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Sample records for absolute latency plasma

  1. The segment as the minimal planning unit in speech production: evidence based on absolute response latencies.

    PubMed

    Kawamoto, Alan H; Liu, Qiang; Lee, Ria J; Grebe, Patricia R

    2014-01-01

    A minimal amount of information about a word must be phonologically and phonetically encoded before a person can begin to utter that word. Most researchers assume that the minimum is the complete word or possibly the initial syllable. However, there is some evidence that the initial segment is sufficient based on longer durations when the initial segment is primed. In two experiments in which the initial segment of a monosyllabic word is primed or not primed, we present additional evidence based on very short absolute response times determined on the basis of acoustic and articulatory onset relative to presentation of the complete target. We argue that the previous failures to find very short absolute response times when the initial segment is primed are due in part to the exclusive use of acoustic onset as a measure of response latency, the exclusion of responses with very short acoustic latencies, the manner of articulation of the initial segment (i.e., plosive vs. nonplosive), and individual differences. Theoretical implications of the segment as the minimal planning unit are considered.

  2. Absolute intensity of radiation emitted by uranium plasmas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jalufka, N. W.; Lee, J. H.; Mcfarland, D. R.

    1975-01-01

    The absolute intensity of radiation emitted by fissioning and nonfissioning uranium plasmas in the spectral range from 350 nm to 1000 nm was measured. The plasma was produced in a plasma-focus apparatus and the plasma properties are simular to those anticipated for plasma-core nuclear reactors. The results are expected to contribute to the establishment of design criteria for the development of plasma-core reactors.

  3. GPUbased, Microsecond Latency, HectoChannel MIMO Feedback Control of Magnetically Confined Plasmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rath, Nikolaus

    Feedback control has become a crucial tool in the research on magnetic confinement of plasmas for achieving controlled nuclear fusion. This thesis presents a novel plasma feedback control system that, for the first time, employs a Graphics Processing Unit (GPU) for microsecond-latency, real-time control computations. This novel application area for GPU computing is opened up by a new system architecture that is optimized for low-latency computations on less than kilobyte sized data samples as they occur in typical plasma control algorithms. In contrast to traditional GPU computing approaches that target complex, high-throughput computations with massive amounts of data, the architecture presented in this thesis uses the GPU as the primary processing unit rather than as an auxiliary of the CPU, and data is transferred from A-D/D-A converters directly into GPU memory using peer-to-peer PCI Express transfers. The described design has been implemented in a new, GPU-based control system for the High-Beta Tokamak - Extended Pulse (HBT-EP) device. The system is built from commodity hardware and uses an NVIDIA GeForce GPU and D-TACQ A-D/D-A converters providing a total of 96 input and 64 output channels. The system is able to run with sampling periods down to 4 μs and latencies down to 8 μs. The GPU provides a total processing power of 1.5 x 1012 floating point operations per second. To illustrate the performance and versatility of both the general architecture and concrete implementation, a new control algorithm has been developed. The algorithm is designed for the control of multiple rotating magnetic perturbations in situations where the plasma equilibrium is not known exactly and features an adaptive system model: instead of requiring the rotation frequencies and growth rates embedded in the system model to be set a priori, the adaptive algorithm derives these parameters from the evolution of the perturbation amplitudes themselves. This results in non-linear control

  4. Plasma protein absolute quantification by nano-LC Q-TOF UDMSE for clinical biomarker verification

    PubMed Central

    ILIES, MARIA; IUGA, CRISTINA ADELA; LOGHIN, FELICIA; DHOPLE, VISHNU MUKUND; HAMMER, ELKE

    2017-01-01

    Background and aims Proteome-based biomarker studies are targeting proteins that could serve as diagnostic, prognosis, and prediction molecules. In the clinical routine, immunoassays are currently used for the absolute quantification of such biomarkers, with the major limitation that only one molecule can be targeted per assay. The aim of our study was to test a mass spectrometry based absolute quantification method for the verification of plasma protein sets which might serve as reliable biomarker panels for the clinical practice. Methods Six EDTA plasma samples were analyzed after tryptic digestion using a high throughput data independent acquisition nano-LC Q-TOF UDMSE proteomics approach. Synthetic Escherichia coli standard peptides were spiked in each sample for the absolute quantification. Data analysis was performed using ProgenesisQI v2.0 software (Waters Corporation). Results Our method ensured absolute quantification of 242 non redundant plasma proteins in a single run analysis. The dynamic range covered was 105. 86% were represented by classical plasma proteins. The overall median coefficient of variation was 0.36, while a set of 63 proteins was found to be highly stable. Absolute protein concentrations strongly correlated with values reviewed in the literature. Conclusions Nano-LC Q-TOF UDMSE proteomic analysis can be used for a simple and rapid determination of absolute amounts of plasma proteins. A large number of plasma proteins could be analyzed, while a wide dynamic range was covered with low coefficient of variation at protein level. The method proved to be a reliable tool for the quantification of protein panel for biomarker verification in the clinical practice. PMID:29151793

  5. Absolute Quantification of Middle- to High-Abundant Plasma Proteins via Targeted Proteomics.

    PubMed

    Dittrich, Julia; Ceglarek, Uta

    2017-01-01

    The increasing number of peptide and protein biomarker candidates requires expeditious and reliable quantification strategies. The utilization of liquid chromatography coupled to quadrupole tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) for the absolute quantitation of plasma proteins and peptides facilitates the multiplexed verification of tens to hundreds of biomarkers from smallest sample quantities. Targeted proteomics assays derived from bottom-up proteomics principles rely on the identification and analysis of proteotypic peptides formed in an enzymatic digestion of the target protein. This protocol proposes a procedure for the establishment of a targeted absolute quantitation method for middle- to high-abundant plasma proteins waiving depletion or enrichment steps. Essential topics as proteotypic peptide identification and LC-MS/MS method development as well as sample preparation and calibration strategies are described in detail.

  6. First Absolutely Calibrated Localized Measurements of Ion Velocity in the MST in Locked and Rotating Plasmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baltzer, M.; Craig, D.; den Hartog, D. J.; Nornberg, M. D.; Munaretto, S.

    2015-11-01

    An Ion Doppler Spectrometer (IDS) is used on MST for high time-resolution passive and active measurements of impurity ion emission. Absolutely calibrated measurements of flow are difficult because the spectrometer records data within 0.3 nm of the C+5 line of interest, and commercial calibration lamps do not produce lines in this narrow range . A novel optical system was designed to absolutely calibrate the IDS. The device uses an UV LED to produce a broad emission curve in the desired region. A Fabry-Perot etalon filters this light, cutting transmittance peaks into the pattern of the LED emission. An optical train of fused silica lenses focuses the light into the IDS with f/4. A holographic diffuser blurs the light cone to increase homogeneity. Using this light source, the absolute Doppler shift of ion emissions can be measured in MST plasmas. In combination with charge exchange recombination spectroscopy, localized ion velocities can now be measured. Previously, a time-averaged measurement along the chord bisecting the poloidal plane was used to calibrate the IDS; the quality of these central chord calibrations can be characterized with our absolute calibration. Calibration errors may also be quantified and minimized by optimizing the curve-fitting process. Preliminary measurements of toroidal velocity in locked and rotating plasmas will be shown. This work has been supported by the US DOE.

  7. Absolute continuum intensity diagnostics of a novel large coaxial gridded hollow cathode argon plasma

    SciTech Connect

    Gao, Ruilin; Yuan, Chengxun, E-mail: yuancx@hit.edu.cn, E-mail: zhouzx@hit.edu.cn; Jia, Jieshu

    2016-08-15

    This paper reports a novel coaxial gridded hollow discharge during operation at low pressure (20 Pa–80 Pa) in an argon atmosphere. A homogeneous hollow discharge was observed under different conditions, and the excitation mechanism and the discharge parameters for the hollow cathode plasma were examined at length. An optical emission spectrometry (OES) method, with a special focus on absolute continuum intensity method, was employed to measure the plasma parameters. The Langmuir probe measurement (LPM) was used to verify the OES results. Both provided electron density values (n{sub e}) in the order of 10{sup 16} m{sup −3} for different plasma settings. Taken together, themore » results show that the OES method is an effective approach to diagnosing the similar plasma, especially when the LPM is hardly operated.« less

  8. Relative and absolute reliability of measures of linoleic acid-derived oxylipins in human plasma.

    PubMed

    Gouveia-Figueira, Sandra; Bosson, Jenny A; Unosson, Jon; Behndig, Annelie F; Nording, Malin L; Fowler, Christopher J

    2015-09-01

    Modern analytical techniques allow for the measurement of oxylipins derived from linoleic acid in biological samples. Most validatory work has concerned extraction techniques, repeated analysis of aliquots from the same biological sample, and the influence of external factors such as diet and heparin treatment upon their levels, whereas less is known about the relative and absolute reliability of measurements undertaken on different days. A cohort of nineteen healthy males were used, where samples were taken at the same time of day on two occasions, at least 7 days apart. Relative reliability was assessed using Lin's concordance correlation coefficients (CCC) and intraclass correlation coefficients (ICC). Absolute reliability was assessed by Bland-Altman analyses. Nine linoleic acid oxylipins were investigated. ICC and CCC values ranged from acceptable (0.56 [13-HODE]) to poor (near zero [9(10)- and 12(13)-EpOME]). Bland-Altman limits of agreement were in general quite wide, ranging from ±0.5 (12,13-DiHOME) to ±2 (9(10)-EpOME; log10 scale). It is concluded that relative reliability of linoleic acid-derived oxylipins varies between lipids with compounds such as the HODEs showing better relative reliability than compounds such as the EpOMEs. These differences should be kept in mind when designing and interpreting experiments correlating plasma levels of these lipids with factors such as age, body mass index, rating scales etc. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Rapid, absolute calibration of x-ray filters employed by laser-produced plasma diagnostics

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, G. V.; Beiersdorfer, P.; Emig, J.

    2008-10-15

    The Electron Beam Ion Trap (EBIT) facility at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory is being used to absolutely calibrate the transmission efficiency of x-ray filters employed by diodes and spectrometers used to diagnose laser-produced plasmas. EBIT emits strong, discrete monoenergetic lines at appropriately chosen x-ray energies. X rays are detected using the high resolution EBIT Calorimeter Spectrometer (ECS), developed for LLNL at the NASA/Goddard Space Flight Center. X-ray filter transmission efficiency is determined by dividing the x-ray counts detected when the filter is in the line of sight by those detected when out of the line of sight. Verification ofmore » filter thickness can be completed in only a few hours, and absolute efficiencies can be calibrated in a single day over a broad range from about 0.1 to 15 keV. The EBIT calibration lab has been used to field diagnostics (e.g., the OZSPEC instrument) with fully calibrated x-ray filters at the OMEGA laser. Extensions to use the capability for calibrating filter transmission for the DANTE instrument on the National Ignition Facility are discussed.« less

  10. Sulfur-based absolute quantification of proteins using isotope dilution inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Hyun-Seok; Heun Kim, Sook; Jeong, Ji-Seon; Lee, Yong-Moon; Yim, Yong-Hyeon

    2015-10-01

    An element-based reductive approach provides an effective means of realizing International System of Units (SI) traceability for high-purity biological standards. Here, we develop an absolute protein quantification method using double isotope dilution (ID) inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) combined with microwave-assisted acid digestion for the first time. We validated the method and applied it to certify the candidate protein certified reference material (CRM) of human growth hormone (hGH). The concentration of hGH was determined by analysing the total amount of sulfur in hGH. Next, the size-exclusion chromatography method was used with ICP-MS to characterize and quantify sulfur-containing impurities. By subtracting the contribution of sulfur-containing impurities from the total sulfur content in the hGH CRM, we obtained a SI-traceable certification value. The quantification result obtained with the present method based on sulfur analysis was in excellent agreement with the result determined via a well-established protein quantification method based on amino acid analysis using conventional acid hydrolysis combined with an ID liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. The element-based protein quantification method developed here can be generally used for SI-traceable absolute quantification of proteins, especially pure-protein standards.

  11. Determination of Tangeretin in Rat Plasma: Assessment of Its Clearance and Absolute Oral Bioavailability.

    PubMed

    Elhennawy, Mai Gamal; Lin, Hai-Shu

    2017-12-29

    Tangeretin (TAN) is a dietary polymethoxylated flavone that possesses a broad scope of pharmacological activities. A simple high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) method was developed and validated in this study to quantify TAN in plasma of Sprague-Dawley rats. The lower limit of quantification (LLOQ) was 15 ng/mL; the intra- and inter-day assay variations expressed in the form of relative standard deviation (RSD) were all less than 10%; and the assay accuracy was within 100 ± 15%. Subsequently, pharmacokinetic profiles of TAN were explored and established. Upon single intravenous administration (10 mg/kg), TAN had rapid clearance ( Cl = 94.1 ± 20.2 mL/min/kg) and moderate terminal elimination half-life ( t 1/2 λz = 166 ± 42 min). When TAN was given as a suspension (50 mg/kg), poor but erratic absolute oral bioavailability (mean value < 3.05%) was observed; however, when TAN was given in a solution prepared with randomly methylated-β-cyclodextrin (50 mg/kg), its plasma exposure was at least doubled (mean bioavailability: 6.02%). It was obvious that aqueous solubility hindered the oral absorption of TAN and acted as a barrier to its oral bioavailability. This study will facilitate further investigations on the medicinal potentials of TAN.

  12. Development of MRM-based assays for the absolute quantitation of plasma proteins.

    PubMed

    Kuzyk, Michael A; Parker, Carol E; Domanski, Dominik; Borchers, Christoph H

    2013-01-01

    Multiple reaction monitoring (MRM), sometimes called selected reaction monitoring (SRM), is a directed tandem mass spectrometric technique performed on to triple quadrupole mass spectrometers. MRM assays can be used to sensitively and specifically quantify proteins based on peptides that are specific to the target protein. Stable-isotope-labeled standard peptide analogues (SIS peptides) of target peptides are added to enzymatic digests of samples, and quantified along with the native peptides during MRM analysis. Monitoring of the intact peptide and a collision-induced fragment of this peptide (an ion pair) can be used to provide information on the absolute peptide concentration of the peptide in the sample and, by inference, the concentration of the intact protein. This technique provides high specificity by selecting for biophysical parameters that are unique to the target peptides: (1) the molecular weight of the peptide, (2) the generation of a specific fragment from the peptide, and (3) the HPLC retention time during LC/MRM-MS analysis. MRM is a highly sensitive technique that has been shown to be capable of detecting attomole levels of target peptides in complex samples such as tryptic digests of human plasma. This chapter provides a detailed description of how to develop and use an MRM protein assay. It includes sections on the critical "first step" of selecting the target peptides, as well as optimization of MRM acquisition parameters for maximum sensitivity of the ion pairs that will be used in the final method, and characterization of the final MRM assay.

  13. X box binding protein XBP-1s transactivates the Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV) ORF50 promoter, linking plasma cell differentiation to KSHV reactivation from latency.

    PubMed

    Wilson, Sam J; Tsao, Edward H; Webb, Benjamin L J; Ye, Hongtao; Dalton-Griffin, Lucy; Tsantoulas, Christoforos; Gale, Catherine V; Du, Ming-Qing; Whitehouse, Adrian; Kellam, Paul

    2007-12-01

    Reactivation of lytic replication from viral latency is a defining property of all herpesviruses. Despite this, the authentic physiological cues for the latent-lytic switch are unclear. Such cues should ensure that viral lytic replication occurs under physiological conditions, predominantly in sites which facilitate transmission to permissive uninfected cells and new susceptible hosts. Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV) is associated with the B-cell neoplasm primary effusion lymphoma (PEL), in which the virus remains latent. We have previously shown that PEL cells have the gene expression profile and immunophenotype of cycling preplasma cells (plasmablasts). Here, we show that the highly active spliced isoform of plasma cell transcription factor X box binding protein 1 (XBP-1s) is a lytic switch for KSHV. XBP-1s is normally absent in PEL, but the induction of endoplasmic reticulum stress leads to XBP-1s generation, plasma cell-like differentiation, and lytic reactivation of KSHV. XBP-1s binds to and activates the KSHV immediate-early gene ORF50 and synergizes with the ORF50 gene product RTA to induce a full lytic cycle. These data suggest that KSHV remains latent until B-cell terminal differentiation into plasma cells, the transcriptional environment of which provides the physiological "lytic switch" through XBP-1s. This links B-cell terminal differentiation to KSHV lytic reactivation.

  14. Absolute versus relative measures of plasma fatty acids and health outcomes: example of phospholipid omega-3 and omega-6 fatty acids and all-cause mortality in women.

    PubMed

    Miura, Kyoko; Hughes, Maria Celia B; Ungerer, Jacobus P J; Smith, David D; Green, Adèle C

    2018-03-01

    In a well-characterised community-based prospective study, we aimed to systematically assess the differences in associations of plasma omega-3 and omega-6 fatty acid (FA) status with all-cause mortality when plasma FA status is expressed in absolute concentrations versus relative levels. In a community sample of 564 women aged 25-75 years in Queensland, Australia, baseline plasma phospholipid FA levels were measured using gas chromatography. Specific FAs analysed were eicosapentaenoic acid, docosapentaenoic acid, docosahexaenoic acid, total long-chain omega-3 FAs, linoleic acid, arachidonic acid, and total omega-6 FAs. Levels of each FA were expressed in absolute amounts (µg/mL) and relative levels (% of total FAs) and divided into thirds. Deaths were monitored for 17 years and hazard ratios and 95% confidence intervals calculated to assess risk of death according to absolute versus relative plasma FA levels. In total 81 (14%) women died during follow-up. Agreement between absolute and relative measures of plasma FAs was higher in omega-3 than omega-6 FAs. The results of multivariate analyses for risk of all-cause mortality were generally similar with risk tending to inverse associations with plasma phospholipid omega-3 FAs and no association with omega-6 FAs. Sensitivity analyses examining effects of age and presence of serious medical conditions on risk of mortality did not alter findings. The directions and magnitude of associations with mortality of absolute versus relative FA levels were comparable. However, plasma FA expressed as absolute concentrations may be preferred for ease of comparison and since relative units can be deduced from absolute units.

  15. Easy Absolute Values? Absolutely

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, Sharon E.; Mittag, Kathleen Cage

    2015-01-01

    The authors teach a problem-solving course for preservice middle-grades education majors that includes concepts dealing with absolute-value computations, equations, and inequalities. Many of these students like mathematics and plan to teach it, so they are adept at symbolic manipulations. Getting them to think differently about a concept that they…

  16. Changes in relative and absolute concentrations of plasma phospholipid fatty acids observed in a randomized trial of Omega-3 fatty acids supplementation in Uganda.

    PubMed

    Song, Xiaoling; Diep, Pho; Schenk, Jeannette M; Casper, Corey; Orem, Jackson; Makhoul, Zeina; Lampe, Johanna W; Neuhouser, Marian L

    2016-11-01

    Expressing circulating phospholipid fatty acids (PLFAs) in relative concentrations has some limitations: the total of all fatty acids are summed to 100%; therefore, the values of individual fatty acid are not independent. In this study we examined if both relative and absolute metrics could effectively measure changes in circulating PLFA concentrations in an intervention trial. 66 HIV and HHV8 infected patients in Uganda were randomized to take 3g/d of either long-chain omega-3 fatty acids (1856mg EPA and 1232mg DHA) or high-oleic safflower oil in a 12-week double-blind trial. Plasma samples were collected at baseline and end of trial. Relative weight percentage and absolute concentrations of 41 plasma PLFAs were measured using gas chromatography. Total cholesterol was also measured. Intervention-effect changes in concentrations were calculated as differences between end of 12-week trial and baseline. Pearson correlations of relative and absolute concentration changes in individual PLFAs were high (>0.6) for 37 of the 41 PLFAs analyzed. In the intervention arm, 17 PLFAs changed significantly in relative concentration and 16 in absolute concentration, 15 of which were identical. Absolute concentration of total PLFAs decreased 95.1mg/L (95% CI: 26.0, 164.2; P=0.0085), but total cholesterol did not change significantly in the intervention arm. No significant change was observed in any of the measurements in the placebo arm. Both relative weight percentage and absolute concentrations could effectively measure changes in plasma PLFA concentrations. EPA and DHA supplementation changes the concentrations of multiple plasma PLFAs besides EPA and DHA.Both relative weight percentage and absolute concentrations could effectively measure changes in plasma phospholipid fatty acid (PLFA) concentrations. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Latency of pupillary reflex to light stimulation and its relationship to aging.

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    1965-09-01

    A method is described for measuring pupillary contraction latency period regardless of initial absolute pupil diameter. Pupillary contraction latency period increases with age: the data presented show that the normal pupil, as usually found in health...

  18. Changes in relative and absolute concentrations of plasma phospholipid fatty acids observed in a randomized trial of Omega-3 fatty acids supplementation in Uganda

    PubMed Central

    Song, Xiaoling; Diep, Pho; Schenk, Jeannette M; Casper, Corey; Orem, Jackson; Makhoul, Zeina; Lampe, Johanna W; Neuhouser, Marian L.

    2016-01-01

    Expressing circulating phospholipid fatty acids (PLFAs) in relative concentrations has some limitations: the total of all fatty acids are summed to 100%; therefore, the values of individual fatty acid are not independent. In this study we examined if both relative and absolute metrics could effectively measure changes in circulating PLFA concentrations in an intervention trial. 66 HIV and HHV8 infected patients in Uganda were randomized to take 3g/d of either long-chain omega-3 fatty acids (1,856 mg EPA and 1,232 mg DHA) or high—oleic safflower oil in a 12-week double-blind trial. Plasma samples were collected at baseline and end of trial. Relative weight percentage and absolute concentrations of 41 plasma PLFAs were measured using gas chromatography. Total cholesterol was also measured. Intervention-effect changes in concentrations were calculated as differences between end of 12-week trial and baseline. Pearson correlations of relative and absolute concentration changes in individual PLFAs were high (>0.6) for 37 of the 41 PLFAs analyzed. In the intervention arm, 17 PLFAs changed significantly in relative concentration and 16 in absolute concentration, 15 of which were identical. Absolute concentration of total PLFAs decreased 95.1 mg/L (95% CI: 26.0, 164.2; P = 0.0085), but total cholesterol did not change significantly in the intervention arm. No significant change was observed in any of the measurements in the placebo arm. Both relative weight percentage and absolute concentrations could effectively measure changes in plasma PLFA concentrations. EPA and DHA supplementation changes the concentrations of multiple plasma PLFAs besides EPA and DHA. PMID:27926458

  19. Varicella zoster virus latency

    PubMed Central

    Eshleman, Emily; Shahzad, Aamir; Cohrs, Randall J

    2011-01-01

    Primary infection by varicella zoster virus (VZV) typically results in childhood chickenpox, at which time latency is established in the neurons of the cranial nerve, dorsal root and autonomic ganglia along the entire neuraxis. During latency, the histone-associated virus genome assumes a circular episomal configuration from which transcription is epigenetically regulated. The lack of an animal model in which VZV latency and reactivation can be studied, along with the difficulty in obtaining high-titer cell-free virus, has limited much of our understanding of VZV latency to descriptive studies of ganglia removed at autopsy and analogy to HSV-1, the prototype alphaherpesvirus. However, the lack of miRNA, detectable latency-associated transcript and T-cell surveillance during VZV latency highlight basic differences between the two neurotropic herpesviruses. This article focuses on VZV latency: establishment, maintenance and reactivation. Comparisons are made with HSV-1, with specific attention to differences that make these viruses unique human pathogens. PMID:21695042

  20. Telemetry System Data Latency

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2017-07-13

    ec o n d s Data Rate TELEMETRY SYSTEM DATA LATENCY 15 of 31 Document: JT3-AFC-SRPT-17172-0005 Revision...250 So ft w ar e D ec o m L at en cy N T im es G re at er T h an D xD ec o m L at en cy Data Rate TELEMETRY SYSTEM DATA LATENCY 16 of...20.0 30.0 40.0 50.0 60.0 70.0 M ill is ec o n d s Data Rate TELEMETRY SYSTEM DATA LATENCY 17 of 31 Document:

  1. Ego Functioning During Latency

    PubMed Central

    Adams, Milton S.

    1979-01-01

    The latency period is an extremely important transition between the preschool years and adolescence. Normal ego functioning is described, especially cognition, socialization, motor development, and defensive functions. PMID:529320

  2. Behaviors of Absolute Densities of N, H, and NH3 at Remote Region of High-Density Radical Source Employing N2-H2 Mixture Plasmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Shang; Kondo, Hiroki; Ishikawa, Kenji; Takeda, Keigo; Sekine, Makoto; Kano, Hiroyuki; Den, Shoji; Hori, Masaru

    2011-01-01

    For an innovation of molecular-beam-epitaxial (MBE) growth of gallium nitride (GaN), the measurements of absolute densities of N, H, and NH3 at the remote region of the radical source excited by plasmas have become absolutely imperative. By vacuum ultraviolet absorption spectroscopy (VUVAS) at a relatively low pressure of about 1 Pa, we obtained a N atom density of 9×1012 cm-3 for a pure nitrogen gas used, a H atom density of 7×1012 cm-3 for a gas composition of 80% hydrogen mixed with nitrogen gas were measured. The maximum density 2×1013 cm-3 of NH3 was measured by quadruple mass spectrometry (QMS) at H2/(N2+H2)=60%. Moreover, we found that N atom density was considerably affected by processing history, where the characteristic instability was observed during the pure nitrogen plasma discharge sequentially after the hydrogen-containing plasma discharge. These results indicate imply the importance of establishing radical-based processes to control precisely the absolute densities of N, H, and NH3 at the remote region of the radical source.

  3. Time-resolved absolute measurements by electro-optic effect of giant electromagnetic pulses due to laser-plasma interaction in nanosecond regime

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Consoli, F.; de Angelis, R.; Duvillaret, L.; Andreoli, P. L.; Cipriani, M.; Cristofari, G.; di Giorgio, G.; Ingenito, F.; Verona, C.

    2016-06-01

    We describe the first electro-optical absolute measurements of electromagnetic pulses (EMPs) generated by laser-plasma interaction in nanosecond regime. Laser intensities are inertial-confinement-fusion (ICF) relevant and wavelength is 1054 nm. These are the first direct EMP amplitude measurements with the detector rather close and in direct view of the plasma. A maximum field of 261 kV/m was measured, two orders of magnitude higher than previous measurements by conductive probes on nanosecond regime lasers with much higher energy. The analysis of measurements and of particle-in-cell simulations indicates that signals match the emission of charged particles detected in the same experiment, and suggests that anisotropic particle emission from target, X-ray photoionization and charge implantation on surfaces directly exposed to plasma, could be important EMP contributions. Significant information achieved on EMP features and sources is crucial for future plants of laser-plasma acceleration and inertial-confinement-fusion and for the use as effective plasma diagnostics. It also opens to remarkable applications of laser-plasma interaction as intense source of RF-microwaves for studies on materials and devices, EMP-radiation-hardening and electromagnetic compatibility. The demonstrated extreme effectivity of electric-fields detection in laser-plasma context by electro-optic effect, leads to great potential for characterization of laser-plasma interaction and generated Terahertz radiation.

  4. Time-resolved absolute measurements by electro-optic effect of giant electromagnetic pulses due to laser-plasma interaction in nanosecond regime

    PubMed Central

    Consoli, F.; De Angelis, R.; Duvillaret, L.; Andreoli, P. L.; Cipriani, M.; Cristofari, G.; Di Giorgio, G.; Ingenito, F.; Verona, C.

    2016-01-01

    We describe the first electro-optical absolute measurements of electromagnetic pulses (EMPs) generated by laser-plasma interaction in nanosecond regime. Laser intensities are inertial-confinement-fusion (ICF) relevant and wavelength is 1054 nm. These are the first direct EMP amplitude measurements with the detector rather close and in direct view of the plasma. A maximum field of 261 kV/m was measured, two orders of magnitude higher than previous measurements by conductive probes on nanosecond regime lasers with much higher energy. The analysis of measurements and of particle-in-cell simulations indicates that signals match the emission of charged particles detected in the same experiment, and suggests that anisotropic particle emission from target, X-ray photoionization and charge implantation on surfaces directly exposed to plasma, could be important EMP contributions. Significant information achieved on EMP features and sources is crucial for future plants of laser-plasma acceleration and inertial-confinement-fusion and for the use as effective plasma diagnostics. It also opens to remarkable applications of laser-plasma interaction as intense source of RF-microwaves for studies on materials and devices, EMP-radiation-hardening and electromagnetic compatibility. The demonstrated extreme effectivity of electric-fields detection in laser-plasma context by electro-optic effect, leads to great potential for characterization of laser-plasma interaction and generated Terahertz radiation. PMID:27301704

  5. Absolute ozone densities in a radio-frequency driven atmospheric pressure plasma using two-beam UV-LED absorption spectroscopy and numerical simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wijaikhum, A.; Schröder, D.; Schröter, S.; Gibson, A. R.; Niemi, K.; Friderich, J.; Greb, A.; Schulz-von der Gathen, V.; O'Connell, D.; Gans, T.

    2017-11-01

    The efficient generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in cold atmospheric pressure plasma jets (APPJs) is an increasingly important topic, e.g. for the treatment of temperature sensitive biological samples in the field of plasma medicine. A 13.56 MHz radio-frequency (rf) driven APPJ device operated with helium feed gas and small admixtures of oxygen (up to 1%), generating a homogeneous glow-mode plasma at low gas temperatures, was investigated. Absolute densities of ozone, one of the most prominent ROS, were measured across the 11 mm wide discharge channel by means of broadband absorption spectroscopy using the Hartley band centred at λ = 255 nm. A two-beam setup with a reference beam in Mach-Zehnder configuration is employed for improved signal-to-noise ratio allowing high-sensitivity measurements in the investigated single-pass weak-absorbance regime. The results are correlated to gas temperature measurements, deduced from the rotational temperature of the N2 (C 3 {{{\\Pi }}}u+ \\to B 3 {{{\\Pi }}}g+, υ = 0 \\to 2) optical emission from introduced air impurities. The observed opposing trends of both quantities as a function of rf power input and oxygen admixture are analysed and explained in terms of a zero-dimensional plasma-chemical kinetics simulation. It is found that the gas temperature as well as the densities of O and O2(b{}1{{{Σ }}}g+) influence the absolute O3 densities when the rf power is varied.

  6. Absolute quantitation of low abundance plasma APL1β peptides at sub-fmol/mL Level by SRM/MRM without immunoaffinity enrichment.

    PubMed

    Sano, Shozo; Tagami, Shinji; Hashimoto, Yuuki; Yoshizawa-Kumagaye, Kumiko; Tsunemi, Masahiko; Okochi, Masayasu; Tomonaga, Takeshi

    2014-02-07

    Selected/multiple reaction monitoring (SRM/MRM) has been widely used for the quantification of specific proteins/peptides, although it is still challenging to quantitate low abundant proteins/peptides in complex samples such as plasma/serum. To overcome this problem, enrichment of target proteins/peptides is needed, such as immunoprecipitation; however, this is labor-intense and generation of antibodies is highly expensive. In this study, we attempted to quantify plasma low abundant APLP1-derived Aβ-like peptides (APL1β), a surrogate marker for Alzheimer's disease, by SRM/MRM using stable isotope-labeled reference peptides without immunoaffinity enrichment. A combination of Cibacron Blue dye mediated albumin removal and acetonitrile extraction followed by C18-strong cation exchange multi-StageTip purification was used to deplete plasma proteins and unnecessary peptides. Optimal and validated precursor ions to fragment ion transitions of APL1β were developed on a triple quadruple mass spectrometer, and the nanoliquid chromatography gradient for peptide separation was optimized to minimize the biological interference of plasma. Using the stable isotope-labeled (SI) peptide as an internal control, absolute concentrations of plasma APL1β peptide could be quantified as several hundred amol/mL. To our knowledge, this is the lowest detection level of endogenous plasma peptide quantified by SRM/MRM.

  7. Absolute atomic oxygen density measurements for nanosecond-pulsed atmospheric-pressure plasma jets using two-photon absorption laser-induced fluorescence spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, C.; Carter, C.

    2014-12-01

    Nanosecond-pulsed plasma jets that are generated under ambient air conditions and free from confinement of electrodes have become of great interest in recent years due to their promising applications in medicine and dentistry. Reactive oxygen species that are generated by nanosecond-pulsed, room-temperature non-equilibrium He-O2 plasma jets among others are believed to play an important role during the bactericidal or sterilization processes. We report here absolute measurements of atomic oxygen density in a 1 mm-diameter He/(1%)O2 plasma jet at atmospheric pressure using two-photon absorption laser-induced fluorescence spectroscopy. Oxygen number density on the order of 1013 cm-3 was obtained in a 150 ns, 6 kV single-pulsed plasma jet for an axial distance up to 5 mm above the device nozzle. Temporally resolved O density measurements showed that there are two maxima, separated in time by 60-70 µs, and a total pulse duration of 260-300 µs. Electrostatic modeling indicated that there are high-electric-field regions near the nozzle exit that may be responsible for the observed temporal behavior of the O production. Both the field-distribution-based estimation of the time interval for the O number density profile and a pulse-energy-dependence study confirmed that electric-field-dependent, direct and indirect electron-induced processes play important roles for O production.

  8. Dependence of absolute photon flux on infrared absorbance alteration and surface roughness on photoresist polymers irradiated with vacuum ultraviolet photons emitted from HBr plasma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Yan; Takeuchi, Takuya; Ishikawa, Kenji; Hayashi, Toshio; Takeda, Keigo; Sekine, Makoto; Hori, Masaru

    2017-12-01

    The absolute fluxes of vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) photons emitted from HBr plasma were analyzed and the effects of VUV photons on a photoresist polymer in ArF-excimer-laser (193 nm) lithography were quantitatively investigated on the basis of the infrared spectra attributed to the C=O region. The spectral peak intensity assigned to the methacrylic acid (MAA) in the photoresist drastically decreased owing to the loss of this monomer caused by the irradiation of VUV photons at dosages below 16 × 1016 photons/cm2. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy observation showed that the removed monomer moved to the surface and generated volatile products that induced a decrease in film thickness. As a consequence, the surface became rough during the early-stage irradiation at dosages lower than 16 × 1016 photons/cm2 owing to the monomer loss of MAA with volatile product formation and subsequent cross-linking reactions.

  9. Effect of the gas flow rate on the spatiotemporal distribution of Ar(1s5) absolute densities in a ns pulsed plasma jet impinging on a glass surface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gazeli, K.; Bauville, G.; Fleury, M.; Jeanney, P.; Neveu, O.; Pasquiers, S.; Santos Sousa, J.

    2018-06-01

    This work presents spatial (axial-z and transversal-y) and temporal distributions of Ar(1s5) metastable absolute densities in an atmospheric pressure argon micro-plasma jet impinging on an ungrounded glass surface. Guided streamers are generated with a DBD device driven by pulsed positive high voltages of 6 kV in amplitude, 224 +/- 3 ns in FWHM and 20 kHz in frequency. The argon flow rate is varied between 200 and 600 sccm. The glass plate is placed at 5 mm away from the reactor’s nozzle and perpendicular to the streamers propagation. At these conditions, a diffuse stable discharge is established after the passage of the streamers allowing the quantification of the Ar(1s5) absolute density by means of a conventional TDLAS technique coupled with emission spectroscopy and ICCD imaging. The good reproducibility of the absorption signals is demonstrated. The experiments show the strong dependence of the maximum density ({0.5-4}× {10}13 {{{cm}}}-3) on the gas flow rate and the axial and transversal position. At 200 sccm, high maximum densities (> 2.4× {10}13 {{{cm}}}-3) are obtained in a small area close to the plasma source, while with increasing flow rate this area expands towards the glass plate. In the transversal direction, density maxima are obtained in a small zone around the propagation axis of the streamers. Finally, a noticeable increase is measured on the Ar(1s5) effective lifetime close to the glass surface by varying the flow rate from 200 to 600 sccm. In overall, the effective lifetime varies between ∼25 and ∼550 ns, depending on the gas flow rate and the values of z and y coordinates. The results obtained suggest that the present system can be implemented in various applications and particularly in what concerns the detection of weakly volatile organic compounds present in trace amounts on different surfaces.

  10. Apparatus for fixing latency

    SciTech Connect

    Hall, David R; Bartholomew, David B; Moon, Justin

    2009-09-08

    An apparatus for fixing computational latency within a deterministic region on a network comprises a network interface modem, a high priority module and at least one deterministic peripheral device. The network interface modem is in communication with the network. The high priority module is in communication with the network interface modem. The at least one deterministic peripheral device is connected to the high priority module. The high priority module comprises a packet assembler/disassembler, and hardware for performing at least one operation. Also disclosed is an apparatus for executing at least one instruction on a downhole device within a deterministic region,more » the apparatus comprising a control device, a downhole network, and a downhole device. The control device is near the surface of a downhole tool string. The downhole network is integrated into the tool string. The downhole device is in communication with the downhole network.« less

  11. Estimates of the relative and absolute diurnal contributions of fasting and post-prandial plasma glucose over a range of hyperglycaemia in type 2 diabetes.

    PubMed

    Peter, R; Dunseath, G; Luzio, S D; Owens, D R

    2013-09-01

    To re-examine the relative and absolute contributions of fasting/pre-prandial glucose (FPG) and post-prandial glucose (PPG) to 24-h hyperglycaemia and HbA1c respectively in non-insulin treated subjects with type 2 diabetes (T2DM). A total of 52 T2DM subjects (37 men) had daytime 12h plasma glucose (PG) profiles determined in response to three serial identical test meals commencing at 08 00h with pre-prandial and frequent post-prandial blood samples collected. The overnight PG profile was derived by projecting the 20 00h glucose concentration to the pre-breakfast value at 08 00h. PPG exposure was calculated above fasting/pre-prandial value for each meal. Excess hyperglycaemia was calculated based on a PG>5.5mmol/L with fasting hyperglycaemia being the difference between the two measurements. The subjects were divided into five groups according to the HbA1c (Group 1<7.0%; Group 2: 7.0-<7.5; Group 3: 7.5-<8.0%; Group 4: 8.0-<9.0%; Group 5:≥9.0%). The 24h relative contribution of PPG exposure and fasting hyperglycaemia to excess hyperglycaemia and the absolute contribution of PPG and fasting hyperglycaemia to excess HbA1c (HbA1c - 5.1%) was calculated. With deteriorating glycaemia, the relative contribution of PPG exposure decreased across the groups from 43.5% (HbA1c<7.0%) to 17.8% (HbA1c≥9.0%), whilst the contributions of fasting hyperglycaemia increased from 56.5% to 82.2% (P=0.004), respectively. The absolute contributions of PPG to excess HbA1c was 0.7%, which remained relatively stable across the spectrum of HbA1c, whilst fasting hyperglycaemia increased significantly from groups 1 to 5 (P<0.001). Fasting hyperglycaemia contributes substantially in all groups, increasing as HbA1c deteriorates. The absolute contribution of PPG to excess HbA1c did not vary across the range of HbA1c, representing a significant relative contribution even in well-controlled subjects with a HbA1c<7.0%. Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS.

  12. Absolute Summ

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Phillips, Alfred, Jr.

    Summ means the entirety of the multiverse. It seems clear, from the inflation theories of A. Guth and others, that the creation of many universes is plausible. We argue that Absolute cosmological ideas, not unlike those of I. Newton, may be consistent with dynamic multiverse creations. As suggested in W. Heisenberg's uncertainty principle, and with the Anthropic Principle defended by S. Hawking, et al., human consciousness, buttressed by findings of neuroscience, may have to be considered in our models. Predictability, as A. Einstein realized with Invariants and General Relativity, may be required for new ideas to be part of physics. We present here a two postulate model geared to an Absolute Summ. The seedbed of this work is part of Akhnaton's philosophy (see S. Freud, Moses and Monotheism). Most important, however, is that the structure of human consciousness, manifest in Kenya's Rift Valley 200,000 years ago as Homo sapiens, who were the culmination of the six million year co-creation process of Hominins and Nature in Africa, allows us to do the physics that we do. .

  13. Is actinometry reliable for monitoring Si and silicone halides produced in silicon etching plasmas? A comparison with their absolute densities measured by UV broad band absorption

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kogelschatz, M.; Cunge, G.; Sadeghi, N.

    2006-03-01

    SiCl{x} radicals, the silicon etching by-products, are playing a major role in silicon gate etching processes because their redeposition on the wafer leads to the formation of a SiOCl{x} passivation layer on the feature sidewalls, which controls the final shape of the etching profile. These radicals are also the precursors to the formation of a similar layer on the reactor walls, leading to process drifts. As a result, the understanding and modelling of these processes rely on the knowledge of their densities in the plasma. Actinometry technique, based on optical emission, is often used to measure relative variations of the density of the above mentioned radicals, even if it is well known that the results obtained with this technique might not always be reliable. To determine the validity domain of actinometry in industrial silicon-etching high density plasmas, we measure the RF source power and pressure dependences of the absolute densities of SiCl{x} (x=0{-}2), SiF and SiBr radicals, deduced from UV broad band absorption spectroscopy. These results are compared to the evolution of the corresponding actinometry signals from these radicals. It is shown that actinometry predicts the global trends of the species density variations when the RF power is changed at constant pressure (that is to say when only the electron density changes) but it completely fails if the gas pressure, hence the electron temperature, changes.

  14. Absolute radiant power measurement for the Au M lines of laser-plasma using a calibrated broadband soft X-ray spectrometer with flat-spectral response.

    PubMed

    Troussel, Ph; Villette, B; Emprin, B; Oudot, G; Tassin, V; Bridou, F; Delmotte, F; Krumrey, M

    2014-01-01

    CEA implemented an absolutely calibrated broadband soft X-ray spectrometer called DMX on the Omega laser facility at the Laboratory for Laser Energetics (LLE) in 1999 to measure radiant power and spectral distribution of the radiation of the Au plasma. The DMX spectrometer is composed of 20 channels covering the spectral range from 50 eV to 20 keV. The channels for energies below 1.5 keV combine a mirror and a filter with a coaxial photo-emissive detector. For the channels above 5 keV the photoemissive detector is replaced by a conductive detector. The intermediate energy channels (1.5 keV < photon energy < 5 keV) use only a filter and a coaxial detector. A further improvement of DMX consists in flat-response X-ray channels for a precise absolute measurement of the photon flux in the photon energy range from 0.1 keV to 6 keV. Such channels are equipped with a filter, a Multilayer Mirror (MLM), and a coaxial detector. We present as an example the development of channel for the gold M emission lines in the photon energy range from 2 keV to 4 keV which has been successfully used on the OMEGA laser facility. The results of the radiant power measurements with the new MLM channel and with the usual channel composed of a thin titanium filter and a coaxial detector (without mirror) are compared. All elements of the channel have been calibrated in the laboratory of the Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt, Germany's National Metrology Institute, at the synchrotron radiation facility BESSY II in Berlin using dedicated well established and validated methods.

  15. Emission- and fluorescence-spectroscopic investigation of a glow discharge plasma: absolute number density of radiative and nonradiative atoms in the negative glow.

    PubMed

    Takubo, Y; Sato, T; Asaoka, N; Kusaka, K; Akiyama, T; Muroo, K; Yamamoto, M

    2008-01-01

    The excited-state atom densities in the negative glow of a direct-current glow discharge are derived from the spectral-line intensity of radiative atoms and the resonance-fluorescence photon flux of nonradiative atoms. The discharge is operated in a helium-argon gas mixture (molar fraction ratio 91:9; total gas pressure 5 Torr) at a dc current of 0.7-1.2 mA. The observations are made in the region of the maximum luminance in the cathode region, where high-energy electrons accelerated in the cathode fall are injected into the negative glow. The emission intensities of the He I, He II, Ar I, and Ar II spectral lines are measured with a calibrated tungsten ribbon lamp as an absolute spectral-radiance standard. Fluorescence photons scattered by helium and argon atoms in the metastable state and argon atoms in the resonance state are detected by the laser-induced fluorescence (LIF) method with the Rayleigh scattering of nitrogen molecules as an absolute standard of scattering cross section. The laser absorption method is incorporated to confirm the result of the LIF measurement. Excitation energies of the measured spectral lines range from 11.6 (Ar I) to 75.6 eV (He II), where the excitation energy is measured from the ground state of the neutral atom on the assumption that, in the plasma of this study, both the neutral and the ionic lines are excited by electron impact in a single-step process from the ground state of the corresponding neutral atoms. Experimental evidence is shown for the validity of this assumption.

  16. Teaching Absolute Value Meaningfully

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wade, Angela

    2012-01-01

    What is the meaning of absolute value? And why do teachers teach students how to solve absolute value equations? Absolute value is a concept introduced in first-year algebra and then reinforced in later courses. Various authors have suggested instructional methods for teaching absolute value to high school students (Wei 2005; Stallings-Roberts…

  17. Pursuit Latency for Chromatic Targets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mulligan, Jeffrey B.; Ellis, Stephen R. (Technical Monitor)

    1998-01-01

    The temporal dynamics of eye movement response to a change in direction of stimulus motion has been used to compare the processing speeds of different types of stimuli (Mulligan, ARVO '97). In this study, the pursuit response to colored targets was measured to test the hypothesis that the slow response of the chromatic system (as measured using traditional temporal sensitivity measures such as contrast sensitivity) results in increased eye movement latencies. Subjects viewed a small (0.4 deg) Gaussian spot which moved downward at a speed of 6.6 deg/sec. At a variable time during the trajectory, the dot's direction of motion changed by 30 degrees, either to the right or left. Subjects were instructed to pursue the spot. Eye movements were measured using a video ophthalmoscope with an angular resolution of approximately 1 arc min and a temporal sampling rate of 60 Hz. Stimuli were modulated in chrominance for a variety of hue directions, combined with a range of small luminance increments and decrements, to insure that some of the stimuli fell in the subjects' equiluminance planes. The smooth portions of the resulting eye movement traces were fit by convolving the stimulus velocity with an exponential having variable onset latency, time constant and amplitude. Smooth eye movements with few saccades were observed for all stimuli. Pursuit responses to stimuli having a significant luminance component are well-fit by exponentials having latencies and time constants on the order of 100 msec. Increases in pursuit response latency on the order of 100-200 msec are observed in response to certain stimuli, which occur in pairs of complementary hues, corresponding to the intersection of the stimulus section with the subjects' equiluminant plane. Smooth eye movements can be made in response to purely chromatic stimuli, but are slower than responses to stimuli with a luminance component.

  18. High-fidelity target sequencing of individual molecules identified using barcode sequences: de novo detection and absolute quantitation of mutations in plasma cell-free DNA from cancer patients.

    PubMed

    Kukita, Yoji; Matoba, Ryo; Uchida, Junji; Hamakawa, Takuya; Doki, Yuichiro; Imamura, Fumio; Kato, Kikuya

    2015-08-01

    Circulating tumour DNA (ctDNA) is an emerging field of cancer research. However, current ctDNA analysis is usually restricted to one or a few mutation sites due to technical limitations. In the case of massively parallel DNA sequencers, the number of false positives caused by a high read error rate is a major problem. In addition, the final sequence reads do not represent the original DNA population due to the global amplification step during the template preparation. We established a high-fidelity target sequencing system of individual molecules identified in plasma cell-free DNA using barcode sequences; this system consists of the following two steps. (i) A novel target sequencing method that adds barcode sequences by adaptor ligation. This method uses linear amplification to eliminate the errors introduced during the early cycles of polymerase chain reaction. (ii) The monitoring and removal of erroneous barcode tags. This process involves the identification of individual molecules that have been sequenced and for which the number of mutations have been absolute quantitated. Using plasma cell-free DNA from patients with gastric or lung cancer, we demonstrated that the system achieved near complete elimination of false positives and enabled de novo detection and absolute quantitation of mutations in plasma cell-free DNA. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Kazusa DNA Research Institute.

  19. Absolute change in fasting plasma glucose over 12 months is associated with 2-year and 5-year major adverse cardiovascular events in patients with drug-eluting stent implants.

    PubMed

    Kang, Dong Oh; Seo, Hong Seog; Choi, Byung Geol; Lee, Eunmi; Kim, Ji Park; Lee, Sun Ki; Im, Sung Il; Na, Jin Oh; Choi, Cheol Ung; Lim, Hong Euy; Kim, Jin Won; Kim, Eung Ju; Rha, Seung-Woon; Park, Chang Gyu; Oh, Dong Joo

    2015-01-20

    Major adverse cardiovascular events (MACEs) in patients with or without cardiovascular disease (CVD) are greatly affected by various factors associated with metabolism and inflammation. To determine which clinical parameters at treatment are associated with the development of 2-year and 5-year MACEs in high-risk patients with CVD who have undergone drug-eluting stent (DES) implantation. The present study involved a total of 432 patients who underwent percutaneous coronary intervention with DES. Variables representing the average and absolute amount of change in clinical parameters over the 12-month follow-up were assessed for association with 2-year and 5-year development of MACE. The study population was divided into quartiles for the variable showing the highest correlation to MACE development. Estimated incidence of 2-year and 5-year MACEs for each of the quartiles was determined by survival curve analysis, and subgroup analysis was performed for patients with diabetes and statin users. Absolute change in fasting plasma glucose (FPG) over 12 months showed the highest correlation with 2-year and 5-year MACE development. The estimated incidence of MACE increased with increasing quartiles for absolute change in FPG. The association between absolute change in FPG and MACE development exhibited a stronger relationship for the specific subgroups of patients with diabetes and statin users. Increases and decreases in FPG had a comparable contribution to MACE development. A greater absolute change in FPG over 12 months post-PCI is an independent risk factor for 2-year and 5-year MACE development in DES-implanted patients, especially in the diabetes and statin users. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Short- and long-latency auditory evoked potentials in individuals with vestibular dysfunction.

    PubMed

    Santos Filha, Valdete Alves Valentins Dos; Bruckmann, Mirtes; Garcia, Michele Vargas

    2018-01-01

    Purpose Evaluate the auditory pathway at the brainstem and cortical levels in individuals with peripheral vestibular dysfunction. Methods The study sample was composed 19 individuals aged 20-80 years that presented exam results suggestive of Peripheral Vestibular Disorder (PVD) or Vestibular Dysfunction (VD). Participants underwent evaluation of the auditory pathway through Brainstem Auditory Evoked Potentials (BAEP) (short latency) and P1, N1, P2, N2, and P300 cortical potentials (long latency). Results Nine individuals presented diagnosis of VD and 10 participants were diagnosed with PVD. The overall average of the long latency potentials of the participants was within the normal range, whereas an increased mean was observed in the short latency of waves III and V of the left ear, as well as in the I - III interpeak interval of both ears. Association of the auditory potentials with VD and PVD showed statistically significant correlation only in the III - V interpeak interval of the right ear for short latency. Comparison between the long and short latencies in the groups showed differences between VD and PVD, but without statistical significance. Conclusion No statistically significant correlation was observed between VD/PVD and the auditory evoked potentials; however, for the long latency potentials, individuals with VD presented higher latency in P1, N1, P2, and N2, where as participants with PVD showed higher latency in P300. In the short latency potentials, there was an increase in the absolute latencies in the VD group and in the interpeak intervals in the PVD group.

  1. Absolutely relative or relatively absolute: violations of value invariance in human decision making.

    PubMed

    Teodorescu, Andrei R; Moran, Rani; Usher, Marius

    2016-02-01

    Making decisions based on relative rather than absolute information processing is tied to choice optimality via the accumulation of evidence differences and to canonical neural processing via accumulation of evidence ratios. These theoretical frameworks predict invariance of decision latencies to absolute intensities that maintain differences and ratios, respectively. While information about the absolute values of the choice alternatives is not necessary for choosing the best alternative, it may nevertheless hold valuable information about the context of the decision. To test the sensitivity of human decision making to absolute values, we manipulated the intensities of brightness stimuli pairs while preserving either their differences or their ratios. Although asked to choose the brighter alternative relative to the other, participants responded faster to higher absolute values. Thus, our results provide empirical evidence for human sensitivity to task irrelevant absolute values indicating a hard-wired mechanism that precedes executive control. Computational investigations of several modelling architectures reveal two alternative accounts for this phenomenon, which combine absolute and relative processing. One account involves accumulation of differences with activation dependent processing noise and the other emerges from accumulation of absolute values subject to the temporal dynamics of lateral inhibition. The potential adaptive role of such choice mechanisms is discussed.

  2. Isobaric Tags for Relative and Absolute Quantification (iTRAQ)-Based Untargeted Quantitative Proteomic Approach To Identify Change of the Plasma Proteins by Salbutamol Abuse in Beef Cattle.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Kai; Tang, Chaohua; Liang, Xiaowei; Zhao, Qingyu; Zhang, Junmin

    2018-01-10

    Salbutamol, a selective β 2 -agonist, endangers the safety of animal products as a result of illegal use in food animals. In this study, an iTRAQ-based untargeted quantitative proteomic approach was applied to screen potential protein biomarkers in plasma of cattle before and after treatment with salbutamol for 21 days. A total of 62 plasma proteins were significantly affected by salbutamol treatment, which can be used as potential biomarkers to screen for the illegal use of salbutamol in beef cattle. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay measurements of five selected proteins demonstrated the reliability of iTRAQ-based proteomics in screening of candidate biomarkers among the plasma proteins. The plasma samples collected before and after salbutamol treatment were well-separated by principal component analysis (PCA) using the differentially expressed proteins. These results suggested that an iTRAQ-based untargeted quantitative proteomic strategy combined with PCA pattern recognition methods can discriminate differences in plasma protein profiles collected before and after salbutamol treatment.

  3. Consistent latencies of vestibular evoked myogenic potentials.

    PubMed

    Wang, Shou-Jen; Yeh, Te-Huei; Chang, Chun-Hsiang; Young, Yi-Ho

    2008-12-01

    This study investigated the association between neck length and vestibular evoked myogenic potential (VEMP) latencies in healthy children, adolescents, and adults to elucidate when VEMP latencies reach consistent levels. Findings of VEMP tests in 14 healthy children, seven healthy adolescents, and 14 healthy adults were analyzed for correlations with neck length, which was measured as the distance of a line dropping vertically from the mastoid tip to the horizontal plane passing through the clavicle. All healthy children, adolescents, and adults exhibited present VEMP responses. Children, adolescents, and adults significantly differed in p13 latency, n23 latency, and p13-n23 interval. According to receiver operating characteristic curve analysis, the optimal cutoff values of p13 and n23 latencies between children and adults were 12.6 and 19.8 msec, respectively. Because the odds ratio of p13 latency was less than that of n23 latency, n23 latency was used to discriminate VEMP latencies between children and adults. Accordingly, a cutoff value of 15.3 cm for neck length was proposed as a criterion for predicting VEMP latency within the adult range. Consequently, a positive correlation between neck length and VEMP latency was observed when neck length was <15.3 cm, while above which level one need not account for neck length in evaluating VEMP latency. The intra-subject variability of norms can be enhanced if the normative data for VEMP characteristic parameters take structural variance into account. This study suggests that the adult range of VEMP latencies can be anticipated if neck length is >15.3 cm.

  4. Absolute nuclear material assay

    DOEpatents

    Prasad, Manoj K [Pleasanton, CA; Snyderman, Neal J [Berkeley, CA; Rowland, Mark S [Alamo, CA

    2012-05-15

    A method of absolute nuclear material assay of an unknown source comprising counting neutrons from the unknown source and providing an absolute nuclear material assay utilizing a model to optimally compare to the measured count distributions. In one embodiment, the step of providing an absolute nuclear material assay comprises utilizing a random sampling of analytically computed fission chain distributions to generate a continuous time-evolving sequence of event-counts by spreading the fission chain distribution in time.

  5. Absolute nuclear material assay

    DOEpatents

    Prasad, Manoj K [Pleasanton, CA; Snyderman, Neal J [Berkeley, CA; Rowland, Mark S [Alamo, CA

    2010-07-13

    A method of absolute nuclear material assay of an unknown source comprising counting neutrons from the unknown source and providing an absolute nuclear material assay utilizing a model to optimally compare to the measured count distributions. In one embodiment, the step of providing an absolute nuclear material assay comprises utilizing a random sampling of analytically computed fission chain distributions to generate a continuous time-evolving sequence of event-counts by spreading the fission chain distribution in time.

  6. Accommodation and vergence latencies in human infants

    PubMed Central

    Tondel, Grazyna M.; Candy, T. Rowan

    2008-01-01

    Purpose Achieving simultaneous single and clear visual experience during postnatal development depends on the temporal relationship between accommodation and vergence, in addition to their accuracies. This study was designed to examine one component of the dynamic relationship, the latencies of the responses. Methods Infants and adults were tested in three conditions i) Binocular viewing of a target moving in depth at 5cm/s (closed loop) ii) monocular viewing of the same target (vergence open loop) iii) binocular viewing of a low spatial frequency Difference of Gaussian target during a prism induced step change in retinal disparity (accommodation open loop). Results There was a significant correlation between accommodation and vergence latencies in binocular conditions for infants from 7 to 23 weeks of age. Some of the infants, as young as 7 or 8 weeks, generated adult-like latencies of less than 0.5 s. Latencies in the vergence open loop and accommodation open loop conditions tended to be shorter for the stimulated system than the open loop system in both cases, and all latencies were typically less than 2 seconds across the infant age range. Conclusions Many infants between 7 and 23 weeks of age were able to generate accommodation and vergence responses with latencies of less than a second in full binocular closed loop conditions. The correlation between the latencies in the two systems suggests that they are limited by related factors from the earliest ages tested. PMID:18199466

  7. Accommodation and vergence latencies in human infants.

    PubMed

    Tondel, Grazyna M; Candy, T Rowan

    2008-02-01

    Achieving simultaneous single and clear visual experience during postnatal development depends on the temporal relationship between accommodation and vergence, in addition to their accuracies. This study was designed to examine one component of the dynamic relationship, the latencies of the responses. Infants and adults were tested in three conditions (i) binocular viewing of a target moving in depth at 5 cm/s (closed loop) (ii) monocular viewing of the same target (vergence open loop) (iii) binocular viewing of a low spatial frequency Difference of Gaussian target during a prism induced step change in retinal disparity (accommodation open loop). There was a significant correlation between accommodation and vergence latencies in binocular conditions for infants from 7 to 23 weeks of age. Some of the infants, as young as 7 or 8 weeks, generated adult-like latencies of less than 0.5 s. Latencies in the vergence open loop and accommodation open loop conditions tended to be shorter for the stimulated system than the open loop system in both cases, and all latencies were typically less than 2 s across the infant age range. Many infants between 7 and 23 weeks of age were able to generate accommodation and vergence responses with latencies of less than a second in full binocular closed loop conditions. The correlation between the latencies in the two systems suggests that they are limited by related factors from the earliest ages tested.

  8. Advanced LIGO low-latency searches

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kanner, Jonah; LIGO Scientific Collaboration, Virgo Collaboration

    2016-06-01

    Advanced LIGO recently made the first detection of gravitational waves from merging binary black holes. The signal was first identified by a low-latency analysis, which identifies gravitational-wave transients within a few minutes of data collection. More generally, Advanced LIGO transients are sought with a suite of automated tools, which collectively identify events, evaluate statistical significance, estimate source position, and attempt to characterize source properties. This low-latency effort is enabling a broad multi-messenger approach to the science of compact object mergers and other transients. This talk will give an overview of the low-latency methodology and recent results.

  9. Absolute biological needs.

    PubMed

    McLeod, Stephen

    2014-07-01

    Absolute needs (as against instrumental needs) are independent of the ends, goals and purposes of personal agents. Against the view that the only needs are instrumental needs, David Wiggins and Garrett Thomson have defended absolute needs on the grounds that the verb 'need' has instrumental and absolute senses. While remaining neutral about it, this article does not adopt that approach. Instead, it suggests that there are absolute biological needs. The absolute nature of these needs is defended by appeal to: their objectivity (as against mind-dependence); the universality of the phenomenon of needing across the plant and animal kingdoms; the impossibility that biological needs depend wholly upon the exercise of the abilities characteristic of personal agency; the contention that the possession of biological needs is prior to the possession of the abilities characteristic of personal agency. Finally, three philosophical usages of 'normative' are distinguished. On two of these, to describe a phenomenon or claim as 'normative' is to describe it as value-dependent. A description of a phenomenon or claim as 'normative' in the third sense does not entail such value-dependency, though it leaves open the possibility that value depends upon the phenomenon or upon the truth of the claim. It is argued that while survival needs (or claims about them) may well be normative in this third sense, they are normative in neither of the first two. Thus, the idea of absolute need is not inherently normative in either of the first two senses. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. Predictive Displays for High Latency Teleoperation

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-08-04

    PREDICTIVE DISPLAYS FOR HIGH LATENCY TELEOPERATION” Analysis of existing approach 3 C om m s. C hannel Vehicle OCU D Throttle, Steer, Brake D Video ...presents opportunity mitigate outgoing latency. • Video is not governed by physics, however, video is dependent on the state of the vehicle, which...Commands, estimates UDP: H.264 Video UDP: Vehicle state • C++ implementation • 2 threads • OpenCV for image manipulation • FFMPEG for video decoding

  11. Handling qualities effects of display latency

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    King, David W.

    1993-01-01

    Display latency is the time delay between aircraft response and the corresponding response of the cockpit displays. Currently, there is no explicit specification for allowable display lags to ensure acceptable aircraft handling qualities in instrument flight conditions. This paper examines the handling qualities effects of display latency between 70 and 400 milliseconds for precision instrument flight tasks of the V-22 Tiltrotor aircraft. Display delay effects on the pilot control loop are analytically predicted through a second order pilot crossover model of the V-22 lateral axis, and handling qualities trends are evaluated through a series of fixed-base piloted simulation tests. The results show that the effects of display latency for flight path tracking tasks are driven by the stability characteristics of the attitude control loop. The data indicate that the loss of control damping due to latency can be simply predicted from knowledge of the aircraft's stability margins, control system lags, and required control bandwidths. Based on the relationship between attitude control damping and handling qualities ratings, latency design guidelines are presented. In addition, this paper presents a design philosophy, supported by simulation data, for using flight director display augmentation to suppress the effects of display latency for delays up to 300 milliseconds.

  12. Latency in Distributed Acquisition and Rendering for Telepresence Systems.

    PubMed

    Ohl, Stephan; Willert, Malte; Staadt, Oliver

    2015-12-01

    Telepresence systems use 3D techniques to create a more natural human-centered communication over long distances. This work concentrates on the analysis of latency in telepresence systems where acquisition and rendering are distributed. Keeping latency low is important to immerse users in the virtual environment. To better understand latency problems and to identify the source of such latency, we focus on the decomposition of system latency into sub-latencies. We contribute a model of latency and show how it can be used to estimate latencies in a complex telepresence dataflow network. To compare the estimates with real latencies in our prototype, we modify two common latency measurement methods. This presented methodology enables the developer to optimize the design, find implementation issues and gain deeper knowledge about specific sources of latency.

  13. Low Latency Messages on Distributed Memory Multiprocessors

    DOE PAGES

    Rosing, Matt; Saltz, Joel

    1995-01-01

    This article describes many of the issues in developing an efficient interface for communication on distributed memory machines. Although the hardware component of message latency is less than 1 ws on many distributed memory machines, the software latency associated with sending and receiving typed messages is on the order of 50 μs. The reason for this imbalance is that the software interface does not match the hardware. By changing the interface to match the hardware more closely, applications with fine grained communication can be put on these machines. This article describes several tests performed and many of the issues involvedmore » in supporting low latency messages on distributed memory machines.« less

  14. MicroRNA-155 Reinforces HIV Latency*

    PubMed Central

    Ruelas, Debbie S.; Chan, Jonathan K.; Oh, Eugene; Heidersbach, Amy J.; Hebbeler, Andrew M.; Chavez, Leonard; Verdin, Eric; Rape, Michael; Greene, Warner C.

    2015-01-01

    The presence of a small number of infected but transcriptionally dormant cells currently thwarts a cure for the more than 35 million individuals infected with HIV. Reactivation of these latently infected cells may result in three fates: 1) cell death due to a viral cytopathic effect, 2) cell death due to immune clearance, or 3) a retreat into latency. Uncovering the dynamics of HIV gene expression and silencing in the latent reservoir will be crucial for developing an HIV-1 cure. Here we identify and characterize an intracellular circuit involving TRIM32, an HIV activator, and miR-155, a microRNA that may promote a return to latency in these transiently activated reservoir cells. Notably, we demonstrate that TRIM32, an E3 ubiquitin ligase, promotes reactivation from latency by directly modifying IκBα, leading to a novel mechanism of NF-κB induction not involving IκB kinase activation. PMID:25873391

  15. Low-Latency Embedded Vision Processor (LLEVS)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-03-01

    26 3.2.3 Task 3 Projected Performance Analysis of FPGA- based Vision Processor ........... 31 3.2.3.1 Algorithms Latency Analysis ...Programmable Gate Array Custom Hardware for Real- Time Multiresolution Analysis . ............................................... 35...conduct data analysis for performance projections. The data acquired through measurements , simulation and estimation provide the requisite platform for

  16. Electronic Absolute Cartesian Autocollimator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leviton, Douglas B.

    2006-01-01

    An electronic absolute Cartesian autocollimator performs the same basic optical function as does a conventional all-optical or a conventional electronic autocollimator but differs in the nature of its optical target and the manner in which the position of the image of the target is measured. The term absolute in the name of this apparatus reflects the nature of the position measurement, which, unlike in a conventional electronic autocollimator, is based absolutely on the position of the image rather than on an assumed proportionality between the position and the levels of processed analog electronic signals. The term Cartesian in the name of this apparatus reflects the nature of its optical target. Figure 1 depicts the electronic functional blocks of an electronic absolute Cartesian autocollimator along with its basic optical layout, which is the same as that of a conventional autocollimator. Referring first to the optical layout and functions only, this or any autocollimator is used to measure the compound angular deviation of a flat datum mirror with respect to the optical axis of the autocollimator itself. The optical components include an illuminated target, a beam splitter, an objective or collimating lens, and a viewer or detector (described in more detail below) at a viewing plane. The target and the viewing planes are focal planes of the lens. Target light reflected by the datum mirror is imaged on the viewing plane at unit magnification by the collimating lens. If the normal to the datum mirror is parallel to the optical axis of the autocollimator, then the target image is centered on the viewing plane. Any angular deviation of the normal from the optical axis manifests itself as a lateral displacement of the target image from the center. The magnitude of the displacement is proportional to the focal length and to the magnitude (assumed to be small) of the angular deviation. The direction of the displacement is perpendicular to the axis about which the

  17. Continuum limit of electrostatic gyrokinetic absolute equilibrium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Jian-Zhou

    2012-06-01

    Electrostatic gyrokinetic absolute equilibria with continuum velocity field are obtained through the partition function and through the Green function of the functional integral. The new results justify and explain the prescription for quantization/discretization or taking the continuum limit of velocity. The mistakes in the Appendix D of our earlier work [J.-Z. Zhu and G. W. Hammett, Phys. Plasmas 17, 122307 (2010)] are explained and corrected. If the lattice spacing for discretizing velocity is big enough, all the invariants could concentrate at the lowest Fourier modes in a negative-temperature state, which might indicate a possible variation of the dual cascade picture in 2D plasma turbulence.

  18. Arbitration in crossbar interconnect for low latency

    DOEpatents

    Ohmacht, Martin; Sugavanam, Krishnan

    2013-02-05

    A system and method and computer program product for reducing the latency of signals communicated through a crossbar switch, the method including using at slave arbitration logic devices associated with Slave devices for which access is requested from one or more Master devices, two or more priority vector signals cycled among their use every clock cycle for selecting one of the requesting Master devices and updates the respective priority vector signal used every clock cycle. Similarly, each Master for which access is requested from one or more Slave devices, can have two or more priority vectors and can cycle among their use every clock cycle to further reduce latency and increase throughput performance via the crossbar.

  19. Response Latency Measures for Biographical Inventories

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1991-03-01

    research (Trent et al., 1989). Procedures The ASAP, followed by one or more experimental cognitive tests, was computer administered to groups of...comprehension, and binary " true /false" decision about the item. This last stage, in turn, is divided into two substages: self-referent decision...apply stage) As a first step in partitioning latencies, it would be prudent to control experimentally for item length, as had been done in a few studies

  20. Low latency messages on distributed memory multiprocessors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rosing, Matthew; Saltz, Joel

    1993-01-01

    Many of the issues in developing an efficient interface for communication on distributed memory machines are described and a portable interface is proposed. Although the hardware component of message latency is less than one microsecond on many distributed memory machines, the software latency associated with sending and receiving typed messages is on the order of 50 microseconds. The reason for this imbalance is that the software interface does not match the hardware. By changing the interface to match the hardware more closely, applications with fine grained communication can be put on these machines. Based on several tests that were run on the iPSC/860, an interface that will better match current distributed memory machines is proposed. The model used in the proposed interface consists of a computation processor and a communication processor on each node. Communication between these processors and other nodes in the system is done through a buffered network. Information that is transmitted is either data or procedures to be executed on the remote processor. The dual processor system is better suited for efficiently handling asynchronous communications compared to a single processor system. The ability to send data or procedure is very flexible for minimizing message latency, based on the type of communication being performed. The test performed and the proposed interface are described.

  1. Investigation of Koi Herpesvirus Latency in Koi▿

    PubMed Central

    Eide, Kathleen E.; Miller-Morgan, Tim; Heidel, Jerry R.; Kent, Michael L.; Bildfell, Rob J.; LaPatra, Scott; Watson, Gregory; Jin, Ling

    2011-01-01

    Koi herpesvirus (KHV) has recently been classified as a member of the family of Alloherpesviridae within the order of Herpesvirales. One of the unique features of Herpesviridae is latent infection following a primary infection. However, KHV latency has not been recognized. To determine if latency occurs in clinically normal fish from facilities with a history of KHV infection or exposure, the presence of the KHV genome was investigated in healthy koi by PCR and Southern blotting. KHV DNA, but not infectious virus or mRNAs from lytic infection, was detected in white blood cells from investigated koi. Virus shedding was examined via tissue culture and reverse transcription-PCR (RT-PCR) testing of gill mucus and feces from six koi every other day for 1 month. No infectious virus or KHV DNA was detected in fecal secretion or gill swabs, suggesting that neither acute nor persistent infection was present. To determine if KHV latent infections can be reactivated, six koi were subjected to a temperature stress regime. KHV DNA and infectious virus were detected in both gill and fecal swabs by day 8 following temperature stress. KHV DNA was also detectable in brain, spleen, gills, heart, eye, intestine, kidney, liver, and pancreas in euthanized koi 1 month post-temperature stress. Our study suggests that KHV may become latent in leukocytes and other tissues, that it can be reactivated from latency by temperature stress, and that it may be more widespread in the koi population than previously suspected. PMID:21389134

  2. Investigation of koi herpesvirus latency in koi.

    PubMed

    Eide, Kathleen E; Miller-Morgan, Tim; Heidel, Jerry R; Kent, Michael L; Bildfell, Rob J; Lapatra, Scott; Watson, Gregory; Jin, Ling

    2011-05-01

    Koi herpesvirus (KHV) has recently been classified as a member of the family of Alloherpesviridae within the order of Herpesvirales. One of the unique features of Herpesviridae is latent infection following a primary infection. However, KHV latency has not been recognized. To determine if latency occurs in clinically normal fish from facilities with a history of KHV infection or exposure, the presence of the KHV genome was investigated in healthy koi by PCR and Southern blotting. KHV DNA, but not infectious virus or mRNAs from lytic infection, was detected in white blood cells from investigated koi. Virus shedding was examined via tissue culture and reverse transcription-PCR (RT-PCR) testing of gill mucus and feces from six koi every other day for 1 month. No infectious virus or KHV DNA was detected in fecal secretion or gill swabs, suggesting that neither acute nor persistent infection was present. To determine if KHV latent infections can be reactivated, six koi were subjected to a temperature stress regime. KHV DNA and infectious virus were detected in both gill and fecal swabs by day 8 following temperature stress. KHV DNA was also detectable in brain, spleen, gills, heart, eye, intestine, kidney, liver, and pancreas in euthanized koi 1 month post-temperature stress. Our study suggests that KHV may become latent in leukocytes and other tissues, that it can be reactivated from latency by temperature stress, and that it may be more widespread in the koi population than previously suspected.

  3. Glomerular latency coding in artificial olfaction.

    PubMed

    Yamani, Jaber Al; Boussaid, Farid; Bermak, Amine; Martinez, Dominique

    2011-01-01

    Sensory perception results from the way sensory information is subsequently transformed in the brain. Olfaction is a typical example in which odor representations undergo considerable changes as they pass from olfactory receptor neurons (ORNs) to second-order neurons. First, many ORNs expressing the same receptor protein yet presenting heterogeneous dose-response properties converge onto individually identifiable glomeruli. Second, onset latency of glomerular activation is believed to play a role in encoding odor quality and quantity in the context of fast information processing. Taking inspiration from the olfactory pathway, we designed a simple yet robust glomerular latency coding scheme for processing gas sensor data. The proposed bio-inspired approach was evaluated using an in-house SnO(2) sensor array. Glomerular convergence was achieved by noting the possible analogy between receptor protein expressed in ORNs and metal catalyst used across the fabricated gas sensor array. Ion implantation was another technique used to account both for sensor heterogeneity and enhanced sensitivity. The response of the gas sensor array was mapped into glomerular latency patterns, whose rank order is concentration-invariant. Gas recognition was achieved by simply looking for a "match" within a library of spatio-temporal spike fingerprints. Because of its simplicity, this approach enables the integration of sensing and processing onto a single-chip.

  4. Absolute Equilibrium Entropy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shebalin, John V.

    1997-01-01

    The entropy associated with absolute equilibrium ensemble theories of ideal, homogeneous, fluid and magneto-fluid turbulence is discussed and the three-dimensional fluid case is examined in detail. A sigma-function is defined, whose minimum value with respect to global parameters is the entropy. A comparison is made between the use of global functions sigma and phase functions H (associated with the development of various H-theorems of ideal turbulence). It is shown that the two approaches are complimentary though conceptually different: H-theorems show that an isolated system tends to equilibrium while sigma-functions allow the demonstration that entropy never decreases when two previously isolated systems are combined. This provides a more complete picture of entropy in the statistical mechanics of ideal fluids.

  5. Molecular control of HIV-1 postintegration latency: implications for the development of new therapeutic strategies

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    The persistence of HIV-1 latent reservoirs represents a major barrier to virus eradication in infected patients under HAART since interruption of the treatment inevitably leads to a rebound of plasma viremia. Latency establishes early after infection notably (but not only) in resting memory CD4+ T cells and involves numerous host and viral trans-acting proteins, as well as processes such as transcriptional interference, RNA silencing, epigenetic modifications and chromatin organization. In order to eliminate latent reservoirs, new strategies are envisaged and consist of reactivating HIV-1 transcription in latently-infected cells, while maintaining HAART in order to prevent de novo infection. The difficulty lies in the fact that a single residual latently-infected cell can in theory rekindle the infection. Here, we review our current understanding of the molecular mechanisms involved in the establishment and maintenance of HIV-1 latency and in the transcriptional reactivation from latency. We highlight the potential of new therapeutic strategies based on this understanding of latency. Combinations of various compounds used simultaneously allow for the targeting of transcriptional repression at multiple levels and can facilitate the escape from latency and the clearance of viral reservoirs. We describe the current advantages and limitations of immune T-cell activators, inducers of the NF-κB signaling pathway, and inhibitors of deacetylases and histone- and DNA- methyltransferases, used alone or in combinations. While a solution will not be achieved by tomorrow, the battle against HIV-1 latent reservoirs is well- underway. PMID:19961595

  6. Data latency and the user community

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Escobar, V. M.; Brown, M. E.; Carroll, M.

    2013-12-01

    The community using NASA Earth science observations in applications has grown significantly, with increasing sophistication to serve national interests. The National Research Council's Earth Science Decadal Survey report stated that the planning for applied and operational considerations in the missions should accompany the acquisition of new knowledge about Earth (NRC, 2007). This directive has made product applications at NASA an integral part of converting the data collected into actionable knowledge that can be used to inform policy. However, successfully bridging scientific research with operational decision making in different application areas requires looking into user data requirements and operational needs. This study was conducted to determine how users are incorporating NASA data into applications and operational processes. The approach included a review of published materials, direct interviews with mission representatives, and an online professional review, which was distributed to over 6000 individuals. We provide a complete description of the findings with definitions and explanations of what goes into measuring latency as well as how users and applications utilize NASA data products. We identified 3 classes of users: operational (need data in 3 hours or less), near real time (need data within a day of acquisition), and scientific users (need highest quality data, time independent). We also determined that most users with applications are interested in specific types of products that may come from multiple missions. These users will take the observations when they are available, however the observations may have additional applications value if they are available either by a certain time of day or within a period of time after acquisition. NASA has supported the need for access to low latency data on an ad-hoc basis and more substantively in stand-alone systems such as the MODIS Rapid Response system and more recently with LANCE. The increased level

  7. Absolute neutrino mass measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Wolf, Joachim

    2011-10-06

    The neutrino mass plays an important role in particle physics, astrophysics and cosmology. In recent years the detection of neutrino flavour oscillations proved that neutrinos carry mass. However, oscillation experiments are only sensitive to the mass-squared difference of the mass eigenvalues. In contrast to cosmological observations and neutrino-less double beta decay (0v2{beta}) searches, single {beta}-decay experiments provide a direct, model-independent way to determine the absolute neutrino mass by measuring the energy spectrum of decay electrons at the endpoint region with high accuracy.Currently the best kinematic upper limits on the neutrino mass of 2.2eV have been set by two experiments inmore » Mainz and Troitsk, using tritium as beta emitter. The next generation tritium {beta}-experiment KATRIN is currently under construction in Karlsruhe/Germany by an international collaboration. KATRIN intends to improve the sensitivity by one order of magnitude to 0.2eV. The investigation of a second isotope ({sup 137}Rh) is being pursued by the international MARE collaboration using micro-calorimeters to measure the beta spectrum. The technology needed to reach 0.2eV sensitivity is still in the R and D phase. This paper reviews the present status of neutrino-mass measurements with cosmological data, 0v2{beta} decay and single {beta}-decay.« less

  8. [Latency problems with smothering using soft cover].

    PubMed

    Wirth, Ingo; Strauch, Hansjürg; Schmeling, Andreas

    2007-01-01

    Smothering by covering the respiratory orifices with soft material is one of the rarely established forms of mechanically induced death by asphyxia. An important reason of latency is that this kind of homicide leaves almost no traces. The two described cases from the autopsy material of the Institute of Legal Medicine in Berlin (CCM) show the limits of medico-legal interpretation and the resulting special responsibility of the investigator. In the first case the defendant denied the offence and was acquitted of the charge, while in the second case the self-confessed offender was convicted.

  9. Latency causes and reduction in optical metro networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bobrovs, Vjaceslavs; Spolitis, Sandis; Ivanovs, Girts

    2013-12-01

    The dramatic growth of transmitted information in fiber optical networks is leading to a concern about the network latency for high-speed reliable services like financial transactions, telemedicine, virtual and augmented reality, surveillance, and other applications. In order to ensure effective latency engineering, the delay variability needs to be accurately monitored and measured, in order to control it. This paper in brief describes causes of latency in fiber optical metro networks. Several available latency reduction techniques and solutions are also discussed, namely concerning usage of different chromatic dispersion compensation methods, low-latency amplifiers, optical fibers as well as other network elements.

  10. HIV-1 transcription and latency: an update

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Combination antiretroviral therapy, despite being potent and life-prolonging, is not curative and does not eradicate HIV-1 infection since interruption of treatment inevitably results in a rapid rebound of viremia. Reactivation of latently infected cells harboring transcriptionally silent but replication-competent proviruses is a potential source of persistent residual viremia in cART-treated patients. Although multiple reservoirs may exist, the persistence of resting CD4+ T cells carrying a latent infection represents a major barrier to eradication. In this review, we will discuss the latest reports on the molecular mechanisms that may regulate HIV-1 latency at the transcriptional level, including transcriptional interference, the role of cellular factors, chromatin organization and epigenetic modifications, the viral Tat trans-activator and its cellular cofactors. Since latency mechanisms may also operate at the post-transcriptional level, we will consider inhibition of nuclear RNA export and inhibition of translation by microRNAs as potential barriers to HIV-1 gene expression. Finally, we will review the therapeutic approaches and clinical studies aimed at achieving either a sterilizing cure or a functional cure of HIV-1 infection, with a special emphasis on the most recent pharmacological strategies to reactivate the latent viruses and decrease the pool of viral reservoirs. PMID:23803414

  11. EOS Data Products Latency and Reprocessing Evaluation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramapriyan, H. K.; Wanchoo, L.

    2012-12-01

    NASA's Earth Observing System (EOS) Data and Information System (EOSDIS) program has been processing, archiving, and distributing EOS data since the launch of Terra platform in 1999. The EOSDIS Distributed Active Archive Centers (DAACs) and Science-Investigator-led Processing Systems (SIPSs) are generating over 5000 unique products with a daily average volume of 1.7 Petabytes. Initially EOSDIS had requirements to make process data products within 24 hours of receiving all inputs needed for generating them. Thus, generally, the latency would be slightly over 24 and 48 hours after satellite data acquisition, respectively, for Level 1 and Level 2 products. Due to budgetary constraints these requirements were relaxed, with the requirement being to avoid a growing backlog of unprocessed data. However, the data providers have been generating these products in as timely a manner as possible. The reduction in costs of computing hardware has helped considerably. It is of interest to analyze the actual latencies achieved over the past several years in processing and inserting the data products into the EOSDIS archives for the users to support various scientific studies such as land processes, oceanography, hydrology, atmospheric science, cryospheric science, etc. The instrument science teams have continuously evaluated the data products since the launches of EOS satellites and improved the science algorithms to provide high quality products. Data providers have periodically reprocessed the previously acquired data with these improved algorithms. The reprocessing campaigns run for an extended time period in parallel with forward processing, since all data starting from the beginning of the mission need to be reprocessed. Each reprocessing activity involves more data than the previous reprocessing. The historical record of the reprocessing times would be of interest to future missions, especially those involving large volumes of data and/or computational loads due to

  12. Reduced evolutionary rates in HIV-1 reveal extensive latency periods among replicating lineages.

    PubMed

    Immonen, Taina T; Leitner, Thomas

    2014-10-16

    HIV-1 can persist for the duration of a patient's life due in part to its ability to hide from the immune system, and from antiretroviral drugs, in long-lived latent reservoirs. Latent forms of HIV-1 may also be disproportionally involved in transmission. Thus, it is important to detect and quantify latency in the HIV-1 life cycle. We developed a novel molecular clock-based phylogenetic tool to investigate the prevalence of HIV-1 lineages that have experienced latency. The method removes alternative sources that may affect evolutionary rates, such as hypermutation, recombination, and selection, to reveal the contribution of generation-time effects caused by latency. Our method was able to recover latent lineages with high specificity and sensitivity, and low false discovery rates, even on relatively short branches on simulated phylogenies. Applying the tool to HIV-1 sequences from 26 patients, we show that the majority of phylogenetic lineages have been affected by generation-time effects in every patient type, whether untreated, elite controller, or under effective or failing treatment. Furthermore, we discovered extensive effects of latency in sequence data (gag, pol, and env) from reservoirs as well as in the replicating plasma population. To better understand our phylogenetic findings, we developed a dynamic model of virus-host interactions to investigate the proportion of lineages in the actively replicating population that have ever been latent. Assuming neutral evolution, our dynamic modeling showed that under most parameter conditions, it is possible for a few activated latent viruses to propagate so that in time, most HIV-1 lineages will have been latent at some time in their past. These results suggest that cycling in and out of latency plays a major role in the evolution of HIV-1. Thus, no aspect of HIV-1 evolution can be fully understood without considering latency - including treatment, drug resistance, immune evasion, transmission, and pathogenesis.

  13. Proviral Latency, Persistent Human Immunodeficiency Virus Infection, and the Development of Latency Reversing Agents

    PubMed Central

    Archin, Nancie M.

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Quiescent proviral genomes that persist during human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) infection despite effective antiretroviral therapy (ART) can fuel rebound viremia after ART interruption and is a central obstacle to the cure of HIV infection. The induction of quiescent provirus is the goal of a new class of potential therapeutics, latency reversing agents (LRAs). The discovery, development, and testing of HIV LRAs is a key part of current efforts to develop latency reversal and viral clearance strategies to eradicate established HIV infection. The development of LRAs is burdened by many uncertainties that make drug discovery difficult. The biology of HIV latency is complex and incompletely understood. Potential targets for LRAs are host factors, and the potential toxicities of host-directed therapies in individuals that are otherwise clinically stable may be unacceptable. Assays to measure latency reversal and assess the effectiveness of potential therapeutics are complex and incompletely validated. Despite these obstacles, novel LRAs are under development and beginning to enter combination testing with viral clearance strategies. It is hoped that the steady advances in the development of LRAs now being paired with emerging immunotherapeutics to clear persistently infected cells will soon allow measurable clinical advances toward an HIV cure. PMID:28520964

  14. Somatosensory spatial attention modulates amplitudes, latencies, and latency jitter of laser-evoked brain potentials.

    PubMed

    Franz, Marcel; Nickel, Moritz M; Ritter, Alexander; Miltner, Wolfgang H R; Weiss, Thomas

    2015-04-01

    Several studies provided evidence that the amplitudes of laser-evoked potentials (LEPs) are modulated by attention. However, previous reports were based on across-trial averaging of LEP responses at the expense of losing information about intertrial variability related to attentional modulation. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of somatosensory spatial attention on single-trial parameters (i.e., amplitudes, latencies, and latency jitter) of LEP components (N2 and P2). Twelve subjects participated in a sustained spatial attention paradigm while noxious laser stimuli (left hand) and noxious electrical stimuli (right hand) were sequentially delivered to the dorsum of the respective hand with nonnoxious air puffs randomly interspersed within the sequence of noxious stimuli. Participants were instructed to mentally count all stimuli (i.e., noxious and nonnoxious) applied to the attended location. Laser stimuli, presented to the attended hand (ALS), elicited larger single-trial amplitudes of the N2 component compared with unattended laser stimuli (ULS). In contrast, single-trial amplitudes of the P2 component were not significantly affected by spatial attention. Single-trial latencies of the N2 and P2 were significantly smaller for ALS vs. ULS. Additionally, the across-trial latency jitter of the N2 component was reduced for ALS. Conversely, the latency jitter of the P2 component was smaller for ULS compared with ALS. With the use of single-trial analysis, the study provided new insights into brain dynamics of LEPs related to spatial attention. Our results indicate that single-trial parameters of LEP components are differentially modulated by spatial attention. Copyright © 2015 the American Physiological Society.

  15. Perceived ejaculatory latency and pleasure in different outlets.

    PubMed

    Corty, Eric W

    2008-11-01

    Ejaculatory latencies have been studied in coitus and with masturbation, but not with oral or manual stimulation by a partner. The present study extended research on ejaculatory latency to these outlets, and investigated the effect of perceived pleasure on self-reported ejaculatory latency. A convenience sample of male college students, not selected for sexual dysfunction, completed questionnaires assessing the outcome measures. Self-report measures of latency to ejaculation in, and perceived pleasure associated with, four different outlets (vaginal intercourse, oral intercourse, manual stimulation by a partner, and masturbation). Ejaculatory latencies in partnered activities were predictive of each other. Masturbatory latencies were predictive of coital latencies but not oral or manual stimulation latencies; all the partnered activities were predictive of each other. There was no difference in time to ejaculation among any of the partnered outlets, although ejaculation occurred more quickly with masturbation than with coitus or manual stimulation. In terms of pleasure associated with the outlets, vaginal and oral intercourse were perceived as equally pleasurable, and both were rated as more pleasurable than manual stimulation or masturbation, which did not differ from each other. These results suggest that rapidity of ejaculation is consistent across outlets for the partnered sexual activities, and that there is little unique-in terms of ejaculatory latency--about vaginal intercourse compared with oral or manual stimulation by a partner. Masturbation, however, does differ from the partnered activities. Although the average correlation, for individuals, between latency and pleasure for the different outlets is near zero, there are subgroups of men who have (i) a negative relation, (ii) a positive relation, or (iii) no relation. Results show that men, for whom greater pleasure is associated with shorter latency, are more likely to be dissatisfied with their

  16. Method of data communications with reduced latency

    DOEpatents

    Blocksome, Michael A; Parker, Jeffrey J

    2013-11-05

    Data communications with reduced latency, including: writing, by a producer, a descriptor and message data into at least two descriptor slots of a descriptor buffer, the descriptor buffer comprising allocated computer memory segmented into descriptor slots, each descriptor slot having a fixed size, the descriptor buffer having a header pointer that identifies a next descriptor slot to be processed by a DMA controller, the descriptor buffer having a tail pointer that identifies a descriptor slot for entry of a next descriptor in the descriptor buffer; recording, by the producer, in the descriptor a value signifying that message data has been written into descriptor slots; and setting, by the producer, in dependence upon the recorded value, a tail pointer to point to a next open descriptor slot.

  17. Low latency and persistent data storage

    DOEpatents

    Fitch, Blake G; Franceschini, Michele M; Jagmohan, Ashish; Takken, Todd E

    2014-02-18

    Persistent data storage is provided by a method that includes receiving a low latency store command that includes write data. The write data is written to a first memory device that is implemented by a nonvolatile solid-state memory technology characterized by a first access speed. It is acknowledged that the write data has been successfully written to the first memory device. The write data is written to a second memory device that is implemented by a volatile memory technology. At least a portion of the data in the first memory device is written to a third memory device when a predetermined amount of data has been accumulated in the first memory device. The third memory device is implemented by a nonvolatile solid-state memory technology characterized by a second access speed that is slower than the first access speed.

  18. Low latency and persistent data storage

    DOEpatents

    Fitch, Blake G; Franceschini, Michele M; Jagmohan, Ashish; Takken, Todd

    2014-11-04

    Persistent data storage is provided by a computer program product that includes computer program code configured for receiving a low latency store command that includes write data. The write data is written to a first memory device that is implemented by a nonvolatile solid-state memory technology characterized by a first access speed. It is acknowledged that the write data has been successfully written to the first memory device. The write data is written to a second memory device that is implemented by a volatile memory technology. At least a portion of the data in the first memory device is written to a third memory device when a predetermined amount of data has been accumulated in the first memory device. The third memory device is implemented by a nonvolatile solid-state memory technology characterized by a second access speed that is slower than the first access speed.

  19. Vection: the contributions of absolute and relative visual motion.

    PubMed

    Howard, I P; Howard, A

    1994-01-01

    Inspection of a visual scene rotating about the vertical body axis induces a compelling sense of self rotation, or circular vection. Circular vection is suppressed by stationary objects seen beyond the moving display but not by stationary objects in the foreground. We hypothesised that stationary objects in the foreground facilitate vection because they introduce a relative-motion signal into what would otherwise be an absolute-motion signal. Vection latency and magnitude were measured with a full-field moving display and with stationary objects of various sizes and at various positions in the visual field. The results confirmed the hypothesis. Vection latency was longer when there were no stationary objects in view than when stationary objects were in view. The effect of stationary objects was particularly evident at low stimulus velocities. At low velocities a small stationary point significantly increased vection magnitude in spite of the fact that, at higher stimulus velocities and with other stationary objects in view, fixation on a stationary point, if anything, reduced vection. Changing the position of the stationary objects in the field of view did not affect vection latencies or magnitudes.

  20. Latency as a region contrast: Measuring ERP latency differences with Dynamic Time Warping.

    PubMed

    Zoumpoulaki, A; Alsufyani, A; Filetti, M; Brammer, M; Bowman, H

    2015-12-01

    Methods for measuring onset latency contrasts are evaluated against a new method utilizing the dynamic time warping (DTW) algorithm. This new method allows latency to be measured across a region instead of single point. We use computer simulations to compare the methods' power and Type I error rates under different scenarios. We perform per-participant analysis for different signal-to-noise ratios and two sizes of window (broad vs. narrow). In addition, the methods are tested in combination with single-participant and jackknife average waveforms for different effect sizes, at the group level. DTW performs better than the other methods, being less sensitive to noise as well as to placement and width of the window selected. © 2015 Society for Psychophysiological Research.

  1. Cryogenic, Absolute, High Pressure Sensor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chapman, John J. (Inventor); Shams. Qamar A. (Inventor); Powers, William T. (Inventor)

    2001-01-01

    A pressure sensor is provided for cryogenic, high pressure applications. A highly doped silicon piezoresistive pressure sensor is bonded to a silicon substrate in an absolute pressure sensing configuration. The absolute pressure sensor is bonded to an aluminum nitride substrate. Aluminum nitride has appropriate coefficient of thermal expansion for use with highly doped silicon at cryogenic temperatures. A group of sensors, either two sensors on two substrates or four sensors on a single substrate are packaged in a pressure vessel.

  2. Optimizing low latency LIGO-Virgo localization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Hsin-Yu; Holz, Daniel

    2015-04-01

    Fast and effective localization of gravitational wave (GW) events could play a crucial role in identifying possible electromagnetic counterparts, and thereby help usher in an era of GW multi-messenger astronomy. We discuss an algorithm for accurate and very low latency (<< 1 second) localization of GW sources using only the time of arrival and signal-to-noise ratio at each detector. The algorithm is independent of distances, masses, and waveform templates of the sources to leading order, and applies to all discrete sources detected by ground-based detector networks. For the two detector configuration (LIGO Hanford+Livingston) expected in late 2015 we find a median 50% localization of 150 deg2 for binary neutron stars (for SNR threshold of 12), consistent with previous findings. We explore the improvement in localization resulting from high SNR events, finding that the loudest out of the first four events reduces the median sky localization area by a factor of 1.8. We also discuss some strategies to optimize electromagnetic follow-up of GW events. We specifically explore the case of multi-messenger joint detections coming from independent (and possibly highly uncertain) localizations, such as for short gamma-ray bursts observed by Fermi GBM and neutrinos captured by IceCube.

  3. Low latency memory access and synchronization

    SciTech Connect

    Blumrich, Matthias A.; Chen, Dong; Coteus, Paul W.

    A low latency memory system access is provided in association with a weakly-ordered multiprocessor system. Each processor in the multiprocessor shares resources, and each shared resource has an associated lock within a locking device that provides support for synchronization between the multiple processors in the multiprocessor and the orderly sharing of the resources. A processor only has permission to access a resource when it owns the lock associated with that resource, and an attempt by a processor to own a lock requires only a single load operation, rather than a traditional atomic load followed by store, such that the processormore » only performs a read operation and the hardware locking device performs a subsequent write operation rather than the processor. A simple prefetching for non-contiguous data structures is also disclosed. A memory line is redefined so that in addition to the normal physical memory data, every line includes a pointer that is large enough to point to any other line in the memory, wherein the pointers to determine which memory line to prefetch rather than some other predictive algorithm. This enables hardware to effectively prefetch memory access patterns that are non-contiguous, but repetitive.« less

  4. Low latency memory access and synchronization

    SciTech Connect

    Blumrich, Matthias A.; Chen, Dong; Coteus, Paul W.

    A low latency memory system access is provided in association with a weakly-ordered multiprocessor system. Bach processor in the multiprocessor shares resources, and each shared resource has an associated lock within a locking device that provides support for synchronization between the multiple processors in the multiprocessor and the orderly sharing of the resources. A processor only has permission to access a resource when it owns the lock associated with that resource, and an attempt by a processor to own a lock requires only a single load operation, rather than a traditional atomic load followed by store, such that the processormore » only performs a read operation and the hardware locking device performs a subsequent write operation rather than the processor. A simple prefetching for non-contiguous data structures is also disclosed. A memory line is redefined so that in addition to the normal physical memory data, every line includes a pointer that is large enough to point to any other line in the memory, wherein the pointers to determine which memory line to prefetch rather than some other predictive algorithm. This enables hardware to effectively prefetch memory access patterns that are non-contiguous, but repetitive.« less

  5. DART: A Microcomputer Program for Response Latency Analysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greene, John O.; Greene, Barry F.

    1987-01-01

    Discusses how chronometric measures such as the DART (Display And Response Timing) computer program, have become virtually indispensable in testing cognitive theories of human social behavior. Describes how the DART (1) provides a way to collect response latency data; and (2) allows measurement of response latencies to a set of user-specified,…

  6. Minimizing Input-to-Output Latency in Virtual Environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Adelstein, Bernard D.; Ellis, Stephen R.; Hill, Michael I.

    2009-01-01

    A method and apparatus were developed to minimize latency (time delay ) in virtual environment (VE) and other discrete- time computer-base d systems that require real-time display in response to sensor input s. Latency in such systems is due to the sum of the finite time requi red for information processing and communication within and between sensors, software, and displays.

  7. Modelling Transposition Latencies: Constraints for Theories of Serial Order Memory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Farrell, Simon; Lewandowsky, Stephan

    2004-01-01

    Several competing theories of short-term memory can explain serial recall performance at a quantitative level. However, most theories to date have not been applied to the accompanying pattern of response latencies, thus ignoring a rich and highly diagnostic aspect of performance. This article explores and tests the error latency predictions of…

  8. Short-latency primate vestibuloocular responses during translation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Angelaki, D. E.; McHenry, M. Q.

    1999-01-01

    Short-lasting, transient head displacements and near target fixation were used to measure the latency and early response gain of vestibularly evoked eye movements during lateral and fore-aft translations in rhesus monkeys. The latency of the horizontal eye movements elicited during lateral motion was 11.9 +/- 5.4 ms. Viewing distance-dependent behavior was seen as early as the beginning of the response profile. For fore-aft motion, latencies were different for forward and backward displacements. Latency averaged 7.1 +/- 9.3 ms during forward motion (same for both eyes) and 12.5 +/- 6.3 ms for the adducting eye (e.g., left eye during right fixation) during backward motion. Latencies during backward motion were significantly longer for the abducting eye (18.9 +/- 9.8 ms). Initial acceleration gains of the two eyes were generally larger than unity but asymmetric. Specifically, gains were consistently larger for abducting than adducting eye movements. The large initial acceleration gains tended to compensate for the response latencies such that the early eye movement response approached, albeit consistently incompletely, that required for maintaining visual acuity during the movement. These short-latency vestibuloocular responses could complement the visually generated optic flow responses that have been shown to exhibit much longer latencies.

  9. Temporal Dynamics of Microbial Rhodopsin Fluorescence Reports Absolute Membrane Voltage

    PubMed Central

    Hou, Jennifer H.; Venkatachalam, Veena; Cohen, Adam E.

    2014-01-01

    Plasma membrane voltage is a fundamentally important property of a living cell; its value is tightly coupled to membrane transport, the dynamics of transmembrane proteins, and to intercellular communication. Accurate measurement of the membrane voltage could elucidate subtle changes in cellular physiology, but existing genetically encoded fluorescent voltage reporters are better at reporting relative changes than absolute numbers. We developed an Archaerhodopsin-based fluorescent voltage sensor whose time-domain response to a stepwise change in illumination encodes the absolute membrane voltage. We validated this sensor in human embryonic kidney cells. Measurements were robust to variation in imaging parameters and in gene expression levels, and reported voltage with an absolute accuracy of 10 mV. With further improvements in membrane trafficking and signal amplitude, time-domain encoding of absolute voltage could be applied to investigate many important and previously intractable bioelectric phenomena. PMID:24507604

  10. Latency and User Performance in Virtual Environments and Augmented Reality

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ellis, Stephen R.

    2009-01-01

    System rendering latency has been recognized by senior researchers, such as Professor Fredrick Brooks of UNC (Turing Award 1999), as a major factor limiting the realism and utility of head-referenced displays systems. Latency has been shown to reduce the user's sense of immersion within a virtual environment, disturb user interaction with virtual objects, and to contribute to motion sickness during some simulation tasks. Latency, however, is not just an issue for external display systems since finite nerve conduction rates and variation in transduction times in the human body's sensors also pose problems for latency management within the nervous system. Some of the phenomena arising from the brain's handling of sensory asynchrony due to latency will be discussed as a prelude to consideration of the effects of latency in interactive displays. The causes and consequences of the erroneous movement that appears in displays due to latency will be illustrated with examples of the user performance impact provided by several experiments. These experiments will review the generality of user sensitivity to latency when users judge either object or environment stability. Hardware and signal processing countermeasures will also be discussed. In particular the tuning of a simple extrapolative predictive filter not using a dynamic movement model will be presented. Results show that it is possible to adjust this filter so that the appearance of some latencies may be hidden without the introduction of perceptual artifacts such as overshoot. Several examples of the effects of user performance will be illustrated by three-dimensional tracking and tracing tasks executed in virtual environments. These experiments demonstrate classic phenomena known from work on manual control and show the need for very responsive systems if they are indented to support precise manipulation. The practical benefits of removing interfering latencies from interactive systems will be emphasized with some

  11. Correlation analysis of the long latency auditory evoked potential N2 and cognitive P3 with the level of lead poisoning in children

    PubMed Central

    Alvarenga, Kátia de Freitas; Alvarez Bernardez-Braga, Gabriela Rosito; Zucki, Fernanda; Duarte, Josilene Luciene; Lopes, Andrea Cintra; Feniman, Mariza Ribeiro

    2013-01-01

    Summary Introduction: The effects of lead on children's health have been widely studied. Aim: To analyze the correlation between the long latency auditory evoked potential N2 and cognitive P3 with the level of lead poisoning in Brazilian children. Methods: This retrospective study evaluated 20 children ranging in age from 7 to 14 years at the time of audiological and electrophysiological evaluations. We performed periodic surveys of the lead concentration in the blood and basic audiological evaluations. Furthermore, we studied the auditory evoked potential long latency N2 and cognitive P3 by analyzing the absolute latency of the N2 and P3 potentials and the P3 amplitude recorded at Cz. At the time of audiological and electrophysiological evaluations, the average concentration of lead in the blood was less than 10 ug/dL. Results: In conventional audiologic evaluations, all children had hearing thresholds below 20 dBHL for the frequencies tested and normal tympanometry findings; the auditory evoked potential long latency N2 and cognitive P3 were present in 95% of children. No significant correlations were found between the blood lead concentration and latency (p = 0.821) or amplitude (p = 0.411) of the P3 potential. However, the latency of the N2 potential increased with the concentration of lead in the blood, with a significant correlation (p = 0.030). Conclusion: Among Brazilian children with low lead exposure, a significant correlation was found between blood lead levels and the average latency of the auditory evoked potential long latency N2; however, a significant correlation was not observed for the amplitude and latency of the cognitive potential P3. PMID:25991992

  12. Interactions between Herpesvirus Entry Mediator (TNFRSF14) and Latency-Associated Transcript during Herpes Simplex Virus 1 Latency

    PubMed Central

    Allen, Sariah J.; Rhode-Kurnow, Antje; Mott, Kevin R.; Jiang, Xianzhi; Carpenter, Dale; Rodriguez-Barbosa, J. Ignacio; Jones, Clinton; Wechsler, Steven L.; Ware, Carl F.

    2014-01-01

    Herpesvirus entry mediator (HVEM) is one of several cell surface proteins herpes simplex virus (HSV) uses for attachment/entry. HVEM regulates cellular immune responses and can also increase cell survival. Interestingly, latency-associated transcript (LAT), the only viral gene consistently expressed during neuronal latency, enhances latency and reactivation by promoting cell survival and by helping the virus evade the host immune response. However, the mechanisms of these LAT activities are not well understood. We show here for the first time that one mechanism by which LAT enhances latency and reactivation appears to be by upregulating HVEM expression. HSV-1 latency/reactivation was significantly reduced in Hvem−/− mice, indicating that HVEM plays a significant role in HSV-1 latency/reactivation. Furthermore, LAT upregulated HVEM expression during latency in vivo and also when expressed in vitro in the absence of other viral factors. This study suggests a mechanism whereby LAT upregulates HVEM expression potentially through binding of two LAT small noncoding RNAs to the HVEM promoter and that the increased HVEM then leads to downregulation of immune responses in the latent microenvironment and increased survival of latently infected cells. Thus, one of the mechanisms by which LAT enhances latency/reactivation appears to be through increasing expression of HVEM. PMID:24307582

  13. Factors influencing the latency of simple reaction time

    PubMed Central

    Woods, David L.; Wyma, John M.; Yund, E. William; Herron, Timothy J.; Reed, Bruce

    2015-01-01

    Simple reaction time (SRT), the minimal time needed to respond to a stimulus, is a basic measure of processing speed. SRTs were first measured by Francis Galton in the 19th century, who reported visual SRT latencies below 190 ms in young subjects. However, recent large-scale studies have reported substantially increased SRT latencies that differ markedly in different laboratories, in part due to timing delays introduced by the computer hardware and software used for SRT measurement. We developed a calibrated and temporally precise SRT test to analyze the factors that influence SRT latencies in a paradigm where visual stimuli were presented to the left or right hemifield at varying stimulus onset asynchronies (SOAs). Experiment 1 examined a community sample of 1469 subjects ranging in age from 18 to 65. Mean SRT latencies were short (231, 213 ms when corrected for hardware delays) and increased significantly with age (0.55 ms/year), but were unaffected by sex or education. As in previous studies, SRTs were prolonged at shorter SOAs and were slightly faster for stimuli presented in the visual field contralateral to the responding hand. Stimulus detection time (SDT) was estimated by subtracting movement initiation time, measured in a speeded finger tapping test, from SRTs. SDT latencies averaged 131 ms and were unaffected by age. Experiment 2 tested 189 subjects ranging in age from 18 to 82 years in a different laboratory using a larger range of SOAs. Both SRTs and SDTs were slightly prolonged (by 7 ms). SRT latencies increased with age while SDT latencies remained stable. Precise computer-based measurements of SRT latencies show that processing speed is as fast in contemporary populations as in the Victorian era, and that age-related increases in SRT latencies are due primarily to slowed motor output. PMID:25859198

  14. Test Operations Procedure (TOP) 02-2-546 Teleoperated Unmanned Ground Vehicle (UGV) Latency Measurements

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2017-01-11

    discrete system components or measurements of latency in autonomous systems. 15. SUBJECT TERMS Unmanned Ground Vehicles, Basic Video Latency, End-to... discrete system components or measurements of latency in autonomous systems. 1.1 Basic Video Latency. Teleoperation latency, or lag, describes

  15. Relativistic Absolutism in Moral Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vogt, W. Paul

    1982-01-01

    Discusses Emile Durkheim's "Moral Education: A Study in the Theory and Application of the Sociology of Education," which holds that morally healthy societies may vary in culture and organization but must possess absolute rules of moral behavior. Compares this moral theory with current theory and practice of American educators. (MJL)

  16. Absolute measurements of fast neutrons using yttrium.

    PubMed

    Roshan, M V; Springham, S V; Rawat, R S; Lee, P; Krishnan, M

    2010-08-01

    Yttrium is presented as an absolute neutron detector for pulsed neutron sources. It has high sensitivity for detecting fast neutrons. Yttrium has the property of generating a monoenergetic secondary radiation in the form of a 909 keV gamma-ray caused by inelastic neutron interaction. It was calibrated numerically using MCNPX and does not need periodic recalibration. The total yttrium efficiency for detecting 2.45 MeV neutrons was determined to be f(n) approximately 4.1x10(-4) with an uncertainty of about 0.27%. The yttrium detector was employed in the NX2 plasma focus experiments and showed the neutron yield of the order of 10(8) neutrons per discharge.

  17. Absolute Bioavailability of Osimertinib in Healthy Adults.

    PubMed

    Vishwanathan, Karthick; So, Karen; Thomas, Karen; Bramley, Alex; English, Stephen; Collier, Jo

    2018-04-23

    Osimertinib is a third-generation, central nervous system-active, epidermal growth factor receptor-tyrosine kinase inhibitor (EGFR-TKI) selective for EGFR-TKI sensitizing and T790M resistance mutations. This phase 1, open-label study (NCT02491944) investigated absolute bioavailability and pharmacokinetics (PK) of oral and intravenous (IV) osimertinib. Ten healthy subjects (21-61 years) received a single oral 80-mg dose concomitantly with a 100 μg (containing 1 μCi) IV microtracer dose of [ 14 C]osimertinib. Oral and IV PK were determined simultaneously for osimertinib and its active metabolites, AZ5104 and AZ7550. High-performance liquid chromatography and accelerator mass spectrometry were used to characterize IV dose PK. Geometric mean absolute oral bioavailability of osimertinib was 69.8% (90% confidence interval, 66.7, 72.9). Oral osimertinib was slowly absorbed (median time to maximum plasma concentration [t max ] 7.0 hours). Following t max , plasma concentrations fell in an apparent monophasic manner. IV clearance and volume of distribution were 16.8 L/h and 1285 L, respectively. Arithmetic mean elimination half-life estimates were 59.7, 52.6, and 72.6 hours for osimertinib, AZ5104, and AZ7550, respectively (oral dosing), and 54.9, 68.4, and 99.7 hours for [ 14 C]osimertinib, [ 14 C]AZ5104, and [ 14 C]AZ7550, respectively (IV dosing). Oral osimertinib was well absorbed. Simultaneous IV and oral PK analysis proved useful for complete understanding of osimertinib PK and showed that the first-pass effect was minimal for osimertinib. © 2018, The American College of Clinical Pharmacology.

  18. Automatic latency equalization in VHDL-implemented complex pipelined systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zabołotny, Wojciech M.

    2016-09-01

    In the pipelined data processing systems it is very important to ensure that parallel paths delay data by the same number of clock cycles. If that condition is not met, the processing blocks receive data not properly aligned in time and produce incorrect results. Manual equalization of latencies is a tedious and error-prone work. This paper presents an automatic method of latency equalization in systems described in VHDL. The proposed method uses simulation to measure latencies and verify introduced correction. The solution is portable between different simulation and synthesis tools. The method does not increase the complexity of the synthesized design comparing to the solution based on manual latency adjustment. The example implementation of the proposed methodology together with a simple design demonstrating its use is available as an open source project under BSD license.

  19. Role of microRNAs in herpesvirus latency and persistence.

    PubMed

    Grey, Finn

    2015-04-01

    The identification of virally encoded microRNAs (miRNAs) has had a major impact on the field of herpes virology. Given their ability to target cellular and viral transcripts, and the lack of immune response to small RNAs, miRNAs represent an ideal mechanism of gene regulation during viral latency and persistence. In this review, we discuss the role of miRNAs in virus latency and persistence, specifically focusing on herpesviruses. We cover the current knowledge on miRNAs in establishing and maintaining virus latency and promoting survival of infected cells through targeting of both viral and cellular transcripts, highlighting key publications in the field. We also discuss potential areas of future research and how novel technologies may aid in determining how miRNAs shape virus latency in the context of herpesvirus infections. © 2015 The Author.

  20. Signal, noise, and variation in neural and sensory-motor latency

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Joonyeol; Joshua, Mati; Medina, Javier F.; Lisberger, Stephen G.

    2016-01-01

    Analysis of the neural code for sensory-motor latency in smooth pursuit eye movements reveals general principles of neural variation and the specific origin of motor latency. The trial-by-trial variation in neural latency in MT comprises: a shared component expressed as neuron-neuron latency correlations; and an independent component that is local to each neuron. The independent component arises heavily from fluctuations in the underlying probability of spiking with an unexpectedly small contribution from the stochastic nature of spiking itself. The shared component causes the latency of single neuron responses in MT to be weakly predictive of the behavioral latency of pursuit. Neural latency deeper in the motor system is more strongly predictive of behavioral latency. A model reproduces both the variance of behavioral latency and the neuron-behavior latency correlations in MT if it includes realistic neural latency variation, neuron-neuron latency correlations in MT, and noisy gain control downstream from MT. PMID:26971946

  1. Human embryonic stem cell lines model experimental human cytomegalovirus latency.

    PubMed

    Penkert, Rhiannon R; Kalejta, Robert F

    2013-05-28

    Herpesviruses are highly successful pathogens that persist for the lifetime of their hosts primarily because of their ability to establish and maintain latent infections from which the virus is capable of productively reactivating. Human cytomegalovirus (HCMV), a betaherpesvirus, establishes latency in CD34(+) hematopoietic progenitor cells during natural infections in the body. Experimental infection of CD34(+) cells ex vivo has demonstrated that expression of the viral gene products that drive productive infection is silenced by an intrinsic immune defense mediated by Daxx and histone deacetylases through heterochromatinization of the viral genome during the establishment of latency. Additional mechanistic details about the establishment, let alone maintenance and reactivation, of HCMV latency remain scarce. This is partly due to the technical challenges of CD34(+) cell culture, most notably, the difficulty in preventing spontaneous differentiation that drives reactivation and renders them permissive for productive infection. Here we demonstrate that HCMV can establish, maintain, and reactivate in vitro from experimental latency in cultures of human embryonic stem cells (ESCs), for which spurious differentiation can be prevented or controlled. Furthermore, we show that known molecular aspects of HCMV latency are faithfully recapitulated in these cells. In total, we present ESCs as a novel, tractable model for studies of HCMV latency.

  2. The molecular basis of herpes simplex virus latency

    PubMed Central

    Nicoll, Michael P; Proença, João T; Efstathiou, Stacey

    2012-01-01

    Herpes simplex virus type 1 is a neurotropic herpesvirus that establishes latency within sensory neurones. Following primary infection, the virus replicates productively within mucosal epithelial cells and enters sensory neurones via nerve termini. The virus is then transported to neuronal cell bodies where latency can be established. Periodically, the virus can reactivate to resume its normal lytic cycle gene expression programme and result in the generation of new virus progeny that are transported axonally back to the periphery. The ability to establish lifelong latency within the host and to periodically reactivate to facilitate dissemination is central to the survival strategy of this virus. Although incompletely understood, this review will focus on the mechanisms involved in the regulation of latency that centre on the functions of the virus-encoded latency-associated transcripts (LATs), epigenetic regulation of the latent virus genome and the molecular events that precipitate reactivation. This review considers current knowledge and hypotheses relating to the mechanisms involved in the establishment, maintenance and reactivation herpes simplex virus latency. PMID:22150699

  3. Physics of negative absolute temperatures.

    PubMed

    Abraham, Eitan; Penrose, Oliver

    2017-01-01

    Negative absolute temperatures were introduced into experimental physics by Purcell and Pound, who successfully applied this concept to nuclear spins; nevertheless, the concept has proved controversial: a recent article aroused considerable interest by its claim, based on a classical entropy formula (the "volume entropy") due to Gibbs, that negative temperatures violated basic principles of statistical thermodynamics. Here we give a thermodynamic analysis that confirms the negative-temperature interpretation of the Purcell-Pound experiments. We also examine the principal arguments that have been advanced against the negative temperature concept; we find that these arguments are not logically compelling, and moreover that the underlying "volume" entropy formula leads to predictions inconsistent with existing experimental results on nuclear spins. We conclude that, despite the counterarguments, negative absolute temperatures make good theoretical sense and did occur in the experiments designed to produce them.

  4. The Absolute Spectrum Polarimeter (ASP)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kogut, A. J.

    2010-01-01

    The Absolute Spectrum Polarimeter (ASP) is an Explorer-class mission to map the absolute intensity and linear polarization of the cosmic microwave background and diffuse astrophysical foregrounds over the full sky from 30 GHz to 5 THz. The principal science goal is the detection and characterization of linear polarization from an inflationary epoch in the early universe, with tensor-to-scalar ratio r much greater than 1O(raised to the power of { -3}) and Compton distortion y < 10 (raised to the power of{-6}). We describe the ASP instrument and mission architecture needed to detect the signature of an inflationary epoch in the early universe using only 4 semiconductor bolometers.

  5. Absolute calibration of optical flats

    DOEpatents

    Sommargren, Gary E.

    2005-04-05

    The invention uses the phase shifting diffraction interferometer (PSDI) to provide a true point-by-point measurement of absolute flatness over the surface of optical flats. Beams exiting the fiber optics in a PSDI have perfect spherical wavefronts. The measurement beam is reflected from the optical flat and passed through an auxiliary optic to then be combined with the reference beam on a CCD. The combined beams include phase errors due to both the optic under test and the auxiliary optic. Standard phase extraction algorithms are used to calculate this combined phase error. The optical flat is then removed from the system and the measurement fiber is moved to recombine the two beams. The newly combined beams include only the phase errors due to the auxiliary optic. When the second phase measurement is subtracted from the first phase measurement, the absolute phase error of the optical flat is obtained.

  6. Moral absolutism and ectopic pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Kaczor, C

    2001-02-01

    If one accepts a version of absolutism that excludes the intentional killing of any innocent human person from conception to natural death, ectopic pregnancy poses vexing difficulties. Given that the embryonic life almost certainly will die anyway, how can one retain one's moral principle and yet adequately respond to a situation that gravely threatens the life of the mother and her future fertility? The four options of treatment most often discussed in the literature are non-intervention, salpingectomy (removal of tube with embryo), salpingostomy (removal of embryo alone), and use of methotrexate (MXT). In this essay, I review these four options and introduce a fifth (the milking technique). In order to assess these options in terms of the absolutism mentioned, it will also be necessary to discuss various accounts of the intention/foresight distinction. I conclude that salpingectomy, salpingostomy, and the milking technique are compatible with absolutist presuppositions, but not the use of methotrexate.

  7. Absolute gravity measurements in California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zumberge, M. A.; Sasagawa, G.; Kappus, M.

    1986-08-01

    An absolute gravity meter that determines the local gravitational acceleration by timing a freely falling mass with a laser interferometer has been constructed. The instrument has made measurements at 11 sites in California, four in Nevada, and one in France. The uncertainty in the results is typically 10 microgal. Repeated measurements have been made at several of the sites; only one shows a substantial change in gravity.

  8. Gyrokinetic statistical absolute equilibrium and turbulence

    SciTech Connect

    Zhu Jianzhou; Hammett, Gregory W.

    2010-12-15

    A paradigm based on the absolute equilibrium of Galerkin-truncated inviscid systems to aid in understanding turbulence [T.-D. Lee, Q. Appl. Math. 10, 69 (1952)] is taken to study gyrokinetic plasma turbulence: a finite set of Fourier modes of the collisionless gyrokinetic equations are kept and the statistical equilibria are calculated; possible implications for plasma turbulence in various situations are discussed. For the case of two spatial and one velocity dimension, in the calculation with discretization also of velocity v with N grid points (where N+1 quantities are conserved, corresponding to an energy invariant and N entropy-related invariants), the negative temperaturemore » states, corresponding to the condensation of the generalized energy into the lowest modes, are found. This indicates a generic feature of inverse energy cascade. Comparisons are made with some classical results, such as those of Charney-Hasegawa-Mima in the cold-ion limit. There is a universal shape for statistical equilibrium of gyrokinetics in three spatial and two velocity dimensions with just one conserved quantity. Possible physical relevance to turbulence, such as ITG zonal flows, and to a critical balance hypothesis are also discussed.« less

  9. Gyrokinetic Statistical Absolute Equilibrium and Turbulence

    SciTech Connect

    Jian-Zhou Zhu and Gregory W. Hammett

    2011-01-10

    A paradigm based on the absolute equilibrium of Galerkin-truncated inviscid systems to aid in understanding turbulence [T.-D. Lee, "On some statistical properties of hydrodynamical and magnetohydrodynamical fields," Q. Appl. Math. 10, 69 (1952)] is taken to study gyrokinetic plasma turbulence: A finite set of Fourier modes of the collisionless gyrokinetic equations are kept and the statistical equilibria are calculated; possible implications for plasma turbulence in various situations are discussed. For the case of two spatial and one velocity dimension, in the calculation with discretization also of velocity v with N grid points (where N + 1 quantities are conserved, correspondingmore » to an energy invariant and N entropy-related invariants), the negative temperature states, corresponding to the condensation of the generalized energy into the lowest modes, are found. This indicates a generic feature of inverse energy cascade. Comparisons are made with some classical results, such as those of Charney-Hasegawa-Mima in the cold-ion limit. There is a universal shape for statistical equilibrium of gyrokinetics in three spatial and two velocity dimensions with just one conserved quantity. Possible physical relevance to turbulence, such as ITG zonal flows, and to a critical balance hypothesis are also discussed.« less

  10. Methodology for Calculating Latency of GPS Probe Data

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Zhongxiang; Hamedi, Masoud; Young, Stanley

    Crowdsourced GPS probe data, such as travel time on changeable-message signs and incident detection, have been gaining popularity in recent years as a source for real-time traffic information to driver operations and transportation systems management and operations. Efforts have been made to evaluate the quality of such data from different perspectives. Although such crowdsourced data are already in widespread use in many states, particularly the high traffic areas on the Eastern seaboard, concerns about latency - the time between traffic being perturbed as a result of an incident and reflection of the disturbance in the outsourced data feed - havemore » escalated in importance. Latency is critical for the accuracy of real-time operations, emergency response, and traveler information systems. This paper offers a methodology for measuring probe data latency regarding a selected reference source. Although Bluetooth reidentification data are used as the reference source, the methodology can be applied to any other ground truth data source of choice. The core of the methodology is an algorithm for maximum pattern matching that works with three fitness objectives. To test the methodology, sample field reference data were collected on multiple freeway segments for a 2-week period by using portable Bluetooth sensors as ground truth. Equivalent GPS probe data were obtained from a private vendor, and their latency was evaluated. Latency at different times of the day, impact of road segmentation scheme on latency, and sensitivity of the latency to both speed-slowdown and recovery-from-slowdown episodes are also discussed.« less

  11. Monitoring data transfer latency in CMS computing operations

    DOE PAGES

    Bonacorsi, Daniele; Diotalevi, Tommaso; Magini, Nicolo; ...

    2015-12-23

    During the first LHC run, the CMS experiment collected tens of Petabytes of collision and simulated data, which need to be distributed among dozens of computing centres with low latency in order to make efficient use of the resources. While the desired level of throughput has been successfully achieved, it is still common to observe transfer workflows that cannot reach full completion in a timely manner due to a small fraction of stuck files which require operator intervention.For this reason, in 2012 the CMS transfer management system, PhEDEx, was instrumented with a monitoring system to measure file transfer latencies, andmore » to predict the completion time for the transfer of a data set. The operators can detect abnormal patterns in transfer latencies while the transfer is still in progress, and monitor the long-term performance of the transfer infrastructure to plan the data placement strategy.Based on the data collected for one year with the latency monitoring system, we present a study on the different factors that contribute to transfer completion time. As case studies, we analyze several typical CMS transfer workflows, such as distribution of collision event data from CERN or upload of simulated event data from the Tier-2 centres to the archival Tier-1 centres. For each workflow, we present the typical patterns of transfer latencies that have been identified with the latency monitor.We identify the areas in PhEDEx where a development effort can reduce the latency, and we show how we are able to detect stuck transfers which need operator intervention. Lastly, we propose a set of metrics to alert about stuck subscriptions and prompt for manual intervention, with the aim of improving transfer completion times.« less

  12. Monitoring data transfer latency in CMS computing operations

    SciTech Connect

    Bonacorsi, Daniele; Diotalevi, Tommaso; Magini, Nicolo

    During the first LHC run, the CMS experiment collected tens of Petabytes of collision and simulated data, which need to be distributed among dozens of computing centres with low latency in order to make efficient use of the resources. While the desired level of throughput has been successfully achieved, it is still common to observe transfer workflows that cannot reach full completion in a timely manner due to a small fraction of stuck files which require operator intervention.For this reason, in 2012 the CMS transfer management system, PhEDEx, was instrumented with a monitoring system to measure file transfer latencies, andmore » to predict the completion time for the transfer of a data set. The operators can detect abnormal patterns in transfer latencies while the transfer is still in progress, and monitor the long-term performance of the transfer infrastructure to plan the data placement strategy.Based on the data collected for one year with the latency monitoring system, we present a study on the different factors that contribute to transfer completion time. As case studies, we analyze several typical CMS transfer workflows, such as distribution of collision event data from CERN or upload of simulated event data from the Tier-2 centres to the archival Tier-1 centres. For each workflow, we present the typical patterns of transfer latencies that have been identified with the latency monitor.We identify the areas in PhEDEx where a development effort can reduce the latency, and we show how we are able to detect stuck transfers which need operator intervention. Lastly, we propose a set of metrics to alert about stuck subscriptions and prompt for manual intervention, with the aim of improving transfer completion times.« less

  13. Absolute metrology for space interferometers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salvadé, Yves; Courteville, Alain; Dändliker, René

    2017-11-01

    The crucial issue of space-based interferometers is the laser interferometric metrology systems to monitor with very high accuracy optical path differences. Although classical high-resolution laser interferometers using a single wavelength are well developed, this type of incremental interferometer has a severe drawback: any interruption of the interferometer signal results in the loss of the zero reference, which requires a new calibration, starting at zero optical path difference. We propose in this paper an absolute metrology system based on multiplewavelength interferometry.

  14. Latency in Visionic Systems: Test Methods and Requirements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bailey, Randall E.; Arthur, J. J., III; Williams, Steven P.; Kramer, Lynda J.

    2005-01-01

    A visionics device creates a pictorial representation of the external scene for the pilot. The ultimate objective of these systems may be to electronically generate a form of Visual Meteorological Conditions (VMC) to eliminate weather or time-of-day as an operational constraint and provide enhancement over actual visual conditions where eye-limiting resolution may be a limiting factor. Empirical evidence has shown that the total system delays or latencies including the imaging sensors and display systems, can critically degrade their utility, usability, and acceptability. Definitions and measurement techniques are offered herein as common test and evaluation methods for latency testing in visionics device applications. Based upon available data, very different latency requirements are indicated based upon the piloting task, the role in which the visionics device is used in this task, and the characteristics of the visionics cockpit display device including its resolution, field-of-regard, and field-of-view. The least stringent latency requirements will involve Head-Up Display (HUD) applications, where the visionics imagery provides situational information as a supplement to symbology guidance and command information. Conversely, the visionics system latency requirement for a large field-of-view Head-Worn Display application, providing a Virtual-VMC capability from which the pilot will derive visual guidance, will be the most stringent, having a value as low as 20 msec.

  15. Optimizing latency in Xilinx FPGA implementations of the GBT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muschter, S.; Baron, S.; Bohm, C.; Cachemiche, J.-P.; Soos, C.

    2010-12-01

    The GigaBit Transceiver (GBT) [1] system has been developed to replace the Timing, Trigger and Control (TTC) system [2], currently used by LHC, as well as to provide data transmission between on-detector and off-detector components in future sLHC detectors. A VHDL version of the GBT-SERDES, designed for FPGAs, was released in March 2010 as a GBT-FPGA Starter Kit for future GBT users and for off-detector GBT implementation [3]. This code was optimized for resource utilization [4], as the GBT protocol is very demanding. It was not, however, optimized for latency — which will be a critical parameter when used in the trigger path. The GBT-FPGA Starter Kit firmware was first analyzed in terms of latency by looking at the separate components of the VHDL version. Once the parts which contribute most to the latency were identified and modified, two possible optimizations were chosen, resulting in a latency reduced by a factor of three. The modifications were also analyzed in terms of logic utilization. The latency optimization results were compared with measurement results from a Virtex 6 ML605 development board [5] equipped with a XC6VLX240T with speedgrade-1 and the package FF1156. Bit error rate tests were also performed to ensure an error free operation. The two final optimizations were analyzed for utilization and compared with the original code, distributed in the Starter Kit.

  16. Effects of structured nontarget stimuli on saccadic latency.

    PubMed

    White, Brian J; Gegenfurtner, Karl R; Kerzel, Dirk

    2005-06-01

    It has been suggested that the remote distractor effect is the result of nontarget stimulation of a central region representing a collicular fixation zone near the time of target onset. The distributed network of the cells responsible for this effect is believed to extend over a large area, responding to distractors < or =10 deg in the periphery. Several studies also implicate the superior colliculus as the substrate behind an inhibited saccadic response arising from a display change. We investigated this further by using a patch of pink noise of various sizes as a nontarget stimulus. We show that the onset of a small patch (2.3 x 2.3 deg) of centrally displayed pink noise can produce a significant increase in saccadic latency to a simultaneously presented peripheral Gabor target. In contrast, a large patch (36 x 36 deg) of pink noise did not increase latency despite the fact that it also stimulated the region representing the fixation zone. Furthermore, only the large patch of noise facilitated latency when presented before target onset. We also examined the effect of patch sizes between these two extremes and found a steady decrease in latency as patch size increased. This confirms that nontarget stimulation of the region representing the fixation zone near the time of target onset is not in itself sufficient to produce the increase in latency typically found with remote distractors. The results are consistent with the idea that only a spatially confined object leads to a discharge of collicular fixation neurons.

  17. The relationship between loudness intensity functions and the click-ABR wave V latency.

    PubMed

    Serpanos, Y C; O'Malley, H; Gravel, J S

    1997-10-01

    To assess the relationship of loudness growth and the click-evoked auditory brain stem response (ABR) wave V latency-intensity function (LIF) in listeners with normal hearing or cochlear hearing loss. The effect of hearing loss configuration on the intensity functions was also examined. Behavioral and electrophysiological intensity functions were obtained using click stimuli of comparable intensities in listeners with normal hearing (Group I; n = 10), and cochlear hearing loss of flat (Group II; n = 10) or sloping (Group III; n = 10) configurations. Individual intensity functions were obtained from measures of loudness growth using the psychophysical methods of absolute magnitude estimation and production of loudness (geometrically averaged to provide the measured loudness function), and from the wave V latency measures of the ABR. Slope analyses for the behavioral and electrophysiological intensity functions were separately performed by group. The loudness growth functions for the groups with cochlear hearing loss approximated the normal function at high intensities, with overall slope values consistent with those reported from previous psychophysical research. The ABR wave V LIF for the group with a flat configuration of cochlear hearing loss approximated the normal function at high intensities, and was displaced parallel to the normal function for the group with sloping configuration. The relationship between the behavioral and electrophysiological intensity functions was examined at individual intensities across the range of the functions for each subject. A significant relationship was obtained between loudness and the ABR wave V LIFs for the groups with normal hearing and flat configuration of cochlear hearing loss; the association was not significant (p = 0.10) for the group with a sloping configuration of cochlear hearing loss. The results of this study established a relationship between loudness and the ABR wave V latency for listeners with normal hearing

  18. Distraction rate and latency: factors in the outcome of paediatric maxillary distraction.

    PubMed

    Higuera, Stephen; Cole, Patrick; Stephenson, J B; Hollier, Larry

    2009-12-01

    absolute and may not be optimal for use in the paediatric maxilla. Our results demonstrate effective maxillary correction following application of a 24-h latency period coupled with rapid distraction at 2mm/day. Our success with a short latency period and more rapid device expanse may be a product of the significant vascularity and improved healing potential of the paediatric maxilla.

  19. Low-latency situational awareness for UxV platforms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berends, David C.

    2012-06-01

    Providing high quality, low latency video from unmanned vehicles through bandwidth-limited communications channels remains a formidable challenge for modern vision system designers. SRI has developed a number of enabling technologies to address this, including the use of SWaP-optimized Systems-on-a-Chip which provide Multispectral Fusion and Contrast Enhancement as well as H.264 video compression. Further, the use of salience-based image prefiltering prior to image compression greatly reduces output video bandwidth by selectively blurring non-important scene regions. Combined with our customization of the VLC open source video viewer for low latency video decoding, SRI developed a prototype high performance, high quality vision system for UxV application in support of very demanding system latency requirements and user CONOPS.

  20. In vivo Knock-down of the HSV-1 Latency-Associated Transcript Reduces Reactivation from Latency.

    PubMed

    Watson, Zachary L; Washington, Shannan D; Phelan, Dane M; Lewin, Alfred S; Tuli, Sonal S; Schultz, Gregory S; Neumann, Donna M; Bloom, David C

    2018-06-06

    During Herpes Simplex Virus (HSV) latency, most viral genes are silenced with the exception of one region of the genome encoding the latency-associated transcript (LAT). This long non-coding RNA was originally described as having a role in enhancing HSV-1 reactivation. However, subsequent evidence showing that the LAT blocked apoptosis and promoted efficient establishment of latency suggested that its effects on reactivation were secondary to establishment. Here, we utilize an Adeno-associated Virus (AAV) vector to deliver a LAT-targeting hammerhead ribozyme to HSV-1-infected neurons of rabbits after the establishment of HSV-1 latency. The rabbits were then induced to reactivate latent HSV-1. Using this model, we show that decreasing LAT levels in neurons following the establishment of latency reduced the ability of the virus to reactivate. This demonstrates that the HSV-1 LAT RNA has a role in reactivation that is independent of its function in establishment of latency. In addition these results suggest the potential of AAV vectors expressing LAT-targeting ribozymes as a potential therapy for recurrent HSV disease such as herpes stromal keratitis, a leading cause of infectious blindness. Importance Herpes Simplex Virus (HSV) establishes a life long infection and remains dormant (latent) in our nerve cells. Occasionally HSV reactivates to cause disease, with HSV-1 typically causing cold sores whereas HSV-2 is the most common cause of genital herpes. The details of how HSV reactivates are largely unknown. Most of HSV's genes are silent during latency with the exception of RNAs made from the latency-associated transcript (LAT) region. While viruses that make less LAT do not reactivate efficiently, these viruses also do not establish latency as efficiently. Here we deliver a ribozyme that can degrade the LAT to the nerve cells of latently infected rabbits using a gene therapy vector. We show that this treatment blocks reactivation in the majority of the rabbits. This

  1. Development and validation of an UFLC-MS/MS assay for the absolute quantitation of nine notoginsenosides in rat plasma: Application to the pharmacokinetic study of Panax Notoginseng Extract.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Lijun; Xing, Rong; Xie, Lin; Rao, Tai; Wang, Qian; Ye, Wei; Fu, Hanxu; Xiao, Jingcheng; Shao, Yuhao; Kang, Dian; Wang, Guangji; Liang, Yan

    2015-07-15

    Notoginsenosides, the main active gradients of Chinese traditional medicine Panax notoginseng, possesses a variety of biological activities including antioxidant property, anti-hyperglycemic, anti-obese, etc. However, pharmacokinetic evaluation for notoginsenosides is still a formidable task due to their low concentrations and complex components in vivo. The summation of this work generated a rapid and sensitive method for quantitative analysis of multi-notoginsenoside in rat plasma based on ultra fast liquid chromatographic-tandem mass spectrometric. After liquid-liquid extraction by n-butanol, notoginsenoside R1, Rg3, Rd, Rg2, Rb2, Rf, Rg1, Rb1 and Re were simultaneously monitored in negative ionization mode after separating on a Thermo ODS C18 column (5mm 50mm×2.1mm) by a binary gradient elution, and all compounds were analyzed within 9min. Multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) was performed as follows: R1 (m/z 967.7→637.4), Rg3 (m/z 819.6→621.4), Rd (m/z 981.6→783.5), Rg2 (m/z 819.6→475.4), Rb2 (m/z 1113.4→783.4), Rf (m/z 835.6→475.4), Rg1 (m/z 835.6→637.6), Rb1 (m/z 1143.7→945.6), Re (m/z 981.6→637.4), internal standard (digoxin, m/z 815.5→779.4). Validation parameters (linearity, sensitivity, intra-and inter-assay precision and accuracy, recovery and matrix effect) were within acceptable ranges and biological extracts were stable during the entire storing and preparing process. This UFLC-MS/MS approach was further validated by being applied to the pharmacokinetic study for P. Notoginseng extract in rats, and the pharmacokinetic parameters were calculated by Winolin software. Thus, the presently developed methodology was simple, robust, accurate, precise, and would be useful for the pharmacokinetic studies for all kinds of notoginsenosides and other herbal saponins. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. RESPONSE LATENCIES OF NORMAL AND FOCAL-HEAD IRRADIATED MONKEYS

    SciTech Connect

    McDowell, A.A.; Brown, W.L.

    1963-12-01

    This study was designed to determine whether focal-head irradiated rhesus monkeys differ from normal monkeys in a manner analogous to that previously found in whole-body irradiated monkeys with respect to response latencies under both familiar and novel stimulus conditions. Five control and four focal-head irradiated rhesus monkeys with nearly identical training histories were used; the latter were survivors of a focal-head irradiation study conducted four years earlier. They had received 3000 r x radiation to the inferior parietal lobule and posterior aspect of the temporal lobe of the brain, and 30 days later the same dosage to the same areamore » of the brain. The testing was conducted in a modified version of the Wisconsin General Test Apparatus, with 24 trials per day for two days, on response latency to a single food-rewarded wooden block placed randomly over either of the two extreme food-well positions. Then, 24 trials were conducted per day for two days on response latency to either the same food-rewarded wooden block or to a novel nonrewarded wooden block presented simultaneously. On the single-block condition, median response latencies of the two groups were comparable and the groups improved in a similar manner with practice. Optimal performance latencies were also comparable for the two groups. When the novel nonrewarded stimulus block was introduced, both groups manifested comparable disruption of median response latencies, but disruption of optimal response latencies was shown only by the focalhead irradiated group. The findings show that monkeys with previous focal-head irradiation of the posterior association areas, unlike relatively high-dose whole-body irradiated monkeys, manifest median response latencies comparable to those of controls. These data indicate the lasting effects of focal-head irradiation with x rays, and suggest that the sites of permanent damage for monkeys given sublethal whole-body radiation exposure differ from the sites

  3. Absolute measurements of large mirrors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Su, Peng

    The ability to produce mirrors for large astronomical telescopes is limited by the accuracy of the systems used to test the surfaces of such mirrors. Typically the mirror surfaces are measured by comparing their actual shapes to a precision master, which may be created using combinations of mirrors, lenses, and holograms. The work presented here develops several optical testing techniques that do not rely on a large or expensive precision, master reference surface. In a sense these techniques provide absolute optical testing. The Giant Magellan Telescope (GMT) has been designed with a 350 m 2 collecting area provided by a 25 m diameter primary mirror made out from seven circular independent mirror segments. These segments create an equivalent f/0.7 paraboloidal primary mirror consisting of a central segment and six outer segments. Each of the outer segments is 8.4 m in diameter and has an off-axis aspheric shape departing 14.5 mm from the best-fitting sphere. Much of the work in this dissertation is motivated by the need to measure the surfaces or such large mirrors accurately, without relying on a large or expensive precision reference surface. One method for absolute testing describing in this dissertation uses multiple measurements relative to a reference surface that is located in different positions with respect to the test surface of interest. The test measurements are performed with an algorithm that is based on the maximum likelihood (ML) method. Some methodologies for measuring large flat surfaces in the 2 m diameter range and for measuring the GMT primary mirror segments were specifically developed. For example, the optical figure of a 1.6-m flat mirror was determined to 2 nm rms accuracy using multiple 1-meter sub-aperture measurements. The optical figure of the reference surface used in the 1-meter sub-aperture measurements was also determined to the 2 nm level. The optical test methodology for a 1.7-m off axis parabola was evaluated by moving several

  4. Cosmology with negative absolute temperatures

    SciTech Connect

    Vieira, J.P.P.; Byrnes, Christian T.; Lewis, Antony, E-mail: J.Pinto-Vieira@sussex.ac.uk, E-mail: ctb22@sussex.ac.uk, E-mail: antony@cosmologist.info

    Negative absolute temperatures (NAT) are an exotic thermodynamical consequence of quantum physics which has been known since the 1950's (having been achieved in the lab on a number of occasions). Recently, the work of Braun et al. [1] has rekindled interest in negative temperatures and hinted at a possibility of using NAT systems in the lab as dark energy analogues. This paper goes one step further, looking into the cosmological consequences of the existence of a NAT component in the Universe. NAT-dominated expanding Universes experience a borderline phantom expansion ( w < -1) with no Big Rip, and their contractingmore » counterparts are forced to bounce after the energy density becomes sufficiently large. Both scenarios might be used to solve horizon and flatness problems analogously to standard inflation and bouncing cosmologies. We discuss the difficulties in obtaining and ending a NAT-dominated epoch, and possible ways of obtaining density perturbations with an acceptable spectrum.« less

  5. Resolution of Misconceptions of Latency and Adolescent Sicklers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Christy-Levine, Diane

    Misconceptions regarding sickle cell disease are qualitatively different among latency age patients as compared to adolescents. The evolution and resolution of these misconceptions determine the effectiveness of self-help programs for sickle cell patients. The Mount Sinai Hospital Sickle Cell Counseling Service is a coordinated center for sickle…

  6. Mars Surface Operations via Low-Latency Telerobotics from Phobos

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wright, Michael; Lupisella, Mark

    2016-01-01

    To help assess the feasibility and timing of Low-Latency Telerobotics (LLT) operations on Mars via a Phobos telecommand base, operations concepts (ops cons) and timelines for several representative sequences for Mars surface operations have been developed. A summary of these LLT sequences and timelines will be presented, along with associated assumptions, operational considerations, and challenges.

  7. Shrapnel: Latency, Mourning and the Suicide of a Parent

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bisagni, Francesco

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to describe some acute responses to the suicide of a parent, through the account of the analytic psychotherapy of a latency child who found the body of his dead father. The acute traumatic responses of the child show that the perceptual apparatus, time and space are subverted, while the functioning of the contact barrier…

  8. Saccade Latency Indexes Exogenous and Endogenous Object-Based Attention

    PubMed Central

    Şentürk, Gözde; Greenberg, Adam S.; Liu, Taosheng

    2016-01-01

    Classic studies of object-based attention have utilized keypress responses as the main dependent measure. However, people typically make saccades to fixate important objects. Recent work has shown that attention may act differently when deployed covertly versus in advance of a saccade. We further investigated the link between saccades and attention by examining whether object-based effects can be observed for saccades. We adapted the classical double-rectangle cueing paradigm of Egly et al., (1994), and measured both the first saccade latency and keypress reaction time (RT) to a target that appeared at the end of one of the two rectangles. Our results showed that saccade latency exhibited higher sensitivity than RT in detecting effects of attention. We also assessed the generality of the attention effects by testing three types of cues: hybrid (predictive and peripheral), exogenous (non-predictive and peripheral), and endogenous (predictive and central). We found that both RT and saccade latency exhibited effects of both space-based and object-based attentional selection. However, saccade latency showed a more robust attentional modulation than RTs. For the exogenous cue, we observed a spatial inhibition-of-return along with an object-based effect, implying that object-based attention is independent of space-based attention. Overall, our results reveal an oculomotor correlate of object-based attention, suggesting that, in addition to spatial priority, object-level priority also affects saccade planning. PMID:27225468

  9. Saccade latency indexes exogenous and endogenous object-based attention.

    PubMed

    Şentürk, Gözde; Greenberg, Adam S; Liu, Taosheng

    2016-10-01

    Classic studies of object-based attention have utilized keypress responses as the main dependent measure. However, people typically make saccades to fixate important objects. Recent work has shown that attention may act differently when it is deployed covertly versus in advance of a saccade. We further investigated the link between saccades and attention by examining whether object-based effects can be observed for saccades. We adapted the classical double-rectangle cueing paradigm of Egly, Driver, and Rafal (1994), and measured both the first saccade latency and the keypress reaction time (RT) to a target that appeared at the end of one of the two rectangles. Our results showed that saccade latencies exhibited higher sensitivity than did RTs for detecting effects of attention. We also assessed the generality of the attention effects by testing three types of cues: hybrid (predictive and peripheral), exogenous (nonpredictive and peripheral), and endogenous (predictive and central). We found that both RTs and saccade latencies exhibited effects of both space-based and object-based attentional selection. However, saccade latencies showed a more robust attentional modulation than RTs. For the exogenous cues, we observed a spatial inhibition of return along with an object-based effect, implying that object-based attention is independent of space-based attention. Overall, our results revealed an oculomotor correlate of object-based attention, suggesting that, in addition to spatial priority, object-level priority also affects saccade planning.

  10. Interrelationship of Primary Virus Replication, Level of Latency, and Time to Reactivation in the Trigeminal Ganglia of Latently Infected Mice

    PubMed Central

    Matundan, Harry H.; Mott, Kevin R.; Allen, Sariah J.; Wang, Shaohui; Bresee, Catherine J.; Ghiasi, Yasamin N.; Town, Terrence

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT We sought to determine the possibility of an interrelationship between primary virus replication in the eye, the level of viral DNA in the trigeminal ganglia (TG) during latency, and the amount of virus reactivation following ocular herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) infection. Mice were infected with virulent (McKrae) or avirulent (KOS and RE) strains of HSV-1, and virus titers in the eyes and TG during primary infection, level of viral gB DNA in TG on day 28 postinfection (p.i.), and virus reactivation on day 28 p.i. as measured by explant reactivation were calculated. Our results suggest that the avirulent strains of HSV-1, even after corneal scarification, had lower virus titers in the eye, had less latency in the TG, and took a longer time to reactivate than virulent strains of HSV-1. The time to explant reactivation of avirulent strains of HSV-1 was similar to that of the virulent LAT(−) McKrae-derived mutant. The viral dose with the McKrae strain of HSV-1 affected the level of viral DNA and time to explant reactivation. Overall, our results suggest that there is no absolute correlation between primary virus titer in the eye and TG and the level of viral DNA in latent TG and time to reactivation. IMPORTANCE Very little is known regarding the interrelationship between primary virus replication in the eye, the level of latency in TG, and the time to reactivate in the mouse model. This study was designed to answer these questions. Our results point to the absence of any correlation between the level of primary virus replication and the level of viral DNA during latency, and neither was an indicator of how rapidly the virus reactivated following explant TG-induced reactivation. PMID:27512072

  11. Effects of Differential Reinforcement of Short Latencies on Response Latency, Task Completion, and Accuracy of an Adolescent with Autism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Donohue, Melanie M.; Casey, Laura Baylot; Bicard, David F.; Bicard, Sara E.

    2012-01-01

    Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) are faced with many challenging behaviors that could impede their learning. One commonly reported problem behavior is noncompliance, which is often defined as a delay in response (latency), decrease in rate of responding (fluency), or failure to complete a task. This failure to comply in an appropriate…

  12. Modeling neuroendocrine stress reactivity in salivary cortisol: adjusting for peak latency variability.

    PubMed

    Lopez-Duran, Nestor L; Mayer, Stefanie E; Abelson, James L

    2014-07-01

    In this report, we present growth curve modeling (GCM) with landmark registration as an alternative statistical approach for the analysis of time series cortisol data. This approach addresses an often-ignored but critical source of variability in salivary cortisol analyses: individual and group differences in the time latency of post-stress peak concentrations. It allows for the simultaneous examination of cortisol changes before and after the peak while controlling for timing differences, and thus provides additional information that can help elucidate group differences in the underlying biological processes (e.g., intensity of response, regulatory capacity). We tested whether GCM with landmark registration is more sensitive than traditional statistical approaches (e.g., repeated measures ANOVA--rANOVA) in identifying sex differences in salivary cortisol responses to a psychosocial stressor (Trier Social Stress Test--TSST) in healthy adults (mean age 23). We used plasma ACTH measures as our "standard" and show that the new approach confirms in salivary cortisol the ACTH finding that males had longer peak latencies, higher post-stress peaks but a more intense post-peak decline. This finding would have been missed if only saliva cortisol was available and only more traditional analytic methods were used. This new approach may provide neuroendocrine researchers with a highly sensitive complementary tool to examine the dynamics of the cortisol response in a way that reduces risk of false negative findings when blood samples are not feasible.

  13. Absolute charge calibration of scintillating screens for relativistic electron detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buck, A.; Zeil, K.; Popp, A.; Schmid, K.; Jochmann, A.; Kraft, S. D.; Hidding, B.; Kudyakov, T.; Sears, C. M. S.; Veisz, L.; Karsch, S.; Pawelke, J.; Sauerbrey, R.; Cowan, T.; Krausz, F.; Schramm, U.

    2010-03-01

    We report on new charge calibrations and linearity tests with high-dynamic range for eight different scintillating screens typically used for the detection of relativistic electrons from laser-plasma based acceleration schemes. The absolute charge calibration was done with picosecond electron bunches at the ELBE linear accelerator in Dresden. The lower detection limit in our setup for the most sensitive scintillating screen (KODAK Biomax MS) was 10 fC/mm2. The screens showed a linear photon-to-charge dependency over several orders of magnitude. An onset of saturation effects starting around 10-100 pC/mm2 was found for some of the screens. Additionally, a constant light source was employed as a luminosity reference to simplify the transfer of a one-time absolute calibration to different experimental setups.

  14. Temporal parameters and time course of perceptual latency priming.

    PubMed

    Scharlau, Ingrid; Neumann, Odmar

    2003-06-01

    Visual stimuli (primes) reduce the perceptual latency of a target appearing at the same location (perceptual latency priming, PLP). Three experiments assessed the time course of PLP by masked and, in Experiment 3, unmasked primes. Experiments 1 and 2 investigated the temporal parameters that determine the size of priming. Stimulus onset asynchrony was found to exert the main influence accompanied by a small effect of prime duration. Experiment 3 used a large range of priming onset asynchronies. We suggest to explain PLP by the Asynchronous Updating Model which relates it to the asynchrony of 2 central coding processes, preattentive coding of basic visual features and attentional orienting as a prerequisite for perceptual judgments and conscious perception.

  15. Rewards modulate saccade latency but not exogenous spatial attention.

    PubMed

    Dunne, Stephen; Ellison, Amanda; Smith, Daniel T

    2015-01-01

    The eye movement system is sensitive to reward. However, whilst the eye movement system is extremely flexible, the extent to which changes to oculomotor behavior induced by reward paradigms persist beyond the training period or transfer to other oculomotor tasks is unclear. To address these issues we examined the effects of presenting feedback that represented small monetary rewards to spatial locations on the latency of saccadic eye movements, the time-course of learning and extinction of the effects of rewarding saccades on exogenous spatial attention and oculomotor inhibition of return. Reward feedback produced a relative facilitation of saccadic latency in a stimulus driven saccade task which persisted for three blocks of extinction trials. However, this hemifield-specific effect failed to transfer to peripheral cueing tasks. We conclude that rewarding specific spatial locations is unlikely to induce long-term, systemic changes to the human oculomotor or attention systems.

  16. Molecular Basis of Latency in Pathogenic Human Viruses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garcia-Blanco, Mariano A.; Cullen, Bryan R.

    1991-11-01

    Several human viruses are able to latently infect specific target cell populations in vivo. Analysis of the replication cycles of herpes simplex virus, Epstein-Barr virus, and human immunodeficiency virus suggests that the latent infections established by these human pathogens primarily result from a lack of host factors critical for the expression of viral early gene products. The subsequent activation of specific cellular transcription factors in response to extracellular stimuli can induce the expression of these viral regulatory proteins and lead to a burst of lytic viral replication. Latency in these eukaryotic viruses therefore contrasts with latency in bacteriophage, which is maintained primarily by the expression of virally encoded repressors of lytic replication.

  17. Short latency vestibular evoked potentials in the chicken embryo

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, S. M.; Jones, T. A.

    1996-01-01

    Electrophysiological responses to pulsed linear acceleration stimuli were recorded in chicken embryos incubated for 19 or 20 days (E19/E20). Responses occurred within the first 16 ms following the stimulus onset. The evoked potentials disappeared following bilateral labyrinthectomy, but persisted following cochlear destruction alone, thus demonstrating that the responses were vestibular. Approximately 8 to 10 response peaks could be identified. The first 4 positive and corresponding negative components (early peaks with latencies < 6.0 ms) were scored and latencies and amplitudes quantified. Vestibular response latencies were significantly longer (P < 0.01) and amplitudes significantly smaller (P < 0.001) than those observed in 2-week-old birds. Mean response threshold for anesthetized embryos was -15.9dBre 1.0 g/ms, which was significantly higher (P < 0.03) than those observed in 2-week-old birds (-23.0dBre 1.0 g/ms). Latency/intensity functions (that is, slopes) were not significantly different between embryos and 2-week-old animals, but amplitude/intensity functions for embryos were significantly shallower than those for 2-week-old birds (P < 0.001). We presume that these differences reflect the refinement of sensory function that occurs following 19 to 20 days of incubation. The recording of vestibular evoked potentials provides an objective, direct and noninvasive measure of peripheral vestibular function in the embryo and, as such, the method shows promise as an investigative tool. The results of the present study form the definitive basis for using vestibular evoked potentials in the detailed study of avian vestibular ontogeny and factors that may influence it.

  18. Stochastic Game Analysis and Latency Awareness for Self-Adaptation

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-01-01

    this paper, we introduce a formal analysis technique based on model checking of stochastic multiplayer games (SMGs) that enables us to quantify the...Additional Key Words and Phrases: Proactive adaptation, Stochastic multiplayer games , Latency 1. INTRODUCTION When planning how to adapt, self-adaptive...contribution of this paper is twofold: (1) A novel analysis technique based on model checking of stochastic multiplayer games (SMGs) that enables us to

  19. HyspIRI Low Latency Concept and Benchmarks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mandl, Dan

    2010-01-01

    Topics include HyspIRI low latency data ops concept, HyspIRI data flow, ongoing efforts, experiment with Web Coverage Processing Service (WCPS) approach to injecting new algorithms into SensorWeb, low fidelity HyspIRI IPM testbed, compute cloud testbed, open cloud testbed environment, Global Lambda Integrated Facility (GLIF) and OCC collaboration with Starlight, delay tolerant network (DTN) protocol benchmarking, and EO-1 configuration for preliminary DTN prototype.

  20. Auditory middle latency response in children with learning difficulties

    PubMed Central

    Frizzo, Ana Claudia Figueiredo; Issac, Myriam Lima; Pontes-Fernandes, Angela Cristina; Menezes, Pedro de Lemos; Funayama, Carolina Araújo Rodrigues

    2012-01-01

    Summary Introduction: This is an objective laboratory assessment of the central auditory systems of children with learning disabilities. Aim: To examine and determine the properties of the components of the Auditory Middle Latency Response in a sample of children with learning disabilities. Methods: This was a prospective, cross-sectional cohort study with quantitative, descriptive, and exploratory outcomes. We included 50 children aged 8–13 years of both genders with and without learning disorders. Those with disorders of known organic, environmental, or genetic causes were excluded. Results and Conclusions: The Na, Pa, and Nb waves were identified in all subjects. The ranges of the latency component values were as follows: Na = 9.8–32.3 ms, Pa = 19.0–51.4 ms, Nb = 30.0–64.3 ms (learning disorders group) and Na = 13.2–29.6 ms, Pa = 21.8–42.8 ms, Nb = 28.4–65.8 ms (healthy group). The values of the Na-Pa amplitude ranged from 0.3 to 6.8 ìV (learning disorders group) or 0.2–3.6 ìV (learning disorders group). Upon analysis, the functional characteristics of the groups were distinct: the left hemisphere Nb latency was longer in the study group than in the control group. Peculiarities of the electrophysiological measures were observed in the children with learning disorders. This study has provided information on the Auditory Middle Latency Response and can serve as a reference for other clinical and experimental studies in children with these disorders. PMID:25991954

  1. Auditory middle latency response in children with learning difficulties.

    PubMed

    Frizzo, Ana Claudia Figueiredo; Issac, Myriam Lima; Pontes-Fernandes, Angela Cristina; Menezes, Pedro de Lemos; Funayama, Carolina Araújo Rodrigues

    2012-07-01

     This is an objective laboratory assessment of the central auditory systems of children with learning disabilities.  To examine and determine the properties of the components of the Auditory Middle Latency Response in a sample of children with learning disabilities.  This was a prospective, cross-sectional cohort study with quantitative, descriptive, and exploratory outcomes. We included 50 children aged 8-13 years of both genders with and without learning disorders. Those with disorders of known organic, environmental, or genetic causes were excluded.  The Na, Pa, and Nb waves were identified in all subjects. The ranges of the latency component values were as follows: Na = 9.8-32.3 ms, Pa = 19.0-51.4 ms, Nb = 30.0-64.3 ms (learning disorders group) and Na = 13.2-29.6 ms, Pa = 21.8-42.8 ms, Nb = 28.4-65.8 ms (healthy group). The values of the Na-Pa amplitude ranged from 0.3 to 6.8 ìV (learning disorders group) or 0.2-3.6 ìV (learning disorders group). Upon analysis, the functional characteristics of the groups were distinct: the left hemisphere Nb latency was longer in the study group than in the control group. Peculiarities of the electrophysiological measures were observed in the children with learning disorders. This study has provided information on the Auditory Middle Latency Response and can serve as a reference for other clinical and experimental studies in children with these disorders.

  2. Cerebellar damage diminishes long-latency responses to multijoint perturbations

    PubMed Central

    Trautman, Paxson; Rasquinha, Russell J.; Bhanpuri, Nasir H.; Scott, Stephen H.; Bastian, Amy J.

    2013-01-01

    Damage to the cerebellum can cause significant problems in the coordination of voluntary arm movements. One prominent idea is that incoordination stems from an inability to predictively account for the complex mechanical interactions between the arm's several joints. Motivated by growing evidence that corrective feedback control shares important capabilities and neural substrates with feedforward control, we asked whether cerebellar damage impacts feedback stabilization of the multijoint arm appropriate for the arm's intersegmental dynamics. Specifically, we tested whether cerebellar dysfunction impacts the ability of posterior deltoid to incorporate elbow motion in its long-latency response (R2 = 45–75 ms and R3 = 75–100 ms after perturbation) to an unexpected torque perturbation. Healthy and cerebellar-damaged subjects were exposed to a selected pattern of shoulder-elbow displacements to probe the response pattern from this shoulder extensor muscle. The healthy elderly subjects expressed a long-latency response linked to both shoulder and elbow motion, including an increase/decrease in shoulder extensor activity with elbow flexion/extension. Critically, cerebellar-damaged subjects displayed the normal pattern of activity in the R3 period indicating an intact ability to rapidly integrate multijoint motion appropriate to the arm's intersegmental dynamics. However, cerebellar-damaged subjects had a lower magnitude of activity that was specific to the long-latency period (both R2 and R3) and a slightly delayed onset of multijoint sensitivity. Taken together, our results suggest that the basic motor pattern of the long-latency response is housed outside the cerebellum and is scaled by processes within the cerebellum. PMID:23390311

  3. A Novel Mechanism of Latency in Matrix Metalloproteinases*

    PubMed Central

    López-Pelegrín, Mar; Ksiazek, Miroslaw; Karim, Abdulkarim Y.; Guevara, Tibisay; Arolas, Joan L.; Potempa, Jan; Gomis-Rüth, F. Xavier

    2015-01-01

    The matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) are a family of secreted soluble or membrane-anchored multimodular peptidases regularly found in several paralogous copies in animals and plants, where they have multiple functions. The minimal consensus domain architecture comprises a signal peptide, a 60–90-residue globular prodomain with a conserved sequence motif including a cysteine engaged in “cysteine-switch” or “Velcro” mediated latency, and a catalytic domain. Karilysin, from the human periodontopathogen Tannerella forsythia, is the only bacterial MMP to have been characterized biochemically to date. It shares with eukaryotic forms the catalytic domain but none of the flanking domains. Instead of the consensus MMP prodomain, it features a 14-residue propeptide, the shortest reported for a metallopeptidase, which lacks cysteines. Here we determined the structure of a prokarilysin fragment encompassing the propeptide and the catalytic domain, and found that the former runs across the cleft in the opposite direction to a bound substrate and inhibits the latter through an “aspartate-switch” mechanism. This finding is reminiscent of latency maintenance in the otherwise unrelated astacin and fragilysin metallopeptidase families. In addition, in vivo and biochemical assays showed that the propeptide contributes to protein folding and stability. Our analysis of prokarilysin reveals a novel mechanism of latency and activation in MMPs. Finally, our findings support the view that the karilysin catalytic domain was co-opted by competent bacteria through horizontal gene transfer from a eukaryotic source, and later evolved in a specific bacterial environment. PMID:25555916

  4. Using Arduino microcontroller boards to measure response latencies.

    PubMed

    Schubert, Thomas W; D'Ausilio, Alessandro; Canto, Rosario

    2013-12-01

    Latencies of buttonpresses are a staple of cognitive science paradigms. Often keyboards are employed to collect buttonpresses, but their imprecision and variability decreases test power and increases the risk of false positives. Response boxes and data acquisition cards are precise, but expensive and inflexible, alternatives. We propose using open-source Arduino microcontroller boards as an inexpensive and flexible alternative. These boards connect to standard experimental software using a USB connection and a virtual serial port, or by emulating a keyboard. In our solution, an Arduino measures response latencies after being signaled the start of a trial, and communicates the latency and response back to the PC over a USB connection. We demonstrated the reliability, robustness, and precision of this communication in six studies. Test measures confirmed that the error added to the measurement had an SD of less than 1 ms. Alternatively, emulation of a keyboard results in similarly precise measurement. The Arduino performs as well as a serial response box, and better than a keyboard. In addition, our setup allows for the flexible integration of other sensors, and even actuators, to extend the cognitive science toolbox.

  5. [The significance of the interaural latency difference of VEMP].

    PubMed

    Wu, Ziming; Zhang, Suzhen; Ji, Fei; Zhou, Na; Guo, Weiwei; Yang, Weiyan; Han, Dongyi

    2005-05-01

    To investigate the significance of the interaural latency (IAL) difference of the latency of VEMP and to raise the sensitivity of the test. Vestibular evoked myogenic potentials (VEMP) were tested in 20 healthy subjects; 13 patients with acoustic neuromaor cerebellopontile angle occupying lesions and 1 patient with multiple sclerosis. IAL differences of the wave p13,n23 and p13-n23 (abbreviatd as /delta p13/, /delta n23/ and /delta p13-n23/, respectively) were analysed to determine the normal range and the upper limit of the norm data. Four illustrative cases with the abnormality of the IAL difference were given as examples. The upper limit of the IAL of /delta p13/ was 1.13 ms; that of the /delta n23/ was 1.38 ms and that of /delta p13-n23/ was 1.54 ms. The /p13-n23/ latency between the right and left side had no significant difference (P > 0.05). /delta p13/, /delta n23/ and /delta p13-n23/, especially /delta p13/ of VEMP can suggest abnormality in the neural pathway and it may be applicable in practice.

  6. HTLV-1 Tax activates HIV-1 transcription in latency models.

    PubMed

    Geddes, Victor Emmanuel Viana; José, Diego Pandeló; Leal, Fabio E; Nixon, Douglas F; Tanuri, Amilcar; Aguiar, Renato Santana

    2017-04-01

    HIV-1 latency is a major obstacle to HIV-1 eradication. Coinfection with HTLV-1 has been associated with faster progression to AIDS. HTLV-1 encodes the transactivator Tax which can activate both HTLV-1 and HIV-1 transcription. Here, we demonstrate that Tax activates HIV transcription in latent CD4 + T cells. Tax promotes the activation of P-TEFb, releasing CDK9 and Cyclin T1 from inactive forms, promoting transcription elongation and reactivation of latent HIV-1. Tax mutants lacking interaction with the HIV-1-LTR promoter were not able to activate P-TEFb, with no subsequent activation of latent HIV. In HIV-infected primary resting CD4 + T cells, Tax-1 reactivated HIV-1 transcription up to five fold, confirming these findings in an ex vivo latency model. Finally, our results confirms that HTLV-1/Tax hijacks cellular partners, promoting HIV-1 transcription, and this interaction should be further investigated in HIV-1 latency studies in patients with HIV/HTLV-1 co-infection. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Amplitude, Latency, and Peak Velocity in Accommodation and Disaccommodation Dynamics

    PubMed Central

    Papadatou, Eleni; Ferrer-Blasco, Teresa; Montés-Micó, Robert

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this work was to ascertain whether there are differences in amplitude, latency, and peak velocity of accommodation and disaccommodation responses when different analysis strategies are used to compute them, such as fitting different functions to the responses or for smoothing them prior to computing the parameters. Accommodation and disaccommodation responses from four subjects to pulse changes in demand were recorded by means of aberrometry. Three different strategies were followed to analyze such responses: fitting an exponential function to the experimental data; fitting a Boltzmann sigmoid function to the data; and smoothing the data. Amplitude, latency, and peak velocity of the responses were extracted. Significant differences were found between the peak velocity in accommodation computed by fitting an exponential function and smoothing the experimental data (mean difference 2.36 D/s). Regarding disaccommodation, significant differences were found between latency and peak velocity, calculated with the two same strategies (mean difference of 0.15 s and −3.56 D/s, resp.). The strategy used to analyze accommodation and disaccommodation responses seems to affect the parameters that describe accommodation and disaccommodation dynamics. These results highlight the importance of choosing the most adequate analysis strategy in each individual to obtain the parameters that characterize accommodation and disaccommodation dynamics. PMID:29226128

  8. Saccade latency reveals episodic representation of object color.

    PubMed

    Gordon, Robert D

    2014-08-01

    While previous studies suggest that identity, but not color, plays a role in episodic object representation, such studies have typically used tasks in which only identity is relevant, raising the possibility that the results reflect task demands, rather than the general principles that underlie object representation. In the present study, participants viewed a preview display containing one (Experiments 1 and 2) or two (Experiment 3) letters, then viewed a target display containing a single letter, in either the same or a different location. Participants executed an immediate saccade to fixate the target; saccade latency served as the dependent variable. In all experiments, saccade latencies were longer to fixate a target appearing in its previewed location, consistent with a bias to attend to new objects rather than to objects for which episodic representations are being maintained in visual working memory. The results of Experiment 3 further demonstrate, however, that changing target color eliminates these latency differences. The results suggest that color and identity are part of episodic representation even when not task relevant and that examining biases in saccade execution may be a useful approach to studying episodic representation.

  9. A Simulation Base Investigation of High Latency Space Systems Operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Li, Zu Qun; Crues, Edwin Z.; Bielski, Paul; Moore, Michael

    2017-01-01

    NASA's human space program has developed considerable experience with near Earth space operations. Although NASA has experience with deep space robotic missions, NASA has little substantive experience with human deep space operations. Even in the Apollo program, the missions lasted only a few weeks and the communication latencies were on the order of seconds. Human missions beyond the relatively close confines of the Earth-Moon system will involve missions with durations measured in months and communications latencies measured in minutes. To minimize crew risk and to maximize mission success, NASA needs to develop a better understanding of the implications of these types of mission durations and communication latencies on vehicle design, mission design and flight controller interaction with the crew. To begin to address these needs, NASA performed a study using a physics-based subsystem simulation to investigate the interactions between spacecraft crew and a ground-based mission control center for vehicle subsystem operations across long communication delays. The simulation, built with a subsystem modeling tool developed at NASA's Johnson Space Center, models the life support system of a Mars transit vehicle. The simulation contains models of the cabin atmosphere and pressure control system, electrical power system, drinking and waste water systems, internal and external thermal control systems, and crew metabolic functions. The simulation has three interfaces: 1) a real-time crew interface that can be use to monitor and control the vehicle subsystems; 2) a mission control center interface with data transport delays up to 15 minutes each way; 3) a real-time simulation test conductor interface that can be use to insert subsystem malfunctions and observe the interactions between the crew, ground, and simulated vehicle. The study was conducted at the 21st NASA Extreme Environment Mission Operations (NEEMO) mission between July 18th and Aug 3rd of year 2016. The NEEMO

  10. Estimating the absolute wealth of households

    PubMed Central

    Gerkey, Drew; Hadley, Craig

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Objective To estimate the absolute wealth of households using data from demographic and health surveys. Methods We developed a new metric, the absolute wealth estimate, based on the rank of each surveyed household according to its material assets and the assumed shape of the distribution of wealth among surveyed households. Using data from 156 demographic and health surveys in 66 countries, we calculated absolute wealth estimates for households. We validated the method by comparing the proportion of households defined as poor using our estimates with published World Bank poverty headcounts. We also compared the accuracy of absolute versus relative wealth estimates for the prediction of anthropometric measures. Findings The median absolute wealth estimates of 1 403 186 households were 2056 international dollars per capita (interquartile range: 723–6103). The proportion of poor households based on absolute wealth estimates were strongly correlated with World Bank estimates of populations living on less than 2.00 United States dollars per capita per day (R2 = 0.84). Absolute wealth estimates were better predictors of anthropometric measures than relative wealth indexes. Conclusion Absolute wealth estimates provide new opportunities for comparative research to assess the effects of economic resources on health and human capital, as well as the long-term health consequences of economic change and inequality. PMID:26170506

  11. Absolute optical metrology : nanometers to kilometers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dubovitsky, Serge; Lay, O. P.; Peters, R. D.; Liebe, C. C.

    2005-01-01

    We provide and overview of the developments in the field of high-accuracy absolute optical metrology with emphasis on space-based applications. Specific work on the Modulation Sideband Technology for Absolute Ranging (MSTAR) sensor is described along with novel applications of the sensor.

  12. 49 CFR 236.709 - Block, absolute.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Block, absolute. 236.709 Section 236.709 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION... Block, absolute. A block in which no train is permitted to enter while it is occupied by another train. ...

  13. Estimating the absolute wealth of households.

    PubMed

    Hruschka, Daniel J; Gerkey, Drew; Hadley, Craig

    2015-07-01

    To estimate the absolute wealth of households using data from demographic and health surveys. We developed a new metric, the absolute wealth estimate, based on the rank of each surveyed household according to its material assets and the assumed shape of the distribution of wealth among surveyed households. Using data from 156 demographic and health surveys in 66 countries, we calculated absolute wealth estimates for households. We validated the method by comparing the proportion of households defined as poor using our estimates with published World Bank poverty headcounts. We also compared the accuracy of absolute versus relative wealth estimates for the prediction of anthropometric measures. The median absolute wealth estimates of 1,403,186 households were 2056 international dollars per capita (interquartile range: 723-6103). The proportion of poor households based on absolute wealth estimates were strongly correlated with World Bank estimates of populations living on less than 2.00 United States dollars per capita per day (R(2)  = 0.84). Absolute wealth estimates were better predictors of anthropometric measures than relative wealth indexes. Absolute wealth estimates provide new opportunities for comparative research to assess the effects of economic resources on health and human capital, as well as the long-term health consequences of economic change and inequality.

  14. Introducing the Mean Absolute Deviation "Effect" Size

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gorard, Stephen

    2015-01-01

    This paper revisits the use of effect sizes in the analysis of experimental and similar results, and reminds readers of the relative advantages of the mean absolute deviation as a measure of variation, as opposed to the more complex standard deviation. The mean absolute deviation is easier to use and understand, and more tolerant of extreme…

  15. Investigating Absolute Value: A Real World Application

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kidd, Margaret; Pagni, David

    2009-01-01

    Making connections between various representations is important in mathematics. In this article, the authors discuss the numeric, algebraic, and graphical representations of sums of absolute values of linear functions. The initial explanations are accessible to all students who have experience graphing and who understand that absolute value simply…

  16. 49 CFR 236.709 - Block, absolute.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Block, absolute. 236.709 Section 236.709 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION... Block, absolute. A block in which no train is permitted to enter while it is occupied by another train. ...

  17. Absolute Income, Relative Income, and Happiness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ball, Richard; Chernova, Kateryna

    2008-01-01

    This paper uses data from the World Values Survey to investigate how an individual's self-reported happiness is related to (i) the level of her income in absolute terms, and (ii) the level of her income relative to other people in her country. The main findings are that (i) both absolute and relative income are positively and significantly…

  18. Monolithically integrated absolute frequency comb laser system

    SciTech Connect

    Wanke, Michael C.

    2016-07-12

    Rather than down-convert optical frequencies, a QCL laser system directly generates a THz frequency comb in a compact monolithically integrated chip that can be locked to an absolute frequency without the need of a frequency-comb synthesizer. The monolithic, absolute frequency comb can provide a THz frequency reference and tool for high-resolution broad band spectroscopy.

  19. Absolute instability of the Gaussian wake profile

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hultgren, Lennart S.; Aggarwal, Arun K.

    1987-01-01

    Linear parallel-flow stability theory has been used to investigate the effect of viscosity on the local absolute instability of a family of wake profiles with a Gaussian velocity distribution. The type of local instability, i.e., convective or absolute, is determined by the location of a branch-point singularity with zero group velocity of the complex dispersion relation for the instability waves. The effects of viscosity were found to be weak for values of the wake Reynolds number, based on the center-line velocity defect and the wake half-width, larger than about 400. Absolute instability occurs only for sufficiently large values of the center-line wake defect. The critical value of this parameter increases with decreasing wake Reynolds number, thereby indicating a shrinking region of absolute instability with decreasing wake Reynolds number. If backflow is not allowed, absolute instability does not occur for wake Reynolds numbers smaller than about 38.

  20. Absolute calibration of Doppler coherence imaging velocity images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Samuell, C. M.; Allen, S. L.; Meyer, W. H.; Howard, J.

    2017-08-01

    A new technique has been developed for absolutely calibrating a Doppler Coherence Imaging Spectroscopy interferometer for measuring plasma ion and neutral velocities. An optical model of the interferometer is used to generate zero-velocity reference images for the plasma spectral line of interest from a calibration source some spectral distance away. Validation of this technique using a tunable diode laser demonstrated an accuracy better than 0.2 km/s over an extrapolation range of 3.5 nm; a two order of magnitude improvement over linear approaches. While a well-characterized and very stable interferometer is required, this technique opens up the possibility of calibrated velocity measurements in difficult viewing geometries and for complex spectral line-shapes.

  1. A global algorithm for estimating Absolute Salinity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McDougall, T. J.; Jackett, D. R.; Millero, F. J.; Pawlowicz, R.; Barker, P. M.

    2012-12-01

    The International Thermodynamic Equation of Seawater - 2010 has defined the thermodynamic properties of seawater in terms of a new salinity variable, Absolute Salinity, which takes into account the spatial variation of the composition of seawater. Absolute Salinity more accurately reflects the effects of the dissolved material in seawater on the thermodynamic properties (particularly density) than does Practical Salinity. When a seawater sample has standard composition (i.e. the ratios of the constituents of sea salt are the same as those of surface water of the North Atlantic), Practical Salinity can be used to accurately evaluate the thermodynamic properties of seawater. When seawater is not of standard composition, Practical Salinity alone is not sufficient and the Absolute Salinity Anomaly needs to be estimated; this anomaly is as large as 0.025 g kg-1 in the northernmost North Pacific. Here we provide an algorithm for estimating Absolute Salinity Anomaly for any location (x, y, p) in the world ocean. To develop this algorithm, we used the Absolute Salinity Anomaly that is found by comparing the density calculated from Practical Salinity to the density measured in the laboratory. These estimates of Absolute Salinity Anomaly however are limited to the number of available observations (namely 811). In order to provide a practical method that can be used at any location in the world ocean, we take advantage of approximate relationships between Absolute Salinity Anomaly and silicate concentrations (which are available globally).

  2. Delayed Latency of Postural Muscles of Individuals with Intellectual Disabilities.

    PubMed

    Tolentino-Castro, J Walter; Mühlbeier, Andreas; Mochizuki, Luis; Wagner, Heiko

    2018-01-01

    Individuals with intellectual disabilities (ID) (50 < IQ < 79) show impaired motor and postural control, these impairments are highly related to falls and injuries. Recent studies demonstrated these impairments are related with fine and gross motor development, which are more strongly associated with cognition, and consequently language for individuals with ID than for without ID. Despite these studies, little is known about the structure and functioning of this population's spinal cord, which is highly involved in postural control. The aim of our study was to assess the latency of the reflex responses in postural muscles after unexpected lateral external perturbations, in individuals with intellectual disabilities compared to typically developed participants. We assessed 16 participants with intellectual disabilities, 9 males and 7 females (aged 24.06 ± 8.66 years) and 20 typical developed participants (CG), 11 females, 9 males, (aged 21.20±1.96 years). While the participants were in an upright standing position electromyography was used to collect data from M. obliquus externus abdominis (OE) muscles, which were activated by unpredictable perturbations applied by a servomotor on a hand-held grip, following the lateral external perturbation to the trunk. The intellectual disabilities group presented contralateral OE muscles latency of 85.71±27.24 ms, and CG group presented 68.62±10.25 ms, no differences was found. Ipsilateral OE muscles latency also did not differs between the groups, ID group showed 96.60±30.20 ms and CG group showed 95.57±33.53 ms. Our study furthers the knowledge about the muscular activity of individuals with intellectual disabilities. The present experimental results may suggest unique spinal cord processing of individuals with intellectual disabilities when they are faced with unexpected lateral external perturbations.

  3. REM sleep latency and neurocognitive dysfunction in schizophrenia

    PubMed Central

    Das, Mrinmay; Das, Ruchika; Khastgir, Udayan; Goswami, Utpal

    2005-01-01

    Background: Cognitive deficits—the hallmark of schizophrenic deterioration—still remain elusive as far as their pathophysiology is concerned. Various neurotransmitter systems have been implicated to explain these deficits. Abnormalities in cholinergic neurotransmission in the brain are one of the postulations; acetylcholine has also been postulated to regulate rapid eye movement (REM) sleep, especially REM latency. Thus, REM latency in patients with schizophrenia might provide a non-invasive window to look into the cholinergic functions of the brain. Aim: To study REM sleep measures and neurocognitive function in schizophrenia, and the changes occurring in these parameters following pharmacological treatment. Methods: Thirty subjects (15 with schizophrenia and 15 normal non-relative controls) were evaluated in this study. Most patients with schizophrenia had prominent negative symptoms and deficits in the performance in neurocognitive tests battery. They were treated with antipsychotics for a variable period of time and post-treatment evaluation was done using the same battery of neurocognitive tests and polysomnography. Patients were either drug-naïve or kept drug-free for at least two weeks both at baseline as well as at the post-treatment stage. Results: A positive correlation between the severity of negative symptoms and neurocognitive deficits (especially on the Wisconsin Card Sorting), and a negative correlation between these two parameters and REM latency was observed. Conclusion: It can be hypothesized that the acetylcholine deficit model of dementia cannot be applied to schizophrenic dementia, rather a hypercholinergic state results. This state warrants anticholinergic medication as a treatment option for negative symptoms of schizophrenia. PMID:20814454

  4. A Gammaherpesviral Internal Repeat Contributes to Latency Amplification

    PubMed Central

    Thakur, Nagendra N.; El-Gogo, Susanne; Steer, Beatrix; Freimüller, Klaus; Waha, Andreas; Adler, Heiko

    2007-01-01

    Background Gammaherpesviruses cause important infections of humans, in particular in immunocompromised patients. The genomes of gammaherpesviruses contain variable numbers of internal repeats whose precise role for in vivo pathogenesis is not well understood. Methodology/Principal Findings We used infection of laboratory mice with murine gammaherpesvirus 68 (MHV-68) to explore the biological role of the 40 bp internal repeat of MHV-68. We constructed several mutant viruses partially or completely lacking this repeat. Both in vitro and in vivo, the loss of the repeat did not substantially affect lytic replication of the mutant viruses. However, the extent of splenomegaly, which is associated with the establishment of latency, and the number of ex vivo reactivating and genome positive splenocytes were reduced. Since the 40 bp repeat is part of the hypothetical open reading frame (ORF) M6, it might function as part of M6 or as an independent structure. To differentiate between these two possibilities, we constructed an N-terminal M6STOP mutant, leaving the repeat structure intact but rendering ORF M6 unfunctional. Disruption of ORF M6 did neither affect lytic nor latent infection. In contrast to the situation in lytically infected NIH3T3 cells, the expression of the latency-associated genes K3 and ORF72 was reduced in the latently infected murine B cell line Ag8 in the absence of the 40 bp repeat. Conclusions/Significance These data suggest that the 40 bp repeat contributes to latency amplification and might be involved in the regulation of viral gene expression. PMID:17710133

  5. Improved UT1 Predictions through Low-Latency VLBI Observations

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-03-14

    J Geod (2010) 84:399–402 DOI 10.1007/s00190-010-0372-8 SHORT NOTE Improved UT1 predictions through low-latency VLBI observations Brian Luzum · Axel...polar motion and nutation on UT1 determinations from VLBI Intensive obser- vations. J Geod 82(12):863. doi:10.1007/s00190-008-0212-2 Ray JR, Carter WE...Behrend D (2007) The International VLBI Service for Geodesy and Astrometry (IVS): current capabilities and future prospects. J Geod 81(6–8):479. doi

  6. A Procedure for Measuring Latencies in Brain-Computer Interfaces

    PubMed Central

    Wilson, J. Adam; Mellinger, Jürgen; Schalk, Gerwin; Williams, Justin

    2011-01-01

    Brain-computer interface (BCI) systems must process neural signals with consistent timing in order to support adequate system performance. Thus, it is important to have the capability to determine whether a particular BCI configuration (i.e., hardware, software) provides adequate timing performance for a particular experiment. This report presents a method of measuring and quantifying different aspects of system timing in several typical BCI experiments across a range of settings, and presents comprehensive measures of expected overall system latency for each experimental configuration. PMID:20403781

  7. Absolute quantification of microbial taxon abundances.

    PubMed

    Props, Ruben; Kerckhof, Frederiek-Maarten; Rubbens, Peter; De Vrieze, Jo; Hernandez Sanabria, Emma; Waegeman, Willem; Monsieurs, Pieter; Hammes, Frederik; Boon, Nico

    2017-02-01

    High-throughput amplicon sequencing has become a well-established approach for microbial community profiling. Correlating shifts in the relative abundances of bacterial taxa with environmental gradients is the goal of many microbiome surveys. As the abundances generated by this technology are semi-quantitative by definition, the observed dynamics may not accurately reflect those of the actual taxon densities. We combined the sequencing approach (16S rRNA gene) with robust single-cell enumeration technologies (flow cytometry) to quantify the absolute taxon abundances. A detailed longitudinal analysis of the absolute abundances resulted in distinct abundance profiles that were less ambiguous and expressed in units that can be directly compared across studies. We further provide evidence that the enrichment of taxa (increase in relative abundance) does not necessarily relate to the outgrowth of taxa (increase in absolute abundance). Our results highlight that both relative and absolute abundances should be considered for a comprehensive biological interpretation of microbiome surveys.

  8. Low absolute neutrophil counts in African infants.

    PubMed

    Kourtis, Athena P; Bramson, Brian; van der Horst, Charles; Kazembe, Peter; Ahmed, Yusuf; Chasela, Charles; Hosseinipour, Mina; Knight, Rodney; Lugalia, Lebah; Tegha, Gerald; Joaki, George; Jafali, Robert; Jamieson, Denise J

    2005-07-01

    Infants of African origin have a lower normal range of absolute neutrophil counts than white infants; this fact, however, remains under appreciated by clinical researchers in the United States. During the initial stages of a clinical trial in Malawi, the authors noted an unexpectedly high number of infants with absolute neutrophil counts that would be classifiable as neutropenic using the National Institutes of Health's Division of AIDS toxicity tables. The authors argue that the relevant Division of AIDS table does not take into account the available evidence of low absolute neutrophil counts in African infants and that a systematic collection of data from many African settings might help establish the absolute neutrophil count cutpoints to be used for defining neutropenia in African populations.

  9. A New Gimmick for Assigning Absolute Configuration.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ayorinde, F. O.

    1983-01-01

    A five-step procedure is provided to help students in making the assignment absolute configuration less bothersome. Examples for both single (2-butanol) and multi-chiral carbon (3-chloro-2-butanol) molecules are included. (JN)

  10. Absolute colorimetric characterization of a DSLR camera

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guarnera, Giuseppe Claudio; Bianco, Simone; Schettini, Raimondo

    2014-03-01

    A simple but effective technique for absolute colorimetric camera characterization is proposed. It offers a large dynamic range requiring just a single, off-the-shelf target and a commonly available controllable light source for the characterization. The characterization task is broken down in two modules, respectively devoted to absolute luminance estimation and to colorimetric characterization matrix estimation. The characterized camera can be effectively used as a tele-colorimeter, giving an absolute estimation of the XYZ data in cd=m2. The user is only required to vary the f - number of the camera lens or the exposure time t, to better exploit the sensor dynamic range. The estimated absolute tristimulus values closely match the values measured by a professional spectro-radiometer.

  11. Global EOS: exploring the 300-ms-latency region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mascetti, L.; Jericho, D.; Hsu, C.-Y.

    2017-10-01

    EOS, the CERN open-source distributed disk storage system, provides the highperformance storage solution for HEP analysis and the back-end for various work-flows. Recently EOS became the back-end of CERNBox, the cloud synchronisation service for CERN users. EOS can be used to take advantage of wide-area distributed installations: for the last few years CERN EOS uses a common deployment across two computer centres (Geneva-Meyrin and Budapest-Wigner) about 1,000 km apart (∼20-ms latency) with about 200 PB of disk (JBOD). In late 2015, the CERN-IT Storage group and AARNET (Australia) set-up a challenging R&D project: a single EOS instance between CERN and AARNET with more than 300ms latency (16,500 km apart). This paper will report about the success in deploy and run a distributed storage system between Europe (Geneva, Budapest), Australia (Melbourne) and later in Asia (ASGC Taipei), allowing different type of data placement and data access across these four sites.

  12. Silent latency periods in methylmercury poisoning and in neurodegenerative disease.

    PubMed Central

    Weiss, Bernard; Clarkson, Thomas W; Simon, William

    2002-01-01

    This article discusses three examples of delay (latency) in the appearance of signs and symptoms of poisoning after exposure to methylmercury. First, a case is presented of a 150-day delay period before the clinical manifestations of brain damage after a single brief (<1 day) exposure to dimethylmercury. The second example is taken from the Iraq outbreak of methylmercury poisoning in which the victims consumed contaminated bread for several weeks without any ill effects. Indeed, signs of poisoning did not appear until weeks or months after exposure stopped. The last example is drawn from observations on nonhuman primates and from the sequelae of the Minamata, Japan, outbreak in which low chronic doses of methylmercury may not have produced observable behavioral effects for periods of time measured in years. The mechanisms of these latency periods are discussed for both acute and chronic exposures. Parallels are drawn with other diseases that affect the central nervous system, such as Parkinson disease and post-polio syndrome, that also reflect the delayed appearance of central nervous system damage. PMID:12426145

  13. Silent latency periods in methylmercury poisoning and in neurodegenerative disease.

    PubMed

    Weiss, Bernard; Clarkson, Thomas W; Simon, William

    2002-10-01

    This article discusses three examples of delay (latency) in the appearance of signs and symptoms of poisoning after exposure to methylmercury. First, a case is presented of a 150-day delay period before the clinical manifestations of brain damage after a single brief (<1 day) exposure to dimethylmercury. The second example is taken from the Iraq outbreak of methylmercury poisoning in which the victims consumed contaminated bread for several weeks without any ill effects. Indeed, signs of poisoning did not appear until weeks or months after exposure stopped. The last example is drawn from observations on nonhuman primates and from the sequelae of the Minamata, Japan, outbreak in which low chronic doses of methylmercury may not have produced observable behavioral effects for periods of time measured in years. The mechanisms of these latency periods are discussed for both acute and chronic exposures. Parallels are drawn with other diseases that affect the central nervous system, such as Parkinson disease and post-polio syndrome, that also reflect the delayed appearance of central nervous system damage.

  14. Long-latency neurodegenerative disease in the western Pacific.

    PubMed

    Spencer, P S; Kisby, G E; Ludolph, A C

    1991-08-01

    The western Pacific parkinsonism-dementia and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis complex is a prototypical neurodegenerative disorder found among inhabitants of Guam, New Guinea (Irian Jaya, Indonesia) and Japan (Kii Peninsula, Honshu). Nonviral environmental factors peculiar to the affected populations seem to play a prominent etiologic role. Although cause-effect relationships cannot be established by epidemiologic studies alone, we have shown in all three affected population groups that individuals develop the amyotrophic lateral sclerosis variant of this disorder after heavy exposure to the raw or incompletely detoxified seed of neurotoxic cycad plants. Since long periods may elapse between cycad exposure and the appearance of neurological disease in humans, cycads may harbor a "slow toxin" that causes the postmitotic neuron to undergo slow irreversible degeneration. Two cycad neurotoxins are recognized, one of which (cycasin) is known to have long-latency effects (tumorigenesis) on mitotic neurons and replicating cells in other tissues. This paper explores the possible relationship between tumorigenesis and long-latency neurotoxicity, and discusses possible biologic markers of cycad exposure and subclinical neurodegenerative disease.

  15. Diesel exhaust causing low-dose irritant asthma with latency?

    PubMed

    Adewole, Femi; Moore, Vicky C; Robertson, Alastair S; Burge, P S

    2009-09-01

    Diesel exhaust exposure may cause acute irritant-induced asthma and potentiate allergen-induced asthma. There are no previous reports of occupational asthma due to diesel exhaust. To describe occupational asthma with latency in workers exposed to diesel exhaust in bus garages. The Shield database of occupational asthma notifications in the West Midlands, UK, was searched between 1990 and 2006 for workers where diesel exhaust exposure was thought to be the cause of the occupational asthma. Those without other confounding exposures whose occupational asthma was validated by serial peak expiratory flow (PEF) analysis using Oasys software were included. Fifteen workers were identified with occupational asthma attributed to diesel exhaust. Three had validated new-onset asthma with latency. All worked in bus garages where diesel exhaust exposure was the only likely cause of their occupational asthma. Occupational asthma was confirmed by measures of non-specific reactivity and serial measurements of PEF with Oasys scores of 2.9, 3.73 and 4 (positive score > 2.5). The known non-specific irritant effects of diesel exhaust suggest that this is an example of low-dose irritant-induced asthma and that exposures to diesel exhaust in at least some bus garages are at a sufficient level to cause this.

  16. Long latency postural responses are functionally modified by cognitive set.

    PubMed

    Beckley, D J; Bloem, B R; Remler, M P; Roos, R A; Van Dijk, J G

    1991-10-01

    We examined how cognitive set influences the long latency components of normal postural responses in the legs. We disturbed the postural stability of standing human subjects with sudden toe-up ankle rotations. To influence the subjects' cognitive set, we varied the rotation amplitude either predictably (serial 4 degrees versus serial 10 degrees) or unpredictably (random mixture of 4 degrees and 10 degrees). The subjects' responses to these ankle rotations were assessed from the EMG activity of the tibialis anterior, the medial gastrocnemius, and the vastus lateralis muscles of the left leg. The results indicate that, when the rotation amplitude is predictable, only the amplitude of the long latency (LL) response in tibialis anterior and vastus lateralis varied directly with perturbation size. Furthermore, when the rotation amplitude is unpredictable, the central nervous system selects a default amplitude for the LL response in the tibialis anterior. When normal subjects are exposed to 2 perturbation amplitudes which include the potential risk of falling, the default LL response in tibialis anterior appropriately anticipates the larger amplitude perturbation rather than the smaller or an intermediate one.

  17. On determining absolute entropy without quantum theory or the third law of thermodynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steane, Andrew M.

    2016-04-01

    We employ classical thermodynamics to gain information about absolute entropy, without recourse to statistical methods, quantum mechanics or the third law of thermodynamics. The Gibbs-Duhem equation yields various simple methods to determine the absolute entropy of a fluid. We also study the entropy of an ideal gas and the ionization of a plasma in thermal equilibrium. A single measurement of the degree of ionization can be used to determine an unknown constant in the entropy equation, and thus determine the absolute entropy of a gas. It follows from all these examples that the value of entropy at absolute zero temperature does not need to be assigned by postulate, but can be deduced empirically.

  18. Segment scheduling method for reducing 360° video streaming latency

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gudumasu, Srinivas; Asbun, Eduardo; He, Yong; Ye, Yan

    2017-09-01

    360° video is an emerging new format in the media industry enabled by the growing availability of virtual reality devices. It provides the viewer a new sense of presence and immersion. Compared to conventional rectilinear video (2D or 3D), 360° video poses a new and difficult set of engineering challenges on video processing and delivery. Enabling comfortable and immersive user experience requires very high video quality and very low latency, while the large video file size poses a challenge to delivering 360° video in a quality manner at scale. Conventionally, 360° video represented in equirectangular or other projection formats can be encoded as a single standards-compliant bitstream using existing video codecs such as H.264/AVC or H.265/HEVC. Such method usually needs very high bandwidth to provide an immersive user experience. While at the client side, much of such high bandwidth and the computational power used to decode the video are wasted because the user only watches a small portion (i.e., viewport) of the entire picture. Viewport dependent 360°video processing and delivery approaches spend more bandwidth on the viewport than on non-viewports and are therefore able to reduce the overall transmission bandwidth. This paper proposes a dual buffer segment scheduling algorithm for viewport adaptive streaming methods to reduce latency when switching between high quality viewports in 360° video streaming. The approach decouples the scheduling of viewport segments and non-viewport segments to ensure the viewport segment requested matches the latest user head orientation. A base layer buffer stores all lower quality segments, and a viewport buffer stores high quality viewport segments corresponding to the most recent viewer's head orientation. The scheduling scheme determines viewport requesting time based on the buffer status and the head orientation. This paper also discusses how to deploy the proposed scheduling design for various viewport adaptive video

  19. Jasminum flexile flower absolute from India--a detailed comparison with three other jasmine absolutes.

    PubMed

    Braun, Norbert A; Kohlenberg, Birgit; Sim, Sherina; Meier, Manfred; Hammerschmidt, Franz-Josef

    2009-09-01

    Jasminum flexile flower absolute from the south of India and the corresponding vacuum headspace (VHS) sample of the absolute were analyzed using GC and GC-MS. Three other commercially available Indian jasmine absolutes from the species: J. sambac, J. officinale subsp. grandiflorum, and J. auriculatum and the respective VHS samples were used for comparison purposes. One hundred and twenty-one compounds were characterized in J. flexile flower absolute, with methyl linolate, benzyl salicylate, benzyl benzoate, (2E,6E)-farnesol, and benzyl acetate as the main constituents. A detailed olfactory evaluation was also performed.

  20. Universal Cosmic Absolute and Modern Science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kostro, Ludwik

    The official Sciences, especially all natural sciences, respect in their researches the principle of methodic naturalism i.e. they consider all phenomena as entirely natural and therefore in their scientific explanations they do never adduce or cite supernatural entities and forces. The purpose of this paper is to show that Modern Science has its own self-existent, self-acting, and self-sufficient Natural All-in Being or Omni-Being i.e. the entire Nature as a Whole that justifies the scientific methodic naturalism. Since this Natural All-in Being is one and only It should be considered as the own scientifically justified Natural Absolute of Science and should be called, in my opinion, the Universal Cosmic Absolute of Modern Science. It will be also shown that the Universal Cosmic Absolute is ontologically enormously stratified and is in its ultimate i.e. in its most fundamental stratum trans-reistic and trans-personal. It means that in its basic stratum. It is neither a Thing or a Person although It contains in Itself all things and persons with all other sentient and conscious individuals as well, On the turn of the 20th century the Science has begun to look for a theory of everything, for a final theory, for a master theory. In my opinion the natural Universal Cosmic Absolute will constitute in such a theory the radical all penetrating Ultimate Basic Reality and will substitute step by step the traditional supernatural personal Absolute.

  1. Latency reversal and viral clearance to cure HIV-1

    PubMed Central

    Margolis, David M.; Garcia, J. Victor; Hazuda, Daria J.; Haynes, Barton F.

    2016-01-01

    Research toward a cure for human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) infection has joined prevention and treatment efforts in the global public health agenda. A major approach to HIV eradication envisions antiretroviral suppression, paired with targeted therapies to enforce the expression of viral antigen from quiescent HIV-1 genomes, and immunotherapies to clear latent infection. These strategies are targeted to lead to viral eradication—a cure for AIDS. Paired testing of latency reversal and clearance strategies has begun, but additional obstacles to HIV eradication may emerge. Nevertheless, there is reason for optimism that advances in long-acting antiretroviral therapy and HIV prevention strategies will contribute to efforts in HIV cure research and that the implementation of these efforts will synergize to markedly blunt the effect of the HIV pandemic on society. PMID:27463679

  2. Latency reversal and viral clearance to cure HIV-1.

    PubMed

    Margolis, David M; Garcia, J Victor; Hazuda, Daria J; Haynes, Barton F

    2016-07-22

    Research toward a cure for human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) infection has joined prevention and treatment efforts in the global public health agenda. A major approach to HIV eradication envisions antiretroviral suppression, paired with targeted therapies to enforce the expression of viral antigen from quiescent HIV-1 genomes, and immunotherapies to clear latent infection. These strategies are targeted to lead to viral eradication--a cure for AIDS. Paired testing of latency reversal and clearance strategies has begun, but additional obstacles to HIV eradication may emerge. Nevertheless, there is reason for optimism that advances in long-acting antiretroviral therapy and HIV prevention strategies will contribute to efforts in HIV cure research and that the implementation of these efforts will synergize to markedly blunt the effect of the HIV pandemic on society. Copyright © 2016, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  3. Measurement errors in voice-key naming latency for Hiragana.

    PubMed

    Yamada, Jun; Tamaoka, Katsuo

    2003-12-01

    This study makes explicit the limitations and possibilities of voice-key naming latency research on single hiragana symbols (a Japanese syllabic script) by examining three sets of voice-key naming data against Sakuma, Fushimi, and Tatsumi's 1997 speech-analyzer voice-waveform data. Analysis showed that voice-key measurement errors can be substantial in standard procedures as they may conceal the true effects of significant variables involved in hiragana-naming behavior. While one can avoid voice-key measurement errors to some extent by applying Sakuma, et al.'s deltas and by excluding initial phonemes which induce measurement errors, such errors may be ignored when test items are words and other higher-level linguistic materials.

  4. Short latency compound action potentials from mammalian gravity receptor organs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, T. A.; Jones, S. M.

    1999-01-01

    Gravity receptor function was characterized in four mammalian species using far-field vestibular evoked potentials (VsEPs). VsEPs are compound action potentials of the vestibular nerve and central relays that are elicited by linear acceleration ramps applied to the cranium. Rats, mice, guinea pigs, and gerbils were studied. In all species, response onset occurred within 1.5 ms of the stimulus onset. Responses persisted during intense (116 dBSPL) wide-band (50 to 50 inverted question mark omitted inverted question mark000 Hz) forward masking, whereas auditory responses to intense clicks (112 dBpeSPL) were eliminated under the same conditions. VsEPs remained after cochlear extirpation but were eliminated following bilateral labyrinthectomy. Responses included a series of positive and negative peaks that occurred within 8 ms of stimulus onset (range of means at +6 dBre: 1.0 g/ms: P1=908 to 1062 micros, N1=1342 to 1475 micros, P2=1632 to 1952 micros, N2=2038 to 2387 micros). Mean response amplitudes at +6 dBre: 1.0 g/ms ranged from 0.14 to 0.99 microV. VsEP input/output functions revealed latency slopes that varied across peaks and species ranging from -19 to -51 micros/dB. Amplitude-intensity slopes also varied ranging from 0.04 to 0.08 microV/dB for rats and mice. Latency values were comparable to those of birds although amplitudes were substantially smaller in mammals. VsEP threshold values were considerably higher in mammals compared to birds and ranged from -8.1 to -10.5 dBre 1.0 g/ms across species. These results support the hypothesis that mammalian gravity receptors are less sensitive to dynamic stimuli than are those of birds.

  5. Long Latency Auditory Evoked Potential in Term and Premature Infants

    PubMed Central

    Didoné, Dayane Domeneghini; Garcia, Michele Vargas; da Silveira, Aron Ferreira

    2013-01-01

    Introduction The research in long latency auditory evokes potentials (LLAEP) in newborns is recent because of the cortical structure maturation, but studies note that these potentials may be evidenced at this age and could be considered as indicators of cognitive development. Purpose To research the exogenous potentials in term and premature infants during their first month of life. Materials and Methods The sample consisted of 25 newborns, 15 term and 10 premature infants. The infants with gestational age under 37 weeks were considered premature. To evaluate the cortical potentials, the infants remained in natural sleep. The LLAEPs were researched binaurally, through insertion earphones, with frequent /ba/ and rare /ga/ speech stimuli in the intensity of 80 dB HL (decibel hearing level). The frequent stimuli presented a total of 80% of the presentations, and the rare, 20%. The data were statistically analyzed. Results The average gestational age of the term infants was 38.9 weeks (± 1.3) and for the premature group, 33.9 weeks (± 1.6). It was possible to observe only the potentials P1 and N1 in both groups, but there was no statistically significant difference for the latencies of the components P1 and N1 (p > 0.05) between the groups. Conclusion It was possible to observe the exogenous components P1 and N1 of the cortical potentials in both term and preterm newborns of no more than 1 month of age. However, there was no difference between the groups. PMID:25992057

  6. Fault latency in the memory - An experimental study on VAX 11/780

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chillarege, Ram; Iyer, Ravishankar K.

    1986-01-01

    Fault latency is the time between the physical occurrence of a fault and its corruption of data, causing an error. The measure of this time is difficult to obtain because the time of occurrence of a fault and the exact moment of generation of an error are not known. This paper describes an experiment to accurately study the fault latency in the memory subsystem. The experiment employs real memory data from a VAX 11/780 at the University of Illinois. Fault latency distributions are generated for s-a-0 and s-a-1 permanent fault models. Results show that the mean fault latency of a s-a-0 fault is nearly 5 times that of the s-a-1 fault. Large variations in fault latency are found for different regions in memory. An analysis of a variance model to quantify the relative influence of various workload measures on the evaluated latency is also given.

  7. Stimulus probability effects in absolute identification.

    PubMed

    Kent, Christopher; Lamberts, Koen

    2016-05-01

    This study investigated the effect of stimulus presentation probability on accuracy and response times in an absolute identification task. Three schedules of presentation were used to investigate the interaction between presentation probability and stimulus position within the set. Data from individual participants indicated strong effects of presentation probability on both proportion correct and response times. The effects were moderated by the ubiquitous stimulus position effect. The accuracy and response time data were predicted by an exemplar-based model of perceptual cognition (Kent & Lamberts, 2005). The bow in discriminability was also attenuated when presentation probability for middle items was relatively high, an effect that will constrain future model development. The study provides evidence for item-specific learning in absolute identification. Implications for other theories of absolute identification are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  8. Absolute gravimetry for monitoring geodynamics in Greenland.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nielsen, E.; Strykowski, G.; Forsberg, R.

    2015-12-01

    Here are presented the preliminary results of the absolute gravity measurements done in Greenland by DTU Space with their A10 absolute gravimeter (the A10-019). The purpose, besides establishing and maintaining a national gravity network, is to study geodynamics.The absolute gravity measurements are juxtaposed with the permanent GNET GNSS stations. The first measurements were conducted in 2009 and a few sites have been re-visited. As of present is there a gravity value at 18 GNET sites.There are challenges in interpreting the measurements from Greenland and several signals has to be taken into account, besides the geodynamical signals originating from the changing load of the ice, there is also a clear signal of direct attraction from different masses. Here are presented the preliminary results of our measurements in Greenland and attempts explain them through modelling of the geodynamical signals and the direct attraction from the ocean and ice.

  9. Absolute Distance Measurement with the MSTAR Sensor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lay, Oliver P.; Dubovitsky, Serge; Peters, Robert; Burger, Johan; Ahn, Seh-Won; Steier, William H.; Fetterman, Harrold R.; Chang, Yian

    2003-01-01

    The MSTAR sensor (Modulation Sideband Technology for Absolute Ranging) is a new system for measuring absolute distance, capable of resolving the integer cycle ambiguity of standard interferometers, and making it possible to measure distance with sub-nanometer accuracy. The sensor uses a single laser in conjunction with fast phase modulators and low frequency detectors. We describe the design of the system - the principle of operation, the metrology source, beamlaunching optics, and signal processing - and show results for target distances up to 1 meter. We then demonstrate how the system can be scaled to kilometer-scale distances.

  10. Alignment and absolute wavelength calibration of imaging Bragg spectrometers.

    PubMed

    Bertschinger, G; Marchuk, O; Barnsley, R

    2016-11-01

    In the present and the next generation of fusion devices, imaging Bragg spectrometers are key diagnostics to measure plasma parameters in the hot core, especially ion temperature and plasma rotation. The latter quantities are routinely obtained using the Doppler-width and -shift of the emitted spectral lines, respectively. Line shift measurements require absolute accuracies Δλ/λ of about 10 ppm, where λ-is the observed wavelength. For ITER and the present fusion devices, spectral lines of He-and H-like argon, iron, and krypton as well as Ne-like tungsten are foreseen for the measurements. For these lines, Kα lines can be found, some in higher order, which fit into the narrow energy window of the spectrometers. For arbitrary wavelength settings, Kα lines are also used to measure the miscut of the spherical crystals; afterwards the spectrometers can be set according to the geometrical imaging properties using coordinate measurement machines. For the spectrometers measuring Lyα lines of H-like ions, fluorescence targets can provide in situ localized calibration lines on the spectra. The fluorescence targets are used best in transmission and are excited by the thermal x-ray radiation of the plasma. An analytic theory of fluorescence is worked out.

  11. Avoiding and tolerating latency in large-scale next-generation shared-memory multiprocessors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Probst, David K.

    1993-01-01

    A scalable solution to the memory-latency problem is necessary to prevent the large latencies of synchronization and memory operations inherent in large-scale shared-memory multiprocessors from reducing high performance. We distinguish latency avoidance and latency tolerance. Latency is avoided when data is brought to nearby locales for future reference. Latency is tolerated when references are overlapped with other computation. Latency-avoiding locales include: processor registers, data caches used temporally, and nearby memory modules. Tolerating communication latency requires parallelism, allowing the overlap of communication and computation. Latency-tolerating techniques include: vector pipelining, data caches used spatially, prefetching in various forms, and multithreading in various forms. Relaxing the consistency model permits increased use of avoidance and tolerance techniques. Each model is a mapping from the program text to sets of partial orders on program operations; it is a convention about which temporal precedences among program operations are necessary. Information about temporal locality and parallelism constrains the use of avoidance and tolerance techniques. Suitable architectural primitives and compiler technology are required to exploit the increased freedom to reorder and overlap operations in relaxed models.

  12. The influence of non-nociceptive factors on hot-plate latency in rats.

    PubMed

    Gunn, Amanda; Bobeck, Erin N; Weber, Ceri; Morgan, Michael M

    2011-02-01

    The hot plate is a widely used test to assess nociception. The effect of non-nociceptive factors (weight, sex, activity, habituation, and repeated testing) on hot-plate latency was examined. Comparison of body weight and hot-plate latency revealed a small but significant inverse correlation (light rats had longer latencies). Habituating rats to the test room for 1 hour prior to testing did not decrease hot-plate latency except for female rats tested on days 2 to 4. Hot-plate latency decreased with repeated daily testing, but this was not caused by a decrease in locomotor activity or learning to respond. Activity on the hot plate was consistent across all 4 trials, and prior exposure to a room-temperature plate caused a similar decrease in latency as rats tested repeatedly on the hot plate. Despite this decrease in baseline hot-plate latency, there was no difference in morphine antinociceptive potency. The present study shows that weight, habituation to the test room, and repeated testing can alter baseline hot-plate latency, but these effects are small and have relatively little impact on morphine antinociception. This manuscript shows that non-nociceptive factors such as body weight, habituation, and repeated testing can alter hot-plate latency, but these factors do not alter morphine potency. In sum, the hot-plate test is an easy to use and reliable method to assess supraspinally organized nociceptive responses. Copyright © 2011 American Pain Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Absolute bioavailability and pharmacokinetics of avosentan in man.

    PubMed

    Dieterle, W; Hengelage, T

    2009-09-01

    Avosentan is a potent, selective endothelin A receptor blocker. The pharmacokinetics of avosentan were investigated in healthy male and female volunteers, following oral and i.v. administration of single doses of avosentan and its absolute bioavailability was determined. In a randomized, balanced open-label, three-period oral crossover study, 26 healthy subjects (19 males and 7 females) received Treatments A, B and C. Treatment A consisted of a single dose of a 25 mg film-coated tablet of avosentan, Treatment B of a single dose of a 50 mg film-coated tablet of avosentan and Treatment C of 10 mg avosentan in 20 ml solution for infusion for 20 minutes (10 mg avosentan in 20 ml phosphate buffer pH 9.0 containing 1% polysorbate 20). Plasma concentrations of avosentan and its hydroxymethyl metabolite Ro 68-5925 were measured by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. The absolute bioavailability values (compared with i.v. infusion) for the 25 and 50 mg film-coated tablets were 81% and 72%, respectively. The extent of absorption, as measured by partial and total AUC, increased almost proportionally with the dose. The estimated proportionality coefficient for AUC0- yen was 1.12 (90% CI 1.06, 1.18). For the rate of absorption (Cmax) strict dose-proportionality was not demonstrated (proportionality coefficient 1.13 (90% CI 1.0, 1.28)). No relevant gender differences in the pharmacokinetic characteristics were evident after a single i.v. dose and at an oral dose of 25 mg, whereas after oral administration of 50 mg of avosentan differences were seen in Cmax and t1/2. The absolute bioavailability of avosentan film-coated tablets is high, i.e. 70 - 80%.

  14. Solving Absolute Value Equations Algebraically and Geometrically

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shiyuan, Wei

    2005-01-01

    The way in which students can improve their comprehension by understanding the geometrical meaning of algebraic equations or solving algebraic equation geometrically is described. Students can experiment with the conditions of the absolute value equation presented, for an interesting way to form an overall understanding of the concept.

  15. Stimulus Probability Effects in Absolute Identification

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kent, Christopher; Lamberts, Koen

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated the effect of stimulus presentation probability on accuracy and response times in an absolute identification task. Three schedules of presentation were used to investigate the interaction between presentation probability and stimulus position within the set. Data from individual participants indicated strong effects of…

  16. Increasing Capacity: Practice Effects in Absolute Identification

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dodds, Pennie; Donkin, Christopher; Brown, Scott D.; Heathcote, Andrew

    2011-01-01

    In most of the long history of the study of absolute identification--since Miller's (1956) seminal article--a severe limit on performance has been observed, and this limit has resisted improvement even by extensive practice. In a startling result, Rouder, Morey, Cowan, and Pfaltz (2004) found substantially improved performance with practice in the…

  17. On Relative and Absolute Conviction in Mathematics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weber, Keith; Mejia-Ramos, Juan Pablo

    2015-01-01

    Conviction is a central construct in mathematics education research on justification and proof. In this paper, we claim that it is important to distinguish between absolute conviction and relative conviction. We argue that researchers in mathematics education frequently have not done so and this has lead to researchers making unwarranted claims…

  18. Absolute Points for Multiple Assignment Problems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adlakha, V.; Kowalski, K.

    2006-01-01

    An algorithm is presented to solve multiple assignment problems in which a cost is incurred only when an assignment is made at a given cell. The proposed method recursively searches for single/group absolute points to identify cells that must be loaded in any optimal solution. Unlike other methods, the first solution is the optimal solution. The…

  19. Premature ejaculation: bother and intravaginal ejaculatory latency time in Iran.

    PubMed

    Zargooshi, Javaad

    2009-12-01

    Complaints of premature ejaculation (PE) and its repercussions are culture-dependent. To report the measured intravaginal ejaculatory latency time (IELT) and the impact of PE in Kermanshah, Iran. From November 1996 through October 2008, 3,458 patients presented to us with self-diagnosed PE. In the first visit, after obtaining a psychosocial and sexual history, PE-specific bother was self-rated by the patients and the patients were advised to measure their IELTs over the next 2-3 weeks. In the second visit, the measured IELTs were reported by the patients. Patients' measured IELT and bother score. Age range was 17-80 years (mean 34.1, standard deviation [SD] 9.1, median 32). Sixty-five percent were married. Primary and secondary PE was reported by 2,105 (60.8%) and 1,353 (39.1%) patients, respectively. Occasional PE was reported by 36 (0.01%). Of those with multiple partners, 6% had partner-specific PE. IELT distribution was positively skewed. Anteportal ejaculation was reported by 97 (2.8%). In 3,458 self-reported PE patients, IELT was 1-15 seconds in 542 (15.7%), 16-30 seconds in 442 (12.8%), 31-60 seconds in 978 (28.3%), > 1 2 5 minutes in 136 (3.9%). IELTs of

  20. Comparison of Sleep Latency and Number of SOREMPs in the Home and Hospital With a Modified Multiple Sleep Latency Test: A Randomized Crossover Study.

    PubMed

    Beiske, Kornelia K; Sand, Trond; Rugland, Eyvind; Stavem, Knut

    2017-05-01

    Comparison of mean sleep latencies and number of sleep-onset rapid eye movement periods (SOREMPs) between modified multiple sleep latency test (MSLT) performed in the unattended home and in-hospital laboratory setting. A randomized crossover single-blinded design. Thirty-four subjects referred to MSLT for suspected hypersomnia or narcolepsy were included. Participants were randomized to perform modified MSLT in the unattended home or in the hospital first. Scores in the two settings were compared using Wilcoxon signed-rank test or exact McNemar test. Agreement between home and hospital categorized mean sleep latency and number of SOREMPs was assessed using simple kappa (κ) and proportion agreement. Agreement between home and hospital mean sleep latency was assessed using a Bland-Altman plot and an intraclass correlation coefficient. There was no difference between home and hospital assessment of mean sleep latency (P = 0.86). Two or more SOREMPs were found more frequently on modified MSLTs performed at home compared with those at the hospital (7 and 2, respectively; P = 0.025). Agreement was moderate for categorized sleep latency (κ = 0.53) and fair for categorized SOREMPs (κ = 0.39) in the 2 settings. Analysis of mean sleep latency using intraclass correlation coefficient showed a very good agreement between the two settings. Group mean sleep latency for home modified MSLTs seems to be reliable compared with that for the attended sleep-laboratory setting. Higher rate of SOREMP in the unattended home suggests that napping in a familiar environment facilitates the transition into REM sleep. Further studies are needed to assess the normal limit, sensitivity, and specificity for SOREMP at home before the clinical utility of home-based napping can be determined.

  1. A multinational population survey of intravaginal ejaculation latency time.

    PubMed

    Waldinger, Marcel D; Quinn, Paul; Dilleen, Maria; Mundayat, Rajiv; Schweitzer, Dave H; Boolell, Mitradev

    2005-07-01

    Intravaginal ejaculation latency time (IELT), defined as the time between the start of vaginal intromission and the start of intravaginal ejaculation, is increasingly used in clinical trials to assess the amount of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor-induced ejaculation delay in men with premature ejaculation. Prospectively, stopwatch assessment of IELTs has superior accuracy compared with retrospective questionnaire and spontaneous reported latency. However, the IELT distribution in the general male population has not been previously assessed. To determine the stopwatch assessed-IELT distribution in large random male cohorts of different countries. A total of 500 couples were recruited from five countries: the Netherlands, United Kingdom, Spain, Turkey, and the United States. Enrolled men were aged 18 years or older, had a stable heterosexual relationship for at least 6 months, with regular sexual intercourse. The surveyed population were not included or excluded by their ejaculatory status and comorbidities. This survey was performed on a "normal" general population. Sexual events and stopwatch-timed IELTs during a 4-week period were recorded, as well as circumcision status and condom use. The IELT, circumcision status, and condom use. The distribution of the IELT in all the five countries was positively skewed, with a median IELT of 5.4 minutes (range, 0.55-44.1 minutes). The median IELT decreased significantly with age, from 6.5 minutes in the 18-30 years group, to 4.3 minutes in the group older than 51 years (P<0.0001). The median IELT varied between countries, with the median value for Turkey being the lowest, i.e., 3.7 minutes (0.9-30.4 minutes), which was significantly different from each of the other countries. Comparison of circumcised (N=98) and not-circumcised (N=261) men in countries excluding Turkey resulted in median IELT values of 6.7 minutes (0.7-44.1 minutes) in circumcised compared with 6.0 minutes (0.5-37.4 minutes) in not-circumcised men

  2. Influence of Herpes Simplex Virus 1 Latency-Associated Transcripts on the Establishment and Maintenance of Latency in the ROSA26R Reporter Mouse Model

    PubMed Central

    Nicoll, M. P.; Proença, J. T.; Connor, V.

    2012-01-01

    Herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1) can establish life-long latent infection in sensory neurons, from which periodic reactivation can occur. During latency, viral gene expression is largely restricted to the latency-associated transcripts (LATs). While not essential for any phase of latency, to date the LATs have been shown to increase the efficiency of both establishment and reactivation of latency in small-animal models. We sought to investigate the role of LAT expression in the frequency of latency establishment within the ROSA26R reporter mouse model utilizing Cre recombinase-encoding recombinant viruses harboring deletions of the core LAT promoter (LAP) region. HSV-1 LAT expression was observed to influence the number of latently infected neurons in trigeminal but not dorsal root ganglia. Furthermore, the relative frequencies of latency establishment of LAT-positive and LAT-negative viruses are influenced by the inoculum dose following infection of the mouse whisker pads. Finally, analysis of the infected cell population at two latent time points revealed a relative loss of latently infected cells in the absence of LAT expression. We conclude that the HSV-1 LATs facilitate the long-term stability of the latent cell population within the infected host and that interpretation of LAT establishment phenotypes is influenced by infection methodology. PMID:22696655

  3. Current views on HIV-1 latency, persistence, and cure.

    PubMed

    Melkova, Zora; Shankaran, Prakash; Madlenakova, Michaela; Bodor, Josef

    2017-01-01

    HIV-1 infection cannot be cured as it persists in latently infected cells that are targeted neither by the immune system nor by available therapeutic approaches. Consequently, a lifelong therapy suppressing only the actively replicating virus is necessary. The latent reservoir has been defined and characterized in various experimental models and in human patients, allowing research and development of approaches targeting individual steps critical for HIV-1 latency establishment, maintenance, and reactivation. However, additional mechanisms and processes driving the remaining low-level HIV-1 replication in the presence of the suppressive therapy still remain to be identified and targeted. Current approaches toward HIV-1 cure involve namely attempts to reactivate and purge HIV latently infected cells (so-called "shock and kill" strategy), as well as approaches involving gene therapy and/or gene editing and stem cell transplantation aiming at generation of cells resistant to HIV-1. This review summarizes current views and concepts underlying different approaches aiming at functional or sterilizing cure of HIV-1 infection.

  4. Latencies in BOLD response during visual attention processes.

    PubMed

    Kellermann, Thilo; Reske, Martina; Jansen, Andreas; Satrapi, Peyman; Shah, N Jon; Schneider, Frank; Habel, Ute

    2011-04-22

    One well-investigated division of attentional processes focuses on alerting, orienting and executive control, which can be assessed applying the attentional network test (ANT). The goal of the present study was to add further knowledge about the temporal dynamics of relevant neural correlates. As a right hemispheric dominance for alerting and orienting has previously been reported for intrinsic but not for phasic alertness, we additionally addressed a potential impact of this lateralization of attention by employing a lateralized version of the ANT, capturing phasic alertness processes. Sixteen healthy subjects underwent event-related functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) while performing the ANT. Analyses of BOLD magnitude replicated the engagement of a fronto-parietal network in the attentional subsystems. The amplitudes of the attentional contrasts interacted with visual field presentation in the sense that the thalamus revealed a greater involvement for spatially cued items presented in the left visual field. Comparisons of BOLD latencies in visual cortices, first, verified faster BOLD responses following contra-lateral stimulus presentation. Second and more importantly, we identified attention-modulated activation in secondary visual and anterior cingulate cortices. Results are discussed in terms of bottom-up and lateralization processes. Although intrinsic and phasic alertness are distinct cognitive processes, we propose that neural substrates of intrinsic alertness may be accessed by phasic alertness provided that the attention-dominant (i.e., the right) hemisphere is activated directly by a warning stimulus. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. The latency complex: the dead hand of anti-development.

    PubMed

    Proner, Barry D

    2017-09-01

    It is common knowledge that the same phenomena can be viewed in a variety of ways. This paper considers the implications of a constellation observed in some adult patients who have increasingly reminded the author of some of the children of latency age with whom he has also worked. In the literature these patients may also have been thought about in terms of 'defences of the self' (Fordham), patients who are 'difficult to reach' (Joseph), 'psychic retreats' (Steiner), and those who make 'attacks on linking' (Bion). They may equally be considered in terms of schizoid, narcissistic or borderline personalities, or as showing features on the autistic spectrum, such as mindlessness and extreme obsessionality. Writers such as Helene Deutsch with her concept of an 'as-if personality', Winnicott with his 'false self', and Rosenfeld, discussing the split-off parts of the personality in narcissistic patients, have also offered much to think about in their consideration of some of these phenomena. This paper proposes yet another vertex - the author's own imaginative conjecture - that is by no means mutually exclusive of any of these others. © 2017, The Society of Analytical Psychology.

  6. Recent advances in CMV tropism, latency, and diagnosis during aging.

    PubMed

    Leng, Sean X; Kamil, Jeremy; Purdy, John G; Lemmermann, Niels A; Reddehase, Matthias J; Goodrum, Felicia D

    2017-06-01

    Human cytomegalovirus (CMV) is one of the largest viruses known to cause human diseases. Chronic CMV infection, as defined by anti-CMV IgG serology, increases with age and is highly prevalent in older adults. It has complex biology with significant immunologic and health consequences. This article aims to summarize research findings presented at the 6th International Workshop on CMV and Immunosenescence that relate to advances in the areas of CMV tropism, latency, CMV manipulation of cell metabolism, and T cell memory inflation, as well as novel diagnostic evaluation and translational research of chronic CMV infection in older adults. Information summarized here represents the current state of knowledge in these important fields. Investigators have also identified a number of areas that deserve further and more in-depth investigation, including building more precise parallels between mouse CMV (mCMV) and human CMV (HCMV) research. It is hoped that this article will also stimulate engaging discussion on strategies and direction to advance the science to the next level.

  7. Enhanced long-latency somatosensory potentials in major depressive disorder.

    PubMed

    Dietl, T; Dirlich, G; Vogl, L; Nickel, T; Sonntag, A; Strian, F; Lechner, C

    2001-01-01

    Bodily misperceptions are a frequent symptom in major depressive disorder. A reduced ability to deflect attention from somatosensory stimuli may contribute to the generation of unpleasant bodily sensations and co-occur with altered habituation of the brain electric reactions to somatosensory stimuli. The aim of the present study was to explore whether attention-related components of somatosensory evoked potentials (SSEP) and the habituation of these components are altered in major depression. Fifteen patients with major depressive disorder were compared to an age- and gender-matched group of 15 healthy controls. A series of identical, intrusive but not painful electric stimuli were applied to the left index finger for 48 min. Averaged SSEP were computed from multichannel EEG recordings for consecutive recording blocks of the experiment, each block containing 162 stimuli. Based on these data the habituation process of late components of the SSEP was analysed in two latency intervals (50-150, 170-370 ms). Patients showed significantly enhanced reactions throughout the entire experiment. The persistence of enhanced SSEP components throughout the habituation process may be caused by a deficit in reducing the activity of attention-related brain processes concerned with intrusive, yet behaviourally irrelevant, continued stimulation in the state of major depression.

  8. First-spike latency in Hodgkin's three classes of neurons.

    PubMed

    Wang, Hengtong; Chen, Yueling; Chen, Yong

    2013-07-07

    We study the first-spike latency (FSL) in Hodgkin's three classes of neurons with the Morris-Lecar neuron model. It is found that all the three classes of neurons can encode an external stimulus into FSLs. With DC inputs, the FSLs of all of the neurons decrease with input intensity. With input current decreased to the threshold, class 1 neurons show an arbitrary long FSL whereas class 2 and 3 neurons exhibit the short-limit FSLs. When the input current is sinusoidal, the amplitude, frequency and initial phase can be encoded by all the three classes of neurons. The FSLs of all of the neurons decrease with the input amplitude and frequency. When the input frequency is too high, all of the neurons respond with infinite FSLs. When the initial phase increases, the FSL decreases and then jumps to a maximal value and finally decreases linearly. With changes in the input parameters, the FSLs of the class 1 and 2 neurons exhibit similar properties. However, the FSL of the class 3 neurons became slightly longer and only produces responses for a narrow range of initial phase if input frequencies are low. Moreover, our results also show that the FSL and firing rate responses are mutually independent processes and that neurons can encode an external stimulus into different FSLs and firing rates simultaneously. This finding is consistent with the current theory of dual or multiple complementary coding mechanisms. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Measurement of fault latency in a digital avionic miniprocessor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcgough, J. G.; Swern, F. L.

    1981-01-01

    The results of fault injection experiments utilizing a gate-level emulation of the central processor unit of the Bendix BDX-930 digital computer are presented. The failure detection coverage of comparison-monitoring and a typical avionics CPU self-test program was determined. The specific tasks and experiments included: (1) inject randomly selected gate-level and pin-level faults and emulate six software programs using comparison-monitoring to detect the faults; (2) based upon the derived empirical data develop and validate a model of fault latency that will forecast a software program's detecting ability; (3) given a typical avionics self-test program, inject randomly selected faults at both the gate-level and pin-level and determine the proportion of faults detected; (4) determine why faults were undetected; (5) recommend how the emulation can be extended to multiprocessor systems such as SIFT; and (6) determine the proportion of faults detected by a uniprocessor BIT (built-in-test) irrespective of self-test.

  10. Analysis of latency performance of bluetooth low energy (BLE) networks.

    PubMed

    Cho, Keuchul; Park, Woojin; Hong, Moonki; Park, Gisu; Cho, Wooseong; Seo, Jihoon; Han, Kijun

    2014-12-23

    Bluetooth Low Energy (BLE) is a short-range wireless communication technology aiming at low-cost and low-power communication. The performance evaluation of classical Bluetooth device discovery have been intensively studied using analytical modeling and simulative methods, but these techniques are not applicable to BLE, since BLE has a fundamental change in the design of the discovery mechanism, including the usage of three advertising channels. Recently, there several works have analyzed the topic of BLE device discovery, but these studies are still far from thorough. It is thus necessary to develop a new, accurate model for the BLE discovery process. In particular, the wide range settings of the parameters introduce lots of potential for BLE devices to customize their discovery performance. This motivates our study of modeling the BLE discovery process and performing intensive simulation. This paper is focused on building an analytical model to investigate the discovery probability, as well as the expected discovery latency, which are then validated via extensive experiments. Our analysis considers both continuous and discontinuous scanning modes. We analyze the sensitivity of these performance metrics to parameter settings to quantitatively examine to what extent parameters influence the performance metric of the discovery processes.

  11. Analysis of Latency Performance of Bluetooth Low Energy (BLE) Networks

    PubMed Central

    Cho, Keuchul; Park, Woojin; Hong, Moonki; Park, Gisu; Cho, Wooseong; Seo, Jihoon; Han, Kijun

    2015-01-01

    Bluetooth Low Energy (BLE) is a short-range wireless communication technology aiming at low-cost and low-power communication. The performance evaluation of classical Bluetooth device discovery have been intensively studied using analytical modeling and simulative methods, but these techniques are not applicable to BLE, since BLE has a fundamental change in the design of the discovery mechanism, including the usage of three advertising channels. Recently, there several works have analyzed the topic of BLE device discovery, but these studies are still far from thorough. It is thus necessary to develop a new, accurate model for the BLE discovery process. In particular, the wide range settings of the parameters introduce lots of potential for BLE devices to customize their discovery performance. This motivates our study of modeling the BLE discovery process and performing intensive simulation. This paper is focused on building an analytical model to investigate the discovery probability, as well as the expected discovery latency, which are then validated via extensive experiments. Our analysis considers both continuous and discontinuous scanning modes. We analyze the sensitivity of these performance metrics to parameter settings to quantitatively examine to what extent parameters influence the performance metric of the discovery processes. PMID:25545266

  12. Familial subacute sclerosing panencephalitis associated with short latency.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Vinod; Gupta, Vineet B; Eisenhut, Michael

    2008-03-01

    The familial recurrence of subacute sclerosing panencephalitis is rare. The study of such cases and a comparison of intrafamilial with sporadic cases of subacute sclerosing panencephalitis may shed light on important pathogenetic factors. We report on the occurrence of subacute sclerosing panencephalitis in two brothers from rural India, who contracted measles infection simultaneously at ages 3 and 11 years. They developed subacute sclerosing panencephalitis 21 and 37 months later, respectively. A diagnosis of subacute sclerosing panencephalitis was based on history, electroencephalographic changes, and significantly raised levels of cerebrospinal-fluid anti-measles virus immunoglobulin G. A comparison of intrafamilial with sporadic cases of subacute sclerosing panencephalitis revealed that latency in familial subacute sclerosing panencephalitis involved a median of 6.4 years (range, 1.0-10.9), significantly (P < 0.05) shorter than in sporadic cases with a median of 9.7 years (range, 2.7-23.4). This difference was because of significantly later infection with measles virus and an earlier onset of encephalitis. We describe the first siblings affected by subacute sclerosing panencephalitis from the Indian subcontinent. We confirmed a more rapid manifestation of subacute sclerosing panencephalitis after measles virus infection in intrafamilial compared with sporadic subacute sclerosing panencephalitis.

  13. Convex Curved Crystal Spectograph for Pulsed Plasma Sources.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    The geometry of a convex curved crystal spectrograph as applied to pulsed plasma sources is presented. Also presented are data from the dense plasma focus with particular emphasis on the absolute intensity of line radiations.

  14. 20 CFR 404.1205 - Absolute coverage groups.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Absolute coverage groups. 404.1205 Section... Covered § 404.1205 Absolute coverage groups. (a) General. An absolute coverage group is a permanent... are not under a retirement system. An absolute coverage group may include positions which were...

  15. Reliability of the nerve conduction monitor in repeated measures of median and ulnar nerve latencies

    SciTech Connect

    Washington, I A

    According to the Bureau of Labor Statistics, carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS), one of the most rapidly growing work-related injuries, cost American businesses up to $10 billion dollars in medical costs each year (1992). Because conservative therapy can be implemented and CTS is more reversible in it early stages, early detection will not only save industry unnecessary health care costs, but also prevent employees from experiencing debilitating pain and unnecessary surgery. In response to the growing number of cases of CTS, many companies have introduced screening tools to detect early stages of carpal tunnel syndrome. Neurotron Medical (New Jersey) has designedmore » a portable nerve conduction monitor (Nervepace S-200) which measures motor and sensory nerve latencies. The slowing of these latencies is one diagnostic indicator of carpal tunnel syndrome. In this study, we determined the reliability of the Nervepace Monitor in measure ulnar and median nerve latencies during repeated testing. The testing was performed on 28 normal subjects between the ages of 20 and 35 who had no prior symptoms of CTS. They were tested at the same time each day for three consecutive days. Nerve latencies between different ethnic groups and genders were compared. Results show that there was no significant daily variation of the median motor and lunar sensory latencies or the median sensory latencies. No significant differences of latencies was observed among ethnic groups; however, a significant difference of latencies between male and female subjects was observed (p<0.05).« less

  16. Low Latency Audio Video: Potentials for Collaborative Music Making through Distance Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Riley, Holly; MacLeod, Rebecca B.; Libera, Matthew

    2016-01-01

    The primary purpose of this study was to examine the potential of LOw LAtency (LOLA), a low latency audio visual technology designed to allow simultaneous music performance, as a distance learning tool for musical styles in which synchronous playing is an integral aspect of the learning process (e.g., jazz, folk styles). The secondary purpose was…

  17. Defining the Transcriptional Landscape during Cytomegalovirus Latency with Single-Cell RNA Sequencing

    PubMed Central

    2018-01-01

    ABSTRACT Primary infection with human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) results in a lifelong infection due to its ability to establish latent infection, with one characterized viral reservoir being hematopoietic cells. Although reactivation from latency causes serious disease in immunocompromised individuals, our molecular understanding of latency is limited. Here, we delineate viral gene expression during natural HCMV persistent infection by analyzing the massive transcriptome RNA sequencing (RNA-seq) atlas generated by the Genotype-Tissue Expression (GTEx) project. This systematic analysis reveals that HCMV persistence in vivo is prevalent in diverse tissues. Notably, we find only viral transcripts that resemble gene expression during various stages of lytic infection with no evidence of any highly restricted latency-associated viral gene expression program. To further define the transcriptional landscape during HCMV latent infection, we also used single-cell RNA-seq and a tractable experimental latency model. In contrast to some current views on latency, we also find no evidence for any highly restricted latency-associated viral gene expression program. Instead, we reveal that latency-associated gene expression largely mirrors a late lytic viral program, albeit at much lower levels of expression. Overall, our work has the potential to revolutionize our understanding of HCMV persistence and suggests that latency is governed mainly by quantitative changes, with a limited number of qualitative changes, in viral gene expression. PMID:29535194

  18. Increasing Latency Age Children's Sensitivity to Racial and Ethnic Differences through Enhancing their Awareness and Knowledge.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lewis, Alvin D.

    This practicum addressed the needs of latency age children who were insensitive to racial and ethnic differences. These needs were met by designing and developing a Cultural Awareness Program, so as to increase latency age children's sensitivity to racial and ethnic differences. The program's focus was on helping the children gain an appreciation…

  19. The Influence of Non-Nociceptive Factors on Hot Plate Latency in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Gunn, Amanda; Bobeck, Erin N.; Weber, Ceri; Morgan, Michael M.

    2010-01-01

    The hot plate is a widely used test to assess nociception. The effect of non-nociceptive factors (weight, sex, activity, habituation, and repeated testing) on hot plate latency was examined. Comparison of body weight and hot plate latency revealed a small but significant inverse correlation (light rats had longer latencies). Habituating rats to the test room for 1 hr prior to testing did not decrease hot plate latency except for female rats tested on Days 2 - 4. Hot plate latency decreased with repeated daily testing, but this was not caused by a decrease in locomotor activity or learning to respond. Activity on the hot plate was consistent across all four trials, and prior exposure to a room temperature plate caused a similar decrease in latency as rats tested repeatedly on the hot plate. Despite this decrease in baseline hot plate latency, there was no difference in morphine antinociceptive potency. The present study shows that weight, habituation to the test room, and repeated testing can alter baseline hot plate latency, but these effects are small and have relatively little impact on morphine antinociception. PMID:20797920

  20. On the influence of latency estimation on dynamic group communication using overlays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vik, Knut-Helge; Griwodz, Carsten; Halvorsen, Pål

    2009-01-01

    Distributed interactive applications tend to have stringent latency requirements and some may have high bandwidth demands. Many of them have also very dynamic user groups for which all-to-all communication is needed. In online multiplayer games, for example, such groups are determined through region-of-interest management in the application. We have investigated a variety of group management approaches for overlay networks in earlier work and shown that several useful tree heuristics exist. However, these heuristics require full knowledge of all overlay link latencies. Since this is not scalable, we investigate the effects that latency estimation techqniues have ton the quality of overlay tree constructions. We do this by evaluating one example of our group management approaches in Planetlab and examing how latency estimation techqniues influence their quality. Specifically, we investigate how two well-known latency estimation techniques, Vivaldi and Netvigator, affect the quality of tree building.

  1. 237Np absolute delayed neutron yield measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Doré, D.; Ledoux, X.; Nolte, R.; Gagnon-Moisan, F.; Thulliez, L.; Litaize, O.; Roettger, S.; Serot, O.

    2017-09-01

    237Np absolute delayed neutron yields have been measured at different incident neutron energies from 1.5 to 16 MeV. The experiment was performed at the Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt (PTB) facility where the Van de Graaff accelerator and the cyclotron CV28 delivered 9 different neutron energy beams using p+T, d+D and d+T reactions. The detection system is made up of twelve 3He tubes inserted into a polyethylene cylinder. In this paper, the experimental setup and the data analysis method are described. The evolution of the absolute DN yields as a function of the neutron incident beam energies are presented and compared to experimental data found in the literature and data from the libraries.

  2. From Hubble's NGSL to Absolute Fluxes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heap, Sara R.; Lindler, Don

    2012-01-01

    Hubble's Next Generation Spectral Library (NGSL) consists of R-l000 spectra of 374 stars of assorted temperature, gravity, and metallicity. Each spectrum covers the wavelength range, 0.18-1.00 microns. The library can be viewed and/or downloaded from the website, http://archive.stsci.edu/prepds/stisngsll. Stars in the NGSL are now being used as absolute flux standards at ground-based observatories. However, the uncertainty in the absolute flux is about 2%, which does not meet the requirements of dark-energy surveys. We are therefore developing an observing procedure that should yield fluxes with uncertainties less than 1 % and will take part in an HST proposal to observe up to 15 stars using this new procedure.

  3. An absolute measure for a key currency

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oya, Shunsuke; Aihara, Kazuyuki; Hirata, Yoshito

    It is generally considered that the US dollar and the euro are the key currencies in the world and in Europe, respectively. However, there is no absolute general measure for a key currency. Here, we investigate the 24-hour periodicity of foreign exchange markets using a recurrence plot, and define an absolute measure for a key currency based on the strength of the periodicity. Moreover, we analyze the time evolution of this measure. The results show that the credibility of the US dollar has not decreased significantly since the Lehman shock, when the Lehman Brothers bankrupted and influenced the economic markets, and has increased even relatively better than that of the euro and that of the Japanese yen.

  4. Absolute photoionization cross sections of atomic oxygen

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Samson, J. A. R.; Pareek, P. N.

    1982-01-01

    The absolute values of photoionization cross sections of atomic oxygen were measured from the ionization threshold to 120 A. An auto-ionizing resonance belonging to the 2S2P4(4P)3P(3Do, 3So) transition was observed at 479.43 A and another line at 389.97 A. The experimental data is in excellent agreement with rigorous close-coupling calculations that include electron correlations in both the initial and final states.

  5. Absolute detector calibration using twin beams.

    PubMed

    Peřina, Jan; Haderka, Ondřej; Michálek, Václav; Hamar, Martin

    2012-07-01

    A method for the determination of absolute quantum detection efficiency is suggested based on the measurement of photocount statistics of twin beams. The measured histograms of joint signal-idler photocount statistics allow us to eliminate an additional noise superimposed on an ideal calibration field composed of only photon pairs. This makes the method superior above other approaches presently used. Twin beams are described using a paired variant of quantum superposition of signal and noise.

  6. Absolute photoionization cross sections of atomic oxygen

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Samson, J. A. R.; Pareek, P. N.

    1985-01-01

    The absolute values of photoionization cross sections of atomic oxygen were measured from the ionization threshold to 120 A. An auto-ionizing resonance belonging to the 2S2P4(4P)3P(3Do, 3So) transition was observed at 479.43 A and another line at 389.97 A. The experimental data is in excellent agreement with rigorous close-coupling calculations that include electron correlations in both the initial and final states.

  7. In vivo expression of human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) microRNAs during latency.

    PubMed

    Meshesha, Mesfin K; Bentwich, Zvi; Solomon, Semaria A; Avni, Yonat Shemer

    2016-01-01

    Viral encoded microRNAs play key roles in regulating gene expression and the life cycle of human herpes viruses. Latency is one of the hallmarks of the human cytomegalovirus (HCMV or HHV5) life cycle, and its control may have immense practical applications. The present study aims to identify HCMV encoded microRNAs during the latency phase of the virus. We used a highly sensitive real time PCR (RTPCR) assay that involves a pre-amplification step before RTPCR. It can detect HCMV encoded microRNAs (miRNAs) during latency in purified monocytes and PBMCs from HCMV IgG positive donors and in latently infected monocytic THP-1 cell lines. During the latency phase, only eight HCMV encoded microRNAs were detected in PBMCs, monocytes and in the THP-1 cells. Five originated from the UL region of the virus genome and three from the US region. Reactivation of the virus from latency, in monocytes obtained from the same donor, using dexamethasone restored the expression of all known HCMV encoded miRNAs including those that were absent during latency. We observed a shift in the abundance of the two arms of mir-US29 between the productive and latency stages of the viral life cycle, suggesting that the star "passenger" form of this microRNA is preferentially expressed during latency. As a whole, our study demonstrates that HCMV expresses during the latency phase, both in vivo and in vitro, only a subset of its microRNAs, which may indicate that they play an important role in maintenance and reactivation of latency. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Construction and Evaluation of an Ultra Low Latency Frameless Renderer for VR.

    PubMed

    Friston, Sebastian; Steed, Anthony; Tilbury, Simon; Gaydadjiev, Georgi

    2016-04-01

    Latency - the delay between a user's action and the response to this action - is known to be detrimental to virtual reality. Latency is typically considered to be a discrete value characterising a delay, constant in time and space - but this characterisation is incomplete. Latency changes across the display during scan-out, and how it does so is dependent on the rendering approach used. In this study, we present an ultra-low latency real-time ray-casting renderer for virtual reality, implemented on an FPGA. Our renderer has a latency of ~1 ms from 'tracker to pixel'. Its frameless nature means that the region of the display with the lowest latency immediately follows the scan-beam. This is in contrast to frame-based systems such as those using typical GPUs, for which the latency increases as scan-out proceeds. Using a series of high and low speed videos of our system in use, we confirm its latency of ~1 ms. We examine how the renderer performs when driving a traditional sequential scan-out display on a readily available HMO, the Oculus Rift OK2. We contrast this with an equivalent apparatus built using a GPU. Using captured human head motion and a set of image quality measures, we assess the ability of these systems to faithfully recreate the stimuli of an ideal virtual reality system - one with a zero latency tracker, renderer and display running at 1 kHz. Finally, we examine the results of these quality measures, and how each rendering approach is affected by velocity of movement and display persistence. We find that our system, with a lower average latency, can more faithfully draw what the ideal virtual reality system would. Further, we find that with low display persistence, the sensitivity to velocity of both systems is lowered, but that it is much lower for ours.

  9. The effect of monitor raster latency on VEPs, ERPs and Brain-Computer Interface performance.

    PubMed

    Nagel, Sebastian; Dreher, Werner; Rosenstiel, Wolfgang; Spüler, Martin

    2018-02-01

    Visual neuroscience experiments and Brain-Computer Interface (BCI) control often require strict timings in a millisecond scale. As most experiments are performed using a personal computer (PC), the latencies that are introduced by the setup should be taken into account and be corrected. As a standard computer monitor uses a rastering to update each line of the image sequentially, this causes a monitor raster latency which depends on the position, on the monitor and the refresh rate. We technically measured the raster latencies of different monitors and present the effects on visual evoked potentials (VEPs) and event-related potentials (ERPs). Additionally we present a method for correcting the monitor raster latency and analyzed the performance difference of a code-modulated VEP BCI speller by correcting the latency. There are currently no other methods validating the effects of monitor raster latency on VEPs and ERPs. The timings of VEPs and ERPs are directly affected by the raster latency. Furthermore, correcting the raster latency resulted in a significant reduction of the target prediction error from 7.98% to 4.61% and also in a more reliable classification of targets by significantly increasing the distance between the most probable and the second most probable target by 18.23%. The monitor raster latency affects the timings of VEPs and ERPs, and correcting resulted in a significant error reduction of 42.23%. It is recommend to correct the raster latency for an increased BCI performance and methodical correctness. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Primary display latency criteria based on flying qualities and performance data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Funk, John D., Jr.; Beck, Corin P.; Johns, John B.

    1993-01-01

    With a pilots' increasing use of visual cue augmentation, much requiring extensive pre-processing, there is a need to establish criteria for new avionics/display design. The timeliness and synchronization of the augmented cues is vital to ensure the performance quality required for precision mission task elements (MTEs) where augmented cues are the primary source of information to the pilot. Processing delays incurred while transforming sensor-supplied flight information into visual cues are unavoidable. Relationships between maximum control system delays and associated flying qualities levels are documented in MIL-F-83300 and MIL-F-8785. While cues representing aircraft status may be just as vital to the pilot as prompt control response for operations in instrument meteorological conditions, presently, there are no specification requirements on avionics system latency. To produce data relating avionics system latency to degradations in flying qualities, the Navy conducted two simulation investigations. During the investigations, flying qualities and performance data were recorded as simulated avionics system latency was varied. Correlated results of the investigation indicates that there is a detrimental impact of latency on flying qualities. Analysis of these results and consideration of key factors influencing their application indicate that: (1) Task performance degrades and pilot workload increases as latency is increased. Inconsistency in task performance increases as latency increases. (2) Latency reduces the probability of achieving Level 1 handling qualities with avionics system latency as low as 70 ms. (3) The data suggest that the achievement of desired performance will be ensured only at display latency values below 120 ms. (4) These data also suggest that avoidance of inadequate performance will be ensured only at display latency values below 150 ms.

  11. Chemical composition of French mimosa absolute oil.

    PubMed

    Perriot, Rodolphe; Breme, Katharina; Meierhenrich, Uwe J; Carenini, Elise; Ferrando, Georges; Baldovini, Nicolas

    2010-02-10

    Since decades mimosa (Acacia dealbata) absolute oil has been used in the flavor and perfume industry. Today, it finds an application in over 80 perfumes, and its worldwide industrial production is estimated five tons per year. Here we report on the chemical composition of French mimosa absolute oil. Straight-chain analogues from C6 to C26 with different functional groups (hydrocarbons, esters, aldehydes, diethyl acetals, alcohols, and ketones) were identified in the volatile fraction. Most of them are long-chain molecules: (Z)-heptadec-8-ene, heptadecane, nonadecane, and palmitic acid are the most abundant, and constituents such as 2-phenethyl alcohol, methyl anisate, and ethyl palmitate are present in smaller amounts. The heavier constituents were mainly triterpenoids such as lupenone and lupeol, which were identified as two of the main components. (Z)-Heptadec-8-ene, lupenone, and lupeol were quantified by GC-MS in SIM mode using external standards and represents 6%, 20%, and 7.8% (w/w) of the absolute oil. Moreover, odorant compounds were extracted by SPME and analyzed by GC-sniffing leading to the perception of 57 odorant zones, of which 37 compounds were identified by their odorant description, mass spectrum, retention index, and injection of the reference compound.

  12. The absolute dynamic ocean topography (ADOT)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bosch, Wolfgang; Savcenko, Roman

    The sea surface slopes relative to the geoid (an equipotential surface) basically carry the in-formation on the absolute velocity field of the surface circulation. Pure oceanographic models may remain unspecific with respect to the absolute level of the ocean topography. In contrast, the geodetic approach to estimate the ocean topography as difference between sea level and the geoid gives by definition an absolute dynamic ocean topography (ADOT). This approach requires, however, a consistent treatment of geoid and sea surface heights, the first being usually derived from a band limited spherical harmonic series of the Earth gravity field and the second observed with much higher spectral resolution by satellite altimetry. The present contribution shows a procedure for estimating the ADOT along the altimeter profiles, preserving as much sea surface height details as the consistency w.r.t. the geoid heights will allow. The consistent treatment at data gaps and the coast is particular demanding and solved by a filter correction. The ADOT profiles are inspected for their innocent properties towards the coast and compared to external estimates of the ocean topography or the velocity field of the surface circulation as derived, for example, by ARGO floats.

  13. Measurement of absolute gravity acceleration in Firenze

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Angelis, M.; Greco, F.; Pistorio, A.; Poli, N.; Prevedelli, M.; Saccorotti, G.; Sorrentino, F.; Tino, G. M.

    2011-01-01

    This paper reports the results from the accurate measurement of the acceleration of gravity g taken at two separate premises in the Polo Scientifico of the University of Firenze (Italy). In these laboratories, two separate experiments aiming at measuring the Newtonian constant and testing the Newtonian law at short distances are in progress. Both experiments require an independent knowledge on the local value of g. The only available datum, pertaining to the italian zero-order gravity network, was taken more than 20 years ago at a distance of more than 60 km from the study site. Gravity measurements were conducted using an FG5 absolute gravimeter, and accompanied by seismic recordings for evaluating the noise condition at the site. The absolute accelerations of gravity at the two laboratories are (980 492 160.6 ± 4.0) μGal and (980 492 048.3 ± 3.0) μGal for the European Laboratory for Non-Linear Spectroscopy (LENS) and Dipartimento di Fisica e Astronomia, respectively. Other than for the two referenced experiments, the data here presented will serve as a benchmark for any future study requiring an accurate knowledge of the absolute value of the acceleration of gravity in the study region.

  14. On the Perceptual Subprocess of Absolute Pitch.

    PubMed

    Kim, Seung-Goo; Knösche, Thomas R

    2017-01-01

    Absolute pitch (AP) is the rare ability of musicians to identify the pitch of tonal sound without external reference. While there have been behavioral and neuroimaging studies on the characteristics of AP, how the AP is implemented in human brains remains largely unknown. AP can be viewed as comprising of two subprocesses: perceptual (processing auditory input to extract a pitch chroma) and associative (linking an auditory representation of pitch chroma with a verbal/non-verbal label). In this review, we focus on the nature of the perceptual subprocess of AP. Two different models on how the perceptual subprocess works have been proposed: either via absolute pitch categorization (APC) or based on absolute pitch memory (APM). A major distinction between the two views is that whether the AP uses unique auditory processing (i.e., APC) that exists only in musicians with AP or it is rooted in a common phenomenon (i.e., APM), only with heightened efficiency. We review relevant behavioral and neuroimaging evidence that supports each notion. Lastly, we list open questions and potential ideas to address them.

  15. On the Perceptual Subprocess of Absolute Pitch

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Seung-Goo; Knösche, Thomas R.

    2017-01-01

    Absolute pitch (AP) is the rare ability of musicians to identify the pitch of tonal sound without external reference. While there have been behavioral and neuroimaging studies on the characteristics of AP, how the AP is implemented in human brains remains largely unknown. AP can be viewed as comprising of two subprocesses: perceptual (processing auditory input to extract a pitch chroma) and associative (linking an auditory representation of pitch chroma with a verbal/non-verbal label). In this review, we focus on the nature of the perceptual subprocess of AP. Two different models on how the perceptual subprocess works have been proposed: either via absolute pitch categorization (APC) or based on absolute pitch memory (APM). A major distinction between the two views is that whether the AP uses unique auditory processing (i.e., APC) that exists only in musicians with AP or it is rooted in a common phenomenon (i.e., APM), only with heightened efficiency. We review relevant behavioral and neuroimaging evidence that supports each notion. Lastly, we list open questions and potential ideas to address them. PMID:29085275

  16. Absolute angular encoder based on optical diffraction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Jian; Zhou, Tingting; Yuan, Bo; Wang, Liqiang

    2015-08-01

    A new encoding method for absolute angular encoder based on optical diffraction was proposed in the present study. In this method, an encoder disc is specially designed that a series of elements are uniformly spaced in one circle and each element is consisted of four diffraction gratings, which are tilted in the directions of 30°, 60°, -60° and -30°, respectively. The disc is illuminated by a coherent light and the diffractive signals are received. The positions of diffractive spots are used for absolute encoding and their intensities are for subdivision, which is different from the traditional optical encoder based on transparent/opaque binary principle. Since the track's width in the disc is not limited in the diffraction pattern, it provides a new way to solve the contradiction between the size and resolution, which is good for minimization of encoder. According to the proposed principle, the diffraction pattern disc with a diameter of 40 mm was made by lithography in the glass substrate. A prototype of absolute angular encoder with a resolution of 20" was built up. Its maximum error was tested as 78" by comparing with a small angle measuring system based on laser beam deflection.

  17. Extravehicular Activity Operations Concepts Under Communication Latency and Bandwidth Constraints

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Beaton, Kara H.; Chappell, Steven P.; Abercromby, Andrew F. J.; Miller, Matthew J.; Nawotniak, Shannon Kobs; Hughes, Scott; Brady, Allyson; Lim, Darlene S. S.

    2017-01-01

    The Biologic Analog Science Associated with Lava Terrains (BASALT) project is a multi-year program dedicated to iteratively develop, implement, and evaluate concepts of operations (ConOps) and supporting capabilities intended to enable and enhance human scientific exploration of Mars. This pa-per describes the planning, execution, and initial results from the first field deployment, referred to as BASALT-1, which consisted of a series of 10 simulated extravehicular activities (EVAs) on volcanic flows in Idaho's Craters of the Moon (COTM) National Monument. The ConOps and capabilities deployed and tested during BASALT-1 were based on previous NASA trade studies and analog testing. Our primary research question was whether those ConOps and capabilities work acceptably when performing real (non-simulated) biological and geological scientific exploration under 4 different Mars-to-Earth communication conditions: 5 and 15 min one-way light time (OWLT) communication latencies and low (0.512 Mb/s uplink, 1.54 Mb/s downlink) and high (5.0 Mb/s uplink, 10.0 Mb/s downlink) bandwidth conditions representing the lower and higher limits of technical communication capabilities currently proposed for future human exploration missions. The synthesized results of BASALT-1 with respect to the ConOps and capabilities assessment were derived from a variety of sources, including EVA task timing data, network analytic data, and subjective ratings and comments regarding the scientific and operational acceptability of the ConOp and the extent to which specific capabilities were enabling and enhancing, and are presented here. BASALT-1 established preliminary findings that baseline ConOp, software systems, and communication protocols were scientifically and operationally acceptable with minor improvements desired by the "Mars" extravehicular (EV) and intravehicular (IV) crewmembers, but unacceptable with improvements required by the "Earth" Mission Support Center. These data will provide a

  18. Low-latency teleoperations, planetary protection, and astrobiology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lupisella, Mark L.

    2018-07-01

    The remote operation of an asset with time-delays short enough to allow for `real-time' or near real-time control - often referred to as low-latency teleoperations (LLT) - has important potential to address planetary protection concerns and to enhance astrobiology exploration. Not only can LLT assist with the search for extraterrestrial life and help mitigate planetary protection concerns as required by international treaty, but it can also aid in the real-time exploration of hazardous areas, robotically manipulate samples in real-time, and engage in precise measurements and experiments without the presence of crew in the immediate area. Furthermore, LLT can be particularly effective for studying `Special Regions' - areas of astrobiological interest that might be adversely affected by forward contamination from humans or spacecraft contaminants during activities on Mars. LLT can also aid human exploration by addressing concerns about backward contamination that could impact mission details for returning Martian samples and crew back to Earth.This paper provides an overview of LLT operational considerations and findings from recent NASA analyses and workshops related to planetary protection and human missions beyond Earth orbit. The paper focuses primarily on three interrelated areas of Mars operations that are particularly relevant to the planetary protection and the search for life: Mars orbit-to-surface LLT activities; Crew-on-surface and drilling LLT; and Mars surface science laboratory LLT. The paper also discusses several additional mission implementation considerations and closes with information on key knowledge gaps identified as necessary for the advance of LLT for planetary protection and astrobiology purposes on future human missions to Mars.

  19. Cumulative latency advance underlies fast visual processing in desynchronized brain state

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Xu-dong; Chen, Cheng; Zhang, Dinghong; Yao, Haishan

    2014-01-01

    Fast sensory processing is vital for the animal to efficiently respond to the changing environment. This is usually achieved when the animal is vigilant, as reflected by cortical desynchronization. However, the neural substrate for such fast processing remains unclear. Here, we report that neurons in rat primary visual cortex (V1) exhibited shorter response latency in the desynchronized state than in the synchronized state. In vivo whole-cell recording from the same V1 neurons undergoing the two states showed that both the resting and visually evoked conductances were higher in the desynchronized state. Such conductance increases of single V1 neurons shorten the response latency by elevating the membrane potential closer to the firing threshold and reducing the membrane time constant, but the effects only account for a small fraction of the observed latency advance. Simultaneous recordings in lateral geniculate nucleus (LGN) and V1 revealed that LGN neurons also exhibited latency advance, with a degree smaller than that of V1 neurons. Furthermore, latency advance in V1 increased across successive cortical layers. Thus, latency advance accumulates along various stages of the visual pathway, likely due to a global increase of membrane conductance in the desynchronized state. This cumulative effect may lead to a dramatic shortening of response latency for neurons in higher visual cortex and play a critical role in fast processing for vigilant animals. PMID:24347634

  20. Fault and Error Latency Under Real Workload: an Experimental Study. Ph.D. Thesis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chillarege, Ram

    1986-01-01

    A practical methodology for the study of fault and error latency is demonstrated under a real workload. This is the first study that measures and quantifies the latency under real workload and fills a major gap in the current understanding of workload-failure relationships. The methodology is based on low level data gathered on a VAX 11/780 during the normal workload conditions of the installation. Fault occurrence is simulated on the data, and the error generation and discovery process is reconstructed to determine latency. The analysis proceeds to combine the low level activity data with high level machine performance data to yield a better understanding of the phenomena. A strong relationship exists between latency and workload and that relationship is quantified. The sampling and reconstruction techniques used are also validated. Error latency in the memory where the operating system resides was studied using data on the physical memory access. Fault latency in the paged section of memory was determined using data from physical memory scans. Error latency in the microcontrol store was studied using data on the microcode access and usage.

  1. Attention Influences Single Unit and Local Field Potential Response Latencies in Visual Cortical Area V4

    PubMed Central

    Sundberg, Kristy A.; Mitchell, Jude F.; Gawne, Timothy J.

    2012-01-01

    Many previous studies have demonstrated that changes in selective attention can alter the response magnitude of visual cortical neurons, but there has been little evidence for attention affecting response latency. Small latency differences, though hard to detect, can potentially be of functional importance, and may also give insight into the mechanisms of neuronal computation. We therefore reexamined the effect of attention on the response latency of both single units and the local field potential (LFP) in primate visual cortical area V4. We find that attention does produce small (1–2 ms) but significant reductions in the latency of both the spiking and LFP responses. Though attention, like contrast elevation, reduces response latencies, we find that the two have different effects on the magnitude of the LFP. Contrast elevations increase and attention decreases the magnitude of the initial deflection of the stimulus-evoked LFP. Both contrast elevation and attention increase the magnitude of the spiking response. We speculate that latencies may be reduced at higher contrast because stronger stimulus inputs drive neurons more rapidly to spiking threshold, while attention may reduce latencies by placing neurons in a more depolarized state closer to threshold before stimulus onset. PMID:23136440

  2. Cumulative latency advance underlies fast visual processing in desynchronized brain state.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xu-dong; Chen, Cheng; Zhang, Dinghong; Yao, Haishan

    2014-01-07

    Fast sensory processing is vital for the animal to efficiently respond to the changing environment. This is usually achieved when the animal is vigilant, as reflected by cortical desynchronization. However, the neural substrate for such fast processing remains unclear. Here, we report that neurons in rat primary visual cortex (V1) exhibited shorter response latency in the desynchronized state than in the synchronized state. In vivo whole-cell recording from the same V1 neurons undergoing the two states showed that both the resting and visually evoked conductances were higher in the desynchronized state. Such conductance increases of single V1 neurons shorten the response latency by elevating the membrane potential closer to the firing threshold and reducing the membrane time constant, but the effects only account for a small fraction of the observed latency advance. Simultaneous recordings in lateral geniculate nucleus (LGN) and V1 revealed that LGN neurons also exhibited latency advance, with a degree smaller than that of V1 neurons. Furthermore, latency advance in V1 increased across successive cortical layers. Thus, latency advance accumulates along various stages of the visual pathway, likely due to a global increase of membrane conductance in the desynchronized state. This cumulative effect may lead to a dramatic shortening of response latency for neurons in higher visual cortex and play a critical role in fast processing for vigilant animals.

  3. [Upper-limb work-related musculoskeletal disorders (UL-WMSDs) and latency of effect].

    PubMed

    Nicoletti, S; Battevi, N

    2008-01-01

    Trends in work-related upper limb musculoskeletal disorders appear to be in constant increase in industrialized countries. In Europe claims and compensation for these disorders have significantly increased. The aim of this study was to investigate the temporal relationship between the beginning of occupational exposure to repetitive movements and exertions of upper limbs, assessed through the OCRA index, and the manifestation of the disorders. Clinical and questionnaire information about 557 cases of UL-WMSDs in the upholstered furniture industry were analyzed in order to investigate the mean latency period of the disorders and to verify to what extent different levels of exposure influence the latency time. The latency of UL-WMSDs is influenced by the level of exposure to risk, measured by means of the OCRA index. Shorter latency times were found for wrist/hand tendonitis, with a mean latency time of 5.4 years and with a greater sensitivity to the level of exposure assessed with the OCRA index value. This might support a sort of predictive value with reference to other UL-WMSDs with longer latency. Probably a latency period of 12 years may be suggested as the cut-off limit to assess a causal relationship between tendon or canalicular WMISDs and occupational exposure to repetitive movements and exertions of upper limbs.

  4. Trial latencies estimation of event-related potentials in EEG by means of genetic algorithms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Da Pelo, P.; De Tommaso, M.; Monaco, A.; Stramaglia, S.; Bellotti, R.; Tangaro, S.

    2018-04-01

    Objective. Event-related potentials (ERPs) are usually obtained by averaging thus neglecting the trial-to-trial latency variability in cognitive electroencephalography (EEG) responses. As a consequence the shape and the peak amplitude of the averaged ERP are smeared and reduced, respectively, when the single-trial latencies show a relevant variability. To date, the majority of the methodologies for single-trial latencies inference are iterative schemes providing suboptimal solutions, the most commonly used being the Woody’s algorithm. Approach. In this study, a global approach is developed by introducing a fitness function whose global maximum corresponds to the set of latencies which renders the trial signals most aligned as possible. A suitable genetic algorithm has been implemented to solve the optimization problem, characterized by new genetic operators tailored to the present problem. Main results. The results, on simulated trials, showed that the proposed algorithm performs better than Woody’s algorithm in all conditions, at the cost of an increased computational complexity (justified by the improved quality of the solution). Application of the proposed approach on real data trials, resulted in an increased correlation between latencies and reaction times w.r.t. the output from RIDE method. Significance. The above mentioned results on simulated and real data indicate that the proposed method, providing a better estimate of single-trial latencies, will open the way to more accurate study of neural responses as well as to the issue of relating the variability of latencies to the proper cognitive and behavioural correlates.

  5. Low-Latency Science Exploration of Planetary Bodies: How ISS Might Be Used as Part of a Low-Latency Analog Campaign for Human Exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thronson, Harley; Valinia, Azita; Bleacher, Jacob; Eigenbrode, Jennifer; Garvin, Jim; Petro, Noah

    2014-01-01

    We suggest that the International Space Station be used to examine the application and validation of low-latency telepresence for surface exploration from space as an alternative, precursor, or potentially as an adjunct to astronaut "boots on the ground." To this end, controlled experiments that build upon and complement ground-based analog field studies will be critical for assessing the effects of different latencies (0 to 500 milliseconds), task complexity, and alternate forms of feedback to the operator. These experiments serve as an example of a pathfinder for NASA's roadmap of missions to Mars with low-latency telerobotic exploration as a precursor to astronaut's landing on the surface to conduct geological tasks.

  6. Absolute Radiometric Calibration of EUNIS-06

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thomas, R. J.; Rabin, D. M.; Kent, B. J.; Paustian, W.

    2007-01-01

    The Extreme-Ultraviolet Normal-Incidence Spectrometer (EUNIS) is a soundingrocket payload that obtains imaged high-resolution spectra of individual solar features, providing information about the Sun's corona and upper transition region. Shortly after its successful initial flight last year, a complete end-to-end calibration was carried out to determine the instrument's absolute radiometric response over its Longwave bandpass of 300 - 370A. The measurements were done at the Rutherford-Appleton Laboratory (RAL) in England, using the same vacuum facility and EUV radiation source used in the pre-flight calibrations of both SOHO/CDS and Hinode/EIS, as well as in three post-flight calibrations of our SERTS sounding rocket payload, the precursor to EUNIS. The unique radiation source provided by the Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt (PTB) had been calibrated to an absolute accuracy of 7% (l-sigma) at 12 wavelengths covering our bandpass directly against the Berlin electron storage ring BESSY, which is itself a primary radiometric source standard. Scans of the EUNIS aperture were made to determine the instrument's absolute spectral sensitivity to +- 25%, considering all sources of error, and demonstrate that EUNIS-06 was the most sensitive solar E W spectrometer yet flown. The results will be matched against prior calibrations which relied on combining measurements of individual optical components, and on comparisons with theoretically predicted 'insensitive' line ratios. Coordinated observations were made during the EUNIS-06 flight by SOHO/CDS and EIT that will allow re-calibrations of those instruments as well. In addition, future EUNIS flights will provide similar calibration updates for TRACE, Hinode/EIS, and STEREO/SECCHI/EUVI.

  7. Achieving Climate Change Absolute Accuracy in Orbit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wielicki, Bruce A.; Young, D. F.; Mlynczak, M. G.; Thome, K. J; Leroy, S.; Corliss, J.; Anderson, J. G.; Ao, C. O.; Bantges, R.; Best, F.; hide

    2013-01-01

    The Climate Absolute Radiance and Refractivity Observatory (CLARREO) mission will provide a calibration laboratory in orbit for the purpose of accurately measuring and attributing climate change. CLARREO measurements establish new climate change benchmarks with high absolute radiometric accuracy and high statistical confidence across a wide range of essential climate variables. CLARREO's inherently high absolute accuracy will be verified and traceable on orbit to Système Internationale (SI) units. The benchmarks established by CLARREO will be critical for assessing changes in the Earth system and climate model predictive capabilities for decades into the future as society works to meet the challenge of optimizing strategies for mitigating and adapting to climate change. The CLARREO benchmarks are derived from measurements of the Earth's thermal infrared spectrum (5-50 micron), the spectrum of solar radiation reflected by the Earth and its atmosphere (320-2300 nm), and radio occultation refractivity from which accurate temperature profiles are derived. The mission has the ability to provide new spectral fingerprints of climate change, as well as to provide the first orbiting radiometer with accuracy sufficient to serve as the reference transfer standard for other space sensors, in essence serving as a "NIST [National Institute of Standards and Technology] in orbit." CLARREO will greatly improve the accuracy and relevance of a wide range of space-borne instruments for decadal climate change. Finally, CLARREO has developed new metrics and methods for determining the accuracy requirements of climate observations for a wide range of climate variables and uncertainty sources. These methods should be useful for improving our understanding of observing requirements for most climate change observations.

  8. Fractional order absolute vibration suppression (AVS) controllers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Halevi, Yoram

    2017-04-01

    Absolute vibration suppression (AVS) is a control method for flexible structures. The first step is an accurate, infinite dimension, transfer function (TF), from actuation to measurement. This leads to the collocated, rate feedback AVS controller that in some cases completely eliminates the vibration. In case of the 1D wave equation, the TF consists of pure time delays and low order rational terms, and the AVS controller is rational. In all other cases, the TF and consequently the controller are fractional order in both the delays and the "rational parts". The paper considers stability, performance and actual implementation in such cases.

  9. Absolute method of measuring magnetic susceptibility

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Thorpe, A.; Senftle, F.E.

    1959-01-01

    An absolute method of standardization and measurement of the magnetic susceptibility of small samples is presented which can be applied to most techniques based on the Faraday method. The fact that the susceptibility is a function of the area under the curve of sample displacement versus distance of the magnet from the sample, offers a simple method of measuring the susceptibility without recourse to a standard sample. Typical results on a few substances are compared with reported values, and an error of less than 2% can be achieved. ?? 1959 The American Institute of Physics.

  10. Communication latencies of wireless devices suitable for time-critical messaging to anesthesia providers.

    PubMed

    Epstein, Richard H; Dexter, Franklin; Rothman, Brian

    2013-04-01

    Rapid and reliable methods of text communication to mobile anesthesia care providers are important to patient care and to efficient operating room management. Anesthesia departments are implementing automated methods to send text messages to mobile devices for abnormal vital signs, clinical recommendations, quality of care, and compliance or billing issues. The most time-critical communications determine maximum acceptable latencies. We studied the reliability of several alphanumeric messaging systems to identify an appropriate technology for such use. Latencies between message initiation and delivery to 3 alphanumeric paging devices were measured over weeks. Two devices used Internet pathways outside the hospital's local network with an external paging vendor (SkyTel). The third device used only the internal hospital network (Zetron). Sequential cell phone text page latencies were examined for lag-1 autocorrelation using the runs test, with results binned by hour and by day. Message latencies subsequently were batched in successive 1-week bins for calculation of the mean and 99th percentiles of latencies. We defined acceptance criteria as a mean latency <30 seconds and no more than 1 in 200 pages (0.5%) having a latency longer than 100 seconds. Cell phone texting was used as a positive control to assure that the analysis was appropriate, because such devices have (known) poor reliability during high network activity. There was substantial correlation among latencies for sequential cell phone text messages when binned by hours (P < 0.0001), but not by days (P = 0.61). The 2 devices using Internet pathways outside the hospital's network demonstrated unacceptable performance, with 1.3% and 33% of latencies exceeding 100 seconds, respectively. The device dependent only on the internal network had a mean latency of 8 seconds, with 100% of 40,200 pages having latencies <100 seconds. The findings suggest that the network used was the deciding factor. Developers of

  11. Plasmon resonances, anomalous transparency, and reflectionless absorption in overdense plasmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smolyakov, A.; Sternberg, N.

    2018-03-01

    The structure of the surface and standing wave resonances and their coupling in the configuration of the overdense plasma slab with a single diffraction grating are studied, using impedance matching techniques. Analytical criteria and exact expressions are obtained for plasma and diffraction grating parameters which define resonance conditions for absolute transparency in the ideal plasma and reflectionless absorption in a plasma with dissipation.

  12. The absolute threshold of cone vision

    PubMed Central

    Koeing, Darran; Hofer, Heidi

    2013-01-01

    We report measurements of the absolute threshold of cone vision, which has been previously underestimated due to sub-optimal conditions or overly strict subjective response criteria. We avoided these limitations by using optimized stimuli and experimental conditions while having subjects respond within a rating scale framework. Small (1′ fwhm), brief (34 msec), monochromatic (550 nm) stimuli were foveally presented at multiple intensities in dark-adapted retina for 5 subjects. For comparison, 4 subjects underwent similar testing with rod-optimized stimuli. Cone absolute threshold, that is, the minimum light energy for which subjects were just able to detect a visual stimulus with any response criterion, was 203 ± 38 photons at the cornea, ∼0.47 log units lower than previously reported. Two-alternative forced-choice measurements in a subset of subjects yielded consistent results. Cone thresholds were less responsive to criterion changes than rod thresholds, suggesting a limit to the stimulus information recoverable from the cone mosaic in addition to the limit imposed by Poisson noise. Results were consistent with expectations for detection in the face of stimulus uncertainty. We discuss implications of these findings for modeling the first stages of human cone vision and interpreting psychophysical data acquired with adaptive optics at the spatial scale of the receptor mosaic. PMID:21270115

  13. Why to compare absolute numbers of mitochondria.

    PubMed

    Schmitt, Sabine; Schulz, Sabine; Schropp, Eva-Maria; Eberhagen, Carola; Simmons, Alisha; Beisker, Wolfgang; Aichler, Michaela; Zischka, Hans

    2014-11-01

    Prompted by pronounced structural differences between rat liver and rat hepatocellular carcinoma mitochondria, we suspected these mitochondrial populations to differ massively in their molecular composition. Aiming to reveal these mitochondrial differences, we came across the issue on how to normalize such comparisons and decided to focus on the absolute number of mitochondria. To this end, fluorescently stained mitochondria were quantified by flow cytometry. For rat liver mitochondria, this approach resulted in mitochondrial protein contents comparable to earlier reports using alternative methods. We determined similar protein contents for rat liver, heart and kidney mitochondria. In contrast, however, lower protein contents were determined for rat brain mitochondria and for mitochondria from the rat hepatocellular carcinoma cell line McA 7777. This result challenges mitochondrial comparisons that rely on equal protein amounts as a typical normalization method. Exemplarily, we therefore compared the activity and susceptibility toward inhibition of complex II of rat liver and hepatocellular carcinoma mitochondria and obtained significant discrepancies by either normalizing to protein amount or to absolute mitochondrial number. Importantly, the latter normalization, in contrast to the former, demonstrated a lower complex II activity and higher susceptibility toward inhibition in hepatocellular carcinoma mitochondria compared to liver mitochondria. These findings demonstrate that solely normalizing to protein amount may obscure essential molecular differences between mitochondrial populations. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. and Mitochondria Research Society. All rights reserved.

  14. Relational versus absolute representation in categorization.

    PubMed

    Edwards, Darren J; Pothos, Emmanuel M; Perlman, Amotz

    2012-01-01

    This study explores relational-like and absolute-like representations in categorization. Although there is much evidence that categorization processes can involve information about both the particular physical properties of studied instances and abstract (relational) properties, there has been little work on the factors that lead to one kind of representation as opposed to the other. We tested 370 participants in 6 experiments, in which participants had to classify new items into predefined artificial categories. In 4 experiments, we observed a predominantly relational-like mode of classification, and in 2 experiments we observed a shift toward an absolute-like mode of classification. These results suggest 3 factors that promote a relational-like mode of classification: fewer items per group, more training groups, and the presence of a time delay. Overall, we propose that less information about the distributional properties of a category or weaker memory traces for the category exemplars (induced, e.g., by having smaller categories or a time delay) can encourage relational-like categorization.

  15. Linear ultrasonic motor for absolute gravimeter.

    PubMed

    Jian, Yue; Yao, Zhiyuan; Silberschmidt, Vadim V

    2017-05-01

    Thanks to their compactness and suitability for vacuum applications, linear ultrasonic motors are considered as substitutes for classical electromagnetic motors as driving elements in absolute gravimeters. Still, their application is prevented by relatively low power output. To overcome this limitation and provide better stability, a V-type linear ultrasonic motor with a new clamping method is proposed for a gravimeter. In this paper, a mechanical model of stators with flexible clamping components is suggested, according to a design criterion for clamps of linear ultrasonic motors. After that, an effect of tangential and normal rigidity of the clamping components on mechanical output is studied. It is followed by discussion of a new clamping method with sufficient tangential rigidity and a capability to facilitate pre-load. Additionally, a prototype of the motor with the proposed clamping method was fabricated and the performance tests in vertical direction were implemented. Experimental results show that the suggested motor has structural stability and high dynamic performance, such as no-load speed of 1.4m/s and maximal thrust of 43N, meeting the requirements for absolute gravimeters. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Aided Electrophysiology Using Direct Audio Input: Effects of Amplification and Absolute Signal Level

    PubMed Central

    Billings, Curtis J.; Miller, Christi W.; Tremblay, Kelly L.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose This study investigated (a) the effect of amplification on cortical auditory evoked potentials (CAEPs) at different signal levels when signal-to-noise ratios (SNRs) were equated between unaided and aided conditions, and (b) the effect of absolute signal level on aided CAEPs when SNR was held constant. Method CAEPs were recorded from 13 young adults with normal hearing. A 1000-Hz pure tone was presented in unaided and aided conditions with a linear analog hearing aid. Direct audio input was used, allowing recorded hearing aid noise floor to be added to unaided conditions to equate SNRs between conditions. An additional stimulus was created through scaling the noise floor to study the effect of signal level. Results Amplification resulted in delayed N1 and P2 peak latencies relative to the unaided condition. An effect of absolute signal level (when SNR was constant) was present for aided CAEP area measures, such that larger area measures were found at higher levels. Conclusion Results of this study further demonstrate that factors in addition to SNR must also be considered before CAEPs can be used to clinically to measure aided thresholds. PMID:26953543

  17. Forecasting Error Calculation with Mean Absolute Deviation and Mean Absolute Percentage Error

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khair, Ummul; Fahmi, Hasanul; Hakim, Sarudin Al; Rahim, Robbi

    2017-12-01

    Prediction using a forecasting method is one of the most important things for an organization, the selection of appropriate forecasting methods is also important but the percentage error of a method is more important in order for decision makers to adopt the right culture, the use of the Mean Absolute Deviation and Mean Absolute Percentage Error to calculate the percentage of mistakes in the least square method resulted in a percentage of 9.77% and it was decided that the least square method be worked for time series and trend data.

  18. High-frequency tone burst-evoked ABR latency-intensity functions.

    PubMed

    Fausti, S A; Olson, D J; Frey, R H; Henry, J A; Schaffer, H I

    1993-01-01

    High-frequency tone burst stimuli (8, 10, 12, and 14 kHz) have been developed and demonstrated to provide reliable and valid auditory brainstem responses (ABRs) in normal-hearing subjects. In this study, latency-intensity functions (LIFs) were determined using these stimuli in 14 normal-hearing individuals. Significant shifts in response latency occurred as a function of stimulus intensity for all tone burst frequencies. For each 10 dB shift in intensity, latency shifts for waves I and V were statistically significant except for one isolated instance. LIF slopes were comparable between frequencies, ranging from 0.020 to 0.030 msec/dB. These normal LIFs for high-frequency tone burst-evoked ABRs suggest the degree of response latency change that might be expected from, for example, progressive hearing loss due to ototoxic insult, although these phenomena may not be directly related.

  19. Ocular herpes simplex virus: how are latency, reactivation, recurrent disease and therapy interrelated?

    PubMed Central

    Al-Dujaili, Lena J; Clerkin, Patrick P; Clement, Christian; McFerrin, Harris E; Bhattacharjee, Partha S; Varnell, Emily D; Kaufman, Herbert E; Hill, James M

    2012-01-01

    Most humans are infected with herpes simplex virus (HSV) type 1 in early childhood and remain latently infected throughout life. While most individuals have mild or no symptoms, some will develop destructive HSV keratitis. Ocular infection with HSV-1 and its associated sequelae account for the majority of corneal blindness in industrialized nations. Neuronal latency in the peripheral ganglia is established when transcription of the viral genome is repressed (silenced) except for the latency-associated transcripts and microRNAs. The functions of latency-associated transcripts have been investigated since 1987. Roles have been suggested relating to reactivation, establishment of latency, neuronal protection, antiapoptosis, apoptosis, virulence and asymptomatic shedding. Here, we review HSV-1 latent infections, reactivation, recurrent disease and antiviral therapies for the ocular HSV diseases. PMID:21861620

  20. Ocular herpes simplex virus: how are latency, reactivation, recurrent disease and therapy interrelated?

    PubMed

    Al-Dujaili, Lena J; Clerkin, Patrick P; Clement, Christian; McFerrin, Harris E; Bhattacharjee, Partha S; Varnell, Emily D; Kaufman, Herbert E; Hill, James M

    2011-08-01

    Most humans are infected with herpes simplex virus (HSV) type 1 in early childhood and remain latently infected throughout life. While most individuals have mild or no symptoms, some will develop destructive HSV keratitis. Ocular infection with HSV-1 and its associated sequelae account for the majority of corneal blindness in industrialized nations. Neuronal latency in the peripheral ganglia is established when transcription of the viral genome is repressed (silenced) except for the latency-associated transcripts and microRNAs. The functions of latency-associated transcripts have been investigated since 1987. Roles have been suggested relating to reactivation, establishment of latency, neuronal protection, antiapoptosis, apoptosis, virulence and asymptomatic shedding. Here, we review HSV-1 latent infections, reactivation, recurrent disease and antiviral therapies for the ocular HSV diseases.

  1. Reversal of Latency as Part of a Cure for HIV-1.

    PubMed

    Rasmussen, Thomas Aagaard; Tolstrup, Martin; Søgaard, Ole Schmeltz

    2016-02-01

    Here, the use of pharmacological agents to reverse HIV-1 latency will be explored as a therapeutic strategy towards a cure. However, while clinical trials of latency-reversing agents LRAs) have demonstrated their ability to increase production of latent HIV-1, such interventions have not had an effect on the size of the latent HIV-1 reservoir. Plausible explanations for this include insufficient host immune responses against virus-expressing cells, the presence of escape mutations in archived virus, or an insufficient scale of latency reversal. Importantly, these early studies of LRAs were primarily designed to investigate their ability to perturb the state of HIV-1 latency; using the absence of an impact on the size of the HIV-1 reservoir to discard their potential inclusion in curative strategies would be erroneous and premature. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Judgment and judgment latency for freedom and responsibility relatedness as a function of subtle linguistic variations.

    PubMed

    Wilkerson, Keith; McGahan, Joseph R; Stevens, Rick; Williamson, David; Low, Jean

    2009-12-01

    The goal of this study was to determine whether differential response formats to covariation problems influence corresponding response latencies. The authors provided participants with 3 trials of 16 statements addressing positive and negative relations between freedom and responsibility. The authors framed half of the items around responsibility given freedom and the other half around freedom given responsibility. Response formats comprised true-false, agree-disagree, and yes-no answers as a between-participants factor. Results indicated that the manipulation of response format did not affect latencies. However, latencies differed according to the framing of the items. For items framed around freedom given responsibility, latencies were shorter. In addition, participants were more likely to report a positive relation between freedom and responsibility when items were framed around freedom given responsibility. The authors discuss implications relative to previous research in this area and give recommendations for future research.

  3. Bifurcated method and apparatus for floating point addition with decreased latency time

    DOEpatents

    Farmwald, Paul M.

    1987-01-01

    Apparatus for decreasing the latency time associated with floating point addition and subtraction in a computer, using a novel bifurcated, pre-normalization/post-normalization approach that distinguishes between differences of floating point exponents.

  4. Research on low-latency MAC protocols for wireless sensor networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Chenguang; Sha, Xuejun; Lee, Chankil

    2007-11-01

    Energy-efficient should not be the only design goal in MAC protocols for wireless sensor networks, which involve the use of battery-operated computing and sensing devices. Low-latency operation becomes the same important as energy-efficient in the case that the traffic load is very heavy or the real-time constrain is used in applications like tracking or locating. This paper introduces some causes of traditional time delays which are inherent in a multi-hops network using existing WSN MAC protocols, illuminates the importance of low-latency MAC design for wireless sensor networks, and presents three MACs as examples of low-latency protocols designed specially for sleep delay, wait delay and wakeup delay in wireless sensor networks, respectively. The paper also discusses design trade-offs with emphasis on low-latency and points out their advantages and disadvantages, together with some design considerations and suggestions for MAC protocols for future applications and researches.

  5. Industrial WSN Based on IR-UWB and a Low-Latency MAC Protocol

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reinhold, Rafael; Underberg, Lisa; Wulf, Armin; Kays, Ruediger

    2016-07-01

    Wireless sensor networks for industrial communication require high reliability and low latency. As current wireless sensor networks do not entirely meet these requirements, novel system approaches need to be developed. Since ultra wideband communication systems seem to be a promising approach, this paper evaluates the performance of the IEEE 802.15.4 impulse-radio ultra-wideband physical layer and the IEEE 802.15.4 Low Latency Deterministic Network (LLDN) MAC for industrial applications. Novel approaches and system adaptions are proposed to meet the application requirements. In this regard, a synchronization approach based on circular average magnitude difference functions (CAMDF) and on a clean template (CT) is presented for the correlation receiver. An adapted MAC protocol titled aggregated low latency (ALL) MAC is proposed to significantly reduce the resulting latency. Based on the system proposals, a hardware prototype has been developed, which proves the feasibility of the system and visualizes the real-time performance of the MAC protocol.

  6. Reducing audio stimulus presentation latencies across studies, laboratories, and hardware and operating system configurations.

    PubMed

    Babjack, Destiny L; Cernicky, Brandon; Sobotka, Andrew J; Basler, Lee; Struthers, Devon; Kisic, Richard; Barone, Kimberly; Zuccolotto, Anthony P

    2015-09-01

    Using differing computer platforms and audio output devices to deliver audio stimuli often introduces (1) substantial variability across labs and (2) variable time between the intended and actual sound delivery (the sound onset latency). Fast, accurate audio onset latencies are particularly important when audio stimuli need to be delivered precisely as part of studies that depend on accurate timing (e.g., electroencephalographic, event-related potential, or multimodal studies), or in multisite studies in which standardization and strict control over the computer platforms used is not feasible. This research describes the variability introduced by using differing configurations and introduces a novel approach to minimizing audio sound latency and variability. A stimulus presentation and latency assessment approach is presented using E-Prime and Chronos (a new multifunction, USB-based data presentation and collection device). The present approach reliably delivers audio stimuli with low latencies that vary by ≤1 ms, independent of hardware and Windows operating system (OS)/driver combinations. The Chronos audio subsystem adopts a buffering, aborting, querying, and remixing approach to the delivery of audio, to achieve a consistent 1-ms sound onset latency for single-sound delivery, and precise delivery of multiple sounds that achieves standard deviations of 1/10th of a millisecond without the use of advanced scripting. Chronos's sound onset latencies are small, reliable, and consistent across systems. Testing of standard audio delivery devices and configurations highlights the need for careful attention to consistency between labs, experiments, and multiple study sites in their hardware choices, OS selections, and adoption of audio delivery systems designed to sidestep the audio latency variability issue.

  7. Measurement and reduction of system latency in see-through helmet mounted display (HMD) systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vincenzi, Dennis A.; Deaton, John E.; Blickenderfer, Elizabeth L.; Pray, Rick; Williams, Barry; Buker, Timothy J.

    2010-04-01

    Future military aviation platforms such as the proposed Joint Strike Fighter F-35 will integrate helmet mounted displays (HMDs) with the avionics and weapon systems to the degree that the HMDs will become the aircraft's primary display system. In turn, training of pilot flight skills using HMDs will be essential in future training systems. In order to train these skills using simulation based training, improvements must be made in the integration of HMDs with out-thewindow (OTW) simulations. Currently, problems such as latency contribute to the onset of simulator sickness and provide distractions during training with HMD simulator systems that degrade the training experience. Previous research has used Kalman predictive filters as a means of mitigating the system latency present in these systems. While this approach has yielded some success, more work is needed to develop innovative and improved strategies that reduce system latency as well as to include data collected from the user perspective as a measured variable during test and evaluation of latency reduction strategies. The purpose of this paper is twofold. First, the paper describes a new method to measure and assess system latency from the user perspective. Second, the paper describes use of the testbed to examine the efficacy of an innovative strategy that combines a customized Kalman filter with a neural network approach to mitigate system latency. Results indicate that the combined approach reduced system latency significantly when compared to baseline data and the traditional Kalman filter. Reduced latency errors should mitigate the onset of simulator sickness and ease simulator sickness symptomology. Implications for training systems will be discussed.

  8. Gum chewing improves swallow frequency and latency in Parkinson patients: a preliminary study.

    PubMed

    South, Angela R; Somers, Stephanie M; Jog, Mandar S

    2010-04-13

    Reduced swallowing frequency affects secretion management in Parkinson disease (PD). Gum chewing increases saliva flow and swallow frequency. This study uses chewing gum to modify swallow frequency and latency between swallows in patients with PD. 1) Assess the frequency and latency of swallow at baseline (BL), during gum chewing (GC), and post gum chewing (PGC) for participants with PD (stage 2-4) nonsymptomatic for prandial dysphagia; and 2) assess carryover after gum is expectorated. Twenty participants were studied across 3 tasks, each of 5 minutes in duration: BL, GC, and PGC. Respiratory and laryngeal signals were continuously recorded using PowerLab (version 5.5.5; ADI Instruments, Castle Hill, Australia). Frequency and latency of swallow events were calculated. Differences (analysis of variance) are reported for frequency (p < 0.000001) and latency (p < 0.000001). Swallow frequency (mean +/- SD) increased during GC (14.95 +/- 3.02) compared with BL (3.1 +/- 2.85) and PGC (7.0 +/- 2.57). Latency in seconds (mean +/- SD) decreased during GC (24.1 +/- 4.174) and increased with BL (131.8 +/- 59.52) and PGC (mean = 60.74 +/- 25.25). Intertask comparisons (t test) found differences in swallow frequency and latency between tasks: BL vs GC (p < 0.0001, p < 0.0001), BL vs PGC (p < 0.0011, p < 0.0009), and GC vs PGC (p < 0.0001, p < 0.0002), respectively. Post hoc analysis showed carryover to 5.317 minutes. Modifying sensorimotor input by chewing gum alters frequency and latency of swallowing and may be an effective strategy for secretion management in Parkinson disease. This study provides Class III evidence that chewing gum increases swallow frequency and decreases latency of swallowing in an experiment in patients with stage 2 to 4 Parkinson disease who are nonsymptomatic for significant prandial dysphagia.

  9. Long-latency auditory evoked potentials with verbal and nonverbal stimuli.

    PubMed

    Oppitz, Sheila Jacques; Didoné, Dayane Domeneghini; Silva, Débora Durigon da; Gois, Marjana; Folgearini, Jordana; Ferreira, Geise Corrêa; Garcia, Michele Vargas

    2015-01-01

    Long-latency auditory evoked potentials represent the cortical activity related to attention, memory, and auditory discrimination skills. Acoustic signal processing occurs differently between verbal and nonverbal stimuli, influencing the latency and amplitude patterns. To describe the latencies of the cortical potentials P1, N1, P2, N2, and P3, as well as P3 amplitude, with different speech stimuli and tone bursts, and to classify them in the presence and absence of these data. A total of 30 subjects with normal hearing were assessed, aged 18-32 years old, matched by gender. Nonverbal stimuli were used (tone burst; 1000Hz - frequent and 4000Hz - rare); and verbal (/ba/ - frequent; /ga/, /da/, and /di/ - rare). Considering the component N2 for tone burst, the lowest latency found was 217.45ms for the BA/DI stimulus; the highest latency found was 256.5ms. For the P3 component, the shortest latency with tone burst stimuli was 298.7 with BA/GA stimuli, the highest, was 340ms. For the P3 amplitude, there was no statistically significant difference among the different stimuli. For latencies of components P1, N1, P2, N2, P3, there were no statistical differences among them, regardless of the stimuli used. There was a difference in the latency of potentials N2 and P3 among the stimuli employed but no difference was observed for the P3 amplitude. Copyright © 2015 Associação Brasileira de Otorrinolaringologia e Cirurgia Cérvico-Facial. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  10. A Conceptual Approach to Absolute Value Equations and Inequalities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ellis, Mark W.; Bryson, Janet L.

    2011-01-01

    The absolute value learning objective in high school mathematics requires students to solve far more complex absolute value equations and inequalities. When absolute value problems become more complex, students often do not have sufficient conceptual understanding to make any sense of what is happening mathematically. The authors suggest that the…

  11. Using, Seeing, Feeling, and Doing Absolute Value for Deeper Understanding

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ponce, Gregorio A.

    2008-01-01

    Using sticky notes and number lines, a hands-on activity is shared that anchors initial student thinking about absolute value. The initial point of reference should help students successfully evaluate numeric problems involving absolute value. They should also be able to solve absolute value equations and inequalities that are typically found in…

  12. 20 CFR 404.1205 - Absolute coverage groups.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Absolute coverage groups. 404.1205 Section... INSURANCE (1950- ) Coverage of Employees of State and Local Governments What Groups of Employees May Be Covered § 404.1205 Absolute coverage groups. (a) General. An absolute coverage group is a permanent...

  13. 20 CFR 404.1205 - Absolute coverage groups.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Absolute coverage groups. 404.1205 Section... INSURANCE (1950- ) Coverage of Employees of State and Local Governments What Groups of Employees May Be Covered § 404.1205 Absolute coverage groups. (a) General. An absolute coverage group is a permanent...

  14. 20 CFR 404.1205 - Absolute coverage groups.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Absolute coverage groups. 404.1205 Section... INSURANCE (1950- ) Coverage of Employees of State and Local Governments What Groups of Employees May Be Covered § 404.1205 Absolute coverage groups. (a) General. An absolute coverage group is a permanent...

  15. Modeling absolute plate and plume motions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bodinier, G. P.; Wessel, P.; Conrad, C. P.

    2016-12-01

    Paleomagnetic evidence for plume drift has made modeling of absolute plate motions challenging, especially since direct observations of plume drift are lacking. Predictions of plume drift arising from mantle convection models and broadly satisfying observed paleolatitudes have so far provided the only framework for deriving absolute plate motions over moving hotspots. However, uncertainties in mantle rheology, temperature, and initial conditions make such models nonunique. Using simulated and real data, we will show that age progressions along Pacific hotspot trails provide strong constraints on plume motions for all major trails, and furthermore that it is possible to derive models for relative plume drift from these data alone. Relative plume drift depends on the inter-hotspot distances derived from age progressions but lacks a fixed reference point and orientation. By incorporating paleolatitude histories for the Hawaii and Louisville chains we add further constraints on allowable plume motions, yet one unknown parameter remains: a longitude shift that applies equally to all plumes. To obtain a solution we could restrict either the Hawaii or Louisville plume to have latitudinal motion only, thus satisfying paleolatitude constraints. Yet, restricting one plume to latitudinal motion while all others move freely is not realistic. Consequently, it is only possible to resolve the motion of hotspots relative to an overall and unknown longitudinal shift as a function of time. Our plate motions are therefore dependent on the same shift via an unknown rotation about the north pole. Yet, as plume drifts are consequences of mantle convection, our results place strong constraints on the pattern of convection. Other considerations, such as imposed limits on plate speed, plume speed, proximity to LLSVP edges, model smoothness, or relative plate motions via ridge-spotting may add further constraints that allow a unique model of Pacific absolute plate and plume motions to be

  16. Validation of prospective portion size and latency to eat as measures of reactivity to snack foods.

    PubMed

    van den Akker, Karolien; Bongers, Peggy; Hanssen, Imke; Jansen, Anita

    2017-09-01

    In experimental studies that investigate reactivity to the sight and smell of highly palatable snack foods, ad libitum food intake is commonly used as a behavioural outcome measure. However, this measure has several drawbacks. The current study investigated two intake-related measures not yet validated for food cue exposure research involving common snack foods: prospective portion size and latency to eat. We aimed to validate these measures by assessing prospective portion size and eating latencies in female undergraduate students who either underwent snack food exposure or a control exposure. Furthermore, we correlated prospective portion size and latency to eat with commonly used measures of food cue reactivity, i.e., self-reported desire to eat, salivation, and ad libitum food intake. Results showed increases in prospective portion size after food cue exposure but not after control exposure. Latency to eat did not differ between the two conditions. Prospective portion size correlated positively with desire to eat and food intake, and negatively with latency to eat. Latency to eat was also negatively correlated with desire to eat and food intake. It is concluded that the current study provides initial evidence for the prospective portion size task as a valid measure of reactivity to snack foods in a Dutch female and mostly healthy weight student population. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Impact of wave propagation delay on latency in optical communication systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kawanishi, Tetsuya; Kanno, Atsushi; Yoshida, Yuki; Kitayama, Ken-ichi

    2012-12-01

    Latency is an important figure to describe performance of transmission systems for particular applications, such as data transfer for earthquake early warning, transaction for financial businesses, interactive services such as online games, etc. Latency consists of delay due to signal processing at nodes and transmitters, and of signal propagation delay due to propagation of electromagnetic waves. The lower limit of the latency in transmission systems using conventional single mode fibers (SMFs) depends on wave propagation speed in the SMFs which is slower than c. Photonic crystal fibers, holly fibers and large core fibers can have low effective refractive indices, and can transfer light faster than in SMFs. In free-space optical systems, signals propagate with the speed c, so that the latency could be smaller than in optical fibers. For example, LEO satellites would transmit data faster than optical submarine cables, when the transmission distance is longer than a few thousand kilometers. This paper will discuss combination of various transmission media to reduce negative impact of the latency, as well as applications of low-latency systems.

  18. On the frequency dependence of the otoacoustic emission latency in hypoacoustic and normal ears

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sisto, R.; Moleti, A.

    2002-01-01

    Experimental measurements of the otoacoustic emission (OAE) latency of adult subjects have been obtained, as a function of frequency, by means of wavelet time-frequency analysis based on the iterative application of filter banks. The results are in agreement with previous OAE latency measurements by Tognola et al. [Hear. Res. 106, 112-122 (1997)], as regards both the latency values and the frequency dependence, and seem to be incompatible with the steep 1/f law that is predicted by scale-invariant full cochlear models. The latency-frequency relationship has been best fitted to a linear function of the cochlear physical distance, using the Greenwood map, and to an exponential function of the cochlear distance, for comparison with derived band ABR latency measurements. Two sets of ears [94 audiometrically normal and 42 impaired with high-frequency (f>3 kHz) hearing loss] have been separately analyzed. Significantly larger average latencies were found in the impaired ears in the mid-frequency range. Theoretical implications of these findings on the transmission of the traveling wave are discussed.

  19. Latency of TCP applications over the ATM-WAN using the GFR service category

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Kuo-Hsien; Siliquini, John F.; Budrikis, Zigmantas

    1998-10-01

    The GFR service category has been proposed for data services in ATM networks. Since users are ultimately interested in data service that provide high efficiency and low latency, it is important to study the latency performance for data traffic of the GFR service category in an ATM network. Today much of the data traffic utilizes the TCP/IP protocol suite and in this paper we study through simulation the latency of TCP applications running over a wide-area ATM network utilizing the GFR service category using a realistic TCP traffic model. From this study, we find that during congestion periods the reserved bandwidth in GFR can improve the latency performance for TCP applications. However, due to TCP 'Slow Start' data segment generation dynamics, we show that a large proportion of TCP segments are discarded under network congestion even when the reserved bandwidth is equal to the average generated rate of user data. Therefore, a user experiences worse than expected latency performance when the network is congested. In this study we also examine the effects of segment size on the latency performance of TCP applications using the GFR service category.

  20. Low-Latency Lunar Surface Telerobotics from Earth-Moon Libration Points

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lester, Daniel; Thronson, Harley

    2011-01-01

    Concepts for a long-duration habitat at Earth-Moon LI or L2 have been advanced for a number of purposes. We propose here that such a facility could also have an important role for low-latency telerobotic control of lunar surface equipment, both for lunar science and development. With distances of about 60,000 km from the lunar surface, such sites offer light-time limited two-way control latencies of order 400 ms, making telerobotic control for those sites close to real time as perceived by a human operator. We point out that even for transcontinental teleoperated surgical procedures, which require operational precision and highly dexterous manipulation, control latencies of this order are considered adequate. Terrestrial telerobots that are used routinely for mining and manufacturing also involve control latencies of order several hundred milliseconds. For this reason, an Earth-Moon LI or L2 control node could build on the technology and experience base of commercially proven terrestrial ventures. A lunar libration-point telerobotic node could demonstrate exploration strategies that would eventually be used on Mars, and many other less hospitable destinations in the solar system. Libration-point telepresence for the Moon contrasts with lunar telerobotic control from the Earth, for which two-way control latencies are at least six times longer. For control latencies that long, telerobotic control efforts are of the "move-and-wait" variety, which is cognitively inferior to near real-time control.

  1. Interside Latency Differences in Brainstem Auditory and Somatosensory Evoked Potentials. Defining Upper Limits to Determine Asymmetry.

    PubMed

    Moncho, Dulce; Poca, Maria A; Minoves, Teresa; Ferré, Alejandro; Sahuquillo, Juan

    2015-10-01

    Limits of the interside differences are invaluable when interpreting asymmetry in brainstem auditory evoked potentials and somatosensory evoked potentials (SEP) recordings. The aim of this study was to analyze the normal upper limits of interside latency differences of brainstem auditory evoked potentials and SEP from the posterior tibial nerve and median nerve to determine asymmetry. The authors performed a prospective study in 56 healthy subjects aged 15 to 64 years with no neurological or hearing disorders. They analyzed (1) the latencies of I, III, and V waves and I-III, III-V, and I-V intervals and the amplitude ratios V/I and IV/I for brainstem auditory evoked potentials bilaterally; (2) the latencies of N8, N22, N28, and P37 waves and the interval N22-P37 and the amplitude P37 for posterior tibial nerve SEP bilaterally; and (3) the latencies and amplitudes of N9, N13, and N20 waves and N9-N13 and N13-N20 intervals for median nerve SEP bilaterally. The interside differences for these parameters were calculated and analyzed. The authors obtained an upper limit for the interside latency differences from brainstem auditory evoked potentials that was significantly lower than the previously published data. However, the upper limits of interside latency differences for SEP were similar to those previously reported. The findings of this study should be considered when laboratories analyze asymmetry using the normative data published by another center, however temporarily, in organizing new laboratories.

  2. Temporal processing and long-latency auditory evoked potential in stutterers.

    PubMed

    Prestes, Raquel; de Andrade, Adriana Neves; Santos, Renata Beatriz Fernandes; Marangoni, Andrea Tortosa; Schiefer, Ana Maria; Gil, Daniela

    Stuttering is a speech fluency disorder, and may be associated with neuroaudiological factors linked to central auditory processing, including changes in auditory processing skills and temporal resolution. To characterize the temporal processing and long-latency auditory evoked potential in stutterers and to compare them with non-stutterers. The study included 41 right-handed subjects, aged 18-46 years, divided into two groups: stutterers (n=20) and non-stutters (n=21), compared according to age, education, and sex. All subjects were submitted to the duration pattern tests, random gap detection test, and long-latency auditory evoked potential. Individuals who stutter showed poorer performance on Duration Pattern and Random Gap Detection tests when compared with fluent individuals. In the long-latency auditory evoked potential, there was a difference in the latency of N2 and P3 components; stutterers had higher latency values. Stutterers have poor performance in temporal processing and higher latency values for N2 and P3 components. Copyright © 2017 Associação Brasileira de Otorrinolaringologia e Cirurgia Cérvico-Facial. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  3. The effect of preterm birth on brainstem, middle latency and cortical auditory evoked responses (BMC AERs).

    PubMed

    Pasman, J W; Rotteveel, J J; de Graaf, R; Stegeman, D F; Visco, Y M

    1992-12-01

    Recent studies on the maturation of auditory brainstem evoked responses (ABRs) present conflicting results, whereas only sparse reports exist with respect to the maturation of middle latency auditory evoked responses (MLRs) and auditory cortical evoked responses (ACRs). The present study reports the effect of preterm birth on the maturation of auditory evoked responses in low risk preterm infants (27-34 weeks conceptional age). The ABRs indicate a consistent trend towards longer latencies for all individual ABR components and towards longer interpeak latencies in preterm infants. The MLR shows longer latencies for early component P0 in preterm infants. The ACRs show a remarkable difference between preterm and term infants. At 40 weeks CA the latencies of ACR components Na and P2 are significantly longer in term infants, whereas at 52 weeks CA the latencies of the same ACR components are shorter in term infants. The results support the hypothesis that retarded myelination of the central auditory pathway is partially responsible for differences found between preterm infants and term infants with respect to late ABR components and early MLR component P0. Furthermore, mild conductive hearing loss in preterm infants may also play its role. A more complex mechanism is implicated to account for the findings noted with respect to MLR component Na and ACR components Na and P2.

  4. Use of Absolute and Comparative Performance Feedback in Absolute and Comparative Judgments and Decisions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moore, Don A.; Klein, William M. P.

    2008-01-01

    Which matters more--beliefs about absolute ability or ability relative to others? This study set out to compare the effects of such beliefs on satisfaction with performance, self-evaluations, and bets on future performance. In Experiment 1, undergraduate participants were told they had answered 20% correct, 80% correct, or were not given their…

  5. Driven tracer with absolute negative mobility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cividini, J.; Mukamel, D.; Posch, H. A.

    2018-02-01

    Instances of negative mobility, where a system responds to a perturbation in a way opposite to naive expectation, have been studied theoretically and experimentally in numerous nonequilibrium systems. In this work we show that absolute negative mobility (ANM), whereby current is produced in a direction opposite to the drive, can occur around equilibrium states. This is demonstrated with a simple one-dimensional lattice model with a driven tracer. We derive analytical predictions in the linear response regime and elucidate the mechanism leading to ANM by studying the high-density limit. We also study numerically a model of hard Brownian disks in a narrow planar channel, for which the lattice model can be viewed as a toy model. We find that the model exhibits negative differential mobility (NDM), but no ANM.

  6. Measurement of absolute gamma emission probabilities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sumithrarachchi, Chandana S.; Rengan, Krish; Griffin, Henry C.

    2003-06-01

    The energies and emission probabilities (intensities) of gamma-rays emitted in radioactive decays of particular nuclides are the most important characteristics by which to quantify mixtures of radionuclides. Often, quantification is limited by uncertainties in measured intensities. A technique was developed to reduce these uncertainties. The method involves obtaining a pure sample of a nuclide using radiochemical techniques, and using appropriate fractions for beta and gamma measurements. The beta emission rates were measured using a liquid scintillation counter, and the gamma emission rates were measured with a high-purity germanium detector. Results were combined to obtain absolute gamma emission probabilities. All sources of uncertainties greater than 0.1% were examined. The method was tested with 38Cl and 88Rb.

  7. Absolute calibration of ultraviolet filter photometry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bless, R. C.; Fairchild, T.; Code, A. D.

    1972-01-01

    The essential features of the calibration procedure can be divided into three parts. First, the shape of the bandpass of each photometer was determined by measuring the transmissions of the individual optical components and also by measuring the response of the photometer as a whole. Secondly, each photometer was placed in the essentially-collimated synchrotron radiation bundle maintained at a constant intensity level, and the output signal was determined from about 100 points on the objective. Finally, two or three points on the objective were illuminated by synchrotron radiation at several different intensity levels covering the dynamic range of the photometers. The output signals were placed on an absolute basis by the electron counting technique described earlier.

  8. Absolute negative mobility in the anomalous diffusion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Ruyin; Chen, Chongyang; Nie, Linru

    2017-12-01

    Transport of an inertial Brownian particle driven by the multiplicative Lévy noise was investigated here. Numerical results indicate that: (i) The Lévy noise is able to induce absolute negative mobility (ANM) in the system, while disappearing in the deterministic case; (ii) the ANM can occur in the region of superdiffusion while disappearing in the region of normal diffusion, and the appropriate stable index of the Lévy noise makes the particle move along the opposite direction of the bias force to the maximum degree; (iii) symmetry breaking of the Lévy noise also causes the ANM effect. In addition, the intrinsic physical mechanism and conditions for the ANM to occur are discussed in detail. Our results have the implication that the Lévy noise plays an important role in the occurrence of the ANM phenomenon.

  9. Absolute partial photoionization cross sections of ethylene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grimm, F. A.; Whitley, T. A.; Keller, P. R.; Taylor, J. W.

    1991-07-01

    Absolute partial photoionization cross sections for ionization out of the first four valence orbitals to the X 2B 3u, A 2B 3g, B 2A g and C 2B 2u states of the C 2H 4+ ion are presented as a function of photon energy over the energy range from 12 to 26 eV. The experimental results have been compared to previously published relative partial cross sections for the first two bands at 18, 21 and 24 eV. Comparison of the experimental data with continuum multiple scattering Xα calculations provides evidence for extensive autoionization to the X 2B 3u state and confirms the predicted shape resonances in ionization to the A 2B 3g and B 2A g states. Identification of possible transitions for the autoionizing resonances have been made using multiple scattering transition state calculations on Rydberg excited states.

  10. Measured and modelled absolute gravity in Greenland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nielsen, E.; Forsberg, R.; Strykowski, G.

    2012-12-01

    Present day changes in the ice volume in glaciated areas like Greenland will change the load on the Earth and to this change the lithosphere will respond elastically. The Earth also responds to changes in the ice volume over a millennial time scale. This response is due to the viscous properties of the mantle and is known as Glaical Isostatic Adjustment (GIA). Both signals are present in GPS and absolute gravity (AG) measurements and they will give an uncertainty in mass balance estimates calculated from these data types. It is possible to separate the two signals if both gravity and Global Positioning System (GPS) time series are available. DTU Space acquired an A10 absolute gravimeter in 2008. One purpose of this instrument is to establish AG time series in Greenland and the first measurements were conducted in 2009. Since then are 18 different Greenland GPS Network (GNET) stations visited and six of these are visited more then once. The gravity signal consists of three signals; the elastic signal, the viscous signal and the direct attraction from the ice masses. All of these signals can be modelled using various techniques. The viscous signal is modelled by solving the Sea Level Equation with an appropriate ice history and Earth model. The free code SELEN is used for this. The elastic signal is modelled as a convolution of the elastic Greens function for gravity and a model of present day ice mass changes. The direct attraction is the same as the Newtonian attraction and is calculated as this. Here we will present the preliminary results of the AG measurements in Greenland. We will also present modelled estimates of the direct attraction, the elastic and the viscous signals.

  11. Absolute GPS Positioning Using Genetic Algorithms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramillien, G.

    A new inverse approach for restoring the absolute coordinates of a ground -based station from three or four observed GPS pseudo-ranges is proposed. This stochastic method is based on simulations of natural evolution named genetic algorithms (GA). These iterative procedures provide fairly good and robust estimates of the absolute positions in the Earth's geocentric reference system. For comparison/validation, GA results are compared to the ones obtained using the classical linearized least-square scheme for the determination of the XYZ location proposed by Bancroft (1985) which is strongly limited by the number of available observations (i.e. here, the number of input pseudo-ranges must be four). The r.m.s. accuracy of the non -linear cost function reached by this latter method is typically ~10-4 m2 corresponding to ~300-500-m accuracies for each geocentric coordinate. However, GA can provide more acceptable solutions (r.m.s. errors < 10-5 m2), even when only three instantaneous pseudo-ranges are used, such as a lost of lock during a GPS survey. Tuned GA parameters used in different simulations are N=1000 starting individuals, as well as Pc=60-70% and Pm=30-40% for the crossover probability and mutation rate, respectively. Statistical tests on the ability of GA to recover acceptable coordinates in presence of important levels of noise are made simulating nearly 3000 random samples of erroneous pseudo-ranges. Here, two main sources of measurement errors are considered in the inversion: (1) typical satellite-clock errors and/or 300-metre variance atmospheric delays, and (2) Geometrical Dilution of Precision (GDOP) due to the particular GPS satellite configuration at the time of acquisition. Extracting valuable information and even from low-quality starting range observations, GA offer an interesting alternative for high -precision GPS positioning.

  12. Variance computations for functional of absolute risk estimates.

    PubMed

    Pfeiffer, R M; Petracci, E

    2011-07-01

    We present a simple influence function based approach to compute the variances of estimates of absolute risk and functions of absolute risk. We apply this approach to criteria that assess the impact of changes in the risk factor distribution on absolute risk for an individual and at the population level. As an illustration we use an absolute risk prediction model for breast cancer that includes modifiable risk factors in addition to standard breast cancer risk factors. Influence function based variance estimates for absolute risk and the criteria are compared to bootstrap variance estimates.

  13. Variance computations for functional of absolute risk estimates

    PubMed Central

    Pfeiffer, R.M.; Petracci, E.

    2011-01-01

    We present a simple influence function based approach to compute the variances of estimates of absolute risk and functions of absolute risk. We apply this approach to criteria that assess the impact of changes in the risk factor distribution on absolute risk for an individual and at the population level. As an illustration we use an absolute risk prediction model for breast cancer that includes modifiable risk factors in addition to standard breast cancer risk factors. Influence function based variance estimates for absolute risk and the criteria are compared to bootstrap variance estimates. PMID:21643476

  14. Multiple sleep latency measures in narcolepsy and behaviourally induced insufficient sleep syndrome.

    PubMed

    Marti, Isabelle; Valko, Philipp O; Khatami, Ramin; Bassetti, Claudio L; Baumann, Christian R

    2009-12-01

    Short mean latencies to the first epoch of non-rapid eye movement sleep stage 1 (NREM1) and the presence of >or= 2 sleep onset REM (SOREM) periods on multiple sleep latency test (MSLT) occur in both narcolepsy-cataplexy (NC) and behaviourally induced insufficient sleep syndrome (BIISS). It is not known whether specific MSLT findings help differentiate the two disorders. We analyzed MSLT data including sleep latencies to and between different sleep stages of 60 age-, gender- and body mass index (BMI)-matched subjects (hypocretin-deficient NC, actigraphy-confirmed BIISS, healthy controls: each 20). Mean latency (in minutes) to NREM1 sleep was significantly shorter in NC (1.8+/-1.5) than in BIISS (4.7+/-2.1, p<0.001) and controls (11.4+/-3.3, p<0.001). Mean latency to NREM2 sleep was similar in NC (8.6+/-4.7) and BIISS (8.1+/-2.7, p=0.64); latency to either NREM2 or rapid eye movement (REM) sleep (i.e., the sum of the sleep latency to NREM1 and the duration of the first NREM1 sleep sequence), however, was shorter in NC (4.4+/-2.9) than in BIISS (7.9+/-3.5, p<0.001). Referring to all naps with SOREM periods, the sequence NREM1-REM-NREM2 was more common (71%) in NC than in BIISS (15%, p<0.001), reflecting the shorter latency from NREM1 to NREM2 in BIISS (3.7+/-2.5) than in NC (6.1+/-5.9, p<0.001). Our findings show that both sleepiness (as measured by NREM1 sleep latency) and REM sleep propensity are higher in NC than in BIISS. Furthermore, our finding of frequent REM sleep prior to NREM2 sleep in NC is in line with the recent assumption of an insufficient NREM sleep intensity in NC. Together with detailed clinical interviews, sleep logs, actigraphy, and nocturnal polysomnography, mean sleep latencies to NREM1

  15. Trade-off between synergy and efficacy in combinations of HIV-1 latency-reversing agents.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Vipul; Dixit, Narendra M

    2018-02-01

    Eradicating HIV-1 infection is difficult because of the reservoir of latently infected cells that gets established soon after infection, remains hidden from antiretroviral drugs and host immune responses, and retains the capacity to reignite infection following the cessation of treatment. Drugs called latency-reversing agents (LRAs) are being developed to reactivate latently infected cells and render them susceptible to viral cytopathicity or immune killing. Whereas individual LRAs have failed to induce adequate reactivation, pairs of LRAs have been identified recently that act synergistically and hugely increase reactivation levels compared to individual LRAs. The maximum synergy achievable with LRA pairs is of clinical importance, as it would allow latency-reversal with minimal drug exposure. Here, we employed stochastic simulations of HIV-1 transcription and translation in latently infected cells to estimate this maximum synergy. We incorporated the predominant mechanisms of action of the two most promising classes of LRAs, namely, protein kinase C agonists and histone deacetylase inhibitors, and quantified the activity of individual LRAs in the two classes by mapping our simulations to corresponding in vitro experiments. Without any adjustable parameters, our simulations then quantitatively captured experimental observations of latency-reversal when the LRAs were used in pairs. Performing simulations representing a wide range of drug concentrations, we estimated the maximum synergy achievable with these LRA pairs. Importantly, we found with all the LRA pairs we considered that concentrations yielding the maximum synergy did not yield the maximum latency-reversal. Increasing concentrations to increase latency-reversal compromised synergy, unravelling a trade-off between synergy and efficacy in LRA combinations. The maximum synergy realizable with LRA pairs would thus be restricted by the desired level of latency-reversal, a constrained optimum we elucidated with

  16. Absolute and Relative Carnitine Deficiency in Patients on Hemodialysis and Peritoneal Dialysis.

    PubMed

    Naseri, Mitra; Mottaghi Moghadam Shahri, Hasan; Horri, Mohsen; Esmaeeli, Mohammad; Ghaneh Sherbaf, Fatemeh; Jahanshahi, Shohre; Moeenolroayaa, Giti; Rasoli, Zahra; Salemian, Farzaneh; Pour Hasan, Maryam

    2016-01-01

    Carnitine deficiency is commonly seen in dialysis patients. This study assessed the association dialysis and pediatric patients' characteristics with plasma carnitines levels. Plasma carnitine concentrations were measured by tandem mass spectrometry in 46 children on hemodialysis or peritoneal dialysis. The total carnitine, free carnitine (FC), and L-acyl carnitine (AC) levels of 40 µmol/L and less, less than 7 µmol/L, and less than 15 µmol/L were defined low, respectively. An FC less than 20 µmol/L and an AC/FC ratio greater than 0.4 were considered as absolute and relative carnitine deficiencies. The correlation between carnitines levels and AC/FC ratio and age, duration of dialysis, characteristics of dialysis, and blood urea nitrogen and serum albumin concentrations were assessed. Absolute carnitine deficiency, low total carnitine, and low AC concentrations were found in 66.7%, 82.6%, and 51% of the patients, respectively. All of the patients had relative carnitine deficiency. Carnitine measurements were not significantly different between the hemodialysis and peritoneal dialysis groups. More severe relative carnitine deficiency was found in those with lower blood urea nitrogen levels and those on peritoneal dialysis. No linear correlation was found between carnitine levels and age, duration of dialysis, characteristics of dialysis, serum albumin level, or blood urea nitrogen level. Absolute and relative carnitine deficiencies are common among children on dialysis. Patients with lower blood urea nitrogen levels and peritoneal dialysis patients are more prone to severe relative carnitine deficiency.

  17. Elevation correction factor for absolute pressure measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Panek, Joseph W.; Sorrells, Mark R.

    1996-01-01

    With the arrival of highly accurate multi-port pressure measurement systems, conditions that previously did not affect overall system accuracy must now be scrutinized closely. Errors caused by elevation differences between pressure sensing elements and model pressure taps can be quantified and corrected. With multi-port pressure measurement systems, the sensing elements are connected to pressure taps that may be many feet away. The measurement system may be at a different elevation than the pressure taps due to laboratory space or test article constraints. This difference produces a pressure gradient that is inversely proportional to height within the interface tube. The pressure at the bottom of the tube will be higher than the pressure at the top due to the weight of the tube's column of air. Tubes with higher pressures will exhibit larger absolute errors due to the higher air density. The above effect is well documented but has generally been taken into account with large elevations only. With error analysis techniques, the loss in accuracy from elevation can be easily quantified. Correction factors can be applied to maintain the high accuracies of new pressure measurement systems.

  18. Absolute flux measurements for swift atoms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fink, M.; Kohl, D. A.; Keto, J. W.; Antoniewicz, P.

    1987-01-01

    While a torsion balance in vacuum can easily measure the momentum transfer from a gas beam impinging on a surface attached to the balance, this measurement depends on the accommodation coefficients of the atoms with the surface and the distribution of the recoil. A torsion balance is described for making absolute flux measurements independent of recoil effects. The torsion balance is a conventional taut suspension wire design and the Young modulus of the wire determines the relationship between the displacement and the applied torque. A compensating magnetic field is applied to maintain zero displacement and provide critical damping. The unique feature is to couple the impinging gas beam to the torsion balance via a Wood's horn, i.e., a thin wall tube with a gradual 90 deg bend. Just as light is trapped in a Wood's horn by specular reflection from the curved surfaces, the gas beam diffuses through the tube. Instead of trapping the beam, the end of the tube is open so that the atoms exit the tube at 90 deg to their original direction. Therefore, all of the forward momentum of the gas beam is transferred to the torsion balance independent of the angle of reflection from the surfaces inside the tube.

  19. [Tobacco and plastic surgery: An absolute contraindication?

    PubMed

    Matusiak, C; De Runz, A; Maschino, H; Brix, M; Simon, E; Claudot, F

    2017-08-01

    Smoking increases perioperative risk regarding wound healing, infection rate and failure of microsurgical procedures. There is no present consensus about plastic and aesthetic surgical indications concerning smoking patients. The aim of our study is to analyze French plastic surgeons practices concerning smokers. A questionnaire was send by e-mail to French plastic surgeons in order to evaluate their own operative indications: patient information about smoking dangers, pre- and postoperative delay of smoking cessation, type of intervention carried out, smoking cessation supports, use of screening test and smoking limit associated to surgery refusing were studied. Statistical tests were used to compare results according to practitioner activity (liberal or public), own smoking habits and time of installation. In 148 questionnaires, only one surgeon did not explain smoking risk. Of the surgeons, 49.3% proposed smoking-cessation supports, more frequently with public practice (P=0.019). In total, 85.4% of surgeons did not use screening tests. Years of installation affected operative indication with smoking patients (P=0.02). Pre- and postoperative smoking cessation delay were on average respectively 4 and 3 weeks in accordance with literature. Potential improvements could be proposed to smoking patients' care: smoking cessation assistance, screening tests, absolute contraindication of some procedures or level of consumption to determine. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  20. Absolute Lower Bound on the Bounce Action

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sato, Ryosuke; Takimoto, Masahiro

    2018-03-01

    The decay rate of a false vacuum is determined by the minimal action solution of the tunneling field: bounce. In this Letter, we focus on models with scalar fields which have a canonical kinetic term in N (>2 ) dimensional Euclidean space, and derive an absolute lower bound on the bounce action. In the case of four-dimensional space, we show the bounce action is generically larger than 24 /λcr, where λcr≡max [-4 V (ϕ )/|ϕ |4] with the false vacuum being at ϕ =0 and V (0 )=0 . We derive this bound on the bounce action without solving the equation of motion explicitly. Our bound is derived by a quite simple discussion, and it provides useful information even if it is difficult to obtain the explicit form of the bounce solution. Our bound offers a sufficient condition for the stability of a false vacuum, and it is useful as a quick check on the vacuum stability for given models. Our bound can be applied to a broad class of scalar potential with any number of scalar fields. We also discuss a necessary condition for the bounce action taking a value close to this lower bound.

  1. Auditory processing in absolute pitch possessors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McKetton, Larissa; Schneider, Keith A.

    2018-05-01

    Absolute pitch (AP) is a rare ability in classifying a musical pitch without a reference standard. It has been of great interest to researchers studying auditory processing and music cognition since it is seldom expressed and sheds light on influences pertaining to neurodevelopmental biological predispositions and the onset of musical training. We investigated the smallest frequency that could be detected or just noticeable difference (JND) between two pitches. Here, we report significant differences in JND thresholds in AP musicians and non-AP musicians compared to non-musician control groups at both 1000 Hz and 987.76 Hz testing frequencies. Although the AP-musicians did better than non-AP musicians, the difference was not significant. In addition, we looked at neuro-anatomical correlates of musicianship and AP using structural MRI. We report increased cortical thickness of the left Heschl's Gyrus (HG) and decreased cortical thickness of the inferior frontal opercular gyrus (IFO) and circular insular sulcus volume (CIS) in AP compared to non-AP musicians and controls. These structures may therefore be optimally enhanced and reduced to form the most efficient network for AP to emerge.

  2. Climate Absolute Radiance and Refractivity Observatory (CLARREO)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leckey, John P.

    2015-01-01

    The Climate Absolute Radiance and Refractivity Observatory (CLARREO) is a mission, led and developed by NASA, that will measure a variety of climate variables with an unprecedented accuracy to quantify and attribute climate change. CLARREO consists of three separate instruments: an infrared (IR) spectrometer, a reflected solar (RS) spectrometer, and a radio occultation (RO) instrument. The mission will contain orbiting radiometers with sufficient accuracy, including on orbit verification, to calibrate other space-based instrumentation, increasing their respective accuracy by as much as an order of magnitude. The IR spectrometer is a Fourier Transform spectrometer (FTS) working in the 5 to 50 microns wavelength region with a goal of 0.1 K (k = 3) accuracy. The FTS will achieve this accuracy using phase change cells to verify thermistor accuracy and heated halos to verify blackbody emissivity, both on orbit. The RS spectrometer will measure the reflectance of the atmosphere in the 0.32 to 2.3 microns wavelength region with an accuracy of 0.3% (k = 2). The status of the instrumentation packages and potential mission options will be presented.

  3. Energy latency tradeoffs for medium access and sleep scheduling in wireless sensor networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gang, Lu

    Wireless sensor networks are expected to be used in a wide range of applications from environment monitoring to event detection. The key challenge is to provide energy efficient communication; however, latency remains an important concern for many applications that require fast response. The central thesis of this work is that energy efficient medium access and sleep scheduling mechanisms can be designed without necessarily sacrificing application-specific latency performance. We validate this thesis through results from four case studies that cover various aspects of medium access and sleep scheduling design in wireless sensor networks. Our first effort, DMAC, is to design an adaptive low latency and energy efficient MAC for data gathering to reduce the sleep latency. We propose staggered schedule, duty cycle adaptation, data prediction and the use of more-to-send packets to enable seamless packet forwarding under varying traffic load and channel contentions. Simulation and experimental results show significant energy savings and latency reduction while ensuring high data reliability. The second research effort, DESS, investigates the problem of designing sleep schedules in arbitrary network communication topologies to minimize the worst case end-to-end latency (referred to as delay diameter). We develop a novel graph-theoretical formulation, derive and analyze optimal solutions for the tree and ring topologies and heuristics for arbitrary topologies. The third study addresses the problem of minimum latency joint scheduling and routing (MLSR). By constructing a novel delay graph, the optimal joint scheduling and routing can be solved by M node-disjoint paths algorithm under multiple channel model. We further extended the algorithm to handle dynamic traffic changes and topology changes. A heuristic solution is proposed for MLSR under single channel interference. In the fourth study, EEJSPC, we first formulate a fundamental optimization problem that provides tunable

  4. Latency correction of event-related potentials between different experimental protocols

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iturrate, I.; Chavarriaga, R.; Montesano, L.; Minguez, J.; Millán, JdR

    2014-06-01

    Objective. A fundamental issue in EEG event-related potentials (ERPs) studies is the amount of data required to have an accurate ERP model. This also impacts the time required to train a classifier for a brain-computer interface (BCI). This issue is mainly due to the poor signal-to-noise ratio and the large fluctuations of the EEG caused by several sources of variability. One of these sources is directly related to the experimental protocol or application designed, and may affect the amplitude or latency of ERPs. This usually prevents BCI classifiers from generalizing among different experimental protocols. In this paper, we analyze the effect of the amplitude and the latency variations among different experimental protocols based on the same type of ERP. Approach. We present a method to analyze and compensate for the latency variations in BCI applications. The algorithm has been tested on two widely used ERPs (P300 and observation error potentials), in three experimental protocols in each case. We report the ERP analysis and single-trial classification. Main results. The results obtained show that the designed experimental protocols significantly affect the latency of the recorded potentials but not the amplitudes. Significance. These results show how the use of latency-corrected data can be used to generalize the BCIs, reducing the calibration time when facing a new experimental protocol.

  5. The utility of a 5(th) nap in multiple sleep latency test.

    PubMed

    Muza, Rexford; Lykouras, Dimosthenis; Rees, Kate

    2016-02-01

    This is the first study that aimed to look specifically at the utility of the 5(th) nap in the multiple sleep latency test (MSLT), a test used to assist in the diagnosis of narcolepsy. Data was retrospectively collected from the Sleep Disorders Centre of a Tertiary Hospital on patients that had a 5(th) nap during their MSLT from the 08(th) November 2011 to 12(th) November 2014. Fifty-three patients had a 5(th) nap performed out of 378 MSLT studies. In 16% of cases a diagnosis of narcolepsy was given directly due to the inclusion of the 5(th) nap on the MSLT. Here a 5(th) nap allowed diagnostic criteria of mean sleep latency <8 minutes and >2 SOREMPS to be met. In 53% of cases the mean sleep latency increased due to 5(th) nap inclusion; the mean sleep latency of the first four naps was 5.6 vs. 6.7 after inclusion of the 5(th) nap. The 5(th) nap is not often performed within the MSLT studies. Our study shows that only a few patients may benefit from a 5(th) nap opportunity which also led to increase of the mean sleep latency at the expense of extra time, cost, labour and increased patient anxiety.

  6. Effect of squatting velocity on hip muscle latency in women with patellofemoral pain syndrome.

    PubMed

    Orozco-Chavez, Ignacio; Mendez-Rebolledo, Guillermo

    2018-03-01

    [Purpose] Neuromuscular activity has been evaluated in patellofemoral pain syndrome but movement velocity has not been considered. The aim was to determine differences in onset latency of hip and knee muscles between individuals with and without patellofemoral pain syndrome during a single leg squat, and whether any differences are dependent on movement velocity. [Subjects and Methods] Twenty-four females with patellofemoral pain syndrome and 24 healthy females participated. Onset latency of gluteus maximus, anterior and posterior gluteus medius, rectus femoris, vastus medialis, vastus lateralis and biceps femoris during a single leg squat at high and low velocity were evaluated. [Results] There was an interaction between velocity and diagnosis for posterior gluteus medius. Healthy subjects showed a later posterior gluteus medius onset latency at low velocity than high velocity; and also later than patellofemoral pain syndrome subjects at low velocity and high velocity. [Conclusion] Patellofemoral pain syndrome subjects presented an altered latency of posterior gluteus medius during a single leg squat and did not generate adaptations to velocity variation, while healthy subjects presented an earlier onset latency in response to velocity increase.

  7. ScriptingRT: A Software Library for Collecting Response Latencies in Online Studies of Cognition

    PubMed Central

    Schubert, Thomas W.; Murteira, Carla; Collins, Elizabeth C.; Lopes, Diniz

    2013-01-01

    ScriptingRT is a new open source tool to collect response latencies in online studies of human cognition. ScriptingRT studies run as Flash applets in enabled browsers. ScriptingRT provides the building blocks of response latency studies, which are then combined with generic Apache Flex programming. Six studies evaluate the performance of ScriptingRT empirically. Studies 1–3 use specialized hardware to measure variance of response time measurement and stimulus presentation timing. Studies 4–6 implement a Stroop paradigm and run it both online and in the laboratory, comparing ScriptingRT to other response latency software. Altogether, the studies show that Flash programs developed in ScriptingRT show a small lag and an increased variance in response latencies. However, this did not significantly influence measured effects: The Stroop effect was reliably replicated in all studies, and the found effects did not depend on the software used. We conclude that ScriptingRT can be used to test response latency effects online. PMID:23805326

  8. Group II muscle afferents probably contribute to the medium latency soleus stretch reflex during walking in humans

    PubMed Central

    Grey, Michael J; Ladouceur, Michel; Andersen, Jacob B; Nielsen, Jens Bo; Sinkjær, Thomas

    2001-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine which afferents contribute to the medium latency response of the soleus stretch reflex resulting from an unexpected perturbation during human walking. Fourteen healthy subjects walked on a treadmill at approximately 3.5 km h−1 with the left ankle attached to a portable stretching device. The soleus stretch reflex was elicited by applying small amplitude (∼8 deg) dorsiflexion perturbations 200 ms after heel contact. Short and medium latency responses were observed with latencies of 55 ± 5 and 78 ± 6 ms, respectively. The short latency response was velocity sensitive (P < 0.001), while the medium latency response was not (P = 0.725). Nerve cooling increased the delay of the medium latency component to a greater extent than that of the short latency component (P < 0.005). Ischaemia strongly decreased the short latency component (P = 0.004), whereas the medium latency component was unchanged (P = 0.437). Two hours after the ingestion of tizanidine, an α2-adrenergic receptor agonist known to selectively depress the transmission in the group II afferent pathway, the medium latency reflex was strongly depressed (P = 0.007), whereas the short latency component was unchanged (P = 0.653). An ankle block with lidocaine hydrochloride was performed to suppress the cutaneous afferents of the foot and ankle. Neither the short (P = 0.453) nor medium (P = 0.310) latency reflexes were changed. Our results support the hypothesis that, during walking the medium latency component of the stretch reflex resulting from an unexpected perturbation is contributed to by group II muscle afferents. PMID:11483721

  9. Absolute Plate Velocities from Seismic Anisotropy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kreemer, Corné; Zheng, Lin; Gordon, Richard

    2015-04-01

    The orientation of seismic anisotropy inferred beneath plate interiors may provide a means to estimate the motions of the plate relative to the sub-asthenospheric mantle. Here we analyze two global sets of shear-wave splitting data, that of Kreemer [2009] and an updated and expanded data set, to estimate plate motions and to better understand the dispersion of the data, correlations in the errors, and their relation to plate speed. We also explore the effect of using geologically current plate velocities (i.e., the MORVEL set of angular velocities [DeMets et al. 2010]) compared with geodetically current plate velocities (i.e., the GSRM v1.2 angular velocities [Kreemer et al. 2014]). We demonstrate that the errors in plate motion azimuths inferred from shear-wave splitting beneath any one tectonic plate are correlated with the errors of other azimuths from the same plate. To account for these correlations, we adopt a two-tier analysis: First, find the pole of rotation and confidence limits for each plate individually. Second, solve for the best fit to these poles while constraining relative plate angular velocities to consistency with the MORVEL relative plate angular velocities. The SKS-MORVEL absolute plate angular velocities (based on the Kreemer [2009] data set) are determined from the poles from eight plates weighted proportionally to the root-mean-square velocity of each plate. SKS-MORVEL indicates that eight plates (Amur, Antarctica, Caribbean, Eurasia, Lwandle, Somalia, Sundaland, and Yangtze) have angular velocities that differ insignificantly from zero. The net rotation of the lithosphere is 0.25±0.11° Ma-1 (95% confidence limits) right-handed about 57.1°S, 68.6°E. The within-plate dispersion of seismic anisotropy for oceanic lithosphere (σ=19.2° ) differs insignificantly from that for continental lithosphere (σ=21.6° ). The between-plate dispersion, however, is significantly smaller for oceanic lithosphere (σ=7.4° ) than for continental

  10. Absolute Radiometric Calibration of KOMPSAT-3A

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahn, H. Y.; Shin, D. Y.; Kim, J. S.; Seo, D. C.; Choi, C. U.

    2016-06-01

    This paper presents a vicarious radiometric calibration of the Korea Multi-Purpose Satellite-3A (KOMPSAT-3A) performed by the Korea Aerospace Research Institute (KARI) and the Pukyong National University Remote Sensing Group (PKNU RSG) in 2015.The primary stages of this study are summarized as follows: (1) A field campaign to determine radiometric calibrated target fields was undertaken in Mongolia and South Korea. Surface reflectance data obtained in the campaign were input to a radiative transfer code that predicted at-sensor radiance. Through this process, equations and parameters were derived for the KOMPSAT-3A sensor to enable the conversion of calibrated DN to physical units, such as at-sensor radiance or TOA reflectance. (2) To validate the absolute calibration coefficients for the KOMPSAT-3A sensor, we performed a radiometric validation with a comparison of KOMPSAT-3A and Landsat-8 TOA reflectance using one of the six PICS (Libya 4). Correlations between top-of-atmosphere (TOA) radiances and the spectral band responses of the KOMPSAT-3A sensors at the Zuunmod, Mongolia and Goheung, South Korea sites were significant for multispectral bands. The average difference in TOA reflectance between KOMPSAT-3A and Landsat-8 image over the Libya 4, Libya site in the red-green-blue (RGB) region was under 3%, whereas in the NIR band, the TOA reflectance of KOMPSAT-3A was lower than the that of Landsat-8 due to the difference in the band passes of two sensors. The KOMPSAT-3Aensor includes a band pass near 940 nm that can be strongly absorbed by water vapor and therefore displayed low reflectance. Toovercome this, we need to undertake a detailed analysis using rescale methods, such as the spectral bandwidth adjustment factor.

  11. Orion Absolute Navigation System Progress and Challenge

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holt, Greg N.; D'Souza, Christopher

    2012-01-01

    The absolute navigation design of NASA's Orion vehicle is described. It has undergone several iterations and modifications since its inception, and continues as a work-in-progress. This paper seeks to benchmark the current state of the design and some of the rationale and analysis behind it. There are specific challenges to address when preparing a timely and effective design for the Exploration Flight Test (EFT-1), while still looking ahead and providing software extensibility for future exploration missions. The primary onboard measurements in a Near-Earth or Mid-Earth environment consist of GPS pseudo-range and delta-range, but for future explorations missions the use of star-tracker and optical navigation sources need to be considered. Discussions are presented for state size and composition, processing techniques, and consider states. A presentation is given for the processing technique using the computationally stable and robust UDU formulation with an Agee-Turner Rank-One update. This allows for computational savings when dealing with many parameters which are modeled as slowly varying Gauss-Markov processes. Preliminary analysis shows up to a 50% reduction in computation versus a more traditional formulation. Several state elements are discussed and evaluated, including position, velocity, attitude, clock bias/drift, and GPS measurement biases in addition to bias, scale factor, misalignment, and non-orthogonalities of the accelerometers and gyroscopes. Another consideration is the initialization of the EKF in various scenarios. Scenarios such as single-event upset, ground command, and cold start are discussed as are strategies for whole and partial state updates as well as covariance considerations. Strategies are given for dealing with latent measurements and high-rate propagation using multi-rate architecture. The details of the rate groups and the data ow between the elements is discussed and evaluated.

  12. Absolute parameters of young stars: QZ Carinae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walker, W. S. G.; Blackford, M.; Butland, R.; Budding, E.

    2017-09-01

    New high-resolution spectroscopy and BVR photometry together with literature data on the complex massive quaternary star QZ Car are collected and analysed. Absolute parameters are found as follows. System A: M1 = 43 (±3), M2 = 19 (+3 -7), R1 = 28 (±2), R2 = 6 (±2), (⊙); T1 ˜ 28 000, T2 ˜ 33 000 K; System B: M1 = 30 (±3), M2 = 20 (±3), R1 = 10 (±0.5), R2 = 20 (±1), (⊙); T1 ˜ 36 000, T2 ˜ 30 000 K (model dependent temperatures). The wide system AB: Period = 49.5 (±1) yr, Epochs, conjunction = 1984.8 (±1), periastron = 2005.3 (±3) yr, mean separation = 65 (±3), (au); orbital inclination = 85 (+5 -15) deg, photometric distance ˜2700 (±300) pc, age = 4 (±1) Myr. Other new contributions concern: (a) analysis of the timing of minima differences (O - C)s for the eclipsing binary (System B); (b) the width of the eclipses, pointing to relatively large effects of radiation pressure; (c) inferences from the rotational widths of lines for both Systems A and B; and (d) implications for theoretical models of early-type stars. While feeling greater confidence on the quaternary's general parametrization, observational complications arising from strong wind interactions or other, unclear, causes still inhibit precision and call for continued multiwavelength observations. Our high-inclination value for the AB system helps to explain failures to resolve the wide binary in the previous years. The derived young age independently confirms membership of QZ Car to the open cluster Collinder 228.

  13. Evaluation of the Absolute Regional Temperature Potential

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shindell, D. T.

    2012-01-01

    The Absolute Regional Temperature Potential (ARTP) is one of the few climate metrics that provides estimates of impacts at a sub-global scale. The ARTP presented here gives the time-dependent temperature response in four latitude bands (90-28degS, 28degS-28degN, 28-60degN and 60-90degN) as a function of emissions based on the forcing in those bands caused by the emissions. It is based on a large set of simulations performed with a single atmosphere-ocean climate model to derive regional forcing/response relationships. Here I evaluate the robustness of those relationships using the forcing/response portion of the ARTP to estimate regional temperature responses to the historic aerosol forcing in three independent climate models. These ARTP results are in good accord with the actual responses in those models. Nearly all ARTP estimates fall within +/-20%of the actual responses, though there are some exceptions for 90-28degS and the Arctic, and in the latter the ARTP may vary with forcing agent. However, for the tropics and the Northern Hemisphere mid-latitudes in particular, the +/-20% range appears to be roughly consistent with the 95% confidence interval. Land areas within these two bands respond 39-45% and 9-39% more than the latitude band as a whole. The ARTP, presented here in a slightly revised form, thus appears to provide a relatively robust estimate for the responses of large-scale latitude bands and land areas within those bands to inhomogeneous radiative forcing and thus potentially to emissions as well. Hence this metric could allow rapid evaluation of the effects of emissions policies at a finer scale than global metrics without requiring use of a full climate model.

  14. Absolute determination of local tropospheric OH concentrations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Armerding, Wolfgang; Comes, Franz-Josef

    1994-01-01

    Long path absorption (LPA) according to Lambert Beer's law is a method to determine absolute concentrations of trace gases such as tropospheric OH. We have developed a LPA instrument which is based on a rapid tuning of the light source which is a frequency doubled dye laser. The laser is tuned across two or three OH absorption features around 308 nm with a scanning speed of 0.07 cm(exp -1)/microsecond and a repetition rate of 1.3 kHz. This high scanning speed greatly reduces the fluctuation of the light intensity caused by the atmosphere. To obtain the required high sensitivity the laser output power is additionally made constant and stabilized by an electro-optical modulator. The present sensitivity is of the order of a few times 10(exp 5) OH per cm(exp 3) for an acquisition time of a minute and an absorption path length of only 1200 meters so that a folding of the optical path in a multireflection cell was possible leading to a lateral dimension of the cell of a few meters. This allows local measurements to be made. Tropospheric measurements have been carried out in 1991 resulting in the determination of OH diurnal variation at specific days in late summer. Comparison with model calculations have been made. Interferences are mainly due to SO2 absorption. The problem of OH self generation in the multireflection cell is of minor extent. This could be shown by using different experimental methods. The minimum-maximum signal to noise ratio is about 8 x 10(exp -4) for a single scan. Due to the small size of the absorption cell the realization of an open air laboratory is possible in which by use of an additional UV light source or by additional fluxes of trace gases the chemistry can be changed under controlled conditions allowing kinetic studies of tropospheric photochemistry to be made in open air.

  15. Aberrant intracellular localization of Varicella-Zoster virus regulatory proteins during latency

    PubMed Central

    Lungu, Octavian; Panagiotidis, Christos A.; Annunziato, Paula W.; Gershon, Anne A.; Silverstein, Saul J.

    1998-01-01

    Varicella-Zoster virus (VZV) is a herpesvirus that becomes latent in sensory neurons after primary infection (chickenpox) and subsequently may reactivate to cause zoster. The mechanism by which this virus maintains latency, and the factors involved, are poorly understood. Here we demonstrate, by immunohistochemical analysis of ganglia obtained at autopsy from seropositive patients without clinical symptoms of VZV infection that viral regulatory proteins are present in latently infected neurons. These proteins, which localize to the nucleus of cells during lytic infection, predominantly are detected in the cytoplasm of latently infected neurons. The restriction of regulatory proteins from the nucleus of latently infected neurons might interrupt the cascade of virus gene expression that leads to a productive infection. Our findings raise the possibility that VZV has developed a novel mechanism for maintenance of latency that contrasts with the transcriptional repression that is associated with latency of herpes simplex virus, the prototypic alpha herpesvirus. PMID:9618542

  16. Sensor Spatial Distortion, Visual Latency, and Update Rate Effects on 3D Tracking in Virtual Environments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ellis, S. R.; Adelstein, B. D.; Baumeler, S.; Jense, G. J.; Jacoby, R. H.; Trejo, Leonard (Technical Monitor)

    1998-01-01

    Several common defects that we have sought to minimize in immersing virtual environments are: static sensor spatial distortion, visual latency, and low update rates. Human performance within our environments during large amplitude 3D tracking was assessed by objective and subjective methods in the presence and absence of these defects. Results show that 1) removal of our relatively small spatial sensor distortion had minor effects on the tracking activity, 2) an Adapted Cooper-Harper controllability scale proved the most sensitive subjective indicator of the degradation of dynamic fidelity caused by increasing latency and decreasing frame rates, and 3) performance, as measured by normalized RMS tracking error or subjective impressions, was more markedly influenced by changing visual latency than by update rate.

  17. Effects of analog and digital filtering on auditory middle latency responses in adults and young children.

    PubMed

    Suzuki, T; Hirabayashi, M; Kobayashi, K

    1984-01-01

    Effects of analog high pass (HP) filtering were compared with those of zero phase-shift digital filtering on the auditory middle latency responses (MLR) from nine adults and 16 young children with normal hearing. Analog HP filtering exerted several prominent effects on the MLR waveforms in both adults and young children, such as suppression of Po (ABR), enhancement of Nb, enhancement or emergence of Pb, and latency decrements for Pa and the later components. Analog HP filtering at 20 Hz produced more pronounced waveform distortions in the responses from young children than from adults. Much greater latency decrements for Pa and Nb were observed for young children than for adults in the analog HP-filtered responses at 20 Hz. A large positive peak (Pb) emerged at about 65 ms after the stimulus onset. From these results, the use of digital HP filtering at 20 Hz is strongly recommended for obtaining unbiased and stable MLR in young children.

  18. Measurement and analysis of workload effects on fault latency in real-time systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Woodbury, Michael H.; Shin, Kang G.

    1990-01-01

    The authors demonstrate the need to address fault latency in highly reliable real-time control computer systems. It is noted that the effectiveness of all known recovery mechanisms is greatly reduced in the presence of multiple latent faults. The presence of multiple latent faults increases the possibility of multiple errors, which could result in coverage failure. The authors present experimental evidence indicating that the duration of fault latency is dependent on workload. A synthetic workload generator is used to vary the workload, and a hardware fault injector is applied to inject transient faults of varying durations. This method makes it possible to derive the distribution of fault latency duration. Experimental results obtained from the fault-tolerant multiprocessor at the NASA Airlab are presented and discussed.

  19. Time Counts! Some Comments on System Latency in Head-Referenced Displays

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ellis, Stephen R.; Adelstein, Bernard D.

    2013-01-01

    System response latency is a prominent characteristic of human-computer interaction. Laggy systems are; however, not simply annoying but substantially reduce user productivity. The impact of latency on head referenced display systems, particularly head-mounted systems, is especially disturbing since not only can it interfere with dynamic registration in augmented reality displays but it also can in some cases indirectly contribute to motion sickness. We will summarize several experiments using standard psychophysical discrimination techniques that suggest what system latencies will be required to achieve perceptual stability for spatially referenced computer-generated imagery. In conclusion I will speculate about other system performance characteristics that I would hope to have for a dream augmented reality system.

  20. Prolongation of latencies for passive avoidance responses in rats treated with aniracetam or piracetam.

    PubMed

    Yamada, K; Inoue, T; Tanaka, M; Furukawa, T

    1985-04-01

    Effects of aniracetam (1-anysoyl-2-pyrrolodone) and piracetam (1-acetamido-2-pyrrolidone) on passive avoidance behavior were studied in 2 and 18 months old rats using a step-down passive avoidance task. Repeated administration of aniracetam (30 and 50 mg/kg, IP X 5 days) or piracetam (100 mg/kg, IP X 5 days) significantly prolonged step-down latencies for a passive avoidance task in 2 months old rats. Administration of aniracetam (50 mg/kg, IP) or piracetam (100 mg/kg, IP), however, did not affect locomotor activity. This prolongation of latencies was also seen with oral administration of aniracetam (50 mg/kg X 5 days). Similar prolongation of latencies also occurred in 18 months old rat treated with aniracetam (50 mg/kg, IP X 5 days). The results imply that aniracetam may improve learning and/or memory in 2 and 18 months old rats.

  1. Application of a zero-latency whitening filter to compact binary coalescence gravitational-wave searches

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsukada, Leo; Cannon, Kipp; Hanna, Chad; Keppel, Drew; Meacher, Duncan; Messick, Cody

    2018-05-01

    Joint electromagnetic and gravitational-wave (GW) observation is a major goal of both the GW astronomy and electromagnetic astronomy communities for the coming decade. One way to accomplish this goal is to direct follow-up of GW candidates. Prompt electromagnetic emission may fade quickly, therefore it is desirable to have GW detection happen as quickly as possible. A leading source of latency in GW detection is the whitening of the data. We examine the performance of a zero-latency whitening filter in a detection pipeline for compact binary coalescence (CBC) GW signals. We find that the filter reproduces signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) sufficiently consistent with the results of the original high-latency and phase-preserving filter for both noise and artificial GW signals (called "injections"). Additionally, we demonstrate that these two whitening filters show excellent agreement in χ2 value, a discriminator for GW signals.

  2. The influence of target angular velocity on visual latency difference determined using the rotating Pulfrich effect.

    PubMed

    Nickalls, R W

    1996-09-01

    Visual latency difference was determined directly in normal volunteers, using the rotating Pulfrich technique described by Nickalls [Vision Research, 26, 367-372 (1986)]. Subjects fixated a black vertical rod rotating clockwise on a horizontal turntable turning with constant angular velocity (16.6,33.3 or 44.7 revs/min) with a neutral density filter (OD 0.7 or 1.5) in front of the right eye. For all subjects the latency difference associated with the 1.5 OD filter was significantly greater (P < 0.001) with the rod rotating at 16.6 rev/min than at 33.3 revs/min. The existence of an inverse relationship between latency difference and angular velocity is hypothesized.

  3. Low Latency MAC Protocol in Wireless Sensor Networks Using Timing Offset

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, Seung Sik

    This paper proposes a low latency MAC protocol that can be used in sensor networks. To extend the lifetime of sensor nodes, the conventional solution is to synchronize active/sleep periods of all sensor nodes. However, due to these synchronized sensor nodes, packets in the intermediate nodes must wait until the next node wakes up before it can forward a packet. This induces a large delay in sensor nodes. To solve this latency problem, a clustered sensor network which uses two types of sensor nodes and layered architecture is considered. Clustered heads in each cluster are synchronized with different timing offsets to reduce the sleep delay. Using this concept, the latency problem can be solved and more efficient power usage can be obtained.

  4. Planck absolute entropy of a rotating BTZ black hole

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Riaz, S. M. Jawwad

    2018-04-01

    In this paper, the Planck absolute entropy and the Bekenstein-Smarr formula of the rotating Banados-Teitelboim-Zanelli (BTZ) black hole are presented via a complex thermodynamical system contributed by its inner and outer horizons. The redefined entropy approaches zero as the temperature of the rotating BTZ black hole tends to absolute zero, satisfying the Nernst formulation of a black hole. Hence, it can be regarded as the Planck absolute entropy of the rotating BTZ black hole.

  5. Absolute nuclear material assay using count distribution (LAMBDA) space

    DOEpatents

    Prasad, Manoj K [Pleasanton, CA; Snyderman, Neal J [Berkeley, CA; Rowland, Mark S [Alamo, CA

    2012-06-05

    A method of absolute nuclear material assay of an unknown source comprising counting neutrons from the unknown source and providing an absolute nuclear material assay utilizing a model to optimally compare to the measured count distributions. In one embodiment, the step of providing an absolute nuclear material assay comprises utilizing a random sampling of analytically computed fission chain distributions to generate a continuous time-evolving sequence of event-counts by spreading the fission chain distribution in time.

  6. Absolute nuclear material assay using count distribution (LAMBDA) space

    SciTech Connect

    Prasad, Mano K.; Snyderman, Neal J.; Rowland, Mark S.

    A method of absolute nuclear material assay of an unknown source comprising counting neutrons from the unknown source and providing an absolute nuclear material assay utilizing a model to optimally compare to the measured count distributions. In one embodiment, the step of providing an absolute nuclear material assay comprises utilizing a random sampling of analytically computed fission chain distributions to generate a continuous time-evolving sequence of event-counts by spreading the fission chain distribution in time.

  7. Modeling HSV-1 Latency in Human Embryonic Stem Cell-Derived Neurons

    PubMed Central

    Pourchet, Aldo; Modrek, Aram S.; Placantonakis, Dimitris G.; Mohr, Ian; Wilson, Angus C.

    2017-01-01

    Herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1) uses latency in peripheral ganglia to persist in its human host, however, recurrent reactivation from this reservoir can cause debilitating and potentially life-threatening disease. Most studies of latency use live-animal infection models, but these are complex, multilayered systems and can be difficult to manipulate. Infection of cultured primary neurons provides a powerful alternative, yielding important insights into host signaling pathways controlling latency. However, small animal models do not recapitulate all aspects of HSV-1 infection in humans and are limited in terms of the available molecular tools. To address this, we have developed a latency model based on human neurons differentiated in culture from an NIH-approved embryonic stem cell line. The resulting neurons are highly permissive for replication of wild-type HSV-1, but establish a non-productive infection state resembling latency when infected at low viral doses in the presence of the antivirals acyclovir and interferon-α. In this state, viral replication and expression of a late viral gene marker are not detected but there is an accumulation of the viral latency-associated transcript (LAT) RNA. After a six-day establishment period, antivirals can be removed and the infected cultures maintained for several weeks. Subsequent treatment with sodium butyrate induces reactivation and production of new infectious virus. Human neurons derived from stem cells provide the appropriate species context to study this exclusively human virus with the potential for more extensive manipulation of the progenitors and access to a wide range of preexisting molecular tools. PMID:28594343

  8. Interval dosing with the HDAC inhibitor vorinostat effectively reverses HIV latency

    PubMed Central

    Archin, Nancie M.; Kirchherr, Jennifer L.; Sung, Julia A.M.; Clutton, Genevieve; Sholtis, Katherine; Xu, Yinyan; Allard, Brigitte; Stuelke, Erin; Kashuba, Angela D.; Kuruc, Joann D.; Gay, Cynthia L.; Goonetilleke, Nilu

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND. The histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitor vorinostat (VOR) can increase HIV RNA expression in vivo within resting CD4+ T cells of aviremic HIV+ individuals. However, while studies of VOR or other HDAC inhibitors have reported reversal of latency, none has demonstrated clearance of latent infection. We sought to identify the optimal dosing of VOR for effective serial reversal of HIV latency. METHODS. In a study of 16 HIV-infected, aviremic individuals, we measured resting CD4+ T cell–associated HIV RNA ex vivo and in vivo following a single exposure to VOR, and then in vivo after a pair of doses separated by 48 or 72 hours, and finally following a series of 10 doses given at 72-hour intervals. RESULTS. Serial VOR exposures separated by 72 hours most often resulted in an increase in cell-associated HIV RNA within circulating resting CD4+ T cells. VOR was well tolerated by all participants. However, despite serial reversal of latency over 1 month of VOR dosing, we did not observe a measurable decrease (>0.3 log10) in the frequency of latent infection within resting CD4+ T cells. CONCLUSIONS. These findings outline parameters for the experimental use of VOR to clear latent infection. Latency reversal can be achieved by VOR safely and repeatedly, but effective depletion of persistent HIV infection will require additional advances. In addition to improvements in latency reversal, these advances may include the sustained induction of potent antiviral immune responses capable of recognizing and clearing the rare cells in which HIV latency has been reversed. TRIAL REGISTRATION. Clinicaltrials.gov NCT01319383. FUNDING. NIH grants U01 AI095052, AI50410, and P30 CA016086 and National Center for Advancing Translational Sciences grant KL2 TR001109. PMID:28714868

  9. [Prediction of the latency period by cervical ultrasonography in premature rupture of the membranes before term].

    PubMed

    Gabriel, R; Morille, C; Drieux, L; Bige, V; Leymarie, F; Quereux, C

    2002-11-01

    To assess the value of ultrasonographic measurement of cervical length for predicting the duration of the latency period from admission to delivery in women with preterm premature rupture of the membranes (PROM). Prospective study in 88 women with preterm PROM before 34 weeks of amenorrhea. The median gestational age at admission was of 30.1 weeks. The clinical management included: no digital examination of the uterine cervix, antenatal corticosteroids, antibiotics (amoxicillin & clavulanic acid) for 7 days, and hoding back until 34 weeks. Cervical length at admission was determined with transvaginal ultrasonography. The duration of the latency period was studied in relation with cervical length, serum C-reactive protein (CRP) level and white blood cell (WBC) count at admission. The median latency period was longer in women with a cervical length > or = 25 mm (10 vs 5 days; p = 0.04), but this was not associated with a significant increase in birth weight. The median latency period was also longer in women with CRP < 20 mg/l (10 vs 3 days; p < 0.001) and this was associated with a significant increase in birth weight (1716 +/- 549 vs 1201 +/- 485 g; p < 0.01). Moreover, increased CRP levels were more frequent in women with a cervical length < 25 mm, and cervical length was no more predictive of the duration of the latency period in the subgroup of women with CRP < 20 mg/l and WBC < 20,000 cells/mm3. In women with preterm PROM, the latency period from admission to delivery is shorter when cervical length is < 25 mm. However, the clinical value of transvaginal ultrasonography is limited in comparison with serum CRP.

  10. The absolute disparity anomaly and the mechanism of relative disparities

    PubMed Central

    Chopin, Adrien; Levi, Dennis; Knill, David; Bavelier, Daphne

    2016-01-01

    There has been a long-standing debate about the mechanisms underlying the perception of stereoscopic depth and the computation of the relative disparities that it relies on. Relative disparities between visual objects could be computed in two ways: (a) using the difference in the object's absolute disparities (Hypothesis 1) or (b) using relative disparities based on the differences in the monocular separations between objects (Hypothesis 2). To differentiate between these hypotheses, we measured stereoscopic discrimination thresholds for lines with different absolute and relative disparities. Participants were asked to judge the depth of two lines presented at the same distance from the fixation plane (absolute disparity) or the depth between two lines presented at different distances (relative disparity). We used a single stimulus method involving a unique memory component for both conditions, and no extraneous references were available. We also measured vergence noise using Nonius lines. Stereo thresholds were substantially worse for absolute disparities than for relative disparities, and the difference could not be explained by vergence noise. We attribute this difference to an absence of conscious readout of absolute disparities, termed the absolute disparity anomaly. We further show that the pattern of correlations between vergence noise and absolute and relative disparity acuities can be explained jointly by the existence of the absolute disparity anomaly and by the assumption that relative disparity information is computed from absolute disparities (Hypothesis 1). PMID:27248566

  11. The absolute disparity anomaly and the mechanism of relative disparities.

    PubMed

    Chopin, Adrien; Levi, Dennis; Knill, David; Bavelier, Daphne

    2016-06-01

    There has been a long-standing debate about the mechanisms underlying the perception of stereoscopic depth and the computation of the relative disparities that it relies on. Relative disparities between visual objects could be computed in two ways: (a) using the difference in the object's absolute disparities (Hypothesis 1) or (b) using relative disparities based on the differences in the monocular separations between objects (Hypothesis 2). To differentiate between these hypotheses, we measured stereoscopic discrimination thresholds for lines with different absolute and relative disparities. Participants were asked to judge the depth of two lines presented at the same distance from the fixation plane (absolute disparity) or the depth between two lines presented at different distances (relative disparity). We used a single stimulus method involving a unique memory component for both conditions, and no extraneous references were available. We also measured vergence noise using Nonius lines. Stereo thresholds were substantially worse for absolute disparities than for relative disparities, and the difference could not be explained by vergence noise. We attribute this difference to an absence of conscious readout of absolute disparities, termed the absolute disparity anomaly. We further show that the pattern of correlations between vergence noise and absolute and relative disparity acuities can be explained jointly by the existence of the absolute disparity anomaly and by the assumption that relative disparity information is computed from absolute disparities (Hypothesis 1).

  12. Comparison of Polysomnography and Multiple Sleep Latency Test Findings in Subjects with Narcolepsy and İdiopathic Hypersomnia.

    PubMed

    Erdem, Murat; Bolu, Abdullah; Ünlü, A Gazi; Alper, Mustafa; Yetkin, Sinan

    2013-09-01

    Both narcolepsy and idiopathic hypersomnia are the main causes of excessive daytime sleepiness. In this study, we aimed to compare polysomnography (PSG) and multiple sleep latency test (MSLT) findings in narcolepsy and idiopathic hypersomnia patients. The files of patients with narcolepsy and hypersomnia who were admitted between 1995 and 2009 were reviewed. We evaluated data from 94 patients with narcolepsy with cataplexy, 49 with narcolepsy without cataplexy and 140 patients with idiopathic hypersomnia. Sleep latency and REM latency were longer in idiopathic hypersomnia group than in narcolepsy with and without cataplexy group. Mean sleep latency in MSLT was the shortest in narcolepsy with cataplexy group. There was no difference in sleep efficiency, percentage of sleep stage and number of awakenings in PSG between three groups. The findings of the study indicated that narcolepsy patients differ from idiopathic hypersomnia patients in terms of sleep latency and REM latency in PSG.

  13. Simulation Based Studies of Low Latency Teleoperations for NASA Exploration Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gernhardt, Michael L.; Crues, Edwin Z.; Bielski, Paul; Dexter, Dan; Litaker, Harry L.; Chappell, Steven P.; Beaton, Kara H.; Bekdash, Omar S.

    2017-01-01

    Human exploration of Mars will involve both crewed and robotic systems. Many mission concepts involve the deployment and assembly of mission support assets prior to crew arrival on the surface. Some of these deployment and assembly activities will be performed autonomously while others will be performed using teleoperations. However, significant communications latencies between the Earth and Mars make teleoperations challenging. Alternatively, low latency teleoperations are possible from locations in Mars orbit like Mars' moons Phobos and Deimos. To explore these latency opportunities, NASA is conducting a series of studies to investigate the effects of latency on telerobotic deployment and assembly activities. These studies are being conducted in laboratory environments at NASA's Johnson Space Center (JSC), the Human Exploration Research Analog (HERA) at JSC and the NASA Extreme Environment Mission Operations (NEEMO) underwater habitat off the coast of Florida. The studies involve two human-in-the-loop interactive simulations developed by the NASA Exploration Systems Simulations (NExSyS) team at JSC. The first simulation investigates manipulation related activities while the second simulation investigates mobility related activities. The first simulation provides a simple real-time operator interface with displays and controls for a simulated 6 degree of freedom end effector. The initial version of the simulation uses a simple control mode to decouple the robotic kinematic constraints and a communications delay to model latency effects. This provides the basis for early testing with more detailed manipulation simulations planned for the future. Subjects are tested using five operating latencies that represent teleoperation conditions from local surface operations to orbital operations at Phobos, Deimos and ultimately high Martian orbit. Subject performance is measured and correlated with three distance-to-target zones of interest. Each zone represents a target

  14. The latency validation of the optical link for the ATLAS Liquid Argon Calorimeter Phase-I trigger upgrade

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deng, B.; Xiao, L.; Zhao, X.; Baker, E.; Gong, D.; Guo, D.; He, H.; Hou, S.; Liu, C.; Liu, T.; Sun, Q.; Thomas, J.; Wang, J.; Xiang, A. C.; Yang, D.; Ye, J.; Zhou, W.

    2018-05-01

    Two optical data link data transmission Application Specific Integrated Circuits (ASICs), the baseline and its backup, have been designed for the ATLAS Liquid Argon (LAr) Calorimeter Phase-I trigger upgrade. The latency of each ASIC and that of its corresponding receiver implemented in a back-end Field-Programmable Gate Array (FPGA) are critical specifications. In this paper, we present the latency measurements and simulation of two ASICs. The measurement results indicate that both ASICs achieve their design goals and meet the latency specifications. The consistency between the simulation and measurements validates the ASIC latency characterization.

  15. Determination of Absolute Zero Using a Computer-Based Laboratory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Amrani, D.

    2007-01-01

    We present a simple computer-based laboratory experiment for evaluating absolute zero in degrees Celsius, which can be performed in college and undergraduate physical sciences laboratory courses. With a computer, absolute zero apparatus can help demonstrators or students to observe the relationship between temperature and pressure and use…

  16. Absolute Humidity and the Seasonality of Influenza (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shaman, J. L.; Pitzer, V.; Viboud, C.; Grenfell, B.; Goldstein, E.; Lipsitch, M.

    2010-12-01

    Much of the observed wintertime increase of mortality in temperate regions is attributed to seasonal influenza. A recent re-analysis of laboratory experiments indicates that absolute humidity strongly modulates the airborne survival and transmission of the influenza virus. Here we show that the onset of increased wintertime influenza-related mortality in the United States is associated with anomalously low absolute humidity levels during the prior weeks. We then use an epidemiological model, in which observed absolute humidity conditions temper influenza transmission rates, to successfully simulate the seasonal cycle of observed influenza-related mortality. The model results indicate that direct modulation of influenza transmissibility by absolute humidity alone is sufficient to produce this observed seasonality. These findings provide epidemiological support for the hypothesis that absolute humidity drives seasonal variations of influenza transmission in temperate regions. In addition, we show that variations of the basic and effective reproductive numbers for influenza, caused by seasonal changes in absolute humidity, are consistent with the general timing of pandemic influenza outbreaks observed for 2009 A/H1N1 in temperate regions. Indeed, absolute humidity conditions correctly identify the region of the United States vulnerable to a third, wintertime wave of pandemic influenza. These findings suggest that the timing of pandemic influenza outbreaks is controlled by a combination of absolute humidity conditions, levels of susceptibility and changes in population mixing and contact rates.

  17. Novalis' Poetic Uncertainty: A "Bildung" with the Absolute

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mika, Carl

    2016-01-01

    Novalis, the Early German Romantic poet and philosopher, had at the core of his work a mysterious depiction of the "absolute." The absolute is Novalis' name for a substance that defies precise knowledge yet calls for a tentative and sensitive speculation. How one asserts a truth, represents an object, and sets about encountering things…

  18. Auditory Middle Latency Responses in Chronic Smokers Compared to Nonsmokers: Differential Effects of Stimulus and Age

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ramkissoon, Ishara; Beverly, Brenda L.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: Effects of clicks and tonebursts on early and late auditory middle latency response (AMLR) components were evaluated in young and older cigarette smokers and nonsmokers. Method: Participants ( n = 49) were categorized by smoking and age into 4 groups: (a) older smokers, (b) older nonsmokers, (c) young smokers, and (d) young nonsmokers.…

  19. Latency-Based and Psychophysiological Measures of Sexual Interest Show Convergent and Concurrent Validity.

    PubMed

    Ó Ciardha, Caoilte; Attard-Johnson, Janice; Bindemann, Markus

    2018-04-01

    Latency-based measures of sexual interest require additional evidence of validity, as do newer pupil dilation approaches. A total of 102 community men completed six latency-based measures of sexual interest. Pupillary responses were recorded during three of these tasks and in an additional task where no participant response was required. For adult stimuli, there was a high degree of intercorrelation between measures, suggesting that tasks may be measuring the same underlying construct (convergent validity). In addition to being correlated with one another, measures also predicted participants' self-reported sexual interest, demonstrating concurrent validity (i.e., the ability of a task to predict a more validated, simultaneously recorded, measure). Latency-based and pupillometric approaches also showed preliminary evidence of concurrent validity in predicting both self-reported interest in child molestation and viewing pornographic material containing children. Taken together, the study findings build on the evidence base for the validity of latency-based and pupillometric measures of sexual interest.

  20. Light and Movement: Making Contact with a Traumatised and Embattled Latency Girl

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allnutt, Louise

    2010-01-01

    This paper shows a child psychotherapist learning and developing her technique as she attempts to make contact with a child who is extremely hard to reach. It is based on the first two years of three-times-weekly intensive psychotherapy of a latency girl who had little faith in a helpful therapeutic relationship. Her defences against such a…

  1. Perceptual latency priming by masked and unmasked stimuli: evidence for an attentional interpretation.

    PubMed

    Scharlau, Ingrid; Neumann, Odmar

    2003-08-01

    Four experiments investigated the influence of a metacontrast-masked prime on temporal order judgments. The main results were (1) that a masked prime reduced the latency of the mask's conscious perception (perceptual latency priming), (2) that this effect was independent of whether the prime suffered strong or weak masking, (3) that it was unaffected by the degree of visual similarity between the prime and the mask, and that (4) there was no difference between congruent and incongruent primes. Finding (1) suggests that location cueing affects not only response times but also the latency of conscious perception. (2) The finding that priming was unaffected by the prime's detectability argues against a response bias interpretation of this effect. (3) Since visual similarity had no effect on the prime's efficiency, it is unlikely that sensory priming was involved. (4) The lack of a divergence between the effects of congruent and incongruent primes implies a functional difference between the judgments in the temporal order judgment task and speeded responses that have demonstrated differential effects of congruent and incongruent primes (e.g., Klotz & Neumann, 1999). These results can best be interpreted by assuming that the prime affects perceptual latency by initiating a shift of attention, as suggested by the Asynchronous Updating Model (AUM; Neumann 1978, 1982).

  2. The terminal latency of the phrenic nerve correlates with respiratory symptoms in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Park, Jin-Sung; Park, Donghwi

    2017-09-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate the electrophysiological parameters in phrenic nerve conduction studies (NCS) that sensitively reflect latent respiratory insufficiency present in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). Forty-nine patients with ALS were examined, and after exclusion, 21 patients with ALS and their phrenic NCS results were reviewed. The patients were divided into two groups according to their respiratory sub-score in the ALS functional rating scale - revised (Group A, sub-score 12vs. Group B, sub-score 11). We compared the parameters of phrenic NCS between the two groups. There were no significant differences in the clinical characteristics between the two groups. Using a multivariate model, we found that the terminal latency of the phrenic nerve was the only parameter that was associated with early symptoms of respiratory insufficiency (p<0.05). The optimal cutoff value for the terminal latency of the phrenic nerve was 7.65ms (sensitivity 80%, specificity 68.2%). The significantly prolonged terminal latency of the phrenic nerve in our study may reflect a profound distal motor axonal dysfunction of the phrenic nerve in patients with ALS in the early stage of respiratory insufficiency that can be used as a sensitive electrophysiological marker reflecting respiratory symptoms in ALS. The terminal latency of the phrenic nerve is useful for early detection of respiratory insufficiency in patients with ALS. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  3. Auditory Magnetic Mismatch Field Latency: A Biomarker for Language Impairment in Autism

    PubMed Central

    Roberts, Timothy P.L.; Cannon, Katelyn M.; Tavabi, Kambiz; Blaskey, Lisa; Khan, Sarah Y.; Monroe, Justin F.; Qasmieh, Saba; Levy, Susan E.; Edgar, J. Christopher

    2011-01-01

    Background Auditory processing abnormalities are frequently observed in Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD), and these abnormalities may have sequelae in terms of clinical language impairment (LI). The present study assessed associations between language impairment and the amplitude and latency of the superior temporal gyrus magnetic mismatch field (MMF) in response to changes in an auditory stream of tones or vowels. Methods 51 children with ASD and 27 neurotypical controls, all aged 6-15 years, underwent neuropsychological evaluation, including tests of language function, as well as magnetoencephalographic (MEG) recording during presentation of tones and vowels. The MMF was identified in the difference waveform obtained from subtraction of responses to standard stimuli from deviant stimuli. Results MMF latency was significantly prolonged (p<0.001) in children with ASD compared to neurotypical controls. Furthermore, this delay was most pronounced (∼50ms) in children with concomitant LI, with significant differences in latency between children with ASD with LI and those without (p<0.01). Receiver operator characteristic analysis indicated a sensitivity of 82.4% and specificity of 71.2% for diagnosing LI based on MMF latency. Conclusion Neural correlates of auditory change detection (the MMF) are significantly delayed in children with ASD, and especially those with concomitant LI suggesting both a neurobiological basis for LI as well as a clinical biomarker for LI in ASD. PMID:21392733

  4. Neuromagnetic Oscillations Predict Evoked-Response Latency Delays and Core Language Deficits in Autism Spectrum Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edgar, J. Christopher; Khan, Sarah Y.; Blaskey, Lisa; Chow, Vivian Y.; Rey, Michael; Gaetz, William; Cannon, Katelyn M.; Monroe, Justin F.; Cornew, Lauren; Qasmieh, Saba; Liu, Song; Welsh, John P.; Levy, Susan E.; Roberts, Timothy P. L.

    2015-01-01

    Previous studies have observed evoked response latency as well as gamma band superior temporal gyrus (STG) auditory abnormalities in individuals with autism spectrum disorders (ASD). A limitation of these studies is that associations between these two abnormalities, as well as the full extent of oscillatory phenomena in ASD in terms of frequency…

  5. A Training Program to Reduce "Visitation Stress" in Single Parents and Their Latency Age Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clark, Ron

    This practicum was designed to decrease single parent and latency age child stress associated with child and noncustodial parent visitations, and to improve children's school behaviors. A 9-session, 12-week education and training program for single mothers (N=6) and their elementary school age children (N=15), designed to reduce stress by…

  6. Written Spelling to Dictation: Sound-To-Spelling Regularity Affects Both Writing Latencies and Durations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Delattre, Marie; Bonin, Patrick; Barry, Christopher

    2006-01-01

    The authors examined the effect of sound-to-spelling regularity on written spelling latencies and writing durations in a dictation task in which participants had to write each target word 3 times in succession. The authors found that irregular words (i.e., those containing low-probability phoneme-to-grapheme mappings) were slower both to…

  7. Factors influencing the response latencies of subnormal children in naming pictures.

    PubMed

    Elliott, C

    1978-08-01

    The times taken to name 56 drawings of objects on five separate occasions were analysed for 21 ESN(M) and 21 ESN(S) children, matched for picture-naming vocabulary. The ESN(S) group not only had a higher mean response latency but also showed greater inter- and intra-subject variance. Nine objects were selected whose names have a Thorndike-Lorge language frequency of 50 words per million or greater, and nine others were selected with a frequency of less than 50 words per million. Each object was drawn in two ways, one giving a two-dimensional outline with the addition of important detail, the other drawing also incorporating cues indicating the depth of the object. An analysis of variance of the children's latencies in naming the selected 36 pictures of 18 objects over five trials indicated that the method of drawing had no effect upon naming latencies. Pictures with high-frequency names were named faster than those with lower frequency names, the ESN(S) group showing a greater rate of increase in naming latency for the lower frequency words than the ESN(M) children. Results were discussed in terms of the Oldfield and Lachman models of lexical memory storage and of the search processes required for the retrieval of names.

  8. Choice Latency as a Cue for Children's Subjective Confidence in the Correctness of Their Answers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koriat, Asher; Ackerman, Rakefet

    2010-01-01

    Research with adults indicates that confidence in the correctness of an answer decreases as a function of the amount of time it takes to reach that answer, suggesting that people use response latency as a mnemonic cue for subjective confidence. Experiment 1 extended investigation to 2nd, 3rd and 5th graders. When children chose the answer to…

  9. Brainstem auditory evoked potential wave V latency-intensity function in normal Dalmatian and Beagle puppies.

    PubMed

    Poncelet, L; Coppens, A; Deltenre, P

    2000-01-01

    This study investigated whether Dalmatian puppies with normal hearing bilaterally had the same click-evoked brainstem auditory potential characteristics as age-matched dogs of another breed. Short-latency brainstem auditory potentials evoked by condensation and rarefaction clicks were recorded in 23 1.5- to 2-month-old Dalmatian puppies with normal hearing bilaterally by a qualitative brainstem auditory evoked potential test and in 16 Beagle dogs of the same age. For each stimulus intensity, from 90 dB normal hearing level down to the wave V threshold, the sum of the potentials evoked by the 2 kinds of stimuli were added, giving an equivalent to the alternate click polarity stimulation. The slope of the L segment of the wave V latency-intensity curve was steeper in Dalmatian (-40 +/- 10 micros/dB) than in Beagles (-28 +/- 5 micros/dB, P < .001) puppies. The hearing threshold was lower in the Beagle puppies (P < .05). These results suggest that interbreed differences may exist at the level of cochlear function in this age class. The wave V latency and wave V-wave I latencies differences at high stimulus intensity were different between the groups of puppies (4.3 +/- 0.2 and 2.5 +/- 0.2 milliseconds, respectively, for Beagles; and 4.1 +/- 0.2 and 2.3 +/- 0.2 milliseconds for Dalmatians, P < .05). A different maturation speed of the neural pathways is one possible explanation of this observation.

  10. Effects of Prenominal Adjective Ordering on Children's Latencies and Errors in an Immediate Sentence Recall Task.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Freedle, Roy; Hall, William S.

    A total of 34 children, ages 2 and a half to 6, were presented with sentences for imitation that either violated or honored a prenominal adjective ordering rule, which requires that size adjectives must precede color adjectives. Two response measures were evaluated in terms of these sentence types: latency to begin a sentence imitation and recall…

  11. Vocalization Latencies of Skilled and Less Skilled Comprehenders for Words Written in Hiragana and Kanji.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kuhara-Kojima, Keiko; And Others

    1996-01-01

    Finds that Japanese fifth graders' naming speed was a good indicator of the automaticity of the lexical access for both syllabaries and morphograms, but that skilled/less-skilled differences in vocalization latencies were greater for real words than for pseudowords for both hiragana and kanji. Discusses the applicability of C. A. Perfetti's verbal…

  12. Fuzzy Logic based Handoff Latency Reduction Mechanism in Layer 2 of Heterogeneous Mobile IPv6 Networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anwar, Farhat; Masud, Mosharrof H.; Latif, Suhaimi A.

    2013-12-01

    Mobile IPv6 (MIPv6) is one of the pioneer standards that support mobility in IPv6 environment. It has been designed to support different types of technologies for providing seamless communications in next generation network. However, MIPv6 and subsequent standards have some limitations due to its handoff latency. In this paper, a fuzzy logic based mechanism is proposed to reduce the handoff latency of MIPv6 for Layer 2 (L2) by scanning the Access Points (APs) while the Mobile Node (MN) is moving among different APs. Handoff latency occurs when the MN switches from one AP to another in L2. Heterogeneous network is considered in this research in order to reduce the delays in L2. Received Signal Strength Indicator (RSSI) and velocity of the MN are considered as the input of fuzzy logic technique. This technique helps the MN to measure optimum signal quality from APs for the speedy mobile node based on fuzzy logic input rules and makes a list of interfaces. A suitable interface from the list of available interfaces can be selected like WiFi, WiMAX or GSM. Simulation results show 55% handoff latency reduction and 50% packet loss improvement in L2 compared to standard to MIPv6.

  13. Response Latency as a Function of Hypothesis-Testing Strategies in Concept Identification

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fink, Richard T.

    1972-01-01

    The ability of M. Levine's subset-sampling assumptions to account for the decrease in response latency following the trial of the last error was investigated by employing a distributed stimulus set composed of four binary dimensions and a procedure which required Ss to make an overt response in order to sample each dimension. (Author)

  14. Flash Memory Reliability: Read, Program, and Erase Latency Versus Endurance Cycling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heidecker, Jason

    2010-01-01

    This report documents the efforts and results of the fiscal year (FY) 2010 NASA Electronic Parts and Packaging Program (NEPP) task for nonvolatile memory (NVM) reliability. This year's focus was to measure latency (read, program, and erase) of NAND Flash memories and determine how these parameters drift with erase/program/read endurance cycling.

  15. Auditory Middle Latency Response and Phonological Awareness in Students with Learning Disabilities

    PubMed Central

    Romero, Ana Carla Leite; Funayama, Carolina Araújo Rodrigues; Capellini, Simone Aparecida; Frizzo, Ana Claudia Figueiredo

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Behavioral tests of auditory processing have been applied in schools and highlight the association between phonological awareness abilities and auditory processing, confirming that low performance on phonological awareness tests may be due to low performance on auditory processing tests. Objective To characterize the auditory middle latency response and the phonological awareness tests and to investigate correlations between responses in a group of children with learning disorders. Methods The study included 25 students with learning disabilities. Phonological awareness and auditory middle latency response were tested with electrodes placed on the left and right hemispheres. The correlation between the measurements was performed using the Spearman rank correlation coefficient. Results There is some correlation between the tests, especially between the Pa component and syllabic awareness, where moderate negative correlation is observed. Conclusion In this study, when phonological awareness subtests were performed, specifically phonemic awareness, the students showed a low score for the age group, although for the objective examination, prolonged Pa latency in the contralateral via was observed. Negative weak to moderate correlation for Pa wave latency was observed, as was positive weak correlation for Na-Pa amplitude. PMID:26491479

  16. In vitro effects of the small-molecule protein kinase C agonists on HIV latency reactivation.

    PubMed

    Brogdon, Jessica; Ziani, Widade; Wang, Xiaolei; Veazey, Ronald S; Xu, Huanbin

    2016-12-12

    The persistence of latently HIV-infected cellular reservoirs represents the major obstacle to virus eradication in patients under antiretroviral therapy (ART). Cure strategies to eliminate these reservoirs are thus needed to reactivate proviral gene expression in latently infected cells. In this study, we tested optimal concentrations of PKC agonist candidates (PEP005/Ingenol-3-angelate, prostratin, bryostatin-1, and JQ1) to reactivate HIV latency in vitro, and examined their effects on cell survival, activation and epigenetic histone methylation after treatment alone or in combination in cell line and isolated CD4 T cells from SIV-infected macaques. The results showed that PKC agonists increased cell activation with different degrees of latency reactivation, concomitant with reduced levels of histone methylation. With increasing concentrations, prostratin and byrostain-1 treatment rapidly reduced cell survival and cell activation. The PKC agonist combinations, or in combination with JQ1, led to modest levels of synergistic reactivation of HIV. Remarkably, PEP005 treatment alone caused marked reactivation of HIV latency, similar to PMA stimulation. These findings suggested that PEP005 alone, as indicated its lower cytotoxicity and lower effective dose inducing maximal reactivation, might be a candidate for effectively reactivating HIV latency as part of a therapeutic strategy for HIV infection.

  17. Working Memory Updating Latency Reflects the Cost of Switching between Maintenance and Updating Modes of Operation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kessler, Yoav; Oberauer, Klaus

    2014-01-01

    Updating and maintenance of information are 2 conflicting demands on working memory (WM). We examined the time required to update WM (updating latency) as a function of the sequence of updated and not-updated items within a list. Participants held a list of items in WM and updated a variable subset of them in each trial. Four experiments that vary…

  18. Act quickly, decide later: long-latency visual processing underlies perceptual decisions but not reflexive behavior.

    PubMed

    Jolij, Jacob; Scholte, H Steven; van Gaal, Simon; Hodgson, Timothy L; Lamme, Victor A F

    2011-12-01

    Humans largely guide their behavior by their visual representation of the world. Recent studies have shown that visual information can trigger behavior within 150 msec, suggesting that visually guided responses to external events, in fact, precede conscious awareness of those events. However, is such a view correct? By using a texture discrimination task, we show that the brain relies on long-latency visual processing in order to guide perceptual decisions. Decreasing stimulus saliency leads to selective changes in long-latency visually evoked potential components reflecting scene segmentation. These latency changes are accompanied by almost equal changes in simple RTs and points of subjective simultaneity. Furthermore, we find a strong correlation between individual RTs and the latencies of scene segmentation related components in the visually evoked potentials, showing that the processes underlying these late brain potentials are critical in triggering a response. However, using the same texture stimuli in an antisaccade task, we found that reflexive, but erroneous, prosaccades, but not antisaccades, can be triggered by earlier visual processes. In other words: The brain can act quickly, but decides late. Differences between our study and earlier findings suggesting that action precedes conscious awareness can be explained by assuming that task demands determine whether a fast and unconscious, or a slower and conscious, representation is used to initiate a visually guided response.

  19. The Complete Automation of the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory and a Study of its Response Latency.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dunn, Thomas G.; And Others

    The feasibility of completely automating the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI) was tested, and item response latencies were compared with other MMPI item characteristics. A total of 26 scales were successfully scored automatically for 165 subjects. The program also typed a Mayo Clinic interpretive report on a computer terminal,…

  20. Low-Latency Telerobotic Sample Return and Biomolecular Sequencing for Deep Space Gateway

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lupisella, M.; Bleacher, J.; Lewis, R.; Dworkin, J.; Wright, M.; Burton, A.; Rubins, K.; Wallace, S.; Stahl, S.; John, K.; Archer, D.; Niles, P.; Regberg, A.; Smith, D.; Race, M.; Chiu, C.; Russell, J.; Rampe, E.; Bywaters, K.

    2018-02-01

    Low-latency telerobotics, crew-assisted sample return, and biomolecular sequencing can be used to acquire and analyze lunar farside and/or Apollo landing site samples. Sequencing can also be used to monitor and study Deep Space Gateway environment and crew health.

  1. Absolute radiometric calibration of advanced remote sensing systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Slater, P. N.

    1982-01-01

    The distinction between the uses of relative and absolute spectroradiometric calibration of remote sensing systems is discussed. The advantages of detector-based absolute calibration are described, and the categories of relative and absolute system calibrations are listed. The limitations and problems associated with three common methods used for the absolute calibration of remote sensing systems are addressed. Two methods are proposed for the in-flight absolute calibration of advanced multispectral linear array systems. One makes use of a sun-illuminated panel in front of the sensor, the radiance of which is monitored by a spectrally flat pyroelectric radiometer. The other uses a large, uniform, high-radiance reference ground surface. The ground and atmospheric measurements required as input to a radiative transfer program to predict the radiance level at the entrance pupil of the orbital sensor are discussed, and the ground instrumentation is described.

  2. Advancing Absolute Calibration for JWST and Other Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rieke, George; Bohlin, Ralph; Boyajian, Tabetha; Carey, Sean; Casagrande, Luca; Deustua, Susana; Gordon, Karl; Kraemer, Kathleen; Marengo, Massimo; Schlawin, Everett; Su, Kate; Sloan, Greg; Volk, Kevin

    2017-10-01

    We propose to exploit the unique optical stability of the Spitzer telescope, along with that of IRAC, to (1) transfer the accurate absolute calibration obtained with MSX on very bright stars directly to two reference stars within the dynamic range of the JWST imagers (and of other modern instrumentation); (2) establish a second accurate absolute calibration based on the absolutely calibrated spectrum of the sun, transferred onto the astronomical system via alpha Cen A; and (3) provide accurate infrared measurements for the 11 (of 15) highest priority stars with no such data but with accurate interferometrically measured diameters, allowing us to optimize determinations of effective temperatures using the infrared flux method and thus to extend the accurate absolute calibration spectrally. This program is integral to plans for an accurate absolute calibration of JWST and will also provide a valuable Spitzer legacy.

  3. Importance of latency and amplitude values of recurrent laryngeal nerve during thyroidectomy in diabetic patients.

    PubMed

    Ozemir, Ibrahim Ali; Ozyalvac, Ferman; Yildiz, Gorkem; Eren, Tunc; Aydin-Ozemir, Zeynep; Alimoglu, Orhan

    2016-11-01

    Diabetes mellitus may cause degeneration in the myelin and/or axonal structures of peripheral nerves. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of diabetic neuropathy on intraoperative neuromonitoring findings such as latency and amplitude values of the recurrent laryngeal nerves during thyroidectomy. To our knowledge this is the first study to report comparison of the electrophysiologic features of diabetic and non-diabetic patients. One-hundred-and-eleven consecutive patients who received neuromonitoring during thyroidectomy between 2013 and 2015 were included to study. The patients were divided into two groups according to the presence of diabetes mellitus. Pre-thyroidectomy and post thyroidectomy motor response latency and amplitude values of recurrent laryngeal nerves were compared between groups. Neuromonitoring findings, demographic data and postoperative complications were evaluated. The diabetic group consisted of 29 (26.1%) patients while 82 (73.9%) patients were in non-diabetic group. The mean post-thyroidectomy amplitude values (millivolts-mV) of the recurrent laryngeal nerve were significantly lower in diabetic group (0.51 ± 0.26 mV vs. 0,70 ± 0,46 mV, p < 0.05), whereas the latency values were significantly higher (2.50 ± 0.86 ms vs. 1.85 ± 0.59 ms, p < 0.01) compared to non-diabetic group. Additionally, post-thyroidectomy latency values were significantly increased compared to the pre-thyroidectomy latency values (2.50 ± 0.86 ms vs. 2.02 ± 0.43 ms) in diabetic group patients (p < 0.05). Although postoperative complication rates were higher in diabetic group (10.3% vs. 5.9%), there were no statistical significance differences. Prolonged latency and decreased amplitude values in recurrent laryngeal nerves of diabetic patients show that diabetic neuropathy of the recurrent laryngeal nerves develop similarly to the peripheral nerves. Increased post-thyroidectomy latency values reveal that the recurrent laryngeal

  4. A new, ultra-low latency data transmission protocol for Earthquake Early Warning Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hill, P.; Hicks, S. P.; McGowan, M.

    2016-12-01

    One measure used to assess the performance of Earthquake Early Warning Systems (EEWS) is the delay time between earthquake origin and issued alert. EEWS latency is dependent on a number of sources (e.g. P-wave propagation, digitisation, transmission, receiver processing, triggering, event declaration). Many regional seismic networks use the SEEDlink protocol; however, packet size is fixed to 512-byte miniSEED records, resulting in transmission latencies of >0.5 s. Data packetisation is seen as one of the main sources of delays in EEWS (Brown et al., 2011). Optimising data-logger and telemetry configurations is a cost-effective strategy to improve EEWS alert times (Behr et al., 2015). Digitisers with smaller, selectable packets can result in faster alerts (Sokos et al., 2016). We propose a new seismic protocol for regional seismic networks benefiting low-latency applications such as EEWS. The protocol, based on Güralp's existing GDI-link format is an efficient and flexible method to exchange data between seismic stations and data centers for a range of network configurations. The main principle is to stream data sample-by-sample instead of fixed-length packets to minimise transmission latency. Self-adaptive packetisation with compression maximises available telemetry bandwidth. Highly flexible metadata fields within GDI-link are compatible with existing miniSEED definitions. Data is sent as integers or floats, supporting a wide range of data formats, including discrete parameters such as Pd & τC for on-site earthquake early warning. Other advantages include: streaming station state-of-health information, instrument control, support of backfilling and fail-over strategies during telemetry outages. Based on tests carried out on the Güralp Minimus data-logger, we show our new protocol can reduce transmission latency to as low as 1 ms. The low-latency protocol is currently being implemented with common processing packages. The results of these tests will help to

  5. The behaviour of the long-latency stretch reflex in patients with Parkinson's disease

    PubMed Central

    Rothwell, Jc; Obeso, Ja; Traub, Mm; Marsden, Cd

    1983-01-01

    The size of the long-latency stretch reflex was measured in a proximal (triceps) and distal (flexor pollicis longus) muscle in 47 patients with Parkinson's disease, and was compared with that seen in a group of 12 age-matched normal control subjects. The patients were classified clinically into four groups according to the degree of rigidity at the elbow or tremor. Stretch reflexes were evaluated while the subject was exerting a small force against a constant preload supplied by a torque motor, and the size of the reflex response was measured as fractional increase over basal levels of activity. When stretches were given at random intervals by increasing the force exerted by the motor by a factor of 2 or 3, there was a clear trend for the more severely affected patients to have larger long latency responses in the triceps muscle, although there was no change in the size of the short-latency, spinal component of the response. In contrast, there was no change in the size of the long-latency response of the flexor pollicis longus in any group of patients with Parkinson's disease. Despite any differences in reflex size, the inherent muscle stiffness of both muscles appeared to be normal in all groups of patients with Parkinson's disease, since the displacement trajectory of the limb following the force increase was the same as control values in the short (25 ms) period before reflex compensation could intervene. In 20 of the patients and in seven of the control subjects, servo-controlled, ramp positional disturbances were given to the thumb. Up to a velocity of 300°/s, the size of the long-latency stretch reflex was proportional to the log velocity of stretch. This technique revealed, in both moderately and severely rigid patients, increases in the reflex sensitivity of the flexor pollicis longus, which had not been clear using step torque stretches alone. However, whether using ramp or step displacements, long latency stretch reflex gain was not closely related to

  6. Coregulatory Interactions among CD8α Dendritic Cells, the Latency-Associated Transcript, and Programmed Death 1 Contribute to Higher Levels of Herpes Simplex Virus 1 Latency

    PubMed Central

    Mott, Kevin R.; Allen, Sariah J.; Zandian, Mandana

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT The latency-associated transcript (LAT) of herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1), CD8α+ dendritic cells (DCs), and programmed death 1 (PD-1) have all been implicated in the HSV-1 latency-reactivation cycle. It is not known, however, whether an interaction between LAT and CD8α+ DCs regulates latency and T-cell exhaustion. To address this question, we used LAT-expressing [LAT(+)] and LAT-negative [LAT(−)] viruses. Depletion of DCs in mice ocularly infected with LAT(+) virus resulted in a reduction in the number of T cells expressing PD-1 in the trigeminal ganglia (TG), whereas depletion of DCs in mice similarly infected with LAT(−) virus did not alter PD-1 expression. CD8α+ DCs, but not CD4+ DCs, infected with LAT(+) virus had higher levels of ICP0, ICP4, thymidine kinase (TK), and PD-1 ligand 1 (PD-L1) transcripts than those infected with LAT(−) virus. Coculture of infected bone marrow (BM)-derived DCs from wild-type (WT) mice, but not infected DCs from CD8α−/− mice, with WT naive T cells contributed to an increase in PD-1 expression. Transfer of bone marrow from WT mice but not CD8α−/− mice to recipient Rag1−/− mice increased the number of latent viral genomes in reconstituted mice infected with the LAT(+) virus. Collectively, these data indicated that a reduction in latency correlated with a decline in the levels of CD8α+ DCs and PD-1 expression. In summary, our results demonstrate an interaction among LAT, PD-1, and CD11c CD8α+ cells that regulates latency in the TG of HSV-1-infected mice. IMPORTANCE Very little is known regarding the interrelationship of LAT, PD-1, and CD8α+ DCs and how such interactions might contribute to relative numbers of latent viral genomes. We show here that (i) in both in vivo and in vitro studies, deficiency of CD8α+ DCs significantly reduced T-cell exhaustion in the presence of LAT(+) virus but not LAT(−) virus; (ii) HSV-1 infectivity was significantly lower in LAT(−)-infected DCs than in their LAT

  7. Ocular HSV-1: Is the Cornea a Reservoir for Viral Latency or a Fast Pit Stop?

    PubMed Central

    Kennedy, David P.; Clement, Christian; Arceneaux, Richard L.; Bhattacharjee, Partha S.; Huq, Tashfin S.; Hill, James M.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose To present a review supporting and refuting evidence from mouse, rabbit, non-human primate, and human studies of herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) concerning corneal latency. Methods More than 50 research papers on HSV-1 published in peer-reviewed journals were examined. Results Infectious HSV-1 has been found in mouse denervated tissues and in tissues with negative cultures from the corresponding ganglion. However, the different mouse strains have shown varied responses to different strains of HSV, making it difficult to relate such findings to humans. Rabbit studies provide excellent evidence for HSV-1 corneal latency including data on HSV-1 migration from the cornea into the corneoscleral rim and on the distribution of HSV-1 DNA in the cornea. However, the available methods for the detection of infectious HSV-1 may not be sensitive enough to detect low-level infection. Infectious HSV-1 has been successfully isolated from the tears of non-human primates in the absence of detectable corneal lesions. The recurrence of corneal ulcers in non-human primates before the appearance of infectious HSV-1 in tears suggests that the origin of the HSV-1 is the cornea, rather than the TG. Human studies presented evidence of both ganglion and corneal latency. Conclusion Understanding HSV-1 disease progression and the possibility of corneal latency could lead to more effective treatments for herpetic keratitis. However, it is unlikely that operational latency in the cornea will be definitively proven unless a new method with higher sensitivity for the detection of infectious virus is developed. PMID:21304287

  8. Understanding and Analyzing Latency of Near Real-time Satellite Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, W.; Jochum, M.; Brust, J.

    2016-12-01

    Acquiring and disseminating time-sensitive satellite data in a timely manner is much concerned by researchers and decision makers of weather forecast, severe weather warning, disaster and emergency response, environmental monitoring, and so on. Understanding and analyzing the latency of near real-time satellite data is very useful and helpful to explore the whole data transmission flow, indentify the possible issues, and connect data providers and users better. The STAR (Center for Satellite Applications and Research of NOAA) Central Data Repository (SCDR) is a central repository to acquire, manipulate, and disseminate various types of near real-time satellite datasets to internal and external users. In this system, important timestamps, including observation beginning/end, processing, uploading, downloading, and ingestion, are retrieved and organized in the database, so the time length of each transmission phase can be figured out easily. Open source NoSQL database MongoDB is selected to manage the timestamp information because of features of dynamic schema, aggregation and data processing. A user-friendly user interface is developed to visualize and characterize the latency interactively. Taking the Himawari-8 HSD (Himawari Standard Data) file as an example, the data transmission phases, including creating HSD file from satellite observation, uploading the file to HimawariCloud, updating file link in the webpage, downloading and ingesting the file to SCDR, are worked out from the above mentioned timestamps. The latencies can be observed by time of period, day of week, or hour of day in chart or table format, and the anomaly latencies can be detected and reported through the user interface. Latency analysis provides data providers and users actionable insight on how to improve the data transmission of near real-time satellite data, and enhance its acquisition and management.

  9. Latency Determination and Compensation in Real-Time Gnss/ins Integrated Navigation Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Solomon, P. D.; Wang, J.; Rizos, C.

    2011-09-01

    Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) technology is now commonplace in many defence and civilian environments. However, the high cost of owning and operating a sophisticated UAV has slowed their adoption in many commercial markets. Universities and research groups are actively experimenting with UAVs to further develop the technology, particularly for automated flying operations. The two main UAV platforms used are fixed-wing and helicopter. Helicopter-based UAVs offer many attractive features over fixed-wing UAVs, including vertical take-off, the ability to loiter, and highly dynamic flight. However the control and navigation of helicopters are significantly more demanding than those of fixed-wing UAVs and as such require a high bandwidth real-time Position, Velocity, Attitude (PVA) navigation system. In practical Real-Time Navigation Systems (RTNS) there are delays in the processing of the GNSS data prior to the fusion of the GNSS data with the INS measurements. This latency must be compensated for otherwise it degrades the solution of the navigation filter. This paper investigates the effect of latency in the arrival time of the GNSS data in a RTNS. Several test drives and flights were conducted with a low-cost RTNS, and compared with a high quality GNSS/INS solution. A technique for the real-time, automated and accurate estimation of the GNSS latency in low-cost systems was developed and tested. The latency estimates were then verified through cross-correlation with the time-stamped measurements from the reference system. A delayed measurement Extended Kalman Filter was then used to allow for the real-time fusing of the delayed measurements, and then a final system developed for on-the-fly measurement and compensation of GNSS latency in a RTNS.

  10. Tap Arduino: An Arduino microcontroller for low-latency auditory feedback in sensorimotor synchronization experiments.

    PubMed

    Schultz, Benjamin G; van Vugt, Floris T

    2016-12-01

    Timing abilities are often measured by having participants tap their finger along with a metronome and presenting tap-triggered auditory feedback. These experiments predominantly use electronic percussion pads combined with software (e.g., FTAP or Max/MSP) that records responses and delivers auditory feedback. However, these setups involve unknown latencies between tap onset and auditory feedback and can sometimes miss responses or record multiple, superfluous responses for a single tap. These issues may distort measurements of tapping performance or affect the performance of the individual. We present an alternative setup using an Arduino microcontroller that addresses these issues and delivers low-latency auditory feedback. We validated our setup by having participants (N = 6) tap on a force-sensitive resistor pad connected to the Arduino and on an electronic percussion pad with various levels of force and tempi. The Arduino delivered auditory feedback through a pulse-width modulation (PWM) pin connected to a headphone jack or a wave shield component. The Arduino's PWM (M = 0.6 ms, SD = 0.3) and wave shield (M = 2.6 ms, SD = 0.3) demonstrated significantly lower auditory feedback latencies than the percussion pad (M = 9.1 ms, SD = 2.0), FTAP (M = 14.6 ms, SD = 2.8), and Max/MSP (M = 15.8 ms, SD = 3.4). The PWM and wave shield latencies were also significantly less variable than those from FTAP and Max/MSP. The Arduino missed significantly fewer taps, and recorded fewer superfluous responses, than the percussion pad. The Arduino captured all responses, whereas at lower tapping forces, the percussion pad missed more taps. Regardless of tapping force, the Arduino outperformed the percussion pad. Overall, the Arduino is a high-precision, low-latency, portable, and affordable tool for auditory experiments.

  11. The amblyopic eye in subjects with anisometropia show increased saccadic latency in the delayed saccade task

    PubMed Central

    Perdziak, Maciej; Witkowska, Dagmara; Gryncewicz, Wojciech; Przekoracka-Krawczyk, Anna; Ober, Jan

    2014-01-01

    The term amblyopia is used to describe reduced visual function in one eye (or both eyes, though not so often) which cannot be fully improved by refractive correction and explained by the organic cause observed during regular eye examination. Amblyopia is associated with abnormal visual experience (e.g., anisometropia) during infancy or early childhood. Several studies have shown prolongation of saccadic latency time in amblyopic eye. In our opinion, study of saccadic latency in the context of central vision deficits assessment, should be based on central retina stimulation. For this reason, we proposed saccade delayed task. It requires inhibitory processing for maintaining fixation on the central target until it disappears—what constitutes the GO signal for saccade. The experiment consisted of 100 trials for each eye and was performed under two viewing conditions: monocular amblyopic/non-dominant eye and monocular dominant eye. We examined saccadic latency in 16 subjects (mean age 30 ± 11 years) with anisometropic amblyopia (two subjects had also microtropia) and in 17 control subjects (mean age 28 ± 8 years). Participants were instructed to look at central (fixation) target and when it disappears, to make the saccade toward the periphery (10°) as fast as possible, either left or the right target. The study results have proved the significant difference in saccadic latency between the amblyopic (mean 262 ± 48 ms) and dominant (mean 237 ± 45 ms) eye, in anisometropic group. In the control group, the saccadic latency for dominant (mean 226 ± 32 ms) and non-dominant (mean 230 ± 29 ms) eye was not significantly different. By the use of LATER (Linear Approach to the Threshold with Ergodic Rate) decision model we interpret our findings as a decrease in accumulation of visual information acquired by means of central retina in subjects with anisometropic amblyopia. PMID:25352790

  12. Submillimeter Spectroscopic Study of Semiconductor Processing Plasmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Helal, Yaser H.

    Plasmas used for manufacturing processes of semiconductor devices are complex and challenging to characterize. The development and improvement of plasma processes and models rely on feedback from experimental measurements. Current diagnostic methods are not capable of measuring absolute densities of plasma species with high resolution without altering the plasma, or without input from other measurements. At pressures below 100 mTorr, spectroscopic measurements of rotational transitions in the submillimeter/terahertz (SMM) spectral region are narrow enough in relation to the sparsity of spectral lines that absolute specificity of measurement is possible. The frequency resolution of SMM sources is such that spectral absorption features can be fully resolved. Processing plasmas are a similar pressure and temperature to the environment used to study astrophysical species in the SMM spectral region. Many of the molecular neutrals, radicals, and ions present in processing plasmas have been studied in the laboratory and their absorption spectra have been cataloged or are in the literature for the purpose of astrophysical study. Recent developments in SMM devices have made its technology commercially available for applications outside of specialized laboratories. The methods developed over several decades in the SMM spectral region for these laboratory studies are directly applicable for diagnostic measurements in the semiconductor manufacturing industry. In this work, a continuous wave, intensity calibrated SMM absorption spectrometer was developed as a remote sensor of gas and plasma species. A major advantage of intensity calibrated rotational absorption spectroscopy is its ability to determine absolute concentrations and temperatures of plasma species from first principles without altering the plasma environment. An important part of this work was the design of the optical components which couple 500 - 750 GHz radiation through a commercial inductively coupled plasma

  13. Absolute Spatially- and Temporally-Resolved Optical Emission Measurements of rf Glow Discharges in Argon

    PubMed Central

    Djurović, S.; Roberts, J. R.; Sobolewski, M. A.; Olthoff, J. K.

    1993-01-01

    Spatially- and temporally-resolved measurements of optical emission intensities are presented from rf discharges in argon over a wide range of pressures (6.7 to 133 Pa) and applied rf voltages (75 to 200 V). Results of measurements of emission intensities are presented for both an atomic transition (Ar I, 750.4 nm) and an ionic transition (Ar II, 434.8 nm). The absolute scale of these optical emissions has been determined by comparison with the optical emission from a calibrated standard lamp. All measurements were made in a well-defined rf reactor. They provide detailed characterization of local time-resolved plasma conditions suitable for the comparison with results from other experiments and theoretical models. These measurements represent a new level of detail in diagnostic measurements of rf plasmas, and provide insight into the electron transport properties of rf discharges. PMID:28053464

  14. Absolute calibration of neutron detectors on the C-2U advanced beam-driven FRC

    SciTech Connect

    Magee, R. M., E-mail: rmagee@trialphaenergy.com; Clary, R.; Korepanov, S.

    2016-11-15

    In the C-2U fusion energy experiment, high power neutral beam injection creates a large fast ion population that sustains a field-reversed configuration (FRC) plasma. The diagnosis of the fast ion pressure in these high-performance plasmas is therefore critical, and the measurement of the flux of neutrons from the deuterium-deuterium (D-D) fusion reaction is well suited to the task. Here we describe the absolute, in situ calibration of scintillation neutron detectors via two independent methods: firing deuterium beams into a high density gas target and calibration with a 2 × 10{sup 7} n/s AmBe source. The practical issues of each methodmore » are discussed and the resulting calibration factors are shown to be in good agreement. Finally, the calibration factor is applied to C-2U experimental data where the measured neutron rate is found to exceed the classical expectation.« less

  15. Absolute calibration of neutron detectors on the C-2U advanced beam-driven FRC.

    PubMed

    Magee, R M; Clary, R; Korepanov, S; Jauregui, F; Allfrey, I; Garate, E; Valentine, T; Smirnov, A

    2016-11-01

    In the C-2U fusion energy experiment, high power neutral beam injection creates a large fast ion population that sustains a field-reversed configuration (FRC) plasma. The diagnosis of the fast ion pressure in these high-performance plasmas is therefore critical, and the measurement of the flux of neutrons from the deuterium-deuterium (D-D) fusion reaction is well suited to the task. Here we describe the absolute, in situ calibration of scintillation neutron detectors via two independent methods: firing deuterium beams into a high density gas target and calibration with a 2 × 10 7 n/s AmBe source. The practical issues of each method are discussed and the resulting calibration factors are shown to be in good agreement. Finally, the calibration factor is applied to C-2U experimental data where the measured neutron rate is found to exceed the classical expectation.

  16. Measurement of absolute laser energy absorption by nano-structured targets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Jaebum; Tommasini, R.; London, R.; Bargsten, C.; Hollinger, R.; Capeluto, M. G.; Shlyaptsev, V. N.; Rocca, J. J.

    2017-10-01

    Nano-structured targets have been reported to allow the realization of extreme plasma conditions using table top lasers, and have gained much interest as a platform to investigate the ultra-high energy density plasmas (>100 MJ/cm3) . One reason for these targets to achieve extreme conditions is increased laser energy absorption (LEA). The absolute LEA by nano-structured targets has been measured for the first time and compared to that by foil targets. The experimental results, including the effects of target parameters on the LEA, will be presented. This work was performed under the auspices of the U.S. Department of Energy by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory under Contract DE-AC52097NA27344, and funded by LDRD (#15-ERD-054).

  17. Middle Latency Auditory Evoked Potential (MLAEP) in Workers with and without Tinnitus who are Exposed to Occupational Noise.

    PubMed

    dos Santos Filha, Valdete Alves Valentins; Samelli, Alessandra Giannella; Matas, Carla Gentile

    2015-09-11

    Tinnitus is an important occupational health concern, but few studies have focused on the central auditory pathways of workers with a history of occupational noise exposure. Thus, we analyzed the central auditory pathways of workers with a history of occupational noise exposure who had normal hearing threshold, and compared middle latency auditory evoked potential in those with and without noise-induced tinnitus. Sixty individuals (30 with and 30 without tinnitus) underwent the following procedures: anamnesis, immittance measures, pure-tone air conduction thresholds at all frequencies between 0.25-8 kHz, and middle latency auditory evoked potentials. Quantitative analysis of latencies and amplitudes of middle latency auditory evoked potential showed no significant differences between the groups with and without tinnitus. In the qualitative analysis, we found that both groups showed increased middle latency auditory evoked potential latencies. The study group had more alterations of the "both" type regarding the Na-Pa amplitude, while the control group had more "electrode effect" alterations, but these alterations were not significantly different when compared to controls. Individuals with normal hearing with or without tinnitus who are exposed to occupational noise have altered middle latency auditory evoked potential, suggesting impairment of the auditory pathways in cortical and subcortical regions. Although differences did not reach significance, individuals with tinnitus seemed to have more abnormalities in components of the middle latency auditory evoked potential when compared to individuals without tinnitus, suggesting alterations in the generation and transmission of neuroelectrical impulses along the auditory pathway.

  18. Absolute Wavelength Calibration of the IDSII Spectrometer for Impurity Ion Velocity Measurements in the MST

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baltzer, M.; Craig, D.; den Hartog, D. J.; Nornberg, M. D.; MST Team

    2014-10-01

    The MST operates two Ion Doppler Spectrometers (IDS) for high time-resolution passive and active measurements of impurity ion emission. Absolutely calibrated measurements of flow are difficult because the spectrometers record data within 0.3 nm of the line of interest, and commercial calibration lamps do not produce lines in this narrow range . Four calibration methods were investigated. First, emission along the chord bisecting the poloidal plane was measured as it should have no time-averaged Doppler shift. Second, a calibrated CCD spectrometer and the IDSII were used to observe the same plasma from opposing sides so as to measure opposite Doppler shifts. The unshifted line is located halfway between the two opposing measurements. Third, the two fibers of the IDSI were positioned to take absolute flow measurements using opposing views. Substituting the IDSII for one of the IDSI fibers, absolute measurements of flow from the IDSI were used to calibrate the IDSII. Finally, an optical system was designed to filter an ultraviolet LED, providing a known wavelength source within the spectral range covered by the IDSII. The optical train is composed of an air-gapped etalon and fused silica lenses. The quality of calibration for each of these methods is analyzed and their results compared. Preliminary impurity ion velocity measurements are shown. This work has been supported by the US DOE and the NSF.

  19. A comparison of herpes simplex virus type 1 and varicella-zoster virus latency and reactivation

    PubMed Central

    Kennedy, Peter G. E.; Rovnak, Joel; Badani, Hussain

    2015-01-01

    Herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1; human herpesvirus 1) and varicella-zoster virus (VZV; human herpesvirus 3) are human neurotropic alphaherpesviruses that cause lifelong infections in ganglia. Following primary infection and establishment of latency, HSV-1 reactivation typically results in herpes labialis (cold sores), but can occur frequently elsewhere on the body at the site of primary infection (e.g. whitlow), particularly at the genitals. Rarely, HSV-1 reactivation can cause encephalitis; however, a third of the cases of HSV-1 encephalitis are associated with HSV-1 primary infection. Primary VZV infection causes varicella (chickenpox) following which latent virus may reactivate decades later to produce herpes zoster (shingles), as well as an increasingly recognized number of subacute, acute and chronic neurological conditions. Following primary infection, both viruses establish a latent infection in neuronal cells in human peripheral ganglia. However, the detailed mechanisms of viral latency and reactivation have yet to be unravelled. In both cases latent viral DNA exists in an ‘end-less’ state where the ends of the virus genome are joined to form structures consistent with unit length episomes and concatemers, from which viral gene transcription is restricted. In latently infected ganglia, the most abundantly detected HSV-1 RNAs are the spliced products originating from the primary latency associated transcript (LAT). This primary LAT is an 8.3 kb unstable transcript from which two stable (1.5 and 2.0 kb) introns are spliced. Transcripts mapping to 12 VZV genes have been detected in human ganglia removed at autopsy; however, it is difficult to ascribe these as transcripts present during latent infection as early-stage virus reactivation may have transpired in the post-mortem time period in the ganglia. Nonetheless, low-level transcription of VZV ORF63 has been repeatedly detected in multiple ganglia removed as close to death as possible. There is

  20. Analog Testing of Operations Concepts for Mitigation of Communication Latency During Human Space Exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chappell, Steven P.; Abercromby, Andrew F.; Miller, Matthew J.; Halcon, Christopher; Gernhardt, Michael L.

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: NASA Extreme Environment Mission Operations (NEEMO) is an underwater spaceflight analog that allows a true mission-like operational environment and uses buoyancy effects and added weight to simulate different gravity levels. Three missions were undertaken from 2014-2015, NEEMO's 18-20. All missions were performed at the Aquarius undersea research habitat. During each mission, the effects of varying operations concepts and tasks type and complexity on representative communication latencies associated with Mars missions were studied. METHODS: 12 subjects (4 per mission) were weighed out to simulate near-zero or partial gravity extravehicular activity (EVA) and evaluated different operations concepts for integration and management of a simulated Earth-based science backroom team (SBT) to provide input and direction during exploration activities. Exploration traverses were planned in advance based on precursor data collected. Subjects completed science-related tasks including presampling surveys, geologic-based sampling, and marine-based sampling as a portion of their tasks on saturation dives up to 4 hours in duration that were to simulate extravehicular activity (EVA) on Mars or the moons of Mars. One-way communication latencies, 5 and 10 minutes between space and mission control, were simulated throughout the missions. Objective data included task completion times, total EVA times, crew idle time, translation time, SBT assimilation time (defined as time available for SBT to discuss data/imagery after it has been collected, in addition to the time taken to watch imagery streaming over latency). Subjective data included acceptability, simulation quality, capability assessment ratings, and comments. RESULTS: Precursor data can be used effectively to plan and execute exploration traverse EVAs (plans included detailed location of science sites, high-fidelity imagery of the sites, and directions to landmarks of interest within a site). Operations concepts that

  1. Identification of B Cells as a Major Site for Cyprinid Herpesvirus 3 Latency

    PubMed Central

    Reed, Aimee N.; Izume, Satoko; Dolan, Brian P.; LaPatra, Scott; Kent, Michael; Dong, Jing

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Cyprinid herpesvirus 3 (CyHV-3), commonly known as koi herpesvirus (KHV), is a member of the Alloherpesviridae, and is a recently discovered emerging herpesvirus that is highly pathogenic for koi and common carp. Our previous study demonstrated that CyHV-3 becomes latent in peripheral white blood cells (WBC). In this study, CyHV-3 latency was further investigated in IgM+ WBC. The presence of the CyHV-3 genome in IgM+ WBC was about 20-fold greater than in IgM− WBC. To determine whether CyHV-3 expressed genes during latency, transcription from all eight open reading frames (ORFs) in the terminal repeat was investigated in IgM+ WBC from koi with latent CyHV-3 infection. Only a spliced ORF6 transcript was found to be abundantly expressed in IgM+ WBC from CyHV-3 latently infected koi. The spliced ORF6 transcript was also detected in vitro during productive infection as early as 1 day postinfection. The ORF6 transcript from in vitro infection begins at −127 bp upstream of the ATG codon and ends +188 bp downstream of the stop codon, +20 bp downstream of the polyadenylation signal. The hypothetical protein of ORF6 contains a consensus sequence with homology to a conserved domain of EBNA-3B and ICP4 from Epstein-Barr virus and herpes simplex virus 1, respectively, both members of the Herpesviridae. This is the first report of latent CyHV-3 in B cells and identification of gene transcription during latency for a member of the Alloherpesviridae. IMPORTANCE This is the first demonstration that a member of the Alloherpesviridae, cyprinid herpesvirus 3 (CyHV-3), establishes a latent infection in the B cells of its host, Cyprinus carpio. In addition, this is the first report of identification of gene transcription during latency for a member of Herpesvirales outside Herpesviridae. This is also the first report that the hypothetical protein of latent transcript of CyHV-3 contains a consensus sequence with homology to a conserved domain of EBNA-3B from Epstein

  2. Identification of B cells as a major site for cyprinid herpesvirus 3 latency.

    PubMed

    Reed, Aimee N; Izume, Satoko; Dolan, Brian P; LaPatra, Scott; Kent, Michael; Dong, Jing; Jin, Ling

    2014-08-01

    Cyprinid herpesvirus 3 (CyHV-3), commonly known as koi herpesvirus (KHV), is a member of the Alloherpesviridae, and is a recently discovered emerging herpesvirus that is highly pathogenic for koi and common carp. Our previous study demonstrated that CyHV-3 becomes latent in peripheral white blood cells (WBC). In this study, CyHV-3 latency was further investigated in IgM(+) WBC. The presence of the CyHV-3 genome in IgM(+) WBC was about 20-fold greater than in IgM(-) WBC. To determine whether CyHV-3 expressed genes during latency, transcription from all eight open reading frames (ORFs) in the terminal repeat was investigated in IgM(+) WBC from koi with latent CyHV-3 infection. Only a spliced ORF6 transcript was found to be abundantly expressed in IgM(+) WBC from CyHV-3 latently infected koi. The spliced ORF6 transcript was also detected in vitro during productive infection as early as 1 day postinfection. The ORF6 transcript from in vitro infection begins at -127 bp upstream of the ATG codon and ends +188 bp downstream of the stop codon, +20 bp downstream of the polyadenylation signal. The hypothetical protein of ORF6 contains a consensus sequence with homology to a conserved domain of EBNA-3B and ICP4 from Epstein-Barr virus and herpes simplex virus 1, respectively, both members of the Herpesviridae. This is the first report of latent CyHV-3 in B cells and identification of gene transcription during latency for a member of the Alloherpesviridae. This is the first demonstration that a member of the Alloherpesviridae, cyprinid herpesvirus 3 (CyHV-3), establishes a latent infection in the B cells of its host, Cyprinus carpio. In addition, this is the first report of identification of gene transcription during latency for a member of Herpesvirales outside Herpesviridae. This is also the first report that the hypothetical protein of latent transcript of CyHV-3 contains a consensus sequence with homology to a conserved domain of EBNA-3B from Epstein-Barr virus and ICP4

  3. A comparison of herpes simplex virus type 1 and varicella-zoster virus latency and reactivation.

    PubMed

    Kennedy, Peter G E; Rovnak, Joel; Badani, Hussain; Cohrs, Randall J

    2015-07-01

    Herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1; human herpesvirus 1) and varicella-zoster virus (VZV; human herpesvirus 3) are human neurotropic alphaherpesviruses that cause lifelong infections in ganglia. Following primary infection and establishment of latency, HSV-1 reactivation typically results in herpes labialis (cold sores), but can occur frequently elsewhere on the body at the site of primary infection (e.g. whitlow), particularly at the genitals. Rarely, HSV-1 reactivation can cause encephalitis; however, a third of the cases of HSV-1 encephalitis are associated with HSV-1 primary infection. Primary VZV infection causes varicella (chickenpox) following which latent virus may reactivate decades later to produce herpes zoster (shingles), as well as an increasingly recognized number of subacute, acute and chronic neurological conditions. Following primary infection, both viruses establish a latent infection in neuronal cells in human peripheral ganglia. However, the detailed mechanisms of viral latency and reactivation have yet to be unravelled. In both cases latent viral DNA exists in an 'end-less' state where the ends of the virus genome are joined to form structures consistent with unit length episomes and concatemers, from which viral gene transcription is restricted. In latently infected ganglia, the most abundantly detected HSV-1 RNAs are the spliced products originating from the primary latency associated transcript (LAT). This primary LAT is an 8.3 kb unstable transcript from which two stable (1.5 and 2.0 kb) introns are spliced. Transcripts mapping to 12 VZV genes have been detected in human ganglia removed at autopsy; however, it is difficult to ascribe these as transcripts present during latent infection as early-stage virus reactivation may have transpired in the post-mortem time period in the ganglia. Nonetheless, low-level transcription of VZV ORF63 has been repeatedly detected in multiple ganglia removed as close to death as possible. There is increasing

  4. LMP1-Induced Sumoylation Influences the Maintenance of Epstein-Barr Virus Latency through KAP1

    PubMed Central

    Moss, Charles Randall; Whitehurst, Christopher B.; Moody, Cary A.

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT As a herpesvirus, Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) establishes a latent infection that can periodically undergo reactivation, resulting in lytic replication and the production of new infectious virus. Latent membrane protein-1 (LMP1), the principal viral oncoprotein, is a latency-associated protein implicated in regulating viral reactivation and the maintenance of latency. We recently found that LMP1 hijacks the SUMO-conjugating enzyme Ubc9 via its C-terminal activating region-3 (CTAR3) and induces the sumoylation of cellular proteins. Because protein sumoylation can promote transcriptional repression, we hypothesized that LMP1-induced protein sumoylation induces the repression of EBV lytic promoters and helps maintain the viral genome in its latent state. We now show that with inhibition of LMP1-induced protein sumoylation, the latent state becomes less stable or leakier in EBV-transformed lymphoblastoid cell lines. The cells are also more sensitive to viral reactivation induced by irradiation, which results in the increased production and release of infectious virus, as well as increased susceptibility to ganciclovir treatment. We have identified a target of LMP1-mediated sumoylation that contributes to the maintenance of latency in this context: KRAB-associated protein-1 (KAP1). LMP1 CTAR3-mediated sumoylation regulates the function of KAP1. KAP1 also binds to EBV OriLyt and immediate early promoters in a CTAR3-dependent manner, and inhibition of sumoylation processes abrogates the binding of KAP1 to these promoters. These data provide an additional line of evidence that supports our findings that CTAR3 is a distinct functioning regulatory region of LMP1 and confirm that LMP1-induced sumoylation may help stabilize the maintenance of EBV latency. IMPORTANCE Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) latent membrane protein-1 (LMP1) plays an important role in the maintenance of viral latency. Previously, we documented that LMP1 targets cellular proteins to be modified by a

  5. Obesity-Mediated Regulation of HGF/c-Met Is Associated with Reduced Basal-Like Breast Cancer Latency in Parous Mice

    PubMed Central

    Sundaram, Sneha; Freemerman, Alex J.; Galanko, Joseph A.; McNaughton, Kirk K.; Bendt, Katharine M.; Darr, David B.; Troester, Melissa A.; Makowski, Liza

    2014-01-01

    It is widely thought that pregnancy reduces breast cancer risk, but this lacks consideration of breast cancer subtypes. While a full term pregnancy reduces risk for estrogen receptor positive (ER+) and luminal breast cancers, parity is associated with increased risk of basal-like breast cancer (BBC) subtype. Basal-like subtypes represent less than 10% of breast cancers and are highly aggressive, affecting primarily young, African American women. Our previous work demonstrated that high fat diet-induced obesity in nulliparous mice significantly blunted latency in C3(1)-TAg mice, a model of BBC, potentially through the hepatocyte growth factor (HGF)/c-Met oncogenic pathway. Experimental studies have examined parity and obesity individually, but to date, the joint effects of parity and obesity have not been studied. We investigated the role of obesity in parous mice on BBC. Parity alone dramatically blunted tumor latency compared to nulliparous controls with no effects on tumor number or growth, while obesity had only a minor role in further reducing latency. Obesity-associated metabolic mediators and hormones such as insulin, estrogen, and progesterone were not significantly regulated by obesity. Plasma IL-6 was also significantly elevated by obesity in parous mice. We have previously reported a potential role for stromal-derived hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) via its cognate receptor c-Met in the etiology of obesity-induced BBC tumor onset and in both human and murine primary coculture models of BBC-aggressiveness. Obesity-associated c-Met concentrations were 2.5-fold greater in normal mammary glands of parous mice. Taken together, our studies demonstrate that, parity in C3(1)-TAg mice dramatically reduced BBC latency compared to nulliparous mice. In parous mice, c-Met is regulated by obesity in unaffected mammary gland and is associated with tumor onset. C3(1)-TAg mice recapitulate epidemiologic findings such that parity drives increased BBC risk and potential

  6. Absolute calibration of sniffer probes on Wendelstein 7-X

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moseev, D.; Laqua, H. P.; Marsen, S.; Stange, T.; Braune, H.; Erckmann, V.; Gellert, F.; Oosterbeek, J. W.

    2016-08-01

    Here we report the first measurements of the power levels of stray radiation in the vacuum vessel of Wendelstein 7-X using absolutely calibrated sniffer probes. The absolute calibration is achieved by using calibrated sources of stray radiation and the implicit measurement of the quality factor of the Wendelstein 7-X empty vacuum vessel. Normalized absolute calibration coefficients agree with the cross-calibration coefficients that are obtained by the direct measurements, indicating that the measured absolute calibration coefficients and stray radiation levels in the vessel are valid. Close to the launcher, the stray radiation in the empty vessel reaches power levels up to 340 kW/m2 per MW injected beam power. Furthest away from the launcher, i.e., half a toroidal turn, still 90 kW/m2 per MW injected beam power is measured.

  7. Absolute calibration of sniffer probes on Wendelstein 7-X.

    PubMed

    Moseev, D; Laqua, H P; Marsen, S; Stange, T; Braune, H; Erckmann, V; Gellert, F; Oosterbeek, J W

    2016-08-01

    Here we report the first measurements of the power levels of stray radiation in the vacuum vessel of Wendelstein 7-X using absolutely calibrated sniffer probes. The absolute calibration is achieved by using calibrated sources of stray radiation and the implicit measurement of the quality factor of the Wendelstein 7-X empty vacuum vessel. Normalized absolute calibration coefficients agree with the cross-calibration coefficients that are obtained by the direct measurements, indicating that the measured absolute calibration coefficients and stray radiation levels in the vessel are valid. Close to the launcher, the stray radiation in the empty vessel reaches power levels up to 340 kW/m(2) per MW injected beam power. Furthest away from the launcher, i.e., half a toroidal turn, still 90 kW/m(2) per MW injected beam power is measured.

  8. Absolute Value Boundedness, Operator Decomposition, and Stochastic Media and Equations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Adomian, G.; Miao, C. C.

    1973-01-01

    The research accomplished during this period is reported. Published abstracts and technical reports are listed. Articles presented include: boundedness of absolute values of generalized Fourier coefficients, propagation in stochastic media, and stationary conditions for stochastic differential equations.

  9. Probative value of absolute and relative judgments in eyewitness identification.

    PubMed

    Clark, Steven E; Erickson, Michael A; Breneman, Jesse

    2011-10-01

    It is well-accepted that eyewitness identification decisions based on relative judgments are less accurate than identification decisions based on absolute judgments. However, the theoretical foundation for this view has not been established. In this study relative and absolute judgments were compared through simulations of the WITNESS model (Clark, Appl Cogn Psychol 17:629-654, 2003) to address the question: Do suspect identifications based on absolute judgments have higher probative value than suspect identifications based on relative judgments? Simulations of the WITNESS model showed a consistent advantage for absolute judgments over relative judgments for suspect-matched lineups. However, simulations of same-foils lineups showed a complex interaction based on the accuracy of memory and the similarity relationships among lineup members.

  10. Preparation of an oakmoss absolute with reduced allergenic potential.

    PubMed

    Ehret, C; Maupetit, P; Petrzilka, M; Klecak, G

    1992-06-01

    Synopsis Oakmoss absolute, an extract of the lichen Evernia prunastri, is known to cause allergenic skin reactions due to the presence of certain aromatic aldehydes such as atranorin, chloratranorin, ethyl hematommate and ethyl chlorohematommate. In this paper it is shown that treatment of Oakmoss absolute with amino acids such as lysine and/or leucine, lowers considerably the content of these allergenic constituents including atranol and chloratranol. The resulting Oakmoss absolute, which exhibits an excellent olfactive quality, was tested extensively in comparative studies on guinea pigs and on man. The results of the Guinea Pig Maximization Test (GPMT) and Human Repeated Insult Patch Test (HRIPT) indicate that, in comparison with the commercial test sample, the allergenicity of this new quality of Oakmoss absolute was considerably reduced, and consequently better skin tolerance of this fragrance for man was achieved.

  11. Reliable absolute analog code retrieval approach for 3D measurement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Shuang; Zhang, Jing; Yu, Xiaoyang; Sun, Xiaoming; Wu, Haibin; Chen, Deyun

    2017-11-01

    The wrapped phase of phase-shifting approach can be unwrapped by using Gray code, but both the wrapped phase error and Gray code decoding error can result in period jump error, which will lead to gross measurement error. Therefore, this paper presents a reliable absolute analog code retrieval approach. The combination of unequal-period Gray code and phase shifting patterns at high frequencies are used to obtain high-frequency absolute analog code, and at low frequencies, the same unequal-period combination patterns are used to obtain the low-frequency absolute analog code. Next, the difference between the two absolute analog codes was employed to eliminate period jump errors, and a reliable unwrapped result can be obtained. Error analysis was used to determine the applicable conditions, and this approach was verified through theoretical analysis. The proposed approach was further verified experimentally. Theoretical analysis and experimental results demonstrate that the proposed approach can perform reliable analog code unwrapping.

  12. Absolute bioavailability and safety of a novel rivastigmine nasal spray in healthy elderly individuals

    PubMed Central

    Soh, Bob

    2016-01-01

    Aims To test the feasibility of a novel rivastigmine nasal spray as prospective treatment for dementia. Methods A single dose, crossover absolute bioavailability and safety study was conducted with rivastigmine intravenous solution (1 mg) and nasal spray (3.126 mg) in eight healthy elderly individuals, aged 58–75 years. Results Absolute bioavailability (F) of the nasal spray was significant at 0.62 (0.15) for F > 0 (P < 0.001, n = 8). The systemic dose absorbed was 2.0 (0.6) mg, time to maximum plasma concentration was 1.1 (0.5) h and maximum plasma concentration was 6.9 (2.0) ng ml−1. The NAP226–90 to rivastigmine AUC0–∞ ratio was 0.78 (0.19). The single dose safety was good with two of five mild adverse events related to the nasal spray. Nasal and throat irritation were perceived as mild and transient, and both had resolved at 20 min post‐nasal dose. An estimated dose of two or three sprays twice‐daily with nasal spray would deliver comparable rivastigmine exposure and efficacy as a 6–9.7 mg day–1 oral dose and a 10 cm2 transdermal patch, respectively. Conclusions The rivastigmine nasal spray had superior absolute bioavailability compared to historical values for oral capsule and transdermal patch determined by other researchers. It had rapid onset of action, low NAP226–90 to rivastigmine exposure ratio and a favourable safety and tolerability profile. The ability to achieve adjustable, individual, twice‐daily dosing during waking hours has good potential to minimise undesirable cholinergic burden and sleep disturbances whilst delivering an effective dose for the treatment of dementia associated with Alzheimer's and Parkinson's disease. PMID:27639640

  13. Absolute bioavailability and safety of a novel rivastigmine nasal spray in healthy elderly individuals.

    PubMed

    Morgan, Timothy M; Soh, Bob

    2017-03-01

    To test the feasibility of a novel rivastigmine nasal spray as prospective treatment for dementia. A single dose, crossover absolute bioavailability and safety study was conducted with rivastigmine intravenous solution (1 mg) and nasal spray (3.126 mg) in eight healthy elderly individuals, aged 58-75 years. Absolute bioavailability (F) of the nasal spray was significant at 0.62 (0.15) for F > 0 (P < 0.001, n = 8). The systemic dose absorbed was 2.0 (0.6) mg, time to maximum plasma concentration was 1.1 (0.5) h and maximum plasma concentration was 6.9 (2.0) ng ml -1 . The NAP226-90 to rivastigmine AUC 0-∞ ratio was 0.78 (0.19). The single dose safety was good with two of five mild adverse events related to the nasal spray. Nasal and throat irritation were perceived as mild and transient, and both had resolved at 20 min post-nasal dose. An estimated dose of two or three sprays twice-daily with nasal spray would deliver comparable rivastigmine exposure and efficacy as a 6-9.7 mg day -1 oral dose and a 10 cm 2 transdermal patch, respectively. The rivastigmine nasal spray had superior absolute bioavailability compared to historical values for oral capsule and transdermal patch determined by other researchers. It had rapid onset of action, low NAP226-90 to rivastigmine exposure ratio and a favourable safety and tolerability profile. The ability to achieve adjustable, individual, twice-daily dosing during waking hours has good potential to minimise undesirable cholinergic burden and sleep disturbances whilst delivering an effective dose for the treatment of dementia associated with Alzheimer's and Parkinson's disease. © 2016 The British Pharmacological Society.

  14. Pharmacokinetics of isochlorgenic acid C in rats by HPLC-MS: Absolute bioavailability and dose proportionality.

    PubMed

    Huang, Li Hua; Xiong, Xiao Hong; Zhong, Yun Ming; Cen, Mei Feng; Cheng, Xuan Ge; Wang, Gui Xiang; Zang, Lin Quan; Wang, Su Jun

    2016-06-05

    Isochlorgenic acid C (IAC), one of the bioactive compounds of Lonicera japonica, exhibited diverse pharmacological effects. However, its pharmacokinetic properties and bioavailability remained unresolved. To determine the absolute bioavailability in rats and the dose proportionality on the pharmacokinetics of single oral dose of IAC. A validated HPLC-MS method was developed for the determination of IAC in rat plasma. Plasma concentration versus time data were generated following oral and intravenous dosing. The pharmacokinetic analysis was performed using DAS 3.0 software analysis. Absolute bioavailability in rats was determined by comparing pharmacokinetic data after administration of single oral (5, 10 and 25mgkg(-1)) and intravenous (5mgkg(-1)) doses of IAC. The dose proportionality of AUC(0-∞) and Cmax were analyzed by linear regression. Experimental data showed that absolute oral bioavailability of IAC in rats across the doses ranged between 14.4% and 16.9%. The regression analysis of AUC(0-∞) and Cmax at the three doses (5, 10 and 25mgkg(-1)) indicated that the equations were y=35.23x+117.20 (r=0.998) and y=121.03x+255.74 (r=0.995), respectively. A new HPLC-MS method was developed to determine the bioavailability and the dose proportionality of IAC. Bioavailability of IAC in rats was poor and both Cmax and AUC(0-∞) of IAC had a positive correlation with dose. Evaluation of the pharmacokinetics of IAC will be useful in assessing concentration-effect relationships for the potential therapeutic applications of IAC. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Absolute cardiovascular risk in a Fiji medical zone.

    PubMed

    Gyaneshwar, Rajat; Naidu, Swaran; Raban, Magdalena Z; Naidu, Sheetal; Linhart, Christine; Morrell, Stephen; Tukana, Isimeli; Taylor, Richard

    2016-02-09

    The population of Fiji has experienced emergence of non-communicable disease (NCD) and a plateau in life expectancy over the past 20 years. A mini-STEPS survey (n = 2765) was conducted in Viseisei in Western Fiji to assess NCD risk factors (RFs) in i-Taukei (Melanesians) and those of Indian descent aged 25-64 years (response 73 %). Hypertension (HT) was defined as systolic blood pressure (BP) ≥140 mmHg or diastolic BP ≥90 mmHg or on medication for HT; type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) as fasting plasma glucose ≥7.0 mmol/L or on medication for T2DM; and obesity as a body mass index (kilograms/height(metres)(2)) ≥30. Data were age-adjusted to 2007 Fiji Census. Associations between RFs and ethnicity/education were investigated. Comparisons with Fiji STEPS surveys were undertaken, and the absolute risk of a cardiovascular disease (CVD) event/death in 10 years was estimated from multiple RF charts. NCD/RFs increased with age except excessive alcohol intake and daily smoking (women) which declined. Daily smoking was higher in men 33 % (95 % confidence interval: 31-36) than women 14 % (12-116); women were more obese 40 % (37-43) than men 23 % (20-26); HT was similar in men 37 % (34-40) and women 34 % (31-36), as was T2DM in men 15 % (13-17) and women 17 % (15-19). i-Taukei men had an odds ratio (OR) of 0.41 (0.28-0.58) for T2DM compared to Indians (1.00); and i-Taukei (both sexes) had a higher OR for obesity and low fruit/vegetable intake, daily smoking, excessive alcohol intake and HT in females. Increasing education correlated with lesser smoking, but with higher obesity and lower fruit/vegetable intake. Compared to the 2011 Fiji STEPS survey, no significant differences were evident in obesity, HT or T2DM prevalences. The proportion (40-64 years) classified at high or very high risk (≥20 %) of a CVD event/death (over 10 years) based on multiple RFs was 8.3 % for men (8.1 % i-Taukei, 8.5 % Indian), and 6.7 % for women (7.9 % i-Taukei, 6.0 % Indian). The results

  16. Absolute branching fraction measurements of exclusive D0 semileptonic decays.

    PubMed

    Coan, T E; Gao, Y S; Liu, F; Artuso, M; Boulahouache, C; Blusk, S; Butt, J; Dambasuren, E; Dorjkhaidav, O; Li, J; Menaa, N; Mountain, R; Nandakumar, R; Redjimi, R; Sia, R; Skwarnicki, T; Stone, S; Wang, J C; Zhang, K; Csorna, S E; Bonvicini, G; Cinabro, D; Dubrovin, M; Briere, R A; Chen, G P; Chen, J; Ferguson, T; Tatishvili, G; Vogel, H; Watkins, M E; Rosner, J L; Adam, N E; Alexander, J P; Berkelman, K; Cassel, D G; Crede, V; Duboscq, J E; Ecklund, K M; Ehrlich, R; Fields, L; Gibbons, L; Gittelman, B; Gray, R; Gray, S W; Hartill, D L; Heltsley, B K; Hertz, D; Hsu, L; Jones, C D; Kandaswamy, J; Kreinick, D L; Kuznetsov, V E; Mahlke-Krüger, H; Meyer, T O; Onyisi, P U E; Patterson, J R; Peterson, D; Pivarski, J; Phillips, E A; Riley, D; Ryd, A; Sadoff, A J; Schwarthoff, H; Shepherd, M R; Stroiney, S; Sun, W M; Urner, D; Wilksen, T; Weinberger, M; Athar, S B; Avery, P; Breva-Newell, L; Patel, R; Potlia, V; Stoeck, H; Yelton, J; Rubin, P; Cawlfield, C; Eisenstein, B I; Gollin, G D; Karliner, I; Kim, D; Lowrey, N; Naik, P; Sedlack, C; Selen, M; Williams, J; Wiss, J; Edwards, K W; Besson, D; Pedlar, T K; Cronin-Hennessy, D; Gao, K Y; Gong, D T; Kubota, Y; Klein, T; Lang, B W; Li, S Z; Poling, R; Scott, A W; Smith, A; Dobbs, S; Metreveli, Z; Seth, K K; Tomaradze, A; Zweber, P; Ernst, J; Mahmood, A H; Severini, H; Asner, D M; Dytman, S A; Love, W; Mehrabyan, S; Mueller, J A; Savinov, V; Li, Z; Lopez, A; Mendez, H; Ramirez, J; Huang, G S; Miller, D H; Pavlunin, V; Sanghi, B; Shibata, E I; Shipsey, I P J; Adams, G S; Chasse, M; Cravey, M; Cummings, J P; Danko, I; Napolitano, J; He, Q; Muramatsu, H; Park, C S; Park, W; Thorndike, E H

    2005-10-28

    With the first data sample collected by the CLEO-c detector at the psi(3770) resonance we have studied four exclusive semileptonic decays of the D0 meson. Our results include the first observation and absolute branching fraction measurement for D0 --> p-e+ve and improved measurements of the absolute branching fractions for D0 decays to K-e+ve, pi-e+ve, and K*-e+ve.

  17. Computationally Aided Absolute Stereochemical Determination of Enantioenriched Amines.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jun; Gholami, Hadi; Ding, Xinliang; Chun, Minji; Vasileiou, Chrysoula; Nehira, Tatsuo; Borhan, Babak

    2017-03-17

    A simple and efficient protocol for sensing the absolute stereochemistry and enantiomeric excess of chiral monoamines is reported. Preparation of the sample requires a single-step reaction of the 1,1'-(bromomethylene)dinaphthalene (BDN) with the chiral amine. Analysis of the exciton coupled circular dichroism generated from the BDN-derivatized chiral amine sample, along with comparison to conformational analysis performed computationally, yields the absolute stereochemistry of the parent chiral monoamine.

  18. Absolute and Convective Instability of a Liquid Jet in Microgravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lin, Sung P.; Vihinen, I.; Honohan, A.; Hudman, Michael D.

    1996-01-01

    The transition from convective to absolute instability is observed in the 2.2 second drop tower of the NASA Lewis Research Center. In convective instability the disturbance grows spatially as it is convected downstream. In absolute instability the disturbance propagates both downstream and upstream, and manifests itself as an expanding sphere. The transition Reynolds numbers are determined for two different Weber numbers by use of Glycerin and a Silicone oil. Preliminary comparisons with theory are made.

  19. Low-Latency Telerobotics from Mars Orbit: The Case for Synergy Between Science and Human Exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Valinia, A.; Garvin, J. B.; Vondrak, R.; Thronson, H.; Lester, D.; Schmidt, G.; Fong, T.; Wilcox, B.; Sellers, P.; White, N.

    2012-01-01

    Initial, science-directed human exploration of Mars will benefit from capabilities in which human explorers remain in orbit to control telerobotic systems on the surface (Figure 1). Low-latency, high-bandwidth telerobotics (LLT) from Mars orbit offers opportunities for what the terrestrial robotics community considers to be high-quality telepresence. Such telepresence would provide high quality sensory perception and situation awareness, and even capabilities for dexterous manipulation as required for adaptive, informed selection of scientific samples [1]. Astronauts on orbit in close communication proximity to a surface exploration site (in order to minimize communication latency) represent a capability that would extend human cognition to Mars (and potentially for other bodies such as asteroids, Venus, the Moon, etc.) without the challenges, expense, and risk of putting those humans on hazardous surfaces or within deep gravity wells. Such a strategy may be consistent with goals for a human space flight program that, are currently being developed within NASA.

  20. Data Latency Characteristics Observed Through Diverse Communication Links by the EarthScope USArray Transportable Array

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vernon, F. L.; Eakins, J. A.; Busby, R.

    2008-12-01

    The USArray Transportable Array has deployed over 600 stations in aggregate over the past four years. All stations communicate in near-real time using ip protocols over a variety of communication links including satellite, cell phone, and DSL. Several different communication providers have been used for each type of communication links. In addition, data are being acquired from several regional networks either directly from a data server or after passing through the IRIS DMC BUD system. We will present results about the latency of data arriving at the UCSD Array Network Facility where the real time data are acquired. Under normal operating conditions the median data latency is several seconds. We will also examine the data return rates through the near-real time systems. In addition we will examine the statistics of over 36,000 events which have automatic event locations and associations. We evaluate the timeliness of these results in the context of seismic early warning systems.

  1. HIV-1 Latency: An Update of Molecular Mechanisms and Therapeutic Strategies

    PubMed Central

    Battistini, Angela; Sgarbanti, Marco

    2014-01-01

    The major obstacle towards HIV-1 eradication is the life-long persistence of the virus in reservoirs of latently infected cells. In these cells the proviral DNA is integrated in the host’s genome but it does not actively replicate, becoming invisible to the host immune system and unaffected by existing antiviral drugs. Rebound of viremia and recovery of systemic infection that follows interruption of therapy, necessitates life-long treatments with problems of compliance, toxicity, and untenable costs, especially in developing countries where the infection hits worst. Extensive research efforts have led to the proposal and preliminary testing of several anti-latency compounds, however, overall, eradication strategies have had, so far, limited clinical success while posing several risks for patients. This review will briefly summarize the more recent advances in the elucidation of mechanisms that regulates the establishment/maintenance of latency and therapeutic strategies currently under evaluation in order to eradicate HIV persistence. PMID:24736215

  2. A Type of Low-Latency Data Gathering Method with Multi-Sink for Sensor Networks

    PubMed Central

    Sha, Chao; Qiu, Jian-mei; Li, Shu-yan; Qiang, Meng-ye; Wang, Ru-chuan

    2016-01-01

    To balance energy consumption and reduce latency on data transmission in Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs), a type of low-latency data gathering method with multi-Sink (LDGM for short) is proposed in this paper. The network is divided into several virtual regions consisting of three or less data gathering units and the leader of each region is selected according to its residual energy as well as distance to all of the other nodes. Only the leaders in each region need to communicate with the mobile Sinks which have effectively reduced energy consumption and the end-to-end delay. Moreover, with the help of the sleep scheduling and the sensing radius adjustment strategies, redundancy in network coverage could also be effectively reduced. Simulation results show that LDGM is energy efficient in comparison with MST as well as MWST and its time efficiency on data collection is higher than one Sink based data gathering methods. PMID:27338401

  3. Facial attractiveness impressions precede trustworthiness inferences: lower detection thresholds and faster decision latencies.

    PubMed

    Gutiérrez-García, Aida; Beltrán, David; Calvo, Manuel G

    2018-02-26

    Prior research has found a relationship between perceived facial attractiveness and perceived personal trustworthiness. We examined the time course of attractiveness relative to trustworthiness evaluation of emotional and neutral faces. This served to explore whether attractiveness might be used as an easily accessible cue and a quick shortcut for judging trustworthiness. Detection thresholds and judgment latencies as a function of expressive intensity were measured. Significant correlations between attractiveness and trustworthiness consistently held for six emotional expressions at four intensities, and neutral faces. Importantly, perceived attractiveness preceded perceived trustworthiness, with lower detection thresholds and shorter decision latencies. This reveals a time course advantage for attractiveness, and suggests that earlier attractiveness impressions could bias trustworthiness inferences. A heuristic cognitive mechanism is hypothesised to ease processing demands by relying on simple and observable clues (attractiveness) as a substitute for more complex and not easily accessible information (trustworthiness).

  4. Treatment of high-latency microcapsules containing an aluminium complex with an epoxy-functionalised trialkoxysilane.

    PubMed

    Kamiya, Kazunobu; Suzuki, Noboru

    2016-12-01

    Some aluminium complexes are excellent catalysts of cationic polymerisation and are used for low-temperature and fast-curing adhesive, used in electronic part mounting. Microencapsulation is a suitable technique for getting high latency of the catalysts and long shelf life of the adhesives. For the higher latency in a cycloaliphatic epoxy compound, the microcapsule surface which retained small amount of aluminium complex was coated with epoxy polymer and the effect was examined. From the X-ray photoelectron spectroscopic results, the surface was recognised to be sufficiently coated and the differential scanning calorimetric analyses showed that the coating did not significantly affect the low-temperature and fast-curing properties of adhesive. After storing the mixture of cycloaliphatic epoxy compound, coated microcapsules, triphenylsilanol and silane coupling agent for 48 h at room temperature, the increase in viscosity was only 0.01 Pa s, resulting in the excellent shelf life.

  5. Design and performance of a high resolution, low latency stripline beam position monitor system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Apsimon, R. J.; Bett, D. R.; Blaskovic Kraljevic, N.; Burrows, P. N.; Christian, G. B.; Clarke, C. I.; Constance, B. D.; Dabiri Khah, H.; Davis, M. R.; Perry, C.; Resta López, J.; Swinson, C. J.

    2015-03-01

    A high-resolution, low-latency beam position monitor (BPM) system has been developed for use in particle accelerators and beam lines that operate with trains of particle bunches with bunch separations as low as several tens of nanoseconds, such as future linear electron-positron colliders and free-electron lasers. The system was tested with electron beams in the extraction line of the Accelerator Test Facility at the High Energy Accelerator Research Organization (KEK) in Japan. It consists of three stripline BPMs instrumented with analogue signal-processing electronics and a custom digitizer for logging the data. The design of the analogue processor units is presented in detail, along with measurements of the system performance. The processor latency is 15.6 ±0.1 ns . A single-pass beam position resolution of 291 ±10 nm has been achieved, using a beam with a bunch charge of approximately 1 nC.

  6. Structure elucidation and absolute stereochemistry of isomeric monoterpene chromane esters.

    PubMed

    Batista, João M; Batista, Andrea N L; Mota, Jonas S; Cass, Quezia B; Kato, Massuo J; Bolzani, Vanderlan S; Freedman, Teresa B; López, Silvia N; Furlan, Maysa; Nafie, Laurence A

    2011-04-15

    Six novel monoterpene chromane esters were isolated from the aerial parts of Peperomia obtusifolia (Piperaceae) using chiral chromatography. This is the first time that chiral chromane esters of this kind, ones with a tethered chiral terpene, have been isolated in nature. Due to their structural features, it is not currently possible to assess directly their absolute stereochemistry using any of the standard classical approaches, such as X-ray crystallography, NMR, optical rotation, or electronic circular dichroism (ECD). Herein we report the absolute configuration of these molecules, involving four chiral centers, using vibrational circular dichroism (VCD) and density functional theory (DFT) (B3LYP/6-31G*) calculations. This work further reinforces the capability of VCD to determine unambiguously the absolute configuration of structurally complex molecules in solution, without crystallization or derivatization, and demonstrates the sensitivity of VCD to specify the absolute configuration for just one among a number of chiral centers. We also demonstrate the sufficiency of using the so-called inexpensive basis set 6-31G* compared to the triple-ζ basis set TZVP for absolute configuration analysis of larger molecules using VCD. Overall, this work extends our knowledge of secondary metabolites in plants and provides a straightforward way to determine the absolute configuration of complex natural products involving a chiral parent moiety combined with a chiral terpene adduct.

  7. Latency-Efficient Communication in Wireless Mesh Networks under Consideration of Large Interference Range

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xin, Qin; Yao, Xiaolan; Engelstad, Paal E.

    2010-09-01

    Wireless Mesh Networking is an emerging communication paradigm to enable resilient, cost-efficient and reliable services for the future-generation wireless networks. We study here the minimum-latency communication primitive of gossiping (all-to-all communication) in multi-hop ad-hoc Wireless Mesh Networks (WMNs). Each mesh node in the WMN is initially given a message and the objective is to design a minimum-latency schedule such that each mesh node distributes its message to all other mesh nodes. Minimum-latency gossiping problem is well known to be NP-hard even for the scenario in which the topology of the WMN is known to all mesh nodes in advance. In this paper, we propose a new latency-efficient approximation scheme that can accomplish gossiping task in polynomial time units in any ad-hoc WMN under consideration of Large Interference Range (LIR), e.g., the interference range is much larger than the transmission range. To the best of our knowledge, it is first time to investigate such a scenario in ad-hoc WMNs under LIR, our algorithm allows the labels (e.g., identifiers) of the mesh nodes to be polynomially large in terms of the size of the WMN, which is the first time that the scenario of large labels has been considered in ad-hoc WMNs under LIR. Furthermore, our gossiping scheme can be considered as a framework which can be easily implied to the scenario under consideration of mobility-related issues since we assume that the mesh nodes have no knowledge on the network topology even for its neighboring mesh nodes.

  8. Memory-dependent adjustment of vocal response latencies in a territorial songbird.

    PubMed

    Geberzahn, Nicole; Hultsch, Henrike; Todt, Dietmar

    2013-06-01

    Vocal interactions in songbirds can be used as a model system to investigate the interplay of intrinsic singing programmes (e.g. influences from vocal memories) and external variables (e.g. social factors). When characterizing vocal interactions between territorial rivals two aspects are important: (1) the timing of songs in relation to the conspecific's singing and (2) the use of a song pattern that matches the rival's song. Responses in both domains can be used to address a territorial rival. This study is the first to investigate the relation of the timing of vocal responses to (1) the vocal memory of a responding subject and (2) the selection of the song pattern that the subject uses as a response. To this end, we conducted interactive playback experiments with adult nightingales (Luscinia megarhynchos) that had been hand-reared and tutored in the laboratory. We analysed the subjects' vocal response latencies towards broadcast playback stimuli that they either had in their own vocal repertoire (songs shared with playback) or that they had not heard before (unknown songs). Likewise, we compared vocal response latencies between responses that matched the stimulus song and those that did not. Our findings showed that the latency of singing in response to the playback was shorter for shared versus unknown song stimuli when subjects overlapped the playback stimuli with their own song. Moreover birds tended to overlap faster when vocally matching the stimulus song rather than when replying with a non-matching song type. We conclude that memory of song patterns influenced response latencies and discuss possible mechanisms. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Comparison of actigraphy immobility rules with polysomnographic sleep onset latency in children and adolescents.

    PubMed

    Meltzer, Lisa J; Walsh, Colleen M; Peightal, Ashley A

    2015-12-01

    While actigraphy has gained popularity in pediatric sleep research, questions remain about the validity of actigraphy as an estimate of sleep-wake patterns. In particular, there is little consistency in the field in terms of scoring rules used to determine sleep onset latency. The purpose of this study was to evaluate different criteria of immobility as a measure of sleep onset latency in children and adolescents. Ninety-five youth (ages 3-17 years, 46 % male) wore both the Ambulatory Monitoring Inc. Motionlogger Sleep Watch (AMI) and the Philips Respironics Mini-Mitter Actiwatch-2 (PRMM) during overnight polysomnography in a pediatric sleep lab. We examined different sleep onset latency scoring rules (3, 5, 10, 15, and 20 min of immobility) using different algorithms (Sadeh and Cole-Kripke) and sensitivity settings (low, medium, high) for the devices. Comparisons were also made across age groups (preschoolers, school-aged, adolescents) and sleep disordered breathing status (no obstructive sleep apnea [OSA], mild OSA, clinically significant OSA). For the AMI device, shorter scoring rules performed best for children and longer scoring rules were better for adolescents, with shorter scoring rules best across sleep disordered breathing groups. For the PRMM device, medium to longer scoring rules performed best across age and sleep disordered breathing groups. Researchers are encouraged to determine the scoring rule that best fits their population of interest. Future studies are needed with larger samples of children and adolescents to further validate actigraphic immobility as a proxy for sleep onset latency.

  10. Comparison of Actigraphy Immobility Rules with Polysomnographic Sleep Onset Latency in Children and Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Meltzer, Lisa J.; Walsh, Colleen M.; Peightal, Ashley A.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose While actigraphy has gained popularity in pediatric sleep research, questions remain about the validity of actigraphy as an estimate of sleep-wake patterns. In particular, there is little consistency in the field in terms of scoring rules used to determine sleep onset latency. The purpose of this study was to evaluate different criteria of immobility as a measure of sleep onset latency in children and adolescents. Methods Ninety-five youth (ages 3-17 years, 46% male) wore both the Ambulatory-Monitoring Inc. Motionlogger Sleep Watch (AMI) and the Philips Respironics Mini-Mitter Actiwatch-2 (PRMM) during overnight polysomnography in a pediatric sleep lab. We examined different sleep onset latency scoring rules (3, 5, 10, 15, and 20 minutes of immobility) using different algorithms (Sadeh and Cole-Kripke) and sensitivity settings (Low, Medium, High) for the devices. Comparisons were also made across age groups (preschoolers, school-aged, adolescents) and sleep disordered breathing status (no obstructive sleep apnea [OSA], mild OSA, clinically significant OSA). Results For the AMI device, shorter scoring rules performed best for children and longer scoring rules were better for adolescents, with shorter scoring rules best across sleep disordered breathing groups. For the PRMM device, medium to longer scoring rules performed best across age and sleep disordered breathing groups. Conclusions Researchers are encouraged to determine the scoring rule that best fits their population of interest. Future studies are needed with larger samples of children and adolescents to further validate actigraphic immobility as a proxy for sleep onset latency. PMID:25687438

  11. Short latency vestibular evoked potentials in the Japanese quail (Coturnix coturnix japonica)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, S. M.; Jones, T. A.; Shukla, R.

    1997-01-01

    Short-latency vestibular-evoked potentials to pulsed linear acceleration were characterized in the quail. Responses occurred within 8 ms following the onset of stimuli and were composed of a series of positive and negative peaks. The latencies and amplitudes of the first four peaks were quantitatively characterized. Mean latencies at 1.0 g ms-1 ranged from 1265 +/- 208 microseconds (P1, N = 18) to 4802 +/- 441 microseconds (N4, N = 13). Amplitudes ranged from 3.72 +/- 1.51 microV (P1/N1, N = 18) to 1.49 +/- 0.77 microV (P3/N3, N = 16). Latency-intensity (LI) slopes ranged from -38.7 +/- 7.3 microseconds dB-1 (P1, N = 18) to -71.6 +/- 21.9 microseconds dB-1 (N3, N = 15) and amplitude-intensity (AI) slopes ranged from 0.20 +/- 0.08 microV dB-1 (P1/N1, N = 18) to 0.07 +/- 0.04 microV dB-1 (P3/N3, N = 11). The mean response threshold across all animals was -21.83 +/- 3.34 dB re: 1.0 g ms-1 (N = 18). Responses remained after cochlear extirpation showing that they could not depend critically on cochlear activity. Responses were eliminated by destruction of the vestibular end organs, thus showing that responses depended critically and specifically on the vestibular system. The results demonstrate that the responses are vestibular and the findings provide a scientific basis for using vestibular responses to evaluate vestibular function through ontogeny and senescence in the quail.

  12. Area/latency optimized early output asynchronous full adders and relative-timed ripple carry adders.

    PubMed

    Balasubramanian, P; Yamashita, S

    2016-01-01

    This article presents two area/latency optimized gate level asynchronous full adder designs which correspond to early output logic. The proposed full adders are constructed using the delay-insensitive dual-rail code and adhere to the four-phase return-to-zero handshaking. For an asynchronous ripple carry adder (RCA) constructed using the proposed early output full adders, the relative-timing assumption becomes necessary and the inherent advantages of the relative-timed RCA are: (1) computation with valid inputs, i.e., forward latency is data-dependent, and (2) computation with spacer inputs involves a bare minimum constant reverse latency of just one full adder delay, thus resulting in the optimal cycle time. With respect to different 32-bit RCA implementations, and in comparison with the optimized strong-indication, weak-indication, and early output full adder designs, one of the proposed early output full adders achieves respective reductions in latency by 67.8, 12.3 and 6.1 %, while the other proposed early output full adder achieves corresponding reductions in area by 32.6, 24.6 and 6.9 %, with practically no power penalty. Further, the proposed early output full adders based asynchronous RCAs enable minimum reductions in cycle time by 83.4, 15, and 8.8 % when considering carry-propagation over the entire RCA width of 32-bits, and maximum reductions in cycle time by 97.5, 27.4, and 22.4 % for the consideration of a typical carry chain length of 4 full adder stages, when compared to the least of the cycle time estimates of various strong-indication, weak-indication, and early output asynchronous RCAs of similar size. All the asynchronous full adders and RCAs were realized using standard cells in a semi-custom design fashion based on a 32/28 nm CMOS process technology.

  13. Rumination predicts longer sleep onset latency after an acute psychosocial stressor.

    PubMed

    Zoccola, Peggy M; Dickerson, Sally S; Lam, Suman

    2009-09-01

    Rumination has been linked to self-reported sleep quality. However, whether rumination is related to an objective sleep parameter has not been tested. This study examined whether rumination predicts sleep onset latency (SOL) on the night after an acute psychosocial stressor. We hypothesized that those who ruminate (assessed with both trait and stressor-specific measures) would have longer SOL (assessed with objective and subjective methods). Seventy participants delivered a 5-minute speech in front of an evaluative panel during an afternoon laboratory session. Trait rumination was assessed before the stressor. Stressor-specific rumination was captured with the frequency of task-related thoughts participants experienced during a 10-minute rest period after the stressor. Participants wore actigraphs on their wrists on the night after the laboratory session to measure objective sleep onset latency (SOL-O). Subjective sleep onset latency was estimated by participants on the subsequent morning. Consistent with hypotheses, trait and stressor-specific rumination predicted longer SOL-O and subjective sleep onset latency, respectively. In addition, trait and stressor-specific rumination interacted to predict longer SOL-O. SOL-O was longest among those who engaged in more stressor-specific rumination and had greater trait rumination scores. Neither rumination measure was related to sleep duration or wakefulness after sleep onset. The findings from this study are consistent with previous research linking rumination to subjective sleep quality. The results also suggest that post-stressor ruminative thought may predict delayed sleep onset for those with a propensity for rumination.

  14. L-Tryptophan: Effects on Daytime Sleep Latency and the Waking EEG

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-10-22

    TRYPTOPHAN: EFFECTS ON DAYTIME SLEEP LATENCY AND THE WAKING EEG pr Cheryl L. Slinweber, Reidun Ursin, 1 Raymond P. Hilbert and Richard L. Hilderbrand 2 p...Gessa, 1973; Curzon & Knott , 1974; Gessa & Tagliamonte, 1974), and it has been previously suggested that 1-tryptophan may have hyp- notic effects...Curzon, G. & Knott , P.J. Fatty acids in the disposition of tryptophan. In: Aromatic Amino Acids in the Brain, Ciba Foundation Symposium 22, Elsevier

  15. Is Latency to Test Deadline a Predictor of Student Test Performance?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Landrum, R. Eric; Gurung, Regan A. R.

    2013-01-01

    When students are given a period or window of time to take an exam, is taking an exam earlier in the window (high latency to deadline) related to test scores? In Study 1, students (n = 236) were given windows of time to take online each of 13 quizzes and 4 exams. In Study 2, students (n = 251) similarly took 4 exams online within a test window. In…

  16. Beating fantasies in a latency girl: their role in female sexual development.

    PubMed

    Friedman, L H

    1985-10-01

    Detailed clinical material is presented from the analysis of a latency girl whose inner life revolved around a series of beating fantasies. The clinical data support Freud's 1925 formulation that the perception of sexual differences initiates the oedipus complex in the girl. Whether a girl experiences vaginal sensations before puberty has been a controversial issue; in this girl vaginal sensations and contractions appeared prior to puberty.

  17. Adaptive and Innate Transforming Growth Factor β Signaling Impact Herpes Simplex Virus 1 Latency and Reactivation▿

    PubMed Central

    Allen, Sariah J.; Mott, Kevin R.; Wechsler, Steven L.; Flavell, Richard A.; Town, Terrence; Ghiasi, Homayon

    2011-01-01

    Innate and adaptive immunity play important protective roles by combating herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1) infection. Transforming growth factor β (TGF-β) is a key negative cytokine regulator of both innate and adaptive immune responses. Yet, it is unknown whether TGF-β signaling in either immune compartment impacts HSV-1 replication and latency. We undertook genetic approaches to address these issues by infecting two different dominant negative TGF-β receptor type II transgenic mouse lines. These mice have specific TGF-β signaling blockades in either T cells or innate cells. Mice were ocularly infected with HSV-1 to evaluate the effects of restricted innate or adaptive TGF-β signaling during acute and latent infections. Limiting innate cell but not T cell TGF-β signaling reduced virus replication in the eyes of infected mice. On the other hand, blocking TGF-β signaling in either innate cells or T cells resulted in decreased latency in the trigeminal ganglia of infected mice. Furthermore, inhibiting TGF-β signaling in T cells reduced cell lysis and leukocyte infiltration in corneas and trigeminal ganglia during primary HSV-1 infection of mice. These findings strongly suggest that TGF-β signaling, which generally functions to dampen immune responses, results in increased HSV-1 latency. PMID:21880769

  18. Rabbit and Mouse Models of HSV-1 Latency, Reactivation, and Recurrent Eye Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Webre, Jody M.; Hill, James M.; Nolan, Nicole M.; Clement, Christian; McFerrin, Harris E.; Bhattacharjee, Partha S.; Hsia, Victor; Neumann, Donna M.; Foster, Timothy P.; Lukiw, Walter J.; Thompson, Hilary W.

    2012-01-01

    The exact mechanisms of HSV-1 establishment, maintenance, latency, reactivation, and also the courses of recurrent ocular infections remain a mystery. Comprehensive understanding of the HSV-1 disease process could lead to prevention of HSV-1 acute infection, reactivation, and more effective treatments of recurrent ocular disease. Animal models have been used for over sixty years to investigate our concepts and hypotheses of HSV-1 diseases. In this paper we present descriptions and examples of rabbit and mouse eye models of HSV-1 latency, reactivation, and recurrent diseases. We summarize studies in animal models of spontaneous and induced HSV-1 reactivation and recurrent disease. Numerous stimuli that induce reactivation in mice and rabbits are described, as well as factors that inhibit viral reactivation from latency. The key features, advantages, and disadvantages of the mouse and rabbit models in relation to the study of ocular HSV-1 are discussed. This paper is pertinent but not intended to be all inclusive. We will give examples of key papers that have reported novel discoveries related to the review topics. PMID:23091352

  19. Low-Latency Teleoperations for Human Exploration and Evolvable Mars Campaign

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lupisella, Mark; Wright, Michael; Arney, Dale; Gershman, Bob; Stillwagen, Fred; Bobskill, Marianne; Johnson, James; Shyface, Hilary; Larman, Kevin; Lewis, Ruthan; hide

    2015-01-01

    NASA has been analyzing a number of mission concepts and activities that involve low-latency telerobotic (LLT) operations. One mission concept that will be covered in this presentation is Crew-Assisted Sample Return which involves the crew acquiring samples (1) that have already been delivered to space, and or acquiring samples via LLT from orbit to a planetary surface and then launching the samples to space to be captured in space and then returned to the earth with the crew. Both versions of have key roles for low-latency teleoperations. More broadly, the NASA Evolvable Mars Campaign is exploring a number of other activities that involve LLT, such as: (a) human asteroid missions, (b) PhobosDeimos missions, (c) Mars human landing site reconnaissance and site preparation, and (d) Mars sample handling and analysis. Many of these activities could be conducted from Mars orbit and also with the crew on the Mars surface remotely operating assets elsewhere on the surface, e.g. for exploring Mars special regions and or teleoperating a sample analysis laboratory both of which may help address planetary protection concerns. The operational and technology implications of low-latency teleoperations will be explored, including discussion of relevant items in the NASA Technology Roadmap and also how previously deployed robotic assets from any source could subsequently be used by astronauts via LLT.

  20. The Role of Sports in the Development of the Superego of the Male Latency Child.

    PubMed

    Shopper, Moisy

    2014-01-01

    Psychoanalytic literature has often overlooked the child's participation in organized sports, which often can facilitate or impede not only expression of aggression and narcissism, but enhance or skew the growth of the child's superego and ego ideal. Specific outcomes are largely determined by the experience and knowledge of the parents, the coaches, and sports organizations for latency-aged youth. Sports participation facilitates a major step forward in psychic development, that is, an agreed-upon adherence to a set of rules and regulations, monitored by an official embodying the final word regarding rules and their infractions. This paper is an attempt to delineate the role of sports in the life of the latency child, the parents who become involved, the coaches who teach and supervise, and the social and individual milieu within which sports take place. All these contribute to common goals: the engendering of good sportsmanship and the encouragement of psychic growth, particularly regarding how aggression and narcissism contribute to the development of superego and ego ideals. The fate of aggression and narcissism in superego and ego ideal development is influenced to a large degree by the nature, orientation, and motivations of all involved in sports for the latency-aged.

  1. Autophagy Genes Enhance Murine Gammaherpesvirus 68 Reactivation From Latency by Preventing Virus-induced Systemic Inflammation

    PubMed Central

    Park, Sunmin; Buck, Michael D.; Desai, Chandni; Zhang, Xin; Loginicheva, Ekaterina; Martinez, Jennifer; Freeman, Michael L.; Saitoh, Tatsuya; Akira, Shizuo; Guan, Jun-Lin; He, You-Wen; Blackman, Marcia A.; Handley, Scott A.; Levine, Beth; Green, Douglas R.; Reese, Tiffany A.; Artyomov, Maxim N.; Virgin, Herbert W.

    2016-01-01

    SUMMARY Host genes that regulate systemic inflammation upon chronic viral infection are incompletely understood. Murine γ-herpesvirus 68 (MHV68) infection is characterized by latency in macrophages, and reactivation is inhibited by Interferon-γ (IFN-γ). Using a Lysozyme-M-cre (LysMcre) expression system, we show that deletion of autophagy-related (Atg) genes Fip200, beclin 1, Atg14, Atg16L1, Atg7, Atg3, and Atg5, in the myeloid compartment, inhibited MHV68 reactivation in macrophages. Atg5-deficiency did not alter reactivation from B cells, and effects on reactivation from macrophages were not explained by alterations in productive viral replication or the establishment of latency. Rather, chronic MHV68 infection triggered increased systemic inflammation, increased T cell production of IFN-γ and an IFN-γ-induced transcriptional signature in macrophages from Atg gene-deficient mice. The Atg5-related reactivation defect was partially reversed by neutralization of IFN-γ. Thus Atg genes in myeloid cells dampen virus-induced systemic inflammation, creating an environment that fosters efficient MHV68 reactivation from latency. PMID:26764599

  2. Epstein-Barr virus growth/latency III program alters cellular microRNA expression

    SciTech Connect

    Cameron, Jennifer E.; Tulane Cancer Center, Tulane University Health Sciences Center, 1430 Tulane Avenue, SL79, New Orleans, LA 70112; Fewell, Claire

    The Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) is associated with lymphoid and epithelial cancers. Initial EBV infection alters lymphocyte gene expression, inducing cellular proliferation and differentiation as the virus transitions through consecutive latency transcription programs. Cellular microRNAs (miRNAs) are important regulators of signaling pathways and are implicated in carcinogenesis. The extent to which EBV exploits cellular miRNAs is unknown. Using micro-array analysis and quantitative PCR, we demonstrate differential expression of cellular miRNAs in type III versus type I EBV latency including elevated expression of miR-21, miR-23a, miR-24, miR-27a, miR-34a, miR-146a and b, and miR-155. In contrast, miR-28 expression was found to be lowermore » in type III latency. The EBV-mediated regulation of cellular miRNAs may contribute to EBV signaling and associated cancers.« less

  3. WindTalker: A P2P-Based Low-Latency Anonymous Communication Network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Jia; Duan, Haixin; Liu, Wu; Wu, Jianping

    Compared with traditional static anonymous communication networks, the P2P architecture can provide higher anonymity in communication. However, the P2P architecture also leads to more challenges, such as route, stability, trust and so on. In this paper, we present WindTalker, a P2P-based low-latency anonymous communication network. It is a pure decentralized mix network and can provide low-latency services which help users hide their real identity in communication. In order to ensure stability and reliability, WindTalker imports “seed nodes” to help a peer join in the P2P network and the peer nodes can use gossip-based protocol to exchange active information. Moreover, WindTalker uses layer encryption to ensure the information of relayed messages cannot be leaked. In addition, malicious nodes in the network are the major threat to anonymity of P2P anonymous communication, so WindTalker imports a trust mechanism which can help the P2P network exclude malicious nodes and optimize the strategy of peer discovery, tunnel construction, and relaying etc. in anonymous communications. We deploy peer nodes of WindTalker in our campus network to test reliability and analyze anonymity in theory. The network measurement and simulation analysis shows that WindTalker can provide low-latency and reliable anonymous communication services.

  4. The search for instantaneous vection: An oscillating visual prime reduces vection onset latency

    PubMed Central

    Riecke, Bernhard E.

    2018-01-01

    Typically it takes up to 10 seconds or more to induce a visual illusion of self-motion (“vection”). However, for this vection to be most useful in virtual reality and vehicle simulation, it needs to be induced quickly, if not immediately. This study examined whether vection onset latency could be reduced towards zero using visual display manipulations alone. In the main experiments, visual self-motion simulations were presented to observers via either a large external display or a head-mounted display (HMD). Priming observers with visually simulated viewpoint oscillation for just ten seconds before the main self-motion display was found to markedly reduce vection onset latencies (and also increase ratings of vection strength) in both experiments. As in earlier studies, incorporating this simulated viewpoint oscillation into the self-motion displays themselves was also found to improve vection. Average onset latencies were reduced from 8-9s in the no oscillating control condition to as little as 4.6 s (for external displays) or 1.7 s (for HMDs) in the combined oscillation condition (when both the visual prime and the main self-motion display were oscillating). As these display manipulations did not appear to increase the likelihood or severity of motion sickness in the current study, they could possibly be used to enhance computer generated simulation experiences and training in the future, at no additional cost. PMID:29791445

  5. Maturation of long latency auditory evoked potentials in hearing children: systematic review.

    PubMed

    Silva, Liliane Aparecida Fagundes; Magliaro, Fernanda Cristina Leite; Carvalho, Ana Claudia Martinho de; Matas, Carla Gentile

    2017-05-15

    To analyze how Auditory Long Latency Evoked Potentials (LLAEP) change according to age in children population through a systematic literature review. After formulation of the research question, a bibliographic survey was done in five data bases with the following descriptors: Electrophysiology (Eletrofisiologia), Auditory Evoked Potentials (Potenciais Evocados Auditivos), Child (Criança), Neuronal Plasticity (Plasticidade Neuronal) and Audiology (Audiologia). Level 1 evidence articles, published between 1995 and 2015 in Brazilian Portuguese or English language. Aspects related to emergence, morphology and latency of P1, N1, P2 and N2 components were analyzed. A total of 388 studies were found; however, only 21 studies contemplated the established criteria. P1 component is characterized as the most frequent component in young children, being observed around 100-150 ms, which tends to decrease as chronological age increases. The N2 component was shown to be the second most commonly observed component in children, being observed around 200-250 ms.. The other N1 and P2 components are less frequent and begin to be seen and recorded throughout the maturational process. The maturation of LLAEP occurs gradually, and the emergence of P1, N1, P2 and N2 components as well as their latency values are variable in childhood. P1 and N2 components are the most observed and described in pediatric population. The diversity of protocols makes the comparison between studies difficult.

  6. Human Space Exploration and Human Space Flight: Latency and the Cognitive Scale of the Universe

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lester, Dan; Thronson, Harley

    2011-01-01

    The role of telerobotics in space exploration as placing human cognition on other worlds is limited almost entirely by the speed of light, and the consequent communications latency that results from large distances. This latency is the time delay between the human brain at one end, and the telerobotic effector and sensor at the other end. While telerobotics and virtual presence is a technology that is rapidly becoming more sophisticated, with strong commercial interest on the Earth, this time delay, along with the neurological timescale of a human being, quantitatively defines the cognitive horizon for any locale in space. That is, how distant can an operator be from a robot and not be significantly impacted by latency? We explore that cognitive timescale of the universe, and consider the implications for telerobotics, human space flight, and participation by larger numbers of people in space exploration. We conclude that, with advanced telepresence, sophisticated robots could be operated with high cognition throughout a lunar hemisphere by astronauts within a station at an Earth-Moon Ll or L2 venue. Likewise, complex telerobotic servicing of satellites in geosynchronous orbit can be carried out from suitable terrestrial stations.

  7. The search for instantaneous vection: An oscillating visual prime reduces vection onset latency.

    PubMed

    Palmisano, Stephen; Riecke, Bernhard E

    2018-01-01

    Typically it takes up to 10 seconds or more to induce a visual illusion of self-motion ("vection"). However, for this vection to be most useful in virtual reality and vehicle simulation, it needs to be induced quickly, if not immediately. This study examined whether vection onset latency could be reduced towards zero using visual display manipulations alone. In the main experiments, visual self-motion simulations were presented to observers via either a large external display or a head-mounted display (HMD). Priming observers with visually simulated viewpoint oscillation for just ten seconds before the main self-motion display was found to markedly reduce vection onset latencies (and also increase ratings of vection strength) in both experiments. As in earlier studies, incorporating this simulated viewpoint oscillation into the self-motion displays themselves was also found to improve vection. Average onset latencies were reduced from 8-9s in the no oscillating control condition to as little as 4.6 s (for external displays) or 1.7 s (for HMDs) in the combined oscillation condition (when both the visual prime and the main self-motion display were oscillating). As these display manipulations did not appear to increase the likelihood or severity of motion sickness in the current study, they could possibly be used to enhance computer generated simulation experiences and training in the future, at no additional cost.

  8. Epigenetic dysregulation of epstein-barr virus latency and development of autoimmune disease.

    PubMed

    Niller, Hans Helmut; Wolf, Hans; Ay, Eva; Minarovits, Janos

    2011-01-01

    Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) is ahumanherpesvirus thatpersists in the memory B-cells of the majority of the world population in a latent form. Primary EBV infection is asymptomatic or causes a self-limiting disease, infectious mononucleosis. Virus latency is associated with a wide variety of neoplasms whereof some occur in immune suppressed individuals. Virus production does not occur in strict latency. The expression of latent viral oncoproteins and nontranslated RNAs is under epigenetic control via DNA methylation and histone modifications that results either in a complete silencing of the EBV genome in memory B cells, or in a cell-type dependent usage of a couple of latency promoters in tumor cells, germinal center B cells and lymphoblastoid cells (LCL, transformed by EBV in vitro). Both, latent and lytic EBV proteins elicit a strong immune response. In immune suppressed and infectious mononucleosis patients, an increased viral load can be detected in the blood. Enhanced lytic replication may result in new infection- and transformation-events and thus is a risk factor both for malignant transformation and the development of autoimmune diseases. An increased viral load or a changed presentation of a subset of lytic or latent EBV proteins that cross-react with cellular antigens may trigger pathogenic processes through molecular mimicry that result in multiple sclerosis (MS), systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) and rheumatoid arthritis (RA).

  9. JPEG XS, a new standard for visually lossless low-latency lightweight image compression

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Descampe, Antonin; Keinert, Joachim; Richter, Thomas; Fößel, Siegfried; Rouvroy, Gaël.

    2017-09-01

    JPEG XS is an upcoming standard from the JPEG Committee (formally known as ISO/IEC SC29 WG1). It aims to provide an interoperable visually lossless low-latency lightweight codec for a wide range of applications including mezzanine compression in broadcast and Pro-AV markets. This requires optimal support of a wide range of implementation technologies such as FPGAs, CPUs and GPUs. Targeted use cases are professional video links, IP transport, Ethernet transport, real-time video storage, video memory buffers, and omnidirectional video capture and rendering. In addition to the evaluation of the visual transparency of the selected technologies, a detailed analysis of the hardware and software complexity as well as the latency has been done to make sure that the new codec meets the requirements of the above-mentioned use cases. In particular, the end-to-end latency has been constrained to a maximum of 32 lines. Concerning the hardware complexity, neither encoder nor decoder should require more than 50% of an FPGA similar to Xilinx Artix 7 or 25% of an FPGA similar to Altera Cyclon 5. This process resulted in a coding scheme made of an optional color transform, a wavelet transform, the entropy coding of the highest magnitude level of groups of coefficients, and the raw inclusion of the truncated wavelet coefficients. This paper presents the details and status of the standardization process, a technical description of the future standard, and the latest performance evaluation results.

  10. Use of a latency-based demand assessment to identify potential demands for functional analyses.

    PubMed

    Call, Nathan A; Miller, Sarah J; Mintz, Joslyn Cynkus; Mevers, Joanna Lomas; Scheithauer, Mindy C; Eshelman, Julie E; Beavers, Gracie A

    2016-12-01

    Unlike potential tangible positive reinforcers, which are typically identified for inclusion in functional analyses empirically using preference assessments, demands are most often selected arbitrarily or based on caregiver report. The present study evaluated the use of a demand assessment with 12 participants who exhibited escape-maintained problem behavior. Participants were exposed to 10 demands, with aversiveness measured by average latency to the first instance of problem behavior. In subsequent functional analyses, results of a demand condition that included the demand with the shortest latency to problem behavior resulted in identification of an escape function for 11 of the participants. In contrast, a demand condition that included the demand with the longest latency resulted in identification of an escape function for only 5 participants. The implication of these findings is that for the remaining 7 participants, selection of the demand for the functional analysis without using the results of the demand assessment could have produced a false-negative finding. © 2016 Society for the Experimental Analysis of Behavior.

  11. The Relationship between Parameters of Long-Latency Evoked Potentials in a Multisensory Design.

    PubMed

    Hernández, Oscar H; García-Martínez, Rolando; Monteón, Victor

    2016-10-01

    In previous papers, we have shown that parameters of the omitted stimulus potential (OSP), which occurs at the end of a train of sensory stimuli, strongly depend on the modality. A train of stimuli also produces long-latency evoked potentials (LLEP) at the beginning of the train. This study is an extension of the OSP research, and it tested the relationship between parameters (ie, rate of rise, amplitude, and peak latency) of the P2 waves when trains of auditory, visual, or somatosensory stimuli were applied. The dynamics of the first 3 potentials in the train, related to habituation, were also studied. Twenty healthy young college volunteers participated in the study. As in the OSP, the P2 was faster and higher for auditory than for visual or somatosensory stimuli. The first P2 was swifter and higher than the second and the third potentials. The strength of habituation depends on the sensory modality and the parameter used. All these findings support the view that many long-latency brain potentials could share neural mechanisms related to wave generation. © EEG and Clinical Neuroscience Society (ECNS) 2015.

  12. Latency Requirements for Head-Worn Display S/EVS Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bailey, Randall E.; Trey Arthur, J. J., III; Williams, Steven P.

    2004-01-01

    NASA s Aviation Safety Program, Synthetic Vision Systems Project is conducting research in advanced flight deck concepts, such as Synthetic/Enhanced Vision Systems (S/EVS), for commercial and business aircraft. An emerging thrust in this activity is the development of spatially-integrated, large field-of-regard information display systems. Head-worn or helmet-mounted display systems are being proposed as one method in which to meet this objective. System delays or latencies inherent to spatially-integrated, head-worn displays critically influence the display utility, usability, and acceptability. Research results from three different, yet similar technical areas flight control, flight simulation, and virtual reality are collectively assembled in this paper to create a global perspective of delay or latency effects in head-worn or helmet-mounted display systems. Consistent definitions and measurement techniques are proposed herein for universal application and latency requirements for Head-Worn Display S/EVS applications are drafted. Future research areas are defined.

  13. Measurement-based analysis of error latency. [in computer operating system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chillarege, Ram; Iyer, Ravishankar K.

    1987-01-01

    This paper demonstrates a practical methodology for the study of error latency under a real workload. The method is illustrated with sampled data on the physical memory activity, gathered by hardware instrumentation on a VAX 11/780 during the normal workload cycle of the installation. These data are used to simulate fault occurrence and to reconstruct the error discovery process in the system. The technique provides a means to study the system under different workloads and for multiple days. An approach to determine the percentage of undiscovered errors is also developed and a verification of the entire methodology is performed. This study finds that the mean error latency, in the memory containing the operating system, varies by a factor of 10 to 1 (in hours) between the low and high workloads. It is found that of all errors occurring within a day, 70 percent are detected in the same day, 82 percent within the following day, and 91 percent within the third day. The increase in failure rate due to latency is not so much a function of remaining errors but is dependent on whether or not there is a latent error.

  14. Mid-latency evoked potentials in self-reported impulsive aggression.

    PubMed

    Houston, R J; Stanford, M S

    2001-02-01

    The present study was conducted to examine psychophysiological differences in arousability among individuals who display impulsive aggressive outbursts. Amplitude and latency for the mid-latency evoked potentials (P1, N1 and P2) were obtained at scalp electrode sites. The evoking stimuli were three intensities (low, medium, high) of photic stimulation. Compared to non-aggressive controls, impulsive aggressive subjects showed significantly reduced P1 amplitude, which is indicative of an inefficient sensory gating mechanism. In addition, these subjects exhibited significantly larger N1 amplitude implying an enhanced orienting of attention to stimuli. Impulsive aggressive subjects also exhibited shorter P1, N1 and P2 peak latency. These results suggest that impulsive aggressive individuals may display quicker orienting and processing of stimuli in an attempt to compensate for low resting arousal levels. Finally, impulsive aggressive subjects augmented the P1-N1 component more frequently than controls, which is consistent with previous studies examining impulsivity and sensation seeking. Together, these findings extend previous work concerning the underlying physiology of impulsive aggression. It has been suggested that impulsive aggressive individuals may attempt to compensate for low resting arousal levels by engaging in stimulus seeking behaviors. Accordingly, the present findings imply similar physiological compensatory responses as demonstrated by heightened orienting of attention, processing and arousability. In addition, a compromised sensory gating system in impulsive aggressors may exacerbate such circumstances, and lead to later cognitive processing deficits.

  15. Preterm delivery at low gestational age: risk factors for short latency. A multivariated analysis

    PubMed Central

    Marzano, Sara; Padula, Francesco; Meloni, Paolo; Anceschi, Maurizio Marco

    2008-01-01

    Objective The aim of this study is to identify the risk factors for a short latency in preterm delivery at low gestational ages (GA). Study design A retrospective analysis involving, between January 2004 and May 2006, 204 singleton pregnancies with admission diagnosis of preterm labor and, in particular, 91 pregnant women admitted between 24+0 and 31+6 weeks’ gestation. Results In pregnant women with a diagnosis of preterm labor at 24-31+6 weeks’ gestation, at ROC curve, a value of considering WBC and cervical dilatation, combined in the following formula (75.237 - (2.290 * “WBC”) - (10.787 * “cervical dilatation”)) <=33.101 has a 74.2% Sensitivity and a 78.3% Specificity in predicting a latency =< 4 days (+LR 3.42 and -LR 0.33) and a 70% Sensitivity and a 84.3% Specificity in predicting GA at delivery at 24-31 weeks’ gestation (+LR 4.46 and -LR 0.36). Conclusion We suggest a more strictly monitoring and a more aggressive therapy in presence of prognostic parameters of shorter latency. PMID:22439021

  16. First low-latency LIGO+Virgo search for binary inspirals and their electromagnetic counterparts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abadie, J.; Abbott, B. P.; Abbott, R.; Abbott, T. D.; Abernathy, M.; Accadia, T.; Acernese, F.; Adams, C.; Adhikari, R.; Affeldt, C.; Agathos, M.; Agatsuma, K.; Ajith, P.; Allen, B.; Amador Ceron, E.; Amariutei, D.; Anderson, S. B.; Anderson, W. G.; Arai, K.; Arain, M. A.; Araya, M. C.; Aston, S. M.; Astone, P.; Atkinson, D.; Aufmuth, P.; Aulbert, C.; Aylott, B. E.; Babak, S.; Baker, P.; Ballardin, G.; Ballmer, S.; Barayoga, J. C. B.; Barker, D.; Barone, F.; Barr, B.; Barsotti, L.; Barsuglia, M.; Barton, M. A.; Bartos, I.; Bassiri, R.; Bastarrika, M.; Basti, A.; Batch, J.; Bauchrowitz, J.; Bauer, Th. S.; Bebronne, M.; Beck, D.; Behnke, B.; Bejger, M.; Beker, M. G.; Bell, A. S.; Belletoile, A.; Belopolski, I.; Benacquista, M.; Berliner, J. M.; Bertolini, A.; Betzwieser, J.; Beveridge, N.; Beyersdorf, P. T.; Bilenko, I. A.; Billingsley, G.; Birch, J.; Biswas, R.; Bitossi, M.; Bizouard, M. A.; Black, E.; Blackburn, J. K.; Blackburn, L.; Blair, D.; Bland, B.; Blom, M.; Bock, O.; Bodiya, T. P.; Bogan, C.; Bondarescu, R.; Bondu, F.; Bonelli, L.; Bonnand, R.; Bork, R.; Born, M.; Boschi, V.; Bose, S.; Bosi, L.; Bouhou, B.; Braccini, S.; Bradaschia, C.; Brady, P. R.; Braginsky, V. B.; Branchesi, M.; Brau, J. E.; Breyer, J.; Briant, T.; Bridges, D. O.; Brillet, A.; Brinkmann, M.; Brisson, V.; Britzger, M.; Brooks, A. F.; Brown, D. A.; Bulik, T.; Bulten, H. J.; Buonanno, A.; Burguet-Castell, J.; Buskulic, D.; Buy, C.; Byer, R. L.; Cadonati, L.; Cagnoli, G.; Calloni, E.; Camp, J. B.; Campsie, P.; Cannizzo, J.; Cannon, K.; Canuel, B.; Cao, J.; Capano, C. D.; Carbognani, F.; Carbone, L.; Caride, S.; Caudill, S.; Cavaglià, M.; Cavalier, F.; Cavalieri, R.; Cella, G.; Cepeda, C.; Cesarini, E.; Chaibi, O.; Chalermsongsak, T.; Charlton, P.; Chassande-Mottin, E.; Chelkowski, S.; Chen, W.; Chen, X.; Chen, Y.; Chincarini, A.; Chiummo, A.; Cho, H. S.; Chow, J.; Christensen, N.; Chua, S. S. Y.; Chung, C. T. Y.; Chung, S.; Ciani, G.; Clara, F.; Clark, D. E.; Clark, J.; Clayton, J. H.; Cleva, F.; Coccia, E.; Cohadon, P.-F.; Colacino, C. N.; Colas, J.; Colla, A.; Colombini, M.; Conte, A.; Conte, R.; Cook, D.; Corbitt, T. R.; Cordier, M.; Cornish, N.; Corsi, A.; Costa, C. A.; Coughlin, M.; Coulon, J.-P.; Couvares, P.; Coward, D. M.; Cowart, M.; Coyne, D. C.; Creighton, J. D. E.; Creighton, T. D.; Cruise, A. M.; Cumming, A.; Cunningham, L.; Cuoco, E.; Cutler, R. M.; Dahl, K.; Danilishin, S. L.; Dannenberg, R.; D'Antonio, S.; Danzmann, K.; Dattilo, V.; Daudert, B.; Daveloza, H.; Davier, M.; Daw, E. J.; Day, R.; Dayanga, T.; De Rosa, R.; DeBra, D.; Debreczeni, G.; Del Pozzo, W.; del Prete, M.; Dent, T.; Dergachev, V.; DeRosa, R.; DeSalvo, R.; Dhurandhar, S.; Di Fiore, L.; Di Lieto, A.; Di Palma, I.; Emilio, M. Di Paolo; Di Virgilio, A.; Díaz, M.; Dietz, A.; Donovan, F.; Dooley, K. L.; Drago, M.; Drever, R. W. P.; Driggers, J. C.; Du, Z.; Dumas, J.-C.; Dwyer, S.; Eberle, T.; Edgar, M.; Edwards, M.; Effler, A.; Ehrens, P.; Endrőczi, G.; Engel, R.; Etzel, T.; Evans, K.; Evans, M.; Evans, T.; Factourovich, M.; Fafone, V.; Fairhurst, S.; Fan, Y.; Farr, B. F.; Fazi, D.; Fehrmann, H.; Feldbaum, D.; Feroz, F.; Ferrante, I.; Fidecaro, F.; Finn, L. S.; Fiori, I.; Fisher, R. P.; Flaminio, R.; Flanigan, M.; Foley, S.; Forsi, E.; Forte, L. A.; Fotopoulos, N.; Fournier, J.-D.; Franc, J.; Frasca, S.; Frasconi, F.; Frede, M.; Frei, M.; Frei, Z.; Freise, A.; Frey, R.; Fricke, T. T.; Friedrich, D.; Fritschel, P.; Frolov, V. V.; Fujimoto, M.-K.; Fulda, P. J.; Fyffe, M.; Gair, J.; Galimberti, M.; Gammaitoni, L.; Garcia, J.; Garufi, F.; Gáspár, M. E.; Gemme, G.; Geng, R.; Genin, E.; Gennai, A.; Gergely, L. Á.; Ghosh, S.; Giaime, J. A.; Giampanis, S.; Giardina, K. D.; Giazotto, A.; Gil-Casanova, S.; Gill, C.; Gleason, J.; Goetz, E.; Goggin, L. M.; González, G.; Gorodetsky, M. L.; Goßler, S.; Gouaty, R.; Graef, C.; Graff, P. B.; Granata, M.; Grant, A.; Gras, S.; Gray, C.; Gray, N.; Greenhalgh, R. J. S.; Gretarsson, A. M.; Greverie, C.; Grosso, R.; Grote, H.; Grunewald, S.; Guidi, G. M.; Guido, C.; Gupta, R.; Gustafson, E. K.; Gustafson, R.; Ha, T.; Hallam, J. M.; Hammer, D.; Hammond, G.; Hanks, J.; Hanna, C.; Hanson, J.; Harms, J.; Harry, G. M.; Harry, I. W.; Harstad, E. D.; Hartman, M. T.; Haughian, K.; Hayama, K.; Hayau, J.-F.; Heefner, J.; Heidmann, A.; Heintze, M. C.; Heitmann, H.; Hello, P.; Hendry, M. A.; Heng, I. S.; Heptonstall, A. W.; Herrera, V.; Hewitson, M.; Hild, S.; Hoak, D.; Hodge, K. A.; Holt, K.; Holtrop, M.; Hong, T.; Hooper, S.; Hosken, D. J.; Hough, J.; Howell, E. J.; Hughey, B.; Husa, S.; Huttner, S. H.; Huynh-Dinh, T.; Ingram, D. R.; Inta, R.; Isogai, T.; Ivanov, A.; Izumi, K.; Jacobson, M.; James, E.; Jang, Y. J.; Jaranowski, P.; Jesse, E.; Johnson, W. W.; Jones, D. I.; Jones, G.; Jones, R.; Ju, L.; Kalmus, P.; Kalogera, V.; Kandhasamy, S.; Kang, G.; Kanner, J. B.; Kasturi, R.; Katsavounidis, E.; Katzman, W.; Kaufer, H.; Kawabe, K.; Kawamura, S.; Kawazoe, F.; Kelley, D.; Kells, W.; Keppel, D. G.; Keresztes, Z.; Khalaidovski, A.; Khalili, F. Y.; Khazanov, E. A.; Kim, B. K.; Kim, C.; Kim, H.; Kim, K.; Kim, N.; Kim, Y. M.; King, P. J.; Kinzel, D. L.; Kissel, J. S.; Klimenko, S.; Kokeyama, K.; Kondrashov, V.; Koranda, S.; Korth, W. Z.; Kowalska, I.; Kozak, D.; Kranz, O.; Kringel, V.; Krishnamurthy, S.; Krishnan, B.; Królak, A.; Kuehn, G.; Kumar, R.; Kwee, P.; Lam, P. K.; Landry, M.; Lantz, B.; Lastzka, N.; Lawrie, C.; Lazzarini, A.; Leaci, P.; Lee, C. H.; Lee, H. K.; Lee, H. M.; Leong, J. R.; Leonor, I.; Leroy, N.; Letendre, N.; Li, J.; Li, T. G. F.; Liguori, N.; Lindquist, P. E.; Liu, Y.; Liu, Z.; Lockerbie, N. A.; Lodhia, D.; Lorenzini, M.; Loriette, V.; Lormand, M.; Losurdo, G.; Lough, J.; Luan, J.; Lubinski, M.; Lück, H.; Lundgren, A. P.; Macdonald, E.; Machenschalk, B.; MacInnis, M.; Macleod, D. M.; Mageswaran, M.; Mailand, K.; Majorana, E.; Maksimovic, I.; Man, N.; Mandel, I.; Mandic, V.; Mantovani, M.; Marandi, A.; Marchesoni, F.; Marion, F.; Márka, S.; Márka, Z.; Markosyan, A.; Maros, E.; Marque, J.; Martelli, F.; Martin, I. W.; Martin, R. M.; Marx, J. N.; Mason, K.; Masserot, A.; Matichard, F.; Matone, L.; Matzner, R. A.; Mavalvala, N.; Mazzolo, G.; McCarthy, R.; McClelland, D. E.; McGuire, S. C.; McIntyre, G.; McIver, J.; McKechan, D. J. A.; McWilliams, S.; Meadors, G. D.; Mehmet, M.; Meier, T.; Melatos, A.; Melissinos, A. C.; Mendell, G.; Mercer, R. A.; Meshkov, S.; Messenger, C.; Meyer, M. S.; Miao, H.; Michel, C.; Milano, L.; Miller, J.; Minenkov, Y.; Mitrofanov, V. P.; Mitselmakher, G.; Mittleman, R.; Miyakawa, O.; Moe, B.; Mohan, M.; Mohanty, S. D.; Mohapatra, S. R. P.; Moraru, D.; Moreno, G.; Morgado, N.; Morgia, A.; Mori, T.; Morriss, S. R.; Mosca, S.; Mossavi, K.; Mours, B.; Mow-Lowry, C. M.; Mueller, C. L.; Mueller, G.; Mukherjee, S.; Mullavey, A.; Müller-Ebhardt, H.; Munch, J.; Murphy, D.; Murray, P. G.; Mytidis, A.; Nash, T.; Naticchioni, L.; Necula, V.; Nelson, J.; Neri, I.; Newton, G.; Nguyen, T.; Nishizawa, A.; Nitz, A.; Nocera, F.; Nolting, D.; Normandin, M. E.; Nuttall, L.; Ochsner, E.; O'Dell, J.; Oelker, E.; Ogin, G. H.; Oh, J. J.; Oh, S. H.; O'Reilly, B.; O'Shaughnessy, R.; Osthelder, C.; Ott, C. D.; Ottaway, D. J.; Ottens, R. S.; Overmier, H.; Owen, B. J.; Page, A.; Pagliaroli, G.; Palladino, L.; Palomba, C.; Pan, Y.; Pankow, C.; Paoletti, F.; Papa, M. A.; Parisi, M.; Pasqualetti, A.; Passaquieti, R.; Passuello, D.; Patel, P.; Pedraza, M.; Peiris, P.; Pekowsky, L.; Penn, S.; Perreca, A.; Persichetti, G.; Phelps, M.; Pichot, M.; Pickenpack, M.; Piergiovanni, F.; Pietka, M.; Pinard, L.; Pinto, I. M.; Pitkin, M.; Pletsch, H. J.; Plissi, M. V.; Poggiani, R.; Pöld, J.; Postiglione, F.; Prato, M.; Predoi, V.; Prestegard, T.; Price, L. R.; Prijatelj, M.; Principe, M.; Privitera, S.; Prix, R.; Prodi, G. A.; Prokhorov, L. G.; Puncken, O.; Punturo, M.; Puppo, P.; Quetschke, V.; Quitzow-James, R.; Raab, F. J.; Rabeling, D. S.; Rácz, I.; Radkins, H.; Raffai, P.; Rakhmanov, M.; Rankins, B.; Rapagnani, P.; Raymond, V.; Re, V.; Redwine, K.; Reed, C. M.; Reed, T.; Regimbau, T.; Reid, S.; Reitze, D. H.; Ricci, F.; Riesen, R.; Riles, K.; Robertson, N. A.; Robinet, F.; Robinson, C.; Robinson, E. L.; Rocchi, A.; Roddy, S.; Rodriguez, C.; Rodruck, M.; Rolland, L.; Rollins, J. G.; Romano, J. D.; Romano, R.; Romie, J. H.; Rosińska, D.; Röver, C.; Rowan, S.; Rüdiger, A.; Ruggi, P.; Ryan, K.; Sainathan, P.; Salemi, F.; Sammut, L.; Sandberg, V.; Sannibale, V.; Santamaría, L.; Santiago-Prieto, I.; Santostasi, G.; Sassolas, B.; Sathyaprakash, B. S.; Sato, S.; Saulson, P. R.; Savage, R. L.; Schilling, R.; Schnabel, R.; Schofield, R. M. S.; Schreiber, E.; Schulz, B.; Schutz, B. F.; Schwinberg, P.; Scott, J.; Scott, S. M.; Seifert, F.; Sellers, D.; Sentenac, D.; Sergeev, A.; Shaddock, D. A.; Shaltev, M.; Shapiro, B.; Shawhan, P.; Shoemaker, D. H.; Sibley, A.; Siemens, X.; Sigg, D.; Singer, A.; Singer, L.; Sintes, A. M.; Skelton, G. R.; Slagmolen, B. J. J.; Slutsky, J.; Smith, J. R.; Smith, M. R.; Smith, R. J. E.; Smith-Lefebvre, N. D.; Somiya, K.; Sorazu, B.; Soto, J.; Speirits, F. C.; Sperandio, L.; Stefszky, M.; Stein, A. J.; Stein, L. C.; Steinert, E.; Steinlechner, J.; Steinlechner, S.; Steplewski, S.; Stochino, A.; Stone, R.; Strain, K. A.; Strigin, S. E.; Stroeer, A. S.; Sturani, R.; Stuver, A. L.; Summerscales, T. Z.; Sung, M.; Susmithan, S.; Sutton, P. J.; Swinkels, B.; Tacca, M.; Taffarello, L.; Talukder, D.; Tanner, D. B.; Tarabrin, S. P.; Taylor, J. R.; Taylor, R.; Thomas, P.; Thorne, K. A.; Thorne, K. S.; Thrane, E.; Thüring, A.; Tokmakov, K. V.; Tomlinson, C.; Toncelli, A.; Tonelli, M.; Torre, O.; Torres, C.; Torrie, C. I.; Tournefier, E.; Travasso, F.; Traylor, G.; Tseng, K.; Ugolini, D.; Vahlbruch, H.; Vajente, G.; van den Brand, J. F. J.; Van Den Broeck, C.; van der Putten, S.; van Veggel, A. A.; Vass, S.; Vasuth, M.; Vaulin, R.; Vavoulidis, M.; Vecchio, A.; Vedovato, G.; Veitch, J.; Veitch, P. J.; Veltkamp, C.; Verkindt, D.; Vetrano, F.; Viceré, A.; Villar, A. E.; Vinet, J.-Y.; Vitale, S.; Vocca, H.; Vorvick, C.; Vyatchanin, S. P.; Wade, A.; Wade, L.; Wade, M.; Waldman, S. J.; Wallace, L.; Wan, Y.; Wang, M.; Wang, X.; Wang, Z.; Wanner, A.; Ward, R. L.; Was, M.; Weinert, M.; Weinstein, A. J.; Weiss, R.; Wen, L.; Wessels, P.; West, M.; Westphal, T.; Wette, K.; Whelan, J. T.; Whitcomb, S. E.; White, D. J.; Whiting, B. F.; Wilkinson, C.; Willems, P. A.; Williams, L.; Williams, R.; Willke, B.; Winkelmann, L.; Winkler, W.; Wipf, C. C.; Wiseman, A. G.; Wittel, H.; Woan, G.; Wooley, R.; Worden, J.; Yakushin, I.; Yamamoto, H.; Yamamoto, K.; Yancey, C. C.; Yang, H.; Yeaton-Massey, D.; Yoshida, S.; Yu, P.; Yvert, M.; Zadrożny, A.; Zanolin, M.; Zendri, J.-P.; Zhang, F.; Zhang, L.; Zhang, W.; Zhao, C.; Zotov, N.; Zucker, M. E.; Zweizig, J.

    2012-05-01

    Aims: The detection and measurement of gravitational-waves from coalescing neutron-star binary systems is an important science goal for ground-based gravitational-wave detectors. In addition to emitting gravitational-waves at frequencies that span the most sensitive bands of the LIGO and Virgo detectors, these sources are also amongst the most likely to produce an electromagnetic counterpart to the gravitational-wave emission. A joint detection of the gravitational-wave and electromagnetic signals would provide a powerful new probe for astronomy. Methods: During the period between September 19 and October 20, 2010, the first low-latency search for gravitational-waves from binary inspirals in LIGO and Virgo data was conducted. The resulting triggers were sent to electromagnetic observatories for followup. We describe the generation and processing of the low-latency gravitational-wave triggers. The results of the electromagnetic image analysis will be described elsewhere. Results: Over the course of the science run, three gravitational-wave triggers passed all of the low-latency selection cuts. Of these, one was followed up by several of our observational partners. Analysis of the gravitational-wave data leads to an estimated false alarm rate of once every 6.4 days, falling far short of the requirement for a detection based solely on gravitational-wave data.

  17. An Investigation on the Role of Spike Latency in an Artificial Olfactory System

    PubMed Central

    Martinelli, Eugenio; Polese, Davide; Dini, Francesca; Paolesse, Roberto; Filippini, Daniel; Lundström, Ingemar; Di Natale, Corrado

    2011-01-01

    Experimental studies have shown that the reactions to external stimuli may appear only few hundreds of milliseconds after the physical interaction of the stimulus with the proper receptor. This behavior suggests that neurons transmit the largest meaningful part of their signal in the first spikes, and than that the spike latency is a good descriptor of the information content in biological neural networks. In this paper this property has been investigated in an artificial sensorial system where a single layer of spiking neurons is trained with the data generated by an artificial olfactory platform based on a large array of chemical sensors. The capability to discriminate between distinct chemicals and mixtures of them was studied with spiking neural networks endowed with and without lateral inhibitions and considering as output feature of the network both the spikes latency and the average firing rate. Results show that the average firing rate of the output spikes sequences shows the best separation among the experienced vapors, however the latency code is able in a shorter time to correctly discriminate all the tested volatile compounds. This behavior is qualitatively similar to those recently found in natural olfaction, and noteworthy it provides practical suggestions to tail the measurement conditions of artificial olfactory systems defining for each specific case a proper measurement time. PMID:22194721

  18. Influence of fatigue and velocity on the latency and recruitment order of scapular muscles.

    PubMed

    Mendez-Rebolledo, Guillermo; Gatica-Rojas, Valeska; Guzman-Muñoz, Eduardo; Martinez-Valdes, Eduardo; Guzman-Venegas, Rodrigo; Berral de la Rosa, Francisco Jose

    2018-07-01

    To determine the influence of velocity and fatigue on scapular muscle activation latency and recruitment order during a voluntary arm raise task, in healthy individuals. Cross-sectional study. University laboratory. Twenty three male adults per group (high-velocity and low-velocity). Onset latency of scapular muscles [Anterior deltoid (AD), lower trapezius (LT), middle trapezius (MT), upper trapezius (UT), and serratus anterior (SA)] was assessed by surface electromyography. The participants were assigned to one of two groups: low-velocity or high-velocity. Both groups performed a voluntary arm raise task in the scapular plane under two conditions: no-fatigue and fatigue. The UT showed early activation (p < 0.01) in the fatigue condition when performing the arm raise task at a high velocity. At a low velocity and with no muscular fatigue, the recruitment order was MT, LT, SA, AD, and UT. However, the recruitment order changed in the high-velocity with muscular fatigue condition, since the recruitment order was UT, AD, SA, LT, and MT. The simultaneous presence of fatigue and high-velocity in an arm raise task is associated with a decrease in the UT activation latency and a modification of the recruitment order of scapular muscles. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. From Motion to Photons in 80 Microseconds: Towards Minimal Latency for Virtual and Augmented Reality.

    PubMed

    Lincoln, Peter; Blate, Alex; Singh, Montek; Whitted, Turner; State, Andrei; Lastra, Anselmo; Fuchs, Henry

    2016-04-01

    We describe an augmented reality, optical see-through display based on a DMD chip with an extremely fast (16 kHz) binary update rate. We combine the techniques of post-rendering 2-D offsets and just-in-time tracking updates with a novel modulation technique for turning binary pixels into perceived gray scale. These processing elements, implemented in an FPGA, are physically mounted along with the optical display elements in a head tracked rig through which users view synthetic imagery superimposed on their real environment. The combination of mechanical tracking at near-zero latency with reconfigurable display processing has given us a measured average of 80 µs of end-to-end latency (from head motion to change in photons from the display) and also a versatile test platform for extremely-low-latency display systems. We have used it to examine the trade-offs between image quality and cost (i.e. power and logical complexity) and have found that quality can be maintained with a fairly simple display modulation scheme.

  20. Zebra Alphaherpesviruses (EHV-1 and EHV-9): Genetic Diversity, Latency and Co-Infections.

    PubMed

    Abdelgawad, Azza; Damiani, Armando; Ho, Simon Y W; Strauss, Günter; Szentiks, Claudia A; East, Marion L; Osterrieder, Nikolaus; Greenwood, Alex D

    2016-09-20

    Alphaherpesviruses are highly prevalent in equine populations and co-infections with more than one of these viruses' strains frequently diagnosed. Lytic replication and latency with subsequent reactivation, along with new episodes of disease, can be influenced by genetic diversity generated by spontaneous mutation and recombination. Latency enhances virus survival by providing an epidemiological strategy for long-term maintenance of divergent strains in animal populations. The alphaherpesviruses equine herpesvirus 1 (EHV-1) and 9 (EHV-9) have recently been shown to cross species barriers, including a recombinant EHV-1 observed in fatal infections of a polar bear and Asian rhinoceros. Little is known about the latency and genetic diversity of EHV-1 and EHV-9, especially among zoo and wild equids. Here, we report evidence of limited genetic diversity in EHV-9 in zebras, whereas there is substantial genetic variability in EHV-1. We demonstrate that zebras can be lytically and latently infected with both viruses concurrently. Such a co-occurrence of infection in zebras suggests that even relatively slow-evolving viruses such as equine herpesviruses have the potential to diversify rapidly by recombination. This has potential consequences for the diagnosis of these viruses and their management in wild and captive equid populations.

  1. Latency requirements for head-worn display S/EVS applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bailey, Randall E.; Arthur, Jarvis J., III; Williams, Steven P.

    2004-08-01

    NASA's Aviation Safety Program, Synthetic Vision Systems Project is conducting research in advanced flight deck concepts, such as Synthetic/Enhanced Vision Systems (S/EVS), for commercial and business aircraft. An emerging thrust in this activity is the development of spatially-integrated, large field-of-regard information display systems. Head-worn or helmet-mounted display systems are being proposed as one method in which to meet this objective. System delays or latencies inherent to spatially-integrated, head-worn displays critically influence the display utility, usability, and acceptability. Research results from three different, yet similar technical areas - flight control, flight simulation, and virtual reality - are collectively assembled in this paper to create a global perspective of delay or latency effects in head-worn or helmet-mounted display systems. Consistent definitions and measurement techniques are proposed herein for universal application and latency requirements for Head-Worn Display S/EVS applications are drafted. Future research areas are defined.

  2. Evaluation of the relation between triceps surae H-reflex, M-response latencies and thigh length in normal population.

    PubMed

    Khosrawi, Saeid; Fallah, Salman

    2013-03-01

    The H-reflex is a useful electrophysiological procedure for evaluating the status of the peripheral nervous system, especially at the proximal segment of the peripheral nerve. The purpose of this study is to investigate the relation between triceps surae H-reflex and M- response latencies and thigh length in normal population, in order to determine if there is any regression equation between them. After screening 75 volunteers by considering inclusion and exclusion criteria, 72 of them were selected to enroll into our study (34 men and 38 women with the mean age of 36.04 ± 7.7 years). In all of the subjects H-reflex and M-response latencies were recorded by standard electrophysiological techniques and thigh length was measured. Finally, our data was analyzed for its relations with respect to ages in both sexes by appropriate statistical and mathematical methods. Mean ± SD for H-reflex latency was 27.94 ± 1.6 ms. We found a significant correlation between H-reflex latency and M-latency (r = 0.28), no significant correlation was found between H-reflex latency and thigh length (r = -0.051). Finally based on our findings we introduce a new formula in this paper. We found a significant correlation among of M-response latency and other variables (H-reflex latency and thigh length). Despite this it was eliminated from our formula. The relationship between H-reflex latency and age was significant. Further studies are required to delineate the clinical usage and interpretation of the formula, which we found in this study.

  3. PLASMA GENERATOR

    DOEpatents

    Foster, J.S. Jr.

    1958-03-11

    This patent describes apparatus for producing an electricity neutral ionized gas discharge, termed a plasma, substantially free from contamination with neutral gas particles. The plasma generator of the present invention comprises a plasma chamber wherein gas introduced into the chamber is ionized by a radiofrequency source. A magnetic field is used to focus the plasma in line with an exit. This magnetic field cooperates with a differential pressure created across the exit to draw a uniform and uncontaminated plasma from the plasma chamber.

  4. Modulation of amplitude and latency of motor evoked potential by direction of transcranial magnetic stimulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sato, Aya; Torii, Tetsuya; Iwahashi, Masakuni; Itoh, Yuji; Iramina, Keiji

    2014-05-01

    The present study analyzed the effects of monophasic magnetic stimulation to the motor cortex. The effects of magnetic stimulation were evaluated by analyzing the motor evoked potentials (MEPs). The amplitude and latency of MEPs on the abductor pollicis brevis muscle were used to evaluate the effects of repetitive magnetic stimulation. A figure eight-shaped flat coil was used to stimulate the region over the primary motor cortex. The intensity of magnetic stimulation was 120% of the resting motor threshold, and the frequency of magnetic stimulation was 0.1 Hz. In addition, the direction of the current in the brain was posterior-anterior (PA) or anterior-posterior (AP). The latency of MEP was compared with PA and AP on initial magnetic stimulation. The results demonstrated that a stimulus in the AP direction increased the latency of the MEP by approximately 2.5 ms. MEP amplitude was also compared with PA and AP during 60 magnetic stimulations. The results showed that a stimulus in the PA direction gradually increased the amplitude of the MEP. However, a stimulus in the AP direction did not modulate the MEP amplitude. The average MEP amplitude induced from every 10 magnetic pulses was normalized by the average amplitude of the first 10 stimuli. These results demonstrated that the normalized MEP amplitude increased up to approximately 150%. In terms of pyramidal neuron indirect waves (I waves), magnetic stimulation inducing current flowing backward to the anterior preferentially elicited an I1 wave, and current flowing forward to the posterior elicited an I3 wave. It has been reported that the latency of the I3 wave is approximately 2.5 ms longer than the I1 wave elicitation, so the resulting difference in latency may be caused by this phenomenon. It has also been reported that there is no alteration of MEP amplitude at a frequency of 0.1 Hz. However, this study suggested that the modulation of MEP amplitude depends on stimulation strength and stimulation direction.

  5. Epstein-Barr virus latency switch in human B-cells: a physico-chemical model.

    PubMed

    Werner, Maria; Ernberg, Ingemar; Zou, Jiezhi; Almqvist, Jenny; Aurell, Erik

    2007-08-31

    The Epstein-Barr virus is widespread in all human populations and is strongly associated with human disease, ranging from infectious mononucleosis to cancer. In infected cells the virus can adopt several different latency programs, affecting the cells' behaviour. Experimental results indicate that a specific genetic switch between viral latency programs, reprograms human B-cells between proliferative and resting states. Each of these two latency programs makes use of a different viral promoter, Cp and Qp, respectively. The hypothesis tested in this study is that this genetic switch is controlled by both human and viral transcription factors; Oct-2 and EBNA-1. We build a physico-chemical model to investigate quantitatively the dynamical properties of the promoter regulation and experimentally examine protein level variations between the two latency programs. Our experimental results display significant differences in EBNA-1 and Oct-2 levels between resting and proliferating programs. With the model we identify two stable latency programs, corresponding to a resting and proliferating cell. The two programs differ in robustness and transcriptional activity. The proliferating state is markedly more stable, with a very high transcriptional activity from its viral promoter. We predict the promoter activities to be mutually exclusive in the two different programs, and our relative promoter activities correlate well with experimental data. Transitions between programs can be induced, by affecting the protein levels of our transcription factors. Simulated time scales are in line with experimental results. We show that fundamental properties of the Epstein-Barr virus involvement in latent infection, with implications for tumor biology, can be modelled and understood mathematically. We conclude that EBNA-1 and Oct-2 regulation of Cp and Qp is sufficient to establish mutually exclusive expression patterns. Moreover, the modelled genetic control predict both mono- and bistable

  6. NEEMO 18-20: Analog Testing for Mitigation of Communication Latency During Human Space Exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chappell, Steven P.; Beaton, Kara H.; Miller, Matthew J.; Graff, Trevor G.; Abercromby, Andrew F. J.; Gernhardt, Michael L.; Halcon, Christopher

    2016-01-01

    NASA Extreme Environment Mission Operations (NEEMO) is an underwater spaceflight analog that allows a true mission-like operational environment and uses buoyancy effects and added weight to simulate different gravity levels. Three missions were undertaken from 2014-2015, NEEMO's 18-20. All missions were performed at the Aquarius undersea research habitat. During each mission, the effects of communication latencies on operations concepts, timelines, and tasks were studied. METHODS: Twelve subjects (4 per mission) were weighed out to simulate near-zero or partial gravity extravehicular activity (EVA) and evaluated different operations concepts for integration and management of a simulated Earth-based science team (ST) to provide input and direction during exploration activities. Exploration traverses were preplanned based on precursor data. Subjects completed science-related tasks including pre-sampling surveys, geologic-based sampling, and marine-based sampling as a portion of their tasks on saturation dives up to 4 hours in duration that were designed to simulate extravehicular activity (EVA) on Mars or the moons of Mars. One-way communication latencies, 5 and 10 minutes between space and mission control, were simulated throughout the missions. Objective data included task completion times, total EVA times, crew idle time, translation time, ST assimilation time (defined as time available for ST to discuss data/imagery after data acquisition). Subjective data included acceptability, simulation quality, capability assessment ratings, and comments. RESULTS: Precursor data can be used effectively to plan and execute exploration traverse EVAs (plans included detailed location of science sites, high-fidelity imagery of the sites, and directions to landmarks of interest within a site). Operations concepts that allow for pre-sampling surveys enable efficient traverse execution and meaningful Mission Control Center (MCC) interaction across communication latencies and can be

  7. Quantifying risk over the life course - latency, age-related susceptibility, and other time-varying exposure metrics.

    PubMed

    Wang, Molin; Liao, Xiaomei; Laden, Francine; Spiegelman, Donna

    2016-06-15

    Identification of the latency period and age-related susceptibility, if any, is an important aspect of assessing risks of environmental, nutritional, and occupational exposures. We consider estimation and inference for latency and age-related susceptibility in relative risk and excess risk models. We focus on likelihood-based methods for point and interval estimation of the latency period and age-related windows of susceptibility coupled with several commonly considered exposure metrics. The method is illustrated in a study of the timing of the effects of constituents of air pollution on mortality in the Nurses' Health Study. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  8. A hundred years of latency: from Freudian psychosexual theory to dynamic systems nonlinear development in middle childhood.

    PubMed

    Knight, Rona

    2014-04-01

    A focus on the latency phase is used to illustrate how theory and developmental research have influenced our psychoanalytic views of development over the past hundred years. Beginning with Freud's psychosexual theory and his conception of latency, an historical overview of the major psychoanalytic contributions bearing on this developmental period over the past century is presented. Recent longitudinal research in latency supports a nonlinear dynamic systems approach to development. This approach obliges us to reconsider our linear theories and how we think about and work with our patients.

  9. Quantifying Risk Over the Life Course – Latency, Age-Related Susceptibility, and Other Time-Varying Exposure Metrics

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Molin; Liao, Xiaomei; Laden, Francine; Spiegelman, Donna

    2016-01-01

    Identification of the latency period and age-related susceptibility, if any, is an important aspect of assessing risks of environmental, nutritional and occupational exposures. We consider estimation and inference for latency and age-related susceptibility in relative risk and excess risk models. We focus on likelihood-based methods for point and interval estimation of the latency period and age-related windows of susceptibility coupled with several commonly considered exposure metrics. The method is illustrated in a study of the timing of the effects of constituents of air pollution on mortality in the Nurses’ Health Study. PMID:26750582

  10. Auditory working memory predicts individual differences in absolute pitch learning.

    PubMed

    Van Hedger, Stephen C; Heald, Shannon L M; Koch, Rachelle; Nusbaum, Howard C

    2015-07-01

    Absolute pitch (AP) is typically defined as the ability to label an isolated tone as a musical note in the absence of a reference tone. At first glance the acquisition of AP note categories seems like a perceptual learning task, since individuals must assign a category label to a stimulus based on a single perceptual dimension (pitch) while ignoring other perceptual dimensions (e.g., loudness, octave, instrument). AP, however, is rarely discussed in terms of domain-general perceptual learning mechanisms. This is because AP is typically assumed to depend on a critical period of development, in which early exposure to pitches and musical labels is thought to be necessary for the development of AP precluding the possibility of adult acquisition of AP. Despite this view of AP, several previous studies have found evidence that absolute pitch category learning is, to an extent, trainable in a post-critical period adult population, even if the performance typically achieved by this population is below the performance of a "true" AP possessor. The current studies attempt to understand the individual differences in learning to categorize notes using absolute pitch cues by testing a specific prediction regarding cognitive capacity related to categorization - to what extent does an individual's general auditory working memory capacity (WMC) predict the success of absolute pitch category acquisition. Since WMC has been shown to predict performance on a wide variety of other perceptual and category learning tasks, we predict that individuals with higher WMC should be better at learning absolute pitch note categories than individuals with lower WMC. Across two studies, we demonstrate that auditory WMC predicts the efficacy of learning absolute pitch note categories. These results suggest that a higher general auditory WMC might underlie the formation of absolute pitch categories for post-critical period adults. Implications for understanding the mechanisms that underlie the

  11. Plasma Medicine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laroussi, M.; Kong, M. G.; Morfill, G.; Stolz, W.

    2012-05-01

    Foreword R. Satava and R. J. Barker; Part I. Introduction to Non-equilibrium Plasma, Cell Biology, and Contamination: 1. Introduction M. Laroussi; 2. Fundamentals of non-equilibrium plasmas M. Kushner and M. Kong; 3. Non-equilibrium plasma sources M. Laroussi and M. Kong; 4. Basic cell biology L. Greene and G. Shama; 5. Contamination G. Shama and B. Ahlfeld; Part II. Plasma Biology and Plasma Medicine: 6. Common healthcare challenges G. Isbary and W. Stolz; 7. Plasma decontamination of surfaces M. Kong and M. Laroussi; 8. Plasma decontamination of gases and liquids A. Fridman; 9. Plasma-cell interaction: prokaryotes M. Laroussi and M. Kong; 10. Plasma-cell interaction: eukaryotes G. Isbary, G. Morfill and W. Stolz; 11. Plasma based wound healing G. Isbary, G. Morfill and W. Stolz; 12. Plasma ablation, surgery, and dental applications K. Stalder, J. Woloszko, S. Kalghatgi, G. McCombs, M. Darby and M. Laroussi; Index.

  12. High-resolution absolute position detection using a multiple grating

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schilling, Ulrich; Drabarek, Pawel; Kuehnle, Goetz; Tiziani, Hans J.

    1996-08-01

    To control electro-mechanical engines, high-resolution linear and rotary encoders are needed. Interferometric methods (grating interferometers) promise a resolution of a few nanometers, but have an ambiguity range of some microns. Incremental encoders increase the absolute measurement range by counting the signal periods starting from a defined initial point. In many applications, however, it is not possible to move to this initial point, so that absolute encoders have to be used. Absolute encoders generally have a scale with two or more tracks placed next to each other. Therefore, they use a two-dimensional grating structure to measure a one-dimensional position. We present a new method, which uses a one-dimensional structure to determine the position in one dimension. It is based on a grating with a large grating period up to some millimeters, having the same diffraction efficiency in several predefined diffraction orders (multiple grating). By combining the phase signals of the different diffraction orders, it is possible to establish the position in an absolute range of the grating period with a resolution like incremental grating interferometers. The principal functionality was demonstrated by applying the multiple grating in a heterodyne grating interferometer. The heterodyne frequency was generated by a frequency modulated laser in an unbalanced interferometer. In experimental measurements an absolute range of 8 mm was obtained while achieving a resolution of 10 nm.

  13. Absolute irradiance of the Moon for on-orbit calibration

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stone, T.C.; Kieffer, H.H.; ,

    2002-01-01

    The recognized need for on-orbit calibration of remote sensing imaging instruments drives the ROLO project effort to characterize the Moon for use as an absolute radiance source. For over 5 years the ground-based ROLO telescopes have acquired spatially-resolved lunar images in 23 VNIR (Moon diameter ???500 pixels) and 9 SWIR (???250 pixels) passbands at phase angles within ??90 degrees. A numerical model for lunar irradiance has been developed which fits hundreds of ROLO images in each band, corrected for atmospheric extinction and calibrated to absolute radiance, then integrated to irradiance. The band-coupled extinction algorithm uses absorption spectra of several gases and aerosols derived from MODTRAN to fit time-dependent component abundances to nightly observations of standard stars. The absolute radiance scale is based upon independent telescopic measurements of the star Vega. The fitting process yields uncertainties in lunar relative irradiance over small ranges of phase angle and the full range of lunar libration well under 0.5%. A larger source of uncertainty enters in the absolute solar spectral irradiance, especially in the SWIR, where solar models disagree by up to 6%. Results of ROLO model direct comparisons to spacecraft observations demonstrate the ability of the technique to track sensor responsivity drifts to sub-percent precision. Intercomparisons among instruments provide key insights into both calibration issues and the absolute scale for lunar irradiance.

  14. The Absolute Magnitude of the Sun in Several Filters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Willmer, Christopher N. A.

    2018-06-01

    This paper presents a table with estimates of the absolute magnitude of the Sun and the conversions from vegamag to the AB and ST systems for several wide-band filters used in ground-based and space-based observatories. These estimates use the dustless spectral energy distribution (SED) of Vega, calibrated absolutely using the SED of Sirius, to set the vegamag zero-points and a composite spectrum of the Sun that coadds space-based observations from the ultraviolet to the near-infrared with models of the Solar atmosphere. The uncertainty of the absolute magnitudes is estimated by comparing the synthetic colors with photometric measurements of solar analogs and is found to be ∼0.02 mag. Combined with the uncertainty of ∼2% in the calibration of the Vega SED, the errors of these absolute magnitudes are ∼3%–4%. Using these SEDs, for three of the most utilized filters in extragalactic work the estimated absolute magnitudes of the Sun are M B = 5.44, M V = 4.81, and M K = 3.27 mag in the vegamag system and M B = 5.31, M V = 4.80, and M K = 5.08 mag in AB.

  15. Waves and instabilities in plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, L.

    1987-01-01

    The contents of this book are: Plasma as a Dielectric Medium; Nyquist Technique; Absolute and Convective Instabilities; Landau Damping and Phase Mixing; Particle Trapping and Breakdown of Linear Theory; Solution of Viasov Equation via Guilding-Center Transformation; Kinetic Theory of Magnetohydrodynamic Waves; Geometric Optics; Wave-Kinetic Equation; Cutoff and Resonance; Resonant Absorption; Mode Conversion; Gyrokinetic Equation; Drift Waves; Quasi-Linear Theory; Ponderomotive Force; Parametric Instabilities; Problem Sets for Homework, Midterm and Final Examinations.

  16. A Paradox of Syntactic Priming: Why Response Tendencies Show Priming for Passives, and Response Latencies Show Priming for Actives

    PubMed Central

    Segaert, Katrien; Menenti, Laura; Weber, Kirsten; Hagoort, Peter

    2011-01-01

    Speakers tend to repeat syntactic structures across sentences, a phenomenon called syntactic priming. Although it has been suggested that repeating syntactic structures should result in speeded responses, previous research has focused on effects in response tendencies. We investigated syntactic priming effects simultaneously in response tendencies and response latencies for active and passive transitive sentences in a picture description task. In Experiment 1, there were priming effects in response tendencies for passives and in response latencies for actives. However, when participants' pre-existing preference for actives was altered in Experiment 2, syntactic priming occurred for both actives and passives in response tendencies as well as in response latencies. This is the first investigation of the effects of structure frequency on both response tendencies and latencies in syntactic priming. We discuss the implications of these data for current theories of syntactic processing. PMID:22022352

  17. Outcomes of a NASA Workshop to Develop a Portfolio of Low Latency Datasets for Time-Sensitive Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davies, Diane K.; Brown, Molly E.; Green, David S.; Michael, Karen A.; Murray, John J.; Justice, Christopher O.; Soja, Amber J.

    2016-01-01

    It is widely accepted that time-sensitive remote sensing data serve the needs of decision makers in the applications communities and yet to date, a comprehensive portfolio of NASA low latency datasets has not been available. This paper will describe the NASA low latency, or Near-Real Time (NRT), portfolio, how it was developed and plans to make it available online through a portal that leverages the existing EOSDIS capabilities such as the Earthdata Search Client (https:search.earthdata.nasa.gov), the Common Metadata Repository (CMR) and the Global Imagery Browse Service (GIBS). This paper will report on the outcomes of a NASA Workshop to Develop a Portfolio of Low Latency Datasets for Time-Sensitive Applications (27-29 September 2016 at NASA Langley Research Center, Hampton VA). The paper will also summarize findings and recommendations from the meeting outlining perceived shortfalls and opportunities for low latency research and application science.

  18. Advances in High-Throughput Speed, Low-Latency Communication for Embedded Instrumentation (7th Annual SFAF Meeting, 2012)

    ScienceCinema

    Jordan, Scott

    2018-01-24

    Scott Jordan on "Advances in high-throughput speed, low-latency communication for embedded instrumentation" at the 2012 Sequencing, Finishing, Analysis in the Future Meeting held June 5-7, 2012 in Santa Fe, New Mexico.

  19. Mid-latency auditory evoked potential response revealed as an evidence of neural plasticity in blinnd individuals.

    PubMed

    Muthusamy, Anbarasi; Gajendran, Rajkumar; Rao B, Vishwanatha

    2014-01-01

    There is a general impression that visually blind individuals show an exceptionally better perception of other sensory modalities such as hearing, touch and smell sensations. In this study, we intended to compare the mid-latency auditory evoked potential response (MLAEP) or Middle latency Response (MLR) to get an idea of the activity pattern of auditory thalamus and cortex between 30 visually handicapped subjects and 30 normal sighted subjects. The results showed a decrease in many of the MLR wave latencies, but highly significant for the wave Pa (P value <0.002). This fact can be reflected as an evidence of existence of cross-modal neuroplasticity. We also inferred that there are significant gender differences with latencies shorter in males than females (P value <0.02) in the blind subjects group which could be attributed to their rehabilitation training.

  20. System and method for calibrating a rotary absolute position sensor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davis, Donald R. (Inventor); Permenter, Frank Noble (Inventor); Radford, Nicolaus A (Inventor)

    2012-01-01

    A system includes a rotary device, a rotary absolute position (RAP) sensor generating encoded pairs of voltage signals describing positional data of the rotary device, a host machine, and an algorithm. The algorithm calculates calibration parameters usable to determine an absolute position of the rotary device using the encoded pairs, and is adapted for linearly-mapping an ellipse defined by the encoded pairs to thereby calculate the calibration parameters. A method of calibrating the RAP sensor includes measuring the rotary position as encoded pairs of voltage signals, linearly-mapping an ellipse defined by the encoded pairs to thereby calculate the calibration parameters, and calculating an absolute position of the rotary device using the calibration parameters. The calibration parameters include a positive definite matrix (A) and a center point (q) of the ellipse. The voltage signals may include an encoded sine and cosine of a rotary angle of the rotary device.

  1. Determining absolute protein numbers by quantitative fluorescence microscopy.

    PubMed

    Verdaasdonk, Jolien Suzanne; Lawrimore, Josh; Bloom, Kerry

    2014-01-01

    Biological questions are increasingly being addressed using a wide range of quantitative analytical tools to examine protein complex composition. Knowledge of the absolute number of proteins present provides insights into organization, function, and maintenance and is used in mathematical modeling of complex cellular dynamics. In this chapter, we outline and describe three microscopy-based methods for determining absolute protein numbers--fluorescence correlation spectroscopy, stepwise photobleaching, and ratiometric comparison of fluorescence intensity to known standards. In addition, we discuss the various fluorescently labeled proteins that have been used as standards for both stepwise photobleaching and ratiometric comparison analysis. A detailed procedure for determining absolute protein number by ratiometric comparison is outlined in the second half of this chapter. Counting proteins by quantitative microscopy is a relatively simple yet very powerful analytical tool that will increase our understanding of protein complex composition. © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Method and apparatus for two-dimensional absolute optical encoding

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leviton, Douglas B. (Inventor)

    2004-01-01

    This invention presents a two-dimensional absolute optical encoder and a method for determining position of an object in accordance with information from the encoder. The encoder of the present invention comprises a scale having a pattern being predetermined to indicate an absolute location on the scale, means for illuminating the scale, means for forming an image of the pattern; and detector means for outputting signals derived from the portion of the image of the pattern which lies within a field of view of the detector means, the field of view defining an image reference coordinate system, and analyzing means, receiving the signals from the detector means, for determining the absolute location of the object. There are two types of scale patterns presented in this invention: grid type and starfield type.

  3. Transfer of absolute and relative predictiveness in human contingency learning.

    PubMed

    Kattner, Florian

    2015-03-01

    Previous animal-learning studies have shown that the effect of the predictive history of a cue on its associability depends on whether priority was set to the absolute or relative predictiveness of that cue. The present study tested this assumption in a human contingency-learning task. In both experiments, one group of participants was trained with predictive and nonpredictive cues that were presented according to an absolute-predictiveness principle (either continuously or partially reinforced cue configurations), whereas a second group was trained with co-occurring cues that differed in predictiveness (emphasizing the relative predictive validity of the cues). In both groups, later test discriminations were learned more readily if the discriminative cues had been predictive in the previous learning stage than if they had been nonpredictive. These results imply that both the absolute and relative predictiveness of a cue lead positive transfer with regard to its associability. The data are discussed with respect to attentional models of associative learning.

  4. Absolute marine gravimetry with matter-wave interferometry.

    PubMed

    Bidel, Y; Zahzam, N; Blanchard, C; Bonnin, A; Cadoret, M; Bresson, A; Rouxel, D; Lequentrec-Lalancette, M F

    2018-02-12

    Measuring gravity from an aircraft or a ship is essential in geodesy, geophysics, mineral and hydrocarbon exploration, and navigation. Today, only relative sensors are available for onboard gravimetry. This is a major drawback because of the calibration and drift estimation procedures which lead to important operational constraints. Atom interferometry is a promising technology to obtain onboard absolute gravimeter. But, despite high performances obtained in static condition, no precise measurements were reported in dynamic. Here, we present absolute gravity measurements from a ship with a sensor based on atom interferometry. Despite rough sea conditions, we obtained precision below 10 -5  m s -2 . The atom gravimeter was also compared with a commercial spring gravimeter and showed better performances. This demonstration opens the way to the next generation of inertial sensors (accelerometer, gyroscope) based on atom interferometry which should provide high-precision absolute measurements from a moving platform.

  5. Absolute Coefficients and the Graphical Representation of Airfoil Characteristics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Munk, Max

    1921-01-01

    It is argued that there should be an agreement as to what conventions to use in determining absolute coefficients used in aeronautics and in how to plot those coefficients. Of particular importance are the absolute coefficients of lift and drag. The author argues for the use of the German method over the kind in common use in the United States and England, and for the Continental over the usual American and British method of graphically representing the characteristics of an airfoil. The author notes that, on the whole, it appears that the use of natural absolute coefficients in a polar diagram is the logical method for presentation of airfoil characteristics, and that serious consideration should be given to the advisability of adopting this method in all countries, in order to advance uniformity and accuracy in the science of aeronautics.

  6. Neural Sensitivity to Absolute and Relative Anticipated Reward in Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Vaidya, Jatin G.; Knutson, Brian; O'Leary, Daniel S.; Block, Robert I.; Magnotta, Vincent

    2013-01-01

    Adolescence is associated with a dramatic increase in risky and impulsive behaviors that have been attributed to developmental differences in neural processing of rewards. In the present study, we sought to identify age differences in anticipation of absolute and relative rewards. To do so, we modified a commonly used monetary incentive delay (MID) task in order to examine brain activity to relative anticipated reward value (neural sensitivity to the value of a reward as a function of other available rewards). This design also made it possible to examine developmental differences in brain activation to absolute anticipated reward magnitude (the degree to which neural activity increases with increasing reward magnitude). While undergoing fMRI, 18 adolescents and 18 adult participants were presented with cues associated with different reward magnitudes. After the cue, participants responded to a target to win money on that trial. Presentation of cues was blocked such that two reward cues associated with $.20, $1.00, or $5.00 were in play on a given block. Thus, the relative value of the $1.00 reward varied depending on whether it was paired with a smaller or larger reward. Reflecting age differences in neural responses to relative anticipated reward (i.e., reference dependent processing), adults, but not adolescents, demonstrated greater activity to a $1 reward when it was the larger of the two available rewards. Adults also demonstrated a more linear increase in ventral striatal activity as a function of increasing absolute reward magnitude compared to adolescents. Additionally, reduced ventral striatal sensitivity to absolute anticipated reward (i.e., the difference in activity to medium versus small rewards) correlated with higher levels of trait Impulsivity. Thus, ventral striatal activity in anticipation of absolute and relative rewards develops with age. Absolute reward processing is also linked to individual differences in Impulsivity. PMID:23544046

  7. Absolute and Relative Socioeconomic Health Inequalities across Age Groups

    PubMed Central

    van Zon, Sander K. R.; Bültmann, Ute; Mendes de Leon, Carlos F.; Reijneveld, Sijmen A.

    2015-01-01

    Background The magnitude of socioeconomic health inequalities differs across age groups. It is less clear whether socioeconomic health inequalities differ across age groups by other factors that are known to affect the relation between socioeconomic position and health, like the indicator of socioeconomic position, the health outcome, gender, and as to whether socioeconomic health inequalities are measured in absolute or in relative terms. The aim is to investigate whether absolute and relative socioeconomic health inequalities differ across age groups by indicator of socioeconomic position, health outcome and gender. Methods The study sample was derived from the baseline measurement of the LifeLines Cohort Study and consisted of 95,432 participants. Socioeconomic position was measured as educational level and household income. Physical and mental health were measured with the RAND-36. Age concerned eleven 5-years age groups. Absolute inequalities were examined by comparing means. Relative inequalities were examined by comparing Gini-coefficients. Analyses were performed for both health outcomes by both educational level and household income. Analyses were performed for all age groups, and stratified by gender. Results Absolute and relative socioeconomic health inequalities differed across age groups by indicator of socioeconomic position, health outcome, and gender. Absolute inequalities were most pronounced for mental health by household income. They were larger in younger than older age groups. Relative inequalities were most pronounced for physical health by educational level. Gini-coefficients were largest in young age groups and smallest in older age groups. Conclusions Absolute and relative socioeconomic health inequalities differed cross-sectionally across age groups by indicator of socioeconomic position, health outcome and gender. Researchers should critically consider the implications of choosing a specific age group, in addition to the indicator of

  8. Linking Comparisons of Absolute Gravimeters: A Proof of Concept for a new Global Absolute Gravity Reference System.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wziontek, H.; Palinkas, V.; Falk, R.; Vaľko, M.

    2016-12-01

    Since decades, absolute gravimeters are compared on a regular basis on an international level, starting at the International Bureau for Weights and Measures (BIPM) in 1981. Usually, these comparisons are based on constant reference values deduced from all accepted measurements acquired during the comparison period. Temporal changes between comparison epochs are usually not considered. Resolution No. 2, adopted by IAG during the IUGG General Assembly in Prague 2015, initiates the establishment of a Global Absolute Gravity Reference System based on key comparisons of absolute gravimeters (AG) under the International Committee for Weights and Measures (CIPM) in order to establish a common level in the microGal range. A stable and unique reference frame can only be achieved, if different AG are taking part in different kind of comparisons. Systematic deviations between the respective comparison reference values can be detected, if the AG can be considered stable over time. The continuous operation of superconducting gravimeters (SG) on selected stations further supports the temporal link of comparison reference values by establishing a reference function over time. By a homogenous reprocessing of different comparison epochs and including AG and SG time series at selected stations, links between several comparisons will be established and temporal comparison reference functions will be derived. By this, comparisons on a regional level can be traced to back to the level of key comparisons, providing a reference for other absolute gravimeters. It will be proved and discussed, how such a concept can be used to support the future absolute gravity reference system.

  9. Absolute branching fraction measurements of exclusive D+ semileptonic decays.

    PubMed

    Huang, G S; Miller, D H; Pavlunin, V; Sanghi, B; Shipsey, I P J; Adams, G S; Chasse, M; Cravey, M; Cummings, J P; Danko, I; Napolitano, J; He, Q; Muramatsu, H; Park, C S; Park, W; Thorndike, E H; Coan, T E; Gao, Y S; Liu, F; Artuso, M; Boulahouache, C; Blusk, S; Butt, J; Dambasuren, E; Dorjkhaidav, O; Li, J; Menaa, N; Mountain, R; Nandakumar, R; Randrianarivony, K; Redjimi, R; Sia, R; Skwarnicki, T; Stone, S; Wang, J C; Zhang, K; Csorna, S E; Bonvicini, G; Cinabro, D; Dubrovin, M; Briere, R A; Chen, G P; Chen, J; Ferguson, T; Tatishvili, G; Vogel, H; Watkins, M E; Rosner, J L; Adam, N E; Alexander, J P; Berkelman, K; Cassel, D G; Crede, V; Duboscq, J E; Ecklund, K M; Ehrlich, R; Fields, L; Gibbons, L; Gittelman, B; Gray, R; Gray, S W; Hartill, D L; Heltsley, B K; Hertz, D; Hsu, L; Jones, C D; Kandaswamy, J; Kreinick, D L; Kuznetsov, V E; Mahlke-Krüger, H; Meyer, T O; Onyisi, P U E; Patterson, J R; Peterson, D; Phillips, E A; Pivarski, J; Riley, D; Ryd, A; Sadoff, A J; Schwarthoff, H; Shi, X; Shepherd, M R; Stroiney, S; Sun, W M; Urner, D; Weaver, K M; Wilksen, T; Weinberger, M; Athar, S B; Avery, P; Breva-Newell, L; Patel, R; Potlia, V; Stoeck, H; Yelton, J; Rubin, P; Cawlfield, C; Eisenstein, B I; Gollin, G D; Karliner, I; Kim, D; Lowrey, N; Naik, P; Sedlack, C; Selen, M; Williams, J; Wiss, J; Edwards, K W; Besson, D; Pedlar, T K; Cronin-Hennessy, D; Gao, K Y; Gong, D T; Hietala, J; Kubota, Y; Klein, T; Lang, B W; Li, S Z; Poling, R; Scott, A W; Smith, A; Dobbs, S; Metreveli, Z; Seth, K K; Tomaradze, A; Zweber, P; Ernst, J; Mahmood, A H; Severini, H; Asner, D M; Dytman, S A; Love, W; Mehrabyan, S; Mueller, J A; Savinov, V; Li, Z; Lopez, A; Mendez, H; Ramirez, J

    2005-10-28

    Using data collected at the psi(3770) resonance with the CLEO-c detector at the Cornell e+e- storage ring, we present improved measurements of the absolute branching fractions of D+decays to K0e+ve, pi0e+ve, K*0e+ve, and p0e+ve, and the first observation and absolute branching fraction measurement of D+ --> omega e+ve. We also report the most precise tests to date of isospin invariance in semileptonic D0 and D+ decays.

  10. Absolute photon-flux measurements in the vacuum ultraviolet

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Samson, J. A. R.; Haddad, G. N.

    1974-01-01

    Absolute photon-flux measurements in the vacuum ultraviolet have extended to short wavelengths by use of rare-gas ionization chambers. The technique involves the measurement of the ion current as a function of the gas pressure in the ion chamber. The true value of the ion current, and hence the absolute photon flux, is obtained by extrapolating the ion current to zero gas pressure. Examples are given at 162 and 266 A. The short-wavelength limit is determined only by the sensitivity of the current-measuring apparatus and by present knowledge of the photoionization processes that occur in the rate gases.

  11. Absolute Stability Analysis of a Phase Plane Controlled Spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jang, Jiann-Woei; Plummer, Michael; Bedrossian, Nazareth; Hall, Charles; Jackson, Mark; Spanos, Pol

    2010-01-01

    Many aerospace attitude control systems utilize phase plane control schemes that include nonlinear elements such as dead zone and ideal relay. To evaluate phase plane control robustness, stability margin prediction methods must be developed. Absolute stability is extended to predict stability margins and to define an abort condition. A constrained optimization approach is also used to design flex filters for roll control. The design goal is to optimize vehicle tracking performance while maintaining adequate stability margins. Absolute stability is shown to provide satisfactory stability constraints for the optimization.

  12. Non-Invasive Method of Determining Absolute Intracranial Pressure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yost, William T. (Inventor); Cantrell, John H., Jr. (Inventor); Hargens, Alan E. (Inventor)

    2004-01-01

    A method is presented for determining absolute intracranial pressure (ICP) in a patient. Skull expansion is monitored while changes in ICP are induced. The patient's blood pressure is measured when skull expansion is approximately zero. The measured blood pressure is indicative of a reference ICP value. Subsequently, the method causes a known change in ICP and measured the change in skull expansion associated therewith. The absolute ICP is a function of the reference ICP value, the known change in ICP and its associated change in skull expansion; and a measured change in skull expansion.

  13. Strongly nonlinear theory of rapid solidification near absolute stability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kowal, Katarzyna N.; Altieri, Anthony L.; Davis, Stephen H.

    2017-10-01

    We investigate the nonlinear evolution of the morphological deformation of a solid-liquid interface of a binary melt under rapid solidification conditions near two absolute stability limits. The first of these involves the complete stabilization of the system to cellular instabilities as a result of large enough surface energy. We derive nonlinear evolution equations in several limits in this scenario and investigate the effect of interfacial disequilibrium on the nonlinear deformations that arise. In contrast to the morphological stability problem in equilibrium, in which only cellular instabilities appear and only one absolute stability boundary exists, in disequilibrium the system is prone to oscillatory instabilities and a second absolute stability boundary involving attachment kinetics arises. Large enough attachment kinetics stabilize the oscillatory instabilities. We derive a nonlinear evolution equation to describe the nonlinear development of the solid-liquid interface near this oscillatory absolute stability limit. We find that strong asymmetries develop with time. For uniform oscillations, the evolution equation for the interface reduces to the simple form f''+(βf')2+f =0 , where β is the disequilibrium parameter. Lastly, we investigate a distinguished limit near both absolute stability limits in which the system is prone to both cellular and oscillatory instabilities and derive a nonlinear evolution equation that captures the nonlinear deformations in this limit. Common to all these scenarios is the emergence of larger asymmetries in the resulting shapes of the solid-liquid interface with greater departures from equilibrium and larger morphological numbers. The disturbances additionally sharpen near the oscillatory absolute stability boundary, where the interface becomes deep-rooted. The oscillations are time-periodic only for small-enough initial amplitudes and their frequency depends on a single combination of physical parameters, including the

  14. Improved Absolute Radiometric Calibration of a UHF Airborne Radar

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chapin, Elaine; Hawkins, Brian P.; Harcke, Leif; Hensley, Scott; Lou, Yunling; Michel, Thierry R.; Moreira, Laila; Muellerschoen, Ronald J.; Shimada, Joanne G.; Tham, Kean W.; hide

    2015-01-01

    The AirMOSS airborne SAR operates at UHF and produces fully polarimetric imagery. The AirMOSS radar data are used to produce Root Zone Soil Moisture (RZSM) depth profiles. The absolute radiometric accuracy of the imagery, ideally of better than 0.5 dB, is key to retrieving RZSM, especially in wet soils where the backscatter as a function of soil moisture function tends to flatten out. In this paper we assess the absolute radiometric uncertainty in previously delivered data, describe a method to utilize Built In Test (BIT) data to improve the radiometric calibration, and evaluate the improvement from applying the method.

  15. Plasma Modes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dubin, D. H. E.

    This chapter explores several aspects of the linear electrostatic normal modes of oscillation for a single-species non-neutral plasma in a Penning trap. Linearized fluid equations of motion are developed, assuming the plasma is cold but collisionless, which allow derivation of the cold plasma dielectric tensor and the electrostatic wave equation. Upper hybrid and magnetized plasma waves in an infinite uniform plasma are described. The effect of the plasma surface in a bounded plasma system is considered, and the properties of surface plasma waves are characterized. The normal modes of a cylindrical plasma column are discussed, and finally, modes of spheroidal plasmas, and finite temperature effects on the modes, are briefly described.

  16. The sequence of cortical activity inferred by response latency variability in the human ventral pathway of face processing.

    PubMed

    Lin, Jo-Fu Lotus; Silva-Pereyra, Juan; Chou, Chih-Che; Lin, Fa-Hsuan

    2018-04-11

    Variability in neuronal response latency has been typically considered caused by random noise. Previous studies of single cells and large neuronal populations have shown that the temporal variability tends to increase along the visual pathway. Inspired by these previous studies, we hypothesized that functional areas at later stages in the visual pathway of face processing would have larger variability in the response latency. To test this hypothesis, we used magnetoencephalographic data collected when subjects were presented with images of human faces. Faces are known to elicit a sequence of activity from the primary visual cortex to the fusiform gyrus. Our results revealed that the fusiform gyrus showed larger variability in the response latency compared to the calcarine fissure. Dynamic and spectral analyses of the latency variability indicated that the response latency in the fusiform gyrus was more variable than in the calcarine fissure between 70 ms and 200 ms after the stimulus onset and between 4 Hz and 40 Hz, respectively. The sequential processing of face information from the calcarine sulcus to the fusiform sulcus was more reliably detected based on sizes of the response variability than instants of the maximal response peaks. With two areas in the ventral visual pathway, we show that the variability in response latency across brain areas can be used to infer the sequence of cortical activity.

  17. Relating the variability of tone-burst otoacoustic emission and auditory brainstem response latencies to the underlying cochlear mechanics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Verhulst, Sarah; Shera, Christopher A.

    2015-12-01

    Forward and reverse cochlear latency and its relation to the frequency tuning of the auditory filters can be assessed using tone bursts (TBs). Otoacoustic emissions (TBOAEs) estimate the cochlear roundtrip time, while auditory brainstem responses (ABRs) to the same stimuli aim at measuring the auditory filter buildup time. Latency ratios are generally close to two and controversy exists about the relationship of this ratio to cochlear mechanics. We explored why the two methods provide different estimates of filter buildup time, and ratios with large inter-subject variability, using a time-domain model for OAEs and ABRs. We compared latencies for twenty models, in which all parameters but the cochlear irregularities responsible for reflection-source OAEs were identical, and found that TBOAE latencies were much more variable than ABR latencies. Multiple reflection-sources generated within the evoking stimulus bandwidth were found to shape the TBOAE envelope and complicate the interpretation of TBOAE latency and TBOAE/ABR ratios in terms of auditory filter tuning.

  18. Test-retest reliability of the multiple sleep latency test in narcolepsy without cataplexy and idiopathic hypersomnia.

    PubMed

    Trotti, Lynn Marie; Staab, Beth A; Rye, David B

    2013-08-15

    Differentiation of narcolepsy without cataplexy from idiopathic hypersomnia relies entirely upon the multiple sleep latency test (MSLT). However, the test-retest reliability for these central nervous system hypersomnias has never been determined. Patients with narcolepsy without cataplexy, idiopathic hypersomnia, and physiologic hypersomnia who underwent two diagnostic multiple sleep latency tests were identified retrospectively. Correlations between the mean sleep latencies on the two studies were evaluated, and we probed for demographic and clinical features associated with reproducibility versus change in diagnosis. Thirty-six patients (58% women, mean age 34 years) were included. Inter -test interval was 4.2 ± 3.8 years (range 2.5 months to 16.9 years). Mean sleep latencies on the first and second tests were 5.5 (± 3.7 SD) and 7.3 (± 3.9) minutes, respectively, with no significant correlation (r = 0.17, p = 0.31). A change in diagnosis occurred in 53% of patients, and was accounted for by a difference in the mean sleep latency (N = 15, 42%) or the number of sleep onset REM periods (N = 11, 31%). The only feature predictive of a diagnosis change was a history of hypnagogic or hypnopompic hallucinations. The multiple sleep latency test demonstrates poor test-retest reliability in a clinical population of patients with central nervous system hypersomnia evaluated in a tertiary referral center. Alternative diagnostic tools are needed.

  19. The adequate stimulus for avian short latency vestibular responses to linear translation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, T. A.; Jones, S. M.; Colbert, S.

    1998-01-01

    Transient linear acceleration stimuli have been shown to elicit eighth nerve vestibular compound action potentials in birds and mammals. The present study was undertaken to better define the nature of the adequate stimulus for neurons generating the response in the chicken (Gallus domesticus). In particular, the study evaluated the question of whether the neurons studied are most sensitive to the maximum level of linear acceleration achieved or to the rate of change in acceleration (da/dt, or jerk). To do this, vestibular response thresholds were measured as a function of stimulus onset slope. Traditional computer signal averaging was used to record responses to pulsed linear acceleration stimuli. Stimulus onset slope was systematically varied. Acceleration thresholds decreased with increasing stimulus onset slope (decreasing stimulus rise time). When stimuli were expressed in units of jerk (g/ms), thresholds were virtually constant for all stimulus rise times. Moreover, stimuli having identical jerk magnitudes but widely varying peak acceleration levels produced virtually identical responses. Vestibular response thresholds, latencies and amplitudes appear to be determined strictly by stimulus jerk magnitudes. Stimulus attributes such as peak acceleration or rise time alone do not provide sufficient information to predict response parameter quantities. Indeed, the major response parameters were shown to be virtually independent of peak acceleration levels or rise time when these stimulus features were isolated and considered separately. It is concluded that the neurons generating short latency vestibular evoked potentials do so as "jerk encoders" in the chicken. Primary afferents classified as "irregular", and which traditionally fall into the broad category of "dynamic" or "phasic" neurons, would seem to be the most likely candidates for the neural generators of short latency vestibular compound action potentials.

  20. Reducing the latency of the Fractal Iterative Method to half an iteration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Béchet, Clémentine; Tallon, Michel

    2013-12-01

    The fractal iterative method for atmospheric tomography (FRiM-3D) has been introduced to solve the wavefront reconstruction at the dimensions of an ELT with a low-computational cost. Previous studies reported the requirement of only 3 iterations of the algorithm in order to provide the best adaptive optics (AO) performance. Nevertheless, any iterative method in adaptive optics suffer from the intrinsic latency induced by the fact that one iteration can start only once the previous one is completed. Iterations hardly match the low-latency requirement of the AO real-time computer. We present here a new approach to avoid iterations in the computation of the commands with FRiM-3D, thus allowing low-latency AO response even at the scale of the European ELT (E-ELT). The method highlights the importance of "warm-start" strategy in adaptive optics. To our knowledge, this particular way to use the "warm-start" has not been reported before. Futhermore, removing the requirement of iterating to compute the commands, the computational cost of the reconstruction with FRiM-3D can be simplified and at least reduced to half the computational cost of a classical iteration. Thanks to simulations of both single-conjugate and multi-conjugate AO for the E-ELT,with FRiM-3D on Octopus ESO simulator, we demonstrate the benefit of this approach. We finally enhance the robustness of this new implementation with respect to increasing measurement noise, wind speed and even modeling errors.

  1. Protein kinase G confers survival advantage to Mycobacterium tuberculosis during latency-like conditions.

    PubMed

    Khan, Mehak Zahoor; Bhaskar, Ashima; Upadhyay, Sandeep; Kumari, Pooja; Rajmani, Raju S; Jain, Preeti; Singh, Amit; Kumar, Dhiraj; Bhavesh, Neel Sarovar; Nandicoori, Vinay Kumar

    2017-09-29

    Protein kinase G (PknG), a thioredoxin-fold-containing eukaryotic-like serine/threonine protein kinase, is a virulence factor in Mycobacterium tuberculosis , required for inhibition of phagolysosomal fusion. Here, we unraveled novel functional facets of PknG during latency-like conditions. We found that PknG mediates persistence under stressful conditions like hypoxia and abets drug tolerance. PknG mutant displayed minimal growth in nutrient-limited conditions, suggesting its role in modulating cellular metabolism. Intracellular metabolic profiling revealed that PknG is necessary for efficient metabolic adaptation during hypoxia. Notably, the PknG mutant exhibited a reductive shift in mycothiol redox potential and compromised stress response. Exposure to antibiotics and hypoxic environment resulted in higher oxidative shift in mycothiol redox potential of PknG mutant compared with the wild type. Persistence during latency-like conditions required kinase activity and thioredoxin motifs of PknG and is mediated through phosphorylation of a central metabolic regulator GarA. Finally, using a guinea pig model of infection, we assessed the in vivo role of PknG in manifestation of disease pathology and established a role for PknG in the formation of stable granuloma, hallmark structures of latent tuberculosis. Taken together, PknG-mediated GarA phosphorylation is important for maintenance of both mycobacterial physiology and redox poise, an axis that is dispensable for survival under normoxic conditions but is critical for non-replicating persistence of mycobacteria. In conclusion, we propose that PknG probably acts as a modulator of latency-associated signals. © 2017 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  2. Prolongation of ERP latency and reaction time (RT) in simultaneous EEG/fMRI data acquisition.

    PubMed

    Chun, Jinsoo; Peltier, Scott J; Yoon, Daehyun; Manschreck, Theo C; Deldin, Patricia J

    2016-08-01

    Recording EEG and fMRI data simultaneously inside a fully-operating scanner has been recognized as a novel approach in human brain research. Studies have demonstrated high concordance between the EEG signals and hemodynamic response. However, a few studies reported altered cognitive process inside the fMRI scanner such as delayed reaction time (RT) and reduced and/or delayed N100 and P300 event-related brain potential (ERP) components. The present study investigated the influence of electromagnetic field (static magnetic field, radio frequency (RF) pulse, and gradient switching) and experimental environment on posterior N100 and P300 ERP components in four different settings with six healthy subjects using a visual oddball task: (1) classic fMRI acquisition inside the scanner (e.g., supine position, mirror glasses for stimulus presentation), (2) standard behavioral experiment outside the scanner (e.g., seated position, keyboard response), (3) controlled fMRI acquisition inside the scanner (e.g., organic light-emitting diode (OLED) goggles for stimulus presentation) inside; and (4) modified behavioral experiment outside the scanner (e.g., supine position, OLED goggles). The study findings indicated that the experimental environment in simultaneous EEG/fMRI acquisition could substantially delay N1P, P300 latency, and RT inside the scanner, and was associated with a reduced N1P amplitude. There was no effect of electromagnetic field in the prolongation of RT, N1P and P300 latency inside the scanner. N1P, but not P300, latency was sensitive to stimulus presentation method inside the scanner. Future simultaneous EEG/fMRI data collection should consider experimental environment in both design and analysis. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Developing a Digital Medicine System in Psychiatry: Ingestion Detection Rate and Latency Period.

    PubMed

    Profit, Deborah; Rohatagi, Shashank; Zhao, Cathy; Hatch, Ainslie; Docherty, John P; Peters-Strickland, Timothy S

    2016-09-01

    A digital medicine system (DMS) has been developed to measure and report adherence to an atypical antipsychotic, aripiprazole, in psychiatric patients. The DMS consists of 3 components: ingestible sensor embedded in a medication tablet, wearable sensor, and secure mobile and cloud-based applications. An umbrella study protocol was designed to rapidly assess the technical performance and safety of the DMS in multiple substudies to guide the technology development. Two sequential substudies enrolled 30 and 29 healthy volunteers between March-April 2014 and February-March 2015, respectively, to assess detection accuracy of the ingestible sensor by the DMS and the latency period between ingestion and detection of the ingestion by the wearable sensor or the cloud-based server. The first substudy identified areas for improvement using early versions of the wearable sensor and the mobile application. The second substudy tested updated versions of the components and showed an overall ingestion detection rate of 96.6%. Mean latency times for the signal transmission were 1.1-1.3 minutes (from ingestion to the wearable sensor detection) and 6.2-10.3 minutes (from the wearable sensor detection to the server detection). Half of transmissions were completed in < 2 minutes, and ~90% of ingestions were registered by the smartphone within 30 minutes of ingestion. No serious adverse events, discontinuations, or clinically significant laboratory/vital signs findings were reported. The DMS implementing modified versions of the smartphone application and the wearable sensor has the technical capability to detect and report tablet ingestion with high accuracy and acceptable latency time. ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: NCT02091882. © Copyright 2016 Physicians Postgraduate Press, Inc.

  4. Vestibular short latency responses to pulsed linear acceleration in unanesthetized animals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, T. A.

    1992-01-01

    Linear acceleration transients were used to elicit vestibular compound action potentials in non-invasively prepared, unanesthetized animals for the first time (chicks, Gallus domesticus, n = 33). Responses were composed of a series of up to 8 dominant peaks occurring within 8 msec of the stimulus. Response amplitudes for 1.0 g stimulus ranged from 1 to 10 microV. A late, slow, triphasic, anesthesia-labile component was identified as a dominant response feature in unanesthetized animals. Amplitudes increased and latencies decreased as stimulus intensity was increased (MANOVA P less than 0.05). Linear regression slope ranges were: amplitudes = 1.0-5.0 microV/g; latencies = -300 to -1100 microseconds/g. Thresholds for single polarity stimuli (0.035 +/- 0.022 g, n = 11) were significantly lower than those of alternating polarity (0.074 +/- 0.028 g, n = 18, P less than 0.001). Bilateral labyrinthectomy eliminated responses whereas bilateral extirpation of cochleae did not significantly change response thresholds. Intense acoustic masking (100/104 dB SL) produced no effect in 2 animals, but did produce small to moderate effects on response amplitudes in 7 others. Changes were attributed to effects on vestibular end organs. Results of unilateral labyrinth blockade (tetrodotoxin) suggest that P1 and N1 preferentially reflect ipsilateral eighth nerve compound action potentials whereas components beyond approximately 2 msec reflect activity from vestibular neurons that depend on both labyrinths. The results demonstrate that short latency vestibular compound action potentials can be measured in unanesthetized, non-invasively prepared animals.

  5. MicroRNA regulation of viral immunity, latency, and carcinogenesis of selected tumor viruses and HIV.

    PubMed

    Wang, Ling; Li, Guangyu; Yao, Zhi Q; Moorman, Jonathan P; Ning, Shunbin

    2015-09-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) function as key regulators in immune responses and cancer development. In the contexts of infection with oncogenic viruses, miRNAs are engaged in viral persistence, latency establishment and maintenance, and oncogenesis. In this review, we summarize the potential roles and mechanisms of viral and cellular miRNAs in the host-pathogen interactions during infection with selected tumor viruses and HIV, which include (i) repressing viral replication and facilitating latency establishment by targeting viral transcripts, (ii) evading innate and adaptive immune responses via toll-like receptors, RIG-I-like receptors, T-cell receptor, and B-cell receptor pathways by targeting signaling molecules such as TRAF6, IRAK1, IKKε, and MyD88, as well as downstream targets including regulatory cytokines such as tumor necrosis factor α, interferon γ, interleukin 10, and transforming growth factor β, (iii) antagonizing intrinsic and extrinsic apoptosis pathways by targeting pro-apoptotic or anti-apoptotic gene transcripts such as the Bcl-2 family and caspase-3, (iv) modulating cell proliferation and survival through regulation of the Wnt, PI3K/Akt, Erk/MAPK, and Jak/STAT signaling pathways, as well as the signaling pathways triggered by viral oncoproteins such as Epstein-Barr Virus LMP1, by targeting Wnt-inhibiting factor 1, SHIP, pTEN, and SOCSs, and (v) regulating cell cycle progression by targeting cell cycle inhibitors such as p21/WAF1 and p27/KIP1. Further elucidation of the interaction between miRNAs and these key biological events will facilitate our understanding of the pathogenesis of viral latency and oncogenesis and may lead to the identification of miRNAs as novel targets for developing new therapeutic or preventive interventions. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  6. Human short-latency ocular vergence responses produced by interocular velocity differences

    PubMed Central

    Sheliga, B. M.; Quaia, C.; FitzGibbon, E. J.; Cumming, B. G.

    2016-01-01

    We studied human short-latency vergence eye movements to a novel stimulus that produces interocular velocity differences without a changing disparity signal. Sinusoidal luminance gratings moved in opposite directions (left vs. right; up vs. down) in the two eyes. The grating seen by each eye underwent ¼-wavelength shifts with each image update. This arrangement eliminated changing disparity cues, since the phase difference between the eyes alternated between 0° and 180°. We nevertheless observed robust short-latency vergence responses (VRs), whose sign was consistent with the interocular velocity differences (IOVDs), indicating that the IOVD cue in isolation can evoke short-latency VRs. The IOVD cue was effective only when the images seen by the two eyes overlapped in space. We observed equally robust VRs for opposite horizontal motions (left in one eye, right in the other) and opposite vertical motions (up in one eye, down in the other). Whereas the former are naturally generated by objects moving in depth, the latter are not part of our normal experience. To our knowledge, this is the first demonstration of a behavioral consequence of vertical IOVD. This may reflect the fact that some neurons in area MT are sensitive to these motion signals (Czuba, Huk, Cormack, & Kohn, 2014). VRs were the strongest for spatial frequencies in the range of 0.35–1 c/°, much higher than the optimal spatial frequencies for evoking ocular-following responses observed during frontoparallel motion. This suggests that the two motion signals are detected by different neuronal populations. We also produced IOVD using moving uncorrelated one-dimensional white-noise stimuli. In this case the most effective stimuli have low speed, as predicted if the drive originates in neurons tuned to high spatial frequencies (Sheliga, Quaia, FitzGibbon, & Cumming, 2016). PMID:27548089

  7. Statistical learning methods for aero-optic wavefront prediction and adaptive-optic latency compensation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burns, W. Robert

    Since the early 1970's research in airborne laser systems has been the subject of continued interest. Airborne laser applications depend on being able to propagate a near diffraction-limited laser beam from an airborne platform. Turbulent air flowing over the aircraft produces density fluctuations through which the beam must propagate. Because the index of refraction of the air is directly related to the density, the turbulent flow imposes aberrations on the beam passing through it. This problem is referred to as Aero-Optics. Aero-Optics is recognized as a major technical issue that needs to be solved before airborne optical systems can become routinely fielded. This dissertation research specifically addresses an approach to mitigating the deleterious effects imposed on an airborne optical system by aero-optics. A promising technology is adaptive optics: a feedback control method that measures optical aberrations and imprints the conjugate aberrations onto an outgoing beam. The challenge is that it is a computationally-difficult problem, since aero-optic disturbances are on the order of kilohertz for practical applications. High control loop frequencies and high disturbance frequencies mean that adaptive-optic systems are sensitive to latency in sensors, mirrors, amplifiers, and computation. These latencies build up to result in a dramatic reduction in the system's effective bandwidth. This work presents two variations of an algorithm that uses model reduction and data-driven predictors to estimate the evolution of measured wavefronts over a short temporal horizon and thus compensate for feedback latency. The efficacy of the two methods are compared in this research, and evaluated against similar algorithms that have been previously developed. The best version achieved over 75% disturbance rejection in simulation in the most optically active flow region in the wake of a turret, considerably outperforming conventional approaches. The algorithm is shown to be

  8. Consummated mother-son incest in latency: a case report of an adult analysis.

    PubMed

    Rudominer, Howard S

    2002-01-01

    Reported cases of mother-son incest are very rare in the psychoanalytic literature; the fact of such incest, however, may not be so rare as has generally been believed. A detailed case report of the analysis of an adult with a history of severe physical, sexual, and verbal abuse, including consummated incest with his mother during latency, is considered in the context of other reported studies. The author raises some issues of resistance and countertransference that may influence the reporting, treatment, and perhaps even recognition of cases of mother-son incest.

  9. Impact of latency time on survival for adolescents and young adults with a second primary malignancy.

    PubMed

    Goldfarb, Melanie; Rosenberg, Aaron S; Li, Qian; Keegan, Theresa H M

    2018-03-15

    The adverse impact of second primary malignancies (SPMs) on survival is substantial for adolescents and young adults (AYAs; ie, those 15-39 years old). No studies have evaluated whether the latency time between the first malignancy (the primary malignancy [PM]) and the SPM affects cancer-specific survival (CSS). A multivariate Cox proportional hazards regression with Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results data for 13 regions from 1992 to 2008 was used to ascertain whether the latency time (1-5 vs ≥ 6 years) to the development of an SPM affected the CSS and overall survival with respect to either the PM or SPM for AYAs with common SPMs. The majority of 1515 AYAs with an SPM had their PM diagnosed between the ages of 26 and 39 years (74.2%) and an SPM diagnosed within 1 to 5 years (72.9%) of the PM's diagnosis. Overall, AYAs that developed an SPM 1 to 5 years after the diagnosis (vs ≥ 6 years) had an increased risk of death from cancer (hazard ratio [HR], 2.52; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.92-3.29) as well as any cause (HR, 2.60; 95% CI, 2.04-3.32). Specifically, for AYAs with an SPM that was leukemia or a colorectal, breast, or central nervous system malignancy, a shorter latency time (1-5 years) from their PM diagnosis was associated with an overall significantly increased risk of death (2.6-fold) from either their PM or that particular SPM. However, latency did not appear to affect the CSS with respect to either the PM or SPM for AYA patients with a lymphoma or sarcoma SPM. Most AYAs who develop an SPM do so within 1 to 5 years of their primary cancer diagnosis, and they have an increased risk of death from cancer in comparison with AYAs with an SPM developing after longer survivorship intervals. Cancer 2018;124:1260-8. © 2017 American Cancer Society. © 2017 American Cancer Society.

  10. [Origin of acoustically evoked short latency negative response in guinea pigs].

    PubMed

    Huang, Wen-qin; Qin, Huan-hua; Nong, Dong-xiao; Tang, An-zhou; Li, Zhi-mei; Yang, Tian

    2011-04-01

    To establish a model of acoustically evoked short latency negative response (ASNR) in guinea pigs, a model of profound hearing loss with normal saccular functions, and verify the correlation between ASNR and vestibular evoked myogenic potential (VEMP). Thirty-two healthy guinea pigs were employed in the experiment, which were randomly divided into control group (16 subjects) and deafened group (16 subjects). Each animal experienced auditory and vestibular tests including auditory brainstem response (ABR), VEMP and caloric test. A quick treatment was employed for deafened group consisting of a subcutaneous injection of kanamycin at a dose of 400 mg/kg followed by a jugular vein injection of ethacrynic acid at a dose of 40 mg/kg one hour later. The animals were received ABR, VEMP and caloric test 7 - 10 days following the drug administration. The deafened group was further divided into ASNR group and non-ASNR group, based on the presence of ASNR. In deafened group, five subjects died postoperatively, 11 subjects (22 ears) provided full data, ASNR was elicited in eight ears (36.4%), the threshold was 120 - 130 dB SPL with mean of (124.4 ± 4.96) dB SPL. Its latency range was 1.75 - 2.60 ms with mean of (2.15 ± 0.27) ms. The mean latency of threshold was (2.34 ± 0.18) ms. All eight ASNR ears presented with VEMP. The VEMP threshold, positive and negative potential latencies proved no statistical difference (P > 0.05) between ASNR group and control group. Significant difference was detected between the VEMP presence of ASNR group and non-ASNR group (P = 0.002). There was no statistically significant correlation between VEMP and caloric test neither between ASNR and caloric test in deafened group. This study evoked ASNR in an ototoxicity guinea pig model which has profound hearing loss with normal saccular functions. The presence of ASNR correlated with VEMP, however, not correlated with caloric test, suggesting that ASNR and VEMP are both originated from the saccule.

  11. Global stability in a tuberculosis model of imperfect treatment with age-dependent latency and relapse.

    PubMed

    Ren, Shanjing

    In this paper, an SEIR epidemic model for an imperfect treatment disease with age-dependent latency and relapse is proposed. The model is well-suited to model tuberculosis. The basic reproduction number R0 is calculated. We obtain the global behavior of the model in terms of R0. If R0< 1, the disease-free equilibrium is globally asymptotically stable, whereas if R0>1, a Lyapunov functional is used to show that the endemic equilibrium is globally stable amongst solutions for which the disease is present.

  12. Study and Simulation of Enhancements for TCP Performance Over Noisy High Latency Links

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Partridge, Craig

    1999-01-01

    The goal of this study is to better understand how TCP behaves over noisy, high-latency links such as satellite links and propose improvements to TCP implementations such that TCP might better handle such links. This report is comprised of a series of smaller reports, presentations and recommendations. Included in these documents are a summary of the TCP enhancement techniques for large windows, protect against wrap around (PAWS), use of selective acknowledgements (SACK), increasing TCP's initial window and recommendations to implement TCP pacing.

  13. Response latencies in auditory sentence comprehension: effects of linguistic versus perceptual challenge.

    PubMed

    Tun, Patricia A; Benichov, Jonathan; Wingfield, Arthur

    2010-09-01

    Older adults with good hearing and with mild-to-moderate hearing loss were tested for comprehension of spoken sentences that required perceptual effort (hearing speech at lower sound levels), and two degrees of cognitive load (sentences with simpler or more complex syntax). Although comprehension accuracy was equivalent for both participant groups and for young adults with good hearing, hearing loss was associated with longer response latencies to the correct comprehension judgments, especially for complex sentences heard at relatively low amplitudes. These findings demonstrate the need to take into account both sensory and cognitive demands of speech materials in older adults' language comprehension. (c) 2010 APA, all rights reserved.

  14. Acquired absolute vitamin K deficiency in a patient undergoing warfarin therapy.

    PubMed

    Takada, Hiroaki; Toru, Hifumi; Bunya, Naofumi; Kiriu, Nobuaki; Kato, Hiroshi; Koido, Yuichi; Yasuhiro, Kuroda

    2014-06-01

    We report a case of absolute vitamin K deficiency (VKD) diagnosed by measuring serum VK levels in an elderly woman undergoing warfarin therapy. A 78-year-old woman was admitted to our hospital because of dyspnea and sore throat diagnosed as pharyngitis 1 week before admission. On admission, the sore throat had exacerbated and dyspnea developed. She had history of atrial fibrillation, for which warfarin 1.5 mg/d was started approximately 10 years prior and her international normalized ratio (INR) had been maintained at an acceptable therapeutic level. Blood results revealed unmeasurable INR and abnormally prolonged activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT). She was diagnosed with adenoiditis and warfarin-related coagulopathy and administered intravenous VK (20 mg) and fresh frozen plasma (FFP; 4 U), which improved INR and APTT. Since the coagulopathy responded to intravenous VK administration, the patient was clinically diagnosed with warfarin-related relative VKD. Approximately 1 month later, she returned with complaints of sore throat. Blood results indicated abnormal INR (7.22) and APTT (N80.0 s). She was diagnosed with recurrent adenoiditis and VK deficient coagulopathy. The patient’s serum VK levels were low (VK1 level, 0.13 ng/mL; VK2 levels, 0.85 ng/mL). Initial treatment of VK (20 mg) and FFP followed by intravenous VK (20 mg/d) for 6 days, her symptoms dissipated. Warfarin was suspected to have caused absolute VKD. Severe coagulopathy in patients undergoing warfarin therapy is primarily caused by, relative VKD. However, the possibility of warfarin-related absolute VKD should be suspected when INRis not sufficiently improved by intravenous VK administration.

  15. 20 CFR 404.1205 - Absolute coverage groups.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Absolute coverage groups. 404.1205 Section 404.1205 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION FEDERAL OLD-AGE, SURVIVORS AND DISABILITY... grouping of employees, e.g., all the employees of a city or town. It is a coverage group for coverage and...

  16. Population-based absolute risk estimation with survey data

    PubMed Central

    Kovalchik, Stephanie A.; Pfeiffer, Ruth M.

    2013-01-01

    Absolute risk is the probability that a cause-specific event occurs in a given time interval in the presence of competing events. We present methods to estimate population-based absolute risk from a complex survey cohort that can accommodate multiple exposure-specific competing risks. The hazard function for each event type consists of an individualized relative risk multiplied by a baseline hazard function, which is modeled nonparametrically or parametrically with a piecewise exponential model. An influence method is used to derive a Taylor-linearized variance estimate for the absolute risk estimates. We introduce novel measures of the cause-specific influences that can guide modeling choices for the competing event components of the model. To illustrate our methodology, we build and validate cause-specific absolute risk models for cardiovascular and cancer deaths using data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Our applications demonstrate the usefulness of survey-based risk prediction models for predicting health outcomes and quantifying the potential impact of disease prevention programs at the population level. PMID:23686614

  17. Absolute Risk Aversion and the Returns to Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brunello, Giorgio

    2002-01-01

    Uses 1995 Italian household income and wealth survey to measure individual absolute risk aversion of 1,583 married Italian male household heads. Uses this measure as an instrument for attained education in a standard-log earnings equation. Finds that the IV estimate of the marginal return to schooling is much higher than the ordinary least squares…

  18. Absolute Value Inequalities: High School Students' Solutions and Misconceptions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Almog, Nava; Ilany, Bat-Sheva

    2012-01-01

    Inequalities are one of the foundational subjects in high school math curricula, but there is a lack of academic research into how students learn certain types of inequalities. This article fills part of the research gap by presenting the findings of a study that examined high school students' methods of approaching absolute value inequalities,…

  19. Relative versus Absolute Stimulus Control in the Temporal Bisection Task

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Carvalho, Marilia Pinhiero; Machado, Armando

    2012-01-01

    When subjects learn to associate two sample durations with two comparison keys, do they learn to associate the keys with the short and long samples (relational hypothesis), or with the specific sample durations (absolute hypothesis)? We exposed 16 pigeons to an ABA design in which phases A and B corresponded to tasks using samples of 1 s and 4 s,…

  20. Regions of absolute ultimate boundedness for discrete-time systems.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Siljak, D. D.; Weissenberger, S.

    1972-01-01

    This paper considers discrete-time systems of the Lur'e-Postnikov class where the linear part is not asymptotically stable and the nonlinear characteristic satisfies only partially the usual sector condition. Estimates of the resulting finite regions of absolute ultimate boundedness are calculated by means of a quadratic Liapunov function.