Science.gov

Sample records for absolute high-resolution rate

  1. High-resolution absolute position detection using a multiple grating

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schilling, Ulrich; Drabarek, Pawel; Kuehnle, Goetz; Tiziani, Hans J.

    1996-08-01

    To control electro-mechanical engines, high-resolution linear and rotary encoders are needed. Interferometric methods (grating interferometers) promise a resolution of a few nanometers, but have an ambiguity range of some microns. Incremental encoders increase the absolute measurement range by counting the signal periods starting from a defined initial point. In many applications, however, it is not possible to move to this initial point, so that absolute encoders have to be used. Absolute encoders generally have a scale with two or more tracks placed next to each other. Therefore, they use a two-dimensional grating structure to measure a one-dimensional position. We present a new method, which uses a one-dimensional structure to determine the position in one dimension. It is based on a grating with a large grating period up to some millimeters, having the same diffraction efficiency in several predefined diffraction orders (multiple grating). By combining the phase signals of the different diffraction orders, it is possible to establish the position in an absolute range of the grating period with a resolution like incremental grating interferometers. The principal functionality was demonstrated by applying the multiple grating in a heterodyne grating interferometer. The heterodyne frequency was generated by a frequency modulated laser in an unbalanced interferometer. In experimental measurements an absolute range of 8 mm was obtained while achieving a resolution of 10 nm.

  2. Fingerprints of flower absolutes using supercritical fluid chromatography hyphenated with high resolution mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Santerre, Cyrille; Vallet, Nadine; Touboul, David

    2018-06-02

    Supercritical fluid chromatography hyphenated with high resolution mass spectrometry (SFC-HRMS) was developed for fingerprint analysis of different flower absolutes commonly used in cosmetics field, especially in perfumes. Supercritical fluid chromatography-atmospheric pressure photoionization-high resolution mass spectrometry (SFC-APPI-HRMS) technique was employed to identify the components of the fingerprint. The samples were separated with a porous graphitic carbon (PGC) Hypercarb™ column (100 mm × 2.1 mm, 3 μm) by gradient elution using supercritical CO 2 and ethanol (0.0-20.0 min (2-30% B), 20.0-25.0 min (30% B), 25.0-26.0 min (30-2% B) and 26.0-30.0 min (2% B)) as mobile phase at a flow rate of 1.5 mL/min. In order to compare the SFC fingerprints between five different flower absolutes: Jasminum grandiflorum absolutes, Jasminum sambac absolutes, Narcissus jonquilla absolutes, Narcissus poeticus absolutes, Lavandula angustifolia absolutes from different suppliers and batches, the chemometric procedure including principal component analysis (PCA) was applied to classify the samples according to their genus and their species. Consistent results were obtained to show that samples could be successfully discriminated. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. High resolution study of magnetic ordering at absolute zero.

    PubMed

    Lee, M; Husmann, A; Rosenbaum, T F; Aeppli, G

    2004-05-07

    High resolution pressure measurements in the zero-temperature limit provide a unique opportunity to study the behavior of strongly interacting, itinerant electrons with coupled spin and charge degrees of freedom. Approaching the precision that has become the hallmark of experiments on classical critical phenomena, we characterize the quantum critical behavior of the model, elemental antiferromagnet chromium, lightly doped with vanadium. We resolve the sharp doubling of the Hall coefficient at the quantum critical point and trace the dominating effects of quantum fluctuations up to surprisingly high temperatures.

  4. High Resolution, High Frame Rate Video Technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    Papers and working group summaries presented at the High Resolution, High Frame Rate Video (HHV) Workshop are compiled. HHV system is intended for future use on the Space Shuttle and Space Station Freedom. The Workshop was held for the dual purpose of: (1) allowing potential scientific users to assess the utility of the proposed system for monitoring microgravity science experiments; and (2) letting technical experts from industry recommend improvements to the proposed near-term HHV system. The following topics are covered: (1) State of the art in the video system performance; (2) Development plan for the HHV system; (3) Advanced technology for image gathering, coding, and processing; (4) Data compression applied to HHV; (5) Data transmission networks; and (6) Results of the users' requirements survey conducted by NASA.

  5. High Resolution Measurement of the Glycolytic Rate

    PubMed Central

    Bittner, Carla X.; Loaiza, Anitsi; Ruminot, Iván; Larenas, Valeria; Sotelo-Hitschfeld, Tamara; Gutiérrez, Robin; Córdova, Alex; Valdebenito, Rocío; Frommer, Wolf B.; Barros, L. Felipe

    2010-01-01

    The glycolytic rate is sensitive to physiological activity, hormones, stress, aging, and malignant transformation. Standard techniques to measure the glycolytic rate are based on radioactive isotopes, are not able to resolve single cells and have poor temporal resolution, limitations that hamper the study of energy metabolism in the brain and other organs. A new method is described in this article, which makes use of a recently developed FRET glucose nanosensor to measure the rate of glycolysis in single cells with high temporal resolution. Used in cultured astrocytes, the method showed for the first time that glycolysis can be activated within seconds by a combination of glutamate and K+, supporting a role for astrocytes in neurometabolic and neurovascular coupling in the brain. It was also possible to make a direct comparison of metabolism in neurons and astrocytes lying in close proximity, paving the way to a high-resolution characterization of brain energy metabolism. Single-cell glycolytic rates were also measured in fibroblasts, adipocytes, myoblasts, and tumor cells, showing higher rates for undifferentiated cells and significant metabolic heterogeneity within cell types. This method should facilitate the investigation of tissue metabolism at the single-cell level and is readily adaptable for high-throughput analysis. PMID:20890447

  6. Absolute shape measurements using high-resolution optoelectronic holography methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Furlong, Cosme; Pryputniewicz, Ryszard J.

    2000-01-01

    Characterization of surface shape and deformation is of primary importance in a number of testing and metrology applications related to the functionality, performance, and integrity of components. In this paper, a unique, compact, and versatile state-of-the-art fiber-optic-based optoelectronic holography (OEH) methodology is described. This description addresses apparatus and analysis algorithms, especially developed to perform measurements of both absolute surface shape and deformation. The OEH can be arranged in multiple configurations, which include the three-camera, three-illumination, and in-plane speckle correlation setups. With the OEH apparatus and analysis algorithms, absolute shape measurements can be made, using present setup, with a spatial resolution and accuracy of better than 30 and 10 micrometers , respectively, for volumes characterized by a 300-mm length. Optimizing the experimental setup and incorporating equipment, as it becomes available, having superior capabilities to the ones utilized in the present investigations can further increase resolution and accuracy in the measurements. The particular feature of this methodology is its capability to export the measurements data directly into CAD environments for subsequent processing, analysis, and definition of CAD/CAE models.

  7. Plant respirometer enables high resolution of oxygen consumption rates

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Foster, D. L.

    1966-01-01

    Plant respirometer permits high resolution of relatively small changes in the rate of oxygen consumed by plant organisms undergoing oxidative metabolism in a nonphotosynthetic state. The two stage supply and monitoring system operates by a differential pressure transducer and provides a calibrated output by digital or analog signals.

  8. Absolute Effective Area of the Chandra High-Resolution Mirror Assembly

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schwartz, D. A.; David, L. P.; Donnelly, R. H.; Edgar, R. J.; Gaetz, T. J.; Jerius, D.; Juda, M.; Kellogg, E. M.; McNamara, B. R.; Dewey, D.

    2000-01-01

    The Chandra X-ray Observatory was launched in July 1999, and is returning exquisite sub-arcsecond x-ray images of star groups, supernova remnants, galaxies, quasars, and clusters of galaxies. In addition to being the premier X-ray observatory in terms of angular and spectral resolution, Chandra is the best calibrated X-ray facility ever flown. We discuss here the calibration of the effective area of the High Resolution Mirror Assembly. Because we do not know the absolute X-ray flux density of any celestial source, this must be based primarily on ground measurements and on modeling. In particular, we must remove the calibrated modeled responses of the detectors and gratings to obtain the mirror area. For celestial sources which may be assumed to have smoothly varying spectra, such as the Crab Nebula, we may verify the continuity of the area calibration as a function of energy. This is of significance in energy regions such as the Ir M-edges, or near the critical grazing angle cutoff of the various mirror shells.

  9. Massively parallel digital high resolution melt for rapid and absolutely quantitative sequence profiling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Velez, Daniel Ortiz; Mack, Hannah; Jupe, Julietta; Hawker, Sinead; Kulkarni, Ninad; Hedayatnia, Behnam; Zhang, Yang; Lawrence, Shelley; Fraley, Stephanie I.

    2017-02-01

    In clinical diagnostics and pathogen detection, profiling of complex samples for low-level genotypes represents a significant challenge. Advances in speed, sensitivity, and extent of multiplexing of molecular pathogen detection assays are needed to improve patient care. We report the development of an integrated platform enabling the identification of bacterial pathogen DNA sequences in complex samples in less than four hours. The system incorporates a microfluidic chip and instrumentation to accomplish universal PCR amplification, High Resolution Melting (HRM), and machine learning within 20,000 picoliter scale reactions, simultaneously. Clinically relevant concentrations of bacterial DNA molecules are separated by digitization across 20,000 reactions and amplified with universal primers targeting the bacterial 16S gene. Amplification is followed by HRM sequence fingerprinting in all reactions, simultaneously. The resulting bacteria-specific melt curves are identified by Support Vector Machine learning, and individual pathogen loads are quantified. The platform reduces reaction volumes by 99.995% and achieves a greater than 200-fold increase in dynamic range of detection compared to traditional PCR HRM approaches. Type I and II error rates are reduced by 99% and 100% respectively, compared to intercalating dye-based digital PCR (dPCR) methods. This technology could impact a number of quantitative profiling applications, especially infectious disease diagnostics.

  10. Cheetah: A high frame rate, high resolution SWIR image camera

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neys, Joel; Bentell, Jonas; O'Grady, Matt; Vermeiren, Jan; Colin, Thierry; Hooylaerts, Peter; Grietens, Bob

    2008-10-01

    A high resolution, high frame rate InGaAs based image sensor and associated camera has been developed. The sensor and the camera are capable of recording and delivering more than 1700 full 640x512pixel frames per second. The FPA utilizes a low lag CTIA current integrator in each pixel, enabling integration times shorter than one microsecond. On-chip logics allows for four different sub windows to be read out simultaneously at even higher rates. The spectral sensitivity of the FPA is situated in the SWIR range [0.9-1.7 μm] and can be further extended into the Visible and NIR range. The Cheetah camera has max 16 GB of on-board memory to store the acquired images and transfer the data over a Gigabit Ethernet connection to the PC. The camera is also equipped with a full CameralinkTM interface to directly stream the data to a frame grabber or dedicated image processing unit. The Cheetah camera is completely under software control.

  11. The absolute radiometric calibration of the advanced very high resolution radiometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Slater, P. N.; Teillet, P. M.; Ding, Y.

    1988-01-01

    The need for independent, redundant absolute radiometric calibration methods is discussed with reference to the Thematic Mapper. Uncertainty requirements for absolute calibration of between 0.5 and 4 percent are defined based on the accuracy of reflectance retrievals at an agricultural site. It is shown that even very approximate atmospheric corrections can reduce the error in reflectance retrieval to 0.02 over the reflectance range 0 to 0.4.

  12. Dynamic frequency-domain interferometer for absolute distance measurements with high resolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weng, Jidong; Liu, Shenggang; Ma, Heli; Tao, Tianjiong; Wang, Xiang; Liu, Cangli; Tan, Hua

    2014-11-01

    A unique dynamic frequency-domain interferometer for absolute distance measurement has been developed recently. This paper presents the working principle of the new interferometric system, which uses a photonic crystal fiber to transmit the wide-spectrum light beams and a high-speed streak camera or frame camera to record the interference stripes. Preliminary measurements of harmonic vibrations of a speaker, driven by a radio, and the changes in the tip clearance of a rotating gear wheel show that this new type of interferometer has the ability to perform absolute distance measurements both with high time- and distance-resolution.

  13. Superfast high-resolution absolute 3D recovery of a stabilized flapping flight process.

    PubMed

    Li, Beiwen; Zhang, Song

    2017-10-30

    Scientific research of a stabilized flapping flight process (e.g. hovering) has been of great interest to a variety of fields including biology, aerodynamics, and bio-inspired robotics. Different from the current passive photogrammetry based methods, the digital fringe projection (DFP) technique has the capability of performing dense superfast (e.g. kHz) 3D topological reconstructions with the projection of defocused binary patterns, yet it is still a challenge to measure a flapping flight process with the presence of rapid flapping wings. This paper presents a novel absolute 3D reconstruction method for a stabilized flapping flight process. Essentially, the slow motion parts (e.g. body) and the fast-motion parts (e.g. wings) are segmented and separately reconstructed with phase shifting techniques and the Fourier transform, respectively. The topological relations between the wings and the body are utilized to ensure absolute 3D reconstruction. Experiments demonstrate the success of our computational framework by testing a flapping wing robot at different flapping speeds.

  14. High Resolution Mesoscale Weather Data Improvement to Spatial Effects for Dose-Rate Contour Plot Predictions

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-03-01

    time. This is a very powerful tool in determining fine spatial resolution , as boundary conditions are not only updated at every timestep, but the ...HIGH RESOLUTION MESOSCALE WEATHER DATA IMPROVEMENT TO SPATIAL EFFECTS FOR DOSE-RATE CONTOUR PLOT PREDICTIONS THESIS Christopher P...11 1 HIGH RESOLUTION MESOSCALE WEATHER DATA IMPROVEMENT TO SPATIAL EFFECTS FOR DOSE-RATE CONTOUR PLOT

  15. High resolution, high rate x-ray spectrometer

    DOEpatents

    Goulding, F.S.; Landis, D.A.

    1983-07-14

    It is an object of the invention to provide a pulse processing system for use with detected signals of a wide dynamic range which is capable of very high counting rates, with high throughput, with excellent energy resolution and a high signal-to-noise ratio. It is a further object to provide a pulse processing system wherein the fast channel resolving time is quite short and substantially independent of the energy of the detected signals. Another object is to provide a pulse processing system having a pile-up rejector circuit which will allow the maximum number of non-interfering pulses to be passed to the output. It is also an object of the invention to provide new methods for generating substantially symmetrically triangular pulses for use in both the main and fast channels of a pulse processing system.

  16. Elevated rates of gold mining in the Amazon revealed through high-resolution monitoring.

    PubMed

    Asner, Gregory P; Llactayo, William; Tupayachi, Raul; Luna, Ernesto Ráez

    2013-11-12

    Gold mining has rapidly increased in western Amazonia, but the rates and ecological impacts of mining remain poorly known and potentially underestimated. We combined field surveys, airborne mapping, and high-resolution satellite imaging to assess road- and river-based gold mining in the Madre de Dios region of the Peruvian Amazon from 1999 to 2012. In this period, the geographic extent of gold mining increased 400%. The average annual rate of forest loss as a result of gold mining tripled in 2008 following the global economic recession, closely associated with increased gold prices. Small clandestine operations now comprise more than half of all gold mining activities throughout the region. These rates of gold mining are far higher than previous estimates that were based on traditional satellite mapping techniques. Our results prove that gold mining is growing more rapidly than previously thought, and that high-resolution monitoring approaches are required to accurately quantify human impacts on tropical forests.

  17. Elevated rates of gold mining in the Amazon revealed through high-resolution monitoring

    PubMed Central

    Asner, Gregory P.; Llactayo, William; Tupayachi, Raul; Luna, Ernesto Ráez

    2013-01-01

    Gold mining has rapidly increased in western Amazonia, but the rates and ecological impacts of mining remain poorly known and potentially underestimated. We combined field surveys, airborne mapping, and high-resolution satellite imaging to assess road- and river-based gold mining in the Madre de Dios region of the Peruvian Amazon from 1999 to 2012. In this period, the geographic extent of gold mining increased 400%. The average annual rate of forest loss as a result of gold mining tripled in 2008 following the global economic recession, closely associated with increased gold prices. Small clandestine operations now comprise more than half of all gold mining activities throughout the region. These rates of gold mining are far higher than previous estimates that were based on traditional satellite mapping techniques. Our results prove that gold mining is growing more rapidly than previously thought, and that high-resolution monitoring approaches are required to accurately quantify human impacts on tropical forests. PMID:24167281

  18. Cryogenic, high-resolution x-ray detector with high count rate capability

    DOEpatents

    Frank, Matthias; Mears, Carl A.; Labov, Simon E.; Hiller, Larry J.; Barfknecht, Andrew T.

    2003-03-04

    A cryogenic, high-resolution X-ray detector with high count rate capability has been invented. The new X-ray detector is based on superconducting tunnel junctions (STJs), and operates without thermal stabilization at or below 500 mK. The X-ray detector exhibits good resolution (.about.5-20 eV FWHM) for soft X-rays in the keV region, and is capable of counting at count rates of more than 20,000 counts per second (cps). Simple, FET-based charge amplifiers, current amplifiers, or conventional spectroscopy shaping amplifiers can provide the electronic readout of this X-ray detector.

  19. Data compression techniques applied to high resolution high frame rate video technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hartz, William G.; Alexovich, Robert E.; Neustadter, Marc S.

    1989-01-01

    An investigation is presented of video data compression applied to microgravity space experiments using High Resolution High Frame Rate Video Technology (HHVT). An extensive survey of methods of video data compression, described in the open literature, was conducted. The survey examines compression methods employing digital computing. The results of the survey are presented. They include a description of each method and assessment of image degradation and video data parameters. An assessment is made of present and near term future technology for implementation of video data compression in high speed imaging system. Results of the assessment are discussed and summarized. The results of a study of a baseline HHVT video system, and approaches for implementation of video data compression, are presented. Case studies of three microgravity experiments are presented and specific compression techniques and implementations are recommended.

  20. High-resolution motion-compensated imaging photoplethysmography for remote heart rate monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chung, Audrey; Wang, Xiao Yu; Amelard, Robert; Scharfenberger, Christian; Leong, Joanne; Kulinski, Jan; Wong, Alexander; Clausi, David A.

    2015-03-01

    We present a novel non-contact photoplethysmographic (PPG) imaging system based on high-resolution video recordings of ambient reflectance of human bodies that compensates for body motion and takes advantage of skin erythema fluctuations to improve measurement reliability for the purpose of remote heart rate monitoring. A single measurement location for recording the ambient reflectance is automatically identified on an individual, and the motion for the location is determined over time via measurement location tracking. Based on the determined motion information motion-compensated reflectance measurements at different wavelengths for the measurement location can be acquired, thus providing more reliable measurements for the same location on the human over time. The reflectance measurement is used to determine skin erythema fluctuations over time, resulting in the capture of a PPG signal with a high signal-to-noise ratio. To test the efficacy of the proposed system, a set of experiments involving human motion in a front-facing position were performed under natural ambient light. The experimental results demonstrated that skin erythema fluctuations can achieve noticeably improved average accuracy in heart rate measurement when compared to previously proposed non-contact PPG imaging systems.

  1. High resolution, high frame rate video technology development plan and the near-term system conceptual design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ziemke, Robert A.

    1990-01-01

    The objective of the High Resolution, High Frame Rate Video Technology (HHVT) development effort is to provide technology advancements to remove constraints on the amount of high speed, detailed optical data recorded and transmitted for microgravity science and application experiments. These advancements will enable the development of video systems capable of high resolution, high frame rate video data recording, processing, and transmission. Techniques such as multichannel image scan, video parameter tradeoff, and the use of dual recording media were identified as methods of making the most efficient use of the near-term technology.

  2. High Resolution Gamma Ray Spectroscopy at MHz Counting Rates With LaBr3 Scintillators for Fusion Plasma Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nocente, M.; Tardocchi, M.; Olariu, A.; Olariu, S.; Pereira, R. C.; Chugunov, I. N.; Fernandes, A.; Gin, D. B.; Grosso, G.; Kiptily, V. G.; Neto, A.; Shevelev, A. E.; Silva, M.; Sousa, J.; Gorini, G.

    2013-04-01

    High resolution γ-ray spectroscopy measurements at MHz counting rates were carried out at nuclear accelerators, combining a LaBr 3(Ce) detector with dedicated hardware and software solutions based on digitization and off-line analysis. Spectra were measured at counting rates up to 4 MHz, with little or no degradation of the energy resolution, adopting a pile up rejection algorithm. The reported results represent a step forward towards the final goal of high resolution γ-ray spectroscopy measurements on a burning plasma device.

  3. Determination of the absolute configuration of 2-hydroxyglutaric acid and 5-oxoproline in urine samples by high-resolution NMR spectroscopy in the presence of chiral lanthanide complexes.

    PubMed

    Bal, Dominika; Gradowska, Wanda; Gryff-Keller, Adam

    2002-06-15

    Determination of the absolute configuration of some metabolites in body fluids is important for the diagnosis of some inborn errors of metabolism. Presently available methods of such determinations are tedious and usually require highly specialized instrumentation. In this work, an alternative method, based on high-resolution nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy in the presence of the chiral lanthanide shift reagent as an auxiliary additive, has been proposed (NMR/LSR). The method involves the lineshape analysis of a chosen multiplet of the one-dimensional 1H NMR spectrum or application of the two-dimensional 1H-13C correlation spectroscopy (HSQC). In order to confirm the resonance assignments and to boost the signal-noise ratio, the addition of an amount of racemic analyte to the urine sample is recommended. The entire procedure is simple in application and demands minimal or no preprocessing of urine samples. The effectiveness of the method has been confirmed by finding the expected forms of 2-hydroxyglutaric acid and 5-oxoproline in the urine samples of an independently diagnosed patient with 2-D-hydroxyglutaric aciduria and 5-L-oxoprolinuria, respectively.

  4. Determination of atmospheric moisture structure and infrared cooling rates from high resolution MAMS radiance data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Menzel, W. Paul; Moeller, Christopher C.; Smith, William L.

    1991-01-01

    This program has applied Multispectral Atmospheric Mapping Sensor (MAMS) high resolution data to the problem of monitoring atmospheric quantities of moisture and radiative flux at small spatial scales. MAMS, with 100-m horizontal resolution in its four infrared channels, was developed to study small scale atmospheric moisture and surface thermal variability, especially as related to the development of clouds, precipitation, and severe storms. High-resolution Interferometer Sounder (HIS) data has been used to develop a high spectral resolution retrieval algorithm for producing vertical profiles of atmospheric temperature and moisture. The results of this program are summarized and a list of publications resulting from this contract is presented. Selected publications are attached as an appendix.

  5. Development of a High-Resolution Laser Absorption Spectroscopy Method with Application to the Determination of Absolute Concentration of Gaseous Elemental Mercury in Air.

    PubMed

    Srivastava, Abneesh; Hodges, Joseph T

    2018-06-05

    Isotope dilution-cold-vapor-inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ID-CV-ICPMS) has become the primary standard for measurement of gaseous elemental mercury (GEM) mass concentration. However, quantitative mass spectrometry is challenging for several reasons including (1) the need for isotopic spiking with a standard reference material, (2) the requirement for bias-free passive sampling protocols, (3) the need for stable mass spectrometry interface design, and (4) the time and cost involved for gas sampling, sample processing, and instrument calibration. Here, we introduce a high-resolution laser absorption spectroscopy method that eliminates the need for sample-specific calibration standards or detailed analysis of sample treatment losses. This technique involves a tunable, single-frequency laser absorption spectrometer that measures isotopically resolved spectra of elemental mercury (Hg) spectra of 6 1 S 0 ← 6 3 P 1 intercombination transition near λ = 253.7 nm. Measured spectra are accurately modeled from first-principles using the Beer-Lambert law and Voigt line profiles combined with literature values for line positions, line shape parameters, and the spontaneous emission Einstein coefficient to obtain GEM mass concentration values. We present application of this method for the measurement of the equilibrium concentration of mercury vapor near room temperature. Three closed systems are considered: two-phase mixtures of liquid Hg and its vapor and binary two-phase mixtures of Hg-air and Hg-N 2 near atmospheric pressure. Within the experimental relative standard uncertainty, 0.9-1.5% congruent values of the equilibrium Hg vapor concentration are obtained for the Hg-only, Hg-air, Hg-N 2 systems, in confirmation with thermodynamic predictions. We also discuss detection limits and the potential of the present technique to serve as an absolute primary standard for measurements of gas-phase mercury concentration and isotopic composition.

  6. THE ABSOLUTE RATE OF LGRB FORMATION

    SciTech Connect

    Graham, J. F.; Schady, P.

    2016-06-01

    We estimate the long-duration gamma-ray burst (LGRB) progenitor rate using our recent work on the effects of environmental metallically on LGRB formation in concert with supernovae (SNe) statistics via an approach patterned loosely off the Drake equation. Beginning with the cosmic star formation history, we consider the expected number of broad-line Type Ic events (the SNe type associated with LGRBs) that are in low-metallicity host environments adjusted by the contribution of high-metallicity host environments at a much reduced rate. We then compare this estimate to the observed LGRB rate corrected for instrumental selection effects to provide a combined estimate ofmore » the efficiency fraction of these progenitors to produce LGRBs and the fraction of which are beamed in our direction. From this we estimate that an aligned LGRB occurs for approximately every 4000 ± 2000 low-metallically broad-lined SNe Ic. Therefore, if one assumes a semi-nominal beaming factor of 100, then only about one such supernova out of 40 produce an LGRB. Finally, we propose an off-axis LGRB search strategy of targeting only broad-line Type Ic events that occur in low-metallicity hosts for radio observation.« less

  7. The Absolute Rate of LGRB Formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Graham, J. F.; Schady, P.

    2016-06-01

    We estimate the long-duration gamma-ray burst (LGRB) progenitor rate using our recent work on the effects of environmental metallically on LGRB formation in concert with supernovae (SNe) statistics via an approach patterned loosely off the Drake equation. Beginning with the cosmic star formation history, we consider the expected number of broad-line Type Ic events (the SNe type associated with LGRBs) that are in low-metallicity host environments adjusted by the contribution of high-metallicity host environments at a much reduced rate. We then compare this estimate to the observed LGRB rate corrected for instrumental selection effects to provide a combined estimate of the efficiency fraction of these progenitors to produce LGRBs and the fraction of which are beamed in our direction. From this we estimate that an aligned LGRB occurs for approximately every 4000 ± 2000 low-metallically broad-lined SNe Ic. Therefore, if one assumes a semi-nominal beaming factor of 100, then only about one such supernova out of 40 produce an LGRB. Finally, we propose an off-axis LGRB search strategy of targeting only broad-line Type Ic events that occur in low-metallicity hosts for radio observation.

  8. Using high resolution measurements of gas tracers to determine metabolic rates in streams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Knapp, J. L.; Osenbrück, K.; Brennwald, M. S.; Cirpka, O. A.

    2017-12-01

    Hyporheic exchange and other hyporheic processes are strongly linked to stream respiration, as the majority of a streams' microorganisms are located within the streambed. Directly estimating these respiration rates on the reach scale is usually not possible, but they can indirectly be inferred from measurements of dissolved oxygen. This, however, requires determining stream reaeration rates with high precision. Conducting gas-tracer tests has been found to be the most reliable method to estimate stream reaeration, but the majority of field-based sampling techniques for tracer gases are either costly in time and materials, or imprecise. By contrast, on-site gas analysis using gas-equilibrium membrane-inlet mass spectrometers (miniRUEDI, Gasometrix GmbH [1]) avoid the errors caused by sampling, storage, and analysis in the standard sampling techniques. Furthermore, the high analytical frequency of the on-site mass-spectrometer provides concentration data exhibiting a low uncertainty. We present results from gas-tracer tests with a continuous injection of propane and noble gases as tracers in a number of small streams. The concentrations of the tracer gases are recorded continuously over time at the first measurement station to account for fluctuations of the input signal, whereas shorter sample sets are collected at all further measurement stations. Reaeration rate constants are calculated from gas measurements for individual stream sections. These rates are then used to estimate metabolic rates of respiration and primary production based on time series of oxygen measurements. To demonstrate the advancement of the method provided by the on-site analysis, results from measurements performed by on-site mass spectroscopy are compared to those from traditional headspace sampling with gas chromatography analysis. Additionally, differences in magnitude and uncertainty of the obtained reaeration rates of oxygen and calculated metabolic rates from both methods highlight the

  9. High resolution gamma-ray spectroscopy at high count rates with a prototype High Purity Germanium detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cooper, R. J.; Amman, M.; Vetter, K.

    2018-04-01

    High-resolution gamma-ray spectrometers are required for applications in nuclear safeguards, emergency response, and fundamental nuclear physics. To overcome one of the shortcomings of conventional High Purity Germanium (HPGe) detectors, we have developed a prototype device capable of achieving high event throughput and high energy resolution at very high count rates. This device, the design of which we have previously reported on, features a planar HPGe crystal with a reduced-capacitance strip electrode geometry. This design is intended to provide good energy resolution at the short shaping or digital filter times that are required for high rate operation and which are enabled by the fast charge collection afforded by the planar geometry crystal. In this work, we report on the initial performance of the system at count rates up to and including two million counts per second.

  10. Decaying Lava Extrusion Rate at El Reventador Volcano, Ecuador, Measured Using High-Resolution Satellite Radar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arnold, D. W. D.; Biggs, J.; Anderson, K.; Vallejo Vargas, S.; Wadge, G.; Ebmeier, S. K.; Naranjo, M. F.; Mothes, P.

    2017-12-01

    Lava extrusion at erupting volcanoes causes rapid changes in topography and morphology on the order of tens or even hundreds of meters. Satellite radar provides a method for measuring changes in topographic height over a given time period to an accuracy of meters, either by measuring the width of radar shadow cast by steep sided features, or by measuring the difference in radar phase between two sensors separated in space. We measure height changes, and hence estimate extruded lava volume flux, at El Reventador, Ecuador, between 2011 and 2016, using data from the RADARSAT-2 and TanDEM-X satellite missions. We find that 39 new lava flows were extruded between 9 February 2012 and 24 August 2016, with a cumulative volume of 44.8M m3 dense rock equivalent and a gradually decreasing eruption rate. The average dense rock rate of lava extrusion during this time is 0.31 ± 0.02 m3 s-1, which is similar to the long-term average from 1972 to 2016. Apart from a volumetrically small dyke opening event between 9 March and 10 June 2012, lava extrusion at El Reventador is not accompanied by any significant magmatic ground deformation. We use a simple physics-based model to estimate that the volume of the magma reservoir under El Reventador is greater than 3 km3. Our lava extrusion data can be equally well fit by models representing a closed reservoir depressurising during the eruption with no magma recharge, or an open reservoir with a time-constant magma recharge rate of up to 0.35 ± 0.01 m3 s-1.

  11. Decaying lava extrusion rate at El Reventador Volcano, Ecuador measured using high-resolution satellite radar

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Arnold, D. W. D.; Biggs, J.; Anderson, Kyle R.; Vallejo Vargas, S.; Wadge, G.; Ebmeier, S. K.; Naranjo, M. F.; Mothes, P.

    2017-01-01

    Lava extrusion at erupting volcanoes causes rapid changes in topography and morphology on the order of tens or even hundreds of meters. Satellite radar provides a method for measuring changes in topographic height over a given time period to an accuracy of meters, either by measuring the width of radar shadow cast by steep sided features, or by measuring the difference in radar phase between two sensors separated in space. We measure height changes, and hence estimate extruded lava volume flux, at El Reventador, Ecuador, between 2011 and 2016, using data from the RADARSAT-2 and TanDEM-X satellite missions. We find that 39 new lava flows were extruded between 9 February 2012 and 24 August 2016, with a cumulative volume of 44.8M m3 dense rock equivalent and a gradually decreasing eruption rate. The average dense rock rate of lava extrusion during this time is 0.31 ± 0.02 m3 s−1, which is similar to the long-term average from 1972 to 2016. Apart from a volumetrically small dyke opening event between 9 March and 10 June 2012, lava extrusion at El Reventador is not accompanied by any significant magmatic ground deformation. We use a simple physics-based model to estimate that the volume of the magma reservoir under El Reventador is greater than 3 km3. Our lava extrusion data can be equally well fit by models representing a closed reservoir depressurising during the eruption with no magma recharge, or an open reservoir with a time-constant magma recharge rate of up to 0.35 ± 0.01 m3 s−1.

  12. Fiber-Optic Strain Gauge With High Resolution And Update Rate

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Figueroa, Fernando; Mahajan, Ajay; Sayeh, Mohammad; Regez, Bradley

    2007-01-01

    An improved fiber-optic strain gauge is capable of measuring strains in the approximate range of 0 to 50 microstrains with a resolution of 0.1 microstrain. (To some extent, the resolution of the strain gauge can be tailored and may be extensible to 0.01 microstrain.) The total cost of the hardware components of this strain gauge is less than $100 at 2006 prices. In comparison with prior strain gauges capable of measurement of such low strains, this strain gauge is more accurate, more economical, and more robust, and it operates at a higher update rate. Strain gauges like this one are useful mainly for measuring small strains (including those associated with vibrations) in such structures as rocket test stands, buildings, oilrigs, bridges, and dams. The technology was inspired by the need to measure very small strains on structures supporting liquid oxygen tanks, as a way to measure accurately mass of liquid oxygen during rocket engine testing. This improved fiber-optic strain gauge was developed to overcome some of the deficiencies of both traditional foil strain gauges and prior fiber-optic strain gauges. Traditional foil strain gages do not have adequate signal-to-noise ratios at such small strains. Fiber-optic strain gauges have been shown to be potentially useful for measuring such small strains, but heretofore, the use of fiberoptic strain gauges has been inhibited, variously, by complexity, cost, or low update rate.

  13. High resolution heart rate variability analysis in patients with angina pectoris during coronary artery bypass graft surgery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mironov, V. A.; Mironova, T. F.; Kuvatov, V. A.; Nokhrina, O. Yu.; Kuvatova, E. V.

    2017-12-01

    The purpose of the study is approbation of the capabilities of high-resolution rhythmocardiography (RCG) for the determination of the actual cardiovascular status of operated patients with angina pectoris during coronary artery bypass graft surgery (CABGS) for myocardial revascularization. The research was done by means of a KAP-RK-02-Mikor hardware-software complex with a monitor record and the time- and frequency-domain analyses of heart rate variability (HRV). Monitor records were made at each stage of CABGS in 123 patients. As a result, HRV manifested itself as a fairly adequate and promising method for the determination of the cardiovascular status during CABGS. In addition, the data of the HRV study during CABGS testify to the capability of RCG to determine the high risk of life-threatening cardioarrhythmias before and during operation, to different changes in sinoatrial heart node (SN) dysregulation, and contain the HRV symptoms of a high death risk before, during and after shunting. The loss of the peripheral autonomic sympathetic and parasympathetic control in SN in the form of the autonomic cardioneuropathy syndrome is a predictor of the complications related to CABGS. The obtained data on RCG monitoring of HRV recording are suggestive of wide prospects of the high-resolution RCG method to be used in cardiac surgery as a whole. The actual multivariant dysregulations of SN pacemaker activity testify to its adequacy to the pathophysiology of each period of the cardiac operation, according to the initial ischemic damages and localization of cardiosurgical manipulations during CABGS.

  14. CALCULATIONS OF SHUTDOWN DOSE RATE FOR THE TPR SPECTROMETER OF THE HIGH-RESOLUTION NEUTRON SPECTROMETER FOR ITER.

    PubMed

    Wójcik-Gargula, A; Tracz, G; Scholz, M

    2017-12-13

    This work presents results of the calculations performed in order to predict the neutron-induced activity in structural materials that are considered to be using at the TPR spectrometer-one of the detection system of the High-Resolution Neutron Spectrometer for ITER. An attempt has been made to estimate the shutdown dose rates in a Cuboid #1 and to check if they satisfy ICRP regulatory requirements for occupational exposure to radiation and ITER nuclear safety regulations for areas with personal access. The results were obtained by the MCNP and FISPACT-II calculations. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  15. 8/8 and 10/10 high-resolution match rate for the be the match unrelated donor registry.

    PubMed

    Dehn, Jason; Buck, Kelly; Maiers, Martin; Confer, Dennis; Hartzman, Robert; Kollman, Craig; Schmidt, Alexander H; Yang, Soo Young; Setterholm, Michelle

    2015-01-01

    The National Marrow Donor Program's Be The Match Registry(®) facilitates the worldwide utilization of unrelated donor (URD) grafts for patients in need of a hematopoietic cell transplantation. In this study, we estimate the URD match rate for patients of White (WH), Hispanic (HIS), Asian/Pacific Islander (API), and African American/Black (AFA) race and ethnic groups. We chose 1344 URD at random as "pseudo-patients" (PP) to estimate the likelihood of finding an 8/8 or 10/10 high-resolution HLA-A,-B,-C,-DRB1 (and -DQB1) matched URD. Searches were conducted in the Be The Match Registry database for each PP at 2 time points: 2009 and 2012. URD who were a potential match for a PP by low/intermediate resolution were HLA typed by sequence-based typing to resolve the matching status. The 8/8 match rate for WH PP improved from 68% in 2009 to 72% in 2012. Corresponding match rates were 41% to 44% for HIS, 44% to 46% for API, and 27% to 30% for AFA, for 2009 and 2012, respectively. The 2012 10/10 match rates were 67% for WH, 38% for HIS, 41% for API, and 23% for AFA. These results provide baseline 8/8 and 10/10 match rate estimates by race for patients seeking an URD. Copyright © 2015 American Society for Blood and Marrow Transplantation. All rights reserved.

  16. High-Resolution Match Rate of 7/8 and 9/10 or Better for the Be The Match Unrelated Donor Registry.

    PubMed

    Buck, Kelly; Wadsworth, Kim; Setterholm, Michelle; Maiers, Martin; Confer, Dennis; Hartzman, Robert; Schmidt, Alexander; Yang, Soo Young; Dehn, Jason

    2016-04-01

    Estimation of the National Marrow Donor Program's Be The Match Registry 8/8 (HLA-A, -B, -C, and -DRB1) high-resolution (HR) unrelated donor (URD) match rate was determined in a prior study for each of the 4 most frequent patient race/ethnic groups in the United States: white (WH), Hispanic (HIS), Asian/Pacific Islander (API), and African American (AFA). For patients without an 8/8 HLA-matched URD, a 7/8 match, with a single allele or antigen mismatch, is often accepted by many transplant centers. A follow-up study was designed to determine the 7/8 or better match rate among the 4 major race/ethnic groups, using the same study cohort. Of previously HR tested URDs in the Be The Match Registry, 1344 were randomly selected and treated as pseudo-patients where HR testing was performed to identify a 7/8-matched URD; 98% of WH and over 80% of non-WH race/ethnic groups (HIS, API, and AFA) had at least a 7/8 match identified. In most cases after first testing to identify an 8/8-matched URD, a 7/8-matched URD was identified after typing just 1 URD. Extending criteria to identify a 9/10 match (included HLA-DQB1) showed the 9/10 absolute match rate decreased between 14% and 21% from the 7/8 match rate for the non-WH groups. This study provides a baseline 7/8 and 9/10 or better HLA match rate that can be further supplemented using the additional worldwide URD inventory. URD match rate information can equip centers in clinical planning and the education of patients seeking a life-saving therapy. Copyright © 2016 American Society for Blood and Marrow Transplantation. All rights reserved.

  17. High resolution absolute absorption cross sections of the B ̃(1)A'-X ̃(1)A' transition of the CH2OO biradical.

    PubMed

    Foreman, Elizabeth S; Kapnas, Kara M; Jou, YiTien; Kalinowski, Jarosław; Feng, David; Gerber, R Benny; Murray, Craig

    2015-12-28

    Carbonyl oxides, or Criegee intermediates, are formed from the gas phase ozonolysis of alkenes and play a pivotal role in night-time and urban area atmospheric chemistry. Significant discrepancies exist among measurements of the strong B ̃(1)A'-X ̃(1)A' electronic transition of the simplest Criegee intermediate, CH2OO in the visible/near-UV. We report room temperature spectra of the B ̃(1)A'-X ̃(1)A' electronic absorption band of CH2OO acquired at higher resolution using both single-pass broadband absorption and cavity ring-down spectroscopy. The new absorption spectra confirm the vibrational structure on the red edge of the band that is absent from ionization depletion measurements. The absolute absorption cross sections over the 362-470 nm range are in good agreement with those reported by Ting et al. Broadband absorption spectra recorded over the temperature range of 276-357 K were identical within their mutual uncertainties, confirming that the vibrational structure is not due to hot bands.

  18. Bedload transport rates in a gravel bedded-river derived from high-resolution monitoring using seismic impact plates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Downs, Peter; Soar, Philip

    2015-04-01

    Accurate characterisation of bedload transport rates is critical for a better understanding of geomorphological process dynamics, aquatic habitats, sediment budgets and strategies for catchment-scale initiatives in sediment management under conditions of climate change. However, rate estimation is challenging in practice: direct measurements are costly and logistically difficult to achieve with acceptable accuracy over geomorphologically-relevant time periods, and the uncertainty in transport rates predicted from empirical formulae and numerical simulation is rarely below 50 per cent. Partly reflecting these issues, passive technologies for continuous bedload monitoring are becoming increasingly popular. Sensors such as seismic impact plates offer the opportunity to characterise bedload activity at exceptionally high resolution - monitoring from the River Avon, (Devon, UK) indicated that despite significant intra-event and between-plate differences in apparent bedload transport aggregated over 5-minute periods, the magnitude-frequency product of discharge and impact frequency result in a highly plausible effective discharge, supporting the potential value of impact plates as indicators of relative sediment transport loads over annual timescales. Whereas the focus in bedload rate estimation to date has been on developing satisfactory sediment rating curves from detection signals, we instead develop a method for directly estimating bedload transport rates from impact plate data as a function of intensity of transport (count, n, per second), bed material mass (kg) and cross-stream transport variability. Bulk sediment samples are converted to a mass in transit for each instantaneous discharge according to the intensity of transport and a Monte Carlo simulation of the load in transit determined at random from the bed material particle size distribution. The lower detection threshold is determined using experimental calibration and the upper size limit is determined from

  19. High-resolution rapid diagnostic imaging of whole prostate biopsies using video-rate fluorescence structured illumination microscopy

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Mei; Kimbrell, Hillary Z.; Sholl, Andrew B.; Tulman, David B.; Elfer, Katherine N.; Schlichenmeyer, Tyler C.; Lee, Benjamin R.; Lacey, Michelle; Brown, J. Quincy

    2015-01-01

    Rapid assessment of prostate core biopsy pathology at the point-of-procedure could provide benefit in a variety of clinical situations. Even with advanced trans-rectal ultrasound guidance and saturation biopsy protocols, prostate cancer can be missed in up to half of all initial biopsy procedures. In addition, collection of tumor specimens for downstream histological, molecular, and genetic analysis is hindered by low tumor yield due to inability to identify prostate cancer grossly. However, current point-of-procedure pathology protocols such as frozen section analysis (FSA) are destructive, and too time- and labor-intensive to be practical or economical. Ex vivo microscopy of the excised specimens, stained with fast-acting fluorescent histology dyes, could be an attractive non-destructive alternative to FSA. In this work, we report the first demonstration of video-rate structured illumination microscopy (VR-SIM) for rapid high-resolution diagnostic imaging of prostate biopsies in realistic point-of-procedure timeframes. Large mosaic images of prostate biopsies stained with acridine orange are rendered in seconds, and contain excellent contrast and detail, exhibiting close correlation with corresponding H&E histology. A clinically-relevant review of VR-SIM images of 34 unfixed and uncut prostate core biopsies by two independent pathologists resulted in an area under the ROC curve (AUC) of 0.82–0.88, with a sensitivity ranging from 63–88% and a specificity ranging from 78–89%. When biopsies contained more than 5% tumor content, the sensitivity improved to 75–92%. The image quality, speed, minimal complexity, and ease of use of VR-SIM could prove to be features in favor of adoption as an alternative to destructive pathology at the point-of-procedure. PMID:26282168

  20. High resolution time interval meter

    DOEpatents

    Martin, A.D.

    1986-05-09

    Method and apparatus are provided for measuring the time interval between two events to a higher resolution than reliability available from conventional circuits and component. An internal clock pulse is provided at a frequency compatible with conventional component operating frequencies for reliable operation. Lumped constant delay circuits are provided for generating outputs at delay intervals corresponding to the desired high resolution. An initiation START pulse is input to generate first high resolution data. A termination STOP pulse is input to generate second high resolution data. Internal counters count at the low frequency internal clock pulse rate between the START and STOP pulses. The first and second high resolution data are logically combined to directly provide high resolution data to one counter and correct the count in the low resolution counter to obtain a high resolution time interval measurement.

  1. High-resolution genetic map for understanding the effect of genome-wide recombination rate, selection sweep and linkage disequilibrium on nucleotide diversity in watermelon

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Genotyping by sequencing (GBS) technology was used to identify a set of 9,933 single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) markers for constructing a high-resolution genetic map of 1,087 cM for watermelon. The genome-wide variation of recombination rate (GWRR) across the map was evaluated and a positive co...

  2. Rate Change Graph Technology: Absolute Value Point Methodology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Strickland, Ken; Duvernois, Michael

    2011-10-01

    Absolute Value Point Methodology (AVPM) is a new theoretical tool for science research centered on Rate Change Graph Technology (RCGT). The modeling techniques of AVPM surpass conventional methods by extending the geometrical rules of mathematics. Exact geometrical structures of matter and energy become clearer revealing new ways to compile advanced data. RCGT mechanics is realized from geometrical intersections that are the result of plotting changing value vs. changing geometry. RCGT methods ignore size and value to perform an objective analysis in geometry. Value and size are then re-introduced back into the analytical system for a clear and concise solution. Available AVPM applications reveal that a massive amount of data from the Big Bang to vast super-clusters is untouched by human thought. Once scientists learn to design tools from RCGT Mechanics, new and formidable approaches to experimentation and theory may lead to new discoveries. In the creation of AVPM, it has become apparent there is a particle-world that exists between strings and our familiar universe. These unrealized particles in their own nature exhibit inflation like properties and may be the progenitor of the implements of our universe. Thus space, time, energy, motion, space-time and gravity are born from its existence and decay. This announcement will be the beginning of many new ideas from the study of RCGT mechanics.

  3. Growth rate variation and potential paleoceanographic proxies in Primnoa pacifica: Insights from high-resolution trace element microanalysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aranha, Renita; Edinger, Evan; Layne, Graham; Piercey, Glenn

    2014-01-01

    Red tree coral, Primnoa pacifica, is one of the more common habitat-forming deep-sea gorgonian corals in the northeast Pacific Ocean, growing in colonies up to 2 m high and living for decades to hundreds of years. Growth characteristics of P. pacifica were studied in Dixon Entrance, northern British Columbia, and the Olympic Coast National Marine Sanctuary, Washington State, USA, based on samples collected in July 2008. To minimize the impact of scientific sampling on coral populations, only dead coral skeletons and dislodged live corals were collected. Ages and growth rates were measured using band counts, and checked against AMS-14C ages of gorgonin rings. Ba/Ca, Mg/Ca, Na/Ca and Sr/Ca ratios in the calcite cortex were measured using radial Secondary Ion Mass Spectrometer (SIMS) transects with a spot size of <20 μm and separation distance of 25 μm. Growth banding was consistent in width between the central mixed zone consisting of calcite and gorgonin and the dominantly calcite cortex. Average annual radial growth rate of the nine corals analysed ranged from 0.23 to 0.58 mm/yr, with an average growth rate of 0.32 mm/yr in Dixon Entrance and 0.36 m/yr in OCNMS. These growth rates are slightly higher than P. pacifica growth rates from the Gulf of Alaska, and more than four times the growth rates of sister species Primnoa resedaeformis in the northwest Atlantic. Primary productivity is likely a more important driver of geographic variation in Primnoa growth rates than temperature or current strength. Both Dixon Entrance and OCNMS are areas with high primary productivity and strong tidal currents. Lack of post-Atomic Bomb radiocarbon in all but one of the gorgonin samples, and long radiocarbon reservoir ages in the Northeast Pacific, made radiocarbon-based verification of coral ages and growth rates difficult due to wide errors in calibrated age estimates. Mg/Ca and Sr/Ca ratios were inversely correlated in two of the three corals analyzed, and showed evidence of

  4. High-resolution LCOS microdisplay with sub-kHz frame rate for high performance, high precision 3D sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lazarev, Grigory; Bonifer, Stefanie; Engel, Philip; Höhne, Daniel; Notni, Gunther

    2017-06-01

    We report about the implementation of the liquid crystal on silicon (LCOS) microdisplay with 1920 by 1080 resolution and 720 Hz frame rate. The driving solution is FPGA-based. The input signal is converted from the ultrahigh-resolution HDMI 2.0 signal into HD frames, which follow with the specified 720 Hz frame rate. Alternatively the signal is generated directly on the FPGA with built-in pattern generator. The display is showing switching times below 1.5 ms for the selected working temperature. The bit depth of the addressed image achieves 8 bit within each frame. The microdisplay is used in the fringe projection-based 3D sensing system, implemented by Fraunhofer IOF.

  5. Development of a high-resolution automatic digital (urine/electrolytes) flow volume and rate measurement system of miniature size

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liu, F. F.

    1975-01-01

    To aid in the quantitative analysis of man's physiological rhythms, a flowmeter to measure circadian patterns of electrolyte excretion during various environmental stresses was developed. One initial flowmeter was designed and fabricated, the sensor of which is the approximate size of a wristwatch. The detector section includes a special type of dielectric integrating type sensor which automatically controls, activates, and deactivates the flow sensor data output by determining the presence or absence of fluid flow in the system, including operation under zero-G conditions. The detector also provides qualitative data on the composition of the fluid. A compact electronic system was developed to indicate flow rate as well as total volume per release or the cumulative volume of several releases in digital/analog forms suitable for readout or telemetry. A suitable data readout instrument is also provided. Calibration and statistical analyses of the performance functions required of the flowmeter were also conducted.

  6. A high-resolution genetic map of yellow monkeyflower identifies chemical defense QTLs and recombination rate variation.

    PubMed

    Holeski, Liza M; Monnahan, Patrick; Koseva, Boryana; McCool, Nick; Lindroth, Richard L; Kelly, John K

    2014-03-13

    Genotyping-by-sequencing methods have vastly improved the resolution and accuracy of genetic linkage maps by increasing both the number of marker loci as well as the number of individuals genotyped at these loci. Using restriction-associated DNA sequencing, we construct a dense linkage map for a panel of recombinant inbred lines derived from a cross between divergent ecotypes of Mimulus guttatus. We used this map to estimate recombination rate across the genome and to identify quantitative trait loci for the production of several secondary compounds (PPGs) of the phenylpropanoid pathway implicated in defense against herbivores. Levels of different PPGs are correlated across recombinant inbred lines suggesting joint regulation of the phenylpropanoid pathway. However, the three quantitative trait loci identified in this study each act on a distinct PPG. Finally, we map three putative genomic inversions differentiating the two parental populations, including a previously characterized inversion that contributes to life-history differences between the annual/perennial ecotypes. Copyright © 2014 Holeski et al.

  7. High-Resolution Geophysical Constraints on Late Pleistocene-Present Deformation History, Seabed Morphology, and Slip-Rate along the Queen Charlotte-Fairweather Fault, Offshore Southeastern Alaska

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brothers, D. S.; Haeussler, P. J.; Dartnell, P.; Conrad, J. E.; Kluesner, J. W.; Hart, P. E.; Witter, R. C.; Balster-Gee, A. F.; Maier, K. L.; Watt, J. T.; East, A. E.

    2015-12-01

    The Queen Charlotte-Fairweather Fault (QCFF) of southeastern Alaska and British Columbia is the dominant fault along the 1200 km-long transform boundary between the Pacific and North American plates. More than 900 km of the QCFF lies offshore where the style and rates of deformation are poorly constrained due to a lack of high-resolution marine geophysical data. In May 2015, the USGS acquired ~900 km2 of high-resolution multibeam bathymetry data and >2000 line-km of high-resolution multichannel seismic reflection profiles between Cross Sound, Yakobi Sea Valley, and Icy Point (the northernmost offshore section of the QCFF) using a 24-ch streamer and 500 Joule minisparker source. During a second cruise in August 2015 we conducted targeted multichannel seismic and subbottom CHIRP profiling in the same region. The new data reveal a single trace of the QCFF expressed as a clear and remarkably straight seafloor lineation for >60 km. Subtle jogs in the fault (<3 degrees) are associated with pop-up structures and en echelon pull-apart basins. The near surface deformation along the fault never exceeds a width of 1.2 km. Northward, as the fault approaches Icy Point and a restraining bend, it splays into multiple strands and displays evidence for uplift and transpression. The fault appears to transition from almost purely strike-slip in the south to oblique-convergence as it steps onshore to the north. The QCFF cuts through the Yakobi Sea Valley and Cross Sound, two elongate bathymetric troughs that were filled with glaciers as recently as 17-19 ka. The southern wall of the Yakobi Sea Valley is offset 890±30 m by the QCFF, providing a late Pleistocene-present slip-rate estimate of 45-54 mm/yr. This suggests that nearly the entire plate boundary slip budget is confined to a single, narrow, strike-slip fault zone, which may have implications for models of plate boundary strain localization.

  8. High-resolution echocardiography

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nathan, R.

    1979-01-01

    High resolution computer aided ultrasound system provides two-and three-dimensional images of beating heart from many angles. System provides means for determining whether small blood vessels around the heart are blocked or if heart wall is moving normally without interference of dead and noncontracting muscle tissue.

  9. High resolution data acquisition

    DOEpatents

    Thornton, G.W.; Fuller, K.R.

    1993-04-06

    A high resolution event interval timing system measures short time intervals such as occur in high energy physics or laser ranging. Timing is provided from a clock, pulse train, and analog circuitry for generating a triangular wave synchronously with the pulse train (as seen in diagram on patent). The triangular wave has an amplitude and slope functionally related to the time elapsed during each clock pulse in the train. A converter forms a first digital value of the amplitude and slope of the triangle wave at the start of the event interval and a second digital value of the amplitude and slope of the triangle wave at the end of the event interval. A counter counts the clock pulse train during the interval to form a gross event interval time. A computer then combines the gross event interval time and the first and second digital values to output a high resolution value for the event interval.

  10. High resolution data acquisition

    DOEpatents

    Thornton, Glenn W.; Fuller, Kenneth R.

    1993-01-01

    A high resolution event interval timing system measures short time intervals such as occur in high energy physics or laser ranging. Timing is provided from a clock (38) pulse train (37) and analog circuitry (44) for generating a triangular wave (46) synchronously with the pulse train (37). The triangular wave (46) has an amplitude and slope functionally related to the time elapsed during each clock pulse in the train. A converter (18, 32) forms a first digital value of the amplitude and slope of the triangle wave at the start of the event interval and a second digital value of the amplitude and slope of the triangle wave at the end of the event interval. A counter (26) counts the clock pulse train (37) during the interval to form a gross event interval time. A computer (52) then combines the gross event interval time and the first and second digital values to output a high resolution value for the event interval.

  11. High-Resolution Autoradiography

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Towe, George C; Gomberg, Henry J; Freemen, J W

    1955-01-01

    This investigation was made to adapt wet-process autoradiography to metallurgical samples to obtain high resolution of segregated radioactive elements in microstructures. Results are confined to development of the technique, which was perfected to a resolution of less than 10 microns. The radioactive samples included carbon-14 carburized iron and steel, nickel-63 electroplated samples, a powder product containing nickel-63, and tungsten-185 in N-155 alloy.

  12. High-resolution surface velocity and strain rate mapping across the Alpine-Himalayan belt using InSAR and GNSS data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weiss, J. R.; Walters, R. J.; Wright, T. J.; Hussain, E.; González, P. J.; Hooper, A. J.

    2017-12-01

    Accurate and high-resolution measurements of interseismic crustal velocity and the strain-rate fields derived from these measurements are an important input for the assessment of earthquake hazard. However, most strain-rate estimation methods and associated seismicity forecasts rely heavily on Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) networks with sparse and heterogeneous spatial coverage, limiting both accuracy and resolution. Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar (InSAR) provides remotely-sensed observations of surface motion, with accuracy comparable to GNSS data, and with a spatial resolution of a few tens of meters. The recently launched Sentinel-1 (S1) radar satellites can measure deformation at the tectonic-plate scale and across slowly straining regions where earthquake hazard is poorly characterised. We are producing large-scale crustal velocity and strain-rate fields for the Alpine-Himalayan belt (AHB) by augmenting global GNSS data compilations with InSAR-derived surface velocities. We are also systematically processing S1 interferograms for the AHB and these products are freely available to the geoscience community. We focus on the Anatolian microplate, where we have used both Envisat and S1 data to measure crustal velocity. We address some of the challenges associated with merging the complementary geodetic datasets including reference-frame issues, treatment of uncertainties, and comparison of different velocity/strain-rate inversion methods. We use synthetic displacement fields to illustrate how inclusion of InSAR can aid in identifying features such as unmapped active faults and fault segments that are creeping. From our preliminary results for Anatolia, we investigate the spatial distribution of strain and variation of strain rates during the seismic cycle.

  13. SU-E-T-460: Impact of the LINAC Repetition Rate On a High-Resolution Liquid Ionization Chamber Array for Patient-Specific QA

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, S; Driewer, J; Zheng, D

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: The purpose of this study is to investigate the LINAC repetition-rate (dose-rate) dependence of OCTAVIUS 1000SRS liquid ionization chamber (LIC) array for patient specific QA of SRT plans delivered with flattening-filter-free (FFF) beams. Methods: 1) The repetition-rate dependence of 1000SRS was measured in a phantom constructed with 5-cm solid water above and below the array for build-up and backscatter. A 0.3cc calibrated ion chamber was also placed along the central axis 2.3cm below the center chamber of the array for normalizing LINAC output fluctuation. The signals from the center chamber of the array under different repetition rates in themore » range of 400–2400 MU/min for 6xFFF and 10xFFF beams on a Varian TrueBeamSTx LINAC, normalized by the independent chamber readings, were analyzed for the array response dependence on repetition rates. 2) Twelve Step-and-shoot IMRS QA plans (6xFFF and 10xFFF) were delivered to the array under different repetition rates for analysis and comparison. 3) The absolute doses measured by the center chamber were compared to measurements using an independent ionization chamber with the identical setup, taken as the gold standard. 4) The correction factors based on the actual delivery repetition rate were applied to the measurements, and the results were compared again to the gold standard. Results: 1) The 1000SRS array exhibited repetition-rate dependence for FFF beams, up to 5% for 6xFFF and 10% for 10xFFF; 2) The array showed clinically-acceptable repetition-rate dependence for regular flattened beams; 3) This repetition-rate dependence significantly affected the measurement accuracy, thereby affecting IMRS QA results; 4) By applying an empirical repetition-rate correction, the corrected measurements agreed better with the gold standard ion chamber measurements. Conclusion: OCTAVIUS 1000SRS LIC array exhibited considerable repetition-rate dependence for FFF beams, which will affect the accuracy of the absolute QA

  14. High resolution Doppler lidar

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abreu, Vincent J.; Hays, Paul B.; Barnes, John E.

    1989-01-01

    A high resolution lidar system was implemented to measure winds in the lower atmosphere. The wind speed along the line of sight was determined by measuring the Doppler shift of the aerosol backscattered laser signal. The system in its present configuration is stable, and behaves as indicated by theoretical simulations. This system was built to demonstrate the capabilities of the detector system as a prototype for a spaceborne lidar. The detector system investigated consisted of a plane Fabry-Perot etalon, and a 12-ring anode detector. This system is generically similar to the Fabry-Perot interferometer developed for passive wind measurements on board the Dynamics Explorer satellite. That this detector system performs well in a lidar configuration was demonstrated.

  15. Interferometer. [high resolution

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Breckinridge, J. B.; Norton, R. H.; Schindler, R. A. (Inventor)

    1981-01-01

    A high resolution interferometer is described. The interferometer is insensitive to slight misalignment of its elements, avoids channeling in the spectrum, generates a maximum equal path fringe contrast, produces an even two sided interferogram without critical matching of the wedge angles of the beamsplitter and compensator wedges, and is optically phase tunable. The interferometer includes a mirror along the path of each beam component produced by the beamsplitter, for reflecting the beam component from the beamsplitter, for reflecting the beam component from the beamsplitter to a corresponding retroreflector and for reflecting the beam returned by the retroreflector back to the beamsplitter. A wedge located along each beam component path, is large enough to cover the retroreflector, so that each beam component passes through the wedge during movement towards the retroreflector and away therefrom.

  16. Using high-resolution satellite radar to measure lava flow morphology, rheology, effusion rate and subsidence at El Reventador Volcano, Ecuador.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Biggs, J.; Arnold, D. W. D.; Mothes, P. A.; Anderson, K. R.; Albino, F.; Wadge, G.; Vallejo Vargas, S.; Ebmeier, S. K.

    2017-12-01

    There are relatively few studies of active lava flows of an andesitic rather than basaltic composition. The flow field at El Reventador volcano, Ecuador is a good example, but observations are hampered by persistent cloud cover. We use high resolution satellite radar from Radarsat-2 and TanDEM-X to map the dimensions of 43 lava flows extruded between 9 Feb 2012 and 24 Aug 2016. Flow height is measured using the width of radar shadow cast by steep sided features, or the difference in radar phase between two sensors separated in space. The cumulative volume of erupted material was 44.8M m3 dense rock equivalent with an average rate of 0.31 ± 0.02 m3s-1, similar to the long term average. The flows were mostly emplaced over durations shorter than the satellite repeat interval of 24 days and ranged in length from 0.3 to 1.7 km. We use the dimensions of the levees to estimate the flow yield strengths and compare measurements of diversions around barriers with observations from laboratory experiments. The rate of effusion, flow length and flow volume all decrease with time, and simple physics-based models can be equally well fit by a closed reservoir depressurising during the eruption with no magma recharge, or an open reservoir with a time-constant magma recharge rate of up to 0.35 ± 0.01 m3s-1. We propose that the conduit acts as magma capacitor and individual flows are volume-limited. Emplaced flows are subsiding at rates proportional to lava thickness that decay with time following a square-root relationship. Radar observations, such as those presented here, could be used to map and measure properties of evolving lava flow fields at other remote or difficult to monitor volcanoes. Physics-based models can be run into the future, but a sudden increase in flow length in 2017 seen by Sentinel illustrates that changes in magma supply can cause rapid changes in behavior, which remain challenging to forecast.

  17. High Resolution Doppler Imager

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hays, Paul B.

    1999-01-01

    This report summarizes the accomplishments of the High Resolution Doppler Imager (HRDI) on UARS spacecraft during the period 4/l/96 - 3/31/99. During this period, HRDI operation, data processing, and data analysis continued, and there was a high level of vitality in the HRDI project. The HRDI has been collecting data from the stratosphere, mesosphere, and lower thermosphere since instrument activation on October 1, 1991. The HRDI team has stressed three areas since operations commenced: 1) operation of the instrument in a manner which maximizes the quality and versatility of the collected data; 2) algorithm development and validation to produce a high-quality data product; and 3) scientific studies, primarily of the dynamics of the middle atmosphere. There has been no significant degradation in the HRDI instrument since operations began nearly 8 years ago. HRDI operations are fairly routine, although we have continued to look for ways to improve the quality of the scientific product, either by improving existing modes, or by designing new ones. The HRDI instrument has been programmed to collect data for new scientific studies, such as measurements of fluorescence from plants, measuring cloud top heights, and lower atmosphere H2O.

  18. Absolute and Relative Reliability of Percentage of Syllables Stuttered and Severity Rating Scales

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Karimi, Hamid; O'Brian, Sue; Onslow, Mark; Jones, Mark

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: Percentage of syllables stuttered (%SS) and severity rating (SR) scales are measures in common use to quantify stuttering severity and its changes during basic and clinical research conditions. However, their reliability has not been assessed with indices measuring both relative and absolute reliability. This study was designed to provide…

  19. Very high resolution aerial films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Becker, Rolf

    1986-11-01

    The use of very high resolution aerial films in aerial photography is evaluated. Commonly used panchromatic, color, and CIR films and their high resolution equivalents are compared. Based on practical experience and systematic investigations, the very high image quality and improved height accuracy that can be achieved using these films are demonstrated. Advantages to be gained from this improvement and operational restrictions encountered when using high resolution film are discussed.

  20. Absolute Density Calibration Cell for Laser Induced Fluorescence Erosion Rate Measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Domonkos, Matthew T.; Stevens, Richard E.

    2001-01-01

    Flight qualification of ion thrusters typically requires testing on the order of 10,000 hours. Extensive knowledge of wear mechanisms and rates is necessary to establish design confidence prior to long duration tests. Consequently, real-time erosion rate measurements offer the potential both to reduce development costs and to enhance knowledge of the dependency of component wear on operating conditions. Several previous studies have used laser-induced fluorescence (LIF) to measure real-time, in situ erosion rates of ion thruster accelerator grids. Those studies provided only relative measurements of the erosion rate. In the present investigation, a molybdenum tube was resistively heated such that the evaporation rate yielded densities within the tube on the order of those expected from accelerator grid erosion. This work examines the suitability of the density cell as an absolute calibration source for LIF measurements, and the intrinsic error was evaluated.

  1. Ultra-high-resolution inelastic X-ray scattering at high-repetition-rate self-seeded X-ray free-electron lasers

    PubMed Central

    Chubar, Oleg; Geloni, Gianluca; Kocharyan, Vitali; Madsen, Anders; Saldin, Evgeni; Serkez, Svitozar; Shvyd’ko, Yuri; Sutter, John

    2016-01-01

    Inelastic X-ray scattering (IXS) is an important tool for studies of equilibrium dynamics in condensed matter. A new spectrometer recently proposed for ultra-high-resolution IXS (UHRIX) has achieved 0.6 meV and 0.25 nm−1 spectral and momentum-transfer resolutions, respectively. However, further improvements down to 0.1 meV and 0.02 nm−1 are required to close the gap in energy–momentum space between high- and low-frequency probes. It is shown that this goal can be achieved by further optimizing the X-ray optics and by increasing the spectral flux of the incident X-ray pulses. UHRIX performs best at energies from 5 to 10 keV, where a combination of self-seeding and undulator tapering at the SASE-2 beamline of the European XFEL promises up to a 100-fold increase in average spectral flux compared with nominal SASE pulses at saturation, or three orders of magnitude more than what is possible with storage-ring-based radiation sources. Wave-optics calculations show that about 7 × 1012 photons s−1 in a 90 µeV bandwidth can be achieved on the sample. This will provide unique new possibilities for dynamics studies by IXS. PMID:26917127

  2. Ultra-high-resolution inelastic X-ray scattering at high-repetition-rate self-seeded X-ray free-electron lasers

    DOE PAGES

    Chubar, Oleg; Geloni, Gianluca; Kocharyan, Vitali; ...

    2016-03-01

    Inelastic X-ray scattering (IXS) is an important tool for studies of equilibrium dynamics in condensed matter. A new spectrometer recently proposed for ultra-high-resolution IXS (UHRIX) has achieved 0.6 meV and 0.25 nm ₋1spectral and momentum-transfer resolutions, respectively. However, further improvements down to 0.1 meV and 0.02 nm ₋1are required to close the gap in energy–momentum space between high- and low-frequency probes. It is shown that this goal can be achieved by further optimizing the X-ray optics and by increasing the spectral flux of the incident X-ray pulses. UHRIX performs best at energies from 5 to 10 keV, where a combinationmore » of self-seeding and undulator tapering at the SASE-2 beamline of the European XFEL promises up to a 100-fold increase in average spectral flux compared with nominal SASE pulses at saturation, or three orders of magnitude more than what is possible with storage-ring-based radiation sources. Wave-optics calculations show that about 7 × 10 12 photons s ₋1in a 90 µeV bandwidth can be achieved on the sample. Ultimately, this will provide unique new possibilities for dynamics studies by IXS.« less

  3. Accessibility of Nitroxide Side Chains: Absolute Heisenberg Exchange Rates from Power Saturation EPR

    PubMed Central

    Altenbach, Christian; Froncisz, Wojciech; Hemker, Roy; Mchaourab, Hassane; Hubbell, Wayne L.

    2005-01-01

    In site-directed spin labeling, the relative solvent accessibility of spin-labeled side chains is taken to be proportional to the Heisenberg exchange rate (Wex) of the nitroxide with a paramagnetic reagent in solution. In turn, relative values of Wex are determined by continuous wave power saturation methods and expressed as a proportional and dimensionless parameter Π. In the experiments presented here, NiEDDA is characterized as a paramagnetic reagent for solvent accessibility studies, and it is shown that absolute values of Wex can be determined from Π, and that the proportionality constant relating them is independent of the paramagnetic reagent and mobility of the nitroxide. Based on absolute exchange rates, an accessibility factor is defined (0 < ρ < 1) that serves as a quantitative measure of side-chain solvent accessibility. The accessibility factors for a nitroxide side chain at 14 different sites in T4 lysozyme are shown to correlate with a structure-based accessibility parameter derived from the crystal structure of the protein. These results provide a useful means for relating crystallographic and site-directed spin labeling data, and hence comparing crystal and solution structures. PMID:15994891

  4. The Br+HO 2 reaction revisited: Absolute determination of the rate constant at 298 K

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laverdet, G.; Le Bras, G.; Mellouki, A.; Poulet, G.

    1990-09-01

    The absolute determination of the rate constant for the reaction Br+HO 2→HBr+O 2 has been done at 298 K using the discharge-flor EPR method. The value k1 = (1.5±0.2) × 10 -12 cm 3 molecule -1 s -1 was obtained. Previous indirect measurements of k1 from a discharge-flow, LIF/mass spectrometric study of the Br/H 2CO/O 2 system have been reinterpreted, leading to values for k1 ranging from 1.0 × 10 -12 to 2.2 × 10 -12 cm 3 molecule -1 s -1 at 298 K. These results are discussed and compared with other literature values.

  5. High resolution digital delay timer

    DOEpatents

    Martin, Albert D.

    1988-01-01

    Method and apparatus are provided for generating an output pulse following a trigger pulse at a time delay interval preset with a resolution which is high relative to a low resolution available from supplied clock pulses. A first lumped constant delay (20) provides a first output signal (24) at predetermined interpolation intervals corresponding to the desired high resolution time interval. Latching circuits (26, 28) latch the high resolution data (24) to form a first synchronizing data set (60). A selected time interval has been preset to internal counters (142, 146, 154) and corrected for circuit propagation delay times having the same order of magnitude as the desired high resolution. Internal system clock pulses (32, 34) count down the counters to generate an internal pulse delayed by an interval which is functionally related to the preset time interval. A second LCD (184) corrects the internal signal with the high resolution time delay. A second internal pulse is then applied to a third LCD (74) to generate a second set of synchronizing data (76) which is complementary with the first set of synchronizing data (60) for presentation to logic circuits (64). The logic circuits (64) further delay the internal output signal (72) to obtain a proper phase relationship of an output signal (80) with the internal pulses (32, 34). The final delayed output signal (80) thereafter enables the output pulse generator (82) to produce the desired output pulse (84) at the preset time delay interval following input of the trigger pulse (10, 12).

  6. Advanced very high resolution radiometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1976-01-01

    The advanced very high resolution radiometer development program is considered. The program covered the design, construction, and test of a breadboard model, engineering model, protoflight model, mechanical structural model, and a life test model. Special bench test and calibration equipment was also developed for use on the program.

  7. High-resolution electron microscope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nathan, R.

    1977-01-01

    Employing scanning transmission electron microscope as interferometer, relative phases of diffraction maximums can be determined by analysis of dark field images. Synthetic aperture technique and Fourier-transform computer processing of amplitude and phase information provide high resolution images at approximately one angstrom.

  8. High resolution metric imaging payload

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Delclaud, Y.

    2017-11-01

    Alcatel Space Industries has become Europe's leader in the field of high and very high resolution optical payloads, in the frame work of earth observation system able to provide military government with metric images from space. This leadership allowed ALCATEL to propose for the export market, within a French collaboration frame, a complete space based system for metric observation.

  9. Sediment accumulation rates and high-resolution stratigraphy of recent fluvial suspension deposits in various fluvial settings, Morava River catchment area, Czech Republic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sedláček, Jan; Bábek, Ondřej; Kielar, Ondřej

    2016-02-01

    We present a comprehensive study concerning sedimentary processes in fluvial sediment traps within the Morava River catchment area (Czech Republic) involving three dammed reservoirs, four meanders and oxbow lakes, and several natural floodplain sites. The objective of the study was to determine sediment accumulation rates (SAR), estimate erosion rates, calculating these using a combination of the 137Cs method and historical data. Another purpose of this study was to provide insight into changing erosion and accumulation rates over the last century. Extensive water course modifications were carried out in the Morava River catchment area during the twentieth century, which likely affected sedimentation rates along the river course. Other multiproxy stratigraphic methods (X-ray densitometry, magnetic susceptibility, and visible-light reflectance spectrometry) were applied to obtain additional information about sediment infill. Sediment stratigraphy revealed distinct distal-to-proximal patterns, especially in reservoirs. Granulometrically, silts and sandy silts prevailed in sediments. Oxbow lakes and meanders contained larger amounts of clay and organic matter, which is the main difference between them and reservoirs. Pronounced 137Cs peaks were recorded in all studied cores (maximum 377 Bq·kg- 1), thus indicating Chernobyl fallout from 1986 or older events. Calculated sediment accumulation rates were lowest in distal parts of reservoirs (0.13-0.58 cm/y) and floodplains (0.45-0.88 cm/y), moderately high rates were found in proximal parts of reservoirs and oxbow lakes (2.27-4.4 cm/y), and the highest rates in some oxbow lakes located near the river (6-8 cm/y). The frequency of the inundation still can be high in some natural areas as in the Litovelské Pomoraví protected area, whereas the decreasing frequency of the inundation in other modified parts can contribute to a lower sedimentation rate. The local effects such as difference between SARs in oxbow lakes and

  10. Study on improving the turbidity measurement of the absolute coagulation rate constant.

    PubMed

    Sun, Zhiwei; Liu, Jie; Xu, Shenghua

    2006-05-23

    The existing theories dealing with the evaluation of the absolute coagulation rate constant by turbidity measurement were experimentally tested for different particle-sized (radius = a) suspensions at incident wavelengths (lambda) ranging from near-infrared to ultraviolet light. When the size parameter alpha = 2pi a/lambda > 3, the rate constant data from previous theories for fixed-sized particles show significant inconsistencies at different light wavelengths. We attribute this problem to the imperfection of these theories in describing the light scattering from doublets through their evaluation of the extinction cross section. The evaluations of the rate constants by all previous theories become untenable as the size parameter increases and therefore hampers the applicable range of the turbidity measurement. By using the T-matrix method, we present a robust solution for evaluating the extinction cross section of doublets formed in the aggregation. Our experiments show that this new approach is effective in extending the applicability range of the turbidity methodology and increasing measurement accuracy.

  11. Quantifying uncertainty in morphologically-derived bedload transport rates for large braided rivers: insights from high-resolution, high-frequency digital elevation model differencing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brasington, J.; Hicks, M.; Wheaton, J. M.; Williams, R. D.; Vericat, D.

    2013-12-01

    Repeat surveys of channel morphology provide a means to quantify fluvial sediment storage and enable inferences about changes in long-term sediment supply, watershed delivery and bed level adjustment; information vital to support effective river and land management. Over shorter time-scales, direct differencing of fluvial terrain models may also offer a route to predict reach-averaged sediment transport rates and quantify the patterns of channel morphodynamics and the processes that force them. Recent and rapid advances in geomatics have facilitated these goals by enabling the acquisition of topographic data at spatial resolutions and precisions suitable for characterising river morphology at the scale of individual grains over multi-kilometre reaches. Despite improvements in topographic surveying, inverting the terms of the sediment budget to derive estimates of sediment transport and link these to morphodynamic processes is, nonetheless, often confounded by limited knowledge of either the sediment supply or efflux across a boundary of the control volume, or unobserved cut-and-fill taking place between surveys. This latter problem is particularly poorly constrained, as field logistics frequently preclude surveys at a temporal frequency sufficient to capture changes in sediment storage associated with each competent event, let alone changes during individual floods. In this paper, we attempt to quantify the principal sources of uncertainty in morphologically-derived bedload transport rates for the large, labile, gravel-bed braided Rees River which drains the Southern Alps of NZ. During the austral summer of 2009-10, a unique timeseries of 10 high quality DEMs was derived for a 3 x 0.7 km reach of the Rees, using a combination of mobile terrestrial laser scanning, aDcp soundings and aerial image analysis. Complementary measurements of the forcing flood discharges and estimates of event-based particle step lengths were also acquired during the field campaign

  12. A High Resolution Scale-of-four

    DOE R&D Accomplishments Database

    Fitch, V.

    1949-08-25

    A high resolution scale-of-four has been developed to be used in conjunction with the nuclear particle detection devices in applications where the counting rate is unusually high. Specifically, it is intended to precede the commercially available medium resolution scaling circuits and so decrease the resolving time of the counting system. The circuit will function reliably on continuously recurring pulses separated by less than 0.1 microseconds. It will resolve two pulses (occurring at a moderate repetition rate) which are spaced at 0.04 microseconds. A five-volt input signal is sufficient to actuate the device.

  13. High resolution spectrograph. [for LST

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Peacock, K.

    1975-01-01

    The high resolution spectrograph (HRS) is designed to be used with the Large Space Telescope (LST) for the study of spectra of point and extended targets in the spectral range 110 to 410 nm. It has spectral resolutions of 1,000; 30,000; and 100,000 and has a field of view as large as 10 arc sec. The spectral range and resolution are selectable using interchangeable optical components and an echelle spectrograph is used to display a cross dispersed spectrum on the photocathode of either of 2 SEC orthicon image tubes. Provisions are included for wavelength calibration, target identification and acquisition and thermal control. The system considerations of the instrument are described.

  14. High Resolution Thermography In Medicine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clark, R. P.; Goff, M. R.; Culley, J. E.

    1988-10-01

    A high resolution medical thermal imaging system using an 8 element SPRI1E detector is described. Image processing is by an Intellect 100 processor and is controlled by a DEC LSI 11/23 minicomputer. Image storage is with a 170 Mbyte winchester disc together with archival storage on 12 inch diameter optical discs having a capacity of 1 Gbyte per side. The system is currently being evaluated for use in physiology and medicine. Applications outlined include the potential of thermographic screening to identify genetic carriers in X-linked hypohidrotic ectodermal dysplasia (XED), detailed vas-cular perfusion studies in health and disease and the relation-ship between cutaneous blood flow, neurological peripheral function and skin surface temperature.

  15. Enhanced High Resolution RBS System

    SciTech Connect

    Pollock, Thomas J.; Hass, James A.; Klody, George M.

    2011-06-01

    Improvements in full spectrum resolution with the second NEC high resolution RBS system are summarized. Results for 50 A ring TiN/HfO films on Si yielding energy resolution on the order of 1 keV are also presented. Detector enhancements include improved pulse processing electronics, upgraded shielding for the MCP/RAE detector, and reduced noise generated from pumping. Energy resolution measurements on spectra front edge coupled with calculations using 0.4mStr solid angle show that beam energy spread at 400 KeV from the Pelletron registered accelerator is less than 100 eV. To improve user throughput, magnet control has been added to the automatic datamore » collection. Depth profiles derived from experimental data are discussed. For the thin films profiled, depth resolutions were on the Angstrom level with the non-linear energy/channel conversions ranging from 100 to 200 eV.« less

  16. High Resolution Thermometry for EXACT

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Panek, J. S.; Nash, A. E.; Larson, M.; Mulders, N.

    2000-01-01

    High Resolution Thermometers (HRTs) based on SQUID detection of the magnetization of a paramagnetic salt or a metal alloy has been commonly used for sub-nano Kelvin temperature resolution in low temperature physics experiments. The main applications to date have been for temperature ranges near the lambda point of He-4 (2.177 K). These thermometers made use of materials such as Cu(NH4)2Br4 *2H2O, GdCl3, or PdFe. None of these materials are suitable for EXACT, which will explore the region of the He-3/He-4 tricritical point at 0.87 K. The experiment requirements and properties of several candidate paramagnetic materials will be presented, as well as preliminary test results.

  17. HRSC: High resolution stereo camera

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Neukum, G.; Jaumann, R.; Basilevsky, A.T.; Dumke, A.; Van Gasselt, S.; Giese, B.; Hauber, E.; Head, J. W.; Heipke, C.; Hoekzema, N.; Hoffmann, H.; Greeley, R.; Gwinner, K.; Kirk, R.; Markiewicz, W.; McCord, T.B.; Michael, G.; Muller, Jan-Peter; Murray, J.B.; Oberst, J.; Pinet, P.; Pischel, R.; Roatsch, T.; Scholten, F.; Willner, K.

    2009-01-01

    The High Resolution Stereo Camera (HRSC) on Mars Express has delivered a wealth of image data, amounting to over 2.5 TB from the start of the mapping phase in January 2004 to September 2008. In that time, more than a third of Mars was covered at a resolution of 10-20 m/pixel in stereo and colour. After five years in orbit, HRSC is still in excellent shape, and it could continue to operate for many more years. HRSC has proven its ability to close the gap between the low-resolution Viking image data and the high-resolution Mars Orbiter Camera images, leading to a global picture of the geological evolution of Mars that is now much clearer than ever before. Derived highest-resolution terrain model data have closed major gaps and provided an unprecedented insight into the shape of the surface, which is paramount not only for surface analysis and geological interpretation, but also for combination with and analysis of data from other instruments, as well as in planning for future missions. This chapter presents the scientific output from data analysis and highlevel data processing, complemented by a summary of how the experiment is conducted by the HRSC team members working in geoscience, atmospheric science, photogrammetry and spectrophotometry. Many of these contributions have been or will be published in peer-reviewed journals and special issues. They form a cross-section of the scientific output, either by summarising the new geoscientific picture of Mars provided by HRSC or by detailing some of the topics of data analysis concerning photogrammetry, cartography and spectral data analysis.

  18. Ultra-high resolution coded wavefront sensor.

    PubMed

    Wang, Congli; Dun, Xiong; Fu, Qiang; Heidrich, Wolfgang

    2017-06-12

    Wavefront sensors and more general phase retrieval methods have recently attracted a lot of attention in a host of application domains, ranging from astronomy to scientific imaging and microscopy. In this paper, we introduce a new class of sensor, the Coded Wavefront Sensor, which provides high spatio-temporal resolution using a simple masked sensor under white light illumination. Specifically, we demonstrate megapixel spatial resolution and phase accuracy better than 0.1 wavelengths at reconstruction rates of 50 Hz or more, thus opening up many new applications from high-resolution adaptive optics to real-time phase retrieval in microscopy.

  19. High-resolution MRI in detecting subareolar breast abscess.

    PubMed

    Fu, Peifen; Kurihara, Yasuyuki; Kanemaki, Yoshihide; Okamoto, Kyoko; Nakajima, Yasuo; Fukuda, Mamoru; Maeda, Ichiro

    2007-06-01

    Because subareolar breast abscess has a high recurrence rate, a more effective imaging technique is needed to comprehensively visualize the lesions and guide surgery. We performed a high-resolution MRI technique using a microscopy coil to reveal the characteristics and extent of subareolar breast abscess. High-resolution MRI has potential diagnostic value in subareolar breast abscess. This technique can be used to guide surgery with the aim of reducing the recurrence rate.

  20. High-Resolution Mass Spectrometers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marshall, Alan G.; Hendrickson, Christopher L.

    2008-07-01

    Over the past decade, mass spectrometry has been revolutionized by access to instruments of increasingly high mass-resolving power. For small molecules up to ˜400 Da (e.g., drugs, metabolites, and various natural organic mixtures ranging from foods to petroleum), it is possible to determine elemental compositions (CcHhNnOoSsPp…) of thousands of chemical components simultaneously from accurate mass measurements (the same can be done up to 1000 Da if additional information is included). At higher mass, it becomes possible to identify proteins (including posttranslational modifications) from proteolytic peptides, as well as lipids, glycoconjugates, and other biological components. At even higher mass (˜100,000 Da or higher), it is possible to characterize posttranslational modifications of intact proteins and to map the binding surfaces of large biomolecule complexes. Here we review the principles and techniques of the highest-resolution analytical mass spectrometers (time-of-flight and Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance and orbitrap mass analyzers) and describe some representative high-resolution applications.

  1. High resolution time interval counter

    DOEpatents

    Condreva, Kenneth J.

    1994-01-01

    A high resolution counter circuit measures the time interval between the occurrence of an initial and a subsequent electrical pulse to two nanoseconds resolution using an eight megahertz clock. The circuit includes a main counter for receiving electrical pulses and generating a binary word--a measure of the number of eight megahertz clock pulses occurring between the signals. A pair of first and second pulse stretchers receive the signal and generate a pair of output signals whose widths are approximately sixty-four times the time between the receipt of the signals by the respective pulse stretchers and the receipt by the respective pulse stretchers of a second subsequent clock pulse. Output signals are thereafter supplied to a pair of start and stop counters operable to generate a pair of binary output words representative of the measure of the width of the pulses to a resolution of two nanoseconds. Errors associated with the pulse stretchers are corrected by providing calibration data to both stretcher circuits, and recording start and stop counter values. Stretched initial and subsequent signals are combined with autocalibration data and supplied to an arithmetic logic unit to determine the time interval in nanoseconds between the pair of electrical pulses being measured.

  2. High resolution time interval counter

    DOEpatents

    Condreva, K.J.

    1994-07-26

    A high resolution counter circuit measures the time interval between the occurrence of an initial and a subsequent electrical pulse to two nanoseconds resolution using an eight megahertz clock. The circuit includes a main counter for receiving electrical pulses and generating a binary word--a measure of the number of eight megahertz clock pulses occurring between the signals. A pair of first and second pulse stretchers receive the signal and generate a pair of output signals whose widths are approximately sixty-four times the time between the receipt of the signals by the respective pulse stretchers and the receipt by the respective pulse stretchers of a second subsequent clock pulse. Output signals are thereafter supplied to a pair of start and stop counters operable to generate a pair of binary output words representative of the measure of the width of the pulses to a resolution of two nanoseconds. Errors associated with the pulse stretchers are corrected by providing calibration data to both stretcher circuits, and recording start and stop counter values. Stretched initial and subsequent signals are combined with autocalibration data and supplied to an arithmetic logic unit to determine the time interval in nanoseconds between the pair of electrical pulses being measured. 3 figs.

  3. High resolution imaging at Palomar

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kulkarni, Shrinivas R.

    1992-01-01

    For the last two years we have embarked on a program of understanding the ultimate limits of ground-based optical imaging. We have designed and fabricated a camera specifically for high resolution imaging. This camera has now been pressed into service at the prime focus of the Hale 5 m telescope. We have concentrated on two techniques: the Non-Redundant Masking (NRM) and Weigelt's Fully Filled Aperture (FFA) method. The former is the optical analog of radio interferometry and the latter is a higher order extension of the Labeyrie autocorrelation method. As in radio Very Long Baseline Interferometry (VLBI), both these techniques essentially measure the closure phase and, hence, true image construction is possible. We have successfully imaged binary stars and asteroids with angular resolution approaching the diffraction limit of the telescope and image quality approaching that of a typical radio VLBI map. In addition, we have carried out analytical and simulation studies to determine the ultimate limits of ground-based optical imaging, the limits of space-based interferometric imaging, and investigated the details of imaging tradeoffs of beam combination in optical interferometers.

  4. Absolute rate constants for the reaction of OH with cyclopentane and cycloheptane from 233 to 351 K.

    PubMed

    Gennaco, Michael A; Huang, Yi-wen; Hannun, Reem A; Dransfield, Timothy J

    2012-12-27

    Absolute rate constant measurements for the reactions of OH with cyclopentane and cycloheptane in the gas phase in 6-8 Torr of nitrogen from 233 to 351 K in the Harvard University High-Pressure Flow System (HPFS) are reported. Hydroxyl concentrations were measured using laser-induced fluorescence, and alkane concentrations were measured using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. Results were fit to a modified Arrhenius equation based on transition state theory (ignoring tunneling): k(T) = B e(-E(a)/T)/T(1 - e(-1.44ν(1)/T))(2)(1 - e(-1.44ν(2)/T)), with ν(1) and ν(2) bending frequencies set to 280 and 500 cm(-1) . Results were as follows for E(a) (K) and k (298) (10(-12) cm(3) s(-1)): cyclopentane, 460 ± 32, 4.85; cycloheptane, 319 ± 36, 9.84. This work represents the second absolute temperature-dependent rate constant measurement reported for cycloheptane, and the third absolute temperature-dependent rate constant measurement reported near room temperature for the reaction of OH and cyclopentane. For the title reactions, the reaction barriers reported here are in agreement with the reaction barrier previously reported for cyclohexane and considerably higher than the barrier previously reported for cyclo-octane, a result that is not predicted by our current understanding of hydrocarbon reactivity.

  5. Easy Absolute Values? Absolutely

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, Sharon E.; Mittag, Kathleen Cage

    2015-01-01

    The authors teach a problem-solving course for preservice middle-grades education majors that includes concepts dealing with absolute-value computations, equations, and inequalities. Many of these students like mathematics and plan to teach it, so they are adept at symbolic manipulations. Getting them to think differently about a concept that they…

  6. High-Resolution Intravital Microscopy

    PubMed Central

    Andresen, Volker; Pollok, Karolin; Rinnenthal, Jan-Leo; Oehme, Laura; Günther, Robert; Spiecker, Heinrich; Radbruch, Helena; Gerhard, Jenny; Sporbert, Anje; Cseresnyes, Zoltan; Hauser, Anja E.; Niesner, Raluca

    2012-01-01

    Cellular communication constitutes a fundamental mechanism of life, for instance by permitting transfer of information through synapses in the nervous system and by leading to activation of cells during the course of immune responses. Monitoring cell-cell interactions within living adult organisms is crucial in order to draw conclusions on their behavior with respect to the fate of cells, tissues and organs. Until now, there is no technology available that enables dynamic imaging deep within the tissue of living adult organisms at sub-cellular resolution, i.e. detection at the level of few protein molecules. Here we present a novel approach called multi-beam striped-illumination which applies for the first time the principle and advantages of structured-illumination, spatial modulation of the excitation pattern, to laser-scanning-microscopy. We use this approach in two-photon-microscopy - the most adequate optical deep-tissue imaging-technique. As compared to standard two-photon-microscopy, it achieves significant contrast enhancement and up to 3-fold improved axial resolution (optical sectioning) while photobleaching, photodamage and acquisition speed are similar. Its imaging depth is comparable to multifocal two-photon-microscopy and only slightly less than in standard single-beam two-photon-microscopy. Precisely, our studies within mouse lymph nodes demonstrated 216% improved axial and 23% improved lateral resolutions at a depth of 80 µm below the surface. Thus, we are for the first time able to visualize the dynamic interactions between B cells and immune complex deposits on follicular dendritic cells within germinal centers (GCs) of live mice. These interactions play a decisive role in the process of clonal selection, leading to affinity maturation of the humoral immune response. This novel high-resolution intravital microscopy method has a huge potential for numerous applications in neurosciences, immunology, cancer research and developmental biology

  7. The absolute counting of red cell-derived microparticles with red cell bead by flow rate based assay.

    PubMed

    Nantakomol, Duangdao; Imwong, Malika; Soontarawirat, Ingfar; Kotjanya, Duangporn; Khakhai, Chulalak; Ohashi, Jun; Nuchnoi, Pornlada

    2009-05-01

    Activation of red blood cell is associated with the formation of red cell-derived microparticles (RMPs). Analysis of circulating RMPs is becoming more refined and clinically useful. A quantitative Trucount tube method is the conventional method uses for quantitating RMPs. In this study, we validated a quantitative method called "flow rate based assay using red cell bead (FCB)" to measure circulating RMPs in the peripheral blood of healthy subjects. Citrated blood samples collected from 30 cases of healthy subjects were determined the RMPs count by using double labeling of annexin V-FITC and anti-glycophorin A-PE. The absolute RMPs numbers were measured by FCB, and the results were compared with the Trucount or with flow rate based calibration (FR). Statistical correlation and agreement were analyzed using linear regression and Bland-Altman analysis. There was no significant difference in the absolute number of RMPs quantitated by FCB when compared with those two reference methods including the Trucount tube and FR method. The absolute RMPs count obtained from FCB method was highly correlated with those obtained from Trucount tube (r(2) = 0.98, mean bias 4 cell/microl, limit of agreement [LOA] -20.3 to 28.3 cell/microl), and FR method (r(2) = 1, mean bias 10.3 cell/microl, and LOA -5.5 to 26.2 cell/microl). This study demonstrates that FCB is suitable and more affordable for RMPs quantitation in the clinical samples. This method is a low cost and interchangeable to latex bead-based method for generating the absolute counts in the resource-limited areas. (c) 2008 Clinical Cytometry Society.

  8. Novel high-resolution VGA QWIP detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kataria, H.; Asplund, C.; Lindberg, A.; Smuk, S.; Alverbro, J.; Evans, D.; Sehlin, S.; Becanovic, S.; Tinghag, P.; Höglund, L.; Sjöström, F.; Costard, E.

    2017-02-01

    Continuing with its legacy of producing high performance infrared detectors, IRnova introduces its high resolution LWIR IDDCA (Integrated Detector Dewar Cooler assembly) based on QWIP (quantum well infrared photodetector) technology. The Focal Plane Array (FPA) has 640×512 pixels, with small (15μm) pixel pitch, and is based on the FLIRIndigo ISC0403 Readout Integrated Circuit (ROIC). The QWIP epitaxial structures are grown by metal-organic vapor phase epitaxy (MOVPE) at IRnova. Detector stability and response uniformity inherent to III/V based material will be demonstrated in terms of high performing detectors. Results showing low NETD at high frame rate will be presented. This makes it one of the first 15μm pitch QWIP based LWIR IDDCA commercially available on the market. High operability and stability of our other QWIP based products will also be shared.

  9. High Resolution Displays Using NCAP Liquid Crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Macknick, A. Brian; Jones, Phil; White, Larry

    1989-07-01

    Nematic curvilinear aligned phase (NCAP) liquid crystals have been found useful for high information content video displays. NCAP materials are liquid crystals which have been encapsulated in a polymer matrix and which have a light transmission which is variable with applied electric fields. Because NCAP materials do not require polarizers, their on-state transmission is substantially better than twisted nematic cells. All dimensional tolerances are locked in during the encapsulation process and hence there are no critical sealing or spacing issues. By controlling the polymer/liquid crystal morphology, switching speeds of NCAP materials have been significantly improved over twisted nematic systems. Recent work has combined active matrix addressing with NCAP materials. Active matrices, such as thin film transistors, have given displays of high resolution. The paper will discuss the advantages of NCAP materials specifically designed for operation at video rates on transistor arrays; applications for both backlit and projection displays will be discussed.

  10. Absolute empirical rate coefficient for the excitation of the 117.6 nm line in C III

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gardner, L. D.; Daw, A. N.; Janzen, P. H.; Atkins, N.; Kohl, J. L.

    2005-05-01

    We have measured the absolute cross sections for electron impact excitation (EIE) of C2+ (2s2p 3P° - 2p2 3P) for energies from below threshold to 17 eV above and derived EIE rate coefficients required for astrophysical applications. The uncertainty in the rate coefficient at a typical solar temperature of formation of C2+ is less than ± 6 %. Ions are produced in a 5 GHz Electron Cyclotron Resonance (ECR) ion source, extracted, formed into a beam, and transported to a collision chamber where they collide with electrons from an electron beam inclined at 45 degrees. The beams are modulated and the radiation from the decay of the excited ions at λ 117.6 nm is detected synchronously using an absolutely calibrated optical system that subtends slightly over π steradians. The fractional population of the C2+ metastable state in the incident ion beam has been determined experimentally to be 0.42 ± 0.03 (1.65 σ). At the reported ± 15 % total experimental uncertainty level (1.65 σ), the measured structure and absolute scale of the cross section are in fairly good agreement with 6-term close-coupling R-matrix calculations and 90-term R-matrix with pseudo-states calculations, although some minor differences are seen just above threshold. As density-sensitive line intensity ratios vary by only about a factor of 5 as the density changes by nearly a factor of 100, even a 30 % uncertainty in the excitation rate can lead to a factor of 3 error in density. This work is supported by NASA Supporting Research and Technology grants NAG5- 9516 and NAG5-12863 in Solar and Heliospheric Physics and by the Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory.

  11. High resolution scintillation detector with semiconductor readout

    DOEpatents

    Levin, Craig S.; Hoffman, Edward J.

    2000-01-01

    A novel high resolution scintillation detector array for use in radiation imaging such as high resolution Positron Emission Tomography (PET) which comprises one or more parallelepiped crystals with at least one long surface of each crystal being in intimate contact with a semiconductor photodetector such that photons generated within each crystal by gamma radiation passing therethrough is detected by the photodetector paired therewith.

  12. Absolute rate coefficients for photorecombination of beryllium-like and boron-like silicon ions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bernhardt, D.; Becker, A.; Brandau, C.; Grieser, M.; Hahn, M.; Krantz, C.; Lestinsky, M.; Novotný, O.; Repnow, R.; Savin, D. W.; Spruck, K.; Wolf, A.; Müller, A.; Schippers, S.

    2016-04-01

    We report measured rate coefficients for electron-ion recombination of Si10+ forming Si9+ and of Si9+ forming Si8+, respectively. The measurements were performed using the electron-ion merged-beams technique at a heavy-ion storage ring. Electron-ion collision energies ranged from 0 to 50 eV for Si9+ and from 0 to 2000 eV for Si10+, thus, extending previous measurements for Si10+ (Orban et al 2010 Astrophys. J. 721 1603) to much higher energies. Experimentally derived rate coefficients for the recombination of Si9+ and Si10+ ions in a plasma are presented along with simple parameterizations. These rate coefficients are useful for the modeling of the charge balance of silicon in photoionized plasmas (Si9+ and Si10+) and in collisionally ionized plasmas (Si10+ only). In the corresponding temperature ranges, the experimentally derived rate coefficients agree with the latest corresponding theoretical results within the experimental uncertainties.

  13. Requirements on high resolution detectors

    SciTech Connect

    Koch, A.

    For a number of microtomography applications X-ray detectors with a spatial resolution of 1 {mu}m are required. This high spatial resolution will influence and degrade other parameters of secondary importance like detective quantum efficiency (DQE), dynamic range, linearity and frame rate. This note summarizes the most important arguments, for and against those detector systems which could be considered. This article discusses the mutual dependencies between the various figures which characterize a detector, and tries to give some ideas on how to proceed in order to improve present technology.

  14. Noninvasive optical quantification of absolute blood flow, blood oxygenation, and oxygen consumption rate in exercising skeletal muscle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gurley, Katelyn; Shang, Yu; Yu, Guoqiang

    2012-07-01

    This study investigates a method using novel hybrid diffuse optical spectroscopies [near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) and diffuse correlation spectroscopy (DCS)] to obtain continuous, noninvasive measurement of absolute blood flow (BF), blood oxygenation, and oxygen consumption rate (\\Vdot O2) in exercising skeletal muscle. Healthy subjects (n=9) performed a handgrip exercise to increase BF and \\Vdot O2 in forearm flexor muscles, while a hybrid optical probe on the skin surface directly monitored oxy-, deoxy-, and total hemoglobin concentrations ([HbO2], [Hb], and THC), tissue oxygen saturation (StO2), relative BF (rBF), and relative oxygen consumption rate (r\\Vdot O2). The rBF and r\\Vdot O2 signals were calibrated with absolute baseline BF and \\Vdot O2 obtained through venous and arterial occlusions, respectively. Known problems with muscle-fiber motion artifacts in optical measurements during exercise were mitigated using a novel gating algorithm that determined muscle contraction status based on control signals from a dynamometer. Results were consistent with previous findings in the literature. This study supports the application of NIRS/DCS technology to quantitatively evaluate hemodynamic and metabolic parameters in exercising skeletal muscle and holds promise for improving diagnosis and treatment evaluation for patients suffering from diseases affecting skeletal muscle and advancing fundamental understanding of muscle and exercise physiology.

  15. Noninvasive optical quantification of absolute blood flow, blood oxygenation, and oxygen consumption rate in exercising skeletal muscle

    PubMed Central

    Gurley, Katelyn; Shang, Yu

    2012-01-01

    Abstract. This study investigates a method using novel hybrid diffuse optical spectroscopies [near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) and diffuse correlation spectroscopy (DCS)] to obtain continuous, noninvasive measurement of absolute blood flow (BF), blood oxygenation, and oxygen consumption rate (V˙O2) in exercising skeletal muscle. Healthy subjects (n=9) performed a handgrip exercise to increase BF and V˙O2 in forearm flexor muscles, while a hybrid optical probe on the skin surface directly monitored oxy-, deoxy-, and total hemoglobin concentrations ([HbO2], [Hb], and THC), tissue oxygen saturation (StO2), relative BF (rBF), and relative oxygen consumption rate (rV˙O2). The rBF and rV˙O2 signals were calibrated with absolute baseline BF and V˙O2 obtained through venous and arterial occlusions, respectively. Known problems with muscle-fiber motion artifacts in optical measurements during exercise were mitigated using a novel gating algorithm that determined muscle contraction status based on control signals from a dynamometer. Results were consistent with previous findings in the literature. This study supports the application of NIRS/DCS technology to quantitatively evaluate hemodynamic and metabolic parameters in exercising skeletal muscle and holds promise for improving diagnosis and treatment evaluation for patients suffering from diseases affecting skeletal muscle and advancing fundamental understanding of muscle and exercise physiology. PMID:22894482

  16. Absolute rate constant for the O plus NO chemiluminescence in the near infrared

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Golde, M. F.; Roche, A. E.; Kaufman, F.

    1973-01-01

    Infrared chemiluminescence from the process O + NO (+M) NO2 + hv (+M) has been studied between 1.3 and 4.1 micrometer. The wavelength dependence of the continuum between 1.3 and 3.3 micrometer is in fair agreement with previous studies and the measured radiative rate constant at 1.51 micrometer establishes the NO-O glow in this spectral range as a secondary emission standard. Comparison with previous studies of the visible region of the glow implies that the overall radiative rate constant lies in the range (9.4 to 11.2) x 10 to the minus 17 power cu cm sec/1. In the region 3.3 to 4.1 micrometer, the previously observed broad band, peaking at 3.7 micrometer, shows a complex kinetic dependence on O and M.

  17. Absolute rate expressions for hydrogen atom abstraction from molybdenum hydrides by carbon-centered radicals

    SciTech Connect

    Franz, J.A.; Linehan, J.C.; Birnbaum, J.C.

    1999-10-27

    A new family of basis rate expressions for hydrogen atom abstraction by primary, secondary, and tertiary alkyl radicals in dodecane and benzyl radical in benzene from the molybdenum hydride Cp*Mo-(CO){sub 3}H and for reactions of a primary alkyl radical with CpMo(CO){sub 3}H in dodecane are reported (Cp* = {eta}{sup 5}-pentamethylcyclopentadienyl, Cp = {eta}{sup 5}-cyclopentadienyl). Rate expressions for reaction of primary, secondary, and tertiary radical clocks with Cp*Mo(CO){sub 3}H were as follows: for hex-5-enyl, log(k/M{sup {minus}1} s{sup {minus}1}) = (9.27 {+-} 0.13) {minus} (1.36 {+-} 0.22)/{theta}, {theta} = 2.303RT kcal/mol; for hept-6-en-2-yl, log(k/M{sup {minus}1} s{sup {minus}1}) = (9.12 {+-} 0.42) {minus}more » (1.91 {+-} 0.74)/{theta}; and for 2-methylhept-6-en-2-yl, log(k/M{sup {minus}1} s{sup {minus}1}) = (9.36 {+-} 0.18) {minus} (3.19 {+-} 0.30)/{theta} (errors are 2{sigma}). Hydrogen atom abstraction from CpMo(CO){sub 3}H by hex-5-enyl is described by log(k/M{sup {minus}1} s{sup {minus}1}) = (9.53 {+-} 0.34) {minus} (1.24 {+-} 0.62)/{theta}. Relative rate constants for 1{degree}:2{degree}:3{degree} alkyl radicals were found to be 26:7:1 at 298 K. Benzyl radical was found to react 1.4 times faster than tertiary alkyl radical. The much higher selectivities for CP*Mo(CO){sub 3}H than those observed for main group hydrides (Bu{sub 3}SnH, PhSeH, PhSH) with alkyl radicals, together with the very fast benzyl hydrogen-transfer rate, suggest the relative unimportance of simple enthalpic effects and the dominance of steric effects for the early transition-state hydrogen transfers. Hydrogen abstraction from Cp*Mo(CO){sub 3}H by benzyl radicals is described by log(k/M{sup {minus}1} s{sup {minus}1}) = (8.89 {+-} 0.22) {minus} (2.31 {+-} 0.33)/{theta}.« less

  18. Absolute rate constants of alkoxyl radical reactions in aqueous solution. [Tert-butyl hydroperoxide

    SciTech Connect

    Erben-Russ, M.; Michel, C.; Bors, W.

    1987-04-23

    The pulse radiolysis technique was used to generate the alkoxyl radical derived from tert-butyl hydroperoxide (/sup t/BuOOH) in aqueous solution. The reactions of this radical with 2,2'-azinobis(3-ethyl-6-benzothiazolinesulfonate) (ABTS) and promethazine were monitored by kinetic spectroscopy. The unimolecular decay rate constant of the tert-butoxyl radical (/sup t/BuO) was determined to be 1.4 x 10/sup 6/ s/sup -1/. On the basis of this value, the rate constants for /sup t/BuO attack on quercetin, crocin, crocetin, ascorbate, isoascorbate, trolox c, glutathione, thymidine, adenosine, guanosine, and unsaturated fatty acids were determined. In addition, the reaction of /sup t/BuO with the polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA)more » was observed by directly monitoring the formation of the fatty acid pentadienyl radicals. Interestingly, the attack of /sup t/BuO on PUFA was found to be faster by about one order of magnitude as compared to the same reaction in a nonpolar solvent.« less

  19. Ultra-high resolution AMOLED

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wacyk, Ihor; Prache, Olivier; Ghosh, Amal

    2011-06-01

    AMOLED microdisplays continue to show improvement in resolution and optical performance, enhancing their appeal for a broad range of near-eye applications such as night vision, simulation and training, situational awareness, augmented reality, medical imaging, and mobile video entertainment and gaming. eMagin's latest development of an HDTV+ resolution technology integrates an OLED pixel of 3.2 × 9.6 microns in size on a 0.18 micron CMOS backplane to deliver significant new functionality as well as the capability to implement a 1920×1200 microdisplay in a 0.86" diagonal area. In addition to the conventional matrix addressing circuitry, the HDTV+ display includes a very lowpower, low-voltage-differential-signaling (LVDS) serialized interface to minimize cable and connector size as well as electromagnetic emissions (EMI), an on-chip set of look-up-tables for digital gamma correction, and a novel pulsewidth- modulation (PWM) scheme that together with the standard analog control provides a total dimming range of 0.05cd/m2 to 2000cd/m2 in the monochrome version. The PWM function also enables an impulse drive mode of operation that significantly reduces motion artifacts in high speed scene changes. An internal 10-bit DAC ensures that a full 256 gamma-corrected gray levels are available across the entire dimming range, resulting in a measured dynamic range exceeding 20-bits. This device has been successfully tested for operation at frame rates ranging from 30Hz up to 85Hz. This paper describes the operational features and detailed optical and electrical test results for the new AMOLED WUXGA resolution microdisplay.

  20. NOAA's Use of High-Resolution Imagery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hund, Erik

    2007-01-01

    NOAA's use of high-resolution imagery consists of: a) Shoreline mapping and nautical chart revision; b) Coastal land cover mapping; c) Benthic habitat mapping; d) Disaster response; and e) Imagery collection and support for coastal programs.

  1. Development of high resolution target monitor.

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2008-01-01

    The proposed High-resolution Target Movement Monitor uses triangulation theory but in a unique way. Unlike the commercially available triangulation systems which use sensing diodes to perceive reflected laser signatures and are limited to very short ...

  2. Temperature and pressure dependence of the absolute rate constant for the reactions of NH2 radicals with acetylene and ethylene

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bosco, S. R.; Nava, D. F.; Brobst, W. D.; Stief, L. J.

    1984-01-01

    The absolute rate constants for the reaction between the NH2 free radical and acetylene and ethylene is measured experimentally using a flash photolysis technique. The constant is considered to be a function of temperature and pressure. At each temperature level of the experiment, the observed pseudo-first-order rate constants were assumed to be independent of flash intensity. The results of the experiment indicate that the bimolecular rate constant for the NH2 + C2H2 reaction increases with pressure at 373 K and 459 K but not at lower temperatures. Results near the pressure limit conform to an Arrhenius expression of 1.11 (+ or -) 0.36 x 10 to the -13th over the temperature range from 241 to 459 K. For the reaction NH2 + C2H4, a smaller rate of increase in the bimolecular rate constant was observed over the temperature range 250-465 K. The implications of these results for current theoretical models of NH2 + C2H2 (or H4) reactions in the atmospheres of Jupiter and Saturn are discussed.

  3. Solid-state track recorder dosimetry device to measure absolute reaction rates and neutron fluence as a function of time

    DOEpatents

    Gold, Raymond; Roberts, James H.

    1989-01-01

    A solid state track recording type dosimeter is disclosed to measure the time dependence of the absolute fission rates of nuclides or neutron fluence over a period of time. In a primary species an inner recording drum is rotatably contained within an exterior housing drum that defines a series of collimating slit apertures overlying windows defined in the stationary drum through which radiation can enter. Film type solid state track recorders are positioned circumferentially about the surface of the internal recording drum to record such radiation or its secondary products during relative rotation of the two elements. In another species both the recording element and the aperture element assume the configuration of adjacent disks. Based on slit size of apertures and relative rotational velocity of the inner drum, radiation parameters within a test area may be measured as a function of time and spectra deduced therefrom.

  4. A rare gas optics-free absolute photon flux and energy analyzer to provide absolute photoionization rates of inflowing interstellar neutrals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Judge, Darrell L.

    1994-01-01

    A prototype spectrometer has been developed for space applications requiring long term absolute EUV photon flux measurements. The energy spectrum of the incoming photons is transformed directly into an electron energy spectrum by taking advantage of the photoelectric effect in one of several rare gases at low pressures. Using an electron energy spectrometer, followed by an electron multiplier detector, pulses due to individual electrons are counted. The overall efficiency of this process can be made essentially independent of gain drifts in the signal path, and the secular degradation of optical components which is often a problem in other techniques is avoided. A very important feature of this approach is its freedom from the problem of overlapping spectral orders that plagues grating EUV spectrometers. An instrument with these features has not been flown before, but is essential to further advances in our understanding of solar EUV flux dynamics, and the coupled dynamics of terrestrial and planetary atmospheres. The detailed characteristics of this optics-free spectrometer are presented in the publications section.

  5. Indirectly estimated absolute lung cancer mortality rates by smoking status and histological type based on a systematic review

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background National smoking-specific lung cancer mortality rates are unavailable, and studies presenting estimates are limited, particularly by histology. This hinders interpretation. We attempted to rectify this by deriving estimates indirectly, combining data from national rates and epidemiological studies. Methods We estimated study-specific absolute mortality rates and variances by histology and smoking habit (never/ever/current/former) based on relative risk estimates derived from studies published in the 20th century, coupled with WHO mortality data for age 70–74 for the relevant country and period. Studies with populations grossly unrepresentative nationally were excluded. 70–74 was chosen based on analyses of large cohort studies presenting rates by smoking and age. Variations by sex, period and region were assessed by meta-analysis and meta-regression. Results 148 studies provided estimates (Europe 59, America 54, China 22, other Asia 13), 54 providing estimates by histology (squamous cell carcinoma, adenocarcinoma). For all smoking habits and lung cancer types, mortality rates were higher in males, the excess less evident for never smokers. Never smoker rates were clearly highest in China, and showed some increasing time trend, particularly for adenocarcinoma. Ever smoker rates were higher in parts of Europe and America than in China, with the time trend very clear, especially for adenocarcinoma. Variations by time trend and continent were clear for current smokers (rates being higher in Europe and America than Asia), but less clear for former smokers. Models involving continent and trend explained much variability, but non-linearity was sometimes seen (with rates lower in 1991–99 than 1981–90), and there was regional variation within continent (with rates in Europe often high in UK and low in Scandinavia, and higher in North than South America). Conclusions The indirect method may be questioned, because of variations in definition of smoking and

  6. The reaction H + C4H2 - Absolute rate constant measurement and implication for atmospheric modeling of Titan

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nava, D. F.; Mitchell, M. B.; Stief, L. J.

    1986-01-01

    The absolute rate constant for the reaction H + C4H2 has been measured over the temperature (T) interval 210-423 K, using the technique of flash photolysis-resonance fluorescence. At each of the five temperatures employed, the results were independent of variations in C4H2 concentration, total pressure of Ar or N2, and flash intensity (i.e., the initial H concentration). The rate constant, k, was found to be equal to 1.39 x 10 to the -10th exp (-1184/T) cu cm/s, with an error of one standard deviation. The Arrhenius parameters at the high pressure limit determined here for the H + C4H2 reaction are consistent with those for the corresponding reactions of H with C2H2 and C3H4. Implications of the kinetic carbon chemistry results, particularly those at low temperature, are considered for models of the atmospheric carbon chemistry of Titan. The rate of this reaction, relative to that of the analogous, but slower, reaction of H + C2H2, appears to make H + C4H2 a very feasible reaction pathway for effective conversion of H atoms to molecular hydrogen in the stratosphere of Titan.

  7. Pressure dependence of the absolute rate constant for the reaction OH + C2H2 from 228 to 413K

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Michael, J. V.; Nava, D. F.; Borokowski, R. P.; Payne, W. A.; Stief, L. J.

    1980-01-01

    The pressure dependence of absolute rate constants for the reaction of OH + C2H2 yields products has been examined at five temperatures ranging from 228 to 413 K. The experimental techniques which was used is flash photolysis-resonance fluoresence. OH was produced by water photolysis and hydroxyl resonance fluorescent photons were measured by multiscaling techniques. The results indicate that the low pressure bimolecular rate constant is 4 x 10 the the minus 13th power cu cm molecule (-1) s(-1) over the temperature range studied. A substantial increase in the bimolecular rate constant with an increase in pressure was observed at all temperatures except 228 K. This indicates the importance of initial adduct formation and subsequent stablization. The high pressure results are well represented by the Arrhenius expression (k sub bi) sub infinity = (6.83 + or - 1.19) x 10 to the minus 12th power exp(-646 + or - 47/T)cu cm molecule (-1) s(-1). The results are compared to previous investigated and are theoretically discussed. The implications of these results on modeling of terrestrial and planetary atmospheres and also in combustion chemistry are discussed.

  8. High-resolution discrete absorption spectrum of α-methallyl free radical in the vapor phase

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bayrakçeken, Fuat; Telatar, Ziya; Arı, Fikret; Tunçyürek, Lale; Karaaslan, İpek; Yaman, Ali

    2006-09-01

    The α-methallyl free radical is formed in the flash photolysis of 3-methylbut-1-ene, and cis-pent-2-ene in the vapor phase, and then subsequent reactions have been investigated by kinetic spectroscopy and gas-liquid chromatography. The photolysis flash was of short duration and it was possible to follow the kinetics of the radicals' decay, which occurred predominantly by bimolecular recombination. The measured rate constant for the α-methallyl recombination was (3.5 ± 0.3) × 10 10 mol -1 l s -1 at 295 ± 2 K. The absolute extinction coefficients of the α-methallyl radical are calculated from the optical densities of the absorption bands. Detailed analysis of related absorption bands and lifetime measurements in the original α-methallyl high-resolution discrete absorption spectrum image were also carried out by image processing techniques.

  9. Feasibility of high-resolution quantitative perfusion analysis in patients with heart failure.

    PubMed

    Sammut, Eva; Zarinabad, Niloufar; Wesolowski, Roman; Morton, Geraint; Chen, Zhong; Sohal, Manav; Carr-White, Gerry; Razavi, Reza; Chiribiri, Amedeo

    2015-02-12

    Cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR) is playing an expanding role in the assessment of patients with heart failure (HF). The assessment of myocardial perfusion status in HF can be challenging due to left ventricular (LV) remodelling and wall thinning, coexistent scar and respiratory artefacts. The aim of this study was to assess the feasibility of quantitative CMR myocardial perfusion analysis in patients with HF. A group of 58 patients with heart failure (HF; left ventricular ejection fraction, LVEF ≤ 50%) and 33 patients with normal LVEF (LVEF >50%), referred for suspected coronary artery disease, were studied. All subjects underwent quantitative first-pass stress perfusion imaging using adenosine according to standard acquisition protocols. The feasibility of quantitative perfusion analysis was then assessed using high-resolution, 3 T kt perfusion and voxel-wise Fermi deconvolution. 30/58 (52%) subjects in the HF group had underlying ischaemic aetiology. Perfusion abnormalities were seen amongst patients with ischaemic HF and patients with normal LV function. No regional perfusion defect was observed in the non-ischaemic HF group. Good agreement was found between visual and quantitative analysis across all groups. Absolute stress perfusion rate, myocardial perfusion reserve (MPR) and endocardial-epicardial MPR ratio identified areas with abnormal perfusion in the ischaemic HF group (p = 0.02; p = 0.04; p = 0.02, respectively). In the Normal LV group, MPR and endocardial-epicardial MPR ratio were able to distinguish between normal and abnormal segments (p = 0.04; p = 0.02 respectively). No significant differences of absolute stress perfusion rate or MPR were observed comparing visually normal segments amongst groups. Our results demonstrate the feasibility of high-resolution voxel-wise perfusion assessment in patients with HF.

  10. Optical factors determined by the T-matrix method in turbidity measurement of absolute coagulation rate constants.

    PubMed

    Xu, Shenghua; Liu, Jie; Sun, Zhiwei

    2006-12-01

    Turbidity measurement for the absolute coagulation rate constants of suspensions has been extensively adopted because of its simplicity and easy implementation. A key factor in deriving the rate constant from experimental data is how to theoretically evaluate the so-called optical factor involved in calculating the extinction cross section of doublets formed during aggregation. In a previous paper, we have shown that compared with other theoretical approaches, the T-matrix method provides a robust solution to this problem and is effective in extending the applicability range of the turbidity methodology, as well as increasing measurement accuracy. This paper will provide a more comprehensive discussion of the physical insight for using the T-matrix method in turbidity measurement and associated technical details. In particular, the importance of ensuring the correct value for the refractive indices for colloidal particles and the surrounding medium used in the calculation is addressed, because the indices generally vary with the wavelength of the incident light. The comparison of calculated results with experiments shows that the T-matrix method can correctly calculate optical factors even for large particles, whereas other existing theories cannot. In addition, the data of the optical factor calculated by the T-matrix method for a range of particle radii and incident light wavelengths are listed.

  11. Potential High Resolution Dosimeters For MRT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bräuer-Krisch, E.; Rosenfeld, A.; Lerch, M.; Petasecca, M.; Akselrod, M.; Sykora, J.; Bartz, J.; Ptaszkiewicz, M.; Olko, P.; Berg, A.; Wieland, M.; Doran, S.; Brochard, T.; Kamlowski, A.; Cellere, G.; Paccagnella, A.; Siegbahn, E. A.; Prezado, Y.; Martinez-Rovira, I.; Bravin, A.; Dusseau, L.; Berkvens, P.

    2010-07-01

    Microbeam Radiation Therapy (MRT) uses highly collimated, quasi-parallel arrays of X-ray microbeams of 50-600 keV, produced by 2nd and 3rd generation synchrotron sources, such as the National Synchrotron Light Source (NSLS) in the U.S., and the European Synchrotron Radiation Facility (ESRF) in France, respectively. High dose rates are necessary to deliver therapeutic doses in microscopic volumes, to avoid spreading of the microbeams by cardiosynchronous movement of the tissues. A small beam divergence and a filtered white beam spectrum in the energy range between 30 and 250 keV results in the advantage of steep dose gradients with a sharper penumbra than that produced in conventional radiotherapy. MRT research over the past 20 years has allowed a vast number of results from preclinical trials on different animal models, including mice, rats, piglets and rabbits. Microbeams in the range between 10 and 100 micron width show an unprecedented sparing of normal radiosensitive tissues as well as preferential damage to malignant tumor tissues. Typically, MRT uses arrays of narrow (˜25-100 micron-wide) microplanar beams separated by wider (100-400 microns centre-to-centre, c-t-c) microplanar spaces. We note that thicker microbeams of 0.1-0.68 mm used by investigators at the NSLS are still called microbeams, although some invesigators in the community prefer to call them minibeams. This report, however, limits it discussion to 25-100 μm microbeams. Peak entrance doses of several hundreds of Gy are surprisingly well tolerated by normal tissues. High resolution dosimetry has been developed over the last two decades, but typical dose ranges are adapted to dose delivery in conventional Radiation Therapy (RT). Spatial resolution in the sub-millimetric range has been achieved, which is currently required for quality assurance measurements in Gamma-knife RT. Most typical commercially available detectors are not suitable for MRT applications at a dose rate of 16000 Gy/s, micron

  12. Monolithically integrated absolute frequency comb laser system

    SciTech Connect

    Wanke, Michael C.

    2016-07-12

    Rather than down-convert optical frequencies, a QCL laser system directly generates a THz frequency comb in a compact monolithically integrated chip that can be locked to an absolute frequency without the need of a frequency-comb synthesizer. The monolithic, absolute frequency comb can provide a THz frequency reference and tool for high-resolution broad band spectroscopy.

  13. High resolution ceramic gun for projection CRT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muchi, T.; Tagami, S.; Saito, T.

    1995-08-01

    A ceramic resistor with high-resistivity and a low thermal coefficient has been developed. The use of this ceramic material as a cylindrical electrode realizes an electrostatic lens with low spherical aberration. A ceramic electron gun based on a new concept has been developed for high resolution projection CRTs.

  14. Titania High-Resolution Color Composite

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1996-01-29

    This high-resolution color composite of Titania was made from NASA Voyager 2 images taken Jan. 24, 1986, as the spacecraft neared its closest approach to Uranus. A large, trenchlike feature is seen near the terminator. http://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA00036

  15. A High-Resolution Stopwatch for Cents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gingl, Z.; Kopasz, K.

    2011-01-01

    A very low-cost, easy-to-make stopwatch is presented to support various experiments in mechanics. The high-resolution stopwatch is based on two photodetectors connected directly to the microphone input of a sound card. Dedicated free open-source software has been developed and made available to download. The efficiency is demonstrated by a free…

  16. High-Resolution Global Soil Moisture Map

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2015-05-19

    High-resolution global soil moisture map from NASA SMAP combined radar and radiometer instruments, acquired between May 4 and May 11, 2015 during SMAP commissioning phase. The map has a resolution of 5.6 miles (9 kilometers). The data gap is due to turning the instruments on and off during testing. http://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA19337

  17. High-resolution two dimensional advective transport

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Smith, P.E.; Larock, B.E.

    1989-01-01

    The paper describes a two-dimensional high-resolution scheme for advective transport that is based on a Eulerian-Lagrangian method with a flux limiter. The scheme is applied to the problem of pure-advection of a rotated Gaussian hill and shown to preserve the monotonicity property of the governing conservation law.

  18. High Resolution Airborne Shallow Water Mapping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steinbacher, F.; Pfennigbauer, M.; Aufleger, M.; Ullrich, A.

    2012-07-01

    In order to meet the requirements of the European Water Framework Directive (EU-WFD), authorities face the problem of repeatedly performing area-wide surveying of all kinds of inland waters. Especially for mid-sized or small rivers this is a considerable challenge imposing insurmountable logistical efforts and costs. It is therefore investigated if large-scale surveying of a river system on an operational basis is feasible by employing airborne hydrographic laser scanning. In cooperation with the Bavarian Water Authority (WWA Weilheim) a pilot project was initiated by the Unit of Hydraulic Engineering at the University of Innsbruck and RIEGL Laser Measurement Systems exploiting the possibilities of a new LIDAR measurement system with high spatial resolution and high measurement rate to capture about 70 km of riverbed and foreland for the river Loisach in Bavaria/Germany and the estuary and parts of the shoreline (about 40km in length) of lake Ammersee. The entire area surveyed was referenced to classic terrestrial cross-section surveys with the aim to derive products for the monitoring and managing needs of the inland water bodies forced by the EU-WFD. The survey was performed in July 2011 by helicopter and airplane and took 3 days in total. In addition, high resolution areal images were taken to provide an optical reference, offering a wide range of possibilities on further research, monitoring, and managing responsibilities. The operating altitude was about 500 m to maintain eye-safety, even for the aided eye, the airspeed was about 55 kts for the helicopter and 75 kts for the aircraft. The helicopter was used in the alpine regions while the fixed wing aircraft was used in the plains and the urban area, using appropriate scan rates to receive evenly distributed point clouds. The resulting point density ranged from 10 to 25 points per square meter. By carefully selecting days with optimum water quality, satisfactory penetration down to the river bed was achieved

  19. High Resolution Rapid Revisits Insar Monitoring of Surface Deformation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singhroy, V.; Li, J.; Charbonneau, F.

    2014-12-01

    Monitoring surface deformation on strategic energy and transportation corridors requires high resolution spatial and temporal InSAR images for mitigation and safety purposes. High resolution air photos, lidar and other satellite images are very useful in areas where the landslides can be fatal. Recently, radar interferometry (InSAR) techniques using more rapid revisit images from several radar satellites are increasingly being used in active deformation monitoring. The Canadian RADARSAT Constellation (RCM) is a three-satellite mission that will provide rapid revisits of four days interferometric (InSAR) capabilities that will be very useful for complex deformation monitoring. For instance, the monitoring of surface deformation due to permafrost activity, complex rock slide motion and steam assisted oil extraction will benefit from this new rapid revisit capability. This paper provide examples of how the high resolution (1-3 m) rapid revisit InSAR capabilities will improve our monitoring of surface deformation and provide insights in understanding triggering mechanisms. We analysed over a hundred high resolution InSAR images over a two year period on three geologically different sites with various configurations of topography, geomorphology, and geology conditions. We show from our analysis that the more frequent InSAR acquisitions are providing more information in understanding the rates of movement and failure process of permafrost triggered retrogressive thaw flows; the complex motion of an asymmetrical wedge failure of an active rock slide and the identification of over pressure zones related to oil extraction using steam injection. Keywords: High resolution, InSAR, rapid revisits, triggering mechanisms, oil extraction.

  20. High-Resolution X-Ray Telescopes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    ODell, Stephen L.; Brissenden, Roger J.; Davis, William; Elsner, Ronald F.; Elvis, Martin; Freeman, Mark; Gaetz, Terry; Gorenstein, Paul; Gubarev, Mikhail V.

    2010-01-01

    Fundamental needs for future x-ray telescopes: a) Sharp images => excellent angular resolution. b) High throughput => large aperture areas. Generation-X optics technical challenges: a) High resolution => precision mirrors & alignment. b) Large apertures => lots of lightweight mirrors. Innovation needed for technical readiness: a) 4 top-level error terms contribute to image size. b) There are approaches to controlling those errors. Innovation needed for manufacturing readiness. Programmatic issues are comparably challenging.

  1. Conversational high resolution mass spectrographic data reduction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Romiez, M. P.

    1973-01-01

    A FORTRAN 4 program is described which reduces the data obtained from a high resolution mass spectrograph. The program (1) calculates an accurate mass for each line on the photoplate, and (2) assigns elemental compositions to each accurate mass. The program is intended for use in a time-shared computing environment and makes use of the conversational aspects of time-sharing operating systems.

  2. Design of UAV high resolution image transmission system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Qiang; Ji, Ming; Pang, Lan; Jiang, Wen-tao; Fan, Pengcheng; Zhang, Xingcheng

    2017-02-01

    In order to solve the problem of the bandwidth limitation of the image transmission system on UAV, a scheme with image compression technology for mini UAV is proposed, based on the requirements of High-definition image transmission system of UAV. The video codec standard H.264 coding module and key technology was analyzed and studied for UAV area video communication. Based on the research of high-resolution image encoding and decoding technique and wireless transmit method, The high-resolution image transmission system was designed on architecture of Android and video codec chip; the constructed system was confirmed by experimentation in laboratory, the bit-rate could be controlled easily, QoS is stable, the low latency could meets most applied requirement not only for military use but also for industrial applications.

  3. A Portable, High Resolution, Surface Measurement Device

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ihlefeld, Curtis M.; Burns, Bradley M.; Youngquist, Robert C.

    2012-01-01

    A high resolution, portable, surface measurement device has been demonstrated to provide micron-resolution topographical plots. This device was specifically developed to allow in-situ measurements of defects on the Space Shuttle Orbiter windows, but is versatile enough to be used on a wide variety of surfaces. This paper discusses the choice of an optical sensor and then the decisions required to convert a lab bench optical measurement device into an ergonomic portable system. The necessary trade-offs between performance and portability are presented along with a description of the device developed to measure Orbiter window defects.

  4. High resolution extremity CT for biomechanics modeling

    SciTech Connect

    Ashby, A.E.; Brand, H.; Hollerbach, K.

    1995-09-23

    With the advent of ever more powerful computing and finite element analysis (FEA) capabilities, the bone and joint geometry detail available from either commercial surface definitions or from medical CT scans is inadequate. For dynamic FEA modeling of joints, precise articular contours are necessary to get appropriate contact definition. In this project, a fresh cadaver extremity was suspended in parafin in a lucite cylinder and then scanned with an industrial CT system to generate a high resolution data set for use in biomechanics modeling.

  5. High-resolution computer-aided moire

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sciammarella, Cesar A.; Bhat, Gopalakrishna K.

    1991-12-01

    This paper presents a high resolution computer assisted moire technique for the measurement of displacements and strains at the microscopic level. The detection of micro-displacements using a moire grid and the problem associated with the recovery of displacement field from the sampled values of the grid intensity are discussed. A two dimensional Fourier transform method for the extraction of displacements from the image of the moire grid is outlined. An example of application of the technique to the measurement of strains and stresses in the vicinity of the crack tip in a compact tension specimen is given.

  6. High-Resolution Scintimammography: A Pilot Study

    SciTech Connect

    Rachel F. Brem; Joelle M. Schoonjans; Douglas A. Kieper

    2002-07-01

    This study evaluated a novel high-resolution breast-specific gamma camera (HRBGC) for the detection of suggestive breast lesions. Methods: Fifty patients (with 58 breast lesions) for whom a scintimammogram was clinically indicated were prospectively evaluated with a general-purpose gamma camera and a novel HRBGC prototype. The results of conventional and high-resolution nuclear studies were prospectively classified as negative (normal or benign) or positive (suggestive or malignant) by 2 radiologists who were unaware of the mammographic and histologic results. All of the included lesions were confirmed by pathology. Results: There were 30 benign and 28 malignant lesions. The sensitivity for detection ofmore » breast cancer was 64.3% (18/28) with the conventional camera and 78.6% (22/28) with the HRBGC. The specificity with both systems was 93.3% (28/30). For the 18 nonpalpable lesions, sensitivity was 55.5% (10/18) and 72.2% (13/18) with the general-purpose camera and the HRBGC, respectively. For lesions 1 cm, 7 of 15 were detected with the general-purpose camera and 10 of 15 with the HRBGC. Four lesions (median size, 8.5 mm) were detected only with the HRBGC and were missed by the conventional camera. Conclusion: Evaluation of indeterminate breast lesions with an HRBGC results in improved sensitivity for the detection of cancer, with greater improvement shown for nonpalpable and 1-cm lesions.« less

  7. High Resolution Spectroscopy to Support Atmospheric Measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Benner, D. Chris; Venkataraman, Malathy Devi

    2000-01-01

    The major research activities performed during the cooperative agreement enhanced our spectroscopic knowledge of molecules of atmospheric interest such as carbon dioxide, water vapor, ozone, methane, and carbon monoxide, to name a few. Measurements were made using the NASA Langley Tunable Diode Laser Spectrometer System (TDL) and several Fourier Transform Spectrometer Systems (FTS) around the globe. The results from these studies made remarkable improvements in the line positions and intensities for several molecules, particularly ozone and carbon dioxide in the 2 to 17-micrometer spectral region. Measurements of pressure broadening and pressure induced line shift coefficients and the temperature dependence of pressure broadening and pressure induced line shift coefficients for infrared transitions of ozone, methane, and water vapor were also performed. Results from these studies have been used for retrievals of stratospheric gas concentration profiles from data collected by several Upper Atmospheric Research satellite (UARS) infrared instruments as well as in the analysis of high resolution atmospheric spectra such as those acquired by space-based, ground-based, and various balloon- and aircraft-borne experiments. Our results made significant contributions in several updates of the HITRAN (HIgh resolution TRANsmission) spectral line parameters database. This database enjoys worldwide recognition in research involving diversified scientific fields.

  8. High Resolution Spectroscopy to Support Atmospheric Measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Venkataraman, Malathy Devi

    2003-01-01

    Spectroscopic parameters (such as line position, intensity, broadening and shifting coefficients and their temperature dependences, line mixing coefficients etc.) for various molecular species of atmospheric interest are determined. In order to achieve these results, infrared spectra of several molecular bands are obtained using high-resolution recording instruments such as tunable diode laser spectrometer and Fourier transform spectrometers. Using sophisticated analysis routines (Multispectrum nonlinear least squares technique) these high-resolution infrared spectra are processed to determine the various spectral line parameters that are cited above. Spectra were taken using the McMath-Pierce Fourier transform spectrometer (FTS) at the National Solar Observatory on Kitt Peak, Arizona as well as the Bruker FTS at the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) at Richland, Washington. Most of the spectra are acquired not only at room temperature, but also at several different cold temperatures. This procedure is necessary to study the variation of the spectral line parameters as a function of temperature in order to simulate the Earth's and other planetary atmospheric environments. Depending upon the strength or weakness of the various bands recorded and analyzed, the length(s) of the absorption cells in which the gas samples under study are kept varied from a few centimeters up to several meters and the sample temperatures varied from approximately +30 C to -63 C. Research on several infrared bands of various molecular species and their isotopomers are undertaken. Those studies are briefly described.

  9. High Resolution Spectroscopy to Support Atmospheric Measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Benner, D. Chris; Venkataraman, Malathy Devi

    2000-01-01

    The major research activities performed during the cooperative agreement enhanced our spectroscopic knowledge of molecules of atmospheric interest such as carbon dioxide, water vapor, ozone, methane, and carbon monoxide, to name a few. Measurements were made using the NASA Langley Tunable Diode Laser Spectrometer System (TDL) and several Fourier Transform Spectrometer Systems (FTS) around the globe. The results from these studies made remarkable improvements in the line positions and intensities for several molecules, particularly ozone and carbon dioxide in the 2 to 17-micrometer spectral region. Measurements of pressure broadening and pressure induced line shift coefficients and the temperature dependence of pressure broadening and pressure induced line shift coefficients for infrared transitions of ozone, methane, and water vapor were also performed. Results from these studies have been used for retrievals of stratospheric gas concentration profiles from data collected by several Upper Atmospheric Research satellite (UARS) infrared instruments as well as in the analysis of high resolution atmospheric spectra such as those acquired by space-based, ground-based, and various balloon-and aircraft-borne experiments. Our results made significant contributions in several updates of the HITRAN (HIgh resolution TRANsmission) spectral line parameters database. This database enjoys worldwide recognition in research involving diversified scientific fields.

  10. Clementine High Resolution Camera Mosaicking Project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    This report constitutes the final report for NASA Contract NASW-5054. This project processed Clementine I high resolution images of the Moon, mosaicked these images together, and created a 22-disk set of compact disk read-only memory (CD-ROM) volumes. The mosaics were produced through semi-automated registration and calibration of the high resolution (HiRes) camera's data against the geometrically and photometrically controlled Ultraviolet/Visible (UV/Vis) Basemap Mosaic produced by the US Geological Survey (USGS). The HiRes mosaics were compiled from non-uniformity corrected, 750 nanometer ("D") filter high resolution nadir-looking observations. The images were spatially warped using the sinusoidal equal-area projection at a scale of 20 m/pixel for sub-polar mosaics (below 80 deg. latitude) and using the stereographic projection at a scale of 30 m/pixel for polar mosaics. Only images with emission angles less than approximately 50 were used. Images from non-mapping cross-track slews, which tended to have large SPICE errors, were generally omitted. The locations of the resulting image population were found to be offset from the UV/Vis basemap by up to 13 km (0.4 deg.). Geometric control was taken from the 100 m/pixel global and 150 m/pixel polar USGS Clementine Basemap Mosaics compiled from the 750 nm Ultraviolet/Visible Clementine imaging system. Radiometric calibration was achieved by removing the image nonuniformity dominated by the HiRes system's light intensifier. Also provided are offset and scale factors, achieved by a fit of the HiRes data to the corresponding photometrically calibrated UV/Vis basemap, that approximately transform the 8-bit HiRes data to photometric units. The sub-polar mosaics are divided into tiles that cover approximately 1.75 deg. of latitude and span the longitude range of the mosaicked frames. Images from a given orbit are map projected using the orbit's nominal central latitude. Polar mosaics are tiled into squares 2250 pixels on a

  11. Toshiba TDF-500 High Resolution Viewing And Analysis System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roberts, Barry; Kakegawa, M.; Nishikawa, M.; Oikawa, D.

    1988-06-01

    A high resolution, operator interactive, medical viewing and analysis system has been developed by Toshiba and Bio-Imaging Research. This system provides many advanced features including high resolution displays, a very large image memory and advanced image processing capability. In particular, the system provides CRT frame buffers capable of update in one frame period, an array processor capable of image processing at operator interactive speeds, and a memory system capable of updating multiple frame buffers at frame rates whilst supporting multiple array processors. The display system provides 1024 x 1536 display resolution at 40Hz frame and 80Hz field rates. In particular, the ability to provide whole or partial update of the screen at the scanning rate is a key feature. This allows multiple viewports or windows in the display buffer with both fixed and cine capability. To support image processing features such as windowing, pan, zoom, minification, filtering, ROI analysis, multiplanar and 3D reconstruction, a high performance CPU is integrated into the system. This CPU is an array processor capable of up to 400 million instructions per second. To support the multiple viewer and array processors' instantaneous high memory bandwidth requirement, an ultra fast memory system is used. This memory system has a bandwidth capability of 400MB/sec and a total capacity of 256MB. This bandwidth is more than adequate to support several high resolution CRT's and also the fast processing unit. This fully integrated approach allows effective real time image processing. The integrated design of viewing system, memory system and array processor are key to the imaging system. It is the intention to describe the architecture of the image system in this paper.

  12. High-Resolution Broadband Spectral Interferometry

    SciTech Connect

    Erskine, D J; Edelstein, J

    2002-08-09

    We demonstrate solar spectra from a novel interferometric method for compact broadband high-resolution spectroscopy. The spectral interferometer (SI) is a hybrid instrument that uses a spectrometer to externally disperse the output of a fixed-delay interferometer. It also has been called an externally dispersed interferometer (EDI). The interferometer can be used with linear spectrometers for imaging spectroscopy or with echelle spectrometers for very broad-band coverage. EDI's heterodyning technique enhances the spectrometer's response to high spectral-density features, increasing the effective resolution by factors of several while retaining its bandwidth. The method is extremely robust to instrumental insults such as focal spot sizemore » or displacement. The EDI uses no moving parts, such as purely interferometric FTS spectrometers, and can cover a much wider simultaneous bandpass than other internally dispersed interferometers (e.g. HHS or SHS).« less

  13. Computer synthesis of high resolution electron micrographs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nathan, R.

    1976-01-01

    Specimen damage, spherical aberration, low contrast and noisy sensors combine to prevent direct atomic viewing in a conventional electron microscope. The paper describes two methods for obtaining ultra-high resolution in biological specimens under the electron microscope. The first method assumes the physical limits of the electron objective lens and uses a series of dark field images of biological crystals to obtain direct information on the phases of the Fourier diffraction maxima; this information is used in an appropriate computer to synthesize a large aperture lens for a 1-A resolution. The second method assumes there is sufficient amplitude scatter from images recorded in focus which can be utilized with a sensitive densitometer and computer contrast stretching to yield fine structure image details. Cancer virus characterization is discussed as an illustrative example. Numerous photographs supplement the text.

  14. High Resolution Image From Viking Lander 1

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1996-12-12

    NASA's Viking 1 took this high-resolution picture today, its third day on Mars. Distance from the camera to the nearfield (bottom) is about 4 meters (13 feet); to the horizon, about 3 kilometers (1.8 miles). The photo shows numerous angular blocks ranging in size from a few centimeters to several meters. The surface between the blocks is composed of fine-grained material. Accumulation of some fine-grained material behind blocks indicates wind deposition of dust and sand downwind of obstacles. The large block on the horizon is about 4 meters (13 feet) wide. Distance across the horizon is about 34 meters (110 feet). http://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA00385

  15. Constructing a WISE High Resolution Galaxy Atlas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jarrett, T. H.; Masci, F.; Tsai, C. W.; Petty, S.; Cluver, M.; Assef, Roberto J.; Benford, D.; Blain, A.; Bridge, C.; Donoso, E.; hide

    2012-01-01

    After eight months of continuous observations, the Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE) mapped the entire sky at 3.4 micron, 4.6 micron, 12 micron, and 22 micron. We have begun a dedicated WISE High Resolution Galaxy Atlas project to fully characterize large, nearby galaxies and produce a legacy image atlas and source catalog. Here we summarize the deconvolution techniques used to significantly improve the spatial resolution of WISE imaging, specifically designed to study the internal anatomy of nearby galaxies. As a case study, we present results for the galaxy NGC 1566, comparing the WISE enhanced-resolution image processing to that of Spitzer, Galaxy Evolution Explorer, and ground-based imaging. This is the first paper in a two-part series; results for a larger sample of nearby galaxies are presented in the second paper.

  16. Development of New High Resolution Neutron Detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mostella, L. D., III; Rajabali, M.; Loureiro, D. P.; Grzywacz, R.

    2017-09-01

    Beta-delayed neutron emission is a prevalent form of decay for neutron-rich nuclei. This occurs when an unstable nucleus undergoes beta decay, but produces a daughter nucleus in an excited state above the neutron separation energy. The daughter nucleus then de-excites by ejecting one or more neutrons. We wish to map the states from which these nuclei decay via neutron spectroscopy using NEXT, a new high resolution neutron detector. NEXT utilizes silicon photomultipliers and 6 mm thick pulse-shape discriminating plastic scintillators, allowing for smaller and more compact modular geometries in the NEXT array. Timing measurements for the detector were performed and a resolution of 893 ps (FWHM) has been achieved so far. Aspects of the detector that were investigated and will be presented here include scintillator geometry, wrapping materials, fitting functions for the digitized signals, and electronic components coupled to the silicon photomultipliers for signal shaping.

  17. High-resolution reconstruction for terahertz imaging.

    PubMed

    Xu, Li-Min; Fan, Wen-Hui; Liu, Jia

    2014-11-20

    We present a high-resolution (HR) reconstruction model and algorithms for terahertz imaging, taking advantage of super-resolution methodology and algorithms. The algorithms used include projection onto a convex sets approach, iterative backprojection approach, Lucy-Richardson iteration, and 2D wavelet decomposition reconstruction. Using the first two HR reconstruction methods, we successfully obtain HR terahertz images with improved definition and lower noise from four low-resolution (LR) 22×24 terahertz images taken from our homemade THz-TDS system at the same experimental conditions with 1.0 mm pixel. Using the last two HR reconstruction methods, we transform one relatively LR terahertz image to a HR terahertz image with decreased noise. This indicates potential application of HR reconstruction methods in terahertz imaging with pulsed and continuous wave terahertz sources.

  18. High-resolution scanning Hall probe microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hallen, Hans D.; Hess, H. F.; Chang, A. M.; Pfeiffer, Loren N.; West, Kenneth W.; Mitzi, David B.

    1993-06-01

    A high resolution scanning Hall probe microscope is used to spatially resolve vortices in high temperature superconducting Bi2Sr2CaCu2O8+(delta) crystals. We observe a partially ordered vortex lattice at several different applied magnetic fields and temperatures. At higher temperatures, a limited amount of vortex re-arrangement is observed, but most vortices remain fixed for periods long compared to the imaging time of several hours even at temperatures as high as 75 degree(s)K (the superconducting transition temperature for these crystals is approximately 84 degree(s)K). A measure of these local magnetic penetration depth can be obtained from a fit to the surface field of several neighboring vortices, and has been measured as a function of temperature. In particular, we have measured the zero temperature penetration depth and found it to be 275 +/- 40 nm.

  19. High Resolution Regional Climate Simulations over Alaska

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Monaghan, A. J.; Clark, M. P.; Arnold, J.; Newman, A. J.; Musselman, K. N.; Barlage, M. J.; Xue, L.; Liu, C.; Gutmann, E. D.; Rasmussen, R.

    2016-12-01

    In order to appropriately plan future projects to build and maintain infrastructure (e.g., dams, dikes, highways, airports), a number of U.S. federal agencies seek to better understand how hydrologic regimes may shift across the country due to climate change. Building on the successful completion of a series of high-resolution WRF simulations over the Colorado River Headwaters and contiguous USA, our team is now extending these simulations over the challenging U.S. States of Alaska and Hawaii. In this presentation we summarize results from a newly completed 4-km resolution WRF simulation over Alaska spanning 2002-2016 at 4-km spatial resolution. Our aim is to gain insight into the thermodynamics that drive key precipitation processes, particularly the extremes that are most damaging to infrastructure.

  20. Ultra-high resolution computed tomography imaging

    DOEpatents

    Paulus, Michael J.; Sari-Sarraf, Hamed; Tobin, Jr., Kenneth William; Gleason, Shaun S.; Thomas, Jr., Clarence E.

    2002-01-01

    A method for ultra-high resolution computed tomography imaging, comprising the steps of: focusing a high energy particle beam, for example x-rays or gamma-rays, onto a target object; acquiring a 2-dimensional projection data set representative of the target object; generating a corrected projection data set by applying a deconvolution algorithm, having an experimentally determined a transfer function, to the 2-dimensional data set; storing the corrected projection data set; incrementally rotating the target object through an angle of approximately 180.degree., and after each the incremental rotation, repeating the radiating, acquiring, generating and storing steps; and, after the rotating step, applying a cone-beam algorithm, for example a modified tomographic reconstruction algorithm, to the corrected projection data sets to generate a 3-dimensional image. The size of the spot focus of the beam is reduced to not greater than approximately 1 micron, and even to not greater than approximately 0.5 microns.

  1. A high resolution soil moisture radiometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dod, L. R.

    1980-01-01

    The design of an L-band high resolution soil moisture radiometer is described. The selected system is a planar slotted waveguide array at L-band frequencies. The square aperture is 74.75 m by 74.75 m subdivided into 8 tilted subarrays. The system has a 290 km circular orbit and provides a spatial resolution of 1 km. The aperture forms 230 simultaneous beams in a cross-track pattern which covers a swath 420 km wide. A revisit time of 6 days is provided for an orbit inclination of 50 deg. The 1 km resolution cell allows an integration time of 1/7 second and sharing this time period sequentially between two orthogonal polarization modes can provide a temperature resolution of 0.7 K.

  2. A high resolution ultraviolet Shuttle glow spectrograph

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carruthers, George R.

    1993-01-01

    The High Resolution Shuttle Glow Spectrograph-B (HRSGS-B) is a small payload being developed by the Naval Research Laboratory. It is intended for study of shuttle surface glow in the 180-400 nm near- and middle-ultraviolet wavelength range, with a spectral resolution of 0.2 nm. It will search for, among other possible features, the band systems of excited NO which result from surface-catalyzed combination of N and O. It may also detect O2 Hertzberg bands and N2 Vegard-Kaplan bands resulting from surface recombination. This wavelength range also includes possible N2+ and OH emissions. The HRSGS-B will be housed in a Get Away Special canister, mounted in the shuttle orbiter payload bay, and will observe the glow on the tail of the orbiter.

  3. Development of a high resolution MRI intracranial atherosclerosis imaging phantom.

    PubMed

    Chueh, Ju-Yu; van der Marel, Kajo; Gounis, Matthew J; LeMatty, Todd; Brown, Truman R; Ansari, Sameer A; Carroll, Timothy J; Buck, Amanda K; Zhou, Xiaohong Joe; Chatterjee, A Rano; King, Robert M; Mao, Hui; Zheng, Shaokuan; Brooks, Olivia W; Rappleye, Jeff W; Swartz, Richard H; Feldmann, Edward; Turan, Tanya N

    2018-02-01

    Currently, there is neither a standard protocol for vessel wall MR imaging of intracranial atherosclerotic disease (ICAD) nor a gold standard phantom to compare MR sequences. In this study, a plaque phantom is developed and characterized that provides a platform for establishing a uniform imaging approach for ICAD. A patient specific injection mold was 3D printed to construct a geometrically accurate ICAD phantom. Polyvinyl alcohol hydrogel was infused into the core shell mold to form the stenotic artery. The ICAD phantom incorporated materials mimicking a stenotic vessel and plaque components, including fibrous cap and lipid core. Two phantoms were scanned using high resolution cone beam CT and compared with four different 3 T MRI systems across eight different sites over a period of 18 months. Inter-phantom variability was assessed by lumen dimensions and contrast to noise ratio (CNR). Quantitative evaluation of the minimum lumen radius in the stenosis showed that the radius was on average 0.80 mm (95% CI 0.77 to 0.82 mm) in model 1 and 0.77 mm (95% CI 0.74 to 0.81 mm) in model 2. The highest CNRs were observed for comparisons between lipid and vessel wall. To evaluate manufacturing reproducibility, the CNR variability between the two models had an average absolute difference of 4.31 (95% CI 3.82 to 5.78). Variation in CNR between the images from the same scanner separated by 7 months was 2.5-6.2, showing reproducible phantom durability. A plaque phantom composed of a stenotic vessel wall and plaque components was successfully constructed for multicenter high resolution MRI standardization. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  4. High Resolution Spectroscopy to Support Atmospheric Measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Venkataraman, Malathy Devi

    2006-01-01

    The major research activities performed during the cooperative agreement enhanced our spectroscopic knowledge of molecules of atmospheric interest such as H2O (water vapor), O3 (ozone), HCN (hydrogen cyanide), CH4 (methane), NO2 (nitrogen dioxide) and CO (carbon monoxide). The data required for the analyses were obtained from two different Fourier Transform Spectrometers (FTS); one of which is located at the National Solar Observatory (NSO) on Kitt Peak, Arizona and the other instrument is located at the Pacific Northwest National Laboratories (PNNL) at Richland, Washington. The data were analyzed using a modified multispectrum nonlinear least squares fitting algorithm developed by Dr. D. Chris Benner of the College of William and Mary. The results from these studies made significant improvements in the line positons and intensities for these molecules. The measurements of pressure broadening and pressure induced line shift coefficients and the temperature dependence of pressure broadening and pressure induced shift coefficients for hundreds of infrared transitions of HCN, CO3 CH4 and H2O were also performed during this period. Results from these studies have been used for retrievals of stratospheric gas concentration profiles from data collected by several Upper Atmospheric Research Satellite (UARS) infrared instruments as well as in the analysis of high resolution atmospheric spectra such as those acquired by space-based, ground-based, and various balloon- and aircraft-borne experiments. Our results made significant contributions in several updates of the HITRAN (HIgh resolution TRANsmission) spectral line parameters database. This database enjoys worldwide recognition in research involving diversified scientific fields. The research conducted during the period 2003-2006 has resulted in publications given in this paper. In addition to Journal publications, several oral and poster presentations were given at various Scientific conferences within the United States

  5. High resolution multimodal clinical ophthalmic imaging system

    PubMed Central

    Mujat, Mircea; Ferguson, R. Daniel; Patel, Ankit H.; Iftimia, Nicusor; Lue, Niyom; Hammer, Daniel X.

    2010-01-01

    We developed a multimodal adaptive optics (AO) retinal imager which is the first to combine high performance AO-corrected scanning laser ophthalmoscopy (SLO) and swept source Fourier domain optical coherence tomography (SSOCT) imaging modes in a single compact clinical prototype platform. Such systems are becoming ever more essential to vision research and are expected to prove their clinical value for diagnosis of retinal diseases, including glaucoma, diabetic retinopathy (DR), age-related macular degeneration (AMD), and retinitis pigmentosa. The SSOCT channel operates at a wavelength of 1 µm for increased penetration and visualization of the choriocapillaris and choroid, sites of major disease activity for DR and wet AMD. This AO system is designed for use in clinical populations; a dual deformable mirror (DM) configuration allows simultaneous low- and high-order aberration correction over a large range of refractions and ocular media quality. The system also includes a wide field (33 deg.) line scanning ophthalmoscope (LSO) for initial screening, target identification, and global orientation, an integrated retinal tracker (RT) to stabilize the SLO, OCT, and LSO imaging fields in the presence of lateral eye motion, and a high-resolution LCD-based fixation target for presentation of visual cues. The system was tested in human subjects without retinal disease for performance optimization and validation. We were able to resolve and quantify cone photoreceptors across the macula to within ~0.5 deg (~100-150 µm) of the fovea, image and delineate ten retinal layers, and penetrate to resolve features deep into the choroid. The prototype presented here is the first of a new class of powerful flexible imaging platforms that will provide clinicians and researchers with high-resolution, high performance adaptive optics imaging to help guide therapies, develop new drugs, and improve patient outcomes. PMID:20589021

  6. Southern Ocean Circulation: a High Resolution Examination of the Last Deglaciation from Deep-Sea Corals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robinson, L. F.; Li, T.; Chen, T.; Burke, A.; Pegrum Haram, A.; Stewart, J.; Rae, J. W. B.; van de Flierdt, T.; Struve, T.; Wilson, D. J.

    2017-12-01

    Two decades ago it was first noted that the skeletal remains of deep-sea corals had the potential to provide absolutely dated archives of past ocean conditions. In the intervening twenty years this field has developed to the point where strategic collections and high throughput dating techniques now allow high resolution, well dated records of past deep sea behaviour to be produced. Likewise, efforts to improve understanding of biomineralisation and growth rates are leading to refinements in proxy tools useful for examining circulation, nutrient and carbon cycling, temperature and weathering processes. Deep-sea corals are particularly valuable archives in high latitude regions where radiocarbon-based age models are susceptible to large changes in surface reservoir ages. In this presentation we show new high resolution multiproxy records of the Southern Ocean (Drake Passage) made on U-Th dated corals spanning the last glacial cycle. With more than seventeen hundred reconnaissance ages, and around 200 precise isotope dilution U-Th ages, subtle changes in ocean behaviour can be identified during times of abrupt climate change. The geochemical signature of corals from the deepest sites, closest to modern day Lower Circumpolar Deep Waters, typically show a gradual shift from glacial to Holocene values during deglaciation, likely related to ventilation of the deep ocean. By contrast for the samples collected shallower in the water column (within sites currently bathed by Upper Circumpolar Deep Waters and Antarctic Intermediate and Mode Waters) the evidence points to a more complicated picture. Vertical zonation in the geochemical data suggests that periods of stratification are interspersed with mixing events within the upper 1500m of the water column. At the same time comparison to U-Th dated records from the low latitude Pacific and Atlantic points to an important role for the Southern Ocean in feeding the intermediate waters of both ocean basins throughout the

  7. Quantification of transformation rates of soil amino sugars and amino acids by a novel isotope pool dilution approach via liquid chromatography/high resolution mass spectrometry (LC/HRMS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Yuntao; Zheng, Qing; Noll, Lisa; Zhang, Shasha; Wanek, Wolfgang

    2017-04-01

    Organic nitrogen transformation processes are the key driver of soil nitrogen availability, strongly affecting the nitrogen turnover and carbon cycling of terrestrial ecosystems. Low molecular weight organic nitrogen compounds (e.g. amino acids and amino sugars) that can be directly utilized by plants or microorganisms are released by the extracellular cleavage of high molecular weight organic nitrogen compounds (e.g. proteins, peptidoglycan, and chitin) by hydrolytic enzymes. This decomposition process is believed to be the rate-limiting step in the soil N cycle. Direct measurements of the in situ transformation rates of these small N compounds is highly challenging but can be realized by applying the isotope pool dilution (IPD) technique, in which the target compound pool is labeled with isotopic tracers and subsequently the dilution of the tracers is measured. We have recently pioneered the development of IPD assays to investigate the in situ flux of proteinaceous amino acids and glucose due to decomposition of organic matter and microbial utilization, but the roles of fluxes of amino sugars and amino acid enantiomers in soil nitrogen transformation processes are still unknown due to the lack of feasible extraction, purification, separation and detection methods. Here we developed a 15N IPD assay by utilizing a novel LC/HRMS (Orbitrap) platform, with the aim to measure transformation rates of amino sugars and amino acid enantiomers. After the tracer experiments soil extracts were purified by solid phase extraction prior to the analysis by MS. The utilization of Orbitrap-HRMS allowed us to resolve the mass signals of unlabeled analytes, and their 15N labeled (tracers) and 13C labeled (internal standards) analogues. The commercially unavailable 15N and 13C labeled amino sugars and amino acid enantiomers were produced from bacterial cell walls after batch culture in labeled growth media. This workflow was validated with soils from two sampling sites, allowing us to

  8. High-Resolution Integrated Optical System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prakapenka, V. B.; Goncharov, A. F.; Holtgrewe, N.; Greenberg, E.

    2017-12-01

    Raman and optical spectroscopy in-situ at extreme high pressure and temperature conditions relevant to the planets' deep interior is a versatile tool for characterization of wide range of properties of minerals essential for understanding the structure, composition, and evolution of terrestrial and giant planets. Optical methods, greatly complementing X-ray diffraction and spectroscopy techniques, become crucial when dealing with light elements. Study of vibrational and optical properties of minerals and volatiles, was a topic of many research efforts in past decades. A great deal of information on the materials properties under extreme pressure and temperature has been acquired including that related to structural phase changes, electronic transitions, and chemical transformations. These provide an important insight into physical and chemical states of planetary interiors (e.g. nature of deep reservoirs) and their dynamics including heat and mass transport (e.g. deep carbon cycle). Optical and vibrational spectroscopy can be also very instrumental for elucidating the nature of the materials molten states such as those related to the Earth's volatiles (CO2, CH4, H2O), aqueous fluids and silicate melts, planetary ices (H2O, CH4, NH3), noble gases, and H2. The optical spectroscopy study performed concomitantly with X-ray diffraction and spectroscopy measurements at the GSECARS beamlines on the same sample and at the same P-T conditions would greatly enhance the quality of this research and, moreover, will provide unique new information on chemical state of matter. The advanced high-resolution user-friendly integrated optical system is currently under construction and expected to be completed by 2018. In our conceptual design we have implemented Raman spectroscopy with five excitation wavelengths (266, 473, 532, 660, 946 nm), confocal imaging, double sided IR laser heating combined with high temperature Raman (including coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering) and

  9. Superconducting High Resolution Fast-Neutron Spectrometers

    SciTech Connect

    Hau, Ionel Dragos

    2006-01-01

    Superconducting high resolution fast-neutron calorimetric spectrometers based on 6LiF and TiB{sub 2} absorbers have been developed. These novel cryogenic spectrometers measure the temperature rise produced in exothermal (n, α) reactions with fast neutrons in 6Li and 10B-loaded materials with heat capacity C operating at temperatures T close to 0.1 K. Temperature variations on the order of 0.5 mK are measured with a Mo/Cu thin film multilayer operated in the transition region between its superconducting and its normal state. The advantage of calorimetry for high resolution spectroscopy is due to the small phonon excitation energies k BT on the order ofmore » μeV that serve as signal carriers, resulting in an energy resolution ΔE ~ (k BT 2C) 1/2, which can be well below 10 keV. An energy resolution of 5.5 keV has been obtained with a Mo/Cu superconducting sensor and a TiB 2 absorber using thermal neutrons from a 252Cf neutron source. This resolution is sufficient to observe the effect of recoil nuclei broadening in neutron spectra, which has been related to the lifetime of the first excited state in 7Li. Fast-neutron spectra obtained with a 6Li-enriched LiF absorber show an energy resolution of 16 keV FWHM, and a response in agreement with the 6Li(n, α) 3H reaction cross section and Monte Carlo simulations for energies up to several MeV. The energy resolution of order of a few keV makes this novel instrument applicable to fast-neutron transmission spectroscopy based on the unique elemental signature provided by the neutron absorption and scattering resonances. The optimization of the energy resolution based on analytical and numerical models of the detector response is discussed in the context of these applications.« less

  10. Integrated High Resolution Monitoring of Mediterranean vegetation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cesaraccio, Carla; Piga, Alessandra; Ventura, Andrea; Arca, Angelo; Duce, Pierpaolo; Mereu, Simone

    2017-04-01

    The study of the vegetation features in a complex and highly vulnerable ecosystems, such as Mediterranean maquis, leads to the need of using continuous monitoring systems at high spatial and temporal resolution, for a better interpretation of the mechanisms of phenological and eco-physiological processes. Near-surface remote sensing techniques are used to quantify, at high temporal resolution, and with a certain degree of spatial integration, the seasonal variations of the surface optical and radiometric properties. In recent decades, the design and implementation of global monitoring networks involved the use of non-destructive and/or cheaper approaches such as (i) continuous surface fluxes measurement stations, (ii) phenological observation networks, and (iii) measurement of temporal and spatial variations of the vegetation spectral properties. In this work preliminary results from the ECO-SCALE (Integrated High Resolution Monitoring of Mediterranean vegetation) project are reported. The project was manly aimed to develop an integrated system for environmental monitoring based on digital photography, hyperspectral radiometry , and micrometeorological techniques during three years of experimentation (2013-2016) in a Mediterranean site of Italy (Capo Caccia, Alghero). The main results concerned the analysis of chromatic coordinates indices from digital images, to characterized the phenological patterns for typical shrubland species, determining start and duration of the growing season, and the physiological status in relation to different environmental drought conditions; then the seasonal patterns of canopy phenology, was compared to NEE (Net Ecosystem Exchange) patterns, showing similarities. However, maximum values of NEE and ER (Ecosystem respiration), and short term variation, seemed mainly tuned by inter annual pattern of meteorological variables, in particular of temperature recorded in the months preceding the vegetation green-up. Finally, green signals

  11. High-resolution study of oscillator strengths and predissociation rates for 13C18O . W-X bands and Rydberg complexes between 92.9 and 93.5 nm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eidelsberg, M.; Lemaire, J. L.; Federman, S. R.; Heays, A. N.; Stark, G.; Lyons, J. R.; Gavilan, L.; de Oliveira, N.

    2017-06-01

    We carried out experiments at the SOLEIL synchrotron facility to acquire data for modelling CO photochemistry in the vacuum ultraviolet. We report oscillator strengths and predissociation rates for four vibrational bands associated with transitions from the v = 0 level of the X1Σ+ ground state to the v = 0-3 vibrational levels of the core excited W1Π Rydberg state, and for three overlapping bands associated with the 4pπ, 5pπ, and 5pσ Rydberg states between 92.9 and 93.4 nm in 13C18O. These results complete those obtained in the same conditions for 12C16O, 13C16O, and 12C18O recently published by us, and extend the development of a comprehensive database of line positions, oscillator strengths, and linewidths of photodissociating transitions for CO isotopologues. Absorption spectra were recorded using the Vacuum UltraViolet Fourier Transform Spectrometer (VUV-FTS) installed on the Dichroïsme Et Spectroscopie par Interaction avec le Rayonnement Synchrotron (DESIRS) beamline at SOLEIL. The resolving power of the measurements, R = 300 000 to 400 000, allows the analysis of individual line strengths and widths within the bands. Gas column densities in the differentially pumped system were calibrated using the B-X (0-0) band at 115.1 nm in 13C18O.

  12. NMR high-resolution magic angle spinning rotor design for quantification of metabolic concentrations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holly, R.; Damyanovich, A.; Peemoeller, H.

    2006-05-01

    A new high-resolution magic angle spinning nuclear magnetic resonance technique is presented to obtain absolute metabolite concentrations of solutions. The magnetic resonance spectrum of the sample under investigation and an internal reference are acquired simultaneously, ensuring both spectra are obtained under the same experimental conditions. The robustness of the technique is demonstrated using a solution of creatine, and it is shown that the technique can obtain solution concentrations to within 7% or better.

  13. Absolute measurements of the triplet-triplet annihilation rate and the charge-carrier recombination layer thickness in working polymer light-emitting diodes based on polyspirobifluorene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rothe, C.; Al Attar, H. A.; Monkman, A. P.

    2005-10-01

    The triplet exciton densities in electroluminescent devices prepared from two polyspirobifluorene derivatives have been investigated by means of time-resolved transient triplet absorption as a function of optical and electrical excitation power at 20 K. Because of the low mobility of the triplet excitons at this temperature, the triplet generation profile within the active polymer layer is preserved throughout the triplet lifetime and as a consequence the absolute triplet-triplet annihilation efficiency is not homogeneously distributed but depends on position within the active layer. This then gives a method to measure the charge-carrier recombination layer after electrical excitation relative to the light penetration depth, which is identical to the triplet generation layer after optical excitation. With the latter being obtained from ellipsometry, an absolute value of 5 nm is found for the exciton formation layer in polyspirobifluorene devices. This layer increases to 11 nm if the balance between the electron and the hole mobility is improved by chemically modifying the polymer backbone. Also, and consistent with previous work, triplet diffusion is dispersive at low temperature. As a consequence of this, the triplet-triplet annihilation rate is not a constant in the classical sense but depends on the triplet excitation dose. At 20 K and for typical excitation doses, absolute values of the latter rate are of the order of 10-14cm3s-1 .

  14. High resolution SETI: Experiences and prospects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Horowitz, Paul; Clubok, Ken

    Megachannel spectroscopy with sub-Hertz resolution constitutes an attractive strategy for a microwave search for extraterrestrial intelligence (SETI), assuming the transmission of a narrowband radiofrequency beacon. Such resolution matches the properties of the interstellar medium, and the necessary Doppler corrections provide a high degree of interference rejection. We have constructed a frequency-agile receiver with an FFT-based 8 megachannel digital spectrum analyzer, on-line signal recognition, and multithreshold archiving. We are using it to conduct a meridian transit search of the northern sky at the Harvard-Smithsonian 26-m antenna, with a second identical system scheduled to begin observations in Argentina this month. Successive 400 kHz spectra, at 0.05 Hz resolution, are searched for features characteristic of an intentional narrowband beacon transmission. These spectra are centered on guessable frequencies (such as λ21 cm), referenced successively to the local standard of rest, the galactic barycenter, and the cosmic blackbody rest frame. This search has rejected interference admirably, but is greatly limited both in total frequency coverage and sensitivity to signals other than carriers. We summarize five years of high resolution SETI at Harvard, in the context of answering the questions "How useful is narrowband SETI, how serious are its limitations, what can be done to circumvent them, and in what direction should SETI evolve?" Increasingly powerful signal processing hardware, combined with ever-higher memory densities, are particularly relevant, permitting the construction of compact and affordable gigachannel spectrum analyzers covering hundreds of megahertz of instantaneous bandwidth.

  15. High-resolution light microscopy of nanoforms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vodyanoy, Vitaly; Pustovyy, Oleg; Vainrub, Arnold

    2007-09-01

    We developed a high resolution light imaging system. Diffraction gratings with 100 nm width lines as well as less than 100 nm size features of different-shaped objects are clearly visible on a calibrated microscope test slide (Vainrub et al., Optics Letters, 2006, 31, 2855). The two-point resolution increase results from a known narrowing of the central diffraction peak for the annular aperture. Better visibility and advanced contrast of the smallest features in the image are due to enhancement of high spatial frequencies in the optical transfer function. The imaging system is portable, low energy, and battery operated. It has been adapted to use in both transmitting and reflecting light. It is particularly applicable for motile nanoform systems where structure and functions can be depicted in real time. We have isolated micrometer and submicrometer particles, termed proteons, from human and animal blood. Proteons form by reversible seeded aggregation of proteins around proteon nucleating centers (PNCs). PNCs are comprised of 1-2nm metallic nanoclusters containing 40-300 atoms. Proteons are capable of spontaneous assembling into higher nanoform systems assuming structure of complicated topology. The arrangement of complex proteon system mimics the structure of a small biological cell. It has structures that imitate membrane and nucleolus or nuclei. Some of these nanoforms are motile. They interact and divide. Complex nanoform systems can spontaneously reduce to simple proteons. The physical properties of these nanoforms could shed some light on the properties of early life forms or forms at extreme conditions.

  16. Structure Identification Using High Resolution Mass ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The iCSS CompTox Dashboard is a publicly accessible dashboard provided by the National Center for Computation Toxicology at the US-EPA. It serves a number of purposes, including providing a chemistry database underpinning many of our public-facing projects (e.g. ToxCast and ExpoCast). The available data and searches provide a valuable path to structure identification using mass spectrometry as the source data. With an underlying database of over 720,000 chemicals, the dashboard has already been used to assist in identifying chemicals present in house dust. This poster reviews the benefits of the EPA’s platform and underlying algorithms used for the purpose of compound identification using high-resolution mass spectrometry data. Standard approaches for both mass and formula lookup are available but the dashboard delivers a novel approach for hit ranking based on functional use of the chemicals. The focus on high-quality data, novel ranking approaches and integration to other resources of value to mass spectrometrists makes the CompTox Dashboard a valuable resource for the identification of environmental chemicals. This abstract does not reflect U.S. EPA policy poster presented at the Eastern Analytical Symposium (EAS) held in Somerset, NJ

  17. High Resolution BPM for Linear Colliders

    SciTech Connect

    Simon, C.; Chel, S.; Luong, M.

    2006-11-20

    A high resolution Beam Position Monitor (BPM) is necessary for the beam-based alignment systems of high energy and low emittance electron linacs. Such a monitor is developed in the framework of the European CARE/SRF programme, in a close collaboration between DESY and CEA/DSM/DAPNIA. This monitor is a radiofrequency re-entrant cavity, which can be used either at room or cryogenic temperature, in an environment where dust particle contamination has to be avoided, such as superconducting cavities in a cryomodule. A first prototype of a re-entrant BPM has already delivered measurements at 2K. inside the first cryomodule (ACC1) on the TESLA Testmore » Facility 2 (TTF2). The performances of this BPM are analyzed both experimentally and theoretically, and the limitations of this existing system clearly identified. A new cavity and new electronics have been designed in order to improve the position resolution down to 1 {mu}m and the damping time down to 10 ns.« less

  18. A High Resolution Phase Shifting Interferometer.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bayda, Michael; Bartscher, Christoph; Wilkinson, Allen

    1997-03-01

    Configuration, operation, and performance details of a high resolution phase shifting Twyman-Green interferometer are presented. The instrument was used for density relaxation experiments of very compressible liquid-vapor critical fluids.(A companion talk in the Nonequilibrium Phenomena session under Complex Fluids presents density equilibration work.) A sample assembly contained the cell, beam splitter, phase shifter, and mirrors inside a 6 cm diameter by 6 cm long aluminum cylinder. This sample assembly was contained inside a thermostat stable to 50 μK RMS deviation. A thin phase retarding Liquid Crystal Cell (LCC) was placed in the reference arm of the interferometer. The LCC provided four cumulative 90 degree phase shifts to produce four images used in computing each phase map. The Carré technique was used to calculate a phase value for each pixel from the four intensities of each pixel. Four images for one phase map could be acquired in less than two seconds. The spatial resolution was 25 μm. The phase resolution of the interferometer in a six second period was better than λ/400. The phase stability of the interferometer during 25 hours was better than λ/70. Factors affecting timing, resolution, and other phase shifting devices will be discussed. WWW Presentation

  19. Holographic high-resolution endoscopic image recording

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bjelkhagen, Hans I.

    1991-03-01

    Endoscopic holography or endoholography combines the features of endoscopy and holography. The purpose of endoholographic imaging is to provide the physician with a unique means of extending diagnosis by providing a life-like record of tissue. Endoholographic recording will provide means for microscopic examination of tissue and in some cases may obviate the need to excise specimens for biopsy. In this method holograms which have the unique properties of three-dimensionality large focal depth and high resolution are made with a newly designed endoscope. The endoscope uses a single-mode optical fiber for illumination and single-beam reflection holograms are recorded in close contact with the tissue at the distal end of the endoscope. The holograms are viewed under a microscope. By using the proper combinations of dyes for staining specific tissue types with various wavelengths of laser illumination increased contrast on the cellular level can be obtained. Using dyes such as rose bengal in combination with the 514. 5 nm line of an argon ion laser and trypan blue or methylene blue with the 647. 1 nm line of a krypton ion laser holograms of the stained colon of a dog showed the architecture of the colon''s columnar epithelial cells. It is hoped through chronological study using this method in-vivo an increased understanding of the etiology and pathology of diseases such as Crohn''s diseases colitis proctitis and several different forms of cancer will help

  20. High-resolution imaging using endoscopic holography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bjelkhagen, Hans I.

    1990-08-01

    Endoscopic holography or endoholography combines the features of endoscopy and holography. The purpose of endoholographic imaging is to provide the physician with a unique means of extending diagnosis by providing a life-like record of tissue. Endoholographic recording will provide means for microscopic examination of tissue and in some cases may obviate the need to excise specimens for biopsy. In this method holograms which have the unique properties of three-dimensionality large focal depth and high resolution are made with a newly designed endoscope. The endoscope uses a single-mode optical fiber for illumination and single-beam reflection holograms are recorded in close contact with the tissue at the distal end of the endoscope. The holograms are viewed under a microscope. By using the proper combinations of dyes for staining specific tissue types with various wavelengths of laser illumination increased contrast on the cellular level can be obtained. Using dyes such as rose bengal in combination with the 514. 5 nm line of an argon ion laser and trypan blue or methylene blue with the 647. 1 nm line of a krypton ion laser holograms of the stained colon of a dog showed the architecture of the colon''s columnar epithelial cells. It is hoped through chronological study using this method in-vivo an increased understanding of the etiology and pathology of diseases such as Crohn''s diseases colitis proctitis and several different forms of cancer will help to their control. 1.

  1. High resolution Fourier interferometer-spectrophotopolarimeter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fymat, A. L. (Inventor)

    1976-01-01

    A high-resolution Fourier interferometer-spectrophotopolarimeter is provided using a single linear polarizer-analyzer the transmission axis azimuth of which is positioned successively in the three orientations of 0 deg, 45 deg, and 90 deg, in front of a detector; four flat mirrors, three of which are switchable to either of two positions to direct an incoming beam from an interferometer to the polarizer-analyzer around a sample cell transmitted through a medium in a cell and reflected by medium in the cell; and four fixed focussing lenses, all located in a sample chamber attached at the exit side of the interferometer. This arrangement can provide the distribution of energy and complete polarization state across the spectrum of the reference light entering from the interferometer; the same light after a fixed-angle reflection from the sample cell containing a medium to be analyzed; and the same light after direct transmission through the same sample cell, with the spectral resolution provided by the interferometer.

  2. High-resolution CCD imaging alternatives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brown, D. L.; Acker, D. E.

    1992-08-01

    High resolution CCD color cameras have recently stimulated the interest of a large number of potential end-users for a wide range of practical applications. Real-time High Definition Television (HDTV) systems are now being used or considered for use in applications ranging from entertainment program origination through digital image storage to medical and scientific research. HDTV generation of electronic images offers significant cost and time-saving advantages over the use of film in such applications. Further in still image systems electronic image capture is faster and more efficient than conventional image scanners. The CCD still camera can capture 3-dimensional objects into the computing environment directly without having to shoot a picture on film develop it and then scan the image into a computer. 2. EXTENDING CCD TECHNOLOGY BEYOND BROADCAST Most standard production CCD sensor chips are made for broadcast-compatible systems. One popular CCD and the basis for this discussion offers arrays of roughly 750 x 580 picture elements (pixels) or a total array of approximately 435 pixels (see Fig. 1). FOR. A has developed a technique to increase the number of available pixels for a given image compared to that produced by the standard CCD itself. Using an inter-lined CCD with an overall spatial structure several times larger than the photo-sensitive sensor areas each of the CCD sensors is shifted in two dimensions in order to fill in spatial gaps between adjacent sensors.

  3. Supporting observation campaigns with high resolution modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klocke, Daniel; Brueck, Matthias; Voigt, Aiko

    2017-04-01

    High resolution simulation in support of measurement campaigns offers a promising and emerging way to create large-scale context for small-scale observations of clouds and precipitation processes. As these simulation include the coupling of measured small-scale processes with the circulation, they also help to integrate the research communities from modeling and observations and allow for detailed model evaluations against dedicated observations. In connection with the measurement campaign NARVAL (August 2016 and December 2013) simulations with a grid-spacing of 2.5 km for the tropical Atlantic region (9000x3300 km), with local refinement to 1.2 km for the western part of the domain, were performed using the icosahedral non-hydrostatic (ICON) general circulation model. These simulations are again used to drive large eddy resolving simulations with the same model for selected days in the high definition clouds and precipitation for advancing climate prediction (HD(CP)2) project. The simulations are presented with the focus on selected results showing the benefit for the scientific communities doing atmospheric measurements and numerical modeling of climate and weather. Additionally, an outlook will be given on how similar simulations will support the NAWDEX measurement campaign in the North Atlantic and AC3 measurement campaign in the Arctic.

  4. CrIS High Resolution Hyperspectral Radiances

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hepplewhite, C. L.; Strow, L. L.; Motteler, H.; Desouza-Machado, S. G.; Tobin, D. C.; Martin, G.; Gumley, L.

    2014-12-01

    The CrIS hyperspectral sounder flying on Suomi-NPPpresently has reduced spectral resolution in the mid-wave andshort-wave spectral bands due to truncation of the interferograms inorbit. CrIS has occasionally downlinked full interferograms for thesebands (0.8 cm max path, or 0.625 cm-1 point spacing) for a feworbits up to a full day. Starting Oct.1, 2014 CrIS will be commandedto download full interferograms continuously for the remainder of themission, although NOAA will not immediately produce high-spectralresolution Sensor Data Records (SDRs). Although the originalmotivation for operating in high-resolution mode was improved spectralcalibration, these new data will also improve (1) vertical sensitivityto water vapor, and (2) greatly increase the CrIS sensitivity tocarbon monoxide. This should improve (1) NWP data assimilation ofwater vapor and (2) provide long-term continuity of carbon monoxideretrievals begun with MOPITT on EOS-TERRA and AIRS on EOS-AQUA. Wehave developed a SDR algorithm to produce calibrated high-spectralresolution radiances which includes several improvements to theexisting CrIS SDR algorithm, and will present validation of thesehigh-spectral resolution radiances using a variety of techniques,including bias evaluation versus NWP model data and inter-comparisonsto AIRS and IASI using simultaneous nadir overpasses (SNOs). Theauthors are presently working to implement this algorithm for NASASuomi NPP Program production of Earth System Data Records.

  5. High-resolution infrared spectrum of cyanogen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maki, Arthur G.

    2011-10-01

    The high-resolution spectrum of cyanogen ( 14N 12C 12C 14N) has been measured from 500 to 4900 cm -1. For this isotopomer many combination levels with both degenerate fundamentals, ν4 and ν5, have been measured for the first time and the effects of vibrational l-type resonance are observed as well as rotational l-type resonance. The effects of the vibrational resonance coupling ν2 and 2 ν4 have also been studied. The data have been combined with earlier measurements below 500 cm -1 to give a comprehensive catalog of the vibrational energy levels and the rovibrational constants for the normal isotopomer of cyanogen. A comparison of the term value constants for the three major symmetric isotopomers is given and they are compared with a recent ab initio calculation. The present data were combined with earlier work on the two symmetric isotopomers, 13C 214N 2 and 12C 215N 2, to obtain the equilibrium bond lengths, rCC = 138.109(60) pm and rCN = 115.976(40) pm.

  6. The absolute radiometric calibration of the advanced very high resolution radiometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Slater, P. N.; Teillet, P. M.; Ding, Y.

    1989-01-01

    The measurement conditions are described for an intensive field campaign at White Sands Missile Range for the calibration of the AVHRRs on NOAA-9, NOAA-10 and NOAA-11, LANDSAT-4 TM and SPOT. Three different methods for calibration of AVHRRs by reference to a ground surface site are reported, and results from these methods are compared. Significant degradations in NOAA-9 and NOAA-10 AVHRR responsivities occurred since prelaunch calibrations were completed. As of February 1988, degradations in NOAA-9 AVHRR responsivities were on the order of 37 percent in channel and 41 percent in channel 2, and for the NOAA-10 AVHRR these degradations were 42 and 59 percent in channels 1 and 2, respectively.

  7. Absolute Summ

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Phillips, Alfred, Jr.

    Summ means the entirety of the multiverse. It seems clear, from the inflation theories of A. Guth and others, that the creation of many universes is plausible. We argue that Absolute cosmological ideas, not unlike those of I. Newton, may be consistent with dynamic multiverse creations. As suggested in W. Heisenberg's uncertainty principle, and with the Anthropic Principle defended by S. Hawking, et al., human consciousness, buttressed by findings of neuroscience, may have to be considered in our models. Predictability, as A. Einstein realized with Invariants and General Relativity, may be required for new ideas to be part of physics. We present here a two postulate model geared to an Absolute Summ. The seedbed of this work is part of Akhnaton's philosophy (see S. Freud, Moses and Monotheism). Most important, however, is that the structure of human consciousness, manifest in Kenya's Rift Valley 200,000 years ago as Homo sapiens, who were the culmination of the six million year co-creation process of Hominins and Nature in Africa, allows us to do the physics that we do. .

  8. Absolute protein-protein association rate constants from flexible, coarse-grained Brownian dynamics simulations: the role of intermolecular hydrodynamic interactions in barnase-barstar association.

    PubMed

    Frembgen-Kesner, Tamara; Elcock, Adrian H

    2010-11-03

    Theory and computation have long been used to rationalize the experimental association rate constants of protein-protein complexes, and Brownian dynamics (BD) simulations, in particular, have been successful in reproducing the relative rate constants of wild-type and mutant protein pairs. Missing from previous BD studies of association kinetics, however, has been the description of hydrodynamic interactions (HIs) between, and within, the diffusing proteins. Here we address this issue by rigorously including HIs in BD simulations of the barnase-barstar association reaction. We first show that even very simplified representations of the proteins--involving approximately one pseudoatom for every three residues in the protein--can provide excellent reproduction of the absolute association rate constants of wild-type and mutant protein pairs. We then show that simulations that include intermolecular HIs also produce excellent estimates of association rate constants, but, for a given reaction criterion, yield values that are decreased by ∼35-80% relative to those obtained in the absence of intermolecular HIs. The neglect of intermolecular HIs in previous BD simulation studies, therefore, is likely to have contributed to the somewhat overestimated absolute rate constants previously obtained. Consequently, intermolecular HIs could be an important component to include in accurate modeling of the kinetics of macromolecular association events. Copyright © 2010 Biophysical Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Understanding reconstructed Dante spectra using high resolution spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    May, M. J., E-mail: may13@llnl.gov; Widmann, K.; Kemp, G. E.

    2016-11-15

    The Dante is an 18 channel filtered diode array used at the National Ignition Facility (NIF) to measure the spectrally and temporally resolved radiation flux between 50 eV and 20 keV from various targets. The absolute flux is determined from the radiometric calibration of the x-ray diodes, filters, and mirrors and a reconstruction algorithm applied to the recorded voltages from each channel. The reconstructed spectra are very low resolution with features consistent with the instrument response and are not necessarily consistent with the spectral emission features from the plasma. Errors may exist between the reconstructed spectra and the actual emissionmore » features due to assumptions in the algorithm. Recently, a high resolution convex crystal spectrometer, VIRGIL, has been installed at NIF with the same line of sight as the Dante. Spectra from L-shell Ag and Xe have been recorded by both VIRGIL and Dante. Comparisons of these two spectroscopic measurements yield insights into the accuracy of the Dante reconstructions.« less

  10. High Resolution Mass Spectrometry of Polyfluorinated Polyether-Based Formulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dimzon, Ian Ken; Trier, Xenia; Frömel, Tobias; Helmus, Rick; Knepper, Thomas P.; de Voogt, Pim

    2016-02-01

    High resolution mass spectrometry (HRMS) was successfully applied to elucidate the structure of a polyfluorinated polyether (PFPE)-based formulation. The mass spectrum generated from direct injection into the MS was examined by identifying the different repeating units manually and with the aid of an instrument data processor. Highly accurate mass spectral data enabled the calculation of higher-order mass defects. The different plots of MW and the nth-order mass defects (up to n = 3) could aid in assessing the structure of the different repeating units and estimating their absolute and relative number per molecule. The three major repeating units were -C2H4O-, -C2F4O-, and -CF2O-. Tandem MS was used to identify the end groups that appeared to be phosphates, as well as the possible distribution of the repeating units. Reversed-phase HPLC separated of the polymer molecules on the basis of number of nonpolar repeating units. The elucidated structure resembles the structure in the published manufacturer technical data. This analytical approach to the characterization of a PFPE-based formulation can serve as a guide in analyzing not just other PFPE-based formulations but also other fluorinated and non-fluorinated polymers. The information from MS is essential in studying the physico-chemical properties of PFPEs and can help in assessing the risks they pose to the environment and to human health.

  11. High Resolution Mass Spectrometry of Polyfluorinated Polyether-Based Formulation.

    PubMed

    Dimzon, Ian Ken; Trier, Xenia; Frömel, Tobias; Helmus, Rick; Knepper, Thomas P; de Voogt, Pim

    2016-02-01

    High resolution mass spectrometry (HRMS) was successfully applied to elucidate the structure of a polyfluorinated polyether (PFPE)-based formulation. The mass spectrum generated from direct injection into the MS was examined by identifying the different repeating units manually and with the aid of an instrument data processor. Highly accurate mass spectral data enabled the calculation of higher-order mass defects. The different plots of MW and the nth-order mass defects (up to n = 3) could aid in assessing the structure of the different repeating units and estimating their absolute and relative number per molecule. The three major repeating units were -C2H4O-, -C2F4O-, and -CF2O-. Tandem MS was used to identify the end groups that appeared to be phosphates, as well as the possible distribution of the repeating units. Reversed-phase HPLC separated of the polymer molecules on the basis of number of nonpolar repeating units. The elucidated structure resembles the structure in the published manufacturer technical data. This analytical approach to the characterization of a PFPE-based formulation can serve as a guide in analyzing not just other PFPE-based formulations but also other fluorinated and non-fluorinated polymers. The information from MS is essential in studying the physico-chemical properties of PFPEs and can help in assessing the risks they pose to the environment and to human health. Graphical Abstract ᅟ.

  12. High-accuracy absolute rotation rate measurements with a large ring laser gyro: establishing the scale factor.

    PubMed

    Hurst, Robert B; Mayerbacher, Marinus; Gebauer, Andre; Schreiber, K Ulrich; Wells, Jon-Paul R

    2017-02-01

    Large ring lasers have exceeded the performance of navigational gyroscopes by several orders of magnitude and have become useful tools for geodesy. In order to apply them to tests in fundamental physics, remaining systematic errors have to be significantly reduced. We derive a modified expression for the Sagnac frequency of a square ring laser gyro under Earth rotation. The modifications include corrections for dispersion (of both the gain medium and the mirrors), for the Goos-Hänchen effect in the mirrors, and for refractive index of the gas filling the cavity. The corrections were measured and calculated for the 16  m2 Grossring laser located at the Geodetic Observatory Wettzell. The optical frequency and the free spectral range of this laser were measured, allowing unique determination of the longitudinal mode number, and measurement of the dispersion. Ultimately we find that the absolute scale factor of the gyroscope can be estimated to an accuracy of approximately 1 part in 108.

  13. Large Scale, High Resolution, Mantle Dynamics Modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Geenen, T.; Berg, A. V.; Spakman, W.

    2007-12-01

    To model the geodynamic evolution of plate convergence, subduction and collision and to allow for a connection to various types of observational data, geophysical, geodetical and geological, we developed a 4D (space-time) numerical mantle convection code. The model is based on a spherical 3D Eulerian fem model, with quadratic elements, on top of which we constructed a 3D Lagrangian particle in cell(PIC) method. We use the PIC method to transport material properties and to incorporate a viscoelastic rheology. Since capturing small scale processes associated with localization phenomena require a high resolution, we spend a considerable effort on implementing solvers suitable to solve for models with over 100 million degrees of freedom. We implemented Additive Schwartz type ILU based methods in combination with a Krylov solver, GMRES. However we found that for problems with over 500 thousend degrees of freedom the convergence of the solver degraded severely. This observation is known from the literature [Saad, 2003] and results from the local character of the ILU preconditioner resulting in a poor approximation of the inverse of A for large A. The size of A for which ILU is no longer usable depends on the condition of A and on the amount of fill in allowed for the ILU preconditioner. We found that for our problems with over 5×105 degrees of freedom convergence became to slow to solve the system within an acceptable amount of walltime, one minute, even when allowing for considerable amount of fill in. We also implemented MUMPS and found good scaling results for problems up to 107 degrees of freedom for up to 32 CPU¡¯s. For problems with over 100 million degrees of freedom we implemented Algebraic Multigrid type methods (AMG) from the ML library [Sala, 2006]. Since multigrid methods are most effective for single parameter problems, we rebuild our model to use the SIMPLE method in the Stokes solver [Patankar, 1980]. We present scaling results from these solvers for 3D

  14. Fundamental constants and high-resolution spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bonifacio, P.; Rahmani, H.; Whitmore, J. B.; Wendt, M.; Centurion, M.; Molaro, P.; Srianand, R.; Murphy, M. T.; Petitjean, P.; Agafonova, I. I.; D'Odorico, S.; Evans, T. M.; Levshakov, S. A.; Lopez, S.; Martins, C. J. A. P.; Reimers, D.; Vladilo, G.

    2014-01-01

    Absorption-line systems detected in high resolution quasar spectra can be used to compare the value of dimensionless fundamental constants such as the fine-structure constant, α, and the proton-to-electron mass ratio, μ = m_p/m_e, as measured in remote regions of the Universe to their value today on Earth. In recent years, some evidence has emerged of small temporal and also spatial variations in α on cosmological scales which may reach a fractional level of ≈ 10 ppm (parts per million). We are conducting a Large Programme of observations with the Very Large Telescope's Ultraviolet and Visual Echelle Spectrograph (UVES), and are obtaining high-resolution ({R ≈ 60 000}) and high signal-to-noise ratio (S/N ≈ 100) spectra calibrated specifically to study the variations of the fundamental constants. We here provide a general overview of the Large Programme and report on the first results for these two constants, discussed in detail in Molaro et al. (2013) and Rahmani et al. (2013). A stringent bound for Δα/α is obtained for the absorber at z_abs = 1.6919 towards HE 2217-2818. The absorption profile is complex with several very narrow features, and is modeled with 32 velocity components. The relative variation in α in this system is +1.3± 2.4_stat ± 1.0_sys ppm if Al II λ 1670 Å and three Fe II transitions are used, and +1.1 ± 2.6_stat ppm in a slightly different analysis with only Fe II transitions used. This is one of the tightest bounds on α-variation from an individual absorber and reveals no evidence for variation in α at the 3-ppm precision level (1σ confidence). The expectation at this sky position of the recently-reported dipolar variation of α is (3.2-5.4)±1.7 ppm depending on dipole model used and this constraint of Δα/α at face value is not supporting this expectation but not inconsistent with it at the 3σ level. For the proton-to-electron mass ratio the analysis of the H_2 absorption lines of the z_abs ≈ 2.4018 damped Lyα system

  15. High-resolution downscaling for hydrological management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ulbrich, Uwe; Rust, Henning; Meredith, Edmund; Kpogo-Nuwoklo, Komlan; Vagenas, Christos

    2017-04-01

    Hydrological modellers and water managers require high-resolution climate data to model regional hydrologies and how these may respond to future changes in the large-scale climate. The ability to successfully model such changes and, by extension, critical infrastructure planning is often impeded by a lack of suitable climate data. This typically takes the form of too-coarse data from climate models, which are not sufficiently detailed in either space or time to be able to support water management decisions and hydrological research. BINGO (Bringing INnovation in onGOing water management; ) aims to bridge the gap between the needs of hydrological modellers and planners, and the currently available range of climate data, with the overarching aim of providing adaptation strategies for climate change-related challenges. Producing the kilometre- and sub-daily-scale climate data needed by hydrologists through continuous simulations is generally computationally infeasible. To circumvent this hurdle, we adopt a two-pronged approach involving (1) selective dynamical downscaling and (2) conditional stochastic weather generators, with the former presented here. We take an event-based approach to downscaling in order to achieve the kilometre-scale input needed by hydrological modellers. Computational expenses are minimized by identifying extremal weather patterns for each BINGO research site in lower-resolution simulations and then only downscaling to the kilometre-scale (convection permitting) those events during which such patterns occur. Here we (1) outline the methodology behind the selection of the events, and (2) compare the modelled precipitation distribution and variability (preconditioned on the extremal weather patterns) with that found in observations.

  16. High-resolution phylogenetic microbial community profiling

    SciTech Connect

    Singer, Esther; Coleman-Derr, Devin; Bowman, Brett

    2014-03-17

    The representation of bacterial and archaeal genome sequences is strongly biased towards cultivated organisms, which belong to merely four phylogenetic groups. Functional information and inter-phylum level relationships are still largely underexplored for candidate phyla, which are often referred to as microbial dark matter. Furthermore, a large portion of the 16S rRNA gene records in the GenBank database are labeled as environmental samples and unclassified, which is in part due to low read accuracy, potential chimeric sequences produced during PCR amplifications and the low resolution of short amplicons. In order to improve the phylogenetic classification of novel species and advance ourmore » knowledge of the ecosystem function of uncultivated microorganisms, high-throughput full length 16S rRNA gene sequencing methodologies with reduced biases are needed. We evaluated the performance of PacBio single-molecule real-time (SMRT) sequencing in high-resolution phylogenetic microbial community profiling. For this purpose, we compared PacBio and Illumina metagenomic shotgun and 16S rRNA gene sequencing of a mock community as well as of an environmental sample from Sakinaw Lake, British Columbia. Sakinaw Lake is known to contain a large age of microbial species from candidate phyla. Sequencing results show that community structure based on PacBio shotgun and 16S rRNA gene sequences is highly similar in both the mock and the environmental communities. Resolution power and community representation accuracy from SMRT sequencing data appeared to be independent of GC content of microbial genomes and was higher when compared to Illumina-based metagenome shotgun and 16S rRNA gene (iTag) sequences, e.g. full-length sequencing resolved all 23 OTUs in the mock community, while iTags did not resolve closely related species. SMRT sequencing hence offers various potential benefits when characterizing uncharted microbial communities.« less

  17. High-Resolution Radar Imagery of Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harmon, John K.; Nolan, M. C.

    2009-09-01

    We present high-resolution radar images of Mars obtained during the 2005 and 2007 oppositions. The images were constructed from long-code delay-Doppler observations made with the Arecibo S-band (13-cm) radar. The average image resolution of 3 km represented a better than order-of-magnitude improvement over pre-upgrade Arecibo imagery of the planet. Images of depolarized reflectivity (an indicator primarily of wavelength-scale surface roughness) show the same bright volcanic flow features seen in earlier imagery, but with much finer detail. A new image of the Elysium region shows fine detail in the radar-bright channels of Athabasca Vallis, Marte Vallis, and Grjota Vallis. The new images of Tharsis and Olympus Mons also show a complex array of radar-bright and radar-dark features. Southern Amazonis exhibits some of the most complex and puzzling radar-bright structure on the planet. Another curiosity is the Chryse/Xanthe/Channels region, where we find some radar-bright features in or adjacent to fluvial chaos structures. Chryse/Xanthe is also the only region of Mars showing radar-bright craters (which are rare on Mars but common on the Moon and Mercury). We also obtained the first delay-Doppler image showing the enhanced backscatter from the residual south polar ice cap. In addition to the depolarized imagery, we were able to make the first delay-Doppler images of the circular polarization ratio (an important diagnostic for surface roughness texture). We find that vast areas of the radar-bright volcanic regions have polarization ratios close to unity. Such high ratios are rare for terrestrial lava flows and only seen for extremely blocky surfaces giving high levels of multiple scattering.

  18. Toward high-resolution optoelectronic retinal prosthesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Palanker, Daniel; Huie, Philip; Vankov, Alexander; Asher, Alon; Baccus, Steven

    2005-04-01

    It has been already demonstrated that electrical stimulation of retina can produce visual percepts in blind patients suffering from macular degeneration and retinitis pigmentosa. Current retinal implants provide very low resolution (just a few electrodes), while several thousand pixels are required for functional restoration of sight. We present a design of the optoelectronic retinal prosthetic system that can activate a retinal stimulating array with pixel density up to 2,500 pix/mm2 (geometrically corresponding to a visual acuity of 20/80), and allows for natural eye scanning rather than scanning with a head-mounted camera. The system operates similarly to "virtual reality" imaging devices used in military and medical applications. An image from a video camera is projected by a goggle-mounted infrared LED-LCD display onto the retina, activating an array of powered photodiodes in the retinal implant. Such a system provides a broad field of vision by allowing for natural eye scanning. The goggles are transparent to visible light, thus allowing for simultaneous utilization of remaining natural vision along with prosthetic stimulation. Optical control of the implant allows for simple adjustment of image processing algorithms and for learning. A major prerequisite for high resolution stimulation is the proximity of neural cells to the stimulation sites. This can be achieved with sub-retinal implants constructed in a manner that directs migration of retinal cells to target areas. Two basic implant geometries are described: perforated membranes and protruding electrode arrays. Possibility of the tactile neural stimulation is also examined.

  19. A High Resolution Survey of the Disk of M31

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Primini, Francis A.

    2000-01-01

    This report describes research activities funded for SAO Proposal P3481-5-95, "Monitoring the Center of M31". Related activities for SAO Proposal P3486- 5-95, "A High-Resolution Survey of the Disk of M31" are also described. The research involved the data analysis and interpretation of eleven separate ROSAT (Roentgen Satellite) HRI (High Resolution Imager) observations of the center and inner disk of M31, obtained between July, 1990 and January, 1997. A log of the individual data sets is given. All proposed observations were successfully carried out by the ROSAT Observatory, and standard data products were successfully generated for each observation. There were two basic thrusts to the research. First, we wished to monitor the x-ray source nearest the nucleus of M31, to search for anti-correlated radio/x-ray variability predicted by theoretical models for the source. We would also be able to assess the degree and range of variability of other x-ray sources in the central bulge of M31 and to estimate rates of transients. Secondly, we wished to survey the entire inner disk of M31, and in particular the region covered by the recent MIT wide-band and narrow-band surveys to identify x-ray counterparts to supernova remnants, OB associations, and young blue stars, in areas in which the ROSAT PSPC survey was confused. Results of each research project are summarized. Papers describing the results in more detail are in preparation.

  20. High resolution, high rate X-ray spectrometer

    DOEpatents

    Goulding, Frederick S.; Landis, Donald A.

    1987-01-01

    A pulse processing system (10) for use in an X-ray spectrometer in which a ain channel pulse shaper (12) and a fast channel pulse shaper (13) each produce a substantially symmetrical triangular pulse (f, p) for each event detected by the spectrometer, with the pulse width of the pulses being substantially independent of the magnitude of the detected event and with the pulse width of the fast pulses (p) being substantially shorter than the pulse width of the main channel pulses (f). A pile-up rejector circuit (19) allows output pulses to be generated, with amplitudes linearly related to the magnitude of the detected events, whenever the peak of a main channel pulse (f) is not affected by a preceding or succeeding main channel pulse, while inhibiting output pulses wherein peak magnitudes of main channel pulses are affected by adjacent pulses. The substantially symmetrical triangular main channel pulses (f) are generated by the weighted addition (27-31) of successive RC integrations (24, 25, 26) of an RC differentiated step wave (23). The substantially symmetrical triangular fast channel pulses (p) are generated by the RC integration ( 43) of a bipolar pulse (o) in which the amplitude of the second half is 1/e that of the first half, with the RC time constant of integration being equal to one-half the width of the bipolar pulse.

  1. High pulse rate high resolution optical radar system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goss, W. C.; Burns, R. H.; Chi, K. (Inventor)

    1973-01-01

    The system is composed of an optical cavity with a laser and a mode locking means to build up an optical pulse. An optical switch is also provided within the cavity to convert the polarization of the optical pulse generated within the cavity. The optical switch comprises an electro-optical crystal driven by a time delayed driver circuit which is triggered by a coincident signal made from an optical pulse signal and a gating pulse signal. The converted optical pulse strikes a polarization sensitive prism and is deflected out of the cavity toward the pending target in the form of a pulse containing most of the optical energy generated by the laser in the pulse build-up period. After striking the target, the reflected energy is picked up by a transceiver with the total travel time of the pulse being recorded.

  2. Chromatic Modulator for High Resolution CCD or APS Devices

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hartley, Frank T. (Inventor); Hull, Anthony B. (Inventor)

    2003-01-01

    A system for providing high-resolution color separation in electronic imaging. Comb drives controllably oscillate a red-green-blue (RGB) color strip filter system (or otherwise) over an electronic imaging system such as a charge-coupled device (CCD) or active pixel sensor (APS). The color filter is modulated over the imaging array at a rate three or more times the frame rate of the imaging array. In so doing, the underlying active imaging elements are then able to detect separate color-separated images, which are then combined to provide a color-accurate frame which is then recorded as the representation of the recorded image. High pixel resolution is maintained. Registration is obtained between the color strip filter and the underlying imaging array through the use of electrostatic comb drives in conjunction with a spring suspension system.

  3. High Resolution Velocity Structure in Eastern Turkey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pasyanos, M. E.; Gok, R.; Zor, E.; Walter, W. R.

    2004-12-01

    We investigate the crust and upper mantle structure of eastern Turkey where the Anatolian, Arabian and Eurasian Plates meet, forming a complex tectonic regime. The Bitlis suture is a continental collision zone between the Anatolian plateau and the Arabian plate. Broadband data available through the Eastern Turkey Seismic Experiment (ETSE) provide a unique opportunity for studying the high resolution velocity structure of the region. Zor et al. (2003) found an average 46 km thick crust in the Anatolian plateau using a six-layered grid search inversion of the ETSE receiver functions. Receiver functions are sensitive to the velocity contrast of interfaces and the relative travel time of converted and reverberated waves between those interfaces. The interpretation of receiver functions alone, however, may result in an apparent depth-velocity trade-off [Ammon et al., 1990]. In order to improve upon this velocity model, we have combined the receiver functions with surface wave data using the joint inversion method of Julia et al. (2000). In this technique, the two sets of observations are combined into a single algebraic equation and each data set is weighted by an estimate of the uncertainty in the observations. The receiver functions are calculated using an iterative time-domain deconvolution technique. We also consider azimuthal changes in the receiver functions and have stacked them into different groups accordingly. We are improving our surface wave model by making Love and Rayleigh dispersion measurements at the ETSE stations and incorporating them into a regional group velocity model for periods between 10 and 100 seconds. Preliminary results indicate a strong trend in the long period group velocities toward the northeast, indicating slow upper mantle velocities in the area consistent with Pn, Sn and receiver function results. Starting models used for the joint inversions include both a 1-D model from a 12-ton dam shot recorded by ETSE [Gurbuz et al., 2004] and

  4. Absolute rate of the reaction of Cl(p-2) with molecular hydrogen from 200 - 500 K

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whytock, D. A.; Lee, J. H.; Michael, J. V.; Payne, W. A.; Stief, L. J.

    1976-01-01

    Rate constants for the reaction of atomic chlorine with hydrogen are measured from 200 - 500 K using the flash photolysis-resonance fluorescence technique. The results are compared with previous work and are discussed with particular reference to the equilibrium constant for the reaction and to relative rate data for chlorine atom reactions. Theoretical calculations, using the BEBO method with tunneling, give excellent agreement with experiment.

  5. High-resolution observations of the globular cluster NGC 7099

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sams, Bruce Jones, III

    The globular cluster NGC 7099 is a prototypical collapsed core cluster. Through a series of instrumental, observational, and theoretical observations, I have resolved its core structure using a ground based telescope. The core has a radius of 2.15 arcsec when imaged with a V band spatial resolution of 0.35 arcsec. Initial attempts at speckle imaging produced images of inadequate signal to noise and resolution. To explain these results, a new, fully general signal-to-noise model has been developed. It properly accounts for all sources of noise in a speckle observation, including aliasing of high spatial frequencies by inadequate sampling of the image plane. The model, called Full Speckle Noise (FSN), can be used to predict the outcome of any speckle imaging experiment. A new high resolution imaging technique called ACT (Atmospheric Correlation with a Template) was developed to create sharper astronomical images. ACT compensates for image motion due to atmospheric turbulence. ACT is similar to the Shift and Add algorithm, but uses apriori spatial knowledge about the image to further constrain the shifts. In this instance, the final images of NGC 7099 have resolutions of 0.35 arcsec from data taken in 1 arcsec seeing. The PAPA (Precision Analog Photon Address) camera was used to record data. It is subject to errors when imaging cluster cores in a large field of view. The origin of these errors is explained, and several ways to avoid them proposed. New software was created for the PAPA camera to properly take flat field images taken in a large field of view. Absolute photometry measurements of NGC 7099 made with the PAPA camera are accurate to 0.1 magnitude. Luminosity sampling errors dominate surface brightness profiles of the central few arcsec in a collapsed core cluster. These errors set limits on the ultimate spatial accuracy of surface brightness profiles. high resolution; even to a perfectly functioning Hubble

  6. Multifeature-based high-resolution palmprint recognition.

    PubMed

    Dai, Jifeng; Zhou, Jie

    2011-05-01

    Palmprint is a promising biometric feature for use in access control and forensic applications. Previous research on palmprint recognition mainly concentrates on low-resolution (about 100 ppi) palmprints. But for high-security applications (e.g., forensic usage), high-resolution palmprints (500 ppi or higher) are required from which more useful information can be extracted. In this paper, we propose a novel recognition algorithm for high-resolution palmprint. The main contributions of the proposed algorithm include the following: 1) use of multiple features, namely, minutiae, density, orientation, and principal lines, for palmprint recognition to significantly improve the matching performance of the conventional algorithm. 2) Design of a quality-based and adaptive orientation field estimation algorithm which performs better than the existing algorithm in case of regions with a large number of creases. 3) Use of a novel fusion scheme for an identification application which performs better than conventional fusion methods, e.g., weighted sum rule, SVMs, or Neyman-Pearson rule. Besides, we analyze the discriminative power of different feature combinations and find that density is very useful for palmprint recognition. Experimental results on the database containing 14,576 full palmprints show that the proposed algorithm has achieved a good performance. In the case of verification, the recognition system's False Rejection Rate (FRR) is 16 percent, which is 17 percent lower than the best existing algorithm at a False Acceptance Rate (FAR) of 10(-5), while in the identification experiment, the rank-1 live-scan partial palmprint recognition rate is improved from 82.0 to 91.7 percent.

  7. Absolute metrology for space interferometers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salvadé, Yves; Courteville, Alain; Dändliker, René

    2017-11-01

    The crucial issue of space-based interferometers is the laser interferometric metrology systems to monitor with very high accuracy optical path differences. Although classical high-resolution laser interferometers using a single wavelength are well developed, this type of incremental interferometer has a severe drawback: any interruption of the interferometer signal results in the loss of the zero reference, which requires a new calibration, starting at zero optical path difference. We propose in this paper an absolute metrology system based on multiplewavelength interferometry.

  8. Absolute rate of the reaction of C l(2P) with methane from 200-500 K

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whytock, D. A.; Lee, J. H.; Michael, J. V.; Payne, W. A.; Stief, L. J.

    1976-01-01

    Rate constants for the reaction of atomic chlorine with methane have been measured from 200-500K using the flash photolysis-resonance fluorescence technique. When the results from fourteen equally spaced experimental determinations are plotted in Arrhenius form a definite curvature is noted. The results are compared to previous work and are theoretically discussed.

  9. THz holography in reflection using a high resolution microbolometer array.

    PubMed

    Zolliker, Peter; Hack, Erwin

    2015-05-04

    We demonstrate a digital holographic setup for Terahertz imaging of surfaces in reflection. The set-up is based on a high-power continuous wave (CW) THz laser and a high-resolution (640 × 480 pixel) bolometer detector array. Wave propagation to non-parallel planes is used to reconstruct the object surface that is rotated relative to the detector plane. In addition we implement synthetic aperture methods for resolution enhancement and compare Fourier transform phase retrieval to phase stepping methods. A lateral resolution of 200 μm and a relative phase sensitivity of about 0.4 rad corresponding to a depth resolution of 6 μm are estimated from reconstructed images of two specially prepared test targets, respectively. We highlight the use of digital THz holography for surface profilometry as well as its potential for video-rate imaging.

  10. Broadband high resolution X-ray spectral analyzer

    DOEpatents

    Silver, Eric H.; Legros, Mark; Madden, Norm W.; Goulding, Fred; Landis, Don

    1998-01-01

    A broad bandwidth high resolution x-ray fluorescence spectrometer has a performance that is superior in many ways to those currently available. It consists of an array of 4 large area microcalorimeters with 95% quantum efficiency at 6 keV and it produces x-ray spectra between 0.2 keV and 7 keV with an energy resolution of 7 to 10 eV. The resolution is obtained at input count rates per array element of 10 to 50 Hz in real-time, with analog pulse processing and thermal pile-up rejection. This performance cannot be matched by currently available x-ray spectrometers. The detectors are incorporated into a compact and portable cryogenic refrigerator system that is ready for use in many analytical spectroscopy applications as a tool for x-ray microanalysis or in research applications such as laboratory and astrophysical x-ray and particle spectroscopy.

  11. Broadband high resolution X-ray spectral analyzer

    DOEpatents

    Silver, E.H.; Legros, M.; Madden, N.W.; Goulding, F.; Landis, D.

    1998-07-07

    A broad bandwidth high resolution X-ray fluorescence spectrometer has a performance that is superior in many ways to those currently available. It consists of an array of 4 large area microcalorimeters with 95% quantum efficiency at 6 keV and it produces X-ray spectra between 0.2 keV and 7 keV with an energy resolution of 7 to 10 eV. The resolution is obtained at input count rates per array element of 10 to 50 Hz in real-time, with analog pulse processing and thermal pile-up rejection. This performance cannot be matched by currently available X-ray spectrometers. The detectors are incorporated into a compact and portable cryogenic refrigerator system that is ready for use in many analytical spectroscopy applications as a tool for X-ray microanalysis or in research applications such as laboratory and astrophysical X-ray and particle spectroscopy. 6 figs.

  12. Using high-resolution displays for high-resolution cardiac data.

    PubMed

    Goodyer, Christopher; Hodrien, John; Wood, Jason; Kohl, Peter; Brodlie, Ken

    2009-07-13

    The ability to perform fast, accurate, high-resolution visualization is fundamental to improving our understanding of anatomical data. As the volumes of data increase from improvements in scanning technology, the methods applied to visualization must evolve. In this paper, we address the interactive display of data from high-resolution magnetic resonance imaging scanning of a rabbit heart and subsequent histological imaging. We describe a visualization environment involving a tiled liquid crystal display panel display wall and associated software, which provides an interactive and intuitive user interface. The oView software is an OpenGL application that is written for the VR Juggler environment. This environment abstracts displays and devices away from the application itself, aiding portability between different systems, from desktop PCs to multi-tiled display walls. Portability between display walls has been demonstrated through its use on walls at the universities of both Leeds and Oxford. We discuss important factors to be considered for interactive two-dimensional display of large three-dimensional datasets, including the use of intuitive input devices and level of detail aspects.

  13. Effect of the gas flow rate on the spatiotemporal distribution of Ar(1s5) absolute densities in a ns pulsed plasma jet impinging on a glass surface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gazeli, K.; Bauville, G.; Fleury, M.; Jeanney, P.; Neveu, O.; Pasquiers, S.; Santos Sousa, J.

    2018-06-01

    This work presents spatial (axial-z and transversal-y) and temporal distributions of Ar(1s5) metastable absolute densities in an atmospheric pressure argon micro-plasma jet impinging on an ungrounded glass surface. Guided streamers are generated with a DBD device driven by pulsed positive high voltages of 6 kV in amplitude, 224 +/- 3 ns in FWHM and 20 kHz in frequency. The argon flow rate is varied between 200 and 600 sccm. The glass plate is placed at 5 mm away from the reactor’s nozzle and perpendicular to the streamers propagation. At these conditions, a diffuse stable discharge is established after the passage of the streamers allowing the quantification of the Ar(1s5) absolute density by means of a conventional TDLAS technique coupled with emission spectroscopy and ICCD imaging. The good reproducibility of the absorption signals is demonstrated. The experiments show the strong dependence of the maximum density ({0.5-4}× {10}13 {{{cm}}}-3) on the gas flow rate and the axial and transversal position. At 200 sccm, high maximum densities (> 2.4× {10}13 {{{cm}}}-3) are obtained in a small area close to the plasma source, while with increasing flow rate this area expands towards the glass plate. In the transversal direction, density maxima are obtained in a small zone around the propagation axis of the streamers. Finally, a noticeable increase is measured on the Ar(1s5) effective lifetime close to the glass surface by varying the flow rate from 200 to 600 sccm. In overall, the effective lifetime varies between ∼25 and ∼550 ns, depending on the gas flow rate and the values of z and y coordinates. The results obtained suggest that the present system can be implemented in various applications and particularly in what concerns the detection of weakly volatile organic compounds present in trace amounts on different surfaces.

  14. A high-resolution global flood hazard model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sampson, Christopher C.; Smith, Andrew M.; Bates, Paul B.; Neal, Jeffrey C.; Alfieri, Lorenzo; Freer, Jim E.

    2015-09-01

    Floods are a natural hazard that affect communities worldwide, but to date the vast majority of flood hazard research and mapping has been undertaken by wealthy developed nations. As populations and economies have grown across the developing world, so too has demand from governments, businesses, and NGOs for modeled flood hazard data in these data-scarce regions. We identify six key challenges faced when developing a flood hazard model that can be applied globally and present a framework methodology that leverages recent cross-disciplinary advances to tackle each challenge. The model produces return period flood hazard maps at ˜90 m resolution for the whole terrestrial land surface between 56°S and 60°N, and results are validated against high-resolution government flood hazard data sets from the UK and Canada. The global model is shown to capture between two thirds and three quarters of the area determined to be at risk in the benchmark data without generating excessive false positive predictions. When aggregated to ˜1 km, mean absolute error in flooded fraction falls to ˜5%. The full complexity global model contains an automatically parameterized subgrid channel network, and comparison to both a simplified 2-D only variant and an independently developed pan-European model shows the explicit inclusion of channels to be a critical contributor to improved model performance. While careful processing of existing global terrain data sets enables reasonable model performance in urban areas, adoption of forthcoming next-generation global terrain data sets will offer the best prospect for a step-change improvement in model performance.

  15. CNV detection method optimized for high-resolution arrayCGH by normality test.

    PubMed

    Ahn, Jaegyoon; Yoon, Youngmi; Park, Chihyun; Park, Sanghyun

    2012-04-01

    High-resolution arrayCGH platform makes it possible to detect small gains and losses which previously could not be measured. However, current CNV detection tools fitted to early low-resolution data are not applicable to larger high-resolution data. When CNV detection tools are applied to high-resolution data, they suffer from high false-positives, which increases validation cost. Existing CNV detection tools also require optimal parameter values. In most cases, obtaining these values is a difficult task. This study developed a CNV detection algorithm that is optimized for high-resolution arrayCGH data. This tool operates up to 1500 times faster than existing tools on a high-resolution arrayCGH of whole human chromosomes which has 42 million probes whose average length is 50 bases, while preserving false positive/negative rates. The algorithm also uses a normality test, thereby removing the need for optimal parameters. To our knowledge, this is the first formulation for CNV detecting problems that results in a near-linear empirical overall complexity for real high-resolution data. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Absolute rate constants for O + NO + M /= He, Ne, Ar, Kr/ yields NO2 + M from 217-500 K

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Michael, J. V.; Payne, W. A.; Whytock, D. A.

    1976-01-01

    Rate constants for the reaction O + NO + M yields NO2 + M have been obtained at temperatures from 217-500 K in four different rare gases by a method combining flash photolysis with time resolved detection of O(3-P) by resonance fluorescence. The measured rate constants in Arrhenius form are (10.8 plus or minus 1.2) x 10 to the -33rd exp(1040 plus or minus 60/1.987 T) for helium; (9.01 plus or minus 1.16) x 10 to the -33rd exp(1180 plus or minus 70/1.987 T) for argon; (9.33 plus or minus 1.10) x 10 to the -33rd exp(1030 plus or minus 60/1.987 T) for neon; and (9.52 plus or minus 1.10) x 10 to the -33rd exp(1140 plus or minus 70/1.987 T) for krypton in units of cm to the 6th/sq molecule/s.

  17. High Resolution Microendoscopy for Quantitative Diagnosis of Esophageal Neoplasia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shin, Dongsuk

    Esophageal cancer is the eighth most common cancer in the world. Cancers of the esophagus account for 3.8% of all cases of cancers, with approximately 482,300 new cases reported in 2008 worldwide. In the United States alone, it is estimated that approximately 18,000 new cases will be diagnosed in 2013, and 15,210 deaths are expected. Despite advances in surgery and chemoradiation therapy, these advances have not led to a significant increase in survival rates, primarily because diagnosis often at an advanced and incurable stage when treatment is more difficult and less successful. Accurate, objective methods for early detection of esophageal neoplasia are needed. Here, quantitative classification algorithms for high resolution miscroendoscopic images were developed to distinguish between esophageal neoplastic and non-neoplastic tissue. A clinical study in 177 patients with esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) was performed to evaluate the diagnostic performance of the classification algorithm in collaboration with the Mount Sinai Medical Center in the United States, the First Hospital of Jilin University in China, and the Cancer Institute and Hospital, the Chinese Academy of Medical Science in China. The study reported a sensitivity and specificity of 93% and 92%, respectively, in the training set, 87% and 97%, respectively, in the test set, and 84% and 95%, respectively, in an independent validation set. Another clinical study in 31 patients with Barrett's esophagus resulted in a sensitivity of 84% and a specificity of 85%. Finally, a compact, portable version of the high resolution microendoscopy (HRME) device using a consumer-grade camera was developed and a series of biomedical experimental studies were carried out to assess the capability of the device.

  18. High-resolution ground-based spectroscopy: where and how ?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pallavicini, R.

    2002-07-01

    An overview is presented of high-resolution optical spectrographs in operation or under development at large telescopes, with emphasis on those facilities best suited for the study of late-type stars and stellar surface inhomogeneities. Plans for the development of new high-resolution spectroscopic instruments are discussed with emphasis on the ICE spectrograph for the PEPSI spectropolarimeter at the LBT.

  19. Optically based quantification of absolute cerebral metabolic rate of oxygen (CMRO2) with high spatial resolution in rodents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yaseen, Mohammad A.; Srinivasan, Vivek J.; Sakadžić, Sava; Vinogradov, Sergei A.; Boas, David A.

    2010-02-01

    Measuring oxygen delivery in brain tissue is important for identifying the pathophysiological changes associated with brain injury and various diseases such as cancer, stroke, and Alzheimer's disease. We have developed a multi-modal imaging system for minimally invasive measurement of cerebral oxygenation and blood flow in small animals with high spatial resolution. The system allows for simultaneous measurement of blood flow using Fourier-domain optical coherence tomography, and oxygen partial pressure (pO2) using either confocal or multiphoton phosphorescence lifetime imaging with exogenous porphyrin-based dyes sensitive to dissolved oxygen. Here we present the changes in pO2 and blood flow in superficial cortical vessels of Sprague Dawley rats in response to conditions such as hypoxia, hyperoxia, and functional stimulation. pO2 measurements display considerable heterogeneity over distances that cannot be resolved with more widely used oxygen-monitoring techniques such as BOLD-fMRI. Large increases in blood flow are observed in response to functional stimulation and hypoxia. Our system allows for quantification of cerebral metabolic rate of oxygen (CMRO2) with high spatial resolution, providing a better understanding of metabolic dynamics during functional stimulation and under various neuropathologies. Ultimately, better insight into the underlying mechanisms of neuropathologies will facilitate the development of improved therapeutic strategies to minimize damage to brain tissue.

  20. High resolution gas volume change sensor

    SciTech Connect

    Dirckx, Joris J. J.; Aernouts, Jef E. F.; Aerts, Johan R. M.

    2007-05-15

    Changes of gas quantity in a system can be measured either by measuring pressure changes or by measuring volume changes. As sensitive pressure sensors are readily available, pressure change is the commonly used technique. In many physiologic systems, however, buildup of pressure influences the gas exchange mechanisms, thus changing the gas quantity change rate. If one wants to study the gas flow in or out of a biological gas pocket, measurements need to be done at constant pressure. In this article we present a highly sensitive sensor for quantitative measurements of gas volume change at constant pressure. The sensor ismore » based on optical detection of the movement of a droplet of fluid enclosed in a capillary. The device is easy to use and delivers gas volume data at a rate of more than 15 measurements/s and a resolution better than 0.06 {mu}l. At the onset of a gas quantity change the sensor shows a small pressure artifact of less than 15 Pa, and at constant change rates the pressure artifact is smaller than 10 Pa or 0.01% of ambient pressure.« less

  1. Developing and applying metamodels of high resolution ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    As defined by Wikipedia (https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Metamodeling), “(a) metamodel or surrogate model is a model of a model, and metamodeling is the process of generating such metamodels.” The goals of metamodeling include, but are not limited to (1) developing functional or statistical relationships between a model’s input and output variables for model analysis, interpretation, or information consumption by users’ clients; (2) quantifying a model’s sensitivity to alternative or uncertain forcing functions, initial conditions, or parameters; and (3) characterizing the model’s response or state space. Using five existing models developed by US Environmental Protection Agency, we generate a metamodeling database of the expected environmental and biological concentrations of 644 organic chemicals released into nine US rivers from wastewater treatment works (WTWs) assuming multiple loading rates and sizes of populations serviced. The chemicals of interest have log n-octanol/water partition coefficients ( ) ranging from 3 to 14, and the rivers of concern have mean annual discharges ranging from 1.09 to 3240 m3/s. Log linear regression models are derived to predict mean annual dissolved and total water concentrations and total sediment concentrations of chemicals of concern based on their , Henry’s Law Constant, and WTW loading rate and on the mean annual discharges of the receiving rivers. Metamodels are also derived to predict mean annual chemical

  2. SPARTAN II: An Instructional High Resolution Land Combat Model

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-03-01

    93M-09 SPARTAN II: AN INSTRUCTIONAL HIGH RESOLUTION LAND COMBAT MODEL THESIS DWquALfl’ 4 Presented to the Faculty of the School of Engineering of the...ADVISOR NAJ Edward Negrelli/ENS REALDER MAJ Bruce Marl an/MA LD1 { The goal of this thesis was to improve SPARTAN, a high resolution land combat model...should serve as a useful tool for learning about the advantages and disadvantages of high resolution combat modeling. I wish to thank I4AJ Edward

  3. High-Resolution Array with Prony, MUSIC, and ESPRIT Algorithms

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-08-25

    N avalI Research La bora tory AD-A255 514 Washington, DC 20375-5320 NRL/FR/5324-92-9397 High-resolution Array with Prony, music , and ESPRIT...unlimited t"orm n pprovoiREPORT DOCUMENTATION PAGE OMB. o 0 104 0188 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE S. FUNDING NUMBERS High-resolution Array with Prony. MUSIC . and...the array high-resolution properties of three algorithms: the Prony algo- rithm, the MUSIC algorithm, and the ESPRIT algorithm. MUSIC has been much

  4. High resolution group refractive index measurement by broadband supercontinuum interferometry and wavelet-transform analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reolon, David; Jacquot, Maxime; Verrier, Isabelle; Brun, Gérald; Veillas, Colette

    2006-12-01

    In this paper we propose group refractive index measurement with a spectral interferometric set-up using a broadband supercontinuum generated in an air-silica Microstructured Optical Fibre (MOF) pumped with a picosecond pulsed microchip laser. This source authorizes high fringes visibility for dispersion measurements by Spectroscopic Analysis of White Light Interferograms (SAWLI). Phase calculation is assumed by a wavelet transform procedure combined with a curve fit of the recorded channelled spectrum intensity. This approach provides high resolution and absolute group refractive index measurements along one line of the sample by recording a single 2D spectral interferogram without mechanical scanning.

  5. A high resolution PVDF (peizoelectric) film respiration sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakano, Katsuya; Fujita, Kento; Misaki, Shinya; Fujii, Hiroyuki; Johnston, Robert; Misaki, Yukinori

    2017-07-01

    Sensors used today for contact measurement of a subject's breathing work by measuring the inductance change in some film, piezoelectric or pyro-electric, used in the sensor. However, their use can increase stress and burden for patients because of the close proximity to the body that the sensors must be to operate. They must be applied directly to the patient's body by tape or adhesive paste. To address this problem and reduce subject stress and burden, it was decided to research development of a high resolution breathing sensor that could still function even while placed over the patient's clothes. This was achieved by developing a new PVDF piezoelectric film based sensor with an innovative configuration. Through the use of some simple amplification circuitry and processing the output signal, the high sensitivity breathing sensor developed was determined to be able to accurately measure a person's breathing. Also, due to the high sensitivity of the sensor, heart rate was also detectable revealing the possibility for simultaneous measurement of both breathing and heart rate.

  6. Pharmacometric Analysis of the Relationship Between Absolute Lymphocyte Count and Expanded Disability Status Scale and Relapse Rate, Efficacy End Points, in Multiple Sclerosis Trials.

    PubMed

    Novakovic, A M; Thorsted, A; Schindler, E; Jönsson, S; Munafo, A; Karlsson, M O

    2018-05-10

    The aim of this work was to assess the relationship between the absolute lymphocyte count (ALC), and disability (as measured by the Expanded Disability Status Scale [EDSS]) and occurrence of relapses, 2 efficacy endpoints, respectively, in patients with remitting-relasping multiple sclerosis. Data for ALC, EDSS, and relapse rate were available from 1319 patients receiving placebo and/or cladribine tablets. Pharmacodynamic models were developed to characterize the time course of the endpoints. ALC-related measures were then evaluated as predictors of the efficacy endpoints. EDSS data were best fitted by a model where the logit-linear disease progression is affected by the dynamics of ALC change from baseline. Relapse rate data were best described by the Weibull hazard function, and the ALC change from baseline was also found to be a significant predictor of time to relapse. Presented models have shown that once cladribine exposure driven ALC-derived measures are included in the model, the need for drug effect components is of less importance (EDSS) or disappears (relapse rate). This simplifies the models and theoretically makes them mechanism specific rather than drug specific. Having a reliable mechanism-specific model would allow leveraging historical data across compounds, to support decision making in drug development and possibly shorten the time to market. © 2018, The American College of Clinical Pharmacology.

  7. The Spectrum of Achalasia: Lessons From Studies of Pathophysiology and High-Resolution Manometry

    PubMed Central

    Kahrilas, Peter J.; Boeckxstaens, Guy

    2013-01-01

    High-resolution manometry and recently described analysis algorithms, summarized in the Chicago Classification, have increased the recognition of achalasia. It has become apparent that the cardinal feature of achalasia, impaired lower esophageal sphincter relaxation, can occur in several disease phenotypes: without peristalsis, with premature (spastic) distal esophageal contractions, with panesophageal pressurization, or with peristalsis. Any of these phenotypes could indicate achalasia; however, without a disease-specific biomarker, no manometric pattern is absolutely specific. Laboratory studies indicate that achalasia is an autoimmune disease in which esophageal myenteric neurons are attacked in a cell-mediated and antibody-mediated immune response against an uncertain antigen. This autoimmune response could be related to infection of genetically predisposed subjects with herpes simplex virus 1, although there is substantial heterogeneity among patients. At one end of the spectrum is complete aganglionosis in patients with end-stage or fulminant disease. At the opposite extreme is type III (spastic) achalasia, which has no demonstrated neuronal loss but only impaired inhibitory postganglionic neuron function; it is often associated with accentuated contractility and could be mediated by cytokine-induced alterations in gene expression. Distinct from these extremes is progressive plexopathy, which likely arises from achalasia with preserved peristalsis and then develops into type II achalasia and then type I achalasia. Variations in its extent and rate of progression are likely related to the intensity of the cytotoxic T-cell assault on the myenteric plexus. Moving forward, we need to integrate the knowledge we have gained into treatment paradigms that are specific for individual phenotypes of achalasia and away from the one-size-fits-all approach. PMID:23973923

  8. High Resolution CryoFESEM of Microbial Surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Erlandsen, Stanley; Lei, Ming; Martin-Lacave, Ines; Dunny, Gary; Wells, Carol

    2003-08-01

    The outer surfaces of three microorganisms, Giardia lamblia, Enterococcus faecalis, and Proteus mirabilis, were investigated by cryo-immobilization followed by sublimation of extracellular ice and cryocoating with either Pt alone or Pt plus carbon. Cryocoated samples were examined at [minus sign]125°C in either an in-lens field emission SEM or a below-the-lens field emission SEM. Cryocoating with Pt alone was sufficient for low magnification observation, but attempts to do high-resolution imaging resulted in radiolysis and cracking of the specimen surface. Double coating with Pt and carbon, in combination with high resolution backscatter electron detectors, enabled high-resolution imaging of the glycocalyx of bacteria, revealing a sponge-like network over the surface. High resolution examination of bacterial flagella also revealed a periodic substructure. Common artifacts included radiolysis leading to “cracking” of the surface, and insufficient deposition of Pt resulting in the absence of detectable surface topography.

  9. Update on High-Resolution Geodetically Controlled LROC Polar Mosaics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Archinal, B.; Lee, E.; Weller, L.; Richie, J.; Edmundson, K.; Laura, J.; Robinson, M.; Speyerer, E.; Boyd, A.; Bowman-Cisneros, E.; Wagner, R.; Nefian, A.

    2015-10-01

    We describe progress on high-resolution (1 m/pixel) geodetically controlled LROC mosaics of the lunar poles, which can be used for locating illumination resources (for solar power or cold traps) or landing site and surface operations planning.

  10. Performance evaluation of a high resolution dedicated breast PET scanner

    SciTech Connect

    García Hernández, Trinitat, E-mail: mtrinitat@eresa.com; Vicedo González, Aurora; Brualla González, Luis

    2016-05-15

    Purpose: Early stage breast cancers may not be visible on a whole-body PET scan. To overcome whole-body PET limitations, several dedicated breast positron emission tomography (DbPET) systems have emerged nowadays aiming to improve spatial resolution. In this work the authors evaluate the performance of a high resolution dedicated breast PET scanner (Mammi-PET, Oncovision). Methods: Global status, uniformity, sensitivity, energy, and spatial resolution were measured. Spheres of different sizes (2.5, 4, 5, and 6 mm diameter) and various 18 fluorodeoxyglucose ({sup 18}F-FDG) activity concentrations were randomly inserted in a gelatine breast phantom developed at our institution. Several lesion-to-background ratios (LBR) weremore » simulated, 5:1, 10:1, 20:1, 30:1, and 50:1. Images were reconstructed using different voxel sizes. The ability of experienced reporters to detect spheres was tested as a function of acquisition time, LBR, sphere size, and matrix reconstruction voxel size. For comparison, phantoms were scanned in the DbPET camera and in a whole body PET (WB-PET). Two patients who just underwent WB-PET/CT exams were imaged with the DbPET system and the images were compared. Results: The measured absolute peak sensitivity was 2.0%. The energy resolution was 24.0% ± 1%. The integral and differential uniformity were 10% and 6% in the total field of view (FOV) and 9% and 5% in the central FOV, respectively. The measured spatial resolution was 2.0, 1.9, and 1.7 mm in the radial, tangential, and axial directions. The system exhibited very good detectability for spheres ≥4 mm and LBR ≥10 with a sphere detection of 100% when acquisition time was set >3 min/bed. For LBR = 5 and acquisition time of 7 min the detectability was 100% for spheres of 6 mm and 75% for spheres of 5, 4, and 2.5 mm. Lesion WB-PET detectability was only comparable to the DbPET camera for lesion sizes ≥5 mm when acquisition time was >3 min and LBR > 10. Conclusions: The DbPET has a good

  11. Application of Convolutional Neural Network in Classification of High Resolution Agricultural Remote Sensing Images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yao, C.; Zhang, Y.; Zhang, Y.; Liu, H.

    2017-09-01

    With the rapid development of Precision Agriculture (PA) promoted by high-resolution remote sensing, it makes significant sense in management and estimation of agriculture through crop classification of high-resolution remote sensing image. Due to the complex and fragmentation of the features and the surroundings in the circumstance of high-resolution, the accuracy of the traditional classification methods has not been able to meet the standard of agricultural problems. In this case, this paper proposed a classification method for high-resolution agricultural remote sensing images based on convolution neural networks(CNN). For training, a large number of training samples were produced by panchromatic images of GF-1 high-resolution satellite of China. In the experiment, through training and testing on the CNN under the toolbox of deep learning by MATLAB, the crop classification finally got the correct rate of 99.66 % after the gradual optimization of adjusting parameter during training. Through improving the accuracy of image classification and image recognition, the applications of CNN provide a reference value for the field of remote sensing in PA.

  12. Fiber optic cable-based high-resolution, long-distance VGA extenders

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rhee, Jin-Geun; Lee, Iksoo; Kim, Heejoon; Kim, Sungjoon; Koh, Yeon-Wan; Kim, Hoik; Lim, Jiseok; Kim, Chur; Kim, Jungwon

    2013-02-01

    Remote transfer of high-resolution video information finds more applications in detached display applications for large facilities such as theaters, sports complex, airports, and security facilities. Active optical cables (AOCs) provide a promising approach for enhancing both the transmittable resolution and distance that standard copper-based cables cannot reach. In addition to the standard digital formats such as HDMI, the high-resolution, long-distance transfer of VGA format signals is important for applications where high-resolution analog video ports should be also supported, such as military/defense applications and high-resolution video camera links. In this presentation we present the development of a compressionless, high-resolution (up to WUXGA, 1920x1200), long-distance (up to 2 km) VGA extenders based on serialized technique. We employed asynchronous serial transmission and clock regeneration techniques, which enables lower cost implementation of VGA extenders by removing the necessity for clock transmission and large memory at the receiver. Two 3.125-Gbps transceivers are used in parallel to meet the required maximum video data rate of 6.25 Gbps. As the data are transmitted asynchronously, 24-bit pixel clock time stamp is employed to regenerate video pixel clock accurately at the receiver side. In parallel to the video information, stereo audio and RS-232 control signals are transmitted as well.

  13. AVHRR/1-FM Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1979-01-01

    The advanced very high resolution radiometer is discussed. The program covers design, construction, and test of a breadboard model, engineering model, protoflight model, mechanical/structural model, and a life test model. Special bench test and calibration equipment was developed for use on the program. The flight model program objectives were to fabricate, assemble and test four of the advanced very high resolution radiometers along with a bench cooler and collimator.

  14. Survey of currently available high-resolution raster graphics systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, Denise R.

    1987-01-01

    Presented are data obtained on high-resolution raster graphics engines currently available on the market. The data were obtained through survey responses received from various vendors and also from product literature. The questionnaire developed for this survey was basically a list of characteristics desired in a high performance color raster graphics system which could perform real-time aircraft simulations. Several vendors responded to the survey, with most reporting on their most advanced high-performance, high-resolution raster graphics engine.

  15. Analysis of high-resolution foreign exchange data of USD-JPY for 13 years

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mizuno, Takayuki; Kurihara, Shoko; Takayasu, Misako; Takayasu, Hideki

    2003-06-01

    We analyze high-resolution foreign exchange data consisting of 20 million data points of USD-JPY for 13 years to report firm statistical laws in distributions and correlations of exchange rate fluctuations. A conditional probability density analysis clearly shows the existence of trend-following movements at time scale of 8-ticks, about 1 min.

  16. Quality-control issues on high-resolution diagnostic monitors.

    PubMed

    Parr, L F; Anderson, A L; Glennon, B K; Fetherston, P

    2001-06-01

    Previous literature indicates a need for more data collection in the area of quality control of high-resolution diagnostic monitors. Throughout acceptance testing, which began in June 2000, stability of monitor calibration was analyzed. Although image quality on all monitors was found to be acceptable upon initial acceptance testing using VeriLUM software by Image Smiths, Inc (Germantown, MD), it was determined to be unacceptable during the clinical phase of acceptance testing. High-resolution monitors were evaluated for quality assurance on a weekly basis from installation through acceptance testing and beyond. During clinical utilization determination (CUD), monitor calibration was identified as a problem and the manufacturer returned and recalibrated all workstations. From that time through final acceptance testing, high-resolution monitor calibration and monitor failure rate remained a problem. The monitor vendor then returned to the site to address these areas. Monitor defocus was still noticeable and calibration checks were increased to three times per week. White and black level drift on medium-resolution monitors had been attributed to raster size settings. Measurements of white and black level at several different size settings were taken to determine the effect of size on white and black level settings. Black level remained steady with size change. White level appeared to increase by 2.0 cd/m2 for every 0.1 inches decrease in horizontal raster size. This was determined not to be the cause of the observed brightness drift. Frequency of calibration/testing is an issue in a clinical environment. The increased frequency required at our site cannot be sustained. The medical physics division cannot provide dedicated personnel to conduct the quality-assurance testing on all monitors at this interval due to other physics commitments throughout the hospital. Monitor access is also an issue due to radiologists' need to read images. Some workstations are in use 7 AM

  17. High-resolution EEG (HR-EEG) and magnetoencephalography (MEG).

    PubMed

    Gavaret, M; Maillard, L; Jung, J

    2015-03-01

    High-resolution EEG (HR-EEG) and magnetoencephalography (MEG) allow the recording of spontaneous or evoked electromagnetic brain activity with excellent temporal resolution. Data must be recorded with high temporal resolution (sampling rate) and high spatial resolution (number of channels). Data analyses are based on several steps with selection of electromagnetic signals, elaboration of a head model and use of algorithms in order to solve the inverse problem. Due to considerable technical advances in spatial resolution, these tools now represent real methods of ElectroMagnetic Source Imaging. HR-EEG and MEG constitute non-invasive and complementary examinations, characterized by distinct sensitivities according to the location and orientation of intracerebral generators. In the presurgical assessment of drug-resistant partial epilepsies, HR-EEG and MEG can characterize and localize interictal activities and thus the irritative zone. HR-EEG and MEG often yield significant additional data that are complementary to other presurgical investigations and particularly relevant in MRI-negative cases. Currently, the determination of the epileptogenic zone and functional brain mapping remain rather less well-validated indications. In France, in 2014, HR-EEG is now part of standard clinical investigation of epilepsy, while MEG remains a research technique. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  18. Background concentrations for high resolution satellite observing systems of methane

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benmergui, J. S.; Propp, A. M.; Turner, A. J.; Wofsy, S. C.

    2017-12-01

    Emerging satellite technologies promise to measure total column dry-air mole fractions of methane (XCH4) at resolutions on the order of a kilometer. XCH4 is linearly related to regional methane emissions through enhancements in the mixed layer, giving these satellites the ability to constrain emissions at unprecedented resolution. However, XCH4 is also sensitive to variability in transport of upwind concentrations (the "background concentration"). Variations in the background concentration are caused by synoptic scale transport in both the free troposphere and the stratosphere, as well as the rate of methane oxidation. Misspecification of the background concentration is aliased onto retrieved emissions as bias. This work explores several methods of specifying the background concentration for high resolution satellite observations of XCH4. We conduct observing system simulation experiments (OSSEs) that simulate the retrieval of emissions in the Barnett Shale using observations from a 1.33 km resolution XCH4 imaging satellite. We test background concentrations defined (1) from an external continental-scale model, (2) using pixels along the edge of the image as a boundary value, (3) using differences between adjacent pixels, and (4) using differences between the same pixel separated by one hour in time. We measure success using the accuracy of the retrieval, the potential for bias induced by misspecification of the background, and the computational expedience of the method. Pathological scenarios are given to each method.

  19. Automated target classification in high resolution dual frequency sonar imagery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aridgides, Tom; Fernández, Manuel

    2007-04-01

    An improved computer-aided-detection / computer-aided-classification (CAD/CAC) processing string has been developed. The classified objects of 2 distinct strings are fused using the classification confidence values and their expansions as features, and using "summing" or log-likelihood-ratio-test (LLRT) based fusion rules. The utility of the overall processing strings and their fusion was demonstrated with new high-resolution dual frequency sonar imagery. Three significant fusion algorithm improvements were made. First, a nonlinear 2nd order (Volterra) feature LLRT fusion algorithm was developed. Second, a Box-Cox nonlinear feature LLRT fusion algorithm was developed. The Box-Cox transformation consists of raising the features to a to-be-determined power. Third, a repeated application of a subset feature selection / feature orthogonalization / Volterra feature LLRT fusion block was utilized. It was shown that cascaded Volterra feature LLRT fusion of the CAD/CAC processing strings outperforms summing, baseline single-stage Volterra and Box-Cox feature LLRT algorithms, yielding significant improvements over the best single CAD/CAC processing string results, and providing the capability to correctly call the majority of targets while maintaining a very low false alarm rate. Additionally, the robustness of cascaded Volterra feature fusion was demonstrated, by showing that the algorithm yields similar performance with the training and test sets.

  20. High-resolution gravity field modeling using GRAIL mission data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lemoine, F. G.; Goossens, S. J.; Sabaka, T. J.; Nicholas, J. B.; Mazarico, E.; Rowlands, D. D.; Neumann, G. A.; Loomis, B.; Chinn, D. S.; Smith, D. E.; Zuber, M. T.

    2015-12-01

    The Gravity Recovery and Interior Laboratory (GRAIL) spacecraft were designed to map the structure of the Moon through high-precision global gravity mapping. The mission consisted of two spacecraft with Ka-band inter-satellite tracking complemented by tracking from Earth. The mission had two phases: a primary mapping mission from March 1 until May 29, 2012 at an average altitude of 50 km, and an extended mission from August 30 until December 14, 2012, with an average altitude of 23 km before November 18, and 20 and 11 km after. High-resolution gravity field models using both these data sets have been estimated, with the current resolution being degree and order 1080 in spherical harmonics. Here, we focus on aspects of the analysis of the GRAIL data: we investigate eclipse modeling, the influence of empirical accelerations on the results, and we discuss the inversion of large-scale systems. In addition to global models we also estimated local gravity adjustments in areas of particular interest such as Mare Orientale, the south pole area, and the farside. We investigate the use of Ka-band Range Rate (KBRR) data versus numerical derivatives of KBRR data, and show that the latter have the capability to locally improve correlations with topography.

  1. Abrupt Changes at the Permian/Triassic Boundary: Tempo of Events from High-Resolution Cyclostratigraphy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rampino, M. R.; Prokoph, A.; Adler, A. C.

    2000-01-01

    The Permian/Triassic (P/Tr) boundary (251.4 +/- 3 Myr) is marked by the most severe mass extinction in the geologic record. Recently, precise absolute dating has bracketed the marine extinctions and associated carbon-isotope anomaly within less than 1 Myr. We improve this resolution through high-resolution stratigraphy across the P/Tr boundary in the 331-m Gartnerkofel-1 core and nearby Reppwand outcrop section (Carnic Alps, Austria) utilizing FFT and wavelet timeseries analyses of cyclic components in down-hole core logs of density and natural gamma-ray intensity, and carbon-isotopic ratios of bulk samples. The wavelet analysis indicates continuity of deposition across the P/Tr boundary interval, and the timeseries analyses show evidence for persistent cycles in the ratio of approximately 40: 10: 4.7: 2.3 meters, correlated with Milankovitch-band orbital cycles of approximately 412: 100: 40: 20 kyr (eccentricity 1 and 2, obliquity, and precession), and giving a consistent average sedimentation rate of approximately 10 cm/1,000 yr. Milankovitch periods in delta C-13 and density in these shallow-water carbonates were most likely the result of climatically induced oscillations of sea level and climate, coupled with changes in ocean circulation and productivity, that affected sedimentation. Fluctuations in gamma radiation reflect varying input of clay minerals and the presence of shaly interbeds. Throughout the P/Tr boundary interval in the core, the 100,000-year eccentricity cycle seems to be dominant. Weaker obliquity and precession cycles are in line with the location of the Austrian section in the latest Permian, close to the Equator in the western bight of the Tethys, where obliquity and precessional effects on seasonal contrast might be subdued. Using the improved resolution provided by cycle analysis in the GK-1 core, we find that the dramatic change in the faunal record that marks the P/Tr boundary takes place over less than 6m, or less than 60,000 years. In

  2. Damage extraction of buildings in the 2015 Gorkha, Nepal earthquake from high-resolution SAR data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamazaki, Fumio; Bahri, Rendy; Liu, Wen; Sasagawa, Tadashi

    2016-05-01

    Satellite remote sensing is recognized as one of the effective tools for detecting and monitoring affected areas due to natural disasters. Since SAR sensors can capture images not only at daytime but also at nighttime and under cloud-cover conditions, they are especially useful at an emergency response period. In this study, multi-temporal high-resolution TerraSAR-X images were used for damage inspection of the Kathmandu area, which was severely affected by the April 25, 2015 Gorkha Earthquake. The SAR images obtained before and after the earthquake were utilized for calculating the difference and correlation coefficient of backscatter. The affected areas were identified by high values of the absolute difference and low values of the correlation coefficient. The post-event high-resolution optical satellite images were employed as ground truth data to verify our results. Although it was difficult to estimate the damage levels for individual buildings, the high resolution SAR images could illustrate their capability in detecting collapsed buildings at emergency response times.

  3. EMODnet High Resolution Seabed Mapping - further developing a high resolution digital bathymetry for European seas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schaap, D.; Schmitt, T.

    2017-12-01

    Access to marine data is a key issue for the EU Marine Strategy Framework Directive and the EU Marine Knowledge 2020 agenda and includes the European Marine Observation and Data Network (EMODnet) initiative. EMODnet aims at assembling European marine data, data products and metadata from diverse sources in a uniform way. The EMODnet Bathymetry project has developed Digital Terrain Models (DTM) for the European seas. These have been produced from survey and aggregated data sets that are indexed with metadata by adopting the SeaDataNet Catalogue services. SeaDataNet is a network of major oceanographic data centres around the European seas that manage, operate and further develop a pan-European infrastructure for marine and ocean data management. The latest EMODnet Bathymetry DTM release has a grid resolution of 1/8 arcminute and covers all European sea regions. Use has been made of circa 7800 gathered survey datasets and composite DTMs. Catalogues and the EMODnet DTM are published at the dedicated EMODnet Bathymetry portal including a versatile DTM viewing and downloading service. End December 2016 the Bathymetry project has been succeeded by EMODnet High Resolution Seabed Mapping (HRSM). This continues gathering of bathymetric in-situ data sets with extra efforts for near coastal waters and coastal zones. In addition Satellite Derived Bathymetry data are included to fill gaps in coverage of the coastal zones. The extra data and composite DTMs will increase the coverage of the European seas and its coastlines, and provide input for producing an EMODnet DTM with a common resolution of 1/16 arc minutes. The Bathymetry Viewing and Download service will be upgraded to provide a multi-resolution map and including 3D viewing. The higher resolution DTMs will also be used to determine best-estimates of the European coastline for a range of tidal levels (HAT, MHW, MSL, Chart Datum, LAT), thereby making use of a tidal model for Europe. Extra challenges will be `moving to the

  4. A method for generating high resolution satellite image time series

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Tao

    2014-10-01

    There is an increasing demand for satellite remote sensing data with both high spatial and temporal resolution in many applications. But it still is a challenge to simultaneously improve spatial resolution and temporal frequency due to the technical limits of current satellite observation systems. To this end, much R&D efforts have been ongoing for years and lead to some successes roughly in two aspects, one includes super resolution, pan-sharpen etc. methods which can effectively enhance the spatial resolution and generate good visual effects, but hardly preserve spectral signatures and result in inadequate analytical value, on the other hand, time interpolation is a straight forward method to increase temporal frequency, however it increase little informative contents in fact. In this paper we presented a novel method to simulate high resolution time series data by combing low resolution time series data and a very small number of high resolution data only. Our method starts with a pair of high and low resolution data set, and then a spatial registration is done by introducing LDA model to map high and low resolution pixels correspondingly. Afterwards, temporal change information is captured through a comparison of low resolution time series data, and then projected onto the high resolution data plane and assigned to each high resolution pixel according to the predefined temporal change patterns of each type of ground objects. Finally the simulated high resolution data is generated. A preliminary experiment shows that our method can simulate a high resolution data with a reasonable accuracy. The contribution of our method is to enable timely monitoring of temporal changes through analysis of time sequence of low resolution images only, and usage of costly high resolution data can be reduces as much as possible, and it presents a highly effective way to build up an economically operational monitoring solution for agriculture, forest, land use investigation

  5. High-resolution chromosomal microarrays in prenatal diagnosis significantly increase diagnostic power.

    PubMed

    Oneda, Beatrice; Baldinger, Rosa; Reissmann, Regina; Reshetnikova, Irina; Krejci, Pavel; Masood, Rahim; Ochsenbein-Kölble, Nicole; Bartholdi, Deborah; Steindl, Katharina; Morotti, Denise; Faranda, Marzia; Baumer, Alessandra; Asadollahi, Reza; Joset, Pascal; Niedrist, Dunja; Breymann, Christian; Hebisch, Gundula; Hüsler, Margaret; Mueller, René; Prentl, Elke; Wisser, Josef; Zimmermann, Roland; Rauch, Anita

    2014-06-01

    The objective of this study was to determine for the first time the reliability and the diagnostic power of high-resolution microarray testing in routine prenatal diagnostics. We applied high-resolution chromosomal microarray testing in 464 cytogenetically normal prenatal samples with any indication for invasive testing. High-resolution testing revealed a diagnostic yield of 6.9% and 1.6% in cases of fetal ultrasound anomalies and cases of advanced maternal age (AMA), respectively, which is similar to previous studies using low-resolution microarrays. In three (0.6%) additional cases with an indication of AMA, an aberration in susceptibility risk loci was detected. Moreover, one case (0.2%) showed an X-linked aberration in a female fetus, a finding relevant for future family planning. We found the rate of cases, in which the parents had to be tested for interpretation of unreported copy number variants (3.7%), and the rate of remaining variants of unknown significance (0.4%) acceptably low. Of note, these findings did not cause termination of pregnancy after expert genetic counseling. The 0.4% rate of confined placental mosaicism was similar to that observed by conventional karyotyping and notably involved a case of placental microdeletion. High-resolution prenatal microarray testing is a reliable technique that increases diagnostic yield by at least 17.3% when compared with conventional karyotyping, without an increase in the frequency of variants of uncertain significance. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  6. Analysis of smear in high-resolution remote sensing satellites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wahballah, Walid A.; Bazan, Taher M.; El-Tohamy, Fawzy; Fathy, Mahmoud

    2016-10-01

    High-resolution remote sensing satellites (HRRSS) that use time delay and integration (TDI) CCDs have the potential to introduce large amounts of image smear. Clocking and velocity mismatch smear are two of the key factors in inducing image smear. Clocking smear is caused by the discrete manner in which the charge is clocked in the TDI-CCDs. The relative motion between the HRRSS and the observed object obliges that the image motion velocity must be strictly synchronized with the velocity of the charge packet transfer (line rate) throughout the integration time. During imaging an object off-nadir, the image motion velocity changes resulting in asynchronization between the image velocity and the CCD's line rate. A Model for estimating the image motion velocity in HRRSS is derived. The influence of this velocity mismatch combined with clocking smear on the modulation transfer function (MTF) is investigated by using Matlab simulation. The analysis is performed for cross-track and along-track imaging with different satellite attitude angles and TDI steps. The results reveal that the velocity mismatch ratio and the number of TDI steps have a serious impact on the smear MTF; a velocity mismatch ratio of 2% degrades the MTFsmear by 32% at Nyquist frequency when the TDI steps change from 32 to 96. In addition, the results show that to achieve the requirement of MTFsmear >= 0.95 , for TDI steps of 16 and 64, the allowable roll angles are 13.7° and 6.85° and the permissible pitch angles are no more than 9.6° and 4.8°, respectively.

  7. A high-resolution extraterrestrial solar spectrum and water vapour continuum at near infrared wavelengths from ground-based spectrometer measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Menang, K. P.

    A high resolution extraterrestrial solar spectrum (CAVIAR solar spectrum) and water vapour continuum have been derived in near infrared windows from 2000-10000 cm-1 (105μm), by applying the Langley technique to calibrated ground-based high-resolution Fourier transform spectrometer measurements, made under clear-sky conditions. The effect of the choice of an extraterrestrial solar spectrum for radiative transfer calculations of clear-sky absorption and heating rates in the near infrared was also studied. There is a good agreement between the solar lines strengths and positions of the CAVIAR solar spectrum and those from both high-resolution satellite and ground-based measurements in their regions of spectral overlap. However, there are significant differences between the structure of the CAVIAR solar spectrum and spectra from models. Many of the detected lines are missing from widely-used modelled extraterrestrial solar spectrum. The absolute level and hence wavenumber-integrated solar irradiance of the CAVIAR solar spectrum was also found to be 8% lower than the satellite-based Thuillier et al spectra from 5200-10000 cm-1. Using different extraterrestrial solar spectra for radiative transfer calculations in the near infrared led to differences of up to about 11 W m-2 (8.2%) in the absorbed solar irradiance while the tropospheric and stratospheric heating rates could respectively differ by up to about 0.13K day-1 (8.1%) and 0.19 K day-1 (7.6%) for an overhead Sun and mid-latitude summer atmosphere. This work has shown that the widely-used empirically modelled continuum may be underestimating the strength of the water vapour continuum from 2000-10000 cm-1, with the derived continuum up to more than 2 orders of magnitude stronger at some wavenumbers in the windows. The derived continuum is also stronger than that implied by laboratory measurements, by a factor of up to 40 in some spectral regions.

  8. High resolution manometry findings in patients with esophageal epiphrenic diverticula.

    PubMed

    Vicentine, Fernando P P; Herbella, Fernando A M; Silva, Luciana C; Patti, Marco G

    2011-12-01

    The pathophysiology of esophageal epiphrenic diverticula is still uncertain even though a concomitant motility disorder is found in the majority of patients in different series. High resolution manometry may allow detection of motor abnormalities in a higher number of patients with esophageal epiphrenic diverticula compared with conventional manometry. This study aims to evaluate the high resolution manometry findings in patients with esophageal epiphrenic diverticula. Nine individuals (mean age 63 ± 10 years, 4 females) with esophageal epiphrenic diverticula underwent high resolution manometry. A single diverticulum was observed in eight patients and multiple diverticula in one. Visual analysis of conventional tracings and color pressure plots for identification of segmental abnormalities was performed by two researchers experienced in high resolution manometry. Upper esophageal sphincter was normal in all patients. Esophageal body was abnormal in eight patients; lower esophageal sphincter was abnormal in seven patients. Named esophageal motility disorders were found in seven patients: achalasia in six, diffuse esophageal spasm in one. In one patient, a segmental hypercontractile zone was noticed with pressure of 196 mm Hg. High resolution manometry demonstrated motor abnormalities in all patients with esophageal epiphrenic diverticula.

  9. EMODnet High Resolution Seabed Mapping - further developing a high resolution digital bathymetry for European seas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schaap, Dick M. A.; Schmitt, Thierry

    2017-04-01

    Access to marine data is a key issue for the EU Marine Strategy Framework Directive and the EU Marine Knowledge 2020 agenda and includes the European Marine Observation and Data Network (EMODnet) initiative. EMODnet aims at assembling European marine data, data products and metadata from diverse sources in a uniform way. The EMODnet data infrastructure is developed through a stepwise approach in three major phases. Currently EMODnet is entering its 3rd phase with operational portals providing access to marine data for bathymetry, geology, physics, chemistry, biology, seabed habitats and human activities, complemented by checkpoint projects, analysing the fitness for purpose of data provision. The EMODnet Bathymetry project has developed Digital Terrain Models (DTM) for the European seas. These have been produced from survey and aggregated data sets that are indexed with metadata by adopting the SeaDataNet Catalogue services. SeaDataNet is a network of major oceanographic data centres around the European seas that manage, operate and further develop a pan-European infrastructure for marine and ocean data management. The latest EMODnet Bathymetry DTM release has a resolution of 1/8 arcminute * 1/8 arcminute and covers all European sea regions. Use has been made of circa 7800 gathered survey datasets and composite DTMs from 27 European data providers from 15 countries. For areas without coverage use has been made of the latest GEBCO DTM. The catalogue services and the generated EMODnet DTM have been published at the dedicated EMODnet Bathymetry portal which includes a versatile DTM viewing service that also supports downloading in various formats. End December 2016 the Bathymetry project has been succeeded by EMODnet High Resolution Seabed Mapping (HRSM) as part of the third phase of EMODnet. This new project will continue gathering of bathymetric in-situ data sets with extra efforts for near coastal waters and coastal zones. In addition Satellite Derived Bathymetry

  10. Teaching Absolute Value Meaningfully

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wade, Angela

    2012-01-01

    What is the meaning of absolute value? And why do teachers teach students how to solve absolute value equations? Absolute value is a concept introduced in first-year algebra and then reinforced in later courses. Various authors have suggested instructional methods for teaching absolute value to high school students (Wei 2005; Stallings-Roberts…

  11. Panretinal, high-resolution color photography of the mouse fundus.

    PubMed

    Paques, Michel; Guyomard, Jean-Laurent; Simonutti, Manuel; Roux, Michel J; Picaud, Serge; Legargasson, Jean-François; Sahel, José-Alain

    2007-06-01

    To analyze high-resolution color photographs of the mouse fundus. A contact fundus camera based on topical endoscopy fundus imaging (TEFI) was built. Fundus photographs of C57 and Balb/c mice obtained by TEFI were qualitatively analyzed. High-resolution digital imaging of the fundus, including the ciliary body, was routinely obtained. The reflectance and contrast of retinal vessels varied significantly with the amount of incident and reflected light and, thus, with the degree of fundus pigmentation. The combination of chromatic and spherical aberration favored blue light imaging, in term of both field and contrast. TEFI is a small, low-cost system that allows high-resolution color fundus imaging and fluorescein angiography in conscious mice. Panretinal imaging is facilitated by the presence of the large rounded lens. TEFI significantly improves the quality of in vivo photography of retina and ciliary process of mice. Resolution is, however, affected by chromatic aberration, and should be improved by monochromatic imaging.

  12. Single sensor processing to obtain high resolution color component signals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Glenn, William E. (Inventor)

    2010-01-01

    A method for generating color video signals representative of color images of a scene includes the following steps: focusing light from the scene on an electronic image sensor via a filter having a tri-color filter pattern; producing, from outputs of the sensor, first and second relatively low resolution luminance signals; producing, from outputs of the sensor, a relatively high resolution luminance signal; producing, from a ratio of the relatively high resolution luminance signal to the first relatively low resolution luminance signal, a high band luminance component signal; producing, from outputs of the sensor, relatively low resolution color component signals; and combining each of the relatively low resolution color component signals with the high band luminance component signal to obtain relatively high resolution color component signals.

  13. A high resolution IR/visible imaging system for the W7-X limiter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wurden, G. A.; Stephey, L. A.; Biedermann, C.; Jakubowski, M. W.; Dunn, J. P.; Gamradt, M.

    2016-11-01

    A high-resolution imaging system, consisting of megapixel mid-IR and visible cameras along the same line of sight, has been prepared for the new W7-X stellarator and was operated during Operational Period 1.1 to view one of the five inboard graphite limiters. The radial line of sight, through a large diameter (184 mm clear aperture) uncoated sapphire window, couples a direct viewing 1344 × 784 pixel FLIR SC8303HD camera. A germanium beam-splitter sends visible light to a 1024 × 1024 pixel Allied Vision Technologies Prosilica GX1050 color camera. Both achieve sub-millimeter resolution on the 161 mm wide, inertially cooled, segmented graphite tiles. The IR and visible cameras are controlled via optical fibers over full Camera Link and dual GigE Ethernet (2 Gbit/s data rates) interfaces, respectively. While they are mounted outside the cryostat at a distance of 3.2 m from the limiter, they are close to a large magnetic trim coil and require soft iron shielding. We have taken IR data at 125 Hz to 1.25 kHz frame rates and seen that surface temperature increases in excess of 350 °C, especially on leading edges or defect hot spots. The IR camera sees heat-load stripe patterns on the limiter and has been used to infer limiter power fluxes (˜1-4.5 MW/m2), during the ECRH heating phase. IR images have also been used calorimetrically between shots to measure equilibrated bulk tile temperature, and hence tile energy inputs (in the range of 30 kJ/tile with 0.6 MW, 6 s heating pulses). Small UFO's can be seen and tracked by the FLIR camera in some discharges. The calibrated visible color camera (100 Hz frame rate) has also been equipped with narrow band C-III and H-alpha filters, to compare with other diagnostics, and is used for absolute particle flux determination from the limiter surface. Sometimes, but not always, hot-spots in the IR are also seen to be bright in C-III light.

  14. A high resolution IR/visible imaging system for the W7-X limiter

    SciTech Connect

    Wurden, G. A., E-mail: wurden@lanl.gov; Dunn, J. P.; Stephey, L. A.

    A high-resolution imaging system, consisting of megapixel mid-IR and visible cameras along the same line of sight, has been prepared for the new W7-X stellarator and was operated during Operational Period 1.1 to view one of the five inboard graphite limiters. The radial line of sight, through a large diameter (184 mm clear aperture) uncoated sapphire window, couples a direct viewing 1344 × 784 pixel FLIR SC8303HD camera. A germanium beam-splitter sends visible light to a 1024 × 1024 pixel Allied Vision Technologies Prosilica GX1050 color camera. Both achieve sub-millimeter resolution on the 161 mm wide, inertially cooled, segmented graphitemore » tiles. The IR and visible cameras are controlled via optical fibers over full Camera Link and dual GigE Ethernet (2 Gbit/s data rates) interfaces, respectively. While they are mounted outside the cryostat at a distance of 3.2 m from the limiter, they are close to a large magnetic trim coil and require soft iron shielding. We have taken IR data at 125 Hz to 1.25 kHz frame rates and seen that surface temperature increases in excess of 350 °C, especially on leading edges or defect hot spots. The IR camera sees heat-load stripe patterns on the limiter and has been used to infer limiter power fluxes (∼1–4.5 MW/m{sup 2}), during the ECRH heating phase. IR images have also been used calorimetrically between shots to measure equilibrated bulk tile temperature, and hence tile energy inputs (in the range of 30 kJ/tile with 0.6 MW, 6 s heating pulses). Small UFO’s can be seen and tracked by the FLIR camera in some discharges. The calibrated visible color camera (100 Hz frame rate) has also been equipped with narrow band C-III and H-alpha filters, to compare with other diagnostics, and is used for absolute particle flux determination from the limiter surface. Sometimes, but not always, hot-spots in the IR are also seen to be bright in C-III light.« less

  15. O-space with high resolution readouts outperforms radial imaging.

    PubMed

    Wang, Haifeng; Tam, Leo; Kopanoglu, Emre; Peters, Dana C; Constable, R Todd; Galiana, Gigi

    2017-04-01

    While O-Space imaging is well known to accelerate image acquisition beyond traditional Cartesian sampling, its advantages compared to undersampled radial imaging, the linear trajectory most akin to O-Space imaging, have not been detailed. In addition, previous studies have focused on ultrafast imaging with very high acceleration factors and relatively low resolution. The purpose of this work is to directly compare O-Space and radial imaging in their potential to deliver highly undersampled images of high resolution and minimal artifacts, as needed for diagnostic applications. We report that the greatest advantages to O-Space imaging are observed with extended data acquisition readouts. A sampling strategy that uses high resolution readouts is presented and applied to compare the potential of radial and O-Space sequences to generate high resolution images at high undersampling factors. Simulations and phantom studies were performed to investigate whether use of extended readout windows in O-Space imaging would increase k-space sampling and improve image quality, compared to radial imaging. Experimental O-Space images acquired with high resolution readouts show fewer artifacts and greater sharpness than radial imaging with equivalent scan parameters. Radial images taken with longer readouts show stronger undersampling artifacts, which can cause small or subtle image features to disappear. These features are preserved in a comparable O-Space image. High resolution O-Space imaging yields highly undersampled images of high resolution and minimal artifacts. The additional nonlinear gradient field improves image quality beyond conventional radial imaging. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. High Resolution Continuous Flow Analysis System for Polar Ice Cores

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dallmayr, Remi; Azuma, Kumiko; Yamada, Hironobu; Kjær, Helle Astrid; Vallelonga, Paul; Azuma, Nobuhiko; Takata, Morimasa

    2014-05-01

    35.636 kyr b2k 7), respectively. The results show the conductivity measured upstream and downstream of the debubbler. We will calculate the depth resolution of our system and compare it with earlier studies. 1) Bigler at al, "Optimization of High-Resolution Continuous Flow Analysis For Transient Climate Signals in Ice Cores". Environ. Sci. Technol. 2011, 45, 4483-4489 2) Kaufmann et al, "An Improved Continuous Flow Analysis System for High Resolution Field Measurements on Ice Cores". Environmental Environ. Sci. Technol. 2008, 42, 8044-8050 3) Gkinis, V., T. J. Popp, S. J. Johnsen and T, Blunier, 2010: A continuous stream flash evaporator for the calibration of an IR cavity ring down spectrometer for the isotopic analysis of water. Isotopes in Environmental and Health Studies, 46(4), 463-475. 4) McConnell et al, "Continuous ice-core chemical analyses using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. Environ. Sci. Technol. 2002, 36, 7-11 5) Rhodes et al, "Continuous methane measurements from a late Holocene Greenland ice core : Atmospheric and in-situ signals" Earth and Planetary Science Letters. 2013, 368, 9-19 6) Breton et al, "Quantifying Signal Dispersion in a Hybrid Ice Core Melting System". Environ. Sci. Technol. 2012, 46, 11922-11928 7) Rasmussen et al, " A first chronology for the NEEM ice core". Climate of the Past. 2013, 9, 2967--3013

  17. High-resolution low-dose scanning transmission electron microscopy.

    PubMed

    Buban, James P; Ramasse, Quentin; Gipson, Bryant; Browning, Nigel D; Stahlberg, Henning

    2010-01-01

    During the past two decades instrumentation in scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM) has pushed toward higher intensity electron probes to increase the signal-to-noise ratio of recorded images. While this is suitable for robust specimens, biological specimens require a much reduced electron dose for high-resolution imaging. We describe here protocols for low-dose STEM image recording with a conventional field-emission gun STEM, while maintaining the high-resolution capability of the instrument. Our findings show that a combination of reduced pixel dwell time and reduced gun current can achieve radiation doses comparable to low-dose TEM.

  18. High resolution observations: The state of the art and beyond

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Title, A.; Tarbell, T.; Shine, R.; Topka, K.; Frank, Z.

    1992-01-01

    The meaning of high resolution and its scientific importance with regard to solar observations is discussed. The state of the art is reviewed, looking into Solar Optical Universal Polarimeter (SOUP) observations, image selection techniques, and adaptive optics. It is concluded that until there are observations in space, complete understanding of processes in the solar photosphere, chromosphere, transition region, and corona will be impossible. The importance of high resolution is considered with regard to solar surface and convection, solar photosphere inside and outside magnetic fields, and sunspot geometry.

  19. Theoretical Problems in High Resolution Solar Physics, 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Athay, G. (Editor); Spicer, D. S. (Editor)

    1987-01-01

    The Science Working Group for the High Resolution Solar Observatory (HRSO) laid plans beginning in 1984 for a series of workshops designed to stimulate a broadbased input from the scientific community to the HRSO mission. These workshops have the dual objectives of encouraging an early start on the difficult theoretical problems in radiative transfer, magnetohydrodynamics, and plasma physics that will be posed by the HRSO data, and maintaining current discussions of results in high resolution solar studies. This workshop was the second in the series. The workshop format presented invited review papers during the formal sessions and contributed poster papers for discussions during open periods. Both are presented.

  20. Decadal prediction skill using a high-resolution climate model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Monerie, Paul-Arthur; Coquart, Laure; Maisonnave, Éric; Moine, Marie-Pierre; Terray, Laurent; Valcke, Sophie

    2017-11-01

    The ability of a high-resolution coupled atmosphere-ocean general circulation model (with a horizontal resolution of a quarter of a degree in the ocean and of about 0.5° in the atmosphere) to predict the annual means of temperature, precipitation, sea-ice volume and extent is assessed based on initialized hindcasts over the 1993-2009 period. Significant skill in predicting sea surface temperatures is obtained, especially over the North Atlantic, the tropical Atlantic and the Indian Ocean. The Sea Ice Extent and volume are also reasonably predicted in winter (March) and summer (September). The model skill is mainly due to the external forcing associated with well-mixed greenhouse gases. A decrease in the global warming rate associated with a negative phase of the Pacific Decadal Oscillation is simulated by the model over a suite of 10-year periods when initialized from starting dates between 1999 and 2003. The model ability to predict regional change is investigated by focusing on the mid-90's Atlantic Ocean subpolar gyre warming. The model simulates the North Atlantic warming associated with a meridional heat transport increase, a strengthening of the North Atlantic current and a deepening of the mixed layer over the Labrador Sea. The atmosphere plays a role in the warming through a modulation of the North Atlantic Oscillation: a negative sea level pressure anomaly, located south of the subpolar gyre is associated with a wind speed decrease over the subpolar gyre. This leads to a reduced oceanic heat-loss and favors a northward displacement of anomalously warm and salty subtropical water that both concur to the subpolar gyre warming. We finally conclude that the subpolar gyre warming is mainly triggered by ocean dynamics with a possible contribution of atmospheric circulation favoring its persistence.

  1. MEMS phase former kit for high-resolution wavefront control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gehner, Andreas; Wildenhain, Michael; Neumann, Hannes; Elgner, Andreas; Schenk, Harald

    2005-08-01

    The MEMS Phase Former Kit developed by the Fraunhofer IPMS is a complete Spatial Light Modulator system based on a piston-type Micro Mirror Array (MMA) for the use in high-resolution, high-speed optical phase control. It has been designed for an easy system integration into an user-specific environment to offer a platform for first practical investigations to open up new applications in Adaptive Optics. The key component is a fine segmented 240 x 200 array of 40 μm piston-type mirror elements capable of 400 nm analog deflection for a 2pi phase modulation in the visible. Each mirror can be addressed and deflected independently by means of an integrated CMOS backplane address circuitry at an 8bit height resolution. Full user programmability and control is provided by a newly developed comfortable driver software for Windows XP based PCs supporting both a Graphical User Interface (GUI) for stand-alone operation with pre-defined data patterns as well as an open ActiveX programming interface for a closed-loop operation with real-time data from an external source. An IEEE1394a FireWire interface is used for high-speed data communication with an electronic driving board performing the actual MMA programming and control allowing for an overall frame rate of up to 500 Hz. Successful proof-of-concept demonstrations already have been given for eye aberration correction in ophthalmology, for error compensation of leightweight primary mirrors of future space telescopes and for ultra-short laser pulse shaping. Besides a presentation of the basic device concept and system architecture the paper will give an overview of the obtained results from these applications.

  2. Accelerated high-resolution photoacoustic tomography via compressed sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arridge, Simon; Beard, Paul; Betcke, Marta; Cox, Ben; Huynh, Nam; Lucka, Felix; Ogunlade, Olumide; Zhang, Edward

    2016-12-01

    Current 3D photoacoustic tomography (PAT) systems offer either high image quality or high frame rates but are not able to deliver high spatial and temporal resolution simultaneously, which limits their ability to image dynamic processes in living tissue (4D PAT). A particular example is the planar Fabry-Pérot (FP) photoacoustic scanner, which yields high-resolution 3D images but takes several minutes to sequentially map the incident photoacoustic field on the 2D sensor plane, point-by-point. However, as the spatio-temporal complexity of many absorbing tissue structures is rather low, the data recorded in such a conventional, regularly sampled fashion is often highly redundant. We demonstrate that combining model-based, variational image reconstruction methods using spatial sparsity constraints with the development of novel PAT acquisition systems capable of sub-sampling the acoustic wave field can dramatically increase the acquisition speed while maintaining a good spatial resolution: first, we describe and model two general spatial sub-sampling schemes. Then, we discuss how to implement them using the FP interferometer and demonstrate the potential of these novel compressed sensing PAT devices through simulated data from a realistic numerical phantom and through measured data from a dynamic experimental phantom as well as from in vivo experiments. Our results show that images with good spatial resolution and contrast can be obtained from highly sub-sampled PAT data if variational image reconstruction techniques that describe the tissues structures with suitable sparsity-constraints are used. In particular, we examine the use of total variation (TV) regularization enhanced by Bregman iterations. These novel reconstruction strategies offer new opportunities to dramatically increase the acquisition speed of photoacoustic scanners that employ point-by-point sequential scanning as well as reducing the channel count of parallelized schemes that use detector arrays.

  3. High-Resolution Characterization of Intertidal Geomorphology by TLS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guarnieri, A.; Vettore, A.; Marani, M.

    2007-12-01

    Observational fluvial geomorphology has greatly benefited in the last decades from the wide availability of digital terrain data obtained by orthophotos and by means of accurate airborne laser scanner data (LiDAR). On the contrary, the spatially-distributed study of the geomorphology of intertidal areas, such as tidal flats and marshes, remains problematic owing to the small relief characterizing such environments, often of the order of a few tens of centimetres, i.e. comparable to the accuracy of state-of-the-art LiDAR data. Here we present the results of Terrestrial Laser Scanner (TLS) acquisitions performed within a tidal marsh in the Venice lagoon. The survey was performed using a Leica HDS 3000 TLS, characterized by a large Field of View (360 deg H x 270 deg V), a low beam divergence (< 6 mm at 50 m) and a nominal accuracy of 6 mm at 50 m. The acquisition was performed at low tide to avoid interferences due to water on the marsh surface and, to minimize shadowing effects due to the tilting of the laser beam (especially in the channel network), the scanner was mounted on a custom-built tripod 3 m above the marsh surface. The area of the marsh, about 100m x 150m, was fully surveyed by just 2 scans. A total amount of about 3 million points was acquired, with an average measurement density of 200 points/m2. In order to reconstruct the geometry of the marsh, the two scans were co-registered using 8 reflective targets as matching points. Such targets were placed within the area of interest and surveyed with high accuracy (2 mm), while their position in the Italian national grid was determined with a double-frequency GPS receiver, in order to georeference the point clouds within an absolute framework. Post-processing of the very high resolution data obtained shows that the laser returns coming from the low vegetation present (about 0.5-1.0 m high) can be satisfactorily separated from those coming from the marsh surface, allowing the construction of a DSM and a DTM

  4. Alkenone radiocarbon stratigraphy at high resolution continental marigin sites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mollenhauer, G.; Eglinton, T.; Freudenthal, T.; Lamy, F.

    2003-04-01

    Radiocarbon stratigraphy is an essential tool for high resolution Late Quaternary paleoceanographic studies. For this purpose, radiocarbon ages of foraminifera have been extensively measured. Age models based on these measurements are commonly applied to a wide range of sediment proxy information, including the investigation of temporal leads and lags. The critical assumption made in these studies is that temporal coupling between foraminifera and other sediment constituents, including specific biomarkers of marine phytoplankton, e.g. alkenones, is maintained in the sediments. A recent study using coupled foraminifera and alkenone ages was conducted at a high sedimentation rate site situated at the Bermuda Rise sediment drift body. Ages of formanifera and alkenones differed by up to 8000 years. As an interpreation of these data, it was suggested that sediment constituents residing in different grain size fractions may have different current transport properties and may thus originate from different source areas separated by large geographical distances. Sediment retrieved from a site influenced by lateral advection would thus have to be regarded as a mixture of material from different sources. The time span between production and final deposition may be site dependent and remains largely unknown. Continental margins underlying high productivity areas are sites of high sediment accumulation. The major part of this sediment is believed to be biogenic and is produced in the overlying water column. Sediment particles are expected to be deposited rapidly at or near the site of production regardless of their size. To evaluate this premise, we have measured coupled radiocarbon ages of foraminifera, TOC and alkenones in samples taken from sediment cores retreived from three continental margin high accumulation rate sites. Cores from the Benguela upwelling system, the North West African upwelling system and from the Chilean margin high productivity area were chosen. All

  5. High-resolution characterization of individual flood deposits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Støren, Eivind; Paasche, Øyvind; Hirt, Ann

    2014-05-01

    In most fluvial landscapes rivers transport sediments within and across catchments throughout the year. During flood events the capacity and competence of the river manifolds, and consequently more sediment are eroded and transported within the catchment. Whenever such sediment-laden rivers reach lakes, sediments are deposited at rate much faster than background sedimentation. For this reason alone, lakes can provide exceptionally rich archives of paleofloods. Flood sediments carry information not only about frequency variability through time, but also about source area(s), the time of the deposit (on a seasonal scale), as well as the evolution of the flood. In order to scrutinize the information that can be extracted from such pristine lake records we have developed an approach where high-resolution data are compared to high-precision measurements of selected samples. More specifically, data from high-resolution X-ray fluorescence (XRF) scanning (Itrax) and magnetic susceptibility (Bartington MS2 point sensor) can potentially provide information on annual to decadal resolution. These fast and effective surface scanning methods are subjected to well-known uncertainties, which can impact the interpretation of individual layers. To overcome this challenge - and obtain the highest possible precision and resolution - precise quantitative analysis of discrete flood layers using magnetic hysteresis measurements and First-order reversal curves (FORCs) as well as conventional X-ray fluorescence spectrometer (Philips PW1404) have been conducted. FORCs are obtained with an Alternating Gradient Force Magnetometer and have exceptional high sensitivity (1 x 10-11 A m2) that allows samples smaller than 200 milligrams to be measured. This means that sediments representing a band of less than a couple of millimeters in the lake sediment cores can be sampled without notable contamination from adjacent non-flood sediments, and analyzed with a high degree of precision (analytical

  6. High Resolution Modeling of Hurricanes in a Climate Context

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Knutson, T. R.

    2007-12-01

    Modeling of tropical cyclone activity in a climate context initially focused on simulation of relatively weak tropical storm-like disturbances as resolved by coarse grid (200 km) global models. As computing power has increased, multi-year simulations with global models of grid spacing 20-30 km have become feasible. Increased resolution also allowed for simulation storms of increasing intensity, and some global models generate storms of hurricane strength, depending on their resolution and other factors, although detailed hurricane structure is not simulated realistically. Results from some recent high resolution global model studies are reviewed. An alternative for hurricane simulation is regional downscaling. An early approach was to embed an operational (GFDL) hurricane prediction model within a global model solution, either for 5-day case studies of particular model storm cases, or for "idealized experiments" where an initial vortex is inserted into an idealized environments derived from global model statistics. Using this approach, hurricanes up to category five intensity can be simulated, owing to the model's relatively high resolution (9 km grid) and refined physics. Variants on this approach have been used to provide modeling support for theoretical predictions that greenhouse warming will increase the maximum intensities of hurricanes. These modeling studies also simulate increased hurricane rainfall rates in a warmer climate. The studies do not address hurricane frequency issues, and vertical shear is neglected in the idealized studies. A recent development is the use of regional model dynamical downscaling for extended (e.g., season-length) integrations of hurricane activity. In a study for the Atlantic basin, a non-hydrostatic model with grid spacing of 18km is run without convective parameterization, but with internal spectral nudging toward observed large-scale (basin wavenumbers 0-2) atmospheric conditions from reanalyses. Using this approach, our

  7. High-resolution dynamic 31 P-MRSI using a low-rank tensor model.

    PubMed

    Ma, Chao; Clifford, Bryan; Liu, Yuchi; Gu, Yuning; Lam, Fan; Yu, Xin; Liang, Zhi-Pei

    2017-08-01

    To develop a rapid 31 P-MRSI method with high spatiospectral resolution using low-rank tensor-based data acquisition and image reconstruction. The multidimensional image function of 31 P-MRSI is represented by a low-rank tensor to capture the spatial-spectral-temporal correlations of data. A hybrid data acquisition scheme is used for sparse sampling, which consists of a set of "training" data with limited k-space coverage to capture the subspace structure of the image function, and a set of sparsely sampled "imaging" data for high-resolution image reconstruction. An explicit subspace pursuit approach is used for image reconstruction, which estimates the bases of the subspace from the "training" data and then reconstructs a high-resolution image function from the "imaging" data. We have validated the feasibility of the proposed method using phantom and in vivo studies on a 3T whole-body scanner and a 9.4T preclinical scanner. The proposed method produced high-resolution static 31 P-MRSI images (i.e., 6.9 × 6.9 × 10 mm 3 nominal resolution in a 15-min acquisition at 3T) and high-resolution, high-frame-rate dynamic 31 P-MRSI images (i.e., 1.5 × 1.5 × 1.6 mm 3 nominal resolution, 30 s/frame at 9.4T). Dynamic spatiospectral variations of 31 P-MRSI signals can be efficiently represented by a low-rank tensor. Exploiting this mathematical structure for data acquisition and image reconstruction can lead to fast 31 P-MRSI with high resolution, frame-rate, and SNR. Magn Reson Med 78:419-428, 2017. © 2017 International Society for Magnetic Resonance in Medicine. © 2017 International Society for Magnetic Resonance in Medicine.

  8. Near-real-time mosaics from high-resolution side-scan sonar

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Danforth, William W.; O'Brien, Thomas F.; Schwab, W.C.

    1991-01-01

    High-resolution side-scan sonar has proven to be a very effective tool for stuyding and understanding the surficial geology of the seafloor. Since the mid-1970s, the US Geological Survey has used high-resolution side-scan sonar systems for mapping various areas of the continental shelf. However, two problems typically encountered included the short range and the high sampling rate of high-resolution side-scan sonar systems and the acquisition and real-time processing of the enormous volume of sonar data generated by high-resolution suystems. These problems were addressed and overcome in August 1989 when the USGS conducted a side-scan sonar and bottom sampling survey of a 1000-sq-km section of the continental shelf in the Gulf of Farallones located offshore of San Francisco. The primary goal of this survey was to map an area of critical interest for studying continental shelf sediment dynamics. This survey provided an opportunity to test an image processing scheme that enabled production of a side-scan sonar hard-copy mosaic during the cruise in near real-time.

  9. Reproducible high-resolution multispectral image acquisition in dermatology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duliu, Alexandru; Gardiazabal, José; Lasser, Tobias; Navab, Nassir

    2015-07-01

    Multispectral image acquisitions are increasingly popular in dermatology, due to their improved spectral resolution which enables better tissue discrimination. Most applications however focus on restricted regions of interest, imaging only small lesions. In this work we present and discuss an imaging framework for high-resolution multispectral imaging on large regions of interest.

  10. The investigation of classification methods of high-resolution imagery

    Treesearch

    Tracey S. Frescino; Gretchen G. Moisen; Larry DeBlander; Michel Guerin

    2007-01-01

    As remote-sensing technology advances, high-resolution imagery, such as Quickbird and photography from the National Agriculture Imagery Program (NAIP), is becoming more readily available for use in forestry applications. Quickbird imagery is currently the highest resolution imagery commercially available. It consists of 2.44-m (8-ft) resolution multispectral bands...

  11. Tamarisk Mapping and Monitoring Using High Resolution Satellite Imagery

    Treesearch

    Jason W. San Souci; John T. Doyle

    2006-01-01

    QuickBird high resolution multispectral satellite imagery (60 cm GSD, 4 spectral bands) and calibrated products from DigitalGlobe’s AgroWatch program were used as inputs to Visual Learning System’s Feature Analyst automated feature extraction software to map localized occurrences of pervasive and aggressive Tamarisk (Tamarix ramosissima), an invasive...

  12. Texture analysis of high-resolution FLAIR images for TLE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jafari-Khouzani, Kourosh; Soltanian-Zadeh, Hamid; Elisevich, Kost

    2005-04-01

    This paper presents a study of the texture information of high-resolution FLAIR images of the brain with the aim of determining the abnormality and consequently the candidacy of the hippocampus for temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) surgery. Intensity and volume features of the hippocampus from FLAIR images of the brain have been previously shown to be useful in detecting the abnormal hippocampus in TLE. However, the small size of the hippocampus may limit the texture information. High-resolution FLAIR images show more details of the abnormal intensity variations of the hippocampi and therefore are more suitable for texture analysis. We study and compare the low and high-resolution FLAIR images of six epileptic patients. The hippocampi are segmented manually by an expert from T1-weighted MR images. Then the segmented regions are mapped on the corresponding FLAIR images for texture analysis. The 2-D wavelet transforms of the hippocampi are employed for feature extraction. We compare the ability of the texture features from regular and high-resolution FLAIR images to distinguish normal and abnormal hippocampi. Intracranial EEG results as well as surgery outcome are used as gold standard. The results show that the intensity variations of the hippocampus are related to the abnormalities in the TLE.

  13. COST EFFECTIVE AND HIGH RESOLUTION SUBSURFACE CHARACTERIZATION USING HYDRAULIC TOMOGRAPHY

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2017-08-01

    FINAL REPORT Cost -Effective and High-Resolution Subsurface Characterization Using Hydraulic Tomography ESTCP Project ER-201212 AUGUST...This document has been cleared for public release Page Intentionally Left Blank This report was prepared under contract to the Department of...Defense Environmental Security Technology Certification Program (ESTCP). The publication of this report does not indicate endorsement by the Department

  14. Mapping Mexico's Forest Lands with Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer

    Treesearch

    David J. Evans; Zhiliang Zhu; Susan Eggen-McIntosh; Pedro García Mayoral; Jose Luis Ornelas de Anda

    1992-01-01

    Data from the Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) were used in a program sponsored by the U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, and the United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization to help scientists from Mexico generate forest-cover maps of that country. Two near-cloud-free composite images were generated for December and March 1990 from...

  15. High-Resolution Land Use and Land Cover Mapping

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    ,

    1999-01-01

    As the Nation?s population grows, quantifying, monitoring, and managing land use becomes increasingly important. The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) has a long heritage of leadership and innovation in land use and land cover (LULC) mapping that has been the model both nationally and internationally for over 20 years. At present, the USGS is producing high-resolution LULC data for several watershed and urban areas within the United States. This high-resolution LULC mapping is part of an ongoing USGS Land Cover Characterization Program (LCCP). The four components of the LCCP are global (1:2,000,000-scale), national (1:100,000-scale), urban (1:24,000-scale), and special projects (various scales and time periods). Within the urban and special project components, the USGS Rocky Mountain Mapping Center (RMMC) is collecting historical as well as contemporary high-resolution LULC data. RMMC?s high-resolution LULC mapping builds on the heritage and success of previous USGS LULC programs and provides LULC information to meet user requirements.

  16. Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer - AVHRR - NOAA Satellite

    Science.gov Websites

    Information System (NOAASIS); Office of Satellite and Product Operations » DOC » NOAA  » NESDIS » NOAASIS NOAA Satellite Information System Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer - AVHRR The ) or the USGS AVHRR site. Satellite Products and Services Division Direct Services Branch Phone: 301

  17. High Resolution Mass Spectra Analysis with a Programmable Calculator.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holdsworth, David K.

    1980-01-01

    Highlighted are characteristics of programs written for a pocket-sized programmable calculator to analyze mass spectra data (such as displaying high resolution masses for formulas, predicting whether formulas are stable molecules or molecular ions, determining formulas by isotopic abundance measurement) in a laboratory or classroom. (CS)

  18. High-Resolution Mars Camera Test Image of Moon Infrared

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2005-09-13

    This crescent view of Earth Moon in infrared wavelengths comes from a camera test by NASA Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter spacecraft on its way to Mars. This image was taken by taken by the High Resolution Imaging Science Experiment camera Sept. 8, 2005.

  19. High resolution bone mineral densitometry with a gamma camera

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leblanc, A.; Evans, H.; Jhingran, S.; Johnson, P.

    1983-01-01

    A technique by which the regional distribution of bone mineral can be determined in bone samples from small animals is described. The technique employs an Anger camera interfaced to a medical computer. High resolution imaging is possible by producing magnified images of the bone samples. Regional densitometry of femurs from oophorectomised and bone mineral loss.

  20. High-Resolution Geologic Mapping of Martian Terraced Fan Deposits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wolak, J. M.; Patterson, A. B.; Smith, S. D.; Robbins, N. N.

    2018-06-01

    This abstract documents our initial progress (year 1) mapping terraced fan features on Mars. Our objective is to investigate the role of fluids during fan formation and produce the first high-resolution geologic map (1:18k) of a terraced fan.

  1. A DVD Spectroscope: A Simple, High-Resolution Classroom Spectroscope

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wakabayashi, Fumitaka; Hamada, Kiyohito

    2006-01-01

    Digital versatile disks (DVDs) have successfully made up an inexpensive but high-resolution spectroscope suitable for classroom experiments that can easily be made with common material and gives clear and fine spectra of various light sources and colored material. The observed spectra can be photographed with a digital camera, and such images can…

  2. High resolution power spectra of daily Zurich sunspot numbers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Euler, H. C., Jr.

    1973-01-01

    High resolution power spectra of 77 years of Zurich daily sunspot numbers were computed using various lags and data point intervals. Major harmonic peaks of the approximately 124-month period showed up strongly as well as the 27-day solar rotational period.

  3. Evacuee Compliance Behavior Analysis using High Resolution Demographic Information

    SciTech Connect

    Lu, Wei; Han, Lee; Liu, Cheng

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to examine whether evacuee compliance behavior with route assignments from different resolutions of demographic data would impact the evacuation performance. Most existing evacuation strategies assume that travelers will follow evacuation instructions, while in reality a certain percent of evacuees do not comply with prescribed instructions. In this paper, a comparison study of evacuation assignment based on Traffic Analysis Zones (TAZ) and high resolution LandScan USA Population Cells (LPC) were conducted for the detailed road network representing Alexandria, Virginia. A revised platform for evacuation modeling built on high resolution demographic data and activity-based microscopic trafficmore » simulation is proposed. The results indicate that evacuee compliance behavior affects evacuation efficiency with traditional TAZ assignment, but it does not significantly compromise the efficiency with high resolution LPC assignment. The TAZ assignment also underestimates the real travel time during evacuation, especially for high compliance simulations. This suggests that conventional evacuation studies based on TAZ assignment might not be effective at providing efficient guidance to evacuees. From the high resolution data perspective, traveler compliance behavior is an important factor but it does not impact the system performance significantly. The highlight of evacuee compliance behavior analysis should be emphasized on individual evacuee level route/shelter assignments, rather than the whole system performance.« less

  4. Application of Classification Models to Pharyngeal High-Resolution Manometry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mielens, Jason D.; Hoffman, Matthew R.; Ciucci, Michelle R.; McCulloch, Timothy M.; Jiang, Jack J.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: The authors present 3 methods of performing pattern recognition on spatiotemporal plots produced by pharyngeal high-resolution manometry (HRM). Method: Classification models, including the artificial neural networks (ANNs) multilayer perceptron (MLP) and learning vector quantization (LVQ), as well as support vector machines (SVM), were…

  5. Hypochlorous acid-mediated oxidation of lipid components and antioxidants present in low-density lipoproteins: absolute rate constants, product analysis, and computational modeling.

    PubMed

    Pattison, David I; Hawkins, Clare L; Davies, Michael J

    2003-04-01

    Oxidation of low-density lipoproteins (LDL) is believed to contribute to the increased uptake of LDL by macrophages, which is an early event in atherosclerosis. Hypochlorous acid (HOCl) has been implicated as one of the major oxidants involved in these processes. In a previous study, the rates of reaction of HOCl with the reactive sites in proteins were investigated (Pattison, D. I., and Davies, M. J. (2001) Chem. Res. Toxicol. 14, 1453-1464). The work presented here expands on those studies to determine absolute second-order rate constants for the reactions of HOCl with various lipid components and antioxidants in aqueous solution (pH 7.4). The reactions of HOCl with phosphoryl-serine and phosphoryl-ethanolamine are rapid (k approximately 10(5) M(-)(1) s(-)(1)) and of comparable reactivity to many of the protein sites. The major products formed in these reactions are chloramines, which decay to give both nitrogen- and carbon-centered radicals. Subsequent reactions of these species may induce oxidation of the LDL lipid component. In contrast, phosphoryl-choline reacted much more slowly (k < 10(-)(2) M(-)(1) s(-)(1)). Reaction of HOCl with 3-pentenoic acid was used as a model of lipid double bonds and yielded k = 9 M(-)(1) s(-)(1). The reactions of the lipid-soluble antioxidants, alpha-tocopherol and ubiquinol-10, with HOCl were investigated with model compounds. For the reactions of HOCl with both Trolox and ubiquinol-0, k = 1.3 x 10(3) M(-)(1) s(-)(1); thus, these lipid soluble antioxidants are relatively ineffective as direct scavengers for HOCl as compared to water soluble antioxidants (e.g., ascorbate, k ca. 10(6) M(-)(1) s(-)(1)). The reaction of HOCl with hydroquinone (a simple model for ubiquinol-10) was also investigated both in aqueous solution (k = 45 M(-)(1) s(-)(1)) and in a less polar environment (k approximately 0.5 M(-)(1) s(-)(1) in THF). A computational model was developed using these kinetic parameters to predict which LDL targets are oxidized

  6. High-resolution axial MR imaging of tibial stress injuries

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Purpose To evaluate the relative involvement of tibial stress injuries using high-resolution axial MR imaging and the correlation with MR and radiographic images. Methods A total of 33 patients with exercise-induced tibial pain were evaluated. All patients underwent radiograph and high-resolution axial MR imaging. Radiographs were taken at initial presentation and 4 weeks later. High-resolution MR axial images were obtained using a microscopy surface coil with 60 × 60 mm field of view on a 1.5T MR unit. All images were evaluated for abnormal signals of the periosteum, cortex and bone marrow. Results Nineteen patients showed no periosteal reaction at initial and follow-up radiographs. MR imaging showed abnormal signals in the periosteal tissue and partially abnormal signals in the bone marrow. In 7 patients, periosteal reaction was not seen at initial radiograph, but was detected at follow-up radiograph. MR imaging showed abnormal signals in the periosteal tissue and entire bone marrow. Abnormal signals in the cortex were found in 6 patients. The remaining 7 showed periosteal reactions at initial radiograph. MR imaging showed abnormal signals in the periosteal tissue in 6 patients. Abnormal signals were seen in the partial and entire bone marrow in 4 and 3 patients, respectively. Conclusions Bone marrow abnormalities in high-resolution axial MR imaging were related to periosteal reactions at follow-up radiograph. Bone marrow abnormalities might predict later periosteal reactions, suggesting shin splints or stress fractures. High-resolution axial MR imaging is useful in early discrimination of tibial stress injuries. PMID:22574840

  7. High-resolution DEM Effects on Geophysical Flow Models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Williams, M. R.; Bursik, M. I.; Stefanescu, R. E. R.; Patra, A. K.

    2014-12-01

    Geophysical mass flow models are numerical models that approximate pyroclastic flow events and can be used to assess the volcanic hazards certain areas may face. One such model, TITAN2D, approximates granular-flow physics based on a depth-averaged analytical model using inputs of basal and internal friction, material volume at a coordinate point, and a GIS in the form of a digital elevation model (DEM). The volume of modeled material propagates over the DEM in a way that is governed by the slope and curvature of the DEM surface and the basal and internal friction angles. Results from TITAN2D are highly dependent upon the inputs to the model. Here we focus on a single input: the DEM, which can vary in resolution. High resolution DEMs are advantageous in that they contain more surface details than lower-resolution models, presumably allowing modeled flows to propagate in a way more true to the real surface. However, very high resolution DEMs can create undesirable artifacts in the slope and curvature that corrupt flow calculations. With high-resolution DEMs becoming more widely available and preferable for use, determining the point at which high resolution data is less advantageous compared to lower resolution data becomes important. We find that in cases of high resolution, integer-valued DEMs, very high-resolution is detrimental to good model outputs when moderate-to-low (<10-15°) slope angles are involved. At these slope angles, multiple adjacent DEM cell elevation values are equal due to the need for the DEM to approximate the low slope with a limited set of integer values for elevation. The first derivative of the elevation surface thus becomes zero. In these cases, flow propagation is inhibited by these spurious zero-slope conditions. Here we present evidence for this "terracing effect" from 1) a mathematically defined simulated elevation model, to demonstrate the terracing effects of integer valued data, and 2) a real-world DEM where terracing must be

  8. Suitability of holographic beam scanning in high resolution applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kalita, Ranjan; Goutam Buddha, S. S.; Boruah, Bosanta R.

    2018-02-01

    The high resolution applications of a laser scanning imaging system very much demand the accurate positioning of the illumination beam. The galvanometer scanner based beam scanning imaging systems, on the other hand, suffer from both short term and long term beam instability issues. Fortunately Computer generated holography based beam scanning offers extremely accurate beam steering, which can be very useful for imaging in high-resolution applications in confocal microscopy. The holographic beam scanning can be achieved by writing a sequence of holograms onto a spatial light modulator and utilizing one of the diffracted orders as the illumination beam. This paper highlights relative advantages of such a holographic beam scanning based confocal system and presents some of preliminary experimental results.

  9. A Procedure for High Resolution Satellite Imagery Quality Assessment

    PubMed Central

    Crespi, Mattia; De Vendictis, Laura

    2009-01-01

    Data products generated from High Resolution Satellite Imagery (HRSI) are routinely evaluated during the so-called in-orbit test period, in order to verify if their quality fits the desired features and, if necessary, to obtain the image correction parameters to be used at the ground processing center. Nevertheless, it is often useful to have tools to evaluate image quality also at the final user level. Image quality is defined by some parameters, such as the radiometric resolution and its accuracy, represented by the noise level, and the geometric resolution and sharpness, described by the Modulation Transfer Function (MTF). This paper proposes a procedure to evaluate these image quality parameters; the procedure was implemented in a suitable software and tested on high resolution imagery acquired by the QuickBird, WorldView-1 and Cartosat-1 satellites. PMID:22412312

  10. Dynamical downscaling inter-comparison for high resolution climate reconstruction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferreira, J.; Rocha, A.; Castanheira, J. M.; Carvalho, A. C.

    2012-04-01

    In the scope of the project: "High-resolution Rainfall EroSivity analysis and fORecasTing - RESORT", an evaluation of various methods of dynamic downscaling is presented. The methods evaluated range from the classic method of nesting a regional model results in a global model, in this case the ECMWF reanalysis, to more recently proposed methods, which consist in using Newtonian relaxation methods in order to nudge the results of the regional model to the reanalysis. The method with better results involves using a system of variational data assimilation to incorporate observational data with results from the regional model. The climatology of a simulation of 5 years using this method is tested against observations on mainland Portugal and the ocean in the area of the Portuguese Continental Shelf, which shows that the method developed is suitable for the reconstruction of high resolution climate over continental Portugal.

  11. High-resolution AM LCD development for avionic applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lamberth, Larry S.; Laddu, Ravindra R.; Harris, Doug; Sarma, Kalluri R.; Li, Wang-Yang; Chien, C. C.; Chu, C. Y.; Lee, C. S.; Kuo, Chen-Lung

    2003-09-01

    For the first time, an avionic grade MVA AM LCD with wide viewing angle has been developed for use in either landscape or portrait mode. The development of a high resolution Multi-domain Vertical Alignment (MVA) Active Matrix Liquid Crystal Display (AM LCD) is described. Challenges met in this development include achieving the required performance with high luminance and sunlight readability while meeting stringent optical (image quality) and environmental performance requirements of avionics displays. In this paper the optical and environmental performance of this high resolution 14.1" MVA-AM-LCD are discussed and some performance comparisons to conventional AM-LCDs are documented. This AM LCD has found multiple Business Aviation and Military display applications and cockpit pictures are presented.

  12. Turbine component casting core with high resolution region

    DOEpatents

    Kamel, Ahmed; Merrill, Gary B.

    2014-08-26

    A hollow turbine engine component with complex internal features can include a first region and a second, high resolution region. The first region can be defined by a first ceramic core piece formed by any conventional process, such as by injection molding or transfer molding. The second region can be defined by a second ceramic core piece formed separately by a method effective to produce high resolution features, such as tomo lithographic molding. The first core piece and the second core piece can be joined by interlocking engagement that once subjected to an intermediate thermal heat treatment process thermally deform to form a three dimensional interlocking joint between the first and second core pieces by allowing thermal creep to irreversibly interlock the first and second core pieces together such that the joint becomes physically locked together providing joint stability through thermal processing.

  13. Fabricating High-Resolution X-Ray Collimators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Appleby, Michael; Atkinson, James E.; Fraser, Iain; Klinger, Jill

    2008-01-01

    A process and method for fabricating multi-grid, high-resolution rotating modulation collimators for arcsecond and sub-arcsecond x-ray and gamma-ray imaging involves photochemical machining and precision stack lamination. The special fixturing and etching techniques that have been developed are used for the fabrication of multiple high-resolution grids on a single array substrate. This technology has application in solar and astrophysics and in a number of medical imaging applications including mammography, computed tomography (CT), single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT), and gamma cameras used in nuclear medicine. This collimator improvement can also be used in non-destructive testing, hydrodynamic weapons testing, and microbeam radiation therapy.

  14. High-resolution streaming video integrated with UGS systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rohrer, Matthew

    2010-04-01

    Imagery has proven to be a valuable complement to Unattended Ground Sensor (UGS) systems. It provides ultimate verification of the nature of detected targets. However, due to the power, bandwidth, and technological limitations inherent to UGS, sacrifices have been made to the imagery portion of such systems. The result is that these systems produce lower resolution images in small quantities. Currently, a high resolution, wireless imaging system is being developed to bring megapixel, streaming video to remote locations to operate in concert with UGS. This paper will provide an overview of how using Wifi radios, new image based Digital Signal Processors (DSP) running advanced target detection algorithms, and high resolution cameras gives the user an opportunity to take high-powered video imagers to areas where power conservation is a necessity.

  15. Airborne laser scanning for high-resolution mapping of Antarctica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Csatho, Bea; Schenk, Toni; Krabill, William; Wilson, Terry; Lyons, William; McKenzie, Garry; Hallam, Cheryl; Manizade, Serdar; Paulsen, Timothy

    In order to evaluate the potential of airborne laser scanning for topographic mapping in Antarctica and to establish calibration/validation sites for NASA's Ice, Cloud and land Elevation Satellite (ICESat) altimeter mission, NASA, the U.S. National Science Foundation (NSF), and the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) joined forces to collect high-resolution airborne laser scanning data.In a two-week campaign during the 2001-2002 austral summer, NASA's Airborne Topographic Mapper (ATM) system was used to collect data over several sites in the McMurdo Sound area of Antarctica (Figure 1a). From the recorded signals, NASA computed laser points and The Ohio State University (OSU) completed the elaborate computation/verification of high-resolution Digital Elevation Models (DEMs) in 2003. This article reports about the DEM generation and some exemplary results from scientists using the geomorphologic information from the DEMs during the 2003-2004 field season.

  16. Parallelization and Algorithmic Enhancements of High Resolution IRAS Image Construction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cao, Yu; Prince, Thomas A.; Tereby, Susan; Beichman, Charles A.

    1996-01-01

    The Infrared Astronomical Satellite caried out a nearly complete survey of the infrared sky, and the survey data are important for the study of many astrophysical phenomena. However, many data sets at other wavelengths have higher resolutions than that of the co-added IRAS maps, and high resolution IRAS images are strongly desired both for their own information content and their usefulness in correlation. The HIRES program was developed by the Infrared Processing and Analysis Center (IPAC) to produce high resolution (approx. 1') images from IRAS data using the Maximum Correlation Method (MCM). We describe the port of HIRES to the Intel Paragon, a massively parallel supercomputer, other software developments for mass production of HIRES images, and the IRAS Galaxy Atlas, a project to map the Galactic plane at 60 and 100(micro)m.

  17. High resolution spectroscopy in the microwave and far infrared

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pickett, Herbert M.

    1990-01-01

    High resolution rotational spectroscopy has long been central to remote sensing techniques in atmospheric sciences and astronomy. As such, laboratory measurements must supply the required data to make direct interpretation of data for instruments which sense atmospheres using rotational spectra. Spectral measurements in the microwave and far infrared regions are also very powerful tools when combined with infrared measurements for characterizing the rotational structure of vibrational spectra. In the past decade new techniques were developed which have pushed high resolution spectroscopy into the wavelength region between 25 micrometers and 2 mm. Techniques to be described include: (1) harmonic generation of microwave sources, (2) infrared laser difference frequency generation, (3) laser sideband generation, and (4) ultrahigh resolution interferometers.

  18. High-resolution nuclear magnetic resonance studies of proteins.

    PubMed

    Jonas, Jiri

    2002-03-25

    The combination of advanced high-resolution nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) techniques with high-pressure capability represents a powerful experimental tool in studies of protein folding. This review is organized as follows: after a general introduction of high-pressure, high-resolution NMR spectroscopy of proteins, the experimental part deals with instrumentation. The main section of the review is devoted to NMR studies of reversible pressure unfolding of proteins with special emphasis on pressure-assisted cold denaturation and the detection of folding intermediates. Recent studies investigating local perturbations in proteins and the experiments following the effects of point mutations on pressure stability of proteins are also discussed. Ribonuclease A, lysozyme, ubiquitin, apomyoglobin, alpha-lactalbumin and troponin C were the model proteins investigated.

  19. Space to Think: Large, High-Resolution Displays for Sensemaking

    SciTech Connect

    Andrews, Christopher P.; Endert, Alexander; North, Chris

    2010-05-05

    Space supports human cognitive abilities in a myriad of ways. The note attached to the side of the monitor, the papers spread out on the desk, diagrams scrawled on a whiteboard, and even the keys left out on the counter are all examples of using space to recall, reveal relationships, and think. Technological advances have made it possible to construct large display environments in which space has real meaning. This paper examines how increased space affects the way displays are regarded and used within the context of the cognitively demanding task of sensemaking. A study was conducted observing analysts usingmore » a prototype large, high-resolution display to solve an analytic problem. This paper reports on the results of this study and suggests a number of potential design criteria for future sensemaking tools developed for large, high-resolution displays.« less

  20. The Coordinate Transformation Method of High Resolution dem Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yan, Chaode; Guo, Wang; Li, Aimin

    2018-04-01

    Coordinate transformation methods of DEM data can be divided into two categories. One reconstruct based on original vector elevation data. The other transforms DEM data blocks by transforming parameters. But the former doesn't work in the absence of original vector data, and the later may cause errors at joint places between adjoining blocks of high resolution DEM data. In view of this problem, a method dealing with high resolution DEM data coordinate transformation is proposed. The method transforms DEM data into discrete vector elevation points, and then adjusts positions of points by bi-linear interpolation respectively. Finally, a TIN is generated by transformed points, and the new DEM data in target coordinate system is reconstructed based on TIN. An algorithm which can find blocks and transform automatically is given in this paper. The method is tested in different terrains and proved to be feasible and valid.

  1. High resolution signal-processing method for extrinsic Fabry-Perot interferometric sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xie, Jiehui; Wang, Fuyin; Pan, Yao; Wang, Junjie; Hu, Zhengliang; Hu, Yongming

    2015-03-01

    In this paper, a signal-processing method for optical fiber extrinsic Fabry-Perot interferometric sensors is presented. It achieves both high resolution and absolute measurement of the dynamic change of cavity length with low sampling points in wavelength domain. In order to improve the demodulation accuracy, the reflected interference spectrum is cleared by Discrete Wavelet Transform and adjusted by the Hilbert transform. Then the cavity length is interrogated by the cross correlation algorithm. The continuous tests show the resolution of cavity length is only 36.7 pm. Moreover, the corresponding resolution of cavity length is only 1 pm on the low frequency range below 420 Hz, and the corresponding power spectrum shows the possibility of detecting the ultra-low frequency signals based on spectra detection.

  2. The quality of geological information derivable from high resolution reflectance spectra - Results for mafic silicates

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cloutis, E. A.; Lambert, J.; Smith, D. G. W.; Gaffey, M. J.

    1987-01-01

    High-resolution visible and near-infrared diffuse reflectance spectra of mafic silicates can be deconvolved to yield quantitative information concerning mineral mixture properties, and the results can be directly applied to remotely sensed data. Spectral reflectance measurements of laboratory mixtures of olivine, orthophyroxene, and clinopyroxene with known chemistries, phase abundances, and particle size distributions have been utilized to develop correlations between spectral properties and the physicochemical parameters of the samples. A large number of mafic silicate spectra were measured and examined for systematic variations in spectral properties as a function of chemistry, phase abundance, and particle size. Three classes of spectral parameters (ratioed, absolute, and wavelength) were examined for any correlations. Each class is sensitive to particular mafic silicate properties. Spectral deconvolution techniques have been developed for quantifying, with varying degrees of accuracy, the assemblage properties (chemistry, phase abundance, and particle size).

  3. Performance of a laser frequency comb calibration system with a high-resolution solar echelle spectrograph

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Doerr, H.-P.; Kentischer, T. J.; Steinmetz, T.; Probst, R. A.; Franz, M.; Holzwarth, R.; Udem, Th.; Hänsch, T. W.; Schmidt, W.

    2012-09-01

    Laser frequency combs (LFC) provide a direct link between the radio frequency (RF) and the optical frequency regime. The comb-like spectrum of an LFC is formed by exact equidistant laser modes, whose absolute optical frequencies are controlled by RF-references such as atomic clocks or GPS receivers. While nowadays LFCs are routinely used in metrological and spectroscopic fields, their application in astronomy was delayed until recently when systems became available with a mode spacing and wavelength coverage suitable for calibration of astronomical spectrographs. We developed a LFC based calibration system for the high-resolution echelle spectrograph at the German Vacuum Tower Telescope (VTT), located at the Teide observatory, Tenerife, Canary Islands. To characterize the calibration performance of the instrument, we use an all-fiber setup where sunlight and calibration light are fed to the spectrograph by the same single-mode fiber, eliminating systematic effects related to variable grating illumination.

  4. The visible absorption spectrum of NO3 measured by high-resolution Fourier transform spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Orphal, J.; Fellows, C. E.; Flaud, P.-M.

    2003-02-01

    The visible absorption spectrum of the nitrate radical NO3 has been measured using high-resolution Fourier transform spectroscopy. The spectrum was recorded at 294 K using a resolution of 0.6 cm-1 (corresponding to 0.026 nm at 662 nm) and covers the 12600-21500 cm-1 region (465-794 nm). Compared to absorption spectra of NO3 recorded previously, the new data show improvements concerning absolute wavelength calibration (uncertainty 0.02 cm-1), and spectral resolution. A new interpretation and model of the temperature dependence of the strong (0-0) band around 662 nm are proposed. The results are important for long-path tropospheric absorption measurements of NO3 and optical remote sensing of the Earth's atmosphere from space.

  5. High-Resolution Enabled 12-Plex DiLeu Isobaric Tags for Quantitative Proteomics

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Multiplex isobaric tags (e.g., tandem mass tags (TMT) and isobaric tags for relative and absolute quantification (iTRAQ)) are a valuable tool for high-throughput mass spectrometry based quantitative proteomics. We have developed our own multiplex isobaric tags, DiLeu, that feature quantitative performance on par with commercial offerings but can be readily synthesized in-house as a cost-effective alternative. In this work, we achieve a 3-fold increase in the multiplexing capacity of the DiLeu reagent without increasing structural complexity by exploiting mass defects that arise from selective incorporation of 13C, 15N, and 2H stable isotopes in the reporter group. The inclusion of eight new reporter isotopologues that differ in mass from the existing four reporters by intervals of 6 mDa yields a 12-plex isobaric set that preserves the synthetic simplicity and quantitative performance of the original implementation. We show that the new reporter variants can be baseline-resolved in high-resolution higher-energy C-trap dissociation (HCD) spectra, and we demonstrate accurate 12-plex quantitation of a DiLeu-labeled Saccharomyces cerevisiae lysate digest via high-resolution nano liquid chromatography–tandem mass spectrometry (nanoLC–MS2) analysis on an Orbitrap Elite mass spectrometer. PMID:25405479

  6. Time-Optimized High-Resolution Readout-Segmented Diffusion Tensor Imaging

    PubMed Central

    Reishofer, Gernot; Koschutnig, Karl; Langkammer, Christian; Porter, David; Jehna, Margit; Enzinger, Christian; Keeling, Stephen; Ebner, Franz

    2013-01-01

    Readout-segmented echo planar imaging with 2D navigator-based reacquisition is an uprising technique enabling the sampling of high-resolution diffusion images with reduced susceptibility artifacts. However, low signal from the small voxels and long scan times hamper the clinical applicability. Therefore, we introduce a regularization algorithm based on total variation that is applied directly on the entire diffusion tensor. The spatially varying regularization parameter is determined automatically dependent on spatial variations in signal-to-noise ratio thus, avoiding over- or under-regularization. Information about the noise distribution in the diffusion tensor is extracted from the diffusion weighted images by means of complex independent component analysis. Moreover, the combination of those features enables processing of the diffusion data absolutely user independent. Tractography from in vivo data and from a software phantom demonstrate the advantage of the spatially varying regularization compared to un-regularized data with respect to parameters relevant for fiber-tracking such as Mean Fiber Length, Track Count, Volume and Voxel Count. Specifically, for in vivo data findings suggest that tractography results from the regularized diffusion tensor based on one measurement (16 min) generates results comparable to the un-regularized data with three averages (48 min). This significant reduction in scan time renders high resolution (1×1×2.5 mm3) diffusion tensor imaging of the entire brain applicable in a clinical context. PMID:24019951

  7. Constraining Stochastic Parametrisation Schemes Using High-Resolution Model Simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Christensen, H. M.; Dawson, A.; Palmer, T.

    2017-12-01

    Stochastic parametrisations are used in weather and climate models as a physically motivated way to represent model error due to unresolved processes. Designing new stochastic schemes has been the target of much innovative research over the last decade. While a focus has been on developing physically motivated approaches, many successful stochastic parametrisation schemes are very simple, such as the European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF) multiplicative scheme `Stochastically Perturbed Parametrisation Tendencies' (SPPT). The SPPT scheme improves the skill of probabilistic weather and seasonal forecasts, and so is widely used. However, little work has focused on assessing the physical basis of the SPPT scheme. We address this matter by using high-resolution model simulations to explicitly measure the `error' in the parametrised tendency that SPPT seeks to represent. The high resolution simulations are first coarse-grained to the desired forecast model resolution before they are used to produce initial conditions and forcing data needed to drive the ECMWF Single Column Model (SCM). By comparing SCM forecast tendencies with the evolution of the high resolution model, we can measure the `error' in the forecast tendencies. In this way, we provide justification for the multiplicative nature of SPPT, and for the temporal and spatial scales of the stochastic perturbations. However, we also identify issues with the SPPT scheme. It is therefore hoped these measurements will improve both holistic and process based approaches to stochastic parametrisation. Figure caption: Instantaneous snapshot of the optimal SPPT stochastic perturbation, derived by comparing high-resolution simulations with a low resolution forecast model.

  8. High-Resolution Wind Measurements for Offshore Wind Energy Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nghiem, Son V.; Neumann, Gregory

    2011-01-01

    A mathematical transform, called the Rosette Transform, together with a new method, called the Dense Sampling Method, have been developed. The Rosette Transform is invented to apply to both the mean part and the fluctuating part of a targeted radar signature using the Dense Sampling Method to construct the data in a high-resolution grid at 1-km posting for wind measurements over water surfaces such as oceans or lakes.

  9. A high resolution cavity BPM for the CLIC Test Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Chritin, N.; Schmickler, H.; Soby, L.

    2010-08-01

    In frame of the development of a high resolution BPM system for the CLIC Main Linac we present the design of a cavity BPM prototype. It consists of a waveguide loaded dipole mode resonator and a monopole mode reference cavity, both operating at 15 GHz, to be compatible with the bunch frequencies at the CLIC Test Facility. Requirements, design concept, numerical analysis, and practical considerations are discussed.

  10. High-resolution, cryogenic, side-entry type specimen stage

    DOEpatents

    King, Wayne E.; Merkle, Karl L.

    1979-01-01

    A high-resolution, cryogenic side-entry type specimen stage includes a copper block within which a specimen can be positioned in the electron beam of an electron microscope, one end of the copper block constituting a specimen heat exchanger, means for directing a flow of helium at cryogenic temperature into the heat exchanger, and electrical leads running from the specimen to the exterior of the microscope for four point D.C. electrical resistivity measurements.

  11. Design Method For Ultra-High Resolution Linear CCD Imagers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sheu, Larry S.; Truong, Thanh; Yuzuki, Larry; Elhatem, Abdul; Kadekodi, Narayan

    1984-11-01

    This paper presents the design method to achieve ultra-high resolution linear imagers. This method utilizes advanced design rules and novel staggered bilinear photo sensor arrays with quadrilinear shift registers. Design constraint in the detector arrays and shift registers are analyzed. Imager architecture to achieve ultra-high resolution is presented. The characteristics of MTF, aliasing, speed, transfer efficiency and fine photolithography requirements associated with this architecture are also discussed. A CCD imager with advanced 1.5 um minimum feature size was fabricated. It is intended as a test vehicle for the next generation small sampling pitch ultra-high resolution CCD imager. Standard double-poly, two-phase shift registers were fabricated at an 8 um pitch using the advanced design rules. A special process step that blocked the source-drain implant from the shift register area was invented. This guaranteed excellent performance of the shift registers regardless of the small poly overlaps. A charge transfer efficiency of better than 0.99995 and maximum transfer speed of 8 MHz were achieved. The imager showed excellent performance. The dark current was less than 0.2 mV/ms, saturation 250 mV, adjacent photoresponse non-uniformity ± 4% and responsivity 0.7 V/ μJ/cm2 for the 8 μm x 6 μm photosensor size. The MTF was 0.6 at 62.5 cycles/mm. These results confirm the feasibility of the next generation ultra-high resolution CCD imagers.

  12. High-Resolution Imaging of Colliding and Merging Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Whitmore, Brad

    1991-07-01

    We propose to obtain high-resolution images, using the WF/PC, of two colliding and merging galaxies (i.e., NGC 4038/4039 = "The Antennae" and NGC 7252 ="Atoms-for-Peace Galaxy". Our goal is to use HST to make critical observations of each object in order to gain a better understanding of the various phases of the merger process. Our primary objective is to determine whether globular clusters are formed during mergers\\?

  13. Achievement of a 920-MHz High Resolution NMR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hashi, Kenjiro; Shimizu, Tadashi; Goto, Atsushi; Kiyoshi, Tsukasa; Matsumoto, Shinji; Wada, Hitoshi; Fujito, Teruaki; Hasegawa, Ken-ichi; Yoshikawa, Masatoshi; Miki, Takashi; Ito, Satoshi; Hamada, Mamoru; Hayashi, Seiji

    2002-06-01

    We have developed a 920-MHz NMR system and performed the proton NMR measurement of H 2O and ethylbenzene using the superconducting magnet operating at 21.6 T (920 MHz for proton), which is the highest field produced by a superconducting NMR magnet in the persistent mode. From the NMR measurements, it is verified that both homogeneity and stability of the magnet have a specification sufficient for a high resolution NMR.

  14. Creating the High-Resolution Settlement Layer - lessons learned

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gros, A.

    2017-12-01

    Facebook publishes the High-resolution Settlement Layer (HRSL: https://ciesin.columbia.edu/data/hrsl/) in collaboration with Columbia University's CIESIN institute and the World Bank. So far, data for 13 countries have been published over the past nine months. HRSL data for Burkina Faso, Ghana, Haiti, Ivory Coast, Madagascar, Malawi, Mexico, The Philippines, Rwanda, South Africa, Sri Lanka, Thailand, and Uganda are available for download. We will present a status update and report on lessons learned.

  15. High-resolution schemes for hyperbolic conservation laws

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harten, A.

    1982-01-01

    A class of new explicit second order accurate finite difference schemes for the computation of weak solutions of hyperbolic conservation laws is presented. These highly nonlinear schemes are obtained by applying a nonoscillatory first order accurae scheme to an appropriately modified flux function. The so derived second order accurate schemes achieve high resolution while preserving the robustness of the original nonoscillatory first order accurate scheme.

  16. High Resolution Frequency Measurements of Far-Infrared Laser Lines

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-04-01

    1 High Resolution Frequency Measurements of Far-Infrared Laser Lines Elizabeth J. Ehasz, Thomas M. Goyette, Robert H. Giles and William E. Nixon...Abstract—The frequency of four previously reported far- infrared laser lines have been measured to an accuracy of 100 kHz. These laser lines were measured ... frequencies measured here and the listed frequencies for these laser lines ranged from 59 MHz to 3.9 GHz. Index Terms—FIR Laser, Gas Laser, Molecular

  17. Evaluation of High Resolution Imagery and Elevation Data

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-06-01

    the value of cutting-edge geospatial tools while keeping the data constant, the present experiment evaluated the effect of higher resolution imagery...and elevation data while keeping the tools constant. The high resolution data under evaluation was generated from TEC’s Buckeye system, an...results. As researchers and developers provide increasingly advanced tools to process data more quickly and accurately, it is necessary to assess each

  18. High resolution microwave spectrometer sounder (HIMSS), volume 1, book 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    The following topics are presented with respect to the high resolution microwave spectrometer sounder (HIMSS) that is to be used as an instrument for NASA's Earth Observing System (EOS): (1) preliminary program plans; (2) contract end item (CEI) specification; and (3) the instrument interface description document. Under the preliminary program plans section, plans dealing with the following subject areas are discussed: spares, performance assurance, configuration management, software implementation, contamination, calibration management, and verification.

  19. High resolution microwave spectrometer sounder (HIMSS), volume 1, book 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    The following topics are presented with respect to the high resolution microwave spectrometer sounder (HIMSS) that is to be used as an instrument for NASA's Earth Observing System (EOS): (1) an instrument overview; (2) an instrument description; (3) the instrument's conceptual design; (4) technical risks and offsets; (5) instrument reliability; (6) commands and telemetry; (7) mass and power budgets; (8) integration and test program; (9) program implementation; and (10) phase CD schedule.

  20. Optical alignment of high resolution Fourier transform spectrometers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Breckinridge, J. B.; Ocallaghan, F. G.; Cassie, A. G.

    1980-01-01

    Remote sensing, high resolution FTS instruments often contain three primary optical subsystems: Fore-Optics, Interferometer Optics, and Post, or Detector Optics. We discuss the alignment of a double-pass FTS containing a cat's-eye retro-reflector. Also, the alignment of fore-optics containing confocal paraboloids with a reflecting field stop which relays a field image onto a camera is discussed.

  1. High resolution surface plasmon microscopy for cell imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Argoul, F.; Monier, K.; Roland, T.; Elezgaray, J.; Berguiga, L.

    2010-04-01

    We introduce a new non-labeling high resolution microscopy method for cellular imaging. This method called SSPM (Scanning Surface Plasmon Microscopy) pushes down the resolution limit of surface plasmon resonance imaging (SPRi) to sub-micronic scales. High resolution SPRi is obtained by the surface plasmon lauching with a high numerical aperture objective lens. The advantages of SPPM compared to other high resolution SPRi's rely on three aspects; (i) the interferometric detection of the back reflected light after plasmon excitation, (ii) the twodimensional scanning of the sample for image reconstruction, (iii) the radial polarization of light, enhancing both resolution and sensitivity. This microscope can afford a lateral resolution of - 150 nm in liquid environment and - 200 nm in air. We present in this paper images of IMR90 fibroblasts obtained with SSPM in dried environment. Internal compartments such as nucleus, nucleolus, mitochondria, cellular and nuclear membrane can be recognized without labelling. We propose an interpretation of the ability of SSPM to reveal high index contrast zones by a local decomposition of the V (Z) function describing the response of the SSPM.

  2. Adaptive optics with pupil tracking for high resolution retinal imaging

    PubMed Central

    Sahin, Betul; Lamory, Barbara; Levecq, Xavier; Harms, Fabrice; Dainty, Chris

    2012-01-01

    Adaptive optics, when integrated into retinal imaging systems, compensates for rapidly changing ocular aberrations in real time and results in improved high resolution images that reveal the photoreceptor mosaic. Imaging the retina at high resolution has numerous potential medical applications, and yet for the development of commercial products that can be used in the clinic, the complexity and high cost of the present research systems have to be addressed. We present a new method to control the deformable mirror in real time based on pupil tracking measurements which uses the default camera for the alignment of the eye in the retinal imaging system and requires no extra cost or hardware. We also present the first experiments done with a compact adaptive optics flood illumination fundus camera where it was possible to compensate for the higher order aberrations of a moving model eye and in vivo in real time based on pupil tracking measurements, without the real time contribution of a wavefront sensor. As an outcome of this research, we showed that pupil tracking can be effectively used as a low cost and practical adaptive optics tool for high resolution retinal imaging because eye movements constitute an important part of the ocular wavefront dynamics. PMID:22312577

  3. Adaptive optics with pupil tracking for high resolution retinal imaging.

    PubMed

    Sahin, Betul; Lamory, Barbara; Levecq, Xavier; Harms, Fabrice; Dainty, Chris

    2012-02-01

    Adaptive optics, when integrated into retinal imaging systems, compensates for rapidly changing ocular aberrations in real time and results in improved high resolution images that reveal the photoreceptor mosaic. Imaging the retina at high resolution has numerous potential medical applications, and yet for the development of commercial products that can be used in the clinic, the complexity and high cost of the present research systems have to be addressed. We present a new method to control the deformable mirror in real time based on pupil tracking measurements which uses the default camera for the alignment of the eye in the retinal imaging system and requires no extra cost or hardware. We also present the first experiments done with a compact adaptive optics flood illumination fundus camera where it was possible to compensate for the higher order aberrations of a moving model eye and in vivo in real time based on pupil tracking measurements, without the real time contribution of a wavefront sensor. As an outcome of this research, we showed that pupil tracking can be effectively used as a low cost and practical adaptive optics tool for high resolution retinal imaging because eye movements constitute an important part of the ocular wavefront dynamics.

  4. Stars and their Environments at High-Resolution with IGRINS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mace, Gregory; Jaffe, Daniel; Kaplan, Kyle; Kidder, Benjamin; Oh, Heeyoung; Sneden, Christopher; Afşar, Melike

    2016-06-01

    TheImmersion Grating Infrared Spectrometer (IGRINS) is a revolutionary instrument that exploits broad spectral coverage at high-resolution in the near-infrared. There are no moving parts in IGRINS and its high-throughput white-pupil design maximizes sensitivity. IGRINS on the 2.7 meter Harlan J. Smith Telescope at McDonald Observatory is nearly as sensitive as CRIRES at the 8 meter Very Large Telescope. However, IGRINS at R=45,000 has more than 30 times the spectral grasp of CRIRES. The use of an immersion grating facilitates a compact cryostat while providing simultaneous H and K band observations with complete wavelength coverage from 1.45 - 2.45 microns. Here we discuss details of instrument performance and summarize the application of IGRINS to stellar characterization, star formation in regions like Taurus and Ophiuchus, the interstellar medium, and photodissociation regions. IGRINS has the largest spectral grasp of any high-resolution, near-infrared spectrograph, allowing us to study star formation and evolution in unprecedented detail. With its fixed format and high sensitivity, IGRINS is a great survey instrument for star clusters, high signal-to-noise (SNR>300) studies of field stars, and for mapping the interstellar medium. As a prototype for GMTNIRS on the Giant Magellan Telescope, IGRINS represents the future of high-resolution spectroscopy. In the future IGRINS will be deployed to numerous facilities and will remain a versatile instrument for the community while producing a rich archive of uniform spectra.

  5. High resolution, MRI-based, segmented, computerized head phantom

    SciTech Connect

    Zubal, I.G.; Harrell, C.R.; Smith, E.O.

    1999-01-01

    The authors have created a high-resolution software phantom of the human brain which is applicable to voxel-based radiation transport calculations yielding nuclear medicine simulated images and/or internal dose estimates. A software head phantom was created from 124 transverse MRI images of a healthy normal individual. The transverse T2 slices, recorded in a 256x256 matrix from a GE Signa 2 scanner, have isotropic voxel dimensions of 1.5 mm and were manually segmented by the clinical staff. Each voxel of the phantom contains one of 62 index numbers designating anatomical, neurological, and taxonomical structures. The result is stored as a 256x256x128 bytemore » array. Internal volumes compare favorably to those described in the ICRP Reference Man. The computerized array represents a high resolution model of a typical human brain and serves as a voxel-based anthropomorphic head phantom suitable for computer-based modeling and simulation calculations. It offers an improved realism over previous mathematically described software brain phantoms, and creates a reference standard for comparing results of newly emerging voxel-based computations. Such voxel-based computations lead the way to developing diagnostic and dosimetry calculations which can utilize patient-specific diagnostic images. However, such individualized approaches lack fast, automatic segmentation schemes for routine use; therefore, the high resolution, typical head geometry gives the most realistic patient model currently available.« less

  6. Toward high-resolution NMR spectroscopy of microscopic liquid samples

    SciTech Connect

    Butler, Mark C.; Mehta, Hardeep S.; Chen, Ying

    A longstanding limitation of high-resolution NMR spectroscopy is the requirement for samples to have macroscopic dimensions. Commercial probes, for example, are designed for volumes of at least 5 mL, in spite of decades of work directed toward the goal of miniaturization. Progress in miniaturizing inductive detectors has been limited by a perceived need to meet two technical requirements: (1) minimal separation between the sample and the detector, which is essential for sensitivity, and (2) near-perfect magnetic-field homogeneity at the sample, which is typically needed for spectral resolution. The first of these requirements is real, but the second can be relaxed,more » as we demonstrate here. By using pulse sequences that yield high-resolution spectra in an inhomogeneous field, we eliminate the need for near-perfect field homogeneity and the accompanying requirement for susceptibility matching of microfabricated detector components. With this requirement removed, typical imperfections in microfabricated components can be tolerated, and detector dimensions can be matched to those of the sample, even for samples of volume << 5 uL. Pulse sequences that are robust to field inhomogeneity thus enable small-volume detection with optimal sensitivity. We illustrate the potential of this approach to miniaturization by presenting spectra acquired with a flat-wire detector that can easily be scaled to subnanoliter volumes. In particular, we report high-resolution NMR spectroscopy of an alanine sample of volume 500 pL.« less

  7. High resolution ultrasonic spectroscopy system for nondestructive evaluation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chen, C. H.

    1991-01-01

    With increased demand for high resolution ultrasonic evaluation, computer based systems or work stations become essential. The ultrasonic spectroscopy method of nondestructive evaluation (NDE) was used to develop a high resolution ultrasonic inspection system supported by modern signal processing, pattern recognition, and neural network technologies. The basic system which was completed consists of a 386/20 MHz PC (IBM AT compatible), a pulser/receiver, a digital oscilloscope with serial and parallel communications to the computer, an immersion tank with motor control of X-Y axis movement, and the supporting software package, IUNDE, for interactive ultrasonic evaluation. Although the hardware components are commercially available, the software development is entirely original. By integrating signal processing, pattern recognition, maximum entropy spectral analysis, and artificial neural network functions into the system, many NDE tasks can be performed. The high resolution graphics capability provides visualization of complex NDE problems. The phase 3 efforts involve intensive marketing of the software package and collaborative work with industrial sectors.

  8. High Resolution Observations of Escaping Ions in the Martian Magnetotail

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Halekas, J. S.; Raman, C.; Brain, D.; DiBraccio, G. A.; Harada, Y.; McFadden, J. P.; Mitchell, D. L.; Connerney, J. E. P.; Jakosky, B. M.

    2016-12-01

    Ions escape from the Martian upper atmosphere via a number of channels, including the central plasmasheet of the magnetotail. Mars Express observations show that the heavy ions O+ and O2+ escaping through the central tail often have approximately the same energy, suggesting acceleration in a quasi-static electric field, which has been interpreted as a Hall electric field. The Solar Wind Ion Analyzer (SWIA) on MAVEN was designed to measure the upstream solar wind. However, during orbit segments with appropriate spacecraft attitude, SWIA can also make high resolution measurements of escaping ions in the tail. During the prime mission, these observations were only returned sporadically, during periods of intense escaping fluxes that fortuitously triggered a mode switch. Now, in the extended mission, we return high resolution observations from SWIA routinely. Some of these high resolution measurements reveal slight differences in both the direction and energy of escaping O+ and O2+ ions, which may help determine the acceleration process(es). We investigate the location and solar wind conditions for which the escaping ions separate in energy and angle and the systematics of their energies and flow vectors, and discuss the implications for ion acceleration and the overall picture of Martian atmospheric escape.

  9. Climatologies at high resolution for the earth's land surface areas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karger, Dirk Nikolaus; Conrad, Olaf; Böhner, Jürgen; Kawohl, Tobias; Kreft, Holger; Soria-Auza, Rodrigo Wilber; Zimmermann, Niklaus E.; Linder, H. Peter; Kessler, Michael

    2017-09-01

    High-resolution information on climatic conditions is essential to many applications in environmental and ecological sciences. Here we present the CHELSA (Climatologies at high resolution for the earth's land surface areas) data of downscaled model output temperature and precipitation estimates of the ERA-Interim climatic reanalysis to a high resolution of 30 arc sec. The temperature algorithm is based on statistical downscaling of atmospheric temperatures. The precipitation algorithm incorporates orographic predictors including wind fields, valley exposition, and boundary layer height, with a subsequent bias correction. The resulting data consist of a monthly temperature and precipitation climatology for the years 1979-2013. We compare the data derived from the CHELSA algorithm with other standard gridded products and station data from the Global Historical Climate Network. We compare the performance of the new climatologies in species distribution modelling and show that we can increase the accuracy of species range predictions. We further show that CHELSA climatological data has a similar accuracy as other products for temperature, but that its predictions of precipitation patterns are better.

  10. Fabrication High Resolution Metrology Target By Step And Repeat Method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dusa, Mircea

    1983-10-01

    Based on the photolithography process generally used to generate high resolution masks for semiconductor I.C.S, we found a very useful industrial application of laser technology.First, we have generated high resolution metrology targets which are used in industrial measurement laser interferometers as difra.ction gratings. Secondi we have generated these targets using step and repeat machine, with He-Ne laser interferometer controlled state, as a pattern generator, due to suitable computer programming.Actually, high resolution metrology target, means two chromium plates, one of which is called the" rule" the other one the "vernier". In Fig.1 we have the configuration of the rule and the vernier. The rule has a succesion of 3 μM lines generated as a difraction grating on a 4 x 4 inch chromium blank. The vernier has several exposed fields( areas) having 3 - 15 μm lines, fields placed on very precise position on the chromium blank surface. High degree of uniformity, tight CD tolerances, low defect density required by the targets, creates specialised problems during processing. Details of the processing, together with experimental results will be presented. Before we start to enter into process details, we have to point out that the dimensional requirements of the reticle target, are quite similar or perhaps more strict than LSI master casks. These requirements presented in Fig.2.

  11. Greater absolute rates of N2O production and consumption with soil warming dwarf variations in denitrification enzyme temperature sensitivities across seasons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tiemann, L. K.; Billings, S. A.

    2010-12-01

    Investigators appreciate the important role that nitrate (NO3-) and soil moisture availability can play in governing net N2O production from soils. However, a large knowledge gap remains surrounding the drivers of soil N2O consumption and the role of microbial adaptation to changing environmental conditions in governing both N2O production and consumption. Net N2O soil efflux can be correlated with temperature, but little is known about the influence of temperature on gross rates of N2O production vs. consumption. Further, we do not understand how microbial communities responsible for these processes adapt or acclimate to soil warming. To investigate whether temperature alters the denitrifier-mediated fate of NO3- lost via N2O or N2, and if any such effect changes across seasons, we incubated soil collected in three seasons at four temperatures with and without 15N-enriched nitrate for 26 hours. Incubations were conducted in an anaerobic environment flushed with helium to permit detection of N2O and N2, and those gases’ δ15N. Temperature positively influenced CO2 production resulting from anaerobic processes. Maximum values of net N2O production were positively influenced by incubation and seasonal temperature, and the maximum rate of net N2O production occurred relatively early at warmer incubation temperatures. We also observed greater N2O:N2 ratios early in the incubations at warmer incubation temperatures. Isotope data are consistent with these trends. For those soils receiving the 15N label, differences in δ15N2O between early and late in the incubations were increasingly negative, and differences in δ15N2 increasingly positive, as temperature increased. Q10 values for N2O production and consumption exhibited increasing similarities as seasons progressed, with June N2O production and consumption Q10 values being nearly identical. These data provide convincing evidence that: a) increasing temperatures can induce denitrifying communities to perform complete

  12. Aircraft Detection in High-Resolution SAR Images Based on a Gradient Textural Saliency Map.

    PubMed

    Tan, Yihua; Li, Qingyun; Li, Yansheng; Tian, Jinwen

    2015-09-11

    This paper proposes a new automatic and adaptive aircraft target detection algorithm in high-resolution synthetic aperture radar (SAR) images of airport. The proposed method is based on gradient textural saliency map under the contextual cues of apron area. Firstly, the candidate regions with the possible existence of airport are detected from the apron area. Secondly, directional local gradient distribution detector is used to obtain a gradient textural saliency map in the favor of the candidate regions. In addition, the final targets will be detected by segmenting the saliency map using CFAR-type algorithm. The real high-resolution airborne SAR image data is used to verify the proposed algorithm. The results demonstrate that this algorithm can detect aircraft targets quickly and accurately, and decrease the false alarm rate.

  13. Generalized Nonlinear Chirp Scaling Algorithm for High-Resolution Highly Squint SAR Imaging

    PubMed Central

    He, Zhihua; He, Feng; Dong, Zhen; Wu, Manqing

    2017-01-01

    This paper presents a modified approach for high-resolution, highly squint synthetic aperture radar (SAR) data processing. Several nonlinear chirp scaling (NLCS) algorithms have been proposed to solve the azimuth variance of the frequency modulation rates that are caused by the linear range walk correction (LRWC). However, the azimuth depth of focusing (ADOF) is not handled well by these algorithms. The generalized nonlinear chirp scaling (GNLCS) algorithm that is proposed in this paper uses the method of series reverse (MSR) to improve the ADOF and focusing precision. It also introduces a high order processing kernel to avoid the range block processing. Simulation results show that the GNLCS algorithm can enlarge the ADOF and focusing precision for high-resolution highly squint SAR data. PMID:29112151

  14. Aircraft Detection in High-Resolution SAR Images Based on a Gradient Textural Saliency Map

    PubMed Central

    Tan, Yihua; Li, Qingyun; Li, Yansheng; Tian, Jinwen

    2015-01-01

    This paper proposes a new automatic and adaptive aircraft target detection algorithm in high-resolution synthetic aperture radar (SAR) images of airport. The proposed method is based on gradient textural saliency map under the contextual cues of apron area. Firstly, the candidate regions with the possible existence of airport are detected from the apron area. Secondly, directional local gradient distribution detector is used to obtain a gradient textural saliency map in the favor of the candidate regions. In addition, the final targets will be detected by segmenting the saliency map using CFAR-type algorithm. The real high-resolution airborne SAR image data is used to verify the proposed algorithm. The results demonstrate that this algorithm can detect aircraft targets quickly and accurately, and decrease the false alarm rate. PMID:26378543

  15. High resolution multidetector CT aided tissue analysis and quantification of lung fibrosis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zavaletta, Vanessa A.; Karwoski, Ronald A.; Bartholmai, Brian; Robb, Richard A.

    2006-03-01

    Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF, also known as Idiopathic Usual Interstitial Pneumontis, pathologically) is a progressive diffuse lung disease which has a median survival rate of less than four years with a prevalence of 15-20/100,000 in the United States. Global function changes are measured by pulmonary function tests and the diagnosis and extent of pulmonary structural changes are typically assessed by acquiring two-dimensional high resolution CT (HRCT) images. The acquisition and analysis of volumetric high resolution Multi-Detector CT (MDCT) images with nearly isotropic pixels offers the potential to measure both lung function and structure. This paper presents a new approach to three dimensional lung image analysis and classification of normal and abnormal structures in lungs with IPF.

  16. Generalized Nonlinear Chirp Scaling Algorithm for High-Resolution Highly Squint SAR Imaging.

    PubMed

    Yi, Tianzhu; He, Zhihua; He, Feng; Dong, Zhen; Wu, Manqing

    2017-11-07

    This paper presents a modified approach for high-resolution, highly squint synthetic aperture radar (SAR) data processing. Several nonlinear chirp scaling (NLCS) algorithms have been proposed to solve the azimuth variance of the frequency modulation rates that are caused by the linear range walk correction (LRWC). However, the azimuth depth of focusing (ADOF) is not handled well by these algorithms. The generalized nonlinear chirp scaling (GNLCS) algorithm that is proposed in this paper uses the method of series reverse (MSR) to improve the ADOF and focusing precision. It also introduces a high order processing kernel to avoid the range block processing. Simulation results show that the GNLCS algorithm can enlarge the ADOF and focusing precision for high-resolution highly squint SAR data.

  17. The research of road and vehicle information extraction algorithm based on high resolution remote sensing image

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Tingting; Gu, Lingjia; Ren, Ruizhi; Cao, Qiong

    2016-09-01

    With the rapid development of remote sensing technology, the spatial resolution and temporal resolution of satellite imagery also have a huge increase. Meanwhile, High-spatial-resolution images are becoming increasingly popular for commercial applications. The remote sensing image technology has broad application prospects in intelligent traffic. Compared with traditional traffic information collection methods, vehicle information extraction using high-resolution remote sensing image has the advantages of high resolution and wide coverage. This has great guiding significance to urban planning, transportation management, travel route choice and so on. Firstly, this paper preprocessed the acquired high-resolution multi-spectral and panchromatic remote sensing images. After that, on the one hand, in order to get the optimal thresholding for image segmentation, histogram equalization and linear enhancement technologies were applied into the preprocessing results. On the other hand, considering distribution characteristics of road, the normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) and normalized difference water index (NDWI) were used to suppress water and vegetation information of preprocessing results. Then, the above two processing result were combined. Finally, the geometric characteristics were used to completed road information extraction. The road vector extracted was used to limit the target vehicle area. Target vehicle extraction was divided into bright vehicles extraction and dark vehicles extraction. Eventually, the extraction results of the two kinds of vehicles were combined to get the final results. The experiment results demonstrated that the proposed algorithm has a high precision for the vehicle information extraction for different high resolution remote sensing images. Among these results, the average fault detection rate was about 5.36%, the average residual rate was about 13.60% and the average accuracy was approximately 91.26%.

  18. Absolute nuclear material assay

    DOEpatents

    Prasad, Manoj K [Pleasanton, CA; Snyderman, Neal J [Berkeley, CA; Rowland, Mark S [Alamo, CA

    2012-05-15

    A method of absolute nuclear material assay of an unknown source comprising counting neutrons from the unknown source and providing an absolute nuclear material assay utilizing a model to optimally compare to the measured count distributions. In one embodiment, the step of providing an absolute nuclear material assay comprises utilizing a random sampling of analytically computed fission chain distributions to generate a continuous time-evolving sequence of event-counts by spreading the fission chain distribution in time.

  19. Absolute nuclear material assay

    DOEpatents

    Prasad, Manoj K [Pleasanton, CA; Snyderman, Neal J [Berkeley, CA; Rowland, Mark S [Alamo, CA

    2010-07-13

    A method of absolute nuclear material assay of an unknown source comprising counting neutrons from the unknown source and providing an absolute nuclear material assay utilizing a model to optimally compare to the measured count distributions. In one embodiment, the step of providing an absolute nuclear material assay comprises utilizing a random sampling of analytically computed fission chain distributions to generate a continuous time-evolving sequence of event-counts by spreading the fission chain distribution in time.

  20. High resolution solar observations from first principles to applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Verdoni, Angelo P.

    2009-10-01

    The expression "high-resolution observations" in Solar Physics refers to the spatial, temporal and spectral domains in their entirety. High-resolution observations of solar fine structure are a necessity to answer many of the intriguing questions related to solar activity. However, a researcher building instruments for high-resolution observations has to cope with the fact that these three domains often have diametrically opposed boundary conditions. Many factors have to be considered in the design of a successful instrument. Modern post-focus instruments are more closely linked with the solar telescopes that they serve than in past. In principle, the quest for high-resolution observations already starts with the selection of the observatory site. The site survey of the Advanced Technology Solar Telescope (ATST) under the stewardship of the National Solar Observatory (NSO) has identified Big Bear Solar Observatory (BBSO) as one of the best sites for solar observations. In a first step, the seeing characteristics at BBSO based on the data collected for the ATST site survey are described. The analysis will aid in the scheduling of high-resolution observations at BBSO as well as provide useful information concerning the design and implementation of a thermal control system for the New Solar Telescope (NST). NST is an off-axis open-structure Gregorian-style telescope with a 1.6 m aperture. NST will be housed in a newly constructed 5/8-sphere ventilated dome. With optics exposed to the surrounding air, NST's open-structure design makes it particularly vulnerable to the effects of enclosure-related seeing. In an effort to mitigate these effects, the initial design of a thermal control system for the NST dome is presented. The goal is to remediate thermal related seeing effects present within the dome interior. The THermal Control System (THCS) is an essential component for the open-telescope design of NST to work. Following these tasks, a calibration routine for the

  1. High Resolution Thz and FIR Spectroscopy of SOCl_2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martin-Drumel, M. A.; Cuisset, A.; Sadovskii, D. A.; Mouret, G.; Hindle, F.; Pirali, O.

    2013-06-01

    Thionyl chloride (SOCl_2) is an extremely powerful oxidant widely used in industrial processes and playing a role in the chemistry of the atmosphere. In addition, it has a molecular configuration similar to that of phosgene (COCl_2), and is therefore of particular interest for security and defense applications. Low resolution vibrational spectra of gas phase SOCl_2 as well as high resolution pure rotational transitions up to 25 GHz have previously been investigated. To date no high resolution data are reported at frequencies higher than 25 GHz. We have investigated the THz absorption spectrum of SOCl_2 in the spectral region 70-650 GHz using a frequency multiplier chain coupled to a 1 m long single path cell containing a pressure of about 15 μbar. At the time of the writing, about 8000 pure rotational transitions of SO^{35}Cl_2 with highest J and K_a values of 110 and 50 respectively have been assigned on the spectrum. We have also recorded the high resolution FIR spectra of SOCl_2 in the spectral range 50-700 wn using synchrotron radiation at the AILES beamline of SOLEIL facility. A White-type cell aligned with an absorption path length of 150 m has been used to record, at a resolution of 0.001 wn, two spectra at pressures of 5 and 56 μbar of SOCl_2. On these spectra all FIR modes of SOCl_2 are observed (ν_2 to ν_6) and present a resolved rotational structure. Their analysis is in progress. T. J. Johnson et al., J. Phys. Chem. A 107, 6183 (2003) D. E. Martz and R. T. Lagemann, J. Chem. Phys. 22,1193 (1954) H. S. P. Müller and M. C. L. Gerry, J. Chem. Soc. Faraday Trans. 90, 3473 (1994)

  2. Large-field high-resolution mosaic movies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hammerschlag, Robert H.; Sliepen, Guus; Bettonvil, Felix C. M.; Jägers, Aswin P. L.; Sütterlin, Peter; Martin, Sara F.

    2012-09-01

    Movies with fields-of-view larger than normal for high-resolution telescopes will give a better understanding of processes on the Sun, such as filament and active region developments and their possible interactions. New active regions can influence, by their emergence, their environment to the extent of possibly serving as an igniter of the eruption of a nearby filament. A method to create a large field-of-view is to join several fields-of-view into a mosaic. Fields are imaged quickly one after another using fast telescope-pointing. Such a pointing cycle has been automated at the Dutch Open Telescope (DOT), a high-resolution solar telescope located on the Canary Island La Palma. The observer can draw with the computer mouse the desired total field in the guider-telescope image of the whole Sun. The guider telescope is equipped with an H-alpha filter and electronic enhancement of contrast in the image for good visibility of filaments and prominences. The number and positions of the subfields are calculated automatically and represented by an array of bright points indicating the subfield centers inside the drawn rectangle of the total field on the computer screen with the whole-sun image. When the exposures start the telescope repeats automatically the sequence of subfields. Automatic production of flats is also programmed including defocusing and fast motion over the solar disk of the image field. For the first time mosaic movies were programmed from stored information on automated telescope motions from one field to the next. The mosaic movies fill the gap between whole-sun images with limited resolution of synoptic telescopes including space instruments and small-field high-cadence movies of high-resolution solar telescopes.

  3. High-resolution ultrasonography in assessing temporomandibular joint disc position.

    PubMed

    Talmaceanu, Daniel; Lenghel, Lavinia Manuela; Bolog, Nicolae; Popa Stanila, Roxana; Buduru, Smaranda; Leucuta, Daniel Corneliu; Rotar, Horatiu; Baciut, Mihaela; Baciut, Grigore

    2018-02-04

    The purpose of this study was to determine the diagnostic value of high-resolution ultrasonography (US) in temporomandibular joint (TMJ) disc displacements. A number of 74 patients (148 TMJs) with signs and symptoms of TMJ disorders, according to the Research Diagnostic Criteria for Temporomandibular Disorders, were included in this study. All patients received US and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of both TMJs 1 to 5 days after the clinical examination. MRI examinations were performed using 1.5 T MRI equipment (Siemens Avanto, Siemens, Erlangen). Ultrasonographic examination was performed on a Hitachi EUB 8500 (Hitachi Medical Corp., Tokyo, Japan) scanner with L 54 M6.5-13 MHz linear transducer. MRI depicted 68 (45.95%) normal joints, 47 (31.76%) with disc displacement with reduction, 33 (22.3%) with disc displacement without reduction and 34 (22.97%) with degenerative changes. US detected 78 (52.7%) normal joints, 37 (25%) with disc displacement with reduction, 33 (22.3%) with disc displacement without reduction and 21 (14.19%) with degenerative changes. Compared to MRI, US showed a sensitivity of 93.1%, specificity of 87.88%, accuracy of 90.32%, a positive predictive value of 87.1% and a negative predictive value of 93.55% for overall diagnosis of disc displacement. The Youden index was 0.81. Based on our results, high-resolution ultrasonography showed high sensitivity, specificity and accuracy in the diagnosis of TMJ disc displacement. It could be a valuable imaging technique in assessing TMJ disc position. The diagnostic value of high-resolution ultrasonography depends strictly on the examiner's skills and on the equipment used.

  4. Proceedings of the workshop on high resolution computed microtomography (CMT)

    SciTech Connect

    NONE

    The purpose of the workshop was to determine the status of the field, to define instrumental and computational requirements, and to establish minimum specifications required by possible users. The most important message sent by implementers was the remainder that CMT is a tool. It solves a wide spectrum of scientific problems and is complementary to other microscopy techniques, with certain important advantages that the other methods do not have. High-resolution CMT can be used non-invasively and non-destructively to study a variety of hierarchical three-dimensional microstructures, which in turn control body function. X-ray computed microtomography can also be used at themore » frontiers of physics, in the study of granular systems, for example. With high-resolution CMT, for example, three-dimensional pore geometries and topologies of soils and rocks can be obtained readily and implemented directly in transport models. In turn, these geometries can be used to calculate fundamental physical properties, such as permeability and electrical conductivity, from first principles. Clearly, use of the high-resolution CMT technique will contribute tremendously to the advancement of current R and D technologies in the production, transport, storage, and utilization of oil and natural gas. It can also be applied to problems related to environmental pollution, particularly to spilling and seepage of hazardous chemicals into the Earth's subsurface. Applications to energy and environmental problems will be far-ranging and may soon extend to disciplines such as materials science--where the method can be used in the manufacture of porous ceramics, filament-resin composites, and microelectronics components--and to biomedicine, where it could be used to design biocompatible materials such as artificial bones, contact lenses, or medication-releasing implants. Selected papers are indexed separately for inclusion in the Energy Science and Technology Database.« less

  5. Theoretical performance analysis for CMOS based high resolution detectors.

    PubMed

    Jain, Amit; Bednarek, Daniel R; Rudin, Stephen

    2013-03-06

    High resolution imaging capabilities are essential for accurately guiding successful endovascular interventional procedures. Present x-ray imaging detectors are not always adequate due to their inherent limitations. The newly-developed high-resolution micro-angiographic fluoroscope (MAF-CCD) detector has demonstrated excellent clinical image quality; however, further improvement in performance and physical design may be possible using CMOS sensors. We have thus calculated the theoretical performance of two proposed CMOS detectors which may be used as a successor to the MAF. The proposed detectors have a 300 μm thick HL-type CsI phosphor, a 50 μm-pixel CMOS sensor with and without a variable gain light image intensifier (LII), and are designated MAF-CMOS-LII and MAF-CMOS, respectively. For the performance evaluation, linear cascade modeling was used. The detector imaging chains were divided into individual stages characterized by one of the basic processes (quantum gain, binomial selection, stochastic and deterministic blurring, additive noise). Ranges of readout noise and exposure were used to calculate the detectors' MTF and DQE. The MAF-CMOS showed slightly better MTF than the MAF-CMOS-LII, but the MAF-CMOS-LII showed far better DQE, especially for lower exposures. The proposed detectors can have improved MTF and DQE compared with the present high resolution MAF detector. The performance of the MAF-CMOS is excellent for the angiography exposure range; however it is limited at fluoroscopic levels due to additive instrumentation noise. The MAF-CMOS-LII, having the advantage of the variable LII gain, can overcome the noise limitation and hence may perform exceptionally for the full range of required exposures; however, it is more complex and hence more expensive.

  6. Quantitative observation of tracer transport with high-resolution PET

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kulenkampff, Johannes; Gruendig, Marion; Zakhnini, Abdelhamid; Lippmann-Pipke, Johanna

    2016-04-01

    Transport processes in natural porous media are typically heterogeneous over various scales. This heterogeneity is caused by the complexity of pore geometry and molecular processes. Heterogeneous processes, like diffusive transport, conservative advective transport, mixing and reactive transport, can be observed and quantified with quantitative tomography of tracer transport patterns. Positron Emission Tomography (PET) is by far the most sensitive method and perfectly selective for positron-emitting radiotracers, therefore it is suited as reference method for spatiotemporal tracer transport observations. The number of such PET-applications is steadily increasing. However, many applications are afflicted by the low spatial resolution (3 - 5 mm) of the clinical scanners from cooperating nuclear medical departments. This resolution is low in relation to typical sample dimensions of 10 cm, which are restricted by the mass attenuation of the material. In contrast, our GeoPET-method applies a high-resolution scanner with a resolution of 1 mm, which is the physical limit of the method and which is more appropriate for samples of the size of soil columns or drill cores. This higher resolution is achieved at the cost of a more elaborate image reconstruction procedure, especially considering the effects of Compton scatter. The result of the quantitative image reconstruction procedure is a suite of frames of the quantitative tracer distribution with adjustable frame rates from minutes to months. The voxel size has to be considered as reference volume of the tracer concentration. This continuous variable includes contributions from structures far below the spatial resolution, as far as a detection threshold, in the pico-molar range, is exceeded. Examples from a period of almost 10 years (Kulenkampff et al. 2008a, Kulenkampff et al. 2008b) of development and application of quantitative GeoPET-process tomography are shown. These examples include different transport processes

  7. High resolution mesospheric sodium properties for adaptive optics applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pfrommer, T.; Hickson, P.

    2014-05-01

    Context. The performance of laser guide star adaptive optics (AO) systems for large optical and infrared telescopes is affected by variability of the sodium layer, located at altitudes between 80 and 120 km in the upper mesosphere and lower thermosphere. The abundance and density structure of the atomic sodium found in this region is subject to local and global weather effects, planetary and gravity waves and magnetic storms, and is variable on time scales down to tens of milliseconds, a range relevant to AO. Aims: It is therefore important to characterize the structure and dynamical evolution of the sodium region on small, as well as large spatial and temporal scales. Parameters of particular importance for AO are the mean sodium altitude, sodium layer width and the temporal power spectrum of the centroid altitude. Methods: We have conducted a three-year campaign employing a high-resolution lidar system installed on the 6-m Large Zenith Telescope (LZT) located near Vancouver, Canada. During this period, 112 nights of useful data were obtained. Results: The vertical density profile of atomic sodium shows remarkable structure and variability. Smooth Gaussian-shaped profiles rarely occur. Multiple internal layers are frequently found. These layers often have sharp lower edges, with scale heights of just a few hundred meters, and tend to drift downwards at a typical rate of one kilometer every two to three hours. Individual layers can persist for many hours, but their density and internal structure can be highly variable. Sporadic layers are seen reaching peak densities several times the average, often in just a few minutes. Coherent vertical oscillations are often found, typically extending over tens of kilometers in altitude. Regions of turbulence are evident and Kelvin-Helmholtz instability are sometimes seen. The mean value of the centroid altitude is found to be 90.8 ± 0.1 km. The sodium layer width was determined by computing the altitude range that contains a

  8. High resolution collimator system for X-ray detector

    DOEpatents

    Eberhard, Jeffrey W.; Cain, Dallas E.

    1987-01-01

    High resolution in an X-ray computerized tomography (CT) inspection system is achieved by using a collimator/detector combination to limit the beam width of the X-ray beam incident on a detector element to the desired resolution width. In a detector such as a high pressure Xenon detector array, a narrow tapered collimator is provided above a wide detector element. The collimator slits have any desired width, as small as a few mils at the top, the slit width is easily controlled, and they are fabricated on standard machines. The slit length determines the slice thickness of the CT image.

  9. Clickstream data yields high-resolution maps of science

    SciTech Connect

    Bollen, Johan; Van De Sompel, Herbert; Hagberg, Aric

    2009-01-01

    Intricate maps of science have been created from citation data to visualize the structure of scientific activity. However, most scientific publications are now accessed online. Scholarly web portals record detailed log data at a scale that exceeds the number of all existing citations combined. Such log data is recorded immediately upon publication and keeps track of the sequences of user requests (clickstreams) that are issued by a variety of users across many different domains. Given these advantagees of log datasets over citation data, we investigate whether they can produce high-resolution, more current maps of science.

  10. Distributed MIMO Radar for Imaging and High Resolution Target Localization

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-02-02

    Reduction in Distributed MIMO Radar with Multi-Carrier OFDM Signals Carl Georgeson 11/23/2010 Approved 17 • 10-019 Algorithms for Target Location and...28-2012 Final Report 04/15/2009 - 11/30/2011 Distributed MIMO Radar for Imaging and High Resolution Target Localization FA9550-09-1-0303 Alexander M...error for the general case of MIMO radar with multiple waveforms with non-coherent and coherent observations; (b) finds a closed-form solution for the

  11. High resolution skin colorimetry, strain mapping and mechanobiology.

    PubMed

    Devillers, C; Piérard-Franchimont, C; Schreder, A; Docquier, V; Piérard, G E

    2010-08-01

    Skin colours are notoriously different between individuals. They are governed by ethnicities and phototypes, and further influenced by a variety of factors including photoexposures and sustained mechanical stress. Indeed, mechanobiology is a feature affecting the epidermal melanization. High-resolution epiluminescence colorimetry helps in deciphering the effects of forces generated by Langer's lines or relaxed skin tension lines on the melanocyte activity. The same procedure shows a prominent laddering pattern of melanization in striae distensae contrasting with the regular honeycomb pattern in the surrounding skin.

  12. High resolution upgrade of the ATF damping ring BPM system

    SciTech Connect

    Terunuma, N.; Urakawa, J.; /KEK, Tsukuba

    2008-05-01

    A beam position monitor (BPM) upgrade at the KEK Accelerator Test Facility (ATF) damping ring has been accomplished in its first stage, carried out by a KEK/FNAL/SLAC collaboration under the umbrella of the global ILC R&D effort. The upgrade consists of a high resolution, high reproducibility read-out system, based on analog and digital downconversion techniques, digital signal processing, and also tests a new automatic gain error correction schema. The technical concept and realization, as well as preliminary results of beam studies are presented.

  13. High-resolution imaging of the supercritical antisolvent process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bell, Philip W.; Stephens, Amendi P.; Roberts, Christopher B.; Duke, Steve R.

    2005-06-01

    A high-magnification and high-resolution imaging technique was developed for the supercritical fluid antisolvent (SAS) precipitation process. Visualizations of the jet injection, flow patterns, droplets, and particles were obtained in a high-pressure vessel for polylactic acid and budesonide precipitation in supercritical CO2. The results show two regimes for particle production: one where turbulent mixing occurs in gas-like plumes, and another where distinct droplets were observed in the injection. Images are presented to demonstrate the capabilities of the method for examining particle formation theories and for understanding the underlying fluid mechanics, thermodynamics, and mass transport in the SAS process.

  14. High-Resolution Protein Structure Determination by Serial Femtosecond Crystallography

    PubMed Central

    Boutet, Sébastien; Lomb, Lukas; Williams, Garth J.; Barends, Thomas R. M.; Aquila, Andrew; Doak, R. Bruce; Weierstall, Uwe; DePonte, Daniel P.; Steinbrener, Jan; Shoeman, Robert L.; Messerschmidt, Marc; Barty, Anton; White, Thomas A.; Kassemeyer, Stephan; Kirian, Richard A.; Seibert, M. Marvin; Montanez, Paul A.; Kenney, Chris; Herbst, Ryan; Hart, Philip; Pines, Jack; Haller, Gunther; Gruner, Sol M.; Philipp, Hugh T.; Tate, Mark W.; Hromalik, Marianne; Koerner, Lucas J.; van Bakel, Niels; Morse, John; Ghonsalves, Wilfred; Arnlund, David; Bogan, Michael J.; Caleman, Carl; Fromme, Raimund; Hampton, Christina Y.; Hunter, Mark S.; Johansson, Linda C.; Katona, Gergely; Kupitz, Christopher; Liang, Mengning; Martin, Andrew V.; Nass, Karol; Redecke, Lars; Stellato, Francesco; Timneanu, Nicusor; Wang, Dingjie; Zatsepin, Nadia A.; Schafer, Donald; Defever, James; Neutze, Richard; Fromme, Petra; Spence, John C. H.; Chapman, Henry N.; Schlichting, Ilme

    2013-01-01

    Structure determination of proteins and other macromolecules has historically required the growth of high-quality crystals sufficiently large to diffract x-rays efficiently while withstanding radiation damage. We applied serial femtosecond crystallography (SFX) using an x-ray free-electron laser (XFEL) to obtain high-resolution structural information from microcrystals (less than 1 micrometer by 1 micrometer by 3 micrometers) of the well-characterized model protein lysozyme. The agreement with synchrotron data demonstrates the immediate relevance of SFX for analyzing the structure of the large group of difficult-to-crystallize molecules. PMID:22653729

  15. Design of a High Resolution Hexapod Positioning Mechanism

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Britt, Jamie

    2001-01-01

    This paper describes the development of a high resolution, six-degree of freedom positioning mechanism. This mechanism, based on the Stewart platform concept, was designed for use with the Developmental Comparative Active Optics Telescope Testbed (DCATT), a ground-based technology testbed for the Next Generation Space Telescope (NGST). The mechanism provides active control to the DCATT telescope's segmented primary mirror. Emphasis is on design decisions and technical challenges. Significant issues include undesirable motion properties of PZT-inchworm actuators, testing difficulties, dimensional stability, and use of advanced composite materials. Supporting test data from prototype mechanisms is presented.

  16. Design of a High Resolution Hexapod Positioning Mechanism

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Britt, Jamie; Brodeur, Stephen J. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    This paper describes the development of a high resolution, six-degree of freedom positioning mechanism. This mechanism, based on the Stewart platform concept, was designed for use with the Developmental Comparative Active Optics Telescope Testbed (DCATT), a ground-based technology testbed for the Next Generation Space Telescope (NGST). The mechanism provides active control to the DCATT telescope's segmented primary mirror. Emphasis is on design decisions and technical challenges. Significant issues include undesirable motion properties of PZT-inchworm actuators, testing difficulties, dimensional stability and use of advanced composite materials. Supporting test data from prototype mechanisms is presented.

  17. A High Resolution Microprobe Study of EETA79001 Lithology C

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schrader, Christian M.; Cohen, B. A.; Donovan, J. J.; Vicenzi, E. P.

    2010-01-01

    Antarctic meteorite EETA79001 has received substantial attention for possibly containing a component of Martian soil in its impact glass (Lithology C) [1]. The composition of Martian soil can illuminate near-surface processes such as impact gardening [2] and hydrothermal and volcanic activity [3,4]. Impact melts in meteorites represent our most direct samples of Martian regolith. We present the initial findings from a high-resolution electron microprobe study of Lithology C from Martian meteorite EETA79001. As this study develops we aim to extract details of a potential soil composition and to examine Martian surface processes using elemental ratios and correlations.

  18. High resolution infrared datasets useful for validating stratospheric models

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rinsland, Curtis P.

    1992-01-01

    An important objective of the High Speed Research Program (HSRP) is to support research in the atmospheric sciences that will improve the basic understanding of the circulation and chemistry of the stratosphere and lead to an interim assessment of the impact of a projected fleet of High Speed Civil Transports (HSCT's) on the stratosphere. As part of this work, critical comparisons between models and existing high quality measurements are planned. These comparisons will be used to test the reliability of current atmospheric chemistry models. Two suitable sets of high resolution infrared measurements are discussed.

  19. Reconfigurable Pointing Control for High Resolution Space Spectroscopy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bayard, David S.; Kia, Tooraj; vanCleve, Jeffrey

    1997-01-01

    In this paper, a pointing control performance criteria is established to support high resolution space spectroscopy. Results indicate that these pointing requirements are very stringent, and would typically be difficult to meet using standard 3-axis spacecraft control. To resolve this difficulty, it is shown that performance can be significantly improved using a reconfigurable control architecture that switches among a small bank of detuned Kalman filters. The effectiveness of the control reconfiguration approach is demonstrated by example on the Space Infra, Red Telescope Facility (SIRTF) pointing system, in support of the Infrared Spectrograph (IRS) payload.

  20. High-resolution satellite imagery for mesoscale meteorological studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, David B.; Flament, Pierre; Bernstein, Robert L.

    1994-01-01

    In this article high-resolution satellite imagery from a variety of meteorological and environmental satellites is compared. Digital datasets from Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite (GOES), National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), Defense Meteorological Satellite Program (DMSP), Landsat, and Satellite Pour l'Observation de la Terre (SPOT) satellites were archived as part of the 1990 Hawaiian Rainband Project (HaRP) and form the basis of the comparisons. During HaRP, GOES geostationary satellite coverage was marginal, so the main emphasis is on the polar-orbiting satellites.

  1. Multispectral high-resolution hologram generation using orthographic projection images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muniraj, I.; Guo, C.; Sheridan, J. T.

    2016-08-01

    We present a new method of synthesizing a digital hologram of three-dimensional (3D) real-world objects from multiple orthographic projection images (OPI). A high-resolution multiple perspectives of 3D objects (i.e., two dimensional elemental image array) are captured under incoherent white light using synthetic aperture integral imaging (SAII) technique and their OPIs are obtained respectively. The reference beam is then multiplied with the corresponding OPI and integrated to form a Fourier hologram. Eventually, a modified phase retrieval algorithm (GS/HIO) is applied to reconstruct the hologram. The principle is validated experimentally and the results support the feasibility of the proposed method.

  2. High-resolution threshold photoionization of N2O

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wiedmann, R. T.; Grant, E. R.; Tonkyn, R. G.; White, M. G.

    1991-01-01

    Pulsed field ionization (PFI) has been used in conjunction with a coherent VUV source to obtain high-resolution threshold photoelectron spectra for the (000), (010), (020), and (100) vibrational states of the N2O(+) cation. Simulations for the rotational profiles of each vibronic level were obtained by fitting the Buckingham-Orr-Sichel equations using accurate spectroscopic constants for the ground states of the neutral and the ion. The relative branch intensities are interpreted in terms of the partial waves of the outgoing photoelectron to which the ionic core is coupled and in terms of the angular momentum transferred to the core.

  3. Nowcasting for a high-resolution weather radar network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruzanski, Evan

    Short-term prediction (nowcasting) of high-impact weather events can lead to significant improvement in warnings and advisories and is of great practical importance. Nowcasting using weather radar reflectivity data has been shown to be particularly useful. The Collaborative Adaptive Sensing of the Atmosphere (CASA) radar network provides high-resolution reflectivity data amenable to producing valuable nowcasts. The high-resolution nature of CASA data requires the use of an efficient nowcasting approach, which necessitated the development of the Dynamic Adaptive Radar Tracking of Storms (DARTS) and sinc kernel-based advection nowcasting methodology. This methodology was implemented operationally in the CASA Distributed Collaborative Adaptive Sensing (DCAS) system in a robust and efficient manner necessitated by the high-resolution nature of CASA data and distributed nature of the environment in which the nowcasting system operates. Nowcasts up to 10 min to support emergency manager decision-making and 1--5 min to steer the CASA radar nodes to better observe the advecting storm patterns for forecasters and researchers are currently provided by this system. Results of nowcasting performance during the 2009 CASA IP experiment are presented. Additionally, currently state-of-the-art scale-based filtering methods were adapted and evaluated for use in the CASA DCAS to provide a scale-based analysis of nowcasting. DARTS was also incorporated in the Weather Support to Deicing Decision Making system to provide more accurate and efficient snow water equivalent nowcasts for aircraft deicing decision support relative to the radar-based nowcasting method currently used in the operational system. Results of an evaluation using data collected from 2007--2008 by the Weather Service Radar-1988 Doppler (WSR-88D) located near Denver, Colorado, and the National Center for Atmospheric Research Marshall Test Site near Boulder, Colorado, are presented. DARTS was also used to study the

  4. High-resolution continuum observations of the Sun

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zirin, Harold

    1987-01-01

    The aim of the PFI or photometric filtergraph instrument is to observe the Sun in the continuum with as high resolution as possible and utilizing the widest range of wavelengths. Because of financial and political problems the CCD was eliminated so that the highest photometric accuracy is only obtainable by comparison with the CFS images. Presently there is a limitation to wavelengths above 2200 A due to the lack of sensitivity of untreated film below 2200 A. Therefore the experiment at present consists of a film camera with 1000 feet of film and 12 filters. The PFI experiments are outlined using only two cameras. Some further problems of the experiment are addressed.

  5. Laser ablated hydantoin: A high resolution rotational study.

    PubMed

    Alonso, Elena R; Kolesniková, Lucie; Alonso, José L

    2017-09-28

    Laser ablation techniques coupled with broadband and narrowband Fourier transform microwave spectroscopies have allowed the high resolution rotational study of solid hydantoin, an important target in astrochemistry as a possible precursor of glycine. The complicated hyperfine structure arising from the presence of two 14 N nuclei in non-equivalent positions has been resolved and interpreted in terms of the nuclear quadrupole coupling interactions. The results reported in this work provide a solid base for the interstellar searches of hydantoin in the astrophysical surveys. The values of the nuclear quadrupole coupling constants have been also discussed in terms of the electronic environment around the respective nitrogen atom.

  6. High resolution spectroscopy of six new extreme helium stars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heber, U.; Jones, G.; Drilling, J. S.

    1986-01-01

    High resolution spectra of six newly discovered extreme helium stars are presented. LSS 5121 is shown to be a spectroscopical twin of the hot extreme helium star HD 160641. A preliminary LTE analysis of LSS 3184 yielded an effective temperature of 22,000 K and a surface gravity of log g = 3.2. Four stars form a new subgroup, classified by sharp-lined He I spectra and pronounced O II spectra, and it is conjectured that these lie close to the Eddington limit. The whole group of extreme helium stars apparently is inhomogeneous with respect to luminosity to mass ratio and chemical composition.

  7. Achieving High Resolution Timer Events in Virtualized Environment.

    PubMed

    Adamczyk, Blazej; Chydzinski, Andrzej

    2015-01-01

    Virtual Machine Monitors (VMM) have become popular in different application areas. Some applications may require to generate the timer events with high resolution and precision. This however may be challenging due to the complexity of VMMs. In this paper we focus on the timer functionality provided by five different VMMs-Xen, KVM, Qemu, VirtualBox and VMWare. Firstly, we evaluate resolutions and precisions of their timer events. Apparently, provided resolutions and precisions are far too low for some applications (e.g. networking applications with the quality of service). Then, using Xen virtualization we demonstrate the improved timer design that greatly enhances both the resolution and precision of achieved timer events.

  8. High-resolution reflectometer for monitoring of biological samples

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Men, Liqiu; Lu, Ping; Chen, Qiying

    2008-06-01

    High-resolution optical low-coherence reflectometry is applied to monitor biological samples. It has been found that the reflectivity of aged cow's milk is significantly lower than that of the fresh milk with a difference of 5.35dB. During the process of heating the fresh milk at a constant temperature of 80°C, the reflectivity of the milk gradually decreases with the increase of the heating duration. The technique is proved to be effective in monitoring the change in the refractive index of the sample.

  9. High-resolution neutron-diffraction measurements to 8 kbar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bull, C. L.; Fortes, A. D.; Ridley, C. J.; Wood, I. G.; Dobson, D. P.; Funnell, N. P.; Gibbs, A. S.; Goodway, C. M.; Sadykov, R.; Knight, K. S.

    2017-10-01

    We describe the capability to measure high-resolution neutron powder diffraction data to a pressure of at least 8 kbar. We have used the HRPD instrument at the ISIS neutron source and a piston-cylinder design of pressure cell machined from a null-scattering titanium zirconium alloy. Data were collected under hydrostatic conditions from an elpasolite perovskite La?NiMnO?; by virtue of a thinner cell wall on the incident-beam side of the cell, it was possible to obtain data in the instrument's highest resolution back-scattering detector banks up to a maximum pressure of 8.5 kbar.

  10. High resolution projection micro stereolithography system and method

    DOEpatents

    Spadaccini, Christopher M.; Farquar, George; Weisgraber, Todd; Gemberling, Steven; Fang, Nicholas; Xu, Jun; Alonso, Matthew; Lee, Howon

    2016-11-15

    A high-resolution P.mu.SL system and method incorporating one or more of the following features with a standard P.mu.SL system using a SLM projected digital image to form components in a stereolithographic bath: a far-field superlens for producing sub-diffraction-limited features, multiple spatial light modulators (SLM) to generate spatially-controlled three-dimensional interference holograms with nanoscale features, and the integration of microfluidic components into the resin bath of a P.mu.SL system to fabricate microstructures of different materials.

  11. Robust mosiacs of close-range high-resolution images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Ran; Szymanski, John E.

    2008-03-01

    This paper presents a robust algorithm which relies only on the information contained within the captured images for the construction of massive composite mosaic images from close-range and high-resolution originals, such as those obtained when imaging architectural and heritage structures. We first apply Harris algorithm to extract a selection of corners and, then, employ both the intensity correlation and the spatial correlation between the corresponding corners for matching them. Then we estimate the eight-parameter projective transformation matrix by the genetic algorithm. Lastly, image fusion using a weighted blending function together with intensity compensation produces an effective seamless mosaic image.

  12. Coregistration of high-resolution Mars orbital images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sidiropoulos, Panagiotis; Muller, Jan-Peter

    2015-04-01

    The systematic orbital imaging of the Martian surface started 4 decades ago from NASA's Viking Orbiter 1 & 2 missions, which were launched in August 1975, and acquired orbital images of the planet between 1976 and 1980. The result of this reconnaissance was the first medium-resolution (i.e. ≤ 300m/pixel) global map of Mars, as well as a variety of high-resolution images (reaching up to 8m/pixel) of special regions of interest. Over the last two decades NASA has sent 3 more spacecraft with onboard instruments for high-resolution orbital imaging: Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) having onboard the Mars Orbital Camera - Narrow Angle (MOC-NA), Mars Odyssey having onboard the Thermal Emission Imaging System - Visual (THEMIS-VIS) and the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter (MRO) having on board two distinct high-resolution cameras, Context Camera (CTX) and High-Resolution Imaging Science Experiment (HiRISE). Moreover, ESA has the multispectral High resolution Stereo Camera (HRSC) onboard ESA's Mars Express with resolution up to 12.5m since 2004. Overall, this set of cameras have acquired more than 400,000 high-resolution images, i.e. with resolution better than 100m and as fine as 25 cm/pixel. Notwithstanding the high spatial resolution of the available NASA orbital products, their accuracy of areo-referencing is often very poor. As a matter of fact, due to pointing inconsistencies, usually form errors in roll attitude, the acquired products may actually image areas tens of kilometers far away from the point that they are supposed to be looking at. On the other hand, since 2004, the ESA Mars Express has been acquiring stereo images through the High Resolution Stereo Camera (HRSC), with resolution that is usually 12.5-25 metres per pixel. The achieved coverage is more than 64% for images with resolution finer than 20 m/pixel, while for ~40% of Mars, Digital Terrain Models (DTMs) have been produced with are co-registered with MOLA [Gwinner et al., 2010]. The HRSC images and DTMs

  13. High-resolution vacuum-ultraviolet photoabsorption spectra of 1-butyne and 2-butyne

    SciTech Connect

    Jacovella, U.; Holland, D. M. P.; Boyé-Péronne, S.

    2015-07-21

    The absolute photoabsorption cross sections of 1- and 2-butyne have been recorded at high resolution by using the vacuum-ultraviolet Fourier-Transform spectrometer at the SOLEIL Synchrotron. Both spectra show more resolved structure than previously observed, especially in the case of 2-butyne. In this work, we assess the potential importance of Rydberg states with higher values of orbital angular momentum, l, than are typically observed in photoabsorption experiments from ground state molecules. We show how the character of the highest occupied molecular orbitals in 1- and 2-butyne suggests the potential importance of transitions to such high-l (l = 3 and 4) Rydbergmore » states. Furthermore, we use theoretical calculations of the partial wave composition of the absorption cross section just above the ionization threshold and the principle of continuity of oscillator strength through an ionization threshold to support this conclusion. The new absolute photoabsorption cross sections are discussed in light of these arguments, and the results are consistent with the expectations. This type of argument should be valuable for assessing the potential importance of different Rydberg series when sufficiently accurate direct quantum chemical calculations are difficult, for example, in the n ≥ 5 manifolds of excited states of larger molecules.« less

  14. Measurement of high-resolution mechanical contraction of cardiac muscle by induced eddy current.

    PubMed

    Lee, Young-Jae; Lee, Kang-Hwi; Kang, Seung-Jin; Kim, Kyeung-Nam; Khang, Seonah; Koo, Hye Ran; Gi, Sunok; Lee, Joo Hyeon; Lee, Jeong-Whan

    2014-01-01

    There are many types of devices which help to manage a personal health conditions such as heartbeat chest belt, pedometer and smart watch. And the most common device has the relationship with heart rate or ECG data. However, users have to attach some electrode or fasten the belt on the bare skin to measure bio-signal information. Therefore, most of people want more convenient and short-ready-time and no-need to attach electrode. In this paper, we proposed the high-resolution measuring system of mechanical activity of cardiac muscle and thereby measure heartbeat. The principle of the proposed measuring method is that the alternating current generate alternating magnetic field around coil. This primary magnetic field induces eddy current which makes magnetic field against primary coil in the nearby objects. To measure high-resolution changes of the induced secondary magnetic fields, we used digital Phase-locked loop(PLL) circuit which provides more high-resolution traces of frequency changes than the previous studies based on digital frequency counter method. As a result of our preliminary experiment, peak-peak intervals of the proposed method showed high correlation with R-R intervals of clinical ECG signals(r=0.9249). Also, from signal traces of the proposed method, we might make a conjecture that the contraction of atrium or ventricle is reflected by changing conductivity of cardiac muscle which is beating ceaselessly.

  15. Remote sensing in support of high-resolution terrestrial carbon monitoring and modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hurtt, G. C.; Zhao, M.; Dubayah, R.; Huang, C.; Swatantran, A.; ONeil-Dunne, J.; Johnson, K. D.; Birdsey, R.; Fisk, J.; Flanagan, S.; Sahajpal, R.; Huang, W.; Tang, H.; Armstrong, A. H.

    2014-12-01

    As part of its Phase 1 Carbon Monitoring System (CMS) activities, NASA initiated a Local-Scale Biomass Pilot study. The goals of the pilot study were to develop protocols for fusing high-resolution remotely sensed observations with field data, provide accurate validation test areas for the continental-scale biomass product, and demonstrate efficacy for prognostic terrestrial ecosystem modeling. In Phase 2, this effort was expanded to the state scale. Here, we present results of this activity focusing on the use of remote sensing in high-resolution ecosystem modeling. The Ecosystem Demography (ED) model was implemented at 90 m spatial resolution for the entire state of Maryland. We rasterized soil depth and soil texture data from SSURGO. For hourly meteorological data, we spatially interpolated 32-km 3-hourly NARR into 1-km hourly and further corrected them at monthly level using PRISM data. NLCD data were used to mask sand, seashore, and wetland. High-resolution 1 m forest/non-forest mapping was used to define forest fraction of 90 m cells. Three alternative strategies were evaluated for initialization of forest structure using high-resolution lidar, and the model was used to calculate statewide estimates of forest biomass, carbon sequestration potential, time to reach sequestration potential, and sensitivity to future forest growth and disturbance rates, all at 90 m resolution. To our knowledge, no dynamic ecosystem model has been run at such high spatial resolution over such large areas utilizing remote sensing and validated as extensively. There are over 3 million 90 m land cells in Maryland, greater than 43 times the ~73,000 half-degree cells in a state-of-the-art global land model.

  16. Absolute frequency of cesium 6S-8S 822 nm two-photon transition by a high-resolution scheme.

    PubMed

    Wu, Chien-Ming; Liu, Tze-Wei; Wu, Ming-Hsuan; Lee, Ray-Kuang; Cheng, Wang-Yau

    2013-08-15

    We present an alternative scheme for determining the frequencies of cesium (Cs) atom 6S-8S Doppler-free transitions. With the use of a single electro-optical crystal, we simultaneously narrow the laser linewidth, lock the laser frequency, and resolve a narrow spectrum point by point. The error budget for this scheme is presented, and we prove that the transition frequency obtained from the Cs cell at room temperature and with one-layer μ-metal shielding is already very near that for the condition of zero collision and zero magnetic field. We point out that a sophisticated linewidth measurement could be a good guidance for choosing a suitable Cs cell for better frequency accuracy.

  17. Flux Analysis of Free Amino Sugars and Amino Acids in Soils by Isotope Tracing with a Novel Liquid Chromatography/High Resolution Mass Spectrometry Platform.

    PubMed

    Hu, Yuntao; Zheng, Qing; Wanek, Wolfgang

    2017-09-05

    Soil fluxomics analysis can provide pivotal information for understanding soil biochemical pathways and their regulation, but direct measurement methods are rare. Here, we describe an approach to measure soil extracellular metabolite (amino sugar and amino acid) concentrations and fluxes based on a 15 N isotope pool dilution technique via liquid chromatography and high-resolution mass spectrometry. We produced commercially unavailable 15 N and 13 C labeled amino sugars and amino acids by hydrolyzing peptidoglycan isolated from isotopically labeled bacterial biomass and used them as tracers ( 15 N) and internal standards ( 13 C). High-resolution (Orbitrap Exactive) MS with a resolution of 50 000 allowed us to separate different stable isotope labeled analogues across a large range of metabolites. The utilization of 13 C internal standards greatly improved the accuracy and reliability of absolute quantification. We successfully applied this method to two types of soils and quantified the extracellular gross fluxes of 2 amino sugars, 18 amino acids, and 4 amino acid enantiomers. Compared to the influx and efflux rates of most amino acids, similar ones were found for glucosamine, indicating that this amino sugar is released through peptidoglycan and chitin decomposition and serves as an important nitrogen source for soil microorganisms. d-Alanine and d-glutamic acid derived from peptidoglycan decomposition exhibited similar turnover rates as their l-enantiomers. This novel approach offers new strategies to advance our understanding of the production and transformation pathways of soil organic N metabolites, including the unknown contributions of peptidoglycan and chitin decomposition to soil organic N cycling.

  18. Flux Analysis of Free Amino Sugars and Amino Acids in Soils by Isotope Tracing with a Novel Liquid Chromatography/High Resolution Mass Spectrometry Platform

    PubMed Central

    2017-01-01

    Soil fluxomics analysis can provide pivotal information for understanding soil biochemical pathways and their regulation, but direct measurement methods are rare. Here, we describe an approach to measure soil extracellular metabolite (amino sugar and amino acid) concentrations and fluxes based on a 15N isotope pool dilution technique via liquid chromatography and high-resolution mass spectrometry. We produced commercially unavailable 15N and 13C labeled amino sugars and amino acids by hydrolyzing peptidoglycan isolated from isotopically labeled bacterial biomass and used them as tracers (15N) and internal standards (13C). High-resolution (Orbitrap Exactive) MS with a resolution of 50 000 allowed us to separate different stable isotope labeled analogues across a large range of metabolites. The utilization of 13C internal standards greatly improved the accuracy and reliability of absolute quantification. We successfully applied this method to two types of soils and quantified the extracellular gross fluxes of 2 amino sugars, 18 amino acids, and 4 amino acid enantiomers. Compared to the influx and efflux rates of most amino acids, similar ones were found for glucosamine, indicating that this amino sugar is released through peptidoglycan and chitin decomposition and serves as an important nitrogen source for soil microorganisms. d-Alanine and d-glutamic acid derived from peptidoglycan decomposition exhibited similar turnover rates as their l-enantiomers. This novel approach offers new strategies to advance our understanding of the production and transformation pathways of soil organic N metabolites, including the unknown contributions of peptidoglycan and chitin decomposition to soil organic N cycling. PMID:28776982

  19. High resolution flow field prediction for tail rotor aeroacoustics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Quackenbush, Todd R.; Bliss, Donald B.

    1989-01-01

    The prediction of tail rotor noise due to the impingement of the main rotor wake poses a significant challenge to current analysis methods in rotorcraft aeroacoustics. This paper describes the development of a new treatment of the tail rotor aerodynamic environment that permits highly accurate resolution of the incident flow field with modest computational effort relative to alternative models. The new approach incorporates an advanced full-span free wake model of the main rotor in a scheme which reconstructs high-resolution flow solutions from preliminary, computationally inexpensive simulations with coarse resolution. The heart of the approach is a novel method for using local velocity correction terms to capture the steep velocity gradients characteristic of the vortex-dominated incident flow. Sample calculations have been undertaken to examine the principal types of interactions between the tail rotor and the main rotor wake and to examine the performance of the new method. The results of these sample problems confirm the success of this approach in capturing the high-resolution flows necessary for analysis of rotor-wake/rotor interactions with dramatically reduced computational cost. Computations of radiated sound are also carried out that explore the role of various portions of the main rotor wake in generating tail rotor noise.

  20. Thin polymer etalon arrays for high-resolution photoacoustic imaging

    PubMed Central

    Hou, Yang; Huang, Sheng-Wen; Ashkenazi, Shai; Witte, Russell; O’Donnell, Matthew

    2009-01-01

    Thin polymer etalons are demonstrated as high-frequency ultrasound sensors for three-dimensional (3-D) high-resolution photoacoustic imaging. The etalon, a Fabry-Perot optical resonator, consists of a thin polymer slab sandwiched between two gold layers. It is probed with a scanning continuous-wave (CW) laser for ultrasound array detection. Detection bandwidth of a 20-μm-diam array element exceeds 50 MHz, and the ultrasound sensitivity is comparable to polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) equivalents of similar size. In a typical photoacoustic imaging setup, a pulsed laser beam illuminates the imaging target, where optical energy is absorbed and acoustic waves are generated through the thermoelastic effect. An ultrasound detection array is formed by scanning the probing laser beam on the etalon surface in either a 1-D or a 2-D configuration, which produces 2-D or 3-D images, respectively. Axial and lateral resolutions have been demonstrated to be better than 20 μm. Detailed characterizations of the optical and acoustical properties of the etalon, as well as photoacoustic imaging results, suggest that thin polymer etalon arrays can be used as ultrasound detectors for 3-D high-resolution photoacoustic imaging applications. PMID:19123679

  1. High-resolution ionization detector and array of such detectors

    DOEpatents

    McGregor, Douglas S [Ypsilanti, MI; Rojeski, Ronald A [Pleasanton, CA

    2001-01-16

    A high-resolution ionization detector and an array of such detectors are described which utilize a reference pattern of conductive or semiconductive material to form interaction, pervious and measurement regions in an ionization substrate of, for example, CdZnTe material. The ionization detector is a room temperature semiconductor radiation detector. Various geometries of such a detector and an array of such detectors produce room temperature operated gamma ray spectrometers with relatively high resolution. For example, a 1 cm.sup.3 detector is capable of measuring .sup.137 Cs 662 keV gamma rays with room temperature energy resolution approaching 2% at FWHM. Two major types of such detectors include a parallel strip semiconductor Frisch grid detector and the geometrically weighted trapezoid prism semiconductor Frisch grid detector. The geometrically weighted detector records room temperature (24.degree. C.) energy resolutions of 2.68% FWHM for .sup.137 Cs 662 keV gamma rays and 2.45% FWHM for .sup.60 Co 1.332 MeV gamma rays. The detectors perform well without any electronic pulse rejection, correction or compensation techniques. The devices operate at room temperature with simple commercially available NIM bin electronics and do not require special preamplifiers or cooling stages for good spectroscopic results.

  2. Mapping Crop Yield and Sow Date Using High Resolution Imagery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Royal, K.

    2015-12-01

    Keitasha Royal, Meha Jain, Ph.D., David Lobell, Ph.D Mapping Crop Yield and Sow Date Using High Resolution ImageryThe use of satellite imagery in agriculture is becoming increasingly more significant and valuable. Due to the emergence of new satellites, such as Skybox, these satellites provide higher resolution imagery (e.g 1m) therefore improving the ability to map smallholder agriculture. For the smallholder farm dominated area of northern India, Skybox high-resolution satellite imagery can aid in understanding how to improve farm yields. In particular, we are interested in mapping winter wheat in India, as this region produces approximately 80% of the country's wheat crop, which is important given that wheat is a staple crop that provides approximately 20% of household calories. In northeast India, the combination of increased heat stress, limited irrigation access, and the difficulty for farmers to access advanced farming technologies results in farmers only producing about 50% of their potential crop yield. The use of satellite imagery can aid in understanding wheat yields through time and help identify ways to increase crop yields in the wheat belt of India. To translate Skybox satellite data into meaningful information about wheat fields, we examine vegetation indices, such as the normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI), to measure the "greenness" of plants to help determine the health of the crops. We test our ability to predict crop characteristics, like sow date and yield, using vegetation indices of 59 fields for which we have field data in Bihar, India.

  3. High-Resolution Mars Camera Test Image of Moon (Infrared)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    This crescent view of Earth's Moon in infrared wavelengths comes from a camera test by NASA's Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter spacecraft on its way to Mars. The mission's High Resolution Imaging Science Experiment camera took the image on Sept. 8, 2005, while at a distance of about 10 million kilometers (6 million miles) from the Moon. The dark feature on the right is Mare Crisium. From that distance, the Moon would appear as a star-like point of light to the unaided eye. The test verified the camera's focusing capability and provided an opportunity for calibration. The spacecraft's Context Camera and Optical Navigation Camera also performed as expected during the test.

    The Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter, launched on Aug. 12, 2005, is on course to reach Mars on March 10, 2006. After gradually adjusting the shape of its orbit for half a year, it will begin its primary science phase in November 2006. From the mission's planned science orbit about 300 kilometers (186 miles) above the surface of Mars, the high resolution camera will be able to discern features as small as one meter or yard across.

  4. High resolution tsunami inversion for 2010 Chile earthquake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, T.-R.; Ho, T.-C.

    2011-12-01

    We investigate the feasibility of inverting high-resolution vertical seafloor displacement from tsunami waveforms. An inversion method named "SUTIM" (small unit tsunami inversion method) is developed to meet this goal. In addition to utilizing the conventional least-square inversion, this paper also enhances the inversion resolution by Grid-Shifting method. A smooth constraint is adopted to gain stability. After a series of validation and performance tests, SUTIM is used to study the 2010 Chile earthquake. Based upon data quality and azimuthal distribution, we select tsunami waveforms from 6 GLOSS stations and 1 DART buoy record. In total, 157 sub-faults are utilized for the high-resolution inversion. The resolution reaches 10 sub-faults per wavelength. The result is compared with the distribution of the aftershocks and waveforms at each gauge location with very good agreement. The inversion result shows that the source profile features a non-uniform distribution of the seafloor displacement. The highly elevated vertical seafloor is mainly concentrated in two areas: one is located in the northern part of the epicentre, between 34° S and 36° S; the other is in the southern part, between 37° S and 38° S.

  5. Providing Internet Access to High-Resolution Lunar Images

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Plesea, Lucian

    2008-01-01

    The OnMoon server is a computer program that provides Internet access to high-resolution Lunar images, maps, and elevation data, all suitable for use in geographical information system (GIS) software for generating images, maps, and computational models of the Moon. The OnMoon server implements the Open Geospatial Consortium (OGC) Web Map Service (WMS) server protocol and supports Moon-specific extensions. Unlike other Internet map servers that provide Lunar data using an Earth coordinate system, the OnMoon server supports encoding of data in Moon-specific coordinate systems. The OnMoon server offers access to most of the available high-resolution Lunar image and elevation data. This server can generate image and map files in the tagged image file format (TIFF) or the Joint Photographic Experts Group (JPEG), 8- or 16-bit Portable Network Graphics (PNG), or Keyhole Markup Language (KML) format. Image control is provided by use of the OGC Style Layer Descriptor (SLD) protocol. Full-precision spectral arithmetic processing is also available, by use of a custom SLD extension. This server can dynamically add shaded relief based on the Lunar elevation to any image layer. This server also implements tiled WMS protocol and super-overlay KML for high-performance client application programs.

  6. Providing Internet Access to High-Resolution Mars Images

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Plesea, Lucian

    2008-01-01

    The OnMars server is a computer program that provides Internet access to high-resolution Mars images, maps, and elevation data, all suitable for use in geographical information system (GIS) software for generating images, maps, and computational models of Mars. The OnMars server is an implementation of the Open Geospatial Consortium (OGC) Web Map Service (WMS) server. Unlike other Mars Internet map servers that provide Martian data using an Earth coordinate system, the OnMars WMS server supports encoding of data in Mars-specific coordinate systems. The OnMars server offers access to most of the available high-resolution Martian image and elevation data, including an 8-meter-per-pixel uncontrolled mosaic of most of the Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Observer Camera Narrow Angle (MOCNA) image collection, which is not available elsewhere. This server can generate image and map files in the tagged image file format (TIFF), Joint Photographic Experts Group (JPEG), 8- or 16-bit Portable Network Graphics (PNG), or Keyhole Markup Language (KML) format. Image control is provided by use of the OGC Style Layer Descriptor (SLD) protocol. The OnMars server also implements tiled WMS protocol and super-overlay KML for high-performance client application programs.

  7. Automated frame selection process for high-resolution microendoscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ishijima, Ayumu; Schwarz, Richard A.; Shin, Dongsuk; Mondrik, Sharon; Vigneswaran, Nadarajah; Gillenwater, Ann M.; Anandasabapathy, Sharmila; Richards-Kortum, Rebecca

    2015-04-01

    We developed an automated frame selection algorithm for high-resolution microendoscopy video sequences. The algorithm rapidly selects a representative frame with minimal motion artifact from a short video sequence, enabling fully automated image analysis at the point-of-care. The algorithm was evaluated by quantitative comparison of diagnostically relevant image features and diagnostic classification results obtained using automated frame selection versus manual frame selection. A data set consisting of video sequences collected in vivo from 100 oral sites and 167 esophageal sites was used in the analysis. The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve was 0.78 (automated selection) versus 0.82 (manual selection) for oral sites, and 0.93 (automated selection) versus 0.92 (manual selection) for esophageal sites. The implementation of fully automated high-resolution microendoscopy at the point-of-care has the potential to reduce the number of biopsies needed for accurate diagnosis of precancer and cancer in low-resource settings where there may be limited infrastructure and personnel for standard histologic analysis.

  8. Precision glass molding of high-resolution diffractive optical elements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prater, Karin; Dukwen, Julia; Scharf, Toralf; Herzig, Hans P.; Plöger, Sven; Hermerschmidt, Andreas

    2016-04-01

    The demand of high resolution diffractive optical elements (DOE) is growing. Smaller critical dimensions allow higher deflection angles and can fulfill more demanding requirements, which can only be met by using electron-beam lithography. Replication techniques are more economical, since the high cost of the master can be distributed among a larger number of replicas. The lack of a suitable mold material for precision glass molding has so far prevented an industrial use. Glassy Carbon (GC) offers a high mechanical strength and high thermal strength. No anti-adhesion coatings are required in molding processes. This is clearly an advantage for high resolution, high aspect ratio microstructures, where a coating with a thickness between 10 nm and 200 nm would cause a noticeable rounding of the features. Electron-beam lithography was used to fabricate GC molds with highest precision and feature sizes from 250 nm to 2 μm. The master stamps were used for precision glass molding of a low Tg glass L-BAL42 from OHARA. The profile of the replicated glass is compared to the mold with the help of SEM images. This allows discussion of the max. aspect-ratio and min. feature size. To characterize optical performances, beamsplitting elements are fabricated and their characteristics were investigated, which are in excellent agreement to theory.

  9. High resolution multiplexed functional imaging in live embryos (Conference Presentation)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Dongli; Zhou, Weibin; Peng, Leilei

    2017-02-01

    Fourier multiplexed fluorescence lifetime imaging (FmFLIM) scanning laser optical tomography (FmFLIM-SLOT) combines FmFLIM and Scanning laser optical tomography (SLOT) to perform multiplexed 3D FLIM imaging of live embryos. The system had demonstrate multiplexed functional imaging of zebrafish embryos genetically express Foster Resonant Energy Transfer (FRET) sensors. However, previous system has a 20 micron resolution because the focused Gaussian beam diverges quickly from the focused plane, makes it difficult to achieve high resolution imaging over a long projection depth. Here, we present a high-resolution FmFLIM-SLOT system with achromatic Bessel beam, which achieves 3 micron resolution in 3D deep tissue imaging. In Bessel-FmFLIM-SLOT, multiple laser excitation lines are firstly intensity modulated by a Michelson interferometer with a spinning polygon mirror optical delay line, which enables Fourier multiplexed multi-channel lifetime measurements. Then, a spatial light modulator and a prism are used to transform the modulated Gaussian laser beam to an achromatic Bessel beam. The achromatic Bessel beam scans across the whole specimen with equal angular intervals as sample rotated. After tomography reconstruction and the frequency domain lifetime analysis method, both the 3D intensity and lifetime image of multiple excitation-emission can be obtained. Using Bessel-FmFLIM-SLOT system, we performed cellular-resolution FLIM tomography imaging of live zebrafish embryo. Genetically expressed FRET sensors in these embryo will allow non-invasive observation of multiple biochemical processes in vivo.

  10. The development of high resolution silicon x-ray microcalorimeters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Porter, F. S.; Kelley, R. L.; Kilbourne, C. A.

    2005-12-01

    Recently we have produced x-ray microcalorimeters with resolving powers approaching 2000 at 5.9 keV using a spare XRS microcalorimeter array. We attached 400 um square, 8 um thick HgTe absorbers using a variety of attachment methods to an XRS array and ran the detector array at temperatures between 40 and 60 mK. The best results were for absorbers attached using the standard XRS absorber-pixel thermal isolation scheme utilizing SU8 polymer tubes. In this scenario we achieved a resolution of 3.2 eV FWHM at 5.9 keV. Substituting a silicon spacer for the SU8 tubes also yielded sub-4eV results. In contrast, absorbers attached directly to the thermistor produced significant position dependence and thus degraded resolution. Finally, we tested standard 640um-square XRS detectors at reduced bias power at 50mK and achieved a resolution of 3.7eV, a 50% improvement over the XRS flight instrument. Implanted silicon microcalorimeters are a mature flight-qualified technology that still has a substantial phase space for future development. We will discuss these new high resolution results, the various absorber attachment schemes, planned future improvements, and, finally, their relevance to future high resolution x-ray spectrometers including Constellation-X.

  11. Methylation-Sensitive High Resolution Melting (MS-HRM).

    PubMed

    Hussmann, Dianna; Hansen, Lise Lotte

    2018-01-01

    Methylation-Sensitive High Resolution Melting (MS-HRM) is an in-tube, PCR-based method to detect methylation levels at specific loci of interest. A unique primer design facilitates a high sensitivity of the assays enabling detection of down to 0.1-1% methylated alleles in an unmethylated background.Primers for MS-HRM assays are designed to be complementary to the methylated allele, and a specific annealing temperature enables these primers to anneal both to the methylated and the unmethylated alleles thereby increasing the sensitivity of the assays. Bisulfite treatment of the DNA prior to performing MS-HRM ensures a different base composition between methylated and unmethylated DNA, which is used to separate the resulting amplicons by high resolution melting.The high sensitivity of MS-HRM has proven useful for detecting cancer biomarkers in a noninvasive manner in urine from bladder cancer patients, in stool from colorectal cancer patients, and in buccal mucosa from breast cancer patients. MS-HRM is a fast method to diagnose imprinted diseases and to clinically validate results from whole-epigenome studies. The ability to detect few copies of methylated DNA makes MS-HRM a key player in the quest for establishing links between environmental exposure, epigenetic changes, and disease.

  12. High-resolution mass spectrometric analysis of biomass pyrolysis vapors

    DOE PAGES

    Christensen, Earl; Evans, Robert J.; Carpenter, Daniel

    2017-01-19

    Vapors generated from the pyrolysis of lignocellulosic biomass are made up of a complex mixture of oxygenated compounds. Direct analysis of these vapors provides insight into the mechanisms of depolymerization of cellulose, hemicellulose, and lignin as well as insight into reactions that may occur during condensation of pyrolysis vapors into bio-oil. Studies utilizing pyrolysis molecular beam mass spectrometry have provided valuable information regarding the chemical composition of pyrolysis vapors. Mass spectrometers generally employed with these instruments have low mass resolution of approximately a mass unit. The presence of chemical species with identical unit mass but differing elemental formulas cannot bemore » resolved with these instruments and are therefore detected as a single ion. In this study we analyzed the pyrolysis vapors of several biomass sources using a high-resolution double focusing mass spectrometer. High-resolution analysis of pyrolysis vapors allowed for speciation of several compounds that would be detected as a single ion with unit mass resolution. Lastly, these data not only provide greater detail into the composition of pyrolysis vapors but also highlight differences between vapors generated from multiple biomass feedstocks.« less

  13. High-resolution three-dimensional imaging with compress sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Jingyi; Ke, Jun

    2016-10-01

    LIDAR three-dimensional imaging technology have been used in many fields, such as military detection. However, LIDAR require extremely fast data acquisition speed. This makes the manufacture of detector array for LIDAR system is very difficult. To solve this problem, we consider using compress sensing which can greatly decrease the data acquisition and relax the requirement of a detection device. To use the compressive sensing idea, a spatial light modulator will be used to modulate the pulsed light source. Then a photodetector is used to receive the reflected light. A convex optimization problem is solved to reconstruct the 2D depth map of the object. To improve the resolution in transversal direction, we use multiframe image restoration technology. For each 2D piecewise-planar scene, we move the SLM half-pixel each time. Then the position where the modulated light illuminates will changed accordingly. We repeat moving the SLM to four different directions. Then we can get four low-resolution depth maps with different details of the same plane scene. If we use all of the measurements obtained by the subpixel movements, we can reconstruct a high-resolution depth map of the sense. A linear minimum-mean-square error algorithm is used for the reconstruction. By combining compress sensing and multiframe image restoration technology, we reduce the burden on data analyze and improve the efficiency of detection. More importantly, we obtain high-resolution depth maps of a 3D scene.

  14. Evaluation of a high resolution silicon PET insert module

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grkovski, Milan; Brzezinski, Karol; Cindro, Vladimir; Clinthorne, Neal H.; Kagan, Harris; Lacasta, Carlos; Mikuž, Marko; Solaz, Carles; Studen, Andrej; Weilhammer, Peter; Žontar, Dejan

    2015-07-01

    Conventional PET systems can be augmented with additional detectors placed in close proximity of the region of interest. We developed a high resolution PET insert module to evaluate the added benefit of such a combination. The insert module consists of two back-to-back 1 mm thick silicon sensors, each segmented into 1040 1 mm2 pads arranged in a 40 by 26 array. A set of 16 VATAGP7.1 ASICs and a custom assembled data acquisition board were used to read out the signal from the insert module. Data were acquired in slice (2D) geometry with a Jaszczak phantom (rod diameters of 1.2-4.8 mm) filled with 18F-FDG and the images were reconstructed with ML-EM method. Both data with full and limited angular coverage from the insert module were considered and three types of coincidence events were combined. The ratio of high-resolution data that substantially improves quality of the reconstructed image for the region near the surface of the insert module was estimated to be about 4%. Results from our previous studies suggest that such ratio could be achieved at a moderate technological expense by using an equivalent of two insert modules (an effective sensor thickness of 4 mm).

  15. Live CLEM imaging to analyze nuclear structures at high resolution.

    PubMed

    Haraguchi, Tokuko; Osakada, Hiroko; Koujin, Takako

    2015-01-01

    Fluorescence microscopy (FM) and electron microscopy (EM) are powerful tools for observing molecular components in cells. FM can provide temporal information about cellular proteins and structures in living cells. EM provides nanometer resolution images of cellular structures in fixed cells. We have combined FM and EM to develop a new method of correlative light and electron microscopy (CLEM), called "Live CLEM." In this method, the dynamic behavior of specific molecules of interest is first observed in living cells using fluorescence microscopy (FM) and then cellular structures in the same cell are observed using electron microscopy (EM). Following image acquisition, FM and EM images are compared to enable the fluorescent images to be correlated with the high-resolution images of cellular structures obtained using EM. As this method enables analysis of dynamic events involving specific molecules of interest in the context of specific cellular structures at high resolution, it is useful for the study of nuclear structures including nuclear bodies. Here we describe Live CLEM that can be applied to the study of nuclear structures in mammalian cells.

  16. Hyperresolution: an hyperspectral and high resolution imager for Earth observation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Vidi, R.; Chiarantini, L.; Bini, A.

    2017-11-01

    Hyperspectral space imagery is an emerging technology that supports many scientific, civil, security and defence operational applications. The main advantage of this remote sensing technique is that it allows the so-called Feature Extraction: in fact the spectral signature allows the recognition of the materials composing the scene. Hyperspectral Products and their applications have been investigated in the past years by Galileo Avionica to direct the instrument characteristics design. Sample products have been identified in the civil / environment monitoring fields (such as coastal monitoring, vegetation, hot spot and urban classification) and in defense / security applications: their performances have been verified by means of airborne flight campaigns. The Hyperspectral and High Resolution Imager is a space-borne instrument that implement a pushbroom technique to get strip spectral images over the Hyperspectral VNIR and SWIR bands, with a ground sample distance at nadir of 20m in a 20 km wide ground swath, with 200 spectral channels, realizing an average spectral resolution of 10nm. The High Resolution Panchromatic Channel insists in the same swath to allow for multiresolution data fusion of hyperspectral imagery.

  17. Advances in DNA sequencing technologies for high resolution HLA typing.

    PubMed

    Cereb, Nezih; Kim, Hwa Ran; Ryu, Jaejun; Yang, Soo Young

    2015-12-01

    This communication describes our experience in large-scale G group-level high resolution HLA typing using three different DNA sequencing platforms - ABI 3730 xl, Illumina MiSeq and PacBio RS II. Recent advances in DNA sequencing technologies, so-called next generation sequencing (NGS), have brought breakthroughs in deciphering the genetic information in all living species at a large scale and at an affordable level. The NGS DNA indexing system allows sequencing multiple genes for large number of individuals in a single run. Our laboratory has adopted and used these technologies for HLA molecular testing services. We found that each sequencing technology has its own strengths and weaknesses, and their sequencing performances complement each other. HLA genes are highly complex and genotyping them is quite challenging. Using these three sequencing platforms, we were able to meet all requirements for G group-level high resolution and high volume HLA typing. Copyright © 2015 American Society for Histocompatibility and Immunogenetics. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. A high resolution pneumatic stepping actuator for harsh reactor environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tippetts, Thomas B.; Evans, Paul S.; Riffle, George K.

    1993-01-01

    A reactivity control actuator for a high-power density nuclear propulsion reactor must be installed in close proximity to the reactor core. The energy input from radiation to the actuator structure could exceed hundreds of W/cc unless low-cross section, low-absorptivity materials are chosen. Also, for post-test handling and subsequent storage, materials should not be used that are activated into long half-life isotopes. Pneumatic actuators can be constructed from various reactor-compatible materials, but conventional pneumatic piston actuators generally lack the stiffness required for high resolution reactivity control unless electrical position sensors and compensated electronic control systems are used. To overcome these limitations, a pneumatic actuator is under development that positions an output shaft in response to a series of pneumatic pulses, comprising a pneumatic analog of an electrical stepping motor. The pneumatic pulses are generated remotely, beyond the strong radiation environment, and transmitted to the actuator through tubing. The mechanically simple actuator uses a nutating gear harmonic drive to convert motion of small pistons directly to high-resolution angular motion of the output shaft. The digital nature of this actuator is suitable for various reactor control algorithms but is especially compatible with the three bean salad algorithm discussed by Ball et al. (1991).

  19. Ovarian cancer survival population differences: a "high resolution study" comparing Philippine residents, and Filipino-Americans and Caucasians living in the US.

    PubMed

    Redaniel, Maria Theresa M; Laudico, Adriano; Mirasol-Lumague, Maria Rica; Gondos, Adam; Uy, Gemma Leonora; Toral, Jean Ann; Benavides, Doris; Brenner, Hermann

    2009-09-24

    In contrast to most other forms of cancer, data from some developing and developed countries show surprisingly similar survival rates for ovarian cancer. We aimed to compare ovarian cancer survival in Philippine residents, Filipino-Americans and Caucasians living in the US, using a high resolution approach, taking potential differences in prognostic factors into account. Using databases from the SEER 13 and from the Manila and Rizal Cancer Registries, age-adjusted five-year absolute and relative survival estimates were computed using the period analysis method and compared between Filipino-American ovarian cancer patients with cancer patients from the Philippines and Caucasians in the US. Cox proportional hazards modelling was used to determine factors affecting survival differences. Despite more favorable distribution of age and cancer morphology and similar stage distribution, 5-year absolute and relative survival were lower in Philippine residents (Absolute survival, AS, 44%, Standard Error, SE, 2.9 and Relative survival, RS, 49.7%, SE, 3.7) than in Filipino-Americans (AS, 51.3%, SE, 3.1 and RS, 54.1%, SE, 3.4). After adjustment for these and additional covariates, strong excess risk of death for Philippine residents was found (Relative Risk, RR, 2.45, 95% confidence interval, 95% CI, 1.99-3.01). In contrast, no significant differences were found between Filipino-Americans and Caucasians living in the US. Multivariate analyses disclosed strong survival disadvantages of Philippine residents compared to Filipino-American patients, for which differences in access to health care might have played an important role. Survival is no worse among Filipino-Americans than among Caucasians living in the US.

  20. Validation of absolute axial neutron flux distribution calculations with MCNP with 197Au(n,γ)198Au reaction rate distribution measurements at the JSI TRIGA Mark II reactor.

    PubMed

    Radulović, Vladimir; Štancar, Žiga; Snoj, Luka; Trkov, Andrej

    2014-02-01

    The calculation of axial neutron flux distributions with the MCNP code at the JSI TRIGA Mark II reactor has been validated with experimental measurements of the (197)Au(n,γ)(198)Au reaction rate. The calculated absolute reaction rate values, scaled according to the reactor power and corrected for the flux redistribution effect, are in good agreement with the experimental results. The effect of different cross-section libraries on the calculations has been investigated and shown to be minor. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Optical Histology: High-Resolution Visualization of Tissue Microvasculature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moy, Austin Jing-Ming

    Mammalian tissue requires the delivery of nutrients, growth factors, and the exchange of oxygen and carbon dioxide gases to maintain normal function. These elements are delivered by the blood, which travels through the connected network of blood vessels, known as the vascular system. The vascular system consists of large feeder blood vessels (arteries and veins) that are connected to the small blood vessels (arterioles and venules), which in turn are connected to the capillaries that are directly connected to the tissue and facilitate gas exchange and nutrient delivery. These small blood vessels and capillaries make up an intricate but organized network of blood vessels that exist in all mammalian tissues known as the microvasculature and are very important in maintaining the health and proper function of mammalian tissue. Due to the importance of the microvasculature in tissue survival, disruption of the microvasculature typically leads to tissue dysfunction and tissue death. The most prevalent method to study the microvasculature is visualization. Immunohistochemistry (IHC) is the gold-standard method to visualize tissue microvasculature. IHC is very well-suited for highly detailed interrogation of the tissue microvasculature at the cellular level but is unwieldy and impractical for wide-field visualization of the tissue microvasculature. The objective my dissertation research was to develop a method to enable wide-field visualization of the microvasculature, while still retaining the high-resolution afforded by optical microscopy. My efforts led to the development of a technique dubbed "optical histology" that combines chemical and optical methods to enable high-resolution visualization of the microvasculature. The development of the technique first involved preliminary studies to quantify optical property changes in optically cleared tissues, followed by development and demonstration of the methodology. Using optical histology, I successfully obtained high

  2. A PICTORIAL PRESENTATION OF ESOPHAGEAL HIGH RESOLUTION MANOMETRY CURRENT PARAMETERS.

    PubMed

    Lafraia, Fernanda M; Herbella, Fernando A M; Kalluf, Julia R; Patti, Marco G

    2017-01-01

    High resolution manometry is the current technology used to the study of esophageal motility and is replacing conventional manometry in important centers for esophageal motility with parameters used on esophageal motility, following the Chicago Classification. This classification unifies high resolution manometry interpretation and classifies esophageal disorders. This review shows, in a pictorial presentation, the new parameters established by the Chicago Classification, version 3.0, aimed to allow an easy comprehension and interpretation of high resolution manometry. Esophageal manometries performed by the authors were reviewed to select illustrative tracings representing Chicago Classification parameters. The parameters are: Esophagogastric Morphology, that classifies this junction according to its physiology and anatomy; Integrated Relaxation Pressure, that measures the lower esophageal sphincter relaxation; Distal Contractile Integral, that evaluates the contraction vigor of each wave; and, Distal Latency, that measures the peristalsis velocity from the beginning of the swallow to the epiphrenic ampulla. Clinical applications of these new concepts is still under evaluation. Mostrar, de forma pictórica, os novos parâmetros compilados na versão 3.0 da Classificação de Chicago, buscando facilitar a compreensão e interpretação da manometria de alta resolução. Foram revistas as manometrias da casuística dos autores e selecionados os traçados representativos dos parâmetros da Classificação de Chicago. Entre os parâmetros apresentados foram considerados a Morfologia da Transição Gastroesofágica, que classifica o segmento de acordo com sua fisiologia e anatomia; a Integral da Pressão de Relaxamento, que mede o relaxamento do esfíncter esofagiano inferior; a Integral Contrátil Distal, que avalia o vigor contrátil da onda peristáltica; e, a Latência Distal, que mede o tempo da peristalse, desde o início da deglutição até a ampola epifr

  3. High resolution urban morphology data for urban wind flow modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cionco, Ronald M.; Ellefsen, Richard

    The application of urban forestry methods and technologies to a number of practical problems can be further enhanced by the use and incorporation of localized, high resolution wind and temperature fields into their analysis methods. The numerical simulation of these micrometeorological fields will represent the interactions and influences of urban structures, vegetation elements, and variable terrain as an integral part of the dynamics of an urban domain. Detailed information of the natural and man-made components that make up the urban area is needed to more realistically model meteorological fields in urban domains. Simulating high resolution wind and temperatures over and through an urban domain utilizing detailed morphology data can also define and quantify local areas where urban forestry applications can contribute to better solutions. Applications such as the benefits of planting trees for shade purposes can be considered, planned, and evaluated for their impact on conserving energy and cooling costs as well as the possible reconfiguration or removal of trees and other barriers for improved airflow ventilation and similar processes. To generate these fields, a wind model must be provided, as a minimum, the location, type, height, structural silhouette, and surface roughness of these components, in order to account for the presence and effects of these land morphology features upon the ambient airflow. The morphology of Sacramento, CA has been characterized and quantified in considerable detail primarily for wind flow modeling, simulation, and analyses, but can also be used for improved meteorological analyses, urban forestry, urban planning, and other urban related activities. Morphology methods previously developed by Ellefsen are applied to the Sacramento scenario with a high resolution grid of 100 m × 100 m. The Urban Morphology Scheme defines Urban Terrain Zones (UTZ) according to how buildings and other urban elements are structured and placed with

  4. High resolution infrared acquisitions droning over the LUSI mud eruption.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Di Felice, Fabio; Romeo, Giovanni; Di Stefano, Giuseppe; Mazzini, Adriano

    2016-04-01

    The use of low-cost hand-held infrared (IR) thermal cameras based on uncooled micro-bolometer detector arrays became more widespread during the recent years. Thermal cameras have the ability to estimate temperature values without contact and therefore can be used in circumstances where objects are difficult or dangerous to reach such as volcanic eruptions. Since May 2006 the Indonesian LUSI mud eruption continues to spew boiling mud, water, aqueous vapor, CO2, CH4 and covers a surface of nearly 7 km2. At this locality we performed surveys over the unreachable erupting crater. In the framework of the LUSI Lab project (ERC grant n° 308126), in 2014 and 2015, we acquired high resolution infrared images using a specifically equipped remote-controlled drone flying at an altitude of m 100. The drone is equipped with GPS and an autopilot system that allows pre-programming the flying path or designing grids. The mounted thermal camera has peak spectral sensitivity in LW wavelength (μm 10) that is characterized by low water vapor and CO2 absorption. The low distance (high resolution) acquisitions have a temperature detail every cm 40, therefore it is possible to detect and observe physical phenomena such as thermodynamic behavior, hot mud and fluids emissions locations and their time shifts. Despite the harsh logistics and the continuously varying gas concentrations we managed to collect thermal images to estimate the crater zone spatial thermal variations. We applied atmosphere corrections to calculate infrared absorption by high concentration of water vapor. Thousands of images have been stitched together to obtain a mosaic of the crater zone. Regular monitoring with heat variation measurements collected, e.g. every six months, could give important information about the volcano activity estimating its evolution. A future data base of infrared high resolution and visible images stored in a web server could be a useful monitoring tool. An interesting development will be

  5. High resolution modelling of extreme precipitation events in urban areas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Siemerink, Martijn; Volp, Nicolette; Schuurmans, Wytze; Deckers, Dave

    2015-04-01

    The present day society needs to adjust to the effects of climate change. More extreme weather conditions are expected, which can lead to longer periods of drought, but also to more extreme precipitation events. Urban water systems are not designed for such extreme events. Most sewer systems are not able to drain the excessive storm water, causing urban flooding. This leads to high economic damage. In order to take appropriate measures against extreme urban storms, detailed knowledge about the behaviour of the urban water system above and below the streets is required. To investigate the behaviour of urban water systems during extreme precipitation events new assessment tools are necessary. These tools should provide a detailed and integral description of the flow in the full domain of overland runoff, sewer flow, surface water flow and groundwater flow. We developed a new assessment tool, called 3Di, which provides detailed insight in the urban water system. This tool is based on a new numerical methodology that can accurately deal with the interaction between overland runoff, sewer flow and surface water flow. A one-dimensional model for the sewer system and open channel flow is fully coupled to a two-dimensional depth-averaged model that simulates the overland flow. The tool uses a subgrid-based approach in order to take high resolution information of the sewer system and of the terrain into account [1, 2]. The combination of using the high resolution information and the subgrid based approach results in an accurate and efficient modelling tool. It is now possible to simulate entire urban water systems using extreme high resolution (0.5m x 0.5m) terrain data in combination with a detailed sewer and surface water network representation. The new tool has been tested in several Dutch cities, such as Rotterdam, Amsterdam and The Hague. We will present the results of an extreme precipitation event in the city of Schiedam (The Netherlands). This city deals with

  6. Evaluation of field methods for vertical high resolution aquifer characterization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vienken, T.; Tinter, M.; Rogiers, B.; Leven, C.; Dietrich, P.

    2012-12-01

    The delineation and characterization of subsurface (hydro)-stratigraphic structures is one of the challenging tasks of hydrogeological site investigations. The knowledge about the spatial distribution of soil specific properties and hydraulic conductivity (K) is the prerequisite for understanding flow and fluid transport processes. This is especially true for heterogeneous unconsolidated sedimentary deposits with a complex sedimentary architecture. One commonly used approach to investigate and characterize sediment heterogeneity is soil sampling and lab analyses, e.g. grain size distribution. Tests conducted on 108 samples show that calculation of K based on grain size distribution is not suitable for high resolution aquifer characterization of highly heterogeneous sediments due to sampling effects and large differences of calculated K values between applied formulas (Vienken & Dietrich 2011). Therefore, extensive tests were conducted at two test sites under different geological conditions to evaluate the performance of innovative Direct Push (DP) based approaches for the vertical high resolution determination of K. Different DP based sensor probes for the in-situ subsurface characterization based on electrical, hydraulic, and textural soil properties were used to obtain high resolution vertical profiles. The applied DP based tools proved to be a suitable and efficient alternative to traditional approaches. Despite resolution differences, all of the applied methods captured the main aquifer structure. Correlation of the DP based K estimates and proxies with DP based slug tests show that it is possible to describe the aquifer hydraulic structure on less than a meter scale by combining DP slug test data and continuous DP measurements. Even though correlations are site specific and appropriate DP tools must be chosen, DP is reliable and efficient alternative for characterizing even strongly heterogeneous sites with complex structured sedimentary aquifers (Vienken et

  7. High Resolution, Non-Dispersive X-Ray Calorimeter Spectrometers on EBITs and Orbiting Observatories

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Porter, Frederick S.

    2010-01-01

    X-ray spectroscopy is the primary tool for performing atomic physics with Electron beam ion trap (EBITs). X-ray instruments have generally fallen into two general categories, 1) dispersive instruments with very high spectral resolving powers but limited spectral range, limited count rates, and require an entrance slit, generally, for EBITs, defined by the electron beam itself, and 2) non-dispersive solid-state detectors with much lower spectral resolving powers but that have a broad dynamic range, high count rate ability and do not require a slit. Both of these approaches have compromises that limit the type and efficiency of measurements that can be performed. In 1984 NASA initiated a program to produce a non-dispersive instrument with high spectral resolving power for x-ray astrophysics based on the cryogenic x-ray calorimeter. This program produced the XRS non-dispersive spectrometers on the Astro-E, Astro-E2 (Suzaku) orbiting observatories, the SXS instrument on the Astro-H observatory, and the planned XMS instrument on the International X-ray Observatory. Complimenting these spaceflight programs, a permanent high-resolution x-ray calorimeter spectrometer, the XRS/EBIT, was installed on the LLNL EBIT in 2000. This unique instrument was upgraded to a spectral resolving power of 1000 at 6 keV in 2003 and replaced by a nearly autonomous production-class spectrometer, the EBIT Calorimeter Spectrometer (ECS), in 2007. The ECS spectrometer has a simultaneous bandpass from 0.07 to over 100 keV with a spectral resolving power of 1300 at 6 keV with unit quantum efficiency, and 1900 at 60 keV with a quantum efficiency of 30%. X-ray calorimeters are event based, single photon spectrometers with event time tagging to better than 10 us. We are currently developing a follow-on instrument based on a newer generation of x-ray calorimeters with a spectral resolving power of 3000 at 6 keV, and improved timing and measurement cadence. The unique capabilities of the x

  8. High resolution optically stimulated luminescence dating of a sediment core from the southwestern Sea of Okhotsk

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sugisaki, S.; Buylaert, J. P.; Murray, A. S.; Harada, N.; Kimoto, K.; Okazaki, Y.; Sakamoto, T.; Iijima, K.; Tsukamoto, S.; Miura, H.; Nogi, Y.

    2012-05-01

    Optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) dating is now widely accepted as a chronometer for terrestrial sediment. More recently, it has been suggested that OSL may also be useful in the dating of deep-sea marine sediments. In this paper, we test the usefulness of high resolution quartz OSL dating in application to a 19 m marine sediment core (MR0604-PC04A) taken from the southwestern Sea of Okhotsk, immediately to the north of Hokkaido, Japan. Fine-grained quartz (4 to 11μm) was chosen as the dosimeter, and a single-aliquot regenerative-dose protocol was used for the determination of equivalent dose (De), with stimulation by both infrared and blue light. The suitability of the measurement procedure was confirmed using dose recovery tests. A high resolution record (˜2 OSL ages/m) identified clear sedimentation rate changes down the core. The OSL ages are significantly dependent on the water content model chosen; two alternative interpretations are discussed, and the geologically preferred model identified. However, ages resulting from the observed (non-modeled) water content lie closest to the available radiocarbon ages (in the range back to 20 ka). Our OSL ages confirm the known high sedimentation rates in this locality, and for the first time demonstrate clear differences in sedimentation rate before, during and after deglaciation. Although the apparent accuracy of single sample ages is not always consistent with expectations, average ages are accurate, and our data show that OSL dating can be a powerful method for establishing high resolution marine chronologies.

  9. High resolution colonoscopy in a bowel cancer screening program improves polyp detection

    PubMed Central

    Banks, Matthew R; Haidry, Rehan; Butt, M Adil; Whitley, Lisa; Stein, Judith; Langmead, Louise; Bloom, Stuart L; O’Bichere, Austin; McCartney, Sara; Basherdas, Kalpesh; Rodriguez-Justo, Manuel; Lovat, Laurence B

    2011-01-01

    AIM: To compare high resolution colonoscopy (Olympus Lucera) with a megapixel high resolution system (Pentax HiLine) as an in-service evaluation. METHODS: Polyp detection rates and measures of performance were collected for 269 colonoscopy procedures. Five colonoscopists conducted the study over a three month period, as part of the United Kingdom bowel cancer screening program. RESULTS:There were no differences in procedure duration (χ2 P = 0.98), caecal intubation rates (χ2 P = 0.67), or depth of sedation (χ2 P = 0.64). Mild discomfort was more common in the Pentax group (χ2 P = 0.036). Adenoma detection rate was significantly higher in the Pentax group (χ2 test for trend P = 0.01). Most of the extra polyps detected were flat or sessile adenomas. CONCLUSION: Megapixel definition colonoscopes improve adenoma detection without compromising other measures of endoscope performance. Increased polyp detection rates may improve future outcomes in bowel cancer screening programs. PMID:22090787

  10. High resolution wind turbine wake measurements with a scanning lidar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Herges, T. G.; Maniaci, D. C.; Naughton, B. T.; Mikkelsen, T.; Sjöholm, M.

    2017-05-01

    High-resolution lidar wake measurements are part of an ongoing field campaign being conducted at the Scaled Wind Farm Technology facility by Sandia National Laboratories and the National Renewable Energy Laboratory using a customized scanning lidar from the Technical University of Denmark. One of the primary objectives is to collect experimental data to improve the predictive capability of wind plant computational models to represent the response of the turbine wake to varying inflow conditions and turbine operating states. The present work summarizes the experimental setup and illustrates several wake measurement example cases. The cases focus on demonstrating the impact of the atmospheric conditions on the wake shape and position, and exhibit a sample of the data that has been made public through the Department of Energy Atmosphere to Electrons Data Archive and Portal.

  11. Thermal design concept for a high resolution UV spectrometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Caruso, P.; Stipandic, E.

    1979-01-01

    The thermal design concept described has been developed for the High Resolution UV Spectrometer/Polarimeter to be flown on the Solar Maximum Mission. Based on experience gained from a similar Orbiting Solar Observatory mission payload, it has been recognized that initial protection of the optical elements, contamination control, reduction of scattered light, tight bulk temperature, and gradient constraints are key elements that must be accommodated in any thermal control concept for this class of instrument. Salient features of the design include: (1) a telescope door providing contamination protection of an aplanatic Gregorian telescope; (2) a rastering system for the secondary mirror; (3) a unique solar heat absorbing device; (4) heat pipes and special radiators; (5) heaters for active temperature control and optics contamination protection; and (6) high precision platinum resistance thermometers. Viability of the design concept has been established by extensive thermal analysis and some subsystem testing. A summary of analytical and test results is included.

  12. Multiplexed high resolution soft x-ray RIXS

    SciTech Connect

    Chuang, Y.-D.; Voronov, D.; Warwick, T.

    2016-07-27

    High-resolution Resonance Inelastic X-ray Scattering (RIXS) is a technique that allows us to probe the electronic excitations of complex materials with unprecedented precision. However, the RIXS process has a low cross section, compounded by the fact that the optical spectrometers used to analyze the scattered photons can only collect a small solid angle and overall have a small efficiency. Here we present a method to significantly increase the throughput of RIXS systems, by energy multiplexing, so that a complete RIXS map of scattered intensity versus photon energy in and photon energy out can be recorded simultaneously{sup 1}. This parallel acquisitionmore » scheme should provide a gain in throughput of over 100.. A system based on this principle, QERLIN, is under construction at the Advanced Light Source (ALS).« less

  13. High-resolution spectrum of the Galactic center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mahoney, W. A.; Ling, J. C.; Wheaton, W. A.

    1993-01-01

    Recent observations of the Galactic center region indicate the presence of a narrow gamma-ray line feature at 170 keV, and theoretical speculations suggest it may result from Compton backscattering of the 511 keV annihilation radiation. The high-resolution gamma-ray spectrometer on HEAO 3 observed the Galactic center in the fall of 1979 and in the spring of 1980. In view of the recent developments, the HEAO data were re-examined to search for this new feature and to look for possible correlations with the 511 keV line emisison. No evidence for such Compton backscattered radiation was found and the derived upper limits for emission in a line feature near 170 keV were well below previously reported fluxes, indicating possible time variability.

  14. Imaging plasmodesmata with high-resolution scanning electron microscopy.

    PubMed

    Barton, Deborah A; Overall, Robyn L

    2015-01-01

    High-resolution scanning electron microscopy (HRSEM) is an effective tool to investigate the distribution of plasmodesmata within plant cell walls as well as to probe their complex, three-dimensional architecture. It is a useful alternative to traditional transmission electron microscopy (TEM) in which plasmodesmata are sectioned to reveal their internal substructures. Benefits of adopting an HRSEM approach to studies of plasmodesmata are that the specimen preparation methods are less complex and time consuming than for TEM, many plasmodesmata within a large region of tissue can be imaged in a single session, and three-dimensional information is readily available without the need for reconstructing TEM serial sections or employing transmission electron tomography, both of which are lengthy processes. Here we describe methods to prepare plant samples for HRSEM using pre- or postfixation extraction of cellular material in order to visualize plasmodesmata embedded within plant cell walls.

  15. Thermodynamical effects and high resolution methods for compressible fluid flows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Jiequan; Wang, Yue

    2017-08-01

    One of the fundamental differences of compressible fluid flows from incompressible fluid flows is the involvement of thermodynamics. This difference should be manifested in the design of numerical schemes. Unfortunately, the role of entropy, expressing irreversibility, is often neglected even though the entropy inequality, as a conceptual derivative, is verified for some first order schemes. In this paper, we refine the GRP solver to illustrate how the thermodynamical variation is integrated into the design of high resolution methods for compressible fluid flows and demonstrate numerically the importance of thermodynamic effects in the resolution of strong waves. As a by-product, we show that the GRP solver works for generic equations of state, and is independent of technical arguments.

  16. Bayesian Peptide Peak Detection for High Resolution TOF Mass Spectrometry

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Jianqiu; Zhou, Xiaobo; Wang, Honghui; Suffredini, Anthony; Zhang, Lin; Huang, Yufei; Wong, Stephen

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, we address the issue of peptide ion peak detection for high resolution time-of-flight (TOF) mass spectrometry (MS) data. A novel Bayesian peptide ion peak detection method is proposed for TOF data with resolution of 10 000–15 000 full width at half-maximum (FWHW). MS spectra exhibit distinct characteristics at this resolution, which are captured in a novel parametric model. Based on the proposed parametric model, a Bayesian peak detection algorithm based on Markov chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) sampling is developed. The proposed algorithm is tested on both simulated and real datasets. The results show a significant improvement in detection performance over a commonly employed method. The results also agree with expert’s visual inspection. Moreover, better detection consistency is achieved across MS datasets from patients with identical pathological condition. PMID:21544266

  17. High resolution X-ray CT for advanced electronics packaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oppermann, M.; Zerna, T.

    2017-02-01

    Advanced electronics packaging is a challenge for non-destructive Testing (NDT). More, smaller and mostly hidden interconnects dominate modern electronics components and systems. To solve the demands of customers to get products with a high functionality by low volume, weight and price (e.g. mobile phones, personal medical monitoring systems) often the designers use System-in-Package solutions (SiP). The non-destructive testing of such devices is a big challenge. So our paper will impart fundamentals and applications for non-destructive evaluation of inner structures of electronics packaging for quality assurance and reliability investigations with a focus on X-ray methods, especially on high resolution X-ray computed tomography (CT).

  18. Precision Viticulture from Multitemporal, Multispectral Very High Resolution Satellite Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kandylakis, Z.; Karantzalos, K.

    2016-06-01

    In order to exploit efficiently very high resolution satellite multispectral data for precision agriculture applications, validated methodologies should be established which link the observed reflectance spectra with certain crop/plant/fruit biophysical and biochemical quality parameters. To this end, based on concurrent satellite and field campaigns during the veraison period, satellite and in-situ data were collected, along with several grape samples, at specific locations during the harvesting period. These data were collected for a period of three years in two viticultural areas in Northern Greece. After the required data pre-processing, canopy reflectance observations, through the combination of several vegetation indices were correlated with the quantitative results from the grape/must analysis of grape sampling. Results appear quite promising, indicating that certain key quality parameters (like brix levels, total phenolic content, brix to total acidity, anthocyanin levels) which describe the oenological potential, phenolic composition and chromatic characteristics can be efficiently estimated from the satellite data.

  19. High-resolution mid-infrared observations of NGC 7469

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miles, J. W.; Houck, J. R.; Hayward, T. L.

    1994-01-01

    We present a high-resolution 11.7 micrometer image of the starburst/Seyfert hybrid galaxy NGC 7469 using the Hale 5 m telescope at Palomar Observatory. Our map, with diffraction limited spatial resolution of 0.6 sec, shows a 3 sec diameter ring of emission around an unresolved nucleus. The map is similar to the Very Large Array (VLA) 6 cm map of this galaxy made with 0.4 sec resolution by Wilson et al. (1991). About half of the mid-infrared flux in our map emerges from the unresolved nucleus. We also present spatially resolved low resolution spectra that show that the 11.3 micrometer polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) feature comes from the circumnuclear ring but not from the nucleus of the galaxy.

  20. Bayesian Peptide Peak Detection for High Resolution TOF Mass Spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jianqiu; Zhou, Xiaobo; Wang, Honghui; Suffredini, Anthony; Zhang, Lin; Huang, Yufei; Wong, Stephen

    2010-11-01

    In this paper, we address the issue of peptide ion peak detection for high resolution time-of-flight (TOF) mass spectrometry (MS) data. A novel Bayesian peptide ion peak detection method is proposed for TOF data with resolution of 10 000-15 000 full width at half-maximum (FWHW). MS spectra exhibit distinct characteristics at this resolution, which are captured in a novel parametric model. Based on the proposed parametric model, a Bayesian peak detection algorithm based on Markov chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) sampling is developed. The proposed algorithm is tested on both simulated and real datasets. The results show a significant improvement in detection performance over a commonly employed method. The results also agree with expert's visual inspection. Moreover, better detection consistency is achieved across MS datasets from patients with identical pathological condition.

  1. High-resolution three-dimensional imaging radar

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cooper, Ken B. (Inventor); Chattopadhyay, Goutam (Inventor); Siegel, Peter H. (Inventor); Dengler, Robert J. (Inventor); Schlecht, Erich T. (Inventor); Mehdi, Imran (Inventor); Skalare, Anders J. (Inventor)

    2010-01-01

    A three-dimensional imaging radar operating at high frequency e.g., 670 GHz, is disclosed. The active target illumination inherent in radar solves the problem of low signal power and narrow-band detection by using submillimeter heterodyne mixer receivers. A submillimeter imaging radar may use low phase-noise synthesizers and a fast chirper to generate a frequency-modulated continuous-wave (FMCW) waveform. Three-dimensional images are generated through range information derived for each pixel scanned over a target. A peak finding algorithm may be used in processing for each pixel to differentiate material layers of the target. Improved focusing is achieved through a compensation signal sampled from a point source calibration target and applied to received signals from active targets prior to FFT-based range compression to extract and display high-resolution target images. Such an imaging radar has particular application in detecting concealed weapons or contraband.

  2. Systematic high-resolution assessment of global hydropower potential.

    PubMed

    Hoes, Olivier A C; Meijer, Lourens J J; van der Ent, Ruud J; van de Giesen, Nick C

    2017-01-01

    Population growth, increasing energy demand and the depletion of fossil fuel reserves necessitate a search for sustainable alternatives for electricity generation. Hydropower could replace a large part of the contribution of gas and oil to the present energy mix. However, previous high-resolution estimates of hydropower potential have been local, and have yet to be applied on a global scale. This study is the first to formally present a detailed evaluation of the hydropower potential of each location, based on slope and discharge of each river in the world. The gross theoretical hydropower potential is approximately 52 PWh/year divided over 11.8 million locations. This 52 PWh/year is equal to 33% of the annually required energy, while the present energy production by hydropower plants is just 3% of the annually required energy. The results of this study: all potentially interesting locations for hydroelectric power plants, are available online.

  3. High-Resolution Spectroscopy of some very Active Southern Stars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Soderblom, David R.; King, Jeremy R.; Henry, Todd J.

    1998-01-01

    We have obtained high-resolution echelle spectra of 18 solar-type stars that an earlier survey showed to have very high levels of Ca II H and K emission. Most of these stars belong to close binary systems, but five remain as probable single stars or well-separated binaries that are younger than the Pleiades on the basis of their lithium abundances and H.alpha emission. Three of these probable single stars also lie more than 1 mag above the main sequence in a color-magnitude diagram, and appear to have ages of 10 to 15 Myr. Two of them, HD 202917 and HD 222259, also appear to have a kinematic association with the pre-main-sequence multiple system HD 98800.

  4. High-resolution method for evolving complex interface networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pan, Shucheng; Hu, Xiangyu Y.; Adams, Nikolaus A.

    2018-04-01

    In this paper we describe a high-resolution transport formulation of the regional level-set approach for an improved prediction of the evolution of complex interface networks. The novelty of this method is twofold: (i) construction of local level sets and reconstruction of a global level set, (ii) local transport of the interface network by employing high-order spatial discretization schemes for improved representation of complex topologies. Various numerical test cases of multi-region flow problems, including triple-point advection, single vortex flow, mean curvature flow, normal driven flow, dry foam dynamics and shock-bubble interaction show that the method is accurate and suitable for a wide range of complex interface-network evolutions. Its overall computational cost is comparable to the Semi-Lagrangian regional level-set method while the prediction accuracy is significantly improved. The approach thus offers a viable alternative to previous interface-network level-set method.

  5. High-resolution wavefront reconstruction using the frozen flow hypothesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Xuewen; Liang, Yonghui; Liu, Jin; Xu, Jieping

    2017-10-01

    This paper describes an approach to reconstructing wavefronts on finer grid using the frozen flow hypothesis (FFH), which exploits spatial and temporal correlations between consecutive wavefront sensor (WFS) frames. Under the assumption of FFH, slope data from WFS can be connected to a finer, composite slope grid using translation and down sampling, and elements in transformation matrices are determined by wind information. Frames of slopes are then combined and slopes on finer grid are reconstructed by solving a sparse, large-scale, ill-posed least squares problem. By using reconstructed finer slope data and adopting Fried geometry of WFS, high-resolution wavefronts are then reconstructed. The results show that this method is robust even with detector noise and wind information inaccuracy, and under bad seeing conditions, high-frequency information in wavefronts can be recovered more accurately compared with when correlations in WFS frames are ignored.

  6. High-resolution mapping of bifurcations in nonlinear biochemical circuits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Genot, A. J.; Baccouche, A.; Sieskind, R.; Aubert-Kato, N.; Bredeche, N.; Bartolo, J. F.; Taly, V.; Fujii, T.; Rondelez, Y.

    2016-08-01

    Analog molecular circuits can exploit the nonlinear nature of biochemical reaction networks to compute low-precision outputs with fewer resources than digital circuits. This analog computation is similar to that employed by gene-regulation networks. Although digital systems have a tractable link between structure and function, the nonlinear and continuous nature of analog circuits yields an intricate functional landscape, which makes their design counter-intuitive, their characterization laborious and their analysis delicate. Here, using droplet-based microfluidics, we map with high resolution and dimensionality the bifurcation diagrams of two synthetic, out-of-equilibrium and nonlinear programs: a bistable DNA switch and a predator-prey DNA oscillator. The diagrams delineate where function is optimal, dynamics bifurcates and models fail. Inverse problem solving on these large-scale data sets indicates interference from enzymatic coupling. Additionally, data mining exposes the presence of rare, stochastically bursting oscillators near deterministic bifurcations.

  7. High Resolution Energetic X-ray Imager (HREXI)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grindlay, Jonathan

    We propose to design and build the first imaging hard X-ray detector system that incorporates 3D stacking of closely packed detector readouts in finely-spaced imaging arrays with their required data processing and control electronics. In virtually all imaging astronomical detectors, detector readout is done with flex connectors or connections that are not vertical but rather horizontal , requiring loss of focal plane area. For high resolution pixel detectors needed for high speed event-based X-ray imaging, from low energy applications (CMOS) with focusing X-ray telescopes, to hard X-ray applications with pixelated CZT for large area coded aperture telescopes, this new detector development offers great promise. We propose to extend our previous and current APRA supported ProtoEXIST program that has developed the first large area imaging CZT detectors and demonstrated their astrophysical capabilities on two successful balloon flight to a next generation High Resolution Energetic X-ray Imager (HREXI), which would incorporate microvia technology for the first time to connect the readout ASIC on each CZT crystal directly to its control and data processing system. This 3-dimensional stacking of detector and readout/control system means that large area (>2m2) imaging detector planes for a High Resolution Wide-field hard X-ray telescope can be built with initially greatly reduced detector gaps and ultimately with no gaps. This increases detector area, efficiency, and simplicity of detector integration. Thus higher sensitivity wide-field imagers will be possible at lower cost. HREXI will enable a post-Swift NASA mission such as the EREXS concept proposed to PCOS to be conducted as a future MIDEX mission. This mission would conduct a high resolution (<2 arcmin) , broad band (5 200 keV) hard X-ray survey of black holes on all scales with ~10X higher sensitivity than Swift. In the current era of Time Domain Astrophysics, such a survey capability, in conjunction with a n

  8. Chandra High Resolution Imaging of NGC 1365 and NGC 4151

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Junfeng; Fabbiano, G.; Elvis, M.; Risaliti, G.; Karovska, M.; Zezas, A.; Mazzarella, J. M.; Lord, S.; Howell, J. H.; Mundell, C. G.

    2010-07-01

    We present Chandra high resolution imaging of the circumnuclear regions of two nearby active galaxies, namely the starburst/AGN composite Seyfert 1.8 NGC 1365 and the archetypal Seyfert 1 NGC 4151. In NGC 1365, the X-ray morphology shows a biconical soft X-ray-emission region extending ~5 kpc in projection from the nucleus, coincident with the optical high-excitation outflows. Chandra HRC imaging of the NGC 4151 nucleus resolves X-ray emission from the 4 arcsec radio jet and the narrow line region (NLR) clouds. Our results demonstrate the unique power of spatially resolved spectroscopy with Chandra, and support previous claims that frequent jet-ISM interaction may explain why jets in Seyfert galaxies appear small, slow, and thermally dominated.

  9. Galileo at Io: results from high-resolution imaging.

    PubMed

    McEwen, A S; Belton, M J; Breneman, H H; Fagents, S A; Geissler, P; Greeley, R; Head, J W; Hoppa, G; Jaeger, W L; Johnson, T V; Keszthelyi, L; Klaasen, K P; Lopes-Gautier, R; Magee, K P; Milazzo, M P; Moore, J M; Pappalardo, R T; Phillips, C B; Radebaugh, J; Schubert, G; Schuster, P; Simonelli, D P; Sullivan, R; Thomas, P C; Turtle, E P; Williams, D A

    2000-05-19

    During late 1999/early 2000, the solid state imaging experiment on the Galileo spacecraft returned more than 100 high-resolution (5 to 500 meters per pixel) images of volcanically active Io. We observed an active lava lake, an active curtain of lava, active lava flows, calderas, mountains, plateaus, and plains. Several of the sulfur dioxide-rich plumes are erupting from distal flows, rather than from the source of silicate lava (caldera or fissure, often with red pyroclastic deposits). Most of the active flows in equatorial regions are being emplaced slowly beneath insulated crust, but rapidly emplaced channelized flows are also found at all latitudes. There is no evidence for high-viscosity lava, but some bright flows may consist of sulfur rather than mafic silicates. The mountains, plateaus, and calderas are strongly influenced by tectonics and gravitational collapse. Sapping channels and scarps suggest that many portions of the upper approximately 1 kilometer are rich in volatiles.

  10. Environmental applications of single collector high resolution ICP-MS.

    PubMed

    Krachler, Michael

    2007-08-01

    The number of environmental applications of single collector high resolution ICP-MS (HR-ICP-MS) has increased rapidly in recent years. There are many factors that contribute to make HR-ICP-MS a very powerful tool in environmental analysis. They include the extremely low detection limits achievable, tremendously high sensitivity, the ability to separate ICP-MS signals of the analyte from spectral interferences, enabling the reliable determination of many trace elements, and the reasonable precision of isotope ratio measurements. These assets are improved even further using high efficiency sample introduction systems. Therefore, external factors such as the stability of laboratory blanks are frequently the limiting factor in HR-ICP-MS analysis rather than the detection power. This review aims to highlight the most recent applications of HR-ICP-MS in this sector, focusing on matrices and applications where the superior capabilities of the instrumental technique are most useful and often ultimately required.

  11. High-resolution submillimeter-wave radiometry of supersonic flow

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dionne, G. F.; Weiss, J. A.; Fitzgerald, J. F.; Fetterman, H. R.; Litvak, M. M.

    1983-01-01

    The recent development of a high-resolution submillimeter-wave heterodyne radiometer has made possible the first measurements of H2O molecule rotational line excitation temperatures and detailed profiles in supersonic flow. Absorption signals were measured across the flow for the 2/11/ from 2//02/ (752 GHz) para-H2O rotational transition against a hot background. These signals decrease downstream owing to the volume expansion of the gas away from the sonic nozle exit in the high-vacuum chamber. Radiative transfer calculations based on the large-velocity-gradient approximation and multilevel statistical equilibrium agree with these results and with the measured spectral line shapes. The data reveal nearly isentropic gas expansion and cooling. These studies have shown that submillimeter-wave heterodyne radiometry can be useful for remote sensing of supersonic flow with low mass flux, provided the signal transmission is through a dry or thin atmosphere.

  12. The High Resolution Powder Diffraction Beam Line at ESRF.

    PubMed

    Fitch, A N

    2004-01-01

    The optical design and performance of the high-resolution powder diffraction beam line BM16 at ESRF are discussed and illustrated. Some recent studies carried out on BM16 are described, including crystal structure solution and refinement, anomalous scattering, in situ measurements, residual strain in engineering components, investigation of microstructure, and grazing-incidence diffraction from surface layers. The beam line is built on a bending magnet, and operates in the energy range from 5 keV to 40 keV. After the move to an undulator source in 2002, it will benefit from an extented energy range up to 60 keV and increased flux and resolution. It is anticipated that enhancements to the data quality will be achieved, leading to the solution of larger crystal structures, and improvements in the accuracy of refined structures. The systematic exploitation of anisotropic thermal expansion will help reduce the effects of peak overlap in the analysis of powder diffraction data.

  13. High-resolution microendoscope for the detection of cervical neoplasia.

    PubMed

    Grant, Benjamin D; Schwarz, Richard A; Quang, Timothy; Schmeler, Kathleen M; Richards-Kortum, Rebecca

    2015-01-01

    Cervical cancer causes 275,000 deaths each year with 85 % of these deaths occurring in the developing world. One of the primary reasons for the concentration of deaths in developing countries is a lack of effective screening methods suited for the infrastructure of these countries. In order to address this need, we have developed a high-resolution microendoscope (HRME). The HRME is a fiber-based fluorescence microscope with subcellular resolution. Using the vital stain proflavine, we are able to image cell nuclei in vivo and evaluate metrics such as nuclear-to-cytoplasmic ratio, critical to identifying precancerous epithelial regions. In this chapter, we detail the materials and methods necessary to build this system from commercially available parts.

  14. High-resolution structure of viruses from random diffraction snapshots

    PubMed Central

    Hosseinizadeh, A.; Schwander, P.; Dashti, A.; Fung, R.; D'Souza, R. M.; Ourmazd, A.

    2014-01-01

    The advent of the X-ray free-electron laser (XFEL) has made it possible to record diffraction snapshots of biological entities injected into the X-ray beam before the onset of radiation damage. Algorithmic means must then be used to determine the snapshot orientations and thence the three-dimensional structure of the object. Existing Bayesian approaches are limited in reconstruction resolution typically to 1/10 of the object diameter, with the computational expense increasing as the eighth power of the ratio of diameter to resolution. We present an approach capable of exploiting object symmetries to recover three-dimensional structure to high resolution, and thus reconstruct the structure of the satellite tobacco necrosis virus to atomic level. Our approach offers the highest reconstruction resolution for XFEL snapshots to date and provides a potentially powerful alternative route for analysis of data from crystalline and nano-crystalline objects. PMID:24914154

  15. High-resolution structure of viruses from random diffraction snapshots.

    PubMed

    Hosseinizadeh, A; Schwander, P; Dashti, A; Fung, R; D'Souza, R M; Ourmazd, A

    2014-07-17

    The advent of the X-ray free-electron laser (XFEL) has made it possible to record diffraction snapshots of biological entities injected into the X-ray beam before the onset of radiation damage. Algorithmic means must then be used to determine the snapshot orientations and thence the three-dimensional structure of the object. Existing Bayesian approaches are limited in reconstruction resolution typically to 1/10 of the object diameter, with the computational expense increasing as the eighth power of the ratio of diameter to resolution. We present an approach capable of exploiting object symmetries to recover three-dimensional structure to high resolution, and thus reconstruct the structure of the satellite tobacco necrosis virus to atomic level. Our approach offers the highest reconstruction resolution for XFEL snapshots to date and provides a potentially powerful alternative route for analysis of data from crystalline and nano-crystalline objects.

  16. Evaluation of Esophageal Motor Function With High-resolution Manometry

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    For several decades esophageal manometry has been the test of choice to evaluate disorders of esophageal motor function. The recent introduction of high-resolution manometry for the study of esophageal motor function simplified performance of esophageal manometry, and revealed previously unidentified patterns of normal and abnormal esophageal motor function. Presentation of pressure data as color contour plots or esophageal pressure topography led to the development of new tools for analyzing and classifying esophageal motor patterns. The current standard and still developing approach to do this is the Chicago classification. While this methodical approach is improving our diagnosis of esophageal motor disorders, it currently does not address all motor abnormalities. We will explore the Chicago classification and disorders that it does not address. PMID:23875094

  17. Polystyrene negative resist for high-resolution electron beam lithography

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    We studied the exposure behavior of low molecular weight polystyrene as a negative tone electron beam lithography (EBL) resist, with the goal of finding the ultimate achievable resolution. It demonstrated fairly well-defined patterning of a 20-nm period line array and a 15-nm period dot array, which are the densest patterns ever achieved using organic EBL resists. Such dense patterns can be achieved both at 20 and 5 keV beam energies using different developers. In addition to its ultra-high resolution capability, polystyrene is a simple and low-cost resist with easy process control and practically unlimited shelf life. It is also considerably more resistant to dry etching than PMMA. With a low sensitivity, it would find applications where negative resist is desired and throughput is not a major concern. PMID:21749679

  18. Systematic high-resolution assessment of global hydropower potential

    PubMed Central

    van de Giesen, Nick C.

    2017-01-01

    Population growth, increasing energy demand and the depletion of fossil fuel reserves necessitate a search for sustainable alternatives for electricity generation. Hydropower could replace a large part of the contribution of gas and oil to the present energy mix. However, previous high-resolution estimates of hydropower potential have been local, and have yet to be applied on a global scale. This study is the first to formally present a detailed evaluation of the hydropower potential of each location, based on slope and discharge of each river in the world. The gross theoretical hydropower potential is approximately 52 PWh/year divided over 11.8 million locations. This 52 PWh/year is equal to 33% of the annually required energy, while the present energy production by hydropower plants is just 3% of the annually required energy. The results of this study: all potentially interesting locations for hydroelectric power plants, are available online. PMID:28178329

  19. CARMENES science preparation. High-resolution spectroscopy of M dwarfs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Montes, D.; Caballero, J. A.; Jeffers, S.; Alonso-Floriano, F. J.; Mundt, R.; CARMENES Consortium

    2015-05-01

    To ensure an efficient use of CARMENES observing time, and the highest chances of success, it is necessary first to select the most promising targets. To achieve this, we are observing 500 M dwarfs at high-resolution (R = 30,000-48,000), from which we determine the projected rotational velocity vsin{i} with an accuracy better than 0.5-0.2 km/s and radial-velocity stability better than 0.2-0.1 km/s. Our aim is to have at least two spectra at different epochs of the final 300 CARMENES targets. Our observations with FEROS at ESO/MPG 2.2 m La Silla, CAFE at 2.2 m Calar Alto and HRS at Hobby Eberly Telescope allow us to identify single- and double-line spectroscopic binaries and, especially, fast rotators, which should be discarded from the target list for exoplanet searches. Here we present preliminary results.

  20. Achieving High Resolution Timer Events in Virtualized Environment

    PubMed Central

    Adamczyk, Blazej; Chydzinski, Andrzej

    2015-01-01

    Virtual Machine Monitors (VMM) have become popular in different application areas. Some applications may require to generate the timer events with high resolution and precision. This however may be challenging due to the complexity of VMMs. In this paper we focus on the timer functionality provided by five different VMMs—Xen, KVM, Qemu, VirtualBox and VMWare. Firstly, we evaluate resolutions and precisions of their timer events. Apparently, provided resolutions and precisions are far too low for some applications (e.g. networking applications with the quality of service). Then, using Xen virtualization we demonstrate the improved timer design that greatly enhances both the resolution and precision of achieved timer events. PMID:26177366

  1. Cross Section High Resolution Imaging of Polymer-Based Materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Delaportas, D.; Aden, P.; Muckle, C.; Yeates, S.; Treutlein, R.; Haq, S.; Alexandrou, I.

    This paper describes a methodology for preparing cross sections of organic layers suitable for transmission electron microscopy (TEM) at high resolution. Our principal aim is to prepare samples that are tough enough to allow the slicing into sub-150 nm sections. We also need strong contrast at the organic layer area to make it identifiable during TEM. Our approach is to deposit organic layers on flexible substrates and prepare thin cross sections using ultra-microtomy. We sandwich the organic layer between two metal thin films in order to isolate it and improve contrast. Our methodology is used to study the microstructure of polymer/nanotube composites, allowing us to accurately measure the organic layer thickness, determine nanotube dispersion and assess the effect of nanotube clustering on film structural stability.

  2. High-resolution electron microscopy and its applications.

    PubMed

    Li, F H

    1987-12-01

    A review of research on high-resolution electron microscopy (HREM) carried out at the Institute of Physics, the Chinese Academy of Sciences, is presented. Apart from the direct observation of crystal and quasicrystal defects for some alloys, oxides, minerals, etc., and the structure determination for some minute crystals, an approximate image-contrast theory named pseudo-weak-phase object approximation (PWPOA), which shows the image contrast change with crystal thickness, is described. Within the framework of PWPOA, the image contrast of lithium ions in the crystal of R-Li2Ti3O7 has been observed. The usefulness of diffraction analysis techniques such as the direct method and Patterson method in HREM is discussed. Image deconvolution and resolution enhancement for weak-phase objects by use of the direct method are illustrated. In addition, preliminary results of image restoration for thick crystals are given.

  3. Measuring Large-Scale Social Networks with High Resolution

    PubMed Central

    Stopczynski, Arkadiusz; Sekara, Vedran; Sapiezynski, Piotr; Cuttone, Andrea; Madsen, Mette My; Larsen, Jakob Eg; Lehmann, Sune

    2014-01-01

    This paper describes the deployment of a large-scale study designed to measure human interactions across a variety of communication channels, with high temporal resolution and spanning multiple years—the Copenhagen Networks Study. Specifically, we collect data on face-to-face interactions, telecommunication, social networks, location, and background information (personality, demographics, health, politics) for a densely connected population of 1 000 individuals, using state-of-the-art smartphones as social sensors. Here we provide an overview of the related work and describe the motivation and research agenda driving the study. Additionally, the paper details the data-types measured, and the technical infrastructure in terms of both backend and phone software, as well as an outline of the deployment procedures. We document the participant privacy procedures and their underlying principles. The paper is concluded with early results from data analysis, illustrating the importance of multi-channel high-resolution approach to data collection. PMID:24770359

  4. High resolution spectroscopic study of Be10Lambda;

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gogami, T.; Chen, C.; Kawama, D.; Achenbach, P.; Ahmidouch, A.; Albayrak, I.; Androic, D.; Asaturyan, A.; Asaturyan, R.; Ates, O.; Baturin, P.; Badui, R.; Boeglin, W.; Bono, J.; Brash, E.; Carter, P.; Chiba, A.; Christy, E.; Danagoulian, S.; de Leo, R.; Doi, D.; Elaasar, M.; Ent, R.; Fujii, Y.; Fujita, M.; Furic, M.; Gabrielyan, M.; Gan, L.; Garibaldi, F.; Gaskell, D.; Gasparian, A.; Han, Y.; Hashimoto, O.; Horn, T.; Hu, B.; Hungerford, Ed. V.; Jones, M.; Kanda, H.; Kaneta, M.; Kato, S.; Kawai, M.; Khanal, H.; Kohl, M.; Liyanage, A.; Luo, W.; Maeda, K.; Margaryan, A.; Markowitz, P.; Maruta, T.; Matsumura, A.; Maxwell, V.; Mkrtchyan, A.; Mkrtchyan, H.; Nagao, S.; Nakamura, S. N.; Narayan, A.; Neville, C.; Niculescu, G.; Niculescu, M. I.; Nunez, A.; Nuruzzaman, Okayasu, Y.; Petkovic, T.; Pochodzalla, J.; Qiu, X.; Reinhold, J.; Rodriguez, V. M.; Samanta, C.; Sawatzky, B.; Seva, T.; Shichijo, A.; Tadevosyan, V.; Tang, L.; Taniya, N.; Tsukada, K.; Veilleux, M.; Vulcan, W.; Wesselmann, F. R.; Wood, S. A.; Yamamoto, T.; Ya, L.; Ye, Z.; Yokota, K.; Yuan, L.; Zhamkochyan, S.; Zhu, L.; Hksjlab E05-115 Collaboration

    2016-03-01

    Spectroscopy of a Be10Lambda; hypernucleus was carried out at JLab Hall C using the (e ,e'K+) reaction. A new magnetic spectrometer system (SPL+HES+HKS), specifically designed for high resolution hypernuclear spectroscopy, was used to obtain an energy spectrum with a resolution of ˜0.78 MeV (FWHM). The well-calibrated spectrometer system of the present experiment using p (e ,e'K+)Λ ,Σ0 reactions allowed us to determine the energy levels; and the binding energy of the ground-state peak (mixture of 1- and 2- states) was found to be BΛ=8.55 ±0.07 (stat . ) ±0.11 (sys . ) MeV. The result indicates that the ground-state energy is shallower than that of an emulsion study by about 0.5 MeV which provides valuable experimental information on the charge symmetry breaking effect in the Λ N interaction.

  5. High-resolution eye tracking using V1 neuron activity

    PubMed Central

    McFarland, James M.; Bondy, Adrian G.; Cumming, Bruce G.; Butts, Daniel A.

    2014-01-01

    Studies of high-acuity visual cortical processing have been limited by the inability to track eye position with sufficient accuracy to precisely reconstruct the visual stimulus on the retina. As a result, studies on primary visual cortex (V1) have been performed almost entirely on neurons outside the high-resolution central portion of the visual field (the fovea). Here we describe a procedure for inferring eye position using multi-electrode array recordings from V1 coupled with nonlinear stimulus processing models. We show that this method can be used to infer eye position with one arc-minute accuracy – significantly better than conventional techniques. This allows for analysis of foveal stimulus processing, and provides a means to correct for eye-movement induced biases present even outside the fovea. This method could thus reveal critical insights into the role of eye movements in cortical coding, as well as their contribution to measures of cortical variability. PMID:25197783

  6. Spontaneous Raman scattering as a high resolution XUV radiation source

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rothenberg, J. E.; Young, J. F.; Harris, S. E.

    1983-01-01

    A type of high resolution XUV radiation source is described which is based upon spontaneous anti-Stokes scattering of tunable incident laser radiation from atoms excited to metastable levels. The theory of the source is summarized and two sets of experiments using He (1s2s)(1)S atoms, produced in a cw hollow cathode and in a pulsed high power microwave discharge, are discussed. The radiation source is used to examine transitions originating from the 3p(6) shell of potassium. The observed features include four previously unreported absorption lines and several sharp interferences of closely spaced autoionizing lines. A source linewidth of about 1.9 cm(-1) at 185,000 cm(-1) is demonstrated.

  7. Compact and mobile high resolution PET brain imager

    DOEpatents

    Majewski, Stanislaw [Yorktown, VA; Proffitt, James [Newport News, VA

    2011-02-08

    A brain imager includes a compact ring-like static PET imager mounted in a helmet-like structure. When attached to a patient's head, the helmet-like brain imager maintains the relative head-to-imager geometry fixed through the whole imaging procedure. The brain imaging helmet contains radiation sensors and minimal front-end electronics. A flexible mechanical suspension/harness system supports the weight of the helmet thereby allowing for patient to have limited movements of the head during imaging scans. The compact ring-like PET imager enables very high resolution imaging of neurological brain functions, cancer, and effects of trauma using a rather simple mobile scanner with limited space needs for use and storage.

  8. [Techniques and applications of noninvasive high-resolution ultrasound imaging].

    PubMed

    Grégoire, J-M; Serrière, S; Georgesco, G; Jamet, F; Bleuzen, A; Ossant, F; Levassort, F; Tranquart, F; Patat, F

    2006-12-01

    Today manufacturers propose echographic systems with a resolution ranging from 100 microm down to 30 microm. This requires ultrasonic frequencies ranging from 20 to 60 MHz. However, when associated with an increase in the attenuation of the wave in the media this limits the applications to superficial exploration. High frequencies also bring special technological limitations mainly in the fields of transducers, electronics, and acoustic coupling. Although high-resolution echography has long remained marginal and been used for the exploration of the skin or the anterior chamber of the eye, new powerful and easy-to-use devices have recently appeared on the market. With these new products, new applications have also appeared such as the exploration of the oral cavity or small laboratory animals (mice).

  9. High-resolution ultrasound imaging of the eye - a review.

    PubMed

    Silverman, Ronald H

    2009-01-01

    This report summarizes the physics, technology and clinical application of ultrasound biomicroscopy (UBM) of the eye, in which frequencies of 35 MHz and above provide over a threefold improvement in resolution compared with conventional ophthalmic ultrasound systems. UBM allows imaging of anatomy and pathology involving the anterior segment, including regions obscured by overlying optically opaque anatomic or pathologic structures. UBM provides diagnostically significant information in conditions such as glaucoma, cysts and neoplasms, trauma and foreign bodies. UBM also can provide crucial biometric information regarding anterior segment structures, including the cornea and its constituent layers and the anterior and posterior chambers. Although UBM has now been in use for over 15 years, new technologies, including transducer arrays, pulse encoding and combination of ultrasound with light, offer the potential for significant advances in high-resolution diagnostic imaging of the eye.

  10. Quantitative High-Resolution Genomic Analysis of Single Cancer Cells

    PubMed Central

    Hannemann, Juliane; Meyer-Staeckling, Sönke; Kemming, Dirk; Alpers, Iris; Joosse, Simon A.; Pospisil, Heike; Kurtz, Stefan; Görndt, Jennifer; Püschel, Klaus; Riethdorf, Sabine; Pantel, Klaus; Brandt, Burkhard

    2011-01-01

    During cancer progression, specific genomic aberrations arise that can determine the scope of the disease and can be used as predictive or prognostic markers. The detection of specific gene amplifications or deletions in single blood-borne or disseminated tumour cells that may give rise to the development of metastases is of great clinical interest but technically challenging. In this study, we present a method for quantitative high-resolution genomic analysis of single cells. Cells were isolated under permanent microscopic control followed by high-fidelity whole genome amplification and subsequent analyses by fine tiling array-CGH and qPCR. The assay was applied to single breast cancer cells to analyze the chromosomal region centred by the therapeutical relevant EGFR gene. This method allows precise quantitative analysis of copy number variations in single cell diagnostics. PMID:22140428

  11. Quantitative high-resolution genomic analysis of single cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Hannemann, Juliane; Meyer-Staeckling, Sönke; Kemming, Dirk; Alpers, Iris; Joosse, Simon A; Pospisil, Heike; Kurtz, Stefan; Görndt, Jennifer; Püschel, Klaus; Riethdorf, Sabine; Pantel, Klaus; Brandt, Burkhard

    2011-01-01

    During cancer progression, specific genomic aberrations arise that can determine the scope of the disease and can be used as predictive or prognostic markers. The detection of specific gene amplifications or deletions in single blood-borne or disseminated tumour cells that may give rise to the development of metastases is of great clinical interest but technically challenging. In this study, we present a method for quantitative high-resolution genomic analysis of single cells. Cells were isolated under permanent microscopic control followed by high-fidelity whole genome amplification and subsequent analyses by fine tiling array-CGH and qPCR. The assay was applied to single breast cancer cells to analyze the chromosomal region centred by the therapeutical relevant EGFR gene. This method allows precise quantitative analysis of copy number variations in single cell diagnostics.

  12. High-resolution nuclear magnetic resonance of superfluid 3B

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kycia, J. B.; Haard, T. M.; Rand, M. R.; Hensley, H. H.; Moores, G. F.; Lee, Y.; Hamot, P. J.; Sprague, D. T.; Halperin, W. P.; Thuneberg, E. V.

    1994-02-01

    High-resolution nuclear magnetic resonance measurements of bulk superfluid 3B have been performed at temperatures above 0.5 mK and at pressures from 0.3 to 21.7 bars. We have found that the resonance frequency is shifted from the Larmor frequency of the normal fluid. According to the theory of Greaves the shift at the superfluid transition determines a specific combination, β345, of the 5 fourth-order coefficients of the order parameter invariants used in the Ginzburg-Landau description of superfluid 3He. We found that β345 approaches the weak coupling limit at low pressure, and decreases at higher pressures qualitatively consistent with the theory of Sauls and Serene but in disagreement with the results of Tang et al.

  13. A high-resolution Fourier Transform Spectrometer for planetary spectroscopy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cruikshank, D. P.; Sinton, W. M.

    1973-01-01

    The employment of a high-resolution Fourier Transform Spectrometer (FTS) is described for planetary and other astronomical spectroscopy in conjunction with the 88-inch telescope at Mauna Kea Observatory. The FTS system is designed for a broad range of uses, including double-beam laboratory spectroscopy, infrared gas chromatography, and nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. The data system is well-suited to astronomical applications because of its great speed in acquiring and transforming data, and because of the enormous storage capability of the magnetic tape unit supplied with the system. The basic instrument is outlined 2nd some of the initial results from the first attempted use on the Mauna Kea 88-inch telescope are reported.

  14. Performance of a high resolution cavity beam position monitor system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walston, Sean; Boogert, Stewart; Chung, Carl; Fitsos, Pete; Frisch, Joe; Gronberg, Jeff; Hayano, Hitoshi; Honda, Yosuke; Kolomensky, Yury; Lyapin, Alexey; Malton, Stephen; May, Justin; McCormick, Douglas; Meller, Robert; Miller, David; Orimoto, Toyoko; Ross, Marc; Slater, Mark; Smith, Steve; Smith, Tonee; Terunuma, Nobuhiro; Thomson, Mark; Urakawa, Junji; Vogel, Vladimir; Ward, David; White, Glen

    2007-07-01

    It has been estimated that an RF cavity Beam Position Monitor (BPM) could provide a position measurement resolution of less than 1 nm. We have developed a high resolution cavity BPM and associated electronics. A triplet comprised of these BPMs was installed in the extraction line of the Accelerator Test Facility (ATF) at the High Energy Accelerator Research Organization (KEK) for testing with its ultra-low emittance beam. The three BPMs were each rigidly mounted inside an alignment frame on six variable-length struts which could be used to move the BPMs in position and angle. We have developed novel methods for extracting the position and tilt information from the BPM signals including a robust calibration algorithm which is immune to beam jitter. To date, we have demonstrated a position resolution of 15.6 nm and a tilt resolution of 2.1 μrad over a dynamic range of approximately ±20 μm.

  15. Two simple image slicers for high resolution spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tala, M.; Vanzi, L.; Avila, G.; Guirao, C.; Pecchioli, E.; Zapata, A.; Pieralli, F.

    2017-04-01

    We present the design, manufacturing, test and performance of two image slicers for high resolution spectroscopy. Based on the classical Bowen-Walraven concept, our slicers allow to make two slices of the image of the input fibre. We introduce the idea of a second fibre that can be cropped in half to reach the same width of the science target fibre and that can be used for simultaneous wavelength reference. The slicers presented are mirror and prism based, respectively. Both devices work within expectation, showing differences mainly in their efficiency. The prism based slicer is the solution that was adopted for the FIDEOS spectrograph, an instrument built by the AIUC for the ESO 1m telescope of La Silla. Test spectra obtained with this instrument are included as examples of a real application of the device.

  16. All-Optical Ultrasound Transducers for High Resolution Imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sheaff, Clay Smith

    High frequency ultrasound (HFUS) has increasingly been used within the past few decades to provide high resolution (< 200 mum) imaging in medical applications such as endoluminal imaging, intravascular imaging, ophthalmology, and dermatology. The optical detection and generation of HFUS using thin films offers numerous advantages over traditional piezoelectric technology. Circumvention of an electronic interface with the device head is one of the most significant given the RF noise, crosstalk, and reduced capacitance that encumbers small-scale electronic transducers. Thin film Fabry-Perot interferometers - also known as etalons - are well suited for HFUS receivers on account of their high sensitivity, wide bandwidth, and ease of fabrication. In addition, thin films can be used to generate HFUS when irradiated with optical pulses - a method referred to as Thermoelastic Ultrasound Generation (TUG). By integrating a polyimide (PI) film for TUG into an etalon receiver, we have created for the first time an all-optical ultrasound transducer that is both thermally stable and capable of forming fully sampled 2-D imaging arrays of arbitrary configuration. Here we report (1) the design and fabrication of PI-etalon transducers; (2) an evaluation of their optical and acoustic performance parameters; (3) the ability to conduct high-resolution imaging with synthetic 2-D arrays of PI-etalon elements; and (4) work towards a fiber optic PI-etalon for in vivo use. Successful development of a fiber optic imager would provide a unique field-of-view thereby exposing an abundance of prospects for minimally-invasive analysis, diagnosis, and treatment of disease.

  17. Evaluation of a High-Resolution Regional Reanalysis for Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ohlwein, C.; Wahl, S.; Keller, J. D.; Bollmeyer, C.

    2014-12-01

    Reanalyses gain more and more importance as a source of meteorological information for many purposes and applications. Several global reanalyses projects (e.g., ERA, MERRA, CSFR, JMA9) produce and verify these data sets to provide time series as long as possible combined with a high data quality. Due to a spatial resolution down to 50-70km and 3-hourly temporal output, they are not suitable for small scale problems (e.g., regional climate assessment, meso-scale NWP verification, input for subsequent models such as river runoff simulations). The implementation of regional reanalyses based on a limited area model along with a data assimilation scheme is able to generate reanalysis data sets with high spatio-temporal resolution. Within the Hans-Ertel-Centre for Weather Research (HErZ), the climate monitoring branch concentrates efforts on the assessment and analysis of regional climate in Germany and Europe. In joint cooperation with DWD (German Meteorological Service), a high-resolution reanalysis system based on the COSMO model has been developed. The regional reanalysis for Europe matches the domain of the CORDEX EURO-11 specifications, albeit at a higher spatial resolution, i.e., 0.055° (6km) instead of 0.11° (12km) and comprises the assimilation of observational data using the existing nudging scheme of COSMO complemented by a special soil moisture analysis with boundary conditions provided by ERA-Interim data. The reanalysis data set covers 6 years (2007-2012) and is currently extended to 16 years. Extensive evaluation of the reanalysis is performed using independent observations with special emphasis on precipitation and high-impact weather situations indicating a better representation of small scale variability. Further, the evaluation shows an added value of the regional reanalysis with respect to the forcing ERA Interim reanalysis and compared to a pure high-resolution dynamical downscaling approach without data assimilation.

  18. The high-resolution regional reanalysis COSMO-REA6

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ohlwein, C.

    2016-12-01

    Reanalyses gain more and more importance as a source of meteorological information for many purposes and applications. Several global reanalyses projects (e.g., ERA, MERRA, CSFR, JMA9) produce and verify these data sets to provide time series as long as possible combined with a high data quality. Due to a spatial resolution down to 50-70km and 3-hourly temporal output, they are not suitable for small scale problems (e.g., regional climate assessment, meso-scale NWP verification, input for subsequent models such as river runoff simulations). The implementation of regional reanalyses based on a limited area model along with a data assimilation scheme is able to generate reanalysis data sets with high spatio-temporal resolution. Within the Hans-Ertel-Centre for Weather Research (HErZ), the climate monitoring branch concentrates efforts on the assessment and analysis of regional climate in Germany and Europe. In joint cooperation with DWD (German Meteorological Service), a high-resolution reanalysis system based on the COSMO model has been developed. The regional reanalysis for Europe matches the domain of the CORDEX EURO-11 specifications, albeit at a higher spatial resolution, i.e., 0.055° (6km) instead of 0.11° (12km) and comprises the assimilation of observational data using the existing nudging scheme of COSMO complemented by a special soil moisture analysis with boundary conditions provided by ERA-Interim data. The reanalysis data set covers the past 20 years. Extensive evaluation of the reanalysis is performed using independent observations with special emphasis on precipitation and high-impact weather situations indicating a better representation of small scale variability. Further, the evaluation shows an added value of the regional reanalysis with respect to the forcing ERA Interim reanalysis and compared to a pure high-resolution dynamical downscaling approach without data assimilation.

  19. A High-resolution Reanalysis for the European CORDEX Region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bentzien, Sabrina; Bollmeyer, Christoph; Crewell, Susanne; Friederichs, Petra; Hense, Andreas; Keller, Jan; Keune, Jessica; Kneifel, Stefan; Ohlwein, Christian; Pscheidt, Ieda; Redl, Stephanie; Steinke, Sandra

    2014-05-01

    A High-resolution Reanalysis for the European CORDEX Region Within the Hans-Ertel-Centre for Weather Research (HErZ), the climate monitoring branch concentrates efforts on the assessment and analysis of regional climate in Germany and Europe. In joint cooperation with DWD (German Meteorological Service), a high-resolution reanalysis system based on the COSMO model has been developed. Reanalyses gain more and more importance as a source of meteorological information for many purposes and applications. Several global reanalyses projects (e.g., ERA, MERRA, CSFR, JMA9) produce and verify these data sets to provide time series as long as possible combined with a high data quality. Due to a spatial resolution down to 50-70km and 3-hourly temporal output, they are not suitable for small scale problems (e.g., regional climate assessment, meso-scale NWP verification, input for subsequent models such as river runoff simulations). The implementation of regional reanalyses based on a limited area model along with a data assimilation scheme is able to generate reanalysis data sets with high spatio-temporal resolution. The work presented here focuses on the regional reanalysis for Europe with a domain matching the CORDEX-EURO-11 specifications, albeit at a higher spatial resolution, i.e., 0.055° (6km) instead of 0.11° (12km). The COSMO reanalysis system comprises the assimilation of observational data using the existing nudging scheme of COSMO and is complemented by a special soil moisture analysis and boundary conditions given by ERA-interim data. The reanalysis data set currently covers 6 years (2007-2012). The evaluation of the reanalyses is done using independent observations with special emphasis on precipitation and high-impact weather situations. The development and evaluation of the COSMO-based reanalysis for the CORDEX-Euro domain can be seen as a preparation for joint European activities on the development of an ensemble system of regional reanalyses for Europe.

  20. A high-resolution regional reanalysis for Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ohlwein, C.

    2015-12-01

    Reanalyses gain more and more importance as a source of meteorological information for many purposes and applications. Several global reanalyses projects (e.g., ERA, MERRA, CSFR, JMA9) produce and verify these data sets to provide time series as long as possible combined with a high data quality. Due to a spatial resolution down to 50-70km and 3-hourly temporal output, they are not suitable for small scale problems (e.g., regional climate assessment, meso-scale NWP verification, input for subsequent models such as river runoff simulations). The implementation of regional reanalyses based on a limited area model along with a data assimilation scheme is able to generate reanalysis data sets with high spatio-temporal resolution. Within the Hans-Ertel-Centre for Weather Research (HErZ), the climate monitoring branch concentrates efforts on the assessment and analysis of regional climate in Germany and Europe. In joint cooperation with DWD (German Meteorological Service), a high-resolution reanalysis system based on the COSMO model has been developed. The regional reanalysis for Europe matches the domain of the CORDEX EURO-11 specifications, albeit at a higher spatial resolution, i.e., 0.055° (6km) instead of 0.11° (12km) and comprises the assimilation of observational data using the existing nudging scheme of COSMO complemented by a special soil moisture analysis with boundary conditions provided by ERA-Interim data. The reanalysis data set covers the past 20 years. Extensive evaluation of the reanalysis is performed using independent observations with special emphasis on precipitation and high-impact weather situations indicating a better representation of small scale variability. Further, the evaluation shows an added value of the regional reanalysis with respect to the forcing ERA Interim reanalysis and compared to a pure high-resolution dynamical downscaling approach without data assimilation.

  1. High resolution seismic reflection profiling at Aberdeen Proving Grounds, Maryland

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, R.D.; Xia, Jianghai; Swartzel, S.

    1996-11-01

    The effectiveness of shallow high resolution seismic reflection (i.e., resolution potential) to image geologic interfaces between about 70 and 750 ft at the Aberdeen Proving Grounds, Maryland (APG), appears to vary locally with the geometric complexity of the unconsolidated sediments that overlay crystalline bedrock. The bedrock surface (which represents the primary geologic target of this study) was imaged at each of three test areas on walkaway noise tests and CDP (common depth point) stacked data. Proven high resolution techniques were used to design and acquire data on this survey. Feasibility of the technique and minimum acquisition requirements were determined throughmore » evaluation and correlation of walkaway noise tests, CDP survey lines, and a downhole velocity check shot survey. Data processing and analysis revealed several critical attributes of shallow seismic data from APG that need careful consideration and compensation on reflection data sets. This survey determined: (1) the feasibility of the technique, (2) the resolution potential (both horizontal and vertical) of the technique, (3) the optimum source for this site, (4) the optimum acquisition geometries, (5) general processing flow, and (6) a basic idea of the acoustic variability across this site. Source testing involved an accelerated weight drop, land air gun, downhole black powder charge, sledge hammer/plate, and high frequency vibrator. Shallow seismic reflection profiles provided for a more detailed picture of the geometric complexity and variability of the distinct clay sequences (aquatards), previously inferred from drilling to be present, based on sparse drill holes and basewide conceptual models. The seismic data also reveal a clear explanation for the difficulties previously noted in correlating individual, borehole-identified sand or clay units over even short distances.« less

  2. High-resolution RCMs as pioneers for future GCMs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schar, C.; Ban, N.; Arteaga, A.; Charpilloz, C.; Di Girolamo, S.; Fuhrer, O.; Hoefler, T.; Leutwyler, D.; Lüthi, D.; Piaget, N.; Ruedisuehli, S.; Schlemmer, L.; Schulthess, T. C.; Wernli, H.

    2017-12-01

    Currently large efforts are underway to refine the horizontal resolution of global and regional climate models to O(1 km), with the intent to represent convective clouds explicitly rather than using semi-empirical parameterizations. This refinement will move the governing equations closer to first principles and is expected to reduce the uncertainties of climate models. High resolution is particularly attractive in order to better represent critical cloud feedback processes (e.g. related to global climate sensitivity and extratropical summer convection) and extreme events (such as heavy precipitation events, floods, and hurricanes). The presentation will be illustrated using decade-long simulations at 2 km horizontal grid spacing, some of these covering the European continent on a computational mesh with 1536x1536x60 grid points. To accomplish such simulations, use is made of emerging heterogeneous supercomputing architectures, using a version of the COSMO limited-area weather and climate model that is able to run entirely on GPUs. Results show that kilometer-scale resolution dramatically improves the simulation of precipitation in terms of the diurnal cycle and short-term extremes. The modeling framework is used to address changes of precipitation scaling with climate change. It is argued that already today, modern supercomputers would in principle enable global atmospheric convection-resolving climate simulations, provided appropriately refactored codes were available, and provided solutions were found to cope with the rapidly growing output volume. A discussion will be provided of key challenges affecting the design of future high-resolution climate models. It is suggested that km-scale RCMs should be exploited to pioneer this terrain, at a time when GCMs are not yet available at such resolutions. Areas of interest include the development of new parameterization schemes adequate for km-scale resolution, the exploration of new validation methodologies and data

  3. High resolution microphotonic needle for endoscopic imaging (Conference Presentation)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tadayon, Mohammad Amin; Mohanty, Aseema; Roberts, Samantha P.; Barbosa, Felippe; Lipson, Michal

    2017-02-01

    GRIN (Graded index) lens have revolutionized micro endoscopy enabling deep tissue imaging with high resolution. The challenges of traditional GRIN lenses are their large size (when compared with the field of view) and their limited resolution. This is because of the relatively weak NA in standard graded index lenses. Here we introduce a novel micro-needle platform for endoscopy with much higher resolution than traditional GRIN lenses and a FOV that corresponds to the whole cross section of the needle. The platform is based on polymeric (SU-8) waveguide integrated with a microlens micro fabricated on a silicon substrate using a unique molding process. Due to the high index of refraction of the material the NA of the needle is much higher than traditional GRIN lenses. We tested the probe in a fluorescent dye solution (19.6 µM Alexa Flour 647 solution) and measured a numerical aperture of 0.25, focal length of about 175 µm and minimal spot size of about 1.6 µm. We show that the platform can image a sample with the field of view corresponding to the cross sectional area of the waveguide (80x100 µm2). The waveguide size can in principle be modified to vary size of the imaging field of view. This demonstration, combined with our previous work demonstrating our ability to implant the high NA needle in a live animal, shows that the proposed system can be used for deep tissue imaging with very high resolution and high field of view.

  4. Erosion and Channel Incision Analysis with High-Resolution Lidar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Potapenko, J.; Bookhagen, B.

    2013-12-01

    High-resolution LiDAR (LIght Detection And Ranging) provides a new generation of sub-meter topographic data that is still to be fully exploited by the Earth science communities. We make use of multi-temporal airborne and terrestrial lidar scans in the south-central California and Santa Barbara area. Specifically, we have investigated the Mission Canyon and Channel Islands regions from 2009-2011 to study changes in erosion and channel incision on the landscape. In addition to gridding the lidar data into digital elevation models (DEMs), we also make use of raw lidar point clouds and triangulated irregular networks (TINs) for detailed analysis of heterogeneously spaced topographic data. Using recent advancements in lidar point cloud processing from information technology disciplines, we have employed novel lidar point cloud processing and feature detection algorithms to automate the detection of deeply incised channels and gullies, vegetation, and other derived metrics (e.g. estimates of eroded volume). Our analysis compares topographically-derived erosion volumes to field-derived cosmogenic radionuclide age and in-situ sediment-flux measurements. First results indicate that gully erosion accounts for up to 60% of the sediment volume removed from the Mission Canyon region. Furthermore, we observe that gully erosion and upstream arroyo propagation accelerated after fires, especially in regions where vegetation was heavily burned. The use of high-resolution lidar point cloud data for topographic analysis is still a novel method that needs more precedent and we hope to provide a cogent example of this approach with our research.

  5. High resolution 3D imaging of synchrotron generated microbeams

    SciTech Connect

    Gagliardi, Frank M., E-mail: frank.gagliardi@wbrc.org.au; Cornelius, Iwan; Blencowe, Anton

    2015-12-15

    Purpose: Microbeam radiation therapy (MRT) techniques are under investigation at synchrotrons worldwide. Favourable outcomes from animal and cell culture studies have proven the efficacy of MRT. The aim of MRT researchers currently is to progress to human clinical trials in the near future. The purpose of this study was to demonstrate the high resolution and 3D imaging of synchrotron generated microbeams in PRESAGE® dosimeters using laser fluorescence confocal microscopy. Methods: Water equivalent PRESAGE® dosimeters were fabricated and irradiated with microbeams on the Imaging and Medical Beamline at the Australian Synchrotron. Microbeam arrays comprised of microbeams 25–50 μm wide with 200more » or 400 μm peak-to-peak spacing were delivered as single, cross-fire, multidirectional, and interspersed arrays. Imaging of the dosimeters was performed using a NIKON A1 laser fluorescence confocal microscope. Results: The spatial fractionation of the MRT beams was clearly visible in 2D and up to 9 mm in depth. Individual microbeams were easily resolved with the full width at half maximum of microbeams measured on images with resolutions of as low as 0.09 μm/pixel. Profiles obtained demonstrated the change of the peak-to-valley dose ratio for interspersed MRT microbeam arrays and subtle variations in the sample positioning by the sample stage goniometer were measured. Conclusions: Laser fluorescence confocal microscopy of MRT irradiated PRESAGE® dosimeters has been validated in this study as a high resolution imaging tool for the independent spatial and geometrical verification of MRT beam delivery.« less

  6. Advancing Cyberinfrastructure to support high resolution water resources modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tarboton, D. G.; Ogden, F. L.; Jones, N.; Horsburgh, J. S.

    2012-12-01

    Addressing the problem of how the availability and quality of water resources at large scales are sensitive to climate variability, watershed alterations and management activities requires computational resources that combine data from multiple sources and support integrated modeling. Related cyberinfrastructure challenges include: 1) how can we best structure data and computer models to address this scientific problem through the use of high-performance and data-intensive computing, and 2) how can we do this in a way that discipline scientists without extensive computational and algorithmic knowledge and experience can take advantage of advances in cyberinfrastructure? This presentation will describe a new system called CI-WATER that is being developed to address these challenges and advance high resolution water resources modeling in the Western U.S. We are building on existing tools that enable collaboration to develop model and data interfaces that link integrated system models running within an HPC environment to multiple data sources. Our goal is to enhance the use of computational simulation and data-intensive modeling to better understand water resources. Addressing water resource problems in the Western U.S. requires simulation of natural and engineered systems, as well as representation of legal (water rights) and institutional constraints alongside the representation of physical processes. We are establishing data services to represent the engineered infrastructure and legal and institutional systems in a way that they can be used with high resolution multi-physics watershed modeling at high spatial resolution. These services will enable incorporation of location-specific information on water management infrastructure and systems into the assessment of regional water availability in the face of growing demands, uncertain future meteorological forcings, and existing prior-appropriations water rights. This presentation will discuss the informatics

  7. Enhancing GIS Capabilities for High Resolution Earth Science Grids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koziol, B. W.; Oehmke, R.; Li, P.; O'Kuinghttons, R.; Theurich, G.; DeLuca, C.

    2017-12-01

    Applications for high performance GIS will continue to increase as Earth system models pursue more realistic representations of Earth system processes. Finer spatial resolution model input and output, unstructured or irregular modeling grids, data assimilation, and regional coordinate systems present novel challenges for GIS frameworks operating in the Earth system modeling domain. This presentation provides an overview of two GIS-driven applications that combine high performance software with big geospatial datasets to produce value-added tools for the modeling and geoscientific community. First, a large-scale interpolation experiment using National Hydrography Dataset (NHD) catchments, a high resolution rectilinear CONUS grid, and the Earth System Modeling Framework's (ESMF) conservative interpolation capability will be described. ESMF is a parallel, high-performance software toolkit that provides capabilities (e.g. interpolation) for building and coupling Earth science applications. ESMF is developed primarily by the NOAA Environmental Software Infrastructure and Interoperability (NESII) group. The purpose of this experiment was to test and demonstrate the utility of high performance scientific software in traditional GIS domains. Special attention will be paid to the nuanced requirements for dealing with high resolution, unstructured grids in scientific data formats. Second, a chunked interpolation application using ESMF and OpenClimateGIS (OCGIS) will demonstrate how spatial subsetting can virtually remove computing resource ceilings for very high spatial resolution interpolation operations. OCGIS is a NESII-developed Python software package designed for the geospatial manipulation of high-dimensional scientific datasets. An overview of the data processing workflow, why a chunked approach is required, and how the application could be adapted to meet operational requirements will be discussed here. In addition, we'll provide a general overview of OCGIS

  8. High resolution reversible color images on photonic crystal substrates.

    PubMed

    Kang, Pilgyu; Ogunbo, Samuel O; Erickson, David

    2011-08-16

    When light is incident on a crystalline structure with appropriate periodicity, some colors will be preferentially reflected (Joannopoulos, J. D.; Meade, R. D.; Winn, J. N. Photonic crystals: molding the flow of light; Princeton University Press: Princeton, NJ, 1995; p ix, 137 pp). These photonic crystals and the structural color they generate represent an interesting method for creating reflective displays and drawing devices, since they can achieve a continuous color response and do not require back lighting (Joannopoulos, J. D.; Villeneuve, P. R.; Fan, S. H. Photonic crystals: Putting a new twist on light. Nature 1997, 386, 143-149; Graham-Rowe, D. Tunable structural colour. Nat. Photonics 2009, 3, 551-553.; Arsenault, A. C.; Puzzo, D. P.; Manners, I.; Ozin, G. A. Photonic-crystal full-colour displays. Nat. Photonics 2007, 1, 468-472; Walish, J. J.; Kang, Y.; Mickiewicz, R. A.; Thomas, E. L. Bioinspired Electrochemically Tunable Block Copolymer Full Color Pixels. Adv. Mater.2009, 21, 3078). Here we demonstrate a technique for creating erasable, high-resolution, color images using otherwise transparent inks on self-assembled photonic crystal substrates (Fudouzi, H.; Xia, Y. N. Colloidal crystals with tunable colors and their use as photonic papers. Langmuir 2003, 19, 9653-9660). Using inkjet printing, we show the ability to infuse fine droplets of silicone oils into the crystal, locally swelling it and changing the reflected color (Sirringhaus, H.; Kawase, T.; Friend, R. H.; Shimoda, T.; Inbasekaran, M.; Wu, W.; Woo, E. P. High-resolution inkjet printing of all-polymer transistor circuits. Science 2000, 290, 2123-2126). Multicolor images with resolutions as high as 200 μm are obtained from oils of different molecular weights with the lighter oils being able to penetrate deeper, yielding larger red shifts. Erasing of images is done simply by adding a low vapor pressure oil which dissolves the image, returning the substrate to its original state.

  9. The Gaia FGK benchmark stars. High resolution spectral library

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blanco-Cuaresma, S.; Soubiran, C.; Jofré, P.; Heiter, U.

    2014-06-01

    Context. An increasing number of high-resolution stellar spectra is available today thanks to many past and ongoing spectroscopic surveys. Consequently, numerous methods have been developed to perform an automatic spectral analysis on a massive amount of data. When reviewing published results, biases arise and they need to be addressed and minimized. Aims: We are providing a homogeneous library with a common set of calibration stars (known as the Gaia FGK benchmark stars) that will allow us to assess stellar analysis methods and calibrate spectroscopic surveys. Methods: High-resolution and signal-to-noise spectra were compiled from different instruments. We developed an automatic process to homogenize the observed data and assess the quality of the resulting library. Results: We built a high-quality library that will facilitate the assessment of spectral analyses and the calibration of present and future spectroscopic surveys. The automation of the process minimizes the human subjectivity and ensures reproducibility. Additionally, it allows us to quickly adapt the library to specific needs that can arise from future spectroscopic analyses. Based on NARVAL and HARPS data obtained within the Gaia Data Processing and Analysis Consortium (DPAC) and coordinated by the GBOG (Ground-Based Observations for Gaia) working group, and on data retrieved from the ESO-ADP database.The library of spectra is only available at the CDS via anonymous ftp to http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (ftp://130.79.128.5) or via http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr/viz-bin/qcat?J/A+A/566/A98

  10. High-resolution fluorescence microscopy of myelin without exogenous probes.

    PubMed

    Christensen, Pia Crone; Brideau, Craig; Poon, Kelvin W C; Döring, Axinia; Yong, V Wee; Stys, Peter K

    2014-02-15

    Myelin is a critical element of the central and peripheral nervous systems of all higher vertebrates. Any disturbance in the integrity of the myelin sheath interferes with the axon's ability to conduct action potentials. Thus, the study of myelin structure and biochemistry is critically important. Accurate and even staining of myelin is often difficult because of its lipid-rich nature and multiple tight membrane wraps, hindering penetration of immunoprobes. Here we show a method of visualizing myelin that is fast, inexpensive and reliable using the cross-linking fixative glutaraldehyde that produces strong, broad-spectrum auto-fluorescence in fixed tissue. Traditionally, effort is generally aimed at eliminating this auto-fluorescence. However, we show that this intrinsic signal, which is very photostable and particularly strong in glutaraldehyde-fixed myelin, can be exploited to visualize this structure to produce very detailed images of myelin morphology. We imaged fixed rodent tissues from the central and peripheral nervous systems using spectral confocal microscopy to acquire high-resolution 3-dimensional images spanning the visual range of wavelengths (400-750 nm). Mathematical post-processing allows accurate and unequivocal separation of broadband auto-fluorescence from exogenous fluorescent probes such as DAPI and fluorescently-tagged secondary antibodies. We additionally show the feasibility of immunohistochemistry with antigen retrieval, which allows co-localization of proteins of interest together with detailed myelin morphology. The lysolecithin model of de- and remyelination is shown as an example of a practical application of this technique, which can be routinely applied when high-resolution microscopy of central or peripheral myelinated tracts is required. © 2013.

  11. A high-resolution multimode digital microscope system.

    PubMed

    Salmon, Edward D; Shaw, Sidney L; Waters, Jennifer C; Waterman-Storer, Clare M; Maddox, Paul S; Yeh, Elaine; Bloom, Kerry

    2013-01-01

    This chapter describes the development of a high-resolution, multimode digital imaging system based on a wide-field epifluorescent and transmitted light microscope, and a cooled charge-coupled device (CCD) camera. The three main parts of this imaging system are Nikon FXA microscope, Hamamatsu C4880 cooled CCD camera, and MetaMorph digital imaging system. This chapter presents various design criteria for the instrument and describes the major features of the microscope components-the cooled CCD camera and the MetaMorph digital imaging system. The Nikon FXA upright microscope can produce high resolution images for both epifluorescent and transmitted light illumination without switching the objective or moving the specimen. The functional aspects of the microscope set-up can be considered in terms of the imaging optics, the epi-illumination optics, the transillumination optics, the focus control, and the vibration isolation table. This instrument is somewhat specialized for microtubule and mitosis studies, and it is also applicable to a variety of problems in cellular imaging, including tracking proteins fused to the green fluorescent protein in live cells. The instrument is also valuable for correlating the assembly dynamics of individual cytoplasmic microtubules (labeled by conjugating X-rhodamine to tubulin) with the dynamics of membranes of the endoplasmic reticulum (labeled with DiOC6) and the dynamics of the cell cortex (by differential interference contrast) in migrating vertebrate epithelial cells. This imaging system also plays an important role in the analysis of mitotic mutants in the powerful yeast genetic system Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Copyright © 1998 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. High-resolution mechanical imaging of the kidney.

    PubMed

    Streitberger, Kaspar-Josche; Guo, Jing; Tzschätzsch, Heiko; Hirsch, Sebastian; Fischer, Thomas; Braun, Jürgen; Sack, Ingolf

    2014-02-07

    The objective of this study was to test the feasibility and reproducibility of in vivo high-resolution mechanical imaging of the asymptomatic human kidney. Hereby nine volunteers were examined at three different physiological states of urinary bladder filling (a normal state, urinary urgency, and immediately after urinary relief). Mechanical imaging was performed of the in vivo kidney using three-dimensional multifrequency magnetic resonance elastography combined with multifrequency dual elastovisco inversion. Other than in classical elastography, where the storage and loss shear moduli are evaluated, we analyzed the magnitude |G(⁎)| and the phase angle φ of the complex shear modulus reconstructed by simultaneous inversion of full wave field data corresponding to 7 harmonic drive frequencies from 30 to 60Hz and a resolution of 2.5mm cubic voxel size. Mechanical parameter maps were derived with a spatial resolution superior to that in previous work. The group-averaged values of |G(⁎)| were 2.67±0.52kPa in the renal medulla, 1.64±0.17kPa in the cortex, and 1.17±0.21kPa in the hilus. The phase angle φ (in radians) was 0.89±0.12 in the medulla, 0.83±0.09 in the cortex, and 0.72±0.06 in the hilus. All regional differences were significant (P<0.001), while no significant variation was found in relation to different stages of bladder filling. In summary our study provides first high-resolution maps of viscoelastic parameters of the three anatomical regions of the kidney. |G(⁎)| and φ provide novel information on the viscoelastic properties of the kidney, which is potentially useful for the detection of renal lesions or fibrosis. © 2013 Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  13. GRID: a high-resolution protein structure refinement algorithm.

    PubMed

    Chitsaz, Mohsen; Mayo, Stephen L

    2013-03-05

    The energy-based refinement of protein structures generated by fold prediction algorithms to atomic-level accuracy remains a major challenge in structural biology. Energy-based refinement is mainly dependent on two components: (1) sufficiently accurate force fields, and (2) efficient conformational space search algorithms. Focusing on the latter, we developed a high-resolution refinement algorithm called GRID. It takes a three-dimensional protein structure as input and, using an all-atom force field, attempts to improve the energy of the structure by systematically perturbing backbone dihedrals and side-chain rotamer conformations. We compare GRID to Backrub, a stochastic algorithm that has been shown to predict a significant fraction of the conformational changes that occur with point mutations. We applied GRID and Backrub to 10 high-resolution (≤ 2.8 Å) crystal structures from the Protein Data Bank and measured the energy improvements obtained and the computation times required to achieve them. GRID resulted in energy improvements that were significantly better than those attained by Backrub while expending about the same amount of computational resources. GRID resulted in relaxed structures that had slightly higher backbone RMSDs compared to Backrub relative to the starting crystal structures. The average RMSD was 0.25 ± 0.02 Å for GRID versus 0.14 ± 0.04 Å for Backrub. These relatively minor deviations indicate that both algorithms generate structures that retain their original topologies, as expected given the nature of the algorithms. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. Rapid calibrated high-resolution hyperspectral imaging using tunable laser source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nguyen, Lam K.; Margalith, Eli

    2009-05-01

    We present a novel hyperspectral imaging technique based on tunable laser technology. By replacing the broadband source and tunable filters of a typical NIR imaging instrument, several advantages are realized, including: high spectral resolution, highly variable field-of-views, fast scan-rates, high signal-to-noise ratio, and the ability to use optical fiber for efficient and flexible sample illumination. With this technique, high-resolution, calibrated hyperspectral images over the NIR range can be acquired in seconds. The performance of system features will be demonstrated on two example applications: detecting melamine contamination in wheat gluten and separating bovine protein from wheat protein in cattle feed.

  15. Detecting the Reconnection Electron Diffusion Regions in Magnetospheric MultiScale mission high resolution data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shimoda, E.; Eriksson, S.; Ahmadi, N.; Ergun, R.; Wilder, F. D.; Goodrich, K.

    2017-12-01

    The Magnetospheric Multi-Scale (MMS) mission resolves the small-scale structure of the Reconnection Electron Diffusion Regions (EDRs) using four spacecraft. We have surveyed two years of MMS data to find the candidates for the EDRs. We searched all the high-resolution segments when Fast Plasma Investigation (FPI) instrument was on. The search criteria are based on measuring the dissipation rate, agyrotropy, a reversal in jet velocity and magnetic field. Once these events were found for MMS1 data, the burst period for the other spacecraft was analyzed. We present our results of the best possible EDR candidates.

  16. Absolute biological needs.

    PubMed

    McLeod, Stephen

    2014-07-01

    Absolute needs (as against instrumental needs) are independent of the ends, goals and purposes of personal agents. Against the view that the only needs are instrumental needs, David Wiggins and Garrett Thomson have defended absolute needs on the grounds that the verb 'need' has instrumental and absolute senses. While remaining neutral about it, this article does not adopt that approach. Instead, it suggests that there are absolute biological needs. The absolute nature of these needs is defended by appeal to: their objectivity (as against mind-dependence); the universality of the phenomenon of needing across the plant and animal kingdoms; the impossibility that biological needs depend wholly upon the exercise of the abilities characteristic of personal agency; the contention that the possession of biological needs is prior to the possession of the abilities characteristic of personal agency. Finally, three philosophical usages of 'normative' are distinguished. On two of these, to describe a phenomenon or claim as 'normative' is to describe it as value-dependent. A description of a phenomenon or claim as 'normative' in the third sense does not entail such value-dependency, though it leaves open the possibility that value depends upon the phenomenon or upon the truth of the claim. It is argued that while survival needs (or claims about them) may well be normative in this third sense, they are normative in neither of the first two. Thus, the idea of absolute need is not inherently normative in either of the first two senses. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. Integrated study of high resolution geophysical and geological information of Osaka Bay, Southwest Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Inoue, Naoto; Kitada, Naoko; Itoh, Yasuto; Takemura, Keiji; Nakagawa, Koichi

    The stratigraphic framework of Quaternary sediments in the Osaka Basin, Southwest Japan was revealed by high resolution geophysical and geological surveys acquired after the 1995 Kobe Earthquake. Osaka Bay is located in the central part of the Osaka Basin and is underlaid with Pre-Neogene basement rocks covered by an unconsolidated sequence of Plio-Pleistocene marine, fluvial and lacustrine sediments. Fifteen laterally continuous marine clays (from Ma-1 to Ma13, in ascending order) have been identified throughout the Osaka Basin that have been correlated with the marine eustatic record. Deep borehole and high resolution seismic data were acquired in Kobe (northern part of the basin) and Kansai International Airport (southern part of the basin). Sequence stratigraphy defined by seismic reflectors was used to reveal the stratigraphic differences between the two areas. By identifying reflectors as marine clay layers throughout the basin, we were able to divide the study area into three parts (northern, middle and southern parts) and to estimate the sedimentation rate in each location. The sedimentation rate increases from the northern and southern margins of the basin towards central Osaka Bay in the middle of the basin. In the southern parts, the sharp decline of sedimentation rate between Ma2 and Ma4 and thinning or complete lack of the reflectors corresponding to Ma5 and Ma6 layers result from tilting in this region.

  18. Recent advances in a linear micromirror array for high-resolution projection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Picard, Francis; Doucet, Michel; Niall, Keith K.; Larouche, Carl; Savard, Maxime; Crisan, Silviu; Thibault, Simon; Jerominek, Hubert

    2004-05-01

    The visual displays of contemporary military flight simulators lack adequate definition to represent scenes in basic fast-jet fighter tasks. For example, air-to-air and air-to-ground targets are not projected with sufficient contrast and resolution for a pilot to perceive aspect, aspect rate and object detail at real world slant ranges. Simulator display geometries require the development of ultra-high resolution projectors with greater than 20 megapixel resolution at 60 Hz frame rate. A new micromirror device has been developed to address this requirement; it is able to modulate light intensity in an analog fashion with switching times shorter than 5 μs. When combined with a scanner, a laser and Schlieren optics, a linear array of these flexible micromirrors can display images composed of thousands of lines at a frame rate of 60 Hz. Recent results related to evaluation of this technology for high resolution projection are presented. Alternate operation modes for light modulation with flexible micromirrors are proposed. The related importance of controlling the residual micromirror curvature is discussed and results of experiments investigating the use of the deposition pressure to achieve such control are reported. Moreover, activities aiming at minimizing the micromirror response time and, so doing, maximizing the number of image columns per image frame are discussed. Finally, contrast measurement and estimate of the contrast limit achievable with the flexible micromirror technology are presented. All reported activities support the development of a fully addressable 2000-element micromirror array.

  19. Rapid Diagnosis of Tuberculosis by Real-Time High-Resolution Imaging of Mycobacterium tuberculosis Colonies.

    PubMed

    Ghodbane, Ramzi; Asmar, Shady; Betzner, Marlena; Linet, Marie; Pierquin, Joseph; Raoult, Didier; Drancourt, Michel

    2015-08-01

    Culture remains the cornerstone of diagnosis for pulmonary tuberculosis, but the fastidiousness of Mycobacterium tuberculosis may delay culture-based diagnosis for weeks. We evaluated the performance of real-time high-resolution imaging for the rapid detection of M. tuberculosis colonies growing on a solid medium. A total of 50 clinical specimens, including 42 sputum specimens, 4 stool specimens, 2 bronchoalveolar lavage fluid specimens, and 2 bronchial aspirate fluid specimens were prospectively inoculated into (i) a commercially available Middlebrook broth and evaluated for mycobacterial growth indirectly detected by measuring oxygen consumption (standard protocol) and (ii) a home-made solid medium incubated in an incubator featuring real-time high-resolution imaging of colonies (real-time protocol). Isolates were identified by Ziehl-Neelsen staining and matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry. Use of the standard protocol yielded 14/50 (28%) M. tuberculosis isolates, which is not significantly different from the 13/50 (26%) M. tuberculosis isolates found using the real-time protocol (P = 1.00 by Fisher's exact test), and the contamination rate of 1/50 (2%) was not significantly different from the contamination rate of 2/50 (4%) using the real-time protocol (P = 1.00). The real-time imaging protocol showed a 4.4-fold reduction in time to detection, 82 ± 54 h versus 360 ± 142 h (P < 0.05). These preliminary data give the proof of concept that real-time high-resolution imaging of M. tuberculosis colonies is a new technology that shortens the time to growth detection and the laboratory diagnosis of pulmonary tuberculosis. Copyright © 2015, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  20. A new high-resolution electromagnetic method for subsurface imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feng, Wanjie

    For most electromagnetic (EM) geophysical systems, the contamination of primary fields on secondary fields ultimately limits the capability of the controlled-source EM methods. Null coupling techniques were proposed to solve this problem. However, the small orientation errors in the null coupling systems greatly restrict the applications of these systems. Another problem encountered by most EM systems is the surface interference and geologic noise, which sometimes make the geophysical survey impossible to carry out. In order to solve these problems, the alternating target antenna coupling (ATAC) method was introduced, which greatly removed the influence of the primary field and reduced the surface interference. But this system has limitations on the maximum transmitter moment that can be used. The differential target antenna coupling (DTAC) method was proposed to allow much larger transmitter moments and at the same time maintain the advantages of the ATAC method. In this dissertation, first, the theoretical DTAC calculations were derived mathematically using Born and Wolf's complex magnetic vector. 1D layered and 2D blocked earth models were used to demonstrate that the DTAC method has no responses for 1D and 2D structures. Analytical studies of the plate model influenced by conductive and resistive backgrounds were presented to explain the physical phenomenology behind the DTAC method, which is the magnetic fields of the subsurface targets are required to be frequency dependent. Then, the advantages of the DTAC method, e.g., high-resolution, reducing the geologic noise and insensitive to surface interference, were analyzed using surface and subsurface numerical examples in the EMGIMA software. Next, the theoretical advantages, such as high resolution and insensitive to surface interference, were verified by designing and developing a low-power (moment of 50 Am 2) vertical-array DTAC system and testing it on controlled targets and scaled target coils. At last, a

  1. High resolution multi-scalar drought indices for Iberia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Russo, Ana; Gouveia, Célia; Trigo, Ricardo; Jerez, Sonia

    2014-05-01

    The Iberian Peninsula has been recurrently affected by drought episodes and by adverse associated effects (Gouveia et al., 2009), ranging from severe water shortages to losses of hydroelectricity production, increasing risk of forest fires, forest decline and triggering processes of land degradation and desertification. Moreover, Iberia corresponds to one of the most sensitive areas to current and future climate change and is nowadays considered a hot spot of climate change with high probability for the increase of extreme events (Giorgi and Lionello, 2008). The spatial and temporal behavior of climatic droughts at different time scales was analyzed using spatially distributed time series of multi-scalar drought indicators, such as the Standardized Precipitation Evapotranspiration Index (SPEI) (Vicente-Serrano et al., 2010). This new climatic drought index is based on the simultaneous use of precipitation and temperature fields with the advantage of combining a multi-scalar character with the capacity to include the effects of temperature variability on drought assessment. Moreover, reanalysis data and the higher resolution hindcasted databases obtained from them are valuable surrogates of the sparse observations and widely used for in-depth characterizations of the present-day climate. Accordingly, this work aims to enhance the knowledge on high resolution drought patterns in Iberian Peninsula, taking advantage of high-resolution (10km) regional MM5 simulations of the recent past (1959-2007) over Iberia. It should be stressed that these high resolution meteorological fields (e.g. temperature, precipitation) have been validated for various purposes (Jerez et al., 2013). A detailed characterization of droughts since the 1960s using the 10 km resolution hidncasted simulation was performed with the aim to explore the conditions favoring drought onset, duration and ending, as well as the subsequent short, medium and long-term impacts affecting the environment and the

  2. Distant Supernova Remnant Imaged by Chandra's High Resolution Camera

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1999-09-01

    The High Resolution Camera (HRC), one of the two X-ray cameras on NASA's Chandra X-ray Observatory, was placed into the focus for the first time on Monday, August 30. The first target was LMC X-1, a point-like source of X rays in the Large Magellanic Cloud. The Large Magellanic Cloud, a companion galaxy to the Milky Way, is 160,000 light years from Earth. After checking the focus with LMC X-1, Chandra observed N132D, a remnant of an exploded star in the Large Magellanic Cloud. "These were preliminary test observations," emphasized Dr. Stephen Murray, of the Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, principal investigator for the High Resolution Camera. "But we are very pleased with the results. All indications are that the HRC will produce X-ray images of unprecedented clarity." The N132D image shows a highly structured remnant, or shell, of 10-million-degree gas that is 80 light years across. Such a shell in the vicinity of the Sun would encompass more than fifty nearby stars. The amount of material in the N132D hot gas remnant is equal to that of 600 suns. The N132D supernova remnant appears to be colliding with a giant molecular cloud, which produces the brightening on the southern rim of the remnant. The molecular cloud, visible with a radio telescope, has the mass of 300,000 suns. The relatively weak x-radiation on the upper left shows that the shock wave is expanding into a less dense region on the edge of the molecular cloud. A number of small circular structures are visible in the central regions and a hint of a large circular loop can be seen in the upper part of the remnant. Whether the peculiar shape of the supernova remnant can be fully explained in terms of these effects, or whether they point to a peculiar cylindrically shaped explosion remains to be seen. -more- "The image is so rich in structure that it will take a while to sort out what is really going on," Murray said. "It could be multiple supernovas, or absorbing clouds in the vicinity of the

  3. HCN Polymers: Toward Structure Comprehension Using High Resolution Mass Spectrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bonnet, Jean-Yves; Thissen, Roland; Frisari, Ma; Vuitton, Veronique; Quirico, Eric; Le Roy, Léna; Fray, Nicolas; Cottin, Hervé; Horst, Sarah; Yelle, Roger

    A lot of solar system materials, including cometary ices and Titan aerosols, contain dark matter that can be interpreted as complex nitrogen bearing organic matter [1]. In laboratory experi-ments, HCN polymers are thus analogs of great interest. In fact they may be present in Titan atmosphere and in comet nuclei and then reprocessed as a CN distributed source [2], when ices began to sublimate and ejects from the nucleus organic matter grains [3]. The presence of HCN polymers is suggested because HCN molecule has been directly observed in 1P/Halley comet [4] and others. HCN polymers are also of prebiotic interest [5] as it can form amino acid under hydrolysis conditions. Even if they have been studied during the last decades, their chemical composition and structure are still poorly understood, and a great analytical effort has to be continued. In this way we present a high resolution mass spectrometry (HRMS) and a high resolution tandem mass spectrometry (MS/HRMS) analysis of HCN polymers. It was shown [6] that this is a suitable technique to elucidate composition and structure of the soluble part of tholins analogs of Titan's atmosphere aerosols. HCN polymers have never been studied by HRMS, thus we used a LTQ-Orbitrap XL high resolution mass spectrometer to analyse the HCN polymers. These are produced at LISA by direct polymerisation of pure liquid HCN, catalyzed by ammonia. HCN polymers have been completely dissolved in methanol and then injected in the mass spectrometer by ElectroSpray Ionization (ESI). This atmospheric pressure ionization process produces protonated or deprotonated ions, but it does not fragment molecules. Thus HRMS, allows a direct access to the stoechiometry of all the ionizable molecules present in the samples. Fragmentation analyses (MS/MS) of selected ions have also been performed. Thess analysis provide information about the different chemical fonctionnalities present in HCN poly-mers and also about their structure. Thus we are able to

  4. High Resolution Reconstruction of the Ionosphere for SAR Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Minkwitz, David; Gerzen, Tatjana; Hoque, Mainul

    2014-05-01

    Caused by ionosphere's strong impact on radio signal propagation, high resolution and highly accurate reconstructions of the ionosphere's electron density distribution are demanded for a large number of applications, e.g. to contribute to the mitigation of ionospheric effects on Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) measurements. As a new generation of remote sensing satellites the TanDEM-L radar mission is planned to improve the understanding and modelling ability of global environmental processes and ecosystem change. TanDEM-L will operate in L-band with a wavelength of approximately 24 cm enabling a stronger penetration capability compared to X-band (3 cm) or C-band (5 cm). But accompanied by the lower frequency of the TanDEM-L signals the influence of the ionosphere will increase. In particular small scale irregularities of the ionosphere might lead to electron density variations within the synthetic aperture length of the TanDEM-L satellite and in turn might result into blurring and azimuth pixel shifts. Hence the quality of the radar image worsens if the ionospheric effects are not mitigated. The Helmholtz Alliance project "Remote Sensing and Earth System Dynamics" (EDA) aims in the preparation of the HGF centres and the science community for the utilisation and integration of the TanDEM-L products into the study of the Earth's system. One significant point thereby is to cope with the mentioned ionospheric effects. Therefore different strategies towards achieving this objective are pursued: the mitigation of the ionospheric effects based on the radar data itself, the mitigation based on external information like global Total Electron Content (TEC) maps or reconstructions of the ionosphere and the combination of external information and radar data. In this presentation we describe the geostatistical approach chosen to analyse the behaviour of the ionosphere and to provide a high resolution 3D electron density reconstruction. As first step the horizontal structure of

  5. Spatial Ensemble Postprocessing of Precipitation Forecasts Using High Resolution Analyses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lang, Moritz N.; Schicker, Irene; Kann, Alexander; Wang, Yong

    2017-04-01

    Ensemble prediction systems are designed to account for errors or uncertainties in the initial and boundary conditions, imperfect parameterizations, etc. However, due to sampling errors and underestimation of the model errors, these ensemble forecasts tend to be underdispersive, and to lack both reliability and sharpness. To overcome such limitations, statistical postprocessing methods are commonly applied to these forecasts. In this study, a full-distributional spatial post-processing method is applied to short-range precipitation forecasts over Austria using Standardized Anomaly Model Output Statistics (SAMOS). Following Stauffer et al. (2016), observation and forecast fields are transformed into standardized anomalies by subtracting a site-specific climatological mean and dividing by the climatological standard deviation. Due to the need of fitting only a single regression model for the whole domain, the SAMOS framework provides a computationally inexpensive method to create operationally calibrated probabilistic forecasts for any arbitrary location or for all grid points in the domain simultaneously. Taking advantage of the INCA system (Integrated Nowcasting through Comprehensive Analysis), high resolution analyses are used for the computation of the observed climatology and for model training. The INCA system operationally combines station measurements and remote sensing data into real-time objective analysis fields at 1 km-horizontal resolution and 1 h-temporal resolution. The precipitation forecast used in this study is obtained from a limited area model ensemble prediction system also operated by ZAMG. The so called ALADIN-LAEF provides, by applying a multi-physics approach, a 17-member forecast at a horizontal resolution of 10.9 km and a temporal resolution of 1 hour. The performed SAMOS approach statistically combines the in-house developed high resolution analysis and ensemble prediction system. The station-based validation of 6 hour precipitation sums

  6. High-resolution metabolomics of occupational exposure to trichloroethylene

    PubMed Central

    Walker, Douglas I; Uppal, Karan; Zhang, Luoping; Vermeulen, Roel; Smith, Martyn; Hu, Wei; Purdue, Mark P; Tang, Xiaojiang; Reiss, Boris; Kim, Sungkyoon; Li, Laiyu; Huang, Hanlin; Pennell, Kurt D; Jones, Dean P; Rothman, Nathaniel; Lan, Qing

    2016-01-01

    Background: Occupational exposure to trichloroethylene (TCE) has been linked to adverse health outcomes including non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma and kidney and liver cancer; however, TCE’s mode of action for development of these diseases in humans is not well understood. Methods: Non-targeted metabolomics analysis of plasma obtained from 80 TCE-exposed workers [full shift exposure range of 0.4 to 230 parts-per-million of air (ppma)] and 95 matched controls were completed by ultra-high resolution mass spectrometry. Biological response to TCE exposure was determined using a metabolome-wide association study (MWAS) framework, with metabolic changes and plasma TCE metabolites evaluated by dose-response and pathway enrichment. Biological perturbations were then linked to immunological, renal and exposure molecular markers measured in the same population. Results: Metabolic features associated with TCE exposure included known TCE metabolites, unidentifiable chlorinated compounds and endogenous metabolites. Exposure resulted in a systemic response in endogenous metabolism, including disruption in purine catabolism and decreases in sulphur amino acid and bile acid biosynthesis pathways. Metabolite associations with TCE exposure included uric acid (β = 0.13, P-value = 3.6 × 10−5), glutamine (β = 0.08, P-value = 0.0013), cystine (β = 0.75, P-value = 0.0022), methylthioadenosine (β = −1.6, P-value = 0.0043), taurine (β = −2.4, P-value = 0.0011) and chenodeoxycholic acid (β = −1.3, P-value = 0.0039), which are consistent with known toxic effects of TCE, including immunosuppression, hepatotoxicity and nephrotoxicity. Correlation with additional exposure markers and physiological endpoints supported known disease associations. Conclusions: High-resolution metabolomics correlates measured occupational exposure to internal dose and metabolic response, providing insight into molecular mechanisms of exposure

  7. High-resolution metabolomics of occupational exposure to trichloroethylene.

    PubMed

    Walker, Douglas I; Uppal, Karan; Zhang, Luoping; Vermeulen, Roel; Smith, Martyn; Hu, Wei; Purdue, Mark P; Tang, Xiaojiang; Reiss, Boris; Kim, Sungkyoon; Li, Laiyu; Huang, Hanlin; Pennell, Kurt D; Jones, Dean P; Rothman, Nathaniel; Lan, Qing

    2016-10-01

    Occupational exposure to trichloroethylene (TCE) has been linked to adverse health outcomes including non-Hodgkin's lymphoma and kidney and liver cancer; however, TCE's mode of action for development of these diseases in humans is not well understood. Non-targeted metabolomics analysis of plasma obtained from 80 TCE-exposed workers [full shift exposure range of 0.4 to 230 parts-per-million of air (ppm a )] and 95 matched controls were completed by ultra-high resolution mass spectrometry. Biological response to TCE exposure was determined using a metabolome-wide association study (MWAS) framework, with metabolic changes and plasma TCE metabolites evaluated by dose-response and pathway enrichment. Biological perturbations were then linked to immunological, renal and exposure molecular markers measured in the same population. Metabolic features associated with TCE exposure included known TCE metabolites, unidentifiable chlorinated compounds and endogenous metabolites. Exposure resulted in a systemic response in endogenous metabolism, including disruption in purine catabolism and decreases in sulphur amino acid and bile acid biosynthesis pathways. Metabolite associations with TCE exposure included uric acid (β = 0.13, P-value = 3.6 × 10 -5 ), glutamine (β = 0.08, P-value = 0.0013), cystine (β = 0.75, P-value = 0.0022), methylthioadenosine (β = -1.6, P-value = 0.0043), taurine (β = -2.4, P-value = 0.0011) and chenodeoxycholic acid (β = -1.3, P-value = 0.0039), which are consistent with known toxic effects of TCE, including immunosuppression, hepatotoxicity and nephrotoxicity. Correlation with additional exposure markers and physiological endpoints supported known disease associations. High-resolution metabolomics correlates measured occupational exposure to internal dose and metabolic response, providing insight into molecular mechanisms of exposure-related disease aetiology. © The Author 2016; all rights

  8. High-resolution global irradiance monitoring from photovoltaic systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buchmann, Tina; Pfeilsticker, Klaus; Siegmund, Alexander; Meilinger, Stefanie; Mayer, Bernhard; Pinitz, Sven; Steinbrecht, Wolfgang

    2016-04-01

    Reliable and regional differentiated power forecasts are required to guarantee an efficient and economic energy transition towards renewable energies. Amongst other renewable energy technologies, e.g. wind mills, photovoltaic systems are an essential component of this transition being cost-efficient and simply to install. Reliable power forecasts are however required for a grid integration of photovoltaic systems, which among other data requires high-resolution spatio-temporal global irradiance data. Hence the generation of robust reviewed global irradiance data is an essential contribution for the energy transition. To achieve this goal our studies introduce a novel method which makes use of photovoltaic power generation in order to infer global irradiance. The method allows to determine high-resolution temporal global irradiance data (one data point every 15 minutes at each location) from power data of operated photovoltaic systems. Due to the multitude of installed photovoltaic systems (in Germany) the detailed spatial coverage is much better than for example only using global irradiance data from conventional pyranometer networks (e.g. from the German Weather Service). Our designated method is composed of two components: a forward component, i.e. to conclude from predicted global irradiance to photovoltaic (PV) power, and a backward component, i.e. from PV power with suitable calibration to global irradiance. The forward process is modelled by using the radiation transport model libRadtran (B. Mayer and A. Kylling (1)) for clear skies to obtain the characteristics (orientation, size, temperature dependence, …) of individual PV systems. For PV systems in the vicinity of a meteorological station, these data are validated against calibrated pyranometer readings. The forward-modelled global irradiance is used to determine the power efficiency for each photovoltaic system using non-linear optimisation techniques. The backward component uses the power efficiency

  9. The high resolution mapping of the Venice Lagoon tidal network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Madricardo, Fantina; Foglini, Federica; Kruss, Aleksandra; Bellafiore, Debora; Trincardi, Fabio

    2017-04-01

    One of the biggest challenges of the direct observation of the ocean is to achieve a high resolution mapping of its seafloor morphology and benthic habitats. So far, sonars have mapped just 0.05% of the ocean floor with less than ten-meter resolution. The recent efforts of the scientific community have been devoted towards the mapping of both Deep Ocean and very shallow coastal areas. Coastal and transitional environments in particular undergo strong morphological changes due to natural and anthropogenic pressure. Nowadays, only about 5% of the seafloor of these environments † have been mapped: the shallowness of these environments has prevented the use of underwater acoustics to reveal their morphological features. The recent technological development of multibeam echosounder systems, however, enables these instruments to achieve very high performances also in such shallow environments. In this work, we present results and case studies of an extensive multibeam survey carried out in the Lagoon of Venice in 2013. The Lagoon of Venice is the biggest lagoon in the Mediterranean Sea with a surface of about 550 km2 and with an average depth of about 1 m. In the last century, the morphological and ecological properties of the lagoon changed dramatically: the surface of the salt marshes was reduced by 60% and some parts of the lagoon are deepening with a net sediment flux exiting from the inlets. Moreover, major engineering interventions are currently ongoing at the inlets (MOSE project). These changes at the inlets could affect substantially the lagoon environment. To understand and monitor the future evolution of the Lagoon of Venice, ISMAR within the project RITMARE (a National Research Programme funded by the Italian Ministry of University and Research) carried out an extensive survey, involving a team of more than 25 scientists, to collect high resolution (0.5 m) bathymetry of key study areas such as the tidal inlets and channels. Following a broad

  10. High-resolution seismic reflection surveying with a land streamer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cengiz Tapırdamaz, Mustafa; Cankurtaranlar, Ali; Ergintav, Semih; Kurt, Levent

    2013-04-01

    In this study, newly designed seismic reflection data acquisition array (land streamer) is utilized to image the shallow subsurface. Our acquisition system consist of 24 geophones screwed on iron plates with 2 m spacing, moving on the surface of the earth which are connected with fire hose. Completely original, 4.5 Kg weight iron plates provides satisfactory coupling. This land-streamer system enables rapid and cost effective acquisition of seismic reflection data due to its operational facilities. First test studies were performed using various seismic sources such as a mini-vibro truck, buffalo-gun and hammer. The final fieldwork was performed on a landslide area which was studied before. Data acquisition was carried out on the line that was previously measured by the seismic survey using 5 m geophone and shot spacing. This line was chosen in order to re-image known reflection patterns obtained from the previous field study. Taking penetration depth into consideration, a six-cartridge buffalo-gun was selected as a seismic source to achieve high vertical resolution. Each shot-point drilled 50 cm for gunshots to obtain high resolution source signature. In order to avoid surface waves, the offset distance between the source and the first channel was chosen to be 50 m and the shot spacing was 2 m. These acquisition parameters provided 12 folds at each CDP points. Spatial sampling interval was 1 m at the surface. The processing steps included standard stages such as gain recovery, editing, frequency filtering, CDP sorting, NMO correction, static correction and stacking. Furthermore, surface consistent residual static corrections were applied recursively to improve image quality. 2D F-K filter application was performed to suppress air and surface waves at relatively deep part of the seismic section. Results show that, this newly designed, high-resolution land seismic data acquisition equipment (land-streamer) can be successfully used to image subsurface. Likewise

  11. High Resolution Hurricane Storm Surge and Inundation Modeling (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luettich, R.; Westerink, J. J.

    2010-12-01

    Coastal counties are home to nearly 60% of the U.S. population and industry that accounts for over 16 million jobs and 10% of the U.S. annual gross domestic product. However, these areas are susceptible to some of the most destructive forces in nature, including tsunamis, floods, and severe storm-related hazards. Since 1900, tropical cyclones making landfall on the US Gulf of Mexico Coast have caused more than 9,000 deaths; nearly 2,000 deaths have occurred during the past half century. Tropical cyclone-related adjusted, annualized losses in the US have risen from 1.3 billion from 1949-1989, to 10.1 billion from 1990-1995, and $35.8 billion per year for the period 2001-2005. The risk associated with living and doing business in the coastal areas that are most susceptible to tropical cyclones is exacerbated by rising sea level and changes in the characteristics of severe storms associated with global climate change. In the five years since hurricane Katrina devastated the northern Gulf of Mexico Coast, considerable progress has been made in the development and utilization of high resolution coupled storm surge and wave models. Recent progress will be presented with the ADCIRC + SWAN storm surge and wave models. These tightly coupled models use a common unstructured grid in the horizontal that is capable of covering large areas while also providing high resolution (i.e., base resolution down to 20m plus smaller subgrid scale features such as sea walls and levees) in areas that are subject to surge and inundation. Hydrodynamic friction and overland winds are adjusted to account for local land cover. The models scale extremely well on modern high performance computers allowing rapid turnaround on large numbers of compute cores. The models have been adopted for FEMA National Flood Insurance Program studies, hurricane protection system design and risk analysis, and quasi-operational forecast systems for several regions of the country. They are also being evaluated as

  12. Managing the explosion of high resolution topography in the geosciences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crosby, Christopher; Nandigam, Viswanath; Arrowsmith, Ramon; Phan, Minh; Gross, Benjamin

    2017-04-01

    Centimeter to decimeter-scale 2.5 to 3D sampling of the Earth surface topography coupled with the potential for photorealistic coloring of point clouds and texture mapping of meshes enables a wide range of science applications. Not only is the configuration and state of the surface as imaged valuable, but repeat surveys enable quantification of topographic change (erosion, deposition, and displacement) caused by various geologic processes. We are in an era of ubiquitous point clouds that come from both active sources such as laser scanners and radar as well as passive scene reconstruction via structure from motion (SfM) photogrammetry. With the decreasing costs of high-resolution topography (HRT) data collection, via methods such as SfM and UAS-based laser scanning, the number of researchers collecting these data is increasing. These "long-tail" topographic data are of modest size but great value, and challenges exist to making them widely discoverable, shared, annotated, cited, managed and archived. Presently, there are no central repositories or services to support storage and curation of these datasets. The U.S. National Science Foundation funded OpenTopography (OT) Facility employs cyberinfrastructure including large-scale data management, high-performance computing, and service-oriented architectures, to provide efficient online access to large HRT (mostly lidar) datasets, metadata, and processing tools. With over 225 datasets and 15,000 registered users, OT is well positioned to provide curation for community collected high-resolution topographic data. OT has developed a "Community DataSpace", a service built on a low cost storage cloud (e.g. AWS S3) to make it easy for researchers to upload, curate, annotate and distribute their datasets. The system's ingestion workflow will extract metadata from data uploaded; validate it; assign a digital object identifier (DOI); and create a searchable catalog entry, before publishing via the OT portal. The OT Community

  13. A High Resolution TDI CCD Camera forMicrosatellite (HRCM)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hao, Yuncai; Zheng, You; Dong, Ying; Li, Tao; Yu, Shijie

    In resent years it is a important development direction in the commercial remote sensing field to obtain (1-5)m high ground resolution from space using microsatellite. Thanks to progress of new technologies, new materials and new detectors it is possible to develop 1m ground resolution space imaging system with weight less than 20kg. Based on many years works on optical system design a project of very high resolution TDI CCD camera using in space was proposed by the authors of this paper. The performance parameters and optical lay-out of the HRCM was presented. A compact optical design and results analysis for the system was given in the paper also. and small fold mirror to take a line field of view usable for TDI CCD and short outer size. The length along the largest size direction is about 1/4 of the focal length. And two 4096X96(grades) line TDI CCD will be used as the focal plane detector. The special optical parts are fixed near before the final image for getting the ground pixel resolution higher than the Nyquist resolution of the detector using the sub-pixel technique which will be explained in the paper. In the system optical SiC will be used as the mirror material, the C-C composite material will be used as the material of the mechanical structure framework. The circle frame of the primary and secondary mirrors will use one time turning on a machine tool in order to assuring concentric request for alignment of the system. In general the HRCM have the performance parameters with 2.5m focal length, 20 FOV, 1/11relative aperture, (0.4-0.8) micrometer spectral range, 10 micron pixel size of TDI CCD, weight less than 20kg, 1m ground pixel resolution at flying orbit 500km high. Design and analysis of the HRCM put up in the paper indicate that HRCM have many advantages to use it in space. Keywords High resolution TDI CCD Sub-pixel imaging Light-weighted optical system SiC mirror

  14. High Resolution Digital Elevation Models of Pristine Explosion Craters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Farr, T. G.; Krabill, W.; Garvin, J. B.

    2004-01-01

    In order to effectively capture a realistic terrain applicable to studies of cratering processes and landing hazards on Mars, we have obtained high resolution digital elevation models of several pristine explosion craters at the Nevada Test Site. We used the Airborne Terrain Mapper (ATM), operated by NASA's Wallops Flight Facility to obtain DEMs with 1 m spacing and 10 cm vertical errors of 4 main craters and many other craters and collapse pits. The main craters that were mapped are Sedan, Scooter, Schooner, and Danny Boy. The 370 m diameter Sedan crater, located on Yucca Flat, is the largest and freshest explosion crater on Earth that was formed under conditions similar to hypervelocity impact cratering. As such, it is effectively pristine, having been formed in 1962 as a result of a controlled detonation of a 100 kiloton thermonuclear device, buried at the appropriate equivalent depth of burst required to make a simple crater. Sedan was formed in alluvium of mixed lithology and subsequently studied using a variety of field-based methods. Nearby secondary craters were also formed at the time and were also mapped by ATM. Adjacent to Sedan and also in alluvium is Scooter, about 90 m in diameter and formed by a high-explosive event. Schooner (240 m) and Danny Boy (80 m) craters were also important targets for ATM as they were excavated in hard basalt and therefore have much rougher ejecta. This will allow study of ejecta patterns in hard rock as well as engineering tests of crater and rock avoidance and rover trafficability. In addition to the high resolution DEMs, crater geometric characteristics, RMS roughness maps, and other higher-order derived data products will be generated using these data. These will provide constraints for models of landing hazards on Mars and for rover trafficability. Other planned studies will include ejecta size-frequency distribution at the resolution of the DEM and at finer resolution through air photography and field measurements

  15. Impervious surfaces mapping using high resolution satellite imagery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shirmeen, Tahmina

    In recent years, impervious surfaces have emerged not only as an indicator of the degree of urbanization, but also as an indicator of environmental quality. As impervious surface area increases, storm water runoff increases in velocity, quantity, temperature and pollution load. Any of these attributes can contribute to the degradation of natural hydrology and water quality. Various image processing techniques have been used to identify the impervious surfaces, however, most of the existing impervious surface mapping tools used moderate resolution imagery. In this project, the potential of standard image processing techniques to generate impervious surface data for change detection analysis using high-resolution satellite imagery was evaluated. The city of Oxford, MS was selected as the study site for this project. Standard image processing techniques, including Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI), Principal Component Analysis (PCA), a combination of NDVI and PCA, and image classification algorithms, were used to generate impervious surfaces from multispectral IKONOS and QuickBird imagery acquired in both leaf-on and leaf-off conditions. Accuracy assessments were performed, using truth data generated by manual classification, with Kappa statistics and Zonal statistics to select the most appropriate image processing techniques for impervious surface mapping. The performance of selected image processing techniques was enhanced by incorporating Soil Brightness Index (SBI) and Greenness Index (GI) derived from Tasseled Cap Transformed (TCT) IKONOS and QuickBird imagery. A time series of impervious surfaces for the time frame between 2001 and 2007 was made using the refined image processing techniques to analyze the changes in IS in Oxford. It was found that NDVI and the combined NDVI--PCA methods are the most suitable image processing techniques for mapping impervious surfaces in leaf-off and leaf-on conditions respectively, using high resolution multispectral

  16. Immersion Gratings for Infrared High-resolution Spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sarugaku, Yuki; Ikeda, Yuji; Kobayashi, Naoto; Kaji, Sayumi; Sukegawa, Takashi; Sugiyama, Shigeru; Nakagawa, Takao; Arasaki, Takayuki; Kondo, Sohei; Nakanishi, Kenshi; Yasui, Chikako; Kawakita, Hideyo

    2016-10-01

    High-resolution spectroscopy in the infrared wavelength range is essential for observations of minor isotopologues, such as HDO for water, and prebiotic organic molecules like hydrocarbons/P-bearing molecules because numerous vibrational molecular bands (including non-polar molecules) are located in this wavelength range. High spectral resolution enables us to detect weak lines without spectral line confusion. This technique has been widely used in planetary sciences, e.g., cometary coma (H2O, CO, and organic molecules), the martian atmosphere (CH4, CO2, H2O and HDO), and the upper atmosphere of gas giants (H3+ and organic molecules such as C2H6). Spectrographs with higher resolution (and higher sensitivity) still have a potential to provide a plenty of findings. However, because the size of spectrographs scales with the spectral resolution, it is difficult to realize it.Immersion grating (IG), which is a diffraction grating wherein the diffraction surface is immersed in a material with a high refractive index (n > 2), provides n times higher spectral resolution compared to a reflective grating of the same size. Because IG reduces the size of spectrograph to 1/n compared to the spectrograph with the same spectral resolution using a conventional reflective grating, it is widely acknowledged as a key optical device to realize compact spectrographs with high spectral resolution.Recently, we succeeded in fabricating a CdZnTe immersion grating with the theoretically predicted diffraction efficiency by machining process using an ultrahigh-precision five-axis processing machine developed by Canon Inc. Using the same technique, we completed a practical germanium (Ge) immersion grating with both a reflection coating on the grating surface and the an AR coating on the entrance surface. It is noteworthy that the wide wavelength range from 2 to 20 um can be covered by the two immersion gratings.In this paper, we present the performances and the applications of the immersion

  17. Precision cosmology with time delay lenses: High resolution imaging requirements

    SciTech Connect

    Meng, Xiao -Lei; Treu, Tommaso; Agnello, Adriano

    Lens time delays are a powerful probe of cosmology, provided that the gravitational potential of the main deflector can be modeled with sufficient precision. Recent work has shown that this can be achieved by detailed modeling of the host galaxies of lensed quasars, which appear as ``Einstein Rings'' in high resolution images. The distortion of these arcs and counter-arcs, as measured over a large number of pixels, provides tight constraints on the difference between the gravitational potential between the quasar image positions, and thus on cosmology in combination with the measured time delay. We carry out a systematic exploration ofmore » the high resolution imaging required to exploit the thousands of lensed quasars that will be discovered by current and upcoming surveys with the next decade. Specifically, we simulate realistic lens systems as imaged by the Hubble Space Telescope (HST), James Webb Space Telescope (JWST), and ground based adaptive optics images taken with Keck or the Thirty Meter Telescope (TMT). We compare the performance of these pointed observations with that of images taken by the Euclid (VIS), Wide-Field Infrared Survey Telescope (WFIRST) and Large Synoptic Survey Telescope (LSST) surveys. We use as our metric the precision with which the slope γ' of the total mass density profile ρ tot∝ r–γ' for the main deflector can be measured. Ideally, we require that the statistical error on γ' be less than 0.02, such that it is subdominant to other sources of random and systematic uncertainties. We find that survey data will likely have sufficient depth and resolution to meet the target only for the brighter gravitational lens systems, comparable to those discovered by the SDSS survey. For fainter systems, that will be discovered by current and future surveys, targeted follow-up will be required. Furthermore, the exposure time required with upcoming facilitites such as JWST, the Keck Next Generation Adaptive Optics System, and TMT, will

  18. Precision cosmology with time delay lenses: high resolution imaging requirements

    SciTech Connect

    Meng, Xiao-Lei; Liao, Kai; Treu, Tommaso

    Lens time delays are a powerful probe of cosmology, provided that the gravitational potential of the main deflector can be modeled with sufficient precision. Recent work has shown that this can be achieved by detailed modeling of the host galaxies of lensed quasars, which appear as ''Einstein Rings'' in high resolution images. The distortion of these arcs and counter-arcs, as measured over a large number of pixels, provides tight constraints on the difference between the gravitational potential between the quasar image positions, and thus on cosmology in combination with the measured time delay. We carry out a systematic exploration ofmore » the high resolution imaging required to exploit the thousands of lensed quasars that will be discovered by current and upcoming surveys with the next decade. Specifically, we simulate realistic lens systems as imaged by the Hubble Space Telescope (HST), James Webb Space Telescope (JWST), and ground based adaptive optics images taken with Keck or the Thirty Meter Telescope (TMT). We compare the performance of these pointed observations with that of images taken by the Euclid (VIS), Wide-Field Infrared Survey Telescope (WFIRST) and Large Synoptic Survey Telescope (LSST) surveys. We use as our metric the precision with which the slope γ' of the total mass density profile ρ{sub tot}∝ r{sup −γ'} for the main deflector can be measured. Ideally, we require that the statistical error on γ' be less than 0.02, such that it is subdominant to other sources of random and systematic uncertainties. We find that survey data will likely have sufficient depth and resolution to meet the target only for the brighter gravitational lens systems, comparable to those discovered by the SDSS survey. For fainter systems, that will be discovered by current and future surveys, targeted follow-up will be required. However, the exposure time required with upcoming facilitites such as JWST, the Keck Next Generation Adaptive Optics System, and TMT

  19. High-resolution sequence stratigraphy and continental environmental evolution: An example from east-central Argentina

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beilinson, Elisa; Veiga, Gonzalo D.; Spalletti, Luis A.

    2013-10-01

    The aims of this contribution is to establish a high-resolution sequence stratigraphic scheme for the continental deposits that constitute the Punta San Andrés Alloformation (Plio-Pleistocene) in east-central Argentina, to analyze the basin fill evolution and to identify and assess the role that extrinsic factors such as climate and sea-level oscillations played during evolution of the unit. For the high-resolution sequence stratigraphical study of the Punta San Andrés Alloformation, high- and low-accommodation system tracts were defined mainly on the basis of the architectural elements present in the succession, also taking into account the relative degree of channel and floodplain deposits. Discontinuities and the nature of depositional systems generated during variations in accommodation helped identify two fourth-order high-accommodation system tracts and two fourth-order low-accommodation system tracts. At a third-order scale, the Punta San Andrés Alloformation may be interpreted as the progradation of continental depositional systems, characterized by a braided system in the proximal areas, and a low-sinuosity, single-channel system in the distal areas, defined by a high rate of sediment supply and discharge peaks which periodically flooded the plains and generated high aggradation rates during the late Pliocene and lower Pleistocene.

  20. Monitoring of landslide deformation based on the coherent targets of high resolution InSAR data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fan, Jinghui; Xia, Ye; Zhao, Hongli; Li, Man; Wang, Yi; Guo, Xiaofang; Tu, Pengfei; Liu, Guang; Lin, Hao

    2014-05-01

    Landslides are a kind of typical natural disaster in China, which pose serious threats to civil lives, property and living environment. Therefore, the identification, monitoring and prevention of landslides have been considered as a long-term geological work for the public welfare. In this article, 8 TerraSAR-X high resolution strip-map mode images, acquired in the period from January to March 2012 and covering Fanjinping landslide in Zigui county, Hubei province, were used to test the usability in monitoring the deformation of single landslide. The results of two-pass DInSAR sketched the region and the shape of the deformation field of Fanjiaping landslide. Corner reflectors' linear deformation rate using CRInSAR method could be approximately validated by the in-situ GPS measurements. From the coherent pixels' linear deformation rate map, it was inferred that the deformation could be more obvious in the tail of the Muyubao landslide while the lowest frontier of this landslide might prevent the slide. Due to its shorter revisiting period and high bandwidth,,the high resolution TerraSAR-X images can keep better coherence than previous satellite SAR data in the test area and provide basic guarantee to monitor the deformation of single landslides.

  1. Can Nanofluidic Chemical Release Enable Fast, High Resolution Neurotransmitter-Based Neurostimulation?

    PubMed

    Jones, Peter D; Stelzle, Martin

    2016-01-01

    Artificial chemical stimulation could provide improvements over electrical neurostimulation. Physiological neurotransmission between neurons relies on the nanoscale release and propagation of specific chemical signals to spatially-localized receptors. Current knowledge of nanoscale fluid dynamics and nanofluidic technology allows us to envision artificial mechanisms to achieve fast, high resolution neurotransmitter release. Substantial technological development is required to reach this goal. Nanofluidic technology-rather than microfluidic-will be necessary; this should come as no surprise given the nanofluidic nature of neurotransmission. This perspective reviews the state of the art of high resolution electrical neuroprostheses and their anticipated limitations. Chemical release rates from nanopores are compared to rates achieved at synapses and with iontophoresis. A review of microfluidic technology justifies the analysis that microfluidic control of chemical release would be insufficient. Novel nanofluidic mechanisms are discussed, and we propose that hydrophobic gating may allow control of chemical release suitable for mimicking neurotransmission. The limited understanding of hydrophobic gating in artificial nanopores and the challenges of fabrication and large-scale integration of nanofluidic components are emphasized. Development of suitable nanofluidic technology will require dedicated, long-term efforts over many years.

  2. High resolution production water footprints of the United States

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marston, L.; Yufei, A.; Konar, M.; Mekonnen, M.; Hoekstra, A. Y.

    2017-12-01

    The United States is the largest producer and consumer of goods and services in the world. Rainfall, surface water supplies, and groundwater aquifers represent a fundamental input to this economic production. Despite the importance of water resources to economic activity, we do not have consistent information on water use for specific locations and economic sectors. A national, high-resolution database of water use by sector would provide insight into US utilization and dependence on water resources for economic production. To this end, we calculate the water footprint of over 500 food, energy, mining, services, and manufacturing industries and goods produced in the US. To do this, we employ a data intensive approach that integrates water footprint and input-output techniques into a novel methodological framework. This approach enables us to present the most detailed and comprehensive water footprint analysis of any country to date. This study broadly contributes to our understanding of water in the US economy, enables supply chain managers to assess direct and indirect water dependencies, and provides opportunities to reduce water use through benchmarking.

  3. High resolution spectroscopic study of Be Λ 10

    DOE PAGES

    Gogami, T.; Chen, C.; Kawama, D.; ...

    2016-03-10

    Spectroscopy of amore » $$^{10}_{\\Lambda}$$Be hypernucleus was carried out at JLab Hall C using the $$(e,e^{\\prime}K^{+})$$ reaction. A new magnetic spectrometer system (SPL+HES+HKS), specifically designed for high resolution hypernuclear spectroscopy, was used to obtain an energy spectrum with a resolution of 0.78 MeV (FWHM). The well-calibrated spectrometer system of the present experiment using the $$p(e,e^{\\prime}K^{+})\\Lambda,\\Sigma^{0}$$ reactions allowed us to determine the energy levels, and the binding energy of the ground state peak (mixture of 1$$^{-}$$ and 2$$^{-}$$ states) was obtained to be B$$_{\\Lambda}$$=8.55$$\\pm$$0.07(stat.)$$\\pm$$0.11(sys.) MeV. Furthermore, the result indicates that the ground state energy is shallower than that of an emulsion study by about 0.5 MeV which provides valuable experimental information on charge symmetry breaking effect in the $$\\Lambda N$$ interaction.« less

  4. High-Resolution Spectroscopy of the Lunar Sodium Exosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mierkiewicz, E. J.; Oliversen, R. J.; Roesler, F. L.; Lupie, O. L.

    2014-01-01

    We have applied high-resolution Fabry-Perot spectroscopy to the study of the lunar sodium exosphere for the study of exospheric effective temperature and velocity variations. Observing from the National Solar Observatory McMath-Pierce Telescope, we used a dual-etalon Fabry-Perot spectrometer with a resolving power of 180,000 to measure line widths and Doppler shifts of the sodium D2 (5889.95 Å) emission line. Our field of view was 360 km, and measurements were made in equatorial and polar regions from 500 km to 3500 km off the limb. Data were obtained from full moon to 3 days following full moon (waning phase) in March 2009. Measured Doppler line widths within 1100 km of the sunlit east and south lunar limbs for observations between 5 and 40 deg lunar phase imply effective temperatures ranging between 3260 +/- 190 and 1000 +/- 135 K. Preliminary line center analysis indicates velocity displacements between different locations off the lunar limb ranging between 100 and 600 m/s from the lunar rest velocity with a precision of +/-20 to +/-50 m/s depending on brightness. Based on the success of these exploratory observations, an extensive program has been initiated that is expected to constrain lunar atmospheric and surface-process modeling and help quantify source and escape mechanisms.

  5. Southeast Georgia embayment high-resolution seismic-reflection survey

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Edsall, Douglas W.

    1979-01-01

    A high-resolution seismic survey of the offshore part of the Southeast Georgia Embayment on about a 20 km spacing was completed in 1976. A stratigraphic analyses of the data shows that the largest controlling factor in the depositional history of the shelf has been the Gulf Stream. These currents have shifted back and forth across the shelf, at times incising into shelf sediments, and at all times blocking much of the accumulation of Cenozoic sediments seaward of the Florida-Hatteras Slope. In the southern region the Gulf Stream maintained its present position since Miocene time, blocking the accumulation of Pliocene and younger rocks on the Plateau. Northward, in the middle, region the currents turned slightly to the northeast. The inner portion of the Blake Plateau has been scoured of sediments since the Paleocene in this area, and scouring has also occurred on the shelf from time to time. In the northern part of the survey area a more easterly flow of the Gulf Stream has allowed Eocene and younger rocks to be deposited on the Plateau. Line drawings and a geologic map show the distribution of the various Cretaceous and Cenozoic units. A number of potential environmental hazards or constraints to petroleum development seen in the reflection data are identified. Besides current scour and erosion features, these include gravity faults on the slope, a slump, faulting on the inner Blake Plateau, the shelf edge reef, and deep water reefs on the Blake Plateau.

  6. In situ high-resolution thermal microscopy on integrated circuits.

    PubMed

    Zhuo, Guan-Yu; Su, Hai-Ching; Wang, Hsien-Yi; Chan, Ming-Che

    2017-09-04

    The miniaturization of metal tracks in integrated circuits (ICs) can cause abnormal heat dissipation, resulting in electrostatic discharge, overvoltage breakdown, and other unwanted issues. Unfortunately, locating areas of abnormal heat dissipation is limited either by the spatial resolution or imaging acquisition speed of current thermal analytical techniques. A rapid, non-contact approach to the thermal imaging of ICs with sub-μm resolution could help to alleviate this issue. In this work, based on the intensity of the temperature-dependent two-photon fluorescence (TPF) of Rhodamine 6G (R6G) material, we developed a novel fast and non-invasive thermal microscopy with a sub-μm resolution. Its application to the location of hotspots that may evolve into thermally induced defects in ICs was also demonstrated. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study to present high-resolution 2D thermal microscopic images of ICs, showing the generation, propagation, and distribution of heat during its operation. According to the demonstrated results, this scheme has considerable potential for future in situ hotspot analysis during the optimization stage of IC development.

  7. Morphology of Shatsky Rise oceanic plateau from high resolution bathymetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Jinchang; Sager, William W.; Durkin, William J.

    2017-06-01

    Newly collected, high resolution multi-beam sonar data are combined with previous bathymetry data to produce an improved bathymetric map of Shatsky Rise oceanic plateau. Bathymetry data show that two massifs within Shatsky Rise are immense central volcanoes with gentle flank slopes declining from a central summit. Tamu Massif is a slightly elongated, dome-like volcanic edifice; Ori Massif is square shaped and smaller in area. Several down-to-basin normal faults are observed on the western flank of the massifs but they do not parallel the magnetic lineations, indicating that these faults are probably not related to spreading ridge faulting. Moreover, the faults are observed only on one side of the massifs, which is contrary to expectations from a mechanism of differential subsidence around the massif center. Multi-beam data show many small secondary cones with different shapes and sizes that are widely-distributed on Shatsky Rise massifs, which imply small late-stage magma sources scattered across the surface of the volcanoes in the form of lava flows or explosive volcanism. Erosional channels occur on the flanks of Shatsky Rise volcanoes due to mass wasting and display evidence of down-slope sediment movement. These channels are likely formed by sediments spalling off the edges of summit sediment cap.

  8. Specimen preparation for high-resolution cryo-EM

    PubMed Central

    Passmore, Lori A.; Russo, Christopher J.

    2016-01-01

    Imaging a material with electrons at near-atomic resolution requires a thin specimen that is stable in the vacuum of the transmission electron microscope. For biological samples, this comprises a thin layer of frozen aqueous solution containing the biomolecular complex of interest. The process of preparing a high-quality specimen is often the limiting step in the determination of structures by single-particle electron cryomicroscopy (cryo-EM). Here we describe a systematic approach for going from a purified biomolecular complex in aqueous solution to high-resolution electron micrographs that are suitable for 3D structure determination. This includes a series of protocols for the preparation of vitrified specimens on various specimen supports, including all-gold and graphene. We also describe techniques for troubleshooting when a preparation fails to yield suitable specimens, and common mistakes to avoid during each part of the process. Finally, we include recommendations for obtaining the highest quality micrographs from prepared specimens with current microscope, detector and support technology. PMID:27572723

  9. Pluto's atmosphere in 2015 from high-resolution spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roe, Henry G.; Cook, Jason C.; Mace, Gregory N.; Holler, Bryan J.; Young, Leslie A.; McLane, Jacob N.; Jaffe, Daniel T.

    2015-11-01

    Pluto's thin N2/CH4 atmosphere is in vapor-pressure equilibrium with ices on its surface. The atmosphere evolves seasonally with the varying insolation pattern on Pluto's heterogenous surface, perhaps even largely freezing out to the surface during the coldest portion of Pluto's year. We use high-resolution (R≈25,000-50,000) near-infrared spectroscopy to resolve atmospheric methane absorption lines from Pluto's continuum spectra, as well as separate Pluto's atmospheric lines from the telluric spectrum. In addition to measuring the abundance and temperature of Pluto's atmospheric CH4, with broad wavelength coverage we are able to search for the inevitable products of N2/CH4 photochemistry. In 2015 we are undertaking an intensive campaign using NIRSPEC at Keck Observatory and IGRINS (Immersion Grating INfrared Spectrometer) at McDonald Observatory to coincide with the New Horizons Pluto encounter. We will report initial results from this 2015 campaign and compare the state of Pluto's atmosphere at the time of the New Horizons encounter with earlier years.

  10. High-resolution multimodal clinical multiphoton tomography of skin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    König, Karsten

    2011-03-01

    This review focuses on multimodal multiphoton tomography based on near infrared femtosecond lasers. Clinical multiphoton tomographs for 3D high-resolution in vivo imaging have been placed into the market several years ago. The second generation of this Prism-Award winning High-Tech skin imaging tool (MPTflex) was introduced in 2010. The same year, the world's first clinical CARS studies have been performed with a hybrid multimodal multiphoton tomograph. In particular, non-fluorescent lipids and water as well as mitochondrial fluorescent NAD(P)H, fluorescent elastin, keratin, and melanin as well as SHG-active collagen has been imaged with submicron resolution in patients suffering from psoriasis. Further multimodal approaches include the combination of multiphoton tomographs with low-resolution wide-field systems such as ultrasound, optoacoustical, OCT, and dermoscopy systems. Multiphoton tomographs are currently employed in Australia, Japan, the US, and in several European countries for early diagnosis of skin cancer, optimization of treatment strategies, and cosmetic research including long-term testing of sunscreen nanoparticles as well as anti-aging products.

  11. WINERED: a warm near-infrared high-resolution spectrograph

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ikeda, Yuji; Kobayashi, Naoto; Kondo, Sohei; Yasui, Chikako; Motohara, Kentaro; Minami, Atsushi

    2006-06-01

    We are developing a new near-infrared high-resolution (R max = 100,000) and high-sensitive spectrograph WINERED, which is specifically customized for short NIR bands at 0.9-1.35 μm. WINERED employs the following two novel approaches in the optical system: (1) portable design with a ZnSe immersion grating and (2) warm optics without any cold stops. These concepts result in several essential advantages as follows: easy to build, align, and maintain; these result in a short development time and low cost. WINERED employs a VIRGO HgCdTe 2k × 2k array by Raytheon as the detector. We are developing our own array control system that aims at a low readout noise (< 10 e -) with a readout time of about 3 sec. Our goal is to achieve a high sensitivity of R = 100,000 for a NIR spectroscopy of 15 mag and 17 mag point sources with 4 m and 10 m telescopes, respectively. We have just finalized the optical design and produced a prototype electronics, which are described in the companion papers by Yasui et al. and Kondo et al., respectively. We plan to complete this instrument by the end of 2008 and hope to attach it to various 4 to 10 m telescopes as a PI-type instrument.

  12. High-resolution radon monitoring and hydrodynamics at Mount Vesuvius

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cigolini, Corrado; Salierno, Francesco; Gervino, Gianpiero; Bergese, Paolo; Marino, Ciro; Russo, Massimo; Prati, Paolo; Ariola, Vincenzo; Bonetti, Roberto; Begnini, Stefania

    A yearlong high-resolution radon survey has been carried on at Mount Vesuvius, starting in May 1998. Radon activities were acquired by exposing charcoal canisters and track-etch detectors. Sampling stations were deployed along two major summit faults and around the caldera bottom. Volcanically-related earthquakes, with MD ≥ 2.5, may be discriminated from regional seismic events since their cumulative radon anomalies are recorded from stations located along all the above structural features. On the contrary, radon anomalies correlated to regional earthquakes, with MD ≥ 4, are essentially recorded by the sampling sites located along the two summit faults (whose roots extend deeper into the Tertiary basement rocks that underlay the volcano). Radon migration to the surface is ruled by convection within a porous medium of relatively low porosity (ϕ ≈ 10-5), suggesting that fluid motion is strongly localised along fractures. It is suggested that fluid pressure build up, followed by fluid release and migration during incipient fracturing of the porous medium, precede the onset of volcanically-induced earthquakes.

  13. High-Resolution Rotational Spectroscopy of a Molecular Rotary Motor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Domingos, Sergio R.; Cnossen, Arjen; Perez, Cristobal; Buma, Wybren Jan; Browne, Wesley R.; Feringa, Ben L.; Schnell, Melanie

    2017-06-01

    To develop synthetic molecular motors and machinery that can mimic their biological counterparts has become a stimulating quest in modern synthetic chemistry. Gas phase studies of these simpler synthetic model systems provide the necessary isolated conditions that facilitate the elucidation of their structural intricacies. We report the first high-resolution rotational study of a synthetic molecular rotary motor based on chiral overcrowded alkenes using chirp-pulsed Fourier transform microwave spectroscopy. Rotational constants and quartic centrifugal distortion constants were determined based on a fit using more than two hundred rotational transitions spanning 5≤J≤21 in the 2-4 GHz frequency range. Despite the lack of polar groups, the rotor's asymmetry produces strong a- and b-type rotational transitions arising from a single predominant conformer. Evidence for fragmentation of the rotor allows for unambiguous identification of the isolated rotor components. The experimental spectroscopic parameters of the rotor are compared and discussed against current high-level ab initio and density functional theory methods. Vicario et al. Chem. Commun., 5910-5912 (2005) Brown et al. Rev. Sci. Instrum., 79, 053103 (2008)

  14. High resolution monitoring system for IRE stack releases.

    PubMed

    Deconninck, B; De Lellis, C

    2013-11-01

    The main activity of IRE (Institute for Radio-Element) is radioisotope production of bulk (99)Mo and (131)I for medical application (diagnosis and therapy). Those isotopes are chemically extracted from HEU (High Enriched Uranium) targets activated in reactors. During this process, fission products are released from the targets, including noble gases isotopes (Xe and Kr). Like any nuclear plant, IRE has release limits which are given by the Belgium authority and moreover IRE is in the process of continuously reducing the level of its releases. To achieve this mission, the need of an accurate tool is necessary and IRE has developed a specific monitoring system using a high resolution detector in order to identify and accurately estimate its gaseous releases. This system has a continuous air sampling system in the plant main stack. The sampled gases cross charcoal cartridges where they are slowed down and concentrated for higher detection efficiency. In front of those cartridges is installed an HPGe detector with a detection chain connected to a specific analysis system allowing on-line spectrum analysis. Each isotope can be separately followed without interferences, especially during the production process where high activity can be released. Due to its conception, the system also allows to measure iodine isotopes by integration on the charcoal cartridges. This device is of great help for accurately estimate IRE releases and to help for understanding specific releases and their origin in the production or maintenance process. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. High Resolution Melting (HRM) applied to wine authenticity.

    PubMed

    Pereira, Leonor; Gomes, Sónia; Castro, Cláudia; Eiras-Dias, José Eduardo; Brazão, João; Graça, António; Fernandes, José R; Martins-Lopes, Paula

    2017-02-01

    Wine authenticity methods are in increasing demand mainly in Denomination of Origin designations. The DNA-based methodologies are a reliable means of tracking food/wine varietal composition. The main aim of this work was the study of High Resolution Melting (HRM) application as a screening method for must and wine authenticity. Three sample types (leaf, must and wine) were used to validate the three developed HRM assays (Vv1-705bp; Vv2-375bp; and Vv3-119bp). The Vv1 HRM assay was only successful when applied to leaf and must samples. The Vv2 HRM assay successfully amplified all sample types, allowing genotype discrimination based on melting temperature values. The smallest amplicon, Vv3, produced a coincident melting curve shape in all sample types (leaf and wine) with corresponding genotypes. This study presents sensitive, rapid and efficient HRM assays applied for the first time to wine samples suitable for wine authenticity purposes. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Canine serum protein patterns using high-resolution electrophoresis (HRE).

    PubMed

    Abate, O; Zanatta, R; Malisano, T; Dotta, U

    2000-03-01

    Serum protein values were determined in 26 healthy dogs using agarose gel electrophoresis (SPE), splitting the electrophoretic separation into six regions: albumin, alpha(1), alpha(2), beta(1), beta(2)and gamma globulins. High-resolution electrophoresis (HRE) was used to separate single proteins. Serum proteins from dogs (26 healthy and 20 affected by various diseases) were then characterized by electrophoretic immunofixation (IFE) and Sudan black staining on HRE film. Haemoglobin and normal canine plasma and serum were used to identify haptoglobin and fibrinogen, respectively. In the standard pattern, determined by HRE, the following proteins were identified: albumin, alpha(1)-lipoprotein (alpha(1)-region), haptoglobin and alpha(2)-macroglobulin (alpha(2)-region), beta -lipoprotein and C3 (beta(1)-region), transferrin and IgM (beta(2)-region), IgG (mostly in gamma -region and partly in beta(2)-region). The HRE pattern shown by healthy dogs could be compared with those of dogs affected by various diseases to obtain clinical information. Copyright 2000 Harcourt Publishers Ltd.

  17. High resolution photoemission investigation: The oxidation of W

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morar, J. F.; Himpsel, F. J.; Hughes, G. J.; Jordan, J. L.; McFeely, F. R.; Hollinge, G.

    High resolution photoemission measurements of surface oxide layers on tungsten has revealed a set of well resolved core level shifts characteristic of individual metal oxidation states. Measurement and analysis of this type of data can provide specific and quantitative chemical information about surface oxides. The formation of bonds between transition metals and strongly electronegative elements such as oxygen and fluorine results in charge transfer with the effect of shifting the metal core electron binding energies. The magnitude of such shifts depends primarily on two factors; the amount of charge transfer and the screening ability of the metals electrons. The size of core-level shifts tend to increase with additional charge transfer and be decreased by screening. In the case of tungsten the amount of screening should be a function of oxygen content since the oxygen ties up free electrons which are effective at screening. A continuous change in the tungsten core level shifts is observed with increasing oxygen content, i.e., as the screening changes from that characteristic of a metal screened to that characteristic of an insulator unscreened.

  18. High-resolution characterization of a hepatocellular carcinoma genome.

    PubMed

    Totoki, Yasushi; Tatsuno, Kenji; Yamamoto, Shogo; Arai, Yasuhito; Hosoda, Fumie; Ishikawa, Shumpei; Tsutsumi, Shuichi; Sonoda, Kohtaro; Totsuka, Hirohiko; Shirakihara, Takuya; Sakamoto, Hiromi; Wang, Linghua; Ojima, Hidenori; Shimada, Kazuaki; Kosuge, Tomoo; Okusaka, Takuji; Kato, Kazuto; Kusuda, Jun; Yoshida, Teruhiko; Aburatani, Hiroyuki; Shibata, Tatsuhiro

    2011-05-01

    Hepatocellular carcinoma, one of the most common virus-associated cancers, is the third most frequent cause of cancer-related death worldwide. By massively parallel sequencing of a primary hepatitis C virus-positive hepatocellular carcinoma (36× coverage) and matched lymphocytes (>28× coverage) from the same individual, we identified more than 11,000 somatic substitutions of the tumor genome that showed predominance of T>C/A>G transition and a decrease of the T>C substitution on the transcribed strand, suggesting preferential DNA repair. Gene annotation enrichment analysis of 63 validated non-synonymous substitutions revealed enrichment of phosphoproteins. We further validated 22 chromosomal rearrangements, generating four fusion transcripts that had altered transcriptional regulation (BCORL1-ELF4) or promoter activity. Whole-exome sequencing at a higher sequence depth (>76× coverage) revealed a TSC1 nonsense substitution in a subpopulation of the tumor cells. This first high-resolution characterization of a virus-associated cancer genome identified previously uncharacterized mutation patterns, intra-chromosomal rearrangements and fusion genes, as well as genetic heterogeneity within the tumor.

  19. Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer Normalized Difference Vegetation Index Composites

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    ,

    2005-01-01

    The Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) is a broad-band scanner with four to six bands, depending on the model. The AVHRR senses in the visible, near-, middle-, and thermal- infrared portions of the electromagnetic spectrum. This sensor is carried on a series of National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) Polar Orbiting Environmental Satellites (POES), beginning with the Television InfraRed Observation Satellite (TIROS-N) in 1978. Since 1989, the United States Geological Survey (USGS) Center for Earth Resources Observation and Science (EROS) has been mapping the vegetation condition of the United States and Alaska using satellite information from the AVHRR sensor. The vegetation condition composites, more commonly called greenness maps, are produced every week using the latest information on the growth and condition of the vegetation. One of the most important aspects of USGS greenness mapping is the historical archive of information dating back to 1989. This historical stretch of information has allowed the USGS to determine a 'normal' vegetation condition. As a result, it is possible to compare the current week's vegetation condition with normal vegetation conditions. An above normal condition could indicate wetter or warmer than normal conditions, while a below normal condition could indicate colder or dryer than normal conditions. The interpretation of departure from normal will depend on the season and geography of a region.

  20. Schiaparelli Crater Rim and Interior Deposits - High Resolution Image

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    A portion of the rim and interior of the large impact crater Schiaparelli is seen at high resolution in this image acquired October 18, 1997 by the Mars Global Surveyor Orbiter Camera (MOC). The area covered is very small--3.9 X 10.2 km (2.4 X 6.33 mi)--but is seen at 63 times higher resolution than the Viking image. The subdued relief and bright surface are attributed to blanketing by dust; many small craters have been completely filled in, and only the most recent (and very small) craters appear sharp and bowl-shaped. Some of the small craters are only 10-12 m (30-35 feet) across. Occasional dark streaks on steeper slopes are small debris slides that have probably occurred in the past few decades. The two prominent, narrow ridges in the center of the image may be related to the adjustment of the crater floor to age or the weight of the material filling the basin.

    Malin Space Science Systems (MSSS) and the California Institute of Technology built the MOC using spare hardware from the Mars Observer mission. MSSS operates the camera from its facilities in San Diego, CA. The Jet Propulsion Laboratory's Mars Surveyor Operations Project operates the Mars Global Surveyor spacecraft with its industrial partner, Lockheed Martin Astronautics, from facilities in Pasadena, CA and Denver, CO.