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Sample records for absolute integral cross

  1. Absolute partial photoionization cross sections of ozone.

    SciTech Connect

    Berkowitz, J.; Chemistry

    2008-04-01

    Despite the current concerns about ozone, absolute partial photoionization cross sections for this molecule in the vacuum ultraviolet (valence) region have been unavailable. By eclectic re-evaluation of old/new data and plausible assumptions, such cross sections have been assembled to fill this void.

  2. Absolute photoionization cross sections of atomic oxygen

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Samson, J. A. R.; Pareek, P. N.

    1985-01-01

    The absolute values of photoionization cross sections of atomic oxygen were measured from the ionization threshold to 120 A. An auto-ionizing resonance belonging to the 2S2P4(4P)3P(3Do, 3So) transition was observed at 479.43 A and another line at 389.97 A. The experimental data is in excellent agreement with rigorous close-coupling calculations that include electron correlations in both the initial and final states.

  3. Absolute photoionization cross sections of atomic oxygen

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Samson, J. A. R.; Pareek, P. N.

    1982-01-01

    The absolute values of photoionization cross sections of atomic oxygen were measured from the ionization threshold to 120 A. An auto-ionizing resonance belonging to the 2S2P4(4P)3P(3Do, 3So) transition was observed at 479.43 A and another line at 389.97 A. The experimental data is in excellent agreement with rigorous close-coupling calculations that include electron correlations in both the initial and final states.

  4. Monolithically integrated absolute frequency comb laser system

    DOEpatents

    Wanke, Michael C.

    2016-07-12

    Rather than down-convert optical frequencies, a QCL laser system directly generates a THz frequency comb in a compact monolithically integrated chip that can be locked to an absolute frequency without the need of a frequency-comb synthesizer. The monolithic, absolute frequency comb can provide a THz frequency reference and tool for high-resolution broad band spectroscopy.

  5. Absolute photoneutron cross sections of Sm isotopes

    SciTech Connect

    Gheorghe, I.; Glodariu, T.; Utsunomiya, H.; Filipescu, D.; Nyhus, H.-T.; Renstrom, T.; Tesileanu, O.; Shima, T.; Takahisa, K.; Miyamoto, S.

    2015-02-24

    Photoneutron cross sections for seven samarium isotopes, {sup 144}Sm, {sup 147}Sm, {sup 148}Sm, {sup 149}Sm, {sup 150}Sm, {sup 152}Sm and {sup 154}Sm, have been investigated near neutron emission threshold using quasimonochromatic laser-Compton scattering γ-rays produced at the synchrotron radiation facility NewSUBARU. The results are important for nuclear astrophysics calculations and also for probing γ-ray strength functions in the vicinity of neutron threshold. Here we describe the neutron detection system and we discuss the related data analysis and the necessary method improvements for adapting the current experimental method to the working parameters of the future Gamma Beam System of Extreme Light Infrastructure - Nuclear Physics facility.

  6. Absolute photoionization cross-section of the propargyl radical

    SciTech Connect

    Savee, John D.; Welz, Oliver; Taatjes, Craig A.; Osborn, David L.; Soorkia, Satchin; Selby, Talitha M.

    2012-04-07

    Using synchrotron-generated vacuum-ultraviolet radiation and multiplexed time-resolved photoionization mass spectrometry we have measured the absolute photoionization cross-section for the propargyl (C{sub 3}H{sub 3}) radical, {sigma}{sub propargyl}{sup ion}(E), relative to the known absolute cross-section of the methyl (CH{sub 3}) radical. We generated a stoichiometric 1:1 ratio of C{sub 3}H{sub 3} : CH{sub 3} from 193 nm photolysis of two different C{sub 4}H{sub 6} isomers (1-butyne and 1,3-butadiene). Photolysis of 1-butyne yielded values of {sigma}{sub propargyl}{sup ion}(10.213 eV)=(26.1{+-}4.2) Mb and {sigma}{sub propargyl}{sup ion}(10.413 eV)=(23.4{+-}3.2) Mb, whereas photolysis of 1,3-butadiene yielded values of {sigma}{sub propargyl}{sup ion}(10.213 eV)=(23.6{+-}3.6) Mb and {sigma}{sub propargyl}{sup ion}(10.413 eV)=(25.1{+-}3.5) Mb. These measurements place our relative photoionization cross-section spectrum for propargyl on an absolute scale between 8.6 and 10.5 eV. The cross-section derived from our results is approximately a factor of three larger than previous determinations.

  7. Absolute photoionization cross-section of the methyl radical.

    SciTech Connect

    Taatjes, C. A.; Osborn, D. L.; Selby, T.; Meloni, G.; Fan, H.; Pratt, S. T.; Chemical Sciences and Engineering Division; SNL

    2008-01-01

    The absolute photoionization cross-section of the methyl radical has been measured using two completely independent methods. The CH{sub 3} photoionization cross-section was determined relative to that of acetone and methyl vinyl ketone at photon energies of 10.2 and 11.0 eV by using a pulsed laser-photolysis/time-resolved synchrotron photoionization mass spectrometry method. The time-resolved depletion of the acetone or methyl vinyl ketone precursor and the production of methyl radicals following 193 nm photolysis are monitored simultaneously by using time-resolved synchrotron photoionization mass spectrometry. Comparison of the initial methyl signal with the decrease in precursor signal, in combination with previously measured absolute photoionization cross-sections of the precursors, yields the absolute photoionization cross-section of the methyl radical; {sigma}{sub CH}(10.2 eV) = (5.7 {+-} 0.9) x 10{sup -18} cm{sup 2} and {sigma}{sub CH{sub 3}}(11.0 eV) = (6.0 {+-} 2.0) x 10{sup -18} cm{sup 2}. The photoionization cross-section for vinyl radical determined by photolysis of methyl vinyl ketone is in good agreement with previous measurements. The methyl radical photoionization cross-section was also independently measured relative to that of the iodine atom by comparison of ionization signals from CH{sub 3} and I fragments following 266 nm photolysis of methyl iodide in a molecular-beam ion-imaging apparatus. These measurements gave a cross-section of (5.4 {+-} 2.0) x 10{sup -18} cm{sup 2} at 10.460 eV, (5.5 {+-} 2.0) x 10{sup -18} cm{sup 2} at 10.466 eV, and (4.9 {+-} 2.0) x 10{sup -18} cm{sup 2} at 10.471 eV. The measurements allow relative photoionization efficiency spectra of methyl radical to be placed on an absolute scale and will facilitate quantitative measurements of methyl concentrations by photoionization mass spectrometry.

  8. Absolute doubly differential bremsstrahlung cross sections from rare gas atoms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Portillo, Salvador

    The absolute doubly differential bremsstrahlung cross section has been measured for 28 and 50 keV electrons incident on the rare gases Xe, Kr, Ar and Ne. The cross sections are differential with respect to energy and photon emission. A SiLi solid state detector measured data at 90° with respect to the beam line. A thorough analysis of the experimental systematic error yielded a high degree of confidence in the experimental data. The absolute bremsstrahlung doubly differential cross sections provided for a rigorous test of the normal bremsstrahlung theory, tabulated by Kissel, Quarles and Pratt1 (KQP) and of the SA theory2 that includes the contribution from polarization bremsstrahlung. To test the theories a comparison of the overall magnitude of the cross section as well as comparison of the photon energy dependence was carried out. The KQP theoretical values underestimated the magnitude of the cross section for all targets and for both energies. The SA values were in excellent agreement with the 28 keV data. For the 50keV data the fit was also very good. However, there were energy regions where there was a small discrepancy between the theory and the data. This suggests that the Polarization Bremsstrahlung (PB) mechanism does contribute to the overall spectrum and is detectable in this parameter space. 1Kissel, L., Quarles, C. A., Pratt, R. H., Atom. Data Nucl. Data Tables 28, 381 (1983). 2Avdonina N. B., Pratt, R. H., J. Phys. B: At. Mol. Opt. Phys. 32 4261 (1999).

  9. Absolute photoionization cross sections of the ions Ca+ Ni+

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hansen, J. E.; Kjeldsen, H.; Folkmann, F.; Martins, M.; West, J. B.

    2007-01-01

    Absolute measurements of the photoionization cross sections of the singly charged ions in the sequence Ca to Ni are presented, focussing on the 3p → 3d resonance region. Major differences are found in both spectral structure and cross section as the 3d shell is filled progressively. The behaviour of the total oscillator strength is studied as well as its relation to the collapse of the 3d orbital. The 3p53d 1P term is found to have an influence on the spectra even when further 3d electrons are added and this dependence combined with the effect of Hund's rule leads to a considerable simplification in the structure of the absorption spectra before the half-filled 3d shell, while from the half-filled 3d shell Hund's rule is the main simplifying effect.

  10. Absolute elastic differential electron scattering cross sections for He - A proposed calibration standard from 5 to 200 eV

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Register, D. F.; Trajmar, S.; Srivastava, S. K.

    1980-01-01

    Absolute differential, integral, and momentum-transfer cross sections for electrons elastically scattered from helium are reported for the impact energy range of 5 to 200 eV. Angular distributions for elastically scattered electrons are measured in a crossed-beam geometry using a collimated, differentially pumped atomic-beam source which requires no effective-path-length correction. Below the first inelastic threshold the angular distributions were placed on an absolute scale by use of a phase-shift analysis. Above this threshold, the angular distributions from 10 to 140 deg were fitted using the phase-shift technique, and the resulting integral cross sections were normalized to a semiempirically derived integral elastic cross section. Depending on the impact energy, the data are estimated to be accurate to within 5 to 9%.

  11. Beam Elements with Trapezoidal Cross Section Deformation Modes Based on the Absolute Nodal Coordinate Formulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matikainen, Marko K.; Dmitrochenko, Oleg; Mikkola, Aki

    2010-09-01

    In this study, higher order beam elements are developed based on the absolute nodal coordinate formulation. The absolute nodal coordinate formulation is a finite element procedure that was recently proposed for flexible multibody applications. Many different elements based on the absolute nodal coordinate formulation are introduced, but still the beam elements are not able to describe the trapezoidal cross section mode. This leads to the locking phenomena, and therefore, the beam elements based on the absolute nodal coordinate formulation with three dimensional elasticity converge to an inexact solution. In order to avoid the locking phenomena, the trapezoidal cross section deformation mode is included in the beam elements based on the absolute nodal coordinate with additional degrees of freedom. The proper description for the trapezoidal cross section deformation is important for the continuum beam elements based on three-dimensional elasticity where the material model is often based on general continuum mechanics.

  12. Absolute UV absorption cross sections of dimethyl substituted Criegee intermediate (CH3)2COO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, Yuan-Pin; Chang, Chun-Hung; Takahashi, Kaito; Lin, Jim-Min, Jr.

    2016-06-01

    The absolute absorption cross sections of (CH3)2COO under a jet-cooled condition were measured via laser depletion to be (1.32 ± 0.10) × 10-17 cm2 molecule-1 at 308 nm and (9.6 ± 0.8) × 10-18 cm2 molecule-1 at 352 nm. The peak UV cross section is estimated to be (1.75 ± 0.14) × 10-17 cm2 molecule-1 at 330 nm, according to the UV spectrum of (CH3)2COO (Huang et al., 2015) scaled to the absolute cross section at 308 nm.

  13. Principles and procedures for determining absolute differential electron-molecule (atom) scattering cross sections

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nickel, J. C.; Zetner, P. W.; Shen, G.; Trajmar, S.

    1989-01-01

    Procedures and calibration techniques for measuring the absolute elastic and inelastic differential cross sections (DCS) for electron impact on molecular (atomic) species are described and illustrated by examples. The elastic DCS for the molecule under study is first determined by calibration against helium using the relative flow technique. The second step involves the production of energy-loss spectra for the instrument response function, the unfolding of overlapping inelastic structures and the normalization of inelastic intensities to the elastic cross sections. It is concluded that this method of determining absolute differential electron-molecule (atom) scattering cross sections is generally applicable and provides reliable results.

  14. Absolute electron-impact total ionization cross sections of chlorofluoromethanes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martínez, Roberto; Sierra, Borja; Redondo, Carolina; Rayo, María N. Sánchez; Castaño, Fernando

    2004-12-01

    An experimental study is reported on the electron-impact total ionization cross sections (TICSs) of CCl4, CCl3F, CCl2F2, and CClF3 molecules. The kinetic energy of the colliding electrons was in the 10-85 eV range. TICSs were obtained as the sum of the partial ionization cross sections of all fragment ions, measured and identified in a linear double focusing time-of-flight mass spectrometer. The resulting TICS profiles—as a function of the electron-impact energy—have been compared both with those computed by ab initio and (semi)empirical methods and with the available experimental data. The computational methods used include the binary-encounter-Bethe (BEB) modified to include atoms with principal quantum numbers n⩾3, the Deutsch and Märk (DM) formalism, and the modified additivity rule (MAR). It is concluded that both modified BEB and DM methods fit the experimental TICS for (CF4), CClF3, CCl2F2, CCl3F, and CCl4 to a high accuracy, in contrast with the poor accord of the MAR method. A discussion on the factors influencing the discrepancies of the fittings is presented.

  15. Absolute cross section for photoionization of Mn+ in the 3p region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kjeldsen, H.; Folkmann, F.; Kristensen, B.; West, J. B.; Hansen, J. E.

    2004-03-01

    The absolute cross section for photoionization of Mn+ has been measured using the merged-beam technique, focusing on the region of the 'giant' 3p rarr 3d resonance. The main discrepancy between theory and earlier experiments has been removed. However, more extensive relativistic calculations are required for a rigorous comparison with theory.

  16. Measurement of the absolute differential cross section for np elastic scattering at 194 MeV

    SciTech Connect

    Sarsour, M.; Peterson, T.; Planinic, M.; Vigdor, S. E.; Allgower, C.; Hossbach, T.; Jacobs, W. W.; Klyachko, A. V.; Rinckel, T.; Stephenson, E. J.; Wissink, S. W.; Zhou, Y.; Bergenwall, B.; Blomgren, J.; Johansson, C.; Klug, J.; Nadel-Turonski, P.; Nilsson, L.; Olsson, N.; Pomp, S.

    2006-10-15

    A tagged medium-energy neutron beam was used in a precise measurement of the absolute differential cross section for np backscattering. The results resolve significant discrepancies within the np database concerning the angular dependence in this regime. The experiment has determined the absolute normalization with {+-}1.5% uncertainty, suitable to verify constraints of supposedly comparable precision that arise from the rest of the database in partial wave analyses. The analysis procedures, especially those associated with the evaluation of systematic errors in the experiment, are described in detail so that systematic uncertainties may be included in a reasonable way in subsequent partial wave analysis fits incorporating the present results.

  17. Absolute differential cross sections for electron capture and loss by kilo-electron-volt hydrogen atoms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, G. J.; Johnson, L. K.; Gao, R. S.; Smith, K. A.; Stebbings, R. F.

    1991-01-01

    This paper reports measurements of absolute differential cross sections for electron capture and loss for fast hydrogen atoms incident on H2, N2, O2, Ar, and He. Cross sections have been determined in the 2.0- to 5.0-keV energy range over the laboratory angular range 0.02-2 deg, with an angular, resolution of 0.02 deg. The high angular resolution allows observation of the structure at small angles in some of the cross sections. Comparison of the present results with those of other authors generally shows very good agreement.

  18. Absolute elastic differential electron scattering cross sections in the intermediate energy region. III - SF6 and UF6

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Srivastava, S. K.; Trajmar, S.; Chutjian, A.; Williams, W.

    1976-01-01

    A recently developed technique has been used to measure the ratios of elastic differential electron scattering cross sections (DCS) for SF6 and UF6 to those of He at electron impact energies of 5, 10, 15, 20, 30, 40, 50, 60, and 75 eV and at scattering angles of 20 to 135 deg. In order to obtain the absolute values of DCS from these ratios, He DCS of McConkey and Preston have been employed in the 20 to 90 deg range. At angles in the 90 to 135 deg range the recently determined cross sections of Srivastava and Trajmar have been utilized. From these DCS, elastic integral and momentum transfer cross sections have been obtained.

  19. Measurements of absolute absorption cross sections of ozone in the 185- to 254-nm wavelength region and the temperature dependence

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yoshino, K.; Esmond, J. R.; Freeman, D. E.; Parkinson, W. H.

    1993-01-01

    Laboratory measurements of the relative absorption cross sections of ozone at temperatures 195, 228, and 295 K have been made throughout the 185 to 254 nm wavelength region. The absolute absorption cross sections at the same temperatures have been measured at several discrete wavelengths in the 185 to 250 nm region. The absolute cross sections of ozone have been used to put the relative cross sections on a firm absolute basis throughout the 185 to 255 nm region. These recalibrated cross sections are slightly lower than those of Molina and Molina (1986), but the differences are within a few percent and would not be significant in atmospheric applications.

  20. Absolute absorption cross sections of ozone in the 185- to 350-nm wavelength range

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Molina, L. T.; Molina, M. J.

    1986-01-01

    The absorption cross sections of ozone have been measured in the wavelength range 185-350 nm and in the temperature range 225-298 K. The absolute ozone concentrations were established by measuring the pressure of pure gaseous samples in the 0.08to 300-torr range, and the UV spectra were recorded under conditions where less than 1 percent of the sample decomposed. The temperature dependence is significant for wavelengths longer than about 280 nm. The absorption cross-section values around 210 nm were found to be about 10 percent larger than the previously accepted values.

  1. Absolute measurement of the 242Pu neutron-capture cross section

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buckner, M. Q.; Wu, C. Y.; Henderson, R. A.; Bucher, B.; Chyzh, A.; Bredeweg, T. A.; Baramsai, B.; Couture, A.; Jandel, M.; Mosby, S.; O'Donnell, J. M.; Ullmann, J. L.; Dance Collaboration

    2016-04-01

    The absolute neutron-capture cross section of 242Pu was measured at the Los Alamos Neutron Science Center using the Detector for Advanced Neutron-Capture Experiments array along with a compact parallel-plate avalanche counter for fission-fragment detection. The first direct measurement of the 242Pu(n ,γ ) cross section was made over the incident neutron energy range from thermal to ≈6 keV, and the absolute scale of the (n ,γ ) cross section was set according to the known 239Pu(n ,f ) resonance at En ,R=7.83 eV. This was accomplished by adding a small quantity of 239Pu to the 242Pu sample. The relative scale of the cross section, with a range of four orders of magnitude, was determined for incident neutron energies from thermal to ≈40 keV. Our data, in general, are in agreement with previous measurements and those reported in ENDF/B-VII.1; the 242Pu(n ,γ ) cross section at the En ,R=2.68 eV resonance is within 2.4 % of the evaluated value. However, discrepancies exist at higher energies; our data are ≈30 % lower than the evaluated data at En≈1 keV and are approximately 2 σ away from the previous measurement at En≈20 keV.

  2. Absolute X-ray emission cross section measurements of Fe K transitions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hell, Natalie; Brown, Gregory V.; Beiersdorfer, Peter; Boyce, Kevin R.; Grinberg, Victoria; Kelley, Richard L.; Kilbourne, Caroline; Leutenegger, Maurice A.; Porter, Frederick Scott; Wilms, Jörn

    2016-06-01

    We have measured the absolute X-ray emission cross sections of K-shell transitions in highly charged L- and K-shell Fe ions using the LLNL EBIT-I electron beam ion trap and the NASA GSFC EBIT Calorimeter Spectrometer (ECS). The cross sections are determined by using the ECS to simultaneously record the spectrum of the bound-bound K-shell transitions and the emission from radiative recombination from trapped Fe ions. The measured spectrum is then brought to an absolute scale by normalizing the measured flux in the radiative recombination features to their theoretical cross sections, which are well known. Once the spectrum is brought to an absolute scale, the cross sections of the K-shell transitions are determined. These measurements are made possible by the ECS, which consists of a 32 channel array, with 14 channels optimized for detecting high energy photons (hν > 10 keV) and 18 channels optimized for detecting low energy photons (hν < 10 keV). The ECS has a large collection area, relatively high energy resolution, and a large bandpass; all properties necessary for this measurement technique to be successful. These data will be used to benchmark cross sections in the atomic reference data bases underlying the plasma modeling codes used to analyze astrophysical spectra, especially those measured by the Soft X-ray Spectrometer calorimeter instrument recently launched on the Hitomi X-ray Observatory.This work was performed under the auspices of the U.S. Department of Energy by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory under Contract DE-AC52-07NA27344, and supported by NASA grants to LLNL and NASA/GSFC and by ESA under contract No. 4000114313/15/NL/CB.

  3. Absolute absorption cross-section measurements of ozone in the wavelength region 238-335 nm and the temperature dependence

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yoshino, K.; Freeman, D. E.; Esmond, J. R.; Parkinson, W. H.

    1988-01-01

    The absolute absorption cross-section of ozone has been experimentally determined at the temperatures 195, 228, and 295 K at several discrete wavelengths in the 238-335-nm region. The present results for ozone at 295 K are found to be in agreement with those of Hearn (1961). Absolute cross-section measurements of ozone at 195 K have confirmed previous (Freeman et al., 1984) relative cross-section measurements throughout the 240-335-nm region.

  4. Absolute Integral Cross Sections for the State-selected Ion-Molecule Reaction N2+(X2Σg+ v+ = 0-2) + C2H2 in the Collision Energy Range of 0.03-10.00 eV

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Yuntao; Xiong, Bo; Chung Chang, Yih; Ng, C. Y.

    2016-08-01

    Using the vacuum ultraviolet laser pulsed field ionization-photoion source, together with the double-quadrupole-double-octopole mass spectrometer developed in our laboratory, we have investigated the state-selected ion-molecule reaction {{{{N}}}2}+({X}2{{{{Σ }}}{{g}}}+; v + = 0-2, N+ = 0-9) + C2H2, achieving high internal-state selectivity and high kinetic energy resolution for reactant {{{{N}}}2}+ ions. The charge transfer (CT) and hydrogen-atom transfer (HT) channels, which lead to the respective formation of product {{{C}}}2{{{{H}}}2}+ and N2H+ ions, are observed. The vibrationally selected absolute integral cross sections for the CT [σ CT(v +)] and HT [[σ HT(v +)] channels obtained in the center-of-mass collision energy (E cm) range of 0.03-10.00 eV reveal opposite E cm dependences. The σ CT(v +) is found to increase as E cm is decreased, and is consistent with the long-range exothermic CT mechanism, whereas the E cm enhancement observed for the σ HT(v +) suggests effective coupling of kinetic energy to internal energy, enhancing the formation of N2H+. The σ HT(v +) curve exhibits a step at E cm = 0.70-1.00 eV, suggesting the involvement of the excited {{{C}}}2{{{{H}}}2}+({A}2{{{{Σ }}}{{g}}}+) state in the HT reaction. Contrary to the strong E cm dependences for σ CT(v +) and σ HT(v +), the effect of vibrational excitation of {{{{N}}}2}+ on both the CT and HT channels is marginal. The branching ratios and cross sections for the CT and HT channels determined in the present study are useful for modeling the atmospheric compositions of Saturn's largest moon, Titan. These cross sections and branching ratios are also valuable for benchmarking theoretical calculations on chemical dynamics of the titled reaction.

  5. Absolute Integral Cross Sections for the State-selected Ion–Molecule Reaction N2+(X2Σg+ v+ = 0–2) + C2H2 in the Collision Energy Range of 0.03–10.00 eV

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Yuntao; Xiong, Bo; Chung Chang, Yih; Ng, C. Y.

    2016-08-01

    Using the vacuum ultraviolet laser pulsed field ionization-photoion source, together with the double-quadrupole–double-octopole mass spectrometer developed in our laboratory, we have investigated the state-selected ion–molecule reaction {{{{N}}}2}+({X}2{{{{Σ }}}{{g}}}+; v + = 0–2, N+ = 0–9) + C2H2, achieving high internal-state selectivity and high kinetic energy resolution for reactant {{{{N}}}2}+ ions. The charge transfer (CT) and hydrogen-atom transfer (HT) channels, which lead to the respective formation of product {{{C}}}2{{{{H}}}2}+ and N2H+ ions, are observed. The vibrationally selected absolute integral cross sections for the CT [σ CT(v +)] and HT [[σ HT(v +)] channels obtained in the center-of-mass collision energy (E cm) range of 0.03–10.00 eV reveal opposite E cm dependences. The σ CT(v +) is found to increase as E cm is decreased, and is consistent with the long-range exothermic CT mechanism, whereas the E cm enhancement observed for the σ HT(v +) suggests effective coupling of kinetic energy to internal energy, enhancing the formation of N2H+. The σ HT(v +) curve exhibits a step at E cm = 0.70–1.00 eV, suggesting the involvement of the excited {{{C}}}2{{{{H}}}2}+({A}2{{{{Σ }}}{{g}}}+) state in the HT reaction. Contrary to the strong E cm dependences for σ CT(v +) and σ HT(v +), the effect of vibrational excitation of {{{{N}}}2}+ on both the CT and HT channels is marginal. The branching ratios and cross sections for the CT and HT channels determined in the present study are useful for modeling the atmospheric compositions of Saturn's largest moon, Titan. These cross sections and branching ratios are also valuable for benchmarking theoretical calculations on chemical dynamics of the titled reaction.

  6. Absolute measurement of the 242Pu neutron-capture cross section

    DOE PAGES

    Buckner, M. Q.; Wu, C. Y.; Henderson, R. A.; Bucher, B.; Chyzh, A.; Bredeweg, T. A.; Baramsai, B.; Couture, A.; Jandel, M.; Mosby, S.; et al

    2016-04-21

    Here, the absolute neutron-capture cross section of 242Pu was measured at the Los Alamos Neutron Science Center using the Detector for Advanced Neutron-Capture Experiments array along with a compact parallel-plate avalanche counter for fission-fragment detection. The first direct measurement of the 242Pu(n,γ) cross section was made over the incident neutron energy range from thermal to ≈ 6 keV, and the absolute scale of the (n,γ) cross section was set according to the known 239Pu(n,f) resonance at En,R = 7.83 eV. This was accomplished by adding a small quantity of 239Pu to the 242Pu sample. The relative scale of the crossmore » section, with a range of four orders of magnitude, was determined for incident neutron energies from thermal to ≈ 40 keV. Our data, in general, are in agreement with previous measurements and those reported in ENDF/B-VII.1; the 242Pu(n,γ) cross section at the En,R = 2.68 eV resonance is within 2.4% of the evaluated value. However, discrepancies exist at higher energies; our data are ≈30% lower than the evaluated data at En ≈ 1 keV and are approximately 2σ away from the previous measurement at En ≈ 20 keV.« less

  7. Absolute np and pp Cross Section Determinations Aimed At Improving The Standard For Cross Section Measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Laptev, A. B.; Haight, R. C.; Tovesson, F.; Arndt, R. A.; Briscoe, W. J.; Paris, M. W.; Strakovsky, I. I.; Workman, R. L.

    2011-06-01

    Purpose of present research is a keeping improvement of the standard for cross section measurements of neutron-induced reactions. The cross sections for np and pp scattering below 1 GeV are determined based on partial-wave analyses (PWAs) of nucleon-nucleon scattering data. These cross sections are compared with the most recent ENDF/B-VII.0 and JENDL-4.0 data files, and the Nijmegen PWA. Also a comparison of evaluated data with recent experimental data was made to check a quality of evaluation. Excellent agreement was found between the new experimental data and our PWA predictions.

  8. Absolute np and pp cross section determinations aimed at improving the standard for cross section measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Laptev, Alexander B; Haight, Robert C; Tovesson, Fredrik; Arndt, Richard A; Briscoe, William J; Paris, Mark W; Strakovsky, Igor I; Workman, Ron L

    2010-01-01

    Purpose of present research is a keeping improvement of the standard for cross section measurements of neutron-induced reactions. The cross sections for np and pp scattering below 1000 MeV are determined based on partial-wave analyses (PW As) of nucleon-nucleon scattering data. These cross sections are compared with the most recent ENDF/B-V11.0 and JENDL-4.0 data files, and the Nijmegen PWA. Also a comparison of evaluated data with recent experimental data was made to check a quality of evaluation. Excellent agreement was found between the new experimental data and our PWA predictions.

  9. Absolute photoabsorption cross sections of Sr I from the 5s ionization threshold to the 5p threshold

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chu, C. C.; Fung, H. S.; Wu, H. H.; Yih, T. S.

    1998-09-01

    We have measured the absolute photoabsorption cross sections of Sr I from its 5s ionization threshold up to the 0953-4075/31/17/010/img1 thresholds. The spectrum includes the Sr I 0953-4075/31/17/010/img2, 0953-4075/31/17/010/img3, 0953-4075/31/17/010/img4 and 0953-4075/31/17/010/img5 doubly excited series which converge to the 0953-4075/31/17/010/img6 or 0953-4075/31/17/010/img1 series limits. Synchrotron radiation, from the 1 m Seya-Namioka beam line of the Synchrotron Radiation Research Center at Hsin-Chu, Taiwan, was used as the background continuum. The absolute column density was determined by measuring simultaneously the temperature distribution profiles and the total pressure in a heatpipe. Absolute cross sections were obtained using the Beer-Lambert law. The measured absolute cross section for the 5s ionization threshold was 0953-4075/31/17/010/img8. At the most significant autoionizing resonance, 0953-4075/31/17/010/img9 around 0953-4075/31/17/010/img10, the absolute cross section was measured as 0953-4075/31/17/010/img11. The absolute cross sections presented here are larger than those based on saturated vapour-pressure data, and less than those based on the f-value measurements. All the absolute cross sections in this work are compared with both recent experiments and

  10. Absolute cross sections for molecular photoabsorption, partial photoionization, and ionic photofragmentation process

    SciTech Connect

    Gallagher, J.W.; Brion, C.E.; Samson, J.A.R.; Langhoff, P.W.

    1988-01-01

    A compilation is provided of absolute total photoabsorption and partial-channel photoionization cross sections for the valence shells of selected molecules, including diatomics (H2, N2, O2, CO, NO) and triatomics (CO2, N2O), simple hydrides (H2O, NH3, CH4), hydrogen halides (HF, HCl, HBr, HI), sulfur compounds (H2S, CS2, OCS, SO2, SF6),and chlorine compounds (Cl2, CCl4). The partial-channel cross sections presented refer to production of the individual electronic states of molecular ions and also to production of parent and specific fragment ions, as functions of incident photon energy, typically from approximately 20 to 100 eV. Photoelectron anisotropy factors, which together with electronic partial cross sections provide cross sections differential in photon energy and in ejection angle, are also reported. There is generally good agreement between cross sections measured by the physically distinct optical and dipole electron-impact methods. The cross sections and anisotropy factors also compare favorably with selection ab initio and model potential (X-alpha) calculations which provide a basis for interpretation of the measurements.

  11. Absolute vacuum ultraviolet photoabsorption cross section studies of atomic and molecular species: Techniques and observational data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Judge, D. L.; Wu, C. Y. R.

    1990-01-01

    Absorption of a high energy photon (greater than 6 eV) by an isolated molecule results in the formation of highly excited quasi-discrete or continuum states which evolve through a wide range of direct and indirect photochemical processes. These are: photoionization and autoionization, photodissociation and predissociation, and fluorescence. The ultimate goal is to understand the dynamics of the excitation and decay processes and to quantitatively measure the absolute partial cross sections for all processes which occur in photoabsorption. Typical experimental techniques and the status of observational results of particular interest to solar system observations are presented.

  12. Measurement of the absolute cross section for multiphoton ionization of atomic hydrogen at 248 nm

    SciTech Connect

    Kyrala, G.A.; Nichols, T.D.

    1990-01-01

    We present measurements of the absolute rates for multiphoton ionization of the ground state from atomic hydrogen by a linearly polarized, subpicosecond KrF laser pulse at a wavelength of 248 nm. A laser crossed atomic beam technique is used. The irradiance was varied from 3{times}10{sup 12} w/cm{sup 2} to 2{times}10{sup 14} w/cm{sup 2} and three above threshold ionization peaks were observed. The measured rate for total electron production is less than predicted by the numerical and perturbation calculations, but significantly higher than calculated by the Reiss and Keldysh methods. 21 refs., 7 figs.

  13. Absolute elastic differential electron scattering cross sections in the intermediate energy region. IV - CO

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tanaka, H.; Srivastava, S. K.; Chutjian, A.

    1978-01-01

    Using a crossed electron beam-molecular beam scattering geometry and a relative-flow technique, ratios of elastic differential cross sections of CO to those of He have been measured at electron impact energies of 3, 5, 7.5, 9.9, 15, 20, 30, 50, 75, and 100 eV. At each energy, an angular range of 15 to 130 deg has been covered. These ratios have been multiplied by previously known He elastic differential cross sections to obtain elastic differential cross sections for CO. Since pure rotational excitations were not resolved, the elastic differential cross sections are a sum of elastic and pure rotational excitations at room temperature. From a knowledge of differential cross sections (DCS), integral and momentum transfer cross sections have been calculated. Both the DCS and integral cross sections are compared at 50, 75, and 100 eV to a recent two-potential theory of e-molecule scattering. Present results show that the isoelectronic molecules CO and N2 have very similar magnitudes and shapes of their differential cross sections.

  14. Saturation Dynamics Measures Absolute Cross Section and Generates Contrast within a Neuron.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Suraj; Singh, Aditya; Singh, Vijay R; George, Jude B; Balaji, J

    2016-09-20

    The intensity required to optically saturate a chromophore is a molecular property that is determined by its absorption cross section (σ) and the excited state lifetime. We present an analytical description of such a system and show that fluorescence around the onset of saturation is characterized by product of absorption cross section and lifetime. Using this approach we formulate a generalized method for measuring the multiphoton cross section of fluorophores and use it to obtain the absolute three-photon cross-section spectra of tryptophan. We find that the tryptophan three-photon cross section ranges from 0.28 S.I. units (m(6)s(2)photon(-2)) at 870 nm to 20 S.I. units at 740 nm. Further, we show that the product of molecular rate of excitation and de-excitation, denoted as β, serves as a vital contrasting agent for imaging local environment. Our contrast parameter, β, is related to fraction of the population present in the excited state and is independent of the fluorophore concentration. We show that β-imaging can be carried out in a regular two-photon microscope setup through a series of intensity scans. Using enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP) fluorescence from the brain slices of Thy-1 EGFP transgenic mice, we show that there is an inherent, concentration independent, variation in contrast across the soma and the dendrite.

  15. Saturation Dynamics Measures Absolute Cross Section and Generates Contrast within a Neuron.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Suraj; Singh, Aditya; Singh, Vijay R; George, Jude B; Balaji, J

    2016-09-20

    The intensity required to optically saturate a chromophore is a molecular property that is determined by its absorption cross section (σ) and the excited state lifetime. We present an analytical description of such a system and show that fluorescence around the onset of saturation is characterized by product of absorption cross section and lifetime. Using this approach we formulate a generalized method for measuring the multiphoton cross section of fluorophores and use it to obtain the absolute three-photon cross-section spectra of tryptophan. We find that the tryptophan three-photon cross section ranges from 0.28 S.I. units (m(6)s(2)photon(-2)) at 870 nm to 20 S.I. units at 740 nm. Further, we show that the product of molecular rate of excitation and de-excitation, denoted as β, serves as a vital contrasting agent for imaging local environment. Our contrast parameter, β, is related to fraction of the population present in the excited state and is independent of the fluorophore concentration. We show that β-imaging can be carried out in a regular two-photon microscope setup through a series of intensity scans. Using enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP) fluorescence from the brain slices of Thy-1 EGFP transgenic mice, we show that there is an inherent, concentration independent, variation in contrast across the soma and the dendrite. PMID:27653491

  16. Absolute photoionization cross sections of furanic fuels: 2-ethylfuran, 2-acetylfuran and furfural.

    PubMed

    Smith, Audrey R; Meloni, Giovanni

    2015-11-01

    Absolute photoionization cross sections of the molecules 2-ethylfuran, 2-acetylfuran and furfural, including partial ionization cross sections for the dissociative ionized fragments, are measured for the first time. These measurements are important because they allow fuel quantification via photoionization mass spectrometry and the development of quantitative kinetic modeling for the complex combustion of potential fuels. The experiments are carried out using synchrotron photoionization mass spectrometry with an orthogonal time-of-flight spectrometer used for mass analysis at the Advanced Light Source of Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory. The CBS-QB3 calculations of adiabatic ionization energies and appearance energies agree well with the experimental results. Several bond dissociation energies are also derived and presented.

  17. Photodissociation of acetaldehyde and the absolute photoionization cross section of HCO.

    SciTech Connect

    Shubert, V. A.; Pratt, S. T.

    2010-01-01

    Photodissociation of acetaldehyde (CH{sub 3}CHO) at 266 nm produced CH{sub 3} and HCO radicals, and single-photon vacuum ultraviolet ionization was used to record velocity map ion images of both CH{sub 3}{sup +} and HCO{sup +}. Comparison of the translational energy distributions from both species indicates that secondary fragmentation of HCO is negligible for 266 nm photodissociation. Thus, the relative photoion signals for CH{sub 3}{sup +} and HCO{sup +} in the mass spectrometer, combined with the recently measured absolute photoionization cross section of CH{sub 3}, allowed the determination of the absolute photoionization cross section of HCO ({sigma}(HCO) = 4.8 {+-} {sub 1.5}{sup 2.0}, 5.9 {+-} {sub 1.6}{sup 2.2}, and 3.7 {+-} {sub 1.2}{sup 1.6} Mb at 10.257, 10.304, and 10.379 eV, respectively). The observed values are quite small but consistent with the similarly small value at threshold for the isoelectronic species NO. This behavior is discussed in terms of the character of the HOMO in both molecules.

  18. Absolute partial and total cross sections for electron-impact ionization of argon from threshold to 1000 eV

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Straub, H. C.; Renault, P.; Lindsay, B. G.; Smith, K. A.; Stebbings, R. F.

    1995-08-01

    Absolute partial cross sections from threshold to 1000 eV are reported for the production of Arn+ (n=1-4) by electron-impact ionization of argon. The total cross sections, obtained from an appropriately weighted sum of the partial cross sections, are also reported. These results are obtained with an apparatus incorporating a time-of-flight mass spectrometer with position-sensitive detection of the product ions. The simple apparatus design embodies recent developments in pressure measurement and particle detection and is believed to yield more reliable results than those previously reported. For singly charged ions, the overall uncertainty in the absolute cross section values reported here is +/-3.5%. Previous measurements of absolute partial and total cross sections are reviewed and compared with the present results.

  19. ^241Am(n,γ) absolute cross sections measured with DANCE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jandel, M.; Bredeweg, T. A.; Fowler, M. M.; Bond, E. M.; Chadwick, M. B.; Clement, R. R.; Couture, A.; O'Donnell, J. M.; Reifarth, R.; Rundberg, R. S.; Ullmann, J. L.; Vieira, D. J.; Wilhelmy, J. B.; Wouters, J. M.; Agvaanluvsan, U.; Macri, R. A.; Sheets, S. A.; Wu, C. Y.; Becker, J. A.

    2007-10-01

    ^241Am is present in plutonium due to the beta decay of ^241Pu (t1/2=14.38 years). As such ^241Am can be used as a detector for nuclear forensics. A precise measurement of ^241Am(n,γ) cross section is thus needed for this application. The measurement is also of interest for advanced reactor design as part of the Global Nuclear Energy Partnership (GNEP). The Detector for Advanced Neutron Capture Experiments (DANCE) at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) was used for neutron capture cross section measurement on ^241Am. The high granularity of DANCE (160 BaF2 detectors in a 4π geometry) enables the efficient detection of prompt gamma-rays following a neutron capture. DANCE is located on the 20.26 m neutron flight path 14(FP14) at the Manuel Lujan Jr. Neutron Scattering Center at the Los Alamos Neutron Science Center (LANSCE). The absolute ^241Am(n,γ) cross sections were obtained in the range of neutron energies from 0.02 eV to 320 keV. The results will be compared to existing evaluations in detail.

  20. Absolute angle-differential vibrational excitation cross sections for electron collisions with diacetylene

    SciTech Connect

    Allan, M.; May, O.; Fedor, J.; Ibanescu, B. C.; Andric, L.

    2011-05-15

    Absolute vibrational excitation cross sections were measured for diacetylene (1,3-butadiyne). The selectivity of vibrational excitation reveals detailed information about the shape resonances. Excitation of the C{identical_to}C stretch and of double quanta of the C-H bend vibrations reveals a {sup 2}{Pi}{sub u} resonance at 1 eV (autodetachment width {approx}30 meV) and a {sup 2}{Pi}{sub g} resonance at 6.2 eV (autodetachment width 1-2 eV). There is a strong preference for excitation of even quanta of the bending vibration. Excitation of the C-H stretch vibration reveals {sigma}* resonances at 4.3, 6.8, and 9.8 eV, with autodetachment widths of {approx}2 eV. Detailed information about resonances permits conclusions about the mechanism of the dissociative electron attachment.

  1. Systematic determination of absolute absorption cross-section of individual carbon nanotubes

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Kaihui; Hong, Xiaoping; Choi, Sangkook; Jin, Chenhao; Capaz, Rodrigo B.; Kim, Jihoon; Wang, Wenlong; Bai, Xuedong; Louie, Steven G.; Wang, Enge; Wang, Feng

    2014-01-01

    Optical absorption is the most fundamental optical property characterizing light–matter interactions in materials and can be most readily compared with theoretical predictions. However, determination of optical absorption cross-section of individual nanostructures is experimentally challenging due to the small extinction signal using conventional transmission measurements. Recently, dramatic increase of optical contrast from individual carbon nanotubes has been successfully achieved with a polarization-based homodyne microscope, where the scattered light wave from the nanostructure interferes with the optimized reference signal (the reflected/transmitted light). Here we demonstrate high-sensitivity absorption spectroscopy for individual single-walled carbon nanotubes by combining the polarization-based homodyne technique with broadband supercontinuum excitation in transmission configuration. To our knowledge, this is the first time that high-throughput and quantitative determination of nanotube absorption cross-section over broad spectral range at the single-tube level was performed for more than 50 individual chirality-defined single-walled nanotubes. Our data reveal chirality-dependent behaviors of exciton resonances in carbon nanotubes, where the exciton oscillator strength exhibits a universal scaling law with the nanotube diameter and the transition order. The exciton linewidth (characterizing the exciton lifetime) varies strongly in different nanotubes, and on average it increases linearly with the transition energy. In addition, we establish an empirical formula by extrapolating our data to predict the absorption cross-section spectrum for any given nanotube. The quantitative information of absorption cross-section in a broad spectral range and all nanotube species not only provides new insight into the unique photophysics in one-dimensional carbon nanotubes, but also enables absolute determination of optical quantum efficiencies in important

  2. Systematic determination of absolute absorption cross-section of individual carbon nanotubes.

    PubMed

    Liu, Kaihui; Hong, Xiaoping; Choi, Sangkook; Jin, Chenhao; Capaz, Rodrigo B; Kim, Jihoon; Wang, Wenlong; Bai, Xuedong; Louie, Steven G; Wang, Enge; Wang, Feng

    2014-05-27

    Optical absorption is the most fundamental optical property characterizing light-matter interactions in materials and can be most readily compared with theoretical predictions. However, determination of optical absorption cross-section of individual nanostructures is experimentally challenging due to the small extinction signal using conventional transmission measurements. Recently, dramatic increase of optical contrast from individual carbon nanotubes has been successfully achieved with a polarization-based homodyne microscope, where the scattered light wave from the nanostructure interferes with the optimized reference signal (the reflected/transmitted light). Here we demonstrate high-sensitivity absorption spectroscopy for individual single-walled carbon nanotubes by combining the polarization-based homodyne technique with broadband supercontinuum excitation in transmission configuration. To our knowledge, this is the first time that high-throughput and quantitative determination of nanotube absorption cross-section over broad spectral range at the single-tube level was performed for more than 50 individual chirality-defined single-walled nanotubes. Our data reveal chirality-dependent behaviors of exciton resonances in carbon nanotubes, where the exciton oscillator strength exhibits a universal scaling law with the nanotube diameter and the transition order. The exciton linewidth (characterizing the exciton lifetime) varies strongly in different nanotubes, and on average it increases linearly with the transition energy. In addition, we establish an empirical formula by extrapolating our data to predict the absorption cross-section spectrum for any given nanotube. The quantitative information of absorption cross-section in a broad spectral range and all nanotube species not only provides new insight into the unique photophysics in one-dimensional carbon nanotubes, but also enables absolute determination of optical quantum efficiencies in important

  3. Spectra of random operators with absolutely continuous integrated density of states

    SciTech Connect

    Rio, Rafael del E-mail: delriomagia@gmail.com

    2014-04-15

    The structure of the spectrum of random operators is studied. It is shown that if the density of states measure of some subsets of the spectrum is zero, then these subsets are empty. In particular follows that absolute continuity of the integrated density of states implies singular spectra of ergodic operators is either empty or of positive measure. Our results apply to Anderson and alloy type models, perturbed Landau Hamiltonians, almost periodic potentials, and models which are not ergodic.

  4. Measurement of the absolute and differential cross sections for 7Li(γ, n0)6Li

    SciTech Connect

    W.A. Wurtz, R.E. Pywell, B.E. Norum, S. Kucuker, B.D. Sawatzky, H.R. Weller, M.W. Ahmed, S. Stave

    2011-10-01

    We have measured the cross section of the photoneutron reaction channel {sup 7}Li+{gamma}{yields}{sup 6}Li(g.s.)+n where the progeny nucleus is the ground state of {sup 6}Li. We obtained the absolute cross section at photon energies 10, 11, 12, 13, 15, 20, 25, 30, and 35 MeV and also the dependence of the cross section on polar angle for all but the highest photon energy. For the energies 10 to 15 MeV we were able to use linearly polarized photons to obtain the dependence of the cross section on the photon polarization.

  5. Absolute triple-differential cross sections for ionization-excitation of helium

    SciTech Connect

    Bartschat, K.; Bray, I.; Fursa, D. V.; Stelbovics, A. T.

    2007-08-15

    Triple-differential cross sections (TDCSs) for electron-impact ionization of He(1s{sup 2}){sup 1}S leading to He{sup +}(1s) are calculated using the highly accurate convergent close-coupling (CCC) method for incident projectile energies of 268.6 and 112.6 eV, with at least one of the outgoing electrons having an energy of 44 eV. These results are used to obtain absolute TDCSs from the recent experimental data [Bellm et al., Phys. Rev. A 75, 042704 (2007)] for TDCS ratios of ionization with no excitation to ionization with excitation resulting in He{sup +}(n=2,3,4). The TDCSs can be used as comparison benchmarks in future studies, and already allow us to test the accuracy of the TDCSs obtained from the hybrid distorted-wave+R-matrix (close-coupling) model, which was fairly successful in predicting the ratios, using CCC for n=1 and experimental results for n=2,3,4.

  6. Absolute cross sections for dissociative electron attachment to HCN and DCN

    SciTech Connect

    May, O.; Kubala, D.; Allan, M.

    2010-07-15

    Absolute partial cross sections for the formation of CN{sup -} in dissociative electron attachment to HCN and DCN have been measured using a time-of-flight ion spectrometer combined with a trochoidal electron monochromator to be 940pm{sup 2} for CN{sup -}/HCN and 340pm{sup 2} for CN{sup -}/DCN at peaks of the bands due to the {sup 2{Pi}}-shape resonance. The dissociative electron attachment bands were then recorded under higher resolution, 60 meV, with a trochoidal monochromator plus quadrupole mass filter combination and found to have a nearly vertical onset at the threshold energy and to peak at 1.85 eV. Broad structure was observed on the bands, assigned to formation of vibrationally excited CN{sup -}, from which the branching ratios could be determined to be 1,0.49, and 0.22 for the formation of CN{sup -} in the v=0,1, and 2 states, respectively. The results are compared to the recent multidimensional ab initio calculations of Chourou and Orel [Phys. Rev. A 80, 032709 (2009)].

  7. Supplementary absolute differential cross sections for the excitation of atomic hydrogen's n=3 and 4 levels by electron impact

    SciTech Connect

    Sweeney, Christopher J.; Shyn, Tong W.; Grafe, Alan

    2004-05-01

    We have conducted measurements of absolute differential cross sections for the excitation of hydrogen atoms to their n=3(3S+3P+3D) and 4(4S+4P+4D+4F) levels. A modulated, crossed-beam method was employed, and the impact energies were 40 and 60 eV. Comparison of our results with those of others is quite favorable.

  8. ScaRaB: first results of absolute and cross calibration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trémas, Thierry L.; Aznay, Ouahid; Chomette, Olivier

    2015-10-01

    ScaRaB (SCAnner for RAdiation Budget) is the name of three radiometers whose two first flight models have been launched in 1994 and 1997. The instruments were mounted on-board Russian satellites, METEOR and RESURS. On October 12th 2011, a last model has been launched from the Indian site of Sriharikota. ScaRaB is a passenger of MEGHA-TROPIQUES, an Indo-French joint Satellite Mission for studying the water cycle and energy exchanges in the tropics. ScaRaB is composed of four parallel and independent channels. Channel-2 and channel-3 are considered as the main ones. Channel-1 is dedicated to measure solar radiance (0.5 to 0.7 μm) while channel-4 (10 to 13 μm) is an infrared window. The absolute calibration of ScaRab is assured by internal calibration sources (black bodies and a lamp for channel-1). However, during the commissioning phase, the lamp used for the absolute calibration of channel-1 revealed to be inaccurate. We propose here an alternative calibration method based on terrestrial targets. Due to the spectral range of channel-1, only calibration over desert sites (temporal monitoring) and clouds (cross band) is suitable. Desert sites have been widely used for sensor calibration since they have a stable spectral response over time. Because of their high reflectances, the atmospheric effect on the upward radiance is relatively minimal. In addition, they are spatially uniform. Their temporal instability without atmospheric correction has been determined to be less than 1-2% over a year. Very-high-altitude (10 km) bright clouds are good validation targets in the visible and near-infrared spectra because of their high spectrally consistent reflectance. If the clouds are very high, there is no need to correct aerosol scattering and water vapor absorption as both aerosol and water vapor are distributed near the surface. Only Rayleigh scattering and ozone absorption need to be considered. This method has been found to give a 4% uncertainty. Radiometric cross

  9. Absolute Rayleigh scattering cross sections of gases and freons of stratospheric interest in the visible and ultraviolet regions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    SHARDANAND; Rao, A. D. P.

    1977-01-01

    The laboratory measurements of absolute Rayleigh scattering cross sections as a function wavelength are reported for gas molecules He, Ne, Ar, N2, H2, O2, CO2, CH4 and for vapors of most commonly used freons CCl2F2, CBrF3, CF4, and CHClf2. These cross sections are determined from the measurements of photon scattering at an angle of 54 deg 44 min which yield the absolute values independent of the value of normal depolarization ratios. The present results show that in the spectral range 6943-3638A deg, the values of the Rayleigh scattering cross section can be extrapolated from one wavelength to the other using 1/lambda (4) law without knowing the values of the polarizabilities. However, such an extrapolation can not be done in the region of shorter wavelengths.

  10. Measurement of the absolute Raman cross section of the optical phonon in silicon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aggarwal, R. L.; Farrar, L. W.; Saikin, S. K.; Aspuru-Guzik, A.; Stopa, M.; Polla, D. L.

    2011-04-01

    The absolute Raman cross section σ of the first-order 519 cm -1 optical phonon in silicon was measured using a small temperature-controlled blackbody for the signal calibration of the Raman system. Measurements were made with a 25-mil thick (001) silicon sample located in the focal plane of a 20-mm effective focal length (EFL) lens using 785-, 1064-, and 1535-nm CW pump lasers for the excitation of Raman scattering. The pump beam was polarized along the [100] axis of the silicon sample. Values of 1.0±0.2×10 -27, 3.6±0.7×10 -28, and 1.1±0.2×10 -29 cm 2 were determined for σ for 785-, 1064-, and 1535-nm excitation, respectively. The corresponding values of the Raman scattering efficiency S are 4.0±0.8×10 -6, 1.4±0.3×10 -6, and 4.4±0.8×10 -8 cm -1 sr -1.The values of the Raman polarizability |d| for 785-, 1064-, and 1535-nm excitation are 4.4±0.4×10 -15, 5.1±0.5×10 -15, and 1.9±0.2×10 -15 cm 2, respectively. The values of 4.4±0.4×10 -15 and 5.1±0.5×10 -15 cm 2 for |d| for 785- and 1064-nm excitation, respectively, are 1.3 and 2.0 times larger than the values of 3.5×10 -15 and 2.5×10 -15 cm 2 calculated by Wendel. The Raman polarizability |d| computed using the density functional theory in the long-wavelength limit is consistent with the general trend of the measured data and Wendel's model.

  11. Modelling and measurement of the absolute level of power radiated by antenna integrated THz UTC photodiodes.

    PubMed

    Natrella, Michele; Liu, Chin-Pang; Graham, Chris; van Dijk, Frederic; Liu, Huiyun; Renaud, Cyril C; Seeds, Alwyn J

    2016-05-30

    We determine the output impedance of uni-travelling carrier (UTC) photodiodes at frequencies up to 400 GHz by performing, for the first time, 3D full-wave modelling of detailed UTC photodiode structures. In addition, we demonstrate the importance of the UTC impedance evaluation, by using it in the prediction of the absolute power radiated by an antenna integrated UTC, over a broad frequency range and confirming the predictions by experimental measurements up to 185 GHz. This is done by means of 3D full-wave modelling and is only possible since the source (UTC) to antenna impedance match is properly taken into account. We also show that, when the UTC-to-antenna coupling efficiency is modelled using the classical junction-capacitance/series-resistance concept, calculated and measured levels of absolute radiated power are in substantial disagreement, and the maximum radiated power is overestimated by a factor of almost 7 dB. The ability to calculate the absolute emitted power correctly enables the radiated power to be maximised through optimisation of the UTC-to-antenna impedance match.

  12. Modelling and measurement of the absolute level of power radiated by antenna integrated THz UTC photodiodes.

    PubMed

    Natrella, Michele; Liu, Chin-Pang; Graham, Chris; van Dijk, Frederic; Liu, Huiyun; Renaud, Cyril C; Seeds, Alwyn J

    2016-05-30

    We determine the output impedance of uni-travelling carrier (UTC) photodiodes at frequencies up to 400 GHz by performing, for the first time, 3D full-wave modelling of detailed UTC photodiode structures. In addition, we demonstrate the importance of the UTC impedance evaluation, by using it in the prediction of the absolute power radiated by an antenna integrated UTC, over a broad frequency range and confirming the predictions by experimental measurements up to 185 GHz. This is done by means of 3D full-wave modelling and is only possible since the source (UTC) to antenna impedance match is properly taken into account. We also show that, when the UTC-to-antenna coupling efficiency is modelled using the classical junction-capacitance/series-resistance concept, calculated and measured levels of absolute radiated power are in substantial disagreement, and the maximum radiated power is overestimated by a factor of almost 7 dB. The ability to calculate the absolute emitted power correctly enables the radiated power to be maximised through optimisation of the UTC-to-antenna impedance match. PMID:27410104

  13. Absolute Photoionization Cross Sections for Br2+ in the 4 p --> 4d and 3d --> 4p Energy Regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aguilar, A.; Juarez, A. M.; Bilodeau, R. C.; Esteves, D. A.; Hardy, D. A.; Red, E. C.

    2011-05-01

    Absolute single photoionization cross-section measurements are reported for Br2+ in the 31 eV to 46 eV and 64 eV to 72 eV photon energy ranges. The first energy range includes the low-lying 2P3 / 2 , 1 / 2 and 2D5 / 2 , 3 / 2 metastable state thresholds and extends for 10 eV above the 4S3 / 2 ground state threshold. Strong photoexcitation-autoionization resonances due to 4p --> nd transitions are seen in the cross-section spectrum and identified based on a quantum-defect analysis of the series. The systematic behavior of the quantum defect parameter of some of the Rydberg series observed in the Br2+ spectrum as well as in previously measured Se+ spectrum, are analyzed as a function of the nuclear charge. The 64 eV to 72 eV energy range contains discrete structure that arises from 3d --> np excitations. The R-matrix photoionization cross section calculations of Cummings and O'Sullivan, PRA, 54 (1996) are compared to our absolute cross section measurements in this energy range. Absolute single photoionization cross-section measurements are reported for Br2+ in the 31 eV to 46 eV and 64 eV to 72 eV photon energy ranges. The first energy range includes the low-lying 2P3 / 2 , 1 / 2 and 2D5 / 2 , 3 / 2 metastable state thresholds and extends for 10 eV above the 4S3 / 2 ground state threshold. Strong photoexcitation-autoionization resonances due to 4p --> nd transitions are seen in the cross-section spectrum and identified based on a quantum-defect analysis of the series. The systematic behavior of the quantum defect parameter of some of the Rydberg series observed in the Br2+ spectrum as well as in previously measured Se+ spectrum, are analyzed as a function of the nuclear charge. The 64 eV to 72 eV energy range contains discrete structure that arises from 3d --> np excitations. The R-matrix photoionization cross section calculations of Cummings and O'Sullivan, PRA, 54 (1996) are compared to our absolute cross section measurements in this energy range. This work is

  14. Absolute Rb one-color two-photon ionization cross-section measurement near a quantum interference

    SciTech Connect

    Takekoshi, T.; Brooke, G.M.; Patterson, B.M.; Knize, R.J.

    2004-05-01

    We observe destructive interference in the ground-state Rb two-photon ionization cross section when the single photon energy is tuned between the 5S{yields}5P and 5S{yields}6P transition energies. The minimum cross section is 5.9(1.5)x10{sup -52} cm{sup 4} s and it occurs at a wavelength of 441.0(3) nm (in vacuo). Relative measurements of these cross sections are made at various wavelengths by counting ions produced when magneto-optically trapped Rb atoms are exposed to light from a tunable pulsed laser. This relative curve is calibrated to an absolute cross-section measurement at 532 nm using the trap loss method. A simple calculation agrees reasonably with our results.

  15. DC modeling of PN integrated cross varactors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gonzalez, Benito; Perez, Jose A.; Kemchandani, Sunil L.; Goni-Iturri, Amaya; del Pino, Javier; Garcia, Javier

    2005-06-01

    In this paper models for the capacitance of cross integrated varactors based in the PN junction are presented. Three different approximations are assumed, in order to reproduce the measured results of the capacitance. The relative error with the measured capacitance is under 10% in all cases.

  16. Absolute cross sections for vibrational excitations of cytosine by low energy electron impact

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Michaud, M.; Bazin, M.; Sanche, L.

    2012-09-01

    The absolute cross sections (CSs) for vibrational excitations of cytosine by electron impact between 0.5 and 18 eV were measured by electron-energy loss (EEL) spectroscopy of the molecule deposited at monolayer coverage on an inert Ar substrate. The vibrational energies compare to those that have been reported from IR spectroscopy of cytosine isolated in Ar matrix, IR and Raman spectra of polycrystalline cytosine, and ab initio calculation. The CSs for the various H bending modes at 142 and 160 meV are both rising from their energy threshold up to 1.7 and 2.1 × 10-17 cm2 at about 4 eV, respectively, and then decrease moderately while maintaining some intensity at 18 eV. The latter trend is displayed as well for the CS assigned to the NH2 scissor along with bending of all H at 179 meV. This overall behavior in electron-molecule collision is attributed to direct processes such as the dipole, quadrupole, and polarization contributions, etc. of the interaction of the incident electron with a molecule. The CSs for the ring deformation at 61 meV, the ring deformation with N-H symmetric wag at 77 meV, and the ring deformations with symmetric bending of all H at 119 meV exhibit common enhancement maxima at 1.5, 3.5, and 5.5 eV followed by a broad hump at about 12 eV, which are superimposed on the contribution due to the direct processes. At 3.5 eV, the CS values for the 61-, 77-, and 119-meV modes reach 4.0, 3.0, and 4.5 × 10-17 cm2, respectively. The CS for the C-C and C-O stretches at 202 meV, which dominates in the intermediate EEL region, rises sharply until 1.5 eV, reaches its maximum of 5.7 × 10-17 cm2 at 3.5 eV and then decreases toward 18 eV. The present vibrational enhancements, correspond to the features found around 1.5 and 4.5 eV in electron transmission spectroscopy (ETS) and those lying within 1.5-2.1 eV, 5.2-6.8 eV, and 9.5-10.9 eV range in dissociative electron attachment (DEA) experiments with cytosine in gas phase. While the ETS features are ascribed

  17. Absolute cross sections for vibrational excitations of cytosine by low energy electron impact.

    PubMed

    Michaud, M; Bazin, M; Sanche, L

    2012-09-21

    The absolute cross sections (CSs) for vibrational excitations of cytosine by electron impact between 0.5 and 18 eV were measured by electron-energy loss (EEL) spectroscopy of the molecule deposited at monolayer coverage on an inert Ar substrate. The vibrational energies compare to those that have been reported from IR spectroscopy of cytosine isolated in Ar matrix, IR and Raman spectra of polycrystalline cytosine, and ab initio calculation. The CSs for the various H bending modes at 142 and 160 meV are both rising from their energy threshold up to 1.7 and 2.1 × 10(-17) cm(2) at about 4 eV, respectively, and then decrease moderately while maintaining some intensity at 18 eV. The latter trend is displayed as well for the CS assigned to the NH(2) scissor along with bending of all H at 179 meV. This overall behavior in electron-molecule collision is attributed to direct processes such as the dipole, quadrupole, and polarization contributions, etc. of the interaction of the incident electron with a molecule. The CSs for the ring deformation at 61 meV, the ring deformation with N-H symmetric wag at 77 meV, and the ring deformations with symmetric bending of all H at 119 meV exhibit common enhancement maxima at 1.5, 3.5, and 5.5 eV followed by a broad hump at about 12 eV, which are superimposed on the contribution due to the direct processes. At 3.5 eV, the CS values for the 61-, 77-, and 119-meV modes reach 4.0, 3.0, and 4.5 × 10(-17) cm(2), respectively. The CS for the C-C and C-O stretches at 202 meV, which dominates in the intermediate EEL region, rises sharply until 1.5 eV, reaches its maximum of 5.7 × 10(-17) cm(2) at 3.5 eV and then decreases toward 18 eV. The present vibrational enhancements, correspond to the features found around 1.5 and 4.5 eV in electron transmission spectroscopy (ETS) and those lying within 1.5-2.1 eV, 5.2-6.8 eV, and 9.5-10.9 eV range in dissociative electron attachment (DEA) experiments with cytosine in gas phase. While the ETS features

  18. Absolute cross sections for the dissociation of hydrogen cluster ions in high-energy collisions with helium atoms

    SciTech Connect

    Eden, S.; Tabet, J.; Samraoui, K.; Louc, S.; Farizon, B.; Farizon, M.; Ouaskit, S.; Maerk, T. D.

    2006-02-15

    Absolute dissociation cross sections are reported for H{sub n}{sup +} clusters of varied mass (n=3,5,...,35) following collisions with He atoms at 60 keV/amu. Initial results have been published previously for a smaller range of cluster sizes [Ouaskit et al., Phys. Rev. A 49, 1484 (1994)]. The present extended study includes further experimental results, reducing the statistical errors associated with the absolute cross sections. The previously suggested quasilinear dependence of the H{sub n}{sup +} dissociation cross sections upon n is developed with reference to expected series of geometrical shells of H{sub 2} molecules surrounding a H{sub 3}{sup +} core. Recent calculations identify n=9 as corresponding to the first closed H{sub 2} shell [e.g., Stich et al., J. Chem. Phys. 107, 9482 (1997)]. Recurrence of the distinct characteristics observed in the dissociation-cross-section dependence upon cluster size around n=9 provides the basis for the presently proposed subsequent closed shells at n=15, 21, 27, and 33, in agreement with the calculations of Nagashima et al. [J. Phys. Chem. 96, 4294 (1992)].

  19. The recent absolute total np and pp cross section determinations: quality of data description and prediction of experimental observables

    SciTech Connect

    Laptev, Alexander B; Haight, Robert C; Arndt, Richard A; Briscoe, William J; Paris, Mark W; Strakovsky, Igor I; Workman, Ron L

    2010-01-01

    The absolute total cross sections for np and pp scattering below 1000 MeV are determined based on partial-wave analyses (PWAs) of nucleon-nucleon scattering data. These cross sections are compared with the most recent ENDF/B-VII.0 and JENDL-3.3 data files, and the Nijmegen PWA. Systematic deviations from the ENDF/B-VII.0 and JENDL-3.3 evaluations are found to exist in the low-energy region. Comparison of the np evaluation with the result of most recent np total and differential cross section measurements will be discussed. Results of those measurements were not used in the evaluation database. A comparison was done to check a quality of evaluation and its capabilities to predict experimental observables. Excellent agreement was found between the new experimental data and our PWA predictions.

  20. Absolute Charge Transfer and Fragmentation Cross Sections in He{sup 2+}-C{sub 60} Collisions

    SciTech Connect

    Rentenier, A.; Moretto-Capelle, P.; Bordenave-Montesquieu, D.; Bordenave-Montesquieu, A.; Ruiz, L. F.; Diaz-Tendero, S.; Alcami, M.; Martin, F.; Zarour, B.; Hanssen, J.; Hervieux, P.-A.; Politis, M. F.

    2008-05-09

    We have determined absolute charge transfer and fragmentation cross sections in He{sup 2+}+C{sub 60} collisions in the impact-energy range 0.1-250 keV by using a combined experimental and theoretical approach. We have found that the cross sections for the formation of He{sup +} and He{sup 0} are comparable in magnitude, which cannot be explained by the sole contribution of pure single and double electron capture but also by contribution of transfer-ionization processes that are important even at low impact energies. The results show that multifragmentation is important only at impact energies larger than 40 keV; at lower energies, sequential C{sub 2} evaporation is the dominant process.

  1. An Integrated Model of Choices and Response Times in Absolute Identification

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Scott D.; Marley, A. A. J.; Donkin, Christopher; Heathcote, Andrew

    2008-01-01

    Recent theoretical developments in the field of absolute identification have stressed differences between relative and absolute processes, that is, whether stimulus magnitudes are judged relative to a shorter term context provided by recently presented stimuli or a longer term context provided by the entire set of stimuli. The authors developed a…

  2. Measurement of the absolute vμ-CCQE cross section at the SciBooNE experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Aunion, Jose Luis Alcaraz

    2010-07-01

    This thesis presents the measurement of the charged current quasi-elastic (CCQE) neutrino-nucleon cross section at neutrino energies around 1 GeV. This measurement has two main physical motivations. On one hand, the neutrino-nucleon interactions at few GeV is a region where existing old data are sparse and with low statistics. The current measurement populates low energy regions with higher statistics and precision than previous experiments. On the other hand, the CCQE interaction is the most useful interaction in neutrino oscillation experiments. The CCQE channel is used to measure the initial and final neutrino fluxes in order to determine the neutrino fraction that disappeared. The neutrino oscillation experiments work at low neutrino energies, so precise measurement of CCQE interactions are essential for flux measurements. The main goal of this thesis is to measure the CCQE absolute neutrino cross section from the SciBooNE data. The SciBar Booster Neutrino Experiment (SciBooNE) is a neutrino and anti-neutrino scattering off experiment. The neutrino energy spectrum works at energies around 1 GeV. SciBooNE was running from June 8th 2007 to August 18th 2008. In that period, the experiment collected a total of 2.65 x 1020 protons on target (POT). This thesis has used full data collection in neutrino mode 0.99 x 1020 POT. A CCQE selection cut has been performed, achieving around 70% pure CCQE sample. A fit method has been exclusively developed to determine the absolute CCQE cross section, presenting results in a neutrino energy range from 0.2 to 2 GeV. The results are compatible with the NEUT predictions. The SciBooNE measurement has been compared with both Carbon (MiniBoonE) and deuterium (ANL and BNL) target experiments, showing a good agreement in both cases.

  3. Measurement of the absolute differential cross section of proton–proton elastic scattering at small angles

    DOE PAGES

    Mchedlishvili, D.; Chiladze, D.; Dymov, S.; Bagdasarian, Z.; Barsov, S.; Gebel, R.; Gou, B.; Hartmann, M.; Kacharava, A.; Keshelashvili, I.; et al

    2016-02-03

    The differential cross section for proton-proton elastic scattering has been measured at a beam kinetic energy of 1.0 GeV and in 200 MeV steps from 1.6 to 2.8 GeV for centre-of-mass angles in the range from 12°-16° to 25°-30°, depending on the energy. A precision in the overall normalisation of typically 3% was achieved by studying the energy losses of the circulating beam of the COSY storage ring as it passed repeatedly through the windowless hydrogen target of the ANKE magnetic spectrometer. It is shown that the data have a significant impact upon the results of a partial wave analysis.more » Furthermore, after extrapolating the differential cross sections to the forward direction, the results are broadly compatible with the predictions of forward dispersion relations.« less

  4. A new method for measuring absolute total electron-impact cross sections with forward scattering corrections

    SciTech Connect

    Ma, C.; Liescheski, P.B.; Bonham, R.A. )

    1989-12-01

    In this article we describe an experimental technique to measure the total electron-impact cross section by measurement of the attenuation of an electron beam passing through a gas at constant pressure with the unwanted forward scattering contribution removed. The technique is based on the different spatial propagation properties of scattered and unscattered electrons. The correction is accomplished by measuring the electron beam attenuation dependence on both the target gas pressure (number density) and transmission length. Two extended forms of the Beer--Lambert law which approximately include the contributions for forward scattering and for forward scattering plus multiple scattering from the gas outside the electron beam were developed. It is argued that the dependence of the forward scattering on the path length through the gas is approximately independent of the model used to describe it. The proposed methods were used to determine the total cross section and forward scattering contribution from argon (Ar) with 300-eV electrons. Our results are compared with those in the literature and the predictions of theory and experiment for the forward scattering and multiple scattering contributions. In addition, Monte Carlo simulations were performed as a further test of the method.

  5. Absolute Raman cross-sections of some explosives: Trend to UV

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nagli, L.; Gaft, M.; Fleger, Y.; Rosenbluh, M.

    2008-07-01

    The Raman cross-section dependence on excitation energy in spectral range 620-248 nm have been investigated for UN, TATP, RDX, TNT, and PETN explosives. For all investigated explosive materials, significant pre-resonance enhancement in the UV spectral range has been revealed. Normalized Raman scattering signals are 100-200 times stronger with UV excitation at 248 nm compared to visible excitation at 532 nm. Thus the gated Raman technique with UV excitation has significant advantages compared to IR-VIS excitation for the remote detection of explosives. Certain of the observed Raman lines exhibit deviations from classical λ-4 dependence of Raman cross-section and may totally disappear with UV excitation. The possible explanation for this may be that numerous electronic transitions contribute to the molecular polarizability. These contributions could be of opposite sign and lead to partial cancellation of certain transitions. Another possible reason could be that this is a result of the stronger UV absorption that reduces the sampling volume and therefore the number of scatterers that produce the Raman signal.

  6. Cross-Cultural Collaboration - With Integrity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maryboy, N. C.

    2015-12-01

    Cross-Cultural Collaboration - with Integrity This poster will show the value of cross-cultural collaboration, between scientific institutions and Indigenous ways of knowing, as practiced by the Indigenous Education Institute. Focus is on respect for diverse worldviews, integrity as process, and academic diversity and equity. Today, as never before, traditional ecological knowledge (TEK) is of vital importance as it speaks strongly to the significance of balance to create a healthy environment. Utilizing a lens of contemporary scientific perspective along with a traditional Indigenous perspective illuminates the complementary aspects of both ways of knowing and a greater sense of understanding the earth and sky than would be possible with one perspective alone. The poster will highlight several examples of successful cross-cultural collaborations. *Collaborative partnership with University of Washington, Tacoma, Symposium on Contemporary Native American Issues in Higher Education: Intersectionality of Native Language and Culture in Modern Society (Sharing Our Skies - Looking at the Stars Through Indigenous Eyes and Western Astronomy Lenses) *AST 201, Introduction to Indigenous Astronomy, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Northern Arizona University: a course that fulfills the Diversity Requirement for graduation *Native Universe: a National Science Foundation funded project, which honors Indigenous Voice in science museums to deepen our relationship with nature, vital in this time of climate change *MAVEN - Imagine Mars Through Indigenous Eyes: a NASA funded project which provides middle and high school curriculum delivered in science centers and Indigenous schools *Navajo Sky: modules and shows for planetariums, funded by NASA, that juxtapose Navajo and western astronomy concepts and context, highlighting place-based science

  7. Using DNA origami nanostructures to determine absolute cross sections for UV photon-induced DNA strand breakage.

    PubMed

    Vogel, Stefanie; Rackwitz, Jenny; Schürman, Robin; Prinz, Julia; Milosavljević, Aleksandar R; Réfrégiers, Matthieu; Giuliani, Alexandre; Bald, Ilko

    2015-11-19

    We have characterized ultraviolet (UV) photon-induced DNA strand break processes by determination of absolute cross sections for photoabsorption and for sequence-specific DNA single strand breakage induced by photons in an energy range from 6.50 to 8.94 eV. These represent the lowest-energy photons able to induce DNA strand breaks. Oligonucleotide targets are immobilized on a UV transparent substrate in controlled quantities through attachment to DNA origami templates. Photon-induced dissociation of single DNA strands is visualized and quantified using atomic force microscopy. The obtained quantum yields for strand breakage vary between 0.06 and 0.5, indicating highly efficient DNA strand breakage by UV photons, which is clearly dependent on the photon energy. Above the ionization threshold strand breakage becomes clearly the dominant form of DNA radiation damage, which is then also dependent on the nucleotide sequence.

  8. Absolute vibrational cross sections for 1-19 eV electron scattering from condensed tetrahydrofuran (THF)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lemelin, V.; Bass, A. D.; Cloutier, P.; Sanche, L.

    2016-02-01

    Absolute cross sections (CSs) for vibrational excitation by 1-19 eV electrons impacting on condensed tetrahydrofuran (THF) were measured with a high-resolution electron energy loss spectrometer. Experiments were performed under ultra-high vacuum (3 × 10-11 Torr) at a temperature of about 20 K. The magnitudes of the vibrational CSs lie within the 10-17 cm2 range. Features observed near 4.5, 9.5, and 12.5 eV in the incident energy dependence of the CSs were compared to the results of theoretical calculations and other experiments on gas and solid-phase THF. These three resonances are attributed to the formation of shape or core-excited shape resonances. Another maximum observed around 2.5 eV is not found in the calculations but has been observed in gas-phase studies; it is attributed to the formation of a shape resonance.

  9. Integrated Navigation System Design for Micro Planetary Rovers: Comparison of Absolute Heading Estimation Algorithms and Nonlinear Filtering.

    PubMed

    Ilyas, Muhammad; Hong, Beomjin; Cho, Kuk; Baeg, Seung-Ho; Park, Sangdeok

    2016-05-23

    This paper provides algorithms to fuse relative and absolute microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) navigation sensors, suitable for micro planetary rovers, to provide a more accurate estimation of navigation information, specifically, attitude and position. Planetary rovers have extremely slow speed (~1 cm/s) and lack conventional navigation sensors/systems, hence the general methods of terrestrial navigation may not be applicable to these applications. While relative attitude and position can be tracked in a way similar to those for ground robots, absolute navigation information is hard to achieve on a remote celestial body, like Moon or Mars, in contrast to terrestrial applications. In this study, two absolute attitude estimation algorithms were developed and compared for accuracy and robustness. The estimated absolute attitude was fused with the relative attitude sensors in a framework of nonlinear filters. The nonlinear Extended Kalman filter (EKF) and Unscented Kalman filter (UKF) were compared in pursuit of better accuracy and reliability in this nonlinear estimation problem, using only on-board low cost MEMS sensors. Experimental results confirmed the viability of the proposed algorithms and the sensor suite, for low cost and low weight micro planetary rovers. It is demonstrated that integrating the relative and absolute navigation MEMS sensors reduces the navigation errors to the desired level.

  10. Integrated Navigation System Design for Micro Planetary Rovers: Comparison of Absolute Heading Estimation Algorithms and Nonlinear Filtering

    PubMed Central

    Ilyas, Muhammad; Hong, Beomjin; Cho, Kuk; Baeg, Seung-Ho; Park, Sangdeok

    2016-01-01

    This paper provides algorithms to fuse relative and absolute microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) navigation sensors, suitable for micro planetary rovers, to provide a more accurate estimation of navigation information, specifically, attitude and position. Planetary rovers have extremely slow speed (~1 cm/s) and lack conventional navigation sensors/systems, hence the general methods of terrestrial navigation may not be applicable to these applications. While relative attitude and position can be tracked in a way similar to those for ground robots, absolute navigation information is hard to achieve on a remote celestial body, like Moon or Mars, in contrast to terrestrial applications. In this study, two absolute attitude estimation algorithms were developed and compared for accuracy and robustness. The estimated absolute attitude was fused with the relative attitude sensors in a framework of nonlinear filters. The nonlinear Extended Kalman filter (EKF) and Unscented Kalman filter (UKF) were compared in pursuit of better accuracy and reliability in this nonlinear estimation problem, using only on-board low cost MEMS sensors. Experimental results confirmed the viability of the proposed algorithms and the sensor suite, for low cost and low weight micro planetary rovers. It is demonstrated that integrating the relative and absolute navigation MEMS sensors reduces the navigation errors to the desired level. PMID:27223293

  11. Integrated Navigation System Design for Micro Planetary Rovers: Comparison of Absolute Heading Estimation Algorithms and Nonlinear Filtering.

    PubMed

    Ilyas, Muhammad; Hong, Beomjin; Cho, Kuk; Baeg, Seung-Ho; Park, Sangdeok

    2016-01-01

    This paper provides algorithms to fuse relative and absolute microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) navigation sensors, suitable for micro planetary rovers, to provide a more accurate estimation of navigation information, specifically, attitude and position. Planetary rovers have extremely slow speed (~1 cm/s) and lack conventional navigation sensors/systems, hence the general methods of terrestrial navigation may not be applicable to these applications. While relative attitude and position can be tracked in a way similar to those for ground robots, absolute navigation information is hard to achieve on a remote celestial body, like Moon or Mars, in contrast to terrestrial applications. In this study, two absolute attitude estimation algorithms were developed and compared for accuracy and robustness. The estimated absolute attitude was fused with the relative attitude sensors in a framework of nonlinear filters. The nonlinear Extended Kalman filter (EKF) and Unscented Kalman filter (UKF) were compared in pursuit of better accuracy and reliability in this nonlinear estimation problem, using only on-board low cost MEMS sensors. Experimental results confirmed the viability of the proposed algorithms and the sensor suite, for low cost and low weight micro planetary rovers. It is demonstrated that integrating the relative and absolute navigation MEMS sensors reduces the navigation errors to the desired level. PMID:27223293

  12. Absolute Photoionization Cross Section with an Ultra-high Energy Resolution for Ne in the Region of 1s Rydberg States

    SciTech Connect

    Kato, M.; Morishita, Y.; Suzuki, I. H.; Saito, N.; Oura, M.; Yamaoka, H.; Okada, K.; Matsudo, T.; Gejo, T.

    2007-01-19

    The high-resolution absolute photoabsorption cross section with an absolute photon energy scale for Ne in the energy region of 864-872 eV (1s-1np Rydberg states) has been measured using a multi-electrode ionization chamber and monochromatized synchrotron radiation. The natural lifetime width of Ne 1s-13p resonance state has been obtained to be 252 {+-} 5 meV. The Ne+ (1s-1) ionization potential is determined to be 870.16 {+-} 0.04 eV by using the Rydberg formula. These absolute values are supposed to be more reliable than those previously reported.

  13. Absolute total electron scattering cross sections for N/sub 2/ between 0. 5 and 50 eV

    SciTech Connect

    Kennerly, R.E.

    1980-06-01

    Absolute total electron scattering cross sections for N/sub 2/ from 0.5 to 50 eV have been measured with an estimated uncertainty of +- 3% using a transmission time-of-flight method previously described. The results are compared to previous experimental results and to recent calculations. The positions of the /sup 2/Pi/sub g/ resonance peaks were determined with much greater accuracy ( +- 15 meV) than in previous transmission measurements. The structure reported by Golden (1966) below the /sup 2/Pi/sub g/ resonance was clearly not present, indicating that, if real, these features are not a property of the N/sub 2/ ground vibronic state. The shape resonance predicted at 11 eV by Dill and Dehmer (1977) was not seen, perhaps because it was too weakly manifested in the total cross section. A weak broad band centered at 25 eV may be interpreted as being due to a sigma/sub u/ shape resonance as predicted by Dehmer, Siegel, Welch, and Dill.

  14. Absolute cross section for low-energy-electron damage to condensed macromolecules: A case study of DNA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rezaee, Mohammad; Cloutier, Pierre; Bass, Andrew D.; Michaud, Marc; Hunting, Darel J.; Sanche, Léon

    2012-09-01

    Cross sections (CSs) for the interaction of low-energy electrons (LEE) with condensed macromolecules are essential parameters for accurate modeling of radiation-induced molecular decomposition and chemical synthesis. Electron irradiation of dry nanometer-scale macromolecular solid films has often been employed to measure CSs and other quantitative parameters for LEE interactions. Since such films have thicknesses comparable with electron thermalization distances, energy deposition varies throughout the film. Moreover, charge accumulation occurring inside the films shields a proportion of the macromolecules from electron irradiation. Such effects complicate the quantitative comparison of the CSs obtained in films of different thicknesses and limit the applicability of such measurements. Here, we develop a simple mathematical model, termed the molecular survival model, that employs a CS for a particular damage process together with an attenuation length related to the total CS, to investigate how a measured CS might be expected to vary with experimental conditions. As a case study, we measure the absolute CS for the formation of DNA strand breaks (SBs) by electron irradiation at 10 and 100 eV of lyophilized plasmid DNA films with thicknesses between 10 and 30 nm. The measurements are shown to depend strongly on the thickness and charging condition of the nanometer-scale films. Such behaviors are in accord with the model and support its validity. Via this analysis, the CS obtained for SB damage is nearly independent of film thickness and charging effects. In principle, this model can be adapted to provide absolute CSs for electron-induced damage or reactions occurring in other molecular solids across a wider range of experimental conditions.

  15. Easy Absolute Values? Absolutely

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, Sharon E.; Mittag, Kathleen Cage

    2015-01-01

    The authors teach a problem-solving course for preservice middle-grades education majors that includes concepts dealing with absolute-value computations, equations, and inequalities. Many of these students like mathematics and plan to teach it, so they are adept at symbolic manipulations. Getting them to think differently about a concept that they…

  16. Absolute absorption cross sections of ozone at 300 K, 228 K and 195 K in the wavelength region 185-240 nm

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yoshino, K.; Parkinson, W. H.; Freeman, D. E.

    1992-01-01

    An account is given of progress of work on absorption cross section measurements of ozone at 300 K, 228 K and 195 K in the wavelength region 185-240 nm. In this wavelength region, the penetration of solar radiation into the Earth's atmosphere is controlled by O2 and O3. The transmitted radiation is available to dissociate trace species such as halocarbons and nitrous oxide. We have recently measured absolute absorption cross sections of O3 in the wavelength region 240-350 nm (Freeman et al., 1985; Yoshino et al., 1988). We apply these proven techniques to the determination of the absorption cross section of O3 at 300 K, 228 K and 195 K throughout the wavelength region 185-240 nm. A paper titled 'Absolute Absorption Cross Section Measurements of Ozone in the Wavelength Region 185-254 nm and the Temperature Dependence' has been submitted for publication in the Journal of Geophysical Research.

  17. Causality and cross-modal integration.

    PubMed

    Schutz, Michael; Kubovy, Michael

    2009-12-01

    Schutz and Lipscomb (2007) reported an audiovisual illusion in which the length of the gesture used to produce a sound altered the perception of that sound's duration. This contradicts the widely accepted claim that the auditory system generally dominates temporal tasks because of its superior temporal acuity. Here, in the first of 4 experiments, we show that impact gestures influence duration ratings of percussive but not sustained sounds. In the 2nd, we show that the illusion is present even if the percussive sound occurs up to 700 ms after the visible impact, but disappears if the percussive sound precedes the visible impact. In the 3rd experiment, we show that only the motion after the visible impact influences perceived tone duration. The 4th experiment (replacing the impact gestures with the written text long and short) suggests that the phenomenon is not due to response bias. Given that visual influence in this paradigm is dependent on the presence of an ecologically plausible audiovisual relationship, we conclude that cross-modal causality plays a key role in governing the integration of sensory information.

  18. Measurement of Absolute Excitation Cross Sections in Highly-Charged Ions Using Electron Energy Loss and Merged Beams

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chutjian, A.; Smith, Steven J.; Lozano, J.

    2002-01-01

    There is increasing emphasis during this decade on understanding energy balance and phenomena observed in high electron temperature plasmas. The UV spectral return from FUSE, the X-ray spectral return from the HETG on Chandra and the LETGS 011 XMM-Newton are just beginning. Line emissions are almost entirely from highly-charged ions (HCIs) of C, N, 0, Ne, Mg, S, Si, Ca, and Fe. The Constellation-X mission will provide X-ray spectroscopy up to photon energies of 0.12 nm (10 keV) where primary line emitters will be HCIs. A variety of atomic parameters are required to model the stellar and solar plasma. These include cross sections for excitation, ionization, charge-exchange, X-ray emission, direct and indirect recombination, lifetimes and branching ratios, and dependences on l, m mixing by external E and B fields. In almost all cases the atomic quantities are calculated, and few comparisons to experiment have been carried out. Collision strengths and Einstein A-values are required to convert the observed spectral intensities to electron temperatures and densities in the stellar plasma. The JPL electron energy-loss and merged beam approach has been used to measure absolute collision strengths in a number of ions, with critical comparison made to the best available theories.

  19. Absorption and scattering of light by Pt, Pd, Ag, and Au nanodisks: absolute cross sections and branching ratios.

    PubMed

    Langhammer, Christoph; Kasemo, Bengt; Zorić, Igor

    2007-05-21

    Localized surface plasmons (LSPs) of metallic nanoparticles decay either radiatively or via an electron-hole pair cascade. In this work, the authors have experimentally and theoretically explored the branching ratio of the radiative and nonradiative LSP decay channels for nanodisks of Ag, Au, Pt, and Pd, with diameters D ranging from 38 to 530 nm and height h=20 nm, supported on a fused silica substrate. The branching ratio for the two plasmon decay channels was obtained by measuring the absorption and scattering cross sections as a function of photon energy. The former was obtained from measured extinction and scattering coefficients, using an integrating sphere detector combined with particle density measurements obtained from scanning electron microscopy images of the nanoparticles. Partly angle-resolved measurements of the scattered light allowed the authors to clearly identify contributions from dipolar and higher plasmonic modes to the extinction, scattering, and absorption cross sections. Based on these experiments they find that absorption dominates the total scattering cross section in all the examined cases for small metallic nanodisks (D<100 nm). For D>100 nm absorption still dominates for Pt and Pd nanodisks, while scattering dominates for Au and Ag. A theoretical approach, where the metal disks are approximated as oblate spheroids, is used to account for the trends in the measured cross sections. The field problem is solved in the electrostatic limit. The spheroid is treated as an induced dipole for which the dipolar polarizability is calculated based on spheroid geometry and the (bulk) dielectric response function of the metal the spheroid consists of and the dielectric medium surrounding it. One might expect this model to be inappropriate for disks with D>100 nm since effects due to the retardation of the incoming field across the metallic nanodisk and contributions from higher plasmonic modes are neglected. However, this model describes quite well

  20. Absolute integrated intensity and individual line parameters for the 6.2-micron band of NO2. [in solar spectrum

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goldman, A.; Bonomo, F. S.; Williams, W. J.; Murcray, D. G.; Snider, D. E.

    1975-01-01

    The absolute integrated intensity of the 6.2-micron band of NO2 at 40 C was determined from quantitative spectra at about 10 per cm resolution by the spectral band model technique. A value of 1430 plus or minus 300 per sq cm per atm was obtained. Individual line parameters, positions, intensities, and ground-state energies were derived, and line-by-line calculations were compared with the band model results and with the quantitative spectra obtained at about 0.5 per cm resolution.

  1. Absolute measurement of the photoionization cross section of atomic hydrogen with a shock tube for the extreme ultraviolet. [for astrophysical applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Palenius, H. P.; Kohl, J. L.; Parkinson, W. H.

    1976-01-01

    The paper reports an experiment which is part of a program to measure the absolute values of the atomic photoionization cross sections of astrophysically abundant elements, particularly in stars and planetary atmospheres. An aerodynamic pressure-driven shock tube constructed from stainless steel with a quadratic cross section was used to measure the photoionization cross section of H I at 19 wavelength points from 910 to 609 A with experimental uncertainties between 7 and 20%. The shock tube was used to produce fully dissociated hydrogen and neon mixtures for the photoabsorption measurements.

  2. Absolute determination of photoluminescence quantum efficiency using an integrating sphere setup

    SciTech Connect

    Leyre, S.; Coutino-Gonzalez, E.; Hofkens, J.; Joos, J. J.; Poelman, D.; Smet, P. F.; Ryckaert, J.; Meuret, Y.; Durinck, G.; Hanselaer, P.

    2014-12-15

    An integrating sphere-based setup to obtain a quick and reliable determination of the internal quantum efficiency of strongly scattering luminescent materials is presented. In literature, two distinct but similar measurement procedures are frequently mentioned: a “two measurement” and a “three measurement” approach. Both methods are evaluated by applying the rigorous integrating sphere theory. It was found that both measurement procedures are valid. Additionally, the two methods are compared with respect to the uncertainty budget of the obtained values of the quantum efficiency. An inter-laboratory validation using the two distinct procedures was performed. The conclusions from the theoretical study were confirmed by the experimental data.

  3. Measured Absolute Cross Section of Charge Transfer in H + H2+ at Low Energy: Signature of vi = 2 and Trajectory Effects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Strom, R. A.; Bacani, K. G.; Chi, R. M.; Heczko, S. L.; Singh, B. N.; Tobar, J. A.; Vassantachart, A. K.; Andrianarijaona, V. M.; Seely, D. G.; Havener, C. C.

    2015-04-01

    Measurements of absolute cross sections of charge transfer (CT) in H + H2+--> H+ + H2 were conducted at the merged-beam apparatus at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) in Oak Ridge, Tennessee, which can reliably create and access collision energies as low as 0.1 eV/u. The measured absolute cross section shows evidence of trajectory effects at low energy. Also, the comparison to state-to-state calculations (PRA 67 022708 (2003) suggests a strong contribution from vi = 2 of the H2+that are produced by the electron cyclotron resonance ion source. The data analysis will be presented here. Research supported by the NASA Solar & Heliospheric Physics Program NNH07ZDA001N, the Office of Fusion Energy Sciences and the Division of Chemical Sciences, Geosciences, and Biosciences, Office of Basic Energy Sciences of the U.S. Department of Energy, the National Science Foundation through Grant No. PHY-1068877.

  4. Absolute cascade-free cross-sections for the 2S to 2P transition in Zn(+) using electron-energy-loss and merged-beams methods

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Steven J.; Man, K.-F.; Chutjian, A.; Mawhorter, R. J.; Williams, I. D.

    1991-01-01

    Absolute cascade-free excitation cross-sections in an ion have been measured for the resonance 2S to 2P transition in Zn(+) using electron-energy-loss and merged electron-ion beams methods. Measurements were carried out at electron energies of below threshold to 6 times threshold. Comparisons are made with 2-, 5-, and 15-state close-coupling and distorted-wave theories. There is good agreement between experiment and the 15-state close-coupling cross-sections over the energy range of the calculations.

  5. Measurement of absolute total cross sections for the scattering of electrons by He, H/sub 2/, CH/sub 4/ and CCl/sub n/F/sub m/

    SciTech Connect

    Jones, R.K.

    1985-01-01

    Absolute total electron scattering sections (elastic plus inelastic, integrated over all angles) were measured for helium, molecular hydrogen, methane, tetrachloromethane, trichlorofluoromethane, dichlorodifluoromethane, chlorotrifluoromethane and tetrafluoromethane for incident electron energies from below 1 eV to 50 eV. The electron transmission spectrometer employed consisted of a broad spectrum pulsed electron source in line with a gas sample cell and electron detector. The electron energy was derived from the measured electron time of flight from the source to the detector. The total cross section was determined, using Beer's law, from the attenuation of the electron beam as it passed through a sample cell. Thorough theoretical studies have been reported for helium and the simpler molecules. For these systems, comparisons are made between the above results and reported absolute cross section measurements and calculations with careful consideration given to possible causes of the differences observed between recent measurements. For the more complicated molecules there are few reported calculations or measurements of the total cross sections. In these cases the low energy resonances associated with electron capture processes are not adequately described by available theoretical studies, so molecular orbital calculations and complementary experimental results are employed to explain the observed structure.

  6. [Study on the axial strain sensor of birefringence photonic crystal fiber loop mirror based on the absolute integral of the monitoring peak].

    PubMed

    Jiang, Ying; Zeng, Jie; Liang, Da-Kai; Wang, Xue-Liang; Ni, Xiao-Yu; Zhang, Xiao-Yan; Li, Ji-Feng; Luo, Wen-Yong

    2013-12-01

    In the present paper, the theoretical expression of the wavelength change and the axial strain of birefringence fiber loop mirror is developed. The theoretical result shows that the axial strain sensitivity of birefringence photonic crystal fiber loop mirror is much lower than conventional birefringence fiber loop mirror. It is difficult to measure the axial strain by monitoring the wavelength change of birefringence photonic crystal fiber loop mirror, and it is easy to cause the measurement error because the output spectrum is not perfectly smooth. The different strain spectrum of birefringence photonic crystal fiber loop mirror was measured experimentally by an optical spectrum analyzer. The measured spectrum was analysed. The results show that the absolute integral of the monitoring peak decreases with increasing strain and the absolute integral is linear versus strain. Based on the above results, it is proposed that the axial strain can be measured by monitoring the absolute integral of the monitoring peak in this paper. The absolute integral of the monitoring peak is a comprehensive index which can indicate the light intensity of different wavelength. This method of monitoring the absolute integral of the monitoring peak to measure the axial strain can not only overcome the difficulty of monitoring the wavelength change of birefringence photonic crystal fiber loop mirror, but also reduce the measurement error caused by the unsmooth output spectrum. PMID:24611385

  7. Crossing the Atlantic: Integrating Cross-Cultural Experiences into Undergraduate Business Courses Using Virtual Communities Technology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Luethge, Denise J.; Raska, David; Greer, Bertie M.; O'Connor, Christina

    2016-01-01

    Today's business school academics are tasked with pedagogy that offers students an understanding of the globalization of markets and the cross-cultural communication skills needed in today's business environment. The authors describe how a virtual cross-cultural experience was integrated into an undergraduate business course and used as an…

  8. Absolute vibrational excitation cross sections for slow-electron (1-18 eV) scattering in solid H2O

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Michaud, M.; Sanche, L.

    1987-11-01

    High-resolution vibrational electron-energy-loss spectra of amorphous ice films condensed at 14 K are reported for the incident-energy range 1-18 eV. Absolute electron scattering cross sections for elastic collisions, individual vibrational excitations, and the sum of electronic transitions are obtained by performing a two-stream multiple-scattering analysis of the spectra. The various features found in the energy-dependent cross sections are discussed, whenever possible, by comparison with data and mechanisms (e.g., transient anion formation) well established in the gas phase. Quantum-interference effects introduced implicitly in the cross sections by the classical analysis are discussed within the first Born approximation for electron-multiple-site scattering.

  9. Measurement of the thermal neutron capture cross section and the resonance integral of radioactive Hf182

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vockenhuber, C.; Bichler, M.; Wallner, A.; Kutschera, W.; Dillmann, I.; Käppeler, F.

    2008-04-01

    The neutron capture cross sections of the radioactive isotope Hf182 (t1/2=8.9×106 yr) in the thermal and epithermal energy regions have been measured by activation at the TRIGA Mark-II reactor of the Atomic Institute of the Austrian Universities in Vienna, Austria, and subsequent γ-ray spectroscopy of Hf183. High values for the thermal (kT=25 meV) cross section σ0=133±10 b and for the resonance integral I0=5850±660 b were found. Additionally, the absolute intensities of the main γ-ray transitions in the decay of Hf182 have been considerably improved.

  10. Tracing multiple scattering patterns in absolute (e,2e) cross sections for H{sub 2} and He over a 4{pi} solid angle

    SciTech Connect

    Ren, X.; Senftleben, A.; Pflueger, T.; Dorn, A.; Ullrich, J.; Colgan, J.; Pindzola, M. S.; Al-Hagan, O.; Madison, D. H.; Bray, I.; Fursa, D. V.

    2010-09-15

    Absolutely normalized (e,2e) measurements for H{sub 2} and He covering the full solid angle of one ejected electron are presented for 16 eV sum energy of both final state continuum electrons. For both targets rich cross-section structures in addition to the binary and recoil lobes are identified and studied as a function of the fixed electron's emission angle and the energy sharing among both electrons. For H{sub 2} their behavior is consistent with multiple scattering of the projectile as discussed before [Al-Hagan et al., Nature Phys. 5, 59 (2009)]. For He the binary and recoil lobes are significantly larger than for H{sub 2} and partly cover the multiple scattering structures. To highlight these patterns we propose a alternative representation of the triply differential cross section. Nonperturbative calculations are in good agreement with the He results and show discrepancies for H{sub 2} in the recoil peak region. For H{sub 2} a perturbative approach reasonably reproduces the cross-section shape but deviates in absolute magnitude.

  11. Benchmark experiment for electron-impact ionization of argon: Absolute triple-differential cross sections via three-dimensional electron emission images

    SciTech Connect

    Ren Xueguang; Senftleben, Arne; Pflueger, Thomas; Dorn, Alexander; Ullrich, Joachim; Bartschat, Klaus

    2011-05-15

    Single ionization of argon by 195-eV electron impact is studied in an experiment, where the absolute triple-differential cross sections are presented as three-dimensional electron emission images for a series of kinematic conditions. Thereby a comprehensive set of experimental data for electron-impact ionization of a many-electron system is produced to provide a benchmark for comparison with theoretical predictions. Theoretical models using a hybrid first-order and second-order distorted-wave Born plus R-matrix approach are employed to compare their predictions with the experimental data. While the relative shape of the calculated cross section is generally in reasonable agreement with experiment, the magnitude appears to be the most significant problem with the theoretical treatment for the conditions studied in the present work. This suggests that the most significant challenge in the further development of theory for this process may lie in the reproduction of the absolute scale rather than the angular dependence of the cross section.

  12. Absolute state-selected and state-to-state total cross sections for the Ar sup + ( sup 2 P sub 3/2,1/2 )+CO reactions

    SciTech Connect

    Flesch, G.D.; Nourbakhsh, S.; Ng, C.Y. . Ames Laboratory Iowa State University, Ames, Iowa . Department of Chemistry)

    1991-09-01

    Absolute spin--orbit state-selected total cross sections for the reactions, Ar{sup +}({sup 2}{ital P}{sub 3/2,1/2})+CO{r arrow}CO{sup +}+Ar (reaction (1)), C{sup +}+O+Ar (reaction (2)), O{sup +}+C+Ar (reaction (3)), and ArC{sup +}+O (reaction (4)), have been measured in the center-of-mass collision energy ({ital E}{sub c.m.}) range of 0.04--123.5 eV. Absolute spin--orbit state transition total cross sections for the Ar{sup +}({sup 2}{ital P}{sub 3/2,1/2})+CO reactions at {ital E}{sub c.m.} have also been obtained. The appearance energies (AE) for C{sup +}({ital E}{sub c.m.}=6.6{plus minus}0.4 eV) and O{sup +}({ital E}{sub c.m.}=8.6{plus minus}0.4 eV) are in agreement with the thermochemical thresholds for reactions (2) and (3), respectively. The observed AE for reaction (4) yields a lower bound of 0.5 eV for the ArC{sup +} bond dissociation energy. The kinetic energy dependence of the absolute cross sections and the retarding potential analysis of the product ions support that ArC{sup +}, C{sup +}, and O{sup +} are formed via a charge transfer predissociation mechanism, similar to that proposed to be responsible for the formation of O{sup +} (N{sup +}) and ArO{sup +} (ArN{sup +}) in the collisions of Ar{sup +}({sup 2}{ital P}{sub 3/2,1/2})+O{sub 2}(N{sub 2}).

  13. It does belong together: cross-modal correspondences influence cross-modal integration during perceptual learning

    PubMed Central

    Brunel, Lionel; Carvalho, Paulo F.; Goldstone, Robert L.

    2015-01-01

    Experiencing a stimulus in one sensory modality is often associated with an experience in another sensory modality. For instance, seeing a lemon might produce a sensation of sourness. This might indicate some kind of cross-modal correspondence between vision and gustation. The aim of the current study was to explore whether such cross-modal correspondences influence cross-modal integration during perceptual learning. To that end, we conducted two experiments. Using a speeded classification task, Experiment 1 established a cross-modal correspondence between visual lightness and the frequency of an auditory tone. Using a short-term priming procedure, Experiment 2 showed that manipulation of such cross-modal correspondences led to the creation of a crossmodal unit regardless of the nature of the correspondence (i.e., congruent, Experiment 2a or incongruent, Experiment 2b). However, a comparison of priming effects sizes suggested that cross-modal correspondences modulate cross-modal integration during learning, leading to new learned units that have different stability over time. We discuss the implications of our results for the relation between cross-modal correspondence and perceptual learning in the context of a Bayesian explanation of cross-modal correspondences. PMID:25914653

  14. Integral elastic, electronic-state, ionization, and total cross sections for electron scattering with furfural

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, D. B.; da Costa, R. F.; Varella, M. T. do N.; Bettega, M. H. F.; Lima, M. A. P.; Blanco, F.; García, G.; Brunger, M. J.

    2016-04-01

    We report absolute experimental integral cross sections (ICSs) for electron impact excitation of bands of electronic-states in furfural, for incident electron energies in the range 20-250 eV. Wherever possible, those results are compared to corresponding excitation cross sections in the structurally similar species furan, as previously reported by da Costa et al. [Phys. Rev. A 85, 062706 (2012)] and Regeta and Allan [Phys. Rev. A 91, 012707 (2015)]. Generally, very good agreement is found. In addition, ICSs calculated with our independent atom model (IAM) with screening corrected additivity rule (SCAR) formalism, extended to account for interference (I) terms that arise due to the multi-centre nature of the scattering problem, are also reported. The sum of those ICSs gives the IAM-SCAR+I total cross section for electron-furfural scattering. Where possible, those calculated IAM-SCAR+I ICS results are compared against corresponding results from the present measurements with an acceptable level of accord being obtained. Similarly, but only for the band I and band II excited electronic states, we also present results from our Schwinger multichannel method with pseudopotentials calculations. Those results are found to be in good qualitative accord with the present experimental ICSs. Finally, with a view to assembling a complete cross section data base for furfural, some binary-encounter-Bethe-level total ionization cross sections for this collision system are presented.

  15. Absolute partial electron impact ionization cross sections of Xe from threshold up to 180 eV

    SciTech Connect

    Stephan, K.; Maerk, T.D.

    1984-10-01

    Partial electron ionization cross section ratios and functions of Xe were determined in the low energy regime (< or =180 eV) using a refined mass spectrometric technique. The experimental results are compared with previous measurements and calculations.

  16. Results of Second Outdoor Comparison Between Absolute Cavity Pyrgeometer (ACP) and Infrared Integrating Sphere (IRIS) Radiometer at PMOD (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect

    Reda, I.; Grobner, J.; Wacker, S.

    2014-01-01

    The Absolute Cavity Pyrgeometer (ACP) and InfraRed Integrating Sphere radiometer (IRIS) are developed to establish a world reference for calibrating pyrgeometers with traceability to SI units. The two radiometers are un-windowed with negligible spectral dependence, and traceable to SI units through the temperature scale (ITS-90). The second outdoor comparison between the two designs was held from September 30 to October 11, 2013 at the Physikalisch-Metorologisches Observatorium Davos (PMOD). The difference between the irradiance measured by ACP and that of the IRIS was within 1 W/m2 (3 IRISs: PMOD + Australia + Germany). From the first and second comparisons, a difference of 4-6 W/m2 was observed between the irradiance measured by ACP&IRIS and that of the interim World Infrared Standard Group (WISG). This presentation includes results from the first and second comparison in an effort to establish the world reference for pyrgeometer calibrations, a key deliverable for the World Meteorological Organization (WMO), and the DOE-ASR.

  17. Absolute fragmentation cross sections in atom-molecule collisions: Scaling laws for non-statistical fragmentation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon molecules

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, T.; Gatchell, M.; Stockett, M. H.; Alexander, J. D.; Schmidt, H. T.; Cederquist, H.; Zettergren, H.; Zhang, Y.; Rousseau, P.; Maclot, S.; Delaunay, R.; Adoui, L.; Domaracka, A.; Huber, B. A.

    2014-06-14

    We present scaling laws for absolute cross sections for non-statistical fragmentation in collisions between Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAH/PAH{sup +}) and hydrogen or helium atoms with kinetic energies ranging from 50 eV to 10 keV. Further, we calculate the total fragmentation cross sections (including statistical fragmentation) for 110 eV PAH/PAH{sup +} + He collisions, and show that they compare well with experimental results. We demonstrate that non-statistical fragmentation becomes dominant for large PAHs and that it yields highly reactive fragments forming strong covalent bonds with atoms (H and N) and molecules (C{sub 6}H{sub 5}). Thus nonstatistical fragmentation may be an effective initial step in the formation of, e.g., Polycyclic Aromatic Nitrogen Heterocycles (PANHs). This relates to recent discussions on the evolution of PAHNs in space and the reactivities of defect graphene structures.

  18. Absolute cross sections for near-threshold electron-impact excitation of the 2s 2S-->2p 2P transition in C3+

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bannister, M. E.; Chung, Y.-S.; Djurić, N.; Wallbank, B.; Woitke, O.; Zhou, S.; Dunn, G. H.; Smith, A. C.

    1998-01-01

    Absolute total cross sections for electron-impact excitation of the 2s 2S-->2p 2P transition in C3+ were measured from 7.35 eV to 8.45 eV using the merged electron-ion-beams energy-loss technique. The results settle the discrepancy between two previous experiments using the crossed-beams fluorescence method, being in very good agreement with the older results [P. O. Taylor, D. Gregory, G. H. Dunn, R. A. Phaneuf, and D. H. Crandall, Phys. Rev. Lett. 39, 1256 (1977)] but less so with the more recent ones [D. W. Savin, L. D. Gardner, D. B. Reisenfeld, A. R. Young, and J. L. Kohl, Phys. Rev. A 51, 2162 (1995)]. The present measurements are also in good agreement with unitarized Coulomb-Born and close-coupling calculations.

  19. A novel double-focusing time-of-flight mass spectrometer for absolute recoil ion cross sections measurements.

    PubMed

    Sigaud, L; de Jesus, V L B; Ferreira, Natalia; Montenegro, E C

    2016-08-01

    In this work, the inclusion of an Einzel-like lens inside the time-of-flight drift tube of a standard mass spectrometer coupled to a gas cell-to study ionization of atoms and molecules by electron impact-is described. Both this lens and a conical collimator are responsible for further focalization of the ions and charged molecular fragments inside the spectrometer, allowing a much better resolution at the time-of-flight spectra, leading to a separation of a single mass-to-charge unit up to 100 a.m.u. The procedure to obtain the overall absolute efficiency of the spectrometer and micro-channel plate detector is also discussed. PMID:27587105

  20. A novel double-focusing time-of-flight mass spectrometer for absolute recoil ion cross sections measurements.

    PubMed

    Sigaud, L; de Jesus, V L B; Ferreira, Natalia; Montenegro, E C

    2016-08-01

    In this work, the inclusion of an Einzel-like lens inside the time-of-flight drift tube of a standard mass spectrometer coupled to a gas cell-to study ionization of atoms and molecules by electron impact-is described. Both this lens and a conical collimator are responsible for further focalization of the ions and charged molecular fragments inside the spectrometer, allowing a much better resolution at the time-of-flight spectra, leading to a separation of a single mass-to-charge unit up to 100 a.m.u. The procedure to obtain the overall absolute efficiency of the spectrometer and micro-channel plate detector is also discussed.

  1. A novel double-focusing time-of-flight mass spectrometer for absolute recoil ion cross sections measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sigaud, L.; de Jesus, V. L. B.; Ferreira, Natalia; Montenegro, E. C.

    2016-08-01

    In this work, the inclusion of an Einzel-like lens inside the time-of-flight drift tube of a standard mass spectrometer coupled to a gas cell—to study ionization of atoms and molecules by electron impact—is described. Both this lens and a conical collimator are responsible for further focalization of the ions and charged molecular fragments inside the spectrometer, allowing a much better resolution at the time-of-flight spectra, leading to a separation of a single mass-to-charge unit up to 100 a.m.u. The procedure to obtain the overall absolute efficiency of the spectrometer and micro-channel plate detector is also discussed.

  2. Infrared cross-sections and integrated band intensities of propylene: Temperature-dependent studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Es-sebbar, Et-touhami; Alrefae, Majed; Farooq, Aamir

    2014-01-01

    Propylene, a by-product of biomass burning, thermal cracking of hydrocarbons and incomplete combustion of fossil fuels, is a ubiquitous molecule found in the environment and atmosphere. Accurate infrared (IR) cross-sections and integrated band intensities of propylene are essential for quantitative measurements and atmospheric modeling. We measured absolute IR cross-sections of propylene using Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) Spectroscopy over the wavenumber range of 400-6500 cm-1 and at gas temperatures between 296 and 460 K. We recorded these spectra at spectral resolutions ranging from 0.08 to 0.5 cm-1 and measured the integrated band intensities for a number of vibrational bands in certain spectral regions. We then compared the integrated band intensities measured at room temperature with values derived from the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) and the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) databases. Our results agreed well with the results reported in the two databases with a maximum deviation of about 4%. The peak cross-sections for the primary bands decreased by about 20-54% when the temperature increased from 296 to 460 K. Moreover, we determined the integrated band intensities as a function of temperature for certain features in various spectral regions; we found no significant temperature dependence over the range of temperatures considered here. We also studied the effect of temperature on absorption cross-section using a Difference Frequency Generation (DFG) laser system. We compared the DFG results with those obtained from the FTIR study at certain wavenumbers over the 2850-2975 cm-1 range and found a reasonable agreement with less than 10% discrepancy.

  3. Measurement of Absolute Excitation Cross Sections in Highly-Charged Ions Using Electron Energy Loss and Merged Beams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chutjian, A.; Smith, Steven J.; Lozano, J. A.

    2002-11-01

    There is increasing emphasis within this decade on understanding energy balance and new phenomena observed in high electron temperature plasmas. The UV spectral return from FUSE, and the X-ray spectral return from the HETG on Chandra and the LETGS on XMM-Newton are just beginning. The line emissions are almost entirely from highly-charged ions (HCIs) of C, N, O, Ne, Mg, S, Si, Ca, and Fe. In addition, the Constellation-X mission, currently in the planning stages, will provide high-throughput X-ray spectroscopy up to photon energies of 0.12 nm (10 keV), where the primary line emitters will again be the HCIs. This array of space instruments is providing an overwhelming return of HCI spectral data from a variety of astrophysical objects. Collision strengths and Einstein A-values are required to convert the observed spectral intensities to electron temperatures and densities in the stellar plasma [1]. The JPL electron energy-loss and merged-beams approach [2] has been used to measure absolute collision strengths in a number of ions, with critical comparisons to the best available theories. Experimental methods will be reviewed, and results presented on experimental comparisons to R-Matrix and Breit-Pauli theoretical results in C3+[3], O2+[4], O5+[5], S2+[6], and Fe9+ [7]. Work is planned for comparisons in Mgq+, and higher charge states Fe(10-15)+. J. Lozano thanks the National Research Council for a fellowship though the NASA- NRC program. This work was carried out at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, and was supported under contract with the National Aeronautics and Space Administration.

  4. Homing by path integration when a locomotion trajectory crosses itself.

    PubMed

    Yamamoto, Naohide; Meléndez, Jayleen A; Menzies, Derek T

    2014-01-01

    Path integration is a process with which navigators derive their current position and orientation by integrating self-motion signals along a locomotion trajectory. It has been suggested that path integration becomes disproportionately erroneous when the trajectory crosses itself. However, there is a possibility that this previous finding was confounded by effects of the length of a traveled path and the amount of turns experienced along the path, two factors that are known to affect path integration performance. The present study was designed to investigate whether the crossover of a locomotion trajectory truly increases errors of path integration. In an experiment, blindfolded human navigators were guided along four paths that varied in their lengths and turns, and attempted to walk directly back to the beginning of the paths. Only one of the four paths contained a crossover. Results showed that errors yielded from the path containing the crossover were not always larger than those observed in other paths, and the errors were attributed solely to the effects of longer path lengths or greater degrees of turns. These results demonstrated that path crossover does not always cause significant disruption in path integration processes. Implications of the present findings for models of path integration are discussed.

  5. Xestoproxamines A-C from Neopetrosia proxima. Assignment of absolute stereostructure of bis-piperidine alkaloids by integrated degradation-CD analysis.

    PubMed

    Morinaka, Brandon I; Molinski, Tadeusz F

    2011-03-25

    The complete stereostructures of xestoproxamines A-C, from the Bahamian sponge Neopetrosia proxima, were assigned from spectroscopic analysis, including MS, 2D NMR, and integrated degradation-CD analysis. Two new CD application protocols are described for defining absolute configuration: one for allylic methyl groups in branched chains and a second for the heterocyclic core bis-piperidine with specific applicability to other members of this class alkaloids--known for their stereoheterogeneity--and tertiary cyclic amines in general. PMID:21341726

  6. Do Cross-Modal Projections Always Result in Multisensory Integration?

    PubMed Central

    Bittencourt-Navarrete, Ruben E.; Keniston, Leslie P.; Medina, Alexandre E.; Wang, Meng Y.; Meredith, M. Alex

    2008-01-01

    Convergence of afferents from different sensory modalities has generally been thought to produce bimodal (and trimodal) neurons (i.e., exhibit suprathreshold excitation to more than 1 sensory modality). Consequently, studies identifying cross-modal connections assume that such convergence results in bimodal (or trimodal) neurons that produce familiar forms of multisensory integration: response enhancement or depression. The present study questioned that assumption by anatomically identifying a projection from ferret auditory to visual cortex Area 21. However, electrophysiological recording within Area 21 not only failed to identify a single bimodal neuron but also familiar forms of multisensory integration were not observed either. Instead, a small proportion of neurons (9%; 27/296) showed subthreshold multisensory integration, in which visual responses were significantly modulated by auditory inputs. Such subthreshold multisensory effects were enhanced by γ-aminobutyric acid antagonism, whereby a majority of neurons (87%; 20/23) now participated in a significant, multisensory population effect. Thus, multisensory convergence does not de facto result in bimodal (or trimodal) neurons or the traditional forms of multisensory integration. However, the fact that unimodal neurons exhibited a subthreshold form of multisensory integration not only affirms the relationship between convergence and integration but also expands our understanding of the functional repertoire of multisensory processing itself. PMID:18203695

  7. Absolute cross sections and branching ratios for the radiative decay of doubly excited helium determined by photon-induced fluorescence spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mickat, S.; Schartner, K.-H.; Kammer, Sv; Schill, R.; Werner, L.; Klumpp, S.; Ehresmann, A.; Schmoranzer, H.; Sukhorukov, V. L.

    2005-08-01

    The decay of doubly excited helium states below the N = 2 threshold, cascading radiatively over three steps, were investigated using the photon-induced fluorescence spectroscopy (PIFS) at BESSY II. Absolute cross sections as the product of the resonance excitation cross section of the doubly excited states and their fluorescence rate to decay into the singly excited 1sms(1S) and 1smd(1D) states were measured. The experiments showed that the (sp,2n+)(1P) states decay predominantly into the 1sns(1S) states, whereas the (pd,2n)(1P) states prefer to decay into the 1snd(1D) states. For the (sp,2n-)(1P) states with n = 4, 5 and 6 we observed a broad and complex decay pattern. In addition the angular distribution of the fluorescence radiation was measured. The results are in good agreement with theoretical predictions. Furthermore, the weakening of the LS coupling scheme and the mixing between singlet and triplet states in helium was confirmed by observation of the 1s6d(3D0,1,2) → 1s2p(3P0,1,2) transition on a doubly excited singlet state.

  8. Integration of Quantitative Positron Emission Tomography Absolute Myocardial Blood Flow Measurements in the Clinical Management of Coronary Artery Disease.

    PubMed

    Gewirtz, Henry; Dilsizian, Vasken

    2016-05-31

    In the >40 years since planar myocardial imaging with(43)K-potassium was introduced into clinical research and management of patients with coronary artery disease (CAD), diagnosis and treatment have undergone profound scientific and technological changes. One such innovation is the current state-of-the-art hardware and software for positron emission tomography myocardial perfusion imaging, which has advanced it from a strictly research-oriented modality to a clinically valuable tool. This review traces the evolving role of quantitative positron emission tomography measurements of myocardial blood flow in the evaluation and management of patients with CAD. It presents methodology, currently or soon to be available, that offers a paradigm shift in CAD management. Heretofore, radionuclide myocardial perfusion imaging has been primarily qualitative or at best semiquantitative in nature, assessing regional perfusion in relative terms. Thus, unlike so many facets of modern cardiovascular practice and CAD management, which depend, for example, on absolute values of key parameters such as arterial and left ventricular pressures, serum lipoprotein, and other biomarker levels, the absolute levels of rest and maximal myocardial blood flow have yet to be incorporated into routine clinical practice even in most positron emission tomography centers where the potential to do so exists. Accordingly, this review focuses on potential value added for improving clinical CAD practice by measuring the absolute level of rest and maximal myocardial blood flow. Physiological principles and imaging fundamentals necessary to understand how positron emission tomography makes robust, quantitative measurements of myocardial blood flow possible are highlighted.

  9. Integration of Quantitative Positron Emission Tomography Absolute Myocardial Blood Flow Measurements in the Clinical Management of Coronary Artery Disease.

    PubMed

    Gewirtz, Henry; Dilsizian, Vasken

    2016-05-31

    In the >40 years since planar myocardial imaging with(43)K-potassium was introduced into clinical research and management of patients with coronary artery disease (CAD), diagnosis and treatment have undergone profound scientific and technological changes. One such innovation is the current state-of-the-art hardware and software for positron emission tomography myocardial perfusion imaging, which has advanced it from a strictly research-oriented modality to a clinically valuable tool. This review traces the evolving role of quantitative positron emission tomography measurements of myocardial blood flow in the evaluation and management of patients with CAD. It presents methodology, currently or soon to be available, that offers a paradigm shift in CAD management. Heretofore, radionuclide myocardial perfusion imaging has been primarily qualitative or at best semiquantitative in nature, assessing regional perfusion in relative terms. Thus, unlike so many facets of modern cardiovascular practice and CAD management, which depend, for example, on absolute values of key parameters such as arterial and left ventricular pressures, serum lipoprotein, and other biomarker levels, the absolute levels of rest and maximal myocardial blood flow have yet to be incorporated into routine clinical practice even in most positron emission tomography centers where the potential to do so exists. Accordingly, this review focuses on potential value added for improving clinical CAD practice by measuring the absolute level of rest and maximal myocardial blood flow. Physiological principles and imaging fundamentals necessary to understand how positron emission tomography makes robust, quantitative measurements of myocardial blood flow possible are highlighted. PMID:27245647

  10. Absolute Summ

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Phillips, Alfred, Jr.

    Summ means the entirety of the multiverse. It seems clear, from the inflation theories of A. Guth and others, that the creation of many universes is plausible. We argue that Absolute cosmological ideas, not unlike those of I. Newton, may be consistent with dynamic multiverse creations. As suggested in W. Heisenberg's uncertainty principle, and with the Anthropic Principle defended by S. Hawking, et al., human consciousness, buttressed by findings of neuroscience, may have to be considered in our models. Predictability, as A. Einstein realized with Invariants and General Relativity, may be required for new ideas to be part of physics. We present here a two postulate model geared to an Absolute Summ. The seedbed of this work is part of Akhnaton's philosophy (see S. Freud, Moses and Monotheism). Most important, however, is that the structure of human consciousness, manifest in Kenya's Rift Valley 200,000 years ago as Homo sapiens, who were the culmination of the six million year co-creation process of Hominins and Nature in Africa, allows us to do the physics that we do. .

  11. High resolution absolute absorption cross sections of the B ̃(1)A'-X ̃(1)A' transition of the CH2OO biradical.

    PubMed

    Foreman, Elizabeth S; Kapnas, Kara M; Jou, YiTien; Kalinowski, Jarosław; Feng, David; Gerber, R Benny; Murray, Craig

    2015-12-28

    Carbonyl oxides, or Criegee intermediates, are formed from the gas phase ozonolysis of alkenes and play a pivotal role in night-time and urban area atmospheric chemistry. Significant discrepancies exist among measurements of the strong B ̃(1)A'-X ̃(1)A' electronic transition of the simplest Criegee intermediate, CH2OO in the visible/near-UV. We report room temperature spectra of the B ̃(1)A'-X ̃(1)A' electronic absorption band of CH2OO acquired at higher resolution using both single-pass broadband absorption and cavity ring-down spectroscopy. The new absorption spectra confirm the vibrational structure on the red edge of the band that is absent from ionization depletion measurements. The absolute absorption cross sections over the 362-470 nm range are in good agreement with those reported by Ting et al. Broadband absorption spectra recorded over the temperature range of 276-357 K were identical within their mutual uncertainties, confirming that the vibrational structure is not due to hot bands.

  12. On the nature of cross-disciplinary integration: A philosophical framework.

    PubMed

    O'Rourke, Michael; Crowley, Stephen; Gonnerman, Chad

    2016-04-01

    Meeting grand challenges requires responses that constructively combine multiple forms of expertise, both academic and non-academic; that is, it requires cross-disciplinary integration. But just what is cross-disciplinary integration? In this paper, we supply a preliminary answer by reviewing prominent accounts of cross-disciplinary integration from two literatures that are rarely brought together: cross-disciplinarity and philosophy of biology. Reflecting on similarities and differences in these accounts, we develop a framework that integrates their insights-integration as a generic combination process the details of which are determined by the specific contexts in which particular integrations occur. One such context is cross-disciplinary research, which yields cross-disciplinary integration. We close by reflecting on the potential applicability of this framework to research efforts aimed at meeting grand challenges. PMID:26601600

  13. On the nature of cross-disciplinary integration: A philosophical framework.

    PubMed

    O'Rourke, Michael; Crowley, Stephen; Gonnerman, Chad

    2016-04-01

    Meeting grand challenges requires responses that constructively combine multiple forms of expertise, both academic and non-academic; that is, it requires cross-disciplinary integration. But just what is cross-disciplinary integration? In this paper, we supply a preliminary answer by reviewing prominent accounts of cross-disciplinary integration from two literatures that are rarely brought together: cross-disciplinarity and philosophy of biology. Reflecting on similarities and differences in these accounts, we develop a framework that integrates their insights-integration as a generic combination process the details of which are determined by the specific contexts in which particular integrations occur. One such context is cross-disciplinary research, which yields cross-disciplinary integration. We close by reflecting on the potential applicability of this framework to research efforts aimed at meeting grand challenges.

  14. Integrated analysis of PALSAR/Radarsat-1 InSAR and ENVISAT altimeter data for mapping of absolute water level changes in Louisiana wetlands

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kim, J.-W.; Lu, Zhiming; Lee, H.; Shum, C.K.; Swarzenski, C.M.; Doyle, T.W.; Baek, S.-H.

    2009-01-01

    Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar (InSAR) has been used to detect relative water level changes in wetlands. We developed an innovative method to integrate InSAR and satellite radar altimetry for measuring absolute or geocentric water level changes and applied the methodology to remote areas of swamp forest in coastal Louisiana. Coherence analysis of InSAR pairs suggested that the HH polarization is preferred for this type of observation, and polarimetric analysis can help to identify double-bounce backscattering areas in the wetland. ENVISAT radar altimeter-measured 18-Hz (along-track sampling of 417 m) water level data processed with regional stackfile method have been used to provide vertical references for water bodies separated by levees. The high-resolution (~ 40 m) relative water changes measured from ALOS PALSAR L-band and Radarsat-1 C-band InSAR are then integrated with ENVISAT radar altimetry to obtain absolute water level. The resulting water level time series were validated with in situ gauge observations within the swamp forest. We anticipate that this new technique will allow retrospective reconstruction and concurrent monitoring of water conditions and flow dynamics in wetlands, especially those lacking gauge networks. ?? 2009 Elsevier Inc.

  15. Integrated Cryogenic Satellite Communications Cross-Link Receiver Experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Romanofsky, R. R.; Bhasin, K. B.; Downey, A. N.; Jackson, C. J.; Silver, A. H.; Javadi, H. H. S.

    1995-01-01

    An experiment has been devised which will validate, in space, a miniature, high-performance receiver. The receiver blends three complementary technologies; high temperature superconductivity (HTS), pseudomorphic high electron mobility transistor (PHEMT) monolithic microwave integrated circuits (MMIC), and a miniature pulse tube cryogenic cooler. Specifically, an HTS band pass filter, InP MMIC low noise amplifier, HTS-sapphire resonator stabilized local oscillator (LO), and a miniature pulse tube cooler will be integrated into a complete 20 GHz receiver downconverter. This cooled downconverter will be interfaced with customized signal processing electronics and integrated onto the space shuttle's 'HitchHiker' carrier. A pseudorandom data sequence will be transmitted to the receiver, which is in low Earth orbit (LEO), via the Advanced Communication Technology Satellite (ACTS) on a 20 GHz carrier. The modulation format is QPSK and the data rate is 2.048 Mbps. The bit error rate (BER) will be measured in situ. The receiver is also equipped with a radiometer mode so that experiment success is not totally contingent upon the BER measurement. In this mode, the receiver uses the Earth and deep space as a hot and cold calibration source, respectively. The experiment closely simulates an actual cross-link scenario. Since the receiver performance depends on channel conditions, its true characteristics would be masked in a terrestrial measurement by atmospheric absorption and background radiation. Furthermore, the receiver's performance depends on its physical temperature, which is a sensitive function of platform environment, thermal design, and cryocooler performance. This empirical data is important for building confidence in the technology.

  16. A whole-path importance-sampling scheme for Feynman path integral calculations of absolute partition functions and free energies.

    PubMed

    Mielke, Steven L; Truhlar, Donald G

    2016-01-21

    Using Feynman path integrals, a molecular partition function can be written as a double integral with the inner integral involving all closed paths centered at a given molecular configuration, and the outer integral involving all possible molecular configurations. In previous work employing Monte Carlo methods to evaluate such partition functions, we presented schemes for importance sampling and stratification in the molecular configurations that constitute the path centroids, but we relied on free-particle paths for sampling the path integrals. At low temperatures, the path sampling is expensive because the paths can travel far from the centroid configuration. We now present a scheme for importance sampling of whole Feynman paths based on harmonic information from an instantaneous normal mode calculation at the centroid configuration, which we refer to as harmonically guided whole-path importance sampling (WPIS). We obtain paths conforming to our chosen importance function by rejection sampling from a distribution of free-particle paths. Sample calculations on CH4 demonstrate that at a temperature of 200 K, about 99.9% of the free-particle paths can be rejected without integration, and at 300 K, about 98% can be rejected. We also show that it is typically possible to reduce the overhead associated with the WPIS scheme by sampling the paths using a significantly lower-order path discretization than that which is needed to converge the partition function.

  17. A whole-path importance-sampling scheme for Feynman path integral calculations of absolute partition functions and free energies.

    PubMed

    Mielke, Steven L; Truhlar, Donald G

    2016-01-21

    Using Feynman path integrals, a molecular partition function can be written as a double integral with the inner integral involving all closed paths centered at a given molecular configuration, and the outer integral involving all possible molecular configurations. In previous work employing Monte Carlo methods to evaluate such partition functions, we presented schemes for importance sampling and stratification in the molecular configurations that constitute the path centroids, but we relied on free-particle paths for sampling the path integrals. At low temperatures, the path sampling is expensive because the paths can travel far from the centroid configuration. We now present a scheme for importance sampling of whole Feynman paths based on harmonic information from an instantaneous normal mode calculation at the centroid configuration, which we refer to as harmonically guided whole-path importance sampling (WPIS). We obtain paths conforming to our chosen importance function by rejection sampling from a distribution of free-particle paths. Sample calculations on CH4 demonstrate that at a temperature of 200 K, about 99.9% of the free-particle paths can be rejected without integration, and at 300 K, about 98% can be rejected. We also show that it is typically possible to reduce the overhead associated with the WPIS scheme by sampling the paths using a significantly lower-order path discretization than that which is needed to converge the partition function. PMID:26801023

  18. Analysis of Intrinsic Peptide Detectability via Integrated Label-Free and SRM-Based Absolute Quantitative Proteomics.

    PubMed

    Jarnuczak, Andrew F; Lee, Dave C H; Lawless, Craig; Holman, Stephen W; Eyers, Claire E; Hubbard, Simon J

    2016-09-01

    Quantitative mass spectrometry-based proteomics of complex biological samples remains challenging in part due to the variability and charge competition arising during electrospray ionization (ESI) of peptides and the subsequent transfer and detection of ions. These issues preclude direct quantification from signal intensity alone in the absence of a standard. A deeper understanding of the governing principles of peptide ionization and exploitation of the inherent ionization and detection parameters of individual peptides is thus of great value. Here, using the yeast proteome as a model system, we establish the concept of peptide F-factor as a measure of detectability, closely related to ionization efficiency. F-factor is calculated by normalizing peptide precursor ion intensity by absolute abundance of the parent protein. We investigated F-factor characteristics in different shotgun proteomics experiments, including across multiple ESI-based LC-MS platforms. We show that F-factors mirror previously observed physicochemical predictors as peptide detectability but demonstrate a nonlinear relationship between hydrophobicity and peptide detectability. Similarly, we use F-factors to show how peptide ion coelution adversely affects detectability and ionization. We suggest that F-factors have great utility for understanding peptide detectability and gas-phase ion chemistry in complex peptide mixtures, selection of surrogate peptides in targeted MS studies, and for calibration of peptide ion signal in label-free workflows. Data are available via ProteomeXchange with identifier PXD003472. PMID:27454336

  19. Absolute line strengths in nu(4), (12)CH(4): a dual-beam diode laser spectrometer with sweep integration.

    PubMed

    Jennings, D E

    1980-08-15

    A tunable diode laser spectrometer with several unique features has been developed for use in the middle IR. The all-reflective optical system has a dual-beam configuration before the dispersive mode selector to eliminate transit-angle errors at the calibration etalon. By maintaining separated beams through the mode selector, beam combiner losses are avoided. Averaging successive sweeps of the current-modulated laser permits stable reproducible spectral integrations, eliminating etalon thermal errors and producing high photometric sensitivity. Line strengths have been measured using this instrument for eleven transitions in nu(4) of (12)CH(4). These include R0 and R1 and nine P-branch transitions in the 1202-1263-cm(-1) range. Techniques for measuring strengths with a diode laser are discussed. PMID:20234494

  20. Absolute integrated intensities of vapor-phase hydrogen peroxide (H202) in the mid-infrared at atmospheric pressure

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, Timothy J.; Sams, Robert L.; Burton, Sarah D.; Blake, Thomas A.

    2009-09-01

    We report quantitative broadband infrared spectra of vapor-phase hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) with all spectra pressure broadened to atmospheric pressure. The spectra were generated by flowing a concentrated solution (83 weight%) of H2O2 into a gently heated disseminator and diluting with a flow of pure nitrogen carrier gas. The water vapor lines were subtracted from the resulting spectra to yield the spectrum of pure H2O2. Comparison with previous results for the ν6 band strength (including hot bands) compares favorably with the results of Klee et al. [(1999) J. Mol. Spectr. 195, 154] as well as HITRAN. The present results are 433 and 467 cm-2 atm-1 (±8% and ±3% at 298 and 323 K, respectively) for the band strength, matching well the Klee value (S = 467 cm-2 atm-1 at 296 K) for the integrated band. Other bands in the 520-7500 cm-1 interval and their potential for atmospheric monitoring are discussed.

  1. Electron impact excitation of SO2 - Differential, integral, and momentum transfer cross sections

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vuskovic, L.; Trajmar, S.

    1982-01-01

    Electron impact excitation of the electronic states of SO2 was investigated. Differential, integral, and inelastic momentum transfer cross sections were obtained by normalizing the relative measurements to the elastic cross sections. The cross sections are given for seven spectral ranges of the energy-loss spectra extending from the lowest electronic state to near the first ionization limit. Most of the regions represent the overlap of several electronic transitions. No measurements for these cross sections have been reported previously.

  2. Assessment of experimental d-PIGE γ-ray production cross sections for 12C, 14N and 16O and comparison with absolute thick target yields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Csedreki, L.; Halász, Z.; Kiss, Á. Z.

    2016-08-01

    Measured differential cross sections for deuteron induced γ-ray emission from the reactions 12C(d,pγ)13C, (Eγ = 3089 keV), 14N(d,pγ)15N (Eγ = 8310 keV) and 16O(d,pγ)17O (Eγ = 871 keV) available in the literature were assessed. In order to cross check the assessed γ-ray production cross section data, thick target γ-yields calculated from the differential cross sections were compared with available measured thick target yields. Recommended differential cross section data for each reaction were deduced for particle induced γ-ray emission (PIGE) applications.

  3. Microarray Meta-Analysis and Cross-Platform Normalization: Integrative Genomics for Robust Biomarker Discovery

    PubMed Central

    Walsh, Christopher J.; Hu, Pingzhao; Batt, Jane; Dos Santos, Claudia C.

    2015-01-01

    The diagnostic and prognostic potential of the vast quantity of publicly-available microarray data has driven the development of methods for integrating the data from different microarray platforms. Cross-platform integration, when appropriately implemented, has been shown to improve reproducibility and robustness of gene signature biomarkers. Microarray platform integration can be conceptually divided into approaches that perform early stage integration (cross-platform normalization) versus late stage data integration (meta-analysis). A growing number of statistical methods and associated software for platform integration are available to the user, however an understanding of their comparative performance and potential pitfalls is critical for best implementation. In this review we provide evidence-based, practical guidance to researchers performing cross-platform integration, particularly with an objective to discover biomarkers. PMID:27600230

  4. Microarray Meta-Analysis and Cross-Platform Normalization: Integrative Genomics for Robust Biomarker Discovery

    PubMed Central

    Walsh, Christopher J.; Hu, Pingzhao; Batt, Jane; Dos Santos, Claudia C.

    2015-01-01

    The diagnostic and prognostic potential of the vast quantity of publicly-available microarray data has driven the development of methods for integrating the data from different microarray platforms. Cross-platform integration, when appropriately implemented, has been shown to improve reproducibility and robustness of gene signature biomarkers. Microarray platform integration can be conceptually divided into approaches that perform early stage integration (cross-platform normalization) versus late stage data integration (meta-analysis). A growing number of statistical methods and associated software for platform integration are available to the user, however an understanding of their comparative performance and potential pitfalls is critical for best implementation. In this review we provide evidence-based, practical guidance to researchers performing cross-platform integration, particularly with an objective to discover biomarkers.

  5. Teaching Absolute Value Meaningfully

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wade, Angela

    2012-01-01

    What is the meaning of absolute value? And why do teachers teach students how to solve absolute value equations? Absolute value is a concept introduced in first-year algebra and then reinforced in later courses. Various authors have suggested instructional methods for teaching absolute value to high school students (Wei 2005; Stallings-Roberts…

  6. Visceral organ cross-sensitization – an integrated perspective

    PubMed Central

    Brumovsky, P.R.; Gebhart, G.F.

    2009-01-01

    Viscero-somatic referral and sensitization has been well documented clinically and widely investigated, whereas viscero-visceral referral and sensitization (termed cross-organ sensitization) has only recently received attention as important to visceral disease states. Because second order neurons in the CNS have been extensively shown to receive convergent input from different visceral organs, it has been assumed that cross-organ sensitization arises by the same convergence-projection mechanism as advanced for viscero-somatic referral and sensitization. However, increasing evidence also suggests participation of peripheral mechanisms to explain referral and sensitization. We briefly summarize behavioral, morphological and physiological support of and focus on potential mechanisms underlying cross-organ sensitization. PMID:19679518

  7. Vertical Integration: Results from a Cross-Course Student Collaboration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sloan, Thomas; Lewis, David

    2011-01-01

    The authors report the results of a cross-class project involving sophomore-level students in an Operations Analysis (OA) class with junior-level students in an Operations Management (OM) class. The students formed virtual teams and developed a simulation model of a call center. The OM students provided the management expertise, while the OA…

  8. Absolute cross sections for one electron capture into excited projectile states in collisions between He 2+ (15-150 keV) and Li atoms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kadota, K.; Dijkkamp, D.; Van Der Woude, R.; Yan, Pan Guang; De Heer, F. J.

    1982-03-01

    We have studied the He 2+-Li collision system at laboratory energies between 15 and 150 keV using optical methods. From the measured emission cross sections we derive state-selective capture cross sections for n = 2,3,4 and n ⩾ 5 states of the He + ions. Our data are consistent with theoretical predictions of Bransden and Ermolaev. The total capture cross sections as evaluated from our emission cross section data, agree very well with the results of McCullough et al. obtained from projectile charge detection measurements. Near 15 keV our emission cross sections for 30.4 nm and 25.6 nm are much larger than those measured previously by Barrett and Leventhal at slightly lower energies.

  9. Ultra-low crosstalk, CMOS compatible waveguide crossings for densely integrated photonic interconnection networks.

    PubMed

    Jones, Adam M; DeRose, Christopher T; Lentine, Anthony L; Trotter, Douglas C; Starbuck, Andrew L; Norwood, Robert A

    2013-05-20

    We explore the design space for optimizing CMOS compatible waveguide crossings on a silicon photonics platform. This paper presents simulated and experimental excess loss and crosstalk suppression data for vertically integrated silicon nitride over silicon-on-insulator waveguide crossings. Experimental results show crosstalk suppression exceeding -49/-44 dB with simulation results as low as -65/-60 dB for the TE/TM mode in a waveguide crossing with a 410 nm vertical gap. PMID:23736422

  10. Ultra-low crosstalk, CMOS compatible waveguide crossings for densely integrated photonic interconnection networks.

    PubMed

    Jones, Adam M; DeRose, Christopher T; Lentine, Anthony L; Trotter, Douglas C; Starbuck, Andrew L; Norwood, Robert A

    2013-05-20

    We explore the design space for optimizing CMOS compatible waveguide crossings on a silicon photonics platform. This paper presents simulated and experimental excess loss and crosstalk suppression data for vertically integrated silicon nitride over silicon-on-insulator waveguide crossings. Experimental results show crosstalk suppression exceeding -49/-44 dB with simulation results as low as -65/-60 dB for the TE/TM mode in a waveguide crossing with a 410 nm vertical gap.

  11. Exploring the Further Integration of Machine Translation in English-Chinese Cross Language Information Access

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wu, Dan; He, Daqing

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: This paper seeks to examine the further integration of machine translation technologies with cross language information access in providing web users the capabilities of accessing information beyond language barriers. Machine translation and cross language information access are related technologies, and yet they have their own unique…

  12. Crossing Borders: Evaluating a Work Integrated Learning Project Involving Australian and Vietnamese Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Welch, Bernadette; Vo-Tran, Huan; Pittayachawan, Siddhi; Reynolds, Sue

    2012-01-01

    The value of work integrated learning (WIL) is well-established in the education of information management (IM) professionals. Adding value to WIL through cross-cultural or cross-disciplinary experiences is considered in this article. Using online communication, simulation activities, and onsite work, students from RMIT Melbourne and RMIT Ho Chi…

  13. Enhancing Integrative Experiences: Evidence of Student Perceptions of Learning Gains from Cross-Course Interactions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wingert, Jason R.; Wasileski, Sally A.; Peterson, Karin; Mathews, Leah Greden; Lanou, Amy Joy; Clarke, David

    2011-01-01

    This article offers food for thought on a strategy used by seven faculty to enhance students' integrative learning by offering cross-course, cross-disciplinary projects and shared activities focused on food. The faculty teach a cluster of ten courses in natural sciences, health sciences, social sciences and humanities that address food themes.…

  14. Neutron Fission of 235,237,239U and 241,243Pu: Cross Sections, Integral Cross Sections and Cross Sections on Excited States

    SciTech Connect

    Younes, W; Britt, H C

    2003-07-10

    In a recent paper submitted to Phys. Rev. C they have presented estimates for (n,f) cross sections on a series of Thorium, Uranium and Plutonium isotopes over the range E{sub n} = 0.1-2.5 MeV. The (n,f) cross sections for many of these isotopes are difficult or impossible to measure in the laboratory. The cross sections were obtained from previous (t,pf) reaction data invoking a model which takes into account the differences between (t,pf) and (n,f) reaction processes, and which includes improved estimates for the neutron compound formation process. The purpose of this note is: (1) to compare the estimated cross sections to current data files in both ENDF and ENDL databases; (2) to estimate ratios of cross sections relatively to {sup 235}U integrated over the ''tamped flattop'' critical assembly spectrum that was used in the earlier {sup 237}U report; and (3) to show the effect on the integral cross sections when the neutron capturing state is an excited rotational state or an isomer. The isomer and excited state results are shown for {sup 235}U and {sup 237}U.

  15. Absolute cross sections for near-threshold electron-impact excitation of the 2s{sup 2}S{r_arrow}2p{sup 2}P transition in C{sup 3+}

    SciTech Connect

    Bannister, M.E.; Chung, Y.; Djuric, N.; Wallbank, B.; Woitke, O.; Zhou, S.; Dunn, G.H.; Smith, A.C.

    1998-01-01

    Absolute total cross sections for electron-impact excitation of the 2s{sup 2}S{r_arrow}2p{sup 2}P transition in C{sup 3+} were measured from 7.35 eV to 8.45 eV using the merged electron-ion-beams energy-loss technique. The results settle the discrepancy between two previous experiments using the crossed-beams fluorescence method, being in very good agreement with the older results [P. O. Taylor, D. Gregory, G. H. Dunn, R. A. Phaneuf, and D. H. Crandall, Phys. Rev. Lett. {bold 39}, 1256 (1977)] but less so with the more recent ones [D. W. Savin, L. D. Gardner, D. B. Reisenfeld, A. R. Young, and J. L. Kohl, Phys. Rev. A {bold 51}, 2162 (1995)]. The present measurements are also in good agreement with unitarized Coulomb-Born and close-coupling calculations. {copyright} {ital 1998} {ital The American Physical Society}

  16. Measurement and calculation of absolute single- and double-charge-exchange cross sections for O6 + ions at 1.17 and 2.33 keV/u impacting He and H2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Machacek, J. R.; Mahapatra, D. P.; Schultz, D. R.; Ralchenko, Yu.; Chutjian, A.; Simcic, J.; Mawhorter, R. J.

    2014-11-01

    Absolute single- and double-charge-exchange cross sections for the astrophysically prominent O6 + ion with the atomic and molecular targets He and H2 are reported. These collisions give rise to x-ray emissions in the interplanetary medium, planetary atmospheres, and comets as they approach the sun. Measurements have been carried out using the Caltech Jet Propulsion Laboratory electron cyclotron resonance ion source with O6 + at energies of 1.17 and 2.33 keV/u characteristic of the slow and fast components of the solar wind. Absolute charge-exchange (CE) data are derived from knowledge of the target gas pressure, target path length, incident ion current, and charge-exchanged ion currents. These data are compared with results obtained using the n -electron classical trajectory Monte Carlo method. The radiative and Auger evolution of ion populations following one- and two-electron transfers is calculated with the time-dependent collisional-radiative code nomad using atomic data from the flexible atomic code. Calculated CE emission spectra for 100 Å <λ <1400 Å are reported as well and compared with experimental sublevel spectra and cross sections.

  17. Eosinophil count - absolute

    MedlinePlus

    Eosinophils; Absolute eosinophil count ... the white blood cell count to give the absolute eosinophil count. ... than 500 cells per microliter (cells/mcL). Normal value ranges may vary slightly among different laboratories. Talk ...

  18. Integrating social factors into cross-cultural medical education.

    PubMed

    Green, Alexander R; Betancourt, Joseph R; Carrillo, J Emilio

    2002-03-01

    The field of cross-cultural medical education has blossomed in an environment of increasing diversity and increasing awareness of the effect of race and ethnicity on health outcomes. However, there is still no standardized approach to teaching doctors in training how best to care for diverse patient populations. As standards are developed, it is crucial to realize that medical educators cannot teach about culture in a vacuum. Caring for patients of diverse cultural backgrounds is inextricably linked to caring for patients of diverse social backgrounds. In this article, the authors discuss the importance of social issues in caring for patients of all cultures, and propose a practical, patient-based approach to social analysis covering four major domains--(1) social stress and support networks, (2) change in environment, (3) life control, and (4) literacy. By emphasizing and expanding the role of the social history in cross-cultural medical education, faculty can better train medical students, residents, and other health care providers to care for socioculturally diverse patient populations.

  19. Dynamical thresholds and quantum undulations in the energy dependence of rotationally inelastic integral cross sections

    SciTech Connect

    Schinke, R.

    1981-12-01

    We report the observation of distinct structures in the energy dependence of rotationally inelastic integral cross sections for the systems He--Na/sub 2/ and Ne--Na/sub 2/. The calculations are performed within the infinite-order-sudden and the coupled states approximation using accurate ab initio potential energy surfaces. The integral cross section for a 0..-->..j' transition typically rises steeply at low energies, reaches a maximum, and declines slowly to the high energy region showing more or less pronounced quantum undulations. The onset of the cross section is determined by dynamical constraints rather than energy conservation. All structures in the integral cross sections are explained in terms of the energy dependence of rotational rainbow features in the corresponding differential cross sections. In particular, the undulations at higher energies stem from the supernumerary rotational rainbows. In this sense they are interpreted as analogous to the glory maxima in the elastic integral cross section for scattering from isotropic potentials. The observed structures are sensitive to the anisotropy of the repulsive branch of the potential energy surface.

  20. Cross-modal integration between odors and abstract symbols.

    PubMed

    Seo, Han-Seok; Arshamian, Artin; Schemmer, Kerstin; Scheer, Ingeborg; Sander, Thorsten; Ritter, Guido; Hummel, Thomas

    2010-07-12

    This study aimed to investigate the cross-modal association of an "abstract symbol," designed for representation of an odor, with its corresponding odor. First, to explore the associations of abstract symbols with odors, participants were asked to match 8 odors with 19 different abstract symbols (Experiment 1). Next, we determined whether congruent symbols could modulate olfactory perception and olfactory event-related potentials (ERPs) (Experiment 2). One of two odors (phenylethanol (PEA) or 1-butanol) was presented with one of three conditions (congruent or incongruent symbol, no-symbol), and participants were asked to rate odor intensity and pleasantness during olfactory ERP recordings. Experiment 1 demonstrated that certain abstract symbols could be paired with specific odors. In Experiment 2 congruent symbol enhanced the intensity of PEA compared to no-symbol presentation. In addition, the respective congruent symbol increased the pleasantness of PEA and the unpleasantness of 1-butanol. Finally, compared to the incongruent symbol, the congruent symbol produced significantly higher amplitudes and shorter latencies in the N1 peak of olfactory ERPs. In conclusion, our findings demonstrated that abstract symbols may be associated with specific odors.

  1. Evaluation of Cross Section Uncertainties Using Physical Constraints: Focus on Integral Experiments

    SciTech Connect

    De Saint Jean, C. Archier, P.; Privas, E.; Noguère, G.; Litaize, O.; Leconte, P.

    2015-01-15

    Evaluation of neutron-induced reactions between 0 eV and 20 MeV is mainly based on nuclear reaction models with parameters estimated from data assimilation on experiments. Several inconsistencies may appear such as mismatches for the cross sections, larger uncertainties on boundary and no cross-correlations between high energy domain and resonance range. In addition, different evaluations could give good overall behaviour of integral experiments with large compensating effects among them. After a summary of several methods which take into account physical constraints on overlapping energy domains where two nuclear reaction models are needed, we focus on a review of the use of integral experiments as additional physical constraints in the evaluation of parameters and cross section covariances. In particular, we present comparison of traditional multigroup adjustment with data assimilation based on nuclear model parameters by the analysis of JEZEBEL. A general consistency is obtained between these adjustments as well as important reduction of fission cross section uncertainties.

  2. A strong integrated strength and toughness artificial nacre based on dopamine cross-linked graphene oxide.

    PubMed

    Cui, Wei; Li, Mingzhu; Liu, Jiyang; Wang, Ben; Zhang, Chuck; Jiang, Lei; Cheng, Qunfeng

    2014-09-23

    Demands of the strong integrated materials have substantially increased across various industries. Inspired by the relationship of excellent integration of mechanical properties and hierarchical nano/microscale structure of the natural nacre, we have developed a strategy for fabricating the strong integrated artificial nacre based on graphene oxide (GO) sheets by dopamine cross-linking via evaporation-induced assembly process. The tensile strength and toughness simultaneously show 1.5 and 2 times higher than that of natural nacre. Meanwhile, the artificial nacre shows high electrical conductivity. This type of strong integrated artificial nacre has great potential applications in aerospace, flexible supercapacitor electrodes, artificial muscle, and tissue engineering. PMID:25106494

  3. Integrating Sustainability into the Curriculum: Crossing Disciplinary Boundaries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pushnik, J.

    2012-12-01

    The next generation will confront an increased number of global issues that interface the complexities of socioeconomic perspectives, environmental stability, poverty and development. Recently California State University Chico undertook a general education reform, providing a unique opportunity to craft a general education pathway to prepare students for these challenges by focusing a curriculum on sustainability. The Sustainability Pathway emphasizes a system thinking approach to help students understand and be able to address a set of problems involving the biosphere processes, human institutions and the economic vitality. The curriculum intentionally integrates courses from across the disciplines of natural sciences, social sciences, agriculture, engineering, economics, arts and humanities into a central focused theme of sustainability. The diverse backgrounds and academic focus of the participating faculty has necessitate the development of a common language and a cohesion within the curriculum. To address these needs a faculty learning community (FLC) was established to build on a common set of case studies. Three regional environmental water related issues were selected that had demonstrable socioeconomic, equity/ethical dimensions and environmental consequences. These case studies are Klamath River basin in northern California, the Bay-Delta project in the central part of the state and the Sultan Sea in southern California. Members of the FLC has contributed a perspective from their academic discipline which includes proposed reading lists, web based resources and PowerPoint presentations which are housed in common web- based resource repository. The pedagogical rational is to create linkages and cohesion among the courses in the curriculum by iteratively examining these case studies as basis for development of a multidisciplinary perspective as students progress through their general education.

  4. State-of-the-lagoon reports as vehicles of cross-disciplinary integration.

    PubMed

    Zaucha, Jacek; Davoudi, Simin; Slob, Adriaan; Bouma, Geiske; van Meerkerk, Ingmar; Oen, Amy Mp; Breedveld, Gijs D

    2016-10-01

    An integrative approach across disciplines is needed for sustainable lagoon and estuary management as identified by integrated coastal zone management. The ARCH research project (Architecture and roadmap to manage multiple pressures on lagoons) has taken initial steps to overcome the boundaries between disciplines and focus on cross-disciplinary integration by addressing the driving forces, challenges, and problems at various case study sites. A model was developed as a boundary-spanning activity to produce joint knowledge and understanding. The backbone of the model is formed by the interaction between the natural and human systems, including economy and governance-based subsystems. The model was used to create state-of-the-lagoon reports for 10 case study sites (lagoons and estuarine coastal areas), with a geographical distribution covering all major seas surrounding Europe. The reports functioned as boundary objects to build joint knowledge. The experiences related to the framing of the model and its subsequent implementation at the case study sites have resulted in key recommendations on how to address the challenges of cross-disciplinary work required for the proper management of complex social-ecological systems such as lagoons, estuarine areas, and other land-sea regions. Cross-disciplinary integration is initially resource intensive and time consuming; one should set aside the required resources and invest efforts at the forefront. It is crucial to create engagement among the group of researchers by focusing on a joint, appealing overall concept that will stimulate cross-sectoral thinking and focusing on the identified problems as a link between collected evidence and future management needs. Different methods for collecting evidence should be applied including both quantitative (jointly agreed indicators) and qualitative (narratives) information. Cross-disciplinary integration is facilitated by functional boundary objects. Integration offers important

  5. State-of-the-lagoon reports as vehicles of cross-disciplinary integration.

    PubMed

    Zaucha, Jacek; Davoudi, Simin; Slob, Adriaan; Bouma, Geiske; van Meerkerk, Ingmar; Oen, Amy Mp; Breedveld, Gijs D

    2016-10-01

    An integrative approach across disciplines is needed for sustainable lagoon and estuary management as identified by integrated coastal zone management. The ARCH research project (Architecture and roadmap to manage multiple pressures on lagoons) has taken initial steps to overcome the boundaries between disciplines and focus on cross-disciplinary integration by addressing the driving forces, challenges, and problems at various case study sites. A model was developed as a boundary-spanning activity to produce joint knowledge and understanding. The backbone of the model is formed by the interaction between the natural and human systems, including economy and governance-based subsystems. The model was used to create state-of-the-lagoon reports for 10 case study sites (lagoons and estuarine coastal areas), with a geographical distribution covering all major seas surrounding Europe. The reports functioned as boundary objects to build joint knowledge. The experiences related to the framing of the model and its subsequent implementation at the case study sites have resulted in key recommendations on how to address the challenges of cross-disciplinary work required for the proper management of complex social-ecological systems such as lagoons, estuarine areas, and other land-sea regions. Cross-disciplinary integration is initially resource intensive and time consuming; one should set aside the required resources and invest efforts at the forefront. It is crucial to create engagement among the group of researchers by focusing on a joint, appealing overall concept that will stimulate cross-sectoral thinking and focusing on the identified problems as a link between collected evidence and future management needs. Different methods for collecting evidence should be applied including both quantitative (jointly agreed indicators) and qualitative (narratives) information. Cross-disciplinary integration is facilitated by functional boundary objects. Integration offers important

  6. Dissociative recombination of CH{sub 5}{sup +} and CD{sub 5}{sup +}: Measurement of the product branching fractions and the absolute cross sections, and the breakup dynamics in the CH{sub 3}+H+H product channel

    SciTech Connect

    Kaminska, Magdalena; Zhaunerchyk, Vitali; Vigren, Erik; Danielsson, Mathias; Hamberg, Mathias; Geppert, Wolf D.; Larsson, Mats; Rosen, Stefan; Thomas, Richard D.; Semaniak, Jacek

    2010-06-15

    The dissociative recombination (DR) of CH{sub 5}{sup +} and CD{sub 5}{sup +} has been studied at the heavy-ion storage ring CRYRING. The fragmentation dynamics of the dominant reaction channel CH{sub 3}+H+H has been investigated using an imaging detector. The results indicate that a two-step process via the production of a CH{sub 4} intermediate, which has sufficient energy to fragment further to CH{sub 3}+H, may play an important role. Discrepancies between the present and earlier results obtained from storage ring measurements with those from flowing afterglow experiments are addressed. Newly measured branching fractions in the DR of CD{sub 5}{sup +} show an excellent agreement with branching fractions previously measured for CH{sub 5}{sup +}, and the absolute DR cross sections have been also measured over an interaction energy range between {approx}0 and 0.1 eV for both isotopologs.

  7. Absolute cross section for loss of supercoiled topology induced by 10 eV electrons in highly uniform /DNA/1,3-diaminopropane films deposited on highly ordered pyrolitic graphite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boulanouar, Omar; Fromm, Michel; Bass, Andrew D.; Cloutier, Pierre; Sanche, Léon

    2013-08-01

    It was recently shown that the affinity of doubly charged, 1-3 diaminopropane (Dap2+) for DNA permits the growth on highly ordered pyrolitic graphite (HOPG) substrates, of plasmid DNA films, of known uniform thickness [O. Boulanouar, A. Khatyr, G. Herlem, F. Palmino, L. Sanche, and M. Fromm, J. Phys. Chem. C 115, 21291-21298 (2011)]. Post-irradiation analysis by electrophoresis of such targets confirms that electron impact at 10 eV produces a maximum in the yield of single strand breaks that can be associated with the formation of a DNA- transient anion. Using a well-adapted deterministic survival model for the variation of electron damage with fluence and film thickness, we have determined an absolute cross section for strand-break damage by 10 eV electrons and inelastic scattering attenuation length in DNA-Dap complex films.

  8. Absolute cross section for loss of supercoiled topology induced by 10 eV electrons in highly uniform /DNA/1,3-diaminopropane films deposited on highly ordered pyrolitic graphite

    SciTech Connect

    Boulanouar, Omar; Fromm, Michel; Bass, Andrew D.; Cloutier, Pierre; Sanche, Léon

    2013-08-07

    It was recently shown that the affinity of doubly charged, 1-3 diaminopropane (Dap{sup 2+}) for DNA permits the growth on highly ordered pyrolitic graphite (HOPG) substrates, of plasmid DNA films, of known uniform thickness [O. Boulanouar, A. Khatyr, G. Herlem, F. Palmino, L. Sanche, and M. Fromm, J. Phys. Chem. C 115, 21291–21298 (2011)]. Post-irradiation analysis by electrophoresis of such targets confirms that electron impact at 10 eV produces a maximum in the yield of single strand breaks that can be associated with the formation of a DNA{sup −} transient anion. Using a well-adapted deterministic survival model for the variation of electron damage with fluence and film thickness, we have determined an absolute cross section for strand-break damage by 10 eV electrons and inelastic scattering attenuation length in DNA-Dap complex films.

  9. Absolute nuclear material assay

    DOEpatents

    Prasad, Manoj K.; Snyderman, Neal J.; Rowland, Mark S.

    2012-05-15

    A method of absolute nuclear material assay of an unknown source comprising counting neutrons from the unknown source and providing an absolute nuclear material assay utilizing a model to optimally compare to the measured count distributions. In one embodiment, the step of providing an absolute nuclear material assay comprises utilizing a random sampling of analytically computed fission chain distributions to generate a continuous time-evolving sequence of event-counts by spreading the fission chain distribution in time.

  10. Absolute nuclear material assay

    DOEpatents

    Prasad, Manoj K.; Snyderman, Neal J.; Rowland, Mark S.

    2010-07-13

    A method of absolute nuclear material assay of an unknown source comprising counting neutrons from the unknown source and providing an absolute nuclear material assay utilizing a model to optimally compare to the measured count distributions. In one embodiment, the step of providing an absolute nuclear material assay comprises utilizing a random sampling of analytically computed fission chain distributions to generate a continuous time-evolving sequence of event-counts by spreading the fission chain distribution in time.

  11. Ontology-based cross-species integration and analysis of Saccharomyces cerevisiae phenotypes

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Ontologies are widely used in the biomedical community for annotation and integration of databases. Formal definitions can relate classes from different ontologies and thereby integrate data across different levels of granularity, domains and species. We have applied this methodology to the Ascomycete Phenotype Ontology (APO), enabling the reuse of various orthogonal ontologies and we have converted the phenotype associated data found in the SGD following our proposed patterns. We have integrated the resulting data in the cross-species phenotype network PhenomeNET, and we make both the cross-species integration of yeast phenotypes and a similarity-based comparison of yeast phenotypes across species available in the PhenomeBrowser. Furthermore, we utilize our definitions and the yeast phenotype annotations to suggest novel functional annotations of gene products in yeast. PMID:23046642

  12. Ontology-based cross-species integration and analysis of Saccharomyces cerevisiae phenotypes.

    PubMed

    Gkoutos, Georgios V; Hoehndorf, Robert

    2012-09-21

    Ontologies are widely used in the biomedical community for annotation and integration of databases. Formal definitions can relate classes from different ontologies and thereby integrate data across different levels of granularity, domains and species. We have applied this methodology to the Ascomycete Phenotype Ontology (APO), enabling the reuse of various orthogonal ontologies and we have converted the phenotype associated data found in the SGD following our proposed patterns. We have integrated the resulting data in the cross-species phenotype network PhenomeNET, and we make both the cross-species integration of yeast phenotypes and a similarity-based comparison of yeast phenotypes across species available in the PhenomeBrowser. Furthermore, we utilize our definitions and the yeast phenotype annotations to suggest novel functional annotations of gene products in yeast.

  13. Measurement of absolute cross sections for excitation of the 2s(2) S-1 -> 2s2p P-1 degrees transition in O+4

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, S. J.; Djuric, N.; Lozano, J. A.; Berrington, K. A.; Chutjian, A.

    2005-01-01

    Experimental cross sections are reported for the 1s(2)2s(2) S-1 -> 1s(2)2s2p P-1(o) transition in O+4 located at 19.689 eV. Use is made of the electron energy-loss method, using a merged electron-ion beam geometry. The center-of-mass interaction energies for the measurements in the S-1 -> P-1(o) transition are in the range 18 eV ( below the threshold) to 30 eV. Data are compared with other previous electron energy-loss measurements and with results of a 26 term R-matrix calculation that includes fine structure explicitly via the Breit-Pauli Hamiltonian. Clear resonance enhancement is observed in all experimental and theoretical results near the threshold for this S-1 -> P-1(o) transition.

  14. Electron photoemission from charged films: absolute cross section for trapping 0-5 eV electrons in condensed CO2.

    PubMed

    Michaud, M; Hébert, E M; Cloutier, P; Sanche, L

    2007-01-14

    The electron trapping or attachment cross section of carbon dioxide (CO2) condensed as thin films on a spacer of Ar is obtained using a simple model for electron trapping in a molecular film and then charge releasing from the same film by photon absorption. The measurements are presented for different electron exposures and impact energies, film thicknesses, and probing photon energies. The cross section for trapping an electron of incident energy between 0 and 5 eV reveals three different attachment processes characterized by a maximum at about 0.75 eV, a structured feature around 2.25 eV, and a shoulder around 3.75 eV. From the measurement of their dependence with the probing photon energy, the two lowest processes produce traps having a vertical electron binding energy of approximately 3.5 eV, whereas the highest one yields a slightly higher value of approximately 3.7 eV. The 0.75 eV maximum corresponds to the formation of vibrational Feshbach resonances in (CO2)n- anion clusters. The 2.25 eV feature is attributed to the formation of a vibrationally excited 2Piu anion in (CO2)n- clusters, followed by fast decay into its vibrational ground state without undergoing autodetachment. Finally, 3.75 eV shoulder is assigned to the well-known dissociative electron attachment process from 2Piu anion state producing the O- anion in the gas phase and the (CO2)nO- anions in clusters.

  15. Integrating multi-omics for uncovering the architecture of cross-talking pathways in breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Wang, Li; Xiao, Yun; Ping, Yanyan; Li, Jing; Zhao, Hongying; Li, Feng; Hu, Jing; Zhang, Hongyi; Deng, Yulan; Tian, Jiawei; Li, Xia

    2014-01-01

    Cross-talk among abnormal pathways widely occurs in human cancer and generally leads to insensitivity to cancer treatment. Moreover, alterations in the abnormal pathways are not limited to single molecular level. Therefore, we proposed a strategy that integrates a large number of biological sources at multiple levels for systematic identification of cross-talk among risk pathways in cancer by random walk on protein interaction network. We applied the method to multi-Omics breast cancer data from The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA), including somatic mutation, DNA copy number, DNA methylation and gene expression profiles. We identified close cross-talk among many known cancer-related pathways with complex change patterns. Furthermore, we identified key genes (linkers) bridging these cross-talks and showed that these genes carried out consistent biological functions with the linked cross-talking pathways. Through identification of leader genes in each pathway, the architecture of cross-talking pathways was built. Notably, we observed that linkers cooperated with leaders to form the fundamentation of cross-talk of pathways which play core roles in deterioration of breast cancer. As an example, we observed that KRAS showed a direct connection to numerous cancer-related pathways, such as MAPK signaling pathway, suggesting that it may be a central communication hub. In summary, we offer an effective way to characterize complex cross-talk among disease pathways, which can be applied to other diseases and provide useful information for the treatment of cancer.

  16. Measurement of Absolute Cross Sections for Excitation of the 2s^2 ^1S - 2s2p ^1P^o Transition in O^4+

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, Steven J.; Berrington, K. A.

    2005-05-01

    Experimental electron excitation cross sections are reported for the 2s^2 1S - 2s2p^ 1P^o transitions in O^4+ located at 19.689 eV. The JPL electron-cyclotron resonance ion source is utilized [1], along with the electron energy loss method, in a merged electron-ion beams geometry[2]. The center-of-mass interaction energies for the measurements are in the range 18 eV (below threshold) to 30 eV. Data are compared with results of a 26-term R-matrix calculation that includes fine structure explicitly via the Breit-Pauli Hamiltonian [3]. There is good agreement with theoretical results and with previous electron energy-loss measurements [3]. Clear resonance enhancement is observed in both experiment and theoretical results near threshold for this ^1S - ^1P^o transition. J. Lozano and N. Djuric acknowledge support through the NASA-NRC program. This work was carried out at JPL/Caltech and was supported by NASA. [1] J. B. Greenwood, S. J. Smith, A.Chutjian, and E. Pollack, Phys. Rev. A 59 1348, (1999). [2] A. Chutjian, Physica Scripta T110, 203 (2004). [3] M. Bannister et al., Int.J. Mass Spectrometry 192, 39 (1999).

  17. Little Shrimp, Big Results: A Model of an Integrative, Cross-Curricular Activity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ackerson, Nicole; Piser, Carol; Walka, Keith

    2010-01-01

    This integrative, cross-curricular lab engages middle school biology students in an exercise involving ecology, arthropod biology, and mathematics. Students research the anatomy and behavioral patterns of a species of brine shrimp, compare the anatomy of adult and juvenile brine shrimp, and graph and interpret results. In this article, the authors…

  18. The Development of an Integrated Bilingual and Cross-Cultural Curriculum in an Arctic School District.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roberts, Helen

    If, indeed, there is a formula for developing an integrated bilingual and cross-cultural curriculum, the Northwest Arctic School District's experience would suggest the following key elements of the development process: base the curriculum on the rapidly changing social context, rather than on stereotyped bicultural concepts; ensure local control…

  19. A Constant Search: Arts-Integration in Cross-Cultural Environments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wootton, Kurt

    2008-01-01

    Ten years ago, the ArtsLiteracy Project in the Education Department at Brown University was started with the goal of developing literacy through the performing arts, with the idea of bringing together people from different countries. This article describes an innovative cross-cultural arts integrated language program in Brazil, created by the…

  20. Cross-Cultural Comparison of Teachers' Views upon Integration and Use of Technology in Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kayalar, Fethi

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of the study is to compare teachers' views upon integration and use of technology in classroom. To make cross-cultural comparison of teachers' views, we interviewed with nine teachers in a primary school in city of Erzincan, Turkey and compared the views of the teachers with those of the teachers living in foreign countries. To obtain…

  1. Thermal neutron cross sections and resonance integrals for the 1994 handbook of chemistry and physics

    SciTech Connect

    Holden, N.E.

    1994-12-31

    A re-evaluation of all thermal neutron cross sections and neutron resonance integrals has been performed, utilizing the previous database of the ``Barn Book`` and all of the more recently published experiments. Only significant changes or previously undetermined values are recorded in this report. The source for each value is also recorded in the accompanying table.

  2. Cross-functional, integrative team decision making: essential for effective QI in health care.

    PubMed

    Fargason, C A; Haddock, C C

    1992-05-01

    Quality improvement methods first developed in industry can be applied in health care, but major adjustments in the traditional health care organization are needed for continuous improvement processes to work. One change is establishing cross-functional or multidisciplinary teams to carry out integrative decision making in the place of departmental hierarchical decision making within the functional areas and disciplines. This article cites examples from experience with one service process--delivery of care to newborns--and examines techniques from the group behavior and conflict resolution literature which could enhance the success of cross-functional teams in health care organizations.

  3. Absolute biological needs.

    PubMed

    McLeod, Stephen

    2014-07-01

    Absolute needs (as against instrumental needs) are independent of the ends, goals and purposes of personal agents. Against the view that the only needs are instrumental needs, David Wiggins and Garrett Thomson have defended absolute needs on the grounds that the verb 'need' has instrumental and absolute senses. While remaining neutral about it, this article does not adopt that approach. Instead, it suggests that there are absolute biological needs. The absolute nature of these needs is defended by appeal to: their objectivity (as against mind-dependence); the universality of the phenomenon of needing across the plant and animal kingdoms; the impossibility that biological needs depend wholly upon the exercise of the abilities characteristic of personal agency; the contention that the possession of biological needs is prior to the possession of the abilities characteristic of personal agency. Finally, three philosophical usages of 'normative' are distinguished. On two of these, to describe a phenomenon or claim as 'normative' is to describe it as value-dependent. A description of a phenomenon or claim as 'normative' in the third sense does not entail such value-dependency, though it leaves open the possibility that value depends upon the phenomenon or upon the truth of the claim. It is argued that while survival needs (or claims about them) may well be normative in this third sense, they are normative in neither of the first two. Thus, the idea of absolute need is not inherently normative in either of the first two senses. PMID:23586876

  4. Absolute biological needs.

    PubMed

    McLeod, Stephen

    2014-07-01

    Absolute needs (as against instrumental needs) are independent of the ends, goals and purposes of personal agents. Against the view that the only needs are instrumental needs, David Wiggins and Garrett Thomson have defended absolute needs on the grounds that the verb 'need' has instrumental and absolute senses. While remaining neutral about it, this article does not adopt that approach. Instead, it suggests that there are absolute biological needs. The absolute nature of these needs is defended by appeal to: their objectivity (as against mind-dependence); the universality of the phenomenon of needing across the plant and animal kingdoms; the impossibility that biological needs depend wholly upon the exercise of the abilities characteristic of personal agency; the contention that the possession of biological needs is prior to the possession of the abilities characteristic of personal agency. Finally, three philosophical usages of 'normative' are distinguished. On two of these, to describe a phenomenon or claim as 'normative' is to describe it as value-dependent. A description of a phenomenon or claim as 'normative' in the third sense does not entail such value-dependency, though it leaves open the possibility that value depends upon the phenomenon or upon the truth of the claim. It is argued that while survival needs (or claims about them) may well be normative in this third sense, they are normative in neither of the first two. Thus, the idea of absolute need is not inherently normative in either of the first two senses.

  5. Quantitative comparisons of absorption cross-section spectra and integrated intensities of HFC-143a

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Le Bris, Karine; Graham, Laura

    2015-01-01

    The integrated absorption cross-sections of HFC-143a (CH3CF3) differ substantially in the literature. This leads to an important uncertainty on the value of the radiative efficiency of this molecule. The ambiguity on the absorption cross-sections of HFC-143a is highlighted by the existence of two significantly different datasets in the HITRAN database. To solve the issue, we performed high-resolution Fourier transform infrared laboratory measurements of HFC-13a and compared the spectra with the two HITRAN datasets and with the data from the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL). The experimental methods and data analysis techniques are examined and typical sources of errors are discussed. The integrated intensities of the main bands are compared to other literature values. It was found that the integrated absorption cross-section values in the highest range - around 13.8 ×10-17 cm .molecule-1 in the 570-1500 cm-1 spectral band - show the most consistency between authors.

  6. Absolute cross sections with polarization effects in Ne{sup {asterisk}}(2p{sup 5}3p)+He collisions: A detailed comparison between theory and experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Bahrim, C. |; Kucal, H.; Masnou-Seeuws, F.

    1997-08-01

    Quantal calculations are presented for intramultiplet mixing collisions of Ne{sup {asterisk}}(2p{sup 5}3p) with He({sup 1}S{sub 0}) in the 60{endash}1250 meV collision energy range. The coupled equations are solved in a diabatic representation where the coupling terms are obtained using the model potential calculations of Hennecart and Masnou-Seeuws [J. Phys. B {bold 18}, 657 (1985)] for the interaction of the Ne{sup {asterisk}} outer electron with the two cores and values fitted on the spectroscopic data of Dabrowski and Herzberg [Mol. Spectrosc. {bold 73}, 183 (1978)] for the core-core interaction. An extensive comparison with the experimental data of the Eindhoven group is presented for absolute polarized cross sections and anisotropy parameters. Very good agreement is obtained with thermal energy data of Manders {ital et al.} [Phys. Rev. A {bold 39}, 4467 (1989)], while the systematic 30{endash}40{percent} discrepancy with superthermal data of Boom {ital et al.} [Phys. Rev. A {bold 49}, 4660 (1994)] might be attributed to a calibration problem in the experiment rather than to an inaccuracy in the long-range potentials. {copyright} {ital 1997} {ital The American Physical Society}

  7. GACD: Integrated Software for Genetic Analysis in Clonal F1 and Double Cross Populations.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Luyan; Meng, Lei; Wu, Wencheng; Wang, Jiankang

    2015-01-01

    Clonal species are common among plants. Clonal F1 progenies are derived from the hybridization between 2 heterozygous clones. In self- and cross-pollinated species, double crosses can be made from 4 inbred lines. A clonal F1 population can be viewed as a double cross population when the linkage phase is determined. The software package GACD (Genetic Analysis of Clonal F1 and Double cross) is freely available public software, capable of building high-density linkage maps and mapping quantitative trait loci (QTL) in clonal F1 and double cross populations. Three functionalities are integrated in GACD version 1.0: binning of redundant markers (BIN); linkage map construction (CDM); and QTL mapping (CDQ). Output of BIN can be directly used as input of CDM. After adding the phenotypic data, the output of CDM can be used as input of CDQ. Thus, GACD acts as a pipeline for genetic analysis. GACD and example datasets are freely available from www.isbreeding.net. PMID:26503825

  8. Quantitative standards for absolute linguistic universals.

    PubMed

    Piantadosi, Steven T; Gibson, Edward

    2014-01-01

    Absolute linguistic universals are often justified by cross-linguistic analysis: If all observed languages exhibit a property, the property is taken to be a likely universal, perhaps specified in the cognitive or linguistic systems of language learners and users. In many cases, these patterns are then taken to motivate linguistic theory. Here, we show that cross-linguistic analysis will very rarely be able to statistically justify absolute, inviolable patterns in language. We formalize two statistical methods--frequentist and Bayesian--and show that in both it is possible to find strict linguistic universals, but that the numbers of independent languages necessary to do so is generally unachievable. This suggests that methods other than typological statistics are necessary to establish absolute properties of human language, and thus that many of the purported universals in linguistics have not received sufficient empirical justification.

  9. The absolute path command

    2012-05-11

    The ap command traveres all symlinks in a given file, directory, or executable name to identify the final absolute path. It can print just the final path, each intermediate link along with the symlink chan, and the permissions and ownership of each directory component in the final path. It has functionality similar to "which", except that it shows the final path instead of the first path. It is also similar to "pwd", but it canmore » provide the absolute path to a relative directory from the current working directory.« less

  10. The absolute path command

    SciTech Connect

    Moody, A.

    2012-05-11

    The ap command traveres all symlinks in a given file, directory, or executable name to identify the final absolute path. It can print just the final path, each intermediate link along with the symlink chan, and the permissions and ownership of each directory component in the final path. It has functionality similar to "which", except that it shows the final path instead of the first path. It is also similar to "pwd", but it can provide the absolute path to a relative directory from the current working directory.

  11. Redetermining CEBAF's Absolute Energy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Su, Tong; Jlab Marathon Collaboration

    2015-04-01

    With the upgrade of the Jefferson Lab accelerator (CEBAF) from 6 GeV max energy to 12 GeV, all the dipole magnets in the machine were refurbished. Most of them were switched from open c-shaped to closed h-shaped by adding extra iron. With these upgraded magnets, the energy calibration of the accelerator needed to be redetermined. We will show how an extra external dipole, which is run in series with those in the machine, helps us cross check the current in the magnets as well as precisely map out the integral field for any machine setting. Using knowledge of the relative performance of the dipoles as well as the bend angle into the Hall, has allowed us to already determine a 4th pass 7 GeV beam to better than 7 MeV. In the future, we will use g-2 spin precession as a second independent energy determination. This work is supported by Kent State University, NSF Grant PHY-1405814, and DOE Contract DE-AC05-06OR23177 (JLab).

  12. Integrated cross-coupling strategy for an α-carboline-based Aurora B kinase inhibitor.

    PubMed

    Mineno, Masahiro; Sera, Misayo; Ueda, Tsuyoshi; Mizufune, Hideya; Zanka, Atsuhiko; O'Bryan, Colin; Brown, Jason; Scorah, Nick

    2015-02-01

    An efficient and practical synthetic process for an α-carboline-based Aurora B kinase inhibitor was achieved using an integrated Pd-catalyzed cross-coupling strategy. The process features a mild and efficient method for construction of the α-carboline core by employing a Pd-catalyzed sequence of Buchwald-Hartwig amination and intramolecular direct C-H arylation at the ortho position of an unsubstituted aniline moiety, which is a key functionality for further derivatization with a Suzuki coupling via Sandmeyer iodination. The process has eliminated expensive starting materials and column chromatography purifications and enabled considerable enhancement of the total yield from 11% to 48%.

  13. Neutron Cross Section Processing Methods for Improved Integral Benchmarking of Unresolved Resonance Region Evaluations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walsh, Jonathan A.; Forget, Benoit; Smith, Kord S.; Brown, Forrest B.

    2016-03-01

    In this work we describe the development and application of computational methods for processing neutron cross section data in the unresolved resonance region (URR). These methods are integrated with a continuous-energy Monte Carlo neutron transport code, thereby enabling their use in high-fidelity analyses. Enhanced understanding of the effects of URR evaluation representations on calculated results is then obtained through utilization of the methods in Monte Carlo integral benchmark simulations of fast spectrum critical assemblies. First, we present a so-called on-the-fly (OTF) method for calculating and Doppler broadening URR cross sections. This method proceeds directly from ENDF-6 average unresolved resonance parameters and, thus, eliminates any need for a probability table generation pre-processing step in which tables are constructed at several energies for all desired temperatures. Significant memory reduction may be realized with the OTF method relative to a probability table treatment if many temperatures are needed. Next, we examine the effects of using a multi-level resonance formalism for resonance reconstruction in the URR. A comparison of results obtained by using the same stochastically-generated realization of resonance parameters in both the single-level Breit-Wigner (SLBW) and multi-level Breit-Wigner (MLBW) formalisms allows for the quantification of level-level interference effects on integrated tallies such as keff and energy group reaction rates. Though, as is well-known, cross section values at any given incident energy may differ significantly between single-level and multi-level formulations, the observed effects on integral results are minimal in this investigation. Finally, we demonstrate the calculation of true expected values, and the statistical spread of those values, through independent Monte Carlo simulations, each using an independent realization of URR cross section structure throughout. It is observed that both probability table

  14. A simplified compact model of miniaturized cross-shaped CMOS integrated Hall devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haiyun, Huang; Dejun, Wang; Wenbo, Li; Yue, Xu; Huibin, Qin; Yongcai, Hu

    2012-08-01

    A simplified compact model for a miniaturized cross-shaped CMOS integrated Hall device is presented. The model has a simple circuit structure, only consisting of a passive network with eight non-linear resistors and four current-controlled voltage sources. It completely considers the following effects: non-linear conductivity, geometry dependence of sensitivity, temperature drift, lateral diffusion, and junction field effect. The model has been implemented in Verilog-A hardware description language and was successfully performed in a Cadence Spectre simulator. The simulation results are in good accordance with the classic experimental results reported in the literature.

  15. Peripartum depression and anxiety as an integrative cross domain target for psychiatric preventative measures.

    PubMed

    Babb, Jessica A; Deligiannidis, Kristina M; Murgatroyd, Christopher A; Nephew, Benjamin C

    2015-01-01

    Exposure to high levels of early life stress has been identified as a potent risk factor for neurodevelopmental delays in infants, behavioral problems and autism in children, but also for several psychiatric illnesses in adulthood, such as depression, anxiety, autism, and posttraumatic stress disorder. Despite having robust adverse effects on both mother and infant, the pathophysiology of peripartum depression and anxiety are poorly understood. The objective of this review is to highlight the advantages of using an integrated approach addressing several behavioral domains in both animal and clinical studies of peripartum depression and anxiety. It is postulated that a greater focus on integrated cross domain studies will lead to advances in treatments and preventative measures for several disorders associated with peripartum depression and anxiety.

  16. PERIPARTUM DEPRESSION AND ANXIETY AS AN INTEGRATIVE CROSS DOMAIN TARGET FOR PSYCHIATRIC PREVENTATIVE MEASURES

    PubMed Central

    Babb, Jessica A.; Deligiannidis, Kristina M.; Murgatroyd, Christopher A.

    2014-01-01

    Exposure to high levels of early life stress has been identified as a potent risk factor for neurodevelopmental delays in infants, behavioral problems and autism in children, but also for several psychiatric illnesses in adulthood, such as depression, anxiety, autism, and posttraumatic stress disorder. Despite having robust adverse effects on both mother and infant, the pathophysiology of peripartum depression and anxiety are poorly understood. The objective of this review is to highlight the advantages of using an integrated approach addressing several behavioral domains in both animal and clinical studies of peripartum depression and anxiety. It is postulated that a greater focus on integrated cross domain studies will lead to advances in treatments and preventative measures for several disorders associated with peripartum depression and anxiety. PMID:24709228

  17. Differential, integral, and momentum-transfer cross sections for elastic electron scattering by neon - 5 to 100 eV

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Register, D. F.; Trajmar, S.

    1984-01-01

    Relative elastic-scattering differential cross sections were measured in the 5-100-eV impact energy and 10-145 deg angular ranges. Normalization of these cross sections was achieved by utilizing accurate total electron-scattering cross sections. A phase-shift analysis of the angular distributions in terms of real phase shifts has been carried out. From the differential cross sections, momentum-transfer cross sections were obtained and the values of the critical energy and angle were established (associated with the lowest value of the differential cross section) as 62.5 + or - 2.5 eV and 101.7 deg + or - 1.5 deg, respectively. The present phase shifts, the critical parameters, and differential, integral, and momentum-transfer cross sections are compared to previous experimental and theoretical results. The error associated with the present data is about 10 percent.

  18. A comparison of surface-grab and cross sectionally integrated stream-water-quality sampling methods

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Martin, G.R.; Smoot, J.L.; White, K.D.

    1992-01-01

    Stream sampling for water quality data has commonly employed simple surface-grab procedures as opposed to more involved, cross sectionally integrated techniques. Paired samples for analysis of selected constituents were collected over various flow conditions at four sites to evaluate differences between the two sampling methods. Concentrations of dissolved constituents were not consistently different. However, concentrations of suspended sediment and the total forms of some sediment-associated constituents, such as phosphorus, iron, and manganese, were significantly lower in the surface-grab samples than in the cross sectionally integrated samples. The largest median percent difference in concentration for a site was 60% (total recoverable manganese). Median percent differences in concentration for sediment-associated constituents considering all sites grouped were in the range of 20-25%. The surface-grab samples underrepresented concentrations of suspended sediment and some sediment-associated constituents, thus limiting the applicability of such data for certain purposes. An association was also demonstrated between site streamflow characteristics and the observed differences.

  19. Differential and integral cross sections in OH(X) + Xe collisions

    SciTech Connect

    Sarma, Gautam; Saha, Ashim Kumar; Meulen, J. J. ter; Parker, David H.; Marinakis, Sarantos

    2015-01-21

    Differential cross sections (DCSs) for inelastic collisions of OH(X) with Xe have been measured at a collision energy of 483 cm{sup −1}. The hydroxyl (OH) radicals were initially prepared in the X{sup 2}Π{sub 3/2} (v = 0, j = 1.5, f) level using the hexapole electric field selection method. Products were detected state-selectively by [2 + 1] resonance-enhanced multiphoton ionization of OH, combined with velocity-map imaging. Integral cross sections in OH(X) + Xe at a collision energy of 490 cm{sup −1} were also measured by laser-induced fluorescence. The results are compared with exact close-coupling quantum mechanical scattering calculations on the only available ab initio potential energy surface (PES). The agreement between experimental and theoretical results is generally very satisfactory. This highlights the ability of such measurements to test the available PES for such a benchmark open-shell system. The agreement between experiment and theory for DCSs is less satisfactory at low scattering angles, and possible reasons for this disagreement are discussed. Finally, theoretical calculations of OH(X) + He DCSs have been obtained at various collision energies and are compared with those of OH(X) + Xe. The role of the reduced mass in the DCSs and partial cross sections is also examined.

  20. On the Efficiency of NHS Ester Cross-Linkers for Stabilizing Integral Membrane Protein Complexes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Fan; Gerber, Sabina; Korkhov, Volodymyr M.; Mireku, Samantha; Bucher, Monika; Locher, Kaspar P.; Zenobi, Renato

    2015-03-01

    We have previously presented a straightforward approach based on high-mass matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization (MALDI) mass spectrometry (MS) to study membrane proteins. In addition, the stoichiometry of integral membrane protein complexes could be determined by MALDI-MS, following chemical cross-linking via glutaraldehyde. However, glutaraldehyde polymerizes in solution and reacts nonspecifically with various functional groups of proteins, limiting its usefulness for structural studies of protein complexes. Here, we investigated the capability of N-hydroxysuccinimide (NHS) esters, which react much more specifically, to cross-link membrane protein complexes such as PglK and BtuC2D2. We present clear evidence that NHS esters are capable of stabilizing membrane protein complexes in situ, in the presence of detergents such as DDM, C12E8, and LDAO. The stabilization efficiency strongly depends on the membrane protein structure (i.e, the number of primary amine groups and the distances between primary amines). A minimum number of primary amine groups is required, and the distances between primary amines govern whether a cross-linker with a specific spacer arm length is able to bridge two amine groups.

  1. Differential and integral cross sections in OH(X) + Xe collisions.

    PubMed

    Sarma, Gautam; Saha, Ashim Kumar; ter Meulen, J J; Parker, David H; Marinakis, Sarantos

    2015-01-21

    Differential cross sections (DCSs) for inelastic collisions of OH(X) with Xe have been measured at a collision energy of 483 cm(-1). The hydroxyl (OH) radicals were initially prepared in the X(2)Π3/2 (v = 0, j = 1.5, f) level using the hexapole electric field selection method. Products were detected state-selectively by [2 + 1] resonance-enhanced multiphoton ionization of OH, combined with velocity-map imaging. Integral cross sections in OH(X) + Xe at a collision energy of 490 cm(-1) were also measured by laser-induced fluorescence. The results are compared with exact close-coupling quantum mechanical scattering calculations on the only available ab initio potential energy surface (PES). The agreement between experimental and theoretical results is generally very satisfactory. This highlights the ability of such measurements to test the available PES for such a benchmark open-shell system. The agreement between experiment and theory for DCSs is less satisfactory at low scattering angles, and possible reasons for this disagreement are discussed. Finally, theoretical calculations of OH(X) + He DCSs have been obtained at various collision energies and are compared with those of OH(X) + Xe. The role of the reduced mass in the DCSs and partial cross sections is also examined. PMID:25612711

  2. Integrating serological and genetic data to quantify cross-species transmission: brucellosis as a case study.

    PubMed

    Viana, Mafalda; Shirima, Gabriel M; John, Kunda S; Fitzpatrick, Julie; Kazwala, Rudovick R; Buza, Joram J; Cleaveland, Sarah; Haydon, Daniel T; Halliday, Jo E B

    2016-06-01

    Epidemiological data are often fragmented, partial, and/or ambiguous and unable to yield the desired level of understanding of infectious disease dynamics to adequately inform control measures. Here, we show how the information contained in widely available serology data can be enhanced by integration with less common type-specific data, to improve the understanding of the transmission dynamics of complex multi-species pathogens and host communities. Using brucellosis in northern Tanzania as a case study, we developed a latent process model based on serology data obtained from the field, to reconstruct Brucella transmission dynamics. We were able to identify sheep and goats as a more likely source of human and animal infection than cattle; however, the highly cross-reactive nature of Brucella spp. meant that it was not possible to determine which Brucella species (B. abortus or B. melitensis) is responsible for human infection. We extended our model to integrate simulated serology and typing data, and show that although serology alone can identify the host source of human infection under certain restrictive conditions, the integration of even small amounts (5%) of typing data can improve understanding of complex epidemiological dynamics. We show that data integration will often be essential when more than one pathogen is present and when the distinction between exposed and infectious individuals is not clear from serology data. With increasing epidemiological complexity, serology data become less informative. However, we show how this weakness can be mitigated by integrating such data with typing data, thereby enhancing the inference from these data and improving understanding of the underlying dynamics.

  3. Orientation of Dental Professionals in India towards Integrative Medicine: A Cross-Sectional Survey

    PubMed Central

    Gayathri, Haritheertham; Garhnayak, Mirna; Naik, Eslavath Seena

    2016-01-01

    Introduction There is a growing demand on our health care system, including Dentistry, to shift from a bio-medical approach to Integrative model of care. The attitudes of health professionals towards Integrative Medicine (IM) are an important factor that influences this transition. Aim The aim of this study was to evaluate and compare the orientation of the dental professionals in India towards the principles and practice of Integrative Medicine. Materials and Methods A cross-sectional survey was conducted on 286 dental faculty and postgraduate students from three dental schools in India. The participants voluntarily and anonymously completed the “Integrative Medicine-30’ questionnaire, a 30 item self-report instrument that measures the health care provider’s orientation towards Integrative Medicine in five subscales. Data analysis included summary statistics and intergroup comparisons by gender and professional status with independent samples Mann-Whitney U test. Results The overall orientation of the dental professionals towards IM was almost neutral. While the use of learning resources on Complementary and Alternative Medicine was lower, they showed a more positive orientation towards patient-centred care. Compared to postgraduate students of Dentistry, the dental faculty were more oriented towards IM (median score of 82 vs. 79.5, p<0.01), especially in terms of learning from alternate paradigms (14 vs. 12, p<0.01) and safety of Complementary and Alternative Medicine (13 vs. 12, p<0.01). Females scored better than males both in terms of overall orientation (82 vs. 78, p<0.01) and towards patient-centred care (12 vs. 11, p<0.001). Conclusion The results highlight the impending need to improve the orientation of dental professionals in India towards the principles and practice of IM. PMID:27042588

  4. Combined Use of Absolute and Differential Seismic Arrival Time Data to Improve Absolute Event Location

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Myers, S.; Johannesson, G.

    2012-12-01

    Arrival time measurements based on waveform cross correlation are becoming more common as advanced signal processing methods are applied to seismic data archives and real-time data streams. Waveform correlation can precisely measure the time difference between the arrival of two phases, and differential time data can be used to constrain relative location of events. Absolute locations are needed for many applications, which generally requires the use of absolute time data. Current methods for measuring absolute time data are approximately two orders of magnitude less precise than differential time measurements. To exploit the strengths of both absolute and differential time data, we extend our multiple-event location method Bayesloc, which previously used absolute time data only, to include the use of differential time measurements that are based on waveform cross correlation. Fundamentally, Bayesloc is a formulation of the joint probability over all parameters comprising the multiple event location system. The Markov-Chain Monte Carlo method is used to sample from the joint probability distribution given arrival data sets. The differential time component of Bayesloc includes scaling a stochastic estimate of differential time measurement precision based the waveform correlation coefficient for each datum. For a regional-distance synthetic data set with absolute and differential time measurement error of 0.25 seconds and 0.01 second, respectively, epicenter location accuracy is improved from and average of 1.05 km when solely absolute time data are used to 0.28 km when absolute and differential time data are used jointly (73% improvement). The improvement in absolute location accuracy is the result of conditionally limiting absolute location probability regions based on the precise relative position with respect to neighboring events. Bayesloc estimates of data precision are found to be accurate for the synthetic test, with absolute and differential time measurement

  5. ABSOLUTE POLARIMETRY AT RHIC.

    SciTech Connect

    OKADA; BRAVAR, A.; BUNCE, G.; GILL, R.; HUANG, H.; MAKDISI, Y.; NASS, A.; WOOD, J.; ZELENSKI, Z.; ET AL.

    2007-09-10

    Precise and absolute beam polarization measurements are critical for the RHIC spin physics program. Because all experimental spin-dependent results are normalized by beam polarization, the normalization uncertainty contributes directly to final physics uncertainties. We aimed to perform the beam polarization measurement to an accuracy Of {Delta}P{sub beam}/P{sub beam} < 5%. The absolute polarimeter consists of Polarized Atomic Hydrogen Gas Jet Target and left-right pairs of silicon strip detectors and was installed in the RHIC-ring in 2004. This system features proton-proton elastic scattering in the Coulomb nuclear interference (CNI) region. Precise measurements of the analyzing power A{sub N} of this process has allowed us to achieve {Delta}P{sub beam}/P{sub beam} = 4.2% in 2005 for the first long spin-physics run. In this report, we describe the entire set up and performance of the system. The procedure of beam polarization measurement and analysis results from 2004-2005 are described. Physics topics of AN in the CNI region (four-momentum transfer squared 0.001 < -t < 0.032 (GeV/c){sup 2}) are also discussed. We point out the current issues and expected optimum accuracy in 2006 and the future.

  6. Identification and Evaluation of Integration and Cross Cutting Issues Across HRP Risks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Steinberg, S. L.; Shelhamer, Mark

    2015-01-01

    The HRP Integrated Research Plan contains the research plans for the 32 risks requiring research to characterize and mitigate. These risks to human health and performance in spaceflight are identified by evidence and each one focuses on a single aspect of human physiology or performance. They are further categorized by aspects of the spaceflight environment, such as altered gravity or space radiation, that that play a major role in their likelihood and consequence. From its inception the "integrate" in the Research Plan has denoted the integrated nature of risks to human health and performance, the connectedness of physiological systems within the human body regardless of the spaceflight environment, and the integrated response of the human body to the spaceflight environment. Common characteristics of the spaceflight environment include altered gravity, atmospheres and light/dark cycles, space radiation, isolation, noise, and periods of high or low workload. Long term exposure to this unique environment produces a suite of physiological effects such as stress; vision, neurocognitive and anthropometric changes; circadian misalignment; fluid shifts, deconditioning; immune dysregulation; and altered nutritional requirements. Matrix diagraming was used to systematically identify, analyze and rate the many-to-many relationships between environmental characteristics and the suite of physiological effects. It was also to identify patterns in the relationships of common physiological effects to each other. Analyses of patterns or relationships in these diagrams help to identify issues that cut across multiple risks. Cross cutting issues benefit from a multidisciplinary approach that synthesizes concepts or data from two or more disciplines to identify and characterize risk factors or develop countermeasures relevant to multiple risks. They also help to illuminate possible problem areas that may arise when a countermeasure impacts risks other than those which it was

  7. Intermediate-energy differential and integral cross sections for vibrational excitation in α-tetrahydrofurfuryl alcohol.

    PubMed

    Duque, H V; Chiari, L; Jones, D B; Pettifer, Z; da Silva, G B; Limão-Vieira, P; Blanco, F; García, G; White, R D; Lopes, M C A; Brunger, M J

    2014-06-01

    Differential and integral cross section measurements, for incident electron energies in the 20-50 eV range, are reported for excitation of several composite vibrational modes in α-tetrahydrofurfuryl alcohol (THFA). Optimisation and frequency calculations, using GAUSSIAN 09 at the B3LYP/aug-cc-pVDZ level, were also undertaken for the two most abundant conformers of THFA, with results being reported for their respective mode classifications and excitation energies. Those calculations assisted us in the experimental assignments of the composite features observed in our measured energy loss spectra. There are, to the best of our knowledge, no other experimental or theoretical data currently available in the literature against which we can compare the present results.

  8. Integral cross sections for electron impact excitation of vibrational and electronic states in phenol.

    PubMed

    Neves, R F C; Jones, D B; Lopes, M C A; Blanco, F; García, G; Ratnavelu, K; Brunger, M J

    2015-05-21

    We report on measurements of integral cross sections (ICSs) for electron impact excitation of a series of composite vibrational modes and electronic-states in phenol, where the energy range of those experiments was 15-250 eV. There are currently no other results against which we can directly compare those measured data. We also report results from our independent atom model with screened additivity rule correction computations, namely, for the inelastic ICS (all discrete electronic states and neutral dissociation) and the total ionisation ICS. In addition, for the relevant dipole-allowed excited electronic states, we also report f-scaled Born-level and energy-corrected and f-scaled Born-level (BEf-scaled) ICS. Where possible, our measured and calculated ICSs are compared against one another with the general level of accord between them being satisfactory to within the measurement uncertainties.

  9. Split-cross-bridge resistor for testing for proper fabrication of integrated circuits

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buehler, M. G. (Inventor)

    1985-01-01

    An electrical testing structure and method is described whereby a test structure is fabricated on a large scale integrated circuit wafer along with the circuit components and has a van der Pauw cross resistor in conjunction with a bridge resistor and a split bridge resistor, the latter having two channels each a line width wide, corresponding to the line width of the wafer circuit components, and with the two channels separated by a space equal to the line spacing of the wafer circuit components. The testing structure has associated voltage and current contact pads arranged in a two by four array for conveniently passing currents through the test structure and measuring voltages at appropriate points to calculate the sheet resistance, line width, line spacing, and line pitch of the circuit components on the wafer electrically.

  10. Intermediate-energy differential and integral cross sections for vibrational excitation in α-tetrahydrofurfuryl alcohol

    SciTech Connect

    Duque, H. V.; Chiari, L.; Jones, D. B.; Pettifer, Z.; Silva, G. B. da; Limão-Vieira, P.; Blanco, F.; García, G.; White, R. D.; Lopes, M. C. A.; Brunger, M. J.

    2014-06-07

    Differential and integral cross section measurements, for incident electron energies in the 20–50 eV range, are reported for excitation of several composite vibrational modes in α-tetrahydrofurfuryl alcohol (THFA). Optimisation and frequency calculations, using GAUSSIAN 09 at the B3LYP/aug-cc-pVDZ level, were also undertaken for the two most abundant conformers of THFA, with results being reported for their respective mode classifications and excitation energies. Those calculations assisted us in the experimental assignments of the composite features observed in our measured energy loss spectra. There are, to the best of our knowledge, no other experimental or theoretical data currently available in the literature against which we can compare the present results.

  11. Multisensory integration and cross-modal learning in synaesthesia: A unifying model.

    PubMed

    Newell, Fiona N; Mitchell, Kevin J

    2016-07-29

    Recent research into synaesthesia has highlighted the role of learning, yet synaesthesia is clearly a genetic condition. Here we ask how can the idea that synaesthesia reflects innate, genetic differences be reconciled with models that suggest it is driven by learning. A number of lines of evidence suggest that synaesthesia relies on, or at least interacts with, processes of multisensory integration that are common across all people. These include multisensory activations that arise in early regions of the brain as well as feedback from longer-term cross-modal associations generated in memory. These cognitive processes may interact independently to influence the phenomenology of the synaesthetic experience, as well as the individual differences within particular types of synaesthesia. The theoretical framework presented here is consistent with both an innate difference as the fundamental driver of the condition of synaesthesia, and with experiential and semantic influences on the eventual phenotype that emerges. In particular, it proposes that the internally generated synaesthetic percepts are treated similarly to other sensory information as the brain is learning the multisensory attributes of objects and developing cross-modal associations that merge in the concept of the object. PMID:26231979

  12. The cross-correlation between 3D cosmic shear and the integrated Sachs-Wolfe effect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zieser, Britta; Merkel, Philipp M.

    2016-06-01

    We present the first calculation of the cross-correlation between 3D cosmic shear and the integrated Sachs-Wolfe (iSW) effect. Both signals are combined in a single formalism, which permits the computation of the full covariance matrix. In order to avoid the uncertainties presented by the non-linear evolution of the matter power spectrum and intrinsic alignments of galaxies, our analysis is restricted to large scales, i.e. multipoles below ℓ = 1000. We demonstrate in a Fisher analysis that this reduction compared to other studies of 3D weak lensing extending to smaller scales is compensated by the information that is gained if the additional iSW signal and in particular its cross-correlation with lensing data are considered. Given the observational standards of upcoming weak-lensing surveys like Euclid, marginal errors on cosmological parameters decrease by 10 per cent compared to a cosmic shear experiment if both types of information are combined without a cosmic wave background (CMB) prior. Once the constraining power of CMB data is added, the improvement becomes marginal.

  13. Absolute Equilibrium Entropy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shebalin, John V.

    1997-01-01

    The entropy associated with absolute equilibrium ensemble theories of ideal, homogeneous, fluid and magneto-fluid turbulence is discussed and the three-dimensional fluid case is examined in detail. A sigma-function is defined, whose minimum value with respect to global parameters is the entropy. A comparison is made between the use of global functions sigma and phase functions H (associated with the development of various H-theorems of ideal turbulence). It is shown that the two approaches are complimentary though conceptually different: H-theorems show that an isolated system tends to equilibrium while sigma-functions allow the demonstration that entropy never decreases when two previously isolated systems are combined. This provides a more complete picture of entropy in the statistical mechanics of ideal fluids.

  14. Impairments of Multisensory Integration and Cross-Sensory Learning as Pathways to Dyslexia

    PubMed Central

    Hahn, Noemi; Foxe, John J.; Molholm, Sophie

    2014-01-01

    Two sensory systems are intrinsic to learning to read. Written words enter the brain through the visual system and associated sounds through the auditory system. The task before the beginning reader is quite basic. She must learn correspondences between orthographic tokens and phonemic utterances, and she must do this to the point that there is seamless automatic ‘connection’ between these sensorially distinct units of language. It is self-evident then that learning to read requires formation of cross-sensory associations to the point that deeply encoded multisensory representations are attained. While the majority of individuals manage this task to a high degree of expertise, some struggle to attain even rudimentary capabilities. Why do dyslexic individuals, who learn well in myriad other domains, fail at this particular task? Here, we examine the literature as it pertains to multisensory processing in dyslexia. We find substantial support for multisensory deficits in dyslexia, and make the case that to fully understand its neurological basis, it will be necessary to thoroughly probe the integrity of auditory-visual integration mechanisms. PMID:25265514

  15. Impairments of multisensory integration and cross-sensory learning as pathways to dyslexia.

    PubMed

    Hahn, Noemi; Foxe, John J; Molholm, Sophie

    2014-11-01

    Two sensory systems are intrinsic to learning to read. Written words enter the brain through the visual system and associated sounds through the auditory system. The task before the beginning reader is quite basic. She must learn correspondences between orthographic tokens and phonemic utterances, and she must do this to the point that there is seamless automatic 'connection' between these sensorially distinct units of language. It is self-evident then that learning to read requires formation of cross-sensory associations to the point that deeply encoded multisensory representations are attained. While the majority of individuals manage this task to a high degree of expertise, some struggle to attain even rudimentary capabilities. Why do dyslexic individuals, who learn well in myriad other domains, fail at this particular task? Here, we examine the literature as it pertains to multisensory processing in dyslexia. We find substantial support for multisensory deficits in dyslexia, and make the case that to fully understand its neurological basis, it will be necessary to thoroughly probe the integrity of auditory-visual integration mechanisms.

  16. Impairments of multisensory integration and cross-sensory learning as pathways to dyslexia.

    PubMed

    Hahn, Noemi; Foxe, John J; Molholm, Sophie

    2014-11-01

    Two sensory systems are intrinsic to learning to read. Written words enter the brain through the visual system and associated sounds through the auditory system. The task before the beginning reader is quite basic. She must learn correspondences between orthographic tokens and phonemic utterances, and she must do this to the point that there is seamless automatic 'connection' between these sensorially distinct units of language. It is self-evident then that learning to read requires formation of cross-sensory associations to the point that deeply encoded multisensory representations are attained. While the majority of individuals manage this task to a high degree of expertise, some struggle to attain even rudimentary capabilities. Why do dyslexic individuals, who learn well in myriad other domains, fail at this particular task? Here, we examine the literature as it pertains to multisensory processing in dyslexia. We find substantial support for multisensory deficits in dyslexia, and make the case that to fully understand its neurological basis, it will be necessary to thoroughly probe the integrity of auditory-visual integration mechanisms. PMID:25265514

  17. R-matrix calculations of differential and integral cross sections for low-energy electron collisions with ethanol

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fujimoto, M. M.; Brigg, W. J.; Tennyson, J.

    2012-08-01

    Electron collisions with C2H5OH are studied up to impact energies of 10 eV using several theoretical models. Calculated differential cross sections suggest that the extrapolation to low angles used to extend experimental data and hence give integral cross sections significantly underestimates the large, dipole-driven forward scattering cross section. An improved set of values for the rotationally-unresolved elastic cross section is proposed; the corresponding rotationally resolved cross sections are also presented. Static exchange plus polarisation calculations find a very broad shape resonance in each of the 2A' and 2A'' symmetries in the 7 eV collision region however no resonance at lower energies, in qualitative agreement with the interpretation of some but not all dissociative electron attachment measurements.

  18. Absolute neutrino mass measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Wolf, Joachim

    2011-10-06

    The neutrino mass plays an important role in particle physics, astrophysics and cosmology. In recent years the detection of neutrino flavour oscillations proved that neutrinos carry mass. However, oscillation experiments are only sensitive to the mass-squared difference of the mass eigenvalues. In contrast to cosmological observations and neutrino-less double beta decay (0v2{beta}) searches, single {beta}-decay experiments provide a direct, model-independent way to determine the absolute neutrino mass by measuring the energy spectrum of decay electrons at the endpoint region with high accuracy.Currently the best kinematic upper limits on the neutrino mass of 2.2eV have been set by two experiments in Mainz and Troitsk, using tritium as beta emitter. The next generation tritium {beta}-experiment KATRIN is currently under construction in Karlsruhe/Germany by an international collaboration. KATRIN intends to improve the sensitivity by one order of magnitude to 0.2eV. The investigation of a second isotope ({sup 137}Rh) is being pursued by the international MARE collaboration using micro-calorimeters to measure the beta spectrum. The technology needed to reach 0.2eV sensitivity is still in the R and D phase. This paper reviews the present status of neutrino-mass measurements with cosmological data, 0v2{beta} decay and single {beta}-decay.

  19. Technological and cross-border mixture value chain of science and engineering of multi-integrative mechatronics-integronics-adaptronics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gheorghe, Gh. Ion; Popan, Gheorghe

    2013-10-01

    This scientific paper presents in national premiere and in original concept of the author, the scientific national and the author's original concept, the technological and cross-border mixture value chain of science and engineering of multi-integrative Mechatronics-Integronics-Adaptronics, as high-tech vector support development, for viability and sustainability of a new intelligent and competitive labour market.

  20. Integral cross section measurement of the U 235 ( n , n ' ) U 235 m reaction in a pulsed reactor

    DOE PAGES

    Bélier, G.; Bond, E. M.; Vieira, D. J.; Authier, N.; Becker, J. A.; Hyneck, D.; Jacquet, X.; Jansen, Y.; Legendre, J.; Macri, R.; et al

    2015-04-08

    The integral measurement of the neutron inelastic cross section leading to the 26-minute half-life 235mU isomer in a fission-like neutron spectrum is presented. The experiment has been performed at a pulsed reactor, where the internal conversion decay of the isomer was measured using a dedicated electron detector after activation. The sample preparation, efficiency measurement, irradiation, radiochemistry purification, and isomer decay measurement will be presented. We determined the integral cross section for the ²³⁵U(n,n')235mU reaction to be 1.00±0.13b. This result supports an evaluation performed with TALYS-1.4 code with respect to the isomer excitation as well as the total neutron inelastic scatteringmore » cross section.« less

  1. The disrupted basal ganglia and behavioural control: an integrative cross-domain perspective of spontaneous stereotypy.

    PubMed

    McBride, Sebastian D; Parker, Matthew O

    2015-01-01

    Spontaneous stereotypic behaviour (SB) is common in many captive animal species, as well as in humans with some severe psychiatric disorders, and is often cited as being related to general basal ganglia dysfunction. Despite this assertion, there is little in the literature examining SB specifically in terms of the basal ganglia mechanics. In this review, we attempt to fill this gap by offering an integrative, cross-domain perspective of SB by linking what we currently understand about the SB phenotype with the ever-growing literature on the anatomy and functionality of the basal ganglia. After outlining current models of SB from different theoretical perspectives, we offer a broad but detailed overview of normally functioning basal ganglia mechanics, and attempt to link this with current neurophysiological evidence related to spontaneous SB. Based on this we present an empirically derived theoretical framework, which proposes that SB is the result of a dysfunctional action selection system that may reflect dysregulation of excitatory (direct) and inhibitory (indirect and hyperdirect) pathways as well as alterations in mechanisms of behavioural switching. This approach also suggests behaviours that specifically become stereotypic may reflect inbuilt low selection threshold behavioural sequences associated with early development and the species-specific ethogram or, low threshold behavioural sequences that are the result of stress-induced dopamine exposure at the time of performance.

  2. Laryngoscope blades and handles as sources of cross-infection: an integrative review.

    PubMed

    Negri de Sousa, A C; Levy, C E; Freitas, M I P

    2013-04-01

    The lack of standardization of efficient procedures to clean and disinfect laryngoscope blades and handles, which may be important sources of infection during their clinical use, has been reported previously, revealing contamination with blood, body fluids and micro-organisms. This paper aimed to evaluate the evidence available in the literature regarding the risk of laryngoscope blades and handles as a source of patient contamination. An integrative review of the literature was performed using databases such as Medline, LILACS, SciELO, Cochrane Library, BDENF and PubMed, and keywords in Medical Subject Headings (MeSH). The sample comprised 20 articles published between 1994 and 2012. The studies demonstrated risk of cross-infection and no consensus in current guidelines regarding cleaning and disinfection of this equipment. It was concluded that there are important gaps to be filled and urgent investigations required in order to facilitate standardization of efficient procedures to clean and disinfect laryngoscope blades and handles, and in turn to reduce the potential risk to which the patient and/or health team is exposed.

  3. Towards a Conceptual Design of a Cross-Domain Integrative Information System for the Geosciences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zaslavsky, I.; Richard, S. M.; Valentine, D. W.; Malik, T.; Gupta, A.

    2013-12-01

    As geoscientists increasingly focus on studying processes that span multiple research domains, there is an increased need for cross-domain interoperability solutions that can scale to the entire geosciences, bridging information and knowledge systems, models, software tools, as well as connecting researchers and organization. Creating a community-driven cyberinfrastructure (CI) to address the grand challenges of integrative Earth science research and education is the focus of EarthCube, a new research initiative of the U.S. National Science Foundation. We are approaching EarthCube design as a complex socio-technical system of systems, in which communication between various domain subsystems, people and organizations enables more comprehensive, data-intensive research designs and knowledge sharing. In particular, we focus on integrating 'traditional' layered CI components - including information sources, catalogs, vocabularies, services, analysis and modeling tools - with CI components supporting scholarly communication, self-organization and social networking (e.g. research profiles, Q&A systems, annotations), in a manner that follows and enhances existing patterns of data, information and knowledge exchange within and across geoscience domains. We describe an initial architecture design focused on enabling the CI to (a) provide an environment for scientifically sound information and software discovery and reuse; (b) evolve by factoring in the impact of maturing movements like linked data, 'big data', and social collaborations, as well as experience from work on large information systems in other domains; (c) handle the ever increasing volume, complexity and diversity of geoscience information; (d) incorporate new information and analytical requirements, tools, and techniques, and emerging types of earth observations and models; (e) accommodate different ideas and approaches to research and data stewardship; (f) be responsive to the existing and anticipated needs

  4. Cross-Cultural Composition: Mediated Integration of U.S. and International Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Matsuda, Paul Kei; Silva, Tony

    1999-01-01

    Considers a cross-cultural composition course as a placement option. Outlines the main points of the composition course: writing projects and activities; providing an English-as-a-Second-Language-friendly environment; discussing opportunities for cross-cultural learning; and implementing cross-cultural composition. (SC)

  5. Absolute Identification by Relative Judgment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stewart, Neil; Brown, Gordon D. A.; Chater, Nick

    2005-01-01

    In unidimensional absolute identification tasks, participants identify stimuli that vary along a single dimension. Performance is surprisingly poor compared with discrimination of the same stimuli. Existing models assume that identification is achieved using long-term representations of absolute magnitudes. The authors propose an alternative…

  6. Be Resolute about Absolute Value

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kidd, Margaret L.

    2007-01-01

    This article explores how conceptualization of absolute value can start long before it is introduced. The manner in which absolute value is introduced to students in middle school has far-reaching consequences for their future mathematical understanding. It begins to lay the foundation for students' understanding of algebra, which can change…

  7. A faculty development program integrating cross-cultural care into a gastrointestinal pathophysiology tutorial benefits students, tutors, and the course.

    PubMed

    Shields, Helen M; Leffler, Daniel A; Peters, Antoinette S; Llerena-Quinn, Roxana; Nambudiri, Vinod E; White, Augustus A; Hayward, Jane N; Pelletier, Stephen R

    2015-06-01

    A specific faculty development program for tutors to teach cross-cultural care in a preclinical gastrointestinal pathophysiology course with weekly longitudinal followup sessions was designed in 2007 and conducted in the same manner over a 6-yr period. Anonymous student evaluations of how "frequently" the course and the tutor were actively teaching cross-cultural care were performed. The statements "This tutor actively teaches culturally competent care" and "Issues of culture and ethnicity were addressed" were significantly improved over baseline 2004 data. These increases were sustained over the 6-yr period. A tutor's overall rating as a teacher was moderately correlated with his/her "frequently" actively teaching cross-cultural care (r = 0.385, P < 0. 001). Course evaluation scores were excellent and put the course into the group of preclinical courses with the top ratings. Students in the Race in Curriculum Group asked that the program be expanded to other preclinical courses. In conclusion, from 2007 to 2012, a faculty development program for teaching cross-cultural care consistently increased the discussion of cross-cultural care in the tutorial and course over each year beginning with 2007 compared with the baseline year of 2004. Our data suggest that cross-cultural care can be effectively integrated into pathophysiology tutorials and helps improve students' satisfaction and tutors' ratings. Teaching cross-cultural care in a pathophysiology tutorial did not detract from the course's overall evaluations, which remained in the top group over the 6-yr period.

  8. Our Paths Might Cross: the Role of the Fungal Cell Wall Integrity Pathway in Stress Response and Cross Talk with Other Stress Response Pathways▿

    PubMed Central

    Fuchs, Beth Burgwyn; Mylonakis, Eleftherios

    2009-01-01

    Fungi occupy diverse environments and are subjected to many extreme conditions. Among the stressful conditions faced by fungi are pH changes, osmotic changes, thermal changes, oxide radicals, nutrient deprivation, and exposure to chemicals. These adversities can be found either in the environment or in animal and human hosts. The cell wall integrity (CWI) pathway provides a means to fortify and repair damages to the cell wall in order to withstand stressful environments. The CWI pathway in comprised of cell wall stress sensors that lead to activation of a mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) cascade. Signaling through the MAPK cascade leads to expression of transcription factors that facilitate biosynthesis of cell wall components and actin organization. Given the relatively limited number of components of the CWI pathway and the very diverse stimuli, there must be a means of expanding the pathway. To manage the diverse stress conditions, the CWI pathway cross talks with other pathways or proteins, and these cross talk events enhance the signaling capabilities of the CWI pathway. Lateral influences that facilitate maintaining the cell wall under stress conditions are TOR signaling, calcineurin signaling, the high-osmolarity glycerol pathway, the cyclic AMP-protein kinase A pathway, and additional proteins. In this article, we highlight several of the cross talk events that have been described for Saccharomyces cerevisiae and several other fungi. PMID:19717745

  9. High-speed Ge photodetector monolithically integrated with large cross-section silicon-on-insulator waveguide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feng, Dazeng; Liao, Shirong; Dong, Po; Feng, Ning-Ning; Liang, Hong; Zheng, Dawei; Kung, Cheng-Chih; Fong, Joan; Shafiiha, Roshanak; Cunningham, Jack; Krishnamoorthy, Ashok V.; Asghari, Mehdi

    2009-12-01

    We demonstrate a compact, high speed Ge photodetector efficiently butt-coupled with a large cross-section silicon-on-insulate (SOI) waveguide in which the Ge p-i-n junction is placed in the horizontal direction to enable very high speed operation. The demonstrated photodetector has an active area of only 0.8×10 μm2, greater than 32 GHz optical bandwidth, and a responsivity of 1.1 A/W at a wavelength of 1550 nm. Very importantly the device can readily be integrated with high performance wavelength-division-multiplexing filters based on large cross-section SOI waveguide to form monolithic integrated silicon photonics receivers for multichannel terabit data transmission applications.

  10. 57Co (n,γ) 58Co reaction cross section: Thermal and resonance integral measurements and energy dependence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maidana, Nora L.; Mesa, Joel; Vanin, Vito R.; Castro, Ruy M.; Dias, Mauro S.; Koskinas, Marina F.

    2004-07-01

    The 57Co (n,γ) 58Co thermal and resonance integral cross section were measured as 51 (5) b and 20.0 (19) b , respectively, by irradiating aliquots of 57Co solution sealed inside quartz bottles near the core of the IEA-R1 IPEN research reactor and counting the gamma-ray residual activity. The irradiations were monitored using Au-Al alloy foils, with and without Cd cover. The gamma-ray measurements were performed with a shielded HPGe detector. Westcott formalism was applied for the average neutron flux determination. The cross section energy dependence was evaluated using the multilevel Breit-Wigner expression considering the first two resonances and the statistical model for energies above the second resonance. Maxwellian averaged neutron capture cross section with neutron temperatures between 5 and 100 keV were also evaluated.

  11. {sup 57}Co(n,{gamma}){sup 58}Co reaction cross section: Thermal and resonance integral measurements and energy dependence

    SciTech Connect

    Maidana, Nora L.; Mesa, Joel; Vanin, Vito R.; Castro, Ruy M.; Dias, Mauro S.; Koskinas, Marina F.

    2004-07-01

    The {sup 57}Co(n,{gamma}){sup 58}Co thermal and resonance integral cross section were measured as 51(5) b and 20.0(19) b, respectively, by irradiating aliquots of {sup 57}Co solution sealed inside quartz bottles near the core of the IEA-R1 IPEN research reactor and counting the gamma-ray residual activity. The irradiations were monitored using Au-Al alloy foils, with and without Cd cover. The gamma-ray measurements were performed with a shielded HPGe detector. Westcott formalism was applied for the average neutron flux determination. The cross section energy dependence was evaluated using the multilevel Breit-Wigner expression considering the first two resonances and the statistical model for energies above the second resonance. Maxwellian averaged neutron capture cross section with neutron temperatures between 5 and 100 keV were also evaluated.

  12. Singular perturbation of absolute stability.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Siljak, D. D.

    1972-01-01

    It was previously shown (author, 1969) that the regions of absolute stability in the parameter space can be determined when the parameters appear on the right-hand side of the system equations, i.e., the regular case. Here, the effect on absolute stability of a small parameter attached to higher derivatives in the equations (the singular case) is studied. The Lur'e-Postnikov class of nonlinear systems is considered.

  13. Thermal-neutron cross sections and resonance integrals of 138Ba and 141Pr using Am-Be neutron source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Panikkath, Priyada; Mohanakrishnan, P.

    2016-09-01

    The thermal-neutron capture cross sections and resonance integrals of 138Ba(n, γ)139Ba and 141Pr(n, γ)142Pr were measured by activation method using an isotopic Am-Be neutron source. The estimations were with respect to that of 55Mn(n, γ)56Mn and 197Au(n, γ)198Au reference monitors. The measured thermal-capture cross section of 138 Ba with respect to 55 Mn is 0.410±0.023 b and with respect to 197 Au is 0.386±0.019 b. The measured thermal-capture cross section of 141 Pr with respect to 55 Mn is 11.36±1.29 b and with respect to 197 Au is 10.43±1.14 b. The resonance integrals for 138 Ba are 0.380±0.033 b (55 Mn) and 0.364±0.027 b (197 Au) and for 141 Pr are 21.05±2.88 b (55 Mn) and 15.27±1.87 b (197 Au). The comparison between the present measurements and various reported values are discussed. The cross sections corresponding to the selected isotopes are measured using an Am-Be source facility for the first time.

  14. Use of an intravenous microdose of 14C-labeled drug and accelerator mass spectrometry to measure absolute oral bioavailability in dogs; cross-comparison of assay methods by accelerator mass spectrometry and liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Miyaji, Yoshihiro; Ishizuka, Tomoko; Kawai, Kenji; Hamabe, Yoshimi; Miyaoka, Teiji; Oh-hara, Toshinari; Ikeda, Toshihiko; Kurihara, Atsushi

    2009-01-01

    A technique utilizing simultaneous intravenous microdosing of (14)C-labeled drug with oral dosing of non-labeled drug for measurement of absolute bioavailability was evaluated using R-142086 in male dogs. Plasma concentrations of R-142086 were measured by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) and those of (14)C-R-142086 were measured by accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS). The absence of metabolites in the plasma and urine was confirmed by a single radioactive peak of the parent compound in the chromatogram after intravenous microdosing of (14)C-R-142086 (1.5 microg/kg). Although plasma concentrations of R-142086 determined by LC-MS/MS were approximately 20% higher than those of (14)C-R-142086 as determined by AMS, there was excellent correlation (r=0.994) between both concentrations after intravenous dosing of (14)C-R-142086 (0.3 mg/kg). The oral bioavailability of R-142086 at 1 mg/kg obtained by simultaneous intravenous microdosing of (14)C-R-142086 was 16.1%, this being slightly higher than the value (12.5%) obtained by separate intravenous dosing of R-142086 (0.3 mg/kg). In conclusion, on utilizing simultaneous intravenous microdosing of (14)C-labeled drug in conjunction with AMS analysis, absolute bioavailability could be approximately measured in dogs, but without total accuracy. Bioavailability in humans may possibly be approximately measured at an earlier stage and at a lower cost. PMID:19430168

  15. Spectrally resolved fluorescence cross sections of BG and BT with a 266-nm pump wavelength

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Atkins, Joshua; Thomas, Michael E.; Joseph, Richard I.

    2007-04-01

    The spectrally resolved absolute fluorescence cross sections of Bacillus globigii (BG) and Bacillus thuringiensis (BT) were measured with a 266nm Nd:YAG laser source. The aerosol samples were prepared in dilute aqueous suspensions for measurement and the absolute cross section was found by use of the Raman scattering line from water. Integrated cross sections for BT and BG were found to be 1.1864 × 10 -12 cm2(spore sr) and 3.251 × 10 -13 cm2/ (spore sr) respectively.

  16. The effect of limb crossing and limb congruency on multisensory integration in peripersonal space for the upper and lower extremities.

    PubMed

    van Elk, Michiel; Forget, Joachim; Blanke, Olaf

    2013-06-01

    The present study investigated how multisensory integration in peripersonal space is modulated by limb posture (i.e. whether the limbs are crossed or uncrossed) and limb congruency (i.e. whether the observed body part matches the actual position of one's limb). This was done separately for the upper limbs (Experiment 1) and the lower limbs (Experiment 2). The crossmodal congruency task was used to measure peripersonal space integration for the hands and the feet. It was found that the peripersonal space representation for the hands but not for the feet is dynamically updated based on both limb posture and limb congruency. Together these findings show how dynamic cues from vision, proprioception, and touch are integrated in peripersonal limb space and highlight fundamental differences in the way in which peripersonal space is represented for the upper and lower extremity. PMID:23579198

  17. Framework Design of Unified Cross-Authentication Based on the Fourth Platform Integrated Payment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yong, Xu; Yujin, He

    The essay advances a unified authentication based on the fourth integrated payment platform. The research aims at improving the compatibility of the authentication in electronic business and providing a reference for the establishment of credit system by seeking a way to carry out a standard unified authentication on a integrated payment platform. The essay introduces the concept of the forth integrated payment platform and finally put forward the whole structure and different components. The main issue of the essay is about the design of the credit system of the fourth integrated payment platform and the PKI/CA structure design.

  18. Absolute calibration of sniffer probes on Wendelstein 7-X

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moseev, D.; Laqua, H. P.; Marsen, S.; Stange, T.; Braune, H.; Erckmann, V.; Gellert, F.; Oosterbeek, J. W.

    2016-08-01

    Here we report the first measurements of the power levels of stray radiation in the vacuum vessel of Wendelstein 7-X using absolutely calibrated sniffer probes. The absolute calibration is achieved by using calibrated sources of stray radiation and the implicit measurement of the quality factor of the Wendelstein 7-X empty vacuum vessel. Normalized absolute calibration coefficients agree with the cross-calibration coefficients that are obtained by the direct measurements, indicating that the measured absolute calibration coefficients and stray radiation levels in the vessel are valid. Close to the launcher, the stray radiation in the empty vessel reaches power levels up to 340 kW/m2 per MW injected beam power. Furthest away from the launcher, i.e., half a toroidal turn, still 90 kW/m2 per MW injected beam power is measured.

  19. Absolute calibration of sniffer probes on Wendelstein 7-X.

    PubMed

    Moseev, D; Laqua, H P; Marsen, S; Stange, T; Braune, H; Erckmann, V; Gellert, F; Oosterbeek, J W

    2016-08-01

    Here we report the first measurements of the power levels of stray radiation in the vacuum vessel of Wendelstein 7-X using absolutely calibrated sniffer probes. The absolute calibration is achieved by using calibrated sources of stray radiation and the implicit measurement of the quality factor of the Wendelstein 7-X empty vacuum vessel. Normalized absolute calibration coefficients agree with the cross-calibration coefficients that are obtained by the direct measurements, indicating that the measured absolute calibration coefficients and stray radiation levels in the vessel are valid. Close to the launcher, the stray radiation in the empty vessel reaches power levels up to 340 kW/m(2) per MW injected beam power. Furthest away from the launcher, i.e., half a toroidal turn, still 90 kW/m(2) per MW injected beam power is measured. PMID:27587121

  20. Absolute flux scale for radioastronomy

    SciTech Connect

    Ivanov, V.P.; Stankevich, K.S.

    1986-07-01

    The authors propose and provide support for a new absolute flux scale for radio astronomy, which is not encumbered with the inadequacies of the previous scales. In constructing it the method of relative spectra was used (a powerful tool for choosing reference spectra). A review is given of previous flux scales. The authors compare the AIS scale with the scale they propose. Both scales are based on absolute measurements by the ''artificial moon'' method, and they are practically coincident in the range from 0.96 to 6 GHz. At frequencies above 6 GHz, 0.96 GHz, the AIS scale is overestimated because of incorrect extrapolation of the spectra of the primary and secondary standards. The major results which have emerged from this review of absolute scales in radio astronomy are summarized.

  1. Microfluidic channels with ultralow-loss waveguide crossings for various chip-integrated photonic sensors.

    PubMed

    Wang, Zheng; Yan, Hai; Chakravarty, Swapnajit; Subbaraman, Harish; Xu, Xiaochuan; Fan, D L; Wang, Alan X; Chen, Ray T

    2015-04-01

    Traditional silicon waveguides are defined by waveguide trenches on either side of the high-index silicon core that leads to fluid leakage orifices for over-layed microfluidic channels. Closing the orifices needs additional fabrication steps which may include oxide deposition and planarization. We experimentally demonstrated a new type of microfluidic channel design with ultralow-loss waveguide crossings (0.00248 dB per crossings). The waveguide crossings and all other on-chip passive-waveguide components are fabricated in one step with no additional planarization steps which eliminates any orifices and leads to leak-free fluid flow. Such designs are applicable in all optical-waveguide-based sensing applications where the analyte must be flowed over the sensor. The new channel design was demonstrated in a L55 photonic crystal sensor operating between 1540 and 1580 nm.

  2. Microfluidic channels with ultralow-loss waveguide crossings for various chip-integrated photonic sensors.

    PubMed

    Wang, Zheng; Yan, Hai; Chakravarty, Swapnajit; Subbaraman, Harish; Xu, Xiaochuan; Fan, D L; Wang, Alan X; Chen, Ray T

    2015-04-01

    Traditional silicon waveguides are defined by waveguide trenches on either side of the high-index silicon core that leads to fluid leakage orifices for over-layed microfluidic channels. Closing the orifices needs additional fabrication steps which may include oxide deposition and planarization. We experimentally demonstrated a new type of microfluidic channel design with ultralow-loss waveguide crossings (0.00248 dB per crossings). The waveguide crossings and all other on-chip passive-waveguide components are fabricated in one step with no additional planarization steps which eliminates any orifices and leads to leak-free fluid flow. Such designs are applicable in all optical-waveguide-based sensing applications where the analyte must be flowed over the sensor. The new channel design was demonstrated in a L55 photonic crystal sensor operating between 1540 and 1580 nm. PMID:25831385

  3. HIV Testing and Cross Border Migrant Vulnerability: Social Integration and Legal/Economic Status Among Cross Border Migrant Workers in Thailand.

    PubMed

    Ford, Kathleen; Holumyong, Charamporn

    2016-04-01

    The objective of this paper was to identify factors related to the use of HIV testing among cross border migrants in Thailand. Two measures of vulnerability (social integration and legal/economic status) as well as HIV knowledge, risk behaviour, and demographic factors were tested for association with HIV testing. Data were drawn from a survey of 2600 sexually active migrants age 15-59 in multiple provinces of Thailand. The measures of social integration (AOR = 1.14(95 % CI 1.09, 1.20) female; AOR = 1.12 (95 %CI 1.05, 1.19) male) and legal-income status (AOR = 1.12 (95 % CI 1.07, 1.18) female; AOR = 1.31 (95 %CI 1.20, 1.42) male) were positively related to the odds of reporting an HIV test for both male and female migrants. Exposure to AIDS programming including attending an AIDS meeting and possessing AIDS knowledge was also related to an increase in HIV testing. In addition, reproductive health factors including sexual risk behavior and childbirth increased the rate of HIV testing.

  4. Impact of cross-linker on alginate matrix integrity and drug release.

    PubMed

    Ching, A L; Liew, C V; Heng, P W S; Chan, L W

    2008-05-01

    Sodium alginate, a biopolymer, was employed in the formulation of matrix tablets. They cracked or laminated at acidic pH, compromising their dissolution performance. Improved mechanical strength and reduced barrier permeability of calcium alginate gel provided the rationale for cross-linking the alginate matrix to sustain drug release. Studies had suggested that the incorporation of soluble calcium salts in alginate matrix tablets could sustain drug release at near-neutral pH due to in situ cross-linking. However, results from the present study showed otherwise when gastrointestinal pH conditions were simulated. Significant reduction in drug release rate was only observed when an external calcium source was utilized at low concentration. High calcium ion concentrations caused matrix disintegration. In contrast, matrices pre-coated by calcium alginate could sustain drug release at pH 1.2 followed by pH 6.8 for over 12h. The presence of cross-linked barrier impeded matrix lamination and preserved matrix structure, contributing to at least three-fold reduction in drug release at pH 1.2. Zero order release as well as delayed burst release could be achieved by employing appropriate grade of alginate and cross-linking conditions. PMID:18272307

  5. Relativistic Absolutism in Moral Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vogt, W. Paul

    1982-01-01

    Discusses Emile Durkheim's "Moral Education: A Study in the Theory and Application of the Sociology of Education," which holds that morally healthy societies may vary in culture and organization but must possess absolute rules of moral behavior. Compares this moral theory with current theory and practice of American educators. (MJL)

  6. Absolute transition probabilities of phosphorus.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, M. H.; Roig, R. A.; Bengtson, R. D.

    1971-01-01

    Use of a gas-driven shock tube to measure the absolute strengths of 21 P I lines and 126 P II lines (from 3300 to 6900 A). Accuracy for prominent, isolated neutral and ionic lines is estimated to be 28 to 40% and 18 to 30%, respectively. The data and the corresponding theoretical predictions are examined for conformity with the sum rules.-

  7. The ReproGenomics Viewer: an integrative cross-species toolbox for the reproductive science community

    PubMed Central

    Darde, Thomas A.; Sallou, Olivier; Becker, Emmanuelle; Evrard, Bertrand; Monjeaud, Cyril; Le Bras, Yvan; Jégou, Bernard; Collin, Olivier; Rolland, Antoine D.; Chalmel, Frédéric

    2015-01-01

    We report the development of the ReproGenomics Viewer (RGV), a multi- and cross-species working environment for the visualization, mining and comparison of published omics data sets for the reproductive science community. The system currently embeds 15 published data sets related to gametogenesis from nine model organisms. Data sets have been curated and conveniently organized into broad categories including biological topics, technologies, species and publications. RGV's modular design for both organisms and genomic tools enables users to upload and compare their data with that from the data sets embedded in the system in a cross-species manner. The RGV is freely available at http://rgv.genouest.org. PMID:25883147

  8. Preoperational test report, cross-site transfer system integrated test (POTR-007)

    SciTech Connect

    Pacquet, E.A.

    1998-04-02

    This report documents the results obtained during the performance of Preoperational Test POTP-007, from December 12, 1997 to March 27, 1998. The main objectives were to demonstrate the operation of the following Cross-Site Transfer System components: Booster pumps P-3125A and P-3125B interlocks and controls, both local and remote; Booster pump P-3125A and P-3125B and associated variable speed drives VSD-1 and VSD-2 performance in both manual and automatic modes; and Water filling, circulation, venting and draining of the transfer headers (supernate and slurry line). As described in reference 1, the following components of the Cross-Site Transfer System that would normally be used during an actual waste transfer, are not used in this specific test: Water Flush System; Valving and instrumentation associated with the 241-SY-A valve pit jumpers; and Valving and instrumentation associated with the 244-A lift station.

  9. [The integrality of care and communicative actions in the cross-discipline practice in intensive care].

    PubMed

    Pirolo, Sueli Moreira; Ferraz, Clarice Aparecida; Gomes, Romeu

    2011-12-01

    Cross-disciplinary work in health is an important element to deliver comprehensive health care actions. The present study analyzed cross-disciplinary actions in intensive care according to Habermas. This case study was performed using a qualitative approach. The empiric material capture was collected by observing the setting and using semi-structured interviews with health workers. The information was analyzed using the meaning interpretation technique. The analysis revealed two thematic lines: individual instrumental care in view of the clinical inconstancy, and the collective care fragmented by functions. This result weakens the worker/worker and the worker/patient interactions and compromises the association between health actions. As it does not favor communicative actions, it becomes fragile and the strategic/instrumental action is evinced.

  10. An integrative modeling approach for the efficient estimation of cross sectional tibial stresses during locomotion.

    PubMed

    Derrick, Timothy R; Edwards, W Brent; Fellin, Rebecca E; Seay, Joseph F

    2016-02-01

    The purpose of this research was to utilize a series of models to estimate the stress in a cross section of the tibia, located 62% from the proximal end, during walking. Twenty-eight male, active duty soldiers walked on an instrumented treadmill while external force data and kinematics were recorded. A rigid body model was used to estimate joint moments and reaction forces. A musculoskeletal model was used to gather muscle length, muscle velocity, moment arm and orientation information. Optimization procedures were used to estimate muscle forces and finally internal bone forces and moments were applied to an inhomogeneous, subject specific bone model obtained from CT scans to estimate stress in the bone cross section. Validity was assessed by comparison to stresses calculated from strain gage data in the literature and sensitivity was investigated using two simplified versions of the bone model-a homogeneous model and an ellipse approximation. Peak compressive stress occurred on the posterior aspect of the cross section (-47.5 ± 14.9 MPa). Peak tensile stress occurred on the anterior aspect (27.0 ± 11.7 MPa) while the location of peak shear was variable between subjects (7.2 ± 2.4 MPa). Peak compressive, tensile and shear stresses were within 0.52 MPa, 0.36 MPa and 3.02 MPa respectively of those calculated from the converted strain gage data. Peak values from a inhomogeneous model of the bone correlated well with homogeneous model (normal: 0.99; shear: 0.94) as did the normal ellipse model (r=0.89-0.96). However, the relationship between shear stress in the inhomogeneous model and ellipse model was less accurate (r=0.64). The procedures detailed in this paper provide a non-invasive and relatively quick method of estimating cross sectional stress that holds promise for assessing injury and osteogenic stimulus in bone during normal physical activity. PMID:26803338

  11. Cross-scale integration of knowledge for predicting species ranges: a metamodeling framework

    PubMed Central

    Talluto, Matthew V.; Boulangeat, Isabelle; Ameztegui, Aitor; Aubin, Isabelle; Berteaux, Dominique; Butler, Alyssa; Doyon, Frédérik; Drever, C. Ronnie; Fortin, Marie-Josée; Franceschini, Tony; Liénard, Jean; McKenney, Dan; Solarik, Kevin A.; Strigul, Nikolay; Thuiller, Wilfried; Gravel, Dominique

    2016-01-01

    Aim Current interest in forecasting changes to species ranges have resulted in a multitude of approaches to species distribution models (SDMs). However, most approaches include only a small subset of the available information, and many ignore smaller-scale processes such as growth, fecundity, and dispersal. Furthermore, different approaches often produce divergent predictions with no simple method to reconcile them. Here, we present a flexible framework for integrating models at multiple scales using hierarchical Bayesian methods. Location Eastern North America (as an example). Methods Our framework builds a metamodel that is constrained by the results of multiple sub-models and provides probabilistic estimates of species presence. We applied our approach to a simulated dataset to demonstrate the integration of a correlative SDM with a theoretical model. In a second example, we built an integrated model combining the results of a physiological model with presence-absence data for sugar maple (Acer saccharum), an abundant tree native to eastern North America. Results For both examples, the integrated models successfully included information from all data sources and substantially improved the characterization of uncertainty. For the second example, the integrated model outperformed the source models with respect to uncertainty when modelling the present range of the species. When projecting into the future, the model provided a consensus view of two models that differed substantially in their predictions. Uncertainty was reduced where the models agreed and was greater where they diverged, providing a more realistic view of the state of knowledge than either source model. Main conclusions We conclude by discussing the potential applications of our method and its accessibility to applied ecologists. In ideal cases, our framework can be easily implemented using off-the-shelf software. The framework has wide potential for use in species distribution modelling and can

  12. Multimodal emotion integration in bipolar disorder: an investigation of involuntary cross-modal influences between facial and prosodic channels.

    PubMed

    Van Rheenen, Tamsyn E; Rossell, Susan L

    2014-05-01

    The ability to integrate information from different sensory channels is a vital process that serves to facilitate perceptual decoding in times of unimodal ambiguity. Despite its relevance to psychosocial functioning, multimodal integration of emotional information across facial and prosodic modes has not been addressed in bipolar disorder (BD). In light of this paucity of research we investigated multimodal processing in a BD cohort using a focused attention paradigm. Fifty BD patients and 52 healthy controls completed a task assessing the cross-modal influence of emotional prosody on facial emotion recognition across congruent and incongruent facial and prosodic conditions, where attention was directed to the facial channel. There were no differences in multi-modal integration between groups at the level of accuracy, but differences were evident at the level of response time; emotional prosody biased facial recognition latencies in the control group only, where a fourfold increase in response times was evident between congruent and incongruent conditions relative to patients. The results of this study indicate that the automatic process of integrating multimodal information from facial and prosodic sensory channels is delayed in BD. Given that interpersonal communication usually occurs in real time, these results have implications for social functioning in the disorder. PMID:24725656

  13. A Cross-Course Investigation of Integrative Cases for Evolution Education †

    PubMed Central

    White, Peter John Thomas; Heidemann, Merle K.; Smith, James J.

    2015-01-01

    Evolution is a cornerstone theory in biology, yet many undergraduate students have difficulty understanding it. One reason for this is that evolution is often taught in a macro-scale context without explicit links to micro-scale processes. To address this, we developed a series of integrative evolution cases that present the evolution of various traits from their origin in genetic mutation, to the synthesis of modified proteins, to how these proteins produce novel phenotypes, to the related macro-scale impacts that the novel phenotypes have on populations in ecological communities. We postulated that students would develop a fuller understanding of evolution when learning biology in a context where these integrative evolution cases are used. We used a previously developed assessment tool, the ATEEK (Assessment Tool for Evaluating Evolution Knowledge), within a pre-course/post-course assessment framework. Students who learned biology in courses using the integrative cases performed significantly better on the evolution assessment than did students in courses that did not use the cases. We also found that student understanding of evolution increased with increased exposure to the integrative evolution cases. These findings support the general hypothesis that students acquire a more complete understanding of evolution when they learn about its genetic and molecular mechanisms along with macro-scale explanations. PMID:26753023

  14. Sight-Reading Expertise: Cross-Modality Integration Investigated Using Eye Tracking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Drai-Zerbib, Veronique; Baccino, Thierry; Bigand, Emmanuel

    2012-01-01

    It is often said that experienced musicians are capable of hearing what they read (and vice versa). This suggests that they are able to process and to integrate multimodal information. The present study investigates this issue with an eye-tracking technique. Two groups of musicians chosen on the basis of their level of expertise (experts,…

  15. International Students in China: Cross-Cultural Interaction, Integration, and Identity Construction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Li, Xuemei

    2015-01-01

    This qualitative study engaged five international graduate students from four different countries (the U.S., Colombia, Cape Verde Island, and Spain) who were studying at a Chinese university in Shanghai. The researcher investigated their personal and academic lives in China, their interaction with local people and integration into the local…

  16. Cross-Frequency Integration for Consonant and Vowel Identification in Bimodal Hearing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kong, Ying-Yee; Braida, Louis D.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: Improved speech recognition in binaurally combined acoustic-electric stimulation (otherwise known as "bimodal hearing") could arise when listeners integrate speech cues from the acoustic and electric hearing. The aims of this study were (a) to identify speech cues extracted in electric hearing and residual acoustic hearing in the…

  17. Material Encounters with Mathematics: The Case for Museum Based Cross-Curricular Integration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Freitas, Elizabeth; Bentley, Sean J.

    2012-01-01

    This paper reports on research from a network of high school and museum partnerships designed to explore techniques for integrating mathematics and physics learning experiences during the first year of high school. The foundation of the curriculum is a problem-based, museum-based, and hands-on approach to mathematics and physics. In this paper, we…

  18. Integration of Herbal Medicine in Primary Care in Israel: A Jewish-Arab Cross-Cultural Perspective

    PubMed Central

    Ben-Arye, Eran; Lev, Efraim; Keshet, Yael; Schiff, Elad

    2011-01-01

    Herbal medicine is a prominent complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) modality in Israel based on the country's natural diversity and impressive cultural mosaic. In this study, we compared cross-cultural perspectives of patients attending primary care clinics in northern Israel on herbal medicine specifically and CAM generally, and the possibility of integrating them within primary care. Research assistants administered a questionnaire to consecutive patients attending seven primary care clinics. About 2184 of 3713 respondents (59%) defined themselves as Muslims, Christians or Druze (henceforth Arabs) and 1529 (41%) as Jews. Arab respondents reported more use of herbs during the previous year (35 versus 27.8% P = .004) and of more consultations with herbal practitioners (P < .0001). Druze reported the highest rate of herbal consultations (67.9%) and Ashkenazi Jews the lowest rate (45.2%). About 27.5% of respondents supported adding a herbal practitioner to their clinic's medical team if CAM were to be integrated within primary care. Both Arabs and Jews report considerable usage of herbal medicine, with Arabs using it significantly more. Cross-cultural perspectives are warranted in the study of herbal medicine use in the Arab and Jewish societies. PMID:19864354

  19. Integral cross section measurements and product recoil velocity distributions of Xe(2+) + N2 hyperthermal charge-transfer collisions.

    PubMed

    Hause, Michael L; Prince, Benjamin D; Bemish, Raymond J

    2016-07-28

    Charge exchange from doubly charged rare gas cations to simple diatomics proceeds with a large cross section and results in populations of many vibrational and electronic product states. The charge exchange between Xe(2+) and N2, in particular, is known to create N2 (+) in both the A and B electronic states. In this work, we present integral charge exchange cross section measurements of the Xe(2+) + N2 reaction as well as axial recoil velocity distributions of the Xe(+) and N2 (+) product ions for collision energies between 0.3 and 100 eV in the center-of-mass (COM) frame. Total charge-exchange cross sections decrease from 70 Å(2) to about 40 Å(2) with increasing collision energy through this range. Analysis of the axial velocity distributions indicates that a Xe(2+) - N2 complex exists at low collision energies but is absent by 17.6 eV COM. Analysis of the axial velocity distributions reveals evidence for complexes with lifetimes comparable to the rotational period at low collision energies. The velocity distributions are consistent with quasi-resonant single charge transfer at high collision energies. PMID:27475363

  20. Integral cross section measurements and product recoil velocity distributions of Xe2+ + N2 hyperthermal charge-transfer collisions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hause, Michael L.; Prince, Benjamin D.; Bemish, Raymond J.

    2016-07-01

    Charge exchange from doubly charged rare gas cations to simple diatomics proceeds with a large cross section and results in populations of many vibrational and electronic product states. The charge exchange between Xe2+ and N2, in particular, is known to create N2 + in both the A and B electronic states. In this work, we present integral charge exchange cross section measurements of the Xe2+ + N2 reaction as well as axial recoil velocity distributions of the Xe+ and N2 + product ions for collision energies between 0.3 and 100 eV in the center-of-mass (COM) frame. Total charge-exchange cross sections decrease from 70 Å2 to about 40 Å2 with increasing collision energy through this range. Analysis of the axial velocity distributions indicates that a Xe2+ - N2 complex exists at low collision energies but is absent by 17.6 eV COM. Analysis of the axial velocity distributions reveals evidence for complexes with lifetimes comparable to the rotational period at low collision energies. The velocity distributions are consistent with quasi-resonant single charge transfer at high collision energies.

  1. Integrated reactive ion etching to pattern cross-linked hydrophilic polymer structures for protein immobilization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhatnagar, Parijat; Strickland, Aaron D.; Kim, Il; Malliaras, George G.; Batt, Carl A.

    2007-04-01

    Patterning of cross-linked hydrophilic polymer features using reactive ion etching (RIE) capable of covalently immobilizing proteins has been achieved. Projection photolithography was used to pattern photoresist to create micromolds. Vapor phase molecular self-assembly of polymerizable monolayer in molds allowed covalent binding of hydrogel on surface during free-radical polymerization. Excess hydrogel blanket film was consumed with oxygen RIE resulting into hydrogel pattern of 1μm size aligned to prefabricated silicon oxide structures. Proteins were finally coupled through their primary amine groups selectively to acid functionalized hydrogel features through stable amide linkages using 1-ethyl-3-[3-dimethylaminopropyl]carbodiimide hydrochloride and N-hydroxysulfosuccinimide.

  2. Optomechanics for absolute rotation detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davuluri, Sankar

    2016-07-01

    In this article, we present an application of optomechanical cavity for the absolute rotation detection. The optomechanical cavity is arranged in a Michelson interferometer in such a way that the classical centrifugal force due to rotation changes the length of the optomechanical cavity. The change in the cavity length induces a shift in the frequency of the cavity mode. The phase shift corresponding to the frequency shift in the cavity mode is measured at the interferometer output to estimate the angular velocity of absolute rotation. We derived an analytic expression to estimate the minimum detectable rotation rate in our scheme for a given optomechanical cavity. Temperature dependence of the rotation detection sensitivity is studied.

  3. Moral absolutism and ectopic pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Kaczor, C

    2001-02-01

    If one accepts a version of absolutism that excludes the intentional killing of any innocent human person from conception to natural death, ectopic pregnancy poses vexing difficulties. Given that the embryonic life almost certainly will die anyway, how can one retain one's moral principle and yet adequately respond to a situation that gravely threatens the life of the mother and her future fertility? The four options of treatment most often discussed in the literature are non-intervention, salpingectomy (removal of tube with embryo), salpingostomy (removal of embryo alone), and use of methotrexate (MXT). In this essay, I review these four options and introduce a fifth (the milking technique). In order to assess these options in terms of the absolutism mentioned, it will also be necessary to discuss various accounts of the intention/foresight distinction. I conclude that salpingectomy, salpingostomy, and the milking technique are compatible with absolutist presuppositions, but not the use of methotrexate.

  4. Moral absolutism and ectopic pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Kaczor, C

    2001-02-01

    If one accepts a version of absolutism that excludes the intentional killing of any innocent human person from conception to natural death, ectopic pregnancy poses vexing difficulties. Given that the embryonic life almost certainly will die anyway, how can one retain one's moral principle and yet adequately respond to a situation that gravely threatens the life of the mother and her future fertility? The four options of treatment most often discussed in the literature are non-intervention, salpingectomy (removal of tube with embryo), salpingostomy (removal of embryo alone), and use of methotrexate (MXT). In this essay, I review these four options and introduce a fifth (the milking technique). In order to assess these options in terms of the absolutism mentioned, it will also be necessary to discuss various accounts of the intention/foresight distinction. I conclude that salpingectomy, salpingostomy, and the milking technique are compatible with absolutist presuppositions, but not the use of methotrexate. PMID:11262641

  5. The Absolute Spectrum Polarimeter (ASP)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kogut, A. J.

    2010-01-01

    The Absolute Spectrum Polarimeter (ASP) is an Explorer-class mission to map the absolute intensity and linear polarization of the cosmic microwave background and diffuse astrophysical foregrounds over the full sky from 30 GHz to 5 THz. The principal science goal is the detection and characterization of linear polarization from an inflationary epoch in the early universe, with tensor-to-scalar ratio r much greater than 1O(raised to the power of { -3}) and Compton distortion y < 10 (raised to the power of{-6}). We describe the ASP instrument and mission architecture needed to detect the signature of an inflationary epoch in the early universe using only 4 semiconductor bolometers.

  6. Classification images predict absolute efficiency.

    PubMed

    Murray, Richard F; Bennett, Patrick J; Sekuler, Allison B

    2005-02-24

    How well do classification images characterize human observers' strategies in perceptual tasks? We show mathematically that from the classification image of a noisy linear observer, it is possible to recover the observer's absolute efficiency. If we could similarly predict human observers' performance from their classification images, this would suggest that the linear model that underlies use of the classification image method is adequate over the small range of stimuli typically encountered in a classification image experiment, and that a classification image captures most important aspects of human observers' performance over this range. In a contrast discrimination task and in a shape discrimination task, we found that observers' absolute efficiencies were generally well predicted by their classification images, although consistently slightly (approximately 13%) higher than predicted. We consider whether a number of plausible nonlinearities can account for the slight under prediction, and of these we find that only a form of phase uncertainty can account for the discrepancy.

  7. Absolute calibration of optical flats

    DOEpatents

    Sommargren, Gary E.

    2005-04-05

    The invention uses the phase shifting diffraction interferometer (PSDI) to provide a true point-by-point measurement of absolute flatness over the surface of optical flats. Beams exiting the fiber optics in a PSDI have perfect spherical wavefronts. The measurement beam is reflected from the optical flat and passed through an auxiliary optic to then be combined with the reference beam on a CCD. The combined beams include phase errors due to both the optic under test and the auxiliary optic. Standard phase extraction algorithms are used to calculate this combined phase error. The optical flat is then removed from the system and the measurement fiber is moved to recombine the two beams. The newly combined beams include only the phase errors due to the auxiliary optic. When the second phase measurement is subtracted from the first phase measurement, the absolute phase error of the optical flat is obtained.

  8. Absolute quantum cutting efficiency of Tb{sup 3+}-Yb{sup 3+} co-doped glass

    SciTech Connect

    Duan, Qianqian; Qin, Feng; Zhang, Zhiguo; Zhao, Hua; Cao, Wenwu

    2013-12-07

    The absolute quantum cutting efficiency of Tb{sup 3+}-Yb{sup 3+} co-doped glass was quantitatively measured by an integrating sphere detection system, which is independent of the excitation power. As the Yb{sup 3+} concentration increases, the near infrared quantum efficiency exhibited an exponential growth with an upper limit of 13.5%, but the visible light efficiency was reduced rapidly. As a result, the total quantum efficiency monotonically decreases rather than increases as theory predicted. In fact, the absolute quantum efficiency was far less than the theoretical value due to the low radiative efficiency of Tb{sup 3+} (<61%) and significant cross-relaxation nonradiative loss between Yb{sup 3+} ions.

  9. Cross-border population movements and regional economic integration in Latin America.

    PubMed

    Kratochwil, K H

    1995-01-01

    This article, which is concerned with the area of international migration, examines some of the problems associated with the trend toward greater integration of the economies of Latin American countries. The geographic focus is on the member countries of the Southern Common Market (MERCOSUR) or the Andean Group. The author proposes a program of measures to control migration. The proposal attempts to incorporate the social dimension of migration as well as its economic aspects.

  10. The role of integral experiments and nuclear cross section evaluations in space nuclear reactor design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moses, David L.; McKnight, Richard D.

    The importance of the nuclear and neutronic properties of candidate space reactor materials to the design process has been acknowledged as has been the use of benchmark reactor physics experiments to verify and qualify analytical tools used in design, safety, and performance evaluation. Since June 1966, the Cross Section Evaluation Working Group (CSEWG) has acted as an interagency forum for the assessment and evaluation of nuclear reaction data used in the nuclear design process. CSEWG data testing has involved the specification and calculation of benchmark experiments which are used widely for commercial reactor design and safety analysis. These benchmark experiments preceded the issuance of the industry standards for acceptance, but the benchmarks exceed the minimum acceptance criteria for such data. Thus, a starting place has been provided in assuring the accuracy and uncertainty of nuclear data important to space reactor applications.

  11. A simple formula for the third integral of motion of disk-crossing stars in the galaxy

    SciTech Connect

    Vieira, Ronaldo S. S.; Ramos-Caro, Javier E-mail: javier@ufscar.br

    2014-05-01

    We present a simple analytical formula for an approximated third integral of motion associated with nearly equatorial orbits in the Galaxy: I{sub 3}=ZΣ{sub I}{sup 1/3}, where Z(R) is the vertical amplitude of the orbit at galactocentric distance R and Σ {sub I}(R) is the integrated dynamical surface mass density of the disk, a quantity which has recently become measurable. We also suggest that this relation is valid for disk-crossing orbits in a wide variety of axially symmetric galactic models, which range from razor-thin disks to disks with non-negligible thickness, whether or not the system includes bulges and halos. We apply our formalism to a Miyamoto-Nagai model and to a realistic model for the Milky Way. In both cases, the results provide fits for the shape of nearly equatorial orbits which are better than the corresponding curves obtained by the usual adiabatic approximation when the orbits have vertical amplitudes comparable to the disk's scale height. We also discuss the role of this approximate third integral of motion in modified theories of gravity.

  12. Electrophysiological correlates of cross-linguistic semantic integration in hearing signers: N400 and LPC.

    PubMed

    Zachau, Swantje; Korpilahti, Pirjo; Hämäläinen, Jarmo A; Ervast, Leena; Heinänen, Kaisu; Suominen, Kalervo; Lehtihalmes, Matti; Leppänen, Paavo H T

    2014-07-01

    We explored semantic integration mechanisms in native and non-native hearing users of sign language and non-signing controls. Event-related brain potentials (ERPs) were recorded while participants performed a semantic decision task for priming lexeme pairs. Pairs were presented either within speech or across speech and sign language. Target-related ERP responses were subjected to principal component analyses (PCA), and neurocognitive basis of semantic integration processes were assessed by analyzing the N400 and the late positive complex (LPC) components in response to spoken (auditory) and signed (visual) antonymic and unrelated targets. Semantically-related effects triggered across modalities would indicate a similar tight interconnection between the signers׳ two languages like that described for spoken language bilinguals. Remarkable structural similarity of the N400 and LPC components with varying group differences between the spoken and signed targets were found. The LPC was the dominant response. The controls׳ LPC differed from the LPC of the two signing groups. It was reduced to the auditory unrelated targets and was less frontal for all the visual targets. The visual LPC was more broadly distributed in native than non-native signers and was left-lateralized for the unrelated targets in the native hearing signers only. Semantic priming effects were found for the auditory N400 in all groups, but only native hearing signers revealed a clear N400 effect to the visual targets. Surprisingly, the non-native signers revealed no semantically-related processing effect to the visual targets reflected in the N400 or the LPC; instead they appeared to rely more on visual post-lexical analyzing stages than native signers. We conclude that native and non-native signers employed different processing strategies to integrate signed and spoken semantic content. It appeared that the signers׳ semantic processing system was affected by group-specific factors like language

  13. Evaluated Iridium, Yttrium, and Thulium Cross Sections and Integral Validation Against Critical Assembly and Bethe Sphere Measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Chadwick, M.B. Frankle, S.; Trellue, H.; Talou, P.; Kawano, T.; Young, P.G.; MacFarlane, R.E.; Wilkerson, C.W.

    2007-12-15

    We describe new dosimetry (radiochemical) ENDF evaluations for yttrium, iridium, and thulium. These LANL2006 evaluations were based upon measured data and on nuclear model cross section calculations. In the case of iridium and yttrium, new measurements using the GEANIE gamma-ray detector at LANSCE were used to infer (n,xn) cross sections, the measurements being augmented by nuclear model calculations using the GNASH code. The thulium isotope evaluations were based on GNASH calculations and older measurements. The evaluated cross section data are tested through comparisons of simulations with measurements of reaction rates in critical assemblies and in Bethe sphere (sometimes called Wyman sphere) integral experiments. Two types of Bethe sphere experiments were studied - a LiD experiment that had a significant component of 14 MeV neutrons, and a LiD-U experiment that additionally had varying amounts of fission neutrons depending upon the location. These simulations were performed with the MCNP code using continuous energy Monte Carlo, and because the neutron fluences can be modeled fairly accurately by MCNP at different locations in these assemblies, the comparisons provide a valuable validation test of the accuracy of the evaluated cross sections and their energy dependencies. The MCNP integral reaction rate validation testing for the three detectors yttrium, iridium, and thulium, in the LANL2006 database is summarized as follows: (1) (n,2n)near 14 MeV: In 14 MeV-dominated locations (the LiD Bethe spheres and the outer regions of the LiD-U Bethe spheres), the (n,2n) products are modeled very well for all three detectors, suggesting that the evaluated {sup 89}Y(n,2n), {sup 191}Ir(n,2n), and {sup 169}Tm(n,2n) cross sections are accurate to better than about 5% near 14 MeV; (2) (n,2n)near threshold: In locations that have a significant number of fission spectrum neutrons or downscattered neutrons from 14 MeV inelastic scattering (the central regions of the Li

  14. Imaginary time path integral Monte Carlo route to rate coefficients for nonadiabatic barrier crossing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wolynes, Peter G.

    1987-01-01

    Nonadiabatic transitions are central to many areas of chemical and condensed matter physics, ranging from biological electron transfer to the optical properties of one-dimensional conductors. Here, a path integral Monte Carlo method is used to simulate such transitions, based on the observation that nonadiabatic rate coefficients are often dominated by saddle point trajectories that correspond to an imaginary time. Simple analytic theories can be used to continue these imaginary time correlation functions to determine rate coefficients. The advantages and drawbacks of this approach are discussed.

  15. How do bilinguals handle interhemispheric integration? Evidence from a cross-language study.

    PubMed

    Ibrahim, Raphiq

    2009-12-01

    The focus on interhemispheric interaction and integration has become a prominent aspect of laterality research. The aim of the present behavioral study was to determine whether hemisphere advantage differs between language groups. This was done by comparing how hemisphere advantage affects interhemispheric integration in monolingual and in bilingual individuals. Sixty university students (20 English monolinguals, 20 Hebrew bilinguals, and 20 balanced Arabic bilinguals) participated in two experiments, in which a lexical decision task was performed in the left and/or right visual field. Stimuli were presented unilaterally and bilaterally, whereby participants were cued to respond to the stimuli. In Experiment 1, all three groups showed an effect of lexicality, that is, participants responded to word stimuli faster than to non-word stimuli, with the Hebrew and Arabic groups showing a word advantage in spotting errors. In addition, all groups except the Hebrew group showed the expected right visual field advantage in accuracy, and the English group demonstrated this advantage in reaction time as well. In Experiment 2, responses to non-word stimuli were equally accurate in the left and right visual fields, but reaction time were faster for stimuli presented in the left visual field. The performance of balanced bilingual Arabic and unbalanced bilingual Hebrew reading groups was significantly better in the bilateral condition than in the unilateral condition. The results supported the notion that bilingual individuals show more effective interhemispheric communication and that they enjoy relative superiority in their interhemispheric processing in response to task demands.

  16. Attentional selection in visual perception, memory and action: a quest for cross-domain integration

    PubMed Central

    Schneider, Werner X.; Einhäuser, Wolfgang; Horstmann, Gernot

    2013-01-01

    For decades, the cognitive and neural sciences have benefitted greatly from a separation of mind and brain into distinct functional domains. The tremendous success of this approach notwithstanding, it is self-evident that such a view is incomplete. Goal-directed behaviour of an organism requires the joint functioning of perception, memory and sensorimotor control. A prime candidate for achieving integration across these functional domains are attentional processes. Consequently, this Theme Issue brings together studies of attentional selection from many fields, both experimental and theoretical, that are united in their quest to find overreaching integrative principles of attention between perception, memory and action. In all domains, attention is understood as combination of competition and priority control (‘bias’), with the task as a decisive driving factor to ensure coherent goal-directed behaviour and cognition. Using vision as the predominant model system for attentional selection, many studies of this Theme Issue focus special emphasis on eye movements as a selection process that is both a fundamental action and serves a key function in perception. The Theme Issue spans a wide range of methods, from measuring human behaviour in the real word to recordings of single neurons in the non-human primate brain. We firmly believe that combining such a breadth in approaches is necessary not only for attentional selection, but also to take the next decisive step in all of the cognitive and neural sciences: to understand cognition and behaviour beyond isolated domains. PMID:24018715

  17. How do bilinguals handle interhemispheric integration? Evidence from a cross-language study.

    PubMed

    Ibrahim, Raphiq

    2009-12-01

    The focus on interhemispheric interaction and integration has become a prominent aspect of laterality research. The aim of the present behavioral study was to determine whether hemisphere advantage differs between language groups. This was done by comparing how hemisphere advantage affects interhemispheric integration in monolingual and in bilingual individuals. Sixty university students (20 English monolinguals, 20 Hebrew bilinguals, and 20 balanced Arabic bilinguals) participated in two experiments, in which a lexical decision task was performed in the left and/or right visual field. Stimuli were presented unilaterally and bilaterally, whereby participants were cued to respond to the stimuli. In Experiment 1, all three groups showed an effect of lexicality, that is, participants responded to word stimuli faster than to non-word stimuli, with the Hebrew and Arabic groups showing a word advantage in spotting errors. In addition, all groups except the Hebrew group showed the expected right visual field advantage in accuracy, and the English group demonstrated this advantage in reaction time as well. In Experiment 2, responses to non-word stimuli were equally accurate in the left and right visual fields, but reaction time were faster for stimuli presented in the left visual field. The performance of balanced bilingual Arabic and unbalanced bilingual Hebrew reading groups was significantly better in the bilateral condition than in the unilateral condition. The results supported the notion that bilingual individuals show more effective interhemispheric communication and that they enjoy relative superiority in their interhemispheric processing in response to task demands. PMID:20205301

  18. Absolute geostrophic currents in global tropical oceans

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Lina; Yuan, Dongliang

    2016-11-01

    A set of absolute geostrophic current (AGC) data for the period January 2004 to December 2012 are calculated using the P-vector method based on monthly gridded Argo profiles in the world tropical oceans. The AGCs agree well with altimeter geostrophic currents, Ocean Surface Current Analysis-Real time currents, and moored current-meter measurements at 10-m depth, based on which the classical Sverdrup circulation theory is evaluated. Calculations have shown that errors of wind stress calculation, AGC transport, and depth ranges of vertical integration cannot explain non-Sverdrup transport, which is mainly in the subtropical western ocean basins and equatorial currents near the Equator in each ocean basin (except the North Indian Ocean, where the circulation is dominated by monsoons). The identified non-Sverdrup transport is thereby robust and attributed to the joint effect of baroclinicity and relief of the bottom (JEBAR) and mesoscale eddy nonlinearity.

  19. Absolute calibration of remote sensing instruments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Biggar, S. F.; Bruegge, C. J.; Capron, B. A.; Castle, K. R.; Dinguirard, M. C.; Holm, R. G.; Lingg, L. J.; Mao, Y.; Palmer, J. M.; Phillips, A. L.

    1985-12-01

    Source-based and detector-based methods for the absolute radiometric calibration of a broadband field radiometer are described. Using such a radiometer, calibrated by both methods, the calibration of the integrating sphere used in the preflight calibration of the Thematic Mapper was redetermined. The results are presented. The in-flight calibration of space remote sensing instruments is discussed. A method which uses the results of ground-based reflectance and atmospheric measurements as input to a radiative transfer code to predict the radiance at the instrument is described. A calibrated, helicopter-mounted radiometer is used to determine the radiance levels at intermediate altitudes to check the code predictions. Results of such measurements for the calibration of the Thematic Mapper on Landsat 5 and an analysis that shows the value of such measurements are described.

  20. The AFGL absolute gravity program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hammond, J. A.; Iliff, R. L.

    1978-01-01

    A brief discussion of the AFGL's (Air Force Geophysics Laboratory) program in absolute gravity is presented. Support of outside work and in-house studies relating to gravity instrumentation are discussed. A description of the current transportable system is included and the latest results are presented. These results show good agreement with measurements at the AFGL site by an Italian system. The accuracy obtained by the transportable apparatus is better than 0.1 microns sq sec 10 microgal and agreement with previous measurements is within the combined uncertainties of the measurements.

  1. Familial Aggregation of Absolute Pitch

    PubMed Central

    Baharloo, Siamak; Service, Susan K.; Risch, Neil; Gitschier, Jane; Freimer, Nelson B.

    2000-01-01

    Absolute pitch (AP) is a behavioral trait that is defined as the ability to identify the pitch of tones in the absence of a reference pitch. AP is an ideal phenotype for investigation of gene and environment interactions in the development of complex human behaviors. Individuals who score exceptionally well on formalized auditory tests of pitch perception are designated as “AP-1.” As described in this report, auditory testing of siblings of AP-1 probands and of a control sample indicates that AP-1 aggregates in families. The implications of this finding for the mapping of loci for AP-1 predisposition are discussed. PMID:10924408

  2. Integrated monolithic 3D MEMS scanner for switchable real time vertical/horizontal cross-sectional imaging.

    PubMed

    Li, Haijun; Duan, Xiyu; Qiu, Zhen; Zhou, Quan; Kurabayashi, Katsuo; Oldham, Kenn R; Wang, Thomas D

    2016-02-01

    We present an integrated monolithic, electrostatic 3D MEMS scanner with a compact chip size of 3.2 × 2.9 mm(2). Use of parametric excitation near resonance frequencies produced large optical deflection angles up to ± 27° and ± 28.5° in the X- and Y-axes and displacements up to 510 μm in the Z-axis with low drive voltages at atmospheric pressure. When packaged in a dual axes confocal endomicroscope, horizontal and vertical cross-sectional images can be collected seamlessly in tissue with a large field-of-view of >1 × 1 mm(2) and 1 × 0.41 mm(2), respectively, at 5 frames/sec.

  3. Cross-linking of cellular proteins by tissue transglutaminase during necrotic cell death: a mechanism for maintaining tissue integrity.

    PubMed

    Nicholas, Ben; Smethurst, Peter; Verderio, Elisabetta; Jones, Richard; Griffin, Martin

    2003-04-15

    Tissue transglutaminase (tTG) is a Ca(2+)-dependent enzyme which cross-links proteins via epsilon(gamma-glutamyl)lysine bridges. There is increasing evidence that tTG is involved in wound repair and tissue stabilization, as well as in physiological mechanisms leading to cell death. To investigate the role of this enzyme in tissue wounding leading to loss of Ca(2+) homoeostasis, we initially used a model involving electroporation to reproduce cell wounding under controlled conditions. Two cell models were used whereby tTG expression is regulated either by antisense silencing in ECV 304 cells or by using transfected Swiss 3T3 cells in which tTG expression is under the control of the tet regulatory system. Using these cells, loss of Ca(2+) homoeostasis following electroporation led to a tTG-dependent formation of highly cross-linked proteinaceous shells from intracellular proteins. Formation of these structures is dependent on elevated intracellular Ca(2+), but it is independent of intracellular proteases and is near maximal after only 20 min post-wounding. Using labelled primary amines as an indicator of tTG activity within these 'wounded cells', we demonstrate that tTG modifies a wide range of proteins that are present in both the perinuclear and intranuclear spaces. The demonstration of entrapped DNA within these shell structures, which showed limited fragmentation, provides evidence that the high degree of transglutaminase cross-linking results in the prevention of DNA release, which may serve to dampen any subsequent inflammatory response. Comparable observations were shown when monolayers of cells were mechanically wounded by scratching. In this second model of cell wounding, redistribution of tTG activity to the extracellular matrix was also demonstrated, an effect which may serve to stabilize tissues post-trauma, and thus contribute to the maintenance of tissue integrity. PMID:12533191

  4. Cross-linking of cellular proteins by tissue transglutaminase during necrotic cell death: a mechanism for maintaining tissue integrity.

    PubMed

    Nicholas, Ben; Smethurst, Peter; Verderio, Elisabetta; Jones, Richard; Griffin, Martin

    2003-04-15

    Tissue transglutaminase (tTG) is a Ca(2+)-dependent enzyme which cross-links proteins via epsilon(gamma-glutamyl)lysine bridges. There is increasing evidence that tTG is involved in wound repair and tissue stabilization, as well as in physiological mechanisms leading to cell death. To investigate the role of this enzyme in tissue wounding leading to loss of Ca(2+) homoeostasis, we initially used a model involving electroporation to reproduce cell wounding under controlled conditions. Two cell models were used whereby tTG expression is regulated either by antisense silencing in ECV 304 cells or by using transfected Swiss 3T3 cells in which tTG expression is under the control of the tet regulatory system. Using these cells, loss of Ca(2+) homoeostasis following electroporation led to a tTG-dependent formation of highly cross-linked proteinaceous shells from intracellular proteins. Formation of these structures is dependent on elevated intracellular Ca(2+), but it is independent of intracellular proteases and is near maximal after only 20 min post-wounding. Using labelled primary amines as an indicator of tTG activity within these 'wounded cells', we demonstrate that tTG modifies a wide range of proteins that are present in both the perinuclear and intranuclear spaces. The demonstration of entrapped DNA within these shell structures, which showed limited fragmentation, provides evidence that the high degree of transglutaminase cross-linking results in the prevention of DNA release, which may serve to dampen any subsequent inflammatory response. Comparable observations were shown when monolayers of cells were mechanically wounded by scratching. In this second model of cell wounding, redistribution of tTG activity to the extracellular matrix was also demonstrated, an effect which may serve to stabilize tissues post-trauma, and thus contribute to the maintenance of tissue integrity.

  5. Are Sport-Specific Profiles of Tendon Stiffness and Cross-Sectional Area Determined by Structural or Functional Integrity?

    PubMed Central

    Rieder, Florian; Kösters, Alexander; Müller, Erich; Seynnes, Olivier R.

    2016-01-01

    The present study aimed to determine whether distinct sets of tendon properties are seen in athletes engaged in sports with contrasting requirements for tendon function and structural integrity. Patellar and Achilles tendon morphology and force-deformation relation were measured by combining ultrasonography, electromyography and dynamometry in elite ski jumpers, distance runners, water polo players and sedentary individuals. Tendon cross-sectional area normalized to body mass2/3 was smaller in water polo players than in other athletes (patellar and Achilles tendon; -28 to -24%) or controls (patellar tendon only; -9%). In contrast, the normalized cross-sectional area was larger in runners (patellar tendon only; +26%) and ski jumpers (patellar and Achilles tendon; +21% and +13%, respectively) than in controls. Tendon stiffness normalized to body mass2/3 only differed in ski jumpers, compared to controls (patellar and Achilles tendon; +11% and +27%, respectively) and to water polo players (Achilles tendon only; +23%). Tendon size appears as an adjusting variable to changes in loading volume and/or intensity, possibly to preserve ultimate strength or fatigue resistance. However, uncoupled morphological and mechanical properties indicate that functional requirements may also influence tendon adaptations. PMID:27362657

  6. Body integrity identity disorder crosses culture: case reports in the Japanese and Chinese literature.

    PubMed

    Blom, Rianne M; Vulink, Nienke C; van der Wal, Sija J; Nakamae, Takashi; Tan, Zhonglin; Derks, Eske M; Denys, Damiaan

    2016-01-01

    Body integrity identity disorder (BIID) is a condition in which people do not perceive a part of their body as their own, which results in a strong desire for amputation or paralyzation. The disorder is likely to be congenital due to its very early onset. The English literature describes only Western patients with BIID, suggesting that the disorder might be merely prevalent in the West. To scrutinize this assumption, and to extend our knowledge of the etiology of BIID, it is important to trace cases with BIID in non-Western populations. Our objective was to review Chinese and Japanese literature on BIID to learn about its presence in populations with a different genetic background. A systematic literature search was performed in databases containing Japanese and Chinese research, published in the respective languages. Five Japanese articles of BIID were identified which described two cases of BIID, whereas in the Chinese databases only BIID-related conditions were found. This article reports some preliminary evidence that BIID is also present in non-Western countries. However, making general statements about the biological background of the disorder is hampered by the extremely low number of cases found. This low number possibly resulted from the extreme secrecy associated with the disorder, perhaps even more so in Asian countries.

  7. Body integrity identity disorder crosses culture: case reports in the Japanese and Chinese literature.

    PubMed

    Blom, Rianne M; Vulink, Nienke C; van der Wal, Sija J; Nakamae, Takashi; Tan, Zhonglin; Derks, Eske M; Denys, Damiaan

    2016-01-01

    Body integrity identity disorder (BIID) is a condition in which people do not perceive a part of their body as their own, which results in a strong desire for amputation or paralyzation. The disorder is likely to be congenital due to its very early onset. The English literature describes only Western patients with BIID, suggesting that the disorder might be merely prevalent in the West. To scrutinize this assumption, and to extend our knowledge of the etiology of BIID, it is important to trace cases with BIID in non-Western populations. Our objective was to review Chinese and Japanese literature on BIID to learn about its presence in populations with a different genetic background. A systematic literature search was performed in databases containing Japanese and Chinese research, published in the respective languages. Five Japanese articles of BIID were identified which described two cases of BIID, whereas in the Chinese databases only BIID-related conditions were found. This article reports some preliminary evidence that BIID is also present in non-Western countries. However, making general statements about the biological background of the disorder is hampered by the extremely low number of cases found. This low number possibly resulted from the extreme secrecy associated with the disorder, perhaps even more so in Asian countries. PMID:27366074

  8. Signal integration by lipid-mediated spatial cross talk between Ras nanoclusters.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Yong; Liang, Hong; Rodkey, Travis; Ariotti, Nicholas; Parton, Robert G; Hancock, John F

    2014-03-01

    Lipid-anchored Ras GTPases form transient, spatially segregated nanoclusters on the plasma membrane that are essential for high-fidelity signal transmission. The lipid composition of Ras nanoclusters, however, has not previously been investigated. High-resolution spatial mapping shows that different Ras nanoclusters have distinct lipid compositions, indicating that Ras proteins engage in isoform-selective lipid sorting and accounting for different signal outputs from different Ras isoforms. Phosphatidylserine is a common constituent of all Ras nanoclusters but is only an obligate structural component of K-Ras nanoclusters. Segregation of K-Ras and H-Ras into spatially and compositionally distinct lipid assemblies is exquisitely sensitive to plasma membrane phosphatidylserine levels. Phosphatidylserine spatial organization is also modified by Ras nanocluster formation. In consequence, Ras nanoclusters engage in remote lipid-mediated communication, whereby activated H-Ras disrupts the assembly and operation of spatially segregated K-Ras nanoclusters. Computational modeling and experimentation reveal that complex effects of caveolin and cortical actin on Ras nanoclustering are similarly mediated through regulation of phosphatidylserine spatiotemporal dynamics. We conclude that phosphatidylserine maintains the lateral segregation of diverse lipid-based assemblies on the plasma membrane and that lateral connectivity between spatially remote lipid assemblies offers important previously unexplored opportunities for signal integration and signal processing.

  9. Body integrity identity disorder crosses culture: case reports in the Japanese and Chinese literature

    PubMed Central

    Blom, Rianne M; Vulink, Nienke C; van der Wal, Sija J; Nakamae, Takashi; Tan, Zhonglin; Derks, Eske M; Denys, Damiaan

    2016-01-01

    Body integrity identity disorder (BIID) is a condition in which people do not perceive a part of their body as their own, which results in a strong desire for amputation or paralyzation. The disorder is likely to be congenital due to its very early onset. The English literature describes only Western patients with BIID, suggesting that the disorder might be merely prevalent in the West. To scrutinize this assumption, and to extend our knowledge of the etiology of BIID, it is important to trace cases with BIID in non-Western populations. Our objective was to review Chinese and Japanese literature on BIID to learn about its presence in populations with a different genetic background. A systematic literature search was performed in databases containing Japanese and Chinese research, published in the respective languages. Five Japanese articles of BIID were identified which described two cases of BIID, whereas in the Chinese databases only BIID-related conditions were found. This article reports some preliminary evidence that BIID is also present in non-Western countries. However, making general statements about the biological background of the disorder is hampered by the extremely low number of cases found. This low number possibly resulted from the extreme secrecy associated with the disorder, perhaps even more so in Asian countries. PMID:27366074

  10. Experimentally verified inductance extraction and parameter study for superconductive integrated circuit wires crossing ground plane holes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fourie, Coenrad J.; Wetzstein, Olaf; Kunert, Juergen; Toepfer, Hannes; Meyer, Hans-Georg

    2013-01-01

    As the complexity of rapid single flux quantum (RSFQ) circuits increases, both current and power consumption of the circuits become important design criteria. Various new concepts such as inductive biasing for energy efficient RSFQ circuits and inductively coupled RSFQ cells for current recycling have been proposed to overcome increasingly severe design problems. Both of these techniques use ground plane holes to increase the inductance or coupling factor of superconducting integrated circuit wires. New design tools are consequently required to handle the new topographies. One important issue in such circuit design is the accurate calculation of networks of inductances even in the presence of finite holes in the ground plane. We show how a fast network extraction method using InductEx, which is a pre- and post-processor for the magnetoquasistatic field solver FastHenry, is used to calculate the inductances of a set of SQUIDs (superconducting quantum interference devices) with ground plane holes of different sizes. The results are compared to measurements of physical structures fabricated with the IPHT Jena 1 kA cm-2 RSFQ niobium process to verify accuracy. We then do a parameter study and derive empirical equations for fast and useful estimation of the inductance of wires surrounded by ground plane holes. We also investigate practical circuits and show excellent accuracy.

  11. Cross-validation of satellite products over France through their integration into a land surface model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Calvet, Jean-Christophe; Barbu, Alina; Carrer, Dominique; Meurey, Catherine

    2014-05-01

    Long (more than 30 years) time series of satellite-derived products over land are now available. They concern Essential Climate Variables (ECV) such as LAI, FAPAR, surface albedo, and soil moisture. The direct validation of such Climate Data Records (CDR) is not easy, as in situ observations are limited in space and time. Therefore, indirect validation has a key role. It consists in comparing the products with similar preexisting products derived from satellite observations or from land surface model (LSM) simulations. The most advanced indirect validation technique consists in integrating the products into a LSM using a data assimilation scheme. The obtained reanalysis accounts for the synergies of the various upstream products and provides statistics which can be used to monitor the quality of the assimilated observations. Meteo-France develops the ISBA-A-gs generic LSM able to represent the diurnal cycle of the surface fluxes together with the seasonal, interannual and decadal variability of the vegetation biomass. The LSM is embedded in the SURFEX modeling platform together with a simplified extended Kalman filter. These tools form a Land Data Assimilation System (LDAS). The current version of the LDAS assimilates SPOT-VGT LAI and ASCAT surface soil moisture (SSM) products over France (8km x 8km), and a passive monitoring of albedo, FAPAR and Land Surface temperature (LST) is performed (i.e., the simulated values are compared with the satellite products). The LDAS-France system is used in the European Copernicus Global Land Service (http://land.copernicus.eu/global/) to monitor the quality of upstream products. The LDAS generates statistics whose trends can be analyzed in order to detect possible drifts in the quality of the products: (1) for LAI and SSM, metrics derived from the active monitoring (i.e. assimilation) such as innovations (observations vs. model forecast), residuals (observations vs. analysis), and increments (analysis vs. model forecast) ; (2

  12. Cosmology with negative absolute temperatures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vieira, J. P. P.; Byrnes, Christian T.; Lewis, Antony

    2016-08-01

    Negative absolute temperatures (NAT) are an exotic thermodynamical consequence of quantum physics which has been known since the 1950's (having been achieved in the lab on a number of occasions). Recently, the work of Braun et al. [1] has rekindled interest in negative temperatures and hinted at a possibility of using NAT systems in the lab as dark energy analogues. This paper goes one step further, looking into the cosmological consequences of the existence of a NAT component in the Universe. NAT-dominated expanding Universes experience a borderline phantom expansion (w < ‑1) with no Big Rip, and their contracting counterparts are forced to bounce after the energy density becomes sufficiently large. Both scenarios might be used to solve horizon and flatness problems analogously to standard inflation and bouncing cosmologies. We discuss the difficulties in obtaining and ending a NAT-dominated epoch, and possible ways of obtaining density perturbations with an acceptable spectrum.

  13. Apparatus for absolute pressure measurement

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hecht, R. (Inventor)

    1969-01-01

    An absolute pressure sensor (e.g., the diaphragm of a capacitance manometer) was subjected to a superimposed potential to effectively reduce the mechanical stiffness of the sensor. This substantially increases the sensitivity of the sensor and is particularly useful in vacuum gauges. An oscillating component of the superimposed potential induced vibrations of the sensor. The phase of these vibrations with respect to that of the oscillating component was monitored, and served to initiate an automatic adjustment of the static component of the superimposed potential, so as to bring the sensor into resonance at the frequency of the oscillating component. This establishes a selected sensitivity for the sensor, since a definite relationship exists between resonant frequency and sensitivity.

  14. Cosmology with negative absolute temperatures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vieira, J. P. P.; Byrnes, Christian T.; Lewis, Antony

    2016-08-01

    Negative absolute temperatures (NAT) are an exotic thermodynamical consequence of quantum physics which has been known since the 1950's (having been achieved in the lab on a number of occasions). Recently, the work of Braun et al. [1] has rekindled interest in negative temperatures and hinted at a possibility of using NAT systems in the lab as dark energy analogues. This paper goes one step further, looking into the cosmological consequences of the existence of a NAT component in the Universe. NAT-dominated expanding Universes experience a borderline phantom expansion (w < -1) with no Big Rip, and their contracting counterparts are forced to bounce after the energy density becomes sufficiently large. Both scenarios might be used to solve horizon and flatness problems analogously to standard inflation and bouncing cosmologies. We discuss the difficulties in obtaining and ending a NAT-dominated epoch, and possible ways of obtaining density perturbations with an acceptable spectrum.

  15. Absolute wind measurements in the lower thermosphere of Venus using infrared heterodyne spectroscopy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goldstein, Jeffrey J.

    1990-01-01

    The first absolute wind velocities above the Venusian cloud-tops were obtained using NASA/Goddard infrared heterodyne spectrometers at the NASA Infrared Telescope Facility (IRTF) and the McMath Solar Telescope. Beam-integrated Doppler displacements in the non-thermal emission core of (12)C(16)O2 10.33 micron R(8) sampled the line of sight projection of the lower thermospheric wind field (100 to 120 km). A field-usable Lamb-dip laser stabilization system, developed for spectrometer absolute frequency calibration to less than + or - 0.1 MHz, allowed S/N-limited line of sight velocity resolution at the 1 m/s level. The spectrometer's diffraction-limited beam (1.7 arc-second HPBW at McMath, 0.9 arc-second HPBW at IRTF), and 1 to 2 arc-second seeing, provided the spatial resolution necessary for circulation model discrimination. Qualitative analysis of beam-integrated winds provided definitive evidence of a dominant subsolar-antisolar circulation in the lower thermosphere. Beam-integrated winds were modelled with a 100x100 grid over the beam, incorporating beam spatial rolloff and across-the-beam gradients in non-thermal emission intensity, line of sight projection geometry, and horizontal wind velocity. Horizontal wind velocity was derived from a 2-parameter model wind field comprised of subsolar-antisolar and zonal components. Best-fit models indicated a dominant subsolar-antisolar flow with 120 m/s cross-terminator winds and a retrograde zonal component with a 25 m/s equatorial velocity. A review of all dynamical indicators above the cloud-tops allowed development of an integrated and self-consistent picture of circulation in the 70 to 200 km range.

  16. Absolute irradiance of the Moon for on-orbit calibration

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stone, T.C.; Kieffer, H.H.; ,

    2002-01-01

    The recognized need for on-orbit calibration of remote sensing imaging instruments drives the ROLO project effort to characterize the Moon for use as an absolute radiance source. For over 5 years the ground-based ROLO telescopes have acquired spatially-resolved lunar images in 23 VNIR (Moon diameter ???500 pixels) and 9 SWIR (???250 pixels) passbands at phase angles within ??90 degrees. A numerical model for lunar irradiance has been developed which fits hundreds of ROLO images in each band, corrected for atmospheric extinction and calibrated to absolute radiance, then integrated to irradiance. The band-coupled extinction algorithm uses absorption spectra of several gases and aerosols derived from MODTRAN to fit time-dependent component abundances to nightly observations of standard stars. The absolute radiance scale is based upon independent telescopic measurements of the star Vega. The fitting process yields uncertainties in lunar relative irradiance over small ranges of phase angle and the full range of lunar libration well under 0.5%. A larger source of uncertainty enters in the absolute solar spectral irradiance, especially in the SWIR, where solar models disagree by up to 6%. Results of ROLO model direct comparisons to spacecraft observations demonstrate the ability of the technique to track sensor responsivity drifts to sub-percent precision. Intercomparisons among instruments provide key insights into both calibration issues and the absolute scale for lunar irradiance.

  17. Absolute optical oscillator strengths for the electronic excitation of atoms at high resolution: Experimental methods and measurements for helium

    SciTech Connect

    Chan, W.F.; Cooper, G.; Brion, C.E. )

    1991-07-01

    An alternative method is described for the measurement of absolute optical oscillator strengths (cross sections) for electronic excitation of free atoms and molecules throughout the discrete region of the valence-shell spectrum at high energy resolution (full width at half maximum of 0.048 eV). The technique, utilizing the virtual-photon field of a fast electron inelastically scattered at negligible momentum transfer, avoids many of the difficulties associated with the various direct optical techniques that have traditionally been used for absolute optical oscillator strength measurements. The method is also free of the bandwidth (line saturation) effects that can seriously limit the accuracy of photoabsorption cross-section measurements for discrete transitions of narrow linewidth obtained using the Beer-Lambert law ({ital I}{sub 0}/{ital I}=exp({ital nl}{sigma}{sub {ital p}})). Since the line-saturation effects are not widely appreciated and are only usually considered in the context of peak heights, a detailed analysis of this problem is presented, with consideration of the integrated cross section (oscillator strength) over the profile of each discrete peak.

  18. Differential and integral cross sections for the rotationally inelastic scattering of methyl radicals with H2 and D2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tkáč, Ondřej; Ma, Qianli; Rusher, Cassandra A.; Greaves, Stuart J.; Orr-Ewing, Andrew J.; Dagdigian, Paul J.

    2014-05-01

    Comparisons are presented of experimental and theoretical studies of the rotationally inelastic scattering of CD3 radicals with H2 and D2 collision partners at respective collision energies of 680 ± 75 and 640 ± 60 cm-1. Close-coupling quantum-mechanical calculations performed using a newly constructed ab initio potential energy surface (PES) provide initial-to-final CD3 rotational level (n, k → n', k') integral and differential cross sections (ICSs and DCSs). The DCSs are compared with crossed molecular beam and velocity map imaging measurements of angular scattering distributions, which serve as a critical test of the accuracy of the new PES. In general, there is very good agreement between the experimental measurements and the calculations. The DCSs for CD3 scattering from both H2 and D2 peak in the forward hemisphere for n' = 2-4 and shift more to sideways and backward scattering for n' = 5. For n' = 6-8, the DCSs are dominated by backward scattering. DCSs for a particular CD3 n → n' transition have a similar angular dependence with either D2 or H2 as collision partner. Any differences between DCSs or ICSs can be attributed to mass effects because the PES is unchanged for CD3-H2 and CD3-D2 collisions. Further comparisons are drawn between the CD3-D2 scattering and results for CD3-He presented in our recent paper [O. Tkáč, A. G. Sage, S. J. Greaves, A. J. Orr-Ewing, P. J. Dagdigian, Q. Ma, and M. H. Alexander, Chem. Sci. 4, 4199 (2013)]. These systems have the same reduced mass, but are governed by different PESs.

  19. On the absolute alignment of GONG images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Toner, C. G.

    2001-01-01

    In order to combine data from the six instruments in the GONG network the alignment of all of the images must be known to a fairly high precision (~0°.1 for GONG Classic and ~0°.01 for GONG+). The relative orientation is obtained using the angular cross-correlation method described by (Toner & Harvey, 1998). To obtain the absolute orientation the Project periodically records a day of drift scans, where the image of the Sun is allowed to drift across the CCD repeatedly throughout the day. These data are then analyzed to deduce the direction of Terrestrial East-West as a function of hour angle (i.e., time) for that instrument. The transit of Mercury on Nov. 15, 1999, which was recorded by three of the GONG instruments, provided an independent check on the current alignment procedures. Here we present a comparison of the alignment of GONG images as deduced from both drift scans and the Mercury transit for two GONG sites: Tucson (GONG+ camera) and Mauna Loa (GONG Classic camera). The agreement is within ~0°.01 for both cameras, however, the scatter is substantially larger for GONG Classic: ~0°.03 compared to ~0°.01 for GONG+.

  20. Integrated Stable Isotope Labeling by Amino Acids in Cell Culture (SILAC) and Isobaric Tags for Relative and Absolute Quantitation (iTRAQ) Quantitative Proteomic Analysis Identifies Galectin-1 as a Potential Biomarker for Predicting Sorafenib Resistance in Liver Cancer.

    PubMed

    Yeh, Chao-Chi; Hsu, Chih-Hung; Shao, Yu-Yun; Ho, Wen-Ching; Tsai, Mong-Hsun; Feng, Wen-Chi; Chow, Lu-Ping

    2015-06-01

    Sorafenib has become the standard therapy for patients with advanced hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Unfortunately, most patients eventually develop acquired resistance. Therefore, it is important to identify potential biomarkers that could predict the efficacy of sorafenib. To identify target proteins associated with the development of sorafenib resistance, we applied stable isotope labelling with amino acids in cell culture (SILAC)-based quantitative proteomic approach to analyze differences in protein expression levels between parental HuH-7 and sorafenib-acquired resistance HuH-7 (HuH-7(R)) cells in vitro, combined with an isobaric tags for relative and absolute quantitation (iTRAQ) quantitative analysis of HuH-7 and HuH-7(R) tumors in vivo. In total, 2,450 quantified proteins were identified in common in SILAC and iTRAQ experiments, with 81 showing increased expression (>2.0-fold) with sorafenib resistance and 75 showing decreased expression (<0.5-fold). In silico analyses of these differentially expressed proteins predicted that 10 proteins were related to cancer with involvements in cell adhesion, migration, and invasion. Knockdown of one of these candidate proteins, galectin-1, decreased cell proliferation and metastasis in HuH-7(R) cells and restored sensitivity to sorafenib. We verified galectin-1 as a predictive marker of sorafenib resistance and a downstream target of the AKT/mTOR/HIF-1α signaling pathway. In addition, increased galectin-1 expression in HCC patients' serum was associated with poor tumor control and low response rate. We also found that a high serum galectin-1 level was an independent factor associated with poor progression-free survival and overall survival. In conclusion, these results suggest that galectin-1 is a possible biomarker for predicting the response of HCC patients to treatment with sorafenib. As such, it may assist in the stratification of HCC and help direct personalized therapy.

  1. Integrated Stable Isotope Labeling by Amino Acids in Cell Culture (SILAC) and Isobaric Tags for Relative and Absolute Quantitation (iTRAQ) Quantitative Proteomic Analysis Identifies Galectin-1 as a Potential Biomarker for Predicting Sorafenib Resistance in Liver Cancer*

    PubMed Central

    Yeh, Chao-Chi; Hsu, Chih-Hung; Shao, Yu-Yun; Ho, Wen-Ching; Tsai, Mong-Hsun; Feng, Wen-Chi; Chow, Lu-Ping

    2015-01-01

    Sorafenib has become the standard therapy for patients with advanced hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Unfortunately, most patients eventually develop acquired resistance. Therefore, it is important to identify potential biomarkers that could predict the efficacy of sorafenib. To identify target proteins associated with the development of sorafenib resistance, we applied stable isotope labelling with amino acids in cell culture (SILAC)-based quantitative proteomic approach to analyze differences in protein expression levels between parental HuH-7 and sorafenib-acquired resistance HuH-7 (HuH-7R) cells in vitro, combined with an isobaric tags for relative and absolute quantitation (iTRAQ) quantitative analysis of HuH-7 and HuH-7R tumors in vivo. In total, 2,450 quantified proteins were identified in common in SILAC and iTRAQ experiments, with 81 showing increased expression (>2.0-fold) with sorafenib resistance and 75 showing decreased expression (<0.5-fold). In silico analyses of these differentially expressed proteins predicted that 10 proteins were related to cancer with involvements in cell adhesion, migration, and invasion. Knockdown of one of these candidate proteins, galectin-1, decreased cell proliferation and metastasis in HuH-7R cells and restored sensitivity to sorafenib. We verified galectin-1 as a predictive marker of sorafenib resistance and a downstream target of the AKT/mTOR/HIF-1α signaling pathway. In addition, increased galectin-1 expression in HCC patients' serum was associated with poor tumor control and low response rate. We also found that a high serum galectin-1 level was an independent factor associated with poor progression-free survival and overall survival. In conclusion, these results suggest that galectin-1 is a possible biomarker for predicting the response of HCC patients to treatment with sorafenib. As such, it may assist in the stratification of HCC and help direct personalized therapy. PMID:25850433

  2. Resonance charge transfer, transport cross sections, and collision integrals for N(+)(3P)-N(4S0) and O(+)(4S0)-O(3P) interactions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stallcop, James R.; Partridge, Harry; Levin, Eugene

    1991-01-01

    N2(+) and O2(+) potential energy curves have been constructed by combining measured data with the results from electronic structure calculations. These potential curves have been employed to determine accurate charge exchange cross sections, transport cross sections, and collision integrals for ground state N(+)-N and O(+)-O interactions. The cross sections have been calculated from a semiclassical approximation to the scattering using a computer code that fits a spline curve through the discrete potential data and incorporates the proper long-range behavior of the interactions forces. The collision integrals are tabulated for a broad range of temperatures 250-100,000 K and are intended to reduce the uncertainty in the values of the transport properties of nonequilibrium air, particularly at high temperatures.

  3. Absolute configuration of isovouacapenol C

    PubMed Central

    Fun, Hoong-Kun; Yodsaoue, Orapun; Karalai, Chatchanok; Chantrapromma, Suchada

    2010-01-01

    The title compound, C27H34O5 {systematic name: (4aR,5R,6R,6aS,7R,11aS,11bR)-4a,6-dihy­droxy-4,4,7,11b-tetra­methyl-1,2,3,4,4a,5,6,6a,7,11,11a,11b-dodeca­hydro­phenanthro[3,2-b]furan-5-yl benzoate}, is a cassane furan­oditerpene, which was isolated from the roots of Caesalpinia pulcherrima. The three cyclo­hexane rings are trans fused: two of these are in chair conformations with the third in a twisted half-chair conformation, whereas the furan ring is almost planar (r.m.s. deviation = 0.003 Å). An intra­molecular C—H⋯O inter­action generates an S(6) ring. The absolute configurations of the stereogenic centres at positions 4a, 5, 6, 6a, 7, 11a and 11b are R, R, R, S, R, S and R, respectively. In the crystal, mol­ecules are linked into infinite chains along [010] by O—H⋯O hydrogen bonds. C⋯O [3.306 (2)–3.347 (2) Å] short contacts and C—H⋯π inter­actions also occur. PMID:21588364

  4. The enhanced locating performance of an integrated cross-correlation and genetic algorithm for radio monitoring systems.

    PubMed

    Chang, Yao-Tang; Wu, Chi-Lin; Cheng, Hsu-Chih

    2014-01-01

    The rapid development of wireless broadband communication technology has affected the location accuracy of worldwide radio monitoring stations that employ time-difference-of-arrival (TDOA) location technology. In this study, TDOA-based location technology was implemented in Taiwan for the first time according to International Telecommunications Union Radiocommunication (ITU-R) recommendations regarding monitoring and location applications. To improve location accuracy, various scenarios, such as a three-dimensional environment (considering an unequal locating antenna configuration), were investigated. Subsequently, the proposed integrated cross-correlation and genetic algorithm was evaluated in the metropolitan area of Tainan. The results indicated that the location accuracy at a circular error probability of 50% was less than 60 m when a multipath effect was present in the area. Moreover, compared with hyperbolic algorithms that have been applied in conventional TDOA-based location systems, the proposed algorithm yielded 17-fold and 19-fold improvements in the mean difference when the location position of the interference station was favorable and unfavorable, respectively. Hence, the various forms of radio interference, such as low transmission power, burst and weak signals, and metropolitan interference, was proved to be easily identified, located, and removed. PMID:24763254

  5. The Enhanced Locating Performance of an Integrated Cross-Correlation and Genetic Algorithm for Radio Monitoring Systems

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Yao-Tang; Wu, Chi-Lin; Cheng, Hsu-Chih

    2014-01-01

    The rapid development of wireless broadband communication technology has affected the location accuracy of worldwide radio monitoring stations that employ time-difference-of-arrival (TDOA) location technology. In this study, TDOA-based location technology was implemented in Taiwan for the first time according to International Telecommunications Union Radiocommunication (ITU-R) recommendations regarding monitoring and location applications. To improve location accuracy, various scenarios, such as a three-dimensional environment (considering an unequal locating antenna configuration), were investigated. Subsequently, the proposed integrated cross-correlation and genetic algorithm was evaluated in the metropolitan area of Tainan. The results indicated that the location accuracy at a circular error probability of 50% was less than 60 m when a multipath effect was present in the area. Moreover, compared with hyperbolic algorithms that have been applied in conventional TDOA-based location systems, the proposed algorithm yielded 17-fold and 19-fold improvements in the mean difference when the location position of the interference station was favorable and unfavorable, respectively. Hence, the various forms of radio interference, such as low transmission power, burst and weak signals, and metropolitan interference, was proved to be easily identified, located, and removed. PMID:24763254

  6. Feedback control system simulator for the control of biological cells in microfluidic cross slots and integrated microfluidic systems.

    PubMed

    Curtis, Michael D; Sheard, Gregory J; Fouras, Andreas

    2011-07-21

    Control systems for lab on chip devices require careful characterisation and design for optimal performance. Traditionally, this involves either extremely computationally expensive simulations or lengthy iteration of laboratory experiments, prototype design, and manufacture. In this paper, an efficient control simulation technique, valid for typical microchannels, Computed Interpolated Flow Hydrodynamics (CIFH), is described that is over 500 times faster than conventional time integration techniques. CIFH is a hybrid approach, utilising a combination of pre-computed flows and hydrodynamic equations and allows the efficient simulation of dynamic control systems for the transport of cells through micro-fluidic devices. The speed-ups achieved by using pre-computed CFD solutions mapped to an n-dimensional control parameter space, significantly accelerate the evaluation and improvement of control strategies and chip design. Here, control strategies for a naturally unstable device geometry, the microfluidic cross-slot, have been simulated and optimal parameters have been found for proposed devices capable of trapping and sorting cells. PMID:21611664

  7. Integrated geology and preliminary cross section along the north ramp of the Exploratory Studies Facility, Yucca Mountain

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Buesch, D.C.; Dickerson, R.P.; Drake, R.M.; Spengler, R.W.

    1994-01-01

    The Exploratory Studies Facility is a major part of the site characterization activities at Yucca Mountain, Nevada, and the north ramp is the first phase of construction. The N61W trending north ramp will transect the Bow Ridge and Drill Hole Wash faults and numerous minor faults, and traverses two thick welded tuffs and several nonwelded tuff units. A preliminary cross section along the north ramp was created by integration of geologic map relations, lithostratigraphic data from core collected from boreholes, and surface and borehole geophysical data. The Bow Ridge fault is a west-dipping normal fault with about 410 feet of dip-slip separation. East-dipping strata in the hanging wall adjacent to the fault is contrary to early structural interpretations. West of the Bow Ridge fault the ramp might traverse about 220??65 feet of nonlithified tuffaceous material. Geometry of the Drill Hole Wash fault is not known, but is modeled in part as two strands that juxtapose different thicknesses and facies of formations with a complex sense of movement.

  8. Excitation cross sections for krypton by electrons in the 15-100-eV impact-energy range

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Trajmar, S.; Srivastava, S. K.; Tanaka, H.; Nishimura, H.; Cartwright, D. C.

    1981-01-01

    Differential, integral, and momentum-transfer cross sections have been determined for the excitation of the 24 lowest electronic states of Kr (some of the transitions are unresolved). The inelastic-scattering cross sections were normalized to the absolute scale with the help of the elastic-scattering differential cross sections (DCS's) which in turn were normalized with respect to absolute He DCS's. The impact energies were 15, 20, 30, 50, and 100 eV and the DCS's were obtained over the range of 5-135 deg scattering angles. The error limits associated with the differential, integral, and momentum-transfer cross sections have been estimated at 25%, 38%, and 46%, respectively.

  9. Frequency-domain analysis of absolute gravimeters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Svitlov, S.

    2012-12-01

    An absolute gravimeter is analysed as a linear time-invariant system in the frequency domain. Frequency responses of absolute gravimeters are derived analytically based on the propagation of the complex exponential signal through their linear measurement functions. Depending on the model of motion and the number of time-distance coordinates, an absolute gravimeter is considered as a second-order (three-level scheme) or third-order (multiple-level scheme) low-pass filter. It is shown that the behaviour of an atom absolute gravimeter in the frequency domain corresponds to that of the three-level corner-cube absolute gravimeter. Theoretical results are applied for evaluation of random and systematic measurement errors and optimization of an experiment. The developed theory agrees with known results of an absolute gravimeter analysis in the time and frequency domains and can be used for measurement uncertainty analyses, building of vibration-isolation systems and synthesis of digital filtering algorithms.

  10. Absolute instability from linear conversion of counter-propagating positive and negative energy waves

    SciTech Connect

    Kaufman, A.N.; Brizard, A.J.; Morehead, J.J.; Tracy, E.R.

    1997-12-31

    The resonant interaction of a negative-energy wave with a positive-energy wave gives rise to a linear instability. Whereas a single crossing of rays in a nonuniform medium leads to a convectively saturated instability, we show that a double crossing can yield an absolute instability.

  11. An Absolute Measurement of Resonance-Resolved Electron Impact Excitation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reisenfeld, Daniel Brett

    1998-11-01

    An experiment to measure electron-impact excitation (EIE) of multiply-charged ions is described. An absolute measurement has been carried out of the cross section for EIE of Si2+(3s2/ 1S/to3s3p/ 1P) from energies below threshold to 11 eV above. A beams modulation technique with inclined electron and ion beams was used. Radiation at 120.7 nm from the excited ions was detected using an absolutely calibrated optical system. The analysis of the experimental data requires a determination of the population fraction of the Si2+ (3s3p/ 3Po) metastable state in the incident ion beam, which was measured to be 0.210 ± 0.018. The data have been corrected for contributions to the signal from radiative decay following excitation from the metastable state to 3s3p1P and 3p2/ 3P, and excitation of the ground state to levels above 3s3p/ 1P. The experimental 0.56 ± 0.08 eV energy spread has allowed us to resolve complex resonance structure throughout the studied energy range. At the reported ±14% uncertainty level (90% confidence limit), the measured structure and absolute scale of the cross section are in good agreement with 12-state close-coupling R-matrix calculations.

  12. Cross-modal integration in the brain is related to phonological awareness only in typical readers, not in those with reading difficulty

    PubMed Central

    McNorgan, Chris; Randazzo-Wagner, Melissa; Booth, James R.

    2013-01-01

    Fluent reading requires successfully mapping between visual orthographic and auditory phonological representations and is thus an intrinsically cross-modal process, though reading difficulty has often been characterized as a phonological deficit. However, recent evidence suggests that orthographic information influences phonological processing in typical developing (TD) readers, but that this effect may be blunted in those with reading difficulty (RD), suggesting that the core deficit underlying reading difficulties may be a failure to integrate orthographic and phonological information. Twenty-six (13 TD and 13 RD) children between 8 and 13 years of age participated in a functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) experiment designed to assess the role of phonemic awareness in cross-modal processing. Participants completed a rhyme judgment task for word pairs presented unimodally (auditory only) and cross-modally (auditory followed by visual). For typically developing children, correlations between elision and neural activation were found for the cross-modal but not unimodal task, whereas in children with RD, no correlation was found. The results suggest that elision taps both phonemic awareness and cross-modal integration in typically developing readers, and that these processes are decoupled in children with reading difficulty. PMID:23888137

  13. Electron collisions with phenol: Total, integral, differential, and momentum transfer cross sections and the role of multichannel coupling effects on the elastic channel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    da Costa, Romarly F.; de Oliveira, Eliane M.; Bettega, Márcio H. F.; Varella, Márcio T. do N.; Jones, Darryl B.; Brunger, Michael J.; Blanco, Francisco; Colmenares, Rafael; Limão-Vieira, Paulo; García, Gustavo; Lima, Marco A. P.

    2015-03-01

    We report theoretical and experimental total cross sections for electron scattering by phenol (C6H5OH). The experimental data were obtained with an apparatus based in Madrid and the calculated cross sections with two different methodologies, the independent atom method with screening corrected additivity rule (IAM-SCAR), and the Schwinger multichannel method with pseudopotentials (SMCPP). The SMCPP method in the Nopen-channel coupling scheme, at the static-exchange-plus-polarization approximation, is employed to calculate the scattering amplitudes at impact energies ranging from 5.0 eV to 50 eV. We discuss the multichannel coupling effects in the calculated cross sections, in particular how the number of excited states included in the open-channel space impacts upon the convergence of the elastic cross sections at higher collision energies. The IAM-SCAR approach was also used to obtain the elastic differential cross sections (DCSs) and for correcting the experimental total cross sections for the so-called forward angle scattering effect. We found a very good agreement between our SMCPP theoretical differential, integral, and momentum transfer cross sections and experimental data for benzene (a molecule differing from phenol by replacing a hydrogen atom in benzene with a hydroxyl group). Although some discrepancies were found for lower energies, the agreement between the SMCPP data and the DCSs obtained with the IAM-SCAR method improves, as expected, as the impact energy increases. We also have a good agreement among the present SMCPP calculated total cross section (which includes elastic, 32 inelastic electronic excitation processes and ionization contributions, the latter estimated with the binary-encounter-Bethe model), the IAM-SCAR total cross section, and the experimental data when the latter is corrected for the forward angle scattering effect [Fuss et al., Phys. Rev. A 88, 042702 (2013)].

  14. Electron collisions with phenol: Total, integral, differential, and momentum transfer cross sections and the role of multichannel coupling effects on the elastic channel

    SciTech Connect

    Costa, Romarly F. da; Oliveira, Eliane M. de; Lima, Marco A. P.; Bettega, Márcio H. F.; Varella, Márcio T. do N.; Jones, Darryl B.; Brunger, Michael J.; Blanco, Francisco; Colmenares, Rafael; and others

    2015-03-14

    We report theoretical and experimental total cross sections for electron scattering by phenol (C{sub 6}H{sub 5}OH). The experimental data were obtained with an apparatus based in Madrid and the calculated cross sections with two different methodologies, the independent atom method with screening corrected additivity rule (IAM-SCAR), and the Schwinger multichannel method with pseudopotentials (SMCPP). The SMCPP method in the N{sub open}-channel coupling scheme, at the static-exchange-plus-polarization approximation, is employed to calculate the scattering amplitudes at impact energies ranging from 5.0 eV to 50 eV. We discuss the multichannel coupling effects in the calculated cross sections, in particular how the number of excited states included in the open-channel space impacts upon the convergence of the elastic cross sections at higher collision energies. The IAM-SCAR approach was also used to obtain the elastic differential cross sections (DCSs) and for correcting the experimental total cross sections for the so-called forward angle scattering effect. We found a very good agreement between our SMCPP theoretical differential, integral, and momentum transfer cross sections and experimental data for benzene (a molecule differing from phenol by replacing a hydrogen atom in benzene with a hydroxyl group). Although some discrepancies were found for lower energies, the agreement between the SMCPP data and the DCSs obtained with the IAM-SCAR method improves, as expected, as the impact energy increases. We also have a good agreement among the present SMCPP calculated total cross section (which includes elastic, 32 inelastic electronic excitation processes and ionization contributions, the latter estimated with the binary-encounter-Bethe model), the IAM-SCAR total cross section, and the experimental data when the latter is corrected for the forward angle scattering effect [Fuss et al., Phys. Rev. A 88, 042702 (2013)].

  15. Absolute Income, Relative Income, and Happiness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ball, Richard; Chernova, Kateryna

    2008-01-01

    This paper uses data from the World Values Survey to investigate how an individual's self-reported happiness is related to (i) the level of her income in absolute terms, and (ii) the level of her income relative to other people in her country. The main findings are that (i) both absolute and relative income are positively and significantly…

  16. Investigating Absolute Value: A Real World Application

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kidd, Margaret; Pagni, David

    2009-01-01

    Making connections between various representations is important in mathematics. In this article, the authors discuss the numeric, algebraic, and graphical representations of sums of absolute values of linear functions. The initial explanations are accessible to all students who have experience graphing and who understand that absolute value simply…

  17. Preschoolers' Success at Coding Absolute Size Values.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Russell, James

    1980-01-01

    Forty-five 2-year-old and forty-five 3-year-old children coded relative and absolute sizes using 1.5-inch, 6-inch, and 18-inch cardboard squares. Results indicate that absolute coding is possible for children of this age. (Author/RH)

  18. Introducing the Mean Absolute Deviation "Effect" Size

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gorard, Stephen

    2015-01-01

    This paper revisits the use of effect sizes in the analysis of experimental and similar results, and reminds readers of the relative advantages of the mean absolute deviation as a measure of variation, as opposed to the more complex standard deviation. The mean absolute deviation is easier to use and understand, and more tolerant of extreme…

  19. Estimating the absolute wealth of households

    PubMed Central

    Gerkey, Drew; Hadley, Craig

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Objective To estimate the absolute wealth of households using data from demographic and health surveys. Methods We developed a new metric, the absolute wealth estimate, based on the rank of each surveyed household according to its material assets and the assumed shape of the distribution of wealth among surveyed households. Using data from 156 demographic and health surveys in 66 countries, we calculated absolute wealth estimates for households. We validated the method by comparing the proportion of households defined as poor using our estimates with published World Bank poverty headcounts. We also compared the accuracy of absolute versus relative wealth estimates for the prediction of anthropometric measures. Findings The median absolute wealth estimates of 1 403 186 households were 2056 international dollars per capita (interquartile range: 723–6103). The proportion of poor households based on absolute wealth estimates were strongly correlated with World Bank estimates of populations living on less than 2.00 United States dollars per capita per day (R2 = 0.84). Absolute wealth estimates were better predictors of anthropometric measures than relative wealth indexes. Conclusion Absolute wealth estimates provide new opportunities for comparative research to assess the effects of economic resources on health and human capital, as well as the long-term health consequences of economic change and inequality. PMID:26170506

  20. Absolute optical metrology : nanometers to kilometers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dubovitsky, Serge; Lay, O. P.; Peters, R. D.; Liebe, C. C.

    2005-01-01

    We provide and overview of the developments in the field of high-accuracy absolute optical metrology with emphasis on space-based applications. Specific work on the Modulation Sideband Technology for Absolute Ranging (MSTAR) sensor is described along with novel applications of the sensor.

  1. Assessing the Quality of Care for Pneumonia in Integrated Community Case Management: A Cross-Sectional Mixed Methods Study

    PubMed Central

    Sinyangwe, Chomba; Graham, Kirstie; Nicholas, Sarala; King, Rebecca; Mukupa, Samuel; Källander, Karin; Counihan, Helen; Montague, Mark; Tibenderana, James; Hamade, Prudence

    2016-01-01

    Background Pneumonia is the leading infectious cause of mortality in children under five worldwide. Community-level interventions, such as integrated community case management, have great potential to reduce the burden of pneumonia, as well as other diseases, especially in remote populations. However, there are still questions as to whether community health workers (CHW) are able to accurately assess symptoms of pneumonia and prescribe appropriate treatment. This research addresses limitations of previous studies using innovative methodology to assess the accuracy of respiratory rate measurement by CHWs and provides new evidence on the quality of care given for children with symptoms of pneumonia. It is one of few that assesses CHW performance in their usual setting, with independent re-examination by experts, following a considerable period of time post-training of CHWs. Methods In this cross-sectional mixed methods study, 1,497 CHW consultations, conducted by 90 CHWs in two districts of Luapula province, Zambia, were directly observed, with measurement of respiratory rate for children with suspected pneumonia recorded by video. Using the video footage, a retrospective reference standard assessment of respiratory rate was conducted by experts. Counts taken by CHWs were compared against the reference standard and appropriateness of the treatment prescribed by CHWs was assessed. To supplement observational findings, three focus group discussions and nine in depth interviews with CHWs were conducted. Results and Conclusion The findings support existing literature that CHWs are capable of measuring respiratory rates and providing appropriate treatment, with 81% and 78% agreement, respectively, between CHWs and experts. Accuracy in diagnosis could be strengthened through further training and the development of improved diagnostic tools appropriate for resource-poor settings. PMID:27011331

  2. On the use of cross-borehole GPR in integrated geophysical-hydrological investigations of the unsaturated zone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nielsen, L.; Looms, M. C.; Hansen, T. M.; Cordua, K. S.; Jensen, K. H.; Binley, A.

    2006-12-01

    Cross-borehole GPR data are used in integrated geophysical-hydrogeological studies of the upper ca. 10 m of the unsaturated zone in sandy environments. Tomographic algorithms are used for estimating the radar wave velocities between the boreholes, and the estimated velocity values are converted to values of water saturation. The results obtained from the inversion of picked radar wave travel times are strongly influenced by the assumptions that are made regarding model and data error correlation. We analyse and quantify key characteristics of model and data error correlation using different independent sources of information, and we account for these characteristics during inversion. We use normal-incidence reflected radar data sections acquired along profile lines on the surface to constrain dip and spatial correlation lengths of the geological structures. Functions describing the correlation properties of the radar wave velocity fluctuations of the subsurface are estimated based on these observations. These properties are used as a priori information in the tomographic inversion process. Thereby, models capturing realistic heterogeneity of the subsurface are estimated. Good knowledge of fine-scale heterogeneity is critical when estimating water content and flow characteristics. Different sources of correlated data errors exist: Incorrect positioning of the receiver and/or the transmitter antenna during data acquisition; cavities around the borehole walls; unknown anomalies close to the borehole walls; time jumps due to mis-calibration of the transmitted pulse; accidental picking of undesired refracted arrivals which have not followed a straight ray path between the source and the receiver. If not accounted for, such data errors may give rise to significant artefacts in the tomographic images. The correlated data errors are accounted for by specification of data error covariance matrices which are included in the inverse operator used for obtaining the velocity

  3. Absolute instability of the Gaussian wake profile

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hultgren, Lennart S.; Aggarwal, Arun K.

    1987-01-01

    Linear parallel-flow stability theory has been used to investigate the effect of viscosity on the local absolute instability of a family of wake profiles with a Gaussian velocity distribution. The type of local instability, i.e., convective or absolute, is determined by the location of a branch-point singularity with zero group velocity of the complex dispersion relation for the instability waves. The effects of viscosity were found to be weak for values of the wake Reynolds number, based on the center-line velocity defect and the wake half-width, larger than about 400. Absolute instability occurs only for sufficiently large values of the center-line wake defect. The critical value of this parameter increases with decreasing wake Reynolds number, thereby indicating a shrinking region of absolute instability with decreasing wake Reynolds number. If backflow is not allowed, absolute instability does not occur for wake Reynolds numbers smaller than about 38.

  4. State-resolved differential and integral cross sections for the Ne + H2 (+) (v = 0-2, j = 0) → NeH(+) + H reaction.

    PubMed

    Wu, Hui; Yao, Cui-Xia; He, Xiao-Hu; Zhang, Pei-Yu

    2016-05-14

    State-to-state quantum dynamic calculations for the proton transfer reaction Ne + H2 (+) (v = 0-2, j = 0) are performed on the most accurate LZHH potential energy surface, with the product Jacobi coordinate based time-dependent wave packet method including the Coriolis coupling. The J = 0 reaction probabilities for the title reaction agree well with previous results in a wide range of collision energy of 0.2-1.2 eV. Total integral cross sections are in reasonable agreement with the available experiment data. Vibrational excitation of the reactant is much more efficient in enhancing the reaction cross sections than translational and rotational excitation. Total differential cross sections are found to be forward-backward peaked with strong oscillations, which is the indication of the complex-forming mechanism. As the collision energy increases, state-resolved differential cross section changes from forward-backward symmetric peaked to forward scattering biased. This forward bias can be attributed to the larger J partial waves, which makes the reaction like an abstraction process. Differential cross sections summed over two different sets of J partial waves for the v = 0 reaction at the collision energy of 1.2 eV are plotted to illustrate the importance of large J partial waves in the forward bias of the differential cross sections.

  5. State-resolved differential and integral cross sections for the Ne + H2+ (v = 0-2, j = 0) → NeH+ + H reaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Hui; Yao, Cui-Xia; He, Xiao-Hu; Zhang, Pei-Yu

    2016-05-01

    State-to-state quantum dynamic calculations for the proton transfer reaction Ne + H2+ (v = 0-2, j = 0) are performed on the most accurate LZHH potential energy surface, with the product Jacobi coordinate based time-dependent wave packet method including the Coriolis coupling. The J = 0 reaction probabilities for the title reaction agree well with previous results in a wide range of collision energy of 0.2-1.2 eV. Total integral cross sections are in reasonable agreement with the available experiment data. Vibrational excitation of the reactant is much more efficient in enhancing the reaction cross sections than translational and rotational excitation. Total differential cross sections are found to be forward-backward peaked with strong oscillations, which is the indication of the complex-forming mechanism. As the collision energy increases, state-resolved differential cross section changes from forward-backward symmetric peaked to forward scattering biased. This forward bias can be attributed to the larger J partial waves, which makes the reaction like an abstraction process. Differential cross sections summed over two different sets of J partial waves for the v = 0 reaction at the collision energy of 1.2 eV are plotted to illustrate the importance of large J partial waves in the forward bias of the differential cross sections.

  6. Energy and angle differential cross sections for the electron-impact double ionization of helium

    SciTech Connect

    Colgan, James P; Pindzola, M S; Robicheaux, F

    2008-01-01

    Energy and angle differential cross sections for the electron-impact double ionization of helium are calculated using a non-perturbative time-dependent close-coupling method. Collision probabilities are found by projection of a time evolved nine dimensional coordinate space wave function onto fully antisymmetric products of spatial and spin functions representing three outgoing Coulomb waves. At an incident energy of 106 eV, we present double energy differential cross sections and pentuple energy and angle differential cross sections. The pentuple energy and angle differential cross sections are found to be in relative agreement with the shapes observed in recent (e,3e) reaction microscope experiments. Integration of the differential cross sections over all energies and angles yields a total ionization cross section that is also in reasonable agreement with absolute crossed-beams experiments.

  7. Integrating Cross-Cultural Marketing Research Training in International Business Education Programs: It's Time, and Here's Why and How

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, Ruth Lesher; Brodowsky, Glen H.

    2012-01-01

    International business necessitates that its international business educators prepare today's workforce with skills necessary to take on cross-cultural research tasks and challenges. Yet, global business finds these skills in short supply. Perhaps this is the case because empirical evidence shows U.S. academic coverage of cross-cultural research…

  8. Experimental and modal verification of an integral equation solution for a thin-walled dichroic plate with cross-shaped holes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Epp, L. W.; Stanton, P. H.

    1993-01-01

    In order to add the capability of an X-band uplink onto the 70-m antenna, a new dichroic plate is needed to replace the Pyle-guide-shaped dichroic plate currently in use. The replacement dichroic plate must exhibit an additional passband at the new uplink frequency of 7.165 GHz, while still maintaining a passband at the existing downlink frequency of 8.425 GHz. Because of the wide frequency separation of these two passbands, conventional methods of designing air-filled dichroic plates exhibit grating lobe problems. A new method of solving this problem by using a dichroic plate with cross-shaped holes is presented and verified experimentally. Two checks of the integral equation solution are described. One is the comparison to a modal analysis for the limiting cross shape of a square hole. As a final check, a prototype dichroic plate with cross-shaped holes was built and measured.

  9. Differential and integrated cross sections for excitation to the 3s, 3p, and 3d states of atomic hydrogen by electron impact below the n=4 threshold

    SciTech Connect

    Bartlett, Philip L.; Bray, Igor; Stelbovics, Andris T.; Williams, J. F.; Mikosza, A. G.

    2006-08-15

    Integrated cross sections for the electron-impact excitation of ground-state hydrogen to the 3s, 3p, and 3d final states have been calculated using propagating exterior complex scaling and convergent close-coupling methods at energies between the n=3 and 4 excitation thresholds. The calculations are in excellent agreement and demonstrate that exterior complex scaling methods can accurately reproduce the resonance structure and magnitude of the excitation cross sections below the ionization threshold. Measurements of the separate 3s, 3p, and 3d differential cross sections were made at 12.24 eV, and are consistent with both calculations within a total experimental uncertainty of about 35%.

  10. Extending Current Theories of Cross-Boundary Information Sharing and Integration: A Case Study of Taiwan e-Government

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yang, Tung-Mou

    2011-01-01

    Information sharing and integration has long been considered an important approach for increasing organizational efficiency and performance. With advancements in information and communication technologies, sharing and integrating information across organizations becomes more attractive and practical to organizations. However, achieving…

  11. Strategy for the absolute neutron emission measurement on ITER.

    PubMed

    Sasao, M; Bertalot, L; Ishikawa, M; Popovichev, S

    2010-10-01

    Accuracy of 10% is demanded to the absolute fusion measurement on ITER. To achieve this accuracy, a functional combination of several types of neutron measurement subsystem, cross calibration among them, and in situ calibration are needed. Neutron transport calculation shows the suitable calibration source is a DT/DD neutron generator of source strength higher than 10(10) n/s (neutron/second) for DT and 10(8) n/s for DD. It will take eight weeks at the minimum with this source to calibrate flux monitors, profile monitors, and the activation system.

  12. Strategy for the absolute neutron emission measurement on ITER

    SciTech Connect

    Sasao, M.; Bertalot, L.; Ishikawa, M.; Popovichev, S.

    2010-10-15

    Accuracy of 10% is demanded to the absolute fusion measurement on ITER. To achieve this accuracy, a functional combination of several types of neutron measurement subsystem, cross calibration among them, and in situ calibration are needed. Neutron transport calculation shows the suitable calibration source is a DT/DD neutron generator of source strength higher than 10{sup 10} n/s (neutron/second) for DT and 10{sup 8} n/s for DD. It will take eight weeks at the minimum with this source to calibrate flux monitors, profile monitors, and the activation system.

  13. Absolute magnitudes of trans-neptunian objects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duffard, R.; Alvarez-candal, A.; Pinilla-Alonso, N.; Ortiz, J. L.; Morales, N.; Santos-Sanz, P.; Thirouin, A.

    2015-10-01

    Accurate measurements of diameters of trans- Neptunian objects are extremely complicated to obtain. Radiomatric techniques applied to thermal measurements can provide good results, but precise absolute magnitudes are needed to constrain diameters and albedos. Our objective is to measure accurate absolute magnitudes for a sample of trans- Neptunian objects, many of which have been observed, and modelled, by the "TNOs are cool" team, one of Herschel Space Observatory key projects grantes with ~ 400 hours of observing time. We observed 56 objects in filters V and R, if possible. These data, along with data available in the literature, was used to obtain phase curves and to measure absolute magnitudes by assuming a linear trend of the phase curves and considering magnitude variability due to rotational light-curve. In total we obtained 234 new magnitudes for the 56 objects, 6 of them with no reported previous measurements. Including the data from the literature we report a total of 109 absolute magnitudes.

  14. A New Gimmick for Assigning Absolute Configuration.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ayorinde, F. O.

    1983-01-01

    A five-step procedure is provided to help students in making the assignment absolute configuration less bothersome. Examples for both single (2-butanol) and multi-chiral carbon (3-chloro-2-butanol) molecules are included. (JN)

  15. The Simplicity Argument and Absolute Morality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mijuskovic, Ben

    1975-01-01

    In this paper the author has maintained that there is a similarity of thought to be found in the writings of Cudworth, Emerson, and Husserl in his investigation of an absolute system of morality. (Author/RK)

  16. Son preference in Indian families: absolute versus relative wealth effects.

    PubMed

    Gaudin, Sylvestre

    2011-02-01

    The desire for male children is prevalent in India, where son preference has been shown to affect fertility behavior and intrahousehold allocation of resources. Economic theory predicts less gender discrimination in wealthier households, but demographers and sociologists have argued that wealth can exacerbate bias in the Indian context. I argue that these apparently conflicting theories can be reconciled and simultaneously tested if one considers that they are based on two different notions of wealth: one related to resource constraints (absolute wealth), and the other to notions of local status (relative wealth). Using cross-sectional data from the 1998-1999 and 2005-2006 National Family and Health Surveys, I construct measures of absolute and relative wealth by using principal components analysis. A series of statistical models of son preference is estimated by using multilevel methods. Results consistently show that higher absolute wealth is strongly associated with lower son preference, and the effect is 20%-40% stronger when the household's community-specific wealth score is included in the regression. Coefficients on relative wealth are positive and significant although lower in magnitude. Results are robust to using different samples, alternative groupings of households in local areas, different estimation methods, and alternative dependent variables.

  17. Biodegradation pattern and tissue integration of native and cross-linked porcine collagen soft tissue augmentation matrices – an experimental study in the rat

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Within the last decades, collagen types I and III have been established as a sufficient biomaterial for GBR and GTR procedures. They might also be an adequate matrix for soft tissue augmentations. However, collagen materials differ significantly regarding resorption time, biodegradation pattern and the invasion of inflammatory cells. The aim of the present study was to compare the biodegradation and tissue integration of native, differently processed and cross-linked collagen scaffolds in rats. Methods Four experimental porcine collagen matrices of 1.0 mm thickness, developed for soft tissue augmentation procedures, were tested. Based on the same native dermal Type I and III collagen, native (ND, Mucoderm® prototype), specifically defatted (DD), ethylene dioxide cross-linked (ECL) and dehydrothermally cross-linked (DCL) dermis collagen (AAP/Botiss Biomaterials, Berlin, Germany) were evaluated. Two specimens of 1 × 1 cm were fixed around a non-absorbable spacer using non-absorbable sutures. After rehydration, specimens (N = 8) were randomly allocated in unconnected subcutaneous pouches on the back of 40 Wistar rats. Rats were divided into five groups (1, 2, 4, 8 and 12 weeks), including eight animals each. After each period, eight rats were sacrificed and explanted specimens were prepared for histological analysis. The following parameters were evaluated: membrane thickness as a sign of biodegradation and volume stability, cell ingrowth, vascularization, tissue integration and foreign body reaction. Results Biodegradation pattern of the non cross-linked collagen scaffolds differed only slightly in terms of presence of inflammatory cells and cell invasion into the matrix. In terms of biodegradation, ECL displayed a considerable slower resorption than ND, DCL and DD. Chemical cross-linking using ethylene dioxide showed a significant higher invasion of inflammatory cells. Conclusion Within the limits of the present study it was concluded that the

  18. Communication in ecosystem management: a case study of cross-disciplinary integration in the assessment phase of the interior Columbia Basin Ecosystem Management Project.

    PubMed

    Jakobsen, Christine Haugaard; McLaughlin, William J

    2004-05-01

    Effective communication is essential to the success of collaborative ecosystem management projects. In this paper, we investigated the dynamics of the Interior Columbia Basin Ecosystem Management Project's (ICBEMP) cross-disciplinary integration process in the assessment phase. Using a case study research design, we captured the rich trail of experience through conducting in-depth interviews and collecting information from internal and public documents, videos, and meetings related to the ICBEMP. Coding and analysis was facilitated by a qualitative analysis software, NVivo. Results include the range of internal perspectives on barriers and facilitators of cross-disciplinary integration in the Science Integration Team (SIT). These are arrayed in terms of discipline-based differences, organizational structures and activities, individual traits of scientists, and previous working relationships. The ICBEMP organization included a team of communication staffs (CT), and the data described the CT as a mixed group in terms of qualifications and educational backgrounds that played a major role in communication with actors external to the ICBEMP organization but a minor one in terms of internal communication. The data indicated that the CT-SIT communication was influenced by characteristics of actors and structures related to organizations and their cultures. We conclude that the ICBEMP members may not have had a sufficient level of shared understanding of central domains, such as the task at hand and ways and timing of information sharing. The paper concludes by suggesting that future ecosystem management assessment teams use qualified communications specialists to design and monitor the development of shared cognition among organization members in order to improve the effectiveness of communication and cross-disciplinary integration. PMID:15129362

  19. Deformation modes in the finite element absolute nodal coordinate formulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sugiyama, Hiroyuki; Gerstmayr, Johannes; Shabana, Ahmed A.

    2006-12-01

    The objective of this study is to provide interpretation of the deformation modes in the finite element absolute nodal coordinate formulation using several strain definitions. In this finite element formulation, the nodal coordinates consist of absolute position coordinates and gradients that can be used to define a unique rotation and deformation fields within the element as well as at the nodal points. The results obtained in this study clearly show cross-section deformation modes eliminated when the number of the finite element nodal coordinates is systematically and consistently reduced. Using the procedure discussed in this paper one can obtain a reduced order dynamic model, eliminate position vector gradients that introduce high frequencies to the solution of some problems, achieve the continuity of the remaining gradients at the nodal points, and obtain a formulation that automatically satisfies the principle of work and energy. Furthermore, the resulting dynamic model, unlike large rotation finite element formulations, leads to a unique rotation field, and as a consequence, the obtained formulation does not suffer from the problem of coordinate redundancy that characterizes existing large deformation finite element formulations. In order to accurately define strain components that can have easy physical interpretation, a material coordinate system is introduced to define the material element rotation and deformation. Using the material coordinate system, the Timoshenko-Reissner and Euler -Bernoulli beam models can be systematically obtained as special cases of the absolute nodal coordinate formulation beam models. While a constraint approach is used in this study to eliminate the cross-section deformation modes, it is important to point out as mentioned in this paper that lower-order finite elements, some of which already presented in previous investigations, can be efficiently used in thin and stiff structure applications.

  20. Cross talk between the response regulators PhoB and TctD allows for the integration of diverse environmental signals in Pseudomonas aeruginosa.

    PubMed

    Bielecki, Piotr; Jensen, Vanessa; Schulze, Wiebke; Gödeke, Julia; Strehmel, Janine; Eckweiler, Denitsa; Nicolai, Tanja; Bielecka, Agata; Wille, Thorsten; Gerlach, Roman G; Häussler, Susanne

    2015-07-27

    Two-component systems (TCS) serve as stimulus-response coupling mechanisms to allow organisms to adapt to a variety of environmental conditions. The opportunistic pathogen Pseudomonas aeruginosa encodes for more than 100 TCS components. To avoid unwanted cross-talk, signaling cascades are very specific, with one sensor talking to its cognate response regulator (RR). However, cross-regulation may provide means to integrate different environmental stimuli into a harmonized output response. By applying a split luciferase complementation assay, we identified a functional interaction of two RRs of the OmpR/PhoB subfamily, namely PhoB and TctD in P. aeruginosa. Transcriptional profiling, ChIP-seq analysis and a global motif scan uncovered the regulons of the two RRs as well as a quadripartite binding motif in six promoter regions. Phosphate limitation resulted in PhoB-dependent expression of the downstream genes, whereas the presence of TctD counteracted this activation. Thus, the integration of two important environmental signals e.g. phosphate availability and the carbon source are achieved by a titration of the relative amounts of two phosphorylated RRs that inversely regulate a common subset of genes. In conclusion, our results on the PhoB and TctD mediated two-component signal transduction pathways exemplify how P. aeruginosa may exploit cross-regulation to adapt bacterial behavior to complex environments. PMID:26082498

  1. Cross talk between the response regulators PhoB and TctD allows for the integration of diverse environmental signals in Pseudomonas aeruginosa

    PubMed Central

    Bielecki, Piotr; Jensen, Vanessa; Schulze, Wiebke; Gödeke, Julia; Strehmel, Janine; Eckweiler, Denitsa; Nicolai, Tanja; Bielecka, Agata; Wille, Thorsten; Gerlach, Roman G.; Häussler, Susanne

    2015-01-01

    Two-component systems (TCS) serve as stimulus-response coupling mechanisms to allow organisms to adapt to a variety of environmental conditions. The opportunistic pathogen Pseudomonas aeruginosa encodes for more than 100 TCS components. To avoid unwanted cross-talk, signaling cascades are very specific, with one sensor talking to its cognate response regulator (RR). However, cross-regulation may provide means to integrate different environmental stimuli into a harmonized output response. By applying a split luciferase complementation assay, we identified a functional interaction of two RRs of the OmpR/PhoB subfamily, namely PhoB and TctD in P. aeruginosa. Transcriptional profiling, ChIP-seq analysis and a global motif scan uncovered the regulons of the two RRs as well as a quadripartite binding motif in six promoter regions. Phosphate limitation resulted in PhoB-dependent expression of the downstream genes, whereas the presence of TctD counteracted this activation. Thus, the integration of two important environmental signals e.g. phosphate availability and the carbon source are achieved by a titration of the relative amounts of two phosphorylated RRs that inversely regulate a common subset of genes. In conclusion, our results on the PhoB and TctD mediated two-component signal transduction pathways exemplify how P. aeruginosa may exploit cross-regulation to adapt bacterial behavior to complex environments. PMID:26082498

  2. Jasminum flexile flower absolute from India--a detailed comparison with three other jasmine absolutes.

    PubMed

    Braun, Norbert A; Kohlenberg, Birgit; Sim, Sherina; Meier, Manfred; Hammerschmidt, Franz-Josef

    2009-09-01

    Jasminum flexile flower absolute from the south of India and the corresponding vacuum headspace (VHS) sample of the absolute were analyzed using GC and GC-MS. Three other commercially available Indian jasmine absolutes from the species: J. sambac, J. officinale subsp. grandiflorum, and J. auriculatum and the respective VHS samples were used for comparison purposes. One hundred and twenty-one compounds were characterized in J. flexile flower absolute, with methyl linolate, benzyl salicylate, benzyl benzoate, (2E,6E)-farnesol, and benzyl acetate as the main constituents. A detailed olfactory evaluation was also performed.

  3. The D(+) + H2 reaction: differential and integral cross sections at low energy and rate constants at low temperature.

    PubMed

    González-Lezana, Tomás; Scribano, Yohann; Honvault, Pascal

    2014-08-21

    The D(+) + H2 reaction is investigated by means of a time independent quantum mechanical (TIQM) and statistical quantum mechanical (SQM) methods. Differential cross sections and product rotational distributions obtained with these two theoretical approaches for collision energies between 1 meV and 0.1 eV are compared to analyze the dynamics of the process. The agreement observed between the TIQM differential cross sections and the SQM predictions as the energy increases revealed the role played by the complex-forming mechanism. The importance of a good description of the asymptotic regions is also investigated by calculating rate constants for the title reaction at low temperature. PMID:24802076

  4. Integrating Art.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    BCATA Journal for Art Teachers, 1991

    1991-01-01

    These articles focus on art as a component of interdisciplinary integration. (1) "Integrated Curriculum and the Visual Arts" (Anna Kindler) considers various aspects of integration and implications for art education. (2) "Integration: The New Literacy" (Tim Varro) illustrates how the use of technology can facilitate cross-curricular integration.…

  5. Bio-Inspired Stretchable Absolute Pressure Sensor Network.

    PubMed

    Guo, Yue; Li, Yu-Hung; Guo, Zhiqiang; Kim, Kyunglok; Chang, Fu-Kuo; Wang, Shan X

    2016-01-02

    A bio-inspired absolute pressure sensor network has been developed. Absolute pressure sensors, distributed on multiple silicon islands, are connected as a network by stretchable polyimide wires. This sensor network, made on a 4'' wafer, has 77 nodes and can be mounted on various curved surfaces to cover an area up to 0.64 m × 0.64 m, which is 100 times larger than its original size. Due to Micro Electro-Mechanical system (MEMS) surface micromachining technology, ultrathin sensing nodes can be realized with thicknesses of less than 100 µm. Additionally, good linearity and high sensitivity (~14 mV/V/bar) have been achieved. Since the MEMS sensor process has also been well integrated with a flexible polymer substrate process, the entire sensor network can be fabricated in a time-efficient and cost-effective manner. Moreover, an accurate pressure contour can be obtained from the sensor network. Therefore, this absolute pressure sensor network holds significant promise for smart vehicle applications, especially for unmanned aerial vehicles.

  6. Bio-Inspired Stretchable Absolute Pressure Sensor Network

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Yue; Li, Yu-Hung; Guo, Zhiqiang; Kim, Kyunglok; Chang, Fu-Kuo; Wang, Shan X.

    2016-01-01

    A bio-inspired absolute pressure sensor network has been developed. Absolute pressure sensors, distributed on multiple silicon islands, are connected as a network by stretchable polyimide wires. This sensor network, made on a 4’’ wafer, has 77 nodes and can be mounted on various curved surfaces to cover an area up to 0.64 m × 0.64 m, which is 100 times larger than its original size. Due to Micro Electro-Mechanical system (MEMS) surface micromachining technology, ultrathin sensing nodes can be realized with thicknesses of less than 100 µm. Additionally, good linearity and high sensitivity (~14 mV/V/bar) have been achieved. Since the MEMS sensor process has also been well integrated with a flexible polymer substrate process, the entire sensor network can be fabricated in a time-efficient and cost-effective manner. Moreover, an accurate pressure contour can be obtained from the sensor network. Therefore, this absolute pressure sensor network holds significant promise for smart vehicle applications, especially for unmanned aerial vehicles. PMID:26729134

  7. Bio-Inspired Stretchable Absolute Pressure Sensor Network.

    PubMed

    Guo, Yue; Li, Yu-Hung; Guo, Zhiqiang; Kim, Kyunglok; Chang, Fu-Kuo; Wang, Shan X

    2016-01-01

    A bio-inspired absolute pressure sensor network has been developed. Absolute pressure sensors, distributed on multiple silicon islands, are connected as a network by stretchable polyimide wires. This sensor network, made on a 4'' wafer, has 77 nodes and can be mounted on various curved surfaces to cover an area up to 0.64 m × 0.64 m, which is 100 times larger than its original size. Due to Micro Electro-Mechanical system (MEMS) surface micromachining technology, ultrathin sensing nodes can be realized with thicknesses of less than 100 µm. Additionally, good linearity and high sensitivity (~14 mV/V/bar) have been achieved. Since the MEMS sensor process has also been well integrated with a flexible polymer substrate process, the entire sensor network can be fabricated in a time-efficient and cost-effective manner. Moreover, an accurate pressure contour can be obtained from the sensor network. Therefore, this absolute pressure sensor network holds significant promise for smart vehicle applications, especially for unmanned aerial vehicles. PMID:26729134

  8. LFQProfiler and RNP(xl): Open-Source Tools for Label-Free Quantification and Protein-RNA Cross-Linking Integrated into Proteome Discoverer.

    PubMed

    Veit, Johannes; Sachsenberg, Timo; Chernev, Aleksandar; Aicheler, Fabian; Urlaub, Henning; Kohlbacher, Oliver

    2016-09-01

    Modern mass spectrometry setups used in today's proteomics studies generate vast amounts of raw data, calling for highly efficient data processing and analysis tools. Software for analyzing these data is either monolithic (easy to use, but sometimes too rigid) or workflow-driven (easy to customize, but sometimes complex). Thermo Proteome Discoverer (PD) is a powerful software for workflow-driven data analysis in proteomics which, in our eyes, achieves a good trade-off between flexibility and usability. Here, we present two open-source plugins for PD providing additional functionality: LFQProfiler for label-free quantification of peptides and proteins, and RNP(xl) for UV-induced peptide-RNA cross-linking data analysis. LFQProfiler interacts with existing PD nodes for peptide identification and validation and takes care of the entire quantitative part of the workflow. We show that it performs at least on par with other state-of-the-art software solutions for label-free quantification in a recently published benchmark ( Ramus, C.; J. Proteomics 2016 , 132 , 51 - 62 ). The second workflow, RNP(xl), represents the first software solution to date for identification of peptide-RNA cross-links including automatic localization of the cross-links at amino acid resolution and localization scoring. It comes with a customized integrated cross-link fragment spectrum viewer for convenient manual inspection and validation of the results. PMID:27476824

  9. Universal Cosmic Absolute and Modern Science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kostro, Ludwik

    The official Sciences, especially all natural sciences, respect in their researches the principle of methodic naturalism i.e. they consider all phenomena as entirely natural and therefore in their scientific explanations they do never adduce or cite supernatural entities and forces. The purpose of this paper is to show that Modern Science has its own self-existent, self-acting, and self-sufficient Natural All-in Being or Omni-Being i.e. the entire Nature as a Whole that justifies the scientific methodic naturalism. Since this Natural All-in Being is one and only It should be considered as the own scientifically justified Natural Absolute of Science and should be called, in my opinion, the Universal Cosmic Absolute of Modern Science. It will be also shown that the Universal Cosmic Absolute is ontologically enormously stratified and is in its ultimate i.e. in its most fundamental stratum trans-reistic and trans-personal. It means that in its basic stratum. It is neither a Thing or a Person although It contains in Itself all things and persons with all other sentient and conscious individuals as well, On the turn of the 20th century the Science has begun to look for a theory of everything, for a final theory, for a master theory. In my opinion the natural Universal Cosmic Absolute will constitute in such a theory the radical all penetrating Ultimate Basic Reality and will substitute step by step the traditional supernatural personal Absolute.

  10. Prelaunch absolute radiometric calibration of LANDSAT-4 protoflight Thematic Mapper

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barker, J. L.; Ball, D. L.; Leung, K. C.; Walker, J. A.

    1984-01-01

    Results are summarized and analyzed from several prelaunch tests with a 122 cm integrating sphere used as part of the absolute radiometric calibration experiments for the protoflight TM sensor carried on the LANDSAT-4 satellite. The calibration procedure is presented and the radiometric sensitivity of the TM is assessed. The internal calibrator and dynamic range after calibration are considered. Tables show dynamic range after ground processing, spectral radiance to digital number and digital number to spectral radiance values for TM bands 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 7 and for channel 4 of band 6.

  11. Coriolis coupling effects in the calculation of state-to-state integral and differential cross sections for the H+D2 reaction.

    PubMed

    Chu, Tian-Shu; Han, Ke-Li; Hankel, Marlies; Balint-Kurti, Gabriel G

    2007-06-01

    The quantum wavepacket parallel computational code DIFFREALWAVE is used to calculate state-to-state integral and differential cross sections for the title reaction on the BKMP2 surface in the total energy range of 0.4-1.2 eV with D2 initially in its ground vibrational-rotational state. The role of Coriolis couplings in the state-to-state quantum calculations is examined in detail. Comparison of the results from calculations including the full Coriolis coupling and those using the centrifugal sudden approximation demonstrates that both the energy dependence and the angular dependence of the calculated cross sections are extremely sensitive to the Coriolis coupling, thus emphasizing the importance of including it correctly in an accurate state-to-state calculation.

  12. Depression in Europe: does migrant integration have mental health payoffs? A cross-national comparison of 20 European countries.

    PubMed

    Levecque, Katia; Van Rossem, Ronan

    2015-01-01

    Objectives. Depression is a leading cause of ill health and disability. As migrants form an increasing group in Europe, already making up about 8.7% of the population in 2010, knowledge on migrant-related inequalities in depression is of main public health interest. In this study, we first assess whether migrants in Europe are at higher risk for depression compared to the native population. Second, we assess whether the association between migration and depression is dependent on different forms of migrant integration. Migrant integration is looked at both from the individual and from the national level. Design. Hierarchical linear regression analyses based on data for 20 countries in the European Social Survey 2006/2007 (N = 37,076 individuals aged 15 or more). Depression is measured using the center for Epidemiologic Depression Scale. We consider migrant integration over time (first- and second-generation migrants, differentiated according to European Union (EU) or non-EU origin), barriers to integration (low educational level, financial difficulties, being out of the labor market, ethnic minority status, discrimination), and the host country environment (national migrant integration policy). Controls are gender, age, partner relationship, social support, and welfare state regime. Results. Natives and second-generation migrants do not differ significantly in their risk profile for depression. First-generation migrants show higher levels of depression, with those born outside of Europe to be the worst off. This higher risk for depression is not attributable to ethnic minority status but is mainly due to experienced barriers to socioeconomic integration and processes of discrimination. A country's national policy on migrant integration shows not to soften the depressing effect of being a first-generation migrant nor does it have indirect beneficial health effects by reducing barriers to integration. Conclusion. In Europe, first-generation EU and non-EU migrants

  13. Quantum theory allows for absolute maximal contextuality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amaral, Barbara; Cunha, Marcelo Terra; Cabello, Adán

    2015-12-01

    Contextuality is a fundamental feature of quantum theory and a necessary resource for quantum computation and communication. It is therefore important to investigate how large contextuality can be in quantum theory. Linear contextuality witnesses can be expressed as a sum S of n probabilities, and the independence number α and the Tsirelson-like number ϑ of the corresponding exclusivity graph are, respectively, the maximum of S for noncontextual theories and for the theory under consideration. A theory allows for absolute maximal contextuality if it has scenarios in which ϑ /α approaches n . Here we show that quantum theory allows for absolute maximal contextuality despite what is suggested by the examination of the quantum violations of Bell and noncontextuality inequalities considered in the past. Our proof is not constructive and does not single out explicit scenarios. Nevertheless, we identify scenarios in which quantum theory allows for almost-absolute-maximal contextuality.

  14. Absolute calibration in vivo measurement systems

    SciTech Connect

    Kruchten, D.A.; Hickman, D.P.

    1991-02-01

    Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) is currently investigating a new method for obtaining absolute calibration factors for radiation measurement systems used to measure internally deposited radionuclides in vivo. Absolute calibration of in vivo measurement systems will eliminate the need to generate a series of human surrogate structures (i.e., phantoms) for calibrating in vivo measurement systems. The absolute calibration of in vivo measurement systems utilizes magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to define physiological structure, size, and composition. The MRI image provides a digitized representation of the physiological structure, which allows for any mathematical distribution of radionuclides within the body. Using Monte Carlo transport codes, the emission spectrum from the body is predicted. The in vivo measurement equipment is calibrated using the Monte Carlo code and adjusting for the intrinsic properties of the detection system. The calibration factors are verified using measurements of existing phantoms and previously obtained measurements of human volunteers. 8 refs.

  15. Stimulus probability effects in absolute identification.

    PubMed

    Kent, Christopher; Lamberts, Koen

    2016-05-01

    This study investigated the effect of stimulus presentation probability on accuracy and response times in an absolute identification task. Three schedules of presentation were used to investigate the interaction between presentation probability and stimulus position within the set. Data from individual participants indicated strong effects of presentation probability on both proportion correct and response times. The effects were moderated by the ubiquitous stimulus position effect. The accuracy and response time data were predicted by an exemplar-based model of perceptual cognition (Kent & Lamberts, 2005). The bow in discriminability was also attenuated when presentation probability for middle items was relatively high, an effect that will constrain future model development. The study provides evidence for item-specific learning in absolute identification. Implications for other theories of absolute identification are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record

  16. Absolute photoacoustic thermometry in deep tissue.

    PubMed

    Yao, Junjie; Ke, Haixin; Tai, Stephen; Zhou, Yong; Wang, Lihong V

    2013-12-15

    Photoacoustic thermography is a promising tool for temperature measurement in deep tissue. Here we propose an absolute temperature measurement method based on the dual temperature dependences of the Grüneisen parameter and the speed of sound in tissue. By taking ratiometric measurements at two adjacent temperatures, we can eliminate the factors that are temperature irrelevant but difficult to correct for in deep tissue. To validate our method, absolute temperatures of blood-filled tubes embedded ~9 mm deep in chicken tissue were measured in a biologically relevant range from 28°C to 46°C. The temperature measurement accuracy was ~0.6°C. The results suggest that our method can be potentially used for absolute temperature monitoring in deep tissue during thermotherapy.

  17. Molecular iodine absolute frequencies. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Sansonetti, C.J.

    1990-06-25

    Fifty specified lines of {sup 127}I{sub 2} were studied by Doppler-free frequency modulation spectroscopy. For each line the classification of the molecular transition was determined, hyperfine components were identified, and one well-resolved component was selected for precise determination of its absolute frequency. In 3 cases, a nearby alternate line was selected for measurement because no well-resolved component was found for the specified line. Absolute frequency determinations were made with an estimated uncertainty of 1.1 MHz by locking a dye laser to the selected hyperfine component and measuring its wave number with a high-precision Fabry-Perot wavemeter. For each line results of the absolute measurement, the line classification, and a Doppler-free spectrum are given.

  18. Absolute Stability And Hyperstability In Hilbert Space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wen, John Ting-Yung

    1989-01-01

    Theorems on stabilities of feedback control systems proved. Paper presents recent developments regarding theorems of absolute stability and hyperstability of feedforward-and-feedback control system. Theorems applied in analysis of nonlinear, adaptive, and robust control. Extended to provide sufficient conditions for stability in system including nonlinear feedback subsystem and linear time-invariant (LTI) feedforward subsystem, state space of which is Hilbert space, and input and output spaces having finite numbers of dimensions. (In case of absolute stability, feedback subsystem memoryless and possibly time varying. For hyperstability, feedback system dynamical system.)

  19. Lateral vibration attenuation of a beam with circular cross-section by a support with integrated piezoelectric transducers shunted to negative capacitances

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Götz, Benedict; Schaeffner, Maximilian; Platz, Roland; Melz, Tobias

    2016-09-01

    Undesired vibration may occur in lightweight structures due to excitation and low damping. For the purpose of lateral vibration attenuation in beam structures, piezoelectric transducers shunted to negative capacitances can be an appropriate measure. In this paper, a new concept for lateral vibration attenuation by integrated piezoelectric stack transducers in the elastic support of a beam with circular cross-section is presented. In the piezoelastic support, bending of the beam in an arbitrary direction is transformed into a significant axial deformation of three stack transducers and, thus, the beam’s surface may remain free from transducers. For multimodal vibration attenuation, each piezoelectric transducer is shunted to a negative capacitance. It is shown by numerical simulation and experiment that the concept of an elastic beam support with integrated shunted piezoelectric stack transducers is capable of reducing the lateral vibration of the beam in an arbitrary direction.

  20. MANTA. An Integral Reactor Physics Experiment to Infer the Neutron Capture Cross Sections of Actinides and Fission Products in Fast and Epithermal Spectra

    SciTech Connect

    Youinou, Gilles Jean-Michel

    2015-10-01

    neutron irradiation allows to infer energy-integrated neutron cross sections, i.e. ∫₀σ(E)φ(E)dE, where φ(E) is the neutron flux “seen” by the sample. This approach, which is usually defined and led by reactor physicists, is referred to as integral and is the object of this report. These two sources of information, i.e. differential and integral, are complementary and are used by the nuclear physicists in charge of producing the evaluated nuclear data files used by the nuclear community (ENDF, JEFF…). The generation of accurate nuclear data files requires an iterative process involving reactor physicists and nuclear data evaluators. This experimental program has been funded by the ATR National Scientific User Facility (ATR-NSUF) and by the DOE Office of Science in the framework of the Recovery Act. It has been given the name MANTRA for Measurement of Actinides Neutron TRAnsmutation.

  1. Absolute Points for Multiple Assignment Problems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adlakha, V.; Kowalski, K.

    2006-01-01

    An algorithm is presented to solve multiple assignment problems in which a cost is incurred only when an assignment is made at a given cell. The proposed method recursively searches for single/group absolute points to identify cells that must be loaded in any optimal solution. Unlike other methods, the first solution is the optimal solution. The…

  2. Stimulus Probability Effects in Absolute Identification

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kent, Christopher; Lamberts, Koen

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated the effect of stimulus presentation probability on accuracy and response times in an absolute identification task. Three schedules of presentation were used to investigate the interaction between presentation probability and stimulus position within the set. Data from individual participants indicated strong effects of…

  3. Teaching Absolute Value Inequalities to Mature Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sierpinska, Anna; Bobos, Georgeana; Pruncut, Andreea

    2011-01-01

    This paper gives an account of a teaching experiment on absolute value inequalities, whose aim was to identify characteristics of an approach that would realize the potential of the topic to develop theoretical thinking in students enrolled in prerequisite mathematics courses at a large, urban North American university. The potential is…

  4. Solving Absolute Value Equations Algebraically and Geometrically

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shiyuan, Wei

    2005-01-01

    The way in which students can improve their comprehension by understanding the geometrical meaning of algebraic equations or solving algebraic equation geometrically is described. Students can experiment with the conditions of the absolute value equation presented, for an interesting way to form an overall understanding of the concept.

  5. Increasing Capacity: Practice Effects in Absolute Identification

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dodds, Pennie; Donkin, Christopher; Brown, Scott D.; Heathcote, Andrew

    2011-01-01

    In most of the long history of the study of absolute identification--since Miller's (1956) seminal article--a severe limit on performance has been observed, and this limit has resisted improvement even by extensive practice. In a startling result, Rouder, Morey, Cowan, and Pfaltz (2004) found substantially improved performance with practice in the…

  6. Absolute Radiometric Calibration Of The Thematic Mapper

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Slater, P. N.; Biggar, S. F.; Holm, R. G.; Jackson, R. D.; Mao, Y.; Moran, M. S.; Palmer, J. M.; Yuan, B.

    1986-11-01

    The results are presented of five in-flight absolute radiometric calibrations, made in the period July 1984 to November 1985, at White Sands, New Mexico, of the solar reflective bands of the Landsat-5 Thematic Mapper (TM) . The 23 bandcalibrations made on the five dates show a ± 2.8% RMS variation from the mean as a percentage of the mean.

  7. On Relative and Absolute Conviction in Mathematics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weber, Keith; Mejia-Ramos, Juan Pablo

    2015-01-01

    Conviction is a central construct in mathematics education research on justification and proof. In this paper, we claim that it is important to distinguish between absolute conviction and relative conviction. We argue that researchers in mathematics education frequently have not done so and this has lead to researchers making unwarranted claims…

  8. Integrating care for older people with complex needs: key insights and lessons from a seven-country cross-case analysis

    PubMed Central

    Wodchis, Walter P.; Dixon, Anna; Anderson, Geoff M.; Goodwin, Nick

    2015-01-01

    Background: To address the challenges of caring for a growing number of older people with a mix of both health problems and functional impairment, programmes in different countries have different approaches to integrating health and social service supports. Objective: The goal of this analysis is to identify important lessons for policy makers and service providers to enable better design, implementation and spread of successful integrated care models. Methods: This paper provides a structured cross-case synthesis of seven integrated care programmes in Australia, Canada, the Netherlands, New Zealand, Sweden, the UK and the USA. Key findings: All seven programmes involved bottom-up innovation driven by local needs and included: (1) a single point of entry, (2) holistic care assessments, (3) comprehensive care planning, (4) care co-ordination and (5) a well-connected provider network. The process of achieving successful integration involves collaboration and, although the specific types of collaboration varied considerably across the seven case studies, all involved a care coordinator or case manager. Most programmes were not systematically evaluated but the two with formal external evaluations showed benefit and have been expanded. Conclusions: Case managers or care coordinators who support patient-centred collaborative care are key to successful integration in all our cases as are policies that provide funds and support for local initiatives that allow for bottom-up innovation. However, more robust and systematic evaluation of these initiatives is needed to clarify the ‘business case’ for integrated health and social care and to ensure successful generalization of local successes. PMID:26528096

  9. Electron-impact-excitation cross sections for electronic levels in neon for incident energies between 25 and 100 eV

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Register, D. F.; Trajmar, S.; Steffensen, G.; Cartwright, D. C.

    1984-01-01

    Absolute differential cross sections (DCS's) for electron-impact excitation of the lowest forty electronic levels in atomic neon have been determined for incident electron energies of 30 and 50 eV, for the four lowest levels at 25 eV, and two levels at 100 eV. The cross sections for these forty electronic levels are grouped into fifteen features, six of which represent excitation to resolved single electronic levels and the remaining nine which contain the unresolved contributions from two or more electronic levels. These DCS's were extrapolated to 0 deg and 180 deg and integrated to yield absolute integral cross sections as a function of incident electron energy. The results are compared to other experimental and theoretical results.

  10. Social Capital Theory: A Cross-Cutting Analytic for Teacher/Therapist Work in Integrating Children's Services?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Forbes, Joan; McCartney, Elspeth

    2010-01-01

    Reviewing relevant policy, this article argues that the current "integration interlude" is concerned with reformation of work relations to create new forms of "social capital". The conceptual framework of social capital has been used by government policy-makers and academic researchers to examine different types, configurations and qualities of…

  11. Absolute and relative choreographies in rigid body dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borisov, A. V.; Kilin, A. A.; Mamaev, I. S.

    2008-06-01

    For the classical problem of motion of a rigid body about a fixed point with zero area integral, we present a family of solutions that are periodic in the absolute space. Such solutions are known as choreographies. The family includes the well-known Delone solutions (for the Kovalevskaya case), some particular solutions for the Goryachev-Chaplygin case, and the Steklov solution. The “genealogy” of solutions of the family naturally appearing from the energy continuation and their connection with the Staude rotations are considered. It is shown that if the integral of areas is zero, the solutions are periodic with respect to a coordinate frame that rotates uniformly about the vertical (relative choreographies).

  12. Cross-species coherence in effects and modes of action in support of causality determinations in the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's Integrated Science Assessment for Lead.

    PubMed

    Lassiter, Meredith Gooding; Owens, Elizabeth Oesterling; Patel, Molini M; Kirrane, Ellen; Madden, Meagan; Richmond-Bryant, Jennifer; Hines, Erin Pias; Davis, J Allen; Vinikoor-Imler, Lisa; Dubois, Jean-Jacques

    2015-04-01

    The peer-reviewed literature on the health and ecological effects of lead (Pb) indicates common effects and underlying modes of action across multiple organisms for several endpoints. Based on such observations, the United States (U.S.) Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) applied a cross-species approach in the 2013 Integrated Science Assessment (ISA) for Lead for evaluating the causality of relationships between Pb exposure and specific endpoints that are shared by humans, laboratory animals, and ecological receptors (i.e., hematological effects, reproductive and developmental effects, and nervous system effects). Other effects of Pb (i.e., cardiovascular, renal, and inflammatory responses) are less commonly assessed in aquatic and terrestrial wildlife limiting the application of cross-species comparisons. Determinations of causality in ISAs are guided by a framework for classifying the weight of evidence across scientific disciplines and across related effects by considering aspects such as biological plausibility and coherence. As illustrated for effects of Pb where evidence across species exists, the integration of coherent effects and common underlying modes of action can serve as a means to substantiate conclusions regarding the causal nature of the health and ecological effects of environmental toxicants.

  13. SU-C-207-07: Quantification of Coronary Artery Cross-Sectional Area in CT Angiography Using Integrated Density: A Phantom Study

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, T; Ding, H; Torabzadeh, M; Molloi, S

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: To investigate the feasibility of quantifying the cross-sectional area (CSA) of coronary arteries using integrated density in a physics-based model with a phantom study. Methods: In this technique the total integrated density of the object as compared with its local background is measured so it is possible to account for the partial volume effect. The proposed method was compared to manual segmentation using CT scans of a 10 cm diameter Lucite cylinder placed inside a chest phantom. Holes with cross-sectional areas from 1.4 to 12.3 mm{sup 2} were drilled into the Lucite and filled with iodine solution, producing a contrast-to-noise ratio of approximately 26. Lucite rods 1.6 mm in diameter were used to simulate plaques. The phantom was imaged with and without the Lucite rods placed in the holes to simulate diseased and normal arteries, respectively. Linear regression analysis was used, and the root-mean-square deviations (RMSD) and errors (RMSE) were computed to assess the precision and accuracy of the measurements. In the case of manual segmentation, two readers independently delineated the lumen in order to quantify the inter-reader variability. Results: The precision and accuracy for the normal vessels using the integrated density technique were 0.32 mm{sup 2} and 0.32 mm{sup 2}, respectively. The corresponding results for the manual segmentation were 0.51 mm{sup 2} and 0.56 mm{sup 2}. In the case of diseased vessels, the precision and accuracy of the integrated density technique were 0.46 mm{sup 2} and 0.55 mm{sup 2}, respectively. The corresponding results for the manual segmentation were 0.75 mm{sup 2} and 0.98 mm{sup 2}. The mean percent difference for the two readers was found to be 8.4%. Conclusion: The CSA based on integrated density had improved precision and accuracy as compared with manual segmentation in a Lucite phantom. The results indicate the potential for using integrated density to improve CSA measurements in CT angiography.

  14. The new Absolute Quantum Gravimeter (AQG): first results and perspectives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bonvalot, Sylvain; Le Moigne, Nicolas; Merlet, Sebastien; Desruelle, Bruno; Lautier-Gaud, Jean; Menoret, Vincent; Vermeulen, Pierre

    2016-04-01

    the AQG01. This paper summarizes the latest results obtained from these experiments. The evaluation of the AQG01 is still in progress but this study confirmed that the AQG01 enables absolute gravity measurements with a sensitivity of 2 μGal standard deviation after 1000 s of data integration. Perspectives of expected instrumental developments for monitoring both spatial and temporal gravity variations at the microGal level in both laboratory and field conditions will be also discussed.

  15. Sound localization in the presence of multiple reflections using a binaurally integrated cross-correlation/auto-correlation mechanism.

    PubMed

    Braasch, Jonas

    2016-07-01

    A precedence effect model is described that can use a binaural signal to robustly localize a sound source in the presence of multiple reflections for the frontal horizontal plane. The model also estimates a room impulse response from a running binaural signal and determines the spatial locations and delays of early reflections, without any prior or additional knowledge of the source. A dual-layer cross-correlation/auto-correlation algorithm is used to determine the interaural time difference of the direct sound source component and to estimate a binaural activity pattern. PMID:27475205

  16. 'Strengthening the fungal cell wall through chitin-glucan cross-links: effects on morphogenesis and cell integrity'.

    PubMed

    Arroyo, Javier; Farkaš, Vladimír; Sanz, Ana Belén; Cabib, Enrico

    2016-09-01

    The cross-linking of polysaccharides to assemble new cell wall in fungi requires transglycosylation mechanisms by which preexisting glycosidic linkages are broken and new linkages are created between the polysaccharides. The molecular mechanisms for these processes, which are essential for fungal cell biology, are only now beginning to be elucidated. Recent development of in vivo and in vitro biochemical approaches has allowed characterization of important aspects about the formation of chitin-glucan covalent cell wall cross-links by cell wall transglycosylases of the CRH family and their biological function. Covalent linkages between chitin and glucan mediated by Crh proteins control morphogenesis and also play important roles in the remodeling of the fungal cell wall as part of the compensatory responses necessary to counterbalance cell wall stress. These enzymes are encoded by multigene families of redundant proteins very well conserved in fungal genomes but absent in mammalian cells. Understanding the molecular basis of fungal adaptation to cell wall stress through these and other cell wall remodeling enzymatic activities offers an opportunity to explore novel antifungal treatments and to identify potential fungal virulence factors.

  17. Fission Rate Ratios of FCA-IX Assemblies as Integral Experiment for Assessment of TRU's Fission Cross Sections

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fukushima, Masahiro; Tsujimoto, Kazufumi; Okajima, Shigeaki

    2016-03-01

    At the fast critical assembly (FCA) of JAEA, central fission rate ratios for TRU such as 237Np, 238Pu, 239Pu, 242Pu, 241Am, 243Am, and 244Cm were measured in the seven uraniumfueled assemblies (FCA-IX assemblies) with systematically changed neutron spectra. The FCA-IX assemblies were constructed with simplicity both in geometry and composition. By virtue of these FCA-IX assemblies where the simple combinations of uranium fuel and diluent (graphite and stainless steel) in their core regions were systematically varied, the neutron spectra of them cover from the intermediate to fast one. Taking their advantages, benchmark models with respect to the central fission rate ratios had been recently developed for the evaluation of the TRU's fission cross sections. As an application of these benchmark models, the Japanese Evaluated Nuclear Data Library JENDL-4.0 was utilized by a Monte Carlo calculation code. Several results show large discrepancies between the calculation and experimental values. The benchmark models would be well suited for the evaluation and modification of the nuclear data for the TRU's fission cross sections.

  18. 'Strengthening the fungal cell wall through chitin-glucan cross-links: effects on morphogenesis and cell integrity'.

    PubMed

    Arroyo, Javier; Farkaš, Vladimír; Sanz, Ana Belén; Cabib, Enrico

    2016-09-01

    The cross-linking of polysaccharides to assemble new cell wall in fungi requires transglycosylation mechanisms by which preexisting glycosidic linkages are broken and new linkages are created between the polysaccharides. The molecular mechanisms for these processes, which are essential for fungal cell biology, are only now beginning to be elucidated. Recent development of in vivo and in vitro biochemical approaches has allowed characterization of important aspects about the formation of chitin-glucan covalent cell wall cross-links by cell wall transglycosylases of the CRH family and their biological function. Covalent linkages between chitin and glucan mediated by Crh proteins control morphogenesis and also play important roles in the remodeling of the fungal cell wall as part of the compensatory responses necessary to counterbalance cell wall stress. These enzymes are encoded by multigene families of redundant proteins very well conserved in fungal genomes but absent in mammalian cells. Understanding the molecular basis of fungal adaptation to cell wall stress through these and other cell wall remodeling enzymatic activities offers an opportunity to explore novel antifungal treatments and to identify potential fungal virulence factors. PMID:27185288

  19. Pleiades Absolute Calibration : Inflight Calibration Sites and Methodology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lachérade, S.; Fourest, S.; Gamet, P.; Lebègue, L.

    2012-07-01

    In-flight calibration of space sensors once in orbit is a decisive step to be able to fulfil the mission objectives. This article presents the methods of the in-flight absolute calibration processed during the commissioning phase. Four In-flight calibration methods are used: absolute calibration, cross-calibration with reference sensors such as PARASOL or MERIS, multi-temporal monitoring and inter-bands calibration. These algorithms are based on acquisitions over natural targets such as African deserts, Antarctic sites, La Crau (Automatic calibration station) and Oceans (Calibration over molecular scattering) or also new extra-terrestrial sites such as the Moon and selected stars. After an overview of the instrument and a description of the calibration sites, it is pointed out how each method is able to address one or several aspects of the calibration. We focus on how these methods complete each other in their operational use, and how they help building a coherent set of information that addresses all aspects of in-orbit calibration. Finally, we present the perspectives that the high level of agility of PLEIADES offers for the improvement of its calibration and a better characterization of the calibration sites.

  20. Towards a cross-border hydrogeological model: harmonized data integration within the H3O-projects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heyvaert, Vanessa M. A.; Vernes, Ronald W.; Deckers, Jef; Bogemans, Frieda; Deceukelaire, Marleen; Den Dulk, Maryke; Doornenbal, Hans C.; Dusar, Michiel; Hummelman, Jan; Kiden, Patrick; Lanckacker, Timothy; Menkovic, Armin; Meyvis, Bruno; Munsterman, Dirk K.; Reindersma, Reinder N.; ten Veen, Johan H.; van de Ven, Tamara J. M.; Walstra, Jan; Westerhoff, Wim E.; Witmans, Nora

    2016-04-01

    The sustainable use and management of natural resources in border regions requires unambiguous geological information from neighbouring countries. However, the available data often lack compatibility and the same level of detail across borders. Various stakeholders in the Netherlands and Flanders expressed their interest to harmonize the (hydro) geological models in the shared border region. Accordingly, the first H3O project was initiated in March 2012, focussing on the Roer Valley Graben across the Dutch-Flemish border. A second project (H3O-Campine area) set off in April 2015 and deals with the adjacent Campine area. Aim of these successive projects was (is) to produce cross-border, up-to-date, three-dimensional geological and hydrogeological models of the Cenozoic deposits. Existing (hydro) geological data (boreholes, well logs, seismic data, fault traces, geological maps and models) are collected, re-interpreted according to a harmonized lithostratigraphic scheme and fed into the 3D modelling process. Results of the first H3O-Roer Valley Graben project include: • A correlation scheme between Dutch and Belgian/Flemish (hydro) geological units; • A consistent fault model of the Roer Valley Graben; • Geometrically and stratigraphically consistent geological and hydrogeological models of the Cenozoic deposits in the Roer Valley Graben across the Dutch-Flemish border. The resulting 3D models can be considered as a state-of-the-art reference for the subsurface structure of the project area and can be used as a base for cross-border management of natural resources. The correlation scheme serves as a guideline for present (H3O-Campine area) and future cross-border projects. The H3O projects are carried out by a partnership between TNO - Geological Survey of the Netherlands, VITO and the Geological Survey of Belgium. The H3O models will be available in the public domain via the online data portals of DOV (Databank Ondergrond Vlaanderen) and DINOloket (Data en

  1. Upgrade of absolute extreme ultraviolet diagnostic on J-TEXT

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, X. L.; Cheng, Z. F. Hou, S. Y.; Zhuang, G.; Luo, J.

    2014-11-15

    The absolute extreme ultraviolet (AXUV) diagnostic system is used for radiation observation on J-TEXT tokamak [J. Zhang, G. Zhuang, Z. J. Wang, Y. H. Ding, X. Q. Zhang, and Y. J. Tang, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 81, 073509 (2010)]. The upgrade of the AXUV system is aimed to improve the spatial resolution and provide a three-dimensional image on J-TEXT. The new system consists of 12 AXUV arrays (4 AXUV16ELG arrays, 8 AXUV20ELG arrays). The spatial resolution in the cross-section is 21 mm for the AXUV16ELG arrays and 17 mm for the AXUV20ELG arrays. The pre-amplifier is also upgraded for a higher signal to noise ratio. By upgrading the AXUV imaging system, a more accurate observation on the radiation information is obtained.

  2. A three-axis SQUID-based absolute vector magnetometer

    SciTech Connect

    Schönau, T.; Schmelz, M.; Stolz, R.; Anders, S.; Linzen, S.; Meyer, H.-G.; Zakosarenko, V.; Meyer, M.

    2015-10-15

    We report on the development of a three-axis absolute vector magnetometer suited for mobile operation in the Earth’s magnetic field. It is based on low critical temperature dc superconducting quantum interference devices (LTS dc SQUIDs) with sub-micrometer sized cross-type Josephson junctions and exhibits a white noise level of about 10 fT/Hz{sup 1/2}. The width of superconducting strip lines is restricted to less than 6 μm in order to avoid flux trapping during cool-down in magnetically unshielded environment. The long-term stability of the flux-to-voltage transfer coefficients of the SQUID electronics is investigated in detail and a method is presented to significantly increase their reproducibility. We further demonstrate the long-term operation of the setup in a magnetic field varying by about 200 μT amplitude without the need for recalibration.

  3. Landsat-5 TM reflective-band absolute radiometric calibration

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Chander, G.; Helder, D.L.; Markham, B.L.; Dewald, J.D.; Kaita, E.; Thome, K.J.; Micijevic, E.; Ruggles, T.A.

    2004-01-01

    The Landsat-5 Thematic Mapper (TM) sensor provides the longest running continuous dataset of moderate spatial resolution remote sensing imagery, dating back to its launch in March 1984. Historically, the radiometric calibration procedure for this imagery used the instrument's response to the Internal Calibrator (IC) on a scene-by-scene basis to determine the gain and offset of each detector. Due to observed degradations in the IC, a new procedure was implemented for U.S.-processed data in May 2003. This new calibration procedure is based on a lifetime radiometric calibration model for the instrument's reflective bands (1-5 and 7) and is derived, in part, from the IC response without the related degradation effects and is tied to the cross calibration with the Landsat-7 Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus. Reflective-band absolute radiometric accuracy of the instrument tends to be on the order of 7% to 10%, based on a variety of calibration methods.

  4. A three-axis SQUID-based absolute vector magnetometer.

    PubMed

    Schönau, T; Zakosarenko, V; Schmelz, M; Stolz, R; Anders, S; Linzen, S; Meyer, M; Meyer, H-G

    2015-10-01

    We report on the development of a three-axis absolute vector magnetometer suited for mobile operation in the Earth's magnetic field. It is based on low critical temperature dc superconducting quantum interference devices (LTS dc SQUIDs) with sub-micrometer sized cross-type Josephson junctions and exhibits a white noise level of about 10 fT/Hz(1/2). The width of superconducting strip lines is restricted to less than 6 μm in order to avoid flux trapping during cool-down in magnetically unshielded environment. The long-term stability of the flux-to-voltage transfer coefficients of the SQUID electronics is investigated in detail and a method is presented to significantly increase their reproducibility. We further demonstrate the long-term operation of the setup in a magnetic field varying by about 200 μT amplitude without the need for recalibration.

  5. AN INTEGRAL REACTOR PHYSICS EXPERIMENT TO INFER ACTINIDE CAPTURE CROSS-SECTIONS FROM THORIUM TO CALIFORNIUM WITH ACCELERATOR MASS SPECTROMETRY

    SciTech Connect

    G. Youinou; M. Salvatores; M. Paul; R. Pardo; G. Palmiotti; F. Kondev; G. Imel

    2010-04-01

    The principle of the proposed experiment is to irradiate very pure actinide samples in the Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) at INL and, after a given time, determine the amount of the different transmutation products. The determination of the nuclide densities before and after neutron irradiation will allow inference of effective neutron capture cross-sections. This approach has been used in the past and the novelty of this experiment is that the atom densities of the different transmutation products will be determined using the Accelerator Mass Spectroscopy (AMS) technique at the ATLAS facility located at ANL. It is currently planned to irradiate the following isotopes: 232Th, 235U, 236U, 238U, 237Np, 238Pu, 239Pu, 240Pu, 241Pu, 242Pu, 241Am, 243Am and 248Cm.

  6. Cross-Desensitization and Cointernalization of H1 and H2 Histamine Receptors Reveal New Insights into Histamine Signal Integration

    PubMed Central

    Alonso, Natalia; Fernandez, Natalia; Notcovich, Cintia; Monczor, Federico; Simaan, May; Baldi, Alberto; Gutkind, J. Silvio; Davio, Carlos

    2013-01-01

    G protein-coupled receptor signaling does not result from sequential activation of a linear pathway of proteins/enzymes, but rather from complex interactions of multiple, branched signaling routes, i.e., signaling networks. In this work we present an exhaustive study of the cross-talk between H1 and H2 histamine receptors (H1R and H2R) in U937 cells and Chinese hamster ovary-transfected cells. By desensitization assays we demonstrated the existence of a crossdesensitization between both receptors independent of protein kinase A or C. H1R-agonist stimulation inhibited cell proliferation and induced apoptosis in U937 cells following treatment of 48 hours. H1R-induced antiproliferative and apoptotic response was inhibited by an H2R agonist suggesting that the cross-talk between both receptors modifies their function. Binding and confocal microscopy studies revealed cointernalization of both receptors upon treatment with the agonists. To evaluate potential heterodimerization of the receptors, sensitized emission fluorescence resonance energy transfer experiments were performed in human embryonic kidney 293T cells using H1R-cyan fluorescent protein and H2R-yellow fluorescent protein. To our knowledge these findings may represent the first demonstration of agonist-induced heterodimerization of the H1R and H2R. In addition, we also show that the inhibition of the internalization process did not prevent receptor crossdesensitization, which was mediated by G protein-coupled receptor kinase 2. Our study provides new insights into the complex signaling network mediated by histamine and further knowledge for the rational use of its ligands. PMID:23462507

  7. Use of 2D images of depth and integrated reflectivity to represent the severity of demineralization in cross-polarization optical coherence tomography

    PubMed Central

    Chan, Kenneth H.; Chan, Andrew C.; Fried, William A.; Simon, Jacob C.; Darling, Cynthia L.; Fried, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    Several studies have demonstrated the potential of cross-polarization optical coherence tomography (CP-OCT) to quantify the severity of early caries lesions (tooth decay) on tooth surfaces. The purpose of this study is to show that 2D images of the lesion depth and the integrated reflectivity can be used to accurately represent the severity of early lesions. Simulated early lesions of varying severity were produced on tooth samples using simulated lesion models. Methods were developed to convert the 3D CP-OCT images of the samples to 2D images of the lesion depth and lesion integrated reflectivity. Calculated lesion depths from OCT were compared with lesion depths measured from histological sections examined using polarized light microscopy. The 2D images of the lesion depth and integrated reflectivity are well suited for visualization of early demineralization. Polarized light micrographs (PLM) of one of the histological sections from a tooth exposed to demineralization for 48 hrs. (A) PLM image of entire thin section (B) magnified PLM image of region of interest. PMID:24307350

  8. An absolute measure for a key currency

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oya, Shunsuke; Aihara, Kazuyuki; Hirata, Yoshito

    It is generally considered that the US dollar and the euro are the key currencies in the world and in Europe, respectively. However, there is no absolute general measure for a key currency. Here, we investigate the 24-hour periodicity of foreign exchange markets using a recurrence plot, and define an absolute measure for a key currency based on the strength of the periodicity. Moreover, we analyze the time evolution of this measure. The results show that the credibility of the US dollar has not decreased significantly since the Lehman shock, when the Lehman Brothers bankrupted and influenced the economic markets, and has increased even relatively better than that of the euro and that of the Japanese yen.

  9. Probing absolute spin polarization at the nanoscale.

    PubMed

    Eltschka, Matthias; Jäck, Berthold; Assig, Maximilian; Kondrashov, Oleg V; Skvortsov, Mikhail A; Etzkorn, Markus; Ast, Christian R; Kern, Klaus

    2014-12-10

    Probing absolute values of spin polarization at the nanoscale offers insight into the fundamental mechanisms of spin-dependent transport. Employing the Zeeman splitting in superconducting tips (Meservey-Tedrow-Fulde effect), we introduce a novel spin-polarized scanning tunneling microscopy that combines the probing capability of the absolute values of spin polarization with precise control at the atomic scale. We utilize our novel approach to measure the locally resolved spin polarization of magnetic Co nanoislands on Cu(111). We find that the spin polarization is enhanced by 65% when increasing the width of the tunnel barrier by only 2.3 Å due to the different decay of the electron orbitals into vacuum. PMID:25423049

  10. Absolute radiometry and the solar constant

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Willson, R. C.

    1974-01-01

    A series of active cavity radiometers (ACRs) are described which have been developed as standard detectors for the accurate measurement of irradiance in absolute units. It is noted that the ACR is an electrical substitution calorimeter, is designed for automatic remote operation in any environment, and can make irradiance measurements in the range from low-level IR fluxes up to 30 solar constants with small absolute uncertainty. The instrument operates in a differential mode by chopping the radiant flux to be measured at a slow rate, and irradiance is determined from two electrical power measurements together with the instrumental constant. Results are reported for measurements of the solar constant with two types of ACRs. The more accurate measurement yielded a value of 136.6 plus or minus 0.7 mW/sq cm (1.958 plus or minus 0.010 cal/sq cm per min).

  11. From Hubble's NGSL to Absolute Fluxes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heap, Sara R.; Lindler, Don

    2012-01-01

    Hubble's Next Generation Spectral Library (NGSL) consists of R-l000 spectra of 374 stars of assorted temperature, gravity, and metallicity. Each spectrum covers the wavelength range, 0.18-1.00 microns. The library can be viewed and/or downloaded from the website, http://archive.stsci.edu/prepds/stisngsll. Stars in the NGSL are now being used as absolute flux standards at ground-based observatories. However, the uncertainty in the absolute flux is about 2%, which does not meet the requirements of dark-energy surveys. We are therefore developing an observing procedure that should yield fluxes with uncertainties less than 1 % and will take part in an HST proposal to observe up to 15 stars using this new procedure.

  12. Impact of Winko on absolute discharges.

    PubMed

    Balachandra, Krishna; Swaminath, Sam; Litman, Larry C

    2004-01-01

    In Canada, case laws have had a significant impact on the way mentally ill offenders are managed, both in the criminal justice system and in the forensic mental health system. The Supreme Court of Canada's decision with respect to Winko has set a major precedent in the application of the test of significant risk to the safety of the public in making dispositions by the Ontario Review Board and granting absolute discharges to the mentally ill offenders in the forensic health system. Our study examines the impact of the Supreme Court of Canada's decision before and after Winko. The results show that the numbers of absolute discharges have increased post-Winko, which was statistically significant, but there could be other factors influencing this increase.

  13. Asteroid absolute magnitudes and slope parameters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tedesco, Edward F.

    1991-01-01

    A new listing of absolute magnitudes (H) and slope parameters (G) has been created and published in the Minor Planet Circulars; this same listing will appear in the 1992 Ephemerides of Minor Planets. Unlike previous listings, the values of the current list were derived from fits of data at the V band. All observations were reduced in the same fashion using, where appropriate, a single basis default value of 0.15 for the slope parameter. Distances and phase angles were computed for each observation. The data for 113 asteroids was of sufficiently high quality to permit derivation of their H and G. These improved absolute magnitudes and slope parameters will be used to deduce the most reliable bias-corrected asteroid size-frequency distribution yet made.

  14. Absolute-magnitude distributions of supernovae

    SciTech Connect

    Richardson, Dean; Wright, John; Jenkins III, Robert L.; Maddox, Larry

    2014-05-01

    The absolute-magnitude distributions of seven supernova (SN) types are presented. The data used here were primarily taken from the Asiago Supernova Catalogue, but were supplemented with additional data. We accounted for both foreground and host-galaxy extinction. A bootstrap method is used to correct the samples for Malmquist bias. Separately, we generate volume-limited samples, restricted to events within 100 Mpc. We find that the superluminous events (M{sub B} < –21) make up only about 0.1% of all SNe in the bias-corrected sample. The subluminous events (M{sub B} > –15) make up about 3%. The normal Ia distribution was the brightest with a mean absolute blue magnitude of –19.25. The IIP distribution was the dimmest at –16.75.

  15. Absolute and relative dosimetry for ELIMED

    SciTech Connect

    Cirrone, G. A. P.; Schillaci, F.; Scuderi, V.; Cuttone, G.; Candiano, G.; Musumarra, A.; Pisciotta, P.; Romano, F.; Carpinelli, M.; Presti, D. Lo; Raffaele, L.; Tramontana, A.; Cirio, R.; Sacchi, R.; Monaco, V.; Marchetto, F.; Giordanengo, S.

    2013-07-26

    The definition of detectors, methods and procedures for the absolute and relative dosimetry of laser-driven proton beams is a crucial step toward the clinical use of this new kind of beams. Hence, one of the ELIMED task, will be the definition of procedures aiming to obtain an absolute dose measure at the end of the transport beamline with an accuracy as close as possible to the one required for clinical applications (i.e. of the order of 5% or less). Relative dosimetry procedures must be established, as well: they are necessary in order to determine and verify the beam dose distributions and to monitor the beam fluence and the energetic spectra during irradiations. Radiochromic films, CR39, Faraday Cup, Secondary Emission Monitor (SEM) and transmission ionization chamber will be considered, designed and studied in order to perform a fully dosimetric characterization of the ELIMED proton beam.

  16. Generation Y and the Integrated Plastic Surgery Residency Match: A Cross-sectional Study of the 2011 Match Outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Narayan, Deepak

    2013-01-01

    Background: Plastic surgery is the most competitive specialty in medicine. We sought to identify factors associated with the successful match of generation Y applicants into integrated plastic surgery residency. Methods: We utilized the most recent data from the Charting Outcomes in the Match published by the National Resident Matching Program in 2011. We had data on US senior or independent applicant status, Alpha Omega Alpha (AOA) status, attendance of top 40 medical schools, advanced degree status, and number of contiguous ranks within plastic surgery. Our main outcome measure was match status. Results: A total of 81 out of 197 applicants (41.1%) successfully matched into integrated plastic surgery in the 2011 main match. US seniors matched at a significantly higher rate compared to independent applicants (44.0% vs 24.1%, P = 0.044). Matched US seniors were more likely to have AOA membership compared to unmatched US seniors (45.9% vs 27.7%, P = 0.014) and attend a top 40 medical school (52.7% vs 35.1%, P = 0.022). There were no differences in terms of advanced degrees between matched and unmatched US seniors. Unmatched US seniors were more likely to have 3 or fewer contiguous ranks of plastic surgery residency programs than matched US seniors (86.2% vs 68.9%, P = 0.007). Conclusions: US senior status, AOA membership, and attendance at a top 40 medical school are predictors of matching into integrated plastic surgery. Program directors need to be aware of the background of the millennial applicants to recruit and maintain top residents. PMID:25289227

  17. Relative errors can cue absolute visuomotor mappings.

    PubMed

    van Dam, Loes C J; Ernst, Marc O

    2015-12-01

    When repeatedly switching between two visuomotor mappings, e.g. in a reaching or pointing task, adaptation tends to speed up over time. That is, when the error in the feedback corresponds to a mapping switch, fast adaptation occurs. Yet, what is learned, the relative error or the absolute mappings? When switching between mappings, errors with a size corresponding to the relative difference between the mappings will occur more often than other large errors. Thus, we could learn to correct more for errors with this familiar size (Error Learning). On the other hand, it has been shown that the human visuomotor system can store several absolute visuomotor mappings (Mapping Learning) and can use associated contextual cues to retrieve them. Thus, when contextual information is present, no error feedback is needed to switch between mappings. Using a rapid pointing task, we investigated how these two types of learning may each contribute when repeatedly switching between mappings in the absence of task-irrelevant contextual cues. After training, we examined how participants changed their behaviour when a single error probe indicated either the often-experienced error (Error Learning) or one of the previously experienced absolute mappings (Mapping Learning). Results were consistent with Mapping Learning despite the relative nature of the error information in the feedback. This shows that errors in the feedback can have a double role in visuomotor behaviour: they drive the general adaptation process by making corrections possible on subsequent movements, as well as serve as contextual cues that can signal a learned absolute mapping. PMID:26280315

  18. The absolute spectrophotometric catalog by Anita Cochran

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burnashev, V. I.; Burnasheva, B. A.; Ruban, E. V.; Hagen-Torn, E. I.

    2014-06-01

    The absolute spectrophotometric catalog by Anita Cochran is presented in a machine-readable form. The catalog systematizes observations acquired at the McDonald Observatory in 1977-1978. The data are compared with other sources, in particular, the calculated broadband stellar magnitudes are compared with photometric observations by other authors, to show that the observational data given in the catalog are reliable and suitable for a variety of applications. Observations of variable stars of different types make Cochran's catalog especially valuable.

  19. Absolute magnitudes and kinematics of barium stars.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gomez, A. E.; Luri, X.; Grenier, S.; Prevot, L.; Mennessier, M. O.; Figueras, F.; Torra, J.

    1997-03-01

    The absolute magnitude of barium stars has been obtained from kinematical data using a new algorithm based on the maximum-likelihood principle. The method allows to separate a sample into groups characterized by different mean absolute magnitudes, kinematics and z-scale heights. It also takes into account, simultaneously, the censorship in the sample and the errors on the observables. The method has been applied to a sample of 318 barium stars. Four groups have been detected. Three of them show a kinematical behaviour corresponding to disk population stars. The fourth group contains stars with halo kinematics. The luminosities of the disk population groups spread a large range. The intrinsically brightest one (M_v_=-1.5mag, σ_M_=0.5mag) seems to be an inhomogeneous group containing barium binaries as well as AGB single stars. The most numerous group (about 150 stars) has a mean absolute magnitude corresponding to stars in the red giant branch (M_v_=0.9mag, σ_M_=0.8mag). The third group contains barium dwarfs, the obtained mean absolute magnitude is characteristic of stars on the main sequence or on the subgiant branch (M_v_=3.3mag, σ_M_=0.5mag). The obtained mean luminosities as well as the kinematical results are compatible with an evolutionary link between barium dwarfs and classical barium giants. The highly luminous group is not linked with these last two groups. More high-resolution spectroscopic data will be necessary in order to better discriminate between barium and non-barium stars.

  20. Influence of integrated services on postpartum family planning use: a cross-sectional survey from urban Senegal

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Although the majority of postpartum women indicate a desire to delay a next birth, family planning (FP) methods are often not offered to, or taken up by, women in the first year postpartum. This study uses data from urban Senegal to examine exposure to FP information and services at the time of delivery and at child immunization appointments and to determine if these points of integration are associated with greater use of postpartum FP. Methods A representative, household sample of women, ages 15–49, was surveyed from six cities in Senegal in 2011. This study focuses on women who were within two years postpartum (n = 1879). We also include women who were surveyed through exit interviews after a visit to a high volume health facility in the same six cities; clients included were visiting the health facility for delivery, post-abortion care, postnatal care, and child immunization services (n = 794). Descriptive analyses are presented to examine exposure to FP services among postpartum women and women visiting the health facility. Logistic regression models are used to estimate the effect of integrated services on postpartum FP use in the household sample of women. Analyses were conducted using Stata version 12. Results Among exit interview clients, knowledge of integrated services is high but only a few reported receiving FP services. A majority of the women who did not receive FP services indicated an interest in receiving such information and services. Among the household sample of women up to two-years postpartum, those who received FP information at the time of delivery are more likely to be using modern FP postpartum than their counterparts who also delivered in a facility but did not receive such information. Exposure to FP services at an immunization visit was not significantly related to postpartum FP use. Another key finding is that women with greater self-efficacy are more likely to use a modern FP method. Conclusion This study

  1. Development of integrated model for continuous berth allocation problem and quay crane scheduling with non crossing constraint

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Basri, Azyanzuhaila Hasan; Zainuddin, Zaitul Marlizawati

    2014-09-01

    High efficiency of port operation is required to succeed in the competition between port container terminals. Berth Allocation and Quay Crane Scheduling are the most important part in container terminal operations. The integrated model is formulated as a MIP problem with the objective to minimize the sum of the dwell times, where a vessel's dwell time is measured between arrival and departure including both times waiting to be berthed and servicing time while berthed. The construction of suitable mathematical model is formulated by considering various practical constraints.

  2. Chemical composition of French mimosa absolute oil.

    PubMed

    Perriot, Rodolphe; Breme, Katharina; Meierhenrich, Uwe J; Carenini, Elise; Ferrando, Georges; Baldovini, Nicolas

    2010-02-10

    Since decades mimosa (Acacia dealbata) absolute oil has been used in the flavor and perfume industry. Today, it finds an application in over 80 perfumes, and its worldwide industrial production is estimated five tons per year. Here we report on the chemical composition of French mimosa absolute oil. Straight-chain analogues from C6 to C26 with different functional groups (hydrocarbons, esters, aldehydes, diethyl acetals, alcohols, and ketones) were identified in the volatile fraction. Most of them are long-chain molecules: (Z)-heptadec-8-ene, heptadecane, nonadecane, and palmitic acid are the most abundant, and constituents such as 2-phenethyl alcohol, methyl anisate, and ethyl palmitate are present in smaller amounts. The heavier constituents were mainly triterpenoids such as lupenone and lupeol, which were identified as two of the main components. (Z)-Heptadec-8-ene, lupenone, and lupeol were quantified by GC-MS in SIM mode using external standards and represents 6%, 20%, and 7.8% (w/w) of the absolute oil. Moreover, odorant compounds were extracted by SPME and analyzed by GC-sniffing leading to the perception of 57 odorant zones, of which 37 compounds were identified by their odorant description, mass spectrum, retention index, and injection of the reference compound. PMID:20070087

  3. Measurement of absolute gravity acceleration in Firenze

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Angelis, M.; Greco, F.; Pistorio, A.; Poli, N.; Prevedelli, M.; Saccorotti, G.; Sorrentino, F.; Tino, G. M.

    2011-01-01

    This paper reports the results from the accurate measurement of the acceleration of gravity g taken at two separate premises in the Polo Scientifico of the University of Firenze (Italy). In these laboratories, two separate experiments aiming at measuring the Newtonian constant and testing the Newtonian law at short distances are in progress. Both experiments require an independent knowledge on the local value of g. The only available datum, pertaining to the italian zero-order gravity network, was taken more than 20 years ago at a distance of more than 60 km from the study site. Gravity measurements were conducted using an FG5 absolute gravimeter, and accompanied by seismic recordings for evaluating the noise condition at the site. The absolute accelerations of gravity at the two laboratories are (980 492 160.6 ± 4.0) μGal and (980 492 048.3 ± 3.0) μGal for the European Laboratory for Non-Linear Spectroscopy (LENS) and Dipartimento di Fisica e Astronomia, respectively. Other than for the two referenced experiments, the data here presented will serve as a benchmark for any future study requiring an accurate knowledge of the absolute value of the acceleration of gravity in the study region.

  4. A Methodology for Absolute Isotope Composition Measurement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shen, J. J.; Lee, D.; Liang, W.

    2007-12-01

    Double spike technique was a well defined method for isotope composition measurement by TIMS of samples which have natural mass fractionation effect, but it is still a problem to define the isotope composition for double spike itself. In this study, we modified the old double spike technique and found that we could use the modified technique to solve the ¡§true¡¨ isotope composition of double spike itself. According the true isotope composition of double spike, we can measure the absolute isotope composition if the sample has natural fractionation effect. A new vector analytical method has been developed in order to obtain the true isotopic composition of a 42Ca-48Ca double spike, and this is achieved by using two different sample-spike mixtures combined with the double spike and the natural Ca data. Because the natural sample, the two mixtures, and the spike should all lie on a single mixing line, we are able to constrain the true isotopic composition of our double spike using this new approach. This method not only can be used in Ca system but also in Ti, Cr, Fe, Ni, Zn, Mo, Ba and Pb systems. The absolute double spike isotopic ratio is important, which can save a lot of time to check different reference standards. Especially for Pb, radiogenic isotope system, the decay systems embodied in three of four naturally occurring isotopes induce difficult to obtain true isotopic ratios for absolute dating.

  5. Chemical composition of French mimosa absolute oil.

    PubMed

    Perriot, Rodolphe; Breme, Katharina; Meierhenrich, Uwe J; Carenini, Elise; Ferrando, Georges; Baldovini, Nicolas

    2010-02-10

    Since decades mimosa (Acacia dealbata) absolute oil has been used in the flavor and perfume industry. Today, it finds an application in over 80 perfumes, and its worldwide industrial production is estimated five tons per year. Here we report on the chemical composition of French mimosa absolute oil. Straight-chain analogues from C6 to C26 with different functional groups (hydrocarbons, esters, aldehydes, diethyl acetals, alcohols, and ketones) were identified in the volatile fraction. Most of them are long-chain molecules: (Z)-heptadec-8-ene, heptadecane, nonadecane, and palmitic acid are the most abundant, and constituents such as 2-phenethyl alcohol, methyl anisate, and ethyl palmitate are present in smaller amounts. The heavier constituents were mainly triterpenoids such as lupenone and lupeol, which were identified as two of the main components. (Z)-Heptadec-8-ene, lupenone, and lupeol were quantified by GC-MS in SIM mode using external standards and represents 6%, 20%, and 7.8% (w/w) of the absolute oil. Moreover, odorant compounds were extracted by SPME and analyzed by GC-sniffing leading to the perception of 57 odorant zones, of which 37 compounds were identified by their odorant description, mass spectrum, retention index, and injection of the reference compound.

  6. The Carina Project: Absolute and Relative Calibrations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Corsi, C. E.; Bono, G.; Walker, A. R.; Brocato, E.; Buonanno, R.; Caputo, F.; Castellani, M.; Castellani, V.; Dall'Ora, M.; Marconi, M.; Monelli, M.; Nonino, M.; Pulone, L.; Ripepi, V.; Smith, H. A.

    We discuss the reduction strategy adopted to perform the relative and the absolute calibration of the Wide Field Imager (WFI) available at the 2.2m ESO/MPI telescope and of the Mosaic Camera (MC) available at the 4m CTIO Blanco telescope. To properly constrain the occurrence of deceptive systematic errors in the relative calibration we observed with each chip the same set of stars. Current photometry seems to suggest that the WFI shows a positional effect when moving from the top to the bottom of individual chips. Preliminary results based on an independent data set collected with the MC suggest that this camera is only marginally affected by the same problem. To perform the absolute calibration we observed with each chip the same set of standard stars. The sample covers a wide color range and the accuracy both in the B and in the V-band appears to be of the order of a few hundredths of magnitude. Finally, we briefly outline the observing strategy to improve both relative and absolute calibrations of mosaic CCD cameras.

  7. Sounding rocket measurement of the absolute solar EUV flux utilizing a silicon photodiode

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ogawa, H. S.; Mcmullin, D.; Judge, D. L.; Canfield, L. R.

    1990-01-01

    A newly developed stable and high quantum efficiency silicon photodiode was used to obtain an accurate measurement of the integrated absolute magnitude of the solar extreme UV photon flux in the spectral region between 50 and 800 A. The adjusted daily 10.7-cm solar radio flux and sunspot number were 168.4 and 121, respectively. The unattenuated absolute value of the solar EUV flux at 1 AU in the specified wavelength region was 6.81 x 10 to the 10th photons/sq cm per s. Based on a nominal probable error of 7 percent for National Institute of Standards and Technology detector efficiency measurements in the 50- to 500-A region (5 percent on longer wavelength measurements between 500 and 1216 A), and based on experimental errors associated with the present rocket instrumentation and analysis, a conservative total error estimate of about 14 percent is assigned to the absolute integral solar flux obtained.

  8. Harmonising and linking biomedical and clinical data across disparate data archives to enable integrative cross-biobank research

    PubMed Central

    Spjuth, Ola; Krestyaninova, Maria; Hastings, Janna; Shen, Huei-Yi; Heikkinen, Jani; Waldenberger, Melanie; Langhammer, Arnulf; Ladenvall, Claes; Esko, Tõnu; Persson, Mats-Åke; Heggland, Jon; Dietrich, Joern; Ose, Sandra; Gieger, Christian; Ried, Janina S; Peters, Annette; Fortier, Isabel; de Geus, Eco JC; Klovins, Janis; Zaharenko, Linda; Willemsen, Gonneke; Hottenga, Jouke-Jan; Litton, Jan-Eric; Karvanen, Juha; Boomsma, Dorret I; Groop, Leif; Rung, Johan; Palmgren, Juni; Pedersen, Nancy L; McCarthy, Mark I; van Duijn, Cornelia M; Hveem, Kristian; Metspalu, Andres; Ripatti, Samuli; Prokopenko, Inga; Harris, Jennifer R

    2016-01-01

    A wealth of biospecimen samples are stored in modern globally distributed biobanks. Biomedical researchers worldwide need to be able to combine the available resources to improve the power of large-scale studies. A prerequisite for this effort is to be able to search and access phenotypic, clinical and other information about samples that are currently stored at biobanks in an integrated manner. However, privacy issues together with heterogeneous information systems and the lack of agreed-upon vocabularies have made specimen searching across multiple biobanks extremely challenging. We describe three case studies where we have linked samples and sample descriptions in order to facilitate global searching of available samples for research. The use cases include the ENGAGE (European Network for Genetic and Genomic Epidemiology) consortium comprising at least 39 cohorts, the SUMMIT (surrogate markers for micro- and macro-vascular hard endpoints for innovative diabetes tools) consortium and a pilot for data integration between a Swedish clinical health registry and a biobank. We used the Sample avAILability (SAIL) method for data linking: first, created harmonised variables and then annotated and made searchable information on the number of specimens available in individual biobanks for various phenotypic categories. By operating on this categorised availability data we sidestep many obstacles related to privacy that arise when handling real values and show that harmonised and annotated records about data availability across disparate biomedical archives provide a key methodological advance in pre-analysis exchange of information between biobanks, that is, during the project planning phase. PMID:26306643

  9. Harmonising and linking biomedical and clinical data across disparate data archives to enable integrative cross-biobank research.

    PubMed

    Spjuth, Ola; Krestyaninova, Maria; Hastings, Janna; Shen, Huei-Yi; Heikkinen, Jani; Waldenberger, Melanie; Langhammer, Arnulf; Ladenvall, Claes; Esko, Tõnu; Persson, Mats-Åke; Heggland, Jon; Dietrich, Joern; Ose, Sandra; Gieger, Christian; Ried, Janina S; Peters, Annette; Fortier, Isabel; de Geus, Eco J C; Klovins, Janis; Zaharenko, Linda; Willemsen, Gonneke; Hottenga, Jouke-Jan; Litton, Jan-Eric; Karvanen, Juha; Boomsma, Dorret I; Groop, Leif; Rung, Johan; Palmgren, Juni; Pedersen, Nancy L; McCarthy, Mark I; van Duijn, Cornelia M; Hveem, Kristian; Metspalu, Andres; Ripatti, Samuli; Prokopenko, Inga; Harris, Jennifer R

    2016-04-01

    A wealth of biospecimen samples are stored in modern globally distributed biobanks. Biomedical researchers worldwide need to be able to combine the available resources to improve the power of large-scale studies. A prerequisite for this effort is to be able to search and access phenotypic, clinical and other information about samples that are currently stored at biobanks in an integrated manner. However, privacy issues together with heterogeneous information systems and the lack of agreed-upon vocabularies have made specimen searching across multiple biobanks extremely challenging. We describe three case studies where we have linked samples and sample descriptions in order to facilitate global searching of available samples for research. The use cases include the ENGAGE (European Network for Genetic and Genomic Epidemiology) consortium comprising at least 39 cohorts, the SUMMIT (surrogate markers for micro- and macro-vascular hard endpoints for innovative diabetes tools) consortium and a pilot for data integration between a Swedish clinical health registry and a biobank. We used the Sample avAILability (SAIL) method for data linking: first, created harmonised variables and then annotated and made searchable information on the number of specimens available in individual biobanks for various phenotypic categories. By operating on this categorised availability data we sidestep many obstacles related to privacy that arise when handling real values and show that harmonised and annotated records about data availability across disparate biomedical archives provide a key methodological advance in pre-analysis exchange of information between biobanks, that is, during the project planning phase. PMID:26306643

  10. Harmonising and linking biomedical and clinical data across disparate data archives to enable integrative cross-biobank research.

    PubMed

    Spjuth, Ola; Krestyaninova, Maria; Hastings, Janna; Shen, Huei-Yi; Heikkinen, Jani; Waldenberger, Melanie; Langhammer, Arnulf; Ladenvall, Claes; Esko, Tõnu; Persson, Mats-Åke; Heggland, Jon; Dietrich, Joern; Ose, Sandra; Gieger, Christian; Ried, Janina S; Peters, Annette; Fortier, Isabel; de Geus, Eco J C; Klovins, Janis; Zaharenko, Linda; Willemsen, Gonneke; Hottenga, Jouke-Jan; Litton, Jan-Eric; Karvanen, Juha; Boomsma, Dorret I; Groop, Leif; Rung, Johan; Palmgren, Juni; Pedersen, Nancy L; McCarthy, Mark I; van Duijn, Cornelia M; Hveem, Kristian; Metspalu, Andres; Ripatti, Samuli; Prokopenko, Inga; Harris, Jennifer R

    2016-04-01

    A wealth of biospecimen samples are stored in modern globally distributed biobanks. Biomedical researchers worldwide need to be able to combine the available resources to improve the power of large-scale studies. A prerequisite for this effort is to be able to search and access phenotypic, clinical and other information about samples that are currently stored at biobanks in an integrated manner. However, privacy issues together with heterogeneous information systems and the lack of agreed-upon vocabularies have made specimen searching across multiple biobanks extremely challenging. We describe three case studies where we have linked samples and sample descriptions in order to facilitate global searching of available samples for research. The use cases include the ENGAGE (European Network for Genetic and Genomic Epidemiology) consortium comprising at least 39 cohorts, the SUMMIT (surrogate markers for micro- and macro-vascular hard endpoints for innovative diabetes tools) consortium and a pilot for data integration between a Swedish clinical health registry and a biobank. We used the Sample avAILability (SAIL) method for data linking: first, created harmonised variables and then annotated and made searchable information on the number of specimens available in individual biobanks for various phenotypic categories. By operating on this categorised availability data we sidestep many obstacles related to privacy that arise when handling real values and show that harmonised and annotated records about data availability across disparate biomedical archives provide a key methodological advance in pre-analysis exchange of information between biobanks, that is, during the project planning phase.

  11. Cross-scale interactions, legacies, and spatial connectivity: integrating time and space to predict post-disturbance response across scales

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peters, D. P.; Duniway, M.; Browning, D. M.; Yao, J.; Pillsbury, F. C.; Anderson, J.; Havstad, K.

    2011-12-01

    Emergent properties and cross-scale interactions are important in driving landscape-scale dynamics during a disturbance event, such as wildfire. We used these concepts related to changing pattern-process relationships across scales to explain ecological responses following disturbance that resulted in a state change in the Chihuahuan Desert. Our objective was to provide a mechanistic understanding for a large-scale perennial grass recruitment event that was unprecedented over the 100-year history of the Jornada ARS-LTER research site in southern New Mexico. This recruitment event occurred following a sequence of wet years (2004-2008) in an area that experienced gradual shrub invasion (1915-1984) and rapid coppice dune formation (1985-2000) followed by the current stable shrubland state. Long-term observations show that this grass pulse resulted in a significant increase in primary production that could not be explained by historic patterns in rainfall amount alone. In addition, a previous wet sequence of years (1983-1988) did not result in a similar broad-scale recruitment of grasses. We used multiple, long-term datasets and a model of soil water dynamics to test three scale-dependent hypotheses to explain this larger-than-expected production of grasses in the second wet period compared to the first: (1) differences in rainfall seasonality and event size affected a sequence of plant-scale processes, (2) variation in animal abundance affected plant-to-patch scale processes, and (3) differences in soil stability affected patch-scale erosional-depositional processes and spatial connectivity among patches. Our results show that complex interactions between plant- and patch-scale processes and water availability can generate unexpected landscape-scale dynamics following disturbance. A sequence of events influenced by historic legacies and current conditions interact with vegetation-soil feedbacks at plant to patch scales to generate emergent behavior at the landscape

  12. A Unified Multi-scale Model for Cross-Scale Evaluation and Integration of Hydrological and Biogeochemical Processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, C.; Yang, X.; Bailey, V. L.; Bond-Lamberty, B. P.; Hinkle, C.

    2013-12-01

    Mathematical representations of hydrological and biogeochemical processes in soil, plant, aquatic, and atmospheric systems vary with scale. Process-rich models are typically used to describe hydrological and biogeochemical processes at the pore and small scales, while empirical, correlation approaches are often used at the watershed and regional scales. A major challenge for multi-scale modeling is that water flow, biogeochemical processes, and reactive transport are described using different physical laws and/or expressions at the different scales. For example, the flow is governed by the Navier-Stokes equations at the pore-scale in soils, by the Darcy law in soil columns and aquifer, and by the Navier-Stokes equations again in open water bodies (ponds, lake, river) and atmosphere surface layer. This research explores whether the physical laws at the different scales and in different physical domains can be unified to form a unified multi-scale model (UMSM) to systematically investigate the cross-scale, cross-domain behavior of fundamental processes at different scales. This presentation will discuss our research on the concept, mathematical equations, and numerical execution of the UMSM. Three-dimensional, multi-scale hydrological processes at the Disney Wilderness Preservation (DWP) site, Florida will be used as an example for demonstrating the application of the UMSM. In this research, the UMSM was used to simulate hydrological processes in rooting zones at the pore and small scales including water migration in soils under saturated and unsaturated conditions, root-induced hydrological redistribution, and role of rooting zone biogeochemical properties (e.g., root exudates and microbial mucilage) on water storage and wetting/draining. The small scale simulation results were used to estimate effective water retention properties in soil columns that were superimposed on the bulk soil water retention properties at the DWP site. The UMSM parameterized from smaller

  13. Bioinformatics resource manager v2.3: an integrated software environment for systems biology with microRNA and cross-species analysis tools

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are noncoding RNAs that direct post-transcriptional regulation of protein coding genes. Recent studies have shown miRNAs are important for controlling many biological processes, including nervous system development, and are highly conserved across species. Given their importance, computational tools are necessary for analysis, interpretation and integration of high-throughput (HTP) miRNA data in an increasing number of model species. The Bioinformatics Resource Manager (BRM) v2.3 is a software environment for data management, mining, integration and functional annotation of HTP biological data. In this study, we report recent updates to BRM for miRNA data analysis and cross-species comparisons across datasets. Results BRM v2.3 has the capability to query predicted miRNA targets from multiple databases, retrieve potential regulatory miRNAs for known genes, integrate experimentally derived miRNA and mRNA datasets, perform ortholog mapping across species, and retrieve annotation and cross-reference identifiers for an expanded number of species. Here we use BRM to show that developmental exposure of zebrafish to 30 uM nicotine from 6–48 hours post fertilization (hpf) results in behavioral hyperactivity in larval zebrafish and alteration of putative miRNA gene targets in whole embryos at developmental stages that encompass early neurogenesis. We show typical workflows for using BRM to integrate experimental zebrafish miRNA and mRNA microarray datasets with example retrievals for zebrafish, including pathway annotation and mapping to human ortholog. Functional analysis of differentially regulated (p<0.05) gene targets in BRM indicates that nicotine exposure disrupts genes involved in neurogenesis, possibly through misregulation of nicotine-sensitive miRNAs. Conclusions BRM provides the ability to mine complex data for identification of candidate miRNAs or pathways that drive phenotypic outcome and, therefore, is a useful hypothesis

  14. Integrative cross-omics analysis in primary mouse hepatocytes unravels mechanisms of cyclosporin A-induced hepatotoxicity.

    PubMed

    Van den Hof, Wim F P M; Van Summeren, Anke; Lommen, Arjen; Coonen, Maarten L J; Brauers, Karen; van Herwijnen, Marcel; Wodzig, Will K W H; Kleinjans, Jos C S

    2014-10-01

    The liver is responsible for drug metabolism and drug-induced hepatotoxicity is the most frequent reason for drug withdrawal, indicating that better pre-clinical toxicity tests are needed. In order to bypass animal models for toxicity screening, we exposed primary mouse hepatocytes for exploring the prototypical hepatotoxicant cyclosporin A. To elucidate the mechanisms underlying cyclosporin A-induced hepatotoxicity, we analyzed expression levels of proteins, mRNAs, microRNAs and metabolites. Integrative analysis of transcriptomics and proteomics showed that protein disulfide isomerase family A, member 4 was up-regulated on both the protein level and mRNA level. This protein is involved in protein folding and secretion in the endoplasmic reticulum. Furthermore, the microRNA mmu-miR-182-5p which is predicted to interact with the mRNA of this protein, was also differentially expressed, further emphasizing endoplasmic reticulum stress as important event in drug-induced toxicity. To further investigate the interaction between the significantly expressed proteins, a network was created including genes and microRNAs known to interact with these proteins and this network was used to visualize the experimental data. In total 6 clusters could be distinguished which appeared to be involved in several toxicity related processes, including alteration of protein folding and secretion in the endoplasmic reticulum. Metabonomic analyses resulted in 5 differentially expressed metabolites, indicative of an altered glucose, lipid and cholesterol homeostasis which can be related to cholestasis. Single and integrative analyses of transcriptomics, proteomics and metabonomics reveal mechanisms underlying cyclosporin A-induced cholestasis demonstrating that endoplasmic reticulum stress and the unfolded protein response are important processes in drug-induced liver toxicity.

  15. Cross sections relevant to gamma ray astronomy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dyer, P.; Bodansky, D.; Maxson, D. R.

    1978-01-01

    Gamma-ray production cross sections were measured for protons and alpha particles incident on targets consisting of nuclei of high cosmic abundance: C-12, N-14, O-16, Ne-20, Mg-24, Si-28 and Fe-56. Solid or gaseous targets were bombarded by monoenergetic beams of protons and alpha particles, and gamma rays were detected by two Ge(Li) detectors. The proton energy for each target was varied from threshold to about 24 MeV (lab); for alphas the range was from threshold to about 27 MeV. For most transitions, it was possible to measure the total cross section by placing the detectors at 30.5 deg and 109.9 deg where the fourth-order Legendre polynomial is zero. For the case of the 16O (E sub gamma = 6.13 MeV, multipolarity E3) cross sections, yields were measured at four angles. Absolute cross sections were obtained by integrating the beam current and by measuring target thicknesses and detector efficiencies. The Ge(Li) detector resolution was a few keV (although the peak widths were greater, due to Doppler broadening).

  16. Low cost varying synthetic wavelength technique for absolute distance measurement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Le Floch, S.; Salvadé, Y.

    2010-04-01

    A new low-cost superheterodyne configuration, without acousto-optic modulator, is applied to the two-wavelength interferometry for absolute distance measurement. The principle relies on a synchronized frequency sweep of two optical signals, but with different frequency excursions. The frequency difference between the two optical waves is highly accurate. This is realized by injecting a frequency modulated laser signal in an intensity modulator that is biased at halfwave voltage and driven by a digitally swept radio-frequency signal between 13 and 15 GHz. This latter is a continuous up and down ramp. The two synchronized optical signals emerging from the modulator produce in a Michelson interferometer a distance dependent superheterodyne signal, with a variable synthetic wavelength of about 10 mm. The superheterodyne frequency depends linearly on distance and on the radio-frequency excursion. The integration time for a distance measurement point corresponds to the duration of single sweep (i.e. one millisecond in our case). Absolute distance measurements from 1 to 15 meters yield an accuracy of +/-50 μm, showing the validity of the technique.

  17. Absolute Temperature Monitoring Using RF Radiometry in the MRI Scanner.

    PubMed

    El-Sharkawy, Abdel-Monem M; Sotiriadis, Paul P; Bottomley, Paul A; Atalar, Ergin

    2006-11-01

    Temperature detection using microwave radiometry has proven value for noninvasively measuring the absolute temperature of tissues inside the body. However, current clinical radiometers operate in the gigahertz range, which limits their depth of penetration. We have designed and built a noninvasive radiometer which operates at radio frequencies (64 MHz) with ∼100-kHz bandwidth, using an external RF loop coil as a thermal detector. The core of the radiometer is an accurate impedance measurement and automatic matching circuit of 0.05 Ω accuracy to compensate for any load variations. The radiometer permits temperature measurements with accuracy of ±0.1°K, over a tested physiological range of 28° C-40° C in saline phantoms whose electric properties match those of tissue. Because 1.5 T magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scanners also operate at 64 MHz, we demonstrate the feasibility of integrating our radiometer with an MRI scanner to monitor RF power deposition and temperature dosimetry, obtaining coarse, spatially resolved, absolute thermal maps in the physiological range. We conclude that RF radiometry offers promise as a direct, noninvasive method of monitoring tissue heating during MRI studies and thereby providing an independent means of verifying patient-safe operation. Other potential applications include titration of hyper- and hypo-therapies. PMID:18026562

  18. Simulation of absolute amplitudes of ultrasound signals using equivalent circuits.

    PubMed

    Johansson, Jonny; Martinsson, Pär-Erik; Delsing, Jerker

    2007-10-01

    Equivalent circuits for piezoelectric devices and ultrasonic transmission media can be used to cosimulate electronics and ultrasound parts in simulators originally intended for electronics. To achieve efficient system-level optimization, it is important to simulate correct, absolute amplitude of the ultrasound signal in the system, as this determines the requirements on the electronics regarding dynamic range, circuit noise, and power consumption. This paper presents methods to achieve correct, absolute amplitude of an ultrasound signal in a simulation of a pulse-echo system using equivalent circuits. This is achieved by taking into consideration loss due to diffraction and the effect of the cable that connects the electronics and the piezoelectric transducer. The conductive loss in the transmission line that models the propagation media of the ultrasound pulse is used to model the loss due to diffraction. Results show that the simulated amplitude of the echo follows measured values well in both near and far fields, with an offset of about 10%. The use of a coaxial cable introduces inductance and capacitance that affect the amplitude of a received echo. Amplitude variations of 60% were observed when the cable length was varied between 0.07 m and 2.3 m, with simulations predicting similar variations. The high precision in the achieved results show that electronic design and system optimization can rely on system simulations alone. This will simplify the development of integrated electronics aimed at ultrasound systems. PMID:18019234

  19. Layered Signaling Regulatory Networks Analysis of Gene Expression Involved in Malignant Tumorigenesis of Non-Resolving Ulcerative Colitis via Integration of Cross-Study Microarray Profiles

    PubMed Central

    Fan, Shengjun; Pan, Zhenyu; Geng, Qiang; Li, Xin; Wang, Yefan; An, Yu; Xu, Yan; Tie, Lu; Pan, Yan; Li, Xuejun

    2013-01-01

    Background Ulcerative colitis (UC) was the most frequently diagnosed inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) and closely linked to colorectal carcinogenesis. By far, the underlying mechanisms associated with the disease are still unclear. With the increasing accumulation of microarray gene expression profiles, it is profitable to gain a systematic perspective based on gene regulatory networks to better elucidate the roles of genes associated with disorders. However, a major challenge for microarray data analysis is the integration of multiple-studies generated by different groups. Methodology/Principal Findings In this study, firstly, we modeled a signaling regulatory network associated with colorectal cancer (CRC) initiation via integration of cross-study microarray expression data sets using Empirical Bayes (EB) algorithm. Secondly, a manually curated human cancer signaling map was established via comprehensive retrieval of the publicly available repositories. Finally, the co-differently-expressed genes were manually curated to portray the layered signaling regulatory networks. Results Overall, the remodeled signaling regulatory networks were separated into four major layers including extracellular, membrane, cytoplasm and nucleus, which led to the identification of five core biological processes and four signaling pathways associated with colorectal carcinogenesis. As a result, our biological interpretation highlighted the importance of EGF/EGFR signaling pathway, EPO signaling pathway, T cell signal transduction and members of the BCR signaling pathway, which were responsible for the malignant transition of CRC from the benign UC to the aggressive one. Conclusions The present study illustrated a standardized normalization approach for cross-study microarray expression data sets. Our model for signaling networks construction was based on the experimentally-supported interaction and microarray co-expression modeling. Pathway-based signaling regulatory networks analysis

  20. Complex angular momentum theory of state-to-state integral cross sections: resonance effects in the F + HD → HF(v' = 3) + D reaction.

    PubMed

    Sokolovski, D; Akhmatskaya, E; Echeverría-Arrondo, C; De Fazio, D

    2015-07-28

    State-to-state reactive integral cross sections (ICSs) are often affected by quantum mechanical resonances, especially near a reactive threshold. An ICS is usually obtained by summing partial waves at a given value of energy. For this reason, the knowledge of pole positions and residues in the complex energy plane is not sufficient for a quantitative description of the patterns produced by resonance. Such description is available in terms of the poles of an S-matrix element in the complex plane of the total angular momentum. The approach was recently implemented in a computer code ICS_Regge, available in the public domain [Comput. Phys. Commun., 2014, 185, 2127]. In this paper, we employ the ICS_Regge package to analyse in detail, for the first time, the resonance patterns predicted for integral cross sections (ICSs) of the benchmark F + HD → HF(v' = 3) + D reaction. The v = 0, j = 0, Ω = 0 → v' = 3, j' = 0, 1, 2, and Ω' = 0, 1, 2 transitions are studied for collision energies from 58.54 to 197.54 meV. For these energies, we find several resonances, whose contributions to the ICS vary from symmetric and asymmetric Fano shapes to smooth sinusoidal Regge oscillations. Complex energies of metastable states and Regge pole positions and residues are found by Padé reconstruction of the scattering matrix elements. The accuracy of the ICS_Regge code, relation between complex energies and Regge poles, various types of Regge trajectories, and the origin of the J-shifting approximation are also discussed.

  1. Quantum mechanical differential and integral cross sections for the C(1D) + H2(ν = 0, j = 0) → CH(ν', j') + H reaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shen, Zhitao; Cao, Jianwei; Bian, Wensheng

    2015-04-01

    Accurate quantum dynamics calculations for the C(1D) + H2 reaction are performed using a real wave packet approach with full Coriolis coupling. The newly constructed ZMB-a ab initio potential energy surface [Zhang et al., J. Chem. Phys. 140, 234301 (2014)] is used. The integral cross sections (ICSs), differential cross sections (DCSs), and product state distributions are obtained over a wide range of collision energies. In contrast to previous accurate quantum dynamics calculations on the reproducing kernel Hilbert space potential energy surface, the present total ICS is much larger at low collision energies, yielding larger rate coefficients in better agreement with experiment and with slight inverse temperature dependence. Meanwhile, interesting nonstatistical behaviors in the DCSs are revealed. In particular, the DCSs display strong oscillations with the collision energy; forward biased product angular distribution appears when only small J partial wave contributions are included; alternate forward and backward biases emerge with very small increments of collision energy; and the rotational state-resolved DCSs show strong oscillations with the scattering angle. Nevertheless, the total DCSs can be roughly regarded as backward-forward symmetric over the whole energy range and are in reasonably good agreement with the available experimental measurements.

  2. Quantum mechanical differential and integral cross sections for the C((1)D) + H2(ν = 0, j = 0) → CH(ν', j') + H reaction.

    PubMed

    Shen, Zhitao; Cao, Jianwei; Bian, Wensheng

    2015-04-28

    Accurate quantum dynamics calculations for the C((1)D) + H2 reaction are performed using a real wave packet approach with full Coriolis coupling. The newly constructed ZMB-a ab initio potential energy surface [Zhang et al., J. Chem. Phys. 140, 234301 (2014)] is used. The integral cross sections (ICSs), differential cross sections (DCSs), and product state distributions are obtained over a wide range of collision energies. In contrast to previous accurate quantum dynamics calculations on the reproducing kernel Hilbert space potential energy surface, the present total ICS is much larger at low collision energies, yielding larger rate coefficients in better agreement with experiment and with slight inverse temperature dependence. Meanwhile, interesting nonstatistical behaviors in the DCSs are revealed. In particular, the DCSs display strong oscillations with the collision energy; forward biased product angular distribution appears when only small J partial wave contributions are included; alternate forward and backward biases emerge with very small increments of collision energy; and the rotational state-resolved DCSs show strong oscillations with the scattering angle. Nevertheless, the total DCSs can be roughly regarded as backward-forward symmetric over the whole energy range and are in reasonably good agreement with the available experimental measurements.

  3. Geometric phase effects in the H+H2 reaction: quantum wave-packet calculations of integral and differential cross sections.

    PubMed

    Juanes-Marcos, Juan Carlos; Althorpe, Stuart C

    2005-05-22

    We report quantum wave-packet calculations on the H+H(2) reaction, aimed at resolving the controversy over whether geometric phase (GP) effects can be observed in this reaction. Two sets of calculations are reported of the state-to-state reaction probabilities, and integral and differential cross sections (ICSs and DCSs). One set includes the GP using the vector potential approach of Mead and Truhlar; the other set neglects the phase. We obtain unequivocal agreement with recent results of Kendrick [J. Phys. Chem. A 107, 6739 (2003)], predicting GP effects in the state-to-state reaction probabilities, which cancel exactly on summing the partial waves to yield the ICS. Our results therefore contradict those of Kuppermann and Wu [Chem. Phys. Lett. 349 537 (2001)], which predicted pronounced GP effects in the cross sections. We also agree with Kendrick in predicting that there are no significant GP effects in the full DCS at energies below 1.8 eV, and in the partial (0

  4. Calculation of state-to-state differential and integral cross sections for atom-diatom reactions with transition-state wave packets.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Bin; Sun, Zhigang; Guo, Hua

    2014-06-21

    A recently proposed transition-state wave packet method [R. Welsch, F. Huarte-Larrañaga, and U. Manthe, J. Chem. Phys. 136, 064117 (2012)] provides an efficient and intuitive framework to study reactive quantum scattering at the state-to-state level. It propagates a few transition-state wave packets, defined by the eigenfunctions of the low-rank thermal flux operator located near the transition state, into the asymptotic regions of the reactant and product arrangement channels separately using the corresponding Jacobi coordinates. The entire S-matrix can then be assembled from the corresponding flux-flux cross-correlation functions for all arrangement channels. Since the transition-state wave packets can be defined in a relatively small region, its transformation into either the reactant or product Jacobi coordinates is accurate and efficient. Furthermore, the grid/basis for the propagation, including the maximum helicity quantum number K, is much smaller than that required in conventional wave packet treatments of state-to-state reactive scattering. This approach is implemented for atom-diatom reactions using a time-dependent wave packet method and applied to the H + D2 reaction with all partial waves. Excellent agreement with benchmark integral and differential cross sections is achieved.

  5. Calculation of state-to-state differential and integral cross sections for atom-diatom reactions with transition-state wave packets

    SciTech Connect

    Zhao, Bin; Sun, Zhigang E-mail: hguo@unm.edu; Guo, Hua E-mail: hguo@unm.edu

    2014-06-21

    A recently proposed transition-state wave packet method [R. Welsch, F. Huarte-Larrañaga, and U. Manthe, J. Chem. Phys. 136, 064117 (2012)] provides an efficient and intuitive framework to study reactive quantum scattering at the state-to-state level. It propagates a few transition-state wave packets, defined by the eigenfunctions of the low-rank thermal flux operator located near the transition state, into the asymptotic regions of the reactant and product arrangement channels separately using the corresponding Jacobi coordinates. The entire S-matrix can then be assembled from the corresponding flux-flux cross-correlation functions for all arrangement channels. Since the transition-state wave packets can be defined in a relatively small region, its transformation into either the reactant or product Jacobi coordinates is accurate and efficient. Furthermore, the grid/basis for the propagation, including the maximum helicity quantum number K, is much smaller than that required in conventional wave packet treatments of state-to-state reactive scattering. This approach is implemented for atom-diatom reactions using a time-dependent wave packet method and applied to the H + D{sub 2} reaction with all partial waves. Excellent agreement with benchmark integral and differential cross sections is achieved.

  6. SU-E-I-25: Quantification of Coronary Artery Cross-Sectional Area in CT Angiography Using Integrated Density: A Simulation Study

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, T; Ding, H; Lipinski, J; Molloi, S

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: To develop a physics-based model for accurate quantification of the cross-sectional area (CSA) of coronary arteries in CT angiography by measuring the integrated density to account for the partial volume effect. Methods: In this technique the integrated density of the object as compared with its local background is measured to account for the partial volume effect. Normal vessels were simulated as circles with diameters in the range of 0.1–3mm. Diseased vessels were simulated as 2, 3, and 4mm diameter vessels with 10–90% area stenosis, created by inserting circular plaques. A simplified two material model was used with the lumen as 8mg/ml Iodine and background as lipid. The contrast-to-noise ratio between lumen and background was approximately 26. Linear fits to the known CSA were calculated. The precision and accuracy of the measurement were quantified using the root-mean-square fit deviations (RMSD) and errors to the known CSA (RMSE). Results compared to manual segmentation of the vessel lumen. To assess the impact of random variations, coefficients of variation (CV) from 10 simulations for each vessel were computed to determine reliability. Measurements with CVs less than 10% were considered reliable. Results: For normal vessels, the precision and accuracy of the integrated density technique were 0.12mm{sup 2} and 0.28mm{sup 2}, respectively. The corresponding results for manual segmentation were 0.27mm{sup 2} and 0.43mm{sup 2}. For diseased vessels, the precision and accuracy of the integrated density technique were 0.14mm{sup 2} and 0.19mm{sup 2}. Corresponding results for manual segmentation were 0.42mm{sup 2} and 0.71mm{sup 2}. Reliable CSAs were obtained for normal vessels with diameters larger than 1 mm and for diseased vessels with area as low as 1.26mm2. Conclusion: The CSA based on integrated density showed improved precision and accuracy as compared with manual segmentation in simulation. These results indicate the potential of using

  7. Improve the Absolute Accuracy of Ozone Intensities in the 9-11 μm Region via Mw/ir Multi-Wavelength Spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Shanshan; Drouin, Brian

    2016-06-01

    Ozone (O_3) is crucial for studies of air quality, human and crop health, and radiative forcing. Spectroscopic remote sensing techniques have been extensively employed to investigate ozone globally and regionally. Infrared intensities of ≤1% accuracy are desired by the remote sensing community. The accuracy of the current state-of-the-art infrared ozone intensities is on the order of 4-10%, resulting in ad hoc intensity scaling factors for consistent atmospheric retrievals. The large uncertainties on the infrared ozone intensities arise from the fact that pure ozone is very difficult to generate and sustain in the laboratory. Best estimates have employed IR/UV cross beam experiments to determine the accurate O_3 volume mixing ratio of the sample through its standard cross section value at 254 nm. This presentation reports our effort to improve the absolute accuracy of ozone intensities in the 9-11 μm region via a transfer of the precision of the rotational dipole moment onto the infrared measurement (MW/IR). Our approach was to use MW/IR cross beam experiments and determine the O_3 mixing ratio through alternately measuring pure rotation ozone lines from 692 to 779 GHz. The uncertainty of these pure rotation line intensities is better than 0.1%. The sample cell was a slow flow cross cell and the total pressure inside the sample cell was maintained constant through a proportional-integral-derivative (PID) flow control. Five infrared O_3 spectra were obtained, with a path length of 3.74 m, pressures ranging from 30 to 120 mTorr, and mixing ratio ranging from 0.5 to 0.9. A multi spectrum fitting technique was employed to fit all the FTS spectra simultaneously. The results show that we can determine intensities of the 9.6μm band with absolute accuracy better than 4%.

  8. Absolute Radiometric Calibration of EUNIS-06

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thomas, R. J.; Rabin, D. M.; Kent, B. J.; Paustian, W.

    2007-01-01

    The Extreme-Ultraviolet Normal-Incidence Spectrometer (EUNIS) is a soundingrocket payload that obtains imaged high-resolution spectra of individual solar features, providing information about the Sun's corona and upper transition region. Shortly after its successful initial flight last year, a complete end-to-end calibration was carried out to determine the instrument's absolute radiometric response over its Longwave bandpass of 300 - 370A. The measurements were done at the Rutherford-Appleton Laboratory (RAL) in England, using the same vacuum facility and EUV radiation source used in the pre-flight calibrations of both SOHO/CDS and Hinode/EIS, as well as in three post-flight calibrations of our SERTS sounding rocket payload, the precursor to EUNIS. The unique radiation source provided by the Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt (PTB) had been calibrated to an absolute accuracy of 7% (l-sigma) at 12 wavelengths covering our bandpass directly against the Berlin electron storage ring BESSY, which is itself a primary radiometric source standard. Scans of the EUNIS aperture were made to determine the instrument's absolute spectral sensitivity to +- 25%, considering all sources of error, and demonstrate that EUNIS-06 was the most sensitive solar E W spectrometer yet flown. The results will be matched against prior calibrations which relied on combining measurements of individual optical components, and on comparisons with theoretically predicted 'insensitive' line ratios. Coordinated observations were made during the EUNIS-06 flight by SOHO/CDS and EIT that will allow re-calibrations of those instruments as well. In addition, future EUNIS flights will provide similar calibration updates for TRACE, Hinode/EIS, and STEREO/SECCHI/EUVI.

  9. Clock time is absolute and universal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shen, Xinhang

    2015-09-01

    A critical error is found in the Special Theory of Relativity (STR): mixing up the concepts of the STR abstract time of a reference frame and the displayed time of a physical clock, which leads to use the properties of the abstract time to predict time dilation on physical clocks and all other physical processes. Actually, a clock can never directly measure the abstract time, but can only record the result of a physical process during a period of the abstract time such as the number of cycles of oscillation which is the multiplication of the abstract time and the frequency of oscillation. After Lorentz Transformation, the abstract time of a reference frame expands by a factor gamma, but the frequency of a clock decreases by the same factor gamma, and the resulting multiplication i.e. the displayed time of a moving clock remains unchanged. That is, the displayed time of any physical clock is an invariant of Lorentz Transformation. The Lorentz invariance of the displayed times of clocks can further prove within the framework of STR our earth based standard physical time is absolute, universal and independent of inertial reference frames as confirmed by both the physical fact of the universal synchronization of clocks on the GPS satellites and clocks on the earth, and the theoretical existence of the absolute and universal Galilean time in STR which has proved that time dilation and space contraction are pure illusions of STR. The existence of the absolute and universal time in STR has directly denied that the reference frame dependent abstract time of STR is the physical time, and therefore, STR is wrong and all its predictions can never happen in the physical world.

  10. Achieving Climate Change Absolute Accuracy in Orbit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wielicki, Bruce A.; Young, D. F.; Mlynczak, M. G.; Thome, K. J; Leroy, S.; Corliss, J.; Anderson, J. G.; Ao, C. O.; Bantges, R.; Best, F.; Bowman, K.; Brindley, H.; Butler, J. J.; Collins, W.; Dykema, J. A.; Doelling, D. R.; Feldman, D. R.; Fox, N.; Huang, X.; Holz, R.; Huang, Y.; Jennings, D.; Jin, Z.; Johnson, D. G.; Jucks, K.; Kato, S.; Kratz, D. P.; Liu, X.; Lukashin, C.; Mannucci, A. J.; Phojanamongkolkij, N.; Roithmayr, C. M.; Sandford, S.; Taylor, P. C.; Xiong, X.

    2013-01-01

    The Climate Absolute Radiance and Refractivity Observatory (CLARREO) mission will provide a calibration laboratory in orbit for the purpose of accurately measuring and attributing climate change. CLARREO measurements establish new climate change benchmarks with high absolute radiometric accuracy and high statistical confidence across a wide range of essential climate variables. CLARREO's inherently high absolute accuracy will be verified and traceable on orbit to Système Internationale (SI) units. The benchmarks established by CLARREO will be critical for assessing changes in the Earth system and climate model predictive capabilities for decades into the future as society works to meet the challenge of optimizing strategies for mitigating and adapting to climate change. The CLARREO benchmarks are derived from measurements of the Earth's thermal infrared spectrum (5-50 micron), the spectrum of solar radiation reflected by the Earth and its atmosphere (320-2300 nm), and radio occultation refractivity from which accurate temperature profiles are derived. The mission has the ability to provide new spectral fingerprints of climate change, as well as to provide the first orbiting radiometer with accuracy sufficient to serve as the reference transfer standard for other space sensors, in essence serving as a "NIST [National Institute of Standards and Technology] in orbit." CLARREO will greatly improve the accuracy and relevance of a wide range of space-borne instruments for decadal climate change. Finally, CLARREO has developed new metrics and methods for determining the accuracy requirements of climate observations for a wide range of climate variables and uncertainty sources. These methods should be useful for improving our understanding of observing requirements for most climate change observations.

  11. Fully Coriolis-coupled quantum studies of the H + O2 (upsilon i = 0-2, j i = 0,1) --> OH + O reaction on an accurate potential energy surface: integral cross sections and rate constants.

    PubMed

    Lin, Shi Ying; Sun, Zhigang; Guo, Hua; Zhang, Dong Hui; Honvault, Pascal; Xie, Daiqian; Lee, Soo-Y

    2008-01-31

    We present accurate quantum calculations of the integral cross section and rate constant for the H + O2 --> OH + O combustion reaction on a recently developed ab initio potential energy surface using parallelized time-dependent and Chebyshev wavepacket methods. Partial wave contributions up to J = 70 were computed with full Coriolis coupling, which enabled us to obtain the initial state-specified integral cross sections up to 2.0 eV of the collision energy and thermal rate constants up to 3000 K. The integral cross sections show a large reaction threshold due to the quantum endothermicity of the reaction, and they monotonically increase with the collision energy. As a result, the temperature dependence of the rate constant is of the Arrhenius type. In addition, it was found that reactivity is enhanced by reactant vibrational excitation. The calculated thermal rate constant shows a significant improvement over that obtained on the DMBE IV potential, but it still underestimates the experimental consensus.

  12. Absolute calibration of the Auger fluorescence detectors

    SciTech Connect

    Bauleo, P.; Brack, J.; Garrard, L.; Harton, J.; Knapik, R.; Meyhandan, R.; Rovero, A.C.; Tamashiro, A.; Warner, D.

    2005-07-01

    Absolute calibration of the Pierre Auger Observatory fluorescence detectors uses a light source at the telescope aperture. The technique accounts for the combined effects of all detector components in a single measurement. The calibrated 2.5 m diameter light source fills the aperture, providing uniform illumination to each pixel. The known flux from the light source and the response of the acquisition system give the required calibration for each pixel. In the lab, light source uniformity is studied using CCD images and the intensity is measured relative to NIST-calibrated photodiodes. Overall uncertainties are presently 12%, and are dominated by systematics.

  13. Absolute rate theories of epigenetic stability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walczak, Aleksandra M.; Onuchic, José N.; Wolynes, Peter G.

    2005-12-01

    Spontaneous switching events in most characterized genetic switches are rare, resulting in extremely stable epigenetic properties. We show how simple arguments lead to theories of the rate of such events much like the absolute rate theory of chemical reactions corrected by a transmission factor. Both the probability of the rare cellular states that allow epigenetic escape and the transmission factor depend on the rates of DNA binding and unbinding events and on the rates of protein synthesis and degradation. Different mechanisms of escape from the stable attractors occur in the nonadiabatic, weakly adiabatic, and strictly adiabatic regimes, characterized by the relative values of those input rates. rate theory | stochastic gene expression | gene switches

  14. Characterization of the DARA solar absolute radiometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Finsterle, W.; Suter, M.; Fehlmann, A.; Kopp, G.

    2011-12-01

    The Davos Absolute Radiometer (DARA) prototype is an Electrical Substitution Radiometer (ESR) which has been developed as a successor of the PMO6 type on future space missions and ground based TSI measurements. The DARA implements an improved thermal design of the cavity detector and heat sink assembly to minimize air-vacuum differences and to maximize thermal symmetry of measuring and compensating cavity. The DARA also employs an inverted viewing geometry to reduce internal stray light. We will report on the characterization and calibration experiments which were carried out at PMOD/WRC and LASP (TRF).

  15. Absolute Priority for a Vehicle in VANET

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shirani, Rostam; Hendessi, Faramarz; Montazeri, Mohammad Ali; Sheikh Zefreh, Mohammad

    In today's world, traffic jams waste hundreds of hours of our life. This causes many researchers try to resolve the problem with the idea of Intelligent Transportation System. For some applications like a travelling ambulance, it is important to reduce delay even for a second. In this paper, we propose a completely infrastructure-less approach for finding shortest path and controlling traffic light to provide absolute priority for an emergency vehicle. We use the idea of vehicular ad-hoc networking to reduce the imposed travelling time. Then, we simulate our proposed protocol and compare it with a centrally controlled traffic light system.

  16. Absolute method of measuring magnetic susceptibility

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Thorpe, A.; Senftle, F.E.

    1959-01-01

    An absolute method of standardization and measurement of the magnetic susceptibility of small samples is presented which can be applied to most techniques based on the Faraday method. The fact that the susceptibility is a function of the area under the curve of sample displacement versus distance of the magnet from the sample, offers a simple method of measuring the susceptibility without recourse to a standard sample. Typical results on a few substances are compared with reported values, and an error of less than 2% can be achieved. ?? 1959 The American Institute of Physics.

  17. Measurement of thermal neutron cross-sections and resonance integrals for 164Dy(n,γ) 165Dy and 180Hf(n,γ) 181Hf reactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cho, Hyun-Je; Kobayashi, Katsuhei; Yamamoto, Shuji; Seo, Kyung-Won; Hwang, Han Yull; Nha, Sang Kyun; Ko, Seung Kook

    2001-04-01

    The thermal neutron cross-sections for the 164Dy(n,γ) 165Dy and the 180Hf(n,γ) 181Hf reactions have been measured by the activation method at the heavy water thermal neutron facility of the Kyoto University Reactor, KUR. The results measured at 0.0253 eV are 2656±98 b for the 164Dy(n,γ) 165Dy reaction and 13.04±0.47 b for the 180Hf(n,γ) 181Hf reaction, respectively. The results have been obtained relative to the reference value of 98.65±0.09 b for the 197Au(n,γ) 198Au reaction. For dysprosium, most of the experimental data and the evaluated ones in ENDF/B-VI and JEF-2.2 are in good agreement with the present value. For hafnium, the previous measurements and the evaluated ones in ENDF/B-VI and JENDL-3.2 are in good agreement with the present result. The resonance integrals for the 164Dy(n,γ) 165Dy and the 180Hf(n,γ) 181Hf reactions have also been measured relative to the reference value of 1550±28 b for the 197Au(n,γ) 198Au reaction using a 1/ E standard neutron spectrum field of the Kinki University Reactor, UTR-KINKI. The present resonance integral for the 164Dy(n,γ) 165Dy reaction is 649±24 b, and the existing experimental and the evaluated data are distributed from 335 to 820 b. The present result for the 180Hf(n,γ) 181Hf reaction is 32.4±1.2 b, and most of the previous measurements and the evaluated values are close to the present measurement. Gryntakis et al. reported the resonance integrals for both reactions, whose results were also in good agreement with the measurements.

  18. Measurement of differential and integrated fiducial cross sections for Higgs boson production in the four-lepton decay channel in pp collisions at √{s}=7 and 8 TeV

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khachatryan, V.; Sirunyan, A. M.; Tumasyan, A.; Adam, W.; Asilar, E.; Bergauer, T.; Brandstetter, J.; Brondolin, E.; Dragicevic, M.; Erö, J.; Flechl, M.; Friedl, M.; Frühwirth, R.; Ghete, V. M.; Hartl, C.; Hörmann, N.; Hrubec, J.; Jeitler, M.; Knünz, V.; König, A.; Krammer, M.; Krätschmer, I.; Liko, D.; Matsushita, T.; Mikulec, I.; Rabady, D.; Rahbaran, B.; Rohringer, H.; Schieck, J.; Schöfbeck, R.; Strauss, J.; Treberer-Treberspurg, W.; Waltenberger, W.; Wulz, C.-E.; Mossolov, V.; Shumeiko, N.; Suarez Gonzalez, J.; Alderweireldt, S.; Cornelis, T.; de Wolf, E. A.; Janssen, X.; Knutsson, A.; Lauwers, J.; Luyckx, S.; van de Klundert, M.; van Haevermaet, H.; van Mechelen, P.; van Remortel, N.; van Spilbeeck, A.; Abu Zeid, S.; Blekman, F.; D'Hondt, J.; Daci, N.; de Bruyn, I.; Deroover, K.; Heracleous, N.; Keaveney, J.; Lowette, S.; Moreels, L.; Olbrechts, A.; Python, Q.; Strom, D.; Tavernier, S.; van Doninck, W.; van Mulders, P.; van Onsem, G. P.; van Parijs, I.; Barria, P.; Brun, H.; Caillol, C.; Clerbaux, B.; de Lentdecker, G.; Fasanella, G.; Favart, L.; Grebenyuk, A.; Karapostoli, G.; Lenzi, T.; Léonard, A.; Maerschalk, T.; Marinov, A.; Perniè, L.; Randle-Conde, A.; Seva, T.; Vander Velde, C.; Vanlaer, P.; Yonamine, R.; Zenoni, F.; Zhang, F.; Beernaert, K.; Benucci, L.; Cimmino, A.; Crucy, S.; Dobur, D.; Fagot, A.; Garcia, G.; Gul, M.; McCartin, J.; Ocampo Rios, A. A.; Poyraz, D.; Ryckbosch, D.; Salva, S.; Sigamani, M.; Tytgat, M.; van Driessche, W.; Yazgan, E.; Zaganidis, N.; Basegmez, S.; Beluffi, C.; Bondu, O.; Brochet, S.; Bruno, G.; Caudron, A.; Ceard, L.; da Silveira, G. G.; Delaere, C.; Favart, D.; Forthomme, L.; Giammanco, A.; Hollar, J.; Jafari, A.; Jez, P.; Komm, M.; Lemaitre, V.; Mertens, A.; Musich, M.; Nuttens, C.; Perrini, L.; Pin, A.; Piotrzkowski, K.; Popov, A.; Quertenmont, L.; Selvaggi, M.; Vidal Marono, M.; Beliy, N.; Hammad, G. H.; Aldá Júnior, W. L.; Alves, F. L.; Alves, G. A.; Brito, L.; Correa Martins Junior, M.; Hamer, M.; Hensel, C.; Mora Herrera, C.; Moraes, A.; Pol, M. E.; Rebello Teles, P.; Belchior Batista Das Chagas, E.; Carvalho, W.; Chinellato, J.; Custódio, A.; da Costa, E. M.; de Jesus Damiao, D.; de Oliveira Martins, C.; Fonseca de Souza, S.; Huertas Guativa, L. M.; Malbouisson, H.; Matos Figueiredo, D.; Mundim, L.; Nogima, H.; Prado da Silva, W. L.; Santoro, A.; Sznajder, A.; Tonelli Manganote, E. J.; Vilela Pereira, A.; Ahuja, S.; Bernardes, C. A.; de Souza Santos, A.; Dogra, S.; Fernandez Perez Tomei, T. R.; Gregores, E. M.; Mercadante, P. G.; Moon, C. S.; Novaes, S. F.; Padula, Sandra S.; Romero Abad, D.; Ruiz Vargas, J. C.; Aleksandrov, A.; Hadjiiska, R.; Iaydjiev, P.; Rodozov, M.; Stoykova, S.; Sultanov, G.; Vutova, M.; Dimitrov, A.; Glushkov, I.; Litov, L.; Pavlov, B.; Petkov, P.; Ahmad, M.; Bian, J. G.; Chen, G. M.; Chen, H. S.; Chen, M.; Cheng, T.; Du, R.; Jiang, C. H.; Plestina, R.; Romeo, F.; Shaheen, S. M.; Spiezia, A.; Tao, J.; Wang, C.; Wang, Z.; Zhang, H.; Asawatangtrakuldee, C.; Ban, Y.; Li, Q.; Liu, S.; Mao, Y.; Qian, S. J.; Wang, D.; Xu, Z.; Avila, C.; Cabrera, A.; Chaparro Sierra, L. F.; Florez, C.; Gomez, J. P.; Gomez Moreno, B.; Sanabria, J. C.; Godinovic, N.; Lelas, D.; Puljak, I.; Ribeiro Cipriano, P. M.; Antunovic, Z.; Kovac, M.; Brigljevic, V.; Kadija, K.; Luetic, J.; Micanovic, S.; Sudic, L.; Attikis, A.; Mavromanolakis, G.; Mousa, J.; Nicolaou, C.; Ptochos, F.; Razis, P. 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C.; Kotlinski, D.; Langenegger, U.; Renker, D.; Rohe, T.; Bachmair, F.; Bäni, L.; Bianchini, L.; Casal, B.; Dissertori, G.; Dittmar, M.; Donegà, M.; Eller, P.; Grab, C.; Heidegger, C.; Hits, D.; Hoss, J.; Kasieczka, G.; Lustermann, W.; Mangano, B.; Marionneau, M.; Martinez Ruiz Del Arbol, P.; Masciovecchio, M.; Meister, D.; Micheli, F.; Musella, P.; Nessi-Tedaldi, F.; Pandolfi, F.; Pata, J.; Pauss, F.; Perrozzi, L.; Quittnat, M.; Rossini, M.; Starodumov, A.; Takahashi, M.; Tavolaro, V. R.; Theofilatos, K.; Wallny, R.; Aarrestad, T. K.; Amsler, C.; Caminada, L.; Canelli, M. F.; Chiochia, V.; de Cosa, A.; Galloni, C.; Hinzmann, A.; Hreus, T.; Kilminster, B.; Lange, C.; Ngadiuba, J.; Pinna, D.; Robmann, P.; Ronga, F. J.; Salerno, D.; Yang, Y.; Cardaci, M.; Chen, K. H.; Doan, T. H.; Jain, Sh.; Khurana, R.; Konyushikhin, M.; Kuo, C. M.; Lin, W.; Lu, Y. J.; Yu, S. S.; Kumar, Arun; Bartek, R.; Chang, P.; Chang, Y. H.; Chang, Y. W.; Chao, Y.; Chen, K. F.; Chen, P. 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D.; Symonds, P.; Teodorescu, L.; Turner, M.; Borzou, A.; Call, K.; Dittmann, J.; Hatakeyama, K.; Liu, H.; Pastika, N.; Charaf, O.; Cooper, S. I.; Henderson, C.; Rumerio, P.; Arcaro, D.; Avetisyan, A.; Bose, T.; Fantasia, C.; Gastler, D.; Lawson, P.; Rankin, D.; Richardson, C.; Rohlf, J.; St. John, J.; Sulak, L.; Zou, D.; Alimena, J.; Berry, E.; Bhattacharya, S.; Cutts, D.; Dhingra, N.; Ferapontov, A.; Garabedian, A.; Hakala, J.; Heintz, U.; Laird, E.; Landsberg, G.; Mao, Z.; Narain, M.; Piperov, S.; Sagir, S.; Syarif, R.; Breedon, R.; Breto, G.; Calderon de La Barca Sanchez, M.; Chauhan, S.; Chertok, M.; Conway, J.; Conway, R.; Cox, P. T.; Erbacher, R.; Gardner, M.; Ko, W.; Lander, R.; Mulhearn, M.; Pellett, D.; Pilot, J.; Ricci-Tam, F.; Shalhout, S.; Smith, J.; Squires, M.; Stolp, D.; Tripathi, M.; Wilbur, S.; Yohay, R.; Cousins, R.; Everaerts, P.; Farrell, C.; Hauser, J.; Ignatenko, M.; Saltzberg, D.; Takasugi, E.; Valuev, V.; Weber, M.; Burt, K.; Clare, R.; Ellison, J.; Gary, J. W.; Hanson, G.; Heilman, J.; Ivova Paneva, M.; Jandir, P.; Kennedy, E.; Lacroix, F.; Long, O. R.; Luthra, A.; Malberti, M.; Olmedo Negrete, M.; Shrinivas, A.; Wei, H.; Wimpenny, S.; Yates, B. R.; Branson, J. G.; Cerati, G. B.; Cittolin, S.; D'Agnolo, R. T.; Derdzinski, M.; Holzner, A.; Kelley, R.; Klein, D.; Letts, J.; MacNeill, I.; Olivito, D.; Padhi, S.; Pieri, M.; Sani, M.; Sharma, V.; Simon, S.; Tadel, M.; Vartak, A.; Wasserbaech, S.; Welke, C.; Würthwein, F.; Yagil, A.; Zevi Della Porta, G.; Bradmiller-Feld, J.; Campagnari, C.; Dishaw, A.; Dutta, V.; Flowers, K.; Franco Sevilla, M.; Geffert, P.; George, C.; Golf, F.; Gouskos, L.; Gran, J.; Incandela, J.; McColl, N.; Mullin, S. D.; Richman, J.; Stuart, D.; Suarez, I.; West, C.; Yoo, J.; Anderson, D.; Apresyan, A.; Bornheim, A.; Bunn, J.; Chen, Y.; Duarte, J.; Mott, A.; Newman, H. B.; Pena, C.; Pierini, M.; Spiropulu, M.; Vlimant, J. R.; Xie, S.; Zhu, R. Y.; Andrews, M. B.; Azzolini, V.; Calamba, A.; Carlson, B.; Ferguson, T.; Paulini, M.; Russ, J.; Sun, M.; Vogel, H.; Vorobiev, I.; Cumalat, J. P.; Ford, W. T.; Gaz, A.; Jensen, F.; Johnson, A.; Krohn, M.; Mulholland, T.; Nauenberg, U.; Stenson, K.; Wagner, S. R.; Alexander, J.; Chatterjee, A.; Chaves, J.; Chu, J.; Dittmer, S.; Eggert, N.; Mirman, N.; Nicolas Kaufman, G.; Patterson, J. R.; Rinkevicius, A.; Ryd, A.; Skinnari, L.; Soffi, L.; Sun, W.; Tan, S. M.; Teo, W. D.; Thom, J.; Thompson, J.; Tucker, J.; Weng, Y.; Wittich, P.; Abdullin, S.; Albrow, M.; Apollinari, G.; Banerjee, S.; Bauerdick, L. A. T.; Beretvas, A.; Berryhill, J.; Bhat, P. C.; Bolla, G.; Burkett, K.; Butler, J. N.; Cheung, H. W. K.; Chlebana, F.; Cihangir, S.; Elvira, V. D.; Fisk, I.; Freeman, J.; Gottschalk, E.; Gray, L.; Green, D.; Grünendahl, S.; Gutsche, O.; Hanlon, J.; Hare, D.; Harris, R. M.; Hasegawa, S.; Hirschauer, J.; Hu, Z.; Jayatilaka, B.; Jindariani, S.; Johnson, M.; Joshi, U.; Jung, A. W.; Klima, B.; Kreis, B.; Kwan, S.; Lammel, S.; Linacre, J.; Lincoln, D.; Lipton, R.; Liu, T.; Lopes de Sá, R.; Lykken, J.; Maeshima, K.; Marraffino, J. M.; Martinez Outschoorn, V. I.; Maruyama, S.; Mason, D.; McBride, P.; Merkel, P.; Mishra, K.; Mrenna, S.; Nahn, S.; Newman-Holmes, C.; O'Dell, V.; Pedro, K.; Prokofyev, O.; Rakness, G.; Sexton-Kennedy, E.; Soha, A.; Spalding, W. J.; Spiegel, L.; Strobbe, N.; Taylor, L.; Tkaczyk, S.; Tran, N. V.; Uplegger, L.; Vaandering, E. W.; Vernieri, C.; Verzocchi, M.; Vidal, R.; Weber, H. A.; Whitbeck, A.; Yang, F.; Acosta, D.; Avery, P.; Bortignon, P.; Bourilkov, D.; Carnes, A.; Carver, M.; Curry, D.; Das, S.; Field, R. D.; Furic, I. K.; Gleyzer, S. V.; Hugon, J.; Konigsberg, J.; Korytov, A.; Low, J. F.; Ma, P.; Matchev, K.; Mei, H.; Milenovic, P.; Mitselmakher, G.; Rank, D.; Rossin, R.; Shchutska, L.; Snowball, M.; Sperka, D.; Terentyev, N.; Thomas, L.; Wang, J.; Wang, S.; Yelton, J.; Hewamanage, S.; Linn, S.; Markowitz, P.; Martinez, G.; Rodriguez, J. L.; Ackert, A.; Adams, J. R.; Adams, T.; Askew, A.; Bein, S.; Bochenek, J.; Diamond, B.; Haas, J.; Hagopian, S.; Hagopian, V.; Johnson, K. F.; Khatiwada, A.; Prosper, H.; Weinberg, M.; Baarmand, M. M.; Bhopatkar, V.; Colafranceschi, S.; Hohlmann, M.; Kalakhety, H.; Noonan, D.; Roy, T.; Yumiceva, F.; Adams, M. R.; Apanasevich, L.; Berry, D.; Betts, R. R.; Bucinskaite, I.; Cavanaugh, R.; Evdokimov, O.; Gauthier, L.; Gerber, C. E.; Hofman, D. J.; Kurt, P.; O'Brien, C.; Sandoval Gonzalez, I. D.; Silkworth, C.; Turner, P.; Varelas, N.; Wu, Z.; Zakaria, M.; Bilki, B.; Clarida, W.; Dilsiz, K.; Durgut, S.; Gandrajula, R. P.; Haytmyradov, M.; Khristenko, V.; Merlo, J.-P.; Mermerkaya, H.; Mestvirishvili, A.; Moeller, A.; Nachtman, J.; Ogul, H.; Onel, Y.; Ozok, F.; Penzo, A.; Snyder, C.; Tiras, E.; Wetzel, J.; Yi, K.; Anderson, I.; Barnett, B. A.; Blumenfeld, B.; Eminizer, N.; Fehling, D.; Feng, L.; Gritsan, A. V.; Maksimovic, P.; Martin, C.; Osherson, M.; Roskes, J.; Sady, A.; Sarica, U.; Swartz, M.; Xiao, M.; Xin, Y.; You, C.; Baringer, P.; Bean, A.; Benelli, G.; Bruner, C.; Kenny, R. P.; Majumder, D.; Malek, M.; Murray, M.; Sanders, S.; Stringer, R.; Wang, Q.; Ivanov, A.; Kaadze, K.; Khalil, S.; Makouski, M.; Maravin, Y.; Mohammadi, A.; Saini, L. K.; Skhirtladze, N.; Toda, S.; Lange, D.; Rebassoo, F.; Wright, D.; Anelli, C.; Baden, A.; Baron, O.; Belloni, A.; Calvert, B.; Eno, S. C.; Ferraioli, C.; Gomez, J. A.; Hadley, N. J.; Jabeen, S.; Kellogg, R. G.; Kolberg, T.; Kunkle, J.; Lu, Y.; Mignerey, A. C.; Shin, Y. H.; Skuja, A.; Tonjes, M. B.; Tonwar, S. C.; Apyan, A.; Barbieri, R.; Baty, A.; Bierwagen, K.; Brandt, S.; Busza, W.; Cali, I. A.; Demiragli, Z.; Di Matteo, L.; Gomez Ceballos, G.; Goncharov, M.; Gulhan, D.; Iiyama, Y.; Innocenti, G. M.; Klute, M.; Kovalskyi, D.; Lai, Y. S.; Lee, Y.-J.; Levin, A.; Luckey, P. D.; Marini, A. C.; McGinn, C.; Mironov, C.; Narayanan, S.; Niu, X.; Paus, C.; Ralph, D.; Roland, C.; Roland, G.; Salfeldnebgen, J.; Stephans, G. S. F.; Sumorok, K.; Varma, M.; Velicanu, D.; Veverka, J.; Wang, J.; Wang, T. W.; Wyslouch, B.; Yang, M.; Zhukova, V.; Dahmes, B.; Evans, A.; Finkel, A.; Gude, A.; Hansen, P.; Kalafut, S.; Kao, S. C.; Klapoetke, K.; Kubota, Y.; Lesko, Z.; Mans, J.; Nourbakhsh, S.; Ruckstuhl, N.; Rusack, R.; Tambe, N.; Turkewitz, J.; Acosta, J. G.; Oliveros, S.; Avdeeva, E.; Bloom, K.; Bose, S.; Claes, D. R.; Dominguez, A.; Fangmeier, C.; Gonzalez Suarez, R.; Kamalieddin, R.; Keller, J.; Knowlton, D.; Kravchenko, I.; Meier, F.; Monroy, J.; Ratnikov, F.; Siado, J. E.; Snow, G. R.; Alyari, M.; Dolen, J.; George, J.; Godshalk, A.; Harrington, C.; Iashvili, I.; Kaisen, J.; Kharchilava, A.; Kumar, A.; Rappoccio, S.; Roozbahani, B.; Alverson, G.; Barberis, E.; Baumgartel, D.; Chasco, M.; Hortiangtham, A.; Massironi, A.; Morse, D. M.; Nash, D.; Orimoto, T.; Teixeira de Lima, R.; Trocino, D.; Wang, R.-J.; Wood, D.; Zhang, J.; Hahn, K. A.; Kubik, A.; Mucia, N.; Odell, N.; Pollack, B.; Pozdnyakov, A.; Schmitt, M.; Stoynev, S.; Sung, K.; Trovato, M.; Velasco, M.; Brinkerhoff, A.; Dev, N.; Hildreth, M.; Jessop, C.; Karmgard, D. J.; Kellams, N.; Lannon, K.; Marinelli, N.; Meng, F.; Mueller, C.; Musienko, Y.; Planer, M.; Reinsvold, A.; Ruchti, R.; Smith, G.; Taroni, S.; Valls, N.; Wayne, M.; Wolf, M.; Woodard, A.; Antonelli, L.; Brinson, J.; Bylsma, B.; Durkin, L. S.; Flowers, S.; Hart, A.; Hill, C.; Hughes, R.; Ji, W.; Kotov, K.; Ling, T. Y.; Liu, B.; Luo, W.; Puigh, D.; Rodenburg, M.; Winer, B. L.; Wulsin, H. W.; Driga, O.; Elmer, P.; Hardenbrook, J.; Hebda, P.; Koay, S. A.; Lujan, P.; Marlow, D.; Medvedeva, T.; Mooney, M.; Olsen, J.; Palmer, C.; Piroué, P.; Saka, H.; Stickland, D.; Tully, C.; Zuranski, A.; Malik, S.; Barnes, V. E.; Benedetti, D.; Bortoletto, D.; Gutay, L.; Jha, M. K.; Jones, M.; Jung, K.; Miller, D. H.; Neumeister, N.; Radburn-Smith, B. C.; Shi, X.; Shipsey, I.; Silvers, D.; Sun, J.; Svyatkovskiy, A.; Wang, F.; Xie, W.; Xu, L.; Parashar, N.; Stupak, J.; Adair, A.; Akgun, B.; Chen, Z.; Ecklund, K. M.; Geurts, F. J. M.; Guilbaud, M.; Li, W.; Michlin, B.; Northup, M.; Padley, B. P.; Redjimi, R.; Roberts, J.; Rorie, J.; Tu, Z.; Zabel, J.; Betchart, B.; Bodek, A.; de Barbaro, P.; Demina, R.; Eshaq, Y.; Ferbel, T.; Galanti, M.; Garcia-Bellido, A.; Han, J.; Harel, A.; Hindrichs, O.; Khukhunaishvili, A.; Petrillo, G.; Tan, P.; Verzetti, M.; Arora, S.; Barker, A.; Chou, J. P.; Contreras-Campana, C.; Contreras-Campana, E.; Ferencek, D.; Gershtein, Y.; Gray, R.; Halkiadakis, E.; Hidas, D.; Hughes, E.; Kaplan, S.; Kunnawalkam Elayavalli, R.; Lath, A.; Nash, K.; Panwalkar, S.; Park, M.; Salur, S.; Schnetzer, S.; Sheffield, D.; Somalwar, S.; Stone, R.; Thomas, S.; Thomassen, P.; Walker, M.; Foerster, M.; Riley, G.; Rose, K.; Spanier, S.; York, A.; Bouhali, O.; Castaneda Hernandez, A.; Celik, A.; Dalchenko, M.; de Mattia, M.; Delgado, A.; Dildick, S.; Eusebi, R.; Gilmore, J.; Huang, T.; Kamon, T.; Krutelyov, V.; Mueller, R.; Osipenkov, I.; Pakhotin, Y.; Patel, R.; Perloff, A.; Rose, A.; Safonov, A.; Tatarinov, A.; Ulmer, K. A.; Akchurin, N.; Cowden, C.; Damgov, J.; Dragoiu, C.; Dudero, P. R.; Faulkner, J.; Kunori, S.; Lamichhane, K.; Lee, S. W.; Libeiro, T.; Undleeb, S.; Volobouev, I.; Appelt, E.; Delannoy, A. G.; Greene, S.; Gurrola, A.; Janjam, R.; Johns, W.; Maguire, C.; Mao, Y.; Melo, A.; Ni, H.; Sheldon, P.; Snook, B.; Tuo, S.; Velkovska, J.; Xu, Q.; Arenton, M. W.; Cox, B.; Francis, B.; Goodell, J.; Hirosky, R.; Ledovskoy, A.; Li, H.; Lin, C.; Neu, C.; Sinthuprasith, T.; Sun, X.; Wang, Y.; Wolfe, E.; Wood, J.; Xia, F.; Clarke, C.; Harr, R.; Karchin, P. E.; Kottachchi Kankanamge Don, C.; Lamichhane, P.; Sturdy, J.; Belknap, D. A.; Carlsmith, D.; Cepeda, M.; Dasu, S.; Dodd, L.; Duric, S.; Gomber, B.; Grothe, M.; Hall-Wilton, R.; Herndon, M.; Hervé, A.; Klabbers, P.; Lanaro, A.; Levine, A.; Long, K.; Loveless, R.; Mohapatra, A.; Ojalvo, I.; Perry, T.; Pierro, G. A.; Polese, G.; Ruggles, T.; Sarangi, T.; Savin, A.; Sharma, A.; Smith, N.; Smith, W. H.; Taylor, D.; Woods, N.

    2016-04-01

    Integrated fiducial cross sections for the production of four leptons via the H → 4 ℓ decays ( ℓ = e, μ) are measured in pp collisions at √{s}=7 and 8TeV. Measurements are performed with data corresponding to integrated luminosities of 5.1 fb-1 at 7TeV, and 19.7 fb-1 at 8 TeV, collected with the CMS experiment at the LHC. Differential cross sections are measured using the 8 TeV data, and are determined as functions of the transverse momentum and rapidity of the four-lepton system, accompanying jet multiplicity, transverse momentum of the leading jet, and difference in rapidity between the Higgs boson candidate and the leading jet. A measurement of the Z → 4 ℓ cross section, and its ratio to the H → 4 ℓ cross section is also performed. All cross sections are measured within a fiducial phase space defined by the requirements on lepton kinematics and event topology. The integrated H → 4 ℓ fiducial cross section is measured to be 0. 56 - 0.44 + 0.67 (stat) - 0.06 + 0.21 (syst) fb at 7 TeV, and 1. 11 - 0.35 + 0.41 (stat) - 0.10 + 0.14 (syst) fb at 8 TeV. The measurements are found to be compatible with theoretical calculations based on the standard model. [Figure not available: see fulltext.

  19. Measurement of the integrated and differential t t ¯ production cross sections for high-pT top quarks in p p collisions at √{s }=8 TeV

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khachatryan, V.; Sirunyan, A. M.; Tumasyan, A.; Adam, W.; Asilar, E.; Bergauer, T.; Brandstetter, J.; Brondolin, E.; Dragicevic, M.; Erö, J.; Flechl, M.; Friedl, M.; Frühwirth, R.; Ghete, V. M.; Hartl, C.; Hörmann, N.; Hrubec, J.; Jeitler, M.; König, A.; Krammer, M.; Krätschmer, I.; Liko, D.; Matsushita, T.; Mikulec, I.; Rabady, D.; Rad, N.; Rahbaran, B.; Rohringer, H.; Schieck, J.; Strauss, J.; Treberer-Treberspurg, W.; Waltenberger, W.; Wulz, C.-E.; Mossolov, V.; Shumeiko, N.; Suarez Gonzalez, J.; Alderweireldt, S.; Cornelis, T.; De Wolf, E. 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A.; Chierici, R.; Contardo, D.; Courbon, B.; Depasse, P.; El Mamouni, H.; Fan, J.; Fay, J.; Gascon, S.; Gouzevitch, M.; Ille, B.; Lagarde, F.; Laktineh, I. B.; Lethuillier, M.; Mirabito, L.; Pequegnot, A. L.; Perries, S.; Popov, A.; Ruiz Alvarez, J. D.; Sabes, D.; Sordini, V.; Vander Donckt, M.; Verdier, P.; Viret, S.; Toriashvili, T.; Tsamalaidze, Z.; Autermann, C.; Beranek, S.; Feld, L.; Heister, A.; Kiesel, M. K.; Klein, K.; Lipinski, M.; Ostapchuk, A.; Preuten, M.; Raupach, F.; Schael, S.; Schomakers, C.; Schulte, J. 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M.; Gunnellini, P.; Harb, A.; Hauk, J.; Hempel, M.; Jung, H.; Kalogeropoulos, A.; Karacheban, O.; Kasemann, M.; Kieseler, J.; Kleinwort, C.; Korol, I.; Lange, W.; Lelek, A.; Leonard, J.; Lipka, K.; Lobanov, A.; Lohmann, W.; Mankel, R.; Melzer-Pellmann, I.-A.; Meyer, A. B.; Mittag, G.; Mnich, J.; Mussgiller, A.; Ntomari, E.; Pitzl, D.; Placakyte, R.; Raspereza, A.; Roland, B.; Sahin, M. Ö.; Saxena, P.; Schoerner-Sadenius, T.; Seitz, C.; Spannagel, S.; Stefaniuk, N.; Trippkewitz, K. D.; Van Onsem, G. P.; Walsh, R.; Wissing, C.; Blobel, V.; Centis Vignali, M.; Draeger, A. R.; Dreyer, T.; Erfle, J.; Garutti, E.; Goebel, K.; Gonzalez, D.; Görner, M.; Haller, J.; Hoffmann, M.; Höing, R. S.; Junkes, A.; Klanner, R.; Kogler, R.; Kovalchuk, N.; Lapsien, T.; Lenz, T.; Marchesini, I.; Marconi, D.; Meyer, M.; Niedziela, M.; Nowatschin, D.; Ott, J.; Pantaleo, F.; Peiffer, T.; Perieanu, A.; Pietsch, N.; Poehlsen, J.; Sander, C.; Scharf, C.; Schleper, P.; Schlieckau, E.; Schmidt, A.; Schumann, S.; Schwandt, J.; Stadie, H.; Steinbrück, G.; Stober, F. M.; Tholen, H.; Troendle, D.; Usai, E.; Vanelderen, L.; Vanhoefer, A.; Vormwald, B.; Barth, C.; Baus, C.; Berger, J.; Böser, C.; Butz, E.; Chwalek, T.; Colombo, F.; De Boer, W.; Descroix, A.; Dierlamm, A.; Fink, S.; Frensch, F.; Friese, R.; Giffels, M.; Gilbert, A.; Haitz, D.; Hartmann, F.; Heindl, S. M.; Husemann, U.; Katkov, I.; Kornmayer, A.; Lobelle Pardo, P.; Maier, B.; Mildner, H.; Mozer, M. U.; Müller, T.; Müller, Th.; Plagge, M.; Quast, G.; Rabbertz, K.; Röcker, S.; Roscher, F.; Schröder, M.; Sieber, G.; Simonis, H. J.; Ulrich, R.; Wagner-Kuhr, J.; Wayand, S.; Weber, M.; Weiler, T.; Williamson, S.; Wöhrmann, C.; Wolf, R.; Anagnostou, G.; Daskalakis, G.; Geralis, T.; Giakoumopoulou, V. A.; Kyriakis, A.; Loukas, D.; Psallidas, A.; Topsis-Giotis, I.; Agapitos, A.; Kesisoglou, S.; Panagiotou, A.; Saoulidou, N.; Tziaferi, E.; Evangelou, I.; Flouris, G.; Foudas, C.; Kokkas, P.; Loukas, N.; Manthos, N.; Papadopoulos, I.; Paradas, E.; Strologas, J.; Filipovic, N.; Bencze, G.; Hajdu, C.; Hidas, P.; Horvath, D.; Sikler, F.; Veszpremi, V.; Vesztergombi, G.; Zsigmond, A. J.; Beni, N.; Czellar, S.; Karancsi, J.; Molnar, J.; Szillasi, Z.; Bartók, M.; Makovec, A.; Raics, P.; Trocsanyi, Z. L.; Ujvari, B.; Choudhury, S.; Mal, P.; Mandal, K.; Nayak, A.; Sahoo, D. K.; Sahoo, N.; Swain, S. K.; Bansal, S.; Beri, S. B.; Bhatnagar, V.; Chawla, R.; Gupta, R.; Bhawandeep, U.; Kalsi, A. K.; Kaur, A.; Kaur, M.; Kumar, R.; Mehta, A.; Mittal, M.; Singh, J. B.; Walia, G.; Kumar, Ashok; Bhardwaj, A.; Choudhary, B. C.; Garg, R. B.; Keshri, S.; Kumar, A.; Malhotra, S.; Naimuddin, M.; Nishu, N.; Ranjan, K.; Sharma, R.; Sharma, V.; Bhattacharya, R.; Bhattacharya, S.; Chatterjee, K.; Dey, S.; Dutta, S.; Ghosh, S.; Majumdar, N.; Modak, A.; Mondal, K.; Mukhopadhyay, S.; Nandan, S.; Purohit, A.; Roy, A.; Roy, D.; Roy Chowdhury, S.; Sarkar, S.; Sharan, M.; Chudasama, R.; Dutta, D.; Jha, V.; Kumar, V.; Mohanty, A. K.; Pant, L. M.; Shukla, P.; Topkar, A.; Aziz, T.; Banerjee, S.; Bhowmik, S.; Chatterjee, R. M.; Dewanjee, R. K.; Dugad, S.; Ganguly, S.; Ghosh, S.; Guchait, M.; Gurtu, A.; Jain, Sa.; Kole, G.; Kumar, S.; Mahakud, B.; Maity, M.; Majumder, G.; Mazumdar, K.; Mitra, S.; Mohanty, G. B.; Parida, B.; Sarkar, T.; Sur, N.; Sutar, B.; Wickramage, N.; Chauhan, S.; Dube, S.; Kapoor, A.; Kothekar, K.; Rane, A.; Sharma, S.; Bakhshiansohi, H.; Behnamian, H.; Etesami, S. M.; Fahim, A.; Khakzad, M.; Mohammadi Najafabadi, M.; Naseri, M.; Paktinat Mehdiabadi, S.; Rezaei Hosseinabadi, F.; Safarzadeh, B.; Zeinali, M.; Felcini, M.; Grunewald, M.; Abbrescia, M.; Calabria, C.; Caputo, C.; Colaleo, A.; Creanza, D.; Cristella, L.; De Filippis, N.; De Palma, M.; Fiore, L.; Iaselli, G.; Maggi, G.; Maggi, M.; Miniello, G.; My, S.; Nuzzo, S.; Pompili, A.; Pugliese, G.; Radogna, R.; Ranieri, A.; Selvaggi, G.; Silvestris, L.; Venditti, R.; Abbiendi, G.; Battilana, C.; Bonacorsi, D.; Braibant-Giacomelli, S.; Brigliadori, L.; Campanini, R.; Capiluppi, P.; Castro, A.; Cavallo, F. R.; Chhibra, S. S.; Codispoti, G.; Cuffiani, M.; Dallavalle, G. M.; Fabbri, F.; Fanfani, A.; Fasanella, D.; Giacomelli, P.; Grandi, C.; Guiducci, L.; Marcellini, S.; Masetti, G.; Montanari, A.; Navarria, F. L.; Perrotta, A.; Rossi, A. M.; Rovelli, T.; Siroli, G. P.; Tosi, N.; Cappello, G.; Chiorboli, M.; Costa, S.; Di Mattia, A.; Giordano, F.; Potenza, R.; Tricomi, A.; Tuve, C.; Barbagli, G.; Ciulli, V.; Civinini, C.; D'Alessandro, R.; Focardi, E.; Gori, V.; Lenzi, P.; Meschini, M.; Paoletti, S.; Sguazzoni, G.; Viliani, L.; Benussi, L.; Bianco, S.; Fabbri, F.; Piccolo, D.; Primavera, F.; Calvelli, V.; Ferro, F.; Lo Vetere, M.; Monge, M. R.; Robutti, E.; Tosi, S.; Brianza, L.; Dinardo, M. E.; Fiorendi, S.; Gennai, S.; Ghezzi, A.; Govoni, P.; Malvezzi, S.; Manzoni, R. A.; Marzocchi, B.; Menasce, D.; Moroni, L.; Paganoni, M.; Pedrini, D.; Pigazzini, S.; Ragazzi, S.; Redaelli, N.; Tabarelli de Fatis, T.; Buontempo, S.; Cavallo, N.; Di Guida, S.; Esposito, M.; Fabozzi, F.; Iorio, A. O. M.; Lanza, G.; Lista, L.; Meola, S.; Merola, M.; Paolucci, P.; Sciacca, C.; Thyssen, F.; Azzi, P.; Bacchetta, N.; Bellato, M.; Benato, L.; Bisello, D.; Boletti, A.; Carlin, R.; Checchia, P.; Dall'Osso, M.; De Castro Manzano, P.; Dorigo, T.; Dosselli, U.; Fantinel, S.; Gasparini, F.; Gasparini, U.; Gozzelino, A.; Lacaprara, S.; Margoni, M.; Meneguzzo, A. T.; Pazzini, J.; Pozzobon, N.; Ronchese, P.; Simonetto, F.; Torassa, E.; Tosi, M.; Ventura, S.; Zanetti, M.; Zotto, P.; Zucchetta, A.; Zumerle, G.; Braghieri, A.; Magnani, A.; Montagna, P.; Ratti, S. P.; Re, V.; Riccardi, C.; Salvini, P.; Vai, I.; Vitulo, P.; Alunni Solestizi, L.; Bilei, G. M.; Ciangottini, D.; Fanò, L.; Lariccia, P.; Leonardi, R.; Mantovani, G.; Menichelli, M.; Saha, A.; Santocchia, A.; Androsov, K.; Azzurri, P.; Bagliesi, G.; Bernardini, J.; Boccali, T.; Castaldi, R.; Ciocci, M. A.; Dell'Orso, R.; Donato, S.; Fedi, G.; Giassi, A.; Grippo, M. T.; Ligabue, F.; Lomtadze, T.; Martini, L.; Messineo, A.; Palla, F.; Rizzi, A.; Savoy-Navarro, A.; Spagnolo, P.; Tenchini, R.; Tonelli, G.; Venturi, A.; Verdini, P. G.; Barone, L.; Cavallari, F.; D'imperio, G.; Del Re, D.; Diemoz, M.; Gelli, S.; Jorda, C.; Longo, E.; Margaroli, F.; Meridiani, P.; Organtini, G.; Paramatti, R.; Preiato, F.; Rahatlou, S.; Rovelli, C.; Santanastasio, F.; Amapane, N.; Arcidiacono, R.; Argiro, S.; Arneodo, M.; Bartosik, N.; Bellan, R.; Biino, C.; Cartiglia, N.; Costa, M.; Covarelli, R.; Degano, A.; Demaria, N.; Finco, L.; Kiani, B.; Mariotti, C.; Maselli, S.; Migliore, E.; Monaco, V.; Monteil, E.; Obertino, M. M.; Pacher, L.; Pastrone, N.; Pelliccioni, M.; Pinna Angioni, G. L.; Ravera, F.; Romero, A.; Ruspa, M.; Sacchi, R.; Sola, V.; Solano, A.; Staiano, A.; Belforte, S.; Candelise, V.; Casarsa, M.; Cossutti, F.; Della Ricca, G.; La Licata, C.; Schizzi, A.; Zanetti, A.; Nam, S. K.; Kim, D. H.; Kim, G. N.; Kim, M. S.; Kong, D. J.; Lee, S.; Lee, S. W.; Oh, Y. D.; Sakharov, A.; Son, D. C.; Brochero Cifuentes, J. A.; Kim, H.; Kim, T. J.; Song, S.; Cho, S.; Choi, S.; Go, Y.; Gyun, D.; Hong, B.; Kim, Y.; Lee, B.; Lee, K.; Lee, K. S.; Lee, S.; Lim, J.; Park, S. K.; Roh, Y.; Yoo, H. D.; Choi, M.; Kim, H.; Kim, H.; Kim, J. H.; Lee, J. S. H.; Park, I. C.; Ryu, G.; Ryu, M. S.; Choi, Y.; Goh, J.; Kim, D.; Kwon, E.; Lee, J.; Yu, I.; Dudenas, V.; Juodagalvis, A.; Vaitkus, J.; Ahmed, I.; Ibrahim, Z. A.; Komaragiri, J. R.; Md Ali, M. A. B.; Mohamad Idris, F.; Wan Abdullah, W. A. T.; Yusli, M. N.; Zolkapli, Z.; Casimiro Linares, E.; Castilla-Valdez, H.; De La Cruz-Burelo, E.; Heredia-De La Cruz, I.; Hernandez-Almada, A.; Lopez-Fernandez, R.; Mejia Guisao, J.; Sanchez-Hernandez, A.; Carrillo Moreno, S.; Vazquez Valencia, F.; Pedraza, I.; Salazar Ibarguen, H. A.; Uribe Estrada, C.; Morelos Pineda, A.; Krofcheck, D.; Butler, P. H.; Ahmad, A.; Ahmad, M.; Hassan, Q.; Hoorani, H. R.; Khan, W. A.; Khurshid, T.; Shoaib, M.; Waqas, M.; Bialkowska, H.; Bluj, M.; Boimska, B.; Frueboes, T.; Górski, M.; Kazana, M.; Nawrocki, K.; Romanowska-Rybinska, K.; Szleper, M.; Traczyk, P.; Zalewski, P.; Brona, G.; Bunkowski, K.; Byszuk, A.; Doroba, K.; Kalinowski, A.; Konecki, M.; Krolikowski, J.; Misiura, M.; Olszewski, M.; Walczak, M.; Bargassa, P.; Beirão Da Cruz E Silva, C.; Di Francesco, A.; Faccioli, P.; Ferreira Parracho, P. G.; Gallinaro, M.; Hollar, J.; Leonardo, N.; Lloret Iglesias, L.; Nemallapudi, M. V.; Nguyen, F.; Rodrigues Antunes, J.; Seixas, J.; Toldaiev, O.; Vadruccio, D.; Varela, J.; Vischia, P.; Bunin, P.; Golutvin, I.; Kamenev, A.; Karjavin, V.; Korenkov, V.; Lanev, A.; Malakhov, A.; Matveev, V.; Mitsyn, V. V.; Moisenz, P.; Palichik, V.; Perelygin, V.; Shmatov, S.; Shulha, S.; Skatchkov, N.; Smirnov, V.; Tikhonenko, E.; Voytishin, N.; Zarubin, A.; Golovtsov, V.; Ivanov, Y.; Kim, V.; Kuznetsova, E.; Levchenko, P.; Murzin, V.; Oreshkin, V.; Smirnov, I.; Sulimov, V.; Uvarov, L.; Vavilov, S.; Vorobyev, A.; Andreev, Yu.; Dermenev, A.; Gninenko, S.; Golubev, N.; Karneyeu, A.; Kirsanov, M.; Krasnikov, N.; Pashenkov, A.; Tlisov, D.; Toropin, A.; Epshteyn, V.; Gavrilov, V.; Lychkovskaya, N.; Popov, V.; Pozdnyakov, I.; Safronov, G.; Spiridonov, A.; Toms, M.; Vlasov, E.; Zhokin, A.; Chadeeva, M.; Chistov, R.; Danilov, M.; Rusinov, V.; Tarkovskii, E.; Andreev, V.; Azarkin, M.; Dremin, I.; Kirakosyan, M.; Leonidov, A.; Mesyats, G.; Rusakov, S. V.; Baskakov, A.; Belyaev, A.; Boos, E.; Bunichev, V.; Dubinin, M.; Dudko, L.; Ershov, A.; Klyukhin, V.; Korneeva, N.; Lokhtin, I.; Miagkov, I.; Obraztsov, S.; Perfilov, M.; Petrushanko, S.; Savrin, V.; Azhgirey, I.; Bayshev, I.; Bitioukov, S.; Kachanov, V.; Kalinin, A.; Konstantinov, D.; Krychkine, V.; Petrov, V.; Ryutin, R.; Sobol, A.; Tourtchanovitch, L.; Troshin, S.; Tyurin, N.; Uzunian, A.; Volkov, A.; Adzic, P.; Cirkovic, P.; Devetak, D.; Milosevic, J.; Rekovic, V.; Alcaraz Maestre, J.; Calvo, E.; Cerrada, M.; Chamizo Llatas, M.; Colino, N.; De La Cruz, B.; Delgado Peris, A.; Escalante Del Valle, A.; Fernandez Bedoya, C.; Fernández Ramos, J. P.; Flix, J.; Fouz, M. C.; Garcia-Abia, P.; Gonzalez Lopez, O.; Goy Lopez, S.; Hernandez, J. M.; Josa, M. I.; Navarro De Martino, E.; Pérez-Calero Yzquierdo, A.; Puerta Pelayo, J.; Quintario Olmeda, A.; Redondo, I.; Romero, L.; Soares, M. S.; de Trocóniz, J. F.; Missiroli, M.; Moran, D.; Cuevas, J.; Fernandez Menendez, J.; Folgueras, S.; Gonzalez Caballero, I.; Palencia Cortezon, E.; Vizan Garcia, J. M.; Cabrillo, I. J.; Calderon, A.; Castiñeiras De Saa, J. R.; Curras, E.; Fernandez, M.; Garcia-Ferrero, J.; Gomez, G.; Lopez Virto, A.; Marco, J.; Marco, R.; Martinez Rivero, C.; Matorras, F.; Piedra Gomez, J.; Rodrigo, T.; Rodríguez-Marrero, A. Y.; Ruiz-Jimeno, A.; Scodellaro, L.; Trevisani, N.; Vila, I.; Vilar Cortabitarte, R.; Abbaneo, D.; Auffray, E.; Auzinger, G.; Bachtis, M.; Baillon, P.; Ball, A. H.; Barney, D.; Benaglia, A.; Benhabib, L.; Berruti, G. M.; Bloch, P.; Bocci, A.; Bonato, A.; Botta, C.; Breuker, H.; Camporesi, T.; Castello, R.; Cepeda, M.; Cerminara, G.; D'Alfonso, M.; d'Enterria, D.; Dabrowski, A.; Daponte, V.; David, A.; De Gruttola, M.; De Guio, F.; De Roeck, A.; Di Marco, E.; Dobson, M.; Dordevic, M.; Dorney, B.; du Pree, T.; Duggan, D.; Dünser, M.; Dupont, N.; Elliott-Peisert, A.; Fartoukh, S.; Franzoni, G.; Fulcher, J.; Funk, W.; Gigi, D.; Gill, K.; Girone, M.; Glege, F.; Guida, R.; Gundacker, S.; Guthoff, M.; Hammer, J.; Harris, P.; Hegeman, J.; Innocente, V.; Janot, P.; Kirschenmann, H.; Knünz, V.; Kortelainen, M. J.; Kousouris, K.; Lecoq, P.; Lourenço, C.; Lucchini, M. T.; Magini, N.; Malgeri, L.; Mannelli, M.; Martelli, A.; Masetti, L.; Meijers, F.; Mersi, S.; Meschi, E.; Moortgat, F.; Morovic, S.; Mulders, M.; Neugebauer, H.; Orfanelli, S.; Orsini, L.; Pape, L.; Perez, E.; Peruzzi, M.; Petrilli, A.; Petrucciani, G.; Pfeiffer, A.; Pierini, M.; Piparo, D.; Racz, A.; Reis, T.; Rolandi, G.; Rovere, M.; Ruan, M.; Sakulin, H.; Sauvan, J. B.; Schäfer, C.; Schwick, C.; Seidel, M.; Sharma, A.; Silva, P.; Simon, M.; Sphicas, P.; Steggemann, J.; Stoye, M.; Takahashi, Y.; Treille, D.; Triossi, A.; Tsirou, A.; Veckalns, V.; Veres, G. I.; Wardle, N.; Wöhri, H. K.; Zagozdzinska, A.; Zeuner, W. D.; Bertl, W.; Deiters, K.; Erdmann, W.; Horisberger, R.; Ingram, Q.; Kaestli, H. C.; Kotlinski, D.; Langenegger, U.; Rohe, T.; Bachmair, F.; Bäni, L.; Bianchini, L.; Casal, B.; Dissertori, G.; Dittmar, M.; Donegà, M.; Eller, P.; Grab, C.; Heidegger, C.; Hits, D.; Hoss, J.; Kasieczka, G.; Lecomte, P.; Lustermann, W.; Mangano, B.; Marionneau, M.; Martinez Ruiz del Arbol, P.; Masciovecchio, M.; Meinhard, M. T.; Meister, D.; Micheli, F.; Musella, P.; Nessi-Tedaldi, F.; Pandolfi, F.; Pata, J.; Pauss, F.; Perrin, G.; Perrozzi, L.; Quittnat, M.; Rossini, M.; Schönenberger, M.; Starodumov, A.; Takahashi, M.; Tavolaro, V. R.; Theofilatos, K.; Wallny, R.; Aarrestad, T. K.; Amsler, C.; Caminada, L.; Canelli, M. F.; Chiochia, V.; De Cosa, A.; Galloni, C.; Hinzmann, A.; Hreus, T.; Kilminster, B.; Lange, C.; Ngadiuba, J.; Pinna, D.; Rauco, G.; Robmann, P.; Salerno, D.; Yang, Y.; Chen, K. H.; Doan, T. H.; Jain, Sh.; Khurana, R.; Konyushikhin, M.; Kuo, C. M.; Lin, W.; Lu, Y. J.; Pozdnyakov, A.; Yu, S. S.; Kumar, Arun; Chang, P.; Chang, Y. H.; Chang, Y. W.; Chao, Y.; Chen, K. F.; Chen, P. H.; Dietz, C.; Fiori, F.; Hou, W.-S.; Hsiung, Y.; Liu, Y. F.; Lu, R.-S.; Miñano Moya, M.; Tsai, J. f.; Tzeng, Y. M.; Asavapibhop, B.; Kovitanggoon, K.; Singh, G.; Srimanobhas, N.; Suwonjandee, N.; Adiguzel, A.; Cerci, S.; Damarseckin, S.; Demiroglu, Z. S.; Dozen, C.; Dumanoglu, I.; Girgis, S.; Gokbulut, G.; Guler, Y.; Gurpinar, E.; Hos, I.; Kangal, E. E.; Kayis Topaksu, A.; Onengut, G.; Ozdemir, K.; Ozturk, S.; Tali, B.; Topakli, H.; Zorbilmez, C.; Bilin, B.; Bilmis, S.; Isildak, B.; Karapinar, G.; Yalvac, M.; Zeyrek, M.; Gülmez, E.; Kaya, M.; Kaya, O.; Yetkin, E. A.; Yetkin, T.; Cakir, A.; Cankocak, K.; Sen, S.; Vardarlı, F. I.; Grynyov, B.; Levchuk, L.; Sorokin, P.; Aggleton, R.; Ball, F.; Beck, L.; Brooke, J. J.; Burns, D.; Clement, E.; Cussans, D.; Flacher, H.; Goldstein, J.; Grimes, M.; Heath, G. P.; Heath, H. F.; Jacob, J.; Kreczko, L.; Lucas, C.; Meng, Z.; Newbold, D. M.; Paramesvaran, S.; Poll, A.; Sakuma, T.; Seif El Nasr-storey, S.; Senkin, S.; Smith, D.; Smith, V. J.; Bell, K. W.; Belyaev, A.; Brew, C.; Brown, R. M.; Calligaris, L.; Cieri, D.; Cockerill, D. J. A.; Coughlan, J. A.; Harder, K.; Harper, S.; Olaiya, E.; Petyt, D.; Shepherd-Themistocleous, C. H.; Thea, A.; Tomalin, I. R.; Williams, T.; Worm, S. D.; Baber, M.; Bainbridge, R.; Buchmuller, O.; Bundock, A.; Burton, D.; Casasso, S.; Citron, M.; Colling, D.; Corpe, L.; Dauncey, P.; Davies, G.; De Wit, A.; Della Negra, M.; Dunne, P.; Elwood, A.; Futyan, D.; Haddad, Y.; Hall, G.; Iles, G.; Lane, R.; Lucas, R.; Lyons, L.; Magnan, A.-M.; Malik, S.; Mastrolorenzo, L.; Nash, J.; Nikitenko, A.; Pela, J.; Penning, B.; Pesaresi, M.; Raymond, D. M.; Richards, A.; Rose, A.; Seez, C.; Tapper, A.; Uchida, K.; Vazquez Acosta, M.; Virdee, T.; Zenz, S. C.; Cole, J. E.; Hobson, P. R.; Khan, A.; Kyberd, P.; Leslie, D.; Reid, I. D.; Symonds, P.; Teodorescu, L.; Turner, M.; Borzou, A.; Call, K.; Dittmann, J.; Hatakeyama, K.; Liu, H.; Pastika, N.; Charaf, O.; Cooper, S. I.; Henderson, C.; Rumerio, P.; Arcaro, D.; Avetisyan, A.; Bose, T.; Gastler, D.; Rankin, D.; Richardson, C.; Rohlf, J.; Sulak, L.; Zou, D.; Alimena, J.; Benelli, G.; Berry, E.; Cutts, D.; Ferapontov, A.; Garabedian, A.; Hakala, J.; Heintz, U.; Jesus, O.; Laird, E.; Landsberg, G.; Mao, Z.; Narain, M.; Piperov, S.; Sagir, S.; Syarif, R.; Breedon, R.; Breto, G.; Calderon De La Barca Sanchez, M.; Chauhan, S.; Chertok, M.; Conway, J.; Conway, R.; Cox, P. T.; Erbacher, R.; Funk, G.; Gardner, M.; Ko, W.; Lander, R.; Mclean, C.; Mulhearn, M.; Pellett, D.; Pilot, J.; Ricci-Tam, F.; Shalhout, S.; Smith, J.; Squires, M.; Stolp, D.; Tripathi, M.; Wilbur, S.; Yohay, R.; Cousins, R.; Everaerts, P.; Florent, A.; Hauser, J.; Ignatenko, M.; Saltzberg, D.; Takasugi, E.; Valuev, V.; Weber, M.; Burt, K.; Clare, R.; Ellison, J.; Gary, J. W.; Hanson, G.; Heilman, J.; Ivova Paneva, M.; Jandir, P.; Kennedy, E.; Lacroix, F.; Long, O. R.; Malberti, M.; Olmedo Negrete, M.; Shrinivas, A.; Wei, H.; Wimpenny, S.; Yates, B. R.; Branson, J. G.; Cerati, G. B.; Cittolin, S.; D'Agnolo, R. T.; Derdzinski, M.; Gerosa, R.; Holzner, A.; Kelley, R.; Klein, D.; Letts, J.; Macneill, I.; Olivito, D.; Padhi, S.; Pieri, M.; Sani, M.; Sharma, V.; Simon, S.; Tadel, M.; Vartak, A.; Wasserbaech, S.; Welke, C.; Wood, J.; Würthwein, F.; Yagil, A.; Zevi Della Porta, G.; Bradmiller-Feld, J.; Campagnari, C.; Dishaw, A.; Dutta, V.; Flowers, K.; Franco Sevilla, M.; Geffert, P.; George, C.; Golf, F.; Gouskos, L.; Gran, J.; Incandela, J.; Mccoll, N.; Mullin, S. D.; Richman, J.; Stuart, D.; Suarez, I.; West, C.; Yoo, J.; Anderson, D.; Apresyan, A.; Bendavid, J.; Bornheim, A.; Bunn, J.; Chen, Y.; Duarte, J.; Mott, A.; Newman, H. B.; Pena, C.; Spiropulu, M.; Vlimant, J. R.; Xie, S.; Zhu, R. Y.; Andrews, M. B.; Azzolini, V.; Calamba, A.; Carlson, B.; Ferguson, T.; Paulini, M.; Russ, J.; Sun, M.; Vogel, H.; Vorobiev, I.; Cumalat, J. P.; Ford, W. T.; Jensen, F.; Johnson, A.; Krohn, M.; Mulholland, T.; Nauenberg, U.; Stenson, K.; Wagner, S. R.; Alexander, J.; Chatterjee, A.; Chaves, J.; Chu, J.; Dittmer, S.; Eggert, N.; Mirman, N.; Nicolas Kaufman, G.; Patterson, J. R.; Rinkevicius, A.; Ryd, A.; Skinnari, L.; Soffi, L.; Sun, W.; Tan, S. M.; Teo, W. D.; Thom, J.; Thompson, J.; Tucker, J.; Weng, Y.; Wittich, P.; Abdullin, S.; Albrow, M.; Apollinari, G.; Banerjee, S.; Bauerdick, L. A. T.; Beretvas, A.; Berryhill, J.; Bhat, P. C.; Bolla, G.; Burkett, K.; Butler, J. N.; Cheung, H. W. K.; Chlebana, F.; Cihangir, S.; Elvira, V. D.; Fisk, I.; Freeman, J.; Gottschalk, E.; Gray, L.; Green, D.; Grünendahl, S.; Gutsche, O.; Hanlon, J.; Hare, D.; Harris, R. M.; Hasegawa, S.; Hirschauer, J.; Hu, Z.; Jayatilaka, B.; Jindariani, S.; Johnson, M.; Joshi, U.; Klima, B.; Kreis, B.; Lammel, S.; Lewis, J.; Linacre, J.; Lincoln, D.; Lipton, R.; Liu, T.; Lopes De Sá, R.; Lykken, J.; Maeshima, K.; Marraffino, J. M.; Maruyama, S.; Mason, D.; McBride, P.; Merkel, P.; Mrenna, S.; Nahn, S.; Newman-Holmes, C.; O'Dell, V.; Pedro, K.; Prokofyev, O.; Rakness, G.; Sexton-Kennedy, E.; Soha, A.; Spalding, W. J.; Spiegel, L.; Stoynev, S.; Strobbe, N.; Taylor, L.; Tkaczyk, S.; Tran, N. V.; Uplegger, L.; Vaandering, E. W.; Vernieri, C.; Verzocchi, M.; Vidal, R.; Wang, M.; Weber, H. A.; Whitbeck, A.; Acosta, D.; Avery, P.; Bortignon, P.; Bourilkov, D.; Brinkerhoff, A.; Carnes, A.; Carver, M.; Curry, D.; Das, S.; Field, R. D.; Furic, I. K.; Konigsberg, J.; Korytov, A.; Kotov, K.; Ma, P.; Matchev, K.; Mei, H.; Milenovic, P.; Mitselmakher, G.; Rank, D.; Rossin, R.; Shchutska, L.; Sperka, D.; Terentyev, N.; Thomas, L.; Wang, J.; Wang, S.; Yelton, J.; Linn, S.; Markowitz, P.; Martinez, G.; Rodriguez, J. L.; Ackert, A.; Adams, J. R.; Adams, T.; Askew, A.; Bein, S.; Bochenek, J.; Diamond, B.; Haas, J.; Hagopian, S.; Hagopian, V.; Johnson, K. F.; Khatiwada, A.; Prosper, H.; Santra, A.; Weinberg, M.; Baarmand, M. M.; Bhopatkar, V.; Colafranceschi, S.; Hohlmann, M.; Kalakhety, H.; Noonan, D.; Roy, T.; Yumiceva, F.; Adams, M. R.; Apanasevich, L.; Berry, D.; Betts, R. R.; Bucinskaite, I.; Cavanaugh, R.; Evdokimov, O.; Gauthier, L.; Gerber, C. E.; Hofman, D. J.; Kurt, P.; O'Brien, C.; Sandoval Gonzalez, I. D.; Turner, P.; Varelas, N.; Wu, Z.; Zakaria, M.; Zhang, J.; Bilki, B.; Clarida, W.; Dilsiz, K.; Durgut, S.; Gandrajula, R. P.; Haytmyradov, M.; Khristenko, V.; Merlo, J.-P.; Mermerkaya, H.; Mestvirishvili, A.; Moeller, A.; Nachtman, J.; Ogul, H.; Onel, Y.; Ozok, F.; Penzo, A.; Snyder, C.; Tiras, E.; Wetzel, J.; Yi, K.; Anderson, I.; Blumenfeld, B.; Cocoros, A.; Eminizer, N.; Fehling, D.; Feng, L.; Gritsan, A. V.; Maksimovic, P.; Osherson, M.; Roskes, J.; Sarica, U.; Swartz, M.; Xiao, M.; Xin, Y.; You, C.; Baringer, P.; Bean, A.; Bruner, C.; Castle, J.; Kenny, R. P.; Kropivnitskaya, A.; Majumder, D.; Malek, M.; Mcbrayer, W.; Murray, M.; Sanders, S.; Stringer, R.; Wang, Q.; Ivanov, A.; Kaadze, K.; Khalil, S.; Makouski, M.; Maravin, Y.; Mohammadi, A.; Saini, L. K.; Skhirtladze, N.; Toda, S.; Lange, D.; Rebassoo, F.; Wright, D.; Anelli, C.; Baden, A.; Baron, O.; Belloni, A.; Calvert, B.; Eno, S. C.; Ferraioli, C.; Gomez, J. A.; Hadley, N. J.; Jabeen, S.; Kellogg, R. G.; Kolberg, T.; Kunkle, J.; Lu, Y.; Mignerey, A. C.; Shin, Y. H.; Skuja, A.; Tonjes, M. B.; Tonwar, S. C.; Apyan, A.; Barbieri, R.; Baty, A.; Bi, R.; Bierwagen, K.; Brandt, S.; Busza, W.; Cali, I. A.; Demiragli, Z.; Di Matteo, L.; Gomez Ceballos, G.; Goncharov, M.; Gulhan, D.; Hsu, D.; Iiyama, Y.; Innocenti, G. M.; Klute, M.; Kovalskyi, D.; Krajczar, K.; Lai, Y. S.; Lee, Y.-J.; Levin, A.; Luckey, P. D.; Marini, A. C.; Mcginn, C.; Mironov, C.; Narayanan, S.; Niu, X.; Paus, C.; Roland, C.; Roland, G.; Salfeld-Nebgen, J.; Stephans, G. S. F.; Sumorok, K.; Tatar, K.; Varma, M.; Velicanu, D.; Veverka, J.; Wang, J.; Wang, T. W.; Wyslouch, B.; Yang, M.; Zhukova, V.; Benvenuti, A. C.; Dahmes, B.; Evans, A.; Finkel, A.; Gude, A.; Hansen, P.; Kalafut, S.; Kao, S. C.; Klapoetke, K.; Kubota, Y.; Lesko, Z.; Mans, J.; Nourbakhsh, S.; Ruckstuhl, N.; Rusack, R.; Tambe, N.; Turkewitz, J.; Acosta, J. G.; Oliveros, S.; Avdeeva, E.; Bartek, R.; Bloom, K.; Bose, S.; Claes, D. R.; Dominguez, A.; Fangmeier, C.; Gonzalez Suarez, R.; Kamalieddin, R.; Knowlton, D.; Kravchenko, I.; Meier, F.; Monroy, J.; Ratnikov, F.; Siado, J. E.; Snow, G. R.; Stieger, B.; Alyari, M.; Dolen, J.; George, J.; Godshalk, A.; Harrington, C.; Iashvili, I.; Kaisen, J.; Kharchilava, A.; Kumar, A.; Parker, A.; Rappoccio, S.; Roozbahani, B.; Alverson, G.; Barberis, E.; Baumgartel, D.; Chasco, M.; Hortiangtham, A.; Massironi, A.; Morse, D. M.; Nash, D.; Orimoto, T.; Teixeira De Lima, R.; Trocino, D.; Wang, R.-J.; Wood, D.; Zhang, J.; Bhattacharya, S.; Hahn, K. A.; Kubik, A.; Low, J. F.; Mucia, N.; Odell, N.; Pollack, B.; Schmitt, M. H.; Sung, K.; Trovato, M.; Velasco, M.; Dev, N.; Hildreth, M.; Jessop, C.; Karmgard, D. J.; Kellams, N.; Lannon, K.; Marinelli, N.; Meng, F.; Mueller, C.; Musienko, Y.; Planer, M.; Reinsvold, A.; Ruchti, R.; Rupprecht, N.; Smith, G.; Taroni, S.; Valls, N.; Wayne, M.; Wolf, M.; Woodard, A.; Antonelli, L.; Brinson, J.; Bylsma, B.; Durkin, L. S.; Flowers, S.; Hart, A.; Hill, C.; Hughes, R.; Ji, W.; Ling, T. Y.; Liu, B.; Luo, W.; Puigh, D.; Rodenburg, M.; Winer, B. L.; Wulsin, H. W.; Driga, O.; Elmer, P.; Hardenbrook, J.; Hebda, P.; Koay, S. A.; Lujan, P.; Marlow, D.; Medvedeva, T.; Mooney, M.; Olsen, J.; Palmer, C.; Piroué, P.; Stickland, D.; Tully, C.; Zuranski, A.; Malik, S.; Barker, A.; Barnes, V. E.; Benedetti, D.; Gutay, L.; Jha, M. K.; Jones, M.; Jung, A. W.; Jung, K.; Miller, D. H.; Neumeister, N.; Radburn-Smith, B. C.; Shi, X.; Sun, J.; Svyatkovskiy, A.; Wang, F.; Xie, W.; Xu, L.; Parashar, N.; Stupak, J.; Adair, A.; Akgun, B.; Chen, Z.; Ecklund, K. M.; Geurts, F. J. M.; Guilbaud, M.; Li, W.; Michlin, B.; Northup, M.; Padley, B. P.; Redjimi, R.; Roberts, J.; Rorie, J.; Tu, Z.; Zabel, J.; Betchart, B.; Bodek, A.; de Barbaro, P.; Demina, R.; Duh, Y. t.; Eshaq, Y.; Ferbel, T.; Galanti, M.; Garcia-Bellido, A.; Han, J.; Hindrichs, O.; Khukhunaishvili, A.; Lo, K. H.; Tan, P.; Verzetti, M.; Chou, J. P.; Contreras-Campana, E.; Gershtein, Y.; Gómez Espinosa, T. A.; Halkiadakis, E.; Heindl, M.; Hidas, D.; Hughes, E.; Kaplan, S.; Kunnawalkam Elayavalli, R.; Kyriacou, S.; Lath, A.; Nash, K.; Saka, H.; Salur, S.; Schnetzer, S.; Sheffield, D.; Somalwar, S.; Stone, R.; Thomas, S.; Thomassen, P.; Walker, M.; Foerster, M.; Heideman, J.; Riley, G.; Rose, K.; Spanier, S.; Thapa, K.; Bouhali, O.; Castaneda Hernandez, A.; Celik, A.; Dalchenko, M.; De Mattia, M.; Delgado, A.; Dildick, S.; Eusebi, R.; Gilmore, J.; Huang, T.; Kamon, T.; Krutelyov, V.; Mueller, R.; Osipenkov, I.; Pakhotin, Y.; Patel, R.; Perloff, A.; Perniè, L.; Rathjens, D.; Rose, A.; Safonov, A.; Tatarinov, A.; Ulmer, K. A.; Akchurin, N.; Cowden, C.; Damgov, J.; Dragoiu, C.; Dudero, P. R.; Faulkner, J.; Kunori, S.; Lamichhane, K.; Lee, S. W.; Libeiro, T.; Undleeb, S.; Volobouev, I.; Wang, Z.; Appelt, E.; Delannoy, A. G.; Greene, S.; Gurrola, A.; Janjam, R.; Johns, W.; Maguire, C.; Mao, Y.; Melo, A.; Ni, H.; Sheldon, P.; Tuo, S.; Velkovska, J.; Xu, Q.; Arenton, M. W.; Barria, P.; Cox, B.; Francis, B.; Goodell, J.; Hirosky, R.; Ledovskoy, A.; Li, H.; Neu, C.; Sinthuprasith, T.; Sun, X.; Wang, Y.; Wolfe, E.; Xia, F.; Clarke, C.; Harr, R.; Karchin, P. E.; Kottachchi Kankanamge Don, C.; Lamichhane, P.; Sturdy, J.; Belknap, D. A.; Carlsmith, D.; Dasu, S.; Dodd, L.; Duric, S.; Gomber, B.; Grothe, M.; Herndon, M.; Hervé, A.; Klabbers, P.; Lanaro, A.; Levine, A.; Long, K.; Loveless, R.; Mohapatra, A.; Ojalvo, I.; Perry, T.; Pierro, G. A.; Polese, G.; Ruggles, T.; Sarangi, T.; Savin, A.; Sharma, A.; Smith, N.; Smith, W. H.; Taylor, D.; Verwilligen, P.; Woods, N.; CMS Collaboration

    2016-10-01

    The cross section for pair production of top quarks (t t ¯ ) with high transverse momenta is measured in p p collisions, collected with the CMS detector at the LHC with √{s }=8 TeV in data corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 19.7 fb-1 . The measurement is performed using lepton +jets events, where one top quark decays semileptonically, while the second top quark decays to a hadronic final state. The hadronic decay is reconstructed as a single, large-radius jet, and identified as a top quark candidate using jet substructure techniques. The integrated cross section and the differential cross sections as a function of top quark pT and rapidity are measured at particle level within a fiducial region related to the detector-level requirements and at parton level. The particle-level integrated cross section is found to be σt t ¯=0.499 ±0.035 (stat +syst )±0.095 (theo ) ±0.013 (lumi ) pb for top quark pT>400 GeV . The parton-level measurement is σt t ¯=1.44 ±0.10 (stat +syst )±0.29 (theo ) ±0.04 (lumi ) pb . The integrated and differential cross section results are compared to predictions from several event generators.

  20. Sentinel-2/MSI absolute calibration: first results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lonjou, V.; Lachérade, S.; Fougnie, B.; Gamet, P.; Marcq, S.; Raynaud, J.-L.; Tremas, T.

    2015-10-01

    Sentinel-2 is an optical imaging mission devoted to the operational monitoring of land and coastal areas. It is developed in partnership between the European Commission and the European Space Agency. The Sentinel-2 mission is based on a satellites constellation deployed in polar sun-synchronous orbit. It will offer a unique combination of global coverage with a wide field of view (290km), a high revisit (5 days with two satellites), a high resolution (10m, 20m and 60m) and multi-spectral imagery (13 spectral bands in visible and shortwave infra-red domains). CNES is involved in the instrument commissioning in collaboration with ESA. This paper reviews all the techniques that will be used to insure an absolute calibration of the 13 spectral bands better than 5% (target 3%), and will present the first results if available. First, the nominal calibration technique, based on an on-board sun diffuser, is detailed. Then, we show how vicarious calibration methods based on acquisitions over natural targets (oceans, deserts, and Antarctica during winter) will be used to check and improve the accuracy of the absolute calibration coefficients. Finally, the verification scheme, exploiting photometer in-situ measurements over Lacrau plain, is described. A synthesis, including spectral coherence, inter-methods agreement and temporal evolution, will conclude the paper.

  1. Experimental results for absolute cylindrical wavefront testing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reardon, Patrick J.; Alatawi, Ayshah

    2014-09-01

    Applications for Cylindrical and near-cylindrical surfaces are ever-increasing. However, fabrication of high quality cylindrical surfaces is limited by the difficulty of accurate and affordable metrology. Absolute testing of such surfaces represents a challenge to the optical testing community as cylindrical reference wavefronts are difficult to produce. In this paper, preliminary results for a new method of absolute testing of cylindrical wavefronts are presented. The method is based on the merging of the random ball test method with the fiber optic reference test. The random ball test assumes a large number of interferograms of a good quality sphere with errors that are statistically distributed such that the average of the errors goes to zero. The fiber optic reference test utilizes a specially processed optical fiber to provide a clean high quality reference wave from an incident line focus from the cylindrical wave under test. By taking measurements at different rotation and translations of the fiber, an analogous procedure can be employed to determine the quality of the converging cylindrical wavefront with high accuracy. This paper presents and discusses the results of recent tests of this method using a null optic formed by a COTS cylindrical lens and a free-form polished corrector element.

  2. Absolute Electron Extraction Efficiency of Liquid Xenon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kamdin, Katayun; Mizrachi, Eli; Morad, James; Sorensen, Peter

    2016-03-01

    Dual phase liquid/gas xenon time projection chambers (TPCs) currently set the world's most sensitive limits on weakly interacting massive particles (WIMPs), a favored dark matter candidate. These detectors rely on extracting electrons from liquid xenon into gaseous xenon, where they produce proportional scintillation. The proportional scintillation from the extracted electrons serves to internally amplify the WIMP signal; even a single extracted electron is detectable. Credible dark matter searches can proceed with electron extraction efficiency (EEE) lower than 100%. However, electrons systematically left at the liquid/gas boundary are a concern. Possible effects include spontaneous single or multi-electron proportional scintillation signals in the gas, or charging of the liquid/gas interface or detector materials. Understanding EEE is consequently a serious concern for this class of rare event search detectors. Previous EEE measurements have mostly been relative, not absolute, assuming efficiency plateaus at 100%. I will present an absolute EEE measurement with a small liquid/gas xenon TPC test bed located at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory.

  3. Why to compare absolute numbers of mitochondria.

    PubMed

    Schmitt, Sabine; Schulz, Sabine; Schropp, Eva-Maria; Eberhagen, Carola; Simmons, Alisha; Beisker, Wolfgang; Aichler, Michaela; Zischka, Hans

    2014-11-01

    Prompted by pronounced structural differences between rat liver and rat hepatocellular carcinoma mitochondria, we suspected these mitochondrial populations to differ massively in their molecular composition. Aiming to reveal these mitochondrial differences, we came across the issue on how to normalize such comparisons and decided to focus on the absolute number of mitochondria. To this end, fluorescently stained mitochondria were quantified by flow cytometry. For rat liver mitochondria, this approach resulted in mitochondrial protein contents comparable to earlier reports using alternative methods. We determined similar protein contents for rat liver, heart and kidney mitochondria. In contrast, however, lower protein contents were determined for rat brain mitochondria and for mitochondria from the rat hepatocellular carcinoma cell line McA 7777. This result challenges mitochondrial comparisons that rely on equal protein amounts as a typical normalization method. Exemplarily, we therefore compared the activity and susceptibility toward inhibition of complex II of rat liver and hepatocellular carcinoma mitochondria and obtained significant discrepancies by either normalizing to protein amount or to absolute mitochondrial number. Importantly, the latter normalization, in contrast to the former, demonstrated a lower complex II activity and higher susceptibility toward inhibition in hepatocellular carcinoma mitochondria compared to liver mitochondria. These findings demonstrate that solely normalizing to protein amount may obscure essential molecular differences between mitochondrial populations.

  4. Absolute Proper Motions of Southern Globular Clusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dinescu, D. I.; Girard, T. M.; van Altena, W. F.

    1996-05-01

    Our program involves the determination of absolute proper motions with respect to galaxies for a sample of globular clusters situated in the southern sky. The plates cover a 6(deg) x 6(deg) area and are taken with the 51-cm double astrograph at Cesco Observatory in El Leoncito, Argentina. We have developed special methods to deal with the modelling error of the plate transformation and we correct for magnitude equation using the cluster stars. This careful astrometric treatment leads to accuracies of from 0.5 to 1.0 mas/yr for the absolute proper motion of each cluster, depending primarily on the number of measurable cluster stars which in turn is related to the cluster's distance. Space velocities are then derived which, in association with metallicities, provide key information for the formation scenario of the Galaxy, i.e. accretion and/or dissipational collapse. Here we present results for NGC 1851, NGC 6752, NGC 6584, NGC 6362 and NGC 288.

  5. Relational versus absolute representation in categorization.

    PubMed

    Edwards, Darren J; Pothos, Emmanuel M; Perlman, Amotz

    2012-01-01

    This study explores relational-like and absolute-like representations in categorization. Although there is much evidence that categorization processes can involve information about both the particular physical properties of studied instances and abstract (relational) properties, there has been little work on the factors that lead to one kind of representation as opposed to the other. We tested 370 participants in 6 experiments, in which participants had to classify new items into predefined artificial categories. In 4 experiments, we observed a predominantly relational-like mode of classification, and in 2 experiments we observed a shift toward an absolute-like mode of classification. These results suggest 3 factors that promote a relational-like mode of classification: fewer items per group, more training groups, and the presence of a time delay. Overall, we propose that less information about the distributional properties of a category or weaker memory traces for the category exemplars (induced, e.g., by having smaller categories or a time delay) can encourage relational-like categorization.

  6. Transient absolute robustness in stochastic biochemical networks.

    PubMed

    Enciso, German A

    2016-08-01

    Absolute robustness allows biochemical networks to sustain a consistent steady-state output in the face of protein concentration variability from cell to cell. This property is structural and can be determined from the topology of the network alone regardless of rate parameters. An important question regarding these systems is the effect of discrete biochemical noise in the dynamical behaviour. In this paper, a variable freezing technique is developed to show that under mild hypotheses the corresponding stochastic system has a transiently robust behaviour. Specifically, after finite time the distribution of the output approximates a Poisson distribution, centred around the deterministic mean. The approximation becomes increasingly accurate, and it holds for increasingly long finite times, as the total protein concentrations grow to infinity. In particular, the stochastic system retains a transient, absolutely robust behaviour corresponding to the deterministic case. This result contrasts with the long-term dynamics of the stochastic system, which eventually must undergo an extinction event that eliminates robustness and is completely different from the deterministic dynamics. The transiently robust behaviour may be sufficient to carry out many forms of robust signal transduction and cellular decision-making in cellular organisms. PMID:27581485

  7. A Conceptual Approach to Absolute Value Equations and Inequalities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ellis, Mark W.; Bryson, Janet L.

    2011-01-01

    The absolute value learning objective in high school mathematics requires students to solve far more complex absolute value equations and inequalities. When absolute value problems become more complex, students often do not have sufficient conceptual understanding to make any sense of what is happening mathematically. The authors suggest that the…

  8. Using, Seeing, Feeling, and Doing Absolute Value for Deeper Understanding

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ponce, Gregorio A.

    2008-01-01

    Using sticky notes and number lines, a hands-on activity is shared that anchors initial student thinking about absolute value. The initial point of reference should help students successfully evaluate numeric problems involving absolute value. They should also be able to solve absolute value equations and inequalities that are typically found in…

  9. Vibrational-excitation cross sections of water molecules by electron impact

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shyn, T. W.; Cho, S. Y.; Cravens, T. E.

    1988-01-01

    A crossed-beam technique was used to measure absolute differential cross sections for the vibrational excitation of water-vapor molecules. The energy and angular range were from 2.2 to 20 eV and from 30 to 150 deg. Vibrational-excitation cross sections were determined for the bending (010) and stretching (100 and 001) modes of the electronic ground state. It is shown that the integral cross sections are generally larger than those of Seng and Linder (1976) by 10-20 percent for both the bending and stretching modes. It is noted that the results obtained are of interest in connection with the theoretical modeling of cometary ionospheres.

  10. Landsat-7 ETM+ radiometric stability and absolute calibration

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Markham, B.L.; Barker, J.L.; Barsi, J.A.; Kaita, E.; Thome, K.J.; Helder, D.L.; Palluconi, Frank Don; Schott, J.R.; Scaramuzza, P.; ,

    2002-01-01

    Launched in April 1999, the Landsat-7 ETM+ instrument is in its fourth year of operation. The quality of the acquired calibrated imagery continues to be high, especially with respect to its three most important radiometric performance parameters: reflective band instrument stability to better than ??1%, reflective band absolute calibration to better than ??5%, and thermal band absolute calibration to better than ??0.6 K. The ETM+ instrument has been the most stable of any of the Landsat instruments, in both the reflective and thermal channels. To date, the best on-board calibration source for the reflective bands has been the Full Aperture Solar Calibrator, which has indicated changes of at most -1.8% to -2.0% (95% C.I.) change per year in the ETM+ gain (band 4). However, this change is believed to be caused by changes in the solar diffuser panel, as opposed to a change in the instrument's gain. This belief is based partially on ground observations, which bound the changes in gain in band 4 at -0.7% to +1.5%. Also, ETM+ stability is indicated by the monitoring of desert targets. These image-based results for four Saharan and Arabian sites, for a collection of 35 scenes over the three years since launch, bound the gain change at -0.7% to +0.5% in band 4. Thermal calibration from ground observations revealed an offset error of +0.31 W/m 2 sr um soon after launch. This offset was corrected within the U. S. ground processing system at EROS Data Center on 21-Dec-00, and since then, the band 6 on-board calibration has indicated changes of at most +0.02% to +0.04% (95% C.I.) per year. The latest ground observations have detected no remaining offset error with an RMS error of ??0.6 K. The stability and absolute calibration of the Landsat-7 ETM+ sensor make it an ideal candidate to be used as a reference source for radiometric cross-calibrating to other land remote sensing satellite systems.

  11. Landsat-7 ETM+ radiometric stability and absolute calibration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Markham, Brian L.; Barker, John L.; Barsi, Julia A.; Kaita, Ed; Thome, Kurtis J.; Helder, Dennis L.; Palluconi, Frank D.; Schott, John R.; Scaramuzza, Pat

    2003-04-01

    Launched in April 1999, the Landsat-7 ETM+ instrument is in its fourth year of operation. The quality of the acquired calibrated imagery continues to be high, especially with respect to its three most important radiometric performance parameters: reflective band instrument stability to better than +/-1%, reflective band absolute calibration to better than +/-5%, and thermal band absolute calibration to better than +/- 0.6 K. The ETM+ instrument has been the most stable of any of the Landsat instruments, in both the reflective and thermal channels. To date, the best on-board calibration source for the reflective bands has been the Full Aperture Solar Calibrator, which has indicated changes of at most -1.8% to -2.0% (95% C.I.) change per year in the ETM+ gain (band 4). However, this change is believed to be caused by changes in the solar diffuser panel, as opposed to a change in the instrument's gain. This belief is based partially on ground observations, which bound the changes in gain in band 4 at -0.7% to +1.5%. Also, ETM+ stability is indicated by the monitoring of desert targets. These image-based results for four Saharan and Arabian sites, for a collection of 35 scenes over the three years since launch, bound the gain change at -0.7% to +0.5% in band 4. Thermal calibration from ground observations revealed an offset error of +0.31 W/m2 sr um soon after launch. This offset was corrected within the U. S. ground processing system at EROS Data Center on 21-Dec-00, and since then, the band 6 on-board calibration has indicated changes of at most +0.02% to +0.04% (95% C.I.) per year. The latest ground observations have detected no remaining offset error with an RMS error of +/- 0.6 K. The stability and absolute calibration of the Landsat-7 ETM+ sensor make it an ideal candidate to be used as a reference source for radiometric cross-calibrating to other land remote sensing satellite systems.

  12. The Absolute Radiometric Calibration of Space - Sensors.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holm, Ronald Gene

    1987-09-01

    The need for absolute radiometric calibration of space-based sensors will continue to increase as new generations of space sensors are developed. A reflectance -based in-flight calibration procedure is used to determine the radiance reaching the entrance pupil of the sensor. This procedure uses ground-based measurements coupled with a radiative transfer code to characterize the effects the atmosphere has on the signal reaching the sensor. The computed radiance is compared to the digital count output of the sensor associated with the image of a test site. This provides an update to the preflight calibration of the system and a check on the on-board internal calibrator. This calibration procedure was used to perform a series of five calibrations of the Landsat-5 Thematic Mapper (TM). For the 12 measurements made in TM bands 1-3, the RMS variation from the mean as a percentage of the mean is (+OR-) 1.9%, and for measurements in the IR, TM bands 4,5, and 7, the value is (+OR-) 3.4%. The RMS variation for all 23 measurements is (+OR-) 2.8%. The absolute calibration techniques were put to another test with a series of three calibration of the SPOT-1 High Resolution Visible, (HRV), sensors. The ratio, HRV-2/HRV-1, of absolute calibration coefficients compared very well with ratios of histogrammed data obtained when the cameras simultaneously imaged the same ground site. Bands PA, B1 and B3 agreed to within 3%, while band B2 showed a 7% difference. The procedure for performing a satellite calibration was then used to demonstrate how a calibrated satellite sensor can be used to quantitatively evaluate surface reflectance over a wide range of surface features. Predicted reflectance factors were compared to values obtained from aircraft -based radiometer data. This procedure was applied on four dates with two different surface conditions per date. A strong correlation, R('2) = .996, was shown between reflectance values determined from satellite imagery and low-flying aircraft

  13. Differential and integral cross sections for the rotationally inelastic scattering of methyl radicals with H{sub 2} and D{sub 2}

    SciTech Connect

    Tkáč, Ondřej; Orr-Ewing, Andrew J.; Ma, Qianli; Dagdigian, Paul J.; Rusher, Cassandra A.; Greaves, Stuart J.

    2014-05-28

    Comparisons are presented of experimental and theoretical studies of the rotationally inelastic scattering of CD{sub 3} radicals with H{sub 2} and D{sub 2} collision partners at respective collision energies of 680 ± 75 and 640 ± 60 cm{sup −1}. Close-coupling quantum-mechanical calculations performed using a newly constructed ab initio potential energy surface (PES) provide initial-to-final CD{sub 3} rotational level (n, k → n′, k′) integral and differential cross sections (ICSs and DCSs). The DCSs are compared with crossed molecular beam and velocity map imaging measurements of angular scattering distributions, which serve as a critical test of the accuracy of the new PES. In general, there is very good agreement between the experimental measurements and the calculations. The DCSs for CD{sub 3} scattering from both H{sub 2} and D{sub 2} peak in the forward hemisphere for n′ = 2–4 and shift more to sideways and backward scattering for n′ = 5. For n′ = 6–8, the DCSs are dominated by backward scattering. DCSs for a particular CD{sub 3} n → n′ transition have a similar angular dependence with either D{sub 2} or H{sub 2} as collision partner. Any differences between DCSs or ICSs can be attributed to mass effects because the PES is unchanged for CD{sub 3}−H{sub 2} and CD{sub 3}–D{sub 2} collisions. Further comparisons are drawn between the CD{sub 3}–D{sub 2} scattering and results for CD{sub 3}–He presented in our recent paper [O. Tkáč, A. G. Sage, S. J. Greaves, A. J. Orr-Ewing, P. J. Dagdigian, Q. Ma, and M. H. Alexander, Chem. Sci. 4, 4199 (2013)]. These systems have the same reduced mass, but are governed by different PESs.

  14. Measurement of the Inclusive Jet Cross Section in pp Collisions at √s=7 TeV

    DOE PAGES

    Chatrchyan, S.; Khachatryan, V.; Sirunyan, A. M.; Tumasyan, A.; Adam, W.; Bergauer, T.; Dragicevic, M.; Erö, J.; Fabjan, C.; Friedl, M.; et al

    2011-09-19

    The inclusive jet cross section is measured in pp collisions with a center-of-mass energy of 7 TeV at the Large Hadron Collider using the CMS experiment. The data sample corresponds to an integrated luminosity of 34 pb⁻¹. The measurement is made for jet transverse momenta in the range 18–1100 GeV and for absolute values of rapidity less than 3. The measured cross section extends to the highest values of jet pT ever observed and, within the experimental and theoretical uncertainties, is generally in agreement with next-to-leading-order perturbative QCD predictions.

  15. Measurement of the inclusive jet cross section in pp collisions at √s = 7 TeV.

    PubMed

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    2011-09-23

    The inclusive jet cross section is measured in pp collisions with a center-of-mass energy of 7 TeV at the Large Hadron Collider using the CMS experiment. The data sample corresponds to an integrated luminosity of 34 pb(-1). The measurement is made for jet transverse momenta in the range 18-1100 GeV and for absolute values of rapidity less than 3. The measured cross section extends to the highest values of jet p(T) ever observed and, within the experimental and theoretical uncertainties, is generally in agreement with next-to-leading-order perturbative QCD predictions.

  16. Measurement of the Inclusive Jet Cross Section in pp Collisions at sqrt[s]=7 TeV

    SciTech Connect

    Chatrchyan, Serguei; et al.

    2011-09-01

    The inclusive jet cross section is measured in pp collisions with a center-of-mass energy of 7 TeV at the LHC using the CMS experiment. The data sample corresponds to an integrated luminosity of 34 inverse picobarns. The measurement is made for jet transverse momenta in the range 18-1100 GeV and for absolute values of rapidity less than 3. The measured cross section extends to the highest values of jet pT ever observed and, within the experimental and theoretical uncertainties, is generally in agreement with next-to-leading-order perturbative QCD predictions.

  17. Measurement of the inclusive jet cross section in pp collisions at √s = 7 TeV.

    PubMed

    Chatrchyan, S; Khachatryan, V; Sirunyan, A M; Tumasyan, A; Adam, W; Bergauer, T; Dragicevic, M; Erö, J; Fabjan, C; Friedl, M; Frühwirth, R; Ghete, V M; Hammer, J; Hänsel, S; Hoch, M; Hörmann, N; Hrubec, J; Jeitler, M; Kiesenhofer, W; Krammer, M; Liko, D; Mikulec, I; Pernicka, M; Rohringer, H; Schöfbeck, R; Strauss, J; Taurok, A; Teischinger, F; Wagner, P; Waltenberger, W; Walzel, G; Widl, E; Wulz, C-E; Mossolov, V; Shumeiko, N; Gonzalez, J Suarez; Bansal, S; Benucci, L; De Wolf, E A; Janssen, X; Maes, J; Maes, T; Mucibello, L; Ochesanu, S; Roland, B; Rougny, R; Selvaggi, M; Van Haevermaet, H; Van Mechelen, P; Van Remortel, N; Blekman, F; Blyweert, S; D'Hondt, J; Devroede, O; Suarez, R Gonzalez; Kalogeropoulos, A; Maes, M; Van Doninck, W; Van Mulders, P; Van Onsem, G P; Villella, I; Charaf, O; Clerbaux, B; De Lentdecker, G; Dero, V; Gay, A P R; Hammad, G H; Hreus, T; Marage, P E; Thomas, L; Vander Velde, C; Vanlaer, P; Adler, V; Cimmino, A; Costantini, S; Grunewald, M; Klein, B; Lellouch, J; Marinov, A; Mccartin, J; Ryckbosch, D; Thyssen, F; Tytgat, M; Vanelderen, L; Verwilligen, P; Walsh, S; Zaganidis, N; Basegmez, S; Bruno, G; Caudron, J; Ceard, L; Gil, E Cortina; De Favereau De Jeneret, J; Delaere, C; Favart, D; Giammanco, A; Grégoire, G; Hollar, J; Lemaitre, V; Liao, J; Militaru, O; Ovyn, S; Pagano, D; Pin, A; Piotrzkowski, K; Schul, N; Beliy, N; Caebergs, T; Daubie, E; Alves, G A; De Jesus Damiao, D; Pol, M E; Souza, M H G; Carvalho, W; Da Costa, E M; De Oliveira Martins, C; Fonseca De Souza, S; Mundim, L; Nogima, H; Oguri, V; Prado Da Silva, W L; Santoro, A; Silva Do Amaral, S M; Sznajder, A; Bernardes, C A; Dias, F A; Tomei, T R Fernandez Perez; Gregores, E M; Lagana, C; Marinho, F; Mercadante, P G; Novaes, S F; Padula, Sandra S; Darmenov, N; Dimitrov, L; Genchev, V; Iaydjiev, P; Piperov, S; Rodozov, M; Stoykova, S; Sultanov, G; Tcholakov, V; Trayanov, R; Vankov, I; Dimitrov, A; Hadjiiska, R; Karadzhinova, A; Kozhuharov, V; Litov, L; Mateev, M; Pavlov, B; Petkov, P; Bian, J G; Chen, G M; Chen, H S; Jiang, C H; Liang, D; Liang, S; Meng, X; Tao, J; Wang, J; Wang, J; Wang, X; Wang, Z; Xiao, H; Xu, M; Zang, J; Zhang, Z; Ban, Y; Guo, S; Guo, Y; Li, W; Mao, Y; Qian, S J; Teng, H; Zhang, L; Zhu, B; Zou, W; Cabrera, A; Moreno, B Gomez; Rios, A A Ocampo; Oliveros, A F Osorio; Sanabria, J C; Godinovic, N; Lelas, D; Lelas, K; Plestina, R; Polic, D; Puljak, I; Antunovic, Z; Dzelalija, M; Brigljevic, V; Duric, S; Kadija, K; Morovic, S; Attikis, A; Galanti, M; Mousa, J; Nicolaou, C; Ptochos, F; Razis, P A; Finger, M; Finger, M; Assran, Y; Khalil, S; Mahmoud, M A; Hektor, A; Kadastik, M; Müntel, M; Raidal, M; Rebane, L; Azzolini, V; Eerola, P; Fedi, G; Czellar, S; Härkönen, J; Heikkinen, A; Karimäki, V; Kinnunen, R; Kortelainen, M J; Lampén, T; Lassila-Perini, K; Lehti, S; Lindén, T; Luukka, P; Mäenpää, T; Tuominen, E; Tuominiemi, J; Tuovinen, E; Ungaro, D; Wendland, L; Banzuzi, K; Korpela, A; Tuuva, T; Sillou, D; Besancon, M; Choudhury, S; Dejardin, M; Denegri, D; Fabbro, B; Faure, J L; Ferri, F; Ganjour, S; Gentit, F X; Givernaud, A; Gras, P; Hamel de Monchenault, G; Jarry, P; Locci, E; Malcles, J; Marionneau, M; Millischer, L; Rander, J; Rosowsky, A; Shreyber, I; Titov, M; Verrecchia, P; Baffioni, S; Beaudette, F; Benhabib, L; Bianchini, L; Bluj, M; Broutin, C; Busson, P; Charlot, C; Dahms, T; Dobrzynski, L; Elgammal, S; Granier de Cassagnac, R; Haguenauer, M; Miné, P; Mironov, C; Ochando, C; Paganini, P; Sabes, D; Salerno, R; Sirois, Y; Thiebaux, C; Wyslouch, B; Zabi, A; Agram, J-L; Andrea, J; Bloch, D; Bodin, D; Brom, J-M; Cardaci, M; Chabert, E C; Collard, C; Conte, E; Drouhin, F; Ferro, C; Fontaine, J-C; Gelé, D; Goerlach, U; Greder, S; Juillot, P; Karim, M; Le Bihan, A-C; Mikami, Y; Van Hove, P; Fassi, F; Mercier, D; Baty, C; Beauceron, S; Beaupere, N; Bedjidian, M; Bondu, O; Boudoul, G; Boumediene, D; Brun, H; Chasserat, J; Chierici, R; Contardo, D; Depasse, P; El Mamouni, H; Fay, J; Gascon, S; Ille, B; Kurca, T; Le Grand, T; Lethuillier, M; Mirabito, L; Perries, S; Sordini, V; Tosi, S; Tschudi, Y; Verdier, P; Lomidze, D; Anagnostou, G; Edelhoff, M; Feld, L; Heracleous, N; Hindrichs, O; Jussen, R; Klein, K; Merz, J; Mohr, N; Ostapchuk, A; Perieanu, A; Raupach, F; Sammet, J; Schael, S; Sprenger, D; Weber, H; Weber, M; Wittmer, B; Ata, M; Bender, W; Dietz-Laursonn, E; Erdmann, M; Frangenheim, J; Hebbeker, T; Hinzmann, A; Hoepfner, K; Klimkovich, T; Klingebiel, D; Kreuzer, P; Lanske, D; Magass, C; Merschmeyer, M; Meyer, A; Papacz, P; Pieta, H; Reithler, H; Schmitz, S A; Sonnenschein, L; Steggemann, J; Teyssier, D; Bontenackels, M; Davids, M; Duda, M; Flügge, G; Geenen, H; Giffels, M; Haj Ahmad, W; Heydhausen, D; Kress, T; Kuessel, Y; Linn, A; Nowack, A; Perchalla, L; Pooth, O; Rennefeld, J; Sauerland, P; Stahl, A; Thomas, M; Tornier, D; Zoeller, M H; Martin, M Aldaya

    2011-09-23

    The inclusive jet cross section is measured in pp collisions with a center-of-mass energy of 7 TeV at the Large Hadron Collider using the CMS experiment. The data sample corresponds to an integrated luminosity of 34 pb(-1). The measurement is made for jet transverse momenta in the range 18-1100 GeV and for absolute values of rapidity less than 3. The measured cross section extends to the highest values of jet p(T) ever observed and, within the experimental and theoretical uncertainties, is generally in agreement with next-to-leading-order perturbative QCD predictions. PMID:22026843

  18. Use of Absolute and Comparative Performance Feedback in Absolute and Comparative Judgments and Decisions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moore, Don A.; Klein, William M. P.

    2008-01-01

    Which matters more--beliefs about absolute ability or ability relative to others? This study set out to compare the effects of such beliefs on satisfaction with performance, self-evaluations, and bets on future performance. In Experiment 1, undergraduate participants were told they had answered 20% correct, 80% correct, or were not given their…

  19. High precision absolute distance measurement with the fiber femtosecond optical frequency comb

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Jiashuai; Wu, Tengfei; Liang, Zhiguo; Wang, Yu; Han, Jibo

    2016-01-01

    The absolute distance measurement was experimentally demonstrated by using the fiber femtosecond optical frequency comb in air. The technique is based on the measurement of cross correlation between reference and measurement optical pulses. This method can achieve accuracy better than the commercial laser interferometer. It is attained sub-micrometer resolution in large scale measurement by using the fiber femtosecond optical frequency comb. It will be benefit for future laser lidar and satellite formation flying mission.

  20. Precise Measurement of the Absolute Yield of Fluorescence Photons in Atmospheric Gases

    SciTech Connect

    Ave, M.; Bohacova, M.; Daumiller, K.; Di Carlo, P.; Di Giulio, C.; Luis, P.Facal San; Gonzales, D.; Hojvat, C.; Horandel, J.R.; Hrabovsky, M.; Iarlori, M.; /INFN, Aquila /Karlsruhe, Inst. Technol.

    2011-01-01

    We have performed a measurement of the absolute yield of fluorescence photons at the Fermilab Test Beam. A systematic uncertainty at 5% level was achieved by the use of Cherenkov radiation as a reference calibration light source. A cross-check was performed by an independent calibration using a laser light source. A significant improvement on the energy scale uncertainty of Ultra-High Energy Cosmic Rays is expected.

  1. Energy dispersive X-ray analysis on an absolute scale in scanning transmission electron microscopy.

    PubMed

    Chen, Z; D'Alfonso, A J; Weyland, M; Taplin, D J; Allen, L J; Findlay, S D

    2015-10-01

    We demonstrate absolute scale agreement between the number of X-ray counts in energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy using an atomic-scale coherent electron probe and first-principles simulations. Scan-averaged spectra were collected across a range of thicknesses with precisely determined and controlled microscope parameters. Ionization cross-sections were calculated using the quantum excitation of phonons model, incorporating dynamical (multiple) electron scattering, which is seen to be important even for very thin specimens.

  2. Neutron Thermal Cross Sections, Westcott Factors, Resonance Integrals, Maxwellian Averaged Cross Sections and Astrophysical Reaction Rates Calculated from the ENDF/B-VII.1, JEFF-3.1.2, JENDL-4.0, ROSFOND-2010, CENDL-3.1 and EAF-2010 Evaluated Data Libraries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pritychenko, B.; Mughabghab, S. F.

    2012-12-01

    We present calculations of neutron thermal cross sections, Westcott factors, resonance integrals, Maxwellian-averaged cross sections and astrophysical reaction rates for 843 ENDF materials using data from the major evaluated nuclear libraries and European activation file. Extensive analysis of newly-evaluated neutron reaction cross sections, neutron covariances, and improvements in data processing techniques motivated us to calculate nuclear industry and neutron physics quantities, produce s-process Maxwellian-averaged cross sections and astrophysical reaction rates, systematically calculate uncertainties, and provide additional insights on currently available neutron-induced reaction data. Nuclear reaction calculations are discussed and new results are presented. Due to space limitations, the present paper contains only calculated Maxwellian-averaged cross sections and their uncertainties. The complete data sets for all results are published in the Brookhaven National Laboratory report.

  3. Absolute radiometric calibration of the CCRS SAR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ulander, Lars M. H.; Hawkins, Robert K.; Livingstone, Charles E.; Lukowski, Tom I.

    1991-11-01

    Determining the radar scattering coefficients from SAR (synthetic aperture radar) image data requires absolute radiometric calibration of the SAR system. The authors describe an internal calibration methodology for the airborne Canada Centre for Remote Sensing (CCRS) SAR system, based on radar theory, a detailed model of the radar system, and measurements of system parameters. The methodology is verified by analyzing external calibration data acquired over a 6-month period in 1988 by the C-band radar using HH polarization. The results indicate that the overall error is +/- 0.8 dB (1-sigma) for incidence angles +/- 20 deg from antenna boresight. The dominant error contributions are due to the antenna radome and uncertainties in the elevation angle relative to the antenna boresight.

  4. Absolute calibration of ultraviolet filter photometry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bless, R. C.; Fairchild, T.; Code, A. D.

    1972-01-01

    The essential features of the calibration procedure can be divided into three parts. First, the shape of the bandpass of each photometer was determined by measuring the transmissions of the individual optical components and also by measuring the response of the photometer as a whole. Secondly, each photometer was placed in the essentially-collimated synchrotron radiation bundle maintained at a constant intensity level, and the output signal was determined from about 100 points on the objective. Finally, two or three points on the objective were illuminated by synchrotron radiation at several different intensity levels covering the dynamic range of the photometers. The output signals were placed on an absolute basis by the electron counting technique described earlier.

  5. Absolute measurements of fast neutrons using yttrium

    SciTech Connect

    Roshan, M. V.; Springham, S. V.; Rawat, R. S.; Lee, P.; Krishnan, M.

    2010-08-15

    Yttrium is presented as an absolute neutron detector for pulsed neutron sources. It has high sensitivity for detecting fast neutrons. Yttrium has the property of generating a monoenergetic secondary radiation in the form of a 909 keV gamma-ray caused by inelastic neutron interaction. It was calibrated numerically using MCNPX and does not need periodic recalibration. The total yttrium efficiency for detecting 2.45 MeV neutrons was determined to be f{sub n}{approx}4.1x10{sup -4} with an uncertainty of about 0.27%. The yttrium detector was employed in the NX2 plasma focus experiments and showed the neutron yield of the order of 10{sup 8} neutrons per discharge.

  6. Absolute Measurement of Electron Cloud Density

    SciTech Connect

    Covo, M K; Molvik, A W; Cohen, R H; Friedman, A; Seidl, P A; Logan, G; Bieniosek, F; Baca, D; Vay, J; Orlando, E; Vujic, J L

    2007-06-21

    Beam interaction with background gas and walls produces ubiquitous clouds of stray electrons that frequently limit the performance of particle accelerator and storage rings. Counterintuitively we obtained the electron cloud accumulation by measuring the expelled ions that are originated from the beam-background gas interaction, rather than by measuring electrons that reach the walls. The kinetic ion energy measured with a retarding field analyzer (RFA) maps the depressed beam space-charge potential and provides the dynamic electron cloud density. Clearing electrode current measurements give the static electron cloud background that complements and corroborates with the RFA measurements, providing an absolute measurement of electron cloud density during a 5 {micro}s duration beam pulse in a drift region of the magnetic transport section of the High-Current Experiment (HCX) at LBNL.

  7. Micron Accurate Absolute Ranging System: Range Extension

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smalley, Larry L.; Smith, Kely L.

    1999-01-01

    The purpose of this research is to investigate Fresnel diffraction as a means of obtaining absolute distance measurements with micron or greater accuracy. It is believed that such a system would prove useful to the Next Generation Space Telescope (NGST) as a non-intrusive, non-contact measuring system for use with secondary concentrator station-keeping systems. The present research attempts to validate past experiments and develop ways to apply the phenomena of Fresnel diffraction to micron accurate measurement. This report discusses past research on the phenomena, and the basis of the use Fresnel diffraction distance metrology. The apparatus used in the recent investigations, experimental procedures used, preliminary results are discussed in detail. Continued research and equipment requirements on the extension of the effective range of the Fresnel diffraction systems is also described.

  8. Absolute radiometric calibration of the Thematic Mapper

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Slater, P. N.; Biggar, S. F.; Holm, R. G.; Jackson, R. D.; Mao, Y.

    1986-01-01

    Calibration data for the solar reflective bands of the Landsat-5 TM obtained from five in-flight absolute radiometric calibrations from July 1984-November 1985 at White Sands, New Mexico are presented and analyzed. Ground reflectance and atmospheric data were utilized to predict the spectral radiance at the entrance pupil of the TM and the average number of digital counts in each TM band. The calibration of each of the TM solar reflective bands was calculated in terms of average digital counts/unit spectral radiance for each band. It is observed that for the 12 reflectance-based measurements the rms variation from the means as a percentage of the mean is + or - 1.9 percent; for the 11 measurements in the IR bands, it is + or - 3.4 percent; and the rms variation for all 23 measurements is + or - 2.8 percent.

  9. Swarm's Absolute Scalar Magnetometer metrological performances

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leger, J.; Fratter, I.; Bertrand, F.; Jager, T.; Morales, S.

    2012-12-01

    The Absolute Scalar Magnetometer (ASM) has been developed for the ESA Earth Observation Swarm mission, planned for launch in November 2012. As its Overhauser magnetometers forerunners flown on Oersted and Champ satellites, it will deliver high resolution scalar measurements for the in-flight calibration of the Vector Field Magnetometer manufactured by the Danish Technical University. Latest results of the ground tests carried out to fully characterize all parameters that may affect its accuracy, both at instrument and satellite level, will be presented. In addition to its baseline function, the ASM can be operated either at a much higher sampling rate (burst mode at 250 Hz) or in a dual mode where it also delivers vector field measurements as a by-product. The calibration procedure and the relevant vector performances will be discussed.

  10. MAGSAT: Vector magnetometer absolute sensor alignment determination

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Acuna, M. H.

    1981-01-01

    A procedure is described for accurately determining the absolute alignment of the magnetic axes of a triaxial magnetometer sensor with respect to an external, fixed, reference coordinate system. The method does not require that the magnetic field vector orientation, as generated by a triaxial calibration coil system, be known to better than a few degrees from its true position, and minimizes the number of positions through which a sensor assembly must be rotated to obtain a solution. Computer simulations show that accuracies of better than 0.4 seconds of arc can be achieved under typical test conditions associated with existing magnetic test facilities. The basic approach is similar in nature to that presented by McPherron and Snare (1978) except that only three sensor positions are required and the system of equations to be solved is considerably simplified. Applications of the method to the case of the MAGSAT Vector Magnetometer are presented and the problems encountered discussed.

  11. Tracking and understanding volcanic emissions through cross-disciplinary integration of field, textural, geochemical and geophysical data: A textural working group. (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    gurioli, L.

    2013-12-01

    Relating magma ascent to eruption style using information preserved in pyroclastic deposits is a major challenge in modern volcanology. Because magma ascent and fragmentation are inaccessible to direct observation, one way to obtain quantitative information for conduit dynamics is through textural quantification of the sampled products (i.e., full definition of the rock vesicle and crystal properties). Many workers have shown that quantification of vesicle and crystal size distributions yields valuable insights into the processes that created the pyroclasts. However, the physical characteristics of individual pyroclasts must not be considered in isolation from information regarding: (i) the deposits from which they are taken; (ii) their chemistry; (iii) geophysical signatures of the related explosive events; and (iv) results from petrological and/or analogue experiments. As a result, attempts to understand eruption dynamics have increasingly involved the coupling of traditional field and sample-return analyses with geophysical measurements made synchronous with sample collection. In spite of this progress, we remain far from developing a definitive methods that allows us to sample, correlate and/or compare the multitude of parameters that can be measured at an actively building field deposits. As a result, no study has yet been able to correlate all derivable textural parameters with the full range of available multidisciplinary data. To discuss these issues, a working group met during 6-7 November 2012 at the Maison International of the Université Blaise Pascal (Clermont-Ferrand, France). The workshop was supported by the European Science Foundation and was held under the title: 'Tracking and understanding volcanic emissions through cross-disciplinary integration: A textural working group'. Our main objective was to gather an advisory group to define measurements, methods, formats and standards to be applied to integration of geophysical and physical

  12. Convective-to-absolute instability transition in a viscoelastic capillary jet subject to unrelaxed axial elastic tension.

    PubMed

    Mohamed, A Said; Herrada, M A; Gañán-Calvo, A M; Montanero, J M

    2015-08-01

    The convective-to-absolute instability transition in an Oldroyd-B capillary jet subject to unrelaxed axial stress is examined theoretically. There is a critical Weber number below which the jet is absolutely unstable under axisymmetric perturbations. We analyze the dependence of this critical parameter with respect to the Reynolds and Deborah numbers, as well as the unrelaxed axial stress. For small Deborah numbers, the unrelaxed stress destabilizes the viscoelastic jet, increasing the critical Weber number for which the convective-to-absolute instability transition takes place. If the Deborah number takes higher values, then the transitional Weber number decreases as the unrelaxed stress increases until two solution branches cross each other. The dominant branch for large axial stress leads to a threshold of this quantity above which the viscoelastic jet becomes absolutely unstable independently of the Weber number. The threshold depends on neither the Reynolds nor the Deborah number for sufficiently large values of these parameters.

  13. Convective-to-absolute instability transition in a viscoelastic capillary jet subject to unrelaxed axial elastic tension.

    PubMed

    Mohamed, A Said; Herrada, M A; Gañán-Calvo, A M; Montanero, J M

    2015-08-01

    The convective-to-absolute instability transition in an Oldroyd-B capillary jet subject to unrelaxed axial stress is examined theoretically. There is a critical Weber number below which the jet is absolutely unstable under axisymmetric perturbations. We analyze the dependence of this critical parameter with respect to the Reynolds and Deborah numbers, as well as the unrelaxed axial stress. For small Deborah numbers, the unrelaxed stress destabilizes the viscoelastic jet, increasing the critical Weber number for which the convective-to-absolute instability transition takes place. If the Deborah number takes higher values, then the transitional Weber number decreases as the unrelaxed stress increases until two solution branches cross each other. The dominant branch for large axial stress leads to a threshold of this quantity above which the viscoelastic jet becomes absolutely unstable independently of the Weber number. The threshold depends on neither the Reynolds nor the Deborah number for sufficiently large values of these parameters. PMID:26382502

  14. Utilizing a reference material for assessing absolute tumor mechanical properties in modality independent elastography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Dong Kyu; Weis, Jared A.; Yankeelov, Thomas E.; Miga, Michael I.

    2014-03-01

    There is currently no reliable method for early characterization of breast cancer response to neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NAC) [1,2]. Given that disruption of normal structural architecture occurs in cancer-bearing tissue, we hypothesize that further structural changes occur in response to NAC. Consequently, we are investigating the use of modalityindependent elastography (MIE) [3-8] as a method for monitoring mechanical integrity to predict long term outcomes in NAC. Recently, we have utilized a Demons non-rigid image registration method that allows 3D elasticity reconstruction in abnormal tissue geometries, making it particularly amenable to the evaluation of breast cancer mechanical properties. While past work has reflected relative elasticity contrast ratios [3], this study improves upon that work by utilizing a known stiffness reference material within the reconstruction framework such that a stiffness map becomes an absolute measure. To test, a polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) cryogel phantom and a silicone rubber mock mouse tumor phantom were constructed with varying mechanical stiffness. Results showed that an absolute measure of stiffness could be obtained based on a reference value. This reference technique demonstrates the ability to generate accurate measurements of absolute stiffness to characterize response to NAC. These results support that `referenced MIE' has the potential to reliably differentiate absolute tumor stiffness with significant contrast from that of surrounding tissue. The use of referenced MIE to obtain absolute quantification of biomarkers is also translatable across length scales such that the characterization method is mechanics-consistent at the small animal and human application.

  15. Can Integrated Watershed Management Contribute to Improvement of Public Health? A Cross-Sectional Study from Hilly Tribal Villages in India

    PubMed Central

    Nerkar, Sandeep S.; Pathak, Ashish; Lundborg, Cecilia Stålsby; Tamhankar, Ashok J.

    2015-01-01

    Tribal people living in hilly areas suffer from water scarcity in many parts of the world, including India. Water scarcity adversely impacts all aspects of life, including public health. Implementation of an Integrated Watershed Management Programme (IWMP) can help solve the problems arising out of water scarcity in such areas. However, the knowledge about and views of the water scarcity sufferers on the public health implications of IWMP have not been well documented. This cross-sectional study was performed in six purposively selected tribal villages located in Maharashtra, India. In three of the villages IWMP had been implemented (IWMV), but not in the other three (NWMV). The head of each household in all villages was interviewed using a questionnaire covering various public health aspects relevant to the villages. A total of 286/313 (92%) households participated in the study. Compared to NWMV, respondents in IWMV experienced significantly lesser prolonged water scarcity (OR = 0.39), had greater number of toilets (OR = 6.95), cultivated more variety of crops (OR = 2.61), had lower migration (OR = 0.59), higher number of girls continuing education (OR = 3.04) and better utilized modern healthcare facilities in the antenatal, natal and postnatal period (OR = 3.75, 2.57, 4.88 respectively). Thus, tribal people in IWMP-implemented villages reported advantages in many aspects of public health. PMID:25734794

  16. Foot-and-mouth disease vaccination induces cross-reactive IFN-γ responses in cattle that are dependent on the integrity of the 140S particles.

    PubMed

    Bucafusco, Danilo; Di Giacomo, Sebastián; Pega, Juan; Schammas, Juan Manuel; Cardoso, Nancy; Capozzo, Alejandra Victoria; Perez-Filgueira, Mariano

    2015-02-01

    Interferon-γ (IFN-γ) recall responses against foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) in FMD vaccinated cattle are utilized to study T-lymphocyte immunity against this virus. Here, a recall IFN-γ assay based on a commercial ELISA was set up using 308 samples from naïve and vaccinated cattle. The assay was used to study cross-reactive responses between different FMDV vaccine strains. Blood samples from cattle immunized with monovalent vaccines containing A24/Cruzeiro/Brazil/55, A/Argentina/2001 or O1/Campos/Brazil/58 strains were tested using purified-inactivated FMDV from homologous and heterologous strains. A24/Cruzeiro was the most efficient IFN-γ inducer in all vaccinated animals, both when included in the vaccine or as stimulating antigen. We demonstrate that this was mainly due to the structural stability of the whole viral particle. These results show that IFN-γ production relies on the presence of 140S particles that can maintain their integrity along the incubation process in vitro, and throughout the vaccine's shelf-life, when used in vivo.

  17. Active buckling control of an imperfect beam-column with circular cross-section using piezo-elastic supports and integral LQR control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schaeffner, Maximilian; Platz, Roland

    2016-09-01

    For slender beam-columns loaded by axial compressive forces, active buckling control provides a possibility to increase the maximum bearable axial load above that of a purely passive structure. In this paper, the potential of active buckling control of an imperfect beam-column with circular cross-section using piezo-elastic supports is investigated numerically. Imperfections are given by an initial deformation of the beam-column caused by a constant imperfection force. With the piezo-elastic supports, active bending moments in arbitrary directions orthogonal to the beam-column's longitudinal axis can be applied at both beam- column's ends. The imperfect beam-column is loaded by a gradually increasing axial compressive force resulting in a lateral deformation of the beam-column. First, a finite element model of the imperfect structure for numerical simulation of the active buckling control is presented. Second, an integral linear-quadratic regulator (LQR) that compensates the deformation via the piezo-elastic supports is derived for a reduced modal model of the ideal beam-column. With the proposed active buckling control it is possible to stabilize the imperfect beam-column in arbitrary lateral direction for axial loads above the theoretical critical buckling load and the maximum bearable load of the passive structure.

  18. Can integrated watershed management contribute to improvement of public health? A cross-sectional study from hilly tribal villages in India.

    PubMed

    Nerkar, Sandeep S; Pathak, Ashish; Lundborg, Cecilia Stålsby; Tamhankar, Ashok J

    2015-02-27

    Tribal people living in hilly areas suffer from water scarcity in many parts of the world, including India. Water scarcity adversely impacts all aspects of life, including public health. Implementation of an Integrated Watershed Management Programme (IWMP) can help solve the problems arising out of water scarcity in such areas. However, the knowledge about and views of the water scarcity sufferers on the public health implications of IWMP have not been well documented. This cross-sectional study was performed in six purposively selected tribal villages located in Maharashtra, India. In three of the villages IWMP had been implemented (IWMV), but not in the other three (NWMV). The head of each household in all villages was interviewed using a questionnaire covering various public health aspects relevant to the villages. A total of 286/313 (92%) households participated in the study. Compared to NWMV, respondents in IWMV experienced significantly lesser prolonged water scarcity (OR=0.39), had greater number of toilets (OR=6.95), cultivated more variety of crops (OR=2.61), had lower migration (OR=0.59), higher number of girls continuing education (OR=3.04) and better utilized modern healthcare facilities in the antenatal, natal and postnatal period (OR=3.75, 2.57, 4.88 respectively). Thus, tribal people in IWMP-implemented villages reported advantages in many aspects of public health.

  19. Integrated mRNA and miRNA transcriptome reveal a cross-talk between developing response and hormone signaling for the seed kernels of Siberian apricot

    PubMed Central

    Niu, Jun; Wang, Jia; An, Jiyong; Liu, Lili; Lin, Zixin; Wang, Rui; Wang, Libing; Ma, Chao; Shi, Lingling; Lin, Shanzhi

    2016-01-01

    Recently, our transcriptomic analysis has identified some functional genes responsible for oil biosynthesis in developing SASK, yet miRNA-mediated regulation for SASK development and oil accumulation is poorly understood. Here, 3 representative periods of 10, 30 and 60 DAF were selected for sRNA sequencing based on the dynamic patterns of growth tendency and oil content of developing SASK. By miRNA transcriptomic analysis, we characterized 296 known and 44 novel miRNAs in developing SASK, among which 36 known and 6 novel miRNAs respond specifically to developing SASK. Importantly, we performed an integrated analysis of mRNA and miRNA transcriptome as well as qRT-PCR detection to identify some key miRNAs and their targets (miR156-SPL, miR160-ARF18, miR164-NAC1, miR171h-SCL6, miR172-AP2, miR395-AUX22B, miR530-P2C37, miR393h-TIR1/AFB2 and psi-miRn5-SnRK2A) potentially involved in developing response and hormone signaling of SASK. Our results provide new insights into the important regulatory function of cross-talk between development response and hormone signaling for SASK oil accumulation. PMID:27762296

  20. Quantum wavepacket dynamics of the N(4 S) + NO(X2 Π) reaction and its isotopic variants: Integral cross sections and thermal rate constants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manivannan, V.; Padmanaban, R.

    2016-08-01

    We investigate the initial state-selected dynamics of the title reaction on its ground (1 3A″) and first excited (1 3A‧) triplet potential energy surfaces (PESs) by a time-dependent wavepacket propagation method, employing the ab initio analytical PESs developed by Gamallo et al. (2003). All partial wave contributions up to the total angular momentum J = 140 are found to be necessary for the scattering of NO diatom in its vibrational and rotational ground state up to a collision energy ∼ 0.9 eV. The converged initial state-selected reaction attributes viz., reaction probabilities, integral cross sections and thermal rate constants are obtained within the centrifugal sudden (CS) approximation and the convergence of the results are carefully checked by varying all parameters used in the numerical calculations. The dynamical results are compared with the other reported theoretical and experimental findings. Investigation on the energy-resolved channel-specific reaction probabilities infers that the N2 formation channel is very much favorable than the N-exchange channel. The reaction proceeds via some metastable resonances, observed from the oscillatory probability curves, which is more in the latter channel compared to the former. The effect of rotational and vibrational excitations of the reagent (NO diatom) on the dynamics is examined. We also examine the effect of isotopic substitution of N-atom (14 N by 15 N) on the reaction dynamics.

  1. Intermittency and local Reynolds number in Navier-Stokes turbulence: A cross-over scale in the Caffarelli-Kohn-Nirenberg integral

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dowker, Mark; Ohkitani, Koji

    2012-11-01

    We study space-time integrals, which appear in the Caffarelli-Kohn-Nirenberg (CKN) theory for the Navier-Stokes equations analytically and numerically. The key quantity is written in standard notations δ (r)=1/(ν r)int _{Q_r}left|nabla {u}right|^2 d{{x}} dt, which can be regarded as a local Reynolds number over a parabolic cylinder Qr. First, by re-examining the CKN integral, we identify a cross-over scale r_* ∝ Lleft( overline{Vert nabla {u} Vert ^2_{L^2}} /Vert nabla {u Vert ^2_{L^infty }} right)^{1/3}, at which the CKN Reynolds number δ(r) changes its scaling behavior. This reproduces a result on the minimum scale rmin in turbulence: r_min^2 Vert nabla {u}Vert _infty ∝ ν , consistent with a result of Henshaw et al. ["On the smallest scale for the incompressible Navier-Stokes equations," Theor. Comput. Fluid Dyn. 1, 65 (1989), 10.1007/BF00272138]. For the energy spectrum E(k) ∝ k-q (1 < q < 3), we show that r* ∝ νa with a=4/3(3-q)-1. Parametric representations are then obtained as Vert nabla {u}Vert _infty ∝ ν ^{-(1+3a)/2} and rmin ∝ ν3(a+1)/4. By the assumptions of the regularity and finite energy dissipation rate in the inviscid limit, we derive lim _{p rArr infty }ζ _p/p=1 - ζ _2 for any phenomenological models on intermittency, where ζp is the exponent of pth order (longitudinal) velocity structure function. It follows that ζp ⩽ (1 - ζ2)(p - 3) + 1 for any p ⩾ 3 without invoking fractal energy cascade. Second, we determine the scaling behavior of δ(r) in direct numerical simulations of the Navier-Stokes equations. In isotropic turbulence around Rλ ≈ 100 starting from random initial conditions, we have found that δ(r) ∝ r4throughout the inertial range. This can be explained by the smallness of a ≈ 0.26,with a result that r* is in the energy-containing range. If the β-model is perfectly correct, the intermittency parameter a must be related to the dissipation correlation exponent μ as μ =4a/1+a ≈ 0.8, which is larger

  2. On the calculation of the absolute grand potential of confined smectic-A phases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Chien-Cheng; Baus, Marc; Ryckaert, Jean-Paul

    2015-09-01

    We determine the absolute grand potential Λ along a confined smectic-A branch of a calamitic liquid crystal system enclosed in a slit pore of transverse area A and width L, using the rod-rod Gay-Berne potential and a rod-wall potential favouring perpendicular orientation at the walls. For a confined phase with an integer number of smectic layers sandwiched between the opposite walls, we obtain the excess properties (excess grand potential Λexc, solvation force fs and adsorption Γ) with respect to the bulk phase at the same μ (chemical potential) and T (temperature) state point. While usual thermodynamic integration methods are used along the confined smectic branch to estimate the grand potential difference as μ is varied at fixed L, T, the absolute grand potential at one reference state point is obtained via the evaluation of the absolute Helmholtz free energy in the (N, L, A, T) canonical ensemble. It proceeds via a sequence of free energy difference estimations involving successively the cost of localising rods on layers and the switching on of a one-dimensional harmonic field to keep layers integrity coupled to the elimination of inter-layers and wall interactions. The absolute free energy of the resulting set of fully independent layers of interacting rods is finally estimated via the existing procedures. This work opens the way to the computer simulation study of phase transitions implying confined layered phases.

  3. Development of new free-fall absolute gravimeters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rothleitner, Ch; Svitlov, S.; Mérimèche, H.; Hu, H.; Wang, L. J.

    2009-06-01

    The design and first results of two free-fall absolute gravimeters are reported: a stationary gravimeter is designed and can be used as a reference system and a portable gravimeter is aimed at field measurements. The determination of the acceleration due to gravity is done interferometrically in both instruments. The whole fringe signal is digitized by a high-speed analogue-to-digital converter, which is locked to a rubidium frequency standard. This fringe recording and processing is novel as compared with commercial free-fall gravimeters, which use an electronic zero-crossing discrimination. Advantages such as the application of a zero-phase-shifting digital filter to the digitized data are depicted. The portable gravimeter's mechanics deviate from the conventional type. Springs are used to accelerate and decelerate the carriage supporting the falling object. A detailed uncertainty budget is given for both gravimeters. The combined standard uncertainty for the portable and for the stationary gravimeter is estimated at 38.8 µGal and 16.6 µGal, respectively. The corresponding statistical uncertainties are 1.6 µGal (over one day of measurement) and 0.6 µGal (over one month of measurement). The different designs and dimensions of the new free-fall gravimeters can help to reveal unknown or so far underestimated systematic effects. The assessments of the uncertainties due to seismic noise and shock vibrations, and electronic phase shifts give validity to this assumption.

  4. Climate Absolute Radiance and Refractivity Observatory (CLARREO)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leckey, John P.

    2015-01-01

    The Climate Absolute Radiance and Refractivity Observatory (CLARREO) is a mission, led and developed by NASA, that will measure a variety of climate variables with an unprecedented accuracy to quantify and attribute climate change. CLARREO consists of three separate instruments: an infrared (IR) spectrometer, a reflected solar (RS) spectrometer, and a radio occultation (RO) instrument. The mission will contain orbiting radiometers with sufficient accuracy, including on orbit verification, to calibrate other space-based instrumentation, increasing their respective accuracy by as much as an order of magnitude. The IR spectrometer is a Fourier Transform spectrometer (FTS) working in the 5 to 50 microns wavelength region with a goal of 0.1 K (k = 3) accuracy. The FTS will achieve this accuracy using phase change cells to verify thermistor accuracy and heated halos to verify blackbody emissivity, both on orbit. The RS spectrometer will measure the reflectance of the atmosphere in the 0.32 to 2.3 microns wavelength region with an accuracy of 0.3% (k = 2). The status of the instrumentation packages and potential mission options will be presented.

  5. Absolute flux measurements for swift atoms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fink, M.; Kohl, D. A.; Keto, J. W.; Antoniewicz, P.

    1987-01-01

    While a torsion balance in vacuum can easily measure the momentum transfer from a gas beam impinging on a surface attached to the balance, this measurement depends on the accommodation coefficients of the atoms with the surface and the distribution of the recoil. A torsion balance is described for making absolute flux measurements independent of recoil effects. The torsion balance is a conventional taut suspension wire design and the Young modulus of the wire determines the relationship between the displacement and the applied torque. A compensating magnetic field is applied to maintain zero displacement and provide critical damping. The unique feature is to couple the impinging gas beam to the torsion balance via a Wood's horn, i.e., a thin wall tube with a gradual 90 deg bend. Just as light is trapped in a Wood's horn by specular reflection from the curved surfaces, the gas beam diffuses through the tube. Instead of trapping the beam, the end of the tube is open so that the atoms exit the tube at 90 deg to their original direction. Therefore, all of the forward momentum of the gas beam is transferred to the torsion balance independent of the angle of reflection from the surfaces inside the tube.

  6. Gyrokinetic Statistical Absolute Equilibrium and Turbulence

    SciTech Connect

    Jian-Zhou Zhu and Gregory W. Hammett

    2011-01-10

    A paradigm based on the absolute equilibrium of Galerkin-truncated inviscid systems to aid in understanding turbulence [T.-D. Lee, "On some statistical properties of hydrodynamical and magnetohydrodynamical fields," Q. Appl. Math. 10, 69 (1952)] is taken to study gyrokinetic plasma turbulence: A finite set of Fourier modes of the collisionless gyrokinetic equations are kept and the statistical equilibria are calculated; possible implications for plasma turbulence in various situations are discussed. For the case of two spatial and one velocity dimension, in the calculation with discretization also of velocity v with N grid points (where N + 1 quantities are conserved, corresponding to an energy invariant and N entropy-related invariants), the negative temperature states, corresponding to the condensation of the generalized energy into the lowest modes, are found. This indicates a generic feature of inverse energy cascade. Comparisons are made with some classical results, such as those of Charney-Hasegawa-Mima in the cold-ion limit. There is a universal shape for statistical equilibrium of gyrokinetics in three spatial and two velocity dimensions with just one conserved quantity. Possible physical relevance to turbulence, such as ITG zonal flows, and to a critical balance hypothesis are also discussed.

  7. Issues in Absolute Spectral Radiometric Calibration: Intercomparison of Eight Sources

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goetz, Alexander F. H.; Kindel, Bruce; Pilewskie, Peter

    1998-01-01

    The application of atmospheric models to AVIRIS and other spectral imaging data to derive surface reflectance requires that the sensor output be calibrated to absolute radiance. Uncertainties in absolute calibration are to be expected, and claims of 92% accuracy have been published. Measurements of accurate surface albedos and cloud absorption to be used in radiative balance calculations depend critically on knowing the absolute spectral-radiometric response of the sensor. The Earth Observing System project is implementing a rigorous program of absolute radiometric calibration for all optical sensors. Since a number of imaging instruments that provide output in terms of absolute radiance are calibrated at different sites, it is important to determine the errors that can be expected among calibration sites. Another question exists about the errors in the absolute knowledge of the exoatmospheric spectral solar irradiance.

  8. CO{sub 2} laser light scattering by bare soils for emissivity measurements: Absolute calibration and correlation with backscattering and composition

    SciTech Connect

    Kologo, N.; Stoll, M.P.

    1996-07-01

    Measurements of the scattering cross section of a number of bare soils have been made with CO{sub 2} laser illumination at 10.59 {micro}m. The primary focus was on absolute calibration of the measurements. First, comparison of emissivity values resulting from the application of Kirchhoff`s relation after angular integration of the bidirectional measurements, with emissivity values obtained from the analysis of the emitted radiation show excellent agreement to within less than 0.3%. Second, it was found that a simple formula holds for a relationship between the emissivity and co- and cross-polarized backscattering cross section at an angle of 30{degree}. Third, a clear correlation was observed between emissivity and composition (in this case % Al + Fe oxides; % SiO{sub 2}) for a homogeneous series of samples from the same area in Niger. These results emphasize the importance of calibrated experimental data. The implications of the research give evidence of the advantage of obtaining emissivity from remote reflectivity measurements and possibly only backscattering measurements, and remotely estimating mineral composition.

  9. Absolute nuclear material assay using count distribution (LAMBDA) space

    SciTech Connect

    Prasad, Mano K.; Snyderman, Neal J.; Rowland, Mark S.

    2015-12-01

    A method of absolute nuclear material assay of an unknown source comprising counting neutrons from the unknown source and providing an absolute nuclear material assay utilizing a model to optimally compare to the measured count distributions. In one embodiment, the step of providing an absolute nuclear material assay comprises utilizing a random sampling of analytically computed fission chain distributions to generate a continuous time-evolving sequence of event-counts by spreading the fission chain distribution in time.

  10. Absolute nuclear material assay using count distribution (LAMBDA) space

    DOEpatents

    Prasad, Manoj K.; Snyderman, Neal J.; Rowland, Mark S.

    2012-06-05

    A method of absolute nuclear material assay of an unknown source comprising counting neutrons from the unknown source and providing an absolute nuclear material assay utilizing a model to optimally compare to the measured count distributions. In one embodiment, the step of providing an absolute nuclear material assay comprises utilizing a random sampling of analytically computed fission chain distributions to generate a continuous time-evolving sequence of event-counts by spreading the fission chain distribution in time.

  11. Antifungal activity of tuberose absolute and some of its constituents.

    PubMed

    Nidiry, Eugene Sebastian J; Babu, C S Bujji

    2005-05-01

    The antifungal activity of the absolute of tuberose (Polianthes tuberosa ) and some of its constituents were evaluated against the mycelial growth of Colletotrichum gloeosporioides on potato-dextrose-agar medium. Tuberose absolute showed only mild activity at a concentration of 500 mg/L. However, three constituents present in the absolute, namely geraniol, indole and methyl anthranilate exhibited significant activity showing total inhibition of the mycelial growth at this concentration.

  12. Differential scattering cross sections for collisions of 0.5-, 1.5-, and 5.0-keV helium atoms with He, H2, N2, and O2. [for atmospheric processes modeling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Newman, J. H.; Smith, K. A.; Stebbings, R. F.; Chen, Y. S.

    1985-01-01

    This paper reports the first results of an experimental program established to provide cross section data for use in modeling various atmospheric processes. Absolute cross sections, differential in the scattering angle, have been measured for collisions of 0.5-, 1.5-, and 5.0-keV helium atoms with He, H2, N2, and O2 at laboratory scattering angles between 0.1 deg and 5 deg. The results are the sums of cross sections for elastic and inelastic scattering of helium atoms; charged collision products are not detected. Integration of the differential cross section data yields integral cross sections consistent with measurements by other workers. The apparatus employs a position-sensitive detector for both primary and scattered particles and uses a short target cell with a large exit aperture to ensure a simple and well-defined apparatus geometry.

  13. The absolute disparity anomaly and the mechanism of relative disparities.

    PubMed

    Chopin, Adrien; Levi, Dennis; Knill, David; Bavelier, Daphne

    2016-06-01

    There has been a long-standing debate about the mechanisms underlying the perception of stereoscopic depth and the computation of the relative disparities that it relies on. Relative disparities between visual objects could be computed in two ways: (a) using the difference in the object's absolute disparities (Hypothesis 1) or (b) using relative disparities based on the differences in the monocular separations between objects (Hypothesis 2). To differentiate between these hypotheses, we measured stereoscopic discrimination thresholds for lines with different absolute and relative disparities. Participants were asked to judge the depth of two lines presented at the same distance from the fixation plane (absolute disparity) or the depth between two lines presented at different distances (relative disparity). We used a single stimulus method involving a unique memory component for both conditions, and no extraneous references were available. We also measured vergence noise using Nonius lines. Stereo thresholds were substantially worse for absolute disparities than for relative disparities, and the difference could not be explained by vergence noise. We attribute this difference to an absence of conscious readout of absolute disparities, termed the absolute disparity anomaly. We further show that the pattern of correlations between vergence noise and absolute and relative disparity acuities can be explained jointly by the existence of the absolute disparity anomaly and by the assumption that relative disparity information is computed from absolute disparities (Hypothesis 1).

  14. The absolute disparity anomaly and the mechanism of relative disparities

    PubMed Central

    Chopin, Adrien; Levi, Dennis; Knill, David; Bavelier, Daphne

    2016-01-01

    There has been a long-standing debate about the mechanisms underlying the perception of stereoscopic depth and the computation of the relative disparities that it relies on. Relative disparities between visual objects could be computed in two ways: (a) using the difference in the object's absolute disparities (Hypothesis 1) or (b) using relative disparities based on the differences in the monocular separations between objects (Hypothesis 2). To differentiate between these hypotheses, we measured stereoscopic discrimination thresholds for lines with different absolute and relative disparities. Participants were asked to judge the depth of two lines presented at the same distance from the fixation plane (absolute disparity) or the depth between two lines presented at different distances (relative disparity). We used a single stimulus method involving a unique memory component for both conditions, and no extraneous references were available. We also measured vergence noise using Nonius lines. Stereo thresholds were substantially worse for absolute disparities than for relative disparities, and the difference could not be explained by vergence noise. We attribute this difference to an absence of conscious readout of absolute disparities, termed the absolute disparity anomaly. We further show that the pattern of correlations between vergence noise and absolute and relative disparity acuities can be explained jointly by the existence of the absolute disparity anomaly and by the assumption that relative disparity information is computed from absolute disparities (Hypothesis 1). PMID:27248566

  15. The possibility of constructing the hydrogen scale of the absolute atomic masses of the elements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuz'min, I. I.

    2009-12-01

    The paper presents a scheme for the experimental-empirical construction of the existing chemical, physical, and carbon scales of the relative nonintegral atomic masses of the elements. The quantitative interrelation between the nonintegral relative atomic masses, their minimized fractional positive and negative natural deviations from integral numbers, and their integral parts are reproduced mathematically. Nonisotopic fractional deviations are shown to be a consequence of methodological side effects of the scheme for theoretical processing of the data of thorough physical and chemical measurements performed by Stas and Aston in constructing scales of relative atomic masses. In conformity with the Prout hypothesis, the absolute atomic mass unit and the corresponding Avogadro’s number value are suggested for the construction of the hydrogen scale of absolute atomic masses of nonisotopic elements, individual isotopes, and isotope-containing elements.

  16. Measurement of differential and integrated fiducial cross sections for Higgs boson production in the four-lepton decay channel in pp collisions at $$ \\sqrt{s}=7 $$ and 8 TeV

    DOE PAGES

    Khachatryan, Vardan

    2016-04-01

    Integrated fiducial cross sections for the production of four leptons via the H → 4ℓ decays (ℓ = e, μ) are measured in pp collisions atmore » $$ \\sqrt{s}=7 $$ and 8TeV. Measurements are performed with data corresponding to integrated luminosities of 5.1 fb$$^{–1}$$ at 7TeV, and 19.7 fb$$^{–1}$$ at 8 TeV, collected with the CMS experiment at the LHC. Differential cross sections are measured using the 8 TeV data, and are determined as functions of the transverse momentum and rapidity of the four-lepton system, accompanying jet multiplicity, transverse momentum of the leading jet, and difference in rapidity between the Higgs boson candidate and the leading jet. A measurement of the Z → 4ℓ cross section, and its ratio to the H → 4ℓ cross section is also performed. All cross sections are measured within a fiducial phase space defined by the requirements on lepton kinematics and event topology. Here, the integrated H → 4ℓ fiducial cross section is measured to be 0.56$$_{–0.44}^{+0.67}$$ (stat)$$_{–0.06}^{+0.21}$$ (syst) fb at 7 TeV, and 1.11$$_{–0.35}^{+0.41}$$ (stat)$$_{–0.10}^{+0.14}$$ (syst) fb at 8 TeV. The measurements are found to be compatible with theoretical calculations based on the standard model.« less

  17. On-Orbit Absolute Radiance Standard for Future IR Remote Sensing Instruments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Best, F. A.; Adler, D. P.; Pettersen, C.; Revercomb, H. E.; Gero, P. J.; Taylor, J. K.; Knuteson, R. O.; Perepezko, J. H.

    2010-12-01

    Future NASA infrared remote sensing missions, including the climate benchmark CLARREO mission will require better absolute measurement accuracy than now available, and will most certainly rely on the emerging capability to fly SI traceable standards that provide irrefutable absolute measurement accuracy. As an example, instrumentation designed to measure spectrally resolved infrared radiances with an absolute brightness temperature error of better than 0.1 K will require high-emissivity (>0.999) calibration blackbodies with emissivity uncertainty of better than 0.06%, and absolute temperature uncertainties of better than 0.045K (3 sigma). Key elements of an On-Orbit Absolute Radiance Standard (OARS) meeting these stringent requirements have been demonstrated in the laboratory at the University of Wisconsin and are undergoing Technology Readiness Level (TRL) advancement under the NASA Instrument Incubator Program (IIP). We present the new technologies that underlie the OARS and the results of laboratory testing that demonstrate the required accuracy is being met. The underlying technologies include on-orbit absolute temperature calibration using the transient melt signatures of small quantities (<1g) of reference materials (gallium, water, and mercury) imbedded in the blackbody cavity; and on-orbit cavity spectral emissivity measurement using a heated halo. For these emissivity measurements, a carefully baffled heated cylinder is placed in front of a blackbody in the infrared spectrometer system, and the combined radiance of the blackbody and Heated Halo reflection is observed. Knowledge of key temperatures and the viewing geometry allow the blackbody cavity spectral emissivity to be calculated. This work will culminate with an integrated subsystem that can provide on-orbit end-to-end radiometric accuracy validation for infrared remote sensing instruments.

  18. Cross-Species Integrative Functional Genomics in GeneWeaver Reveals a Role for Pafah1b1 in Altered Response to Alcohol.

    PubMed

    Bubier, Jason A; Wilcox, Troy D; Jay, Jeremy J; Langston, Michael A; Baker, Erich J; Chesler, Elissa J

    2016-01-01

    Identifying the biological substrates of complex neurobehavioral traits such as alcohol dependency pose a tremendous challenge given the diverse model systems and phenotypic assessments used. To address this problem we have developed a platform for integrated analysis of high-throughput or genome-wide functional genomics studies. A wealth of such data exists, but it is often found in disparate, non-computable forms. Our interactive web-based software system, Gene Weaver (http://www.geneweaver.org), couples curated results from genomic studies to graph-theoretical tools for combinatorial analysis. Using this system we identified a gene underlying multiple alcohol-related phenotypes in four species. A search of over 60,000 gene sets in GeneWeaver's database revealed alcohol-related experimental results including genes identified in mouse genetic mapping studies, alcohol selected Drosophila lines, Rattus differential expression, and human alcoholic brains. We identified highly connected genes and compared these to genes currently annotated to alcohol-related behaviors and processes. The most highly connected gene not annotated to alcohol was Pafah1b1. Experimental validation using a Pafah1b1 conditional knock-out mouse confirmed that this gene is associated with an increased preference for alcohol and an altered thermoregulatory response to alcohol. Although this gene has not been previously implicated in alcohol-related behaviors, its function in various neural mechanisms makes a role in alcohol-related phenomena plausible. By making diverse cross-species functional genomics data readily computable, we were able to identify and confirm a novel alcohol-related gene that may have implications for alcohol use disorders and other effects of alcohol.

  19. Cross-Species Integrative Functional Genomics in GeneWeaver Reveals a Role for Pafah1b1 in Altered Response to Alcohol.

    PubMed

    Bubier, Jason A; Wilcox, Troy D; Jay, Jeremy J; Langston, Michael A; Baker, Erich J; Chesler, Elissa J

    2016-01-01

    Identifying the biological substrates of complex neurobehavioral traits such as alcohol dependency pose a tremendous challenge given the diverse model systems and phenotypic assessments used. To address this problem we have developed a platform for integrated analysis of high-throughput or genome-wide functional genomics studies. A wealth of such data exists, but it is often found in disparate, non-computable forms. Our interactive web-based software system, Gene Weaver (http://www.geneweaver.org), couples curated results from genomic studies to graph-theoretical tools for combinatorial analysis. Using this system we identified a gene underlying multiple alcohol-related phenotypes in four species. A search of over 60,000 gene sets in GeneWeaver's database revealed alcohol-related experimental results including genes identified in mouse genetic mapping studies, alcohol selected Drosophila lines, Rattus differential expression, and human alcoholic brains. We identified highly connected genes and compared these to genes currently annotated to alcohol-related behaviors and processes. The most highly connected gene not annotated to alcohol was Pafah1b1. Experimental validation using a Pafah1b1 conditional knock-out mouse confirmed that this gene is associated with an increased preference for alcohol and an altered thermoregulatory response to alcohol. Although this gene has not been previously implicated in alcohol-related behaviors, its function in various neural mechanisms makes a role in alcohol-related phenomena plausible. By making diverse cross-species functional genomics data readily computable, we were able to identify and confirm a novel alcohol-related gene that may have implications for alcohol use disorders and other effects of alcohol. PMID:26834590

  20. The Cenozoic fold-and-thrust belt of Eastern Sardinia: Evidences from the integration of field data with numerically balanced geological cross section

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arragoni, S.; Maggi, M.; Cianfarra, P.; Salvini, F.

    2016-06-01

    Newly collected structural data in Eastern Sardinia (Italy) integrated with numerical techniques led to the reconstruction of a 2-D admissible and balanced model revealing the presence of a widespread Cenozoic fold-and-thrust belt. The model was achieved with the FORC software, obtaining a 3-D (2-D + time) numerical reconstruction of the continuous evolution of the structure through time. The Mesozoic carbonate units of Eastern Sardinia and their basement present a fold-and-thrust tectonic setting, with a westward direction of tectonic transport (referred to the present-day coordinates). The tectonic style of the upper levels is thin skinned, with flat sectors prevailing over ramps and younger-on-older thrusts. Three regional tectonic units are present, bounded by two regional thrusts. Strike-slip faults overprint the fold-and-thrust belt and developed during the Sardinia-Corsica Block rotation along the strike of the preexisting fault ramps, not affecting the numerical section balancing. This fold-and-thrust belt represents the southward prosecution of the Alpine Corsica collisional chain and the missing link between the Alpine Chain and the Calabria-Peloritani Block. Relative ages relate its evolution to the meso-Alpine event (Eocene-Oligocene times), prior to the opening of the Tyrrhenian Sea (Tortonian). Results fill a gap of information about the geodynamic evolution of the European margin in Central Mediterranean, between Corsica and the Calabria-Peloritani Block, and imply the presence of remnants of this double-verging belt, missing in the Southern Tyrrhenian basin, within the Southern Apennine chain. The used methodology proved effective for constraining balanced cross sections also for areas lacking exposures of the large-scale structures, as the case of Eastern Sardinia.

  1. Cross-Species Integrative Functional Genomics in GeneWeaver Reveals a Role for Pafah1b1 in Altered Response to Alcohol

    PubMed Central

    Bubier, Jason A.; Wilcox, Troy D.; Jay, Jeremy J.; Langston, Michael A.; Baker, Erich J.; Chesler, Elissa J.

    2016-01-01

    Identifying the biological substrates of complex neurobehavioral traits such as alcohol dependency pose a tremendous challenge given the diverse model systems and phenotypic assessments used. To address this problem we have developed a platform for integrated analysis of high-throughput or genome-wide functional genomics studies. A wealth of such data exists, but it is often found in disparate, non-computable forms. Our interactive web-based software system, Gene Weaver (http://www.geneweaver.org), couples curated results from genomic studies to graph-theoretical tools for combinatorial analysis. Using this system we identified a gene underlying multiple alcohol-related phenotypes in four species. A search of over 60,000 gene sets in GeneWeaver's database revealed alcohol-related experimental results including genes identified in mouse genetic mapping studies, alcohol selected Drosophila lines, Rattus differential expression, and human alcoholic brains. We identified highly connected genes and compared these to genes currently annotated to alcohol-related behaviors and processes. The most highly connected gene not annotated to alcohol was Pafah1b1. Experimental validation using a Pafah1b1 conditional knock-out mouse confirmed that this gene is associated with an increased preference for alcohol and an altered thermoregulatory response to alcohol. Although this gene has not been previously implicated in alcohol-related behaviors, its function in various neural mechanisms makes a role in alcohol-related phenomena plausible. By making diverse cross-species functional genomics data readily computable, we were able to identify and confirm a novel alcohol-related gene that may have implications for alcohol use disorders and other effects of alcohol. PMID:26834590

  2. Absolute Plate Velocities from Seismic Anisotropy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kreemer, Corné; Zheng, Lin; Gordon, Richard

    2015-04-01

    The orientation of seismic anisotropy inferred beneath plate interiors may provide a means to estimate the motions of the plate relative to the sub-asthenospheric mantle. Here we analyze two global sets of shear-wave splitting data, that of Kreemer [2009] and an updated and expanded data set, to estimate plate motions and to better understand the dispersion of the data, correlations in the errors, and their relation to plate speed. We also explore the effect of using geologically current plate velocities (i.e., the MORVEL set of angular velocities [DeMets et al. 2010]) compared with geodetically current plate velocities (i.e., the GSRM v1.2 angular velocities [Kreemer et al. 2014]). We demonstrate that the errors in plate motion azimuths inferred from shear-wave splitting beneath any one tectonic plate are correlated with the errors of other azimuths from the same plate. To account for these correlations, we adopt a two-tier analysis: First, find the pole of rotation and confidence limits for each plate individually. Second, solve for the best fit to these poles while constraining relative plate angular velocities to consistency with the MORVEL relative plate angular velocities. The SKS-MORVEL absolute plate angular velocities (based on the Kreemer [2009] data set) are determined from the poles from eight plates weighted proportionally to the root-mean-square velocity of each plate. SKS-MORVEL indicates that eight plates (Amur, Antarctica, Caribbean, Eurasia, Lwandle, Somalia, Sundaland, and Yangtze) have angular velocities that differ insignificantly from zero. The net rotation of the lithosphere is 0.25±0.11° Ma-1 (95% confidence limits) right-handed about 57.1°S, 68.6°E. The within-plate dispersion of seismic anisotropy for oceanic lithosphere (σ=19.2° ) differs insignificantly from that for continental lithosphere (σ=21.6° ). The between-plate dispersion, however, is significantly smaller for oceanic lithosphere (σ=7.4° ) than for continental

  3. Evaluation of the Absolute Regional Temperature Potential

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shindell, D. T.

    2012-01-01

    The Absolute Regional Temperature Potential (ARTP) is one of the few climate metrics that provides estimates of impacts at a sub-global scale. The ARTP presented here gives the time-dependent temperature response in four latitude bands (90-28degS, 28degS-28degN, 28-60degN and 60-90degN) as a function of emissions based on the forcing in those bands caused by the emissions. It is based on a large set of simulations performed with a single atmosphere-ocean climate model to derive regional forcing/response relationships. Here I evaluate the robustness of those relationships using the forcing/response portion of the ARTP to estimate regional temperature responses to the historic aerosol forcing in three independent climate models. These ARTP results are in good accord with the actual responses in those models. Nearly all ARTP estimates fall within +/-20%of the actual responses, though there are some exceptions for 90-28degS and the Arctic, and in the latter the ARTP may vary with forcing agent. However, for the tropics and the Northern Hemisphere mid-latitudes in particular, the +/-20% range appears to be roughly consistent with the 95% confidence interval. Land areas within these two bands respond 39-45% and 9-39% more than the latitude band as a whole. The ARTP, presented here in a slightly revised form, thus appears to provide a relatively robust estimate for the responses of large-scale latitude bands and land areas within those bands to inhomogeneous radiative forcing and thus potentially to emissions as well. Hence this metric could allow rapid evaluation of the effects of emissions policies at a finer scale than global metrics without requiring use of a full climate model.

  4. Absolute Radiometric Calibration of KOMPSAT-3A

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahn, H. Y.; Shin, D. Y.; Kim, J. S.; Seo, D. C.; Choi, C. U.

    2016-06-01

    This paper presents a vicarious radiometric calibration of the Korea Multi-Purpose Satellite-3A (KOMPSAT-3A) performed by the Korea Aerospace Research Institute (KARI) and the Pukyong National University Remote Sensing Group (PKNU RSG) in 2015.The primary stages of this study are summarized as follows: (1) A field campaign to determine radiometric calibrated target fields was undertaken in Mongolia and South Korea. Surface reflectance data obtained in the campaign were input to a radiative transfer code that predicted at-sensor radiance. Through this process, equations and parameters were derived for the KOMPSAT-3A sensor to enable the conversion of calibrated DN to physical units, such as at-sensor radiance or TOA reflectance. (2) To validate the absolute calibration coefficients for the KOMPSAT-3A sensor, we performed a radiometric validation with a comparison of KOMPSAT-3A and Landsat-8 TOA reflectance using one of the six PICS (Libya 4). Correlations between top-of-atmosphere (TOA) radiances and the spectral band responses of the KOMPSAT-3A sensors at the Zuunmod, Mongolia and Goheung, South Korea sites were significant for multispectral bands. The average difference in TOA reflectance between KOMPSAT-3A and Landsat-8 image over the Libya 4, Libya site in the red-green-blue (RGB) region was under 3%, whereas in the NIR band, the TOA reflectance of KOMPSAT-3A was lower than the that of Landsat-8 due to the difference in the band passes of two sensors. The KOMPSAT-3Aensor includes a band pass near 940 nm that can be strongly absorbed by water vapor and therefore displayed low reflectance. Toovercome this, we need to undertake a detailed analysis using rescale methods, such as the spectral bandwidth adjustment factor.

  5. Orion Absolute Navigation System Progress and Challenge

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holt, Greg N.; D'Souza, Christopher

    2012-01-01

    The absolute navigation design of NASA's Orion vehicle is described. It has undergone several iterations and modifications since its inception, and continues as a work-in-progress. This paper seeks to benchmark the current state of the design and some of the rationale and analysis behind it. There are specific challenges to address when preparing a timely and effective design for the Exploration Flight Test (EFT-1), while still looking ahead and providing software extensibility for future exploration missions. The primary onboard measurements in a Near-Earth or Mid-Earth environment consist of GPS pseudo-range and delta-range, but for future explorations missions the use of star-tracker and optical navigation sources need to be considered. Discussions are presented for state size and composition, processing techniques, and consider states. A presentation is given for the processing technique using the computationally stable and robust UDU formulation with an Agee-Turner Rank-One update. This allows for computational savings when dealing with many parameters which are modeled as slowly varying Gauss-Markov processes. Preliminary analysis shows up to a 50% reduction in computation versus a more traditional formulation. Several state elements are discussed and evaluated, including position, velocity, attitude, clock bias/drift, and GPS measurement biases in addition to bias, scale factor, misalignment, and non-orthogonalities of the accelerometers and gyroscopes. Another consideration is the initialization of the EKF in various scenarios. Scenarios such as single-event upset, ground command, and cold start are discussed as are strategies for whole and partial state updates as well as covariance considerations. Strategies are given for dealing with latent measurements and high-rate propagation using multi-rate architecture. The details of the rate groups and the data ow between the elements is discussed and evaluated.

  6. Absolute determination of local tropospheric OH concentrations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Armerding, Wolfgang; Comes, Franz-Josef

    1994-01-01

    Long path absorption (LPA) according to Lambert Beer's law is a method to determine absolute concentrations of trace gases such as tropospheric OH. We have developed a LPA instrument which is based on a rapid tuning of the light source which is a frequency doubled dye laser. The laser is tuned across two or three OH absorption features around 308 nm with a scanning speed of 0.07 cm(exp -1)/microsecond and a repetition rate of 1.3 kHz. This high scanning speed greatly reduces the fluctuation of the light intensity caused by the atmosphere. To obtain the required high sensitivity the laser output power is additionally made constant and stabilized by an electro-optical modulator. The present sensitivity is of the order of a few times 10(exp 5) OH per cm(exp 3) for an acquisition time of a minute and an absorption path length of only 1200 meters so that a folding of the optical path in a multireflection cell was possible leading to a lateral dimension of the cell of a few meters. This allows local measurements to be made. Tropospheric measurements have been carried out in 1991 resulting in the determination of OH diurnal variation at specific days in late summer. Comparison with model calculations have been made. Interferences are mainly due to SO2 absorption. The problem of OH self generation in the multireflection cell is of minor extent. This could be shown by using different experimental methods. The minimum-maximum signal to noise ratio is about 8 x 10(exp -4) for a single scan. Due to the small size of the absorption cell the realization of an open air laboratory is possible in which by use of an additional UV light source or by additional fluxes of trace gases the chemistry can be changed under controlled conditions allowing kinetic studies of tropospheric photochemistry to be made in open air.

  7. EUV mirror based absolute incident flux detector

    DOEpatents

    Berger, Kurt W.

    2004-03-23

    A device for the in-situ monitoring of EUV radiation flux includes an integrated reflective multilayer stack. This device operates on the principle that a finite amount of in-band EUV radiation is transmitted through the entire multilayer stack. This device offers improvements over existing vacuum photo-detector devices since its calibration does not change with surface contamination.

  8. Absolute Ligand Discrimination by Dimeric Signaling Receptors.

    PubMed

    Fathi, Sepehr; Nayak, Chitra R; Feld, Jordan J; Zilman, Anton G

    2016-09-01

    Many signaling pathways act through shared components, where different ligand molecules bind the same receptors or activate overlapping sets of response regulators downstream. Nevertheless, different ligands acting through cross-wired pathways often lead to different outcomes in terms of the target cell behavior and function. Although a number of mechanisms have been proposed, it still largely remains unclear how cells can reliably discriminate different molecular ligands under such circumstances. Here we show that signaling via ligand-induced receptor dimerization-a very common motif in cellular signaling-naturally incorporates a mechanism for the discrimination of ligands acting through the same receptor. PMID:27602720

  9. Cross sections for elastic electron scattering by tetramethylsilane in the intermediate-energy range

    SciTech Connect

    Sugohara, R. T.; Lee, M.-T.; Iga, I.; Souza, G. L. C. de; Homem, M. G. P.

    2011-12-15

    Organosilicon compounds are of current interest due to the numerous applications of these species in industries. Some of these applications require the knowledge of electron collision cross sections, which are scarce for such compounds. In this work, we report absolute values of differential, integral, and momentum-transfer cross sections for elastic electron scattering by tetramethylsilane (TMS) measured in the 100-1000 eV energy range. The relative-flow technique is used to normalize our data. In addition, the independent-atom-model (IAM) and the additivity rule (AR), widely used to model electron collisions with light hydrocarbons, are also applied for e{sup -}-TMS interaction. The comparison of our measured results of cross sections and the calculated data shows good agreement, particularly near the higher-end of incident energies.

  10. Cross sections for electron scattering from furan molecules: Measurements and calculations

    SciTech Connect

    Szmytkowski, Czeslaw; Mozejko, Pawel; Ptasinska-Denga, Elzbieta; Sabisz, Agnieszka

    2010-09-15

    Electron-scattering cross sections have been determined for the furan (C{sub 4}H{sub 4}O) molecule, both experimentally and theoretically. An absolute total cross section (TCS) has been measured over energies from 0.6 to 400 eV using a linear electron-transmission method. The TCS energy function is dominated with a very broad enhancement, between 1.2 and 9 eV; on the low-energy side, some resonant structures are visible. Integral elastic (ECS) and ionization (ICS) cross sections have been also calculated up to 4 keV in the additivity rule approximation and the binary-encounter-Bethe approach, respectively. Their sum, ECS+ICS, is in a very good agreement with the measured TCS above 70 eV.

  11. Mid-infrared absolute spectral responsivity scale based on an absolute cryogenic radiometer and an optical parametric oscillator laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Kun; Shi, Xueshun; Chen, Haidong; Liu, Yulong; Liu, Changming; Chen, Kunfeng; Li, Ligong; Gan, Haiyong; Ma, Chong

    2016-06-01

    We are reporting on a laser-based absolute spectral responsivity scale in the mid-infrared spectral range. By using a mid-infrared tunable optical parametric oscillator as the laser source, the absolute responsivity scale has been established by calibrating thin-film thermopile detectors against an absolute cryogenic radiometer. The thin-film thermopile detectors can be then used as transfer standard detectors. The extended uncertainty of the absolute spectral responsivity measurement has been analyzed to be 0.58%–0.68% (k  =  2).

  12. Mid-infrared absolute spectral responsivity scale based on an absolute cryogenic radiometer and an optical parametric oscillator laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Kun; Shi, Xueshun; Chen, Haidong; Liu, Yulong; Liu, Changming; Chen, Kunfeng; Li, Ligong; Gan, Haiyong; Ma, Chong

    2016-06-01

    We are reporting on a laser-based absolute spectral responsivity scale in the mid-infrared spectral range. By using a mid-infrared tunable optical parametric oscillator as the laser source, the absolute responsivity scale has been established by calibrating thin-film thermopile detectors against an absolute cryogenic radiometer. The thin-film thermopile detectors can be then used as transfer standard detectors. The extended uncertainty of the absolute spectral responsivity measurement has been analyzed to be 0.58%-0.68% (k  =  2).

  13. Monochromator-Based Absolute Calibration of a Standard Radiation Thermometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mantilla, J. M.; Hernanz, M. L.; Campos, J.; Martín, M. J.; Pons, A.; del Campo, D.

    2014-04-01

    Centro Español de Metrología (CEM) is disseminating the International Temperature Scale (ITS-90), at high temperatures, by using the fixed points of Ag and Cu and a standard radiation thermometer. However, the future mise-en-pratique for the definition of the kelvin ( MeP-K) will include the dissemination of the kelvin by primary methods and by indirect approximations capable of exceptionally low uncertainties or increased reliability. Primary radiometry is, at present, able to achieve uncertainties competitive with the ITS-90 above the silver point with one of the possible techniques the calibration for radiance responsivity of an imaging radiometer (radiance method). In order to carry out this calibration, IO-CSIC (Spanish Designated Institute for luminous intensity and luminous flux) has collaborated with CEM, allowing traceability to its cryogenic radiometer. A monochromator integrating sphere-based spectral comparator facility has been used to calibrate one of the CEM standard radiation thermometers. The absolute calibrated standard radiation thermometer has been used to determine the temperatures of the fixed points of Cu, Co-C, Pt-C, and Re-C. The results obtained are 1357.80 K, 1597.10 K, 2011.66 K, and 2747.64 K, respectively, with uncertainties ranging from 0.4 K to 1.1 K.

  14. Absolute calibration for complex-geometry biomedical diffuse optical spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mastanduno, Michael A.; Jiang, Shudong; El-Ghussein, Fadi; diFlorio-Alexander, Roberta; Pogue, Brian W.; Paulsen, Keith D.

    2013-03-01

    We have presented methodology to calibrate data in NIRS/MRI imaging versus an absolute reference phantom and results in both phantoms and healthy volunteers. This method directly calibrates data to a diffusion-based model, takes advantage of patient specific geometry from MRI prior information, and generates an initial guess without the need for a large data set. This method of calibration allows for more accurate quantification of total hemoglobin, oxygen saturation, water content, scattering, and lipid concentration as compared with other, slope-based methods. We found the main source of error in the method to be derived from incorrect assignment of reference phantom optical properties rather than initial guess in reconstruction. We also present examples of phantom and breast images from a combined frequency domain and continuous wave MRI-coupled NIRS system. We were able to recover phantom data within 10% of expected contrast and within 10% of the actual value using this method and compare these results with slope-based calibration methods. Finally, we were able to use this technique to calibrate and reconstruct images from healthy volunteers. Representative images are shown and discussion is provided for comparison with existing literature. These methods work towards fully combining the synergistic attributes of MRI and NIRS for in-vivo imaging of breast cancer. Complete software and hardware integration in dual modality instruments is especially important due to the complexity of the technology and success will contribute to complex anatomical and molecular prognostic information that can be readily obtained in clinical use.

  15. Geometric-Harmonic convexity and integral inequalities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akdemir, Ahmet Ocak; Yalçin, Abdüllatif; Polat, Fatma; Kavurmaci-Önalan, Havva

    2016-04-01

    In this paper, some new integral inequalities have been proved for functions whose absolute value of derivatives are GH-convex functions by using integral equalities that have been obtained previously.

  16. Disciplinary Crossings.

    PubMed

    Singh, Ilina

    2016-09-01

    Eighteen months ago, I left a permanent professorship in a generously interdisciplinary department of sociology and took an impermanent, lower-paying job at a university where I had to apply to something called the "Committee on Distinction" to retain the title of "Professor." Some people say, "That's what happens when Oxford calls." But it wasn't just that. It was the opportunity to engage in a groundbreaking experiment: to embed and integrate ethics within the Oxford Department of Psychiatry and Neuroscience. It's a dream job, for which I was willing to cross the disciplinary line into the medical sciences. In the United Kingdom, many bioethicists still work in departments outside science and medicine; similarly, those of us who work on neuroethics and psychiatric ethics tend to inhabit departments of philosophy, law, or sociology. I can report already that interdisciplinarity from this side feels and looks different. PMID:27649834

  17. Measuring the absolute DT neutron yield using the Magnetic Recoil Spectrometer at OMEGA and the NIF

    SciTech Connect

    Mackinnon, A; Casey, D; Frenje, J A; Johnson, M G; Seguin, F H; Li, C K; Petrasso, R D; Glebov, V Y; Katz, J; Knauer, J; Meyerhofer, D; Sangster, T; Bionta, R; Bleuel, D; Hachett, S P; Hartouni, E; Lepape, S; Mckernan, M; Moran, M; Yeamans, C

    2012-05-03

    A Magnetic Recoil Spectrometer (MRS) has been installed and extensively used on OMEGA and the National Ignition Facility (NIF) for measurements of the absolute neutron spectrum from inertial confinement fusion (ICF) implosions. From the neutron spectrum measured with the MRS, many critical implosion parameters are determined including the primary DT neutron yield, the ion temperature, and the down-scattered neutron yield. As the MRS detection efficiency is determined from first principles, the absolute DT neutron yield is obtained without cross-calibration to other techniques. The MRS primary DT neutron measurements at OMEGA and the NIF are shown to be in excellent agreement with previously established yield diagnostics on OMEGA, and with the newly commissioned nuclear activation diagnostics on the NIF.

  18. Radial velocity studies and absolute parameters of contact binaries. I - AB Andromedae

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hrivnak, Bruce J.

    1988-01-01

    New radial velocity curves have been obtained for the contact binary AB And, using the cross-correlation technique. A mass ratio of 0.479 is determined, which is revised to 0.491 when the velocities are corrected for proximity effects using a light curve model. These values differ by less than ten percent from the photometric mass ratio. An analysis of the symmetric B and V light curves reported by Rigterink in 1973 using the spectroscopic mass ratio yields a consistent set of light and velocity curve elements. These also produce a reasonably good fit to the infrared J and K light curves reported by Jameson and Akinci in 1979. Absolute elements are determined, and these indicate that both components have a main-sequence internal structure. These absolute parameters, together with the Galactic kinematics, suggest an age for the system similar to or greater than that of the Sun.

  19. Determination of differential cross sections for electron-impact excitation of electronic states of molecular oxygen

    SciTech Connect

    Campbell, L.; Green, M. A.; Brunger, M. J.; Teubner, P. J. O.; Cartwright, D. C.

    2000-02-01

    The development and initial results of a method for the determination of differential cross sections for electron scattering by molecular oxygen are described. The method has been incorporated into an existing package of computer programs which, given spectroscopic factors, dissociation energies and an energy-loss spectrum for electron-impact excitation, determine the differential cross sections for each electronic state relative to that of the elastic peak. Enhancements of the original code were made to deal with particular aspects of electron scattering from O{sub 2}, such as the overlap of vibrational levels of the ground state with transitions to excited states, and transitions to levels close to and above the dissocation energy in the Herzberg and Schumann-Runge continua. The utility of the code is specifically demonstrated for the ''6-eV states'' of O{sub 2}, where we report absolute differential cross sections for their excitation by 15-eV electrons. In addition an integral cross section, derived from the differential cross section measurements, is also reported for this excitation process and compared against available theoretical results. The present differential and integral cross sections for excitation of the ''6-eV states'' of O{sub 2} are the first to be reported in the literature for electron-impact energies below 20 eV. (c) 2000 The American Physical Society.

  20. Novalis' Poetic Uncertainty: A "Bildung" with the Absolute

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mika, Carl

    2016-01-01

    Novalis, the Early German Romantic poet and philosopher, had at the core of his work a mysterious depiction of the "absolute." The absolute is Novalis' name for a substance that defies precise knowledge yet calls for a tentative and sensitive speculation. How one asserts a truth, represents an object, and sets about encountering things…