Central

    Louw, Tobias M.; Budhiraja, Gaurav; Viljoen, Hendrik J.; Subramanian, Anuradha

    2013-01-01

    This study provides evidence that low-intensity ultrasound directly affects nuclear processes, and the magnitude of the effect varies with frequency. In particular, we show that the transcriptional induction of first load-inducible genes, which is independent of new protein synthesis, is frequency dependent. Bovine chondrocytes were exposed to low-intensity below the cavitational threshold) ultrasound at 2,5 and 8 MHz. Ultrasound elevated the expression of early response genes c-Fos, c-Jun and c-Myc, maximized at 5 MHz. The phosphorylated ERK inhibitor PD98059 abrogated any increase in c-series gene expression, suggesting that signaling occurs via the MAPPK/ERK pathway. However, phosphorylated ERK levels did not change with ultrasound frequency, indicating that processes downstream of ERK phosphorylation (such as nuclear transport and chromatin reorganization) respond to ultrasound with frequency dependence. A quantitative, biphasic mathematical model based on Biot theory predicted that cytoplasmic and nuclear stress is maximized at 5.2 ± 0.8 MHz for a chondrocyte, confirming experimental measurements. PMID:23562015

  6. Frequency dependence of microparticle charge in a radio frequency discharge with Margenau electron velocity distribution

    SciTech Connect

    Du, Cheng-Ran; Khrapak, Sergey A.; Antonova, Tetyana; Steffes, Bernd; Thomas, Hubertus M.; Morfill, Gregor E.

    2011-01-15

    rf discharges are widely used in complex plasma experiments. In this paper, we theoretically investigate the dependence of the particle floating potential on the discharge frequency, assuming the model Margenau expression for the electron velocity distribution function. In doing so we use the orbital motion limited cross section to calculate the electron flux to the particle and collision enhanced collection approximation for the ion flux to the particle. The floating potential is then obtained from the flux balance condition. It is shown that for typical plasma conditions in laboratory rf discharges, normalized floating potential grows with increase of the discharge frequency in collisionless regime and decreases in weakly collisional regime. However, variations in the floating potential are usually small when plasma parameters do not depend on the rf frequency.

  7. Dependence of enhanced asymmetry-induced transport on collision frequency

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eggleston, D. L.

    2014-07-01

    A single-particle code with collisional effects is used to study how asymmetry-induced radial transport in a non-neutral plasma depends on collision frequency. For asymmetries of the form ϕ1(r) cos(kz) cos(ωt-lθ), two sources for the transport have been identified: resonant particles and axially trapped particles. The simulation shows that this latter type, which occurs near the radius where ω matches the azimuthal rotation frequency ωR, is usually dominant at low collision frequency ν but becomes negligible at higher ν. This behavior can be understood by noting that axially trapped particles have a lower trapping frequency than resonant particles. In the low ν (banana) regime, the radial oscillations have amplitude Δr ≈ vr/ωT, so axially trapped particles dominate, and the transport may even exceed the resonant particle plateau regime level. As ν increases, collisions start to interrupt the slower axially trapped particle oscillations, while the resonant particles are still in the banana regime, so the axially trapped particle contribution to the transport decreases. At the largest ν values, axially trapped particle transport is negligible and the observed diffusion coefficient matches that given by plateau regime resonant particle theory. Heuristic models based on these considerations give reasonable agreement with the observed scaling laws for the value of the collision frequency where axially trapped particle transport starts to decrease and for the enhancement of the diffusion coefficient produced by axially trapped particles.

  8. Microscale Modelling of the Frequency Dependent Resistivity of Porous Media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Volkmann, J.; Klitzsch, N.; Mohnke, O.; Blaschek, R.

    2009-04-01

    In geophysics frequency dependent complex resistivity measurements are called Spectral Induced Polarization (SIP). In other fields this method is known as Impedance Spectroscopy. In the last two decades many empirical relations were proposed which relate the frequency dependent electrical properties of water saturated rocks to structural properties such as pore radius, and inner surface area, or to hydraulic conductivity. Unfortunately, these relations are not universal; they apply only for specific rock types and water compositions. In order to quantify the influence of inner rock structure (as well as of electrochemical water and rock properties) on the frequency dependent electrical properties we model the charge transport processes at the pore space using Comsol Multiphysics. In the frequency domain the effect of Induced Polarization (IP) is characterised by a phase shift between a measured electric current and an alternating voltage applied to the ground. A possible origin of this behaviour particularly for non-conducting rock minerals can be seen in the membrane polarization model as proposed by Marshall and Madden (1959). This model describes a system of electrolyte filled pores. Different mobilities of cations and anions in the small pores cause a membrane effect and thus an electrical polarization. We aim to find a more realistic way of modelling the membrane polarization effect than using the simple Marshall and Madden model. The electric double layer, the origin of the Induced Polarization effect, is caused by surface charges located at the electrolyte rock interface. Thus, the EDL as a boundary effect is accounted for by reduced counterion mobilities at the inner surface area. The governing equations and boundary conditions for a system of larger and smaller pores with applied voltage are expressed in frequency domain using a time harmonic approach, the electric current is determined to obtain information about amplitude and phase of the complex

  9. Pressure dependence of the absolute rate constant for the reaction OH + C2H2 from 228 to 413K

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Michael, J. V.; Nava, D. F.; Borokowski, R. P.; Payne, W. A.; Stief, L. J.

    1980-01-01

    The pressure dependence of absolute rate constants for the reaction of OH + C2H2 yields products has been examined at five temperatures ranging from 228 to 413 K. The experimental techniques which was used is flash photolysis-resonance fluoresence. OH was produced by water photolysis and hydroxyl resonance fluorescent photons were measured by multiscaling techniques. The results indicate that the low pressure bimolecular rate constant is 4 x 10 the the minus 13th power cu cm molecule (-1) s(-1) over the temperature range studied. A substantial increase in the bimolecular rate constant with an increase in pressure was observed at all temperatures except 228 K. This indicates the importance of initial adduct formation and subsequent stablization. The high pressure results are well represented by the Arrhenius expression (k sub bi) sub infinity = (6.83 + or - 1.19) x 10 to the minus 12th power exp(-646 + or - 47/T)cu cm molecule (-1) s(-1). The results are compared to previous investigated and are theoretically discussed. The implications of these results on modeling of terrestrial and planetary atmospheres and also in combustion chemistry are discussed.

  10. Ultrasonic Backscattering from Suspended Erythrocytes: Dependence on Frequency and Size.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuo, Ihyuan

    The ultrasonic scattering properties of blood have been intensively investigated since the echo signal from red blood cells carries abundant diagnostic information for the study of blood flow and blood properties in the vessels. Recently, ultrasound of frequency higher than 20 MHz has been implemented in intravascular imaging to obtain better images of the vessel wall. In this research measurements were extended to 30 MHz to better understand the effect of blood on the operation of these intravascular devices. The experimentally measured backscatter of saline suspended porcine erythrocytes for frequency up to 30 MHz agrees very well with the theoretical analysis which indicate that Rayleigh scattering is still valid below this frequency. The analysis utilize the T-matrix method to calculate the backscattering cross section of an erythrocyte modeled as a fluid sphere, disk, and biconcave disk. Measurements on the backscattering coefficients of porcine, bovine, and lamb erythrocytes reveal that the backscatter has a square dependence on cell volume. The cell size dependent backscatter is also analyzed via a continuum approach. It is found that the echo intensity of high frequency ultrasound suffers greatly from the attenuation. The dilemma may be solved by using a spherically focused transducer. An analysis of the focused beam reflected from a perfect planar reflector leads to the modification of the standard substitution method for the backscatter measurement since the "image source" theory is found to be inappropriate for the focused beam. Reflection of the focused beam near the focal point is described based on Huygens' principle. Experimental and theoretical results indicate that the backscatter is dependent upon the position of the scatterer and the geometry of the transducer if a focused beam is used. Since ultrasound velocity information is needed for scattering measurements, an innovative method for measuring the acoustic speed and the attenuation coefficient

  11. Comment on ``Frequency-dependent dispersion in porous media''

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davit, Yohan; Quintard, Michel

    2012-07-01

    In a recent paper, Valdès-Parada and Alvarez-Ramirez [Phys. Rev. EPLEEE81539-375510.1103/PhysRevE.84.031201 84, 031201 (2011)] used the technique of volume averaging to derive a “frequency-dependent” dispersion tensor, Dγ*, the goal of which is to describe solute transport in porous media undergoing periodic processes. We describe two issues related to this dispersion tensor. First, we demonstrate that the definition of Dγ* is erroneous and derive a corrected version, Dγ*c. With this modification, the approach of Valdès-Parada and Alvarez-Ramirez becomes strictly equivalent to the one devised by Moyne [Adv. Water Res.10.1016/S0309-1708(96)00023-1 20, 63 (1997)]. Second, we show that the term “frequency-dependent dispersion” is misleading because Dγ* and Dγ*c do not depend on the process operating frequency, χ. The study carried out by Valdès-Parada and Alvarez-Ramirez represents a spectral analysis of the relaxation of Dγ* towards its steady-state, independent of any periodic operation or excitation.

  12. Measurements of absolute absorption cross sections of ozone in the 185- to 254-nm wavelength region and the temperature dependence

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yoshino, K.; Esmond, J. R.; Freeman, D. E.; Parkinson, W. H.

    1993-01-01

    Laboratory measurements of the relative absorption cross sections of ozone at temperatures 195, 228, and 295 K have been made throughout the 185 to 254 nm wavelength region. The absolute absorption cross sections at the same temperatures have been measured at several discrete wavelengths in the 185 to 250 nm region. The absolute cross sections of ozone have been used to put the relative cross sections on a firm absolute basis throughout the 185 to 255 nm region. These recalibrated cross sections are slightly lower than those of Molina and Molina (1986), but the differences are within a few percent and would not be significant in atmospheric applications.

  13. The auditory evoked sustained field: origin and frequency dependence.

    PubMed

    Pantev, C; Eulitz, C; Elbert, T; Hoke, M

    1994-01-01

    A sound lasting for several seconds is known to elicit a baseline shift in electrical and magnetic records. We have studied the dependence of the magnetic field distribution of this "per-stimulatory" sustained field (SF) on tone frequency. Tone bursts of 2 sec duration and 60 dB nHL intensity were presented to 11 subjects at varying interstimulus intervals between 5 and 7 sec. The carrier frequencies of 250, 1000 and 4000 Hz varied randomly from trial to trial. The field distributions obtained are consistent with the view that the auditory evoked sustained field activity originates in the supratemporal cortex. Differences in the locations of equivalent current dipoles of the SF from those of the M100 wave of the slow auditory evoked field are consistent across subjects. The SF source locations corresponding to stimulus frequencies over an extended frequency range are arranged in a tonotopic manner and support the idea that the sources of the M100 and the SF are current dipole sheets located on the superior surface of the primary auditory cortex. PMID:7509276

  14. Frequency-dependent core shifts and parameter estimation in Blazars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Agarwal, Aditi

    2016-07-01

    We study the core shift effect in the parsec-scale jet of blazars using the 4.8-36.8 GHz radio light curves obtained from four decades of continuous monitoring. From a piecewise Gaussian fit to each flare, time lags between the observation frequencies and spectral indices (α) based on peak amplitudes (A) are determined. Index k is calculated and found to be ˜1, indicating equipartition between the magnetic field energy density and the particle energy density. A mean magnetic field strength at 1 pc (B1) and at the core (Bcore) are inferred which are found to be consistent with previous estimates. The measure of core position offset is also performed by averaging over all frequency pairs. Based on the statistical trend shown by the measured core radius as a function of frequency, we infer that the synchrotron opacity model may not be valid for all cases. A Fourier periodogram analysis yields power-law slopes in the range -1.6 to -3.5 describing the power spectral density shape and gives bend timescales. This result, and both positive and negative spectral indices, indicate that the flares originate from multiple shocks in a small region. Important objectives met in our study include: the demonstration of the computational efficiency and statistical basis of the piecewise Gaussian fit; consistency with previously reported results; evidence for the core shift dependence on observation frequency and its utility in jet diagnostics in the region close to the resolving limit of very long baseline interferometry observations.

  15. Relative spatial frequency tuning and its contrast dependency in human perception.

    PubMed

    Naito, Tomoyuki; Suematsu, Naofumi; Matsumoto, Eriko; Sato, Hiromichi

    2014-01-01

    Several physiological studies in cats and monkeys have reported that the spatial frequency (SF) tuning of visual neurons varies depending on the luminance contrast and size of stimulus. However, comparatively little is known about the effect of changing the stimulus contrast and size on SF tuning in human perception. In the present study, we investigated the effects of stimulus size and luminance contrast on human SF tuning using the subspace-reverse-correlation method. Measuring SF tunings at six different stimulus sizes and three different luminance contrast conditions (90%, 10%, and 1%), we found that human perception exhibits significant stimulus-size-dependent SF tunings. At 90% and 10% contrast, participants exhibited relative SF tuning (cycles/image) rather than absolute SF tuning (cycles/°) at response peak latency. On the other hand, at 1% contrast, the magnitude of the size-dependent-peak SF shift was too small for strictly relative SF tuning. These results show that human SF tuning is not fixed, but varies depending on the stimulus size and contrast. This dependency may contribute to size-invariant object recognition within an appropriate contrast rage. PMID:25413628

  16. Binocular rivalry: suppression depends on orientation and spatial frequency.

    PubMed

    Fahle, M

    1982-01-01

    In binocular rivalry the time during which different stimuli are perceived depends--amongst other things--on their spatial frequency (sf) contents, on contrast and on orientation. Limiting the sf-range of both periodic and aperiodic stimuli in different ways (while keeping the contrast constant) decreased their predominance. This result seems to corroborate the concept of spatial frequency channels in human vision. Decreasing the contrast also decreased predominance. Thus blurred patterns are suppressed by sharply focused ones because of both their lower contrast and their loss of high sf's. This has consequences for the therapy of strabismic amblyopia. Obliquely oriented patterns were almost as dominant as vertical ones and much more than horizontal ones. Instead of a conventional "oblique-effect" we found a "vertical-effect". PMID:7123863

  17. Microscale Modelling of the Frequency Dependent Resistivity of Porous Media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Volkmann, J.; Klitzsch, N.; Mohnke, O.; Clauser, C.

    2009-12-01

    In geophysics frequency dependent complex resistivity measurements are called Spectral Induced Polarization (SIP). In other fields this method is known as Impedance Spectroscopy. In the last two decades many empirical relations were proposed which relate the frequency dependent electrical properties of water saturated rocks to structural properties such as pore radius and inner surface area, or to hydraulic conductivity. Unfortunately, these relations are not universal; they apply only for specific rock types and water compositions. In order to quantify the influence of inner rock structure (as well as of electrochemical water and rock properties) on the frequency dependent electrical properties we model the charge transport processes at the pore space using Comsol Multiphysics. In the frequency domain the effect of Induced Polarization (IP) is characterised by a phase shift between a measured electric current and an alternating voltage applied to the ground. A possible origin of this behaviour particularly for nonconducting rock minerals can be seen in the membrane polarization model as proposed by Marshall and Madden. This model describes a system of electrolyte filled pores. Different mobilities of cations and anions in the small pores cause a membrane effect and thus an electrical polarization. We aim to find a more realistic way of modelling the membrane polarization effect than using the simple Marshall and Madden model. The electric double layer, the origin of the Induced Polarization effect, is caused by surface charges located at the electrolyte rock interface. Thus, the EDL as a boundary effect is accounted for by reduced ion mobilities at the inner surface area. The governing equations and boundary conditions for a system of larger and smaller pores with applied voltage are expressed in frequency domain using a time harmonic approach, the electric current is determined to obtain information about amplitude and phase of the complex resistivity. The

  18. Absolute absorption cross-section measurements of ozone in the wavelength region 238-335 nm and the temperature dependence

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yoshino, K.; Freeman, D. E.; Esmond, J. R.; Parkinson, W. H.

    1988-01-01

    The absolute absorption cross-section of ozone has been experimentally determined at the temperatures 195, 228, and 295 K at several discrete wavelengths in the 238-335-nm region. The present results for ozone at 295 K are found to be in agreement with those of Hearn (1961). Absolute cross-section measurements of ozone at 195 K have confirmed previous (Freeman et al., 1984) relative cross-section measurements throughout the 240-335-nm region.

  19. Optomechanics for absolute rotation detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davuluri, Sankar

    2016-07-01

    In this article, we present an application of optomechanical cavity for the absolute rotation detection. The optomechanical cavity is arranged in a Michelson interferometer in such a way that the classical centrifugal force due to rotation changes the length of the optomechanical cavity. The change in the cavity length induces a shift in the frequency of the cavity mode. The phase shift corresponding to the frequency shift in the cavity mode is measured at the interferometer output to estimate the angular velocity of absolute rotation. We derived an analytic expression to estimate the minimum detectable rotation rate in our scheme for a given optomechanical cavity. Temperature dependence of the rotation detection sensitivity is studied.

  20. Dependence of enhanced asymmetry-induced transport on collision frequency

    SciTech Connect

    Eggleston, D. L.

    2014-07-15

    A single-particle code with collisional effects is used to study how asymmetry-induced radial transport in a non-neutral plasma depends on collision frequency. For asymmetries of the form ϕ{sub 1}(r) cos(kz) cos(ωt−lθ), two sources for the transport have been identified: resonant particles and axially trapped particles. The simulation shows that this latter type, which occurs near the radius where ω matches the azimuthal rotation frequency ω{sub R}, is usually dominant at low collision frequency ν but becomes negligible at higher ν. This behavior can be understood by noting that axially trapped particles have a lower trapping frequency than resonant particles. In the low ν (banana) regime, the radial oscillations have amplitude Δr ≈ v{sub r}/ω{sub T}, so axially trapped particles dominate, and the transport may even exceed the resonant particle plateau regime level. As ν increases, collisions start to interrupt the slower axially trapped particle oscillations, while the resonant particles are still in the banana regime, so the axially trapped particle contribution to the transport decreases. At the largest ν values, axially trapped particle transport is negligible and the observed diffusion coefficient matches that given by plateau regime resonant particle theory. Heuristic models based on these considerations give reasonable agreement with the observed scaling laws for the value of the collision frequency where axially trapped particle transport starts to decrease and for the enhancement of the diffusion coefficient produced by axially trapped particles.

  1. In-situ Frequency Dependent Dielectric Sensing of Cure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kranbuehl, David E.

    1996-01-01

    With the expanding use of polymeric materials as composite matrices, adhesives, coatings and films, the need to develop low cost, automated fabrication processes to produce consistently high quality parts is critical. Essential to the development of reliable, automated, intelligent processing is the ability to continuously monitor the changing state of the polymeric resin in-situ in the fabrication tool. This final report discusses work done on developing dielectric sensing to monitor polymeric material cure and which provides a fundamental understanding of the underlying science for the use of frequency dependent dielectri sensors to monitor the cure process.

  2. Frequency-Dependent Selection in a Periodic Environment

    PubMed Central

    Forster, Robert; Wilke, Claus O.

    2007-01-01

    We examine the action of natural selection in a periodically changing environment where two competing strains are specialists respectively for each environmental state. When the relative fitness of the strains is subject to a very general class of frequency-dependent selection, we show that coexistence rather than extinction is the likely outcome. This coexistence may be a stable periodic equilibrium, stable limit cycles of varying lengths, or be deterministically chaotic. Our model is applicable to the population dynamics commonly found in many types of viruses. PMID:17940581

  3. Dispersive white light combined with a frequency-modulated continuous-wave interferometer for high-resolution absolute measurements of distance.

    PubMed

    Rovati, L; Minoni, U; Docchio, F

    1997-06-15

    A nonincremental interferometer for the absolute measurement of distances is presented. The measuring technique is based on both dispersive white-light (DWL) interferometry and frequency-modulated continuous-wave (FMCW) interferometry. The proposed configuration integrates both techniques in the same interferometer by use of a single laser diode. This solution enables the results from the coarse measurements from the FMCW interferometer to be combined with the fine readouts from the DWL interferometer. Preliminary experimental results confirm the capability of the system to combine the advantages of the two techniques. PMID:18185683

  4. Accurate absolute frequencies of the {nu}{sub 1}+{nu}{sub 3} band of {sup 13}C{sub 2}H{sub 2} determined using an infrared mode-locked Cr:YAG laser frequency comb

    SciTech Connect

    Madej, Alan A.; Bernard, John E.; John Alcock, A.; Czajkowski, Andrzej; Chepurov, Sergei

    2006-04-15

    Absolute frequency measurements, with up to 1x10{sup -11} level accuracies, are presented for 60 lines of the P and R branches for the {nu}{sub 1}+{nu}{sub 3} band of {sup 13}C{sub 2}H{sub 2} at 1.5 {mu}m (194 THz). The measurements were made using cavity-enhanced, diode-laser-based saturation spectroscopy. With one laser system stabilized to the P(16) line and a second laser system stabilized to the line whose frequency was to be determined, a Cr:YAG frequency comb was employed to accurately measure the tetrahertz level frequency intervals. The results are compared with recent work from other groups and indicate that these lines would form a basis for a high-quality atlas of reference frequencies for this region of the spectrum.

  5. Task, muscle and frequency dependent vestibular control of posture

    PubMed Central

    Forbes, Patrick A.; Siegmund, Gunter P.; Schouten, Alfred C.; Blouin, Jean-Sébastien

    2015-01-01

    The vestibular system is crucial for postural control; however there are considerable differences in the task dependence and frequency response of vestibular reflexes in appendicular and axial muscles. For example, vestibular reflexes are only evoked in appendicular muscles when vestibular information is relevant to postural control, while in neck muscles they are maintained regardless of the requirement to maintain head on trunk balance. Recent investigations have also shown that the bandwidth of vestibular input on neck muscles is much broader than appendicular muscles (up to a factor of 3). This result challenges the notion that vestibular reflexes only contribute to postural control across the behavioral and physiological frequency range of the vestibular organ (i.e., 0–20 Hz). In this review, we explore and integrate these task-, muscle- and frequency-related differences in the vestibular system’s contribution to posture, and propose that the human nervous system has adapted vestibular signals to match the mechanical properties of the system that each group of muscles controls. PMID:25620919

  6. Task, muscle and frequency dependent vestibular control of posture.

    PubMed

    Forbes, Patrick A; Siegmund, Gunter P; Schouten, Alfred C; Blouin, Jean-Sébastien

    2014-01-01

    The vestibular system is crucial for postural control; however there are considerable differences in the task dependence and frequency response of vestibular reflexes in appendicular and axial muscles. For example, vestibular reflexes are only evoked in appendicular muscles when vestibular information is relevant to postural control, while in neck muscles they are maintained regardless of the requirement to maintain head on trunk balance. Recent investigations have also shown that the bandwidth of vestibular input on neck muscles is much broader than appendicular muscles (up to a factor of 3). This result challenges the notion that vestibular reflexes only contribute to postural control across the behavioral and physiological frequency range of the vestibular organ (i.e., 0-20 Hz). In this review, we explore and integrate these task-, muscle- and frequency-related differences in the vestibular system's contribution to posture, and propose that the human nervous system has adapted vestibular signals to match the mechanical properties of the system that each group of muscles controls.

  7. Time and frequency dependent rheology of reactive silica gels.

    PubMed

    Wang, Miao; Winter, H Henning; Auernhammer, Günter K

    2014-01-01

    In a mixture of sodium silicate and low concentrated sulfuric acid, nano-sized silica particles grow and may aggregate to a system spanning gel network. We studied the influence of the finite solubility of silica at high pH on the mechanical properties of the gel with classical and piezo-rheometers. Direct preparation of the gel sample in the rheometer cell avoided any pre-shear of the gel structure during the filling of the rheometer. The storage modulus of the gel grew logarithmically with time with two distinct growth laws. The system passes the gel point very quickly but still shows relaxation at low frequency, typically below 6 rad/s. We attribute this as a sign of structural rearrangements due to the finite solubility of silica at high pH. The reaction equilibrium between bond formation and dissolution maintains a relatively large bond dissolution rate, which leads to a finite life time of the bonds and behavior similar to physical gels. This interpretation is also compatible with the logarithmic time dependence of the storage modulus. The frequency dependence was more pronounced for lower water concentrations, higher temperatures and shorter reaction times. With two relaxation models (the modified Cole-Cole model and the empirical Baumgaertel-Schausberger-Winter model) we deduced characteristic times from the experimental data. Both models approximately described the data and resulted in similar relaxation times.

  8. Reversible frequency-dependent switches in male mate choice.

    PubMed

    van Gossum, H; Stoks, R; De Bruyn, L

    2001-01-01

    Current sexual-selection theories predict that mating should occur preferentially with the highest-quality partner, and assume that for distinguishing among potential mates the choosy sex applies an internal representation of the characteristics of the desired mate, i.e. a template. Binary choice experiments were performed to test male mate choice between two different female colour morphs in the damselfly Ischnura elegans. Choice experiments were conducted before and after an habituation period, during which males were exposed to only one female colour morph. Given the choice between the two female morphs, males did exhibit a choice for the most recently experienced female morph. This is the first evidence for a reversible switch in mate choice in a frequency-dependent way. In contrast with previous studies on mate choice, template formation in male I. elegans seems not to be based on quality. Switching mate choice in a frequency-dependent manner, choosing the most common morph, probably allows males to minimize their search efforts and to maximize fitness. PMID:12123302

  9. Spatial frequency dependence of target signature for infrared performance modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Du Bosq, Todd; Olson, Jeffrey

    2011-05-01

    The standard model used to describe the performance of infrared imagers is the U.S. Army imaging system target acquisition model, based on the targeting task performance metric. The model is characterized by the resolution and sensitivity of the sensor as well as the contrast and task difficulty of the target set. The contrast of the target is defined as a spatial average contrast. The model treats the contrast of the target set as spatially white, or constant, over the bandlimit of the sensor. Previous experiments have shown that this assumption is valid under normal conditions and typical target sets. However, outside of these conditions, the treatment of target signature can become the limiting factor affecting model performance accuracy. This paper examines target signature more carefully. The spatial frequency dependence of the standard U.S. Army RDECOM CERDEC Night Vision 12 and 8 tracked vehicle target sets is described. The results of human perception experiments are modeled and evaluated using both frequency dependent and independent target signature definitions. Finally the function of task difficulty and its relationship to a target set is discussed.

  10. Autobiographical Memory Performance in Alzheimer's Disease Depends on Retrieval Frequency.

    PubMed

    Müller, Stephan; Mychajliw, Christian; Reichert, Carolin; Melcher, Tobias; Leyhe, Thomas

    2016-04-18

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is characterized by memory disturbances primarily caused by pathogenic mechanisms affecting medial temporal lobe structures. As proposed by current theories of memory formation, this decrease is mediated by the age of the acquired knowledge. However, they cannot fully explain specific patterns of retrograde amnesia in AD. In the current study we examined an alternative approach and investigated whether the extent and severity of retrograde amnesia in AD is mediated by the frequency of memory retrieval or whether it depends on the mere age of knowledge. We compared recall of autobiographical incidents from three life periods in patients with amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI), patients with early dementia of Alzheimer type (eDAT), and healthy control (HC) individuals using the Autobiographical Memory Interview. Retrieval frequency was operationalized by a paired comparison analysis. In contrast to HC individuals, recall of autobiographical incidents was impaired in patients with aMCI and eDAT following Ribot's gradient, with a reduced memory loss for remote compared to more recent life events. However, there was a strong effect of retrieval frequency on memory performance with frequently retrieved incidents memorized in more detail than less frequently retrieved episodes. Remote memories were recalled more often than recent ones. These findings suggest that more frequently retrieved autobiographical memories generally become more independent of the hippocampal complex and might thus be better protected against early hippocampal damage related to AD. Hence, the extent of retrograde amnesia in AD appears mainly mediated by the frequency of memory retrieval, which could plausibly explain why cognitive activity can effectively delay the onset of memory decline in AD.

  11. Autobiographical Memory Performance in Alzheimer's Disease Depends on Retrieval Frequency.

    PubMed

    Müller, Stephan; Mychajliw, Christian; Reichert, Carolin; Melcher, Tobias; Leyhe, Thomas

    2016-04-18

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is characterized by memory disturbances primarily caused by pathogenic mechanisms affecting medial temporal lobe structures. As proposed by current theories of memory formation, this decrease is mediated by the age of the acquired knowledge. However, they cannot fully explain specific patterns of retrograde amnesia in AD. In the current study we examined an alternative approach and investigated whether the extent and severity of retrograde amnesia in AD is mediated by the frequency of memory retrieval or whether it depends on the mere age of knowledge. We compared recall of autobiographical incidents from three life periods in patients with amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI), patients with early dementia of Alzheimer type (eDAT), and healthy control (HC) individuals using the Autobiographical Memory Interview. Retrieval frequency was operationalized by a paired comparison analysis. In contrast to HC individuals, recall of autobiographical incidents was impaired in patients with aMCI and eDAT following Ribot's gradient, with a reduced memory loss for remote compared to more recent life events. However, there was a strong effect of retrieval frequency on memory performance with frequently retrieved incidents memorized in more detail than less frequently retrieved episodes. Remote memories were recalled more often than recent ones. These findings suggest that more frequently retrieved autobiographical memories generally become more independent of the hippocampal complex and might thus be better protected against early hippocampal damage related to AD. Hence, the extent of retrograde amnesia in AD appears mainly mediated by the frequency of memory retrieval, which could plausibly explain why cognitive activity can effectively delay the onset of memory decline in AD. PMID:27104895

  12. Accurate absolute reference frequencies from 1511 to 1545 nm of the {nu}{sub 1}+{nu}{sub 3} band of {sup 12}C{sub 2}H{sub 2} determined with laser frequency comb interval measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Madej, Alan A.; Alcock, A. John; Czajkowski, Andrzej; Bernard, John E.; Chepurov, Sergei

    2006-10-15

    Absolute frequency measurements, with uncertainties as low as 2 kHz (1x10{sup -11}), are presented for the {nu}{sub 1}+{nu}{sub 3} band of {sup 12}C{sub 2}H{sub 2} at 1.5 {mu}m (194-198 THz). The measurements were made using cavity-enhanced, diode-laser-based saturation spectroscopy. With one laser system stabilized to the P(16) line of {sup 13}C{sub 2}H{sub 2} and a system stabilized to the line in {sup 12}C{sub 2}H{sub 2} whose frequency was to be determined, a Cr:YAG laser-based frequency comb was employed to measure the frequency intervals. The systematic uncertainty is notably reduced relative to that of previous studies, and the region of measured lines has been extended. Improved molecular constants are obtained.

  13. A frequency dependent preconditioned wavelet method for atmospheric tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yudytskiy, Mykhaylo; Helin, Tapio; Ramlau, Ronny

    2013-12-01

    Atmospheric tomography, i.e. the reconstruction of the turbulence in the atmosphere, is a main task for the adaptive optics systems of the next generation telescopes. For extremely large telescopes, such as the European Extremely Large Telescope, this problem becomes overly complex and an efficient algorithm is needed to reduce numerical costs. Recently, a conjugate gradient method based on wavelet parametrization of turbulence layers was introduced [5]. An iterative algorithm can only be numerically efficient when the number of iterations required for a sufficient reconstruction is low. A way to achieve this is to design an efficient preconditioner. In this paper we propose a new frequency-dependent preconditioner for the wavelet method. In the context of a multi conjugate adaptive optics (MCAO) system simulated on the official end-to-end simulation tool OCTOPUS of the European Southern Observatory we demonstrate robustness and speed of the preconditioned algorithm. We show that three iterations are sufficient for a good reconstruction.

  14. Inverse characterisation of frequency-dependent properties of adhesives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rouleau, Lucie; Deü, Jean-François; Legay, Antoine

    2016-09-01

    Traditional damping treatments are usually applied to the vibrating structure by means of adhesive layers. Environmental parameters, such as frequencies of excitation, may influence the behaviour of the bonding layer and modify the damping efficiency of the treatment. Therefore it is desired to take into account the viscoelastic behaviour of the adhesive layer in the finite element model. The goal of this work is to present a procedure to characterise and model the adhesive layer. To that purpose, an experimental-numerical method for inverse characterisation of the frequency dependent properties of the adhesive layer is applied. The proposed inverse approach is based on a four-parameter fractional derivative model whose parameters are identified by minimising the difference between the simulated and the measured dynamic response of a multi-layered structure assembled by bonding. In the finite element model used for the optimisation, the adhesive layer is modelled by interface finite elements. The influence of the adhesive layer on the efficiency of a damping treatment is evidenced by performing dynamic testing on a sandwich structure with a viscoelastic core, assembled by bonding. The proposed approach is applied to the characterisation of a pressure-sensitive adhesive.

  15. Frequency-dependent energy harvesting via magnetic shape memory alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sayyaadi, Hassan; Askari Farsangi, Mohammad Amin

    2015-11-01

    This paper is focused on presenting an accurate framework to describe frequency-dependent energy harvesting via magnetic shape memory alloys (MSMAs). Modeling strategy incorporates the phenomenological constitutive model developed formerly together with the magnetic diffusion equation. A hyperbolic hardening function is employed to define reorientation-induced strain hardening in the material, and the diffusion equation is used to add dynamic effects to the model. The MSMA prismatic specimen is surrounded by a pickup coil, and the induced voltage during martensite-variant reorientation is investigated with the help of Faraday’s law of magnetic field induction. It has been shown that, in order to harvest the maximum RMS voltage in the MSMA-based energy harvester, an optimum value of bias magnetic field exists, which is the corresponding magnetic field for the start of pseudoelasticity behavior. In addition, to achieve a more compact energy harvester with higher energy density, a specimen with a lower aspect ratio can be chosen. As the main novelty of the paper, it is found that the dynamic effects play a major role in determining the harvested voltage and power, especially for high excitation frequency or specimen thickness.

  16. Frequency-dependent selection at rough expanding fronts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuhr, Jan-Timm; Stark, Holger

    2015-10-01

    Microbial colonies are experimental model systems for studying the colonization of new territory by biological species through range expansion. We study a generalization of the two-species Eden model, which incorporates local frequency-dependent selection, in order to analyze how social interactions between two species influence surface roughness of growing microbial colonies. The model includes several classical scenarios from game theory. We then concentrate on an expanding public goods game, where either cooperators or defectors take over the front depending on the system parameters. We analyze in detail the critical behavior of the nonequilibrium phase transition between global cooperation and defection and thereby identify a new universality class of phase transitions dealing with absorbing states. At the transition, the number of boundaries separating sectors decays with a novel power law in time and their superdiffusive motion crosses over from Eden scaling to a nearly ballistic regime. In parallel, the width of the front initially obeys Eden roughening and, at later times, passes over to selective roughening.

  17. Absolute frequencies of the {sup 6,7}Li 2S {sup 2}S{sub 1/2}{yields}3S {sup 2}S{sub 1/2} transitions

    SciTech Connect

    Lien, Yu-Hung; Lo, Kuan-Ju; Chen, Jun-Ren; Liu, Yi-Wei; Chen, Hsuan-Chen; Tian, Jyun-Yu; Shy, Jow-Tsong

    2011-10-15

    The measurement of the absolute frequencies of the 2S{yields}3S of atomic lithium is reported. To reduce systematic effects, we employed a frequency-comb-stabilized excitation laser, a weakly collimated atomic beam, and the cascading 2P{yields}2S 670 nm fluorescence as the signal. The transition frequencies, including two isotopes ({sup 6,7}Li), were measured to an accuracy of < 330 kHz. In comparison with the previous GSI Group experiment, the frequency of the 2S{sub 1/2}{yields}3S{sub 1/2} transition of {sup 7}Li is 815 618 181.45(9) MHz, which is improved by a factor of 2. The resultant hyperfine constants of the 3S state and the deduced difference of the nuclear charge radii {delta} from the isotope shift are in good agreement with previous results. Since a more straightforward methodology is adopted, our measurement is less model dependent and serves as an independent investigation of the reported transitions.

  18. Polarization dependence of the direct two photon transitions of 87Rb atoms by erbium: Fiber laser frequency comb

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dai, Shaoyang; Xia, Wei; Zhang, Yin; Zhao, Jianye; Zhou, Dawei; Wang, Qing; Yu, Qi; Li, Kunqian; Qi, Xianghui; Chen, Xuzong

    2016-11-01

    The femtosecond fiber-based optical frequency combs have been proved to be powerful tools for investigating the energy levels of atoms and molecules. In this paper, an Er-doped fiber femtosecond optical frequency comb has been implemented for studying the polarization dependence of 5S-5D two-photon transitions in thermal gas of atomic rubidium 87 using an entirely symmetrical optical configuration. By changing the polarization states of the counter-propagating light beams, the polarization dependence of direct two photon transition spectrum is demonstrated, and a dramatic variation (up to 5.5 times) of the two-photon transitions strength has been observed. The theory for the polarization dependence of two photon transition based on the second-order perturbation was established, which is in good agreement with the experimental results. The measurement results indicate that the polarization state manipulation with the existing frequency comb is used for femtosecond optical frequency comb based two photon transition spectroscopic purposes, which will improve the precision measurement of the absolute transition frequency and related applications.

  19. Absolute biological needs.

    PubMed

    McLeod, Stephen

    2014-07-01

    Absolute needs (as against instrumental needs) are independent of the ends, goals and purposes of personal agents. Against the view that the only needs are instrumental needs, David Wiggins and Garrett Thomson have defended absolute needs on the grounds that the verb 'need' has instrumental and absolute senses. While remaining neutral about it, this article does not adopt that approach. Instead, it suggests that there are absolute biological needs. The absolute nature of these needs is defended by appeal to: their objectivity (as against mind-dependence); the universality of the phenomenon of needing across the plant and animal kingdoms; the impossibility that biological needs depend wholly upon the exercise of the abilities characteristic of personal agency; the contention that the possession of biological needs is prior to the possession of the abilities characteristic of personal agency. Finally, three philosophical usages of 'normative' are distinguished. On two of these, to describe a phenomenon or claim as 'normative' is to describe it as value-dependent. A description of a phenomenon or claim as 'normative' in the third sense does not entail such value-dependency, though it leaves open the possibility that value depends upon the phenomenon or upon the truth of the claim. It is argued that while survival needs (or claims about them) may well be normative in this third sense, they are normative in neither of the first two. Thus, the idea of absolute need is not inherently normative in either of the first two senses. PMID:23586876

  20. Absolute biological needs.

    PubMed

    McLeod, Stephen

    2014-07-01

    Absolute needs (as against instrumental needs) are independent of the ends, goals and purposes of personal agents. Against the view that the only needs are instrumental needs, David Wiggins and Garrett Thomson have defended absolute needs on the grounds that the verb 'need' has instrumental and absolute senses. While remaining neutral about it, this article does not adopt that approach. Instead, it suggests that there are absolute biological needs. The absolute nature of these needs is defended by appeal to: their objectivity (as against mind-dependence); the universality of the phenomenon of needing across the plant and animal kingdoms; the impossibility that biological needs depend wholly upon the exercise of the abilities characteristic of personal agency; the contention that the possession of biological needs is prior to the possession of the abilities characteristic of personal agency. Finally, three philosophical usages of 'normative' are distinguished. On two of these, to describe a phenomenon or claim as 'normative' is to describe it as value-dependent. A description of a phenomenon or claim as 'normative' in the third sense does not entail such value-dependency, though it leaves open the possibility that value depends upon the phenomenon or upon the truth of the claim. It is argued that while survival needs (or claims about them) may well be normative in this third sense, they are normative in neither of the first two. Thus, the idea of absolute need is not inherently normative in either of the first two senses.

  1. Absolute atomic oxygen and nitrogen densities in radio-frequency driven atmospheric pressure cold plasmas: Synchrotron vacuum ultra-violet high-resolution Fourier-transform absorption measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Niemi, K.; O'Connell, D.; Gans, T.; Oliveira, N. de; Joyeux, D.; Nahon, L.; Booth, J. P.

    2013-07-15

    Reactive atomic species play a key role in emerging cold atmospheric pressure plasma applications, in particular, in plasma medicine. Absolute densities of atomic oxygen and atomic nitrogen were measured in a radio-frequency driven non-equilibrium plasma operated at atmospheric pressure using vacuum ultra-violet (VUV) absorption spectroscopy. The experiment was conducted on the DESIRS synchrotron beamline using a unique VUV Fourier-transform spectrometer. Measurements were carried out in plasmas operated in helium with air-like N{sub 2}/O{sub 2} (4:1) admixtures. A maximum in the O-atom concentration of (9.1 {+-} 0.7) Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 20} m{sup -3} was found at admixtures of 0.35 vol. %, while the N-atom concentration exhibits a maximum of (5.7 {+-} 0.4) Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 19} m{sup -3} at 0.1 vol. %.

  2. Advanced Reservoir Imaging Using Frequency-Dependent Seismic Attributes

    SciTech Connect

    Fred Hilterman; Tad Patzek; Gennady Goloshubin; Dmitriy Silin; Charlotte Sullivan; Valeri Korneev

    2007-12-31

    Our report concerning advanced imaging and interpretation technology includes the development of theory, the implementation of laboratory experiments and the verification of results using field data. We investigated a reflectivity model for porous fluid-saturated reservoirs and demonstrated that the frequency-dependent component of the reflection coefficient is asymptotically proportional to the reservoir fluid mobility. We also analyzed seismic data using different azimuths and offsets over physical models of fractures filled with air and water. By comparing our physical model synthetics to numerical data we have identified several diagnostic indicators for quantifying the fractures. Finally, we developed reflectivity transforms for predicting pore fluid and lithology using rock-property statistics from 500 reservoirs in both the shelf and deep-water Gulf of Mexico. With these transforms and seismic AVO gathers across the prospect and its down-dip water-equivalent reservoir, fluid saturation can be estimated without a calibration well that ties the seismic. Our research provides the important additional mechanisms to recognize, delineate, and validate new hydrocarbon reserves and assist in the development of producing fields.

  3. Female elk contacts are neither frequency nor density dependent

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cross, Paul C.; Creech, Tyler G.; Ebinger, Michael R.; Manlove, Kezia R.; Irvine, Kathryn M.; Henningsen, John C.; Rogerson, Jared D.; Scurlock, Brandon M.; Creely, Scott

    2013-01-01

    Identifying drivers of contact rates among individuals is critical to understanding disease dynamics and implementing targeted control measures. We studied the interaction patterns of 149 female elk (Cervus canadensis) distributed across five different regions of western Wyoming over three years, defining a contact as an approach within one body length (∼2 m). Using hierarchical models that account for correlations within individuals, pairs, and groups, we found that pairwise contact rates within a group declined by a factor of three as group sizes increased 33-fold. Per capita contact rates, however, increased with group size according to a power function, such that female elk contact rates fell in between the predictions of density- or frequency-dependent disease models. We found similar patterns for the duration of contacts. Our results suggest that larger elk groups are likely to play a disproportionate role in the disease dynamics of directly transmitted infections in elk. Supplemental feeding of elk had a limited impact on pairwise interaction rates and durations, but per capita rates were more than two times higher on feeding grounds. Our statistical approach decomposes the variation in contact rate into individual, dyadic, and environmental effects, and provides insight into factors that may be targeted by disease control programs. In particular, female elk contact patterns were driven more by environmental factors such as group size than by either individual or dyad effects.

  4. Female elk contacts are neither frequency nor density dependent.

    PubMed

    Cross, P C; Creech, T G; Ebinger, M R; Manlove, K; Irvine, K; Henningsen, J; Rogerson, J; Scurlock, B M; Creel, S

    2013-09-01

    Identifying drivers of contact rates among individuals is critical to understanding disease dynamics and implementing targeted control measures. We studied the interaction patterns of 149 female elk (Cervus canadensis) distributed across five different regions of western Wyoming over three years, defining a contact as an approach within one body length (-2 min). Using hierarchical models that account for correlations within individuals, pairs, and groups, we found that pairwise contact rates within a group declined by a factor of three as group sizes increased 33-fold. Per capita contact rates, however, increased with group size according to a power function, such that female elk contact rates fell in between the predictions of density- or frequency-dependent disease models. We found similar patterns for the duration of contacts. Our results suggest that larger elk groups are likely to play a disproportionate role in the disease dynamics of directly transmitted infections in elk. Supplemental feeding of elk had a limited impact on pairwise interaction rates and durations, but per capita rates were more than two times higher on feeding grounds. Our statistical approach decomposes the variation in contact rate into individual, dyadic, and environmental effects, and provides insight into factors that may be targeted by disease control programs. In particular, female elk contact patterns were driven more by environmental factors such as group size than by either individual or dyad effects. PMID:24279278

  5. Exploiting nonlinear amplitude-frequency dependence for temperature compensation in silicon micromechanical resonators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Defoort, M.; Taheri-Tehrani, P.; Horsley, D. A.

    2016-10-01

    Resonators used in frequency-reference oscillators must maintain a stable frequency output even when subjected to temperature variations. The traditional solution is to construct the resonator from a material with a low temperature coefficient, such as AT-cut quartz, which can achieve absolute frequency stability on the order of ±25 ppm over commercial temperature ranges. In comparison, Si microresonators suffer from the disadvantage that silicon's temperature coefficient of frequency (TCF) is approximately two orders of magnitude greater than that of AT-cut quartz. In this paper, we present an in situ passive temperature compensation scheme for Si microresonators based on nonlinear amplitude-frequency coupling which reduces the TCF to a level comparable with that of an AT-quartz resonator. The implementation of this passive technique is generic to a variety of Si microresonators and can be applied to a number of frequency control and timing applications.

  6. Frequency-Dependent Viscosity of Xenon Near the Critical Point

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Berg, Robert F.; Moldover, Michael R.; Zimmerli, Gregory A.

    1999-01-01

    We used a novel, overdamped oscillator aboard the Space Shuttle to measure the viscosity eta of xenon near its critical density rho(sub c), and temperature T(sub c). In microgravity, useful data were obtained within 0.1 mK of T(sub c), corresponding to a reduced temperature t = (T -T(sub c))/T(sub c) = 3 x 10(exp -7). The data extend two decades closer to T(sub c) than the best ground measurements, and they directly reveal the expected power-law behavior eta proportional to t(sup -(nu)z(sub eta)). Here nu is the correlation length exponent, and our result for the small viscosity exponent is z(sub eta) = 0.0690 +/- 0.0006. (All uncertainties are one standard uncertainty.) Our value for z(sub eta) depends only weakly on the form of the viscosity crossover function, and it agrees with the value 0.067 +/- 0.002 obtained from a recent two-loop perturbation expansion. The measurements spanned the frequency range 2 Hz less than or equal to f less than or equal to 12 Hz and revealed viscoelasticity when t less than or equal to 10(exp -1), further from T(sub c) than predicted. The viscoelasticity scales as Af(tau), where tau is the fluctuation-decay time. The fitted value of the viscoelastic time-scale parameter A is 2.0 +/- 0.3 times the result of a one-loop perturbation calculation. Near T(sub c), the xenon's calculated time constant for thermal diffusion exceeded days. Nevertheless, the viscosity results were independent of the xenon's temperature history, indicating that the density was kept near rho(sub c), by judicious choices of the temperature vs. time program. Deliberately bad choices led to large density inhomogeneities. At t greater than 10(exp -5), the xenon approached equilibrium much faster than expected, suggesting that convection driven by microgravity and by electric fields slowly stirred the sample.

  7. Describing the Frequency of Marijuana Use: Fuzziness and Context-Dependent Interpretation of Frequency Expressions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Matt, Georg E.; Wilson, Sandra Jo

    1994-01-01

    A fuzzy set model is offered for interpreting vague frequency expressions, such as "rarely" and "sometimes." Results with 152 undergraduates reporting marijuana use reflect different frequency expressions for the same level of use and suggest that self-report validity may be enhanced by analyzing frequency expressions as fuzzy sets. (SLD)

  8. Frequency-Dependent Blanking with Digital Linear Chirp Waveform Synthesis

    SciTech Connect

    Doerry, Armin Walter; Andrews, John M.

    2014-07-01

    Wideband radar systems, especially those that operate at lower frequencies such as VHF and UHF, are often restricted from transmitting within or across specific frequency bands in order to prevent interference to other spectrum users. Herein we describe techniques for notching the transmitted spectrum of a generated and transmitted radar waveform. The notches are fully programmable as to their location, and techniques are given that control the characteristics of the notches.

  9. Temperature and frequency dependence of ultrasonic attenuation in selected tissues

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gammell, P. M.; Croissette, D. H. L.; Heyser, R. C.

    1979-01-01

    Ultrasonic attenuation over the frequency range of 1.5-10 MHz has been measured as a function of temperature for porcine liver, backfat, kidney and spleen as well as for a single specimen of human liver. The attenuation in these excised specimens increases nearly linearly with frequency. Over the temperature range of approximately 4-37 C the attenuation decreases with increasing temperature for most soft tissue studied.

  10. Temperature and pressure dependence of the absolute rate constant for the reactions of NH2 radicals with acetylene and ethylene

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bosco, S. R.; Nava, D. F.; Brobst, W. D.; Stief, L. J.

    1984-01-01

    The absolute rate constants for the reaction between the NH2 free radical and acetylene and ethylene is measured experimentally using a flash photolysis technique. The constant is considered to be a function of temperature and pressure. At each temperature level of the experiment, the observed pseudo-first-order rate constants were assumed to be independent of flash intensity. The results of the experiment indicate that the bimolecular rate constant for the NH2 + C2H2 reaction increases with pressure at 373 K and 459 K but not at lower temperatures. Results near the pressure limit conform to an Arrhenius expression of 1.11 (+ or -) 0.36 x 10 to the -13th over the temperature range from 241 to 459 K. For the reaction NH2 + C2H4, a smaller rate of increase in the bimolecular rate constant was observed over the temperature range 250-465 K. The implications of these results for current theoretical models of NH2 + C2H2 (or H4) reactions in the atmospheres of Jupiter and Saturn are discussed.

  11. Pressure dependent resonant frequency of micromechanical drumhead resonators

    SciTech Connect

    Southworth, D. R.; Craighead, H. G.; Parpia, J. M.

    2009-05-25

    We examine the relationship between squeeze film effects and resonance frequency in drum-type resonators. We find that the resonance frequency increases linearly with pressure as a result of the additional restoring force contribution from compression of gas within the drum cavity. We demonstrate trapping of the gas by squeeze film effects and geometry. The pressure sensitivity is shown to scale inversely with cavity height and sound radiation is found to be the predominant loss mechanism near and above atmospheric pressure. Drum resonators exhibit linearity and sensitivity suitable to barometry from below 10 Torr up to several atmospheres.

  12. The Reproducibility and Absolute Values of Echocardiographic Measurements of Left Ventricular Size and Function in Children are Algorithm Dependent

    PubMed Central

    Margossian, Renee; Chen, Shan; Sleeper, Lynn A.; Tani, Lloyd Y.; Shirali, Girish; Golding, Fraser; Tierney, Elif Seda Selamet; Altmann, Karen; Campbell, Michael J.; Szwast, Anita; Sharkey, Angela; Radojewski, Elizabeth; Colan, Steven D.

    2015-01-01

    Background Several quantification algorithms for measuring left ventricular (LV) size and function are used in clinical and research settings. We investigated the effect of the measurement algorithm and beat averaging on the reproducibility of measurements of the LV and assessed the magnitude of agreement among the algorithms in children with dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM). Methods Echocardiograms were obtained on 169 children from 8 clinical centers. Inter- and intra-reader reproducibility were assessed on measurements of LV volumes using biplane Simpson, modified Simpson (MS), and 5/6 x area x length (5/6AL) algorithms. Percent error (%error) was calculated as the inter- or intra-reader difference / mean x 100. Single beat measurements and the 3-beat average (3BA) were compared. Intra-class correlation coefficients (ICC) were calculated to assess agreement. Results Single beat inter-reader reproducibility was lowest (%error was highest) using biplane Simpson; 5/6AL and MS were similar but significantly better than biplane Simpson (p<.05). Single beat intra-reader reproducibility was highest using 5/6AL (p<.05). 3BA improved reproducibility for almost all measures (p<.05). Reproducibility in both single and 3BA values fell with greater LV dilation and systolic dysfunction (p<.05). ICCs were > 0.95 across measures, although absolute volume and mass values were systematically lower for biplane Simpson compared to MS and to 5/6AL. Conclusions The reproducibility of LV size and function measurements in children with DCM is highest using the 5/6AL algorithm, and can be further improved by using 3BA. However, values derived from different algorithms are not interchangeable. PMID:25728351

  13. iNKT cell frequency in peripheral blood of Caucasian children and adolescent: the absolute iNKT cell count is stable from birth to adulthood.

    PubMed

    Bienemann, K; Iouannidou, K; Schoenberg, K; Krux, F; Reuther, S; Feyen, O; Bienemann, K; Schuster, F; Uhrberg, M; Laws, H-J; Borkhardt, A

    2011-10-01

    Human invariant natural killer T cells (iNKT cells) are a unique population of T cells that express a semi-invariantly rearranged T cell receptor (TCR) and are involved in a variety of immunoregulatory processes. We assessed the frequency of peripheral blood iNKT cells in 64 healthy Caucasian children from 7 months to 18 years of age and five cord blood samples by flow cytometry. iNKT cells were measured as CD3(+) cells co-expressing TCRVα24 and TCRVβ11 and using the monoclonal antibody 6B11, which recognizes specifically their invariant TCR rearrangement. The absolute number of iNKT cells ranged from 86 to 10,499 (CD3(+) /TCRVα24(+) / TCRVβ11(+)) and 233 to 11,167 (CD3(+) /6B11(+)) iNKT cells per millilitre of blood. This range is stable from birth to adulthood. The relative iNKT cell count was found to be 0.003-0.71% (CD3(+) /TCRVα24/TCRVβ11) and 0.019-0.776% (CD3/6B11) of peripheral blood T cells and shows only a slight increase with age.

  14. Absolute and relative emission spectroscopy study of 3 cm wide planar radio frequency atmospheric pressure bio-plasma source

    SciTech Connect

    Deng, Xiaolong; Nikiforov, Anton Yu Leys, Christophe; Ionita, Eusebiu-Rosini; Dinescu, Gheorghe

    2015-08-03

    The dynamics of low power atmospheric pressure radio frequency discharge generated in Ar gas in long gap of 3 cm is investigated. This plasma source is characterized and analyzed for possible large scale biomedical applications where low gas temperature and potential-less effluent are required. The discharge forms a homogenous glow-like afterglow in ambient air at input power of 30 W with low gas temperature of 330 K, which is desirable in biomedical applications. With absolute calibrated spectroscopy of the discharge, electron density of 0.4 × 10{sup 18} m{sup −3} and electron temperature of 1.5 eV are obtained from continuum Bremsstrahlung radiation of the source. Time and spatial resolved emission spectroscopy is used to analyze discharge generation mechanism and active species formation. It is found that discharge dynamics strongly correlates with the discharge current waveform. Strong Ar(2p) excited states emission is observed nearby the electrodes surface on a distance up to 200 μm in the plasma sheath region at 10 ns after the current peak, whereas OH(A) emission is uniform along of the interelectrode gap.

  15. Frequency dependence and intensity fluctuations due to shallow water internal waves.

    PubMed

    Badiey, Mohsen; Katsnelson, Boris G; Lynch, James F; Pereselkov, Serguey

    2007-08-01

    A theory and experimental results for sound propagation through an anisotropic shallow water environment are presented to examine the frequency dependence of the scintillation index in the presence of internal waves. The theory of horizontal rays and vertical modes is used to establish the azimutal and frequency behavior of the sound intensity fluctuations, specifically for shallow water broadband acoustic signals propagating through internal waves. This theory is then used to examine the frequency dependent, anisotropic acoustic field measured during the SWARM'95 experiment. The frequency dependent modal scintillation index is described for the frequency range of 30-200 Hz on the New Jersey continental shelf.

  16. Frequency-dependent electrostatic actuation in microfluidic MEMS.

    SciTech Connect

    Zavadil, Kevin Robert; Michalske, Terry A.; Sounart, Thomas L.

    2003-09-01

    Electrostatic actuators exhibit fast response times and are easily integrated into microsystems because they can be fabricated with standard IC micromachining processes and materials. Although electrostatic actuators have been used extensively in 'dry' MEMS, they have received less attention in microfluidic systems probably because of challenges such as electrolysis, anodization, and electrode polarization. Here we demonstrate that ac drive signals can be used to prevent electrode polarization, and thus enable electrostatic actuation in many liquids, at potentials low enough to avoid electrochemistry. We measure the frequency response of an interdigitated silicon comb-drive actuator in liquids spanning a decade of dielectric permittivities and four decades of conductivity, and present a simple theory that predicts the characteristic actuation frequency. The analysis demonstrates the importance of the native oxide on silicon actuator response, and suggests that the actuation frequency can be shifted by controlling the thickness of the oxide. For native silicon devices, actuation is predicted at frequencies less than 10 MHz, in electrolytes of ionic strength up to 100 mmol/L, and thus electrostatic actuation may be feasible in many bioMEMS and other microfluidic applications.

  17. Frequency-dependent shear impedance of the tectorial membrane.

    PubMed

    Gu, Jianwen Wendy; Hemmert, Werner; Freeman, Dennis M; Aranyosi, A J

    2008-09-01

    Microscale mechanical probes were designed and bulk-fabricated for applying shearing forces to biological tissues. These probes were used to measure shear impedance of the tectorial membrane (TM) in two dimensions. Forces were applied in the radial and longitudinal directions at frequencies ranging from 0.01-9 kHz and amplitudes from 0.02-4 microN. The force applied was determined by measuring the deflection of the probes' cantilever arms. TM impedance in the radial direction had a magnitude of 63 +/- 28 mN x s/m at 10 Hz and fell with frequency by 16 +/- 0.4 dB/decade, with a constant phase of -72 +/- 6 degrees . In the longitudinal direction, impedance was 36 +/- 9 mN x s/m at 10 Hz and fell by 19 +/- 0.4 dB/decade, with a constant phase of -78 +/- 4 degrees . Impedance was nearly constant as a function of force except at the highest forces, for which it fell slightly. These results show that the viscoelastic properties of the TM extend over a significant range of audio frequencies, consistent with a poroelastic interpretation of TM mechanics. The shear modulus G' determined from these measurements was 17-50 kPa, which is larger than in species with a lower auditory frequency range. This value suggests that hair bundles cannot globally shear the TM, but most likely cause bulk TM motion. PMID:18515382

  18. Absolute Summ

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Phillips, Alfred, Jr.

    Summ means the entirety of the multiverse. It seems clear, from the inflation theories of A. Guth and others, that the creation of many universes is plausible. We argue that Absolute cosmological ideas, not unlike those of I. Newton, may be consistent with dynamic multiverse creations. As suggested in W. Heisenberg's uncertainty principle, and with the Anthropic Principle defended by S. Hawking, et al., human consciousness, buttressed by findings of neuroscience, may have to be considered in our models. Predictability, as A. Einstein realized with Invariants and General Relativity, may be required for new ideas to be part of physics. We present here a two postulate model geared to an Absolute Summ. The seedbed of this work is part of Akhnaton's philosophy (see S. Freud, Moses and Monotheism). Most important, however, is that the structure of human consciousness, manifest in Kenya's Rift Valley 200,000 years ago as Homo sapiens, who were the culmination of the six million year co-creation process of Hominins and Nature in Africa, allows us to do the physics that we do. .

  19. Habitat assessment ability of bumble-bees implies frequency-dependent selection on floral rewards and display size

    PubMed Central

    Biernaskie, Jay M; Gegear, Robert J

    2007-01-01

    Foraging pollinators could visit hundreds of flowers in succession on mass-flowering plants, yet they often visit only a small number—potentially saving the plant from much self-pollination among its own flowers (geitonogamy). This study tests the hypothesis that bumble-bee (Bombus impatiens) residence on a particular plant depends on an assessment of that plant's reward value relative to the overall quality experienced in the habitat. In a controlled environment, naive bees were given experience in a particular habitat (all plants having equal nectar quality or number of rewarding flowers), and we tested whether they learn about and adaptively exploit a new habitat type. Bees' residence on a plant (number of flowers probed per visit) was eventually invariant to a doubling of absolute nectar quality and increased only slightly with a doubling of absolute flower number in the habitat. These results help to explain why pollinators are quick to leave highly rewarding plants and suggest that the fitness of rewarding plant traits will often be frequency dependent. One implication is that geitonogamy may be a less significant constraint on the evolution of rewarding traits than generally supposed. PMID:17711839

  20. Frequency dependence of alternating current electrospray ionization mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Chetwani, Nishant; Cassou, Catherine A; Go, David B; Chang, Hsueh-Chia

    2011-04-15

    The novel effects resulting from the entrainment of low mobility ions during alternating current (ac) electrospray ionization are examined through mass spectrometry and voltage/current measurements. Curious phenomena such as pH modulation at high frequencies (>150 kHz) of an applied ac electric field are revealed and explained using simple mechanistic arguments. Current measurements are utilized to supplement these observations, and a simplified one-dimensional transient diffusion model for charge transport is used to arrive at a scaling law that provides better insight into the ac electrospray ionization process. Moreover, because of the different pathway for ion formation in comparison to direct current (dc) electrospray, ac electrospray (at frequencies >250 kHz) is shown to reduce the effects of ionization suppression in a mixture of two molecules with different surface activities. PMID:21417427

  1. Frequency dependence of laser ultrasonic SAW phase velocities measurements.

    PubMed

    Li, Chunhui; Song, Shaozhen; Guan, Guangying; Wang, Ruikang K; Huang, Zhihong

    2013-01-01

    Advances in the field of laser ultrasonics have opened up new possibilities in applications in many areas. This paper verifies the relationship between phase velocities of different materials, including hard solid and soft solid, and the frequency range of SAW signal. We propose a novel approach that utilizes a low coherence interferometer to detect the laser-induced surface acoustic waves (SAWs). A Nd:YAG focused laser line-source is applied to steel, iron, plastic plates and a 3.5% agar-agar phantom. The generated SAW signals are detected by a time domain low coherence interferometry system. SAW phase velocity dispersion curves were calculated, from which the elasticity of the specimens was evaluated. The relationship between frequency content and phase velocities was analyzed. We show that the experimental results agreed well with those of the theoretical expectations.

  2. Frequency-dependent conductivity contrast for tissue characterization using a dual-frequency range conductivity mapping magnetic resonance method.

    PubMed

    Kim, Dong-Hyun; Chauhan, Munish; Kim, Min-Oh; Jeong, Woo Chul; Kim, Hyung Joong; Sersa, Igor; Kwon, Oh In; Woo, Eung Je

    2015-02-01

    Electrical conductivities of biological tissues show frequency-dependent behaviors, and these values at different frequencies may provide clinically useful diagnostic information. MR-based tissue property mapping techniques such as magnetic resonance electrical impedance tomography (MREIT) and magnetic resonance electrical property tomography (MREPT) are widely used and provide unique conductivity contrast information over different frequency ranges. Recently, a new method for data acquisition and reconstruction for low- and high-frequency conductivity images from a single MR scan was proposed. In this study, we applied this simultaneous dual-frequency range conductivity mapping MR method to evaluate its utility in a designed phantom and two in vivo animal disease models. Magnetic flux density and B(1)(+) phase map for dual-frequency conductivity images were acquired using a modified spin-echo pulse sequence. Low-frequency conductivity was reconstructed from MREIT data by the projected current density method, while high-frequency conductivity was reconstructed from MREPT data by B(1)(+) mapping. Two different conductivity phantoms comprising varying ion concentrations separated by insulating films with or without holes were used to study the contrast mechanism of the frequency-dependent conductivities related to ion concentration and mobility. Canine brain abscess and ischemia were used as in vivo models to evaluate the capability of the proposed method to identify new electrical properties-based contrast at two different frequencies. The simultaneous dual-frequency range conductivity mapping MR method provides unique contrast information related to the concentration and mobility of ions inside tissues. This method has potential to monitor dynamic changes of the state of disease.

  3. Muscle-related differences in mechanomyography frequency-force relationships are model dependent.

    PubMed

    Herda, Trent J; Cooper, Michael A

    2015-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the surface mechanomyographic mean power frequency (MMG MPF)-force relationships with linear regression models applied to the absolute and log-transformed values for the first dorsal interosseous (FDI), vastus lateralis (VL) and rectus femoris (RF) muscles. Thirteen healthy males performed isometric ramp contractions of the leg extensors and index finger from 10 to 80% of their maximal voluntary contraction with MMG sensors positioned on the VL, RF, and FDI. Simple linear regression models were fit to the absolute and log-transformed MMG MPF-force relationships. Skinfold thickness measurements were taken at each sensor site. There were significant differences for the slopes from the log-transformed MMG MPF-force relationships between the FDI and the leg extensors (P < 0.001) but not the absolute model (P = 0.168). The Y-intercepts were greater for the FDI than the leg extensors for the absolute (P < 0.001) and log-transformed models (P < 0.001), which reflected similar muscle-related differences (P < 0.001) for skinfold thickness. However, there were no significant correlations between Y-intercepts and skinfold thicknesses. Differences in the patterns of response between the FDI and leg extensors were only quantified with the log-transformed model.

  4. Sensitivity in frequency dependent angular rotation of optical vortices.

    PubMed

    Rumala, Yisa S

    2016-03-10

    This paper presents robust strategies to enhance the rotation sensitivity (and resolution) of a coherent superposition of optical vortices emerging from a single spiral phase plate (SPP) device when light's optical frequency (or wavelength) going into the SPP device is varied. The paper discusses the generation and measurement of ultrasmall rotation. Factors that affect the ability to perform precision rotation measurements include the linewidth and stability of the input light source, the number of photon counts making position rotation measurements on the CCD detector, SPP reflectivity, the length of SPP device, and the angular modulation frequency of the intensity pattern due to a coherent superposition of optical vortices in a single SPP device. This paper also discusses parameters to obtain a high-sensitivity single shot measurement and multiple measurements. Furthermore, it presents what I believe is a new scaling showing the enhancement in sensitivity (and resolution) in the standard quantum limit and Heisenberg limit. With experimentally realizable parameters, there is an enhancement of rotation sensitivity by at least one order of magnitude compared to previous rotation measurements with optical vortices. Understanding robust strategies to enhance the rotation sensitivity in an SPP device is important to metrology in general and for building compact SPP sensors such as gyroscopes, molecular sensors, and thermal sensors. PMID:26974798

  5. Frequency dependence of behavioral modulation by hippocampal electrical stimulation

    PubMed Central

    La Corte, Giorgio; Wei, Yina; Chernyy, Nick; Gluckman, Bruce J.

    2013-01-01

    Electrical stimulation offers the potential to develop novel strategies for the treatment of refractory medial temporal lobe epilepsy. In particular, direct electrical stimulation of the hippocampus presents the opportunity to modulate pathological dynamics at the ictal focus, although the neuroanatomical substrate of this region renders it susceptible to altering cognition and affective processing as a side effect. We investigated the effects of three electrical stimulation paradigms on separate groups of freely moving rats (sham, 8-Hz and 40-Hz sine-wave stimulation of the ventral/intermediate hippocampus, where 8- and 40-Hz stimulation were chosen to mimic naturally occurring hippocampal oscillations). Animals exhibited attenuated locomotor and exploratory activity upon stimulation at 40 Hz, but not at sham or 8-Hz stimulation. Such behavioral modifications were characterized by a significant reduction in rearing frequency, together with increased freezing behavior. Logistic regression analysis linked the observed changes in animal locomotion to 40-Hz electrical stimulation independently of time-related variables occurring during testing. Spectral analysis, conducted to monitor the electrophysiological profile in the CA1 area of the dorsal hippocampus, showed a significant reduction in peak theta frequency, together with reduced theta power in the 40-Hz vs. the sham stimulation animal group, independent of locomotion speed (theta range: 4–12 Hz). These findings contribute to the development of novel and safe medical protocols by indicating a strategy to constrain or optimize parameters in direct hippocampal electrical stimulation. PMID:24198322

  6. Time-dependent changes in nasal ciliary beat frequency.

    PubMed

    Sommer, J Ulrich; Gross, Shalini; Hörmann, Karl; Stuck, Boris A

    2010-09-01

    As the ex vivo lifetime of nasal ciliary cells is limited, these cells have to be transferred to a culture medium for analysis with vital cytology immediately. Although the ciliary beat frequency (CBF) is likely to change over time, sufficient data regarding changes in the ex vivo CBF has not been published to date. In the present study, nasal epithelial cells were harvested from the mucosa of the inferior turbinate of 19 healthy volunteers with a cytology brush. Beating cilia were visualized with phase-contrast microscopy. Over a 12-h timeframe, 2 s epochs of video were captured every 5 min from the identical group of cells using a high-speed digital camera with a sampling rate of 100 fps. Temperature was maintained at about 22 degrees C and controlled by an infrared pyrometer. The CBF rapidly increased by 47 +/- 53% during the first 3 h of measurement. A relative plateau followed this increase from 3 to 9 h. After 9 h, CBF reduced linearly. After 12 h, the mean frequency reduced to 20 +/- 69% of baseline. However, there was considerable variance between the samples. The initial increase in CBF has not been reported previously. This interval seems to be unsuitable for meaningful measurements. Measurements of CBF are most reliable during the plateau phase between 3 and 9 h. After 9 h, there is clearly a significant decrease in CBF, together with a considerable interindividual variance. PMID:20169353

  7. Pressure dependence of the absolute rate constant for the reaction Cl + C2H2 from 210-361 K

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brunning, J.; Stief, L. J.

    1985-01-01

    In recent years, considerable attention has been given to the role of chlorine compounds in the catalytic destruction of stratospheric ozone. However, while some reactions have been studied extensively, the kinetic data for the reaction of Cl with C2H2 is sparse with only three known determinations of the rate constant k3. The reactions involved are Cl + C2H2 yields reversibly ClC2H2(asterisk) (3a) and ClC2H2(asterisk) + M yields ClC2H2 + M (3b). In the present study, flash photolysis coupled with chlorine atomic resonance fluorescence have been employed to determine the pressure and temperature dependence of k3 with the third body M = Ar. Room temperature values are also reported for M = N2. The pressure dependence observed in the experiments confirms the expectation that the reaction involves addition of Cl to the unsaturated C2H2 molecule followed by collisional stabilization of the resulting adduct radical.

  8. Sound frequency-invariant neural coding of a frequency-dependent cue to sound source location.

    PubMed

    Jones, Heath G; Brown, Andrew D; Koka, Kanthaiah; Thornton, Jennifer L; Tollin, Daniel J

    2015-07-01

    The century-old duplex theory of sound localization posits that low- and high-frequency sounds are localized with two different acoustical cues, interaural time and level differences (ITDs and ILDs), respectively. While behavioral studies in humans and behavioral and neurophysiological studies in a variety of animal models have largely supported the duplex theory, behavioral sensitivity to ILD is curiously invariant across the audible spectrum. Here we demonstrate that auditory midbrain neurons in the chinchilla (Chinchilla lanigera) also encode ILDs in a frequency-invariant manner, efficiently representing the full range of acoustical ILDs experienced as a joint function of sound source frequency, azimuth, and distance. We further show, using Fisher information, that nominal "low-frequency" and "high-frequency" ILD-sensitive neural populations can discriminate ILD with similar acuity, yielding neural ILD discrimination thresholds for near-midline sources comparable to behavioral discrimination thresholds estimated for chinchillas. These findings thus suggest a revision to the duplex theory and reinforce ecological and efficiency principles that hold that neural systems have evolved to encode the spectrum of biologically relevant sensory signals to which they are naturally exposed. PMID:25972580

  9. Frequency dependent plasma characteristics in a capacitively coupled 300 mm wafer plasma processing chamber.

    SciTech Connect

    Hebner, Gregory Albert; Holland, J.P.; Paterson, A.M.; Barnat, Edward V.; Miller, Paul Albert

    2006-01-01

    Argon plasma characteristics in a dual-frequency, capacitively coupled, 300 mm-wafer plasma processing system were investigated for rf drive frequencies between 10 and 190 MHz. We report spatial and frequency dependent changes in plasma parameters such as line-integrated electron density, ion saturation current, optical emission and argon metastable density. For the conditions investigated, the line-integrated electron density was a nonlinear function of drive frequency at constant rf power. In addition, the spatial distribution of the positive ions changed from uniform to peaked in the centre as the frequency was increased. Spatially resolved optical emission increased with frequency and the relative optical emission at several spectral lines depended on frequency. Argon metastable density and spatial distribution were not a strong function of drive frequency. Metastable temperature was approximately 400 K.

  10. Wavevector- and frequency-dependent dielectric constant of the Stockmayer fluid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Omelyan, Igor P.

    A self-consistent computer adapted theory to calculate the wavevector- and frequency-dependent dielectric constant of polar fluids with permanent dipoles is proposed. The dielectric tensor of the Stockmayer fluid is evaluated in a wide region of wavevectors and frequencies using molecular dynamics simulations. Wavevector-dependent relaxation time and longitudinal dipolaron frequency are calculated. Application of a generalized two-variable theory is discussed.

  11. Frequency Dependence of Single-Event Upset in Highly Advanced PowerPC Microprocessors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Irom, Farokh; Farmanesh, Farhad; White, Mark; Kouba, Coy K.

    2006-01-01

    Single-event upset effects from heavy ions were measured for Motorola silicon-on-insulator (SOI) microprocessor with 90 nm feature sizes at three frequencies of 500, 1066 and 1600 MHz. Frequency dependence of single-event upsets is discussed. The results of our studies suggest the single-event upset in registers and D-Cache tend to increase with frequency. This might have important implications for the overall single-event upset trend as technology moves toward higher frequencies.

  12. Frequency-dependent changes in the amplitude of low-frequency fluctuations in internet gaming disorder

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Xiao; Jia, Xize; Zang, Yu-Feng; Dong, Guangheng

    2015-01-01

    Neuroimaging studies have revealed that the task-related functional brain activities are impaired in internet gaming disorder (IGD) subjects. However, little is known about the alternations in spontaneous brain activities about them. Recent studies have proposed that the brain activities of different frequency ranges are generated by different nervous activities and have different physiological and psychological functions. Thus, in this study, we set to explore the spontaneous brain activities in IGD subjects by measuring the fractional amplitude of low-frequency fluctuation (fALFF), to investigate band-specific changes of resting-state fALFF. We subdivided the frequency range into five bands based on literatures. Comparing to healthy controls, the IGD group showed decreased fALFF values in the cerebellum posterior lobe and increased fALFF values in superior temporal gyrus. Significant interactions between frequency bands and groups were found in the cerebellum, the anterior cingulate, the lingual gyrus, the middle temporal gyrus, and the middle frontal gyrus. Those brain regions are proved related to the executive function and decision-making. These results revealed the changed spontaneous brain activity of IGD, which contributed to understanding the underlying pathophysiology of IGD. PMID:26441815

  13. Low-frequency ac electroporation shows strong frequency dependence and yields comparable transfection results to dc electroporation.

    PubMed

    Zhan, Yihong; Cao, Zhenning; Bao, Ning; Li, Jianbo; Wang, Jun; Geng, Tao; Lin, Hao; Lu, Chang

    2012-06-28

    Conventional electroporation has been conducted by employing short direct current (dc) pulses for delivery of macromolecules such as DNA into cells. The use of alternating current (ac) field for electroporation has mostly been explored in the frequency range of 10kHz-1MHz. Based on Schwan equation, it was thought that with low ac frequencies (10Hz-10kHz), the transmembrane potential does not vary with the frequency. In this report, we utilized a flow-through electroporation technique that employed continuous 10Hz-10kHz ac field (based on either sine waves or square waves) for electroporation of cells with defined duration and intensity. Our results reveal that electropermeabilization becomes weaker with increased frequency in this range. In contrast, transfection efficiency with DNA reaches its maximum at medium frequencies (100-1000Hz) in the range. We postulate that the relationship between the transfection efficiency and the ac frequency is determined by combined effects from electrophoretic movement of DNA in the ac field, dependence of the DNA/membrane interaction on the ac frequency, and variation of transfection under different electropermeabilization intensities. The fact that ac electroporation in this frequency range yields high efficiency for transfection (up to ~71% for Chinese hamster ovary cells) and permeabilization suggests its potential for gene delivery.

  14. Frequency and Density-Dependent Selection on Life-History Strategies – A Field Experiment

    PubMed Central

    Mappes, Tapio; Koivula, Minna; Koskela, Esa; Oksanen, Tuula A.; Savolainen, Tiina; Sinervo, Barry

    2008-01-01

    Negative frequency-dependence, which favors rare genotypes, promotes the maintenance of genetic variability and is of interest as a potential explanation for genetic differentiation. Density-dependent selection may also promote cyclic changes in frequencies of genotypes. Here we show evidence for both density-dependent and negative frequency-dependent selection on opposite life-history tactics (low or high reproductive effort, RE) in the bank vole (Myodes glareolus). Density-dependent selection was evident among the females with low RE, which were especially favored in low densities. Instead, both negative frequency-dependent and density-dependent selection were shown in females with high RE, which were most successful when they were rare in high densities. Furthermore, selection at the individual level affected the frequencies of tactics at the population level, so that the frequency of the rare high RE tactic increased significantly at high densities. We hypothesize that these two selection mechanisms (density- and negative frequency-dependent selection) may promote genetic variability in cyclic mammal populations. Nevertheless, it remains to be determined whether the origin of genetic variance in life-history traits is causally related to density variation (e.g. population cycles). PMID:18301764

  15. Frequency-dependent dielectric response model for polyimide-poly(vinilydenefluoride) multilayered dielectrics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Di Lillo, Luigi; Bergamini, Andrea; Albino Carnelli, Dario; Ermanni, Paolo

    2012-07-01

    A physical model for the frequency-dependent dielectric response of multilayered structures is reported. Two frequency regimes defined by the relative permittivities and volume resistivities of the layers have been analytically identified and experimentally investigated on a structure consisting of polyimide and poly(vinilydenefluoride) layers. The relative permittivity follows an effective medium model at high frequency while showing a dependence on the volume resistivity at low frequency. In this regime, relative permittivities exceeding those expected from effective medium model are recorded. These findings provide insights into inhomogeneous dielectrics behavior for the development of high energy density dielectric films.

  16. Flicker-light induced visual phenomena: frequency dependence and specificity of whole percepts and percept features.

    PubMed

    Allefeld, Carsten; Pütz, Peter; Kastner, Kristina; Wackermann, Jiří

    2011-12-01

    Flickering light induces visual hallucinations in human observers. Despite a long history of the phenomenon, little is known about the dependence of flicker-induced subjective impressions on the flicker frequency. We investigate this question using Ganzfeld stimulation and an experimental paradigm combining a continuous frequency scan (1-50 Hz) with a focus on re-occurring, whole percepts. On the single-subject level, we find a high degree of frequency stability of percepts. To generalize across subjects, we apply two rating systems, (1) a set of complex percept classes derived from subjects' reports and (2) an enumeration of elementary percept features, and determine distributions of occurrences over flicker frequency. We observe a stronger frequency specificity for complex percept classes than elementary percept features. Comparing the similarity relations among percept categories to those among frequency profiles, we observe that though percepts are preferentially induced by particular frequencies, the frequency does not unambiguously determine the experienced percept. PMID:21123084

  17. Bidirectional frequency-dependent effect of extremely low-frequency electromagnetic field on E. coli K-12.

    PubMed

    Martirosyan, Varsik; Baghdasaryan, Naira; Ayrapetyan, Sinerik

    2013-09-01

    In the present work, the frequency-dependent effects of extremely low-frequency electromagnetic field (ELF EMF) on Escherichia coli K-12 growth have been studied. The frequency-dependent effects of ELF EMF have shown that it can either stimulate or inhibit the growth of microbes. However, the mechanism by which the ELF EMF affects the bacterial cells is not clear yet. It was suggested that the aqua medium can serve as a target through which the biological effect of ELF EMF on microbes may be realized. To check this hypothesis, the frequency-dependent effects (2, 4, 6, 8, 10 Hz, B = 0.4 mT, 30 min) of ELF EMF on the bacterial growth were studied in both cases where the microbes were in the culture media during the exposure and where culture media was preliminarily exposed to the ELF EMF before the addition of bacteria. For investigating the cell proliferation, the radioactive [(3)H]-thymidine assay was carried out. It has been shown that EMF at 4 Hz exposure has pronounced stimulation while at 8 Hz it has inhibited cell proliferation.

  18. Seismic dynamic monitoring in CO2 flooding based on characterization of frequency-dependent velocity factor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Jun-Hua; Li, Jun; Xiao, Wen; Tan, Ming-You; Zhang, Yun-Ying; Cui, Shi-Ling; Qu, Zhi-Peng

    2016-06-01

    The phase velocity of seismic waves varies with the propagation frequency, and thus frequency-dependent phenomena appear when CO2 gas is injected into a reservoir. By dynamically considering these phenomena with reservoir conditions it is thus feasible to extract the frequency-dependent velocity factor with the aim of monitoring changes in the reservoir both before and after CO2 injection. In the paper, we derive a quantitative expression for the frequency-dependent factor based on the Robinson seismic convolution model. In addition, an inversion equation with a frequency-dependent velocity factor is constructed, and a procedure is implemented using the following four processing steps: decomposition of the spectrum by generalized S transform, wavelet extraction of cross-well seismic traces, spectrum equalization processing, and an extraction method for frequency-dependent velocity factor based on the damped least-square algorithm. An attenuation layered model is then established based on changes in the Q value of the viscoelastic medium, and spectra of migration profiles from forward modeling are obtained and analyzed. Frequency-dependent factors are extracted and compared, and the effectiveness of the method is then verified using a synthetic data. The frequency-dependent velocity factor is finally applied to target processing and oil displacement monitoring based on real seismic data obtained before and after CO2 injection in the G89 well block within Shengli oilfield. Profiles and slices of the frequency-dependent factor determine its ability to indicate differences in CO2 flooding, and the predicting results are highly consistent with those of practical investigations within the well block.

  19. Absolute CF{sub 2} density and gas temperature measurements by absorption spectroscopy in dual-frequency capacitively coupled CF{sub 4}/Ar plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Wen-Yao; Xu, Yong Peng, Fei; Gong, Fa-Ping; Li, Xiao-Song; Zhu, Ai-Min; Liu, Yong-Xin; Wang, You-Nian

    2014-10-15

    Broadband ultraviolet absorption spectroscopy has been used to determine the CF{sub 2} radical density in dual-frequency capacitively coupled CF{sub 4}/Ar plasmas, using the CF{sub 2} A{sup ~1}B{sub 1}←X{sup ~1}A{sub 1} system of absorption spectrum. The rotational temperature of ground state CF{sub 2} and excited state CF was also estimated by using A{sup ~1}B{sub 1}←X{sup ~1}A{sub 1} system and B{sup 2}Δ−X{sup 2}Π system, respectively. The translational gas temperature was deduced from the Doppler width of the Ar{sup *}({sup 3}P{sub 2}) and Ar{sup *}({sup 3}P{sub 0}) metastable atoms absorption line by using the tunable diode laser absorption spectroscopy. The rotational temperatures of the excited state CF are about 100 K higher than those of ground state CF{sub 2}, and about 200 K higher than the translational gas temperatures. The dependences of the radical CF{sub 2} density, electron density, electron temperature, rotational temperature, and gas temperature on the high frequency power and pressure have been analyzed. Furthermore, the production and loss mechanisms of CF{sub 2} radical and the gas heating mechanisms have also been discussed.

  20. An asymptotic preserving unified gas kinetic scheme for frequency-dependent radiative transfer equations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Wenjun; Jiang, Song; Xu, Kun; Li, Shu

    2015-12-01

    This paper presents an extension of previous work (Sun et al., 2015 [22]) of the unified gas kinetic scheme (UGKS) for the gray radiative transfer equations to the frequency-dependent (multi-group) radiative transfer system. Different from the gray radiative transfer equations, where the optical opacity is only a function of local material temperature, the simulation of frequency-dependent radiative transfer is associated with additional difficulties from the frequency-dependent opacity. For the multiple frequency radiation, the opacity depends on both the spatial location and the frequency. For example, the opacity is typically a decreasing function of frequency. At the same spatial region the transport physics can be optically thick for the low frequency photons, and optically thin for high frequency ones. Therefore, the optical thickness is not a simple function of space location. In this paper, the UGKS for frequency-dependent radiative system is developed. The UGKS is a finite volume method and the transport physics is modeled according to the ratio of the cell size to the photon's frequency-dependent mean free path. When the cell size is much larger than the photon's mean free path, a diffusion solution for such a frequency radiation will be obtained. On the other hand, when the cell size is much smaller than the photon's mean free path, a free transport mechanism will be recovered. In the regime between the above two limits, with the variation of the ratio between the local cell size and photon's mean free path, the UGKS provides a smooth transition in the physical and frequency space to capture the corresponding transport physics accurately. The seemingly straightforward extension of the UGKS from the gray to multiple frequency radiation system is due to its intrinsic consistent multiple scale transport modeling, but it still involves lots of work to properly discretize the multiple groups in order to design an asymptotic preserving (AP) scheme in all

  1. Frequency-dependent polarization-angle-phase-shift in the microwave-induced magnetoresistance oscillations

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Han-Chun; Ye, Tianyu; Mani, R. G.; Wegscheider, W.

    2015-02-14

    Linear polarization angle, θ, dependent measurements of the microwave radiation-induced oscillatory magnetoresistance, R{sub xx}, in high mobility GaAs/AlGaAs 2D electron devices have shown a θ dependence in the oscillatory amplitude along with magnetic field, frequency, and extrema-dependent phase shifts, θ{sub 0}. Here, we suggest a microwave frequency dependence of θ{sub 0}(f) using an analysis that averages over other smaller contributions, when those contributions are smaller than estimates of the experimental uncertainty.

  2. [Modulation of Ca(2+)-Dependent Proteiolysis under the Action of Weak Low-Frequency Magnetic Fields].

    PubMed

    Kantserova, N P; Lysenko, L A; Ushakova, N V; Krylov, V V; Nemova, N N

    2015-01-01

    The study aimed to determine the molecular targets of magnetic fields in living objects. Time-dependent effects of weak low-frequency magnetic field tuned to the parametric resonance for calcium ions were studied on model organisms (fish, whelk). The dynamics of Ca(2+)-dependent proteinase activity under the exposure to magnetic fields with given parameters was determined and minimal time of exposure in order to achieve inactivation of these proteinases was find out as well. As hyperactivation of Ca(2+)-dependent proteinases is a basis of degenerative pathology development the therapeutic potential of weak low-frequency magnetic fields enabling to modulate Ca(2+)-dependent proteinase activity is supported. PMID:27125027

  3. The vestibular implant: frequency-dependency of the electrically evoked vestibulo-ocular reflex in humans.

    PubMed

    van de Berg, Raymond; Guinand, Nils; Nguyen, T A Khoa; Ranieri, Maurizio; Cavuscens, Samuel; Guyot, Jean-Philippe; Stokroos, Robert; Kingma, Herman; Perez-Fornos, Angelica

    2014-01-01

    The vestibulo-ocular reflex (VOR) shows frequency-dependent behavior. This study investigated whether the characteristics of the electrically evoked VOR (eVOR) elicited by a vestibular implant, showed the same frequency-dependency. Twelve vestibular electrodes implanted in seven patients with bilateral vestibular hypofunction (BVH) were tested. Stimuli consisted of amplitude-modulated electrical stimulation with a sinusoidal profile at frequencies of 0.5, 1, and 2 Hz. The main characteristics of the eVOR were evaluated and compared to the "natural" VOR characteristics measured in a group of age-matched healthy volunteers who were subjected to horizontal whole body rotations with equivalent sinusoidal velocity profiles at the same frequencies. A strong and significant effect of frequency was observed in the total peak eye velocity of the eVOR. This effect was similar to that observed in the "natural" VOR. Other characteristics of the (e)VOR (angle, habituation-index, and asymmetry) showed no significant frequency-dependent effect. In conclusion, this study demonstrates that, at least at the specific (limited) frequency range tested, responses elicited by a vestibular implant closely mimic the frequency-dependency of the "normal" vestibular system.

  4. Frequency-dependent moment release of very low frequency earthquakes in the Cascadia subduction zone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takeo, A.; Houston, H.

    2014-12-01

    Episodic tremor and slip (ETS) has been observed in Cascadia subduction zone at two different time scales: tremor at a high-frequency range of 2-8 Hz and slow slip events at a geodetic time-scale of days-months. The intermediate time scale is needed to understand the source spectrum of slow earthquakes. Ghosh et al. (2014, IRIS abs) recently reported the presence of very low frequency earthquakes (VLFEs) in Cascadia. In southwest Japan, VLFEs are usually observed at a period range around 20-50 s, and coincide with tremors (e.g., Ito et al. 2007). In this study, we analyzed VLFEs in and around the Olympic Peninsula to confirm their presence and estimate their moment release. We first detected VLFE events by using broadband seismograms with a band-pass filter of 20-50 s. The preliminary result shows that there are at least 16 VLFE events with moment magnitudes of 3.2-3.7 during the M6.8 2010 ETS. The focal mechanisms are consistent with the thrust earthquakes at the subducting plate interface. To detect signals of VLFEs below noise level, we further stacked long-period waveforms at the peak timings of tremor amplitudes for tremors within a 10-15 km radius by using tremor catalogs in 2006-2010, and estimated the focal mechanisms for each tremor source region as done in southwest Japan (Takeo et al. 2010 GRL). As a result, VLFEs could be detected for almost the entire tremor source region at a period range of 20-50 s with average moment magnitudes in each 5-min tremor window of 2.4-2.8. Although the region is limited, we could also detect VLFEs at a period range of 50-100 s with average moment magnitudes of 3.0-3.2. The moment release at 50-100 s is 4-8 times larger than that at 20-50 s, roughly consistent with an omega-squared spectral model. Further study including tremor, slow slip events and characteristic activities, such as rapid tremor reversal and tremor streaks, will reveal the source spectrum of slow earthquakes in a broader time scale from 0.1 s to days.

  5. Plant neighborhood effects on herbivory: damage is both density and frequency dependent.

    PubMed

    Kim, Tania N; Underwood, Nora

    2015-05-01

    Neighboring plants can affect the likelihood that a focal plant is attacked by herbivores. Both the density of conspecific neighbors (resource concentration or dilution effects) and the relative density of heterospecific neighbors (associational effects or effects of neighbor frequency) within the local neighborhood can affect herbivore load and plant damage. Understanding how these neighborhood effects influence processes such as plant competition or natural selection on plant resistance traits will require knowing how both plant density and frequency affect damage, but previous studies have generally confounded density and frequency effects. In this study, we independently manipulated the absolute density and frequency (i.e., relative density) of two plant species (Solanum carolinense and Solidago altissima) to characterize neighborhood composition effects on S. carolinense damage by herbivores, providing the first picture of how both density and frequency of neighbors influence damage in a single system. We found both a positive effect of S. carolinense density on S. carolinense damage (a resource concentration effect) and a nonlinear effect of S. altissima frequency on S. carolinense damage (associational susceptibility). If these types of patterns are common in nature, future studies seeking to understand neighborhood effects on damage need to incorporate both density and frequency effects and capture any nonlinear effects by selecting a range of values rather than focusing on only a pair of densities or frequencies. This type of data on neighborhood effects will allow us to understand the contribution of neighborhood effects to population-level processes such as competition, the evolution of plant resistance to herbivores, and yield gains in agricultural crop mixtures.

  6. Plant neighborhood effects on herbivory: damage is both density and frequency dependent.

    PubMed

    Kim, Tania N; Underwood, Nora

    2015-05-01

    Neighboring plants can affect the likelihood that a focal plant is attacked by herbivores. Both the density of conspecific neighbors (resource concentration or dilution effects) and the relative density of heterospecific neighbors (associational effects or effects of neighbor frequency) within the local neighborhood can affect herbivore load and plant damage. Understanding how these neighborhood effects influence processes such as plant competition or natural selection on plant resistance traits will require knowing how both plant density and frequency affect damage, but previous studies have generally confounded density and frequency effects. In this study, we independently manipulated the absolute density and frequency (i.e., relative density) of two plant species (Solanum carolinense and Solidago altissima) to characterize neighborhood composition effects on S. carolinense damage by herbivores, providing the first picture of how both density and frequency of neighbors influence damage in a single system. We found both a positive effect of S. carolinense density on S. carolinense damage (a resource concentration effect) and a nonlinear effect of S. altissima frequency on S. carolinense damage (associational susceptibility). If these types of patterns are common in nature, future studies seeking to understand neighborhood effects on damage need to incorporate both density and frequency effects and capture any nonlinear effects by selecting a range of values rather than focusing on only a pair of densities or frequencies. This type of data on neighborhood effects will allow us to understand the contribution of neighborhood effects to population-level processes such as competition, the evolution of plant resistance to herbivores, and yield gains in agricultural crop mixtures. PMID:26236855

  7. Recognition of speech in noise after application of time-frequency masks: Dependence on frequency and threshold parameters

    PubMed Central

    Sinex, Donal G.

    2013-01-01

    Binary time-frequency (TF) masks can be applied to separate speech from noise. Previous studies have shown that with appropriate parameters, ideal TF masks can extract highly intelligible speech even at very low speech-to-noise ratios (SNRs). Two psychophysical experiments provided additional information about the dependence of intelligibility on the frequency resolution and threshold criteria that define the ideal TF mask. Listeners identified AzBio Sentences in noise, before and after application of TF masks. Masks generated with 8 or 16 frequency bands per octave supported nearly-perfect identification. Word recognition accuracy was slightly lower and more variable with 4 bands per octave. When TF masks were generated with a local threshold criterion of 0 dB SNR, the mean speech reception threshold was −9.5 dB SNR, compared to −5.7 dB for unprocessed sentences in noise. Speech reception thresholds decreased by about 1 dB per dB of additional decrease in the local threshold criterion. Information reported here about the dependence of speech intelligibility on frequency and level parameters has relevance for the development of non-ideal TF masks for clinical applications such as speech processing for hearing aids. PMID:23556604

  8. A kinetic model for the frequency dependence of cholinergic modulation at hippocampal GABAergic synapses.

    PubMed

    Stone, Emily; Haario, Heikki; Lawrence, J Josh

    2014-12-01

    In this paper we use a simple model of presynaptic neuromodulation of GABA signaling to decipher paired whole-cell recordings of frequency dependent cholinergic neuromodulation at CA1 parvalbumin-containing basket cell (PV BC)-pyramidal cell synapses. Variance-mean analysis is employed to normalize the data, which is then used to estimate parameters in the mathematical model. Various parameterizations and hidden parameter dependencies are investigated using Markov Chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) parameter estimation techniques. This analysis reveals that frequency dependence of cholinergic modulation requires both calcium-dependent recovery from depression and mAChR-induced inhibition of presynaptic calcium entry. A reduction in calcium entry into the presynaptic terminal in the kinetic model accounted for the frequency-dependent effects of mAChR activation. PMID:25445738

  9. A kinetic model for the frequency dependence of cholinergic modulation at hippocampal GABAergic synapses.

    PubMed

    Stone, Emily; Haario, Heikki; Lawrence, J Josh

    2014-12-01

    In this paper we use a simple model of presynaptic neuromodulation of GABA signaling to decipher paired whole-cell recordings of frequency dependent cholinergic neuromodulation at CA1 parvalbumin-containing basket cell (PV BC)-pyramidal cell synapses. Variance-mean analysis is employed to normalize the data, which is then used to estimate parameters in the mathematical model. Various parameterizations and hidden parameter dependencies are investigated using Markov Chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) parameter estimation techniques. This analysis reveals that frequency dependence of cholinergic modulation requires both calcium-dependent recovery from depression and mAChR-induced inhibition of presynaptic calcium entry. A reduction in calcium entry into the presynaptic terminal in the kinetic model accounted for the frequency-dependent effects of mAChR activation.

  10. Modeling and experimental verification of frequency-, amplitude-, and magneto-dependent viscoelasticity of magnetorheological elastomers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xin, Fu-Long; Bai, Xian-Xu; Qian, Li-Jun

    2016-10-01

    Magnetorheological elastomers (MREs), a smart composite, exhibit dual characteristics of both MR materials and particle reinforced composites, i.e., the viscoelasticity of MREs depends on external magnetic field as well as strain amplitude and excitation frequency. In this article, the principle of a frequency-, amplitude-, and magneto-dependent linear dynamic viscoelastic model for isotropic MREs is proposed and investigated. The viscoelasticity of MREs is divided into frequency- and amplitude-dependent mechanical viscoelasticity and frequency-, amplitude-, and magneto-dependent magnetic viscoelasticity. Based on the microstructures of ferrous particles and matrix, the relationships between mechanical shear modulus corresponding to the mechanical viscoelasticity and strain amplitude and excitation frequency are obtained. The relationships between magnetic shear modulus corresponding to the magnetic viscoelasticity with strain amplitude, excitation frequency, and further external magnetic field are derived using the magneto-elastic theory. The influence of magnetic saturation on the MR effect is also considered. The dynamic characteristics of a fabricated isotropic MRE sample under different strain amplitudes, excitation frequencies and external magnetic fields are tested. The parameters of the proposed model are identified with the experimental data and the theoretical expressions of shear storage modulus and shear loss modulus of the MRE sample are obtained. In the light of the theoretical expressions, the loss factors of the MRE sample under different loading conditions are analyzed and compared with the test results to evaluate the effectiveness of the proposed model.

  11. On the temperature dependence of amide I frequencies of peptides in solution.

    PubMed

    Amunson, Krista E; Kubelka, Jan

    2007-08-23

    The temperature dependence of the amide I vibrational frequencies of peptides in solution was investigated. In D2O, the amide I' bands of both an alpha-helical oligopeptide, the random-coil poly(L-lysine), and the simplest amide, N-methyl acetamide (NMA), exhibit linear frequency shifts of approximately 0.07 cm(-1)/degrees C with increasing temperature. Similar amide I frequency shifts are also observed for NMA in both polar (acetonitrile and DMSO) and nonpolar (1,4-dioxane) organic solvents, thus ruling out hydrogen-bonding strength as the cause of these effects. The experimental NMA amide I frequencies in the organic solvents can be accurately described by a simple theory based on the Onsager reaction field with temperature-dependent solvent dielectric properties and a solute molecular cavity. DFT-level calculations (BPW91/cc-pVDZ) for NMA with an Onsager reaction field confirm the significant contribution of the molecular cavity to the predicted amide I frequencies. Comparison of the computations to experimental data shows that the frequency-dependent response of the reaction field, taken into account by the index of refraction, is crucial for describing the amide I frequencies in polar solvents. The poor predictions of the model for the NMA amide I band in D2O might be due, in part, to the unknown temperature dependence of the refractive index of D2O in the mid-IR range, which was approximated by the available values in the visible region.

  12. Homodyne and heterodyne optical interferometry for frequency dependent piezoelectric displacement measurement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Delahoussaye, Keith; Guo, Ruyan; Bhalla, Amar

    2014-09-01

    The electromechanical coupling in piezoelectric materials has been widely studied however a unified view of this interaction as function of frequencies using different measurement techniques has not previously been available. This study examines and compares multiple optical based homodyne and heterodyne interferometry techniques for displacement measurement over a wide range of frequencies and including a comparison made by using a commercial Laser Doppler Vibrometer. Ferroelectric lead titanate PbTiO3 with high ferroelectric strain is studied in this work. Frequency dependence of the electromechanical displacement is obtained using multiple techniques and the emphasis is given to near resonant frequency interrogations.

  13. Negative frequency-dependent preferences and variation in male facial hair.

    PubMed

    Janif, Zinnia J; Brooks, Robert C; Dixson, Barnaby J

    2014-01-01

    Negative frequency-dependent sexual selection maintains striking polymorphisms in secondary sexual traits in several animal species. Here, we test whether frequency of beardedness modulates perceived attractiveness of men's facial hair, a secondary sexual trait subject to considerable cultural variation. We first showed participants a suite of faces, within which we manipulated the frequency of beard thicknesses and then measured preferences for four standard levels of beardedness. Women and men judged heavy stubble and full beards more attractive when presented in treatments where beards were rare than when they were common, with intermediate preferences when intermediate frequencies of beardedness were presented. Likewise, clean-shaven faces were least attractive when clean-shaven faces were most common and more attractive when rare. This pattern in preferences is consistent with negative frequency-dependent selection.

  14. Ultrawideband temperature-dependent dielectric properties of animal liver tissue in the microwave frequency range.

    PubMed

    Lazebnik, Mariya; Converse, Mark C; Booske, John H; Hagness, Susan C

    2006-04-01

    The development of ultrawideband (UWB) microwave diagnostic and therapeutic technologies, such as UWB microwave breast cancer detection and hyperthermia treatment, is facilitated by accurate knowledge of the temperature- and frequency-dependent dielectric properties of biological tissues. To this end, we characterize the temperature-dependent dielectric properties of a representative tissue type-animal liver-from 0.5 to 20 GHz. Since discrete-frequency linear temperature coefficients are impractical and inappropriate for applications spanning wide frequency and temperature ranges, we propose a novel and compact data representation technique. A single-pole Cole-Cole model is used to fit the dielectric properties data as a function of frequency, and a second-order polynomial is used to fit the Cole-Cole parameters as a function of temperature. This approach permits rapid estimation of tissue dielectric properties at any temperature and frequency.

  15. Features of the duration frequency dependence for type III solar radio bursts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsybko, Y. G.

    1989-11-01

    Averaged data on type III solar radio bursts at fixed frequencies in the 12.5-25 MHz range and beyond are examined, showing that there are two branches of the burst duration dependence on frequency. This splitting is used to distinguish between bursts occurring at the fundamental and the second harmonics of the plasma frequency. Type IIIb radiation is characterized by a diagram of the mean duration vs frequency of the stria bursts at the fundamental harmonic. Type III bursts at meter and decameter wavelengths are compared, showing a change in the behavior of the duration frequency dependence. It is suggested that this change may be associated with the initial acceleration and the subsequent expansion of the source along its path in the lower and intermediate corona.

  16. Absolute frequency measurement of 1S0(F = 1/2)-3P0(F = 1/2) transition of 171Yb atoms in a one-dimensional optical lattice at KRISS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Chang Yong; Yu, Dai-Hyuk; Lee, Won-Kyu; Eon Park, Sang; Kim, Eok Bong; Lee, Sun Kyung; Cho, Jun Woo; Yoon, Tai Hyun; Mun, Jongchul; Jong Park, Sung; Kwon, Taeg Yong; Lee, Sang-Bum

    2013-04-01

    We measured the absolute frequency of the optical clock transition 1S0(F = 1/2)-3P0(F = 1/2) of 171Yb atoms confined in a one-dimensional optical lattice and it was determined to be 518 295 836 590 863.5(8.1) Hz. The frequency was measured against Terrestrial Time (TT; the SI second on the geoid) using an optical frequency comb of which the frequency was phase-locked to an H-maser as a flywheel oscillator traceable to TT. The magic wavelength was also measured as 394 798.48(79) GHz. The results are in good agreement with two previous measurements of other institutes within the specified uncertainty of this work.

  17. Implementation of the CCSD-PCM linear response function for frequency dependent properties in solution: Application to polarizability and specific rotation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caricato, Marco

    2013-09-01

    This work reports the first implementation of the frequency dependent linear response (LR) function for the coupled cluster singles and doubles method (CCSD) combined with the polarizable continuum model of solvation for the calculation of frequency dependent properties in solution. In particular, values of static and dynamic polarizability as well as specific rotation are presented for various test molecules. Model calculations of polarizability show that a common approximation used in the definition of the LR function with solvation models recovers over 70% of the full response while maintaining a computational cost comparable to gas phase LR-CCSD. Calculations of specific rotation for three compounds for which gas phase methods predict the wrong sign of the rotation show that accounting for the electronic response of the solvent may be essential to assign the correct absolute configuration of chiral molecules.

  18. On the modal decoupling of linear mechanical systems with frequency-dependent viscoelastic behavior

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mastroddi, Franco; Calore, Paolo

    2016-03-01

    Linear Multi-Degree of Freedom (MDOF) mechanical systems having frequency-dependent viscoelastic behaviors are often studied and modelled in frequency or Laplace domains. Indeed, once this modelling process is carried out, it is not generally possible to reduce the obtained MDOF damped mechanical system to a set of uncoupled damped modal oscillators apart from some special cases. In this paper a general procedure has been proposed to transform a coupled linear mechanical system having frequency-dependent viscoelastic characteristics to a set of independent damped modal oscillators. The procedure is based on a linear co-ordinate transformation procedure using matrices in real field only. The approach is exact and based on the solution of one associated eigenproblem for the case of linearly viscous damping. In the general case of frequency-dependent viscoelastic materials, the approach includes an iterative procedure solving local eigenproblems.Some numerical results are reported to show the capabilities of the proposed approach.

  19. Investigating the frequency-dependent amplification of a tapered amplifier in atom interferometers.

    PubMed

    Zhan, Su; Duan, Xiao-Chun; Zhou, Min-Kang; Yao, Hui-Bin; Xu, Wen-Jie; Hu, Zhong-Kun

    2015-01-01

    We present the investigation on the frequency-dependent amplification (FDA) of a tapered amplifier (TA) and the corresponding influence on Raman-type atom interferometers. In our interferometer, the output of two phase-locked diode lasers is injected into a TA to generate Raman beams. The frequency of one laser is chirped during the interfering process, which induces a variance of the Raman lasers power as a result of the FDA of the TA. The corresponding power ratio variation of the Raman lasers is measured by beat note method, which shows a linear dependence with a slope of -0.087(4)/GHz when the laser frequency changes over 2 GHz at 780 nm. The corresponding error related to AC Stark effect due to this frequency-dependent variation is estimated for our atom interferometer. The investigation presented here may provide hints for other experiments involving TAs. PMID:25531600

  20. A full-dimensional model of ozone forming reaction: the absolute value of the recombination rate coefficient, its pressure and temperature dependencies.

    PubMed

    Teplukhin, Alexander; Babikov, Dmitri

    2016-07-28

    Rigorous calculations of scattering resonances in ozone are carried out for a broad range of rotational excitations. The accurate potential energy surface of Dawes is adopted, and a new efficient method for calculations of ro-vibrational energies, wave functions and resonance lifetimes is employed (which uses hyper-spherical coordinates, the sequential diagonalization/truncation approach, grid optimization and complex absorbing potential). A detailed analysis is carried out to characterize distributions of resonance energies and lifetimes, their rotational/vibrational content and their positions with respect to the centrifugal barrier. Emphasis is on the contribution of these resonances to the recombination process that forms ozone. It is found that major contributions come from localized resonances at energies near the top of the barrier. Delocalized resonances at higher energies should also be taken into account, while very narrow resonances at low energies (trapped far behind the centrifugal barrier) should be treated as bound states. The absolute value of the recombination rate coefficient, its pressure and temperature dependencies are obtained using the energy-transfer model developed in the earlier work. Good agreement with experimental data is obtained if one follows the suggestion of Troe, who argued that the energy transfer mechanism of recombination is responsible only for 55% of the recombination rate (with the remaining 45% coming from the competing chaperon mechanism). PMID:27364351

  1. A full-dimensional model of ozone forming reaction: the absolute value of the recombination rate coefficient, its pressure and temperature dependencies.

    PubMed

    Teplukhin, Alexander; Babikov, Dmitri

    2016-07-28

    Rigorous calculations of scattering resonances in ozone are carried out for a broad range of rotational excitations. The accurate potential energy surface of Dawes is adopted, and a new efficient method for calculations of ro-vibrational energies, wave functions and resonance lifetimes is employed (which uses hyper-spherical coordinates, the sequential diagonalization/truncation approach, grid optimization and complex absorbing potential). A detailed analysis is carried out to characterize distributions of resonance energies and lifetimes, their rotational/vibrational content and their positions with respect to the centrifugal barrier. Emphasis is on the contribution of these resonances to the recombination process that forms ozone. It is found that major contributions come from localized resonances at energies near the top of the barrier. Delocalized resonances at higher energies should also be taken into account, while very narrow resonances at low energies (trapped far behind the centrifugal barrier) should be treated as bound states. The absolute value of the recombination rate coefficient, its pressure and temperature dependencies are obtained using the energy-transfer model developed in the earlier work. Good agreement with experimental data is obtained if one follows the suggestion of Troe, who argued that the energy transfer mechanism of recombination is responsible only for 55% of the recombination rate (with the remaining 45% coming from the competing chaperon mechanism).

  2. Spatially resolved frequency-dependent elasticity measured with pulsed force microscopy and nanoindentation.

    PubMed

    Sweers, Kim K M; van der Werf, Kees O; Bennink, Martin L; Subramaniam, Vinod

    2012-03-21

    Recently several atomic force microscopy (AFM)-based surface property mapping techniques like pulsed force microscopy (PFM), harmonic force microscopy or Peakforce QNM® have been introduced to measure the nano- and micro-mechanical properties of materials. These modes all work at different operating frequencies. However, complex materials are known to display viscoelastic behavior, a combination of solid and fluid-like responses, depending on the frequency at which the sample is probed. In this report, we show that the frequency-dependent mechanical behavior of complex materials, such as polymer blends that are frequently used as calibration samples, is clearly measurable with AFM. Although this frequency-dependent mechanical behavior is an established observation, we demonstrate that the new high frequency mapping techniques enable AFM-based rheology with nanoscale spatial resolution over a much broader frequency range compared to previous AFM-based studies. We further highlight that it is essential to account for the frequency-dependent variation in mechanical properties when using these thin polymer samples as calibration materials for elasticity measurements by high-frequency surface property mapping techniques. These results have significant implications for the accurate interpretation of the nanomechanical properties of polymers or complex biological samples. The calibration sample is composed of a blend of soft and hard polymers, consisting of low-density polyethylene (LDPE) islands in a polystyrene (PS) surrounding, with a stiffness of 0.2 GPa and 2 GPa respectively. The spring constant of the AFM cantilever was selected to match the stiffness of LDPE. From 260 Hz to 1100 Hz the sample was imaged with the PFM method. At low frequencies (0.5-35 Hz), single-point nanoindentation was performed. In addition to the material's stiffness, the relative heights of the LDPE islands (with respect to the PS) were determined as a function of the frequency. At the lower

  3. Estimating cochlear tuning dependence on stimulus level and frequency from the delay of otoacoustic emissions.

    PubMed

    Moleti, Arturo; Sisto, Renata

    2016-08-01

    An objective technique based on the time-frequency analysis of otoacoustic emissions is proposed to get fast and stable estimates of cochlear tuning. Time-frequency analysis allows one to get stable measurements of the delay/frequency function, which is theoretically expected to be a function of cochlear tuning. Theoretical considerations and numerical solutions of a nonlinear cochlear model suggest that the average phase-gradient delay of the otoacoustic emission single-reflection components, weighted, for each frequency, by the amplitude of the corresponding wavelet coefficients, approximately scales as the square root of the cochlear quality factor. The application of the method to human stimulus-frequency and transient-evoked otoacoustic emissions shows that tuning decreases approximately by a factor of 2, as the stimulus level increases by 30 dB in a moderate stimulus level range. The results also show a steady increase of tuning with increasing frequency, by a factor of 2 between 1 and 5 kHz. This last result is model-dependent, because it relies on the assumption that cochlear scale-invariance breaking is only due to the frequency dependence of tuning. The application of the method to the reflection component of distortion product otoacoustic emissions, separated using time-frequency filtering, is complicated by the necessity of effectively canceling the distortion component.

  4. Estimating cochlear tuning dependence on stimulus level and frequency from the delay of otoacoustic emissions.

    PubMed

    Moleti, Arturo; Sisto, Renata

    2016-08-01

    An objective technique based on the time-frequency analysis of otoacoustic emissions is proposed to get fast and stable estimates of cochlear tuning. Time-frequency analysis allows one to get stable measurements of the delay/frequency function, which is theoretically expected to be a function of cochlear tuning. Theoretical considerations and numerical solutions of a nonlinear cochlear model suggest that the average phase-gradient delay of the otoacoustic emission single-reflection components, weighted, for each frequency, by the amplitude of the corresponding wavelet coefficients, approximately scales as the square root of the cochlear quality factor. The application of the method to human stimulus-frequency and transient-evoked otoacoustic emissions shows that tuning decreases approximately by a factor of 2, as the stimulus level increases by 30 dB in a moderate stimulus level range. The results also show a steady increase of tuning with increasing frequency, by a factor of 2 between 1 and 5 kHz. This last result is model-dependent, because it relies on the assumption that cochlear scale-invariance breaking is only due to the frequency dependence of tuning. The application of the method to the reflection component of distortion product otoacoustic emissions, separated using time-frequency filtering, is complicated by the necessity of effectively canceling the distortion component. PMID:27586727

  5. Low frequency noise variability in ultra scaled FD-SOI n-MOSFETs: Dependence on gate bias, frequency and temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Theodorou, C. G.; Ioannidis, E. G.; Haendler, S.; Josse, E.; Dimitriadis, C. A.; Ghibaudo, G.

    2016-03-01

    In this paper, a parametric statistical analysis of the low-frequency noise (LFN) in very small area (W·L ≈ 10-3 μm2) 14 nm fully depleted silicon-on-insulator (FD-SOI) n-MOS devices is presented. It has been demonstrated that the LFN origin is due to carrier trapping/detrapping into gate dielectric traps near the interface and the mean noise level in such small area MOSFETs is well approached by the carrier number fluctuations model in all measurement conditions. The impact of gate voltage bias and temperature on the LFN variability, as well as the standard deviation dependence on frequency have been studied for the first time, focusing on their relation to the Random Telegraph Noise (RTN) effect and its characteristics.

  6. Recurrent connections form a phase-locking neuronal tuner for frequency-dependent selective communication

    PubMed Central

    Shin, Dongkwan; Cho, Kwang-Hyun

    2013-01-01

    The brain requires task-dependent interregional coherence of information flow in the anatomically connected neural network. However, it is still unclear how a neuronal group can flexibly select its communication target. In this study, we revealed a hidden routing mechanism on the basis of recurrent connections. Our simulation results based on the spike response model show that recurrent connections between excitatory and inhibitory neurons modulate the resonant frequency of a local neuronal group, and that this modulation enables a neuronal group to receive selective information by filtering a preferred frequency component. We also found that the recurrent connection facilitates the successful routing of any necessary information flow between neuronal groups through frequency-dependent resonance of synchronized oscillations. Taken together, these results suggest that recurrent connections act as a phase-locking neuronal tuner which determines the resonant frequency of a local group and thereby controls the preferential routing of incoming signals. PMID:23981983

  7. Frequency dependence of the acoustic field generated from a spherical cavity transducer with open ends

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Faqi; Zeng, Deping; He, Min; Wang, Zhibiao E-mail: wangzhibiao@haifu.com.cn; Song, Dan; Lei, Guangrong; Lin, Zhou; Zhang, Dong E-mail: wangzhibiao@haifu.com.cn; Wu, Junru

    2015-12-15

    Resolution of high intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) focusing is limited by the wave diffraction. We have developed a spherical cavity transducer with two open ends to improve the focusing precision without sacrificing the acoustic intensity (App Phys Lett 2013; 102: 204102). This work aims to theoretically and experimentally investigate the frequency dependence of the acoustic field generated from the spherical cavity transducer with two open ends. The device emits high intensity ultrasound at the frequency ranging from 420 to 470 kHz, and the acoustic field is measured by a fiber optic probe hydrophone. The measured results shows that the spherical cavity transducer provides high acoustic intensity for HIFU treatment only in its resonant modes, and a series of resonant frequencies can be choosen. Furthermore, a finite element model is developed to discuss the frequency dependence of the acoustic field. The numerical simulations coincide well with the measured results.

  8. Tunable terahertz frequency comb generation using time-dependent graphene sheets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ginis, Vincent; Tassin, Philippe; Koschny, Thomas; Soukoulis, Costas M.

    2015-04-01

    We investigate the interaction between electromagnetic pulses and two-dimensional current sheets whose conductivity is controlled as a function of time by the generation of photocarriers, and we discuss its applicability to tunable frequency comb generation. To this aim, we develop an analytical model that permits the calculation of the scattered waves off a thin sheet with time-dependent, dispersive sheet conductivity. We evaluate the transmitted spectrum as a function of the dispersive behavior and the modulation frequency of the number of photocarriers. We conclude that such active materials, e.g., time-dependent graphene sheets, open up the possibility to manipulate the frequency of incident pulses and, hence, could lead to highly tunable, miniaturized frequency comb generation.

  9. Frequency, pressure, and strain dependence of nonlinear elasticity in Berea Sandstone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rivière, Jacques; Pimienta, Lucas; Scuderi, Marco; Candela, Thibault; Shokouhi, Parisa; Fortin, Jérôme; Schubnel, Alexandre; Marone, Chris; Johnson, Paul A.

    2016-04-01

    Acoustoelasticity measurements in a sample of room dry Berea sandstone are conducted at various loading frequencies to explore the transition between the quasi-static (f→0) and dynamic (few kilohertz) nonlinear elastic response. We carry out these measurements at multiple confining pressures and perform a multivariate regression analysis to quantify the dependence of the harmonic content on strain amplitude, frequency, and pressure. The modulus softening (equivalent to the harmonic at 0f) increases by a factor 2-3 over 3 orders of magnitude increase in frequency. Harmonics at 2f, 4f, and 6f exhibit similar behaviors. In contrast, the harmonic at 1f appears frequency independent. This result corroborates previous studies showing that the nonlinear elasticity of rocks can be described with a minimum of two physical mechanisms. This study provides quantitative data that describes the rate dependency of nonlinear elasticity. These findings can be used to improve theories relating the macroscopic elastic response to microstructural features.

  10. Context dependence in complex adaptive landscapes: frequency and trait-dependent selection surfaces within an adaptive radiation of Caribbean pupfishes.

    PubMed

    Martin, Christopher H

    2016-06-01

    The adaptive landscape provides the foundational bridge between micro- and macroevolution. One well-known caveat to this perspective is that fitness surfaces depend on ecological context, including competitor frequency, traits measured, and resource abundance. However, this view is based largely on intraspecific studies. It is still unknown how context-dependence affects the larger features of peaks and valleys on the landscape which ultimately drive speciation and adaptive radiation. Here, I explore this question using one of the most complex fitness landscapes measured in the wild in a sympatric pupfish radiation endemic to San Salvador Island, Bahamas by tracking survival and growth of laboratory-reared F2 hybrids. I present new analyses of the effects of competitor frequency, dietary isotopes, and trait subsets on this fitness landscape. Contrary to expectations, decreasing competitor frequency increased survival only among very common phenotypes, whereas less common phenotypes rarely survived despite few competitors, suggesting that performance, not competitor frequency, shapes large-scale features of the fitness landscape. Dietary isotopes were weakly correlated with phenotype and growth, but did not explain additional survival variation. Nonlinear fitness surfaces varied substantially among trait subsets, revealing one-, two-, and three-peak landscapes, demonstrating the complexity of selection in the wild, even among similar functional traits. PMID:27130447

  11. Single-mode waveguide optical isolator based on direction-dependent cutoff frequency.

    PubMed

    Tang, Lingling; Drezdzon, Samuel M; Yoshie, Tomoyuki

    2008-09-29

    A single-mode-waveguide optical isolator based on propagation direction dependent cut-off frequency is proposed. The isolation bandwidth is the difference between the cut-off frequencies of the lowest forward and backward propagating modes. Perturbation theory is used for analyzing the correlation between the material distribution and the bandwidth. The mode profile determines an appropriate distribution of non-reciprocal materials.

  12. Positively Frequency-Dependent Interference Competition Maintains Diversity and Pervades a Natural Population of Cooperative Microbes.

    PubMed

    Rendueles, Olaya; Amherd, Michaela; Velicer, Gregory J

    2015-06-29

    Positively frequency-dependent selection is predicted from theory to promote diversity in patchily structured populations and communities, but empirical support for this prediction has been lacking. Here, we investigate frequency-dependent selection among isolates from a local natural population of the highly social bacterium Myxococcus xanthus. Upon starvation, closely related cells of M. xanthus cooperate to construct multicellular fruiting bodies, yet recently diverged genotypes co-residing in a local soil population often antagonize one another during fruiting-body development in mixed groups. In the experiments reported here, both fitness per se and strong forms of interference competition exhibit pervasive and strong positive frequency dependence (PFD) among many isolates from a centimeter-scale soil population of M. xanthus. All strains that compete poorly at intermediate frequency are shown to be competitively dominant at high frequency in most genotype pairings during both growth and development, and strongly so. Interference competition is often lethal and appears to be contact dependent rather than mediated by diffusible compounds. Finally, we experimentally demonstrate that positively frequency-dependent selection maintains diversity when genotype frequencies vary patchily in structured populations. These results suggest that PFD contributes to the high levels of local diversity found among M. xanthus social groups in natural soil populations by reinforcing social barriers to cross-territory invasion and thereby also promotes high within-group relatedness. More broadly, our results suggest that potential roles of PFD in maintaining patchily distributed diversity should be investigated more extensively in other species. PMID:26051889

  13. Stabilizing soliton-based multichannel transmission with frequency dependent linear gain-loss

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chakraborty, Debananda; Peleg, Avner; Nguyen, Quan M.

    2016-07-01

    We report several major theoretical steps towards realizing stable long-distance multichannel soliton transmission in Kerr nonlinear waveguide loops. We find that transmission destabilization in a single waveguide is caused by resonant formation of radiative sidebands and investigate the possibility to increase transmission stability by optimization with respect to the Kerr nonlinearity coefficient γ. Moreover, we develop a general method for transmission stabilization, based on frequency dependent linear gain-loss in Kerr nonlinear waveguide couplers, and implement it in two-channel and three-channel transmission. We show that the introduction of frequency dependent loss leads to significant enhancement of transmission stability even for non-optimal γ values via decay of radiative sidebands, which takes place as a dynamic phase transition. For waveguide couplers with frequency dependent linear gain-loss, we observe stable oscillations of soliton amplitudes due to decay and regeneration of the radiative sidebands.

  14. Effect of Frequency-Dependent Attenuation on Predicted Histotripsy Waveforms in Tissue-Mimicking Phantoms.

    PubMed

    Bader, Kenneth B; Crowe, Michael J; Raymond, Jason L; Holland, Christy K

    2016-07-01

    Tissue-mimicking phantoms are employed for the assessment of shocked histotripsy pulses in vitro. These broadband shock waves are critical for tissue ablation and are influenced by the frequency-dependent attenuation of the medium. The density, sound speed and attenuation spectra (2-25 MHz) were measured for phantoms that mimic key histotripsy targets. The influence of non-linear propagation relative to the attenuation was described in terms of Gol'dberg number. An expression was derived to estimate the bandwidth of shocked histotripsy pulses for power law-dependent attenuation. The expression is independent of the fundamental frequency of the histotripsy pulse for linear frequency-dependent attenuation. PMID:27108036

  15. Frequency dependence of electron spin-lattice relaxation for semiquinones in alcohol solutions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elajaili, Hanan B.; Biller, Joshua R.; Eaton, Sandra S.; Eaton, Gareth R.

    2014-10-01

    The spin-lattice relaxation rates at 293 K for three anionic semiquinones (2,5-di-t-butyl-1,4-benzosemiquinone, 2,6-di-t-butyl-1,4-benzosemiquinone, and 2,3,5,6-tetramethoxy-1,4-benzosemiquinone) were studied at up to 8 frequencies between 250 MHz and 34 GHz in ethanol or methanol solution containing high concentrations of OH-. The relaxation rates are about a factor of 2 faster at lower frequencies than at 9 or 34 GHz. However, in perdeuterated alcohols the relaxation rates exhibit little frequency dependence, which demonstrates that the dominant frequency-dependent contribution to relaxation is modulation of dipolar interactions with solvent nuclei. The relaxation rates were modeled as the sum of two frequency-independent contributions (spin rotation and a local mode) and two frequency-dependent contributions (modulation of dipolar interaction with solvent nuclei and a much smaller contribution from modulation of g anisotropy). The correlation time for modulation of the interaction with solvent nuclei is longer than the tumbling correlation time of the semiquinone and is consistent with hydrogen bonding of the alcohol to the oxygen atoms of the semiquinones.

  16. Tailored voltage waveform capacitively coupled plasmas in electronegative gases: frequency dependence of asymmetry effects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schüngel, E.; Korolov, I.; Bruneau, B.; Derzsi, A.; Johnson, E.; O’Connell, D.; Gans, T.; Booth, J.-P.; Donkó, Z.; Schulze, J.

    2016-07-01

    Capacitively coupled radio frequency plasmas operated in an electronegative gas (CF4) and driven by voltage waveforms composed of four consecutive harmonics are investigated for different fundamental driving frequencies using PIC/MCC simulations and an analytical model. As has been observed previously for electropositive gases, the application of peak-shaped waveforms (that are characterized by a strong amplitude asymmetry) results in the development of a DC self-bias due to the electrical asymmetry effect (EAE), which increases the energy of ions arriving at the powered electrode. In contrast to the electropositive case (Korolov et al 2012 J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys. 45 465202) the absolute value of the DC self-bias is found to increase as the fundamental frequency is reduced in this electronegative discharge, providing an increased range over which the DC self-bias can be controlled. The analytical model reveals that this increased DC self-bias is caused by changes in the spatial profile and the mean value of the net charge density in the grounded electrode sheath. The spatio-temporally resolved simulation data show that as the frequency is reduced the grounded electrode sheath region becomes electronegative. The presence of negative ions in this sheath leads to very different dynamics of the power absorption of electrons, which in turn enhances the local electronegativity and plasma density via ionization and attachment processes. The ion flux to the grounded electrode (where the ion energy is lowest) can be up to twice that to the powered electrode. At the same time, while the mean ion energies at both electrodes are quite different, their ratio remains approximately constant for all base frequencies studied here.

  17. Resolution and Dynamical Core Dependence of Atmospheric River Frequency in Global Model Simulations

    SciTech Connect

    Hagos, Samson M.; Leung, Lai-Yung R.; Yang, Qing; Zhao, Chun; Lu, Jian

    2015-04-01

    This study examines the sensitivity of atmospheric river (AR) frequency simulated by a global model with different grid resolutions and dynamical cores. Analysis is performed on aquaplanet simulations using version 4 of Community Atmosphere Model (CAM4) at 240, 120, 60 and 30 km model resolutions each with the Model for Prediction Across Scales (MPAS) and High-Order Methods Modeling Environment (HOMME) dynamical cores. The frequency of AR events decreases with model resolution and the HOMME dynamical core produces more AR events than MPAS. Comparing the frequencies determined using absolute and percentile thresholds of large-scale conditions used to define an AR, model sensitivity is found to be related to the overall sensitivity of sub-tropical westerlies, atmospheric precipitable water content and profile and to a lesser extent on extra-tropical Rossby wave activity to model resolution and dynamical core. Real world simulations using MPAS at 120 km and 30 km grid resolutions also exhibit a decrease of AR frequency with increasing resolution over southern East Pacific, but there difference is smaller over northern East Pacific. This inter-hemispheric difference is related to the enhancement of convection in over the tropics with increased resolution. This anomalous convection sets off Rossby wave patterns that weaken the subtropical westerlies over southern East Pacific but have relatively little effect on those over northern East Pacific. In comparison to NCEP2 reanalysis, MPAS real world simulations are found to underestimate AR frequencies at both resolutions likely because of their climatologically drier sub-tropics and poleward shifted jets. This study highlights the important links between model climatology of large-scale conditions and extremes.

  18. Frequency Dependence of Single-event Upset in Advanced Commerical PowerPC Microprocessors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Irom, Frokh; Farmanesh, Farhad F.; Swift, Gary M.; Johnston, Allen H.

    2004-01-01

    This paper examines single-event upsets in advanced commercial SOI microprocessors in a dynamic mode, studying SEU sensitivity of General Purpose Registers (GPRs) with clock frequency. Results are presented for SOI processors with feature sizes of 0.18 microns and two different core voltages. Single-event upset from heavy ions is measured for advanced commercial microprocessors in a dynamic mode with clock frequency up to 1GHz. Frequency and core voltage dependence of single-event upsets in registers is discussed.

  19. Signatures of the Berry curvature in the frequency dependent interlayer magnetoresistance in tilted magnetic fields.

    PubMed

    Wright, Anthony R; McKenzie, Ross H

    2014-02-26

    We show that in a layered metal, the angle dependent, finite frequency, interlayer magnetoresistance is altered due to the presence of a non-zero Berry curvature at the Fermi surface. At zero frequency, we find a conservation law which demands that the 'magic angle' condition for interlayer magnetoresistance extrema as a function of magnetic field tilt angle is essentially both field and Berry curvature independent. In the finite frequency case, however, we find that surprisingly large signatures of a finite Berry curvature occur in the periodic orbit resonances. We outline a method whereby the presence and magnitude of the Berry curvature at the Fermi surface can be extracted.

  20. Excitation-induced frequency shifts and frequency-dependent dephasing in Eu 3+:Y 2O 3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Jin; Zhang, J. M.; Mossberg, T. W.

    1990-02-01

    Using photon echo techniques and working on the 7F 0- 5D 0 transition of Eu 3+ in Eu 3+:Y 2O 3, we have studied the dependence of the homogeneous dephasing time on spectral position within the transition's inhomogeneous absorption profile. In agreement with previous observations [R.M. Macfarlane and R.M. Shelby, Optics Comm. 39 (1981) 169], a strong variation is observed. Interestingly, however, we find that the variation in linewidth is excitation-pulse-intensity dependent, becoming less pronounced the smaller the excitation intensity. Our observation are consistent with the notion that the variation in dephasing time is attributable, in large part, to the presence of excitation-induced optical frequency shifts in this system.

  1. Temperature dependence of acoustic harmonics generated by nonlinear ultrasound wave propagation in water at various frequencies.

    PubMed

    Maraghechi, Borna; Hasani, Mojtaba H; Kolios, Michael C; Tavakkoli, Jahan

    2016-05-01

    Ultrasound-based thermometry requires a temperature-sensitive acoustic parameter that can be used to estimate the temperature by tracking changes in that parameter during heating. The objective of this study is to investigate the temperature dependence of acoustic harmonics generated by nonlinear ultrasound wave propagation in water at various pulse transmit frequencies from 1 to 20 MHz. Simulations were conducted using an expanded form of the Khokhlov-Zabolotskaya-Kuznetsov nonlinear acoustic wave propagation model in which temperature dependence of the medium parameters was included. Measurements were performed using single-element transducers at two different transmit frequencies of 3.3 and 13 MHz which are within the range of frequencies simulated. The acoustic pressure signals were measured by a calibrated needle hydrophone along the axes of the transducers. The water temperature was uniformly increased from 26 °C to 46 °C in increments of 5 °C. The results show that the temperature dependence of the harmonic generation is different at various frequencies which is due to the interplay between the mechanisms of absorption, nonlinearity, and focusing gain. At the transmit frequencies of 1 and 3.3 MHz, the harmonic amplitudes decrease with increasing the temperature, while the opposite temperature dependence is observed at 13 and 20 MHz. PMID:27250143

  2. Modeling and quantifying frequency-dependent fitness in microbial populations with cross-feeding interactions.

    PubMed

    Ribeck, Noah; Lenski, Richard E

    2015-05-01

    Coexistence of two or more populations by frequency-dependent selection is common in nature, and it often arises even in well-mixed experiments with microbes. If ecology is to be incorporated into models of population genetics, then it is important to represent accurately the functional form of frequency-dependent interactions. However, measuring this functional form is problematic for traditional fitness assays, which assume a constant fitness difference between competitors over the course of an assay. Here, we present a theoretical framework for measuring the functional form of frequency-dependent fitness by accounting for changes in abundance and relative fitness during a competition assay. Using two examples of ecological coexistence that arose in a long-term evolution experiment with Escherichia coli, we illustrate accurate quantification of the functional form of frequency-dependent relative fitness. Using a Monod-type model of growth dynamics, we show that two ecotypes in a typical cross-feeding interaction-such as when one bacterial population uses a byproduct generated by another-yields relative fitness that is linear with relative frequency.

  3. Colour polymorphism torn apart by opposing positive frequency-dependent selection, yet maintained in space.

    PubMed

    Gordon, Swanne P; Kokko, Hanna; Rojas, Bibiana; Nokelainen, Ossi; Mappes, Johanna

    2015-11-01

    Polymorphic warning signals in aposematic species are enigmatic because predator learning and discrimination should select for the most common coloration, resulting in positive frequency-dependent survival selection. Here, we investigated whether differential mating success could create sufficiently strong negative frequency-dependent selection for rare morphs to explain polymorphic (white and yellow) warning coloration in male wood tiger moths (Parasemia plantaginis). We conducted an experiment in semi-natural conditions where we estimated mating success for both white and yellow male moths under three different morph frequencies. Contrary to expectations, mating success was positively frequency-dependent: white morph males had high relative fitness when common, likewise yellow morph males had high relative fitness when instead they were common. We hence built a model parameterized with our data to examine whether polymorphism can be maintained despite two sources of positive frequency dependence. The model includes known spatial variation in the survival advantage enjoyed by the yellow morph and assumes that relative mating success follows our experimentally derived values. It predicts that polymorphism is possible under migration for up to approximately 20% exchange of individuals between subpopulations in each generation. Our results suggest that differential mating success combined with spatial variation in predator communities may operate as a selection mosaic that prevents complete fixation of either morph.

  4. Frequency dependence of the onset voltage of electroconvection in the nematic liquid crystal N4

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Xiaochao; Bowers, Steve; Bajaj, Kapil; Ahlers, Guenter

    2003-03-01

    Onset voltages Vc of electroconvection in a nematic liquid crystal (NLC) cell were measured as a function of the drive frequency ω/ 2 π. The cell (from E.H.C Co, Ltd Japan) had a nominal spacing of 25 μm and planar alignment. It was filled with the NLC Merck phase IV (N4). The NLC was doped with 0.1% by weight of tetra butylammonium bromide(TBAB) and the conductivity was near 1.0 × 10-6 (Ω m)-1 at 30^oC. At low frequencies (15 to 80Hz) the onset voltage dropped as the frequency increased. This is contrary to the usual interpretation of the standard model which yields Vc (1+ω^2 τ^2)/[ξ^2-(1+ω^2 τ^2)] (ξ is related to NLC material properities), with the charge relaxation time τ=ɛ/ ( 4π σ) assumed to be independent of ω. Measurements at higher frequencies agreed reasonably with the standard model prediction. Further measurements using an AC bridge revealed that the dielectric constant ɛ is strongly frequency dependent at low frequencies, whereas the conductivity σ was roughly constant. Taking into account the frequency dependence of ɛ (and thus of τ), the onset-voltage measurements agreed fairly well with the standard-model prediction.

  5. Polarization-dependent loss characterization method based on optical frequency beat.

    PubMed

    Ferreira da Silva, T; Nobre, C S; Temporão, G P

    2016-03-10

    Characterization of the polarization-dependent loss (PDL) of optical components is fundamental for the reliable operation of fiber-optic communication systems. Here we present a method for determining the PDL of optical devices based on optical frequency beating and spectral analysis. Depending on the beat note between components of two orthogonally polarized probe signals modulated at different frequencies, the PDL value and its axis can be determined from a single sweep of an optical spectrum analyzer. Our proposal represents an alternative high-speed option for PDL characterization. PMID:26974770

  6. Dynamical gap generation in graphene with frequency-dependent renormalization effects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carrington, M. E.; Fischer, C. S.; von Smekal, L.; Thoma, M. H.

    2016-09-01

    We study the frequency dependencies in the renormalization of the fermion Green's function for the π -band electrons in graphene and their influence on the dynamical gap generation at sufficiently strong interaction. Adopting the effective QED-like description for the low-energy excitations within the Dirac-cone region, we self-consistently solve the fermion Dyson-Schwinger equation in various approximations for the photon propagator and the vertex function with special emphasis on frequency-dependent Lindhard screening and retardation effects.

  7. An angular frequency dependence on the Aharonov–Casher geometric phase

    SciTech Connect

    Barboza, P.M.T.; Bakke, K.

    2015-10-15

    A quantum effect characterized by a dependence of the angular frequency associated with the confinement of a neutral particle to a quantum ring on the quantum numbers of the system and the Aharonov–Casher geometric phase is discussed. Then, it is shown that persistent spin currents can arise in a two-dimensional quantum ring in the presence of a Coulomb-type potential. A particular contribution to the persistent spin currents arises from the dependence of the angular frequency on the geometric quantum phase.

  8. Evaluation of frequency dependent non-linear optical property using long-range correction method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yokoi, Yukina; Ishimaru, Hiroki; Kamiya, Muneaki; Sekino, Hideo

    2015-02-01

    We for the first time performed a systematic evaluation of dynamic second hyperpolarizabilities corresponding to all the third-order Nonlinear Optical (NLO) processes using Time Dependent Density Functional Theory (TDDFT) with exchange functional corrected for long-range interaction. We develop a program system which quantitatively evaluate the frequency dependent non-linear optical property of molecules, and apply to the polyene molecules of different lengths. The dispersion curves obtained for each NLO processes have divergence at the frequency corresponding to the one predicted by Sum Over State (SOS) interpretation of the property.

  9. Interactions between frequency-dependent and vertical transmission in host-parasite systems.

    PubMed Central

    Altizer, S M; Augustine, D J

    1997-01-01

    We investigate host-pathogen dynamics and conditions for coexistence in two models incorporating frequency-dependent horizontal transmission in conjunction with vertical transmission. The first model combines frequency-dependent and uniparental vertical transmission, while the second addresses parasites transmitted vertically via both parents. For the first model, we ask how the addition of vertical transmission changes the coexistence criteria for parasites transmitted by a frequency-dependent horizontal route, and show that vertical transmission significantly broadens the conditions for parasite invasion. Host-parasite coexistence is further affected by the form of density-dependent host regulation. Numerical analyses demonstrate that within a host population, a parasite strain with horizontal frequency-dependent transmission can be driven to extinction by a parasite strain that is additionally transmitted vertically for a wide range of parameters. Although models of asexual host populations predict that vertical transmission alone cannot maintain a parasite over time, analysis of our second model shows that vertical transmission via both male and female parents can maintain a parasite at a stable equilibrium. These results correspond with the frequent co-occurrence of vertical with sexual transmission in nature and suggest that these transmission modes can lead to host-pathogen coexistence for a wide range of systems involving hosts with high reproductive rates. PMID:9265188

  10. Frequency-dependent traveltime tomography for near-surface seismic refraction data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zelt, Colin A.; Chen, Jianxiong

    2016-10-01

    Traveltime tomography is the main method by which the Earth's seismic velocity is determined on all scales, from the near-surface (<100 m) to the core. Usually traveltime tomography uses ray theory, an infinite-frequency approximation of wave propagation. A theory developed in global seismology to account for the finite-frequency nature of seismic data, known as finite-frequency traveltime tomography (FFTT), can theoretically provide a more accurate estimation of velocity. But the FFTT theory is generally not applicable to near-surface data because there is no reference velocity model known in advance that is capable of yielding synthetic waveforms that are close enough to the recorded seismograms to yield a reliable delay time. Also, there is usually no reference model for which the unknown velocity model represents a small (linear) perturbation from the reference model. This paper presents a frequency dependent form of non-linear traveltime tomography specifically designed for near-surface seismic data in which a starting model, iterative approach with recalculated travel paths at each iteration, and the calculation of a frequency-dependent total traveltime, as opposed to a delay time, are used. Frequency-dependent traveltime tomography (FDTT) involves two modifications to conventional traveltime tomography: (1) the calculation of frequency-dependent traveltimes using wavelength-dependent velocity smoothing (WDVS) and (2) the corresponding sensitivity kernels that arise from using WDVS. Results show that the former modification is essential to achieve significant benefits from FDTT, whereas the latter is optional in that similar results can be achieved using infinite-frequency kernels. The long seismic wavelengths relative to the total path lengths and the size of subsurface heterogeneities of typical near-surface data means the improvements over ray theory tomography are significant. The benefits of FDTT are demonstrated using conventional minimum

  11. Frequency-dependent traveltime tomography for near-surface seismic refraction data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zelt, Colin A.; Chen, Jianxiong

    2016-07-01

    Traveltime tomography is the main method by which the Earth's seismic velocity is determined on all scales, from the near-surface (< 100 m) to the core. Usually traveltime tomography uses ray theory, an infinite-frequency approximation of wave propagation. A theory developed in global seismology to account for the finite-frequency nature of seismic data, known as finite-frequency traveltime tomography (FFTT), can theoretically provide a more accurate estimation of velocity. But the FFTT theory is generally not applicable to near-surface data because there is no reference velocity model known in advance that is capable of yielding synthetic waveforms that are close enough to the recorded seismograms to yield a reliable delay time. Also, there is usually no reference model for which the unknown velocity model represents a small (linear) perturbation from the reference model. This paper presents a frequency dependent form of nonlinear traveltime tomography specifically designed for near-surface seismic data in which a starting model, iterative approach with recalculated travel paths at each iteration, and the calculation of a frequency-dependent total traveltime, as opposed to a delay time, are used. Frequency-dependent traveltime tomography (FDTT) involves two modifications to conventional traveltime tomography: (1) the calculation of frequency-dependent traveltimes using wavelength-dependent velocity smoothing (WDVS), and (2) the corresponding sensitivity kernels that arise from using WDVS. Results show that the former modification is essential to achieve significant benefits from FDTT, whereas the latter is optional in that similar results can be achieved using infinite-frequency kernels. The long seismic wavelengths relative to the total path lengths and the size of subsurface heterogeneities of typical near-surface data means the improvements over ray theory tomography are significant. The benefits of FDTT are demonstrated using conventional minimum

  12. Frequency-dependent signal processing in apical dendrites of hippocampal CA1 pyramidal cells.

    PubMed

    Watanabe, H; Tsubokawa, H; Tsukada, M; Aihara, T

    2014-10-10

    Depending on an animal's behavioral state, hippocampal CA1 pyramidal cells receive distinct patterns of excitatory and inhibitory synaptic inputs. The time-dependent changes in the frequencies of these inputs and the nonuniform distribution of voltage-gated channels lead to dynamic fluctuations in membrane conductance. In this study, using a whole-cell patch-clamp method, we attempted to record and analyze the frequency dependencies of membrane responsiveness in Wistar rat hippocampal CA1 pyramidal cells following noise current injection directly into dendrites and somata under pharmacological blockade of all synaptic inputs. To estimate the frequency-dependent properties of membrane potential, membrane impedance was determined from the voltage response divided by the input current in the frequency domain. The cell membrane of most neurons showed low-pass filtering properties in all regions. In particular, the properties were strongly expressed in the somata or proximal dendrites. Moreover, the data revealed nonuniform distribution of dendritic impedance, which was high in the intermediate segment of the apical dendritic shaft (∼220-260μm from the soma). The low-pass filtering properties in the apical dendrites were more enhanced by membrane depolarization than those in the somata. Coherence spectral analysis revealed high coherence between the input signal and the output voltage response in the theta-gamma frequency range, and large lags emerged in the distal dendrites in the gamma frequency range. Our results suggest that apical dendrites of hippocampal CA1 pyramidal cells integrate synaptic inputs according to the frequency components of the input signal along the dendritic segments receiving the inputs.

  13. Dependence structure of the Korean stock market in high frequency data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Min Jae; Kwak, Young Bin; Kim, Soo Yong

    2011-03-01

    This paper analyzes the evolution of the dependence structure for various time window intervals, known as Epps effect, using the Trade and Quote data of 663 actively traded stocks in Korean stock market. It is found that the random matrix theory analysis could not represent the dependence structure of the stock market in the microstructure regime. The Cook-Johnson copula is introduced as a parsimonious alternative method to handle this problem, and the existence of the Epps effect is confirmed for the 663 stocks using high frequency data. It was also found that large capitalization companies tend to have a stronger dependence structure, except for the largest capitalization group, since the phenomenon of price level resistance leads to the weak dependence structure in the largest capitalization group. In addition, grouping the industry as a sub-portfolio is an appropriate approach for hour interval traders, whereas this approach is not a strategy recommended for high frequency traders.

  14. Teaching Absolute Value Meaningfully

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wade, Angela

    2012-01-01

    What is the meaning of absolute value? And why do teachers teach students how to solve absolute value equations? Absolute value is a concept introduced in first-year algebra and then reinforced in later courses. Various authors have suggested instructional methods for teaching absolute value to high school students (Wei 2005; Stallings-Roberts…

  15. Dependence of the colored frequency noise in spin torque oscillators on current and magnetic field

    SciTech Connect

    Eklund, Anders Sani, Sohrab R.; Chung, Sunjae; Amir Hossein Banuazizi, S.; Östling, Mikael; Gunnar Malm, B.; Bonetti, Stefano; Majid Mohseni, S.; Persson, Johan; Iacocca, Ezio; Åkerman, Johan

    2014-03-03

    The nano-scale spin torque oscillator (STO) is a compelling device for on-chip, highly tunable microwave frequency signal generation. Currently, one of the most important challenges for the STO is to increase its longer-time frequency stability by decreasing the 1/f frequency noise, but its high level makes even its measurement impossible using the phase noise mode of spectrum analyzers. Here, we present a custom made time-domain measurement system with 150 MHz measurement bandwidth making possible the investigation of the variation of the 1/f as well as the white frequency noise in a STO over a large set of operating points covering 18–25 GHz. The 1/f level is found to be highly dependent on the oscillation amplitude-frequency non-linearity and the vicinity of unexcited oscillation modes. These findings elucidate the need for a quantitative theoretical treatment of the low-frequency, colored frequency noise in STOs. Based on the results, we suggest that the 1/f frequency noise possibly can be decreased by improving the microstructural quality of the metallic thin films.

  16. Self-consistent modeling of terahertz waveguide and cavity with frequency-dependent conductivity

    SciTech Connect

    Huang, Y. J.; Chu, K. R.; Thumm, M.

    2015-01-15

    The surface resistance of metals, and hence the Ohmic dissipation per unit area, scales with the square root of the frequency of an incident electromagnetic wave. As is well recognized, this can lead to excessive wall losses at terahertz (THz) frequencies. On the other hand, high-frequency oscillatory motion of conduction electrons tends to mitigate the collisional damping. As a result, the classical theory predicts that metals behave more like a transparent medium at frequencies above the ultraviolet. Such a behavior difference is inherent in the AC conductivity, a frequency-dependent complex quantity commonly used to treat electromagnetics of metals at optical frequencies. The THz region falls in the gap between microwave and optical frequencies. However, metals are still commonly modeled by the DC conductivity in currently active vacuum electronics research aimed at the development of high-power THz sources (notably the gyrotron), although a small reduction of the DC conductivity due to surface roughness is sometimes included. In this study, we present a self-consistent modeling of the gyrotron interaction structures (a metallic waveguide or cavity) with the AC conductivity. The resulting waveguide attenuation constants and cavity quality factors are compared with those of the DC-conductivity model. The reduction in Ohmic losses under the AC-conductivity model is shown to be increasingly significant as the frequency reaches deeper into the THz region. Such effects are of considerable importance to THz gyrotrons for which the minimization of Ohmic losses constitutes a major design consideration.

  17. Self-consistent modeling of terahertz waveguide and cavity with frequency-dependent conductivity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Y. J.; Chu, K. R.; Thumm, M.

    2015-01-01

    The surface resistance of metals, and hence the Ohmic dissipation per unit area, scales with the square root of the frequency of an incident electromagnetic wave. As is well recognized, this can lead to excessive wall losses at terahertz (THz) frequencies. On the other hand, high-frequency oscillatory motion of conduction electrons tends to mitigate the collisional damping. As a result, the classical theory predicts that metals behave more like a transparent medium at frequencies above the ultraviolet. Such a behavior difference is inherent in the AC conductivity, a frequency-dependent complex quantity commonly used to treat electromagnetics of metals at optical frequencies. The THz region falls in the gap between microwave and optical frequencies. However, metals are still commonly modeled by the DC conductivity in currently active vacuum electronics research aimed at the development of high-power THz sources (notably the gyrotron), although a small reduction of the DC conductivity due to surface roughness is sometimes included. In this study, we present a self-consistent modeling of the gyrotron interaction structures (a metallic waveguide or cavity) with the AC conductivity. The resulting waveguide attenuation constants and cavity quality factors are compared with those of the DC-conductivity model. The reduction in Ohmic losses under the AC-conductivity model is shown to be increasingly significant as the frequency reaches deeper into the THz region. Such effects are of considerable importance to THz gyrotrons for which the minimization of Ohmic losses constitutes a major design consideration.

  18. Phase-Shifted Based Numerical Method for Modeling Frequency-Dependent Effects on Seismic Reflections

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Xuehua; Qi, Yingkai; He, Xilei; He, Zhenhua; Chen, Hui

    2016-08-01

    The significant velocity dispersion and attenuation has often been observed when seismic waves propagate in fluid-saturated porous rocks. Both the magnitude and variation features of the velocity dispersion and attenuation are frequency-dependent and related closely to the physical properties of the fluid-saturated porous rocks. To explore the effects of frequency-dependent dispersion and attenuation on the seismic responses, in this work, we present a numerical method for seismic data modeling based on the diffusive and viscous wave equation (DVWE), which introduces the poroelastic theory and takes into account diffusive and viscous attenuation in diffusive-viscous-theory. We derive a phase-shift wave extrapolation algorithm in frequencywavenumber domain for implementing the DVWE-based simulation method that can handle the simultaneous lateral variations in velocity, diffusive coefficient and viscosity. Then, we design a distributary channels model in which a hydrocarbon-saturated sand reservoir is embedded in one of the channels. Next, we calculated the synthetic seismic data to analytically and comparatively illustrate the seismic frequency-dependent behaviors related to the hydrocarbon-saturated reservoir, by employing DVWE-based and conventional acoustic wave equation (AWE) based method, respectively. The results of the synthetic seismic data delineate the intrinsic energy loss, phase delay, lower instantaneous dominant frequency and narrower bandwidth due to the frequency-dependent dispersion and attenuation when seismic wave travels through the hydrocarbon-saturated reservoir. The numerical modeling method is expected to contribute to improve the understanding of the features and mechanism of the seismic frequency-dependent effects resulted from the hydrocarbon-saturated porous rocks.

  19. Frequency-dependent Effects of Rupture for the 2004 Parkfield, California, Mainshock at UPSAR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fletcher, J. B.

    2014-12-01

    We processed the accelerograms for the Sept. 28, 2004 Parkfield mainshock (M6) from the Parkfield Dense Seismograph Array (UPSAR) using beam forming techniques to determine coherence and slowness of incoming arrivals and we found that the frequency-dependent effects of rupture propagation of can be seen in the acceleration records in at least two ways. The first is the effect of directivity. During the 4-6s interval after nucleation, UPSAR lies in the forward azimuth of the rupture front and coherence and amplitudes are relatively high. In this interval, the records are rich in frequencies as high as 40 Hz. As the rupture front progresses, UPSAR becomes perpendicular to the location of the rupture front on the fault and then passes into the back azimuth. During this 5-7s interval, the coherence drops off, amplitudes are typically smaller and the traces are depleted in high frequencies compared to when UPSAR was in the forward azimuth. We model the rupture process of the Parkfield mainshock using realistic distributions of slip and show that they also have significant changes in frequency as the rupture passes from the forward to the back azimuth. The second effect is the frequency dependence of the rupture front. That is observations at UPSAR were used to address the question of whether low frequency energy emerges from the same parts of the fault as high frequency energy. Acceleration records of the Parkfield mainshock from UPSAR were filtered in 5 different narrow frequency bands (0.25-0.5 Hz, 0.5-1 Hz, 1-2 Hz, 2-4 Hz, and 4-8 Hz) and beam forming was repeated. Above 1 Hz the estimates of back azimuth and apparent velocity are about the same and are independent of frequency. Below 1 Hz, however, the estimates appear to be significantly different with a change of about of 0.34 km/s in apparent velocity and 22 degrees in back azimuth at 2s after the S wave arrival, for example, between the middle and lowest band. From previous work on mapping values of apparent

  20. Spatial resolution dependence on spectral frequency in human speech cortex electrocorticography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muller, Leah; Hamilton, Liberty S.; Edwards, Erik; Bouchard, Kristofer E.; Chang, Edward F.

    2016-10-01

    Objective. Electrocorticography (ECoG) has become an important tool in human neuroscience and has tremendous potential for emerging applications in neural interface technology. Electrode array design parameters are outstanding issues for both research and clinical applications, and these parameters depend critically on the nature of the neural signals to be recorded. Here, we investigate the functional spatial resolution of neural signals recorded at the human cortical surface. We empirically derive spatial spread functions to quantify the shared neural activity for each frequency band of the electrocorticogram. Approach. Five subjects with high-density (4 mm center-to-center spacing) ECoG grid implants participated in speech perception and production tasks while neural activity was recorded from the speech cortex, including superior temporal gyrus, precentral gyrus, and postcentral gyrus. The cortical surface field potential was decomposed into traditional EEG frequency bands. Signal similarity between electrode pairs for each frequency band was quantified using a Pearson correlation coefficient. Main results. The correlation of neural activity between electrode pairs was inversely related to the distance between the electrodes; this relationship was used to quantify spatial falloff functions for cortical subdomains. As expected, lower frequencies remained correlated over larger distances than higher frequencies. However, both the envelope and phase of gamma and high gamma frequencies (30-150 Hz) are largely uncorrelated (<90%) at 4 mm, the smallest spacing of the high-density arrays. Thus, ECoG arrays smaller than 4 mm have significant promise for increasing signal resolution at high frequencies, whereas less additional gain is achieved for lower frequencies. Significance. Our findings quantitatively demonstrate the dependence of ECoG spatial resolution on the neural frequency of interest. We demonstrate that this relationship is consistent across patients and

  1. The impact of random frequency-dependent mutations on the average population fitness

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background In addition to selection, the process of evolution is accompanied by stochastic effects, such as changing environmental conditions, genetic drift and mutations. Commonly it is believed that without genetic drift, advantageous mutations quickly fixate in a halpoid population due to strong selection and lead to a continuous increase of the average fitness. This conclusion is based on the assumption of constant fitness. However, for frequency dependent fitness, where the fitness of an individual depends on the interactions with other individuals in the population, this does not hold. Results We propose a mathematical model that allows to understand the consequences of random frequency dependent mutations on the dynamics of an infinite large population. The frequencies of different types change according to the replicator equations and the fitness of a mutant is random and frequency dependent. To capture the interactions of different types, we employ a payoff matrix of variable size and thus are able to accommodate an arbitrary number of mutations. We assume that at most one mutant type arises at a time. The payoff entries to describe the mutant type are random variables obeying a probability distribution which is related to the fitness of the parent type. Conclusions We show that a random mutant can decrease the average fitness under frequency dependent selection, based on analytical results for two types and simulations for n types. Interestingly, in the case of at most two types the probabilities to increase or decrease the average fitness are independent of the concrete probability density function. Instead, they only depend on the probability that the payoff entries of the mutant are larger than the payoff entries of the parent type. PMID:22935138

  2. Frequency domain source localization shows state-dependent diazepam effects in 47-channel EEG.

    PubMed

    Michel, C M; Pascual-Marqui, R D; Strik, W K; Koenig, T; Lehmann, D

    1995-01-01

    The topic of this study was to evaluate state-dependent effects of diazepam on the frequency characteristics of 47-channel spontaneous EEG maps. A novel method, the FFT-Dipole-Approximation (Lehmann and Michel, 1990), was used to study effects on the strength and the topography of the maps in the different frequency bands. Map topography was characterized by the 3-dimensional location of the equivalent dipole source and map strength was defined as the spatial standard deviation (the Global Field Power) of the maps of each frequency point. The Global Field Power can be considered as a measure of the amount of energy produced by the system, while the source location gives an estimate of the center of gravity of all sources in the brain that were active at a certain frequency. State-dependency was studied by evaluating the drug effects before and after a continuous performance task of 25 min duration. Clear interactions between drug (diazepam vs. placebo) and time after drug intake (before and after the task) were found, especially in the inferior-superior location of the dipole sources. It supports the hypothesis that diazepam, like other drugs, has different effects on brain functions depending on the momentary functional state of the brain. In addition to the drug effects, clearly different source locations and Global Field Power were found for the different frequency bands, replicating earlier reports (Michel et al., 1992).

  3. Dependence of kHz quasi-periodic oscillation frequencies on accretion-related parameters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Erkut, M. Hakan; Catmabacak, Onur; Duran, Sivan; Çatmabacak, Önder

    2016-07-01

    To study the possible dependence of kHz QPO frequencies on the parameters such as the mass accretion rate, the surface magnetic field strength, mass, and radius of the neutron star, we consider the up-to-date distribution of neutron star LMXBs in the kHz QPO frequency versus X-ray luminosity plane. We confirm the absence of any correlation between QPO frequencies and luminosity in the ensemble of LMXBs. Searching for the dependence of QPO data on accretion-related parameters, we find a correlation between the lower kHz QPO frequency and the parameter combining mass accretion rate with magnetic field strength. The correlation cannot be adequately described by a simple power law due to observed scattering of individual source data in the ensemble of Z and atoll sources. Based on disk-magnetosphere boundary region, the model function for QPO frequency can delineate the correlation taking into account the scattering of individual sources. In addition to mass accretion rate and magnetic field strength, the model function also depends on the radial width of the boundary region near the magnetopause. Modelling the variation of the width with mass accretion rate, we also provide an explanation for the parallel tracks phenomenon observed in the case of individual sources.

  4. Dynamic Acousto-Elasticity: Pressure and Frequency Dependences in Berea Sandstone.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Riviere, J. V.; Pimienta, L.; Latour, S.; Fortin, J.; Schubnel, A.; Johnson, P. A.

    2014-12-01

    Nonlinear elasticity is studied at the laboratory scale with the goal of understanding observations at earth scales, for instance during strong ground motion, tidal forcing and earthquake slip processes. Here we report frequency and pressure dependences on elasticity when applying dynamic acousto-elasticity (DAE) of rock samples, analogous to quasi-static acousto-elasticity. DAE allows one to obtain the elastic behavior over the entire dynamic cycle, detailing the full nonlinear behavior under tension and compression, including hysteresis and memory effects. We perform DAE on a sample of Berea sandstone subject to 0.5MPa uniaxial load, with sinusoidal oscillating strain amplitudes ranging from 10-6 to 10-5 and at frequencies from 0.1 to 260Hz. In addition, the confining pressure is increased stepwise from 0 to 30MPa. We compare results to previous measurements made at lower (mHz) and higher (kHz) frequencies. Nonlinear elastic parameters corresponding to conditioning effects, third order elastic constants and fourth order elastic constants are quantitatively compared over the pressure and frequency ranges. We observe that the decrease in modulus due to conditioning increases with frequency, suggesting a frequency and/or strain-rate dependence that should be included in nonlinear elastic models of rocks. In agreement with previous measurements, nonlinear elastic effects also decrease with confining pressure, suggesting that nonlinear elastic sources such as micro-cracks, soft bonds and dislocations are turned off as the pressure increases.

  5. FREQUENCY-DEPENDENT CHANGES IN GAP JUNCTION FUNCTION IN PRIMARY HEPATOCYTES

    EPA Science Inventory

    FREQUENCY-DEPENDENT CHANGES IN GAP JUNCTION FUNCTION IN PRIMARY HEPATOCYTES. X. Wang1 *, D.E. Housel *, J. Page2, C.F. Blackmanl. 1 National Health and Environmental Effects Research Laboratory, USEPA, Research Triangle Park, North Carolina 27711 USA, 2Oakland, California USA
    ...

  6. Light and clock expression of the Neurospora clock gene frequency is differentially driven by but dependent on WHITE COLLAR-2.

    PubMed Central

    Collett, Michael A; Garceau, Norm; Dunlap, Jay C; Loros, Jennifer J

    2002-01-01

    Visible light is thought to reset the Neurospora circadian clock by acting through heterodimers of the WHITE COLLAR-1 and WHITE COLLAR-2 proteins to induce transcription of the frequency gene. To characterize this photic entrainment we examined frq expression in constant light, under which condition the mRNA and protein of this clock gene were strongly induced. In continuous illumination FRQ accumulated in a highly phosphorylated state similar to that seen at subjective dusk, the time at which a step from constant light to darkness sets the clock. Examination of frq expression in several wc-2 mutant alleles surprisingly revealed differential regulation when frq expression was compared between constant light, following a light pulse, and darkness (clock-driven expression). Construction of a wc-2 null strain then demonstrated that WC-2 is absolutely required for both light and clock-driven frq expression, in contrast to previous expectations based on presumptive nulls containing altered Zn-finger function. Additionally, we found that frq light signal transduction differs from that of other light-regulated genes. Thus clock and light-driven frq expression is differentially regulated by, but dependent on, WC-2. PMID:11805052

  7. Audio-Band Frequency-Dependent Squeezing for Gravitational-Wave Detectors.

    PubMed

    Oelker, Eric; Isogai, Tomoki; Miller, John; Tse, Maggie; Barsotti, Lisa; Mavalvala, Nergis; Evans, Matthew

    2016-01-29

    Quantum vacuum fluctuations impose strict limits on precision displacement measurements, those of interferometric gravitational-wave detectors among them. Introducing squeezed states into an interferometer's readout port can improve the sensitivity of the instrument, leading to richer astrophysical observations. However, optomechanical interactions dictate that the vacuum's squeezed quadrature must rotate by 90° around 50 Hz. Here we use a 2-m-long, high-finesse optical resonator to produce frequency-dependent rotation around 1.2 kHz. This demonstration of audio-band frequency-dependent squeezing uses technology and methods that are scalable to the required rotation frequency and validates previously developed theoretical models, heralding application of the technique in future gravitational-wave detectors. PMID:26871318

  8. Audio-Band Frequency-Dependent Squeezing for Gravitational-Wave Detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oelker, Eric; Isogai, Tomoki; Miller, John; Tse, Maggie; Barsotti, Lisa; Mavalvala, Nergis; Evans, Matthew

    2016-01-01

    Quantum vacuum fluctuations impose strict limits on precision displacement measurements, those of interferometric gravitational-wave detectors among them. Introducing squeezed states into an interferometer's readout port can improve the sensitivity of the instrument, leading to richer astrophysical observations. However, optomechanical interactions dictate that the vacuum's squeezed quadrature must rotate by 90° around 50 Hz. Here we use a 2-m-long, high-finesse optical resonator to produce frequency-dependent rotation around 1.2 kHz. This demonstration of audio-band frequency-dependent squeezing uses technology and methods that are scalable to the required rotation frequency and validates previously developed theoretical models, heralding application of the technique in future gravitational-wave detectors.

  9. Influence of Gaussian white noise on the frequency-dependent linear polarizability of doped quantum dot

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ganguly, Jayanta; Ghosh, Manas

    2014-06-01

    We investigate the profiles of diagonal components of frequency-dependent linear (αxx and αyy) optical response of repulsive impurity doped quantum dots. The dopant impurity potential chosen assumes Gaussian form. The study principally puts emphasis on investigating the role of noise on the polarizability components. In view of this we have exploited Gaussian white noise containing additive and multiplicative characteristics (in Stratonovich sense). The frequency-dependent polarizabilities are studied by exposing the doped dot to a periodically oscillating external electric field of given intensity. The oscillation frequency, confinement potentials, dopant location, and above all, the noise characteristics tune the linear polarizability components in a subtle manner. Whereas the additive noise fails to have any impact on the polarizabilities, the multiplicative noise influences them delicately and gives rise to additional interesting features.

  10. Influence of damping on the frequency-dependent polarizabilities of doped quantum dot

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pal, Suvajit; Ghosh, Manas

    2014-09-01

    We investigate the profiles of diagonal components of frequency-dependent linear (αxx and αyy), and first nonlinear (βxxx and βyyy) optical response of repulsive impurity doped quantum dots. The dopant impurity potential chosen assumes Gaussian form. The study principally focuses on investigating the role of damping on the polarizability components. In view of this the dopant is considered to be propagating under damped condition which is otherwise linear inherently. The frequency-dependent polarizabilities are then analyzed by placing the doped dot to a periodically oscillating external electric field of given intensity. The damping strength, in conjunction with external oscillation frequency and confinement potentials, fabricate the polarizability components in a fascinating manner which is adorned with emergence of maximization, minimization, and saturation. The discrimination in the values of the polarizability components in x and y-directions has also been addressed in the present context.

  11. Frequency dependence of thermal noise in gram-scale cantilever flexures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nguyen, Thanh T.-H.; Mow-Lowry, Conor M.; Slagmolen, Bram J. J.; Miller, John; Mullavey, Adam J.; Goßler, Stefan; Altin, Paul A.; Shaddock, Daniel A.; McClelland, David E.

    2015-12-01

    We present measurements of the frequency dependence of thermal noise in aluminum and niobium flexures. Our measurements cover the audio-frequency band from 10 Hz to 10 kHz, which is of particular relevance to ground-based interferometric gravitational wave detectors, and span up to an order of magnitude above and below the fundamental flexure resonances. Results from two flexures are well explained by a simple model in which both structural and thermoelastic loss play a role. The ability of such a model to explain this interplay is important for investigations of quantum-radiation-pressure noise and the standard quantum limit. Furthermore, measurements on a third flexure provide evidence that surface damage can affect the frequency dependence of thermal noise in addition to reducing the quality factor, a result which will aid the understanding of how aging effects impact on thermal noise behavior.

  12. Frequency-dependent effects of rupture for the 2004 Parkfield mainshock, results from UPSAR

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fletcher, Jon B.

    2014-01-01

    The frequency-dependent effects of rupture propagation of the Parkfield, California earthquake (Sept. 28, 2004, M6) to the northwest along the San Andreas fault can be seen in acceleration records at UPSAR (USGS Parkfield Seismic Array) in at least two ways. First, we can see the effects of directivity in the acceleration traces at UPSAR, which is about 11.5 km from the epicenter. Directivity or the seismic equivalent of a Doppler shift has been documented in many cases by comparing short duration, high-amplitude pulses (P or S) in the forward direction with longer duration body waves in the backward direction. In this case we detect a change from a relatively large amplitude, coherent, high-frequency signal at the start of rupture to a low-amplitude, low-coherent, low-frequency signal at about the time the rupture front transfers from the forward azimuth to the back azimuth at about 34-36 s (time is UTC and are the seconds after day 272 and 17 hours and 15 minutes. S arrival is just after 30s) for rays leaving the fault and propagating to UPSAR. The frequency change is obvious in the band about 5 to 30 Hz, which is significantly above the corner frequency of the earthquake (about 0.11Hz). From kinematic source models, the duration of faulting is about 9.2 s and the change in frequency is during faulting as the rupture extends to the northwest. Understanding the systematic change in frequency and amplitude of seismic waves in relation to the propagation of the rupture front is important for predicting strong ground motion. Second, we can filter the acceleration records from the array to determine if the low frequency energy emerges from the same part of the fault as the high frequency signal (e.g. has the same back azimuth and apparent velocity at UPSAR) an important clue to the dynamics of rupture. Analysis of sources of strong motion (characterized by relatively high frequencies) compared to kinematic slip models (relatively low frequency) for the

  13. Absolute Frequency Measurement of the 2{ital S}-8{ital S}/{ital D} Transitions in Hydrogen and Deuterium: New Determination of the Rydberg Constant

    SciTech Connect

    de Beauvoir, B.; Nez, F.; Julien, L.; Cagnac, B.; Biraben, F.; Touahri, D.; Hilico, L.; Acef, O.; Clairon, A.; Zondy, J.

    1997-01-01

    We have performed a pure optical frequency measurement of the 2S-8S/D two-photon transitions in atomic hydrogen and deuterium. These frequencies are directly compared to a new frequency standard, a diode laser stabilized to a two-photon transition at 778nm in rubidium. We deduce a new value for the Rydberg constant, R{sub {infinity}}=109737.3156859(10)cm{sup -1} with an uncertainty of 9{times}10{sup -12}. From the isotope shift, we derive a precise value of the 2S Lamb shift in deuterium [L{sub 2S-2P}=1059.230(9)MHz] and the difference of the quadratic charge radii of deuteron and proton. {copyright} {ital 1997} {ital The American Physical Society}

  14. Demonstrating frequency-dependent transmission of sarcoptic mange in red foxes

    PubMed Central

    Devenish-Nelson, Eleanor S.; Richards, Shane A.; Harris, Stephen; Soulsbury, Carl; Stephens, Philip A.

    2014-01-01

    Understanding the relationship between disease transmission and host density is essential for predicting disease spread and control. Using long-term data on sarcoptic mange in a red fox Vulpes vulpes population, we tested long-held assumptions of density- and frequency-dependent direct disease transmission. We also assessed the role of indirect transmission. Contrary to assumptions typical of epidemiological models, mange dynamics are better explained by frequency-dependent disease transmission than by density-dependent transmission in this canid. We found no support for indirect transmission. We present the first estimates of R0 and age-specific transmission coefficients for mange in foxes. These parameters are important for managing this poorly understood but highly contagious and economically damaging disease. PMID:25296930

  15. Demonstrating frequency-dependent transmission of sarcoptic mange in red foxes.

    PubMed

    Devenish-Nelson, Eleanor S; Richards, Shane A; Harris, Stephen; Soulsbury, Carl; Stephens, Philip A

    2014-10-01

    Understanding the relationship between disease transmission and host density is essential for predicting disease spread and control. Using long-term data on sarcoptic mange in a red fox Vulpes vulpes population, we tested long-held assumptions of density- and frequency-dependent direct disease transmission. We also assessed the role of indirect transmission. Contrary to assumptions typical of epidemiological models, mange dynamics are better explained by frequency-dependent disease transmission than by density-dependent transmission in this canid. We found no support for indirect transmission. We present the first estimates of R0 and age-specific transmission coefficients for mange in foxes. These parameters are important for managing this poorly understood but highly contagious and economically damaging disease. PMID:25296930

  16. Frequency dependence 3.0: an attempt at codifying the evolutionary ecology perspective.

    PubMed

    Metz, Johan A J; Geritz, Stefan A H

    2016-03-01

    The fitness concept and perforce the definition of frequency independent fitnesses from population genetics is closely tied to discrete time population models with non-overlapping generations. Evolutionary ecologists generally focus on trait evolution through repeated mutant substitutions in populations with complicated life histories. This goes with using the per capita invasion speed of mutants as their fitness. In this paper we develop a concept of frequency independence that attempts to capture the practical use of the term by ecologists, which although inspired by population genetics rarely fits its strict definition. We propose to call the invasion fitnesses of an eco-evolutionary model frequency independent when the phenotypes can be ranked by competitive strength, measured by who can invade whom. This is equivalent to the absence of weak priority effects, protected dimorphisms and rock-scissor-paper configurations. Our concept differs from that of Heino et al. (TREE 13:367-370, 1998) in that it is based only on the signs of the invasion fitnesses, whereas Heino et al. based their definitions on the structure of the feedback environment, summarising the effect of all direct and indirect interactions between individuals on fitness. As it turns out, according to our new definition an eco-evolutionary model has frequency independent fitnesses if and only if the effect of the feedback environment on the fitness signs can be summarised by a single scalar with monotonic effect. This may be compared with Heino et al.'s concept of trivial frequency dependence defined by the environmental feedback influencing fitness, and not just its sign, in a scalar manner, without any monotonicity restriction. As it turns out, absence of the latter restriction leaves room for rock-scissor-paper configurations. Since in 'realistic' (as opposed to toy) models frequency independence is exceedingly rare, we also define a concept of weak frequency dependence, which can be interpreted

  17. Frequency dependence 3.0: an attempt at codifying the evolutionary ecology perspective.

    PubMed

    Metz, Johan A J; Geritz, Stefan A H

    2016-03-01

    The fitness concept and perforce the definition of frequency independent fitnesses from population genetics is closely tied to discrete time population models with non-overlapping generations. Evolutionary ecologists generally focus on trait evolution through repeated mutant substitutions in populations with complicated life histories. This goes with using the per capita invasion speed of mutants as their fitness. In this paper we develop a concept of frequency independence that attempts to capture the practical use of the term by ecologists, which although inspired by population genetics rarely fits its strict definition. We propose to call the invasion fitnesses of an eco-evolutionary model frequency independent when the phenotypes can be ranked by competitive strength, measured by who can invade whom. This is equivalent to the absence of weak priority effects, protected dimorphisms and rock-scissor-paper configurations. Our concept differs from that of Heino et al. (TREE 13:367-370, 1998) in that it is based only on the signs of the invasion fitnesses, whereas Heino et al. based their definitions on the structure of the feedback environment, summarising the effect of all direct and indirect interactions between individuals on fitness. As it turns out, according to our new definition an eco-evolutionary model has frequency independent fitnesses if and only if the effect of the feedback environment on the fitness signs can be summarised by a single scalar with monotonic effect. This may be compared with Heino et al.'s concept of trivial frequency dependence defined by the environmental feedback influencing fitness, and not just its sign, in a scalar manner, without any monotonicity restriction. As it turns out, absence of the latter restriction leaves room for rock-scissor-paper configurations. Since in 'realistic' (as opposed to toy) models frequency independence is exceedingly rare, we also define a concept of weak frequency dependence, which can be interpreted

  18. Observation and Absolute Frequency Measurements of the {sup 1}S{sub 0}-{sup 3}P{sub 0} Optical Clock Transition in Neutral Ytterbium

    SciTech Connect

    Hoyt, C.W.; Barber, Z.W.; Oates, C.W.; Fortier, T.M.; Diddams, S.A.; Hollberg, L.

    2005-08-19

    We report the direct excitation of the highly forbidden (6s{sup 2}){sup 1}S{sub 0}{r_reversible}(6s6p){sup 3}P{sub 0} optical transition in two odd isotopes of neutral ytterbium. As the excitation laser frequency is scanned, absorption is detected by monitoring the depletion from an atomic cloud at {approx}70 {mu}K in a magneto-optical trap. The measured frequency in {sup 171}Yb (F=1/2) is 518 295 836 591.6{+-}4.4 kHz. The measured frequency in {sup 173}Yb (F=5/2) is 518 294 576 847.6{+-}4.4 kHz. Measurements are made with a femtosecond-laser frequency comb calibrated by the National Institute of Standards and Technology cesium fountain clock and represent nearly a 10{sup 6}-fold reduction in uncertainty. The natural linewidth of these J=0 to J=0 transitions is calculated to be {approx}10 mHz, making them well suited to support a new generation of optical atomic clocks based on confinement in an optical lattice.

  19. Experimental methods for the characterization of the frequency-dependent viscoelastic properties of soft materials

    PubMed Central

    Kazemirad, Siavash; K. Heris, Hossein; Mongeau, Luc

    2013-01-01

    A characterization method based on Rayleigh wave propagation was developed for the quantification of the frequency-dependent viscoelastic properties of soft materials at high frequencies; i.e., up to 4 kHz. Planar harmonic surface waves were produced on the surface of silicone rubber samples. The phase and amplitude of the propagating waves were measured at different locations along the propagation direction, which allowed the calculation of the complex Rayleigh wavenumbers at each excitation frequency using a transfer function method. An inverse wave propagation problem was then solved to obtain the complex shear/elastic moduli from the measured wavenumbers. In a separate, related investigation, dynamic indentation tests using atomic force microscopy (AFM) were performed at frequencies up to 300 Hz. No systematic verification study is available for the AFM-based method, which can be used when the dimensions of the test samples are too small for other existing testing methods. The results obtained from the Rayleigh wave propagation and AFM-based indentation methods were compared with those from a well-established method, which involves the generation of standing longitudinal compression waves in rod-shaped test specimens. The results were cross validated and qualitatively confirmed theoretical expectations presented in the literature for the frequency-dependence of polymers. PMID:23654420

  20. Importance of frequency-dependent grain boundary scattering in nanocrystalline silicon and silicon-germanium thermoelectrics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hua, Chengyun; Minnich, Austin J.

    2014-12-01

    Nanocrystalline silicon and silicon-germanium alloys are promising thermoelectric (TE) materials that have achieved substantially improved figure of merits compared to their bulk counterparts. This enhancement is typically attributed to a reduction in lattice thermal conductivity by phonon scattering at grain boundaries. However, further improvements are difficult to achieve because grain boundary scattering is poorly understood, with recent experimental observations suggesting that the phonon transmissivity may depend on phonon frequency rather than being constant as in the commonly used gray model. Here, we examine the impact of frequency-dependent grain boundary scattering in nanocrystalline silicon and silicon-germanium alloys in a realistic 3D geometry using frequency-dependent variance-reduced Monte Carlo simulations. We find that the grain boundary may not be as effective as predicted by the gray model in scattering certain phonons, with a substantial amount of heat being carried by low frequency phonons with mean free paths longer than the grain size. Our result will help guide the design of more efficient TEs.

  1. Frequency dependence of optical third-harmonic generation from doped graphene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Margulis, Vl. A.; Muryumin, E. E.; Gaiduk, E. A.

    2016-01-01

    In connection with the controversial question about the frequency dependence of the optical third-harmonic generation (THG) from doped graphene, which has recently been discussed in the literature, we develop an analytical theory for the THG susceptibility of doped graphene by using the original Genkin-Mednis nonlinear-conductivity-theory formalism including mixed intra- and interband terms. The theory is free of any nonphysical divergences at zero frequency, and it predicts the main resonant peak in the THG spectrum to be located at the photon energy ħω equal to two thirds of the Fermi energy EF of charge carriers in doped graphene.

  2. Monitoring processing properties of high performance thermoplastics using frequency dependent electromagnetic sensing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kranbuehl, D. E.; Delos, S. E.; Hoff, M. S.; Weller, L. W.; Haverty, P. D.

    1987-01-01

    An in situ NDE dielectric impedance measurement method has been developed for ascertaining the cure processing properties of high temperature advanced thermoplastic and thermosetting resins, using continuous frequency-dependent measurements and analyses of complex permittivity over 9 orders of magnitude and 6 decades of frequency at temperatures up to 400 C. Both ionic and Debye-like dipolar relaxation processes are monitored. Attention is given to LARC-TPI, PEEK, and poly(arylene ether) resins' viscosity, glass transition temperature, recrystallization, and residual solvent content and evolution properties.

  3. Acoustic analysis of the frequency-dependent coupling between the frog's ears.

    PubMed

    Shofner, William P

    2015-09-01

    The ears of anurans are coupled through the Eustachian tubes and mouth cavity. The degree of coupling varies with frequency showing a bandpass characteristic, but the characteristics differ between empirically measured data based on auditory nerve responses and tympanic membrane vibration. In the present study, the coupling was modeled acoustically as a tube connected with a side branch. This tube corresponds to the Eustachian tubes, whereas the side branch corresponds to the mouth cavity and nares. The analysis accounts for the frequency dependency shown by the empirical data and reconciles the differences observed between the coupling as measured by tympanic membrane vibration and auditory nerve responses.

  4. The Effect of Temperature Dependent Frequency Factor on the Evaluated Trapping Parameters of TSL Glow Curves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yazici, A. N.; Öztürk, Z.

    1998-01-01

    The effect of temperature dependency on frequency factor and its relationship to trapping parameters is discussed by using the peak shape method. The coefficients appearing in the peak shape formula for the calculation of the activation energy have been determined and tabulated for the symmetry factor mg(X) for x=0.50 and 0.75 of the peak intensity. It is found that significant errors occur in the value of the trapping parameters if the temperature dependecy of the frequency factor is not consider.

  5. Frequency dependence of the electrical conductivity in Ag/PAN nanocomposites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kudryashov, M. A.; Mashin, A. I.; Logunov, A. A.; Chidichimo, G.; De Filpo, G.

    2012-07-01

    The frequency dispersion of the electrical conductivity of silver/polyacrylonitrile nanocomposite films is studied at various temperatures and AgNO3 contents in an initial mixture. The frequency dependences of the nanocomposites in the range 103-106 Hz are found to be well described by power law f 0.8. A charge transfer mechanism responsible for the conductivity of the nanocomposites is proposed. Silver clusters Ag{4/2+} and Ag{8/2+} are assumed to be present in the polymer.

  6. Compressive sensing of frequency-dependent seismic radiation from subduction zone megathrust ruptures

    PubMed Central

    Yao, Huajian; Shearer, Peter M.; Gerstoft, Peter

    2013-01-01

    Megathrust earthquakes rupture a broad zone of the subducting plate interface in both along-strike and along-dip directions. The along-dip rupture characteristics of megathrust events, e.g., their slip and energy radiation distribution, reflect depth-varying frictional properties of the slab interface. Here, we report high-resolution frequency-dependent seismic radiation of the four largest megathrust earthquakes in the past 10 y using a compressive-sensing (sparse source recovery) technique, resolving generally low-frequency radiation closer to the trench at shallower depths and high-frequency radiation farther from the trench at greater depths. Together with coseismic slip models and early aftershock locations, our results suggest depth-varying frictional properties at the subducting plate interfaces. The shallower portion of the slab interface (above ∼15 km) is frictionally stable or conditionally stable and is the source region for tsunami earthquakes with large coseismic slip, deficient high-frequency radiation, and few early aftershocks. The slab interface at intermediate depths (∼15–35 km) is the main unstable seismogenic zone for the nucleation of megathrust quakes, typically with large coseismic slip, abundant early aftershocks, and intermediate- to high-frequency radiation. The deeper portion of the slab interface (∼35–45 km) is seismically unstable, however with small coseismic slip, dominant high-frequency radiation, and relatively fewer aftershocks.

  7. Frequency Dependent Alterations in Regional Homogeneity of Baseline Brain Activity in Schizophrenia

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Hsiao-Lan Sharon; Liu, Chih-Min; Liu, Chen-Chung; Hwang, Tzung-Jeng; Chien, Yi-Ling; Hwu, Hai-Gwo; Tseng, Wen-Yih Isaac

    2013-01-01

    Low frequency oscillations are essential in cognitive function impairment in schizophrenia. While functional connectivity can reveal the synchronization between distant brain regions, the regional abnormalities in task-independent baseline brain activity are less clear, especially in specific frequency bands. Here, we used a regional homogeneity (ReHo) method combined with resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging to investigate low frequency spontaneous neural activity in the three different frequency bands (slow-5∶0.01–0.027 Hz; slow-4∶0.027–0.08 Hz; and typical band: 0.01–0.08 Hz) in 69 patients with schizophrenia and 62 healthy controls. Compared with controls, schizophrenia patients exhibited decreased ReHo in the precentral gyrus, middle occipital gyrus, and posterior insula, whereas increased ReHo in the medial prefrontal cortex and anterior insula. Significant differences in ReHo between the two bands were found in fusiform gyrus and superior frontal gyrus (slow-4> slow-5), and in basal ganglia, parahippocampus, and dorsal middle prefrontal gyrus (slow-5> slow-4). Importantly, we identified significant interaction between frequency bands and groups in the inferior occipital gyrus and caudate body. This study demonstrates that ReHo changes in schizophrenia are widespread and frequency dependent. PMID:23483911

  8. Frequency-dependent damping in propagating slow magneto-acoustic waves

    SciTech Connect

    Prasad, S. Krishna; Banerjee, D.; Van Doorsselaere, T.

    2014-07-10

    Propagating slow magneto-acoustic waves are often observed in polar plumes and active region fan loops. The observed periodicities of these waves range from a few minutes to a few tens of minutes and their amplitudes were found to decay rapidly as they travel along the supporting structure. Previously, thermal conduction, compressive viscosity, radiation, density stratification, and area divergence were identified to be some of the causes for change in the slow wave amplitude. Our recent studies indicate that the observed damping in these waves is frequency-dependent. We used imaging data from the Solar Dynamics Observatory/Atmospheric Imaging Assembly to study this dependence in detail and for the first time via observations we attempted to deduce a quantitative relation between the damping length and frequency of these oscillations. We developed a new analysis method to obtain this relation. The observed frequency dependence does not seem to agree with the current linear wave theory and it was found that the waves observed in the polar regions show a different dependence from those observed in the on-disk loop structures despite the similarity in their properties.

  9. Low cost varying synthetic wavelength technique for absolute distance measurement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Le Floch, S.; Salvadé, Y.

    2010-04-01

    A new low-cost superheterodyne configuration, without acousto-optic modulator, is applied to the two-wavelength interferometry for absolute distance measurement. The principle relies on a synchronized frequency sweep of two optical signals, but with different frequency excursions. The frequency difference between the two optical waves is highly accurate. This is realized by injecting a frequency modulated laser signal in an intensity modulator that is biased at halfwave voltage and driven by a digitally swept radio-frequency signal between 13 and 15 GHz. This latter is a continuous up and down ramp. The two synchronized optical signals emerging from the modulator produce in a Michelson interferometer a distance dependent superheterodyne signal, with a variable synthetic wavelength of about 10 mm. The superheterodyne frequency depends linearly on distance and on the radio-frequency excursion. The integration time for a distance measurement point corresponds to the duration of single sweep (i.e. one millisecond in our case). Absolute distance measurements from 1 to 15 meters yield an accuracy of +/-50 μm, showing the validity of the technique.

  10. ABSOLUTE POLARIMETRY AT RHIC.

    SciTech Connect

    OKADA; BRAVAR, A.; BUNCE, G.; GILL, R.; HUANG, H.; MAKDISI, Y.; NASS, A.; WOOD, J.; ZELENSKI, Z.; ET AL.

    2007-09-10

    Precise and absolute beam polarization measurements are critical for the RHIC spin physics program. Because all experimental spin-dependent results are normalized by beam polarization, the normalization uncertainty contributes directly to final physics uncertainties. We aimed to perform the beam polarization measurement to an accuracy Of {Delta}P{sub beam}/P{sub beam} < 5%. The absolute polarimeter consists of Polarized Atomic Hydrogen Gas Jet Target and left-right pairs of silicon strip detectors and was installed in the RHIC-ring in 2004. This system features proton-proton elastic scattering in the Coulomb nuclear interference (CNI) region. Precise measurements of the analyzing power A{sub N} of this process has allowed us to achieve {Delta}P{sub beam}/P{sub beam} = 4.2% in 2005 for the first long spin-physics run. In this report, we describe the entire set up and performance of the system. The procedure of beam polarization measurement and analysis results from 2004-2005 are described. Physics topics of AN in the CNI region (four-momentum transfer squared 0.001 < -t < 0.032 (GeV/c){sup 2}) are also discussed. We point out the current issues and expected optimum accuracy in 2006 and the future.

  11. Eosinophil count - absolute

    MedlinePlus

    Eosinophils; Absolute eosinophil count ... the white blood cell count to give the absolute eosinophil count. ... than 500 cells per microliter (cells/mcL). Normal value ranges may vary slightly among different laboratories. Talk ...

  12. Absolute flux scale for radioastronomy

    SciTech Connect

    Ivanov, V.P.; Stankevich, K.S.

    1986-07-01

    The authors propose and provide support for a new absolute flux scale for radio astronomy, which is not encumbered with the inadequacies of the previous scales. In constructing it the method of relative spectra was used (a powerful tool for choosing reference spectra). A review is given of previous flux scales. The authors compare the AIS scale with the scale they propose. Both scales are based on absolute measurements by the ''artificial moon'' method, and they are practically coincident in the range from 0.96 to 6 GHz. At frequencies above 6 GHz, 0.96 GHz, the AIS scale is overestimated because of incorrect extrapolation of the spectra of the primary and secondary standards. The major results which have emerged from this review of absolute scales in radio astronomy are summarized.

  13. Magnetic field dependence of spatial frequency encoding NMR as probed on an oligosaccharide.

    PubMed

    Pitoux, D; Hu, Z; Plainchont, B; Merlet, D; Farjon, J; Bonnaffé, D; Giraud, N

    2015-10-01

    The magnetic field dependence of spatial frequency encoding NMR techniques is addressed through a detailed analysis of (1)H NMR spectra acquired under spatial frequency encoding on an oligomeric saccharide sample. In particular, the influence of the strength of the static magnetic field on spectral and spatial resolutions that are key features of this method is investigated. For this purpose, we report the acquisition of correlation experiments implementing broadband homodecoupling or J-edited spin evolutions, and we discuss the resolution enhancements that are provided by these techniques at two different magnetic fields. We show that performing these experiments at higher field improves the performance of high resolution NMR techniques based on a spatial frequency encoding. The significant resolution enhancements observed on the correlation spectra acquired at very high field make them valuable analytical tools that are suitable for the assignment of (1)H chemical shifts and scalar couplings in molecules with highly crowded spectrum such as carbohydrates.

  14. Frequency-dependent traveltime tomography using fat rays: application to near-surface seismic imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jordi, Claudio; Schmelzbach, Cedric; Greenhalgh, Stewart

    2016-08-01

    Frequency-dependent traveltime tomography does not rely on the high frequency assumption made in classical ray-based tomography. By incorporating the effects of velocity structures in the first Fresnel volume around the central ray, it offers a more realistic and accurate representation of the actual physics of seismic wave propagation and thus, enhanced imaging of near-surface structures is expected. The objective of this work was to apply frequency-dependent first arrival traveltime tomography to surface seismic data that were acquired for exploration scale and near-surface seismic imaging. We adapted a fat ray tomography algorithm from global-earth seismology that calculates the Fresnel volumes based on source and receiver (adjoint source) traveltime fields. The fat ray tomography algorithm was tested on synthetic model data that mimics the dimensions of two field data sets. The field data sets are presented as two case studies where fat ray tomography was applied for near-surface seismic imaging. The data set of the first case study was recorded for high-resolution near-surface imaging of a Quaternary valley (profile length < 1 km); the second data set was acquired for hydrocarbon search (profile length > 10 km). All results of fat ray tomography are compared against the results of classical ray-based tomography. We show that fat ray tomography can provide enhanced tomograms and that it is possible to recover more information on the subsurface when compared to ray tomography. However, model assessment based on the column sum of the Jacobian matrix revealed that especially the deep parts of the structure in the fat ray tomograms might not be adequately covered by fat rays. Furthermore, the performance of the fat ray tomography depends on the chosen input frequency in relation to the scale of the seismic survey. Synthetic data testing revealed that the best results were obtained when the frequency was chosen to correspond to an approximate wavelength

  15. Amplitude-frequency dependencies of wave attenuation in single-crystal quartz: Experimental study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mashinskii, E. I.

    2008-11-01

    The experiments have been conducted to investigate the effect of strain amplitude and frequency on the compressional and shear wave attenuation in quartz samples of three types: the intact quartz, fractured quartz, and smoky quartz. The measurements were performed using the reflection method on a pulse frequency of 1 MHz with changing strain in the range 0.3 ≤ ɛ ≤ 2.0 μstrain under a confining pressure of 10 MPa and at ambient temperature. The essential difference in amplitude-frequency characteristics of wave attenuation in three quartz types has been detected. The intact quartz shows the more "simple" behavior in comparison with the fractured and smoky quartz. The attenuation (the inverse quality factor Q) depends on strain amplitude as Q-1(ɛ) ˜ ɛ-n, where n ≅ 0.005-0.085, with the greatest decrease in the smoky and fractured quartz reaching of about 15%. Relaxation spectra of attenuation are presented in the frequency range from 0.4 to 1.4 MHz. The dependence Qp-1(f) ˜ f-1.2 characterizes the intact and fractured quartz, whereas the smoky quartz has the relaxation peak. The dependence Qs-1(f) ˜ f-0.84 presents S wave relaxation spectrum in the intact quartz; in the fractured and smoky quartz, the attenuation peaks take place. The strain amplitude variation exerts influence on the relaxation strength, the peak frequency, and the width of the relaxation peak. Such behavior of attenuation can be explained by a joint action of viscoelastic and microplastic mechanisms. These results can be considered as a contribution for providing the experimental background to the theory of attenuation in rocks. They can also be used in solving applied problems in material science, seismic prospecting, etc.

  16. Time-domain representation of frequency-dependent foundation impedance functions

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Safak, E.

    2006-01-01

    Foundation impedance functions provide a simple means to account for soil-structure interaction (SSI) when studying seismic response of structures. Impedance functions represent the dynamic stiffness of the soil media surrounding the foundation. The fact that impedance functions are frequency dependent makes it difficult to incorporate SSI in standard time-history analysis software. This paper introduces a simple method to convert frequency-dependent impedance functions into time-domain filters. The method is based on the least-squares approximation of impedance functions by ratios of two complex polynomials. Such ratios are equivalent, in the time-domain, to discrete-time recursive filters, which are simple finite-difference equations giving the relationship between foundation forces and displacements. These filters can easily be incorporated into standard time-history analysis programs. Three examples are presented to show the applications of the method.

  17. Frequency dependence of viscous and viscoelastic dissipation in coated micro-cantilevers from noise measurement.

    PubMed

    Paolino, P; Bellon, L

    2009-10-01

    We measure the mechanical thermal noise of soft silicon atomic force microscope cantilevers. Using an interferometric setup, we obtain a resolution down to 10(-14) m Hz(-1/2) on a wide spectral range (3-10(5) Hz). The low frequency behavior depends dramatically on the presence of a reflective coating: almost flat spectra for uncoated cantilevers versus a 1/f like trend for coated ones. The addition of a viscoelastic term in models of the mechanical system can account for this observation. Use of Kramers-Kronig relations validate this approach with a complete determination of the response of the cantilever: a power law with a small coefficient is found for the frequency dependence of viscoelasticity due to the coating, whereas the viscous damping due to the surrounding atmosphere is accurately described by the Sader model. PMID:19738311

  18. Dependence of thresholds for pulmonary capillary hemorrhage on diagnostic ultrasound frequency.

    PubMed

    Miller, Douglas L; Dou, Chunyan; Raghavendran, Krishnan

    2015-06-01

    Pulmonary ultrasound examination has become routine for diagnosis in many clinical and point-of-care medical settings. However, the phenomenon of pulmonary capillary hemorrhage (PCH) induction during diagnostic ultrasound imaging presents a poorly understood risk factor. PCH was observed in anesthetized rats exposed to 1.5-, 4.5- and 12.0-MHz diagnostic ultrasound to investigate the frequency dependence of PCH thresholds. PCH was detected in the ultrasound images as growing comet tail artifacts and was assessed using photographs of the surface of excised lungs. Previous photographs acquired after exposure to 7.6-MHz diagnostic ultrasound were included for analysis. In addition, at each frequency we measured dosimetric parameters, including peak rarefactional pressure amplitude and spatial peak, pulse average intensity attenuated by rat chest wall samples. Peak rarefactional pressure amplitude thresholds determined at each frequency, based on the proportion of PCH in groups of five rats, were 1.03 ± 0.02, 1.28 ± 0.14, 1.18 ± 0.12 and 1.36 ± 0.15 MPa at 1.5, 4.5, 7.6 and 12.0 MHz, respectively. Although the PCH lesions decreased in size with increasing ultrasonic frequency, owing to the smaller beam widths and scan lengths, the peak rarefactional pressure amplitude thresholds remained approximately constant. This dependence was different from that of the mechanical index, which indicates a need for a specific dosimetric parameter for safety guidance in pulmonary ultrasound.

  19. Frequency, pressure and strain dependence of nonlinear elasticity in Berea Sandstone

    DOE PAGES

    Riviere, Jacques; Johnson, Paul Allan; Marone, Chris; Pimienta, Lucas; Scuderi, Marco; Candela, Thibault; Shokouhi, Parisa; Schubnel, Alexandre; Fortin, Jerome

    2016-04-14

    Acoustoelasticity measurements in a sample of room dry Berea sandstone are conducted at various loading frequencies to explore the transition between the quasi-static ( f → 0) and dynamic (few kilohertz) nonlinear elastic response. We carry out these measurements at multiple confining pressures and perform a multivariate regression analysis to quantify the dependence of the harmonic content on strain amplitude, frequency, and pressure. The modulus softening (equivalent to the harmonic at 0f) increases by a factor 2–3 over 3 orders of magnitude increase in frequency. Harmonics at 2f, 4f, and 6f exhibit similar behaviors. In contrast, the harmonic at 1fmore » appears frequency independent. This result corroborates previous studies showing that the nonlinear elasticity of rocks can be described with a minimum of two physical mechanisms. This study provides quantitative data that describes the rate dependency of nonlinear elasticity. Furthermore, these findings can be used to improve theories relating the macroscopic elastic response to microstructural features.« less

  20. Theoretical modelling of frequency dependent elastic loss in composite piezoelectric transducers.

    PubMed

    Orr, Leigh-Ann; Mulholland, Anthony J; O'Leary, Richard L; Parr, Agnes; Pethrick, Richard A; Hayward, Gordon

    2007-12-01

    The large number of degrees of freedom in the design of piezoelectric transducers requires a theoretical model that is computationally efficient so that a large number of iterations can be performed in the design optimisation. The materials used are often lossy, and indeed loss can be used to enhance the operational characteristics of these designs. Motivated by these needs, this paper extends the one-dimensional linear systems model to incorporate frequency dependent elastic loss. The reception sensitivity, electrical impedance and electromechanical coupling coefficient of a 1-3 composite transducer, with frequency dependent loss in the polymer filler, are investigated. By plotting these operating characteristics as a function of the volume fraction of piezoelectric ceramic an optimum design is obtained. A device with a non-standard, high shear attenuation polymer is also simulated and this leads to an increase in the electromechanical coupling coefficient. A comparison with finite element simulations is then performed. This shows that the two methods are in reasonable agreement in their electrical impedance profiles in all the cases considered. The plots are almost identical away from the main resonant peak where the frequency location of the peaks are comparable but there is in some cases a 20% discrepancy in the magnitude of the peak value and in its bandwidth. The finite element model also shows that the use of a high shear attenuation polymer filler damps out the unwanted, low frequency modes whilst maintaining a reasonable impedance magnitude.

  1. Estimate error of frequency-dependent Q introduced by linear regression and its nonlinear implementation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Guofa; Huang, Wei; Zheng, Hao; Zhang, Baoqing

    2016-02-01

    The spectral ratio method (SRM) is widely used to estimate quality factor Q via the linear regression of seismic attenuation under the assumption of a constant Q. However, the estimate error will be introduced when this assumption is violated. For the frequency-dependent Q described by a power-law function, we derived the analytical expression of estimate error as a function of the power-law exponent γ and the ratio of the bandwidth to the central frequency σ . Based on the theoretical analysis, we found that the estimate errors are mainly dominated by the exponent γ , and less affected by the ratio σ . This phenomenon implies that the accuracy of the Q estimate can hardly be improved by adjusting the width and range of the frequency band. Hence, we proposed a two-parameter regression method to estimate the frequency-dependent Q from the nonlinear seismic attenuation. The proposed method was tested using the direct waves acquired by a near-surface cross-hole survey, and its reliability was evaluated in comparison with the result of SRM.

  2. On the frequency dependence and spatial coherence of PKP precursor amplitudes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mancinelli, Nicholas; Shearer, Peter; Thomas, Christine

    2016-03-01

    Studies now agree that small-scale (˜10 km) weak (˜0.1%) velocity perturbations throughout the lowermost mantle generate the globally averaged amplitudes of 1 Hz precursors to the core phase, . The possible frequency dependence and spatial coherence of this scattered phase, however, has been given less attention. Using a large global data set of ˜150,000 PKP precursor recordings, we characterize the frequency dependence of PKP precursors at central frequencies ranging from 0.5 to 4 Hz. At greater frequencies, we observe more scattered energy (relative to the reference phase PKPdf), particularly at shorter ranges. We model this observation by invoking heterogeneity at length scales from 2 to 30 km. Amplitudes at 0.5 Hz, in particular, suggest the presence of more heterogeneity at scales >8 km than present in previously published models. Using a regional bootstrap approach, we identify large (>20°), spatially coherent regions of anomalously strong scattering beneath the West Pacific, Central/North America, and—to a lesser extent—East Africa. Finally, as proof of concept, we use array processing techniques to locate the origin of scattered energy observed in Southern California by the Anza and Southern California Seismic Networks. The energy appears to come primarily from out-of-plane scattering on the receiver side. We suggest that such improvised arrays can increase global coverage and may reveal whether a majority of precursor energy comes from localized heterogeneity in the lowermost mantle.

  3. Frequency-dependent selection with dominance: a window onto the behavior of the mean fitness.

    PubMed Central

    Asmussen, Marjorie A; Cartwright, Reed A; Spencer, Hamish G

    2004-01-01

    Selection in which fitnesses vary with the changing genetic composition of the population may facilitate the maintenance of genetic diversity in a wide range of organisms. Here, a detailed theoretical investigation is made of a frequency-dependent selection model, in which fitnesses are based on pairwise interactions between the two phenotypes at a diploid, diallelic, autosomal locus with complete dominance. The allele frequency dynamics are fully delimited analytically, along with all possible shapes of the mean fitness function in terms of where it increases or decreases as a function of the current allele frequency in the population. These results in turn allow possibly the first complete characterization of the dynamical behavior by the mean fitness through time under frequency-dependent selection. Here the mean fitness (i) monotonically increases, (ii) monotonically decreases, (iii) initially increases and then decreases, or (iv) initially decreases and then increases as equilibrium is approached. We analytically derive the exact initial and fitness conditions that produce each dynamic and how often each arises. Computer simulations with random initial conditions and fitnesses reveal that the potential decline in mean fitness is not negligible; on average a net decrease occurs 20% of the time and reduces the mean fitness by >17%. PMID:15166172

  4. LASER APPLICATIONS AND OTHER TOPICS IN QUANTUM ELECTRONICS: Absolute measurements of the frequency of an He—Ne/CH4 standard over a decade

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Domnin, Yurii S.; Kopylov, Leonid N.; Malimon, A. N.; Tenishev, V. P.; Shumyatskii, P. S.

    1996-12-01

    Measurements carried out on a laser multiplication chain at the All-Russia Scientific-Research Institute of Physicotechnical and Radio Engineering Measurements made it possible to improve the precision of determination of the frequencies of laser standards recommended for reproducing the unit of length. This investigation showed that the long-term drift of the dimensionless combination of the atomic constants g1α2(me/mp)1/2 did not exceed 10-12 per year (g1 is the gyromagnetic ratio of the proton, α is the fine-structure constant, and me and mp are the masses of an electron and a proton).

  5. Evidence for Association Between Low Frequency Variants in CHRNA6/CHRNB3 and Antisocial Drug Dependence.

    PubMed

    Kamens, Helen M; Corley, Robin P; Richmond, Phillip A; Darlington, Todd M; Dowell, Robin; Hopfer, Christian J; Stallings, Michael C; Hewitt, John K; Brown, Sandra A; Ehringer, Marissa A

    2016-09-01

    Common SNPs in nicotinic acetylcholine receptor genes (CHRN genes) have been associated with drug behaviors and personality traits, but the influence of rare genetic variants is not well characterized. The goal of this project was to identify novel rare variants in CHRN genes in the Center for Antisocial Drug Dependence (CADD) and Genetics of Antisocial Drug Dependence (GADD) samples and to determine if low frequency variants are associated with antisocial drug dependence. Two samples of 114 and 200 individuals were selected using a case/control design including the tails of the phenotypic distribution of antisocial drug dependence. The capture, sequencing, and analysis of all variants in 16 CHRN genes (CHRNA1-7, 9, 10, CHRNB1-4, CHRND, CHRNG, CHRNE) were performed independently for each subject in each sample. Sequencing reads were aligned to the human reference sequence using BWA prior to variant calling with the Genome Analysis ToolKit (GATK). Low frequency variants (minor allele frequency < 0.05) were analyzed using SKAT-O and C-alpha to examine the distribution of rare variants among cases and controls. In our larger sample, the region containing the CHRNA6/CHRNB3 gene cluster was significantly associated with disease status using both SKAT-O and C-alpha (unadjusted p values <0.05). More low frequency variants in the CHRNA6/CHRNB3 gene region were observed in cases compared to controls. These data support a role for genetic variants in CHRN genes and antisocial drug behaviors.

  6. Frequency dependence and viral diversity imply chaos in an HIV model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iwami, Shingo; Nakaoka, Shinji; Takeuchi, Yasuhiro

    2006-11-01

    In this paper, we consider the effect of viral diversity on the human immune system with frequency dependent rate of proliferation of CTLs (cytotoxic T-lymphocytes) and rate of elimination of infected cells by CTLs. We show that the interior equilibrium of our model can become unstable without viral diversity and we observe stable periodic orbits. Furthermore, our mathematical models suggest that viral diversity produces strange attractors.

  7. In vitro characterization of HCN channel kinetics and frequency dependence in myocytes predicts biological pacemaker functionality.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Xin; Bucchi, Annalisa; Oren, Ronit V; Kryukova, Yelena; Dun, Wen; Clancy, Colleen E; Robinson, Richard B

    2009-04-01

    The pacemaker current, mediated by hyperpolarization-activated cyclic nucleotide-gated (HCN) channels, contributes to the initiation and regulation of cardiac rhythm. Previous experiments creating HCN-based biological pacemakers in vivo found that an engineered HCN2/HCN1 chimeric channel (HCN212) resulted in significantly faster rates than HCN2, interrupted by 1-5 s pauses. To elucidate the mechanisms underlying the differences in HCN212 and HCN2 in vivo functionality as biological pacemakers, we studied newborn rat ventricular myocytes over-expressing either HCN2 or HCN212 channels. The HCN2- and HCN212-over-expressing myocytes manifest similar voltage dependence, current density and sensitivity to saturating cAMP concentrations, but HCN212 has faster activation/deactivation kinetics. Compared with HCN2, myocytes expressing HCN212 exhibit a faster spontaneous rate and greater incidence of irregular rhythms (i.e. periods of rapid spontaneous rate followed by pauses). To explore these rhythm differences further, we imposed consecutive pacing and found that activation kinetics of the two channels are slower at faster pacing frequencies. As a result, time-dependent HCN current flowing during diastole decreases for both constructs during a train of stimuli at a rapid frequency, with the effect more pronounced for HCN2. In addition, the slower deactivation kinetics of HCN2 contributes to more pronounced instantaneous current at a slower frequency. As a result of the frequency dependence of both instantaneous and time-dependent current, HCN2 exhibits more robust negative feedback than HCN212, contributing to the maintenance of a stable pacing rhythm. These results illustrate the benefit of screening HCN constructs in spontaneously active myocyte cultures and may provide the basis for future optimization of HCN-based biological pacemakers. PMID:19171659

  8. Rolling estimations of long range dependence volatility for high frequency S&P500 index

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheong, Chin Wen; Pei, Tan Pei

    2015-10-01

    This study evaluates the time-varying long range dependence behaviors of the S&P500 volatility index using the modified rescaled adjusted range (R/S) statistic. For better computational result, a high frequency rolling bipower variation realized volatility estimates are used to avoid possible abrupt jump. The empirical analysis findings allow us to understand better the informationally market efficiency before and after the subprime mortgage crisis.

  9. The Hygiene Hypothesis: An Explanation for the Increased Frequency of Insulin-Dependent Diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Bach, Jean-François; Chatenoud, Lucienne

    2012-01-01

    The steadily increasing frequency of insulin-dependent diabetes in several countries is best explained today by the decline of infections. Epidemiologic and animal data support this conclusion, which, however, requires confirmation by intervention trials in man. The mechanisms of the protective effect of infections on diabetes onset are diverse including competition for homeostatic factors and stimulation of regulatory T cells and of Toll-like receptors. These considerations might have interesting therapeutic applications for the prevention of the disease. PMID:22355800

  10. Optimal SNR exposure time for speckle imaging: experimental results with frequency-dependent detector noise

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tyler, David W.; Suzuki, Andrew H.; von Bokern, Mark A.; Keating, Donna D.; Roggemann, Michael C.

    1994-06-01

    We review recent arguments for using increased spectral bandwidth and exposure times to optimize the signal-to-noise ratio of speckle imaging estimators and discuss the tradeoff between camera exposure time and the number of data frames collected when observing time is fixed. We compare experimental results with a previously-derived expression for optimal exposure time and find reasonable agreement after accounting for frequency-dependent camera noise.

  11. Real-time seismic intensity prediction using frequency-dependent site amplification factors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ogiso, Masashi; Aoki, Shigeki; Hoshiba, Mitsuyuki

    2016-05-01

    A promising approach for the next generation of earthquake early warning system is based on predicting ground motion directly from observed ground motion, without any information of hypocenter. In this study, we predicted seismic intensity at the target stations from the observed ground motion at adjacent stations, employing two different methods of correction for site amplification factors. The first method was frequency-dependent correction prediction, in which we used a digital causal filter to correct the site amplification for the observed waveform in the time domain. The second method was scalar correction, in which we used average differences in seismic intensity between two stations for the site amplification correction. Results from thousands of station pairs that covered almost all of Japan showed that seismic intensity prediction with frequency-dependent correction prediction was more accurate than prediction with scalar correction. Frequency-dependent correction for site amplification in the time domain may lead to more accurate prediction of ground motion in real time.

  12. Methods to calibrate the absolute receive sensitivity of single-element, focused transducers.

    PubMed

    Rich, Kyle T; Mast, T Douglas

    2015-09-01

    Absolute pressure measurements of acoustic emissions by single-element, focused passive cavitation detectors would be facilitated by improved wideband receive calibration techniques. Here, calibration methods were developed to characterize the absolute, frequency-dependent receive sensitivity of a spherically focused, single-element transducer using pulse-echo and pitch-catch techniques. Validation of these calibration methods on a focused receiver were made by generating a pulse from a small diameter source at the focus of the transducer and comparing the absolute pressure measured by a calibrated hydrophone to that of the focused transducer using the receive sensitivities determined here. PMID:26428812

  13. Methods to calibrate the absolute receive sensitivity of single-element, focused transducers

    PubMed Central

    Rich, Kyle T.; Mast, T. Douglas

    2015-01-01

    Absolute pressure measurements of acoustic emissions by single-element, focused passive cavitation detectors would be facilitated by improved wideband receive calibration techniques. Here, calibration methods were developed to characterize the absolute, frequency-dependent receive sensitivity of a spherically focused, single-element transducer using pulse-echo and pitch-catch techniques. Validation of these calibration methods on a focused receiver were made by generating a pulse from a small diameter source at the focus of the transducer and comparing the absolute pressure measured by a calibrated hydrophone to that of the focused transducer using the receive sensitivities determined here. PMID:26428812

  14. Report on BIPM/CIPM key comparison CCAUV.U-K4: absolute calibration of medical hydrophones in the frequency range 0.5 MHz to 20 MHz

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rajagopal, S.; Fury, C. R.; Zeqiri, B.; Brandt, M.; Wilkens, V.; Koch, C.; Matsuda, Y.; Yoshioka, M.; Ping, Y.; Yan, Z.; Wenping, B.; Costa-Felix, R. P. B.; Oliveira, E. G.

    2016-01-01

    The key compariosn CCAUV.U-K4 involved measurement of end-of-cable loaded sensitivity in units of volts/pascal of two travelling standards, 1 mm element diamater medical hydrophones at medical ultrasound frequencies. This is a repetition of key comparison CCAUV.U-K2 but the scope has been extended upwards to 20 MHz and downwards to 0.5 MHz. The reduction in the lower frequency provided an overlap with the underwater acoustics key comparison CCAUV.W-K1 which covers the range 1 kHz to 0.5 MHz. The results are analysed and presented in terms of degrees of equivalence, suitable for entry in the BIPM key comparison database. Main text To reach the main text of this paper, click on Final Report. Note that this text is that which appears in Appendix B of the BIPM key comparison database kcdb.bipm.org/. The final report has been peer-reviewed and approved for publication by the CCAUV, according to the provisions of the CIPM Mutual Recognition Arrangement (CIPM MRA).

  15. Measurements of frequency dependent shear wave attenuation in sedimentary basins using induced earthquakes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Richter, Tom; Wegler, Ulrich

    2015-04-01

    Modeling of peak ground velocity caused by induced earthquakes requires detailed knowledge about seismic attenuation properties of the subsurface. Especially shear wave attenuation is important, because shear waves usually show the largest amplitude in high frequency seismograms. We report intrinsic and scattering attenuation coefficients of shear waves near three geothermal reservoirs in Germany for frequencies between 2 Hz and 50 Hz. The geothermal plants are located in the sedimentary basins of the upper Rhine graben (Insheim and Landau) and the Molasse basin (Unterhaching). The method optimizes the fit between Green's functions for the acoustic, isotropic radiative transfer theory and observed energy densities of induced earthquakes. The inversion allows the determination of scattering and intrinsic attenuation, site corrections, and spectral source energies for the investigated frequency bands. We performed the inversion at the three sites for events with a magnitude between 0.7 and 2. We determined a transport mean free path of 70 km for Unterhaching. For Landau and Insheim the transport mean free path depends on frequency. It ranges from 2 km (at 2 Hz) to 30 km (at 40 Hz) for Landau and from 9 km to 50 km for Insheim. The quality factor for intrinsic attenuation is constant for frequencies smaller than 10 Hz at all three sites. It is around 100 for Unterhaching and 200 for Landau and Insheim with higher values above 10 Hz.

  16. Warning signals are under positive frequency-dependent selection in nature.

    PubMed

    Chouteau, Mathieu; Arias, Mónica; Joron, Mathieu

    2016-02-23

    Positive frequency-dependent selection (FDS) is a selection regime where the fitness of a phenotype increases with its frequency, and it is thought to underlie important adaptive strategies resting on signaling and communication. However, whether and how positive FDS truly operates in nature remains unknown, which hampers our understanding of signal diversity. Here, we test for positive FDS operating on the warning color patterns of chemically defended butterflies forming multiple coexisting mimicry assemblages in the Amazon. Using malleable prey models placed in localities showing differences in the relative frequencies of warningly colored prey, we demonstrate that the efficiency of a warning signal increases steadily with its local frequency in the natural community, up to a threshold where protection stabilizes. The shape of this relationship is consistent with the direct effect of the local abundance of each warning signal on the corresponding avoidance knowledge of the local predator community. This relationship, which differs from purifying selection acting on each mimetic pattern, indicates that predator knowledge, integrated over the entire community, is saturated only for the most common warning signals. In contrast, among the well-established warning signals present in local prey assemblages, most are incompletely known to local predators and enjoy incomplete protection. This incomplete predator knowledge should generate strong benefits to life history traits that enhance warning efficiency by increasing the effective frequency of prey visible to predators. Strategies such as gregariousness or niche convergence between comimics may therefore readily evolve through their effects on predator knowledge and warning efficiency. PMID:26858416

  17. Warning signals are under positive frequency-dependent selection in nature

    PubMed Central

    Chouteau, Mathieu; Arias, Mónica; Joron, Mathieu

    2016-01-01

    Positive frequency-dependent selection (FDS) is a selection regime where the fitness of a phenotype increases with its frequency, and it is thought to underlie important adaptive strategies resting on signaling and communication. However, whether and how positive FDS truly operates in nature remains unknown, which hampers our understanding of signal diversity. Here, we test for positive FDS operating on the warning color patterns of chemically defended butterflies forming multiple coexisting mimicry assemblages in the Amazon. Using malleable prey models placed in localities showing differences in the relative frequencies of warningly colored prey, we demonstrate that the efficiency of a warning signal increases steadily with its local frequency in the natural community, up to a threshold where protection stabilizes. The shape of this relationship is consistent with the direct effect of the local abundance of each warning signal on the corresponding avoidance knowledge of the local predator community. This relationship, which differs from purifying selection acting on each mimetic pattern, indicates that predator knowledge, integrated over the entire community, is saturated only for the most common warning signals. In contrast, among the well-established warning signals present in local prey assemblages, most are incompletely known to local predators and enjoy incomplete protection. This incomplete predator knowledge should generate strong benefits to life history traits that enhance warning efficiency by increasing the effective frequency of prey visible to predators. Strategies such as gregariousness or niche convergence between comimics may therefore readily evolve through their effects on predator knowledge and warning efficiency. PMID:26858416

  18. Frequency dependent capacitance and conductance properties of Schottky diode based on rubrene organic semiconductor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barış, Behzad

    2013-10-01

    Al/rubrene/p-Si Schottky diode has been fabricated by forming a rubrene layer on p type Si by using the spin coating method. The frequency dependent capacitance-voltage (C-V-f) and conductance-voltage (G-V-f) characteristics of Al/rubrene/p-Si Schottky diyotes has been investigated in the frequency range of 5 kHz-500 kHz at room temperature. The C-V plots show a peak for each frequency. The capacitance of the device decreased with increasing frequency. The decrease in capacitance results from the presence of interface states. The plots of series resistance-voltage (Rs-V) gave a peak in the depletion region at all frequencies. The density of interface states (Nss) and relaxation time (τ) distribution profiles as a function of applied voltage bias have been determined from the C-V and G-V measurements. The values of the Nss and τ have been calculated in the ranges of 8.37×1011-4.85×1011 eV-1 cm-2 and 5.17×10-6-1.02×10-5 s, respectively.

  19. Warning signals are under positive frequency-dependent selection in nature.

    PubMed

    Chouteau, Mathieu; Arias, Mónica; Joron, Mathieu

    2016-02-23

    Positive frequency-dependent selection (FDS) is a selection regime where the fitness of a phenotype increases with its frequency, and it is thought to underlie important adaptive strategies resting on signaling and communication. However, whether and how positive FDS truly operates in nature remains unknown, which hampers our understanding of signal diversity. Here, we test for positive FDS operating on the warning color patterns of chemically defended butterflies forming multiple coexisting mimicry assemblages in the Amazon. Using malleable prey models placed in localities showing differences in the relative frequencies of warningly colored prey, we demonstrate that the efficiency of a warning signal increases steadily with its local frequency in the natural community, up to a threshold where protection stabilizes. The shape of this relationship is consistent with the direct effect of the local abundance of each warning signal on the corresponding avoidance knowledge of the local predator community. This relationship, which differs from purifying selection acting on each mimetic pattern, indicates that predator knowledge, integrated over the entire community, is saturated only for the most common warning signals. In contrast, among the well-established warning signals present in local prey assemblages, most are incompletely known to local predators and enjoy incomplete protection. This incomplete predator knowledge should generate strong benefits to life history traits that enhance warning efficiency by increasing the effective frequency of prey visible to predators. Strategies such as gregariousness or niche convergence between comimics may therefore readily evolve through their effects on predator knowledge and warning efficiency.

  20. Frequency dependent attenuation characteristics of coda waves in the Northwestern Himalayan (India) region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, Sushil; Singh, Priyamvada; Singh, Pitam; Biswal, Shubhasmita; Parija, Mahesh Prasad

    2016-03-01

    Digital seismogram data of 82 earthquakes from the Northwestern Himalayan (India) region recorded at different stations during 2004-2006 were analyzed to study the seismic coda wave attenuation characteristics in this region. We used 132 seismic observations from local earthquakes with a hypocentral distance <240 km and a magnitude range of 1.2-4.9 to study the coda QC using the single isotropic scattering model. These earthquakes were recorded at 20 temporary seismic stations installed in the Northwestern Himalayas (India) by the Wadia institute of Himalayan Geology, Dehradun. The QC values were estimated at 10 central frequencies: 1.5, 3, 5, 7, 9, 12, 16, 20, 24, and 28 Hz using starting lapse-times of 10, 20, 30, 40, 50, and 60 s and coda window-lengths of 10, 20, 30, 40, and 50 s. The QC fits the frequency dependent power-law, QC =Q0fn . For a 10 s lapse time with a 10-s coda window length QC = 47.42f1.012 and for a 50 s lapse time with a 50 s coda window length, QC = 204.1f0.934 . Q0 (QC at 1 Hz) varied from ∼47 for a 10 s lapse time and a 10 s window length, to ∼204 for a 50 s lapse time and a 50 s window length. An average frequency dependent power law fit for the study region may be given as QC = 116.716f0.9943 . The exponent of the frequency dependence law n ranged from 1.08 to 0.9, which correlates well with values obtained in other seismically and tectonically active and heterogeneous regions of the world. In our study region, QC increases both with respect to lapse time and frequency, i.e., the attenuation decreases as the quality factor is inversely proportional to attenuation. The low QC values or high attenuation at lower frequencies and high QC values or low attenuation at higher frequencies suggest that the heterogeneity decreases with increasing depth in our study region.

  1. Conceptual design of an apparatus for measuring frequency-dependent streaming potential of porous media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tardif, Eric; Walker, Emilie; Glover, Paul; Ruel, Jean

    2010-05-01

    Electro-kinetic phenomena link fluid flow and electrical flow in porous and fractured media such that a hydraulic flow will generate an electrical current and vice versa. Such a link is likely to be extremely useful, especially in the development of the theory of the electro-seismic method. However, surprisingly little experimental determination, numerical modeling and theoretical development have taken place, and what exists is for steady state flow. There have been only a few attempts at making experimental determinations of the frequency-dependent streaming potential coupling coefficient because of their difficulty, and only one rare measurement made on rocks. Here we have considered six different approaches to making laboratory determinations of the frequency-dependent streaming potential coupling coefficient. In each case, we have quantified the practical difficulties involved in each method. We conclude that the electro-magnetic drive and the piezo-electric are the only approaches that are practicable with current technology. We have also constructed a simplified trial apparatus using the electro-magnetic drive to test the conceptual design with samples in the form of sands and beads. Tests with this apparatus on Ottawa sandstone and glass bead packs have shown that high quality measurements of the frequency-dependent streaming potential coupling coefficient can be made, and we are currently extending its frequency range. Tests have indicated that it is important to ascertain whether the measured frequency-dependent streaming potential coupling coefficient is independent of the volume of fluid passing through the sample per cycle. We have used our experience with the trial apparatus to design a new apparatus for a 1 cm diameter sample, and with the help of an engineering approach we have determined the range of possible sample permeabilities for samples between 0.5 and 2 cm in length. The new cell will have a maximum confining pressure of compressed nitrogen

  2. The Frequency-Dependent Neuronal Length Constant in Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation

    PubMed Central

    Ilmoniemi, Risto J.; Mäki, Hanna; Saari, Jukka; Salvador, Ricardo; Miranda, Pedro C.

    2016-01-01

    Background: The behavior of the dendritic or axonal membrane voltage due to transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) is often modeled with the one-dimensional cable equation. For the cable equation, a length constant λ0 is defined; λ0 describes the axial decay of the membrane voltage in the case of constant applied electric field. In TMS, however, the induced electric field waveform is typically a segment of a sinusoidal wave, with characteristic frequencies of the order of several kHz. Objective: To show that the high frequency content of the stimulation pulse causes deviations in the spatial profile of the membrane voltage as compared to the steady state. Methods: We derive the cable equation in complex form utilizing the complex frequency-dependent representation of the membrane conductivity. In addition, we define an effective length constant λeff, which governs the spatial decay of the membrane voltage. We model the behavior of a dendrite in an applied electric field oscillating at 3.9 kHz with the complex cable equation and by solving the traditional cable equation numerically. Results: The effective length constant decreases as a function of frequency. For a model dendrite or axon, for which λ0 = 1.5 mm, the effective length constant at 3.9 kHz is decreased by a factor 10 to 0.13 mm. Conclusion: The frequency dependency of the neuronal length constant has to be taken into account when predicting the spatial behavior of the membrane voltage as a response to TMS. PMID:27555808

  3. Sensitivity of seismic measurements to frequency-dependent attenuation and upper mantle structure: An initial approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bellis, C.; Holtzman, B.

    2014-07-01

    This study addresses the sensitivity of seismic attenuation measurements to dissipative mechanisms and structure in the Earth's upper mantle. The Andrade anelastic model fits experimental attenuation data with a mild power law frequency dependence and can be scaled from laboratory to Earth conditions. We incorporate this anelastic model into 400km 1-D thermal profiles of the upper mantle. These continuous-spectrum models are approximated by multiple relaxation mechanisms that are implemented within a finite-difference scheme to perform wave propagation simulations in 1-D domains. In two sets of numerical experiments, we evaluate the measurable signature of the intrinsic attenuation structure. The two sets are defined by thermal profiles with added step functions of temperature, varying in (i) amplitude and depth or (ii) amplitude and sharpness. The corresponding synthetic data are processed using both the conventional t* approach, i.e., a linear regression of the displacement frequency spectrum, and an alternative nonlinear fit to identify the integrated value of attenuation and its frequency dependence. The measured sensitivity patterns are analyzed to assess the effects of the anelastic model and its spatial distribution on seismic data (in the absence of scattering effects). We have two straightforward results: (1) the frequency dependence power law is recoverable from the measurements; (2) t* is sensitive to both the depth and the amplitude of the step, and it is insensitive to the sharpness of the step, in the 0.25 to 2 Hz band. There is much potential for gaining information about the upper mantle thermodynamic state from careful interpretation of attenuation.

  4. Clock time is absolute and universal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shen, Xinhang

    2015-09-01

    A critical error is found in the Special Theory of Relativity (STR): mixing up the concepts of the STR abstract time of a reference frame and the displayed time of a physical clock, which leads to use the properties of the abstract time to predict time dilation on physical clocks and all other physical processes. Actually, a clock can never directly measure the abstract time, but can only record the result of a physical process during a period of the abstract time such as the number of cycles of oscillation which is the multiplication of the abstract time and the frequency of oscillation. After Lorentz Transformation, the abstract time of a reference frame expands by a factor gamma, but the frequency of a clock decreases by the same factor gamma, and the resulting multiplication i.e. the displayed time of a moving clock remains unchanged. That is, the displayed time of any physical clock is an invariant of Lorentz Transformation. The Lorentz invariance of the displayed times of clocks can further prove within the framework of STR our earth based standard physical time is absolute, universal and independent of inertial reference frames as confirmed by both the physical fact of the universal synchronization of clocks on the GPS satellites and clocks on the earth, and the theoretical existence of the absolute and universal Galilean time in STR which has proved that time dilation and space contraction are pure illusions of STR. The existence of the absolute and universal time in STR has directly denied that the reference frame dependent abstract time of STR is the physical time, and therefore, STR is wrong and all its predictions can never happen in the physical world.

  5. Size- and Composition-Dependent Radio Frequency Magnetic Permeability of Iron Oxide Nanocrystals

    SciTech Connect

    Yun, H; Liu, XY; Paik, T; Palanisamy, D; Kim, J; Vogel, WD; Viescas, AJ; Chen, J; Papaefthymiou, GC; Kikkawa, JM; Allen, MG; Murray, CB

    2014-12-01

    We investigate the size- and composition-dependent ac magnetic permeability of superparamagnetic iron oxide nanocrystals for radio frequency (RF) applications. The nanocrystals are obtained through high-temperature decomposition synthesis, and their stoichiometry is determined by Mossbauer spectroscopy. Two sets of oxides are studied: (a) as-synthesized magnetite-rich and (b) aged maghemite nanocrystals. All nanocrystalline samples are confirmed to be in the superparamagnetic state at room temperature by SQUID magnetometry. Through the one-turn inductor method, the ac magnetic properties of the nanocrystalline oxides are characterized. In magnetite-rich iron oxide nanocrystals, size-dependent magnetic permeability is not observed, while maghemite iron oxide nanocrystals show clear size dependence. The inductance, resistance, and quality factor of hand-wound inductors with a superparamagnetic composite core are measured. The superparamagnetic nanocrystals are successfully embedded into hand-wound inductors to function as inductor cores.

  6. Temperature and field dependent low frequency noise characterization of Ge n-FETs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghosh, Sayantan; Bhatt, Piyush; Tiwari, Yogesh; Joishi, Chandan; Lodha, Saurabh

    2016-09-01

    We report temperature (RT-150 K) and field dependent low frequency noise measurements on Ge n-FETs. Specifically, we delineate the temperature, field, and interfacial layer (GeON vs. GeO2) dependence of the gate overdrive index (β) on corresponding changes in volume interface trap density (Nit) and mobility (μ). For Nit < 1 × 1020 cm-3 eV-1, the dominant noise mechanism, number or mobility fluctuation, depends on the change in μ, but for Nit > 1 × 1020 cm-3eV-1 near the conduction band edge, changes in μ as well as Nit determine the noise mechanism. Finally, we show that the β values of Ge n-FETs are significantly different from conventional Si transistors as well as Ge p-FETs at RT and 150 K due to much higher Nit and/or μ values of the Ge n-FETs.

  7. Size- and composition-dependent radio frequency magnetic permeability of iron oxide nanocrystals.

    PubMed

    Yun, Hongseok; Liu, Xiyu; Paik, Taejong; Palanisamy, Duraivelan; Kim, Jungkwun; Vogel, William D; Viescas, Arthur J; Chen, Jun; Papaefthymiou, Georgia C; Kikkawa, James M; Allen, Mark G; Murray, Christopher B

    2014-12-23

    We investigate the size- and composition-dependent ac magnetic permeability of superparamagnetic iron oxide nanocrystals for radio frequency (RF) applications. The nanocrystals are obtained through high-temperature decomposition synthesis, and their stoichiometry is determined by Mössbauer spectroscopy. Two sets of oxides are studied: (a) as-synthesized magnetite-rich and (b) aged maghemite nanocrystals. All nanocrystalline samples are confirmed to be in the superparamagnetic state at room temperature by SQUID magnetometry. Through the one-turn inductor method, the ac magnetic properties of the nanocrystalline oxides are characterized. In magnetite-rich iron oxide nanocrystals, size-dependent magnetic permeability is not observed, while maghemite iron oxide nanocrystals show clear size dependence. The inductance, resistance, and quality factor of hand-wound inductors with a superparamagnetic composite core are measured. The superparamagnetic nanocrystals are successfully embedded into hand-wound inductors to function as inductor cores.

  8. Tuning of gravity-dependent and gravity-independent vertical angular VOR gain changes by frequency of adaptation.

    PubMed

    Yakushin, Sergei B

    2012-06-01

    The gain of the vertical angular vestibulo-ocular reflex (aVOR) was adaptively increased and decreased in a side-down head orientation for 4 h in two cynomolgus monkeys. Adaptation was performed at 0.25, 1, 2, or 4 Hz. The gravity-dependent and -independent gain changes were determined over a range of head orientations from left-side-down to right-side-down at frequencies from 0.25 to 10 Hz, before and after adaptation. Gain changes vs. frequency data were fit with a Gaussian to determine the frequency at which the peak gain change occurred, as well as the tuning width. The frequency at which the peak gravity-dependent gain change occurred was approximately equal to the frequency of adaptation, and the width increased monotonically with increases in the frequency of adaptation. The gravity-independent component was tuned to the adaptive frequency of 0.25 Hz but was uniformly distributed over all frequencies when the adaptation frequency was 1-4 Hz. The amplitude of the gravity-independent gain changes was larger after the aVOR gain decrease than after the gain increase across all tested frequencies. For the aVOR gain decrease, the phase lagged about 4° for frequencies below the adaptation frequency and led for frequencies above the adaptation frequency. For gain increases, the phase relationship as a function of frequency was inverted. This study demonstrates that the previously described dependence of aVOR gain adaptation on frequency is a property of the gravity-dependent component of the aVOR only. The gravity-independent component of the aVOR had a substantial tuning curve only at an adaptation frequency of 0.25 Hz.

  9. Spatial mosaic formation through frequency-dependent selection in Müllerian mimicry complexes.

    PubMed

    Sherratt, Thomas N

    2006-05-21

    Although contemporary models of Müllerian mimicry have considered the movement of interfacial boundaries between two distinct mimetic forms, and even the possibility of polymorphisms in two patch systems, no model has considered how multiple forms of Müllerian mimics might evolve and be maintained over large geographical areas. A spatially explicit individual-based model for the evolution of Müllerian mimicry is presented, in which two unpalatable species are distributed over discrete cells within a regular lattice. Populations in each cell are capable of genetic drift and experience localized dispersal as well as frequency-dependent selection by predators. When each unpalatable prey species was introduced into a random cell and allowed to spread, then mimicry evolved throughout the system in the form of a spatial mosaic of phenotypes, separated by narrow "hybrid zones". The primary mechanism generating phenotypic diversity was the occasional establishment of new mutant forms in unoccupied cells and their subsequent maintenance (and spread) through frequency-dependent selection. The mean number of discrete clusters of the same morph that formed in the lattice was higher the higher the intensity of predation, and higher the lower the dispersal rate of unpalatable prey. Under certain conditions the hybrid zones moved, in a direction dependent on the curvature of their interfacial boundaries. However, the mimetic mosaics were highly stable when the intensity of predation was high and the rate of prey dispersal was low. Overall, this model highlights how a stable mosaic of different mimetic forms can evolve from a range of starting conditions through a combination of chance effects and localized frequency-dependent selection.

  10. Frequency-dependent fitness of hybrids between oilseed rape (Brassica napus) and weedy B. rapa (Brassicaceae).

    PubMed

    Hauser, Thure P; Damgaard, Christian; Jørgensen, Rikke B

    2003-04-01

    Fitness of interspecific hybrids is sometimes high relative to their parents, despite the conventional belief that they are mostly unfit. F(1) hybrids between oilseed rape (Brassica napus) and weedy B. rapa can be significantly more fit than their weedy parents under some conditions; however, under other conditions they are less fit. To understand the reasons, we measured the seed production of B. napus, B. rapa, and different generations of hybrid plants at three different densities and in mixtures of different frequencies (including pure stands). Brassica napus, B. rapa, and backcross plants (F(1) ♀ × B. rapa) produced many more seeds per plant in pure plots than in mixtures and more seeds in plots when each was present at high frequency. The opposite was true for F(1) plants that produced many more seeds than B. rapa in mixtures, but fewer in pure stands. Both vegetative and reproductive interactions may be responsible for these effects. Our results show that the fitness of both parents and hybrids is strongly frequency-dependent and that the likelihood of introgression of genes between the species thus may depend on the numbers and densities of parents and their various hybrid offspring in the population.

  11. Effects of frequency- and direction-dependent elastic materials on linearly elastic MRE image reconstructions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perreard, I. M.; Pattison, A. J.; Doyley, M.; McGarry, M. D. J.; Barani, Z.; Van Houten, E. E.; Weaver, J. B.; Paulsen, K. D.

    2010-11-01

    The mechanical model commonly used in magnetic resonance elastography (MRE) is linear elasticity. However, soft tissue may exhibit frequency- and direction-dependent (FDD) shear moduli in response to an induced excitation causing a purely linear elastic model to provide an inaccurate image reconstruction of its mechanical properties. The goal of this study was to characterize the effects of reconstructing FDD data using a linear elastic inversion (LEI) algorithm. Linear and FDD phantoms were manufactured and LEI images were obtained from time-harmonic MRE acquisitions with variations in frequency and driving signal amplitude. LEI responses to artificially imposed uniform phase shifts in the displacement data from both purely linear elastic and FDD phantoms were also evaluated. Of the variety of FDD phantoms considered, LEI appeared to tolerate viscoelastic data-model mismatch better than deviations caused by poroelastic and anisotropic mechanical properties in terms of visual image contrast. However, the estimated shear modulus values were substantially incorrect relative to independent mechanical measurements even in the successful viscoelastic cases and the variations in mean values with changes in experimental conditions associated with uniform phase shifts, driving signal frequency and amplitude were unpredictable. Overall, use of LEI to reconstruct data acquired in phantoms with FDD material properties provided biased results under the best conditions and significant artifacts in the worst cases. These findings suggest that the success with which LEI is applied to MRE data in tissue will depend on the underlying mechanical characteristics of the tissues and/or organs systems of clinical interest.

  12. Models of Frequency-Dependent Selection with Mutation from Parental Alleles

    PubMed Central

    Trotter, Meredith V.; Spencer, Hamish G.

    2013-01-01

    Frequency-dependent selection (FDS) remains a common heuristic explanation for the maintenance of genetic variation in natural populations. The pairwise-interaction model (PIM) is a well-studied general model of frequency-dependent selection, which assumes that a genotype’s fitness is a function of within-population intergenotypic interactions. Previous theoretical work indicated that this type of model is able to sustain large numbers of alleles at a single locus when it incorporates recurrent mutation. These studies, however, have ignored the impact of the distribution of fitness effects of new mutations on the dynamics and end results of polymorphism construction. We suggest that a natural way to model mutation would be to assume mutant fitness is related to the fitness of the parental allele, i.e., the existing allele from which the mutant arose. Here we examine the numbers and distributions of fitnesses and alleles produced by construction under the PIM with mutation from parental alleles and the impacts on such measures due to different methods of generating mutant fitnesses. We find that, in comparison with previous results, generating mutants from existing alleles lowers the average number of alleles likely to be observed in a system subject to FDS, but produces polymorphisms that are highly stable and have realistic allele-frequency distributions. PMID:23852384

  13. Combining Acceleration and Displacement Dependent Modal Frequency Responses Using an MSC/NASTRAN DMAP Alter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barnett, Alan R.; Widrick, Timothy W.; Ludwiczak, Damian R.

    1996-01-01

    Solving for dynamic responses of free-free launch vehicle/spacecraft systems acted upon by buffeting winds is commonly performed throughout the aerospace industry. Due to the unpredictable nature of this wind loading event, these problems are typically solved using frequency response random analysis techniques. To generate dynamic responses for spacecraft with statically-indeterminate interfaces, spacecraft contractors prefer to develop models which have response transformation matrices developed for mode acceleration data recovery. This method transforms spacecraft boundary accelerations and displacements into internal responses. Unfortunately, standard MSC/NASTRAN modal frequency response solution sequences cannot be used to combine acceleration- and displacement-dependent responses required for spacecraft mode acceleration data recovery. External user-written computer codes can be used with MSC/NASTRAN output to perform such combinations, but these methods can be labor and computer resource intensive. Taking advantage of the analytical and computer resource efficiencies inherent within MS C/NASTRAN, a DMAP Alter has been developed to combine acceleration- and displacement-dependent modal frequency responses for performing spacecraft mode acceleration data recovery. The Alter has been used successfully to efficiently solve a common aerospace buffeting wind analysis.

  14. Early visual processing deficits in patients with schizophrenia during spatial frequency-dependent facial affect processing.

    PubMed

    Kim, Do-Won; Shim, Miseon; Song, Myeong Ju; Im, Chang-Hwan; Lee, Seung-Hwan

    2015-02-01

    Abnormal facial emotion recognition is considered as one of the key symptoms of schizophrenia. Only few studies have considered deficits in the spatial frequency (SF)-dependent visual pathway leading to abnormal facial emotion recognition in schizophrenia. Twenty-one patients with schizophrenia and 19 matched healthy controls (HC) were recruited for this study. Event-related potentials (ERP) were measured during presentation of SF-modulated face stimuli and their source imaging was analyzed. The patients showed reduced P100 amplitude for low-spatial frequency (LSF) pictures of fearful faces compared with the HC group. The P100 amplitude for high-spatial frequency (HSF) pictures of neutral faces was increased in the schizophrenia group, but not in the HC group. The neural source activities of the LSF fearful faces and HSF neutral faces led to hypo- and hyperactivation of the frontal lobe of subjects from the schizophrenia group and HC group, respectively. In addition, patients with schizophrenia showed enhanced N170 activation in the right hemisphere in the LSF condition, while the HC group did not. Our results suggest that deficits in the LSF-dependent visual pathway, which involves magnocellular neurons, impair early visual processing leading to dysfunctional facial emotion recognition in schizophrenia. Moreover, it suggests impaired bottom-up processing rather than top-down dysfunction for facial emotion recognition in these patients.

  15. Tissue characterization by imaging the local frequency dependent relative backscatter coefficient

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jenderka, Klaus V.; Gaertner, Tilio; Cobet, Ulrich; Zacharias, Mario; Heynemann, Hans

    2000-04-01

    Conventional B-scan systems only use the amplitude information of the backscattered signals for imaging. By imaging the local frequency dependent relative backscatter coefficient it is possible to improve the image contrast and to reduce system effects. Based on spectral analysis of rf echo signals, a procedure was developed to correct for system specific effects and to determine the relative backscatter coefficient. A new image with improved contrast results from grayscale or color coding of the frequency components of the relative backscatter coefficient. The method was applied to in vivo measurements of human prostate and transplanted kidney. For cancerous prostate tissue the relative backscatter coefficient is about 8 dB lower than for normal tissue regions. The results of the investigations on kidneys show no correlation to the current function of the organ. Certainly the different course of the frequency dependence of the relative backscatter coefficient of renal cortex and calices regions allows a contrast improvement. The method provides a system independent imaging procedure with improved image contrast for tissues with different scattering behavior and slightly reduced spatial resolution. Imaging the relative backscatter coefficient will not substitute the conventional B-mode image, but it is a useful tool providing additional information about the tissue state.

  16. Direct Derivation of the Gravitational Red Shift (Einstein Shift) with the frequency dependent Gall metric

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gall, Clarence A.

    1999-05-01

    When an electromagnetic radiation (EMR) source is in uniform motion with respect to an observer, a spectral (Doppler) shift in frequency is seen (blue as it approaches, red as it recedes). Since special relativity is limited to coordinate systems in uniform relative motion, this theory should be subject to this condition. On the other hand, the gravitational red shift (Einstein; Relativity: The Special and the General Theory, Crown,(1961), p.129) claims that EMR frequency decreases as the gravitational field, where the source is located, increases. As a gravitational effect, one would expect its derivation from a solution of the general relativistic field equations (R_μσ=0). Up to now, it has only been possible to derive it indirectly, by comparing the gravitational field to a (centrifugal) field produced by coordinate systems in relative rotational motion as an approximation of special relativity. Since rotation implies acceleration, it does not meet the conditions of special relativity so this is unsatisfactory. This work shows that the problem lies in the Schwarzschild metric which is independent of EMR frequency. By contrast it is easy to deduce the gravitational red shift from the frequency dependent Gall metric (Gall in AIP Conference Proceedings 308, The Evolution of X-Ray Binaries,(1993), p. 87).

  17. Energy and frequency dependence of the alpha particle redistribution produced by internal kink modes

    SciTech Connect

    Farengo, R.; Ferrari, H. E.; Garcia-Martinez, P. L.; Firpo, M.-C.; Ettoumi, W.; Lifschitz, A. F.

    2014-08-15

    The redistribution of alpha particles due to internal kink modes is studied. The exact particle trajectories in the total fields, equilibrium plus perturbation, are calculated. The equilibrium has circular cross section and the plasma parameters are similar to those expected in ITER. The alpha particles are initially distributed according to a slowing down distribution function and have energies between 18 keV and 3.5 MeV. The (1, 1), (2, 2), and (2, 1) modes are included and the effect of changing their amplitude and frequency is studied. When only the (1, 1) mode is included, the spreading of high energy (E≳1 MeV) alpha particles increases slowly with the energy and mode frequency. At lower energies, the redistribution is more sensitive to the mode frequency and particle energy. When a (2, 1) mode is added, the spreading increases significantly and particles can reach the edge of the plasma. Trapped particles are the most affected and the redistribution parameter can have maxima above 1 MeV, depending on the mode frequency. These results can have important implications for ash removal.

  18. FREQUENCY DEPENDENCE OF POLARIZATION OF ZEBRA PATTERN IN TYPE-IV SOLAR RADIO BURSTS

    SciTech Connect

    Kaneda, Kazutaka; Misawa, H.; Tsuchiya, F.; Obara, T.; Iwai, K.

    2015-08-01

    We investigated the polarization characteristics of a zebra pattern (ZP) in a type-IV solar radio burst observed with AMATERAS on 2011 June 21 for the purpose of evaluating the generation processes of ZPs. Analyzing highly resolved spectral and polarization data revealed the frequency dependence of the degree of circular polarization and the delay between two polarized components for the first time. The degree of circular polarization was 50%–70% right-handed and it varied little as a function of frequency. Cross-correlation analysis determined that the left-handed circularly polarized component was delayed by 50–70 ms relative to the right-handed component over the entire frequency range of the ZP and this delay increased with the frequency. We examined the obtained polarization characteristics by using pre-existing ZP models and concluded that the ZP was generated by the double-plasma-resonance process. Our results suggest that the ZP emission was originally generated in a completely polarized state in the O-mode and was partly converted into the X-mode near the source. Subsequently, the difference between the group velocities of the O-mode and X-mode caused the temporal delay.

  19. Frequency-Dependence of Mechanically Stimulated Osteoblastic Calcification in Tissue-Engineered Bone In Vitro.

    PubMed

    Tanaka, Shigeo M; Tachibana, Kohei

    2015-09-01

    The effect of mechanical stimulation on osteogenesis remains controversial, especially with respect to the loading frequency that maximizes osteogenesis. Mechanical stimulation at an optimized frequency may be beneficial for the bone tissue regeneration to promote osteoblastic calcification. The objective of this study was to investigate the frequency-dependent effect of mechanical loading on osteoblastic calcification in the tissue-engineered bones in vitro. Tissue-engineered bones were constructed by seeding rat osteoblasts into a type I collagen sponge scaffold at a cell density of 1600 or 24,000 cells/mm(3). Sinusoidal compressive deformation at the peak of 0.2% was applied to the tissue-engineered bones at 0.2, 2, 10, 20, 40, and 60 Hz for 3 min/day for 14 consecutive days. Optically-monitored calcium content started to increase on days 5-7 and reached the highest value at 2 Hz on day 14; however, no increase was observed at 0.2 Hz and in the control. Ash content measured after the mechanical stimulation also showed the highest at 2 Hz despite the differences in cell seeding density. It was concluded that mechanical stimulation at 2 Hz showed the highest promotional effect for osteogenesis in vitro among the frequencies selected in this study.

  20. Model for radial dependence of frequency distributions for energy imparted in nanometer volumes from HZE particles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cucinotta, F. A.; Nikjoo, H.; Goodhead, D. T.; Decillo, J. F. (Principal Investigator)

    2000-01-01

    This paper develops a deterministic model of frequency distributions for energy imparted (total energy deposition) in small volumes similar to DNA molecules from high-energy ions of interest for space radiation protection and cancer therapy. Frequency distributions for energy imparted are useful for considering radiation quality and for modeling biological damage produced by ionizing radiation. For high-energy ions, secondary electron (delta-ray) tracks originating from a primary ion track make dominant contributions to energy deposition events in small volumes. Our method uses the distribution of electrons produced about an ion's path and incorporates results from Monte Carlo simulation of electron tracks to predict frequency distributions for ions, including their dependence on radial distance. The contribution from primary ion events is treated using an impact parameter formalism of spatially restricted linear energy transfer (LET) and energy-transfer straggling. We validate our model by comparing it directly to results from Monte Carlo simulations for proton and alpha-particle tracks. We show for the first time frequency distributions of energy imparted in DNA structures by several high-energy ions such as cosmic-ray iron ions. Our comparison with results from Monte Carlo simulations at low energies indicates the accuracy of the method.

  1. Model for radial dependence of frequency distributions for energy imparted in nanometer volumes from HZE particles.

    PubMed

    Cucinotta, F A; Nikjoo, H; Goodhead, D T

    2000-04-01

    This paper develops a deterministic model of frequency distributions for energy imparted (total energy deposition) in small volumes similar to DNA molecules from high-energy ions of interest for space radiation protection and cancer therapy. Frequency distributions for energy imparted are useful for considering radiation quality and for modeling biological damage produced by ionizing radiation. For high-energy ions, secondary electron (delta-ray) tracks originating from a primary ion track make dominant contributions to energy deposition events in small volumes. Our method uses the distribution of electrons produced about an ion's path and incorporates results from Monte Carlo simulation of electron tracks to predict frequency distributions for ions, including their dependence on radial distance. The contribution from primary ion events is treated using an impact parameter formalism of spatially restricted linear energy transfer (LET) and energy-transfer straggling. We validate our model by comparing it directly to results from Monte Carlo simulations for proton and alpha-particle tracks. We show for the first time frequency distributions of energy imparted in DNA structures by several high-energy ions such as cosmic-ray iron ions. Our comparison with results from Monte Carlo simulations at low energies indicates the accuracy of the method. PMID:10761008

  2. Frequency dependent dielectric properties in Schottky diodes based on rubrene organic semiconductor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barış, Behzad

    2013-12-01

    Al/rubrene/p-Si Schottky diode has been fabricated by forming a rubrene layer on p type Si by using the spin coating method. The frequency and voltage dependent dielectric constant (ε‧), dielectric loss (ε″), tangent loss (tanδ), electrical modulus (M‧ and M″), and ac electrical conductivity (σ) properties of Al/rubrene/p-Si Schottky diodes have been investigated in the frequency range of 1 kHz-1 MHz at room temperature. It is found that the values of the ε‧, ε″ and tanδ decrease with increasing frequency while an increase is observed in σ and the real component (M‧) of the electrical modulus. The values of ε‧, ε″, and tanδ were found as 5.01, 2.55, and 0.51 for 1 kHz and 2.46, 0.069, and 0.028 for 1 MHz at zero bias, respectively. Furthermore, the imaginary component (M″) of the electric modulus showed a peak that shifts to a higher voltage with decreasing frequency.

  3. Semi-Classical Calculations of Ultracold Collisions with Frequency-Chirped Light: Dependence on Chirp Rate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wright, Matthew

    2014-05-01

    We conduct semi-classical monte-carlo simulations of ultracold collisions utilizing frequency-chirped laser light on the nanosecond timescale. Previous work revealed partial control of light-assisted collisional mechanisms with relatively slow chirp rates (10 GHz/ μs). Collisions induced with positive chirped light enhance the inelastic collisional loss rate of atoms from a magneto-optical trap whereas these trap loss collisions can be blocked when negative chirped light is used. Early quantum and classical simulations show that for negative chirps the laser's frequency continually interacts with the atom-pair during the collision. We investigate how this process depends on the chirp rate and show that by moderately speeding up the chirp (> 50 GHz/ μs), we can significantly enhance the difference in the collisional loss rate induced by the negative and positive chirps, gaining nearly full control of the collision.

  4. Negative frequency-dependent selection is intensified at higher population densities in protist populations

    PubMed Central

    Minter, Ewan J. A.; Watts, Phillip C.; Lowe, Chris D.; Brockhurst, Michael A.

    2015-01-01

    Natural populations of free-living protists often exhibit high-levels of intraspecific diversity, yet this is puzzling as classic evolutionary theory predicts dominance by genotypes with high fitness, particularly in large populations where selection is efficient. Here, we test whether negative frequency-dependent selection (NFDS) plays a role in the maintenance of diversity in the marine flagellate Oxyrrhis marina using competition experiments between multiple pairs of strains. We observed strain-specific responses to frequency and density, but an overall signature of NFDS that was intensified at higher population densities. Because our strains were not selected a priori on the basis of particular traits expected to exhibit NFDS, these data represent a relatively unbiased estimate of the role for NFDS in maintaining diversity in protist populations. These findings could help to explain how bloom-forming plankton, which periodically achieve exceptionally high population densities, maintain substantial intraspecific diversity. PMID:26063750

  5. Dependence of thermodynamic efficiency of proton pumps on frequency of oscillatory concentration of ATP.

    PubMed Central

    Schell, M; Kundu, K; Ross, J

    1987-01-01

    In order to evaluate the utilization of variable ATP concentration produced by an oscillatory reaction (as in anaerobic glycolysis), we analyze the thermodynamic efficiency of power output of a cyclic, ATP-driven proton pump found in the plasma membrane of plant cells. The model used includes the coupling of potassium and calcium ion transport. Oscillations in the concentration of ATP can lead to either increases or decreases in efficiency compared to that at constant ATP concentration, with corresponding decreases and increases in dissipation in the irreversible processes of the proton pump, depending on the frequency of the oscillations. Variations of imposed frequencies induce, in the periodic response, variations of phase shifts between the components of the total membrane current, which consist of the pump's proton current and the currents of potassium and calcium ions. Increases in efficiency are attained when the phase shifts are such that maxima (or minima) in the proton pump current and membrane potential occur simultaneously. PMID:3025871

  6. Negative frequency-dependent selection is intensified at higher population densities in protist populations.

    PubMed

    Minter, Ewan J A; Watts, Phillip C; Lowe, Chris D; Brockhurst, Michael A

    2015-06-01

    Natural populations of free-living protists often exhibit high-levels of intraspecific diversity, yet this is puzzling as classic evolutionary theory predicts dominance by genotypes with high fitness, particularly in large populations where selection is efficient. Here, we test whether negative frequency-dependent selection (NFDS) plays a role in the maintenance of diversity in the marine flagellate Oxyrrhis marina using competition experiments between multiple pairs of strains. We observed strain-specific responses to frequency and density, but an overall signature of NFDS that was intensified at higher population densities. Because our strains were not selected a priori on the basis of particular traits expected to exhibit NFDS, these data represent a relatively unbiased estimate of the role for NFDS in maintaining diversity in protist populations. These findings could help to explain how bloom-forming plankton, which periodically achieve exceptionally high population densities, maintain substantial intraspecific diversity.

  7. Dynamics of structural systems with various frequency-dependent damping models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Li; Hu, Yujin; Deng, Weiming; Lü, Lei; Ding, Zhe

    2015-03-01

    The aim of this paper is to present the dynamic analyses of the system involving various damping models. The assumed frequency-dependent damping forces depend on the past history of motion via convolution integrals over some damping kernel functions. By choosing suitable damping kernel functions of frequency-dependent damping model, it may be derived from the familiar viscoelastic materials. A brief review of literature on the choice of available damping models is presented. Both the mode superposition method and Fourier transform method are developed for calculating the dynamic response of the structural systems with various damping models. It is shown that in the case of non-deficient systems with various damping models, the modal analysis with repeated eigenvalues are very similar to the traditional modal analysis used in undamped or viscously damped systems. Also, based on the pseudo-force approach, we transform the original equations of motion with nonzero initial conditions into an equivalent one with zero initial conditions and therefore present a Fourier transform method for the dynamics of structural systems with various damping models. Finally, some case studies are used to show the application and effectiveness of the derived formulas.

  8. The Dependence of Thresholds for Pulmonary Capillary Hemorrhage on Diagnostic Ultrasound Frequency

    PubMed Central

    Miller, Douglas L.; Dou, Chunyan; Raghavendran, Krishnan

    2015-01-01

    Pulmonary ultrasound examination has become routine for diagnosis in many clinical and point-of-care medical settings. However, the phenomenon of pulmonary capillary hemorrhage (PCH) induction during diagnostic ultrasound imaging presents a poorly understood risk factor. PCH was observed for 1.5 MHz, 4.5 MHz and 12.0 MHz diagnostic ultrasound of anesthetized rats to investigate the frequency dependence of PCH thresholds. PCH was detected in the ultrasound images as growing comet tail artifacts, and assessed using photographs of the surface of excised lungs. Previous photographs acquired with 7.6 MHz diagnostic ultrasound were also included for analysis. In addition, dosimetric parameters were measured at each frequency, including peak rarefactional pressure amplitudes (PRPA) and spatial peak pulse-average (SPPA) intensities attenuated by rat chest-wall samples. PRPA thresholds were determined at each frequency, based on the proportion of PCH occurrence in groups of 5 rats, and were 1.03 ± 0.02 MPa, 1.28 ± 0.14 MPa, 1.18 ± 0.12 MPa and 1.36 ± 0.15 MPa at 1.5, 4.5, 7.6 and 12.0 MHz, respectively. Although the PCH lesions decreased in size with increasing ultrasonic frequency, owing to the smaller beam widths and scan lengths, the PRPA thresholds remained approximately constant. This dependence was different from that of the Mechanical Index, which indicates a need for a specific dosimetric parameter for safety guidance in pulmonary ultrasound. PMID:25746909

  9. Absolute nuclear material assay

    DOEpatents

    Prasad, Manoj K.; Snyderman, Neal J.; Rowland, Mark S.

    2012-05-15

    A method of absolute nuclear material assay of an unknown source comprising counting neutrons from the unknown source and providing an absolute nuclear material assay utilizing a model to optimally compare to the measured count distributions. In one embodiment, the step of providing an absolute nuclear material assay comprises utilizing a random sampling of analytically computed fission chain distributions to generate a continuous time-evolving sequence of event-counts by spreading the fission chain distribution in time.

  10. Absolute nuclear material assay

    DOEpatents

    Prasad, Manoj K.; Snyderman, Neal J.; Rowland, Mark S.

    2010-07-13

    A method of absolute nuclear material assay of an unknown source comprising counting neutrons from the unknown source and providing an absolute nuclear material assay utilizing a model to optimally compare to the measured count distributions. In one embodiment, the step of providing an absolute nuclear material assay comprises utilizing a random sampling of analytically computed fission chain distributions to generate a continuous time-evolving sequence of event-counts by spreading the fission chain distribution in time.

  11. Origin of the bell-like dependence of the DPOAE amplitude on primary frequency ratio

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lukashkin, Andrei N.; Russell, Ian J.

    2001-12-01

    For low and medium sound pressure levels (SPLs), the amplitude of the distortion product otoacoustic emission (DPOAE) recorded from guinea pigs at the 2f1-f2 frequency is maximal when f2/f1~1.23 and decreases for lower and higher f2/f1 ratios. The high-ratio slope of the DPOAE dependence on the ratio of the primary frequencies might be anticipated since the f1 amplitude at the f2 place is expected to decrease for higher f2/f1 ratios. The low-ratio slope of the dependence at low and medium SPLs of the primaries is actually one slope of a notch. The DPOAE amplitude recovers from the notch when the f2/f1 ratio is further reduced. In two-dimensional space formed by the f2/f1 ratio, and the levels of the primaries, the notch is continuous and has a level-dependent phase transition. The notch is identical to that seen in DPOAE growth functions. Similar notches and phase transitions were observed for high-order and high-frequency DPOAEs. Theoretical analysis reveals that a single saturating nonlinearity is capable of generating similar amplitude notch and phase transition when the f2/f1 ratio is decreased because of the increase in f1 amplitude at the DPOAE generation place (f2 place). The difference between the DPOAE recorded from guinea pigs and humans is discussed in terms of different position of the operating point of the DPOAE generating nonlinearity.

  12. Transcranial alternating current stimulation affects the BOLD signal in a frequency and task‐dependent manner

    PubMed Central

    Cabral‐Calderin, Yuranny; Anne Weinrich, Christiane; Schmidt‐Samoa, Carsten; Poland, Eva; Dechent, Peter; Bähr, Mathias

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Transcranial alternating current stimulation (tACS) has emerged as a promising tool for manipulating ongoing brain oscillations. While previous studies demonstrated frequency‐specific effects of tACS on diverse cognitive functions, its effect on neural activity remains poorly understood. Here we asked how tACS modulates regional fMRI blood oxygenation level dependent (BOLD) signal as a function of frequency, current strength, and task condition. TACS was applied over the posterior cortex of healthy human subjects while the BOLD signal was measured during rest or task conditions (visual perception, passive video viewing and motor task). TACS was applied in a blockwise manner at different frequencies (10, 16, 60 and 80 Hz). The strongest tACS effects on BOLD activity were observed with stimulation at alpha (10 Hz) and beta (16 Hz) frequency bands, while effects of tACS at the gamma range were rather modest. Specifically, we found that tACS at 16 Hz induced BOLD activity increase in fronto‐parietal areas. Overall, tACS effects varied as a function of frequency and task, and were predominantly seen in regions that were not activated by the task. Also, the modulated regions were poorly predicted by current density modeling studies. Taken together, our results suggest that tACS does not necessarily exert its strongest effects in regions below the electrodes and that region specificity might be achieved with tACS due to varying susceptibility of brain regions to entrain to a given frequency. Hum Brain Mapp 37:94–121, 2016. © 2015 The Authors. Human Brain Mapping Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc PMID:26503692

  13. Time and Frequency-Dependent Modulation of Local Field Potential Synchronization by Deep Brain Stimulation

    PubMed Central

    McCracken, Clinton B.; Kiss, Zelma H. T.

    2014-01-01

    High-frequency electrical stimulation of specific brain structures, known as deep brain stimulation (DBS), is an effective treatment for movement disorders, but mechanisms of action remain unclear. We examined the time-dependent effects of DBS applied to the entopeduncular nucleus (EP), the rat homolog of the internal globus pallidus, a target used for treatment of both dystonia and Parkinson’s disease (PD). We performed simultaneous multi-site local field potential (LFP) recordings in urethane-anesthetized rats to assess the effects of high-frequency (HF, 130 Hz; clinically effective), low-frequency (LF, 15 Hz; ineffective) and sham DBS delivered to EP. LFP activity was recorded from dorsal striatum (STR), ventroanterior thalamus (VA), primary motor cortex (M1), and the stimulation site in EP. Spontaneous and acute stimulation-induced LFP oscillation power and functional connectivity were assessed at baseline, and after 30, 60, and 90 minutes of stimulation. HF EP DBS produced widespread alterations in spontaneous and stimulus-induced LFP oscillations, with some effects similar across regions and others occurring in a region- and frequency band-specific manner. Many of these changes evolved over time. HF EP DBS produced an initial transient reduction in power in the low beta band in M1 and STR; however, phase synchronization between these regions in the low beta band was markedly suppressed at all time points. DBS also enhanced low gamma synchronization throughout the circuit. With sustained stimulation, there were significant reductions in low beta synchronization between M1-VA and STR-VA, and increases in power within regions in the faster frequency bands. HF DBS also suppressed the ability of acute EP stimulation to induce beta oscillations in all regions along the circuit. This dynamic pattern of synchronizing and desynchronizing effects of EP DBS suggests a complex modulation of activity along cortico-BG-thalamic circuits underlying the therapeutic effects

  14. Temperature and frequency dependent conductivity of bismuth zinc vanadate semiconducting glassy system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Punia, R.; Kundu, R. S.; Dult, Meenakshi; Murugavel, S.; Kishore, N.

    2012-10-01

    The ac conductivity of bismuth zinc vanadate glasses with compositions 50V2O5. xBi2O3. (50-x) ZnO has been studied in the frequency range 10-1 Hz to 2 MHz and in temperature range 333.16 K to 533.16 K. The temperature and frequency dependent conductivity is found to obey Jonscher's universal power law for all the compositions of bismuth zinc vanadate glass system. The dc conductivity (σdc), crossover frequency (ωH), and frequency exponent (s) have been estimated from the fitting of experimental data of ac conductivity with Jonscher's universal power law. Enthalpy to dissociate the cation from its original site next to a charge compensating center (Hf) and enthalpy of migration (Hm) have also been estimated. It has been observed that mobility of charge carriers and ac conductivity in case of zinc vanadate glass system increases with increase in Bi2O3 content. In order to determine the conduction mechanism, the ac conductivity and its frequency exponent have been analyzed in the frame work of various theoretical models based on classical hopping over barriers and quantum mechanical tunneling. The ac conduction takes place via tunneling of overlapping large polarons in all the compositions of presently studied vanadate glasses. The fitting of experimental data of ac conductivity with overlapping large polarons tunneling model has also been done. The parameters; density of states at Fermi level (N(EF)), activation energy associated with charge transfer between the overlapping sites (WHO), inverse localization length (α) and polaron radius (rp) obtained from fitting of this model with experimental data are reasonable.

  15. Temperature Dependence of Soft Mode Frequency and Dielectric Constant in Ferroelectric PbHPO4 Crystal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Upadhayay, Trilok Chandra; Joshi, Mayank

    2011-11-01

    By using double-time temperature dependent Green's function method, expressions for soft mode frequency and dielectric constant are derived. Model Hamiltonian used by earlier workers is modified and used in the derivation. Model values are fitted and compared with experimental data of others. The high dielectric constant of ferroelectrics-thousand and tens of thousands in a number of cases makes them commercially important in the manufacture of small size capacitors of high capacitance. The property of hysteresis suggests their use as memory devices for electronic computers. Piezoelectric acoustic and pyroelectric infrared detectors are the devices based on ferroelectrics.

  16. Determination of ferroelectric contributions to electromechanical response by frequency dependent piezoresponse force microscopy

    PubMed Central

    Seol, Daehee; Park, Seongjae; Varenyk, Olexandr V.; Lee, Shinbuhm; Lee, Ho Nyung; Morozovska, Anna N.; Kim, Yunseok

    2016-01-01

    Hysteresis loop analysis via piezoresponse force microscopy (PFM) is typically performed to probe the existence of ferroelectricity at the nanoscale. However, such an approach is rather complex in accurately determining the pure contribution of ferroelectricity to the PFM. Here, we suggest a facile method to discriminate the ferroelectric effect from the electromechanical (EM) response through the use of frequency dependent ac amplitude sweep with combination of hysteresis loops in PFM. Our combined study through experimental and theoretical approaches verifies that this method can be used as a new tool to differentiate the ferroelectric effect from the other factors that contribute to the EM response. PMID:27466086

  17. Determination of ferroelectric contributions to electromechanical response by frequency dependent piezoresponse force microscopy

    DOE PAGES

    Seol, Daehee; Park, Seongjae; Varenyk, Olexandr V.; Lee, Shinbuhm; Lee, Ho Nyung; Morozovska, Anna N.; Kim, Yunseok

    2016-07-28

    Hysteresis loop analysis via piezoresponse force microscopy (PFM) is typically performed to probe the existence of ferroelectricity at the nanoscale. But, such an approach is rather complex in accurately determining the pure contribution of ferroelectricity to the PFM. We suggest a facile method to discriminate the ferroelectric effect from the electromechanical (EM) response through the use of frequency dependent ac amplitude sweep with combination of hysteresis loops in PFM. This combined study through experimental and theoretical approaches verifies that this method can be used as a new tool to differentiate the ferroelectric effect from the other factors that contribute tomore » the EM response.« less

  18. Monitoring cure of composite resins using frequency dependent electromagnetic sensing techniques

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kranbuehl, D. E.; Hoff, M. S.; Loos, A. C.; Freeman, W. T., Jr.; Eichinger, D. A.

    1988-01-01

    A nondestructive in situ measurement technique has been developed for monitoring and measuring the cure processing properties of composite resins. Frequency dependent electromagnetic sensors (FDEMS) were used to directly measure resin viscosity during cure. The effects of the cure cycle and resin aging on the viscosity during cure were investigated using the sensor. Viscosity measurements obtained using the sensor are compared with the viscosities calculated by the Loos-Springer cure process model. Good overall agreement was obtained except for the aged resin samples.

  19. Ixaru's extended frequency dependent quadrature rules for slater integrals: Parallel computation issues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scott, N. S.; Scott, M. P.; Jézéquel, F.

    2012-09-01

    We describe recent progress of an ongoing research programme aimed at producing computational science software that can exploit high performance architectures in the atomic physics application domain. We examine the computational bottleneck of matrix construction in a suite of two-dimensional R-matrix propagation programs, 2DRMP, that are aimed at creating virtual electron collision experiments on HPC architectures. We build on Ixaru's extended frequency dependent quadrature rules (EFDQR) for Slater integrals and examine the challenge of constructing Hamiltonian matrices in parallel across an m-processor compute node in a block cyclic distribution for subsequent diagonalization by ScaLAPACK.

  20. Full frequency-dependent phase-domain modelling of transmission lines and corona phenomena

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Castellanos, Fernando

    This thesis presents two main developments in the modelling of power transmission lines for the simulation of electric networks. The first one is wide bandwidth circuit corona model and the second a phase-domain multiphase full frequency-dependent line model. The latter can be easily used in connection with the former. Both models have been developed for implementation in time domain simulation computer programs, such as the ElectroMagnetic Transients Program (EMTP). Corona in overhead transmission lines is a highly nonlinear and non deterministic phenomenon. Circuit models have been developed in the past to represent its behaviour, but the response of these models is usually limited to a narrow band of frequencies. The corona model presented in this thesis overcomes this problem by: (1) matching closely the topology of the circuit to the topology of the physical system, and (2) duplicating the high-order dynamic response of the phenomenon with a high-order transient circuit response. The resulting model is valid for a wide range of frequencies and is able to represent waveshapes from switching to lightning surges. A unique set of model parameters can be obtained directly from test-cage measurements, and the same set can be used directly for an arbitrary overhead line configuration. The model uses only standard EMTP circuit elements and requires no iterations. Simulations of corona charge-voltage (q-v) curves and of travelling surges were performed and compared to existing field test measurements. The proposed new transmission line model (z-line) can be used for the representation of multicircuit transmission lines in time-domain transient solutions. The model includes a full representation of the frequency-dependent line parameters and is formulated directly in phase coordinates. The solution in phase coordinates, as opposed to modal coordinates, avoids the problems associated with the representation of the frequency-dependent transformation matrices that relate

  1. RADIAL DEPENDENCE OF THE FREQUENCY BREAK BETWEEN FLUID AND KINETIC SCALES IN THE SOLAR WIND FLUCTUATIONS

    SciTech Connect

    Bruno, R.; Trenchi, L.

    2014-06-01

    We investigate the radial dependence of the spectral break separating the inertial from the dissipation range in power density spectra of interplanetary magnetic field fluctuations, between 0.42 and 5.3 AU, during radial alignments between MESSENGER and WIND for the inner heliosphere and between WIND and ULYSSES for the outer heliosphere. We found that the spectral break moves to higher and higher frequencies as the heliocentric distance decreases. The radial dependence of the corresponding wavenumber is of the kind κ {sub b} ∼ R {sup –1.08}, in good agreement with that of the wavenumber derived from the linear resonance condition for proton cyclotron damping. These results support conclusions from previous studies which suggest that a cyclotron-resonant dissipation mechanism must participate in the spectral cascade together with other possible kinetic noncyclotron-resonant mechanisms.

  2. Frequency dependence of Q sub Lg and its relation to crustal anelasticity in the Basin and Range province

    SciTech Connect

    Mitchell, B.J. )

    1991-04-01

    The high observed frequency dependence of Q for 1-hz Lg waves (f{sup 0.4 - 0.6}) in the Basin and Range province can be explained by a frequency-independent layered model of intrinsic Q for shear waves (Q{sub mu}) which has very low values in the upper crust and rapidly increasing values at greater depths. By contrast, earlier work in the eastern United States indicated Q{sub mu} values in the upper crust which are high and which vary with frequency. The Q{mu} model which best explains reported values of Q{sub Lg} and its frequency dependence in the Basin-and-Range consists of an 8-km thick low-Q layer (60 or less) overlying Q values as high as 1,000 or more at mid-crustal depths. This Q{sub mu} distribution is best explained by an upper crust which contains fluids in interconnected cracks overlying a lower crust where higher lithostatic pressure has closed those cracks. These results indicate that whereas the frequency dependence of Q{mu} is an intrinsic property of crustal material, the frequency dependence of Q{sub Lg} arises from both the intrinsic frequency dependence of crustal material and its layered structure. A notation is suggested which distinguishes between the frequency dependence of Q{sub Lg} and Q{sub mu}.

  3. Unusual polarity-dependent patterns in a bent-core nematic liquid crystal under low-frequency ac field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiang, Ying; Zhou, Meng-jie; Xu, Ming-Ya; Salamon, Péter; Éber, Nándor; Buka, Ágnes

    2015-04-01

    Electric-field-induced patterns of diverse morphology have been observed over a wide frequency range in a recently synthesized bent-core nematic (BCN) liquid crystal. At low frequencies (up to ˜25 Hz), the BCN exhibited unusual polarity-dependent patterns. When the amplitude of the ac field was enhanced, these two time-asymmetrical patterns turned into time-symmetrical prewavylike stripes. At ac frequencies in the middle-frequency range (˜50-3000 Hz), zigzag patterns were detected whose obliqueness varied with the frequency. Finally, if the frequency was increased above 3 kHz, the zigzag pattern was replaced by another, prewavylike pattern, whose threshold voltage depended on the frequency; however, the wave vector did not. For a more complete characterization, material parameters such as elastic constants, dielectric permittivities, and the anisotropy of the diamagnetic susceptibility were also determined.

  4. Direction of information flow in large-scale resting-state networks is frequency-dependent.

    PubMed

    Hillebrand, Arjan; Tewarie, Prejaas; van Dellen, Edwin; Yu, Meichen; Carbo, Ellen W S; Douw, Linda; Gouw, Alida A; van Straaten, Elisabeth C W; Stam, Cornelis J

    2016-04-01

    Normal brain function requires interactions between spatially separated, and functionally specialized, macroscopic regions, yet the directionality of these interactions in large-scale functional networks is unknown. Magnetoencephalography was used to determine the directionality of these interactions, where directionality was inferred from time series of beamformer-reconstructed estimates of neuronal activation, using a recently proposed measure of phase transfer entropy. We observed well-organized posterior-to-anterior patterns of information flow in the higher-frequency bands (alpha1, alpha2, and beta band), dominated by regions in the visual cortex and posterior default mode network. Opposite patterns of anterior-to-posterior flow were found in the theta band, involving mainly regions in the frontal lobe that were sending information to a more distributed network. Many strong information senders in the theta band were also frequent receivers in the alpha2 band, and vice versa. Our results provide evidence that large-scale resting-state patterns of information flow in the human brain form frequency-dependent reentry loops that are dominated by flow from parieto-occipital cortex to integrative frontal areas in the higher-frequency bands, which is mirrored by a theta band anterior-to-posterior flow. PMID:27001844

  5. Electromagnetic millimeter wave induced hypoalgesia: frequency dependence and involvement of endogenous opioids.

    PubMed

    Radzievsky, A A; Gordiienko, O V; Alekseev, S; Szabo, I; Cowan, A; Ziskin, M C

    2008-05-01

    Millimeter wave treatment (MMWT) is based on the systemic biological effects that develop following local skin exposure to low power electromagnetic waves in the millimeter range. In the present set of experiments, the hypoalgesic effect of this treatment was analyzed in mice. The murine nose area was exposed to MMW of "therapeutic" frequencies: 42.25, 53.57, and 61.22 GHz. MMWT-induced hypoalgesia was shown to be frequency dependent in two experimental models: (1) the cold water tail-flick test (chronic non-neuropathic pain), and (2) the wire surface test (chronic neuropathic pain following unilateral constriction injury to the sciatic nerve). Maximum hypoalgesic effect was obtained when the frequency was 61.22 GHz. Other exposure parameters were: incident power density = 13.3 mW/cm(2), duration of each exposure = 15 min. Involvement of delta and kappa endogenous opioids in the MMWT-induced hypoalgesia was demonstrated using selective blockers of delta- and kappa-opioid receptors and the direct ELISA measurement of endogenous opioids in CNS tissue. Possible mechanisms of the effect and the perspectives of the clinical application of MMWT are discussed.

  6. Distortion product otoacoustic emission generation mechanisms and their dependence on stimulus level and primary frequency ratio.

    PubMed

    Botti, Teresa; Sisto, Renata; Sanjust, Filippo; Moleti, Arturo; D'Amato, Luisa

    2016-02-01

    In this study, a systematic analysis of the dependence on stimulus level and primary frequency ratio r of the different components of human distortion product otoacoustic emissions has been performed, to check the validity of theoretical models of their generation, as regards the localization of the sources and the relative weight of distortion and reflection generation mechanisms. 2f1 - f2 and 2f2 - f1 distortion product otoacoustic emissions of 12 normal hearing ears from six human subjects have been measured at four different levels, in the range [35, 65] dB sound pressure level, at eight different ratios, in the range [1.1, 1.45]. Time-frequency filtering was used to separate distortion and reflection components. Numerical simulations have also been performed using an active nonlinear cochlear model. Both in the experiment and in the simulations, the behavior of the 2f1 - f2 distortion and reflection components was in agreement with previous measurements and with the predictions of the two-source model. The 2f2 - f1 response showed a rotating-phase component only, whose behavior was in general agreement with that predicted for a component generated and reflected within a region basal to the characteristic place of frequency 2f2 - f1, although alternative interpretations, which are also discussed, cannot be ruled out.

  7. Direction of information flow in large-scale resting-state networks is frequency-dependent

    PubMed Central

    Hillebrand, Arjan; Tewarie, Prejaas; van Dellen, Edwin; Yu, Meichen; Carbo, Ellen W. S.; Douw, Linda; Gouw, Alida A.; van Straaten, Elisabeth C. W.; Stam, Cornelis J.

    2016-01-01

    Normal brain function requires interactions between spatially separated, and functionally specialized, macroscopic regions, yet the directionality of these interactions in large-scale functional networks is unknown. Magnetoencephalography was used to determine the directionality of these interactions, where directionality was inferred from time series of beamformer-reconstructed estimates of neuronal activation, using a recently proposed measure of phase transfer entropy. We observed well-organized posterior-to-anterior patterns of information flow in the higher-frequency bands (alpha1, alpha2, and beta band), dominated by regions in the visual cortex and posterior default mode network. Opposite patterns of anterior-to-posterior flow were found in the theta band, involving mainly regions in the frontal lobe that were sending information to a more distributed network. Many strong information senders in the theta band were also frequent receivers in the alpha2 band, and vice versa. Our results provide evidence that large-scale resting-state patterns of information flow in the human brain form frequency-dependent reentry loops that are dominated by flow from parieto-occipital cortex to integrative frontal areas in the higher-frequency bands, which is mirrored by a theta band anterior-to-posterior flow. PMID:27001844

  8. A General Model of Negative Frequency Dependent Selection Explains Global Patterns of Human ABO Polymorphism.

    PubMed

    Villanea, Fernando A; Safi, Kristin N; Busch, Jeremiah W

    2015-01-01

    The ABO locus in humans is characterized by elevated heterozygosity and very similar allele frequencies among populations scattered across the globe. Using knowledge of ABO protein function, we generated a simple model of asymmetric negative frequency dependent selection and genetic drift to explain the maintenance of ABO polymorphism and its loss in human populations. In our models, regardless of the strength of selection, models with large effective population sizes result in ABO allele frequencies that closely match those observed in most continental populations. Populations must be moderately small to fall out of equilibrium and lose either the A or B allele (N(e) ≤ 50) and much smaller (N(e) ≤ 25) for the complete loss of diversity, which nearly always involved the fixation of the O allele. A pattern of low heterozygosity at the ABO locus where loss of polymorphism occurs in our model is consistent with small populations, such as Native American populations. This study provides a general evolutionary model to explain the observed global patterns of polymorphism at the ABO locus and the pattern of allele loss in small populations. Moreover, these results inform the range of population sizes associated with the recent human colonization of the Americas. PMID:25946124

  9. Memory for past public events depends on retrieval frequency but not memory age in Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    Müller, Stephan; Mychajliw, Christian; Hautzinger, Martin; Fallgatter, Andreas J; Saur, Ralf; Leyhe, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is characterized by retrograde memory deficits primarily caused by dysfunction of the hippocampal complex. Unresolved questions exist concerning the time course of hippocampal involvement in conscious recollection of declarative knowledge, as reports of temporal gradients of retrograde amnesia have been inconclusive. The aim of this study was to examine whether the extent and severity of retrograde amnesia is mediated by retrieval frequency or, in contrast, whether it depends on the age of the memory according to the assumptions of the main current theories of memory formation. We compared recall of past public events in patients with AD and healthy control (HC) individuals using the Historic Events Test (HET). The HET assesses knowledge about famous public events of the past 60 years divided into four time segments and consists of subjective memory rating, dating accuracy, and contextual memory tasks. Although memory for public events was impaired in AD patients, there was a strong effect of retrieval frequency across all time segments and both groups. As AD and HC groups derived similar benefits from greater retrieval frequency, cortical structures other than the hippocampal complex may mediate memory retrieval. These findings suggest that more frequently retrieved events and facts become more independent of the hippocampal complex and thus better protected against early damage of AD. This could explain why cognitive activity may delay the onset of memory decline in persons who develop AD.

  10. A General Model of Negative Frequency Dependent Selection Explains Global Patterns of Human ABO Polymorphism.

    PubMed

    Villanea, Fernando A; Safi, Kristin N; Busch, Jeremiah W

    2015-01-01

    The ABO locus in humans is characterized by elevated heterozygosity and very similar allele frequencies among populations scattered across the globe. Using knowledge of ABO protein function, we generated a simple model of asymmetric negative frequency dependent selection and genetic drift to explain the maintenance of ABO polymorphism and its loss in human populations. In our models, regardless of the strength of selection, models with large effective population sizes result in ABO allele frequencies that closely match those observed in most continental populations. Populations must be moderately small to fall out of equilibrium and lose either the A or B allele (N(e) ≤ 50) and much smaller (N(e) ≤ 25) for the complete loss of diversity, which nearly always involved the fixation of the O allele. A pattern of low heterozygosity at the ABO locus where loss of polymorphism occurs in our model is consistent with small populations, such as Native American populations. This study provides a general evolutionary model to explain the observed global patterns of polymorphism at the ABO locus and the pattern of allele loss in small populations. Moreover, these results inform the range of population sizes associated with the recent human colonization of the Americas.

  11. On the geometrical dependence of low-frequency noise in SiGe HBTs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Enhai; Cressler, John D.; El-Diwany, Monir; Krakowski, Tracey L.; Sadovnikov, Alexei; Kocoski, Dimitar

    2006-11-01

    We present an investigation of the dependence of low-frequency noise on device geometry in advanced npn silicon-germanium (SiGe) heterojunction bipolar transistors (HBTs). The devices examined in this work have fixed emitter width ( WE = 0.4 μm), but varying emitter length (0.5 μm ⩽ LE ⩽ 20.0 μm), and thus the ratio of the emitter perimeter ( PE) to the emitter area ( AE) varies widely, making it ideal for examining geometrical effects. The SPICE noise parameter AF extracted from these devices decreases with increasing LE. Furthermore, the low-frequency noise measured on SiGe HBTs with significantly different PE/ AE ratios suggests a possibility that the fundamental noise source for the diffusion base current may be located at the emitter periphery. Transistors with different distances between the emitter edge and the shallow trench edge (XEC), and shallow trench edge to deep trench edge (XTC), are also investigated. The SiGe HBTs with a smaller value of XEC have higher low-frequency noise, but no significant difference is found in devices with varying XTC. Explanations of the observed noise behavior are suggested.

  12. Frequency-dependent electrodeformation of giant phospholipid vesicles in AC electric field

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    A model of vesicle electrodeformation is described which obtains a parametrized vesicle shape by minimizing the sum of the membrane bending energy and the energy due to the electric field. Both the vesicle membrane and the aqueous media inside and outside the vesicle are treated as leaky dielectrics, and the vesicle itself is modeled as a nearly spherical shape enclosed within a thin membrane. It is demonstrated (a) that the model achieves a good quantitative agreement with the experimentally determined prolate-to-oblate transition frequencies in the kilohertz range and (b) that the model can explain a phase diagram of shapes of giant phospholipid vesicles with respect to two parameters: the frequency of the applied alternating current electric field and the ratio of the electrical conductivities of the aqueous media inside and outside the vesicle, explored in a recent paper (S. Aranda et al., Biophys J 95:L19–L21, 2008). A possible use of the frequency-dependent shape transitions of phospholipid vesicles in conductometry of microliter samples is discussed. PMID:21886342

  13. Shear wave anisotropy from aligned inclusions: ultrasonic frequency dependence of velocity and attenuation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Figueiredo, J. J. S.; Schleicher, J.; Stewart, R. R.; Dayur, N.; Omoboya, B.; Wiley, R.; William, A.

    2013-04-01

    To understand their influence on elastic wave propagation, anisotropic cracked media have been widely investigated in many theoretical and experimental studies. In this work, we report on laboratory ultrasound measurements carried out to investigate the effect of source frequency on the elastic parameters (wave velocities and the Thomsen parameter γ) and shear wave attenuation) of fractured anisotropic media. Under controlled conditions, we prepared anisotropic model samples containing penny-shaped rubber inclusions in a solid epoxy resin matrix with crack densities ranging from 0 to 6.2 per cent. Two of the three cracked samples have 10 layers and one has 17 layers. The number of uniform rubber inclusions per layer ranges from 0 to 100. S-wave splitting measurements have shown that scattering effects are more prominent in samples where the seismic wavelength to crack aperture ratio ranges from 1.6 to 1.64 than in others where the ratio varied from 2.72 to 2.85. The sample with the largest cracks showed a magnitude of scattering attenuation three times higher compared with another sample that had small inclusions. Our S-wave ultrasound results demonstrate that elastic scattering, scattering and anelastic attenuation, velocity dispersion and crack size interfere directly in shear wave splitting in a source-frequency dependent manner, resulting in an increase of scattering attenuation and a reduction of shear wave anisotropy with increasing frequency.

  14. Memory for past public events depends on retrieval frequency but not memory age in Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    Müller, Stephan; Mychajliw, Christian; Hautzinger, Martin; Fallgatter, Andreas J; Saur, Ralf; Leyhe, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is characterized by retrograde memory deficits primarily caused by dysfunction of the hippocampal complex. Unresolved questions exist concerning the time course of hippocampal involvement in conscious recollection of declarative knowledge, as reports of temporal gradients of retrograde amnesia have been inconclusive. The aim of this study was to examine whether the extent and severity of retrograde amnesia is mediated by retrieval frequency or, in contrast, whether it depends on the age of the memory according to the assumptions of the main current theories of memory formation. We compared recall of past public events in patients with AD and healthy control (HC) individuals using the Historic Events Test (HET). The HET assesses knowledge about famous public events of the past 60 years divided into four time segments and consists of subjective memory rating, dating accuracy, and contextual memory tasks. Although memory for public events was impaired in AD patients, there was a strong effect of retrieval frequency across all time segments and both groups. As AD and HC groups derived similar benefits from greater retrieval frequency, cortical structures other than the hippocampal complex may mediate memory retrieval. These findings suggest that more frequently retrieved events and facts become more independent of the hippocampal complex and thus better protected against early damage of AD. This could explain why cognitive activity may delay the onset of memory decline in persons who develop AD. PMID:23969995

  15. A General Model of Negative Frequency Dependent Selection Explains Global Patterns of Human ABO Polymorphism

    PubMed Central

    Villanea, Fernando A.; Safi, Kristin N.; Busch, Jeremiah W.

    2015-01-01

    The ABO locus in humans is characterized by elevated heterozygosity and very similar allele frequencies among populations scattered across the globe. Using knowledge of ABO protein function, we generated a simple model of asymmetric negative frequency dependent selection and genetic drift to explain the maintenance of ABO polymorphism and its loss in human populations. In our models, regardless of the strength of selection, models with large effective population sizes result in ABO allele frequencies that closely match those observed in most continental populations. Populations must be moderately small to fall out of equilibrium and lose either the A or B allele (Ne ≤ 50) and much smaller (Ne ≤ 25) for the complete loss of diversity, which nearly always involved the fixation of the O allele. A pattern of low heterozygosity at the ABO locus where loss of polymorphism occurs in our model is consistent with small populations, such as Native American populations. This study provides a general evolutionary model to explain the observed global patterns of polymorphism at the ABO locus and the pattern of allele loss in small populations. Moreover, these results inform the range of population sizes associated with the recent human colonization of the Americas. PMID:25946124

  16. Planck intermediate results. XXII. Frequency dependence of thermal emission from Galactic dust in intensity and polarization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Planck Collaboration; Ade, P. A. R.; Alves, M. I. R.; Aniano, G.; Armitage-Caplan, C.; Arnaud, M.; Atrio-Barandela, F.; Aumont, J.; Baccigalupi, C.; Banday, A. J.; Barreiro, R. B.; Battaner, E.; Benabed, K.; Benoit-Lévy, A.; Bernard, J.-P.; Bersanelli, M.; Bielewicz, P.; Bock, J. J.; Bond, J. R.; Borrill, J.; Bouchet, F. R.; Boulanger, F.; Burigana, C.; Cardoso, J.-F.; Catalano, A.; Chamballu, A.; Chiang, H. C.; Colombo, L. P. L.; Combet, C.; Couchot, F.; Coulais, A.; Crill, B. P.; Curto, A.; Cuttaia, F.; Danese, L.; Davies, R. D.; Davis, R. J.; de Bernardis, P.; de Zotti, G.; Delabrouille, J.; Désert, F.-X.; Dickinson, C.; Diego, J. M.; Donzelli, S.; Doré, O.; Douspis, M.; Dunkley, J.; Dupac, X.; Enßlin, T. A.; Eriksen, H. K.; Falgarone, E.; Finelli, F.; Forni, O.; Frailis, M.; Fraisse, A. A.; Franceschi, E.; Galeotta, S.; Ganga, K.; Ghosh, T.; Giard, M.; González-Nuevo, J.; Górski, K. M.; Gregorio, A.; Gruppuso, A.; Guillet, V.; Hansen, F. K.; Harrison, D. L.; Helou, G.; Hernández-Monteagudo, C.; Hildebrandt, S. R.; Hivon, E.; Hobson, M.; Holmes, W. A.; Hornstrup, A.; Jaffe, A. H.; Jaffe, T. R.; Jones, W. C.; Keihänen, E.; Keskitalo, R.; Kisner, T. S.; Kneissl, R.; Knoche, J.; Kunz, M.; Kurki-Suonio, H.; Lagache, G.; Lamarre, J.-M.; Lasenby, A.; Lawrence, C. R.; Leahy, J. P.; Leonardi, R.; Levrier, F.; Liguori, M.; Lilje, P. B.; Linden-Vørnle, M.; López-Caniego, M.; Lubin, P. M.; Macías-Pérez, J. F.; Maffei, B.; Magalhães, A. M.; Maino, D.; Mandolesi, N.; Maris, M.; Marshall, D. J.; Martin, P. G.; Martínez-González, E.; Masi, S.; Matarrese, S.; Mazzotta, P.; Melchiorri, A.; Mendes, L.; Mennella, A.; Migliaccio, M.; Miville-Deschênes, M.-A.; Moneti, A.; Montier, L.; Morgante, G.; Mortlock, D.; Munshi, D.; Murphy, J. A.; Naselsky, P.; Nati, F.; Natoli, P.; Netterfield, C. B.; Noviello, F.; Novikov, D.; Novikov, I.; Oppermann, N.; Oxborrow, C. A.; Pagano, L.; Pajot, F.; Paoletti, D.; Pasian, F.; Perdereau, O.; Perotto, L.; Perrotta, F.; Piacentini, F.; Pietrobon, D.; Plaszczynski, S.; Pointecouteau, E.; Polenta, G.; Popa, L.; Pratt, G. W.; Rachen, J. P.; Reach, W. T.; Reinecke, M.; Remazeilles, M.; Renault, C.; Ricciardi, S.; Riller, T.; Ristorcelli, I.; Rocha, G.; Rosset, C.; Roudier, G.; Rubiño-Martín, J. A.; Rusholme, B.; Salerno, E.; Sandri, M.; Savini, G.; Scott, D.; Spencer, L. D.; Stolyarov, V.; Stompor, R.; Sudiwala, R.; Sutton, D.; Suur-Uski, A.-S.; Sygnet, J.-F.; Tauber, J. A.; Terenzi, L.; Toffolatti, L.; Tomasi, M.; Tristram, M.; Tucci, M.; Valenziano, L.; Valiviita, J.; Van Tent, B.; Vielva, P.; Villa, F.; Wandelt, B. D.; Zacchei, A.; Zonca, A.

    2015-04-01

    Planck has mapped the intensity and polarization of the sky at microwave frequencies with unprecedented sensitivity. We use these data to characterize the frequency dependence of dust emission. We make use of the Planck 353 GHz I, Q, and U Stokes maps as dust templates, and cross-correlate them with the Planck and WMAP data at 12 frequencies from 23 to 353 GHz, over circular patches with 10° radius. The cross-correlation analysis is performed for both intensity and polarization data in a consistent manner. The results are corrected for the chance correlation between the templates and the anisotropies of the cosmic microwave background. We use a mask that focuses our analysis on the diffuse interstellar medium at intermediate Galactic latitudes. We determine the spectral indices of dust emission in intensity and polarization between 100 and 353 GHz, for each sky patch. Both indices are found to be remarkably constant over the sky. The mean values, 1.59 ± 0.02 for polarization and 1.51 ± 0.01 for intensity, for a mean dust temperature of 19.6 K, are close, but significantly different (3.6σ). We determine the mean spectral energy distribution (SED) of the microwave emission, correlated with the 353 GHz dust templates, by averaging the results of the correlation over all sky patches. We find that the mean SED increases for decreasing frequencies at ν< 60 GHz for both intensity and polarization. The rise of the polarization SED towards low frequencies may be accounted for by a synchrotron component correlated with dust, with no need for any polarization of the anomalous microwave emission. We use a spectral model to separate the synchrotron and dust polarization and to characterize the spectral dependence of the dust polarization fraction. The polarization fraction (p) of the dust emission decreases by (21 ± 6)% from 353 to 70 GHz. We discuss this result within the context of existing dust models. The decrease in p could indicate differences in polarization

  17. Negative frequency-dependent interactions can underlie phenotypic heterogeneity in a clonal microbial population.

    PubMed

    Healey, David; Axelrod, Kevin; Gore, Jeff

    2016-01-01

    Genetically identical cells in microbial populations often exhibit a remarkable degree of phenotypic heterogeneity even in homogenous environments. Such heterogeneity is commonly thought to represent a bet-hedging strategy against environmental uncertainty. However, evolutionary game theory predicts that phenotypic heterogeneity may also be a response to negative frequency-dependent interactions that favor rare phenotypes over common ones. Here we provide experimental evidence for this alternative explanation in the context of the well-studied yeast GAL network. In an environment containing the two sugars glucose and galactose, the yeast GAL network displays stochastic bimodal activation. We show that in this mixed sugar environment, GAL-ON and GAL-OFF phenotypes can each invade the opposite phenotype when rare and that there exists a resulting stable mix of phenotypes. Consistent with theoretical predictions, the resulting stable mix of phenotypes is not necessarily optimal for population growth. We find that the wild-type mixed strategist GAL network can invade populations of both pure strategists while remaining uninvasible by either. Lastly, using laboratory evolution we show that this mixed resource environment can directly drive the de novo evolution of clonal phenotypic heterogeneity from a pure strategist population. Taken together, our results provide experimental evidence that negative frequency-dependent interactions can underlie the phenotypic heterogeneity found in clonal microbial populations. PMID:27487817

  18. Longitudinal wavevector- and frequency-dependent dielectric constant of the TIP4P water model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Omelyan, Igor P.

    A computer adapted theory for self-consistent calculations of the wavevector- and frequencydependent dielectric constant for interaction site models of polar systems is proposed. A longitudinal component of the dielectric constant is evaluated for the TIP4P water model over a very wide scale of wavenumbers and frequencies using molecular dynamics simulations. It is shown that values for the dielectric permittivity, calculated within the exact interaction site description, differ in a characteristic way from those obtained by the point dipole approximation which is usually used in computer experiment. It is shown also that the libration oscillations, existing in the shape of longitudinal time-dependent polarization fluctuations at small and intermediate wavevector values, vanish for larger wavenumbers. A comparison between the wavevector and frequency behaviour of the dielectric constant for the TIP4P water model and the Stockmayer model is made. The static screening of external charges and damping of longitudinal electric excitations in water are considered as well. A special investigation is devoted to the time dependence of dielectric quantities in the free motion regime.

  19. Frequency-dependent attenuation of the Hispaniola Island region of the Caribbean Sea

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McNamara, D.; Meremonte, M.; Maharrey, J.Z.; Mildore, S-L.; Altidore, J.R.; Anglade, D.; Hough, S.E.; Given, D.; Benz, H.; Gee, L.; Frankel, A.

    2012-01-01

    We determine frequency-dependent attenuation 1/Q(f) for the Hispaniola region using direct S and Lg waves over five distinct passbands from 0.5 to 16 Hz. Data consist of 832 high-quality vertical and horizontal component waveforms recorded on short-period and broadband seismometers from the devastating 12 January 2010 M 7.0 Haiti earthquake and the rich sequence of aftershocks. For the distance range 250–700 km, we estimate an average frequency-dependent Q(f)=224(±27)f0.64(±0.073) using horizontal components of motion and note that Q(f) estimated with Lg at regional distances is very consistent across vertical and horizontal components. We also determine a Q(f)=142(±21)f0.71(±0.11) for direct S waves at local distances, ≤100 km. The strong attenuation observed on both vertical and horizontal components of motion is consistent with expectations for a tectonically active region.

  20. Evolution of identity signals: frequency-dependent benefits of distinctive phenotypes used for individual recognition.

    PubMed

    Sheehan, Michael J; Tibbetts, Elizabeth A

    2009-12-01

    Identifying broad-scale evolutionary processes that maintain phenotypic polymorphisms has been a major goal of modern evolutionary biology. There are numerous mechanisms, such as negative frequency-dependent selection, that may maintain polymorphisms, although it is unknown which mechanisms are prominent in nature. Traits used for individual recognition are strikingly variable and have evolved independently in numerous lineages, providing an excellent model to investigate which factors maintain ecologically relevant phenotypic polymorphisms. Theoretical models suggest that individuals may benefit by advertising their identities with distinctive, recognizable phenotypes. Here, we test the benefits of advertising one's identity with a distinctive phenotype. We manipulated the appearance of Polistes fuscatus paper wasp groups so that three individuals had the same appearance and one individual had a unique, easily recognizable appearance. We found that individuals with distinctive appearances received less aggression than individuals with nondistinctive appearances. Therefore, individuals benefit by advertising their identity with a unique phenotype. Our results provide a potential mechanism through which negative frequency-dependent selection may maintain the polymorphic identity signals in P. fuscatus. Given that recognition is important for many social interactions, selection for distinctive identity signals may be an underappreciated and widespread mechanism underlying the evolution of phenotypic polymorphisms in social taxa. PMID:19744121

  1. Frequency of Psychiatric Disorders in Children of Opioid or Methamphetamine-Dependent Patients

    PubMed Central

    Parvaresh, Noushin; Mazhari, Shahrzad; Nazari-Noghabi, Maryam

    2015-01-01

    Background Addiction is one of the main problems of human societies, which is more common in developing countries. In addition, it causes to personal and social problems and family problem. The aim of this study was to examine the prevalence of psychiatric disorders in children 5-15 years old of opioid or methamphetamine dependence patients. Methods For this study, three groups including: (1) children of parents addicted to opium, (2) children of parents addicted to methamphetamine, and (3) control group were examined. Child symptom inventory-4 (CSI-4) questionnaires completed by non-hospitalized guardian and control group; then make interviews with the children by the Kiddie-schedule for affective disorders and schizophrenia (K-SADS). Data were analyzed by chi-square test and ANOVA. Findings Survey showed that the frequency of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), major depressive disorder (MDD), generalized anxiety disorder, obsessive-compulsive disorder, specific phobia (SP), and separation anxiety disorder in children of addicted parents were more than a non-addicted parent. However, there was no significant difference between the two groups in the frequency of conduct disorder, social phobia, and oppositional defiant disorders (ODDs). Conclusion Parental addiction can lead to an increase in some psychiatric disorders in the children. Therefore follow-up, early diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of these disorders in children of the drug-dependent parent are necessary to reduce health costs and improve the health system. PMID:26885350

  2. Contrast sensitivity in natural scenes depends on edge as well as spatial frequency structure

    PubMed Central

    Bex, Peter J.; Solomon, Samuel G.; Dakin, Steven C.

    2013-01-01

    The contrast sensitivity function is routinely measured in the laboratory with sine-wave gratings presented on homogenous gray backgrounds; natural images are instead composed of a broad range of spatial and temporal structures. In order to extend channel-based models of visual processing to more natural conditions, we examined how contrast sensitivity varies with the context in which it is measured. We report that contrast sensitivity is quite different under laboratory than natural viewing conditions: adaptation or masking with natural scenes attenuates contrast sensitivity at low spatial and temporal frequencies. Expressed another way, viewing stimuli presented on homogenous screens overcomes chronic adaptation to the natural environment and causes a sharp, unnatural increase in sensitivity to low spatial and temporal frequencies. Consequently, the standard contrast sensitivity function is a poor indicator of sensitivity to structure in natural scenes. The magnitude of masking by natural scenes is relatively independent of local contrast but depends strongly on the density of edges even though neither greatly affects the local amplitude spectrum. These results suggest that sensitivity to spatial structure in natural scenes depends on the distribution of local edges as well as the local amplitude spectrum. PMID:19810782

  3. Disentangling the roles of frequency-vs. state-dependence in generating individual differences in behavioural plasticity.

    PubMed

    Mathot, Kimberley J; van den Hout, Piet J; Piersma, Theunis; Kempenaers, Bart; Réale, Denis; Dingemanse, Niels J

    2011-12-01

    Theoretical work suggests that both negative frequency-dependent payoffs and state-dependent payoffs can lead to individual variation in behavioural plasticity. We investigated the roles of both frequency- and state-dependence on the occurrence of individual variation in behavioural plasticity in a series of experiments where we manipulated perceived predation danger for red knots (Calidris canutus islandica). We found individual variation in plasticity in a trait with negative frequency-dependent payoffs (vigilance), but not in a trait with positive frequency-dependent payoffs (escape flights). Furthermore, there was no correlation between the average level of vigilance under low predation danger and the magnitude of response to increased predation danger, as would be expected under state-dependence. Thus, our results provide support for the hypothesis that negative-frequency dependence favours individual variation in plasticity. However, negative-frequency dependence alone cannot explain why plasticity would be consistent within individuals, and future studies should address the factors that might favour individual consistency.

  4. Phase and Frequency-Dependent Effects of Transcranial Alternating Current Stimulation on Motor Cortical Excitability.

    PubMed

    Nakazono, Hisato; Ogata, Katsuya; Kuroda, Tsuyoshi; Tobimatsu, Shozo

    2016-01-01

    Transcranial alternating current stimulation (tACS) can entrain ongoing brain oscillations and modulate the motor system in a frequency-dependent manner. Recent animal studies have demonstrated that the phase of a sinusoidal current also has an important role in modulation of neuronal activity. However, the phase effects of tACS on the human motor system are largely unknown. Here, we systematically investigated the effects of tACS phase and frequency on the primary motor cortex (M1) by using motor evoked potentials (MEPs) with transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS). First, we compared the phase effects (90°, 180°, 270° or 360°) of 10 and 20 Hz tACS on MEPs. The 20 Hz tACS significantly increased M1 excitability compared with the 10 Hz tACS at 90° phase only. Second, we studied the 90° phase effect on MEPs at different tACS frequencies (5, 10, 20 or 40 Hz). The 20 vs. 10 Hz difference was again observed, but the 90° phase in 5 and 40 Hz tACS did not influence M1 excitability. Third, the 90° phase effects of 10 and 20 Hz tACS were compared with sham stimulation. The 90° phase of 20 Hz tACS enhanced MEP amplitudes compared with sham stimulation, but there was no significant effect of 10 Hz tACS. Taken together, we assume that the differential 90° phase effects on 20 Hz and 10 Hz tACS can be attributed to the neural synchronization modulated by tACS. Our results further underline that phase and frequency are the important factors in the effects of tACS on M1 excitability.

  5. Phase and Frequency-Dependent Effects of Transcranial Alternating Current Stimulation on Motor Cortical Excitability.

    PubMed

    Nakazono, Hisato; Ogata, Katsuya; Kuroda, Tsuyoshi; Tobimatsu, Shozo

    2016-01-01

    Transcranial alternating current stimulation (tACS) can entrain ongoing brain oscillations and modulate the motor system in a frequency-dependent manner. Recent animal studies have demonstrated that the phase of a sinusoidal current also has an important role in modulation of neuronal activity. However, the phase effects of tACS on the human motor system are largely unknown. Here, we systematically investigated the effects of tACS phase and frequency on the primary motor cortex (M1) by using motor evoked potentials (MEPs) with transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS). First, we compared the phase effects (90°, 180°, 270° or 360°) of 10 and 20 Hz tACS on MEPs. The 20 Hz tACS significantly increased M1 excitability compared with the 10 Hz tACS at 90° phase only. Second, we studied the 90° phase effect on MEPs at different tACS frequencies (5, 10, 20 or 40 Hz). The 20 vs. 10 Hz difference was again observed, but the 90° phase in 5 and 40 Hz tACS did not influence M1 excitability. Third, the 90° phase effects of 10 and 20 Hz tACS were compared with sham stimulation. The 90° phase of 20 Hz tACS enhanced MEP amplitudes compared with sham stimulation, but there was no significant effect of 10 Hz tACS. Taken together, we assume that the differential 90° phase effects on 20 Hz and 10 Hz tACS can be attributed to the neural synchronization modulated by tACS. Our results further underline that phase and frequency are the important factors in the effects of tACS on M1 excitability. PMID:27607431

  6. Phase and Frequency-Dependent Effects of Transcranial Alternating Current Stimulation on Motor Cortical Excitability

    PubMed Central

    Kuroda, Tsuyoshi; Tobimatsu, Shozo

    2016-01-01

    Transcranial alternating current stimulation (tACS) can entrain ongoing brain oscillations and modulate the motor system in a frequency-dependent manner. Recent animal studies have demonstrated that the phase of a sinusoidal current also has an important role in modulation of neuronal activity. However, the phase effects of tACS on the human motor system are largely unknown. Here, we systematically investigated the effects of tACS phase and frequency on the primary motor cortex (M1) by using motor evoked potentials (MEPs) with transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS). First, we compared the phase effects (90°, 180°, 270° or 360°) of 10 and 20 Hz tACS on MEPs. The 20 Hz tACS significantly increased M1 excitability compared with the 10 Hz tACS at 90° phase only. Second, we studied the 90° phase effect on MEPs at different tACS frequencies (5, 10, 20 or 40 Hz). The 20 vs. 10 Hz difference was again observed, but the 90° phase in 5 and 40 Hz tACS did not influence M1 excitability. Third, the 90° phase effects of 10 and 20 Hz tACS were compared with sham stimulation. The 90° phase of 20 Hz tACS enhanced MEP amplitudes compared with sham stimulation, but there was no significant effect of 10 Hz tACS. Taken together, we assume that the differential 90° phase effects on 20 Hz and 10 Hz tACS can be attributed to the neural synchronization modulated by tACS. Our results further underline that phase and frequency are the important factors in the effects of tACS on M1 excitability. PMID:27607431

  7. Time-dependent wave packet averaged vibrational frequencies from femtosecond stimulated Raman spectra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Yue-Chao; Zhao, Bin; Lee, Soo-Y.

    2016-02-01

    Femtosecond stimulated Raman spectroscopy (FSRS) on the Stokes side arises from a third order polarization, P(3)(t), which is given by an overlap of a first order wave packet, |" separators=" Ψ2 ( 1 ) ( p u , t ) > , prepared by a narrow band (ps) Raman pump pulse, Epu(t), on the upper electronic e2 potential energy surface (PES), with a second order wave packet, <" separators=" Ψ1 ( 2 ) ( p r ∗ , p u , t ) | , that is prepared on the lower electronic e1 PES by a broadband (fs) probe pulse, Epr(t), acting on the first-order wave packet. In off-resonant FSRS, |" separators=" Ψ2 ( 1 ) ( p u , t ) > resembles the zeroth order wave packet |" separators=" Ψ1 ( 0 ) ( t ) > on the lower PES spatially, but with a force on |" separators=" Ψ2 ( 1 ) ( p u , t ) > along the coordinates of the reporter modes due to displacements in the equilibrium position, so that <" separators=" Ψ1 ( 2 ) ( p r ∗ , p u , t ) | will oscillate along those coordinates thus giving rise to similar oscillations in P(3)(t) with the frequencies of the reporter modes. So, by recovering P(3)(t) from the FSRS spectrum, we are able to deduce information on the time-dependent quantum-mechanical wave packet averaged frequencies, ω ¯ j ( t ) , of the reporter modes j along the trajectory of |" separators=" Ψ1 ( 0 ) ( t ) > . The observable FSRS Raman gain is related to the imaginary part of P(3)(ω). The imaginary and real parts of P(3)(ω) are related by the Kramers-Kronig relation. Hence, from the FSRS Raman gain, we can obtain the complex P(3)(ω), whose Fourier transform then gives us the complex P(3)(t) to analyze for ω ¯ j ( t ) . We apply the theory, first, to a two-dimensional model system with one conformational mode of low frequency and one reporter vibrational mode of higher frequency with good results, and then we apply it to the time-resolved FSRS spectra of the cis-trans isomerization of retinal in rhodopsin [P. Kukura et al., Science 310, 1006 (2005)]. We obtain the vibrational

  8. Hubbard interactions in iron-based pnictides and chalcogenides: Slater parametrization, screening channels, and frequency dependence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Roekeghem, Ambroise; Vaugier, Loïg; Jiang, Hong; Biermann, Silke

    2016-09-01

    We calculate the strength of the frequency-dependent on-site electronic interactions in the iron pnictides LaFeAsO, BaFe2As2 , BaRu2As2 , and LiFeAs and the chalcogenide FeSe from first principles within the constrained random phase approximation. We discuss the accuracy of an atomiclike parametrization of the two-index density-density interaction matrices based on the calculation of an optimal set of three independent Slater integrals, assuming that the angular part of the Fe d localized orbitals can be described within spherical harmonics as for isolated Fe atoms. We show that its quality depends on the ligand-metal bonding character rather than on the dimensionality of the lattice: it is excellent for ionic-like Fe-Se (FeSe) chalcogenides and a more severe approximation for more covalent Fe-As (LaFeAsO, BaFe2As2 ) pnictides. We furthermore analyze the relative importance of different screening channels, with similar conclusions for the different pnictides but a somewhat different picture for the benchmark oxide SrVO3: the ligand channel does not appear to be dominant in the pnictides, while oxygen screening is the most important process in the oxide. Finally, we analyze the frequency dependence of the interaction. In contrast to simple oxides, in iron pnictides its functional form cannot be simply modeled by a single plasmon, and the actual density of modes enters the construction of an effective Hamiltonian determining the low-energy properties.

  9. Frequency dependence of long-period tidal factors determined from gravity and space geodetic data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, T.; Nilsson, T.; Doi, K.; Aoyama, Y.

    2013-12-01

    The effects of ocean tides, a fluid core and mantle inelasticity of the earth cause the frequency dependence on zonal tidal signals. In particular, because inelastic effects of the medium of the Earth become larger for lower frequencies (Wahr, 1985) and the long-periods tides have their maximum values at the poles, tidal observations and analysis of long-period at high latitudes is advantageous for studying the dissipative properties in the Earth (Iwano et al., 2005). From this view point, Sato et al. (1995) and Iwano et al. (2005) analyzed the data of the gravity observations using superconducting gravimeter (SG) at Syowa Station in Antarctica. However, they concluded that the residuals from theory is mainly due to the inaccurate ocean models for ocean tidal loading correction. Recently, new two ocean tide models (FES2012 and TPXO8-atlas) were developed, which provide long-period ocean tide information. Thus, we reanalyzed the gravity data of Syowa Station using these new ocean tide models for ocean loading correction, and evaluated the gravimetric factors (δ). The estimated gravimetric factors are 1.15822 (FES2012) and 1.15541 (TPXO8-atlas) for Mm and 1.15396 and 1.15405 for Mf. Meanwhile, the zonal response coefficient κ defined by Agnew and Farrell (1978) were also estimated using zonal tidal signals with periods from 5 to 35 days in dUT1 (UTC-UT1), a tidally induced variation of the rotation rate of the Earth. This coefficient show also the frequency dependent zonal response. In this study, the values of estimated κ for different tidal frequencies from dUT1 observed by VLBI were compared to theory and to the results of previous determinations of κ from observations of space geodetic techniques. We used VieVs (Vienna VLBI Software) program for the estimation of dUT1 and processed all 24 hours from 1984 to 2012 and also processed the IERS C04 dUT1 series. These time series of dUT1 data were subtracted by the UT1 variations from atmospheric, hydrologic, and

  10. Mobility-Dependent Low-Frequency Noise in Graphene Field-Effect Transistors

    SciTech Connect

    Zan, Y.; Mendez, E.; Du, X.

    2011-10-25

    We have investigated the low-frequency 1/f noise of both suspended and on-substrate graphene field-effect transistors and its dependence on gate voltage, in the temperature range between 300 and 30 K. We have found that the noise amplitude away from the Dirac point can be described by a generalized Hooge's relation in which the Hooge parameter {alpha}{sub H} is not constant but decreases monotonically with the device's mobility, with a universal dependence that is sample and temperature independent. The value of {alpha}{sub H} is also affected by the dynamics of disorder, which is not reflected in the DC transport characteristics and varies with sample and temperature. We attribute the diverse behavior of gate voltage dependence of the noise amplitude to the relative contributions from various scattering mechanisms, and to potential fluctuations near the Dirac point caused by charge carrier inhomogeneity. The higher carrier mobility of suspended graphene devices accounts for values of 1/f noise significantly lower than those observed in on-substrate graphene devices and most traditional electronic materials.

  11. Algebraic processing technique for extracting frequency-dependent shear-wave splitting parameters in an anisotropic medium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, Kai-Feng; Zeng, Xin-Wu

    2011-06-01

    Based on the dual source cumulative rotation technique in the time-domain proposed by Zeng and MacBeth (1993), a new algebraic processing technique for extracting shear-wave splitting parameters from multi-component VSP data in frequency-dependent medium has been developed. By using this dual source cumulative rotation technique in the frequency-domain (DCTF), anisotropic parameters, including polarization direction of the shear-waves and timedelay between the fast and slow shear-waves, can be estimated for each frequency component in the frequency domain. It avoids the possible error which comes from using a narrow-band filter in the current commonly used method. By using synthetic seismograms, the feasibility and validity of the technique was tested and a comparison with the currently used method was also given. The results demonstrate that the shear-wave splitting parameters frequency dependence can be extracted directly from four-component seismic data using the DCTF. In the presence of larger scale fractures, substantial frequency dependence would be found in the seismic frequency range, which implies that dispersion would occur at seismic frequencies. Our study shows that shear-wave anisotropy decreases as frequency increases.

  12. Frequency-dependent dielectric contribution of flexoelectricity allowing control of state switching in helicoidal liquid crystals.

    PubMed

    Outram, B I; Elston, S J

    2013-07-01

    The contribution of flexoelectric polarization to the dielectric susceptibility in helicoidal liquid crystals is formulated for the static equilibrium case, and further in the case of a time-varying field. A dispersion of the dielectric permittivity due to the frequency response of flexoelectric switching is described. The special case of a negative dielectric-anisotropy nematic material is considered and experimentally shown to agree with the analytical theory. It is further demonstrated how relaxation of the flexoelectric contribution to the dielectric tensor in this special case can be exploited to switch between states in cholesteric liquid crystal structures by altering the applied time-dependent field amplitude, if Δε<0 and (e(1)-e(3))(2)/(K(1)+K(3))>-Δεε(0). Consequentially, a versatile mechanism for driving between states in liquid crystal systems has been demonstrated and its implications for technology are suggested, and include dual-mode, bistable, and transflective displays.

  13. Frequency-dependent dielectric contribution of flexoelectricity allowing control of state switching in helicoidal liquid crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Outram, B. I.; Elston, S. J.

    2013-07-01

    The contribution of flexoelectric polarization to the dielectric susceptibility in helicoidal liquid crystals is formulated for the static equilibrium case, and further in the case of a time-varying field. A dispersion of the dielectric permittivity due to the frequency response of flexoelectric switching is described. The special case of a negative dielectric-anisotropy nematic material is considered and experimentally shown to agree with the analytical theory. It is further demonstrated how relaxation of the flexoelectric contribution to the dielectric tensor in this special case can be exploited to switch between states in cholesteric liquid crystal structures by altering the applied time-dependent field amplitude, if Δɛ<0 and (e1-e3)2/(K1+K3)>-Δɛɛ0. Consequentially, a versatile mechanism for driving between states in liquid crystal systems has been demonstrated and its implications for technology are suggested, and include dual-mode, bistable, and transflective displays.

  14. The amplitudes of interplanetary fluctuations - Stream structure, heliocentric distance, and frequency dependence

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roberts, D. A.; Goldstein, M. L.; Klein, L. W.

    1990-01-01

    A study is presented of the heliocentric distance, frequency, and stream structure dependence of the amplitudes of interplanetary fluctuations in the velocity and magnetic field from 0.3 to nearly 20 AU and for spacecraft-frame periods of 10 days to a few hours. Evidence is presented that, at a given heliocentric distance, the amplitude of the magnetic field fluctuations is proportional to the magnitude of the field, nearly independently of the solar wind speed. The radial evolution of magnetic fluctuations is shown to be nearly consistent with WKB expectations except at smaller scales in the inner heliosphere and at the largest scales in the outer heliosphere. While the large-scale velocity fluctuations are kinetic energy-dominated in the inner heliosphere due to the presence of streams, the magnetic fluctuation energy eventually comes to be slightly dominant over the kinetic energy at all scales. The theoretical implications of the results are considered.

  15. Frequency dependence and fuel effect on optical properties of nano TiO2-based structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghasemifard, Mahdi; Ghamari, Misagh; Iziy, Meysam

    2016-06-01

    TiO2-(Ti0.5Si0.5)O2 nanopowders (TS-NPs) with average particle size around 90 nm were successfully synthesized by controlled auto-combustion method by using citric acid/nitric acid (AC:NA) and urea/metal cation (U:MC). The structure of powders was studied based on their X-ray diffraction (XRD) patterns. The XRD of TS-NPs shows that rutile and anatase are the main phases of TS-NPs for AC:NA and U:MC, respectively. Particle size and histogram of nanopowders were characterized by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and dynamic light scattering (DLS). Optical properties of TS-NPs were calculated by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and Kramers-Kroning (KK) relation. Plasma frequencies of TS-NPs obtained from energy loss functions depend on fuels as a result of changes in crystal structure, particle size distribution, and morphology.

  16. Layer- and frequency-dependent second harmonic generation in reflection from GaSe atomic crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tang, Yanhao; Mandal, Krishna C.; McGuire, John A.; Lai, Chih Wei

    2016-09-01

    We report optical second-harmonic generation (SHG) in reflection from GaSe crystals of 1 to more than 100 layers using a fundamental picosecond pulsed pump at 1.58 eV and a supercontinuum white light pulsed laser with energies ranging from 0.85 to 1.4 eV. The measured reflected SHG signal is maximal in samples of ˜20 layers, decreasing in thicker samples as a result of interference. The thickness- and frequency-dependence of the SHG response of samples thicker than ˜7 layers can be reproduced by a second-order optical susceptibility that is the same as in bulk samples. For samples ≲7 layers, the second-order optical susceptibility is reduced compared to that in thicker samples, which is attributed to the expected band-gap increase in mono- and few-layer GaSe.

  17. Frequency-dependent dielectric contribution of flexoelectricity allowing control of state switching in helicoidal liquid crystals.

    PubMed

    Outram, B I; Elston, S J

    2013-07-01

    The contribution of flexoelectric polarization to the dielectric susceptibility in helicoidal liquid crystals is formulated for the static equilibrium case, and further in the case of a time-varying field. A dispersion of the dielectric permittivity due to the frequency response of flexoelectric switching is described. The special case of a negative dielectric-anisotropy nematic material is considered and experimentally shown to agree with the analytical theory. It is further demonstrated how relaxation of the flexoelectric contribution to the dielectric tensor in this special case can be exploited to switch between states in cholesteric liquid crystal structures by altering the applied time-dependent field amplitude, if Δε<0 and (e(1)-e(3))(2)/(K(1)+K(3))>-Δεε(0). Consequentially, a versatile mechanism for driving between states in liquid crystal systems has been demonstrated and its implications for technology are suggested, and include dual-mode, bistable, and transflective displays. PMID:23944473

  18. The Dependence of High-Frequency Characteristics of Ground Motion on Rupture-Model Parameters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Erickson, B. A.; Shi, Z.; Day, S. M.

    2013-12-01

    Recent 3-D numerical simulations reveal that high-frequency ground motion generated from rupture propagation on rough faults is influenced by the properties of fault roughness, frictional parameters, and off-fault plastic response. In particular, the predicted Fourier spectra of ground acceleration from rupture along faults with self-similar roughness are roughly flat between a few tenths of a Hz and a source-controlled upper cutoff frequency. Fourier spectra of recorded ground motion exhibit a similar upper cutoff frequency, conventionally called f_max, which appears to be principally controlled by path and site attenuation. An open question is the extent to which the path and site effects overprint a source-controlled contribution to f_max such as that found in the numerical simulations. As a step toward addressing that question, we refine the theoretical predictions by further examining the sensitivity of source f_max to rupture model parameters. Initial findings from our earlier 3-D simulations (Shi and Day, 2013) have identified three key sensitivities: a downward shift of source f_max occurs when (i) the off-fault material undergoes plastic deformation (relative to the corresponding elastic simulations); (ii) the minimum roughness wavelength of the fault profile is increased; and/or (iii) the state evolution distance in the friction law is increased. These effects are both nonlinear and strongly coupled to each other. In this work, we perform a more extensive parametric study with 2-D rough-fault simulations to examine the aforementioned f_max sensitivity factors, their scaling with event magnitude and roughness amplitude, and their dependence on the plastic yielding parameters.

  19. Frequency-dependent auditory space representation in the human planum temporale.

    PubMed

    Shrem, Talia; Deouell, Leon Y

    2014-01-01

    Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) findings suggest that a part of the planum temporale (PT) is involved in representing spatial properties of acoustic information. Here, we tested whether this representation of space is frequency-dependent or generalizes across spectral content, as required from high order sensory representations. Using sounds with two different spectral content and two spatial locations in individually tailored virtual acoustic environment, we compared three conditions in a sparse-fMRI experiment: Single Location, in which two sounds were both presented from one location; Fixed Mapping, in which there was one-to-one mapping between two sounds and two locations; and Mixed Mapping, in which the two sounds were equally likely to appear at either one of the two locations. We surmised that only neurons tuned to both location and frequency should be differentially adapted by the Mixed and Fixed mappings. Replicating our previous findings, we found adaptation to spatial location in the PT. Importantly, activation was higher for Mixed Mapping than for Fixed Mapping blocks, even though the two sounds and the two locations appeared equally in both conditions. These results show that spatially tuned neurons in the human PT are not invariant to the spectral content of sounds.

  20. Left ventricle motion estimation based on signal-dependent time-frequency representation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gutierrez, Marco A.; Weiderpass, Heinar A.; Furuie, Sergio S.

    2003-05-01

    In current clinical practice, the noninvasive assessment of left ventricular deformation can be determined using all the principal imaging modalities, including contrast angiography, echocardiography, cine computed tomography, single photon emission tomography and magnetic resonance imaging. However, since the heart undergoes complex motion, proper characterization of its motion still remains an open and challenging research problem. A number of approaches for nonrigid motion analysis have been studied in the literature. Much of the effort has confined to estimate the displacement vector for each image point or optical flow. This is a challenging problem in image analysis because of a wide range of possible motions and the presence of noise in the image sets. In this work, we present an algorithm for computation of optical flow based on a signal-dependent radially Gaussian kernel that adapts over time. The adaptive kernel obtained from the proposed algorithm is used to estimate a 3D-frequency spectrum for a given pixel in a series of images. The orientation of the spectrum in the frequency domain is totally governed by the pixel velocity. In a recent contribution, a linear regression model is used over the spectrum to obtain the velocity components that are proportional to the pixel movement.

  1. Depth dependence of earthquake frequency-magnitude distributions in California: Implications for rupture initiation

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mori, J.; Abercrombie, R.E.

    1997-01-01

    Statistics of earthquakes in California show linear frequency-magnitude relationships in the range of M2.0 to M5.5 for various data sets. Assuming Gutenberg-Richter distributions, there is a systematic decrease in b value with increasing depth of earthquakes. We find consistent results for various data sets from northern and southern California that both include and exclude the larger aftershock sequences. We suggest that at shallow depth (???0 to 6 km) conditions with more heterogeneous material properties and lower lithospheric stress prevail. Rupture initiations are more likely to stop before growing into large earthquakes, producing relatively more smaller earthquakes and consequently higher b values. These ideas help to explain the depth-dependent observations of foreshocks in the western United States. The higher occurrence rate of foreshocks preceding shallow earthquakes can be interpreted in terms of rupture initiations that are stopped before growing into the mainshock. At greater depth (9-15 km), any rupture initiation is more likely to continue growing into a larger event, so there are fewer foreshocks. If one assumes that frequency-magnitude statistics can be used to estimate probabilities of a small rupture initiation growing into a larger earthquake, then a small (M2) rupture initiation at 9 to 12 km depth is 18 times more likely to grow into a M5.5 or larger event, compared to the same small rupture initiation at 0 to 3 km. Copyright 1997 by the American Geophysical Union.

  2. Frequency-dependent photothermal measurement of transverse thermal diffusivity of organic semiconductors

    SciTech Connect

    Brill, J. W.; Shahi, Maryam; Yao, Y.; Payne, Marcia M.; Anthony, J. E.; Edberg, Jesper; Crispin, Xavier

    2015-12-21

    We have used a photothermal technique, in which chopped light heats the front surface of a small (∼1 mm{sup 2}) sample and the chopping frequency dependence of thermal radiation from the back surface is measured with a liquid-nitrogen-cooled infrared detector. In our system, the sample is placed directly in front of the detector within its dewar. Because the detector is also sensitive to some of the incident light, which leaks around or through the sample, measurements are made for the detector signal that is in quadrature with the chopped light. Results are presented for layered crystals of semiconducting 6,13-bis(triisopropylsilylethynyl) pentacene (TIPS-pn) and for papers of cellulose nanofibrils coated with semiconducting poly(3,4-ethylene-dioxythiophene):poly(styrene-sulfonate) (NFC-PEDOT). For NFC-PEDOT, we have found that the transverse diffusivity, smaller than the in-plane value, varies inversely with thickness, suggesting that texturing of the papers varies with thickness. For TIPS-pn, we have found that the interlayer diffusivity is an order of magnitude larger than the in-plane value, consistent with previous estimates, suggesting that low-frequency optical phonons, presumably associated with librations in the TIPS side groups, carry most of the heat.

  3. The effect of frequency-dependent selection on resistance and tolerance to herbivory.

    PubMed

    Garrido, E; Llamas-Guzmán, L P; Fornoni, J

    2016-03-01

    Negative frequency-dependent selection (FDS), where rare genotypes are favoured by selection, is commonly invoked as a mechanism explaining the maintenance of genetic variation in plant defences. However, empirical tests of FDS in plant-herbivore interactions are lacking. We evaluated whether the oviposition preference of the specialist herbivore Lema daturaphila is a mechanism through which this herbivore can exert FDS on its host plant Datura stramonium. The frequency of contrasting resistance-tolerance strategies was manipulated within experimental plots, and the plants were exposed to a similar initial density of their natural herbivore. Herbivore oviposition preference and final density, as well as plant damage and seed production, were estimated. Overall, we found that the high-resistant-low-tolerant genotypes produced four times more seeds when common than when rare, whereas the high-tolerant-low-resistant genotypes achieved twice its fitness when rare than when common. This pattern was the result of differential oviposition preferences. In addition, when the high-resistant-low-tolerant genotypes were common, there was a three-fold decreased in herbivore final density which led to a decrease in damage level by 10%. Thus, in our experiment positive FDS seems to favour resistance over tolerance. We discuss how this result would change if the extent of herbivore local adaptation and damage modify the pattern of positive FDS acting on resistance and the optimal allocation to tolerance. PMID:26411698

  4. Long range dependence in the high frequency USD/INR exchange rate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, Dilip

    2014-02-01

    Using high frequency data, this paper examines the long memory property in the unconditional and conditional volatility of the USD/INR exchange rate at different time scales using the Local Whittle (LW), the Exact Local Whittle (ELW) and the FIAPARCH models. Results indicate that the long memory property remains quite stable across different time scales for both unconditional and conditional volatility measures. Results from the non-overlapping moving window approach indicate that the extreme events (such as the subprime crisis and the European debt crisis) resulted in highly persistent behavior of the USD/INR exchange rate and thus lead to market inefficiency. This paper also examines the long memory property in the realized volatility based on different time scale data. Results indicate that the realized volatility measures based on different scales of the high frequency data exhibit a consistent and stable long memory property. However, the realized volatility measures based on daily data exhibit lower degree of long-range dependence. This study has implications for traders and investors (with different trading horizons) and can be helpful in predicting expected future volatility and in designing and implementing trading strategies at different time scales.

  5. Frequency-dependent auditory space representation in the human planum temporale

    PubMed Central

    Shrem, Talia; Deouell, Leon Y.

    2014-01-01

    Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) findings suggest that a part of the planum temporale (PT) is involved in representing spatial properties of acoustic information. Here, we tested whether this representation of space is frequency-dependent or generalizes across spectral content, as required from high order sensory representations. Using sounds with two different spectral content and two spatial locations in individually tailored virtual acoustic environment, we compared three conditions in a sparse-fMRI experiment: Single Location, in which two sounds were both presented from one location; Fixed Mapping, in which there was one-to-one mapping between two sounds and two locations; and Mixed Mapping, in which the two sounds were equally likely to appear at either one of the two locations. We surmised that only neurons tuned to both location and frequency should be differentially adapted by the Mixed and Fixed mappings. Replicating our previous findings, we found adaptation to spatial location in the PT. Importantly, activation was higher for Mixed Mapping than for Fixed Mapping blocks, even though the two sounds and the two locations appeared equally in both conditions. These results show that spatially tuned neurons in the human PT are not invariant to the spectral content of sounds. PMID:25100973

  6. Frequency dependent steering with backward leaky waves via photonic crystal interface layer.

    PubMed

    Colak, Evrim; Caglayan, Humeyra; Cakmak, Atilla O; Villa, Alessandro D; Capolino, Filippo; Ozbay, Ekmel

    2009-06-01

    A Photonic Crystal (PC) with a surface defect layer (made of dimers) is studied in the microwave regime. The dispersion diagram is obtained with the Plane Wave Expansion Method. The dispersion diagram reveals that the dimer-layer supports a surface mode with negative slope. Two facts are noted: First, a guided (bounded) wave is present, propagating along the surface of the dimer-layer. Second, above the light line, the fast traveling mode couple to the propagating spectra and as a result a directive (narrow beam) radiation with backward characteristics is observed and measured. In this leaky mode regime, symmetrical radiation patterns with respect to the normal to the PC surface are attained. Beam steering is observed and measured in a 70 degrees angular range when frequency ranges in the 11.88-13.69 GHz interval. Thus, a PC based surface wave structure that acts as a frequency dependent leaky wave antenna is presented. Angular radiation pattern measurements are in agreement with those obtained via numerical simulations that employ the Finite Difference Time Domain Method (FDTD). Finally, the backward radiation characteristics that in turn suggest the existence of a backward leaky mode in the dimer-layer are experimentally verified using a halved dimer-layer structure.

  7. Modeling soil magnetic susceptibility and frequency-dependent susceptibility to aid landmine clearance.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hannam, Jacqueline A.; Dearing, John A.

    2006-05-01

    Information on the electromagnetic properties of soils and their effects on metal detectors is increasingly necessary for effective demining due to limited detector efficacy in highly magnetic soils and the difficulty of detecting minimummetal mines. Magnetic measurements of soils, such as magnetic susceptibility and frequency dependent susceptibility can aid the detection of problem soils, but are not part of standard soil analyses. Consequently, little information about soil magnetism exists within the soil, environmental science and environmental geophysics communities. Lack of empirical data may be compensated through the estimation of soil magnetic characteristics by predictive modeling approaches. Initial modeling of soil types in Bosnia and Herzegovina (BiH) was attempted by expert and analogue approaches, using only coarse scale soil type information, which resulted in the production of national soil maps for low field and frequency-dependent susceptibility. Validation of the maps was achieved by comparison of empirical magnetic data from soil samples in the National Bosnian soil archive in Sarajevo. Discrepancies between the model and empirical data are explained in part by the differences in soil parent material within each soil type, which controls the amount of Fe released into the soil system available for in situ conversion to magnetic Fe oxides. The integration of soil information (type and parent material), expert knowledge and empirical data refines the predictive modeling of soil magnetic characteristics in temperate-Mediterranean environments such as BiH. Further spatial separation of soil types in the landscape can be achieved by digital terrain modeling. Preliminary fine-scale, landscape-soil modeling indicates improved spatial resolution of soil types compared with the original coarsely-mapped soil units, and the potential to synthesize local scale soil magnetic maps.

  8. Electromagnetically induced transparency and lasing without inversion in three-level atoms imbedded in a frequency-dependent environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Radeonychev, Y. V.; Erukhimova, M. A.; Kocharovskaya, O. A.; Vilaseca, R.

    2004-10-01

    The response of a three-level atomic system driven by a resonant coherent field acting on a transition near the photonic band-edge of a photonic band-gap material as well as the general case of a frequency-dependent reservoir is studied. The strong frequency dependence of the radiation mode spectral density on the scale of the driving field Rabi frequency is shown to lead to essential and controllable changes in the refractive index, as well as to effects of electromagnetically induced transparency and lasing without inversion. Such an effective dynamic control of the atomic response enables for applications in nonlinear optics and optical computing and communications.

  9. Temperature and frequency dependence of AC conductivity of new quaternary Se-Te-Bi-Pb chalcogenide glasses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yadav, Preeti; Sharma, Ambika

    2016-05-01

    The aim of the present work is to study the temperature and frequency dependence of ac conductivity of new quaternary Se84-xTe15Bi1.0Pbx chalcogenide glasses. The Se84-xTe15Bi1.0Pbx (x = 2, 6) glassy alloys are prepared by using melt quenching technique. The temperature and frequency dependent behavior of ac conductivity σac(ω) has been carried out in the frequency range 42 Hz to 5 MHz and in the temperature range of 298-323 K below glass transition temperature. The behavior of ac conductivity is described in terms of the power law ωs. The obtained temperature dependence behavior of ac conductivity and frequency component (s) are explained by means of correlated barrier hopping model recommended by Elliot.

  10. Cav1.1 controls frequency-dependent events regulating adult skeletal muscle plasticity.

    PubMed

    Jorquera, Gonzalo; Altamirano, Francisco; Contreras-Ferrat, Ariel; Almarza, Gonzalo; Buvinic, Sonja; Jacquemond, Vincent; Jaimovich, Enrique; Casas, Mariana

    2013-03-01

    An important pending question in neuromuscular biology is how skeletal muscle cells decipher the stimulation pattern coming from motoneurons to define their phenotype as slow or fast twitch muscle fibers. We have previously shown that voltage-gated L-type calcium channel (Cav1.1) acts as a voltage sensor for activation of inositol (1,4,5)-trisphosphate [Ins(1,4,5)P₃]-dependent Ca(2+) signals that regulates gene expression. ATP released by muscle cells after electrical stimulation through pannexin-1 channels plays a key role in this process. We show now that stimulation frequency determines both ATP release and Ins(1,4,5)P₃ production in adult skeletal muscle and that Cav1.1 and pannexin-1 colocalize in the transverse tubules. Both ATP release and increased Ins(1,4,5)P₃ was seen in flexor digitorum brevis fibers stimulated with 270 pulses at 20 Hz, but not at 90 Hz. 20 Hz stimulation induced transcriptional changes related to fast-to-slow muscle fiber phenotype transition that required ATP release. Addition of 30 µM ATP to fibers induced the same transcriptional changes observed after 20 Hz stimulation. Myotubes lacking the Cav1.1-α1 subunit released almost no ATP after electrical stimulation, showing that Cav1.1 has a central role in this process. In adult muscle fibers, ATP release and the transcriptional changes produced by 20 Hz stimulation were blocked by both the Cav1.1 antagonist nifedipine (25 µM) and by the Cav1.1 agonist (-)S-BayK 8644 (10 µM). We propose a new role for Cav1.1, independent of its calcium channel activity, in the activation of signaling pathways allowing muscle fibers to decipher the frequency of electrical stimulation and to activate specific transcriptional programs that define their phenotype.

  11. Cav1.1 controls frequency-dependent events regulating adult skeletal muscle plasticity.

    PubMed

    Jorquera, Gonzalo; Altamirano, Francisco; Contreras-Ferrat, Ariel; Almarza, Gonzalo; Buvinic, Sonja; Jacquemond, Vincent; Jaimovich, Enrique; Casas, Mariana

    2013-03-01

    An important pending question in neuromuscular biology is how skeletal muscle cells decipher the stimulation pattern coming from motoneurons to define their phenotype as slow or fast twitch muscle fibers. We have previously shown that voltage-gated L-type calcium channel (Cav1.1) acts as a voltage sensor for activation of inositol (1,4,5)-trisphosphate [Ins(1,4,5)P₃]-dependent Ca(2+) signals that regulates gene expression. ATP released by muscle cells after electrical stimulation through pannexin-1 channels plays a key role in this process. We show now that stimulation frequency determines both ATP release and Ins(1,4,5)P₃ production in adult skeletal muscle and that Cav1.1 and pannexin-1 colocalize in the transverse tubules. Both ATP release and increased Ins(1,4,5)P₃ was seen in flexor digitorum brevis fibers stimulated with 270 pulses at 20 Hz, but not at 90 Hz. 20 Hz stimulation induced transcriptional changes related to fast-to-slow muscle fiber phenotype transition that required ATP release. Addition of 30 µM ATP to fibers induced the same transcriptional changes observed after 20 Hz stimulation. Myotubes lacking the Cav1.1-α1 subunit released almost no ATP after electrical stimulation, showing that Cav1.1 has a central role in this process. In adult muscle fibers, ATP release and the transcriptional changes produced by 20 Hz stimulation were blocked by both the Cav1.1 antagonist nifedipine (25 µM) and by the Cav1.1 agonist (-)S-BayK 8644 (10 µM). We propose a new role for Cav1.1, independent of its calcium channel activity, in the activation of signaling pathways allowing muscle fibers to decipher the frequency of electrical stimulation and to activate specific transcriptional programs that define their phenotype. PMID:23321639

  12. Fundamental x-ray interaction limits in diagnostic imaging detectors: frequency-dependent Swank noise.

    PubMed

    Hajdok, G; Battista, J J; Cunningham, I A

    2008-07-01

    A frequency-dependent x-ray Swank factor based on the "x-ray interaction" modulation transfer function and normalized noise power spectrum is determined from a Monte Carlo analysis. This factor was calculated in four converter materials: amorphous silicon (a-Si), amorphous selenium (a-Se), cesium iodide (CsI), and lead iodide (PbI2) for incident photon energies between 10 and 150 keV and various converter thicknesses. When scaled by the quantum efficiency, the x-ray Swank factor describes the best possible detective quantum efficiency (DQE) a detector can have. As such, this x-ray interaction DQE provides a target performance benchmark. It is expressed as a function of (Fourier-based) spatial frequency and takes into consideration signal and noise correlations introduced by reabsorption of Compton scatter and photoelectric characteristic emissions. It is shown that the x-ray Swank factor is largely insensitive to converter thickness for quantum efficiency values greater than 0.5. Thus, while most of the tabulated values correspond to thick converters with a quantum efficiency of 0.99, they are appropriate to use for many detectors in current use. A simple expression for the x-ray interaction DQE of digital detectors (including noise aliasing) is derived in terms of the quantum efficiency, x-ray Swank factor, detector element size, and fill factor. Good agreement is shown with DQE curves published by other investigators for each converter material, and the conditions required to achieve this ideal performance are discussed. For high-resolution imaging applications, the x-ray Swank factor indicates: (i) a-Si should only be used at low-energy (e.g., mammography); (ii) a-Se has the most promise for any application below 100 keV; and (iii) while quantum efficiency may be increased at energies just above the K edge in CsI and PbI2, this benefit is offset by a substantial drop in the x-ray Swank factor, particularly at high spatial frequencies.

  13. Apparatus for absolute pressure measurement

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hecht, R. (Inventor)

    1969-01-01

    An absolute pressure sensor (e.g., the diaphragm of a capacitance manometer) was subjected to a superimposed potential to effectively reduce the mechanical stiffness of the sensor. This substantially increases the sensitivity of the sensor and is particularly useful in vacuum gauges. An oscillating component of the superimposed potential induced vibrations of the sensor. The phase of these vibrations with respect to that of the oscillating component was monitored, and served to initiate an automatic adjustment of the static component of the superimposed potential, so as to bring the sensor into resonance at the frequency of the oscillating component. This establishes a selected sensitivity for the sensor, since a definite relationship exists between resonant frequency and sensitivity.

  14. Highlight fluid imaging via frequency-dependent anomalies of reservoir seismic response in both numerical simulation and real application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, X.; He, Z.; Zhong, W.

    2012-12-01

    The numerous recent laboratory and field examples show frequency-dependent characteristics of seismic response and potential benefits of seismic low frequencies in hydrocarbon indication. Using analytic equations and Biot's theoretical model for predicting the attenuation and dispersion in poroelastic media, we have numerically investigated the frequency-dependent response of real-data-based models to indicate their properties such as dispersion, attenuation and spectral features. The characteristics of seismic reflection on fluid-bearing strata vary distinctly with frequency in seismic band. This provides inspired insight for frequency-dependent fluid indication. We present a methodology to highlight fluid images via both instantaneous spectral differences on multi-angle stacking gathers and fluid mobility measurement extracted from low-frequency spectra of stacked seismic data. This methodology and workflow are applied to a 3D marine seismic data volume from JX field in the Bohai Sea, China. The results show that the hydrocarbon anomalies measured by the methodology and workflow are well consistent with the real gas production of wells, and also demonstrate that low-frequency effects are especially important for delineation of the fluid signature.

  15. Method of differential-phase/absolute-amplitude QAM

    DOEpatents

    Dimsdle, Jeffrey William

    2007-07-03

    A method of quadrature amplitude modulation involving encoding phase differentially and amplitude absolutely, allowing for a high data rate and spectral efficiency in data transmission and other communication applications, and allowing for amplitude scaling to facilitate data recovery; amplitude scale tracking to track-out rapid and severe scale variations and facilitate successful demodulation and data retrieval; 2.sup.N power carrier recovery; incoherent demodulation where coherent carrier recovery is not possible or practical due to signal degradation; coherent demodulation; multipath equalization to equalize frequency dependent multipath; and demodulation filtering.

  16. Method of differential-phase/absolute-amplitude QAM

    DOEpatents

    Dimsdle, Jeffrey William

    2008-10-21

    A method of quadrature amplitude modulation involving encoding phase differentially and amplitude absolutely, allowing for a high data rate and spectral efficiency in data transmission and other communication applications, and allowing for amplitude scaling to facilitate data recovery; amplitude scale tracking to track-out rapid and severe scale variations and facilitate successful demodulation and data retrieval; 2.sup.N power carrier recovery; incoherent demodulation where coherent carrier recovery is not possible or practical due to signal degradation; coherent demodulation; multipath equalization to equalize frequency dependent multipath; and demodulation filtering.

  17. Method of differential-phase/absolute-amplitude QAM

    DOEpatents

    Dimsdle, Jeffrey William

    2007-07-17

    A method of quadrature amplitude modulation involving encoding phase differentially and amplitude absolutely, allowing for a high data rate and spectral efficiency in data transmission and other communication applications, and allowing for amplitude scaling to facilitate data recovery; amplitude scale tracking to track-out rapid and severe scale variations and facilitate successful demodulation and data retrieval; 2.sup.N power carrier recovery; incoherent demodulation where coherent carrier recovery is not possible or practical due to signal degradation; coherent demodulation; multipath equalization to equalize frequency dependent multipath; and demodulation filtering.

  18. Method of differential-phase/absolute-amplitude QAM

    DOEpatents

    Dimsdle, Jeffrey William

    2007-10-02

    A method of quadrature amplitude modulation involving encoding phase differentially and amplitude absolutely, allowing for a high data rate and spectral efficiency in data transmission and other communication applications, and allowing for amplitude scaling to facilitate data recovery; amplitude scale tracking to track-out rapid and severe scale variations and facilitate successful demodulation and data retrieval; 2.sup.N power carrier recovery; incoherent demodulation where coherent carrier recovery is not possible or practical due to signal degradation; coherent demodulation; multipath equalization to equalize frequency dependent multipath; and demodulation filtering.

  19. Method of differential-phase/absolute-amplitude QAM

    DOEpatents

    Dimsdle, Jeffrey William

    2009-09-01

    A method of quadrature amplitude modulation involving encoding phase differentially and amplitude absolutely, allowing for a high data rate and spectral efficiency in data transmission and other communication applications, and allowing for amplitude scaling to facilitate data recovery; amplitude scale tracking to track-out rapid and severe scale variations and facilitate successful demodulation and data retrieval; 2.sup.N power carrier recovery; incoherent demodulation where coherent carrier recovery is not possible or practical due to signal degradation; coherent demodulation; multipath equalization to equalize frequency dependent multipath; and demodulation filtering.

  20. Investigation of the Moessbauer Spectrum Quality as a Dependence on the Frequency of the Velocity Signal

    SciTech Connect

    Pechousek, J.

    2010-07-13

    This paper is focused on a quality characterizing the Moessbauer spectra measured for various frequencies of the velocity signal. Standard electromechanical double-loudspeaker drive and digital PID velocity controller were used for calibration spectra measurement in the frequency interval from 4 up to 100 Hz. Several parameters were evaluated for recommendation of the suitable velocity signal frequency.

  1. Simulation of frequency dependence of dielectric susceptibility for description of director reorientation dynamics of nematic LC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vakulin, D. A.; Ivanov, A. V.

    2015-09-01

    Simulation of the liquid crystal behavior in an external electric field allows to determine the characteristics of the LC device for specific control signal. The reorientation of director tilt angles is described by the Frank-Oseen elasticity theory, by the Leslie-Ericksen hydrodynamics theory and also by Maxwell system of electromagnetic equations. Due to the fact that it is difficult to obtain analytical solution of dependencies polar and azimuthal angles on time it is necessary to use numerical methods. The numerical solution allows to determine the characteristics of the LC device for specific control signal, but it does not allow to solve the inverse problem. It is determining the necessary parameters of the control signal. To solve this problem, we obtained an approximate analytical solution of the dynamics equations of the director reorientation under the electric field for arbitrary values of the elastic constants and boundary conditions. The results of numerical simulation of the director reorientation under the electric field in hybrid-oriented structure of a dual-frequency nematic liquid crystal were obtained. It is shown that results of analytical solution are in good agreement with the results of computer simulation and experiment in case of small deformations of the LC layer and used approximations.

  2. Frequency-dependent performance and handedness in professional baseball players (Homo sapiens).

    PubMed

    Clotfelter, Ethan D

    2008-02-01

    I used data on handedness and pitching and hitting performance in annual cohorts of professional baseball players (1957-2005) to test the hypothesis that handedness among pitchers was subject to negative frequency-dependent selection. As predicted by this hypothesis, right-handed pitchers were more successful (i.e., opposing batters hit more poorly against them) when they were relatively rare in the population. Contrary to the predictions of this hypothesis, however, left-handed pitchers were more successful when they were relatively common. Both right- and left-handed batters performed better in years dominated by right-handed pitchers, despite the fact that right-handed batters perform relatively poorly against right-handed pitchers. I suggest that batters form cognitive representations based on pitcher handedness, and that these representations are strengthened by repeated exposure or priming. When the pitcher handedness polymorphism is more balanced (e.g., 67% right-handed, 33% left-handed), these cognitive representations are less effective, which leads to decreased batting averages and improved performance by all pitchers. Furthermore, these cognitive representations are likely to be more critical to the success of right-handed hitters, who have reduced visuomotor skills relative to left-handed hitters. PMID:18298283

  3. The protective effect of conditioning on noise-induced hearing loss is frequency-dependent.

    PubMed

    Pourbakht, Akram; Imani, Azadeh

    2012-01-01

    We compared the extent of temporary threshold shift (TTS) and hair cell loss following high level 4 kHz noise exposure with those preconditioned with moderate level 1 and 4 kHz octave band noise. Fifteen Male albino guinea pigs (300- 350 g in weight) were randomly allocated into three groups: those exposed to 4 kHz octave band noise at 102 dB SPL (group 1, n=5); those conditioned with 1 kHz octave band noise at 85 dB SPL, 6 hours per day for 5 days, then exposed to noise (group 2, n=5); those conditioned with 4 kHz octave band noise at 85 dB SPL, then exposed to noise (group 3, n=5). An hour and one week after noise exposure, threshold shifts were evaluated by auditory-evoked brainstem response (ABR) and then animals were euthanized for histological evaluation. We found that TTS and cochlear damage caused by noise exposure were significantly reduced by 1 kHz and 4 kHz conditioning (P<0.001). We also showed that 4 kHz protocol attenuates noise- induced TTS but no significant TTS reduction occurred by 1 kHz conditioning. Both protocol protected noise-induced cochlear damage. We concluded that lower tone conditioning could not protect against higher tone temporary noise-induced hearing loss, thus conditioning is a local acting and frequency-dependent phenomenon.

  4. Modeling ballistic effects in frequency-dependent transient thermal transport using diffusion equations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maassen, Jesse; Lundstrom, Mark

    2016-03-01

    Understanding ballistic phonon transport effects in transient thermoreflectance experiments and explaining the observed deviations from classical theory remains a challenge. Diffusion equations are simple and computationally efficient but are widely believed to break down when the characteristic length scale is similar or less than the phonon mean-free-path. Building on our prior work, we demonstrate how well-known diffusion equations, namely, the hyperbolic heat equation and the Cattaneo equation, can be used to model ballistic phonon effects in frequency-dependent periodic steady-state thermal transport. Our analytical solutions are found to compare excellently to rigorous numerical results of the phonon Boltzmann transport equation. The correct physical boundary conditions can be different from those traditionally used and are paramount for accurately capturing ballistic effects. To illustrate the technique, we consider a simple model problem using two different, commonly used heating conditions. We demonstrate how this framework can easily handle detailed material properties, by considering the case of bulk silicon using a full phonon dispersion and mean-free-path distribution. This physically transparent approach provides clear insights into the nonequilibrium physics of quasi-ballistic phonon transport and its impact on thermal transport properties.

  5. Plant-soil feedbacks promote negative frequency dependence in the coexistence of two aridland grasses.

    PubMed

    Chung, Y Anny; Rudgers, Jennifer A

    2016-07-27

    Understanding the mechanisms of species coexistence is key to predicting patterns of species diversity. Historically, the ecological paradigm has been that species coexist by partitioning resources: as a species increases in abundance, self-limitation kicks in, because species-specific resources decline. However, determining coexistence mechanisms has been a particular puzzle for sedentary organisms with high overlap in their resource requirements, such as plants. Recent evidence suggests that plant-associated microbes could generate the stabilizing self-limitation (negative frequency dependence) that is required for species coexistence. Here, we test the key assumption that plant-microbe feedbacks cause such self-limitation. We used competition experiments and modelling to evaluate how two common groups of soil microbes (rhizospheric microbes and biological soil crusts) influenced the self-limitation of two competing desert grass species. Negative feedbacks between the dominant plant competitor and its rhizospheric microbes magnified self-limitation, whereas beneficial interactions between both plant species and biological soil crusts partly counteracted this stabilizing effect. Plant-microbe interactions have received relatively little attention as drivers of vegetation dynamics in dry land ecosystems. Our results suggest that microbial mechanisms can contribute to patterns of plant coexistence in arid grasslands. PMID:27466448

  6. Frequency-dependent performance and handedness in professional baseball players (Homo sapiens).

    PubMed

    Clotfelter, Ethan D

    2008-02-01

    I used data on handedness and pitching and hitting performance in annual cohorts of professional baseball players (1957-2005) to test the hypothesis that handedness among pitchers was subject to negative frequency-dependent selection. As predicted by this hypothesis, right-handed pitchers were more successful (i.e., opposing batters hit more poorly against them) when they were relatively rare in the population. Contrary to the predictions of this hypothesis, however, left-handed pitchers were more successful when they were relatively common. Both right- and left-handed batters performed better in years dominated by right-handed pitchers, despite the fact that right-handed batters perform relatively poorly against right-handed pitchers. I suggest that batters form cognitive representations based on pitcher handedness, and that these representations are strengthened by repeated exposure or priming. When the pitcher handedness polymorphism is more balanced (e.g., 67% right-handed, 33% left-handed), these cognitive representations are less effective, which leads to decreased batting averages and improved performance by all pitchers. Furthermore, these cognitive representations are likely to be more critical to the success of right-handed hitters, who have reduced visuomotor skills relative to left-handed hitters.

  7. Finite element analysis of the dynamic behavior of a laminated windscreen with frequency dependent viscoelastic core.

    PubMed

    Bouayed, Kaïss; Hamdi, Mohamed-Ali

    2012-08-01

    This paper presents numerical and experimental validation of results obtained by a shell finite element, which has been developed for modeling of the dynamic behavior of sandwich multilayered structures with a viscoelastic core. The proposed shell finite element is very easy to implement in existing finite element solvers, since it uses only the displacements as degrees of freedom at external faces and at inter-layer interfaces. The displacement field is linearly interpolated in the thickness direction of each layer, and analytical integration is made in the thickness direction in order to avoid meshing of each sandwich layer by solid elements. Only the two dimensional mid-surface of reference is meshed, facilitating the mesh generation task. A simplified modal approach using a real modal basis is also proposed to efficiently calculate the dynamic response of the sandwich structure. The proposed method reduces the memory size and computing time and takes into account the frequency-dependence of the polymer core mechanical properties. Results obtained by the proposed element in conjunction with the simplified modal method have been numerically and experimentally validated by comparison to results obtained by commercial software codes (MSC/NASTRAN and ESI/RAYON-VTM), and to measurements done on automobile windscreens. PMID:22894198

  8. The absolute path command

    2012-05-11

    The ap command traveres all symlinks in a given file, directory, or executable name to identify the final absolute path. It can print just the final path, each intermediate link along with the symlink chan, and the permissions and ownership of each directory component in the final path. It has functionality similar to "which", except that it shows the final path instead of the first path. It is also similar to "pwd", but it canmore » provide the absolute path to a relative directory from the current working directory.« less

  9. The absolute path command

    SciTech Connect

    Moody, A.

    2012-05-11

    The ap command traveres all symlinks in a given file, directory, or executable name to identify the final absolute path. It can print just the final path, each intermediate link along with the symlink chan, and the permissions and ownership of each directory component in the final path. It has functionality similar to "which", except that it shows the final path instead of the first path. It is also similar to "pwd", but it can provide the absolute path to a relative directory from the current working directory.

  10. The frequency dependence and locations of short-period microseisms generated in the Southern Ocean and West Pacific

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gal, M.; Reading, A. M.; Ellingsen, S. P.; Gualtieri, L.; Koper, K. D.; Burlacu, R.; Tkalčić, H.; Hemer, M. A.

    2015-08-01

    The origin of the microseismic wavefield is associated with deep ocean and coastal regions where, under certain conditions, ocean waves can excite seismic waves that propagate as surface and body waves. Given that the characteristics of seismic signals generally vary with frequency, here we explore the frequency- and azimuth-dependent properties of microseisms recorded at a medium aperture (25 km) array in Australia. We examine the frequency-dependent properties of the wavefield, and its temporal variation, over two decades (1991-2012), with a focus on relatively high-frequency microseisms (0.325-0.725 Hz) recorded at the Warramunga Array, which has good slowness resolution capabilities in this frequency range. The analysis is carried out using the incoherently averaged signal Capon beamforming, which gives robust estimates of slowness and back azimuth and is able to resolve multiple wave arrivals within a single time window. For surface waves, we find that fundamental mode Rayleigh waves (Rg) dominate for lower frequencies (<0.55 Hz) while higher frequencies (>0.55 Hz) show a transition to higher mode surface waves (Lg). For body waves, source locations are identified in deep ocean regions for lower frequencies and in shallow waters for higher frequencies. We further examine the association between surface wave arrivals and a WAVEWATCH III ocean wave hindcast. Correlations with the ocean wave hindcast show that secondary microseisms in the lower-frequency band are generated mainly by ocean swell, while higher-frequency bands are generated by the wind sea, i.e., local wind conditions.

  11. Size-Dependent Resonant Frequency and Flexural Sensitivity of Atomic Force Microscope Microcantilevers Based on the Modified Strain Gradient Theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ansari, R.; Pourashraf, T.; Gholami, R.; Sahmani, S.; Ashrafi, M. A.

    2015-04-01

    In the present study, the resonant frequency and flexural sensitivity of atomic force microscope (AFM) microcantilevers are predicted incorporating size effects. To this end, the modified strain gradient elasticity theory is applied to the classical Euler-Bernoulli beam theory to develop a non-classical beam model which has the capability to capture size-dependent behavior of microcantilevers. On the basis of Hamilton's principle, the size-dependent analytical expressions corresponding to the frequency response and sensitivity of AFM cantilevers are derived. It is observed that by increasing the contact stiffness, the resonant frequencies of AFM cantilevers firstly increase and then tend to remain constant at an especial value. Moreover, the resonant frequencies of AFM cantilevers obtained via the developed non-classical model is higher than those of the classical beam theory, especially for the values of beam thickness close to the internal material length scale parameter.

  12. Temperature dependence of the frequency noise in a mid-IR DFB quantum cascade laser from cryogenic to room temperature.

    PubMed

    Tombez, Lionel; Schilt, Stéphane; Di Francesco, Joab; Thomann, Pierre; Hofstetter, Daniel

    2012-03-26

    We report on the measurement of the frequency noise power spectral density in a distributed feedback quantum cascade laser over a wide temperature range, from 128 K to 303 K. As a function of the device temperature, we show that the frequency noise behavior is characterized by two different regimes separated by a steep transition at ≈200 K. While the frequency noise is nearly unchanged above 200 K, it drastically increases at lower temperature with an exponential dependence. We also show that this increase is entirely induced by current noise intrinsic to the device. In contrast to earlier publications, a single laser is used here in a wide temperature range allowing the direct assessment of the temperature dependence of the frequency noise.

  13. Dynamic linear electro-optic frequency dependence in PMN-32%PT and PZN-8%PT for RF microwave photonics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, Shikik T.

    The electrooptic effect (at lambda = 633nm) in both PMN-32%PT and PZN-8%PT relaxor ferroelectric single crystals was investigated as a function of small signal modulation frequencies. Piezo-resonance measurements were also conducted to examine piezooptic coupling in these materials for selected resonance modes to observe the influence of piezoelectric activity on the electro-optic behavior. The electrooptic rC coefficient in PMN-32PT and PZN-8%PT crystals were found to have strong frequency dependence at frequencies below 100s Hz apparently due to space charge effects. Anomalous electrooptic properties near piezoelectric resonance frequencies are reported to be attributed to a synchronization of the low frequency piezoelectric resonance and high frequency transverse lattice vibrations near 4th harmonics. Also reported is enhanced electrooptic properties near piezoelectric resonant frequencies that may be attributed to synchronization of the low frequency fundamental modes and up to their 5th order harmonics accompanied by nonlinear extrinsic activity in the form of lateral domain region motion. A constructive interaction with overlapping high order piezoelectric and electrooptic resonances can be engineered, using PMN-32%PT rhombohedral and PZN-8%PT crystals as an example, so that a small signal (.25V/mm) amplified electro-optic detector in the RF frequency region may be envisaged.

  14. State dependent model predictive control for orbital rendezvous using pulse-width pulse-frequency modulated thrusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Peng; Zhu, Zheng H.; Meguid, S. A.

    2016-07-01

    This paper studies the pulse-width pulse-frequency modulation based trajectory planning for orbital rendezvous and proximity maneuvering near a non-cooperative spacecraft in an elliptical orbit. The problem is formulated by converting the continuous control input, output from the state dependent model predictive control, into a sequence of pulses of constant magnitude by controlling firing frequency and duration of constant-magnitude thrusters. The state dependent model predictive control is derived by minimizing the control error of states and control roughness of control input for a safe, smooth and fuel efficient approaching trajectory. The resulting nonlinear programming problem is converted into a series of quadratic programming problem and solved by numerical iteration using the receding horizon strategy. The numerical results show that the proposed state dependent model predictive control with the pulse-width pulse-frequency modulation is able to effectively generate optimized trajectories using equivalent control pulses for the proximity maneuvering with less energy consumption.

  15. Influence of Gaussian white noise on the frequency-dependent first nonlinear polarizability of doped quantum dot

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ganguly, Jayanta; Ghosh, Manas

    2014-05-01

    We investigate the profiles of diagonal components of frequency-dependent first nonlinear (βxxx and βyyy) optical response of repulsive impurity doped quantum dots. We have assumed a Gaussian function to represent the dopant impurity potential. This study primarily addresses the role of noise on the polarizability components. We have invoked Gaussian white noise consisting of additive and multiplicative characteristics (in Stratonovich sense). The doped system has been subjected to an oscillating electric field of given intensity, and the frequency-dependent first nonlinear polarizabilities are computed. The noise characteristics are manifested in an interesting way in the nonlinear polarizability components. In case of additive noise, the noise strength remains practically ineffective in influencing the optical responses. The situation completely changes with the replacement of additive noise by its multiplicative analog. The replacement enhances the nonlinear optical response dramatically and also causes their maximization at some typical value of noise strength that depends on oscillation frequency.

  16. Influence of Gaussian white noise on the frequency-dependent first nonlinear polarizability of doped quantum dot

    SciTech Connect

    Ganguly, Jayanta; Ghosh, Manas

    2014-05-07

    We investigate the profiles of diagonal components of frequency-dependent first nonlinear (β{sub xxx} and β{sub yyy}) optical response of repulsive impurity doped quantum dots. We have assumed a Gaussian function to represent the dopant impurity potential. This study primarily addresses the role of noise on the polarizability components. We have invoked Gaussian white noise consisting of additive and multiplicative characteristics (in Stratonovich sense). The doped system has been subjected to an oscillating electric field of given intensity, and the frequency-dependent first nonlinear polarizabilities are computed. The noise characteristics are manifested in an interesting way in the nonlinear polarizability components. In case of additive noise, the noise strength remains practically ineffective in influencing the optical responses. The situation completely changes with the replacement of additive noise by its multiplicative analog. The replacement enhances the nonlinear optical response dramatically and also causes their maximization at some typical value of noise strength that depends on oscillation frequency.

  17. Magnetic field dependence of piezoelectric resonance frequency in CoFe2O4-BaTiO3 composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kagomiya, Isao; Hayashi, Yusuke; Kakimoto, Ken-ichi; Kobayashi, Kazuyoshi

    2012-08-01

    The particulate and the multilayer CoFe2O4(CFO)-BaTiO3(BT) composites were prepared by the conventional solid state reaction method and the tape casting method, respectively. Both the prepared composites were simultaneously ferroelectric and ferromagnetic at room temperature. For the multilayer composite sample, a piezoelectric resonance frequency remarkably depended on the applied DC magnetic field, while no remarkable magnetic field dependence was observed for the particulate composite samples. An uniform magnetostriction of the CFO phase in the multilayer composite contributes to piezoelectric effect of the BT phases, resulting in the modulation of the piezoelectric resonance frequency.

  18. Conditioned frequency-dependent hearing sensitivity reduction in the bottlenose dolphin (Tursiops truncatus).

    PubMed

    Nachtigall, Paul E; Supin, Alexander Ya

    2015-04-01

    The frequency specificity of conditioned dampening of hearing, when a loud sound is preceded by a warning sound, was investigated in a bottlenose dolphin. The loud sounds were 5 s tones of 16, 22.5 or 32 kHz, sound pressure level of 165 dB root mean square (RMS) re. 1 µPa. Hearing sensitivity was tested at the same three frequencies. Hearing sensitivity was measured using pip-train test stimuli and auditory evoked potential recording. The test sound stimuli served also as warning sounds. The durations of the warning sounds were varied randomly to avoid locking a conditioning effect to the timing immediately before the loud sound. Hearing thresholds before the loud sound increased, relative to the baseline, at test frequencies equal to or higher than the loud sound frequency. The highest threshold increase appeared at test frequencies of 0.5 octaves above the loud sound frequencies.

  19. Rupture and frequency-dependent seismic radiation of the 2012 Mw 8.6 Sumatra strike-slip earthquake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yin, Jiuxun; Yao, Huajian

    2016-06-01

    On 2012 April 11, a great strike-slip earthquake (moment magnitude of Mw 8.6) occurred off the west coast of northern Sumatra area followed by an Mw 8.2 aftershock 2 hr later. Different geophysical data and methods have been used to investigate the mechanism, faulting, seismic radiation and slip propagation of this event, but frequency-dependent features of its rupture process have not been discussed much. In this study, we use a compressive sensing method based on sparsity inversion in the frequency domain to study the frequency-dependent seismic radiation and rupture process of this event. Our results indicate a very complex rupture process concerning at least three different rupture stages on multiple subfaults with nearly conjugate geometries. The main shock has triggered seismicity on a series of ridge-perpendicular or ridge-parallel conjugate strike-slip faults around the Nighty East Ridge. Obvious frequency-dependent rupture process has been presented and discussed. Combining results from slip inversion based on the finite-fault model, we observe that in the beginning stage of the rupture lower frequency radiation appears to originate from the areas with large slip, while the high-frequency radiation is located at the boundary of large-slip region or rupture front. Some radiation probably originates from the repeating slip on the main faults or triggered events on some nearby faults in the rupture area. The complex frequency-dependent seismic radiation patterns observed in this study provide important information for future investigation of rupture physics of this complex strike-slip event.

  20. 38 CFR 3.30 - Frequency of payment of improved pension and parents' dependency and indemnity compensation (DIC).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Frequency of payment of improved pension and parents' dependency and indemnity compensation (DIC). 3.30 Section 3.30 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS ADJUDICATION Pension, Compensation,...

  1. Frequency-dependent study of solid 4He contained in a rigid double-torus torsional oscillator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, Jaewon; Shin, Jaeho; Kim, Eunseong

    2015-10-01

    The rigid double-torus torsional oscillator (TO) is constructed to reduce any elastic effects inherent to complicated TO structures, allowing explicit probing for a genuine supersolid signature. We investigated the frequency- and temperature-dependent response of the rigid double-torus TO containing solid 4He with 0.6-ppb 3He and 300-ppb 3He . We did not find evidence to support the frequency-independent contribution proposed to be a property of supersolid helium. The frequency-dependent contribution which comes from the simple elastic effect of solid helium coupled to the TO is essentially responsible for the entire response. The magnitude of the period drop is linearly proportional to f2, indicating that the responses observed in this TO are mostly caused by the overshoot of "soft" solid helium against the wall of the torus. Dissipation of the rigid TO is vastly suppressed compared to that of nonrigid TOs.

  2. Frequency sweep rate dependence on the dielectrophoretic response of polystyrene beads and red blood cells

    PubMed Central

    Adams, T. N. G.; Leonard, K. M.; Minerick, A. R.

    2013-01-01

    Alternating current (AC) dielectrophoresis (DEP) experiments for biological particles in microdevices are typically done at a fixed frequency. Reconstructing the DEP response curve from static frequency experiments is laborious, but essential to ascertain differences in dielectric properties of biological particles. Our lab explored the concept of sweeping the frequency as a function of time to rapidly determine the DEP response curve from fewer experiments. For the purpose of determining an ideal sweep rate, homogeneous 6.08 μm polystyrene (PS) beads were used as a model system. Translatability of the sweep rate approach to ∼7 μm red blood cells (RBC) was then verified. An Au/Ti quadrapole electrode microfluidic device was used to separately subject particles and cells to 10Vpp AC electric fields at frequencies ranging from 0.010 to 2.0 MHz over sweep rates from 0.00080 to 0.17 MHz/s. PS beads exhibited negative DEP assembly over the frequencies explored due to Maxwell-Wagner interfacial polarizations. Results demonstrate that frequency sweep rates must be slower than particle polarization timescales to achieve reliable incremental polarizations; sweep rates near 0.00080 MHz/s yielded DEP behaviors very consistent with static frequency DEP responses for both PS beads and RBCs. PMID:24396548

  3. Determination of acoustic properties of thin polymer films utilizing the frequency dependence of the reflection coefficient of ultrasound

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tohmyoh, Hironori; Sakamoto, Yuhei

    2015-11-01

    This paper reports on a technique to measure the acoustic properties of a thin polymer film utilizing the frequency dependence of the reflection coefficient of ultrasound reflected back from a system comprising a reflection plate, the film, and a material that covers the film. The frequency components of the echo reflected from the back of the plate, where the film is attached, take their minimum values at the resonant frequency, and from these frequency characteristics, the acoustic impedance, sound velocity, and the density of the film can be determined. We applied this technique to characterize an ion exchange membrane, which has high water absorbability, and successfully determined the acoustic properties of the membrane without getting it wet.

  4. Frequency-Dependent Modulation of Regional Synchrony in the Human Brain by Eyes Open and Eyes Closed Resting-States.

    PubMed

    Song, Xiaopeng; Zhou, Shuqin; Zhang, Yi; Liu, Yijun; Zhu, Huaiqiu; Gao, Jia-Hong

    2015-01-01

    The eyes-open (EO) and eyes-closed (EC) states have differential effects on BOLD-fMRI signal dynamics, affecting both the BOLD oscillation frequency of a single voxel and the regional homogeneity (ReHo) of several neighboring voxels. To explore how the two resting-states modulate the local synchrony through different frequency bands, we decomposed the time series of each voxel into several components that fell into distinct frequency bands. The ReHo in each of the bands was calculated and compared between the EO and EC conditions. The cross-voxel correlations between the mean frequency and the overall ReHo of each voxel's original BOLD series in different brain areas were also calculated and compared between the two states. Compared with the EC state, ReHo decreased with EO in a wide frequency band of 0.01-0.25 Hz in the bilateral thalamus, sensorimotor network, and superior temporal gyrus, while ReHo increased significantly in the band of 0-0.01 Hz in the primary visual cortex, and in a higher frequency band of 0.02-0.1 Hz in the higher order visual areas. The cross-voxel correlations between the frequency and overall ReHo were negative in all the brain areas but varied from region to region. These correlations were stronger with EO in the visual network and the default mode network. Our results suggested that different frequency bands of ReHo showed different sensitivity to the modulation of EO-EC states. The better spatial consistency between the frequency and overall ReHo maps indicated that the brain might adopt a stricter frequency-dependent configuration with EO than with EC. PMID:26545233

  5. Frequency-Dependent Modulation of Regional Synchrony in the Human Brain by Eyes Open and Eyes Closed Resting-States

    PubMed Central

    Song, Xiaopeng; Zhou, Shuqin; Zhang, Yi; Liu, Yijun; Zhu, Huaiqiu; Gao, Jia-Hong

    2015-01-01

    The eyes-open (EO) and eyes-closed (EC) states have differential effects on BOLD-fMRI signal dynamics, affecting both the BOLD oscillation frequency of a single voxel and the regional homogeneity (ReHo) of several neighboring voxels. To explore how the two resting-states modulate the local synchrony through different frequency bands, we decomposed the time series of each voxel into several components that fell into distinct frequency bands. The ReHo in each of the bands was calculated and compared between the EO and EC conditions. The cross-voxel correlations between the mean frequency and the overall ReHo of each voxel’s original BOLD series in different brain areas were also calculated and compared between the two states. Compared with the EC state, ReHo decreased with EO in a wide frequency band of 0.01–0.25 Hz in the bilateral thalamus, sensorimotor network, and superior temporal gyrus, while ReHo increased significantly in the band of 0–0.01 Hz in the primary visual cortex, and in a higher frequency band of 0.02–0.1 Hz in the higher order visual areas. The cross-voxel correlations between the frequency and overall ReHo were negative in all the brain areas but varied from region to region. These correlations were stronger with EO in the visual network and the default mode network. Our results suggested that different frequency bands of ReHo showed different sensitivity to the modulation of EO-EC states. The better spatial consistency between the frequency and overall ReHo maps indicated that the brain might adopt a stricter frequency-dependent configuration with EO than with EC. PMID:26545233

  6. Field dependence of the complex resistivity of YBa_2Cu_3O_7-δ thin films at high frequencies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Dong Ho; Booth, James C.; Anlage, Steven M.

    1996-03-01

    We have measured the complex resistivity ρ_1(H,ω) + i ρ_2(H,ω) of YBa_2Cu_3O_7-δ thin films with field variation at various fixed frequencies from 45 MHz through 50 GHz.footnote[1]Dong Ho Wu, James C. Booth and Steven M. Anlage, Phys. Rev. Lett. 75 , 525 (1995) Experiments indicate that the real part of the resistivity follows a power law (ρ_1(H) ~ H^n with n>=4) field dependence at frequencies below a characteristic frequency. In contrast, ρ_1(H) follows a single particle model at frequencies above the characteristic frequency, exhibiting a magnetic field crossover at a characteristic field. For all frequencies, the imaginary part of the resistivity shows a peak at a field denoted as H_peak. Analysis suggests that the H_peak discretely decreases with increasing measurement frequency ω for T < T_c. Analysis and interpretation on these behaviors of the complex resistivity will be presented.

  7. Frequency Dependence of Short Period Seismic Noise from Two Decades of Observations at Warramunga Seismic Array (WRA), Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gal, M.; Reading, A. M.; Ellingsen, S. P.; Koper, K. D.; Tkalcic, H.; Hemer, M. A.

    2014-12-01

    The analysis of the seismic ambient noise field has recently received increased attention owing to its success in mapping the Earth's shallow and deep structures. The origin of the passive seismic wavefield is associated with deep ocean and coastal regions where ocean waves, under certain conditions, can excite seismic waves (microseisms) that propagate as surface and body waves. Previous seismological studies mainly focused on the observation of the strongest microseisms that are associated with the frequency range 0.1-0.3Hz. In our study, we focus on short period microseisms (0.325-0.725Hz) and examine the frequency dependant wave field and temporal variations over two decades. We use data recorded over two decades (1991-2012) from the Warramunga array (WRA) in central Australia. The analysis is carried out using IAS Capon beamforming that shows robust estimates of slowness and backazimuth, and is able to resolve multiple wave arrivals. Continuous data records are divided into one hour long recordings and evaluated for multiple arrivals in 8 separate frequency bands. We find multiple surface and body wave sources, which display seasonality and frequency dependence and remain stationary for two decades. We observe, for surface waves, that Rayleigh waves dominate for low frequencies while higher frequencies show a transition to leaky Rayleigh waves. The strong stationarity of the signal over multiple years, supports the suggestion that bathymetry and other site effects, such as coast line geometry, create favourable conditions for the generation of ocean induced surface waves. For body waves, source locations are identified in deep ocean regions for low frequencies and in shallow waters for higher frequencies. We further discuss correlation between arrivals and a WAVEWATCH III ocean wave hindcast for strong events. Fig 1: a) Shows the slowness of strongest incoming arrivals for 1 hour of WRA data over two decades. b) Displays the surface waves paths of incoming

  8. Time and frequency dependence of disposable ECG electrode-skin impedance.

    PubMed

    Olson, W H; Schmincke, D R; Henley, B L

    1979-01-01

    The magnitude and phase of disposable electrode-skin impedance were studied as functions of time, 0-48 hours, and frequency, 1 Hz-1 kHz. For both unabraded and mildly abraded skin, the impedance decreased as a function of time steadily or exponentially with time constants of several hours. Impedance decreased as a function of frequency by factors of 2 to 20 with greatest change at low frequencies. For heavily abraded skin, the impedance decreased slightly and then increased as a function of time especially at low frequencies. Impedance imbalance between pairs of identical electrodes applied in a like manner to the forearm were often greater than k omega, nearly equal to individual electrode-skin impedances, and decreased with time. Electrode impedance imbalance is particularly important because it affects noise levels in ECG recordings.

  9. Investigation into angular and frequency dependence of scattering matrices of elastodynamic scatterers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Jie; Felice, Maria; Velichko, Alexander; Wilcox, Paul

    2016-02-01

    The scattering behaviour of a finite-sized elastodynamic scatterer in a homogeneous isotropic medium can be encapsulated in a scattering matrix (S-matrix) for each wave mode combination. Each S-matrix is a continuous complex function of 3 variables: incident wave angle, scattered wave angle and frequency. In the paper, the S-matrices for various scatterers (circular holes, straight smooth cracks, rough cracks and 4 circular holes in an area of interest) are investigated. It is shown that, for a given scatterer, the continuous data in the angular dimensions of an S-matrix can be represented to a prescribed level of accuracy by a finite number of complex Fourier coefficients. The finding is that the number of angular orders required to characterise a scatterer is a function of scatterer size and is related to the Nyquist theorem. The variation of scattering behaviour with frequency is examined next and is found to show periodic oscillation with a period which is a function of scatterer size and its geometry. The shortest period of these oscillations indicates the maximum frequency increment required to accurately describe the scattering behaviour in a specific frequency range. Finally, the maximum angular order and frequency increments for the chosen scatterers in a specific frequency range are suggested.

  10. Temperature and frequency-dependent dielectric properties of Zn substituted Li-Mg ferrites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shaikh, A. M.; Bellad, S. S.; Chougule, B. K.

    1999-05-01

    The DC and AC resistivity ( ρ DC, ρ AC), dielectric constant ( ɛ') and dielectric loss tangent (tan δ) of Zn substituted Li-Mg ferrites having the general formula Li xMg 0.4 Zn 0.6-2 xFe 2+ xO 4 (where x=0, 0.05, 0.1, 0.15, 0.2, 0.25 and 0.3) have been investigated as a function of composition, temperature and frequency. The compositional variation of DC resistivity and dielectric constant show the inverse trend with each other. The sample with x=0.15 (Zn=0.3) shows lowest DC resistivity and highest dielectric constant. The dielectric constant increases slowly with temperature in the beginning and then abruptly at about 473 K and above. The AC resistivity and dielectric constant of all the samples decrease with increase in frequency exhibiting normal ferrimagnetic behaviour. The variation of dielectric loss tangent with frequency showed maxima in the 2-40 kHz frequency range. These maxima are also found to shift towards low-frequency region as the content of Zn increases. All the variations are explained on the basis of Fe 2+ and Fe 3+ concentrations on octahedral sites and electronic hopping frequency between Fe 2+ and Fe 3+ ions.

  11. Sustained Exocytosis after Action Potential-Like Stimulation at Low Frequencies in Mouse Chromaffin Cells Depends on a Dynamin-Dependent Fast Endocytotic Process.

    PubMed

    Moya-Díaz, José; Álvarez, Yanina D; Montenegro, Mauricio; Bayonés, Lucas; Belingheri, Ana V; González-Jamett, Arlek M; Cárdenas, Ana M; Marengo, Fernando D

    2016-01-01

    Under basal conditions the action potential firing rate of adrenal chromaffin cells is lower than 0.5 Hz. The maintenance of the secretory response at such frequencies requires a continuous replenishment of releasable vesicles. However, the mechanism that allows such vesicle replenishment remains unclear. Here, using membrane capacitance measurements on mouse chromaffin cells, we studied the mechanism of replenishment of a group of vesicles released by a single action potential-like stimulus (APls). The exocytosis triggered by APls (ETAP) represents a fraction (40%) of the immediately releasable pool, a group of vesicles highly coupled to voltage dependent calcium channels. ETAP was replenished with a time constant of 0.73 ± 0.11 s, fast enough to maintain synchronous exocytosis at 0.2-0.5 Hz stimulation. Regarding the mechanism involved in rapid ETAP replenishment, we found that it depends on the ready releasable pool; indeed depletion of this vesicle pool significantly delays ETAP replenishment. On the other hand, ETAP replenishment also correlates with a dynamin-dependent fast endocytosis process (τ = 0.53 ± 0.01 s). In this regard, disruption of dynamin function markedly inhibits the fast endocytosis and delays ETAP replenishment, but also significantly decreases the synchronous exocytosis during repetitive APls stimulation at low frequencies (0.2 and 0.5 Hz). Considering these findings, we propose a model in where both the transfer of vesicles from ready releasable pool and fast endocytosis allow rapid ETAP replenishment during low stimulation frequencies.

  12. Sustained Exocytosis after Action Potential-Like Stimulation at Low Frequencies in Mouse Chromaffin Cells Depends on a Dynamin-Dependent Fast Endocytotic Process

    PubMed Central

    Moya-Díaz, José; Álvarez, Yanina D.; Montenegro, Mauricio; Bayonés, Lucas; Belingheri, Ana V.; González-Jamett, Arlek M.; Cárdenas, Ana M.; Marengo, Fernando D.

    2016-01-01

    Under basal conditions the action potential firing rate of adrenal chromaffin cells is lower than 0.5 Hz. The maintenance of the secretory response at such frequencies requires a continuous replenishment of releasable vesicles. However, the mechanism that allows such vesicle replenishment remains unclear. Here, using membrane capacitance measurements on mouse chromaffin cells, we studied the mechanism of replenishment of a group of vesicles released by a single action potential-like stimulus (APls). The exocytosis triggered by APls (ETAP) represents a fraction (40%) of the immediately releasable pool, a group of vesicles highly coupled to voltage dependent calcium channels. ETAP was replenished with a time constant of 0.73 ± 0.11 s, fast enough to maintain synchronous exocytosis at 0.2–0.5 Hz stimulation. Regarding the mechanism involved in rapid ETAP replenishment, we found that it depends on the ready releasable pool; indeed depletion of this vesicle pool significantly delays ETAP replenishment. On the other hand, ETAP replenishment also correlates with a dynamin-dependent fast endocytosis process (τ = 0.53 ± 0.01 s). In this regard, disruption of dynamin function markedly inhibits the fast endocytosis and delays ETAP replenishment, but also significantly decreases the synchronous exocytosis during repetitive APls stimulation at low frequencies (0.2 and 0.5 Hz). Considering these findings, we propose a model in where both the transfer of vesicles from ready releasable pool and fast endocytosis allow rapid ETAP replenishment during low stimulation frequencies. PMID:27507935

  13. Sustained Exocytosis after Action Potential-Like Stimulation at Low Frequencies in Mouse Chromaffin Cells Depends on a Dynamin-Dependent Fast Endocytotic Process.

    PubMed

    Moya-Díaz, José; Álvarez, Yanina D; Montenegro, Mauricio; Bayonés, Lucas; Belingheri, Ana V; González-Jamett, Arlek M; Cárdenas, Ana M; Marengo, Fernando D

    2016-01-01

    Under basal conditions the action potential firing rate of adrenal chromaffin cells is lower than 0.5 Hz. The maintenance of the secretory response at such frequencies requires a continuous replenishment of releasable vesicles. However, the mechanism that allows such vesicle replenishment remains unclear. Here, using membrane capacitance measurements on mouse chromaffin cells, we studied the mechanism of replenishment of a group of vesicles released by a single action potential-like stimulus (APls). The exocytosis triggered by APls (ETAP) represents a fraction (40%) of the immediately releasable pool, a group of vesicles highly coupled to voltage dependent calcium channels. ETAP was replenished with a time constant of 0.73 ± 0.11 s, fast enough to maintain synchronous exocytosis at 0.2-0.5 Hz stimulation. Regarding the mechanism involved in rapid ETAP replenishment, we found that it depends on the ready releasable pool; indeed depletion of this vesicle pool significantly delays ETAP replenishment. On the other hand, ETAP replenishment also correlates with a dynamin-dependent fast endocytosis process (τ = 0.53 ± 0.01 s). In this regard, disruption of dynamin function markedly inhibits the fast endocytosis and delays ETAP replenishment, but also significantly decreases the synchronous exocytosis during repetitive APls stimulation at low frequencies (0.2 and 0.5 Hz). Considering these findings, we propose a model in where both the transfer of vesicles from ready releasable pool and fast endocytosis allow rapid ETAP replenishment during low stimulation frequencies. PMID:27507935

  14. The Forces Applied by Cilia Depend Linearly on Their Frequency Due to Constant Geometry of the Effective Stroke

    PubMed Central

    Teff, Zvi; Priel, Zvi; Gheber, Levi A.

    2008-01-01

    Mucus propelling cilia are excitable by many stimulants, and have been shown to increase their beating frequency up to threefold, by physiological extracellular stimulants, such as adenosine-triphosphate, acetylcholine, and others. This is thought to represent the evolutionary adaptation of mucociliary systems to the need of rapid and efficient cleansing the airways of foreign particles. However, the mucus transport velocity depends not only on the beat frequency of the cilia, but on their beat pattern as well, especially in the case of mucus bearing cilia that beat in a complex, three-dimensional fashion. In this study, we directly measured the force applied by live ciliary tissues with an atomic force microscope, and found that it increases linearly with the beating frequency. This implies that the arc swept by the cilia during their effective stroke remains unchanged during frequency increase, thus leading to a linear dependence of transport velocity on the beat frequency. Combining the atomic force microscope measurements with optical measurements, we have indications that the recovery stroke is performed on a less inclined plane, leading to an effective shortening of the overall path traveled by the cilia tip during this nontransporting phase of their beat pattern. This effect is observed to be independent of the type of stimulant (temperature or chemical), chemical (adenosine-triphosphate or acetylcholine), or concentration (1 μM–100 μM), indicating that this behavior may result from internal details of the cilium mechanical structure. PMID:17872955

  15. Ribbon thickness dependence of the Magnetic Alloy core characteristics in the accelerating frequency region of the J-PARC synchrotrons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nomura, M.; Shimada, T.; Tamura, F.; Yamamoto, M.; Hara, K.; Hasegawa, K.; Ohmori, C.; Takata, K.; Toda, M.; Yoshii, M.; Schnase, A.

    2014-06-01

    We employ Magnetic Alloy (MA) core loaded RF cavities for the J-PARC synchrotrons to achieve a high field gradient. The MA core has a laminated structure of 18 μm thick ribbon layers. We have been developing high shunt impedance MA cores to prepare for an increase of beam power. At low frequencies, it is well known that the eddy current loss in the ribbon is proportional to the square of the ribbon thickness. The MA core shunt impedance can be increased by using thinner ribbons. On the other hand, at high frequencies, the MA core magnetic characteristics are largely different from low frequencies. Using thinner ribbons might be effective to increase the MA core shunt impedance in the accelerating frequency region of the J-PARC synchrotrons. We reviewed the theoretical calculations of the ribbon thickness dependence of the MA core magnetic characteristics and we derived the ribbon thickness dependence from measured data. The measured data show that the MA core shunt impedance is inversely proportional to the ribbon thickness in the accelerating frequency region of the J-PARC synchrotrons, which is consistent with our calculations.

  16. Similar patterns of frequency-dependent selection on animal personalities emerge in three species of social spiders.

    PubMed

    Lichtenstein, J L L; Pruitt, J N

    2015-06-01

    Frequency-dependent selection is thought to be a major contributor to the maintenance of phenotypic variation. We tested for frequency-dependent selection on contrasting behavioural strategies, termed here 'personalities', in three species of social spiders, each thought to represent an independent evolutionary origin of sociality. The evolution of sociality in the spider genus Anelosimus is consistently met with the emergence of two temporally stable discrete personality types: an 'aggressive' or 'docile' form. We assessed how the foraging success of each phenotype changes as a function of its representation within a colony. We did this by creating experimental colonies of various compositions (six aggressives, three aggressives and three dociles, one aggressive and five dociles, six dociles), maintaining them in a common garden for 3 weeks, and tracking the mass gained by individuals of either phenotype. We found that both the docile and aggressive phenotypes experienced their greatest mass gain in mixed colonies of mostly docile individuals. However, the performance of both phenotypes decreased as the frequency of the aggressive phenotype increased. Nearly identical patterns of phenotype-specific frequency dependence were recovered in all three species. Naturally occurring colonies of these spiders exhibit mixtures dominated by the docile phenotype, suggesting that these spiders may have evolved mechanisms to maintain the compositions that maximize the success of the colony without compromising the expected reproductive output of either phenotype.

  17. Cerebral Correlates of Emotional and Action Appraisals During Visual Processing of Emotional Scenes Depending on Spatial Frequency: A Pilot Study

    PubMed Central

    Campagne, Aurélie; Fradcourt, Benoit; Pichat, Cédric; Baciu, Monica; Kauffmann, Louise; Peyrin, Carole

    2016-01-01

    Visual processing of emotional stimuli critically depends on the type of cognitive appraisal involved. The present fMRI pilot study aimed to investigate the cerebral correlates involved in the visual processing of emotional scenes in two tasks, one emotional, based on the appraisal of personal emotional experience, and the other motivational, based on the appraisal of the tendency to action. Given that the use of spatial frequency information is relatively flexible during the visual processing of emotional stimuli depending on the task’s demands, we also explored the effect of the type of spatial frequency in visual stimuli in each task by using emotional scenes filtered in low spatial frequency (LSF) and high spatial frequencies (HSF). Activation was observed in the visual areas of the fusiform gyrus for all emotional scenes in both tasks, and in the amygdala for unpleasant scenes only. The motivational task induced additional activation in frontal motor-related areas (e.g. premotor cortex, SMA) and parietal regions (e.g. superior and inferior parietal lobules). Parietal regions were recruited particularly during the motivational appraisal of approach in response to pleasant scenes. These frontal and parietal activations, respectively, suggest that motor and navigation processes play a specific role in the identification of the tendency to action in the motivational task. Furthermore, activity observed in the motivational task, in response to both pleasant and unpleasant scenes, was significantly greater for HSF than for LSF scenes, suggesting that the tendency to action is driven mainly by the detailed information contained in scenes. Results for the emotional task suggest that spatial frequencies play only a small role in the evaluation of unpleasant and pleasant emotions. Our preliminary study revealed a partial distinction between visual processing of emotional scenes during identification of the tendency to action, and during identification of personal

  18. Temperature and frequency dependent dielectric properties of Ni-Mg-Zn-Co ferrites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Patil, S. B.; Patil, R. P.; Ghodake, J. S.; Chougule, B. K.

    2014-01-01

    The ferrites having general formula Ni0.5-xMgx-0.01Zn0.5-yCoy+0.01Fe2O4 (x=0.1, 0.2, 0.3, 0.4 and y=0.1, 0.2, 0.3, 0.4) were prepared by ceramic method. The X-ray diffraction studies of compositions reveal formation of single-phase cubic spinal structure. Dielectric properties such as dielectric constant ɛ', dielectric loss tangent (tan δ), and ac resistivity were measured at room temperature as a function of frequency in the range from 1 kHz to 1 MHz. The plots of dielectric constant ɛ' vs frequency show a normal dielectric behavior of spinel ferrites. The variation of loss tangent (tan δ) as a function of frequency shows a decreasing trend for all the samples except for the composition with x=0.3 and y=0.1, and y=0.2. The variation of ac resistivity with frequency of all the samples shows a decreasing trend with increase in frequency, a normal behavior of ferrites. All the variations are explained on the basis of Fe2+/Fe3+ ion concentration on octahedral sites as well as the electronic hopping between Fe2+↔Fe3+ ions.

  19. Intratympanic manganese administration revealed sound intensity and frequency dependent functional activity in rat auditory pathway.

    PubMed

    Jin, Seong-Uk; Lee, Jae-Jun; Hong, Kwan Soo; Han, Mun; Park, Jang-Woo; Lee, Hui Joong; Lee, Sangheun; Lee, Kyu-Yup; Shin, Kyung Min; Cho, Jin Ho; Cheong, Chaejoon; Chang, Yongmin

    2013-09-01

    The cochlear plays a vital role in the sense and sensitivity of hearing; however, there is currently a lack of knowledge regarding the relationships between mechanical transduction of sound at different intensities and frequencies in the cochlear and the neurochemical processes that lead to neuronal responses in the central auditory system. In the current study, we introduced manganese-enhanced MRI (MEMRI), a convenient in vivo imaging method, for investigation of how sound, at different intensities and frequencies, is propagated from the cochlear to the central auditory system. Using MEMRI with intratympanic administration, we demonstrated differential manganese signal enhancements according to sound intensity and frequencies in the ascending auditory pathway of the rat after administration of intratympanic MnCl2.Compared to signal enhancement without explicit sound stimuli, auditory structures in the ascending auditory pathway showed stronger signal enhancement in rats who received sound stimuli of 10 and 40 kHz. In addition, signal enhancement with a stimulation frequency of 40 kHz was stronger than that with 10 kHz. Therefore, the results of this study seem to suggest that, in order to achieve an effective response to high sound intensity or frequency, more firing of auditory neurons, or firing of many auditory neurons together for the pooled neural activity is needed.

  20. ALMA and VLA measurements of frequency-dependent time lags in Sagittarius A*: evidence for a relativistic outflow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brinkerink, Christiaan D.; Falcke, Heino; Law, Casey J.; Barkats, Denis; Bower, Geoffrey C.; Brunthaler, Andreas; Gammie, Charles; Impellizzeri, C. M. Violette; Markoff, Sera; Menten, Karl M.; Moscibrodzka, Monika; Peck, Alison; Rushton, Anthony P.; Schaaf, Reinhold; Wright, Melvyn

    2015-04-01

    Context. Radio and mm-wavelength observations of Sagittarius A* (Sgr A*), the radio source associated with the supermassive black hole at the center of our Galaxy, show that it behaves as a partially self-absorbed synchrotron-emitting source. The measured size of Sgr A* shows that the mm-wavelength emission comes from a small region and consists of the inner accretion flow and a possible collimated outflow. Existing observations of Sgr A* have revealed a time lag between light curves at 43 GHz and 22 GHz, which is consistent with a rapidly expanding plasma flow and supports the presence of a collimated outflow from the environment of an accreting black hole. Aims: Here we wish to measure simultaneous frequency-dependent time lags in the light curves of Sgr A* across a broad frequency range to constrain direction and speed of the radio-emitting plasma in the vicinity of the black hole. Methods: Light curves of Sgr A* were taken in May 2012 using ALMA at 100 GHz using the VLA at 48, 39, 37, 27, 25.5, and 19 GHz. As a result of elevation limits and the longitude difference between the stations, the usable overlap in the light curves is approximately four hours. Although Sgr A* was in a relatively quiet phase, the high sensitivity of ALMA and the VLA allowed us to detect and fit maxima of an observed minor flare where flux density varied by ~10%. Results: The fitted times of flux density maxima at frequencies from 100 GHz to 19 GHz, as well as a cross-correlation analysis, reveal a simple frequency-dependent time lag relation where maxima at higher frequencies lead those at lower frequencies. Taking the observed size-frequency relation of Sgr A* into account, these time lags suggest a moderately relativistic (lower estimates: 0.5c for two-sided, 0.77c for one-sided) collimated outflow.

  1. Signature of magnetic-dependent gapless odd frequency states at superconductor/ferromagnet interfaces.

    PubMed

    Di Bernardo, A; Diesch, S; Gu, Y; Linder, J; Divitini, G; Ducati, C; Scheer, E; Blamire, M G; Robinson, J W A

    2015-09-02

    The theory of superconductivity developed by Bardeen, Cooper and Schrieffer (BCS) explains the stabilization of electron pairs into a spin-singlet, even frequency, state by the formation of an energy gap within which the density of states is zero. At a superconductor interface with an inhomogeneous ferromagnet, a gapless odd frequency superconducting state is predicted, in which the Cooper pairs are in a spin-triplet state. Although indirect evidence for such a state has been obtained, the gap structure and pairing symmetry have not so far been determined. Here we report scanning tunnelling spectroscopy of Nb superconducting films proximity coupled to epitaxial Ho. These measurements reveal pronounced changes to the Nb subgap superconducting density of states on driving the Ho through a metamagnetic transition from a helical antiferromagnetic to a homogeneous ferromagnetic state for which a BCS-like gap is recovered. The results prove odd frequency spin-triplet superconductivity at superconductor/inhomogeneous magnet interfaces.

  2. Signature of magnetic-dependent gapless odd frequency states at superconductor/ferromagnet interfaces.

    PubMed

    Di Bernardo, A; Diesch, S; Gu, Y; Linder, J; Divitini, G; Ducati, C; Scheer, E; Blamire, M G; Robinson, J W A

    2015-01-01

    The theory of superconductivity developed by Bardeen, Cooper and Schrieffer (BCS) explains the stabilization of electron pairs into a spin-singlet, even frequency, state by the formation of an energy gap within which the density of states is zero. At a superconductor interface with an inhomogeneous ferromagnet, a gapless odd frequency superconducting state is predicted, in which the Cooper pairs are in a spin-triplet state. Although indirect evidence for such a state has been obtained, the gap structure and pairing symmetry have not so far been determined. Here we report scanning tunnelling spectroscopy of Nb superconducting films proximity coupled to epitaxial Ho. These measurements reveal pronounced changes to the Nb subgap superconducting density of states on driving the Ho through a metamagnetic transition from a helical antiferromagnetic to a homogeneous ferromagnetic state for which a BCS-like gap is recovered. The results prove odd frequency spin-triplet superconductivity at superconductor/inhomogeneous magnet interfaces. PMID:26329811

  3. Signature of magnetic-dependent gapless odd frequency states at superconductor/ferromagnet interfaces

    PubMed Central

    Di Bernardo, A.; Diesch, S.; Gu, Y.; Linder, J.; Divitini, G.; Ducati, C.; Scheer, E.; Blamire, M.G.; Robinson, J.W.A.

    2015-01-01

    The theory of superconductivity developed by Bardeen, Cooper and Schrieffer (BCS) explains the stabilization of electron pairs into a spin-singlet, even frequency, state by the formation of an energy gap within which the density of states is zero. At a superconductor interface with an inhomogeneous ferromagnet, a gapless odd frequency superconducting state is predicted, in which the Cooper pairs are in a spin-triplet state. Although indirect evidence for such a state has been obtained, the gap structure and pairing symmetry have not so far been determined. Here we report scanning tunnelling spectroscopy of Nb superconducting films proximity coupled to epitaxial Ho. These measurements reveal pronounced changes to the Nb subgap superconducting density of states on driving the Ho through a metamagnetic transition from a helical antiferromagnetic to a homogeneous ferromagnetic state for which a BCS-like gap is recovered. The results prove odd frequency spin-triplet superconductivity at superconductor/inhomogeneous magnet interfaces. PMID:26329811

  4. Frequency dependent FMR studies on pulsed laser ablated YIG films deposited on (111) GGG substrate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhoi, B.; Venkataramani, N.; Aiyar, R. P. R. C.; Prasad, Shiva; Kostylev, Mikhail; Stamps, R. L.

    2013-02-01

    Ferromagnetic Resonance (FMR) studies were carried out as a function of frequency on ex-situ post-annealed (Ta: 700 °C and 850 °C) YIG films. The films were deposited at TS: 750 °C on polished single crystal (111) GGG substrate using pulsed laser deposition. Both the films (Ta: 700 °C, 850 °C) shows a in-plane FMR line-width (ΔH) of 40 Oe and 50 Oe respectively which remains constant over a broad frequency range (8 GHz-20 GHz). On the other hand, a linear increment in in-plane resonance field (HR) has been observed with the increase in frequency of RF signal. The effective saturation magnetization (4πMeff) has been estimated for both the films using Kittel's equations and is found as 90% of the bulk value for the film deposited at 750 °C, annealed at 700 °C.

  5. Multiple-Station Observation of Frequency Dependence and Polarization Characteristics of ELF/VLF waves generated via Ionospheric Modification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maxworth, A. S.; Golkowski, M.; Cohen, M.; Moore, R. C.

    2014-12-01

    Generation of Extremely Low Frequency (ELF) and Very Low Frequency (VLF) signals through ionospheric modification has been practiced for many years. Heating the lower ionosphere with high power HF waves allows for modulation of natural current systems. Our experiments were carried out at the High Frequency Active Auroral Research Program (HAARP) facility in Alaska, USA. In this experiment, the ionosphere was heated with a vertical amplitude modulating signal and the modulation frequency was changed sequentially within an array of 40 frequencies followed by a frequency ramp. The observed magnetic field amplitude and polarization of the generated ELF/VLF signals were analyzed for multiple sites and as a function of modulation frequency. Our three observation sites: Chistochina, Paxson and Paradise are located within 36km (azimuth 47.7°), 50.2km (azimuth -20°) and 99km (azimuth 80.3°) respectively. We show that the peak amplitudes observed as a function of frequency result from vertical resonance in the Earth-ionosphere waveguide and can be used to diagnose the D-region profile. Polarization analysis showed that out of the three sites Paxson shows the highest circularity in the magnetic field polarization, compared to Chistochina and Paradise which show highly linear polarizations. The experimental results were compared with a theoretical simulation model results and it was clear that in both cases, the modulated Hall current dominates the observed signals at Chistochina and Paradise sites and at Paxson there is an equal contribution from Hall and Pedersen currents. The Chistochina site shows the highest magnetic field amplitudes in both experimental and simulation environments. Depending upon the experimental and simulation observations at the three sites, a radiation pattern for the HAARP ionospheric heater can be mapped

  6. Frequency dependence of cerebrovascular impedance in preterm neonates: a different view on critical closing pressure.

    PubMed

    Michel, E; Hillebrand, S; vonTwickel, J; Zernikow, B; Jorch, G

    1997-10-01

    The nonproportional relationship between instantaneous arterial blood pressure (BP) and cerebral blood flow velocity (CBFv) is well explained by the concept of critical closing pressure (CCP). We aimed to determine the frequency response of the neonatal cerebrovascular system, and to establish the exact mathematical relationship between cerebrovascular impedance and CCP under physiologic conditions. In 10 preterm neonates (gestational age, 25-32 weeks; birth weight, 685-1,730 g; age 1-7 days) we Doppler-traced CBFv of the internal carotid artery. Blood pressure was traced simultaneously. Critical closing pressure was graphically determined. Cerebrovascular impedance was calculated as the square root of the ratio of the corresponding peaks in the power spectra of BP and CBFv at zero frequency, and at heart rate (H) and harmonics (xH). Uniformly, the impedance between H and 3H (2 to 6 Hz) was reduced about fivefold, compared with the impedance at zero frequency. The cerebrovascular system behaves like a high-pass filter, leading to a reduction of the DC (direct current) component of CBFv (analogous to current) relative to that of the driving force BP (analogous to voltage). The frequency response of cerebrovascular impedance reflects the ratio of CCP and DC BP. A mathematical derivation of this relationship is given matching the observed results. Thus, both the CCP and the impedance approach are valid.

  7. The Frequency-Predictability Interaction in Reading: It Depends Where You're Coming from

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hand, Christopher J.; Miellet, Sebastien; O'Donnell, Patrick J.; Sereno, Sara C.

    2010-01-01

    A word's frequency of occurrence and its predictability from a prior context are key factors determining how long the eyes remain on that word in normal reading. Past reaction-time and eye movement research can be distinguished by whether these variables, when combined, produce interactive or additive results, respectively. Our study addressed…

  8. A Computation of the Frequency Dependent Dielectric Function for Energetic Materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zwitter, D. E.; Kuklja, M. M.; Kunz, A. B.

    1999-06-01

    The imaginary part of the dielectric function as a function of frequency is calculated for the solids RDX, TATB, ADN, and PETN. Calculations have been performed including the effects of isotropic and uniaxial pressure. Simple lattice defects are included in some of the calculations.

  9. Productivity depends more on the rate than the frequency of N addition in a temperate grassland.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yunhai; Feng, Jinchao; Isbell, Forest; Lü, Xiaotao; Han, Xingguo

    2015-07-28

    Nitrogen (N) is a key limiting resource for aboveground net primary productivity (ANPP) in diverse terrestrial ecosystems. The relative roles of the rate and frequency (additions yr(-1)) of N application in stimulating ANPP at both the community- and species-levels are largely unknown. By independently manipulating the rate and frequency of N input, with nine rates (from 0 to 50 g N m(-2) year(-1)) crossed with two frequencies (twice year(-1) or monthly) in a temperate steppe of northern China across 2008-2013, we found that N addition increased community ANPP, and had positive, negative, or neutral effects for individual species. There were similar ANPP responses at the community- or species-level when a particular annual amount of N was added either twice year(-1) or monthly. The community ANPP was less sensitive to soil ammonium at lower frequency of N addition. ANPP responses to N addition were positively correlated with annual precipitation. Our results suggest that, over a five-year period, there will be similar ANPP responses to a given annual N input that occurs either frequently in small amounts, as from N deposition, or that occur infrequently in larger amounts, as from application of N fertilizers.

  10. Microstructure, frequency and temperature-dependent dielectric properties of cobalt-substituted lithium ferrites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Watawe, S. C.; Sarwade, B. D.; Bellad, S. S.; Sutar, B. D.; Chougule, B. K.

    2000-05-01

    Ferrites with the general formula Li 0.5- x/2 Co xFe 2.5- x/2 O 4 (where x=0.1, 0.2, 0.3, 0.4, 0.5, 0.6, 0.7) were prepared by the standard ceramic method. AC resistivity ( ρAC), dielectric constant ( ɛ') and dielectric loss tangent (tan δ) were measured as a function of frequency and temperature. The compositional variations of ρDC and ɛ' with x show inverse trends with each other. The dielectric constant increases slowly from 0 to 450 with temperature in the beginning and sharply after 200°C. The ɛ' and ρDC show a decrease with increase in frequency for all the samples. The variation of tan δ with frequency shows cusps for all the samples except for x=0.5. These variations have been explained on the basis of Koop's phenomenological theory, concentration of Fe 2+ and Fe 3+ ions on octahedral site and hopping frequency of electrons between Fe 2+ and Fe 3+.

  11. Frequency-dependent spatiotemporal distribution of cerebral oscillatory changes during silent reading: a magnetoencephalograhic group analysis.

    PubMed

    Goto, Tetsu; Hirata, Masayuki; Umekawa, Yuka; Yanagisawa, Takufumi; Shayne, Morris; Saitoh, Youichi; Kishima, Haruhiko; Yorifuji, Shirou; Yoshimine, Toshiki

    2011-01-01

    The frequency profiles and time courses of oscillatory changes when reading words are not fully understood, although there have been many reports that oscillatory dynamics reflect local brain function. In order to clarify oscillatory dynamics, we investigated the frequency and spatiotemporal distributions of neuromagnetic activities during silent reading of words in 23 healthy subjects. Individual data were divided into the following frequency bands: theta (5-8 Hz), alpha (8-13 Hz), beta (13-25 Hz), low gamma (25-50 Hz), and high gamma (50-100 Hz), and were analyzed by synthetic aperture magnetometry (SAM). The time window was consecutively moved in steps of 50 ms. Group analysis was performed to delineate common areas of brain activation. A transient power increase in the theta band occurred first in the bilateral occipital cortices, and then rapidly propagated to the left temporo-occipital areas, left inferior and middle frontal gyri, bilateral medial prefrontal cortices, and finally to the left anterior temporal cortices, which possibly reflects a serial cognitive process. This serial propagation of the transient power increase in the theta band was followed by sustained power decreases in the alpha, beta and low gamma bands. These results suggest that the transient power increase in the theta bands may be associated with priming and propagation of local activities, while sustained power decreases in the alpha, beta and low gamma bands reflect parallel neural processes related to silent reading words. Our results showed a relationship between frequency bands of oscillatory changes and locations. This may have implications in the relationship between frequency bands and functions.

  12. Fast iterative technique for the calculation of frequency dependent gain in excimer laser amplifiers

    SciTech Connect

    Sze, R.C.

    1991-01-01

    The motivation in initiating these calculations is to allow us to observe the frequency evolution of a laser pulse as it propagates through an amplifier and then through a sequence of amplifiers. The question we seek to answer is what pulse shape do we need to produce out of a front-end oscillator so that after it propagates through the whole Aurora KrF fusion amplifier chain will result in high energy, broad-band laser fields of a given bandwidth that can be focussed onto a fusion target. The propagation of a single frequency source through an amplifier with distributed loss was considered by Rigrod and was significantly expanded by Hunter and Hunter. The latter included amplified spontaneous emission (ASE) considerations both in the direction of and transverse to the coherent field. Analytic solutions that include forward and backward prapagating fields and ASE were derived which were transcendental in nature but allowed for fairly easy computer calculations. Transverse ASE were calculated using the unsaturated gain resulting from longitudinal fields and were used to compare this with the longitudinal field equations. Large computer programs are now available at LANL which include the influence of transverse ASE on the longitudinal fields. However, none of these considerations have worried about the changes in the frequency characteristics of the propagating field or of how each of the frequency field components contributes to the saturation of the gain. The inclusion of full frequency characteristics to the analytic solutions of Hunter and Hunter proved impossible at least for this author and a new calculational technique was developed and is the subject of this talk.

  13. Frequency analysis of temperature-dependent interferometric signal for the measurement of the temperature coefficient of refractive index.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Jianqin; Shen, Jun; Neill, W Stuart

    2016-07-01

    A method of frequency analysis for the measurement of the temperature coefficient of refractive index (dn/dT) using a Fabry-Perot interferometer was developed and tested against ethanol and water. The temperature-dependent interferometric signal described by Airy's formula was analyzed in both the temperature and frequency domains. By fast Fourier transform, a low-pass filter was designed and employed to eliminate the noise superimposed on the signal. dn/dT was determined accurately from the noise-removed signal by peak analysis. Furthermore, the signal frequency parameters may be utilized for the material thermophysical property characterization. This method lays the foundation for an online dn/dT instrument for monitoring chemical processes. PMID:27475545

  14. Compressive sensing of the Tohoku-Oki Mw 9.0 earthquake: Frequency-dependent rupture modes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yao, Huajian; Gerstoft, Peter; Shearer, Peter M.; Mecklenbräuker, Christoph

    2011-10-01

    Compressive sensing (CS) is a technique for finding sparse signal representations to underdetermined linear measurement equations. We use CS to locate seismic sources during the rupture of the 2011 Tohoku-Oki Mw9.0 earthquake in Japan from teleseismic P waves recorded by an array of stations in the United States. The seismic sources are located by minimizing the ℓ2-norm of the difference between the observed and modeled waveforms penalized by the ℓ1-norm of the seismic source vector. The resulting minimization problem is convex and can be solved efficiently. Our results show clear frequency-dependent rupture modes with high-frequency energy radiation dominant in the down-dip region and low-frequency radiation in the updip region, which may be caused by differences in rupture behavior (more intermittent or continuous) at the slab interface due to heterogeneous frictional properties.

  15. Frequency analysis of temperature-dependent interferometric signal for the measurement of the temperature coefficient of refractive index

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Jianqin; Shen, Jun; Neill, W. Stuart

    2016-07-01

    A method of frequency analysis for the measurement of the temperature coefficient of refractive index (dn/dT) using a Fabry-Perot interferometer was developed and tested against ethanol and water. The temperature-dependent interferometric signal described by Airy's formula was analyzed in both the temperature and frequency domains. By fast Fourier transform, a low-pass filter was designed and employed to eliminate the noise superimposed on the signal. dn/dT was determined accurately from the noise-removed signal by peak analysis. Furthermore, the signal frequency parameters may be utilized for the material thermophysical property characterization. This method lays the foundation for an online dn/dT instrument for monitoring chemical processes.

  16. Dependence of levitation force on frequency of an oscillating magnetic levitation field in a bulk YBCO superconductor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carter, Hamilton; Pate, Stephen; Goedecke, George

    2013-02-01

    The dependence of the magnetic field strength required for levitation of a melt textured, single domain YBCO superconductor disk on the frequency of the current generating the levitating magnetic field has been investigated. The magnetic field strength is found to be independent of frequency between 10 and 300 Hz. This required field strength is found to be in good experimental and theoretical agreement with the field strength required to levitate the same superconductor with a non-oscillating magnetic field. Hysteretic losses within the superconductor predicted by Bean’s critical-state model were also calculated. The measured data rules out any significant Bean’s model effects on the required levitation field strength within the measured frequency range.

  17. Structural Key Bit Occurrence Frequencies and Dependencies in PubChem and Their Effect on Similarity Searches.

    PubMed

    Chen, Nelson G; Golovlev, Val

    2013-04-01

    Little published literature exists on the 881 bit structural keys used by PubChem for categorizing and comparing the compounds present in its database. We characterized these structural keys by examining their frequencies of occurrence within the PubChem compound database. In addition, bit dependencies, defined as the universal presence of a bit given the presence of another, were determined. We show that the vast majority of bits are rarely set and that substantial numbers of dependencies exist. A comparison of similarity searches with five United States Food and Drug Administration approved drugs as reference compounds using the full structural keys versus a variant in which all dependent bits were removed was performed using the Tanimoto coefficient. These bit dependencies not only affect similarity scores, but also alter the compounds returned in similarity searching. Judicious selection of bits is needed to maintain sufficient ability to differentiate related compounds.

  18. Hysteretic ac loss in a coated superconductor subjected to oscillating magnetic fields: ferromagnetic effect and frequency dependence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Guang-Tong

    2014-06-01

    Numerical simulations of the hysteretic ac loss in a coated superconductor with a more realistic version of the architecture were performed via the finite-element technique in the presence of an oscillating magnetic field. The coated superconductor was electromagnetically modeled by resorting to the quasistatic approximation of a vector potential approach in conjunction with nonlinear descriptions of the superconducting layer and the ferromagnetic substrate therein by a power-law model and the Langevin equation, respectively. A diverse effect of the ferromagnetic substrate on the hysteretic ac loss, depending on the strength of the applied magnetic field, was displayed, and its underlying cause was identified. The dependence of the hysteretic ac loss on the applied frequency is found to be related to a critical amplitude of the applied magnetic field, and the eddy-current loss dissipated in the metal coatings becomes prominent as the frequency increases only at high applied magnetic fields.

  19. Magnetic field dependence of the lowest-frequency edge-localized spin wave mode in a magnetic nanotriangle.

    PubMed

    Lin, C S; Lim, H S; Wang, Z K; Ng, S C; Kuok, M H; Adeyeye, A O

    2011-03-01

    An understanding of the spin dynamics of nanoscale magnetic elements is important for their applications in magnetic sensing and storage. Inhomogeneity of the demagnetizing field in a non-ellipsoidal magnetic element results in localization of spin waves near the edge of the element. However, relative little work has been carried out to investigate the effect of the applied magnetic fields on the nature of such localized modes. In this study, micromagnetic simulations are performed on an equilateral triangular nanomagnet to investigate the magnetic field dependence of the mode profiles of the lowest-frequency spin wave. Our findings reveal that the lowest-frequency mode is localized at the base edge of the equilateral triangle. The characteristics of its mode profile change with the ground state magnetization configuration of the nanotriangle, which, in turn, depends on the magnitude of the in-plane applied magnetic field.

  20. The neural code for auditory space depends on sound frequency and head size in an optimal manner.

    PubMed

    Harper, Nicol S; Scott, Brian H; Semple, Malcolm N; McAlpine, David

    2014-01-01

    A major cue to the location of a sound source is the interaural time difference (ITD)-the difference in sound arrival time at the two ears. The neural representation of this auditory cue is unresolved. The classic model of ITD coding, dominant for a half-century, posits that the distribution of best ITDs (the ITD evoking a neuron's maximal response) is unimodal and largely within the range of ITDs permitted by head-size. This is often interpreted as a place code for source location. An alternative model, based on neurophysiology in small mammals, posits a bimodal distribution of best ITDs with exquisite sensitivity to ITDs generated by means of relative firing rates between the distributions. Recently, an optimal-coding model was proposed, unifying the disparate features of these two models under the framework of efficient coding by neural populations. The optimal-coding model predicts that distributions of best ITDs depend on head size and sound frequency: for high frequencies and large heads it resembles the classic model, for low frequencies and small head sizes it resembles the bimodal model. The optimal-coding model makes key, yet unobserved, predictions: for many species, including humans, both forms of neural representation are employed, depending on sound frequency. Furthermore, novel representations are predicted for intermediate frequencies. Here, we examine these predictions in neurophysiological data from five mammalian species: macaque, guinea pig, cat, gerbil and kangaroo rat. We present the first evidence supporting these untested predictions, and demonstrate that different representations appear to be employed at different sound frequencies in the same species. PMID:25372405

  1. The Neural Code for Auditory Space Depends on Sound Frequency and Head Size in an Optimal Manner

    PubMed Central

    Harper, Nicol S.; Scott, Brian H.; Semple, Malcolm N.; McAlpine, David

    2014-01-01

    A major cue to the location of a sound source is the interaural time difference (ITD)–the difference in sound arrival time at the two ears. The neural representation of this auditory cue is unresolved. The classic model of ITD coding, dominant for a half-century, posits that the distribution of best ITDs (the ITD evoking a neuron’s maximal response) is unimodal and largely within the range of ITDs permitted by head-size. This is often interpreted as a place code for source location. An alternative model, based on neurophysiology in small mammals, posits a bimodal distribution of best ITDs with exquisite sensitivity to ITDs generated by means of relative firing rates between the distributions. Recently, an optimal-coding model was proposed, unifying the disparate features of these two models under the framework of efficient coding by neural populations. The optimal-coding model predicts that distributions of best ITDs depend on head size and sound frequency: for high frequencies and large heads it resembles the classic model, for low frequencies and small head sizes it resembles the bimodal model. The optimal-coding model makes key, yet unobserved, predictions: for many species, including humans, both forms of neural representation are employed, depending on sound frequency. Furthermore, novel representations are predicted for intermediate frequencies. Here, we examine these predictions in neurophysiological data from five mammalian species: macaque, guinea pig, cat, gerbil and kangaroo rat. We present the first evidence supporting these untested predictions, and demonstrate that different representations appear to be employed at different sound frequencies in the same species. PMID:25372405

  2. Modulation of epileptic activity by deep brain stimulation: a model-based study of frequency-dependent effects.

    PubMed

    Mina, Faten; Benquet, Pascal; Pasnicu, Anca; Biraben, Arnaud; Wendling, Fabrice

    2013-01-01

    A number of studies showed that deep brain stimulation (DBS) can modulate the activity in the epileptic brain and that a decrease of seizures can be achieved in "responding" patients. In most of these studies, the choice of stimulation parameters is critical to obtain desired clinical effects. In particular, the stimulation frequency is a key parameter that is difficult to tune. A reason is that our knowledge about the frequency-dependant mechanisms according to which DBS indirectly impacts the dynamics of pathological neuronal systems located in the neocortex is still limited. We address this issue using both computational modeling and intracerebral EEG (iEEG) data. We developed a macroscopic (neural mass) model of the thalamocortical network. In line with already-existing models, it includes interconnected neocortical pyramidal cells and interneurons, thalamocortical cells and reticular neurons. The novelty was to introduce, in the thalamic compartment, the biophysical effects of direct stimulation. Regarding clinical data, we used a quite unique data set recorded in a patient (drug-resistant epilepsy) with a focal cortical dysplasia (FCD). In this patient, DBS strongly reduced the sustained epileptic activity of the FCD for low-frequency (LFS, < 2 Hz) and high-frequency stimulation (HFS, > 70 Hz) while intermediate-frequency stimulation (IFS, around 50 Hz) had no effect. Signal processing, clustering, and optimization techniques allowed us to identify the necessary conditions for reproducing, in the model, the observed frequency-dependent stimulation effects. Key elements which explain the suppression of epileptic activity in the FCD include: (a) feed-forward inhibition and synaptic short-term depression of thalamocortical connections at LFS, and (b) inhibition of the thalamic output at HFS. Conversely, modeling results indicate that IFS favors thalamic oscillations and entrains epileptic dynamics.

  3. The neural code for auditory space depends on sound frequency and head size in an optimal manner.

    PubMed

    Harper, Nicol S; Scott, Brian H; Semple, Malcolm N; McAlpine, David

    2014-01-01

    A major cue to the location of a sound source is the interaural time difference (ITD)-the difference in sound arrival time at the two ears. The neural representation of this auditory cue is unresolved. The classic model of ITD coding, dominant for a half-century, posits that the distribution of best ITDs (the ITD evoking a neuron's maximal response) is unimodal and largely within the range of ITDs permitted by head-size. This is often interpreted as a place code for source location. An alternative model, based on neurophysiology in small mammals, posits a bimodal distribution of best ITDs with exquisite sensitivity to ITDs generated by means of relative firing rates between the distributions. Recently, an optimal-coding model was proposed, unifying the disparate features of these two models under the framework of efficient coding by neural populations. The optimal-coding model predicts that distributions of best ITDs depend on head size and sound frequency: for high frequencies and large heads it resembles the classic model, for low frequencies and small head sizes it resembles the bimodal model. The optimal-coding model makes key, yet unobserved, predictions: for many species, including humans, both forms of neural representation are employed, depending on sound frequency. Furthermore, novel representations are predicted for intermediate frequencies. Here, we examine these predictions in neurophysiological data from five mammalian species: macaque, guinea pig, cat, gerbil and kangaroo rat. We present the first evidence supporting these untested predictions, and demonstrate that different representations appear to be employed at different sound frequencies in the same species.

  4. Frequency-dependent reduction of voltage-gated sodium current modulates retinal ganglion cell response rate to electrical stimulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsai, David; Morley, John W.; Suaning, Gregg J.; Lovell, Nigel H.

    2011-10-01

    The ability to elicit visual percepts through electrical stimulation of the retina has prompted numerous investigations examining the feasibility of restoring sight to the blind with retinal implants. The therapeutic efficacy of these devices will be strongly influenced by their ability to elicit neural responses that approximate those of normal vision. Retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) can fire spikes at frequencies greater than 200 Hz when driven by light. However, several studies using isolated retinas have found a decline in RGC spiking response rate when these cells were stimulated at greater than 50 Hz. It is possible that the mechanism responsible for this decline also contributes to the frequency-dependent 'fading' of electrically evoked percepts recently reported in human patients. Using whole-cell patch clamp recordings of rabbit RGCs, we investigated the causes for the spiking response depression during direct subretinal stimulation of these cells at 50-200 Hz. The response depression was not caused by inhibition arising from the retinal network but, instead, by a stimulus-frequency-dependent decline of RGC voltage-gated sodium current. Under identical experimental conditions, however, RGCs were able to spike at high frequency when driven by light stimuli and intracellular depolarization. Based on these observations, we demonstrated a technique to prevent the spiking response depression.

  5. Frequency-dependent reduction of voltage-gated sodium current modulates retinal ganglion cell response rate to electrical stimulation.

    PubMed

    Tsai, David; Morley, John W; Suaning, Gregg J; Lovell, Nigel H

    2011-12-01

    The ability to elicit visual percepts through electrical stimulation of the retina has prompted numerous investigations examining the feasibility of restoring sight to the blind with retinal implants. The therapeutic efficacy of these devices will be strongly influenced by their ability to elicit neural responses that approximate those of normal vision. Retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) can fire spikes at frequencies greater than 200 Hz when driven by light. However, several studies using isolated retinas have found a decline in RGC spiking response rate when these cells were stimulated at greater than 50 Hz. It is possible that the mechanism responsible for this decline also contributes to the frequency-dependent 'fading' of electrically evoked percepts recently reported in human patients. Using whole-cell patch clamp recordings of rabbit RGCs, we investigated the causes for the spiking response depression during direct subretinal stimulation of these cells at 50-200 Hz. The response depression was not caused by inhibition arising from the retinal network but, instead, by a stimulus-frequency-dependent decline of RGC voltage-gated sodium current. Under identical experimental conditions, however, RGCs were able to spike at high frequency when driven by light stimuli and intracellular depolarization. Based on these observations, we demonstrated a technique to prevent the spiking response depression. PMID:22027396

  6. Modulation-frequency dependencies of the intensity and the phase delay of photoinduced absorption from conjugated polymers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Furukawa, Yukio

    2000-03-01

    The modulation-frequency dependencies of the intensity and the phase delay of photoinduced infrared absorption from poly(p-phenylene) have been observed and simulated numerically on the basis of a model based on second-order kinetics involving a neutralization recombination process between the positive and negative charge carriers (polarons) that are formed from a photogenerated polaron pair (interchain charge-transfer exciton). The rate constant of the bimolecular recombination has been obtained.

  7. Capacitively-Coupled Resistivity measurements to determine frequency dependent electrical parameters in periglacial environment - theoretical considerations and first field tests.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Przyklenk, A.; Hördt, A.; Radić, T.

    2016-05-01

    Capacitively-Coupled Resistivity (CCR) is conventionally used to emulate DC resistivity measurements and may provide important information about the ice content of material in periglacial areas. The application of CCR theoretically enables the determination of both electrical parameters, i.e. the resistivity and the electrical permittivity, by analyzing magnitude and phase shift spectra. The electrical permittivity may dominate the impedance, especially in periglacial areas or regions of hydrogeological interest. However, previous theoretical work suggested that the phase shift may strongly depend on electrode height above ground, implying that electrode height must be known with great accuracy to determine electrical permittivity. Here, we demonstrate with laboratory test measurements, theoretical modelling and by analysing the Jacobian matrix of the inversion, that the sensitivity towards electrode height is drastically reduced if the electrical permittivity is frequency dependent in a way that is typical for ice. For the fist time, we used a novel broadband CCR device "Chameleon" for a field test located in one of the ridge galleries beneath the crest of Mount Zugspitze. A permanently ice covered bottom of a tunnel was examined. For the inversion of the measured spectra, the frequency dependance of the electrical parameters was parameterized in 3 different ways. A Debye Model for pure ices, a Cole-Cole Model for pure ices and a dual Cole-Cole Model including interfacial water additionally. The frequency-dependent resistivity and permittivity spectra obtained from the inversion, including low and high frequency limits, agree reasonably well with laboratory and field measurements reported in the literature.

  8. Frequency-dependent local field factors in dielectric liquids by a polarizable force field and molecular dynamics simulations

    SciTech Connect

    Davari, Nazanin; Haghdani, Shokouh; Åstrand, Per-Olof

    2015-12-31

    A force field model for calculating local field factors, i.e. the linear response of the local electric field for example at a nucleus in a molecule with respect to an applied electric field, is discussed. It is based on a combined charge-transfer and point-dipole interaction model for the polarizability, and thereby it includes two physically distinct terms for describing electronic polarization: changes in atomic charges arising from transfer of charge between the atoms and atomic induced dipole moments. A time dependence is included both for the atomic charges and the atomic dipole moments and if they are assumed to oscillate with the same frequency as the applied electric field, a model for frequency-dependent properties are obtained. Furthermore, if a life-time of excited states are included, a model for the complex frequency-dependent polariability is obtained including also information about excited states and the absorption spectrum. We thus present a model for the frequency-dependent local field factors through the first molecular excitation energy. It is combined with molecular dynamics simulations of liquids where a large set of configurations are sampled and for which local field factors are calculated. We are normally not interested in the average of the local field factor but rather in configurations where it is as high as possible. In electrical insulation, we would like to avoid high local field factors to reduce the risk for electrical breakdown, whereas for example in surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy, high local field factors are desired to give dramatically increased intensities.

  9. Comment on "Orientation dependence of the optical spectra in graphene at high frequencies"

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nguyen, Huy-Viet; Nguyen, V. Hung

    2016-09-01

    Zhang et al. [Phys. Rev. B 77, 241402(R) (2008), 10.1103/PhysRevB.77.241402] reported a theoretical study of the optical spectra of monolayer graphene employing the Kubo formula within a tight-binding model. Their calculations predicted that at high frequencies the optical conductivity of graphene becomes strongly anisotropic. In particular, at frequencies comparable to the energy separation of the upper and lower bands at the Γ point, the optical conductivity is strongly suppressed if the field polarization is along the zigzag direction whereas it is significantly high for the armchair one. We find that, unfortunately, this result is just a consequence of the incorrect determination of the current operator in k space. Here, we present a standard scheme to obtain this operator correctly. As a result, we show that the optical conductivity of monolayer graphene is indeed isotropic, which is consistent with the results of other (both theoretical and experimental) studies in the literature.

  10. Level-dependent auditory tuning: Transducer-based active processes in hearing and best-frequency shifts.

    PubMed

    Nadrowski, Björn; Göpfert, Martin C

    2009-01-01

    Ears boost their sensitivity by means of active, force-generating processes that augment the minute vibrations induced by soft sounds. These processes can alter auditory frequency-tuning in a level-dependent way. In the antennal hearing organ of Drosophila, for example, the active process shifts the best frequency (BF) of the antennal sound receiver when the sound intensity is varied, tuning the receiver to conspecific songs. Here we show that this level-dependent tuning can be reproduced by an active transduction model as proposed for vertebrate hair cells and the Drosophila ear. We further show that the direction of the frequency shift depends on the system to which the molecular modules for auditory transduction connect: If this system is mass-less such as the sensory hair bundles of bullfrog saccular hair cells, the BF of the displacement response will increase as the sound intensity declines. Conversely, BF will decrease with declining intensity if the transduction modules couple to inertial systems such as the fly's antennal sound receiver or cupulae in the fish lateral line. PMID:19704854

  11. Adaptation, Clonal Interference, and Frequency-Dependent Interactions in a Long-Term Evolution Experiment with Escherichia coli

    PubMed Central

    Maddamsetti, Rohan; Lenski, Richard E.; Barrick, Jeffrey E.

    2015-01-01

    Twelve replicate populations of Escherichia coli have been evolving in the laboratory for >25 years and 60,000 generations. We analyzed bacteria from whole-population samples frozen every 500 generations through 20,000 generations for one well-studied population, called Ara−1. By tracking 42 known mutations in these samples, we reconstructed the history of this population’s genotypic evolution over this period. The evolutionary dynamics of Ara−1 show strong evidence of selective sweeps as well as clonal interference between competing lineages bearing different beneficial mutations. In some cases, sets of several mutations approached fixation simultaneously, often conveying no information about their order of origination; we present several possible explanations for the existence of these mutational cohorts. Against a backdrop of rapid selective sweeps both earlier and later, two genetically diverged clades coexisted for >6000 generations before one went extinct. In that time, many additional mutations arose in the clade that eventually prevailed. We show that the clades evolved a frequency-dependent interaction, which prevented the immediate competitive exclusion of either clade, but which collapsed as beneficial mutations accumulated in the clade that prevailed. Clonal interference and frequency dependence can occur even in the simplest microbial populations. Furthermore, frequency dependence may generate dynamics that extend the period of coexistence that would otherwise be sustained by clonal interference alone. PMID:25911659

  12. Adaptation, Clonal Interference, and Frequency-Dependent Interactions in a Long-Term Evolution Experiment with Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Maddamsetti, Rohan; Lenski, Richard E; Barrick, Jeffrey E

    2015-06-01

    Twelve replicate populations of Escherichia coli have been evolving in the laboratory for >25 years and 60,000 generations. We analyzed bacteria from whole-population samples frozen every 500 generations through 20,000 generations for one well-studied population, called Ara-1. By tracking 42 known mutations in these samples, we reconstructed the history of this population's genotypic evolution over this period. The evolutionary dynamics of Ara-1 show strong evidence of selective sweeps as well as clonal interference between competing lineages bearing different beneficial mutations. In some cases, sets of several mutations approached fixation simultaneously, often conveying no information about their order of origination; we present several possible explanations for the existence of these mutational cohorts. Against a backdrop of rapid selective sweeps both earlier and later, two genetically diverged clades coexisted for >6000 generations before one went extinct. In that time, many additional mutations arose in the clade that eventually prevailed. We show that the clades evolved a frequency-dependent interaction, which prevented the immediate competitive exclusion of either clade, but which collapsed as beneficial mutations accumulated in the clade that prevailed. Clonal interference and frequency dependence can occur even in the simplest microbial populations. Furthermore, frequency dependence may generate dynamics that extend the period of coexistence that would otherwise be sustained by clonal interference alone.

  13. The detection of brain oedema with frequency-dependent phase shift electromagnetic induction.

    PubMed

    González, César A; Rubinsky, Boris

    2006-06-01

    The spectroscopic distribution of inductive phase shift in the brain as a function of the relative volume of oedema was evaluated with theoretical and experimental methods in the frequency range 1 to 8 MHz. The theoretical study employed a simple mathematical model of electromagnetic induction in tissue and brain tissue data available from the literature to calculate the phase shift as a function of oedema in the bulk of the brain. Experimental data were generated from bulk measurements of ex vivo homogenized pig brain tissue mixed with various volumes of physiological saline in a volume sample typical of the human brain. There is good agreement between the analytical and the experimental results. Detectable changes in phase shift begin from a frequency of about 3 MHz to 4 MHz in the tested compositions and volume. The phase shift increases with frequency and fluid content. The results suggest that measuring phase shift in the bulk of the brain has the potential for becoming a robust means for non-contact detection of oedema in the brain.

  14. Frequency-dependent, cell type-divergent signaling in the hippocamposeptal projection.

    PubMed

    Mattis, Joanna; Brill, Julia; Evans, Suzanne; Lerner, Talia N; Davidson, Thomas J; Hyun, Minsuk; Ramakrishnan, Charu; Deisseroth, Karl; Huguenard, John R

    2014-08-27

    Hippocampal oscillations are critical for information processing, and are strongly influenced by inputs from the medial septum. Hippocamposeptal neurons provide direct inhibitory feedback from the hippocampus onto septal cells, and are therefore likely to also play an important role in the circuit; these neurons fire at either low or high frequency, reflecting hippocampal network activity during theta oscillations or ripple events, respectively. Here, we optogenetically target the long-range GABAergic projection from the hippocampus to the medial septum in rats, and thereby simulate hippocampal input onto downstream septal cells in an acute slice preparation. In response to optogenetic activation of hippocamposeptal fibers at theta and ripple frequencies, we elicit postsynaptic GABAergic responses in a subset (24%) of septal cells, most predominantly in fast-spiking cells. In addition, in another subset of septal cells (19%) corresponding primarily to cholinergic cells, we observe a slow hyperpolarization of the resting membrane potential and a decrease in input resistance, particularly in response to prolonged high-frequency (ripple range) stimulation. This slow response is partially sensitive to GIRK channel and D2 dopamine receptor block. Our results suggest that two independent populations of septal cells distinctly encode hippocampal feedback, enabling the septum to monitor ongoing patterns of activity in the hippocampus.

  15. Target DNA sequence directly regulates the frequency of activation-induced deaminase-dependent mutations.

    PubMed

    Chen, Zhangguo; Viboolsittiseri, Sawanee S; O'Connor, Brian P; Wang, Jing H

    2012-10-15

    Activation-induced deaminase (AID) catalyses class switch recombination (CSR) and somatic hypermutation (SHM) in B lymphocytes to enhance Ab diversity. CSR involves breaking and rejoining highly repetitive switch (S) regions in the IgH (Igh) locus. S regions appear to be preferential targets of AID. To determine whether S region sequence per se, independent of Igh cis regulatory elements, can influence AID targeting efficiency and mutation frequency, we established a knock-in mouse model by inserting a core Sγ1 region into the first intron of proto-oncogene Bcl6, which is a non-Ig target of SHM. We found that the mutation frequency of the inserted Sγ1 region was dramatically higher than that of the adjacent Bcl6 endogenous sequence. Mechanistically, S region-enhanced SHM was associated with increased recruitment of AID and RNA polymerase II, together with Spt5, albeit to a lesser extent. Our studies demonstrate that target DNA sequences influence mutation frequency via regulating AID recruitment. We propose that the nucleotide sequence preference may serve as an additional layer of AID regulation by restricting its mutagenic activity to specific sequences despite the observation that AID has the potential to access the genome widely.

  16. Spatial hearing in Cope's gray treefrog: II. Frequency-dependent directionality in the amplitude and phase of tympanum vibrations.

    PubMed

    Caldwell, Michael S; Lee, Norman; Schrode, Katrina M; Johns, Anastasia R; Christensen-Dalsgaard, Jakob; Bee, Mark A

    2014-04-01

    Anuran ears function as pressure difference receivers, and the amplitude and phase of tympanum vibrations are inherently directional, varying with sound incident angle. We quantified the nature of this directionality for Cope's gray treefrog, Hyla chrysoscelis. We presented subjects with pure tones, advertisement calls, and frequency-modulated sweeps to examine the influence of frequency, signal level, lung inflation, and sex on ear directionality. Interaural differences in the amplitude of tympanum vibrations were 1-4 dB greater than sound pressure differences adjacent to the two tympana, while interaural differences in the phase of tympanum vibration were similar to or smaller than those in sound phase. Directionality in the amplitude and phase of tympanum vibration were highly dependent on sound frequency, and directionality in amplitude varied slightly with signal level. Directionality in the amplitude and phase of tone- and call-evoked responses did not differ between sexes. Lung inflation strongly affected tympanum directionality over a narrow frequency range that, in females, included call frequencies. This study provides a foundation for further work on the biomechanics and neural mechanisms of spatial hearing in H. chrysoscelis, and lends valuable perspective to behavioral studies on the use of spatial information by this species and other frogs.

  17. Absolute Equilibrium Entropy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shebalin, John V.

    1997-01-01

    The entropy associated with absolute equilibrium ensemble theories of ideal, homogeneous, fluid and magneto-fluid turbulence is discussed and the three-dimensional fluid case is examined in detail. A sigma-function is defined, whose minimum value with respect to global parameters is the entropy. A comparison is made between the use of global functions sigma and phase functions H (associated with the development of various H-theorems of ideal turbulence). It is shown that the two approaches are complimentary though conceptually different: H-theorems show that an isolated system tends to equilibrium while sigma-functions allow the demonstration that entropy never decreases when two previously isolated systems are combined. This provides a more complete picture of entropy in the statistical mechanics of ideal fluids.

  18. Coda Q and its Frequency Dependence in the Eastern Himalayan and Indo-Burman Plate Boundary Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mitra, S.; Kumar, A.

    2015-12-01

    We use broadband waveform data for 305 local earthquakes from the Eastern Himalayan and Indo-Burman plate boundary systems, to model the seismic attenuation in NE India. We measure the decay in amplitude of coda waves at discreet frequencies (between 1 and 12Hz) to evaluate the quality factor (Qc) as a function of frequency. We combine these measurements to evaluate the frequency dependence of Qc of the form Qc(f)=Qof η, where Qo is the quality factor at 1Hz and η is the frequency dependence. Computed Qo values range from 80-360 and η ranges from 0.85-1.45. To study the lateral variation in Qo and η, we regionalise the Qc by combining all source-receiver measurements using a back-projection algorithm. For a single back scatter model, the coda waves sample an elliptical area with the epicenter and receiver at the two foci. We parameterize the region using square grids. The algorithm calculates the overlap in area and distributes Qc in the sampled grids using the average Qc as the boundary value. This is done in an iterative manner, by minimising the misfit between the observed and computed Qc within each grid. This process is repeated for all frequencies and η is computed for each grid by combining Qc for all frequencies. Our results reveal strong variation in Qo and η across NE India. The highest Qo are in the Bengal Basin (210-280) and the Indo-Burman subduction zone (300-360). The Shillong Plateau and Mikir Hills have intermediate Qo (~160) and the lowest Qo (~80) is observed in the Naga fold thrust belt. This variation in Qo demarcates the boundary between the continental crust beneath the Shillong Plateau and Mikir Hills and the transitional to oceanic crust beneath the Bengal Basin and Indo-Burman subduction zone. Thick pile of sedimentary strata in the Naga fold thrust belt results in the low Qo. Frequency dependence (η) of Qc across NE India is observed to be very high, with regions of high Qo being associated with relatively higher η.

  19. Frequency-Dependent Neural Activity in Patients with Unilateral Vascular Pulsatile Tinnitus.

    PubMed

    Lv, Han; Zhao, Pengfei; Liu, Zhaohui; Wang, Guopeng; Zeng, Rong; Yan, Fei; Dong, Cheng; Zhang, Ling; Li, Rui; Wang, Peng; Li, Ting; Gong, Shusheng; Wang, Zhenchang

    2016-01-01

    Previous resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (rs-fMRI) studies have shown that neurological changes are important findings in vascular pulsatile tinnitus (PT) patients. Here, we utilized rs-fMRI to measure the amplitude of low-frequency fluctuations (ALFF) in forty patients with unilateral PT and forty age-, gender-, and education-matched normal control subjects. Two different frequency bands (slow-4, 0.027-0.073 Hz, and slow-5, 0.010-0.027 Hz, which are more sensitive to subcortical and cortical neurological signal changes, resp.) were analyzed to examine the intrinsic brain activity in detail. Compared to controls, PT patients had increased ALFF values mainly in the PCu, bilateral IPL (inferior parietal lobule), left IFG (inferior frontal gyrus), and right IFG/anterior insula and decreased ALFF values in the multiple occipital areas including bilateral middle-inferior occipital lobe. For the differences of the two frequency bands, widespread ALFF differences were observed. The ALFF abnormalities in aMPFC/ACC, PCu, right IPL, and some regions of occipital and parietal cortices were greater in the slow-5 band compared to the slow-4 band. Additionally, the THI score of PT patients was positively correlated with changes in slow-5 and slow-4 band in PCu. Pulsatile tinnitus is a disease affecting the neurological activities of multiple brain regions. Slow-5 band is more sensitive in detecting the alternations. Our results also indicated the importance of pathophysiological investigations in patients with pulsatile tinnitus in the future. PMID:27413554

  20. Frequency-Dependent Neural Activity in Patients with Unilateral Vascular Pulsatile Tinnitus

    PubMed Central

    Lv, Han; Zhao, Pengfei; Liu, Zhaohui; Wang, Guopeng; Zeng, Rong; Yan, Fei; Dong, Cheng; Zhang, Ling; Li, Rui; Wang, Peng; Li, Ting

    2016-01-01

    Previous resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (rs-fMRI) studies have shown that neurological changes are important findings in vascular pulsatile tinnitus (PT) patients. Here, we utilized rs-fMRI to measure the amplitude of low-frequency fluctuations (ALFF) in forty patients with unilateral PT and forty age-, gender-, and education-matched normal control subjects. Two different frequency bands (slow-4, 0.027–0.073 Hz, and slow-5, 0.010–0.027 Hz, which are more sensitive to subcortical and cortical neurological signal changes, resp.) were analyzed to examine the intrinsic brain activity in detail. Compared to controls, PT patients had increased ALFF values mainly in the PCu, bilateral IPL (inferior parietal lobule), left IFG (inferior frontal gyrus), and right IFG/anterior insula and decreased ALFF values in the multiple occipital areas including bilateral middle-inferior occipital lobe. For the differences of the two frequency bands, widespread ALFF differences were observed. The ALFF abnormalities in aMPFC/ACC, PCu, right IPL, and some regions of occipital and parietal cortices were greater in the slow-5 band compared to the slow-4 band. Additionally, the THI score of PT patients was positively correlated with changes in slow-5 and slow-4 band in PCu. Pulsatile tinnitus is a disease affecting the neurological activities of multiple brain regions. Slow-5 band is more sensitive in detecting the alternations. Our results also indicated the importance of pathophysiological investigations in patients with pulsatile tinnitus in the future. PMID:27413554

  1. Frequency dependence of power and its implications for contractile function of muscle fibers from the digital flexors of horses

    PubMed Central

    Butcher, Michael T.; Bertram, John E.A.; Syme, Douglas A.; Hermanson, John W.; Chase, P. Bryant

    2014-01-01

    Abstract The digital flexors of horses must produce high force to support the body weight during running, and a need for these muscles to generate power is likely limited during locomotion over level ground. Measurements of power output from horse muscle fibers close to physiological temperatures, and when cyclic strain is imposed, will help to better understand the in vivo performance of the muscles as power absorbers and generators. Skinned fibers from the deep (DDF) and superficial (SDF) digital flexors, and the soleus (SOL) underwent sinusoidal oscillations in length over a range of frequencies (0.5–16 Hz) and strain amplitudes (0.01–0.06) under maximum activation (pCa 5) at 30°C. Results were analyzed using both workloop and Nyquist plot analyses to determine the ability of the fibers to absorb or generate power and the frequency dependence of those abilities. Power absorption was dominant at most cycling frequencies and strain amplitudes in fibers from all three muscles. However, small amounts of power were generated (0.002–0.05 Wkg−1) at 0.01 strain by all three muscles at relatively slow cycling frequencies: DDF (4–7 Hz), SDF (4–5 Hz) and SOL (0.5–1 Hz). Nyquist analysis, reflecting the influence of cross‐bridge kinetics on power generation, corroborated these results. The similar capacity for power generation by DDF and SDF versus lower for SOL, and the faster frequency at which this power was realized in DDF and SDF fibers, are largely explained by the fast myosin heavy chain isoform content in each muscle. Contractile function of DDF and SDF as power absorbers and generators, respectively, during locomotion may therefore be more dependent on their fiber architectural arrangement than on the physiological properties of their muscle fibers. PMID:25293602

  2. In Vivo and In Silico Investigation Into Mechanisms of Frequency Dependence of Repolarization Alternans in Human Ventricular Cardiomyocytes

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Xin; Bueno-Orovio, Alfonso; Orini, Michele; Hanson, Ben; Hayward, Martin; Taggart, Peter; Lambiase, Pier D.; Burrage, Kevin

    2016-01-01

    Rationale: Repolarization alternans (RA) are associated with arrhythmogenesis. Animal studies have revealed potential mechanisms, but human-focused studies are needed. RA generation and frequency dependence may be determined by cell-to-cell variability in protein expression, which is regulated by genetic and external factors. Objective: To characterize in vivo RA in human and to investigate in silico using human models, the ionic mechanisms underlying the frequency-dependent differences in RA behavior identified in vivo. Methods and Results: In vivo electrograms were acquired at 240 sites covering the epicardium of 41 patients at 6 cycle lengths (600–350 ms). In silico investigations were conducted using a population of biophysically detailed human models incorporating variability in protein expression and calibrated using in vivo recordings. Both in silico and in vivo, 2 types of RA were identified, with Fork- and Eye-type restitution curves, based on RA persistence or disappearance, respectively, at fast pacing rates. In silico simulations show that RA are strongly correlated with fluctuations in sarcoplasmic reticulum calcium, because of strong release and weak reuptake. Large L-type calcium current conductance is responsible for RA disappearance at fast frequencies in Eye-type (30% larger in Eye-type versus Fork-type; P<0.01), because of sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca2+ ATPase pump potentiation caused by frequency-induced increase in intracellular calcium. Large Na+/Ca2+ exchanger current is the main driver in translating Ca2+ fluctuations into RA. Conclusions: In human in vivo and in silico, 2 types of RA are identified, with RA persistence/disappearance as frequency increases. In silico, L-type calcium current and Na+/Ca2+ exchanger current determine RA human cell-to-cell differences through intracellular and sarcoplasmic reticulum calcium regulation. PMID:26602864

  3. Frequency-dependent effects of sine-wave cranial transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation in human subjects.

    PubMed

    Taylor, D N; Lee, C T

    1992-01-01

    In a double-blind protocol, ninety healthy volunteer subjects received 30 minutes of constant current sine-wave cranial transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS) of 5 Hertz (Hz), 100 Hz, or 2000 Hz frequency (current maintained below .5 mA for safety), placebo TENS, or no treatment. The five groups were compared on pre- to posttreatment changes in blood pressure, heart rate, peripheral temperature, and anxiety. Analysis showed significant reductions in systolic and diastolic blood pressure and heart rate after 100 Hz cranial TENS as compared to the other groups. No other differences achieved significance. PMID:1357927

  4. Resistance to Change and Frequency of Response-Dependent Stimuli Uncorrelated with Reinforcement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Podlesnik, Christopher A.; Jimenez-Gomez, Corina; Ward, Ryan D.; Shahan, Timothy A.

    2009-01-01

    Stimuli uncorrelated with reinforcement have been shown to enhance response rates and resistance to disruption; however, the effects of different rates of stimulus presentations have not been assessed. In two experiments, we assessed the effects of adding different rates of response-dependent brief stimuli uncorrelated with primary reinforcement…

  5. The Severity, Frequency, and Variety of Crime in Heroin-Dependent Prisoners Enrolled in a Buprenorphine Clinical Trial

    PubMed Central

    Gordon, Michael S.; Kinlock, Timothy W.; Schwartz, Robert P.; Couvillion, Kathryn A.; O’Grady, Kevin E.

    2014-01-01

    Data were obtained on four dimensions of criminal activity (frequency, variety, severity, and income) from male and female prisoners (N = 200) with preincarceration heroin dependence who participated in a randomized clinical trial of buprenorphine treatment. The article examines the above-mentioned dimensions of crime and their relationships with demographic characteristics, substance use, legitimate employment, drug treatment episodes, and psychological problems. Results largely show several important similarities to results on previous prison inmate cohorts with histories of heroin addiction, although the present sample may have more of a tendency toward violent crime than earlier cohorts of heroin-dependent offenders. This study’s findings may have implications for the design of appropriate treatment interventions for prisoners with preincarceration heroin dependence that address not only substance use but also criminal activity. PMID:25392564

  6. Assessment of breadmaking performance of wheat flour dough by means of frequency dependent ultrasound

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Braunstein, D.; Page, J. H.; Strybulevych, A.; Peressini, D.; Scanlon, M. G.

    2012-12-01

    Technological performance of wheat flour varies among different wheat varieties. Gluten plays a key role within the solid phase of dough in the formation and the retention of gas bubbles during breadmaking. Rheological tests are usually performed to predict breadmaking potential. The aim here was to investigate the ability of ultrasound to discriminate wheat doughs based on breadmaking qualities. The ultimate goal is the development of an online quality control system currently unavailable in the baked goods industry, rendering this work innovative. Samples were prepared from a strong wheat flour, with one control sample and one added with inulin and distilled monoglycerides, producing doughs of distinct breadmaking quality. Doughs were subjected to density determination, elongation tests, and ultrasound analysis. The ultrasound tests were performed in the frequency range of 300 kHz - 6 MHz. Ultrasonic phase velocity increased with increasing frequency to about 2 MHz, becoming constant and then decreasing from 3 MHz for the control sample. Distinct differences in attenuation coefficient between the fibre-enriched and control doughs were observed. Ultrasound can potentially add to a better understanding of dough quality and can discriminate between doughs of contrasting properties.

  7. Reply to ``Comment on `Frequency-dependent dispersion in porous media' ''

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Valdés-Parada, Francisco J.; Alvarez-Ramirez, Jose

    2012-07-01

    In a recent paper [Valdés-Parada and Alvarez-Ramirez, Phys. Rev. EPLEEE81539-375510.1103/PhysRevE.84.031201 84, 031201 (2011)], we studied the passive transport of a solute in a rigid and homogeneous porous medium in the domain of frequency and obtained good agreement between upscaled and pore-scale results for several values of the frequency. This work was commented on by Davit and Quintard, who wrote about the closure problem in the Laplace domain and provided the correct definition of the dispersion coefficient. However, the obtention of the inverse Laplace transform is not always an easy (or even possible) task to perform. For this reason, in this Reply we show that the same result reached by Davit and Quintard can be obtained using integral equation formulations based on Green's functions without the need of the Laplace transform. In addition, we identify three time stages for the transport process and we point out that the derivations provided by Davit and Quintard are only valid once a pre-asymptotic stage has been reached in which there is a separation of characteristic length scales that allows treating volume averaged quantities as constants in space but not in time.

  8. Absolute photoacoustic thermometry in deep tissue.

    PubMed

    Yao, Junjie; Ke, Haixin; Tai, Stephen; Zhou, Yong; Wang, Lihong V

    2013-12-15

    Photoacoustic thermography is a promising tool for temperature measurement in deep tissue. Here we propose an absolute temperature measurement method based on the dual temperature dependences of the Grüneisen parameter and the speed of sound in tissue. By taking ratiometric measurements at two adjacent temperatures, we can eliminate the factors that are temperature irrelevant but difficult to correct for in deep tissue. To validate our method, absolute temperatures of blood-filled tubes embedded ~9 mm deep in chicken tissue were measured in a biologically relevant range from 28°C to 46°C. The temperature measurement accuracy was ~0.6°C. The results suggest that our method can be potentially used for absolute temperature monitoring in deep tissue during thermotherapy.

  9. Frequency-dependent streaming potential of porous media: Experimental measurement of Ottawa sand, Lochaline sand and quartz glass beads

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Glover, Paul; Walker, Emilie; Ruel, Jean; Yagout, Fuad

    2013-04-01

    High quality frequency-dependent streaming potential coefficient measurements have been made upon Ottawa sand, Lochaline sand and glass bead packs using a new apparatus that is based on an electro-magnetic drive. The apparatus operates in the range 1 Hz to 1 kHz with samples of 25.4mm diameter up to 150 mm long. The results have been analysed using theoretical models that are either (i) based upon vibrational mechanics, (ii) treat the geological material as a bundle of capillary tubes, or (iii) treat the material as a porous medium. In each case we have considered the real and imaginary parts of the complex streaming potential coefficient as well as its magnitude. It is clear from the results that the complex streaming potential coefficient does not follow a Debye-type behaviour, differing from the Debye-type behaviour most markedly for frequencies above the transition frequency. The best fit to all the data was provided by the Pride (1994) model and its simplification by Walker and Glover (2010), which is satisfying as this model was conceived for porous media rather than capillary tube bundles. Theory predicts that the transition frequency is related to the inverse square of the effective pore radius. Values for the transition frequency were derived from each of the models for each sample and were found to be in good agreement with those expected from the independently measured effective pore radius of each material. The fit to the Pride model for all four samples was also found to be consistent with the independently measured steady-state permeability, while the value of the streaming potential coefficient in the low-frequency limit was found to be in good agreement with steady-state streaming potential coefficient data measured using a steady-state streaming potential rig as well as the corpus of steady-state determinations for quartz-based samples existing in the literature.

  10. Using variable-frequency asymmetries to probe the magnetic field dependence of radial transport in a Malmberg-Penning trap

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eggleston, D. L.

    2009-03-01

    A new experimental technique is used to study the dependence of asymmetry-induced radial particle flux Γ on axial magnetic field B in a modified Malmberg-Penning trap. This dependence is complicated by the fact that B enters the physics in at least two places: in the asymmetry-induced first order radial drift velocity vr = Eθ/B and in the zeroth order azimuthal drift velocity vθ = Er/B. To separate these, we employ the hypothesis that the latter always enters the physics in the combination ω-lωR, where ωR = vθ/r is the column rotation frequency and ω and l are the asymmetry frequency and azimuthal mode number, respectively. Points where ω-lωR = 0 are then selected from a Γ vs r vs ω data set, thus insuring that any function of this combination is constant. When the selected flux Γsel is plotted versus the density gradient, a roughly linear dependence is observed, showing that this selected flux is diffusive. This linear dependence is roughly independent of the bias of the center wire in our trap φcw. Since in our experiment ωR is proportional to φcw, this latter point shows that our technique has successfully removed any dependence on ωR and its derivatives, thus confirming our hypothesis. The slope of a least-squares fitted line through the Γsel vs density gradient data then gives the diffusion coefficient D0 under the condition ω-lωR = 0. Varying the magnetic field, we find D0 is proportional to B-1.33±0.05, a scaling that does not match any theory we know. These findings are then used to constrain the form of the empirical flux equation. It may be possible to extend this technique to give the functional dependence of the flux on ω-lωR.

  11. Transverse wavevector dependent and frequency dependent dielectric function, magnetic permittivity and generalized conductivity of interaction site fluids: MD calculations for the TIP4P water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Omelyan, Igor P.

    The dielectric properties of interaction site models of polar fluids may be investigated in a computer experiment using not only the charge fluctuations but also correlations corresponding to a current of moving charges. This current may be associated with a generalized dynamical polarization or separated into electric and magnetic components. The first approach deals with the dielectric permittivity related to a generalized conductivity, whereas the second leads to the functions describing polarization and magnetization fluctuations separately. The latter functions are only the source for calculating the magnetic susceptibility for a system of interaction sites. The transverse wavevector dependent and frequency dependent dielectric functions and magnetic susceptibility are evaluated for the TIP4P water model over a very wide scale of wavelengths and frequencies using molecular dynamics simulations. The transverse part of the dielectric functions may differ drastically from their longitudinal component. A relationship between the two approaches is discussed and the limiting transition to the static dielectric constant in the infinite-wavelength regime is analysed. The propagation of transverse electromagnetic waves in TIP4P water is considered.

  12. Multivariate analysis of spectral data with frequency shifts: application to temperature dependent infrared spectra of peptides and proteins.

    PubMed

    Kubelka, Jan

    2013-10-15

    Changes in the amide I' IR band with temperature are widely used for elucidation of peptide and protein conformational transitions and folding equilibria. Since amide I' exhibits inherent temperature dependent frequency shifts, standard mixture analysis methods are not applicable. To reliably extract the true thermodynamic states, frequency shifts of the component spectra must be explicitly taken into account. For this purpose, new methods termed shifted multivariate spectra analysis (SMSA) and parametric SMSA (pSMSA) are developed and tested on sets of synthetic data as well as real experimental amide I' spectra for thermal unfolding of an α-helical peptide. SMSA uses no specific functional form for the transition (soft modeling), while the parametric variant (pSMSA) assumes a thermodynamic model (hard modeling). The implementation is optimized specifically for amide I' IR in that it takes advantage of known, linear dependence of the frequencies as well as intensities on temperature. The synthetic data tests demonstrate the robustness of the methods; the initial test parameters are recovered with a high degree of reliability, although the nonparameteric SMSA is subject to the rotational ambiguity. Application to the peptide experimental amide I' data illustrates additional complications encountered with the analysis of real systems, such as correction for the side-chain spectra and interference of spectral shape changes. Nevertheless, the results are in excellent agreement with the independent control using circular dichroism (CD) data. The general applicability and limitations of the methods are discussed along with potential extensions.

  13. Frequency dependence in a liquid's complex refractive index measured with infrared spectroradiometry.

    PubMed

    McKeown, W

    1999-10-20

    A laboratory measurement of wavelength dependence in the real n(lambda) and the imaginary k(lambda) parts of a liquid's complex refractive index is presented. A known heat flow through the liquid-gas interface is generated while a high-resolution infrared radiance spectrum is taken simultaneously. Wavelength variations of the absorption coefficient allow the emerging radiation to sense subsurface temperature gradients. This technique is valid only at intervals at which the absorption coefficient is sufficiently low to allow subsurface temperatures to be measured. Knowledge of a liquid's thermal conductivity, specific heat, and light transmission speed is required. Measurement error depends on radiance measurement error and the minimization of atmospheric parameters.

  14. Bayesian analysis of size-dependent overwinter mortality from size-frequency distributions.

    PubMed

    Carlson, Stephanie M; Kottas, Athanasios; Mangel, Marc

    2010-04-01

    Understanding the relationship between body size and mortality is an important problem in ecology. We introduce a novel Bayesian method that can be used to quantify this relationship when the only data available are size-frequency distributions of unmarked individuals measured at two successive time periods. The inverse Gaussian distribution provides a parametric form for the statistical model development, and we use Markov chain Monte Carlo methods to evaluate posterior distributions. We illustrate the method using data on threespine stickleback (Gasterosteus aculeatus) collected before and after the winter season in an Alaskan lake. Our method allows us to compare the intensity of size-biased mortality in different years. We discuss generalizations that include more complicated relationships between size and survival as well as time-series modeling.

  15. Frequency-dependent viscous flow in channels with fractal rough surfaces

    SciTech Connect

    Cortis, A.; Berryman, J.G.

    2010-05-01

    The viscous dynamic permeability of some fractal-like channels is studied. For our particular class of geometries, the ratio of the pore surface area-to-volume tends to {infinity} (but has a finite cutoff), and the universal scaling of the dynamic permeability, k({omega}), needs modification. We performed accurate numerical computations of k({omega}) for channels characterized by deterministic fractal wall surfaces, for a broad range of fractal dimensions. The pertinent scaling model for k({omega}) introduces explicitly the fractal dimension of the wall surface for a range of frequencies across the transition between viscous and inertia dominated regimes. The new model provides excellent agreement with our numerical simulations.

  16. Pressureless Mechanical Induction of Stem Cell Differentiation Is Dose and Frequency Dependent

    PubMed Central

    Fuhrer, Roland; Hofmann, Sandra; Hild, Nora; Vetsch, Jolanda R.; Herrmann, Inge K.; Grass, Robert N.; Stark, Wendelin J.

    2013-01-01

    Movement is a key characteristic of higher organisms. During mammalian embryogenesis fetal movements have been found critical to normal tissue development. On the single cell level, however, our current understanding of stem cell differentiation concentrates on inducing factors through cytokine mediated biochemical signaling. In this study, human mesenchymal stem cells and chondrogenesis were investigated as representative examples. We show that pressureless, soft mechanical stimulation precipitated by the cyclic deformation of soft, magnetic hydrogel scaffolds with an external magnetic field, can induce chondrogenesis in mesenchymal stem cells without any additional chondrogenesis transcription factors (TGF-β1 and dexamethasone). A systematic study on the role of movement frequency revealed a classical dose-response relationship for human mesenchymal stem cells differentiation towards cartilage using mere mechanical stimulation. This effect could even be synergistically amplified when exogenous chondrogenic factors and movement were combined. PMID:24278427

  17. Dependence of vestibular reactions on frequency of action of sign-variable accelerations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lapayev, E. V.; Vorobyev, O. A.; Ivanov, V. V.

    1980-01-01

    It was revealed that during the tests with continuous action of sign variable Coriolis acceleration the development of kinetosis was proportionate to the time of head inclinations in the range of 1 to 4 seconds while illusions of rocking in sagittal plane was more expressed in fast inclinations. The obtained data provided the evidence of sufficient dependence of vestibulovegetative and vestibulosensory reactions on the period of repetition of sign variable Coriolis acceleration.

  18. Frequency-Dependent Seismic Waves in Fluid-Saturated Fractured Rock

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Korneev, V. A.; Goloshubin, G.

    2015-12-01

    Fractures are the natural and essential elements of rock. Fracture systems are the most important features that define rock permeability and strength, as well as their anisotropy properties. Recent advancement in induced fracturing is a core part of the gas/oil shale technology, where fracture monitoring and control became a special topic of interest. Krauklis wave (K-wave) is the result of interaction between a fluid mass and elasticity of fracture walls, and it propagates primarily along the fracture systems in the fluid. At the fracture tips and fracture intersections it partially converts into the body waves. It is quite clear that incorporation of K-waves in a theory of wave propagation in fractured rock is one of the most important problems to solve for understanding of their seismic properties. One of the most fundamental properties of fractured rock is a fractal fracture distribution and it is rarely, if ever, taken into account in existing wave propagation theories. However, this property exists on a widest variety of scales and in particular reveals itself in a form of Gutenberg-Richter Law experimentally proven, starting from laboratory measurements and up to the global seismicity. We computed P and S-wave velocities of the rock containing fluid (and proppant) filled fractures, considering the effect of extremely slow and dispersive wave propagation within individual fractures. This was made possible by introducing the concept of "effective fracture-wave volume," and by evaluating the elastic constants of rock containing a complex, fractal network of fractures. These velocities were used to compute seismic waves reflected normally from a fractured reservoir. We demonstrate that by taking into account the Krauklis wave phenomenon for the fractally distributed fluid-filled fractures, it is possible to explain the observed low-frequency anomalies above the underground natural reservoirs. These anomalies include increase of amplitude and a phase delay of

  19. Perceptual Qualities of Ethanol Depend on Concentration, and Variation in These Percepts Associates with Drinking Frequency

    PubMed Central

    Nolden, Alissa A.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Ethanol, the pharmaceutically active ingredient in all alcoholic beverages, elicits multiple percepts including sweet, bitter, drying, and burning. However, quality-specific perceptual dose-response functions have not been previously reported. Also, individual differences in ethanol perception may associate with differences in alcoholic beverage use. Here, we describe the chemosensory profile of ethanol across concentrations in a convenience sample of mixed-age adults; secondarily, we explore whether individual differences in various qualities from ethanol associate with alcohol use behaviors. Methods Participants (n=100, 33 men) aged 21 to 55 (mean 33 years) tasted ethanol in water (4, 8, 16, 32, and 48 % v/v) and rated sweetness, bitterness, drying, and burning/tingling on four general Labeled Magnitude Scales. Demographic question and alcohol use measures (years drinking and reported frequency of drinking occasions) were also collected. Results Intensity of most qualities increased as a function of ethanol concentration, although the dominant sensation differed with concentration. The dominant sensation for 8 and 16 % ethanol was bitterness (7.4±1.0; 13.5±1.4), whereas for 32 and 48 % ethanol, burning/tingling was the dominant sensation (29.7±2.1; 44.7±2.4). Variation in quality-specific intensities of sampled ethanol explained variability in the reported intake frequency for beer, wine, straight spirits, and number of drinking occasions. The number of years reported drinking (grand mean 10.5±0.8) was not significantly associated with perceptual ratings for sampled ethanol. Conclusions In a convenience sample of mixed-aged adults, the sensations from suprathreshold ethanol varied by concentration: bitterness dominated at lower concentrations, while burn dominated at higher concentrations. Exploratory analyses also suggest that differences in chemosensory responses across participants may associate with measures of alcohol use.

  20. Perceptual Qualities of Ethanol Depend on Concentration, and Variation in These Percepts Associates with Drinking Frequency

    PubMed Central

    Nolden, Alissa A.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Ethanol, the pharmaceutically active ingredient in all alcoholic beverages, elicits multiple percepts including sweet, bitter, drying, and burning. However, quality-specific perceptual dose-response functions have not been previously reported. Also, individual differences in ethanol perception may associate with differences in alcoholic beverage use. Here, we describe the chemosensory profile of ethanol across concentrations in a convenience sample of mixed-age adults; secondarily, we explore whether individual differences in various qualities from ethanol associate with alcohol use behaviors. Methods Participants (n=100, 33 men) aged 21 to 55 (mean 33 years) tasted ethanol in water (4, 8, 16, 32, and 48 % v/v) and rated sweetness, bitterness, drying, and burning/tingling on four general Labeled Magnitude Scales. Demographic question and alcohol use measures (years drinking and reported frequency of drinking occasions) were also collected. Results Intensity of most qualities increased as a function of ethanol concentration, although the dominant sensation differed with concentration. The dominant sensation for 8 and 16 % ethanol was bitterness (7.4±1.0; 13.5±1.4), whereas for 32 and 48 % ethanol, burning/tingling was the dominant sensation (29.7±2.1; 44.7±2.4). Variation in quality-specific intensities of sampled ethanol explained variability in the reported intake frequency for beer, wine, straight spirits, and number of drinking occasions. The number of years reported drinking (grand mean 10.5±0.8) was not significantly associated with perceptual ratings for sampled ethanol. Conclusions In a convenience sample of mixed-aged adults, the sensations from suprathreshold ethanol varied by concentration: bitterness dominated at lower concentrations, while burn dominated at higher concentrations. Exploratory analyses also suggest that differences in chemosensory responses across participants may associate with measures of alcohol use. PMID:27594968