Science.gov

Sample records for absolute light intensity

  1. Absolute phase recovery in structured light illumination systems: Sinusoidal vs. intensity discrete patterns

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Porras-Aguilar, Rosario; Falaggis, Konstantinos

    2016-09-01

    Structured light illumination is a well-established technology for noncontact 3D surface measurements. A common challenge in those systems is to obtain the absolute surface information using few measurement frames. This work discusses techniques based on the projection of multiple sinusoidal fringe patterns with different fringe period, as well as the projection of intensity discrete Gray Code and grey-level coded patterns. The use of sinusoidal multi-frequency techniques has been since years an on-going area of research, where various algorithms have been developed based on beats, look-up tables, or number-theoretical approaches. This work shows that a related technique, the so-called algebraic reconstruction technique that is borrowed from the area of multi-wavelength interferometry can be used for this purpose. This approach provides a robust analytical solution to the phase-unwrapping problem. However, this work argues that despite these advances, the acquisition of additional phase maps obtained with different fringe periods requires too many measurement frames, and hence is inefficient. Motivated by that, this work proposes a new grey level coding scheme that uses only few measurement frames, overcomes typical defocus errors, and has an error detecting feature. The latter feature makes the need of separate error detecting algorithms obsolete. This so-called closed-loop space filling curve can be implemented with an arbitrary number of N grey-levels enabling to code up to (2N) code-words. The performance of this so-called closed-loop space filling curve is demonstrated using experimental data.

  2. Light intensity compressor

    DOEpatents

    Rushford, Michael C.

    1990-01-01

    In a system for recording images having vastly differing light intensities over the face of the image, a light intensity compressor is provided that utilizes the properties of twisted nematic liquid crystals to compress the image intensity. A photoconductor or photodiode material that is responsive to the wavelength of radiation being recorded is placed adjacent a layer of twisted nematic liquid crystal material. An electric potential applied to a pair of electrodes that are disposed outside of the liquid crystal/photoconductor arrangement to provide an electric field in the vicinity of the liquid crystal material. The electrodes are substantially transparent to the form of radiation being recorded. A pair of crossed polarizers are provided on opposite sides of the liquid crystal. The front polarizer linearly polarizes the light, while the back polarizer cooperates with the front polarizer and the liquid crystal material to compress the intensity of a viewed scene. Light incident upon the intensity compressor activates the photoconductor in proportion to the intensity of the light, thereby varying the field applied to the liquid crystal. The increased field causes the liquid crystal to have less of a twisting effect on the incident linearly polarized light, which will cause an increased percentage of the light to be absorbed by the back polarizer. The intensity of an image may be compressed by forming an image on the light intensity compressor.

  3. Light intensity compressor

    DOEpatents

    Rushford, Michael C.

    1990-02-06

    In a system for recording images having vastly differing light intensities over the face of the image, a light intensity compressor is provided that utilizes the properties of twisted nematic liquid crystals to compress the image intensity. A photoconductor or photodiode material that is responsive to the wavelength of radiation being recorded is placed adjacent a layer of twisted nematic liquid crystal material. An electric potential applied to a pair of electrodes that are disposed outside of the liquid crystal/photoconductor arrangement to provide an electric field in the vicinity of the liquid crystal material. The electrodes are substantially transparent to the form of radiation being recorded. A pair of crossed polarizers are provided on opposite sides of the liquid crystal. The front polarizer linearly polarizes the light, while the back polarizer cooperates with the front polarizer and the liquid crystal material to compress the intensity of a viewed scene. Light incident upon the intensity compressor activates the photoconductor in proportion to the intensity of the light, thereby varying the field applied to the liquid crystal. The increased field causes the liquid crystal to have less of a twisting effect on the incident linearly polarized light, which will cause an increased percentage of the light to be absorbed by the back polarizer. The intensity of an image may be compressed by forming an image on the light intensity compressor.

  4. STS-9 Shuttle grow - Ram angle effect and absolute intensities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Swenson, G. R.; Mende, S. B.; Clifton, K. S.

    1986-01-01

    Visible imagery from Space Shuttle mission STS-9 (Spacelab 1) has been analyzed for the ram angle effect and the absolute intensity of glow. The data are compared with earlier measurements and the anomalous high intensities at large ram angles are confirmed. Absolute intensities of the ram glow on the shuttle tile, at 6563 A, are observed to be about 20 times more intense than those measured on the AE-E spacecraft. Implications of these observations for an existing theory of glow involving NO2 are presented.

  5. Measurement of Disintegration Rates and Absolute {gamma}-ray Intensities

    SciTech Connect

    DeVries, Daniel J.; Griffin, Henry C.

    2006-03-13

    The majority of practical radioactive materials decay by modes that include {gamma}-ray emission. For questions of 'how much' or 'how pure', one must know the absolute intensities of the major radiations. We are using liquid scintillation counting (LSC) to measurements of disintegration rates, coupled with {gamma}-ray spectroscopy to measure absolute {gamma}-ray emission probabilities. Described is a study of the 227Th chain yielding absolute {gamma}-ray intensities with {approx}0.5% accuracy and information on LSC efficiencies.

  6. Ion chambers simplify absolute intensity measurements in the vacuum ultraviolet

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sampson, J. A. R.

    1966-01-01

    Single or double ion chamber technique measures absolute radiation intensities in the extreme vacuum ultraviolet region of the spectrum. The ion chambers use rare gases as the ion carrier. Photon absorbed by the gas creates one ion pair so a measure of these is a measure of the number of incident photons.

  7. Absolute intensity of radiation emitted by uranium plasmas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jalufka, N. W.; Lee, J. H.; Mcfarland, D. R.

    1975-01-01

    The absolute intensity of radiation emitted by fissioning and nonfissioning uranium plasmas in the spectral range from 350 nm to 1000 nm was measured. The plasma was produced in a plasma-focus apparatus and the plasma properties are simular to those anticipated for plasma-core nuclear reactors. The results are expected to contribute to the establishment of design criteria for the development of plasma-core reactors.

  8. An All Fiber White Light Interferometric Absolute Temperature Measurement System

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Jeonggon Harrison

    2008-01-01

    Recently the author of this article proposed a new signal processing algorithm for an all fiber white light interferometer. In this article, an all fiber white light interferometric absolute temperature measurement system is presented using the previously proposed signal processing algorithm. Stability and absolute temperature measurement were demonstrated. These two tests demonstrated the feasibility of absolute temperature measurement with an accuracy of 0.015 fringe and 0.0005 fringe, respectively. A hysteresis test from 373K to 873K was also presented. Finally, robustness of the sensor system towards laser diode temperature drift, AFMZI temperature drift and PZT non-linearity was demonstrated.

  9. High Intensity Lights

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1983-01-01

    Xenon arc lamps developed during the Apollo program by Streamlight, Inc. are the basis for commercial flashlights and emergency handlights. These are some of the brightest portable lights made. They throw a light some 50 times brighter than automobile high beams and are primarily used by police and military. The light penetrates fog and smoke and returns less back-scatter light. They are operated on portable power packs as boat and auto batteries. An infrared model produces totally invisible light for covert surveillance.

  10. Use of intensity quotients and differences in absolute structure refinement.

    PubMed

    Parsons, Simon; Flack, Howard D; Wagner, Trixie

    2013-06-01

    Several methods for absolute structure refinement were tested using single-crystal X-ray diffraction data collected using Cu Kα radiation for 23 crystals with no element heavier than oxygen: conventional refinement using an inversion twin model, estimation using intensity quotients in SHELXL2012, estimation using Bayesian methods in PLATON, estimation using restraints consisting of numerical intensity differences in CRYSTALS and estimation using differences and quotients in TOPAS-Academic where both quantities were coded in terms of other structural parameters and implemented as restraints. The conventional refinement approach yielded accurate values of the Flack parameter, but with standard uncertainties ranging from 0.15 to 0.77. The other methods also yielded accurate values of the Flack parameter, but with much higher precision. Absolute structure was established in all cases, even for a hydrocarbon. The procedures in which restraints are coded explicitly in terms of other structural parameters enable the Flack parameter to correlate with these other parameters, so that it is determined along with those parameters during refinement. PMID:23719469

  11. High Intensity Lighting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1982-01-01

    Nightime illumination is an important part of round-the-clock pre-launch preparations because NASA uses TV and film cameras to monitor each step of the preliminaries and at times to identify the cause of malfunction during countdown. Generating a one billion candlepower beam visible 50 miles away, the lamps developed by Duro-Test Corporation provide daylight quality light that eliminates color distortion in film and TV coverage. The lighting system was first used at Kennedy Space Center in 1968 for the launch of Apollo 8. Modified versions are available in wide range of applications, such as the battery of spotlights with colored filters that light up Niagara Falls, as well as the lamps used in the projectors for the Smithsonian's IMAX Theatre, indoor theatres with supersized screens and outdoor projection systems.

  12. Glassy carbon as an absolute intensity calibration standard for small-angle scattering.

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, F.; Ilavsky, J.; Long, G.; Allen, A.; Quintana, J.; Jemian, P.; NIST

    2010-05-01

    Absolute calibration of small-angle scattering (SAS) intensity data (measured in terms of the differential scattering cross section per unit sample volume per unit solid angle) is essential for many important aspects of quantitative SAS analysis, such as obtaining the number density, volume fraction, and specific surface area of the scatterers. It also enables scattering data from different instruments (light, X-ray, or neutron scattering) to be combined, and it can even be useful to detect the existence of artifacts in the experimental data. Different primary or secondary calibration methods are available. In the latter case, absolute intensity calibration requires a stable artifact with the necessary scattering profile. Glassy carbon has sometimes been selected as this intensity calibration standard. Here we review the spatial homogeneity and temporal stability of one type of commercially available glassy carbon that is being used as an intensity calibration standard at a number of SAS facilities. We demonstrate that glassy carbon is sufficiently homogeneous and stable during routine use to be relied upon as a suitable standard for absolute intensity calibration of SAS data.

  13. Perceiving the Intensity of Light

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Purves, Dale; Williams, S. Mark; Nundy, Surajit; Lotto, R. Beau

    2004-01-01

    The relationship between luminance (i.e., the photometric intensity of light) and its perception (i.e., sensations of lightness or brightness) has long been a puzzle. In addition to the mystery of why these perceptual qualities do not scale with luminance in any simple way, "illusions" such as simultaneous brightness contrast, Mach bands,…

  14. Absolute intensity and polarization of rotational Raman scattering from N2, O2, and CO2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Penney, C. M.; St.peters, R. L.; Lapp, M.

    1973-01-01

    An experimental examination of the absolute intensity, polarization, and relative line intensities of rotational Raman scattering (RRS) from N2, O2, and CO2 is reported. The absolute scattering intensity for N2 is characterized by its differential cross section for backscattering of incident light at 647.1 nm, which is calculated from basic measured values. The ratio of the corresponding cross section for O2 to that for N2 is 2.50 plus or minus 5 percent. The intensity recent for N2, O2, and CO2 are shown to compare favorably to values calculated from recent measurements of the depolarization of Rayleigh scattering plus RRS. Measured depolarizations of various RRS lines agree to within a few percent with the theoretical value of 3/4. Detailed error analyses are presented for intensity and depolarization measurements. Finally, extensive RRS spectra at nominal gas temperatures of 23 C, 75 C, and 125 C are presented and shown to compare favorably to theoretical predictions.

  15. Method to obtain absolute impurity density profiles combining charge exchange and beam emission spectroscopy without absolute intensity calibrationa)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kappatou, A.; Jaspers, R. J. E.; Delabie, E.; Marchuk, O.; Biel, W.; Jakobs, M. A.

    2012-10-01

    Investigation of impurity transport properties in tokamak plasmas is essential and a diagnostic that can provide information on the impurity content is required. Combining charge exchange recombination spectroscopy (CXRS) and beam emission spectroscopy (BES), absolute radial profiles of impurity densities can be obtained from the CXRS and BES intensities, electron density and CXRS and BES emission rates, without requiring any absolute calibration of the spectra. The technique is demonstrated here with absolute impurity density radial profiles obtained in TEXTOR plasmas, using a high efficiency charge exchange spectrometer with high etendue, that measures the CXRS and BES spectra along the same lines-of-sight, offering an additional advantage for the determination of absolute impurity densities.

  16. Light intensity modulation in phototherapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lukyanovich, P. A.; Zon, B. A.; Kunin, A. A.; Pankova, S. N.

    2015-04-01

    A hypothesis that blocking ATP synthesis is one of the main causes of the stimulating effect is considered based on analysis of the primary photostimulation mechanisms. The light radiation intensity modulation is substantiated and the estimates of such modulation parameters are made. An explanation is offered to the stimulation efficiency decrease phenomenon at the increase of the radiation dose during the therapy. The results of clinical research of the medical treatment in preventive dentistry are presented depending on the spectrum and parameters of the light flux modulation.

  17. High intensity portable fluorescent light

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kendall, F. B.

    1972-01-01

    Eight high intensity portable fluorescent lights were produced. Three prototype lights were also produced, two of which were subsequently updated to the physical and operational configuration of the qualification and flight units. Positioning of lamp apertures and reflectors in these lights is such that the light is concentrated and intensified in a specific pattern rather than widely diffused. Indium amalgam control of mercury vapor pressure in the lamp gives high output at lamp ambient temperatures up to 105 C. A small amount of amalgam applied to each electrode stem helps to obtain fast warm-up. Shrinking a Teflon sleeve on the tube and potting metal caps on each end of the lamp minimizes dispersion of mercury vapor and glass particles in the event of accidental lamp breakage. Operation at 20 kHz allows the lamps to consume more power than at low frequency, thus increasing their light output and raising their efficiency. When used to expose color photographic film, light from the lamps produces results approximately equal to sunlight.

  18. Are ceramics and bricks reliable absolute geomagnetic intensity carriers?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morales, Juan; Goguitchaichvili, Avto; Aguilar-Reyes, Bertha; Pineda-Duran, Modesto; Camps, Pierre; Carvallo, Claire; Calvo-Rathert, Manuel

    2011-08-01

    A detailed rock-magnetic and archeointensity study was carried out on materials baked by a western Mexican artisan following traditional techniques to produce faithful reproductions of archeological pieces of the Michoacán region (Western Mesoamerica). The field strength at the site (41.0 ± 0.5 μT) was measured with a fluxgate magnetometer and the temperature of the furnace during the baking process was monitored continually by means of a thermocouple placed in the middle of the baking cavity. Rock-magnetic experiments performed on the raw material (clay and paste) and on insitu prepared baked ceramics and bricks included measurement of thermomagnetic curves (susceptibility and strong-field magnetization versus temperature), first-order reversal curves (FORC), anisotropy of magnetic susceptibility (AMS) and anisotropy of thermoremanent magnetization (A-TRM). Magnetite and probably hematite are present in the samples as carriers of the remanence. Hysteresis ratios suggest that the samples fall in the pseudo-single-domain grain size region, which may indicate a mixture of multi-domain and a significant amount of single-domain grains. Ceramic pieces and brick fragments were subjected to the Thellier-Coe archeointensity method and to an alternative paleointensity experiment, with a TRIAXE magnetometer, in order to check whether they are faithful recorders of the local geomagnetic field strength. Mean raw-intensity of sample M1 (pottery) overestimates a 7% the expected site intensity, while those corresponding to the brick samples (LQ1 and LQ2) underestimate it 15%. Brick sample LNQ shows a slightly lower intensity (7%), but agrees with the expected site intensity within the experimental uncertainty. The intensity retrieved from the volcanic fragment also included closely reproduces the expected intensity. After A-TRM and cooling-rate corrections, all mean raw values move closer to the expected intensity. Measurement of temperatures at different parts inside the kiln

  19. Relative and absolute intensity calibrations of a modern broadband echelle spectrometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bibinov, N.; Halfmann, H.; Awakowicz, P.; Wiesemann, K.

    2007-05-01

    We report on relative and absolute intensity calibrations of a modern broadband echelle spectrometer (type ESA 3000® trademark of LLA Instruments GmbH, Berlin) for use in the diagnostics of low-temperature plasma. This type of device measures simultaneously complete emission spectra in the spectral range from 200 to 800 nm with a spectral resolution of several picometres by using more than 90 spectral orders, causing a strongly structured efficiency function. The assumptions and approximations entering the calibration procedure under these conditions are discussed in section 3. For coping with the strongly structured efficiency function a continuum light source is needed, which covers the entire spectral range. Furthermore, the variation of its intensity must be low enough to ensure that neither statistical errors perturb the calibration in regions with low photon flux and/or low efficiency, nor local memory overflow in regions with high photon flux or high efficiency. In our case this requires that during calibration over the whole spectral range of the spectrometer the counts per pixel in one measurement vary at highest by a factor 10 to 12. Usual broadband light sources do not meet this latter requirement. We, therefore, use an uncalibrated 'composite' source, an adjustable combination of a standard tungsten strip lamp and a deuterium lamp, and calibrate the spectrometer in a two-step process against the tungsten strip lamp and well-known rovibrational intensity distributions in the emission spectra of NO and N2. We adjust the composite source in a way to produce a perturbation-free first approximation of an (uncalibrated) efficiency function, which is then corrected and thus calibrated by comparison with the (secondary) standards mentioned above. For absolute calibration we use the tungsten strip lamp. The uncertainty attained in this way for the relative calibration depends on the wavelength and varies between 5% and 10%. For the absolute calibration we

  20. Prediction of absolute infrared intensities for the fundamental vibrations of H2O2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rogers, J. D.; Hillman, J. J.

    1981-01-01

    Absolute infrared intensities are predicted for the vibrational bands of gas-phase H2O2 by the use of a hydrogen atomic polar tensor transferred from the hydroxyl hydrogen atom of CH3OH. These predicted intensities are compared with intensities predicted by the use of a hydrogen atomic polar tensor transferred from H2O. The predicted relative intensities agree well with published spectra of gas-phase H2O2, and the predicted absolute intensities are expected to be accurate to within at least a factor of two. Among the vibrational degrees of freedom, the antisymmetric O-H bending mode nu(6) is found to be the strongest with a calculated intensity of 60.5 km/mole. The torsional band, a consequence of hindered rotation, is found to be the most intense fundamental with a predicted intensity of 120 km/mole. These results are compared with the recent absolute intensity determinations for the nu(6) band.

  1. Absolute pulse energy measurements of soft x-rays at the Linac Coherent Light Source.

    PubMed

    Tiedtke, K; Sorokin, A A; Jastrow, U; Juranić, P; Kreis, S; Gerken, N; Richter, M; Arp, U; Feng, Y; Nordlund, D; Soufli, R; Fernández-Perea, M; Juha, L; Heimann, P; Nagler, B; Lee, H J; Mack, S; Cammarata, M; Krupin, O; Messerschmidt, M; Holmes, M; Rowen, M; Schlotter, W; Moeller, S; Turner, J J

    2014-09-01

    This paper reports novel measurements of x-ray optical radiation on an absolute scale from the intense and ultra-short radiation generated in the soft x-ray regime of a free electron laser. We give a brief description of the detection principle for radiation measurements which was specifically adapted for this photon energy range. We present data characterizing the soft x-ray instrument at the Linac Coherent Light Source (LCLS) with respect to the radiant power output and transmission by using an absolute detector temporarily placed at the downstream end of the instrument. This provides an estimation of the reflectivity of all x-ray optical elements in the beamline and provides the absolute photon number per bandwidth per pulse. This parameter is important for many experiments that need to understand the trade-offs between high energy resolution and high flux, such as experiments focused on studying materials via resonant processes. Furthermore, the results are compared with the LCLS diagnostic gas detectors to test the limits of linearity, and observations are reported on radiation contamination from spontaneous undulator radiation and higher harmonic content. PMID:25321502

  2. Intense Pulsed Light Therapy for Skin Rejuvenation.

    PubMed

    DiBernardo, Barry E; Pozner, Jason N

    2016-07-01

    Intense pulsed light (IPL), also known as pulsed light and broad band light, is a nonlaser light source used to treat a variety of vascular and pigmented lesions, photo damage, active acne, and unwanted hair. Current IPL systems are much improved from older-generation devices with better calibration, integrated cooling, and improved tuning. These devices are extremely popular because of their versatility and are often the first devices recommended and purchased in many offices. PMID:27363767

  3. Revised Pioneer 10 absolute electron intensities in the inner Jovian magnetosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baker, D. N.; Van Allen, J. A.

    1977-01-01

    Improved techniques for the analysis of Pioneer 10 Jupiter encounter data are used to obtain significantly more reliable values for energetic electron (Ee less than 21 MeV) intensities within the inner magnetosphere. The revised absolute intensities of electrons in the energy range 0.06-21 MeV are less than previous estimates by factors as great as 10 for L not exceeding 6. Previously published intensities at greater radial distances for Ee less than 21 MeV and at all radial distances for Ee greater than 21 MeV are not affected by the revisions.

  4. Techniques for optically compressing light intensity ranges

    DOEpatents

    Rushford, M.C.

    1989-03-28

    A pin hole camera assembly for use in viewing an object having a relatively large light intensity range, for example a crucible containing molten uranium in an atomic vapor laser isotope separator (AVLIS) system is disclosed herein. The assembly includes means for optically compressing the light intensity range appearing at its input sufficient to make it receivable and decipherable by a standard video camera. A number of different means for compressing the intensity range are disclosed. These include the use of photogray glass, the use of a pair of interference filters, and the utilization of a new liquid crystal notch filter in combination with an interference filter. 18 figs.

  5. Techniques for optically compressing light intensity ranges

    DOEpatents

    Rushford, Michael C.

    1989-01-01

    A pin hole camera assembly for use in viewing an object having a relatively large light intensity range, for example a crucible containing molten uranium in an atomic vapor laser isotope separator (AVLIS) system is disclosed herein. The assembly includes means for optically compressing the light intensity range appearing at its input sufficient to make it receivable and decipherable by a standard video camera. A number of different means for compressing the intensity range are disclosed. These include the use of photogray glass, the use of a pair of interference filters, and the utilization of a new liquid crystal notch filter in combination with an interference filter.

  6. Absolute intensity measurement of the 4-0 vibration-rotation band of carbon monoxide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chackerian, C., Jr.; Valero, F. P. J.

    1976-01-01

    The absolute intensity of the 4-0 vibration band of CO is measured in spectra obtained using a 25-m base-path multiple-traversal absorption cell and a 5-m scanning spectrometer. The intensities of individual vibration-rotation lines in this band are determined from measurements of their equivalent widths, and absolute values for the rotationless transition moment and the vibration-rotation interaction factor are derived from the measured line strengths. The experimentally obtained vibration-rotation function is compared with a theoretical curve; agreement between theory and experiment is found to be good for the P-branch but poor for the R-branch. It is noted that numerical solutions to the radial Schroedinger equation lead to vibration-rotation function values that are in good agreement with the experiment.

  7. Absolute intensity calibration of the 32-channel heterodyne radiometer on experimental advanced superconducting tokamak

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, X.; Zhao, H. L.; Liu, Y. Li, E. Z.; Han, X.; Ti, A.; Hu, L. Q.; Zhang, X. D.; Domier, C. W.; Luhmann, N. C.

    2014-09-15

    This paper presents the results of the in situ absolute intensity calibration for the 32-channel heterodyne radiometer on the experimental advanced superconducting tokamak. The hot/cold load method is adopted, and the coherent averaging technique is employed to improve the signal to noise ratio. Measured spectra and electron temperature profiles are compared with those from an independent calibrated Michelson interferometer, and there is a relatively good agreement between the results from the two different systems.

  8. OCT angiography by absolute intensity difference applied to normal and diseased human retinas

    PubMed Central

    Ruminski, Daniel; Sikorski, Bartosz L.; Bukowska, Danuta; Szkulmowski, Maciej; Krawiec, Krzysztof; Malukiewicz, Grazyna; Bieganowski, Lech; Wojtkowski, Maciej

    2015-01-01

    We compare four optical coherence tomography techniques for noninvasive visualization of microcapillary network in the human retina and murine cortex. We perform phantom studies to investigate contrast-to-noise ratio for angiographic images obtained with each of the algorithm. We show that the computationally simplest absolute intensity difference angiographic OCT algorithm that bases only on two cross-sectional intensity images may be successfully used in clinical study of healthy eyes and eyes with diabetic maculopathy and branch retinal vein occlusion. PMID:26309740

  9. Absolute calibration method for nanosecond-resolved, time-streaked, fiber optic light collection, spectroscopy systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnston, Mark D.; Oliver, Bryan V.; Droemer, Darryl W.; Frogget, Brent; Crain, Marlon D.; Maron, Yitzhak

    2012-08-01

    This paper describes a convenient and accurate method to calibrate fast (<1 ns resolution) streaked, fiber optic light collection, spectroscopy systems. Such systems are inherently difficult to calibrate due to the lack of sufficiently intense, calibrated light sources. Such a system is used to collect spectral data on plasmas generated in electron beam diodes fielded on the RITS-6 accelerator (8-12MV, 140-200kA) at Sandia National Laboratories. On RITS, plasma light is collected through a small diameter (200 μm) optical fiber and recorded on a fast streak camera at the output of a 1 meter Czerny-Turner monochromator. For this paper, a 300 W xenon short arc lamp (Oriel Model 6258) was used as the calibration source. Since the radiance of the xenon arc varies from cathode to anode, just the area around the tip of the cathode ("hotspot") was imaged onto the fiber, to produce the highest intensity output. To compensate for chromatic aberrations, the signal was optimized at each wavelength measured. Output power was measured using 10 nm bandpass interference filters and a calibrated photodetector. These measurements give power at discrete wavelengths across the spectrum, and when linearly interpolated, provide a calibration curve for the lamp. The shape of the spectrum is determined by the collective response of the optics, monochromator, and streak tube across the spectral region of interest. The ratio of the spectral curve to the measured bandpass filter curve at each wavelength produces a correction factor (Q) curve. This curve is then applied to the experimental data and the resultant spectra are given in absolute intensity units (photons/sec/cm2/steradian/nm). Error analysis shows this method to be accurate to within +/- 20%, which represents a high level of accuracy for this type of measurement.

  10. Absolute calibration method for nanosecond-resolved, time-streaked, fiber optic light collection, spectroscopy systems.

    PubMed

    Johnston, Mark D; Oliver, Bryan V; Droemer, Darryl W; Frogget, Brent; Crain, Marlon D; Maron, Yitzhak

    2012-08-01

    This paper describes a convenient and accurate method to calibrate fast (<1 ns resolution) streaked, fiber optic light collection, spectroscopy systems. Such systems are inherently difficult to calibrate due to the lack of sufficiently intense, calibrated light sources. Such a system is used to collect spectral data on plasmas generated in electron beam diodes fielded on the RITS-6 accelerator (8-12MV, 140-200kA) at Sandia National Laboratories. On RITS, plasma light is collected through a small diameter (200 μm) optical fiber and recorded on a fast streak camera at the output of a 1 meter Czerny-Turner monochromator. For this paper, a 300 W xenon short arc lamp (Oriel Model 6258) was used as the calibration source. Since the radiance of the xenon arc varies from cathode to anode, just the area around the tip of the cathode ("hotspot") was imaged onto the fiber, to produce the highest intensity output. To compensate for chromatic aberrations, the signal was optimized at each wavelength measured. Output power was measured using 10 nm bandpass interference filters and a calibrated photodetector. These measurements give power at discrete wavelengths across the spectrum, and when linearly interpolated, provide a calibration curve for the lamp. The shape of the spectrum is determined by the collective response of the optics, monochromator, and streak tube across the spectral region of interest. The ratio of the spectral curve to the measured bandpass filter curve at each wavelength produces a correction factor (Q) curve. This curve is then applied to the experimental data and the resultant spectra are given in absolute intensity units (photons/sec/cm(2)/steradian/nm). Error analysis shows this method to be accurate to within +∕- 20%, which represents a high level of accuracy for this type of measurement. PMID:22938275

  11. Intensity evaluation using a femtosecond pulse laser for absolute distance measurement.

    PubMed

    Wu, Hanzhong; Zhang, Fumin; Li, Jianshuang; Cao, Shiying; Meng, Xiangsong; Qu, Xinghua

    2015-06-10

    In this paper, we propose a method of intensity evaluation based on different pulse models using a femtosecond pulse laser, which enables long-range absolute distance measurement with nanometer precision and large non-ambiguity range. The pulse cross-correlation is analyzed based on different pulse models, including Gaussian, Sech(2), and Lorenz. The DC intensity and the amplitude of the cross-correlation patterns are also demonstrated theoretically. In the experiments, we develop a new combined system and perform the distance measurements on an underground granite rail system. The DC intensity and amplitude of the interference fringes are measured and show a good agreement with the theory, and the distance to be determined can be up to 25 m using intensity evaluation, within 64 nm deviation compared with a He-Ne incremental interferometer, and corresponds to a relative precision of 2.7×10(-9). PMID:26192864

  12. Intensity evaluation using a femtosecond pulse laser for absolute distance measurement.

    PubMed

    Wu, Hanzhong; Zhang, Fumin; Li, Jianshuang; Cao, Shiying; Meng, Xiangsong; Qu, Xinghua

    2015-06-10

    In this paper, we propose a method of intensity evaluation based on different pulse models using a femtosecond pulse laser, which enables long-range absolute distance measurement with nanometer precision and large non-ambiguity range. The pulse cross-correlation is analyzed based on different pulse models, including Gaussian, Sech(2), and Lorenz. The DC intensity and the amplitude of the cross-correlation patterns are also demonstrated theoretically. In the experiments, we develop a new combined system and perform the distance measurements on an underground granite rail system. The DC intensity and amplitude of the interference fringes are measured and show a good agreement with the theory, and the distance to be determined can be up to 25 m using intensity evaluation, within 64 nm deviation compared with a He-Ne incremental interferometer, and corresponds to a relative precision of 2.7×10(-9).

  13. High angular resolution absolute intensity of the solar continuum from 1400 to 1790 A.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brueckner, G. E.; Moe, O. K.

    1972-01-01

    Absolute intensities of the solar UV continuum from 1400 to 1790 A have been measured from rocket spectra taken on August 13, 1970. The spectra had an angular resolution of 2 arc sec by 1 arc min, and the pointing accuracy of the instrument was plus or minus 2 arc sec. This permits us to study the center-to-limb variation of the intensity with a spatial resolution of 2 arc sec. Four positions on the solar disk have been studied corresponding to values of cos theta = 0.12, 0.22, 0.28 and 0.72, where theta is the heliocentric position angle. The measurements give higher values for the intensity than recent photoelectric measurement, but are in good agreement with the intensities of Widing et al.

  14. Measurements of absolute line intensities in carbon dioxide bands near 5.2 microns

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rinsland, C. P.; Benner, D. C.; Devi, V. M.

    1985-01-01

    A nonlinear least-squares spectral fitting procedure has been used to derive experimental absolute intensities for over 300 unblended lines belonging to twelve CO2 bands in the 5.2-micron region. The spectral data were recorded at 0.01/cm resolution and room temperature with the Fourier transform spectrometer in the McMath solar telescope complex at the National Solar Observatory on Kitt Peak and have a signal-to-rms noise ratio of 2000-4000. A natural sample of carbon dioxide was used as the sample gas. For each band, the measured line intensities have been analyzed to derive the vibrational band intensity and coefficients of the F factor. The results are compared to the values used to calculate the intensities in the 1982 Air Force Geophysics Laboratory line parameters compilation.

  15. Pixel-wise absolute phase unwrapping using geometric constraints of structured light system.

    PubMed

    An, Yatong; Hyun, Jae-Sang; Zhang, Song

    2016-08-01

    This paper presents a method to unwrap phase pixel by pixel by solely using geometric constraints of the structured light system without requiring additional image acquisition or another camera. Specifically, an artificial absolute phase map, Φmin, at a given virtual depth plane z = zmin, is created from geometric constraints of the calibrated structured light system; the wrapped phase is pixel-by-pixel unwrapped by referring to Φmin. Since Φmin is defined in the projector space, the unwrapped phase obtained from this method is absolute for each pixel. Experimental results demonstrate the success of this proposed novel absolute phase unwrapping method. PMID:27505808

  16. Photoprotection of photosystems in fluctuating light intensities.

    PubMed

    Allahverdiyeva, Yagut; Suorsa, Marjaana; Tikkanen, Mikko; Aro, Eva-Mari

    2015-05-01

    Oxygenic photosynthetic organisms experience strong fluctuations in light intensity in their natural terrestrial and aquatic growth environments. Recent studies with both plants and cyanobacteria have revealed that Photosystem (PS) I is the potential target of damage upon abrupt changes in light intensity. Photosynthetic organisms have, however, developed powerful mechanisms in order to protect their photosynthetic apparatus against such potentially hazardous light conditions. Although the electron transfer chain has remained relatively unchanged in both plant chloroplasts and their cyanobacterial ancestors, the photoprotective and regulatory mechanisms of photosynthetic light reactions have experienced conspicuous evolutionary changes. In cyanobacteria, the specific flavodiiron proteins (Flv1 and Flv3) are responsible for safeguarding PSI under rapidly fluctuating light intensities, whilst the thylakoid located terminal oxidases are involved in the protection of PSII during 12h diurnal cycles involving abrupt, square-wave, changes from dark to high light. Higher plants such as Arabidopsis thaliana have evolved different protective mechanisms. In particular, the PGR5 protein controls electron flow during sudden changes in light intensity by allowing the regulation mostly via the Cytochrome b6f complex. Besides the function of PGR5, plants have also acquired other dynamic regulatory mechanisms, among them the STN7-related LHCII protein phosphorylation that is similarly responsible for protection against rapid changes in the light environment. The green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii, as an evolutionary intermediate between cyanobacteria and higher plants, probably possesses both protective mechanisms. In this review, evolutionarily different photoprotective mechanisms under fluctuating light conditions are described and their contributions to cyanobacterial and plant photosynthesis are discussed.

  17. Trapping of intense light in hollow shell

    SciTech Connect

    Luan, Shixia; Yu, Wei; Yu, M. Y.; Weng, Suming; Wang, Jingwei; Xu, Han; Zhuo, Hongbin; Wong, A. Y.

    2015-09-15

    A small hollow shell for trapping laser light is proposed. Two-dimensional particle-in-cell simulation shows that under appropriate laser and plasma conditions a part of the radiation fields of an intense short laser pulse can enter the cavity of a small shell through an over-critical density plasma in an adjacent guide channel and become trapped. The trapped light evolves into a circulating radial wave pattern until its energy is dissipated.

  18. Absolute intensity measurements of CO2 bands in the 2395-2680/cm region

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Malathy Devi, V.; Benner, D. C.; Rinsland, C. P.

    1984-01-01

    Absolute intensities for over 800 transitions belonging to twelve bands of (C-12)(O-16)2, (O-16)(C-12)(O-18), (O-16)(C-12)(O-17), and (O-16)(C-13)(O-18) molecules in the 2395-2680/cm spectral region have been derived using a nonlinear least-squares spectral fitting procedure. The data used in the analysis were recorded at room temperature and low pressure with the 0.01/cm resolution Fourier transform spectrometer in the McMath solar telescope complex at the National Solar Observatory. The measured intensities obtained for each band have been analyzed to derive the vibrational band intensity and F-factor coefficients. The results are compared with other published values.

  19. Cathodoluminescent Source of Intense White Light

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Foster, John E.

    2007-01-01

    The device described exploits cathodoluminescence to generate intense light in the visible and near-infrared regions of the spectrum. In this device, the material to be excited to luminescence is a layer of quartz or alumina powder on an electrically conductive plate exposed to a low-pressure plasma discharge. The plate is electrically biased positively to collect electron current.

  20. Rapidly pulsed, high intensity, incoherent light source

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Evans, J. C., Jr.; Brandhorst, H. W., Jr. (Inventor)

    1974-01-01

    A rapid pulsing, high intensity, incoherent light is produced by selectively energizing a plurality of discharge lamps with a triggering circuit. Each lamp is connected to a capacitor, and a power supply is electrically connected to all but one of the capacitors. This last named capacitor is electrically connected to a discharge lamp which is connected to the triggering circuit.

  1. Current Trends in Intense Pulsed Light

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Intense pulsed light technologies have evolved significantly since their introduction to the medical community 20 years ago. Now such devices can be used safely and effectively for the cosmetic treatment of many vascular lesions, unwanted hair, and pigmented lesions. Newer technologies often give results equal to those of laser treatments. PMID:22768357

  2. Infrared mapping of ultrasound fields generated by medical transducers: Feasibility of determining absolute intensity levels

    PubMed Central

    Khokhlova, Vera A.; Shmeleva, Svetlana M.; Gavrilov, Leonid R.; Martin, Eleanor; Sadhoo, Neelaksh; Shaw, Adam

    2013-01-01

    Considerable progress has been achieved in the use of infrared (IR) techniques for qualitative mapping of acoustic fields of high intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) transducers. The authors have previously developed and demonstrated a method based on IR camera measurement of the temperature rise induced in an absorber less than 2 mm thick by ultrasonic bursts of less than 1 s duration. The goal of this paper was to make the method more quantitative and estimate the absolute intensity distributions by determining an overall calibration factor for the absorber and camera system. The implemented approach involved correlating the temperature rise measured in an absorber using an IR camera with the pressure distribution measured in water using a hydrophone. The measurements were conducted for two HIFU transducers and a flat physiotherapy transducer of 1 MHz frequency. Corresponding correction factors between the free field intensity and temperature were obtained and allowed the conversion of temperature images to intensity distributions. The system described here was able to map in good detail focused and unfocused ultrasound fields with sub-millimeter structure and with local time average intensity from below 0.1 W/cm2 to at least 50 W/cm2. Significantly higher intensities could be measured simply by reducing the duty cycle. PMID:23927199

  3. The speed of light perturbation in absolute gravimeters from the viewpoint of ‘relativistic geometry’

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shao, Cheng-Gang; Tan, Yu-Jie; Li, Jia; Hu, Zhong-Kun

    2015-04-01

    In the past few years, the perturbation due to the finite speed of light was among the most inconsistent in corner-cube absolute gravimeters. For the relativistic treatment of the perturbation based on Lorentz transformation, the relation between Doppler shift in special relativity and time delay in classical domain is easily misunderstood, leading to spurious conclusions. To avoid these issues, we apply a ‘relativistic geometrical method’ based on the motion of photons to calculate the frequency shift in corner-cube absolute gravimeters, where the misunderstood relation has been corrected. Additionally, we find that the modern corner-cube absolute gravimeters cannot sense effects of the special relativity.

  4. Absolute line intensities in CO2 bands near 4.8 microns

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rinsland, C. P.; Benner, D. C.; Devi, V. M.

    1986-01-01

    Absolute intensities for 726 unblended lines in 20 bands of C-12(O-16)2, C-13(O-16)2, O-16C-12O-18, and O-16C-12O-17 in the 4.8-micron spectral region have been determined using a natural sample of ultrahigh-purity CO2. Spectral data were recorded at low pressure (less than 10 torr) and room temperature with the Fourier transform spectrometer in the McMath solar telescope complex on Kitt Peak. Derived vibrational band intensities and coefficients of the F factor for each band were compared to values of the 1982 Air Force Geophysics Laboratory line parameters compilation. The present work fills out the CO2 lines in the 5-micron band systems. Lines in the strongest of these measured bands are being used to infer atmospheric pressure from high-resolution stratospheric spectra recorded during the Spacelab 3 Atmospheric Trace Molecule Spectroscopy experiment.

  5. Correction due to the finite speed of light in absolute gravimeters Correction due to the finite speed of light in absolute gravimeters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nagornyi, V. D.; Zanimonskiy, Y. M.; Zanimonskiy, Y. Y.

    2011-06-01

    Equations (45) and (47) in our paper [1] in this issue have incorrect sign and should read \\tilde T_i=T_i+{b\\mp S_i\\over c},\\cr\\tilde T_i=T_i\\mp {S_i\\over c}. The error traces back to our formula (3), inherited from the paper [2]. According to the technical documentation [3, 4], the formula (3) is implemented by several commercially available instruments. An incorrect sign would cause a bias of about 20 µGal not known for these instruments, which probably indicates that the documentation incorrectly reflects the implemented measurement equation. Our attention to the error was drawn by the paper [5], also in this issue, where the sign is mentioned correctly. References [1] Nagornyi V D, Zanimonskiy Y M and Zanimonskiy Y Y 2011 Correction due to the finite speed of light in absolute gravimeters Metrologia 48 101-13 [2] Niebauer T M, Sasagawa G S, Faller J E, Hilt R and Klopping F 1995 A new generation of absolute gravimeters Metrologia 32 159-80 [3] Micro-g LaCoste, Inc. 2006 FG5 Absolute Gravimeter Users Manual [4] Micro-g LaCoste, Inc. 2007 g7 Users Manual [5] Niebauer T M, Billson R, Ellis B, Mason B, van Westrum D and Klopping F 2011 Simultaneous gravity and gradient measurements from a recoil-compensated absolute gravimeter Metrologia 48 154-63

  6. Spectrophotometric and colorimetric evaluation of staining of the light cured composite after exposure with different intensities of light curing units

    PubMed Central

    Chandrasekhar, Veeramachaneni; Reddy, L Pramod; Prakash, T Jaya; Rao, G Anitha; Pradeep, M

    2011-01-01

    Aim/Objective: To understand the importance of intensity of light in polymerizing light cured composites and its relation to color stability. Materials and Methods: Forty specimens of composite disc with 3mm diameter and 1.5 mm thick were divided into two groups of 20 samples each. Group1: Twenty samples were cured with a light curing unit of380mw/cm2. Group2: Twenty samples cured with a light curing unit of 680mw/cm2. These polymerized samples were immersed in methylene blue dye for 24hoursand later washed and immersed in absolute alcohol for 24 hours. The amount of color released into absolute alcohol was assessed by spectrophotometric and colorimetric analysis. Results: Results were analyzed for spectrophotometric and colorimetric values by using the Mann-Whitney test. The group cured with low intensity light stained more compared to the group cured with a normal intensity of light. Conclusions: Intensity of light plays a crucial role in staining of the polymerized light cured composite. The intensity of the curing unit has to be maintained in acceptable limits to achieve good clinical results. PMID:22144810

  7. Zeeman effect induced by intense laser light.

    PubMed

    Stambulchik, E; Maron, Y

    2014-08-22

    We analyze spectral line shapes of hydrogenlike species subjected to fields of electromagnetic waves. It is shown that the magnetic component of an electromagnetic wave may significantly influence the spectra. In particular, the Zeeman effect induced by a visible or infrared light can be experimentally observed using present-day powerful lasers. In addition, the effect may be used for diagnostics of focused beam intensities achieved at existing and newly built laser facilities. PMID:25192094

  8. Zeeman effect induced by intense laser light.

    PubMed

    Stambulchik, E; Maron, Y

    2014-08-22

    We analyze spectral line shapes of hydrogenlike species subjected to fields of electromagnetic waves. It is shown that the magnetic component of an electromagnetic wave may significantly influence the spectra. In particular, the Zeeman effect induced by a visible or infrared light can be experimentally observed using present-day powerful lasers. In addition, the effect may be used for diagnostics of focused beam intensities achieved at existing and newly built laser facilities.

  9. Absolute intensities of CO2 lines in the 3140-3410/cm spectral region

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Benner, D. Chris; Devi, V. Malathy; Ferry-Leeper, Penelope S.; Rinsland, Curtis P.

    1988-01-01

    Absolute intensities for 430 transitions belonging to eleven rotation-vibration bands of (C-12)(O-16)2, (C-13)(O-16)2, and (O-16)(C-18)(O-18) in the 3140-3410/cm spectral region have been determined by analyzing spectra recorded at 0.01/cm resolution with the Fourier transform spectrometer in the McMath solar telescope complex at the National Solar Observatory on Kitt Peak. The data were recorded at room temperature and low pressures (less than 10 torr) using a natural sample of carbon dioxide. Intensities were derived using a nonlinear least-squares spectral fitting procedure, and the values obtained for each band have been analyzed to determine the vibrational band intensity and nonrigid rotor coefficients. An alternative mathematical formulation is shown in the case of bands for which the Coriolis effect is large and the Q-branch line intensities were not determinable either because they were severely blended or absent from the spectra. Comparison are made between the results obtained in this study and other published values.

  10. Absolute intensities of CO(2) lines in the 3140-3410-cm(-1) spectral region.

    PubMed

    Benner, D C; Devi, V M; Rinsland, C P; Ferry-Leeper, P S

    1988-04-15

    Absolute intensities for 430 transitions belonging to eleven rotation-vibration bands of (12)C(16)O(2),(13)C(16)O(2) and(16)O(12)C(18)O in the 3140-3410-cm(-1) spectral region have been determined by analyzing spectra recorded at 0.01-cm(-1) resolution with the Fourier transform spectrometer in the McMath solar telescope complex at the National Solar Observatory on Kitt Peak. The data were recorded at room temperature and low pressures (<10 Torr) using a natural sample of carbon dioxide. Intensities were derived using a nonlinear least-squares spectral fitting procedure, and the values obtained for each band have been analyzed to determine the vibrational band intensity and nonrigid rotor coefficients. An alternative mathematical formulation is shown in the case of bands for which the Coriolis effect is large and the Q-branch line intensities were not determinate either because they were severely blended or absent from the spectra. Comparisons are made between the results obtained in this study and other published values.

  11. [Calculation method of absolute quantum yields in photocatalytic slurry reactor based on cylindrical light].

    PubMed

    Shen, Xun-wei; Yuan, Chun-wei

    2005-01-01

    Heterogeneous photocatalysis in slurry reactors have the particular characteristic that the catalyst particles not only absorb but also scatter photons so the radiation scattering can not be neglected. However, it is very difficult in mathematics to obtain the rigorous solution of the radiative transfer equation. Consequently present methods, in which the apparent quantum yields can be calculated by employing the incident radiation intensity, always underestimate quantum yields calculations. In this paper, a method is developed to produce absolute values of photocatalytic quantum yields in slurry reactor based on cylindrical UV light source. In a typical laboratory reactor (diameter equal to 5.6 cm and length equal to 10 cm) the values for the photocatalytic degradation of phenol are reported under precisely defined conditions. The true value of the local volumetric rate of photon absorption (LVRPA) can be obtained. It was shown that apparent quantum yields differ from true quantum yields 7.08% and that for the same geometric arrangement, vanishing fraction accounts for 1.1% of the incident radiation. The method can be used to compare reactivity of different catalysts or, for a given catalyst, reactivity with different model compounds and as a principle to design a reactor.

  12. Muscle Activation During Exercise in Severe Acute Hypoxia: Role of Absolute and Relative Intensity

    PubMed Central

    Torres-Peralta, Rafael; Losa-Reyna, José; González-Izal, Miriam; Perez-Suarez, Ismael; Calle-Herrero, Jaime; Izquierdo, Mikel

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Torres-Peralta, Rafael, José Losa-Reyna, Miriam González-Izal, Ismael Perez-Suarez, Jaime Calle-Herrero, Mikel Izquierdo, and José A.L. Calbet. Muscle activation during exercise in severe acute hypoxia: Role of absolute and relative intensity. High Alt Med Biol 15:472–482, 2014.—The aim of this study was to determine the influence of severe acute hypoxia on muscle activation during whole body dynamic exercise. Eleven young men performed four incremental cycle ergometer tests to exhaustion breathing normoxic (FIo2=0.21, two tests) or hypoxic gas (FIo2=0.108, two tests). Surface electromyography (EMG) activities of rectus femoris (RF), vastus medialis (VL), vastus lateralis (VL), and biceps femoris (BF) were recorded. The two normoxic and the two hypoxic tests were averaged to reduce EMG variability. Peak Vo2 was 34% lower in hypoxia than in normoxia (p<0.05). The EMG root mean square (RMS) increased with exercise intensity in all muscles (p<0.05), with greater effect in hypoxia than in normoxia in the RF and VM (p<0.05), and a similar trend in VL (p=0.10). At the same relative intensity, the RMS was greater in normoxia than in hypoxia in RF, VL, and BF (p<0.05), with a similar trend in VM (p=0.08). Median frequency increased with exercise intensity (p<0.05), and was higher in hypoxia than in normoxia in VL (p<0.05). Muscle contraction burst duration increased with exercise intensity in VM and VL (p<0.05), without clear effects of FIo2. No significant FIo2 effects on frequency domain indices were observed when compared at the same relative intensity. In conclusion, muscle activation during whole body exercise increases almost linearly with exercise intensity, following a muscle-specific pattern, which is adjusted depending on the FIo2 and the relative intensity of exercise. Both VL and VM are increasingly involved in power output generation with the increase of intensity and the reduction in FIo2. PMID:25225839

  13. 14 CFR 25.1389 - Position light distribution and intensities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Position light distribution and intensities... light distribution and intensities. (a) General. The intensities prescribed in this section must be... normal operating voltage of the airplane. The light distribution and intensity of each position...

  14. 14 CFR 29.1389 - Position light distribution and intensities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Position light distribution and intensities... Position light distribution and intensities. (a) General. The intensities prescribed in this section must... source at the normal operating voltage of the rotorcraft. The light distribution and intensity of...

  15. Absolute continuum intensity diagnostics of a novel large coaxial gridded hollow cathode argon plasma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Ruilin; Yuan, Chengxun; Li, Hui; Jia, Jieshu; Zhou, Zhong-Xiang; Wu, Jian; Wang, Ying; Wang, Xiaoou

    2016-08-01

    This paper reports a novel coaxial gridded hollow discharge during operation at low pressure (20 Pa-80 Pa) in an argon atmosphere. A homogeneous hollow discharge was observed under different conditions, and the excitation mechanism and the discharge parameters for the hollow cathode plasma were examined at length. An optical emission spectrometry (OES) method, with a special focus on absolute continuum intensity method, was employed to measure the plasma parameters. The Langmuir probe measurement (LPM) was used to verify the OES results. Both provided electron density values (ne) in the order of 1016 m-3 for different plasma settings. Taken together, the results show that the OES method is an effective approach to diagnosing the similar plasma, especially when the LPM is hardly operated.

  16. 33 CFR 84.15 - Intensity of lights.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Intensity of lights. 84.15... NAVIGATION RULES ANNEX I: POSITIONING AND TECHNICAL DETAILS OF LIGHTS AND SHAPES § 84.15 Intensity of lights. (a) The minimum luminous intensity of lights shall be calculated by using the formula:...

  17. 33 CFR 84.15 - Intensity of lights.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Intensity of lights. 84.15... NAVIGATION RULES ANNEX I: POSITIONING AND TECHNICAL DETAILS OF LIGHTS AND SHAPES § 84.15 Intensity of lights. (a) The minimum luminous intensity of lights shall be calculated by using the formula:...

  18. 33 CFR 84.15 - Intensity of lights.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Intensity of lights. 84.15... NAVIGATION RULES ANNEX I: POSITIONING AND TECHNICAL DETAILS OF LIGHTS AND SHAPES § 84.15 Intensity of lights. (a) The minimum luminous intensity of lights will be calculated by using the formula: I=3.43×106...

  19. 33 CFR 84.15 - Intensity of lights.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Intensity of lights. 84.15... NAVIGATION RULES ANNEX I: POSITIONING AND TECHNICAL DETAILS OF LIGHTS AND SHAPES § 84.15 Intensity of lights. (a) The minimum luminous intensity of lights will be calculated by using the formula: I=3.43×106...

  20. 33 CFR 84.15 - Intensity of lights.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Intensity of lights. 84.15... NAVIGATION RULES ANNEX I: POSITIONING AND TECHNICAL DETAILS OF LIGHTS AND SHAPES § 84.15 Intensity of lights. (a) The minimum luminous intensity of lights will be calculated by using the formula: I = 3.43 ×...

  1. Dark Light, Rod Saturation, and the Absolute and Incremental Sensitivity of Mouse Cone Vision

    PubMed Central

    Naarendorp, Frank; Esdaille, Tricia M.; Banden, Serenity M.; Andrews-Labenski, John; Gross, Owen P.; Pugh, Edward N.

    2012-01-01

    Visual thresholds of mice for the detection of small, brief targets were measured with a novel behavioral methodology in the dark and in the presence of adapting lights spanning ∼8 log10 units of intensity. To help dissect the contributions of rod and cone pathways, both wild-type mice and mice lacking rod (Gnat1−/−) or cone (Gnat2cpfl3) function were studied. Overall, the visual sensitivity of mice was found to be remarkably similar to that of the human peripheral retina. Rod absolute threshold corresponded to 12-15 isomerized pigment molecules (R*) in image fields of 800 to 3000 rods. Rod “dark light” (intrinsic retinal noise in darkness) corresponded to that estimated previously from single-cell recordings, 0.012R*s−1rod−1, indicating that spontaneous thermalisomerizations are responsible. Psychophysical rod saturation was measured for the first time in a nonhman species and found to be very similar to that of the human rod monochromat. Cone threshold corresponded to ∼5 R* cone−1 in an image field of 280 cones. Cone dark light was equivalent to ∼5000 R*s−1 cone−1, consistent with primate single-cell data but 100-fold higher than predicted by recent measurements of the rate of thermal isomerization of mouse cone opsins, indicating that nonopsin sources of noise determine cone threshold. The new, fully automated behavioral method is based on the ability of mice to learn to interrupt spontaneous wheel running on the presentation of a visual cue and provides an efficient and highly reliable means of examining visual function in naturally behaving normal and mutant mice. PMID:20844144

  2. Lasers and Intense Pulsed Light Hidradenitis Suppurativa.

    PubMed

    Saunte, Ditte M; Lapins, Jan

    2016-01-01

    Lasers and intense pulsed light (IPL) treatment are useful for the treatment of hidradenitis suppurativa (HS). Carbon dioxide lasers are used for cutting or vaporization of the affected area. It is a effective therapy for the management of severe and recalcitrant HS with persistent sinus tract and scarring, and can be performed under local anesthesia. HS has a follicular pathogenesis. Lasers and IPL targeting the hair have been found useful in treating HS by reducing the numbers of hairs in areas with HS. The methods have few side effects, but the studies are preliminary and need to be repeated. PMID:26617364

  3. Lasers and Intense Pulsed Light Hidradenitis Suppurativa.

    PubMed

    Saunte, Ditte M; Lapins, Jan

    2016-01-01

    Lasers and intense pulsed light (IPL) treatment are useful for the treatment of hidradenitis suppurativa (HS). Carbon dioxide lasers are used for cutting or vaporization of the affected area. It is a effective therapy for the management of severe and recalcitrant HS with persistent sinus tract and scarring, and can be performed under local anesthesia. HS has a follicular pathogenesis. Lasers and IPL targeting the hair have been found useful in treating HS by reducing the numbers of hairs in areas with HS. The methods have few side effects, but the studies are preliminary and need to be repeated.

  4. High Intensity Organic Light-emitting Diodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qi, Xiangfei

    This thesis is dedicated to the fabrication, modeling, and characterization to achieve high efficiency organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs) for illumination applications. Compared to conventional lighting sources, OLEDs enabled the direct conversion of electrical energy into light emission and have intrigued the world's lighting designers with the long-lasting, highly efficient illumination. We begin with a brief overview of organic technology, from basic organic semiconductor physics, to its application in optoelectronics, i.e. light-emitting diodes, photovoltaics, photodetectors and thin-film transistors. Due to the importance of phosphorescent materials, we will focus on the photophysics of metal complexes that is central to high efficiency OLED technology, followed by a transient study to examine the radiative decay dynamics in a series of phosphorescent platinum binuclear complexes. The major theme of this thesis is the design and optimization of a novel architecture where individual red, green and blue phosphorescent OLEDs are vertically stacked and electrically interconnected by the compound charge generation layers. We modeled carrier generation from the metal-oxide/doped organic interface based on a thermally assisted tunneling mechanism. The model provides insights to the optimization of a stacked OLED from both electrical and optical point of view. To realize the high intensity white lighting source, the efficient removal of heat is of a particular concern, especially in large-area devices. A fundamental transfer matrix analysis is introduced to predict the thermal properties in the devices. The analysis employs Laplace transforms to determine the response of the system to the combined effects of conduction, convection, and radiation. This perspective of constructing transmission matrices greatly facilitates the calculation of transient coupled heat transfer in a general multi-layer composite. It converts differential equations to algebraic forms, and

  5. Absolute Configuration from Different Multifragmentation Pathways in Light-Induced Coulomb Explosion Imaging.

    PubMed

    Pitzer, Martin; Kastirke, Gregor; Kunitski, Maksim; Jahnke, Till; Bauer, Tobias; Goihl, Christoph; Trinter, Florian; Schober, Carl; Henrichs, Kevin; Becht, Jasper; Zeller, Stefan; Gassert, Helena; Waitz, Markus; Kuhlins, Andreas; Sann, Hendrik; Sturm, Felix; Wiegandt, Florian; Wallauer, Robert; Schmidt, Lothar Ph H; Johnson, Allan S; Mazenauer, Manuel; Spenger, Benjamin; Marquardt, Sabrina; Marquardt, Sebastian; Schmidt-Böcking, Horst; Stohner, Jürgen; Dörner, Reinhard; Schöffler, Markus; Berger, Robert

    2016-08-18

    The absolute configuration of individual small molecules in the gas phase can be determined directly by light-induced Coulomb explosion imaging (CEI). Herein, this approach is demonstrated for ionization with a single X-ray photon from a synchrotron light source, leading to enhanced efficiency and faster fragmentation as compared to previous experiments with a femtosecond laser. In addition, it is shown that even incomplete fragmentation pathways of individual molecules from a racemic CHBrClF sample can give access to the absolute configuration in CEI. This leads to a significant increase of the applicability of the method as compared to the previously reported complete break-up into atomic ions and can pave the way for routine stereochemical analysis of larger chiral molecules by light-induced CEI. PMID:27298209

  6. Spectroscopic determination of electrical conductivity in an MHD duct from absolute intensity measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wang, S. Y.; Smith, M.

    1977-01-01

    Measurements of the electrical conductivity in the NASA Lewis cesium seeded, H2-O2 MHD duct have been previously reported. In order to corroborate the above measurements and to analyze the possibility of nonuniform seed injection as a cause of the deviations, a spectroscopic investigation of the plasma conductivity has been undertaken. Transverse profiles of the absolute integrated intensity were measured from the optically thin lines of CSI-.5664 microns and .5636 microns. Radial profiles of emission coefficient were obtained from the measured transverse profiles of intensity by Abel inversion. Radial profiles of electrical conductivity were then obtained under two different assumptions. In the first, the Cs seed fraction is assumed uniform and equal to the measured flow rate at the time when the temperature and conductivity were obtained. In the second method, the local temperature and pressure are taken to be those given by a one-dimensional channel calculation including heat transfer and friction. In this case profiles of conductivity and seed fractions are obtained. The results of the two methods are compared to the previously measured conductivity.

  7. Variation in light intensity with height and time from subsequent lightning return strokes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jordan, D. M.; Uman, M. A.

    1983-01-01

    Photographic measurements of relative light intensity as a function of height and time have been conducted for seven return strokes in two lightning flashes at 7.8 and 8.7 km ranges, using film which possesses an approximately constant spectral response in the 300-670 nm range. The amplitude of the initial light peak is noted to decrease exponentially with height, with a decay constant of 0.6-0.8 km. The logarithm of the peak light intensity near the ground is found to be approximately proportional to the initial peak electric field intensity, implying that the current decrease with height may be much slower than the light decrease. Absolute light intensity is presently estimated through the integration of the photographic signals from individual channel segments, in order to simulate the calibrated, all-sky photoelectric data of Guo and Krider (1982).

  8. Experimental assessment of the speed of light perturbation in free-fall absolute gravimeters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baumann, H.; Pythoud, F.; Blas, D.; Sibiryakov, S.; Eichenberger, A.; Klingelé, E. E.

    2015-10-01

    Precision absolute gravity measurements are growing in importance, especially in the context of the new definition of the kilogram. For the case of free fall absolute gravimeters with a Michelson-type interferometer tracking the position of a free falling body, one of the effects that needs to be taken into account is the ‘speed of light perturbation’ due to the finite speed of propagation of light. This effect has been extensively discussed in the past, and there is at present a disagreement between different studies. In this work, we present the analysis of new data and confirm the result expected from the theoretical analysis applied nowadays in free-fall gravimeters. We also review the standard derivations of this effect (by using phase shift or Doppler effect arguments) and show their equivalence.

  9. Spectroscopic determination of electrical conductivity in an MHD duct from absolute intensity measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wang, S. Y.; Smith, J. M.

    1977-01-01

    Measurements of the electrical conductivity in the NASA Lewis cesium seeded, H2-O2 MHD duct made by applying a voltage across the channel from one end electrode to the other, measuring the current, and using the inner electrodes as probes to monitor the voltage distribution along the channel were found to be in good agreement with theory except at low combustion pressures and/or high ratios of seed/oxygen mass flows. To corroborate these measurements and to analyze the possibility of nonuniform seed injection as a cause of the above deviations, a spectroscopic investigation of the plasma conductivity was undertaken. Radial profiles of emission coefficient were obtained from measured transverse profiles of the absolute integrated intensity by Abel inversion. Radial profiles of electrical conductivity were then obtained under two different assumptions. In the first the Cs seed fraction is assumed uniform and equal to the measured flow rate at the time when the temperature and conductivity were obtained. In the second method the local temperature and pressure are taken to be those given by a one-dimensional channel calculation including heat transfer and friction. The results of the two methods are compared to the previously measured conductivity.

  10. Seasonal absolute acoustic intensity, atmospheric forcing and currents in a tropical coral reef system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Jesús Salas Pérez, José; Salas-Monreal, David; Monreal-Gómez, María Adela; Riveron-Enzastiga, Mayra Lorena; Llasat, Carme

    2012-03-01

    The seasonal patterns of marine circulation and biovolume were obtained from time-series measurements carried out in the "Parque Nacional Sistema Arrecifal Veracruzano" (PNSAV), located in the western continental shelf of the Gulf of Mexico, from June 2008 to September 2009. Two mechanisms were depicted as the responsible for the current pattern observed in the PNSAV and not only one as suggested in large-scale studies. The first mechanism is the wind generated currents. This mechanism by itself is responsible for up to 78% of total variation of the seasonal circulation in the PNSAV as estimated with the first mode of the EOF's (Empirical Orthogonal Functions), which was correlated (Normalized Lagged Correlation) with the north-south wind component. Therefore, the wind and the first mode were highly correlated for most of the year (r > 0.7). The second mode was attributed to the low frequency current, associated to the meso-scale circulation of the Gulf of Mexico, owing to the cyclonic eddy of the Campeche Bay. Both mechanisms were mostly observed throughout the year. Nevertheless, the cyclonic eddy of the Campeche Bay (meso-scale) was the first responsible for the current fluctuations observed during the summer of 2008 and 2009. The absolute acoustic intensity (plankton biovolumes) was highly correlated to currents, showing high spatial variability, attributed to advection produced by the meso-scale circulation and to river discharges, but also by eddy diffusion produced by atmospheric and coastal water fronts.

  11. Absolute intensity calibration of two-channel prototype ITER vacuum ultraviolet spectrometer with a collimating mirror.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seon, Changrae; Hong, Joohwan; Cheon, Munseong; Pak, Sunil; Lee, Hyeongon; Biel, Wolfgang; Barnsley, Robin

    2012-10-01

    To optimize the design of ITER vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) spectrometer, a two-channel prototype spectrometer was implemented with No. 3 (14.4 nm -- 31.8 nm) and No. 4 (29.0 nm -- 60.0 nm) among the five channels. The prototype is composed of a toroidal mirror, and two toroidal diffraction gratings and two different detectors of the back-illuminated CCD and the micro-channel plate (MCP). To verify each optical component, the absolute intensity calibration was performed using the calibrated hollow cathode lamp. Inverse sensitivities of each spectrometer were derived by dividing the incident photon numbers with the measured detector counts. The measured sensitivity values were consistent with the sensitivities calculated from the grating and the detector efficiencies. Consequently the calibration curves of the two-channel VUV spectrometer were provided, and the mirror reflectivity and the detector efficiency could be confirmed experimentally. For the application of the calibrated spectrometer, measurements of impurity lines in KSTAR plasmas were performed, and the line integrated emissivity was derived from the calibration curve during impurity injection experiments.

  12. Ultrahigh enhancement in absolute and relative rotation sensing using fast and slow light

    SciTech Connect

    Shahriar, M. S.; Pati, G. S.; Tripathi, R.; Gopal, V.; Messall, M.; Salit, K.

    2007-05-15

    We describe a resonator-based optical gyroscope whose sensitivity for measuring absolute rotation is enhanced via use of the anomalous dispersion characteristic of superluminal light propagation. The enhancement is given by the inverse of the group index, saturating to a bound determined by the group velocity dispersion. We also show how the offsetting effect of the concomitant broadening of the resonator linewidth may be circumvented by using an active cavity. For realistic conditions, the enhancement factor is as high as 10{sup 6}. We also show how normal dispersion used for slow light can enhance relative rotation sensing in a specially designed Sagnac interferometer, with the enhancement given by the slowing factor.

  13. Measurement of the speed-of-light perturbation of free-fall absolute gravimeters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rothleitner, Ch; Niebauer, T. M.; Francis, O.

    2014-06-01

    We report on a direct measurement of the relativistic Doppler shift with a commercial free-fall absolute gravimeter of the type FG5X. The observed Doppler shift, which is commonly called speed-of-light perturbation, can be well described by the relativistic Doppler formula, where the constant object velocity is replaced by a time-dependent velocity with constant acceleration. The observed speed-of-light perturbation stands in contrast to other publications, which predict a higher frequency shift. It has been measured with a relative uncertainty of 1.1 × 10-3.

  14. Absolute intensity measurements of the CO2 bands 401-III /backward arrow/ 000 and 411-III /backward arrow/ 010

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Valero, F. P. J.

    1977-01-01

    The absolute intensities of the studied transitions of CO2 have been measured from spectra obtained under high resolution. Vibration-rotation line intensities and integrated band intensities are reported. The studied bands are characterized by origins at 7593.5 and 7584 cm to the minus 1. Spectra were obtained by an Ames' 25-m base path White-type absorption cell equipped with silver-coated mirrors together with a 5-m focal length Czerny-Turner scanning spectrometer. The procedures for calculating the widths and intensities are explained, and uncertainty limits of the reported values are considered.

  15. Effective light absorption and absolute electron transport rates in the coral Pocillopora damicornis.

    PubMed

    Szabó, Milán; Wangpraseurt, Daniel; Tamburic, Bojan; Larkum, Anthony W D; Schreiber, Ulrich; Suggett, David J; Kühl, Michael; Ralph, Peter J

    2014-10-01

    Pulse Amplitude Modulation (PAM) fluorometry has been widely used to estimate the relative photosynthetic efficiency of corals. However, both the optical properties of intact corals as well as past technical constrains to PAM fluorometers have prevented calculations of the electron turnover rate of PSII. We used a new Multi-colour PAM (MC-PAM) in parallel with light microsensors to determine for the first time the wavelength-specific effective absorption cross-section of PSII photochemistry, σII(λ), and thus PAM-based absolute electron transport rates of the coral photosymbiont Symbiodinium both in culture and in hospite in the coral Pocillopora damicornis. In both cases, σII of Symbiodinium was highest in the blue spectral region and showed a progressive decrease towards red wavelengths. Absolute values for σII at 440 nm were up to 1.5-times higher in culture than in hospite. Scalar irradiance within the living coral tissue was reduced by 20% in the blue when compared to the incident downwelling irradiance. Absolute electron transport rates of P. damicornis at 440 nm revealed a maximum PSII turnover rate of ca. 250 electrons PSII(-1) s(-1), consistent with one PSII turnover for every 4 photons absorbed by PSII; this likely reflects the limiting steps in electron transfer between PSII and PSI. Our results show that optical properties of the coral host strongly affect light use efficiency of Symbiodinium. Therefore, relative electron transport rates do not reflect the productivity rates (or indeed how the photosynthesis-light response is parameterised). Here we provide a non-invasive approach to estimate absolute electron transport rates in corals.

  16. Evaluation of White Light Sources For an Absolute Fiber Optic Sensor Readout System

    SciTech Connect

    McConaghy, C F

    2003-10-10

    This report summarizes work done in pursuit of an absolute readout system for Fabry-Perot optics sensors such as those built both by FISO and LLNL. The use of white light results in a short coherence length reducing the ambiguity of the Fabry-Perot gap measurement which is required to readout the sensor. The light source coherence length is the critical parameter in determining the ability to build a relative or an absolute system. Optical sources such as lasers and LEDs are rather narrow in optical spectral bandwidth and have long coherence length. Thus, when used in interferometric sensor measurements, one fringe looks much like another and it is difficult to make an absolute measurement. In contrast, white light sources are much broader in spectral bandwidth and have very short coherence lengths making interferometry possible only over the coherence length, which can be 1 or 2 microns. The small number of fringes in the interferogram make it easier to calculate the centroid and to unambiguously determine the sensor gap. However, unlike LEDs and Lasers, white light sources have very low optical power when coupled into optical fibers. Although, the overall light output of a white light source can be hundreds of milliwatts to watts, it is difficult to couple more than microwatts into a 50-micron core optical fiber. In addition, white light sources have a large amount of optical power in spectrum that is not necessarily useful in terms of sensor measurements. The reflectivity of a quarter wave of Titanium Oxide is depicted in Figure 2. This coating of Titanium Oxide is used in the fabrication of the sensor. This figure shows that any light emitted at wavelengths shorter than 600 nm is not too useful for the readout system. A white light LED spectrum is depicted in Figure 3 and shows much of the spectrum below 600 nm. In addition Silicon photodiodes are usually used in the readout system limiting the longest wavelength to about 1100 nm. Tungsten filament sources may

  17. Unconventional Use of Intense Pulsed Light

    PubMed Central

    Piccolo, D.; Di Marcantonio, D.; Crisman, G.; Cannarozzo, G.; Sannino, M.; Chiricozzi, A.; Chimenti, S.

    2014-01-01

    According to the literature, intense pulsed light (IPL) represents a versatile tool in the treatment of some dermatological conditions (i.e., pigmentation disorders, hair removal, and acne), due to its wide range of wavelengths. The authors herein report on 58 unconventional but effective uses of IPL in several cutaneous diseases, such as rosacea (10 cases), port-wine stain (PWS) (10 cases), disseminated porokeratosis (10 cases), pilonidal cyst (3 cases), seborrheic keratosis (10 cases), hypertrophic scar (5 cases) and keloid scar (5 cases), Becker's nevus (2 cases), hidradenitis suppurativa (2 cases), and sarcoidosis (1 case). Our results should suggest that IPL could represent a valid therapeutic support and option by providing excellent outcomes and low side effects, even though it should be underlined that the use and the effectiveness of IPL are strongly related to the operator's experience (acquired by attempting at least one specific course on the use of IPL and one-year experience in a specialized centre). Moreover, the daily use of these devices will surely increase clinical experience and provide new information, thus enhancing long-term results and improving IPL effectiveness. PMID:25276803

  18. Unconventional use of intense pulsed light.

    PubMed

    Piccolo, D; Di Marcantonio, D; Crisman, G; Cannarozzo, G; Sannino, M; Chiricozzi, A; Chimenti, S

    2014-01-01

    According to the literature, intense pulsed light (IPL) represents a versatile tool in the treatment of some dermatological conditions (i.e., pigmentation disorders, hair removal, and acne), due to its wide range of wavelengths. The authors herein report on 58 unconventional but effective uses of IPL in several cutaneous diseases, such as rosacea (10 cases), port-wine stain (PWS) (10 cases), disseminated porokeratosis (10 cases), pilonidal cyst (3 cases), seborrheic keratosis (10 cases), hypertrophic scar (5 cases) and keloid scar (5 cases), Becker's nevus (2 cases), hidradenitis suppurativa (2 cases), and sarcoidosis (1 case). Our results should suggest that IPL could represent a valid therapeutic support and option by providing excellent outcomes and low side effects, even though it should be underlined that the use and the effectiveness of IPL are strongly related to the operator's experience (acquired by attempting at least one specific course on the use of IPL and one-year experience in a specialized centre). Moreover, the daily use of these devices will surely increase clinical experience and provide new information, thus enhancing long-term results and improving IPL effectiveness. PMID:25276803

  19. On the Intensity Profile of Electric Lamps and Light Bulbs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bacalla, Xavier; Salumbides, Edcel John

    2013-01-01

    We demonstrate that the time profile of the light intensity from domestic lighting sources exhibits simple yet interesting properties that foster lively student discussions. We monitor the light intensity of an industrial fluorescent lamp (also known as TL) and an incandescent bulb using a photodetector connected to an oscilloscope. The light…

  20. White-light scanning interferometer for absolute nano-scale gap thickness measurement.

    PubMed

    Xu, Zhiguang; Shilpiekandula, Vijay; Youcef-toumi, Kamal; Yoon, Soon Fatt

    2009-08-17

    A special configuration of white-light scanning interferometer is described for measuring the absolute air gap thickness between two planar plates brought into close proximity. The measured gap is not located in any interference arm of the interferometer, but acts as an amplitude-and-phase modulator of the light source. Compared with the common white-light interferometer our approach avoids the influence of the chromatic dispersion of the planar plates on the gap thickness quantification. It covers a large measurement range of from approximate contact to tens of microns with a high resolution of 0.1 nm. Detailed analytical models are presented and signal-processing algorithms based on convolution and correlation techniques are developed. Practical measurements are carried out and the experimental results match well with the analysis and simulation. Short-time and long-time repeatabilities are both tested to prove the high performance of our method.

  1. Intense Pulsed Light (IPL) in Aesthetic Dermatology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pytras, B.; Drozdowski, P.; Zub, K.

    2011-08-01

    Introduction. Newer and newer technologies have been widely developed in recent years due to increasing need for aesthetic medicine procedures. Less invasive methods of skin imperfection and time-related lesions removal, IPL (Intense Pulse Light) being one of them, are gaining more and more interest. The shorter the "downtime" for the patient is and the more efficient the procedure results, the more popular the method becomes. Materials and methods_Authors analyse the results of treatment of a 571 patients-group (501 women and 70 men) aged 5-72 years in the period: October 2006-August 2010. IPL™ Quantum (Lumenis Ltd.) device with 560 nm. cut-off filter was used. Results. The results were regarded as: very good, good or satisfying (%):Skin photoaging symptomes 37/40/23, Isolated facial dyschromia 30/55/25, Isolated facial erythema 62/34/4, Lower limbs teleangiectasia 12/36/52, Keratosis solaris on hands 100/-/-. Approximately half of the patients developed transitory erythema and 25%- transitory, mild, circumscribed oedema. Following undesirable effects were noted: skin thermal irritation (6,1% of the patients) and skin hypopigmentation (2% of the patients). Discussion. Results and post-treatment management proposed by authors are similar to those reported by other authors. Conclusions. Treatment results of the 571-patients group prove IPL to be a very efficient method of non-ablative skin rejuvenation. It turned out effective also in lower limbs teleangiectasia treatment. It presents low risk of transitory and mild side effects. Futhermore, with short or no downtime, it is well-tolerated by the patients.

  2. Light shield and cooling apparatus. [high intensity ultraviolet lamp

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meador, T. G., Jr. (Inventor)

    1974-01-01

    A light shield and cooling apparatus was developed for a high intensity ultraviolet lamp including water and high pressure air for cooling and additional apparatus for shielding the light and suppressing the high pressure air noise.

  3. On the Intensity Profile of Electric Lamps and Light Bulbs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bacalla, Xavier; Salumbides, Edcel John

    2013-11-01

    We demonstrate that the time profile of the light intensity from domestic lighting sources exhibits simple yet interesting properties that foster lively student discussions. We monitor the light intensity of an industrial fluorescent lamp (also known as TL) and an incandescent bulb using a photodetector connected to an oscilloscope. The light intensity of these sources displays modulation at twice the ac power supply frequency. The familiarity of ac line power supply, commonplace light sources, and simplicity of the setup encourage student confidence, allowing them to think deeper and continually reassess their notions, and if managed can lead to a satisfactory explanation of the observations.

  4. Dispersive white-light interferometry for absolute distance measurement with dielectric multilayer systems on the target.

    PubMed

    Schnell, U; Dändliker, R; Gray, S

    1996-04-01

    We have extended the use of a dispersive white-light interferometer for absolute distance measurement to include effects of dielectric multilayer systems on the target. The phase of the ref lected wave changes as a function of wavelength and layer thickness and causes errors in the interferometric distance measurement. With dispersive white-light interferometry these effects can be measured in situ, and the correct mechanical distance can be determined. The effects of thin films deposited upon the target have been investigated for one and two layers (photoresist and SiO(2) upon Si). Experimental results show that the thicknesses of these layers can also be determined with an accuracy of the order of 10 nm.

  5. Absolute integrated intensity and individual line parameters for the 6.2-micron band of NO2. [in solar spectrum

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goldman, A.; Bonomo, F. S.; Williams, W. J.; Murcray, D. G.; Snider, D. E.

    1975-01-01

    The absolute integrated intensity of the 6.2-micron band of NO2 at 40 C was determined from quantitative spectra at about 10 per cm resolution by the spectral band model technique. A value of 1430 plus or minus 300 per sq cm per atm was obtained. Individual line parameters, positions, intensities, and ground-state energies were derived, and line-by-line calculations were compared with the band model results and with the quantitative spectra obtained at about 0.5 per cm resolution.

  6. 14 CFR 27.1389 - Position light distribution and intensities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: NORMAL CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Equipment Lights § 27.1389 Position... normal operating voltage of the rotorcraft. The light distribution and intensity of each position light... the longitudinal axis of the rotorcraft and perpendicular to the plane of symmetry of the...

  7. 14 CFR 27.1389 - Position light distribution and intensities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: NORMAL CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Equipment Lights § 27.1389 Position... normal operating voltage of the rotorcraft. The light distribution and intensity of each position light... the longitudinal axis of the rotorcraft and perpendicular to the plane of symmetry of the...

  8. Phototoxicity of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons at varying light intensities

    SciTech Connect

    Ankley, G.T.; Phipps, G.L.; Mattson, V.R.; Erickson, R.J.; Kosian, P.A.; Cox, J.S.; Sheedy, B.R.; Mount, D.R.

    1994-12-31

    Conceptual models suggest that the toxicity of photoactivated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) should be a function both of chemical (PAH) dose, and intensity of the ultraviolet (UV) light to which the organism is exposed (photon dose). However, there have been no systematic studies with aquatic organisms to quantify the relationship between PAH dose and UV intensity in producing phototoxicity. In these studies, oligochaetes (Lumbriculus variegatus) were exposed, via the water, to multiple concentrations of individual PAHs known to be photoactivated (fluoranthene, pyrene, anthracene), and then placed under UV light of three different intensities. The resultant phototoxicity clearly was a function both of PAH dose and light intensity. A joint toxicity model relating toxicity to PAH concentrations and light intensity will be presented.

  9. High-intensity sources for light ions

    SciTech Connect

    Leung, K.N.

    1995-10-01

    The use of the multicusp plasma generator as a source of light ions is described. By employing radio-frequency induction discharge, the performance of the multicusp source is greatly improved, both in lifetime and in high brightness H{sup +} and H{sup {minus}} beam production. A new technique for generating multiply-charged ions in this type of ion source is also presented.

  10. Absolute radiometric calibration of Als intensity data: effects on accuracy and target classification.

    PubMed

    Kaasalainen, Sanna; Pyysalo, Ulla; Krooks, Anssi; Vain, Ants; Kukko, Antero; Hyyppä, Juha; Kaasalainen, Mikko

    2011-01-01

    Radiometric calibration of airborne laser scanning (ALS) intensity data aims at retrieving a value related to the target scattering properties, which is independent on the instrument or flight parameters. The aim of a calibration procedure is also to be able to compare results from different flights and instruments, but practical applications are sparsely available, and the performance of calibration methods for this purpose needs to be further assessed. We have studied the radiometric calibration with data from three separate flights and two different instruments using external calibration targets. We find that the intensity data from different flights and instruments can be compared to each other only after a radiometric calibration process using separate calibration targets carefully selected for each flight. The calibration is also necessary for target classification purposes, such as separating vegetation from sand using intensity data from different flights. The classification results are meaningful only for calibrated intensity data.

  11. Absolute radiometric calibration of Als intensity data: effects on accuracy and target classification.

    PubMed

    Kaasalainen, Sanna; Pyysalo, Ulla; Krooks, Anssi; Vain, Ants; Kukko, Antero; Hyyppä, Juha; Kaasalainen, Mikko

    2011-01-01

    Radiometric calibration of airborne laser scanning (ALS) intensity data aims at retrieving a value related to the target scattering properties, which is independent on the instrument or flight parameters. The aim of a calibration procedure is also to be able to compare results from different flights and instruments, but practical applications are sparsely available, and the performance of calibration methods for this purpose needs to be further assessed. We have studied the radiometric calibration with data from three separate flights and two different instruments using external calibration targets. We find that the intensity data from different flights and instruments can be compared to each other only after a radiometric calibration process using separate calibration targets carefully selected for each flight. The calibration is also necessary for target classification purposes, such as separating vegetation from sand using intensity data from different flights. The classification results are meaningful only for calibrated intensity data. PMID:22346660

  12. Quantitative Vapor-phase IR Intensities and DFT Computations to Predict Absolute IR Spectra based on Molecular Structure: I. Alkanes

    SciTech Connect

    Williams, Stephen D.; Johnson, Timothy J.; Sharpe, Steven W.; Yavelak, Veronica; Oats, R. P.; Brauer, Carolyn S.

    2013-11-13

    Recently recorded quantitative IR spectra of a variety of gas-phase alkanes are shown to have integrated intensities in both the C-H stretching and C-H bending regions that depend linearly on the molecular size, i.e. the number of C-H bonds. This result is well predicted from CH4 to C15H32 by DFT computations of IR spectra at the B3LYP/6-31+G(d,p) level of DFT theory. A simple model predicting the absolute IR band intensities of alkanes based only on structural formula is proposed: For the C-H stretching band near 2930 cm-1 this is given by (in km/mol): CH¬_str = (34±3)*CH – (41±60) where CH is number of C-H bonds in the alkane. The linearity is explained in terms of coordinated motion of methylene groups rather than the summed intensities of autonomous -CH2- units. The effect of alkyl chain length on the intensity of a C-H bending mode is explored and interpreted in terms of conformer distribution. The relative intensity contribution of a methyl mode compared to the total C-H stretch intensity is shown to be linear in the number of terminal methyl groups in the alkane, and can be used to predict quantitative spectra a priori based on structure alone.

  13. Light intensity dependent optical rotation in azobenzene polymers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ivanov, M.; Ilieva, D.; Petrova, T.; Dragostinova, V.; Todorov, T.; Nikolova, L.

    2006-05-01

    We investigate the self-induced rotation of the azimuth of light polarization ellipse in azobenzene polymers. It is initiated by the photoreorientation and ordering of the azobenzenes on illumination with elliptically polarized light resulting in the appearance of an optical axis whose direction is gradually rotated along the depth of the film. A macroscopic chiral structure is created with a pitch depending on light ellipticity and the photobirefringence ▵n in the successive layers of the film. In this work we make use of the fact that at elevated temperatures ▵n is very sensitive to light intensity. In our acrylic amorphous azobenzene polymer at temperatures 50-65°C the saturated values of ▵n are much higher for low intensity of the exciting light than for higher intensity. In this temperature range the polarization azimuth of monochromatic blue light with different intensity is rotated to a different angle after passing through the polymer film. This effect can be used for passive elements rotating the polarization azimuth depending on light intensity and for the formation of light beams with a space-variant polarization state.

  14. Absolute Line Intensities in the ν 3Band of 12CH 3F by Diode-Laser Spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lepère, Muriel; Blanquet, Ghislain; Walrand, Jacques

    1996-06-01

    Infrared absolute line intensities of the ν 3band of 12CH 3F have been measured around 9.5 μm using a diode-laser spectrometer. These line strengths were obtained from the equivalent width method and, for a few lines, by fitting a Rautian profile to the measured shape of the lines. From these results, we have deduced the vibrational bandstrength ( Sv0= 379.2 ± 5.9 cm -2·atm -1at 296 K) and the first Herman-Wallis factor (α = 0.35 × 10 -3± 0.10 × 10 -3).

  15. Absolute Line Intensities in the 2ν 02 Band of Cyanogen Chloride at 12.8 μm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lepère, Muriel; Blanquet, Ghislain; Walrand, Jacques

    2000-05-01

    Absolute line intensities were measured at high resolution with a tunable diode laser. This work concerns the 2ν02 band of cyanogen chloride ClCN in the region 780 cm-1. Thirty-two absorption lines were recorded for the isotopomer 35ClCN and 26 lines for 37ClCN. From the analysis of these lines, we determined the bandstrengths: S0v = 19.14 cm-2 atm-1 for 35ClCN and S0v = 17.84 cm-2 atm-1 for 37ClCN.

  16. Assessment of absolute added correlative coding in optical intensity modulation and direct detection channels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dong-Nhat, Nguyen; Elsherif, Mohamed A.; Malekmohammadi, Amin

    2016-06-01

    The performance of absolute added correlative coding (AACC) modulation format with direct detection has been numerically and analytically reported, targeting metro data center interconnects. Hereby, the focus lies on the performance of the bit error rate, noise contributions, spectral efficiency, and chromatic dispersion tolerance. The signal space model of AACC, where the average electrical and optical power expressions are derived for the first time, is also delineated. The proposed modulation format was also compared to other well-known signaling, such as on-off-keying (OOK) and four-level pulse-amplitude modulation, at the same bit rate in a directly modulated vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser-based transmission system. The comparison results show a clear advantage of AACC in achieving longer fiber delivery distance due to the higher dispersion tolerance.

  17. ELLIPSOIDAL VARIABLE V1197 ORIONIS: ABSOLUTE LIGHT-VELOCITY ANALYSIS FOR KNOWN DISTANCE

    SciTech Connect

    Wilson, R. E.; Chochol, D.; KomzIk, R.; Van Hamme, W.; Pribulla, T.; Volkov, I.

    2009-09-01

    V1197 Orionis light curves from a long-term observing program for red giant binaries show ellipsoidal variation of small amplitude in the V and R{sub C} bands, although not clearly in U and B. Eclipses are not detected. All four bands show large irregular intrinsic variations, including fleeting quasi-periodicities identified by power spectra, that degrade analysis and may be caused by dynamical tides generated by orbital eccentricity. To deal with the absence of eclipses and consequent lack of astrophysical and geometrical information, direct use is made of the Hipparcos parallax distance while the V and R{sub C} light curves and (older) radial velocity curves are analyzed simultaneously in terms of absolute flux. The red giant's temperature is estimated from new spectra. This type of analysis, called Inverse Distance Estimation for brevity, is new and can also be applied to other ellipsoidal variables. Advantages gained by utilization of definite distance and temperature are discussed in regard to how radius, fractional lobe filling, and mass ratio information are expressed in the observations. The advantages were tested in solutions of noisy synthetic data. Also discussed and tested by simulations are ideas on the optimal number of light curves to be solved simultaneously under various conditions. The dim companion has not been observed or discussed in the literature but most solutions find its mass to be well below that of the red giant. Solutions show red giant masses that are too low for evolution to the red giant stage within the age of the Galaxy, although that result is probably an artifact of the intrinsic brightness fluctuations.

  18. Light-intensity modulator withstands high heat fluxes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maples, H. G.; Strass, H. K.

    1966-01-01

    Mechanism modulates and controls the intensity of luminous radiation in light beams associated with high-intensity heat flux. This modulator incorporates two fluid-cooled, externally grooved, contracting metal cylinders which when rotated about their longitudinal axes present a circular aperture of varying size depending on the degree of rotation.

  19. LED intense headband light source for fingerprint analysis

    DOEpatents

    Villa-Aleman, Eliel

    2005-03-08

    A portable, lightweight and high-intensity light source for detecting and analyzing fingerprints during field investigation. On-site field analysis requires long hours of mobile analysis. In one embodiment, the present invention comprises a plurality of light emitting diodes; a power source; and a personal attachment means; wherein the light emitting diodes are powered by the power source, and wherein the power source and the light emitting diodes are attached to the personal attachment means to produce a personal light source for on-site analysis of latent fingerprints. The present invention is available for other applications as well.

  20. Correlated pulsations in auroral light intensity and VLF hiss

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duthie, D. D.; Rash, J. P. S.; Scourfield, M. W. J.

    1985-12-01

    Observations at Sanae, Antarctica of a pulsating aurora with a low light level TV system have been combined with simultaneous recordings of VLF hiss on a broad band receiver. Both auroral light and hiss intensities display a significant peak at 1.3 Hz in the power spectrum. The peaks in the auroral light intensity variations lead those in the VLF hiss by times between zero and 0.2 s, as revealed by cross-spectral analysis. These results are explained in terms of cyclotron resonance in the equatorial plane between the auroral electrons and echoing VLF hiss.

  1. Absolute parameters of the eclipsing binary V821 Cas from UBVRI light curves and radial velocities†

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Çakırlı, Ö.; Ibanoǧlu, C.; Bilir, S.; Sipahi, E.

    2009-05-01

    We present UBVRI photometric measurements and spectroscopic observations of the double-lined eclipsing binary V821Cas. The radial velocities were obtained by means of the cross-correlation technique. Simultaneous analyses of the multiband light curves and RVs give the absolute parameters for the stars as: and . An analysis of the O-C residuals yielded an apsidal motion in the binary at a rate of , corresponding to an apsidal period of U = 118 +/- 19yr. Subtracting the relativistic contribution, we find that logk2obs = -2.590 which is in agreement with the value predicted by theoretical models. Comparison with current stellar evolution models gives an age of 5.6 × 108yr for the system. Based on observations collected at Catania Astrophysical Observatory (Italy) and TÜBİTAK National Observatory (Antalya, Turkey). Table 1 is only available in electronic form at the CDS via anonymous ftp to http://www.blackwell-syngery.com/doi. ‡ E-mail: omur.cakirli@ege.edu.tr

  2. Estimation of effective day length at any light intensity using solar radiation data.

    PubMed

    Yokoya, Masana; Shimizu, Hideyasu

    2011-11-01

    The influence of day length on living creatures differs with the photosensitivity of the creature; however, the possible sunshine duration (N(0)) might be an inadequate index of the photoperiod for creatures with low light sensitivity. To address this issue, the authors tried to estimate the effective day length, i.e., the duration of the photoperiod that exceeds a certain threshold of light intensity. Continual global solar radiation observation data were gathered from the baseline surface radiation network (BSRN) of 18 sites from 2004 to 2007 and were converted to illuminance data using a luminous efficiency model. The monthly average of daily photoperiods exceeding each defined intensity (1 lx, 300 lx, … 20,000 lx) were calculated [defined as Ne(() (lux) ())]. The relationships between the monthly average of global solar radiation (Rs), N(0), and Ne(() (lux) ()) were investigated. At low light intensity (<500 lx), Ne(() (lux) ()) were almost the same as N(0). At high light intensity (>10,000 lx), Ne(() (lux) ()) and Rs showed a logarithmic relationship. Using these relationships, empirical models were derived to estimate the effective day length at different light intensities. According to the validation of the model, the effective day length for any light intensity could be estimated with an accuracy of less than 11% of the mean absolute percentage error (MAPE) in the estimation of the monthly base photoperiod. Recently, a number of studies have provided support for a link between day length and some diseases. Our results will be useful in further assessing the relationships between day length and these diseases.

  3. Absolute Rovibrational Intensities of C-12O2-16 Absorption Bands in the 3090-3850/ CM Spectral Region

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Devi, V. Malathy; Benner, D. Chris; Rinsland, Curtis P.; Smith, Mary Ann H.

    1998-01-01

    A multispectrum nonlinear least-squares fitting technique has been used to determine the absolute intensities for approximately 1500 spectral lines in 36 vibration - rotation bands Of C-12O2-16 between 3090 and 3850/ cm. A total of six absorption spectra of a high- purity (99.995% minimum) natural sample of carbon dioxide were used in the analysis. The spectral data (0.01/cm resolution) were recorded at room temperature and low pressure (1 to 10 Torr) using the McMath-Pierce Fourier transform spectrometer of the National Solar Observatory (NSO) on Kitt Peak. The absorption path lengths for these spectra varied between 24.86 and 385.76 m. The first experimental determination of the intensity of the theoretically predicted 2(nu)(sub 2, sup 2) + nu(sub 3) "forbidden" band has been made. The measured line intensities obtained for each band have been analyzed to determine the vibrational band intensity, S(sub nu), in /cm/( molecule/sq cm) at 296 K, square of the rotationless transition dipole moment |R|(exp 2) in Debye, as well as the nonrigid rotor coefficients. The results are compared to the values listed in the 1996 HITRAN database which are obtained using the direct numerical diagonalization (DND) technique as well as to other published values where available.

  4. Absolute Intensities of γ Rays Emitted in the Decay of 239U

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Griffin, Henry C.

    2008-08-01

    A source of 239U was produced by the 238U(n,γ)239U reactions and was purified by radiochemistry. Disintegration rates were determined by 4π counting in a liquid scintillation spectrometer, and gamma emission rates were determined by counting liquid samples with well-characterized HPGe spectrometers. The prominent 74.7-keV γ ray was found to occur in 53.9(5)% of the decays, and this value was used to obtain intensities for L and K x-rays and γ rays from 31 to 1102 keV.

  5. Beta decay of the fission product 125Sb and a new complete evaluation of absolute gamma ray transition intensities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rajput, M. U.; Ali, N.; Hussain, S.; Mujahid, S. A.; MacMahon, D.

    2012-04-01

    The radionuclide 125Sb is a long-lived fission product, which decays to 125Te by negative beta emission with a half-life of 1008 day. The beta decay is followed by the emission of several gamma radiations, ranging from low to medium energy, that can suitably be used for high-resolution detector calibrations, decay heat calculations and in many other applications. In this work, the beta decay of 125Sb has been studied in detail. The complete published experimental data of relative gamma ray intensities in the beta decay of the radionuclide 125Sb has been compiled. The consistency analysis was performed and discrepancies found at several gamma ray energies. Evaluation of the discrepant data was carried out using Normalized Residual and RAJEVAL methods. The decay scheme balance was carried out using beta branching ratios, internal conversion coefficients, populating and depopulating gamma transitions to 125Te levels. The work has resulted in the consistent conversion factor equal to 29.59(13) %, and determined a new evaluated set of the absolute gamma ray emission probabilities. The work has also shown 22.99% of the delayed intensity fraction as outgoing from the 58 d isomeric 144 keV energy level and 77.01% of the prompt intensity fraction reaching to the ground state from the other excited states. The results are discussed and compared with previous evaluations. The present work includes additional experimental data sets which were not included in the previous evaluations. A new set of recommended relative and absolute gamma ray emission probabilities is presented.

  6. Neonatal intensive care unit lighting: update and recommendations.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez, Roberto G; Pattini, Andrea E

    2016-08-01

    Achieving adequate lighting in neonatal intensive care units is a major challenge: in addition to the usual considerations of visual performance, cost, energy and aesthetics, there appear different biological needs of patients, health care providers and family members. Communicational aspects of light, its role as a facilitator of the visual function of doctors and nurses, and its effects on the newborn infant physiology and development were addressed in order to review the effects of light (natural and artificial) within neonatal care with a focus on development. The role of light in regulating the newborn infant circadian cycle in particular and the therapeutic use of light in general were also reviewed. For each aspect, practical recommendations were specified for a proper well-lit environment in neonatal intensive care units.

  7. Proteomic Changes in the Photoreceptor Outer Segment Upon Intense Light Exposure

    PubMed Central

    Hajkova, Dagmar; Imanishi, Yoshikazu; Palamalai, Vikram; Rao, K. C. Sekhar; Yuan, Chao; Sheng, Quanhu; Tang, Haixu; Zeng, Rong; Darrow, Ruth M.; Organisciak, Daniel T.; Miyagi, Masaru

    2010-01-01

    Acute light-induced photoreceptor degeneration has been studied in experimental animals as a model for photoreceptor cell loss in human retinal degenerative diseases. Light absorption by rhodopsin in rod photoreceptor outer segments (OS) induces oxidative stress and initiates apoptotic cell death. However, the molecular events that induce oxidative stress and initiate the apoptotic cascade remain poorly understood. To better understand the molecular mechanisms of light-induced photoreceptor cell death, we studied the proteomic changes in OS upon intense light exposure by using a proteolytic 18O labeling method. Of 171 proteins identified, the relative abundance of 98 proteins in light-exposed and unexposed OS was determined. The quantities of 11 proteins were found to differ by more than 2-fold between light-exposed OS and those remaining in darkness. Among the 11 proteins, 8 were phototransduction proteins and 7 of these were altered such that the efficiency of phototransduction would be reduced or quenched during light exposure. In contrast, the amount of OS rhodopsin kinase was reduced by 2-fold after light exposure, suggesting attenuation in the mechanism of quenching phototransduction. Liquid chromatography multiple reaction monitoring (LC-MRM) was performed to confirm this reduction in the quantity of rhodopsin kinase. As revealed by immunofluorescence microscopy, this reduction of rhodopsin kinase is not a result of protein translocation from the outer to the inner segment. Collectively, our findings suggest that the absolute quantity of rhodopsin kinase in rod photoreceptors is reduced upon light stimulation and that this reduction may be a contributing factor to light-induced photoreceptor cell death. This report provides new insights into the proteomic changes in the OS upon intense light exposure and creates a foundation for understanding the mechanisms of light-induced photoreceptor cell death. PMID:20020778

  8. Dependency between light intensity and refractive development under light-dark cycles.

    PubMed

    Cohen, Yuval; Belkin, Michael; Yehezkel, Oren; Solomon, Arieh S; Polat, Uri

    2011-01-01

    The emmetropization process involves fine-tuning the refractive state by altering the refractive components toward zero refraction. In this study, we provided light-dark cycle conditions at several intensities and examined the effect of light intensity on the progression of chicks' emmetropization. Chicks under high-, medium-, and low-light intensities (10,000, 500, and 50 lux, respectively) were followed for 90 days by retinoscopy, keratometry, as well as ultrasound measurements. Emmetropization was reached from days 30-50 and from days 50-60 for the low- and medium-intensity groups, respectively. On day 90, most chicks in the low-intensity group were myopic, with a mean refraction of -2.41D (95% confidence interval (CI) -2.9 to -1.8D), whereas no chicks in the high-intensity group developed myopia, but they exhibited a stable mean hyperopia of +1.1D. The medium-intensity group had a mean refraction of +0.03D. The low-intensity group had a deeper vitreous chamber depth and a longer axial length compared with the high-intensity group, and shifted refraction to the myopic side. The low-intensity group had a flatter corneal curvature, a deeper anterior chamber, and a thinner lens compared with the high-intensity group, and shifted refraction to the hyperopic side. In all groups the corneal power was correlated with the three examined levels of log light intensity for all examined times (e.g., day 20 r = 0.6 P < 0.0001, day 90 r = 0.56 P < 0.0001). Thus, under light-dark cycles, light intensity is an environmental factor that modulates the process of emmetropization, and the low intensity of ambient light is a risk factor for developing myopia.

  9. Video meteor light curve analysis of Orionids and Geminids and developing a method for obtaining the absolute light curves of shower meteors from the single station data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grašić, L.; Milanović, N.; Pavlović, D.

    2016-01-01

    We developed a method for obtaining the absolute light curves of the shower meteors from single station video data. We found that even though the height of a meteor atmospheric trajectory obtained by using this method may have a large error, the absolute light curve shape is preserved. We used our method to calculate the F parameters of the Orionid and Geminid light curves. The light curves were obtained from the single station video data by the instrument with a limiting sensitivity of 3.5m. We found that for our sample of the light curves the zenith distance of meteor radiant does not affect the F parameter for either of the two showers. The value of F parameter of the Orionids obtained in this paper matches the values obtained by other authors, whilst for the Geminids it is significantly different.

  10. Self-organization of intense light within erosive gas discharges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Torchigin, V. P.; Torchigin, A. V.

    2007-01-01

    Process of appearance of fire balls at gas discharges is considered. It is shown that the intense white light radiated by atoms excited at gas discharge is subject to self-organization in such a way that miniature ball lightnings appear.

  11. Lighting for caregivers in the neonatal intensive care unit.

    PubMed

    Rea, Mark

    2004-06-01

    The primary aim of this article is to define good lighting for caregivers(both medical staff and families) working in the hospital neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) and other areas associated with the critical care environment. Defining good lighting requires understanding that lighting is not only important for the infants in the NICU but that it also plays significant roles for adults in the NICU. First, lighting supports visual processes (eg, acuity, color vision, visual performance). Second, lighting affects circadian regulation (eg, alertness, sleeping, hormone production). Finally,lighting communicates a message to professional staff as well as parents and visitors about the level of care and sophistication provided by the hospital. By thoughtfully addressing all three roles, the lighted environment in the NICU can support the productivity and well-being of the professional staff, the health and safety of patients, as well as the profitability of the NICU. A secondary aim of this chapter is to provide practical guidance to health care professionals on how to articulate good lighting objectives to application engineers and designers responsible for the lighting in the NICU.

  12. Lighting for summer egg production by turkeys: day length and light intensity.

    PubMed

    Siopes, T D

    2007-11-01

    This experiment tested the hypothesis that typical poor egg production during the summer is a consequence of insufficient lighting and reduced photoperiodic drive. Large White turkey breeder hens were photostimulated at 30 wk of age with incandescent light on May 12 for summer (off-season) egg production and continued for 28 wk. The lighting treatments were given in a 2 x 2 factorial arrangement with day length and light intensity as main effects. Day lengths used were 15L:9D and 18L:6D, whereas the intensities were 567 +/- 67 and 22 +/- 2 lx. All the treatments were within a light-controlled building, and there were 8 replicate pens of 4 hens for each treatment. Data were collected, by pen, for onset and the rate of lay; BW and feed consumption at 4-wk intervals; and egg weight (EW) at 4-wk intervals including the weight of the first 14 eggs laid, livability, and plasma thyroid hormones for 8 wk postlighting. The rate of egg production through 28 wk of photostimulation was better in the hens receiving 18 than 15 h of light per day (14 eggs/hen difference) but was similar between the 2 intensity treatments. The lower number of eggs in the 15-h group was associated with a greater number of photorefractory hens than in the 18 h of light per day group (39 vs. 14%, respectively). Egg weights were similar between the 18 and 15 h of light/day treatment groups but was significantly greater in the low intensity treatment as compared with the high intensity treatment. We may conclude that by increasing photoperiodic drive by increased day length, but not light intensity, there results an improved summer egg production by turkeys and reduced incidence of photorefractoriness. Egg weight was best at a reduced light intensity.

  13. Composite cure and shrinkage associated with high intensity curing light.

    PubMed

    Yap, Adrian U J; Wong, N Y; Siow, K S

    2003-01-01

    This study investigated the effectiveness of cure and post-gel shrinkage of three visible light-cured composite resins (In Ten-S [IT], Ivoclar Vivadent; Z100 [ZO], 3M-ESPE; Tetric Ceram [TC], Ivoclar Vivadent) when polymerized with a very high intensity (1296 +/- 2 mW/cm2) halogen light (Astralis 10, Ivoclar Vivadent) for 10 seconds. Irradiation with a conventional (494 +/- 3 mW/cm2) halogen light (Spectrum, Dentsply) for 40 seconds was used for comparison. The effectiveness of cure was assessed by computing the hardness gradient between the top and bottom surfaces of 2-mm composite specimens after curing. A strain-monitoring device was used to measure the linear polymerization shrinkage associated with the various composites and curing lights. A sample size of five was used for both experiments. Data was analyzed using ANOVA/Scheffe's post-hoc and Independent Samples t-tests at significance level 0.05. Results showed that the effect of the curing method on the effectiveness of cure and shrinkage was material-dependent. Polymerization of IT and TC with Spectrum for 40 seconds resulted in significantly more effective cure than polymerization with Astralis for 10 seconds. Polymerization of ZO with Spectrum for 40 seconds resulted in significantly more shrinkage than polymerization with Astralis for 10 seconds. In view of the substantial time saving, using high intensity lights may be a viable method to polymerize composites.

  14. SiPM response to long and intense light pulses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vinogradov, S.; Arodzero, A.; Lanza, R. C.; Welsch, C. P.

    2015-07-01

    Recently Silicon Photomultipliers (SiPMs) have become well recognized as the detector of choice for various applications which demand good photon number resolution and time resolution of short weak light pulses in the nanosecond time scale. In the case of longer and more intensive light pulses, SiPM performance gradually degrades due to dark noise, afterpulsing, and non-instant cell recovering. Nevertheless, SiPM benefits are expected to overbalance their drawbacks in applications such as X-ray cargo inspection using Scintillation-Cherenkov detectors and accelerator beam loss monitoring with Cherenkov fibres, where light pulses of a microsecond time scale have to be detected with good amplitude and timing resolution in a wide dynamic range of 105-106. This report is focused on transient characteristics of a SiPM response on a long rectangular light pulse with special attention to moderate and high light intensities above the linear dynamic range. An analytical model of the transient response and an initial consideration of experimental results in comparison with the model are presented.

  15. High light intensity augments mercury toxicity in cyanobacterium Nostoc muscorum.

    PubMed

    Singh, Ranjana; Dubey, Gunjan; Singh, Vijay Pratap; Srivastava, Prabhat Kumar; Kumar, Sushil; Prasad, Sheo Mohan

    2012-11-01

    The present study is aimed at investigating the role of growth irradiance in determining the extent of mercury (Hg) toxicity on various physiological parameters viz. growth, pigment contents, photosynthesis, respiration, (14)CO(2) fixation, photosynthetic electron transport, photorespiration and enzyme activity of cyanobacterium Nostoc muscorum. A general decline was observed in all these parameters with increasing concentration of Hg except for carotenoids content and respiratory activity which exhibited significant enhancement. This effect was more pronounced in high light (130 μmol photon m(-2) s(-1)) exposed cells as compared to normal (70 μmol photon m(-2) s(-1)) and low (10 μmol photon m(-2) s(-1)) light exposed cells. Among the photosynthetic electron transport activities, whole chain was found to be more sensitive than photosystem II (PSII) and photosystem I (PSI). (14)CO(2) fixation was more affected as compared to O(2) evolution when exposed to Hg and different light intensities. Photorespiratory activity, which is an index of protecting organisms from light-induced damage, also showed a similar declining trend. Enzyme assay revealed that among the carboxylating enzymes, activity of RUBISCO was more severely inhibited than PEPCase. Thus, these results suggest that Hg itself was toxic at all tested concentrations and high light intensity augmented its toxicity in N. muscorum inhibiting the growth, pigment contents and photosynthetic activity of the organism.

  16. Light induced modulation instability of surfaces under intense illumination

    SciTech Connect

    Burlakov, V. M. Goriely, A.; Foulds, I.

    2013-12-16

    We show that a flat surface of a polymer in rubber state illuminated with intense electromagnetic radiation is unstable with respect to periodic modulation. Initial periodic perturbation is amplified due to periodic thermal expansion of the material heated by radiation. Periodic heating is due to focusing-defocusing effects caused by the initial surface modulation. The surface modulation has a period longer than the excitation wavelength and does not require coherent light source. Therefore, it is not related to the well-known laser induced periodic structures on polymer surfaces but may contribute to their formation and to other phenomena of light-matter interaction.

  17. Near field light intensity distribution analysis in bimodal polymer waveguide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Herzog, T.; Gut, K.

    2015-12-01

    The paper presents analysis of light intensity distribution and sensitivity in differential interferometer based on bimodal polymer waveguide. Key part is analysis of optimal waveguide layer thickness in structure SiO2/SU-8/H2O for maximum bulk refractive index sensitivity. The paper presents new approach to detecting phase difference between modes through registrations only part of energy propagating in the waveguide. Additionally in this paper the analysis of changes in light distribution when energy in modes is not equal were performed.

  18. Introduction to Atomic Dynamics in Intense Light Fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Faisal, Farhad H. M.

    A brief description is given of the early developments leading to the discovery of some of the basic phenomena that occur during the interaction of intense light fields with atomic systems - such as multiphoton ionization (MPI), above-threshold ionization (ATI), and high harmonic generation (HHG). Also outlined are the related theoretical concepts and the nonperturbative "KFR model" for interpreting the phenomena. Recent observation of the breakdown of a popular "tunneling model" (Keldysh γ < 1) is noted and the role of discrete photon effects that can account for the observed parallel momentum distribution is given. Next, the role of e-e correlation in intense-field processes in many-electron atomic systems is discussed. A systematic analysis of intense-field problems using the "intense-field many-body S-matrix theory" (IMST) is outlined. To this end, the basic motivation behind and the derivation of IMST is discussed, and its use is illustrated by application to the problem of nonsequential double ionization (NSDI) that provided a fully quantum analysis of the mechanism behind the NSDI process. Also discussed is how NSDI and its opposite, sequential double ionization (SDI), can both occur in intense fields depending, respectively, on near-infrared and ultraviolet wavelengths of the light field used. A mechanism for multiple ionization is suggested by the IMST diagrams, which can provide a good estimate of the known experimental observations of the ion states vs. intensity in noble gases. Finally, an example is given of the spatial distributions of the charge states that can be produced in the focal region (a "flying reaction vessel"!) of an intense Ti:sapphire laser.

  19. Absolute geomagnetic intensity determinations on Formative potsherds (1400-700 BC) from the Oaxaca Valley, Southwestern Mexico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pétronille, Marie; Goguitchaichvili, Avto; Morales, Juan; Carvallo, Claire; Hueda-Tanabe, Yuki

    2012-11-01

    New Thellier-Coe archeointensity determinations have been measured on 15 potsherds from the Oaxaca Valley belonging to three of the four Formative Periods (Pre-Classical) of Mesoamerica, spanning 1400-700 BC. Seven of these are considered to be reliable and indicate a geomagnetic field strength of about 30 μT. This value is some 75% of the present geomagnetic field strength but is in agreement with the absolute intensities predicted from global models for this time and location, and consistent with coeval published determinations. These data thus provide significant evidence for the geomagnetic field strength in an area and for a time that was previously poorly constrained, thus providing an important contribution towards establishing a local master curve for the last 3500 yr. When established, such a curve would be a useful dating tool and also enable establishing for field strength correlations with climatic events and civilization evolutions in a region that is particularly strong in archeological and geological features. Such potential is examined for aridity events, although such observations can only be considered tentative at this stage.

  20. Constant Light Output Ballasting For High Intensity Discharge Lamps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Donkin, Adrian

    1988-02-01

    Since the commercial introduction some twenty years ago of HMI* (Hydragyrum-mercury, Medium, Iodide) type lamps, as a source intended primarily for floodlighting applications, their attraction as a cinematographic light source has been apparent due to their largely desirable characteristics. Use in this field has been restricted due to the absolute requirement for an alternating current supply - with a sine wave supply frame rates are limited to a sub-multiple of the supply frequency with the supply frequency phase locked to the camera frame rate. This has effectively barred metal halide HID lighting from use in high speed photography. The general characteristics of metal halide HID lamps are presented alongside a sample of other light sources. An electronic ballast which has been proven to 12000 Watts in the motion picture industry is then described which overcomes the limitations of the conventional magnetic ballast - the square wave output of the electronic ballast theoretically allows the use of any camera frame rate/shutter angle combination. Finally the suitability of luminaires for high speed photography is discussed.

  1. Light intensity matching between different intravascular optical coherence tomography systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Shengnan; Eggermont, Jeroen; Nakatani, Shimpei; Lelieveldt, Boudewijn P. F.; Dijkstra, Jouke

    2016-02-01

    Currently two commercial intravascular optical coherence tomography (IVOCT) systems are available: Illumien Optis from St. Jude Medical (SJM) and Lunawave from Terumo. Both systems store the light intensity data in a raw vendor specific polar format. However, whereas SJM uses 16-bits per pixel Terumo uses 8-bits meaning the intensity values are in different ranges. This complicates quantitative light intensity based analysis when comparing results based on data from both systems. Therefore, this work aims to find an intensity transformation function from Terumo's 8-bit OFDI data to SJM's 16-bit range. The data consists of 8 pullbacks, 4 acquired with each system in the same arteries of 2 different patents pre- and post-stenting implantation. A total of 133 matching sections without stent struts from the two sets of pullbacks were identified based on landmarks such as side-branches and calcified regions. Since the main region of interest in the image is the tissue region only the pixels within 2mm behind the lumen border are used. In order to match the SJM data range, the Terumo data was rescaled and cumulative distribution functions (CDF) were calculated based on the histogram distributions. Comparing these CDFs, the transformation function can be determined. Application of this transformation function not only improves the visual similarity of matching slices it can also be used for further quantitative analysis.

  2. Current indications and new applications of intense pulsed light.

    PubMed

    González-Rodríguez, A J; Lorente-Gual, R

    2015-06-01

    Intense pulsed light (IPL) systems have evolved since they were introduced into medical practice 20 years ago. Pulsed light is noncoherent, noncollimated, polychromatic light energy emitted at different wavelengths that target specific chromophores. This selective targeting capability makes IPL a versatile therapy with many applications, from the treatment of pigmented or vascular lesions to hair removal and skin rejuvenation. Its large spot size ensures a high skin coverage rate. The nonablative nature of IPL makes it an increasingly attractive alternative for patients unwilling to accept the adverse effects associated with other procedures, which additionally require prolonged absence from work and social activities. In many cases, IPL is similar to laser therapy in effectiveness, and its versatility, convenience, and safety will lead to an expanded range of applications and possibilities in coming years. PMID:25638325

  3. Hybrid proton acceleration scheme using relativistic intense laser light

    SciTech Connect

    Andreev, A. A.; Platonov, K. Yu.; Schnuerer, M.; Prasad, R.; Ter-Avetisyan, S.

    2013-03-15

    Ion acceleration phenomena at relativistic intense laser interaction with thin foil targets are studied to find an efficient laser-target interaction concept at the conditions, where neither the ponderomotive pressure of the laser light nor the hot electron pressure is negligible. Particle in cell simulations and the analytical model are allowing to predict optimum laser-target parameters and suggesting a significant increase of proton energy if a hybrid proton acceleration scheme is used. In the proposed scenario, the laser polarisation is changed during the acceleration process: First with circularly polarised laser light the target is accelerated as a whole by the ponderamotive pressure, and then with linearly polarised laser light the electrons are heated which additionally increases the accelerating field. The calculations are in good agreement with experimental findings.

  4. Effect of temporary changes in light intensity on carbon transport, partitioning and respiratory loss in young tomato seedlings raised under different light intensities.

    PubMed

    Nishizawa, Takashi; Shishido, Yoshihiro; Murakami, Hiroharu

    2009-07-01

    Tomato plants were grown under light intensities of 36 or 90 W m(-2) [photosynthetically active radiation (PAR)], and then the light intensity was changed to 36, 90 or 180 W m(-2) for 8 h to investigate the effect of temporary changes in light intensity on the carbon budget of photoassimilates from the third leaf using a (14)CO(2) steady-state feeding method. In the plants that were raised under 90 W m(-2), the photosynthetic rate increased when the light intensity was increased to 180 W m(-2), whereas no increase occurred in the plants that were raised under 36 W m(-2). Although the total amount of carbon fixed during the 8-h light period showed a large difference between plants grown at the two initial light intensities, the proportion of carbon exported during the light period did not differ apparently, irrespective of the change in light intensity. However, the amount of carbon exported during the time course was higher in plants that were raised under 90 W m(-2) than those raised under 36 W m(-2), irrespective of the change in light intensity. The partitioning pattern of (14)C-photoassimilates was not changed by the change in light intensity, irrespective of whether the light intensity was increased or not. However, the amount of (14)C-photoassimilates accumulated in each part differed according to the two initial light intensities. The carbon transport from a source leaf was also investigated through a quantitative analysis of carbon balance.

  5. Phytoplankton productivity in relation to light intensity: A simple equation

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Peterson, D.H.; Perry, M.J.; Bencala, K.E.; Talbot, M.C.

    1987-01-01

    A simple exponential equation is used to describe photosynthetic rate as a function of light intensity for a variety of unicellular algae and higher plants where photosynthesis is proportional to (1-e-??1). The parameter ?? (=Ik-1) is derived by a simultaneous curve-fitting method, where I is incident quantum-flux density. The exponential equation is tested against a wide range of data and is found to adequately describe P vs. I curves. The errors associated with photosynthetic parameters are calculated. A simplified statistical model (Poisson) of photon capture provides a biophysical basis for the equation and for its ability to fit a range of light intensities. The exponential equation provides a non-subjective simultaneous curve fitting estimate for photosynthetic efficiency (a) which is less ambiguous than subjective methods: subjective methods assume that a linear region of the P vs. I curve is readily identifiable. Photosynthetic parameters ?? and a are used widely in aquatic studies to define photosynthesis at low quantum flux. These parameters are particularly important in estuarine environments where high suspended-material concentrations and high diffuse-light extinction coefficients are commonly encountered. ?? 1987.

  6. Light intensity adaptation and phycobilisome composition of Microcystis aeruginosa

    SciTech Connect

    Raps, S.; Kycia, J.H.; Ledbetter, M.C.; Siegelman, H.W.

    1985-12-01

    Phycobilisomes isolated from Microcystis aeruginosa grown to midlog at high light (270 microeinsteins per square meter per second) or at low light intensities (40 microeinsteins per square meter per second) were found to be identical. Electron micrographs established that they have a triangular central core apparently consisting of three allophycocyanin trimers surrounded by six rods, each composed of two hexameric phycocyanin molecules. The apparent mass of a phycobilisome obtained by gel filtration is 2.96 x 10/sup 6/ daltons. The molar ratio of the phycobiliproteins per phycobilisome is 12 phycocyanin hexamers:9 allophycocyanin trimers. The electron microscopic observations combined with the phycobilisome apparent mass and the phycobiliprotein stoichiometry data indicate that M. aeruginosa phycobilisomes are composed of a triangular central core of three stacks of three allophycocyanin trimers and six rods each containing two phycocyanin hexamers. Adaptation of M. aeruginosa to high light intensity results in a decrease in the number of phycobilisomes per cell with no alteration in phycobilisome composition or structure.

  7. Absolute frequency synthesis of pulsed coherent light waves through phase-modulation active optical feedback.

    PubMed

    Shimizu, K; Horiguchi, T; Koyamada, Y

    1996-11-15

    A novel method for the broadband absolute frequency synthesis of pulsed coherent lightwaves is demonstrated. It is based on pulse recirculation around an active optical feedback ring containing a delay-line fiber, an external phase modulator, an acousto-optic frequency shifter (AOFS), and a high-finesse Fabry-Perot étalon. The modulation frequency F(M) and the frequency shift F(AO) that are due to AOFS are designed so that their sum or difference equals the free-spectral range of the étalon and F(AO) is set at larger than the half-width at full maximum of its resonant peaks. If one of the peak frequencies is tuned to the frequency of the initial pulse, the frequency of the recirculating pulse jumps to the next peak for each round trip. In the experiment the absolute frequency is synthesized over a frequency span of 700 GHz around the initial stabilized frequency of the master laser.

  8. [Effects of light intensity contrast on clonal integration of Spartina anglica].

    PubMed

    Jiang, Xing-Xing; Dong, Bi-Cheng; Luo, Fang-Li; Zhu, Rui; Xu, Xi-Yi; Li, Hong-Li; Yu, Fei-Hai

    2014-10-01

    We conducted a greenhouse experiment to test how clonal integration affected the growth responses of Spartina anglica to light intensity heterogeneity in light availability and whether such effects depended on contrast light intensity. The experiment had three homogeneous treatments and two heterogeneous treatments. In the homogeneous treatments, both ramets of a connected ramet pair were unshaded (high light intensity), moderately shaded (medium light intensity, 70% of the high light intensity) and deeply shaded (low light intensity, 30% of the high light intensity). In the heterogeneous treatments, one ramet of a pair was unshaded, but its connected ramet was either moderately shaded (low light intensity contrast) or deeply shaded (high light intensity contrast). In the homogeneous treatments, biomass of S. anglica was significantly higher in the high light intensity treatment than in the medium and low light intensity treatments. Number of leaves, root length, and total biomass were significantly higher in the shaded ramet in the heterogeneous treatment with low light intensity contrast than in the ramet in the homogeneous treatment with medium light intensity. Final size and mass were not significantly different between the unshaded ramet in the heterogeneous treatment with low light intensity contrast and the ramets in the homogeneous high light intensity treatment. These results suggested that clonal integration benefitted a shaded ramet with little cost to an unshaded ramet when contrast in light intensity was low. However, effects of clonal integration were not significant when contrast was high. It therefore appeared that effects of clonal integration on the growth of S. anglica did not increase with increasing light intensity contrast. In natural habitats, clonal integration might improve growth of S. anglica when its ramets are moderately shaded by other plants but not when they are deeply shaded.

  9. Laser versus intense pulsed light: Competing technologies in dermatology.

    PubMed

    Ross, E Victor

    2006-04-01

    Lasers have been competing with non-laser intense pulsed light (IPL) sources in the cosmetic arena over the past 10 years. Initially IPLs were somewhat cumbersome and accepted by a minority of "serious" practitioners. Recently, however, the popularity of full-face visible light skin rejuvenation, enhanced engineering of IPLs, and favorable cost versus many lasers, have lead to a proliferation of IPL devices. No longer a stepchild in the rejuvenation market, IPLs may overtake lasers as the devices of choice among most physicians. We review the pros and cons of lasers and IPLs within the context of design, cost, and other practical concerns for a typical office-based practice. PMID:16596659

  10. Light and Velocity Curves and Absolute Parameters of Several Overcontact Binary Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Wenxian; Hrivnak, B. J.; Greene, R.

    2006-09-01

    We are continuing to observe and analyze the light and velocity curves of overcontact binary star systems to determine their physical parameters: mass, radius, and luminosity. We will present the results of several new studies, including W UMa itself.

  11. Lighting direction and visual field modulate perceived intensity of illumination

    PubMed Central

    McCourt, Mark E.; Blakeslee, Barbara; Padmanabhan, Ganesh

    2013-01-01

    When interpreting object shape from shading the visual system exhibits a strong bias that illumination comes from above and slightly from the left. We asked whether such biases in the perceived direction of illumination might also influence its perceived intensity. Arrays of nine cubes were stereoscopically rendered where individual cubes varied in their 3D pose, but possessed identical triplets of visible faces. Arrays were virtually illuminated from one of four directions: Above-Left, Above-Right, Below-Left, and Below-Right (±24.4° azimuth; ±90° elevation). Illumination intensity possessed 15 levels, resulting in mean cube array luminances ranging from 1.31–3.45 cd/m2. A “reference” array was consistently illuminated from Above-Left at mid-intensity (mean array luminance = 2.38 cd/m2). The reference array's illumination was compared to that of matching arrays which were illuminated from all four directions at all intensities. Reference and matching arrays appeared in the left and right visual field, respectively, or vice versa. Subjects judged which cube array appeared to be under more intense illumination. Using the method of constant stimuli we determined the illumination level of matching arrays required to establish subjective equality with the reference array as a function of matching cube visual field, illumination elevation, and illumination azimuth. Cube arrays appeared significantly more intensely illuminated when they were situated in the left visual field (p = 0.017), and when they were illuminated from below (p = 0.001), and from the left (p = 0.001). An interaction of modest strength was that the effect of illumination azimuth was greater for matching arrays situated in the left visual field (p = 0.042). We propose that objects lit from below appear more intensely illuminated than identical objects lit from above due to long-term adaptation to downward lighting. The amplification of perceived intensity of illumination for stimuli situated

  12. Light-intensity and high-intensity interval training improve cardiometabolic health in rats.

    PubMed

    Batacan, Romeo B; Duncan, Mitch J; Dalbo, Vincent J; Connolly, Kylie J; Fenning, Andrew S

    2016-09-01

    Physical activity has the potential to reduce cardiometabolic risk factors but evaluation of different intensities of physical activity and the mechanisms behind their health effects still need to be fully established. This study examined the effects of sedentary behaviour, light-intensity training, and high-intensity interval training on biometric indices, glucose and lipid metabolism, inflammatory and oxidative stress markers, and vascular and cardiac function in adult rats. Rats (12 weeks old) were randomly assigned to 1 of 4 groups: control (CTL; no exercise), sedentary (SED; no exercise and housed in small cages to reduce activity), light-intensity trained (LIT; four 30-min exercise bouts/day at 8 m/min separated by 2-h rest period, 5 days/week), and high-intensity interval trained (HIIT, four 2.5-min work bouts/day at 50 m/min separated by 3-min rest periods, 5 days/week). After 12 weeks of intervention, SED had greater visceral fat accumulation (p < 0.01) and slower cardiac conduction (p = 0.04) compared with the CTL group. LIT and HIIT demonstrated beneficial changes in body weight, visceral and epididymal fat weight, glucose regulation, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, total cholesterol, and mesenteric vessel contractile response compared with the CTL group (p < 0.05). LIT had significant improvements in insulin sensitivity and cardiac conduction compared with the CTL and SED groups whilst HIIT had significant improvements in systolic blood pressure and endothelium-independent vasodilation to aorta and mesenteric artery compared with the CTL group (p < 0.05). LIT and HIIT induce health benefits by improving traditional cardiometabolic risk factors. LIT improves cardiac health while HIIT promotes improvements in vascular health. PMID:27523646

  13. Light-intensity and high-intensity interval training improve cardiometabolic health in rats.

    PubMed

    Batacan, Romeo B; Duncan, Mitch J; Dalbo, Vincent J; Connolly, Kylie J; Fenning, Andrew S

    2016-09-01

    Physical activity has the potential to reduce cardiometabolic risk factors but evaluation of different intensities of physical activity and the mechanisms behind their health effects still need to be fully established. This study examined the effects of sedentary behaviour, light-intensity training, and high-intensity interval training on biometric indices, glucose and lipid metabolism, inflammatory and oxidative stress markers, and vascular and cardiac function in adult rats. Rats (12 weeks old) were randomly assigned to 1 of 4 groups: control (CTL; no exercise), sedentary (SED; no exercise and housed in small cages to reduce activity), light-intensity trained (LIT; four 30-min exercise bouts/day at 8 m/min separated by 2-h rest period, 5 days/week), and high-intensity interval trained (HIIT, four 2.5-min work bouts/day at 50 m/min separated by 3-min rest periods, 5 days/week). After 12 weeks of intervention, SED had greater visceral fat accumulation (p < 0.01) and slower cardiac conduction (p = 0.04) compared with the CTL group. LIT and HIIT demonstrated beneficial changes in body weight, visceral and epididymal fat weight, glucose regulation, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, total cholesterol, and mesenteric vessel contractile response compared with the CTL group (p < 0.05). LIT had significant improvements in insulin sensitivity and cardiac conduction compared with the CTL and SED groups whilst HIIT had significant improvements in systolic blood pressure and endothelium-independent vasodilation to aorta and mesenteric artery compared with the CTL group (p < 0.05). LIT and HIIT induce health benefits by improving traditional cardiometabolic risk factors. LIT improves cardiac health while HIIT promotes improvements in vascular health.

  14. Plasma heating rate in very intense laser light

    SciTech Connect

    Rashid, S.M.S.

    1982-01-01

    An exact Volkov state solution of the minimally coupled dirac equation is used to calculate the transition rate dR of an electron scattering via a stationary ion in the presence of a very intense laser field. A consistent picture of the scattering is presented in which the electrons' initial and final states are quasi-free states. Accordingly, a modified transition rate dR and a modified Maxwell-Boltzmann distribution are developed. They are used to calculate the heating rate W of a quasi-free plasma in the presence of very intense laser light. In order to simplify the expression for the heating rate W, an important transformation, which changes an infinite sum over Bessel functions into a finite integral, is introdced. It is then shown that the leading term of the heating rate W is similar to the expression of Osborn (with corrections) for intensity I < 10/sup 16/ Watts/cm/sup 2/ Watts/cm/sup 2/ and k/sub B/T < Ike V. A new correction factor is defined to show the effect of very intense laser field when the intensity I > 10/sup 16/ Watts/cm/sup 2/. For k/sub B/T > Ike V, a spin-dependent term of order k/sub B/T/mc/sup 2/ is also discovered. This represents a new term not previously known. It is shown that the effect of this term on the heating rate is substantial and that it is possible to measure its effect with present-day laser systems.

  15. Close-range photogrammetry with light field camera: from disparity map to absolute distance.

    PubMed

    Yang, Peng; Wang, Zhaomin; Yan, Yizhen; Qu, Weijuan; Zhao, Hongying; Asundi, Anand; Yan, Lei

    2016-09-20

    A new approach to measure the 3D profile of a texture object is proposed utilizing light field imaging, in which three key steps are required: a disparity map is first obtained by detecting the slopes in the epipolar plane image with the multilabel technique; the intrinsic parameters of the light field camera are then extracted by camera calibration; at last, the relationship between disparity values and real distances is built up by depth calibration. In the last step, a linear calibration method is proposed to achieve accurate results. Furthermore, the depth error is also investigated and compensated for by reusing the checkerboard pattern. The experimental results are in good agreement with the 3D models, and also indicate that the light field imaging is a promising 3D measurement technique. PMID:27661572

  16. Absolute calibration method for fast-streaked, fiber optic light collection, spectroscopy systems.

    SciTech Connect

    Johnston, Mark D.; Frogget, Brent; Oliver, Bryan Velten; Maron, Yitzhak; Droemer, Darryl W.; Crain, Marlon D.

    2010-04-01

    This report outlines a convenient method to calibrate fast (<1ns resolution) streaked, fiber optic light collection, spectroscopy systems. Such a system is used to collect spectral data on plasmas generated in the A-K gap of electron beam diodes fielded on the RITS-6 accelerator (8-12MV, 140-200kA). On RITS, light is collected through a small diameter (200 micron) optical fiber and recorded on a fast streak camera at the output of 1 meter Czerny-Turner monochromator (F/7 optics). To calibrate such a system, it is necessary to efficiently couple light from a spectral lamp into a 200 micron diameter fiber, split it into its spectral components, with 10 Angstroms or less resolution, and record it on a streak camera with 1ns or less temporal resolution.

  17. A novel method to determine the electron temperature and density from the absolute intensity of line and continuum emission: application to atmospheric microwave induced Ar plasmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iordanova, E.; Palomares, J. M.; Gamero, A.; Sola, A.; van der Mullen, J. J. A. M.

    2009-08-01

    An absolute intensity measurement (AIM) technique is presented that combines the absolute measurements of the line and the continuum emitted by strongly ionizing argon plasmas. AIM is an iterative combination of the absolute line intensity-collisional radiative model (ALI-CRM) and the absolute continuum intensity (ACI) method. The basis of ALI-CRM is that the excitation temperature T13 determined by the method of ALI is transformed into the electron temperature Te using a CRM. This gives Te as a weak function of electron density ne. The ACI method is based on the absolute value of the continuum radiation and determines the electron density in a way that depends on Te. The iterative combination gives ne and Te. As a case study the AIM method is applied to plasmas created by torche à injection axiale (TIA) at atmospheric pressure and fixed frequency at 2.45 GHz. The standard operating settings are a gas flow of 1 slm and a power of 800 W; the measurements have been performed at a position of 1 mm above the nozzle. With AIM we found an electron temperature of 1.2 eV and electron density values around 1021 m-3. There is not much dependence of these values on the plasma control parameters (power and gas flow). From the error analysis we can conclude that the determination of Te is within 7% and thus rather accurate but comparison with other studies shows strong deviations. The ne determination comes with an error of 40% but is in reasonable agreement with other experimental results.

  18. ELVES light intensity studies at the Pierre Auger Observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mussa, Roberto; Maiorana, Carolina

    2016-04-01

    The Pierre Auger Observatory, located in Malargüe (Argentina), is the largest facility (3000 km2) for the study of Ultra High Energy Cosmic Rays (E>1018 eV). The four sites of the Fluorescence Detector (FD) are continuously observing the night sky with moon fraction below 50% (13% duty cycle) with 100 ns time resolution and a space resolution below one degree. The fluorescence light (λ = 300 nm to 420 nm) produced by shower in the atmosphere is proportional to the energy of the primary cosmic ray. The atmospheric optical properties are continuously monitored by the Observatory with a set of dedicated instruments (lidars, cloud cameras, weather stations). The energy of each cosmic ray can therefore be measured with a systematic energy resolution about 14%. After the serendipitous discovery of an ELVES candidate event in 2005, a special trigger has been implemented to detect these phenomena with high efficiency, fully operational since March 2013. Since January 2014 the ELVES candidates are read out with a modified DAQ scheme, to observe the light emission from above the vertical of the causative lightning. This paper will report about the analysis of the correlation between light emission and lightning intensity as recorded by lightning detection networks, on data taken in the last three years of operation.

  19. Influence of the Light Intensity on the layers electrophotographic intensity based on As and Sb chalkogenides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andriesh, A. M.; Buzdugan, A. I.; Shutov, S. D.

    1988-10-01

    Based on dependence of the electrographic sensitivity from the intensity of illumination by an integral and monochromatic light one show that the law of intercompatibility in thin layers based on glasses As_2S_3, alloys of As_2S_3 and Sb_2S_3 and heterostructures Sb_2S_3 and As_2S_3 is not more valid. Underlinear dependences of the lux-ampere characteristics are interpreted based on the Rose model which supposes a great density of localized states of the quasicontinuous and an exponential distribution by energy in a forbidden zone of a semiconductor. Tables 1, Bibliography 5, Illustr. 2

  20. Acne treatment by methyl aminolevulinate photodynamic therapy with red light vs. intense pulsed light.

    PubMed

    Hong, Jong Soo; Jung, Jae Yoon; Yoon, Ji Young; Suh, Dae Hun

    2013-05-01

    Various methods of photodynamic therapy (PDT) for acne have been introduced. However, comparative studies among them are still needed. We performed this study to compare the effect of methyl aminolevulinate (MAL) PDT for acne between red light and intense pulsed light (IPL). Twenty patients were enrolled in this eight-week, prospective, split-face study. We applied MAL cream over the whole face with a three-hour incubation time. Then patients were irradiated with 22 J/cm(2) of red light on one-half of the face and 8-10 J/cm(2) of IPL on the other half during each treatment session. We performed three treatment sessions at two-week intervals and followed-up patients until four weeks after the last session. Inflammatory and non-inflammatory acne lesions were reduced significantly on both sides. The red light side showed a better response than the IPL side after the first treatment. Serious adverse effects after treatment were not observed. MAL-PDT with red light and IPL are both an effective and safe modality in acne treatment. Red light showed a faster response time than IPL. After multiple sessions, both light sources demonstrated satisfactory results. We suggest that reducing the total dose of red light is desirable when performing MAL-PDT in Asian patients with acne compared with Caucasians.

  1. [Responses of CO2 fluxes to light intensity and temperature in rice paddy field].

    PubMed

    Zhu, Yong-li; Wu, Jin-shui; Tong, Cheng-li; Wang, Ke-lin; Wang, Qin-xue

    2008-04-01

    CO2 fluxes in rice paddy ecosystem in subtropical hilly region were measured continuously using eddy covariance technique. The objectives were to investigate the responses of CO2 fluxes to light intensity and temperature in the paddy ecosystem. Results showed a rectangular hyperbolic light-response function could be used to describe the relationship of CO2 flux and photosynthetic photon flux density (PPFD). The absolute values of CO2 fluxes increased with the increment of PPFD. When PPFD was higher than 1000 micromol/(m2 x s), the maximum was observed. CO2 fluxes responded differently to light between early and late rice. Values of quantum yield of late rice (0.0465-0.0999 micromol/micromol) were general higher than that of early rice (0.0176-0.0541 micromol/micromol). Moreover, the quantum yield and the maximum rate of photosynthesis assimilation in the blooming stage were higher than that in tillering and ripening stages. In nighttime, respiration from soil and plants (ecosystem respiration, Reco) changed exponentially with the increase of soil temperature at the depth of 5 cm (T5), 10 cm (T10), and 20 cm (T20), respectively. Whereas, T5 was more feasible than others to be considered as the temperature parameter for Reco calculation. During early rice growing season, Reco was more sensitive to temperature change than that during late rice growing season. PMID:18637359

  2. Easy Absolute Values? Absolutely

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, Sharon E.; Mittag, Kathleen Cage

    2015-01-01

    The authors teach a problem-solving course for preservice middle-grades education majors that includes concepts dealing with absolute-value computations, equations, and inequalities. Many of these students like mathematics and plan to teach it, so they are adept at symbolic manipulations. Getting them to think differently about a concept that they…

  3. Raman intensities of liquids: Absolute scattering activities and electro-optical parameters (EOPs) of arsenate and selenate ions in aqueous solutions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eysel, Hans H.; Wagner, Rüdiger

    1993-04-01

    Absolute Raman scattering activities of aqueous solutions of sodium arsenate and sodium selenate have been measured against NaClO 4 as an external standard. Electro-optical parameters (EOPs) for the AsO and SeO bonds were calculated. Changes of the previously published force fields (GVFF) were necessary to adjust the eigenvectors to the experimental frequencies and intensities in aqueous environment. Equilibrium bond polarizabilities were estimated from refractive index measurements in connection with Raman intensities of bending modes. The EOPs of these two isoelectronic compounds are discussed in comparison with the series phosphate, sulphate, perchlorate.

  4. Granulomatous tattoo reaction induced by intense pulse light treatment.

    PubMed

    Tourlaki, Athanasia; Boneschi, Vinicio; Tosi, Diego; Pigatto, Paolo; Brambilla, Lucia

    2010-10-01

    Cosmetic tattooing involves implantation of pigments into the dermis in order to create a permanent makeup. Here, we report a case of sarcoidal granulomatous reaction to old cosmetic tattoos after an intense pulsed light (IPL) treatment for facial skin rejuvenation. We consider this case as a peculiar example of photo-induced reaction to tattoo. In addition, we hypothesize that an underlying immune dysfunction was present, and acted as a predisposing factor for this unusual response, as the patient had suffered from an episode of acute pulmonary sarcoidosis 15 years before. Overall, our observation suggests that IPL treatment should be used cautiously in patients with tattoos, especially when a history of autoimmune disease is present. PMID:21175859

  5. The risk of retina damage from high intensity light sources.

    PubMed

    Pollak, V A; Romanchuk, K G

    1980-05-01

    The risk of thermal damage to the retina of the eye by exposure to excessive light intensities from continuous and pulsed man-made sources is discussed. The probability of injury increases, the larger the radiant power absorbed by the retina and the smaller the size of the retinal image of the source. A mehtod of estimating the temperature increase of the immediately affected area of the retina is presented. The time constants involved are also briefly considered. Using numerical values from literature for the relevant parameters of the eye, threshold values for a variety of conditions can be established. Below these values little risk of retina damage should exist. The degree of hazard when these values are exceeded depends upon the circumstances. A case study of a welding accident showed good agreement between the conclusions of the theoretical analysis and clinical findings.

  6. Metabolic acclimation to excess light intensity in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii.

    PubMed

    Davis, Maria C; Fiehn, Oliver; Durnford, Dion G

    2013-07-01

    There are several well-described acclimation responses to excess light in green algae but the effect on metabolism has not been thoroughly investigated. This study examines the metabolic changes during photoacclimation to high-light (HL) stress in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii using nuclear magnetic resonance and mass spectrometry. Using principal component analysis, a clear metabolic response to HL intensity was observed on global metabolite pools, with major changes in the levels of amino acids and related nitrogen metabolites. Amino acid pools increased during short-term photoacclimation, but were especially prominent in HL-acclimated cultures. Unexpectedly, we observed an increase in mitochondrial metabolism through downstream photorespiratory pathways. The expression of two genes encoding key enzymes in the photorespiratory pathway, glycolate dehydrogenase and malate synthase, were highly responsive to the HL stress. We propose that this pathway contributes to metabolite pools involved in nitrogen assimilation and may play a direct role in photoacclimation. Our results suggest that primary and secondary metabolism is highly pliable and plays a critical role in coping with the energetic imbalance during HL exposure and a necessary adjustment to support an increased growth rate that is an effective energy sink for the excess reducing power generated during HL stress.

  7. Improve the Absolute Accuracy of Ozone Intensities in the 9-11 μm Region via Mw/ir Multi-Wavelength Spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Shanshan; Drouin, Brian

    2016-06-01

    Ozone (O_3) is crucial for studies of air quality, human and crop health, and radiative forcing. Spectroscopic remote sensing techniques have been extensively employed to investigate ozone globally and regionally. Infrared intensities of ≤1% accuracy are desired by the remote sensing community. The accuracy of the current state-of-the-art infrared ozone intensities is on the order of 4-10%, resulting in ad hoc intensity scaling factors for consistent atmospheric retrievals. The large uncertainties on the infrared ozone intensities arise from the fact that pure ozone is very difficult to generate and sustain in the laboratory. Best estimates have employed IR/UV cross beam experiments to determine the accurate O_3 volume mixing ratio of the sample through its standard cross section value at 254 nm. This presentation reports our effort to improve the absolute accuracy of ozone intensities in the 9-11 μm region via a transfer of the precision of the rotational dipole moment onto the infrared measurement (MW/IR). Our approach was to use MW/IR cross beam experiments and determine the O_3 mixing ratio through alternately measuring pure rotation ozone lines from 692 to 779 GHz. The uncertainty of these pure rotation line intensities is better than 0.1%. The sample cell was a slow flow cross cell and the total pressure inside the sample cell was maintained constant through a proportional-integral-derivative (PID) flow control. Five infrared O_3 spectra were obtained, with a path length of 3.74 m, pressures ranging from 30 to 120 mTorr, and mixing ratio ranging from 0.5 to 0.9. A multi spectrum fitting technique was employed to fit all the FTS spectra simultaneously. The results show that we can determine intensities of the 9.6μm band with absolute accuracy better than 4%.

  8. Lighting intensity of the soilsurface and restocking of oak groves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Slepykh, Victor; Zubko, Anna; Povolotckaia, Nina

    2016-04-01

    Oak groves of Caucasian Mineral Vody region (CMVR) possess a high ecological and balneological potential which defines the significance of their preservation and reproduction [1]. The role assessment of lighting intensity on renewal of oak groves was carried out on four trial squares (ts) in natural sixty-seven years old forest stand with prevalence of English oak (Quercus robur L.) with unimodal sity (type of the habitat - C1). The illumination was measured at the grass level by the universal measuring instrument of meteoparameters ATT-9508 with an illumination sensor of ATA-1591. The assessment of reforestation was carried out according to the established standards [2]. In the winter of 2005 there was conducted a selecting cutting cabin of the forest stand according to a local method on ts2 with intensity 30%, on ts4 - 50% after which the illumination on the soil surface in relation to illumination of an open place in the summer of 2005 increased from 4.9% to 33.9% on ts2, and from 5.9% to 24.4% on ts4. But by 2014 the illumination decreased till 3.0% on ts2, till 5.4% on ts4 because of an intensive soil grassing down. The control was carried out by ts1 and ts3 on which from 2005 to 2014 the illumination of the soil surface decreased from 4 to 2% as a result of the development of all storeys. As a result due to an intensive soil grassing-down, the total quantity of young oak trees decreased from 2005 to 2014 from 25.6 thousand pcs/ha to 5.9 thousand pcs/ha on ts2; on from 17.3 thousand pcs/ha to 4.0 thousand pcs/ha on ts4. At the same time the total quantity of young oak trees on control squares increased respectively for 1.4% (from 18.8 thousand pcs/ha to 19.1 thousand pcs/ha) on ts1, for 38.7% (from 25.2 thousand pcs/ha to 41.1 thousand pcs/ha). The experiment showed that small young oak trees perishes in the first years of their life from a lack of light and competition from grasland vegetation without providing successful reforestation. Conclusion. So it is

  9. 14 CFR 25.1389 - Position light distribution and intensities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... minimum intensities in the horizontal plane, minimum intensities in any vertical plane, and maximum...: (1) Intensities in the horizontal plane. Each intensity in the horizontal plane (the plane containing the longitudinal axis of the airplane and perpendicular to the plane of symmetry of the airplane)...

  10. 14 CFR 29.1389 - Position light distribution and intensities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... terms of minimum intensities in the horizontal plane, minimum intensities in any vertical plane, and... requirements: (1) Intensities in the horizontal plane. Each intensity in the horizontal plane (the plane containing the longitudinal axis of the rotorcraft and perpendicular to the plane of symmetry of...

  11. 14 CFR 29.1389 - Position light distribution and intensities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... terms of minimum intensities in the horizontal plane, minimum intensities in any vertical plane, and... requirements: (1) Intensities in the horizontal plane. Each intensity in the horizontal plane (the plane containing the longitudinal axis of the rotorcraft and perpendicular to the plane of symmetry of...

  12. 14 CFR 27.1389 - Position light distribution and intensities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... minimum intensities in the horizontal plane, minimum intensities in any vertical plane, and maximum...: (1) Intensities in the horizontal plane. Each intensity in the horizontal plane (the plane containing the longitudinal axis of the rotorcraft and perpendicular to the plane of symmetry of the...

  13. 14 CFR 27.1389 - Position light distribution and intensities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... minimum intensities in the horizontal plane, minimum intensities in any vertical plane, and maximum...: (1) Intensities in the horizontal plane. Each intensity in the horizontal plane (the plane containing the longitudinal axis of the rotorcraft and perpendicular to the plane of symmetry of the...

  14. 14 CFR 29.1389 - Position light distribution and intensities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... terms of minimum intensities in the horizontal plane, minimum intensities in any vertical plane, and... requirements: (1) Intensities in the horizontal plane. Each intensity in the horizontal plane (the plane containing the longitudinal axis of the rotorcraft and perpendicular to the plane of symmetry of...

  15. 14 CFR 25.1389 - Position light distribution and intensities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... minimum intensities in the horizontal plane, minimum intensities in any vertical plane, and maximum...: (1) Intensities in the horizontal plane. Each intensity in the horizontal plane (the plane containing the longitudinal axis of the airplane and perpendicular to the plane of symmetry of the airplane)...

  16. 14 CFR 27.1389 - Position light distribution and intensities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... minimum intensities in the horizontal plane, minimum intensities in any vertical plane, and maximum...: (1) Intensities in the horizontal plane. Each intensity in the horizontal plane (the plane containing the longitudinal axis of the rotorcraft and perpendicular to the plane of symmetry of the...

  17. 14 CFR 25.1389 - Position light distribution and intensities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... minimum intensities in the horizontal plane, minimum intensities in any vertical plane, and maximum...: (1) Intensities in the horizontal plane. Each intensity in the horizontal plane (the plane containing the longitudinal axis of the airplane and perpendicular to the plane of symmetry of the airplane)...

  18. 14 CFR 25.1389 - Position light distribution and intensities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... minimum intensities in the horizontal plane, minimum intensities in any vertical plane, and maximum...: (1) Intensities in the horizontal plane. Each intensity in the horizontal plane (the plane containing the longitudinal axis of the airplane and perpendicular to the plane of symmetry of the airplane)...

  19. 14 CFR 29.1389 - Position light distribution and intensities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... terms of minimum intensities in the horizontal plane, minimum intensities in any vertical plane, and... requirements: (1) Intensities in the horizontal plane. Each intensity in the horizontal plane (the plane containing the longitudinal axis of the rotorcraft and perpendicular to the plane of symmetry of...

  20. Crystalline sulfur dioxide: Crystal field splittings, absolute band intensities and complex refractive indices derived from infrared spectra

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Khanna, R. K.; Zhao, Guizhi

    1986-01-01

    The infrared absorption spectra of thin crystalline films of sulfur dioxide at 90 K are reported in the 2700 to 450/cm region. The observed multiplicity of the spectral features in the regions of fundamentals is attributed to factor group splittings of the modes in a biaxial crystal lattice and the naturally present minor S-34, S-36, and O-18 isotopic species. Complex refractive indices determined by an iterative Kramers-Kronig analysis of the extinction data, and absolute band strengths derived from them, are also reported in this region.

  1. [Effects of excess Mn on photosynthesis characteristics in cucumber under different light intensity].

    PubMed

    Shi, Qinghua; Zhu, Zhujun; Ying, Quansheng; Qian, Qiongqiu

    2005-06-01

    By a solution culture experiment, this paper studied the effects of excess Mn on the growth, chlorophyll content, chlorophyll fluorescence parameters and photosynthesis of cucumber under different light intensity. The results indicated that excess Mn inhibited plant growth, which was more obvious under high light intensity than under low light intensity. The primary maximum photochemical efficiency of PSII (v/Fm), quantum efficiency of non-cyclic electron transport of PSII (phiPSII), and photochemical quenching (qP) were significantly decreased in excess Mn treatment under high light intensity, while no significant effects on Fv/Fm and qP were observed under low light intensity. Excess Mn, particularly under high light intensity, decreased net photosynthetic rate (Pn) and stomatal conductance (Gs). Excess Mn increased intracellular CO2 (Ci) under high light intensity and decreased Ci under low light intensity, while stomatal limitation value (Ls) was just reverse to Ci. It could be concluded that the decrease of Pn in excess Mn treatment was not resulted from stomatal limitation under high light intensity, but was true under low light intensity.

  2. 14 CFR 25.1395 - Maximum intensities in overlapping beams of forward and rear position lights.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Maximum intensities in overlapping beams of forward and rear position lights. 25.1395 Section 25.1395 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION... Equipment Lights § 25.1395 Maximum intensities in overlapping beams of forward and rear position lights....

  3. 14 CFR 29.1395 - Maximum intensities in overlapping beams of forward and rear position lights.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Maximum intensities in overlapping beams of forward and rear position lights. 29.1395 Section 29.1395 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION... Equipment Lights § 29.1395 Maximum intensities in overlapping beams of forward and rear position lights....

  4. 14 CFR 23.1395 - Maximum intensities in overlapping beams of position lights.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Maximum intensities in overlapping beams of position lights. 23.1395 Section 23.1395 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT... AIRPLANES Equipment Lights § 23.1395 Maximum intensities in overlapping beams of position lights....

  5. 14 CFR 27.1395 - Maximum intensities in overlapping beams of forward and rear position lights.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Maximum intensities in overlapping beams of forward and rear position lights. 27.1395 Section 27.1395 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION... Equipment Lights § 27.1395 Maximum intensities in overlapping beams of forward and rear position lights....

  6. 14 CFR 23.1395 - Maximum intensities in overlapping beams of position lights.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Maximum intensities in overlapping beams of position lights. 23.1395 Section 23.1395 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT... AIRPLANES Equipment Lights § 23.1395 Maximum intensities in overlapping beams of position lights....

  7. 14 CFR 29.1395 - Maximum intensities in overlapping beams of forward and rear position lights.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Maximum intensities in overlapping beams of forward and rear position lights. 29.1395 Section 29.1395 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION... Equipment Lights § 29.1395 Maximum intensities in overlapping beams of forward and rear position lights....

  8. 14 CFR 25.1395 - Maximum intensities in overlapping beams of forward and rear position lights.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Maximum intensities in overlapping beams of forward and rear position lights. 25.1395 Section 25.1395 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION... Equipment Lights § 25.1395 Maximum intensities in overlapping beams of forward and rear position lights....

  9. Absolute intensities for the Q-branch of the 3 nu(sub 2) (-) nu(sub 1) (465.161/cm) band of nitrous oxide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sirota, J. Marcos; Reuter, Dennis C.

    1993-01-01

    The absolute intensities of four lines, Q 15-Q 18 in the 03(sup 1)0-10(sup 0)0 band, of N2O have been measured using a tunable diode laser spectrometer at temperatures between 380 and 420 K and pressures between 4 and 15 torr. Even though these transitions are weak and produced only about 2% of absorption at the line center for a pathlength of 52 m, they were measured with a signal to noise ratio of about 20 due to the high sensitivity of the instrument. The band strength derived is 1.03 x 10(exp -24) cm/molec at 296 K.

  10. A new method for the absolute radiance calibration for UV/vis measurements of scattered sun light

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wagner, T.; Beirle, S.; Dörner, S.; Penning de Vries, M.; Remmers, J.; Rozanov, A.; Shaiganfar, R.

    2015-05-01

    Absolute radiometric calibrations are important for measurements of the atmospheric spectral radiance. Such measurements can be used to determine actinic fluxes, the properties of aerosols and clouds and the short wave energy budget. Conventional calibration methods in the laboratory are based on calibrated light sources and reflectors and are expensive, time consuming and subject to relatively large uncertainties. Also, the calibrated instruments might change during transport from the laboratory to the measurement sites. Here we present a new calibration method for UV/vis instruments that measure the spectrally resolved sky radiance, like for example zenith sky Differential Optical Absorption Spectroscopy (DOAS-) instruments or Multi-AXis (MAX-) DOAS instruments. Our method is based on the comparison of the solar zenith angle dependence of the measured zenith sky radiance with radiative transfer simulations. For the application of our method clear sky measurements during periods with almost constant aerosol optical depth are needed. The radiative transfer simulations have to take polarisation into account. We show that the calibration results are almost independent from the knowledge of the aerosol optical properties and surface albedo, which causes a rather small uncertainty of about <7%. For wavelengths below about 330 nm it is essential that the ozone column density during the measurements is constant and known.

  11. EFFECT OF LIGHT INTENSITY ON THE FORMATION OF INTRACYTOPLASMIC MEMBRANE IN RHODOSPIRILLUM RUBRUM.

    PubMed

    HOLT, S C; MARR, A G

    1965-05-01

    Holt, Stanley C. (University of California, Davis), and Allen G. Marr. Effect of light intensity on the formation of intracytoplasmic membrane in Rhodospirillum rubrum. J. Bacteriol. 89:1421-1429. 1965.-Cells of Rhodospirillum rubrum grown at low light intensity were found to contain much more internal membrane than cells grown at high light intensity. Highly purified membranes (chromatophores) from cells grown at low to moderate light intensity had a constant content of chlorophyll. Thus, the regulation of the chlorophyll content of the cell depends upon the formation of greater or lesser amounts of membrane which has a constant concentration of chlorophyll.

  12. DNA-Based Sensor Particles Enable Measuring Light Intensity in Single Cells.

    PubMed

    Mikutis, Gediminas; Mora, Carlos A; Puddu, Michela; Paunescu, Daniela; Grass, Robert N; Stark, Wendelin J

    2016-04-13

    "Lab on a particle" architecture is employed in designing a light nanosensor. Light-sensitive protecting groups are installed on DNA, which is encapsulated in silica particles, qualifying as a self-sufficient light sensor. The nanosensors allow measuring light intensity and duration in very small volumes, such as single cells, and store the irradiation information until readout.

  13. Physiological and molecular responses to variation of light intensity in rubber Tree (Hevea brasiliensis Muell. Arg.).

    PubMed

    Wang, Li-feng

    2014-01-01

    Light is one of most important factors to plants because it is necessary for photosynthesis. In this study, physiological and gene expression analyses under different light intensities were performed in the seedlings of rubber tree (Hevea brasiliensis) clone GT1. When light intensity increased from 20 to 1000 µmol m(-2) s(-1), there was no effect on the maximal quantum yield of photosystem II (PSII) photochemistry (Fv/Fm), indicating that high light intensity did not damage the structure and function of PSII reaction center. However, the effective photochemical quantum yield of PSII (Y(II)), photochemical quenching coefficient (qP), electron transfer rate (ETR), and coefficient of photochemical fluorescence quenching assuming interconnected PSII antennae (qL) were increased significantly as the light intensity increased, reached a maximum at 200 µmol m(-2) s(-1), but decreased from 400 µmol m(-2) s(-1). These results suggested that the PSII photochemistry showed an optimum performance at 200 µmol m(-2) s(-1) light intensity. The chlorophyll content was increased along with the increase of light intensity when it was no more than 400 µmol m(-2) s(-1). Since increasing light intensity caused significant increase in H2O2 content and decreases in the per unit activity of antioxidant enzymes SOD and POD, but the malondialdehyde (MDA) content was preserved at a low level even under high light intensity of 1000 µmol m(-2) s(-1), suggesting that high light irradiation did not induce membrane lipid peroxidation in rubber tree. Moreover, expressions of antioxidant-related genes were significantly up-regulated with the increase of light intensity. They reached the maximum expression at 400 µmol m(-2) s(-1), but decreased at 1000 µmol m(-2) s(-1). In conclusion, rubber tree could endure strong light irradiation via a specific mechanism. Adaptation to high light intensity is a complex process by regulating antioxidant enzymes activities, chloroplast formation, and

  14. Effects of light intensity on activity in four sympatric anuran tadpoles

    PubMed Central

    DING, Guo-Hua; LIN, Zhi-Hua; ZHAO, Li-Hua; FAN, Xiao-Li; WEI, Li

    2014-01-01

    Though light conditions are known to affect the development and anti-predation strategies of several aquatic species, relatively little is known about how different species react to light, or how light can affect these species during different points in their life-cycle. In this study, we used four sympatric anuran tadpoles (Bufo gargarizans, B. melanostictus, Pelophylax nigromaculatus and Microhyla fissipes) as animal system to examine species-specific activities of the underdoing different light intensity treatments, so as to better understand how they respond to light. We exposed four different species of tadpoles to 1660 and 14 lux light intensity treatments and then measured several parameters including development stage, body length and tail length, and as well as their basic activities. The results of this observation and analysis showed that the activities of tadpoles were significantly greater in B. gargarizans and B. melanostictus than in P. nigromaculatus and M. fissipes; and were also significantly greater during times of high light intensity as compared to during low light intensity. Moreover, the observed relationship between species and light intensity was significant. The activities of B. gargarizans and B. melanostictus tadpoles were greater in high light, while the activity of P. nigromaculatus tadpoles was greater in low light intensity, while M. fissipes tadpoles showed no differences in either low or high intensity light. Furthermore, the activities of B. gargarizans, B. melanostictus and M. fissipes tadpoles in terms of developmental stage, body size or tail length did not seem to differ with light intensity, but during early larval developmental period of P. nigromaculatus, the activity of tadpoles was negatively correlated with development stage, but irrelevant to either body size or tail length in different light intensities. These results lead us to conclude the observed activities of the four sympatric anuran tadpoles are closely

  15. Effects of light intensity on activity in four sympatric anuran tadpoles.

    PubMed

    Ding, Guo-Hua; Lin, Zhi-Hua; Zhao, Li-Hua; Fan, Xiao-Li; Wei, Li

    2014-07-01

    Though light conditions are known to affect the development and anti-predation strategies of several aquatic species, relatively little is known about how different species react to light, or how light can affect these species during different points in their life-cycle. In this study, we used four sympatric anuran tadpoles (Bufo gargarizans, B. melanostictus, Pelophylax nigromaculatus and Microhyla fissipes) as animal system to examine species-specific activities of the underdoing different light intensity treatments, so as to better understand how they respond to light. We exposed four different species of tadpoles to 1660 and 14 lux light intensity treatments and then measured several parameters including development stage, body length and tail length, and as well as their basic activities. The results of this observation and analysis showed that the activities of tadpoles were significantly greater in B. gargarizans and B. melanostictus than in P. nigromaculatus and M. fissipes; and were also significantly greater during times of high light intensity as compared to during low light intensity. Moreover, the observed relationship between species and light intensity was significant. The activities of B. gargarizans and B. melanostictus tadpoles were greater in high light, while the activity of P. nigromaculatus tadpoles was greater in low light intensity, while M. fissipes tadpoles showed no differences in either low or high intensity light. Furthermore, the activities of B. gargarizans, B. melanostictus and M. fissipes tadpoles in terms of developmental stage, body size or tail length did not seem to differ with light intensity, but during early larval developmental period of P. nigromaculatus, the activity of tadpoles was negatively correlated with development stage, but irrelevant to either body size or tail length in different light intensities. These results lead us to conclude the observed activities of the four sympatric anuran tadpoles are closely

  16. Light-Induced Changes of the Circadian Clock of Humans: Increasing Duration is More Effective than Increasing Light Intensity

    PubMed Central

    Dewan, Karuna; Benloucif, Susan; Reid, Kathryn; Wolfe, Lisa F.; Zee, Phyllis C.

    2011-01-01

    Study Objectives: To evaluate the effect of increasing the intensity and/or duration of exposure on light-induced changes in the timing of the circadian clock of humans. Design: Multifactorial randomized controlled trial, between and within subject design Setting: General Clinical Research Center (GCRC) of an academic medical center Participants: 56 healthy young subjects (20-40 years of age) Interventions: Research subjects were admitted for 2 independent stays of 4 nights/3 days for treatment with bright or dim-light (randomized order) at a time known to induce phase delays in circadian timing. The intensity and duration of the bright light were determined by random assignment to one of 9 treatment conditions (duration of 1, 2, or 3 hours at 2000, 4000, or 8000 lux). Measurements and Results: Treatment-induced changes in the dim light melatonin onset (DLMO) and dim light melatonin offset (DLMOff) were measured from blood samples collected every 20-30 min throughout baseline and post-treatment nights. Comparison by multi-factor analysis of variance (ANOVA) of light-induced changes in the time of the circadian melatonin rhythm for the 9 conditions revealed that changing the duration of the light exposure from 1 to 3 h increased the magnitude of light-induced delays. In contrast, increasing from moderate (2,000 lux) to high (8,000 lux) intensity light did not alter the magnitude of phase delays of the circadian melatonin rhythm. Conclusions: Results from the present study suggest that for phototherapy of circadian rhythm sleep disorders in humans, a longer period of moderate intensity light may be more effective than a shorter exposure period of high intensity light. Citation: Dewan K; Benloucif S; Reid K; Wolfe LF; Zee PC. Light-induced changes of the circadian clock of humans: increasing duration is more effective than increasing light intensity. SLEEP 2011;34(5):593-599. PMID:21532952

  17. A chloroplast light-regulated oxidative sensor for moderate light intensity in Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Dangoor, Inbal; Peled-Zehavi, Hadas; Wittenberg, Gal; Danon, Avihai

    2012-05-01

    The transition from dark to light involves marked changes in the redox reactions of photosynthetic electron transport and in chloroplast stromal enzyme activity even under mild light and growth conditions. Thus, it is not surprising that redox regulation is used to dynamically adjust and coordinate the stromal and thylakoid compartments. While oxidation of regulatory proteins is necessary for the regulation, the identity and the mechanism of action of the oxidizing pathway are still unresolved. Here, we studied the oxidation of a thylakoid-associated atypical thioredoxin-type protein, ACHT1, in the Arabidopsis thaliana chloroplast. We found that after a brief period of net reduction in plants illuminated with moderate light intensity, a significant oxidation reaction of ACHT1 arises and counterbalances its reduction. Interestingly, ACHT1 oxidation is driven by 2-Cys peroxiredoxin (Prx), which in turn eliminates peroxides. The ACHT1 and 2-Cys Prx reaction characteristics in plants further indicated that ACHT1 oxidation is linked with changes in the photosynthetic production of peroxides. Our findings that plants with altered redox poise of the ACHT1 and 2-Cys Prx pathway show higher nonphotochemical quenching and lower photosynthetic electron transport infer a feedback regulatory role for this pathway.

  18. A Chloroplast Light-Regulated Oxidative Sensor for Moderate Light Intensity in Arabidopsis[C][W

    PubMed Central

    Dangoor, Inbal; Peled-Zehavi, Hadas; Wittenberg, Gal; Danon, Avihai

    2012-01-01

    The transition from dark to light involves marked changes in the redox reactions of photosynthetic electron transport and in chloroplast stromal enzyme activity even under mild light and growth conditions. Thus, it is not surprising that redox regulation is used to dynamically adjust and coordinate the stromal and thylakoid compartments. While oxidation of regulatory proteins is necessary for the regulation, the identity and the mechanism of action of the oxidizing pathway are still unresolved. Here, we studied the oxidation of a thylakoid-associated atypical thioredoxin-type protein, ACHT1, in the Arabidopsis thaliana chloroplast. We found that after a brief period of net reduction in plants illuminated with moderate light intensity, a significant oxidation reaction of ACHT1 arises and counterbalances its reduction. Interestingly, ACHT1 oxidation is driven by 2-Cys peroxiredoxin (Prx), which in turn eliminates peroxides. The ACHT1 and 2-Cys Prx reaction characteristics in plants further indicated that ACHT1 oxidation is linked with changes in the photosynthetic production of peroxides. Our findings that plants with altered redox poise of the ACHT1 and 2-Cys Prx pathway show higher nonphotochemical quenching and lower photosynthetic electron transport infer a feedback regulatory role for this pathway. PMID:22570442

  19. Influence of Light Intensity at Different Temperatures on Rate of Respiration of Douglas-Fir Seedlings

    PubMed Central

    Brix, Holger

    1968-01-01

    The rate of photorespiration of Douglas-fir seedlings was measured under different light intensities by: (1) extrapolating the curve for CO2 uptake in relation to atmospheric CO2 content to zero CO2 content, and (2) measuring CO2 evolution of the plants into a CO2-free airstream. Different results, obtained from these techniques, were believed to be caused by a severe restriction of the photosynthetic activity when the latter was used. With the first method, CO2 evolution was lower than the dark respiration rate at low light intensity. For all temperatures studied (6°, 20°, 28°) a further increase in light intensity raised the CO2 evolution above dark respiration before it leveled off. The rate of CO2 evolution was stimulated by increase in temperature at all light intensities. With the CO2-free air method, CO2 evolution in the light was less than dark respiration at all light intensities. PMID:16656775

  20. Effects of light intensity light quality and air velocity on temperature in plant reproductive organs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kitaya, Y.; Hirai, H.

    Excess temperature increase in plant reproductive organs such as anthers and stigmata could cause fertility impediments and thus produce sterile seeds under artificial lighting conditions in closed plant growth facilities There is a possibility that the aberration was caused by an excess increase in temperatures of reproductive organs in Bioregenerative Life Support Systems under microgravity conditions in space The fundamental study was conducted to know the thermal situation of the plant reproductive organs as affected by light intensity light quality and air velocity on the earth and to estimate the excess temperature increase in the reproductive organs in closed plant growth facilities in space Thermal images of reproductive organs of rice and strawberry were captured using infrared thermography at an air temperature of 10 r C The temperatures in flowers at 300 mu mol m -2 s -1 PPFD under the lights from red LEDs white LEDs blue LEDs fluorescent lamps and incandescent lamps increased by 1 4 1 7 1 9 6 0 and 25 3 r C respectively for rice and by 2 8 3 4 4 1 7 8 and 43 4 r C respectively for strawberry The flower temperatures increased with increasing PPFD levels The temperatures in petals anthers and stigmas of strawberry at 300 mu mol m -2 s -1 PPFD under incandescent lamps increased by 32 7 29 0 and 26 6 r C respectively at 0 1 m s -1 air velocity and by 20 6 18 5 and 15 9 r C respectively at 0 8 m s -1 air velocity The temperatures of reproductive organs decreased with increasing

  1. 14 CFR 23.1391 - Minimum intensities in the horizontal plane of position lights.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Minimum intensities in the horizontal plane of position lights. 23.1391 Section 23.1391 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION... CATEGORY AIRPLANES Equipment Lights § 23.1391 Minimum intensities in the horizontal plane of...

  2. 14 CFR 23.1391 - Minimum intensities in the horizontal plane of position lights.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Minimum intensities in the horizontal plane of position lights. 23.1391 Section 23.1391 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION... CATEGORY AIRPLANES Equipment Lights § 23.1391 Minimum intensities in the horizontal plane of...

  3. 14 CFR 23.1391 - Minimum intensities in the horizontal plane of position lights.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Minimum intensities in the horizontal plane of position lights. 23.1391 Section 23.1391 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION... CATEGORY AIRPLANES Equipment Lights § 23.1391 Minimum intensities in the horizontal plane of...

  4. 14 CFR 23.1391 - Minimum intensities in the horizontal plane of position lights.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Minimum intensities in the horizontal plane of position lights. 23.1391 Section 23.1391 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION... CATEGORY AIRPLANES Equipment Lights § 23.1391 Minimum intensities in the horizontal plane of...

  5. 14 CFR 23.1391 - Minimum intensities in the horizontal plane of position lights.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Minimum intensities in the horizontal plane of position lights. 23.1391 Section 23.1391 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION... CATEGORY AIRPLANES Equipment Lights § 23.1391 Minimum intensities in the horizontal plane of...

  6. 14 CFR 23.1393 - Minimum intensities in any vertical plane of position lights.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Minimum intensities in any vertical plane... CATEGORY AIRPLANES Equipment Lights § 23.1393 Minimum intensities in any vertical plane of position lights... above or below the horizontal plane Intensity, l 0° 1.00 0° to 5° 0.90 5° to 10° 0.80 10° to 15° 0.70...

  7. 14 CFR 23.1393 - Minimum intensities in any vertical plane of position lights.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Minimum intensities in any vertical plane... CATEGORY AIRPLANES Equipment Lights § 23.1393 Minimum intensities in any vertical plane of position lights... above or below the horizontal plane Intensity, l 0° 1.00 0° to 5° 0.90 5° to 10° 0.80 10° to 15° 0.70...

  8. 14 CFR 23.1393 - Minimum intensities in any vertical plane of position lights.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Minimum intensities in any vertical plane... CATEGORY AIRPLANES Equipment Lights § 23.1393 Minimum intensities in any vertical plane of position lights... above or below the horizontal plane Intensity, l 0° 1.00 0° to 5° 0.90 5° to 10° 0.80 10° to 15° 0.70...

  9. 14 CFR 23.1393 - Minimum intensities in any vertical plane of position lights.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Minimum intensities in any vertical plane... CATEGORY AIRPLANES Equipment Lights § 23.1393 Minimum intensities in any vertical plane of position lights... above or below the horizontal plane Intensity, l 0° 1.00 0° to 5° 0.90 5° to 10° 0.80 10° to 15° 0.70...

  10. 14 CFR 23.1393 - Minimum intensities in any vertical plane of position lights.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Minimum intensities in any vertical plane... CATEGORY AIRPLANES Equipment Lights § 23.1393 Minimum intensities in any vertical plane of position lights... above or below the horizontal plane Intensity, l 0° 1.00 0° to 5° 0.90 5° to 10° 0.80 10° to 15° 0.70...

  11. Numerical characteristics of the intensity distribution for a white organic light-emitting diode

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Henglong; Li, Wei-Sheng; Huang, Pin-Jui; Hsieh, Meng-Huan

    2015-09-01

    A statistical distribution function capable of numerically characterizing the unique intensity distribution of a planar white organic light-emitting diodes (WOLED) was theoretically investigated by fitting our experimental data obtained by microscopic goniometer (MG) system associated with an energy analyzer to the normal distribution function with amplitude, average, and standard deviation as adjustable parameters. The WOLED is one of the upcoming lighting sources with planar device structure without additional optical components. The intensity characteristic of a lighting source is crucial for practical purpose. The procedure of an optical design usually requires proper numerical tools to satisfy specific application by adjusting parameters. Relatively uniform intensity distribution of a planar lighting source is needed for a specific lighting application such as back-lighting (BL) for liquid-crystal displays (LCD) in which Regular white LED's (WLED) and light-guide plate are assembled as a planar module. Our intensity measurement of a WOLED revealed a unique pattern in which the relative intensities near central area are higher than that near the edge of the emissive area. This unique intensity profile is similar to the feature of Gaussian distribution function. Our preliminary result of applying Gaussian distribution function to numerically characterize the intensity profile of a WOLED suggests that the unique intensity profile can be represented by single distribution function properly.

  12. Absolute calibration of the Auger fluorescence detectors

    SciTech Connect

    Bauleo, P.; Brack, J.; Garrard, L.; Harton, J.; Knapik, R.; Meyhandan, R.; Rovero, A.C.; Tamashiro, A.; Warner, D.

    2005-07-01

    Absolute calibration of the Pierre Auger Observatory fluorescence detectors uses a light source at the telescope aperture. The technique accounts for the combined effects of all detector components in a single measurement. The calibrated 2.5 m diameter light source fills the aperture, providing uniform illumination to each pixel. The known flux from the light source and the response of the acquisition system give the required calibration for each pixel. In the lab, light source uniformity is studied using CCD images and the intensity is measured relative to NIST-calibrated photodiodes. Overall uncertainties are presently 12%, and are dominated by systematics.

  13. Effects of light intensity, oxygen concentration, and carbon dioxide concentration on photosynthesis in algae.

    PubMed

    Pope, D H

    1975-03-01

    The effects of various combinations of light intensity, oxygen concentration, and CO2 concentration on photosynthesis and growth in several algal types were studied. The results suggest the following. (1) Different algae show different responses to high oxygen concentrations and high light intensities. (2) Inhibition of photosynthesis (CO2 fixation and growth), if seen, increases with increasing oxygen concentration and with increasing light intensity (at light intensities greater than saturation). (3) The inhibition of net photosynthesis observed cannot be attributed to high light intensity alone. (4) The inhibition cannot be attributed to increased rates of excretion of organic materials under conditions of high oxygen concentration and high light intensity. (5) Increased concentrations of CO2 can decrease the effect of high oxygen and light in some algae. (6) The decrease in net photosynthesis observed is probably the result of photorespiration. (7) The effect of light intensity, oxygen concentration, or CO2 concentration on algal photosynthesis should not be studied without considering the effect of the other factors. Some implications of these results, as related to primary productivity measurements, are also discussed.

  14. Modeling spatiotemporal patterns of understory light intensity using airborne laser scanner (LiDAR)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peng, Shouzhang; Zhao, Chuanyan; Xu, Zhonglin

    2014-11-01

    This study described a spatiotemporally explicit 3D raytrace model to provide spatiotemporal patterns of understory light (light intensity in the forest floor and along the vertical gradient). The model was built based on voxels derived from LiDAR and field investigation data, geographical information (elevation and location), and solar position (azimuth and altitude angles). We calculated the distance (L, in meters) traveled by solar ray in the crowns based on the model, and then calibrated and verified the light attenuation function using L based on Beer's law. L and the ratio of below canopy light intensity to above canopy light intensity showed obviously exponential relationship, with R2 = 0.94 and P < 0.05. Estimated and observed understory light intensities were obviously positively correlated, with R2 = 0.92 and P < 0.01, and the estimated values were slightly lower than the observed values. The spatiotemporal patterns of the light intensity in the forest floor were mapped with the respect to the solar position, and these patterns represented the variations in the forest-shaded area. The spatial patterns of the light intensity along vertical gradient were also mapped, and they showed strong variations. We concluded that L could account for the complex patterns of understory light environment with respect to the geographical and solar position variations. The 3D raytrace model can be integrated with ecological or hydrological models to resolve several issues, such as plant succession and competition, soil evaporation, plant transpiration, and snowmelt in the forest.

  15. An attempt to determine the absolute geomagnetic field intensity in Southwestern Iceland during the Gauss-Matuyama reversal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goguitchaichvili, Avto; Prévot, Michel; Thompson, John; Roberts, Neil

    1999-08-01

    We have measured the variation in the intensity of the geomagnetic field during the Gauss-Matuyama (N4-R3) polarity reversal by application of the Thelliers' method to specimens of lava flows from Hvalfjördur district in Western Iceland (Reynivallahals Mts.). Eleven lava flows all show very similar directions corresponding to an equatorial VGP (Plat=2.9°N, Plong=81.9°E, A95=4.2, K=119). Twenty-nine specimens from nine of the flows were pre-selected for palaeointensity determination on the basis that specimens from the same drill cores showed a single component of magnetisation upon thermal or AF demagnetisation, and possessed low magnetic viscosity and reversible susceptibility curves upon heating at 600-650°C. Observation that the directional data obtained in the course of the palaeointensity experiments occasionally showed substantial non-linearity indicates that a significant chemical remanent magnetization (CRM) can be acquired in the direction of the laboratory field during heating at T. For each double heating step we calculated the ratio of CRM( T) to the magnitude of the natural remanent magnetization (NRM( T)) in the direction of characteristic remanence (obtained independently from another specimen from the same core). When this ratio exceeded 15%, the paleointensity data was rejected. In addition, specimens for which the quality factor was less than 5 were rejected. Twelve reliable palaeointensity values were obtained from specimens representing five lava flows. The results confirm that the palaeointensity was substantially reduced during the N4-R3 reversal. The range of mean palaeointensity values obtained for the five flows is 8.8 to 20.5 and the overall mean is 14.8±4.6 μT. This corresponds to an equivalent VDM of 3.81±1.19 (10 22 A m 2). A comparison of all Thellier palaeointensity data from the R3 magnetozone in the Rayinivallahals Mts. area reveals a progressive although irregular increase in the palaeointensity between the Gauss

  16. Rod photoreceptors drive circadian photoentrainment across a wide range of light intensities

    PubMed Central

    Altimus, C.M.; Güler, A.D.; Alam, N.M.; Arman, A.C.; Prusky, G.T.; Sampath, A.P.; Hattar, S

    2010-01-01

    In mammals, synchronization of the circadian pacemaker in the hypothalamus is achieved through direct input from the eyes conveyed by intrinsically photosensitive retinal ganglion cells (ipRGCs). Circadian photoentrainment can be maintained by rod and cone photoreceptors, but their functional contributions and their retinal circuits that impinge on ipRGCs are not well understood. We demonstrate in genetic mouse models lacking functional rods, or where rods are the only functional photoreceptors, that rods are solely responsible for photoentrainment at scotopic light intensities. Surprisingly, rods were also capable of driving circadian photoentrainment at photopic intensities where they were incapable of supporting a visually–guided behavior. Using animals in which cone photoreceptors were ablated, we demonstrate that rods signal through cones at high light intensities, but not low light intensities. Thus two distinct retinal circuits drive ipRGC function to support circadian photoentrainment across a wide range of light intensities. PMID:20711184

  17. Stimulation of pigment accumulation in Anabaena azollae strains: effect of light intensity and sugars.

    PubMed

    Venugopal, V; Prasanna, R; Sood, A; Jaiswal, P; Kaushik, B D

    2006-01-01

    The influence of high light intensity on the growth and pigment accumulating ability of Anabaena azollae was investigated. A. azollae responded positively to high light intensity (6 klx) and was further evaluated at higher intensities (10 and 15 klx), in the presence of glucose, sucrose and jaggery +/- DCMU. Significant enhancement in phycobiliproteins and carotenoids was observed in the sugar supplemented cultures at high light intensities. SDS-PAGE profiles of whole cell proteins revealed the presence of unique bands in such treatments. Sucrose supplementation induced a 30-90 % increase in carotenoids, phycocyanin and phycoerythrin content at 10 klx. Molecular analysis of the stimulatory and interactive role of sugars on pigment enhancement at high light intensity may aid in better exploitation of cyanobacteria as a source of pigments.

  18. Studies on light intensity distribution inside an open pond photo-bioreactor.

    PubMed

    Pandey, Ramakant; Sahu, Akhilesh; K K, Vasumathi; M, Premalatha

    2015-08-01

    Light intensity profiles inside an open tank were studied using ANSYS Fluent. Experiments were performed by taking Scenedesmus arcuatus, green microalgae at three different concentrations under actual sunlight conditions. Absorption of light intensity at different depths was measured experimentally. The results generated from CFD simulations were compared with the experimental results and the cornet model. It has been found that there is a good agreement between the light intensity profile obtained from the CFD simulation and that calculated using the Cornet's model. Light intensity profiles at different depths were calculated using CFD simulation by varying the dimensions of the tank. The effect of wall reflectivity, diffuse fraction and scattering phase function on light profile in side open tank are also studied using CFD simulation. PMID:25868715

  19. Studies on light intensity distribution inside an open pond photo-bioreactor.

    PubMed

    Pandey, Ramakant; Sahu, Akhilesh; K K, Vasumathi; M, Premalatha

    2015-08-01

    Light intensity profiles inside an open tank were studied using ANSYS Fluent. Experiments were performed by taking Scenedesmus arcuatus, green microalgae at three different concentrations under actual sunlight conditions. Absorption of light intensity at different depths was measured experimentally. The results generated from CFD simulations were compared with the experimental results and the cornet model. It has been found that there is a good agreement between the light intensity profile obtained from the CFD simulation and that calculated using the Cornet's model. Light intensity profiles at different depths were calculated using CFD simulation by varying the dimensions of the tank. The effect of wall reflectivity, diffuse fraction and scattering phase function on light profile in side open tank are also studied using CFD simulation.

  20. A microsecond-pulsewidth, intense, light-ion beam accelerator

    SciTech Connect

    Rej, D.J.; Bartsch, R.R.; Davis, H.A.; Greenly, J.B.; Waganaar, W.J.

    1993-07-01

    A relatively long-pulsewidth (0.1-1 {mu}s) intense ion beam accelerator has been built for materials processing applications. An applied-B{sub r}, magnetically-insulated extraction ion diode with dielectric flashover ion source is installed directly onto the output of a 1.2-MV, 300-kJ Marx generator. Initial operation of the accelerator at 0.4 MV indicates satisfactory performance without the need for additional pulse-shaping.

  1. Light labeling with temporal intensity modulations for hyperspectral imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Domingue, Scott R.; Winters, David G.; Bartels, Randy A.

    2016-04-01

    We discuss the theoretical framework of a new method of performing spectroscopy: labeling a unique intensity modulation frequency onto the optical frequencies of an incident or illumination power spectrum. In a manner similar to Fourier transform spectroscopy, we rescale the optical angular frequencies of the power spectrum down to readily measured frequencies on a square-law detector enabling rapid spectral update rates on a single element detector.

  2. The influence of reduced light intensity on the response of benthic diatoms to herbicide exposure.

    PubMed

    Wood, Rebecca J; Mitrovic, Simon M; Lim, Richard P; Kefford, Ben J

    2016-09-01

    Herbicide pollution events in aquatic ecosystems often coincide with increased turbidity and reduced light intensity. It is therefore important to determine whether reduced light intensity can influence herbicide toxicity, especially to primary producers such as benthic diatoms. Benthic diatoms collected from 4 rivers were exposed to herbicides in 48 h rapid toxicity tests under high light (100 µmol m(-2)  s(-1) ) and low light (20 µmol m(-2)  s(-1) ) intensities. The effects of 2 herbicides (atrazine and glyphosate) were assessed on 26 freshwater benthic diatom taxa. There was no significant interaction of light and herbicide effects at the community level or on the majority (22 of 26) of benthic diatom taxa. This indicates that low light levels will likely have only a minor influence on the response of benthic diatoms to herbicides. Environ Toxicol Chem 2016;35:2252-2260. © 2016 SETAC.

  3. The influence of reduced light intensity on the response of benthic diatoms to herbicide exposure.

    PubMed

    Wood, Rebecca J; Mitrovic, Simon M; Lim, Richard P; Kefford, Ben J

    2016-09-01

    Herbicide pollution events in aquatic ecosystems often coincide with increased turbidity and reduced light intensity. It is therefore important to determine whether reduced light intensity can influence herbicide toxicity, especially to primary producers such as benthic diatoms. Benthic diatoms collected from 4 rivers were exposed to herbicides in 48 h rapid toxicity tests under high light (100 µmol m(-2)  s(-1) ) and low light (20 µmol m(-2)  s(-1) ) intensities. The effects of 2 herbicides (atrazine and glyphosate) were assessed on 26 freshwater benthic diatom taxa. There was no significant interaction of light and herbicide effects at the community level or on the majority (22 of 26) of benthic diatom taxa. This indicates that low light levels will likely have only a minor influence on the response of benthic diatoms to herbicides. Environ Toxicol Chem 2016;35:2252-2260. © 2016 SETAC. PMID:26801964

  4. Photosensitivity control of an isotropic medium through polarization of light pulses with tilted intensity front.

    PubMed

    Kazansky, Peter G; Shimotsuma, Yasuhiko; Sakakura, Masaaki; Beresna, Martynas; Gecevičius, Mindaugas; Svirko, Yuri; Akturk, Selcuk; Qiu, Jianrong; Miura, Kiyotaka; Hirao, Kazuyuki

    2011-10-10

    We present the first experimental evidence of anisotropic photosensitivity of an isotropic homogeneous medium under uniform illumination. Our experiments reveal fundamentally new type of light induced anisotropy originated from the hidden asymmetry of pulsed light beam with a finite tilt of intensity front. We anticipate that the observed phenomenon, which enables employing mutual orientation of a light polarization plane and pulse front tilt to control interaction of matter with ultrashort light pulses, will open new opportunities in material processing. PMID:21997076

  5. Prism-pair interferometry by homodyne interferometers with a common light source for high-accuracy measurement of the absolute refractive index of glasses

    SciTech Connect

    Hori, Yasuaki; Hirai, Akiko; Minoshima, Kaoru

    2011-03-10

    A prism-pair interferometer comprising two homodyne interferometers with a common light source was developed for high-precision measurements of the refractive index of optical glasses with an uncertainty of the order of 10{sup -6}. The two interferometers measure changes in the optical path length in the glass sample and in air, respectively. Uncertainties in the absolute wavelength of the common light source are cancelled out by calculating a ratio between the results from the interferometers. Uncertainties in phase measurement are suppressed by a quadrature detection system. The combined standard uncertainty of the developed system is evaluated as 1.1x10{sup -6}.

  6. Effect of the light spectrum of various substrates for inkjet printed conductive structures sintered with intense pulsed light

    SciTech Connect

    Weise, Dana Mitra, Kalyan Yoti Ueberfuhr, Peter; Baumann, Reinhard R.

    2015-02-17

    In this work, the novel method of intense pulsed light (IPL) sintering of a nanoparticle silver ink is presented. Various patterns are printed with the Inkjet technology on two flexible foils with different light spectra. One is a clear Polyethylenterephthalat [PET] foil and the second is a light brownish Polyimide [PI] foil. The samples are flashed with different parameters regarding to pulse intensity and pulse length. Microscopic images are indicating the impact of the flashing parameters and the different light spectra of the substrates on the sintered structures. Sheet and line resistance are measured and the conductivity is calculated. A high influence of the property of the substrate with respect to light absorption and thermal conductivity on the functionality of printed conductive structures could be presented. With this new method of IPL sintering, highly conductive inkjet printed silver patterns could be manufactured within milliseconds on flexible polymeric foils without damaging the substrate.

  7. Technique for compressing light intensity ranges utilizing a specifically designed liquid crystal notch filter

    DOEpatents

    Rushford, Michael C.

    1988-01-01

    A pin hole camera assembly for use in viewing an object having a relatively large light intensity range, for example a crucible containing molten metal in an atomic vapor laser isotope separation (AVLIS) system is disclosed herein. The assembly includes means for optically compressing the light intensity range appearing at its input sufficient to make it receivable and decipherable by a standard video camera. To accomplish this, the assembly utilizes the combination of interference filter and a liquid crystal notch filter. The latter which preferably includes a cholesteric liquid crystal arrangement is configured to pass light at all wavelengths, except a relatively narrow wavelength band which defines the filter's notch, and includes means for causing the notch to vary to at least a limited extent with the intensity of light at its light incidence surface.

  8. Multiphoton Microscopy and Interaction of Intense Light Pulses with Polymers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guay, Jean-Michel

    2011-07-01

    The nanoscale manipulation of soft-matter, such as biological tissues, in its native environment has promising applications in medicine to correct for defects (eg. eye cataracts) or to destroy malignant regions (eg. cancerous tumours). To achieve this we need the ability to first image and then do precise ablation with sub-micron resolution with the same setup. For this purpose, we designed and built a multiphoton microscope and tested it on goldfish gills and bovine cells. We then studied light-matter interaction on a hard polymer (PMMA) because the nature of ablation of soft-matter in its native environment is complex and not well understood. Ablation and modification thresholds for successive laser shots were obtained. The ablation craters revealed 3D nanostructures and polarization dependent orientation. The interaction also induced localized porosity in PMMA that can be controlled.

  9. Dynamics of quasiparticles in graphene under intense circularly polarized light

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yudin, Dmitry; Eriksson, Olle; Katsnelson, Mikhail I.

    2015-02-01

    A monolayer of graphene irradiated with circularly polarized light suggests a unique platform for surface electromagnetic wave (plasmon-polariton) manipulation. In fact, the time periodicity of the Hamiltonian leads to a geometric Aharonov-Anandan phase and results in a photovoltaic Hall effect in graphene, creating off-diagonal components of the conductivity tensor. The latter drastically changes the dispersion relation of surface plasmon-polaritons, leading to hybrid wave generation. In this paper we present a systematic and self-contained analysis of the hybrid surface waves obtained from Maxwell equations based on a microscopic formula for the conductivity. We consider a practical example of graphene sandwiched between two dielectric media and show that in the one-photon approximation there is formation of propagating hybrid surface waves. From this analysis emerges the possibility of a reliable experimental realization to study Zitterbewegung of charge carriers of graphene.

  10. [Effect of light intensity on the biosynthesis of bacteriochlorophylls in Rhodomicrobium vannielii and Rhodopseudomonas palustris].

    PubMed

    Lorenti, A S; Viale, A A

    1980-01-01

    The activity of aminolevulinate-synthetase in crude extracts of R. vannielii was determined. Its properties are very similar to those of the enzyme from R. palustris. With increasing light intensity on cultures of both microorganisms, their specific growth rates increases and the concentration of bacteriochlorophyll decreases. ALA-synthetase exhibits a dual-pattern; its activity remains at a high constant level up to 4 x 10(4) erg cm-2 seg-1, decreasing at higher light intensities (Figures 1 and 2). The activity of succinil-CoA-synthetase of both microorganisms and ALA-dehydrase of R. palustris remain constant over the entire range of light intensities used, but the ALA-dehydrase of R. vannielii shows the same dual-pattern as ALA-synthetase (Table 1), namely a constant high level at the lower light intensities, decreasing at the higher ones. With dialysis the activity of ALA-synthetase of both microorganisms decreases only in extracts from low light intensity grown bacteria, while it did not decrease in extracts from bacteria grown at high light intensities.

  11. Daily rhythm changes associated with variations in light intensity and color.

    PubMed

    Winget, C M; Card, D H

    1967-01-01

    Asynchronosis with its symptoms of fatigue, confusion, and discomfort is perhaps the most frequently experienced problem of jet travel; and without synchronization it will represent a major problem with supersonic and interplanetary travel. Current observations suggest that light is the most important environmental factor for the regulation of daily rhythms. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to quantitatively evaluate daily rhythm changes associated with changes in light intensity at given wavelengths of light. Biological rhythm data of birds have been useful for the interpretation of data collected on man. Two normal chickens were used to study three daily physiological rhythms in a controlled environment for approximately 80 days. Variables included the light intensity and wavelength. Heart rate, deep body temperature, and activity were recorded at 6 min intervals. The first two measurements were received from miniature radio transmitters and the third directly from the cage floor. The presence of the cycles was established by periodogram and correlogram analysis. The data were described further by harmonic regression analysis and cross correlations between the three daily rhythms. The physiologic systems studied are arrhythmic in continuous red light. There was no change observed in the periods of the daily rhythms with an increase in light intensity. Deep body temperature oscillations were greater at the higher light intensities and appeared to dissociate from heart rate. Activity and heart rate have a high degree of correlation even at the higher intensities.

  12. The velocity of light intensity increase modulates the photoprotective response in coastal diatoms.

    PubMed

    Giovagnetti, Vasco; Flori, Serena; Tramontano, Ferdinando; Lavaud, Johann; Brunet, Christophe

    2014-01-01

    In aquatic ecosystems, the superimposition of mixing events to the light diel cycle exposes phytoplankton to changes in the velocity of light intensity increase, from diurnal variations to faster mixing-related ones. This is particularly true in coastal waters, where diatoms are dominant. This study aims to investigate if coastal diatoms differently activate the photoprotective responses, xanthophyll cycle (XC) and non-photochemical fluorescence quenching (NPQ), to cope with predictable light diel cycle and unpredictable mixing-related light variations. We compared the effect of two fast light intensity increases (simulating mixing events) with that of a slower increase (corresponding to the light diel cycle) on the modulation of XC and NPQ in the planktonic coastal diatom Pseudo-nitzschia multistriata. During each light treatment, the photon flux density (PFD) progressively increased from darkness to five peaks, ranging from 100 to 650 µmol photons m-2 s-1. Our results show that the diel cycle-related PFD increase strongly activates XC through the enhancement of the carotenoid biosynthesis and induces a moderate and gradual NPQ formation over the light gradient. In contrast, during mixing-related PFD increases, XC is less activated, while higher NPQ rapidly develops at moderate PFD. We observe that together with the light intensity and its increase velocity, the saturation light for photosynthesis (Ek) is a key parameter in modulating photoprotection. We propose that the capacity to adequately regulate and actuate alternative photoprotective 'safety valves' in response to changing velocity of light intensity increase further enhances the photophysiological flexibility of diatoms. This might be an evolutionary outcome of diatom adaptation to turbulent marine ecosystems characterized by unpredictable mixing-related light changes over the light diel cycle.

  13. Scattered and reflected light intensities above the atmosphere.

    PubMed

    Thompson, B C; Wells, M B

    1971-07-01

    A calculational method is described that was developed for use in predicting the angular distribution of the upwelling flux of sunlight scattered by the atmosphere and reflected by the ground. Monte Carlo calculations of the radiation escaping the top of a plane-parallel model atmosphere were used as input in a computer procedure that integrates the reflected intensities over the sunlit portion of the top of the earth's atmosphere, which is visible by a receiver located on a spacecraft. Calculations were performed for a model maritime atmosphere, with and without low-altitude cloud layer, and a model continental atmosphere, which includes treatment of the effects of aerosol, Rayleigh scattering, and ozone absorption. The ground surface was assumed to be a Lambert reflector. The results of the Monte Carlo calculation for five wavelengths between 370 nm and 780 nm were compared with measured data from the Ames Research Center earth albedo experiment on the OSO-3 satellite. Agreement between calculated and measured values was sufficiently good to warrant the conclusion that reasonable estimates of the angular distribution of the radiation reaching a near-earth spacecraft from different atmospheric conditions could be calculated.

  14. 33 CFR 84.21 - Intensity of non-electric lights.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Intensity of non-electric lights. 84.21 Section 84.21 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY INLAND NAVIGATION RULES ANNEX I: POSITIONING AND TECHNICAL DETAILS OF LIGHTS AND SHAPES § 84.21...

  15. 33 CFR 84.21 - Intensity of non-electric lights.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Intensity of non-electric lights. 84.21 Section 84.21 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY INLAND NAVIGATION RULES ANNEX I: POSITIONING AND TECHNICAL DETAILS OF LIGHTS AND SHAPES § 84.21...

  16. The relationship between light intensity and nutrient uptake kinetics in six freshwater diatoms.

    PubMed

    Shi, Pengling; Shen, Hong; Wang, Wenjing; Chen, Wenjie; Xie, Ping

    2015-08-01

    In order to find effective measures to control diatom blooms, a better understanding of the physiological characteristics of nutrient uptake in diatoms is needed. A study of P and Si-uptake kinetics for diatom species from two light regimes was conducted at low (LL), moderate (ML) and high light intensities (HL) (2, 25 and 80 μmol photons/(m(2)·sec)), respectively. The results showed that P uptake of diatoms was heavily influenced by historic light regimes. P affinity changed with growth and photosynthetic activity. The lowest half saturation constant for P uptake (Km(P)) was under HL for high-light adapted diatoms while the lowest half-saturation constant for low-light adapted diatoms was observed under LL. The Si half-saturation constant (Km(Si)) increased with increasing light intensities for pennate diatoms but decreased for centric diatoms. Diatom volumes were correlated with the maximum Si uptake rates (Vm(Si)) at HL and Km(Si) at ML and HL for six diatom species. Our results imply that when we assess the development of diatom blooms we should consider light intensity and cell volume in addition to ambient Si or P concentration. The relationship between light intensity and P-uptake suggests that we can find suitable methods to control diatom blooms on the basis of reducing phytoplankton activity of P-uptake and photosynthesis simultaneously.

  17. Small angle neutron scattering on an absolute intensity scale and the internal surface of diatom frustules from three species of differing morphologies.

    PubMed

    Garvey, C J; Strobl, M; Percot, A; Saroun, J; Haug, J; Vyverman, W; Chepurnov, V A; Ferris, J M

    2013-05-01

    The internal nanostructure of the diatoms Cyclotella meneghiniana, Seminavis robusta and Achnanthes subsessilis was investigated using small angle neutron scattering (SANS) to examine thin biosilica samples, consisting of isotropic (powder) from their isolated cell walls. The interpretation of SANS data was assisted by several other measurements. The N2 adsorption, interpreted within the Branuer-Emmet-Teller isotherm, yielded the specific surface area of the material. Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) and Raman spectroscopy indicates that the isolated material is amorphous silica with small amounts of organic cell wall materials acting as a filling material between the silica particles. A two-phase (air and amorphous silica) model was used to interpret small angle neutron scattering data. After correction for instrumental resolution, the measurements on two SANS instruments covered an extended range of scattering vectors 0.0011 nm(-1) < q < 5.6 nm(-1), giving an almost continuous SANS curve over a range of scattering vectors, q, on an absolute scale of intensity for each sample. Each of the samples gave a characteristic scattering curve where log (intensity) versus log (q) has a -4 dependence, with other features superimposed. In the high-q regime, departure from this behaviour was observed at a length-scales equivalent to the proposed unitary silica particle. The limiting Porod scattering law was used to determine the specific area per unit of volume of each sample illuminated by the neutron beam. The Porod behaviour, and divergence from this behaviour, is discussed in terms of various structural features and the proposed mechanisms for the bio-assembly of unitary silica particles in frustules.

  18. Absolute intensity measurements of the optical second-harmonic response of metals from 0.9 to 2.5 eV

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matranga, Christopher; Guyot-Sionnest, Philippe

    2001-11-01

    The absolute intensity of the optical second-harmonic response and its spectral (ωfund≈0.9-2.5 eV) dependence has been measured for Ag(111), polycrystalline Ag, 4-Aminothiophenol/Ag (4-ATP/Ag) and decanethiol/Ag (DT/Ag) surfaces in contact with a liquid electrolyte. Preliminary spectra are also reported for polycrystalline Au and Cu(111) samples. For second-harmonic energies below the plasmon resonance, the magnitude of the nonlinear optical response of clean Ag samples increases as electrode potentials are made more positive. This trend reverses itself for energies above the plasmon resonance. The adsorbate-covered surfaces show a weak or nonexistent potential dependence. A unique feature is found in the 4-ATP/Ag spectra which could possibly be due to a surface charge-transfer state. The Ag results are discussed in the context of a free-electron response from which the spectral and potential dependence of the complex microscopic parameter, a(ω), are extracted. The features in the Au and Cu(111) spectra are not adequately described by this free-electron model and must be related to the effects of interband transitions on the nonlinear optical response.

  19. The role of lasers and intense pulsed light technology in dermatology

    PubMed Central

    Husain, Zain; Alster, Tina S

    2016-01-01

    The role of light-based technologies in dermatology has expanded dramatically in recent years. Lasers and intense pulsed light have been used to safely and effectively treat a diverse array of cutaneous conditions, including vascular and pigmented lesions, tattoos, scars, and undesired hair, while also providing extensive therapeutic options for cosmetic rejuvenation and other dermatologic conditions. Dermatologic laser procedures are becoming increasingly popular worldwide, and demand for them has fueled new innovations and clinical applications. These systems continue to evolve and provide enhanced therapeutic outcomes with improved safety profiles. This review highlights the important roles and varied clinical applications that lasers and intense pulsed light play in the dermatologic practice. PMID:26893574

  20. The role of lasers and intense pulsed light technology in dermatology.

    PubMed

    Husain, Zain; Alster, Tina S

    2016-01-01

    The role of light-based technologies in dermatology has expanded dramatically in recent years. Lasers and intense pulsed light have been used to safely and effectively treat a diverse array of cutaneous conditions, including vascular and pigmented lesions, tattoos, scars, and undesired hair, while also providing extensive therapeutic options for cosmetic rejuvenation and other dermatologic conditions. Dermatologic laser procedures are becoming increasingly popular worldwide, and demand for them has fueled new innovations and clinical applications. These systems continue to evolve and provide enhanced therapeutic outcomes with improved safety profiles. This review highlights the important roles and varied clinical applications that lasers and intense pulsed light play in the dermatologic practice. PMID:26893574

  1. The role of lasers and intense pulsed light technology in dermatology.

    PubMed

    Husain, Zain; Alster, Tina S

    2016-01-01

    The role of light-based technologies in dermatology has expanded dramatically in recent years. Lasers and intense pulsed light have been used to safely and effectively treat a diverse array of cutaneous conditions, including vascular and pigmented lesions, tattoos, scars, and undesired hair, while also providing extensive therapeutic options for cosmetic rejuvenation and other dermatologic conditions. Dermatologic laser procedures are becoming increasingly popular worldwide, and demand for them has fueled new innovations and clinical applications. These systems continue to evolve and provide enhanced therapeutic outcomes with improved safety profiles. This review highlights the important roles and varied clinical applications that lasers and intense pulsed light play in the dermatologic practice.

  2. Light intensity affects the uptake and metabolism of glycine by pakchoi (Brassica chinensis L.).

    PubMed

    Ma, Qingxu; Cao, Xiaochuang; Wu, Lianghuan; Mi, Wenhai; Feng, Ying

    2016-01-01

    The uptake of glycine by pakchoi (Brassica chinensis L.), when supplied as single N-source or in a mixture of glycine and inorganic N, was studied at different light intensities under sterile conditions. At the optimal intensity (414 μmol m(-2) s(-1)) for plant growth, glycine, nitrate, and ammonium contributed 29.4%, 39.5%, and 31.1% shoot N, respectively, and light intensity altered the preferential absorption of N sources. The lower (15)N-nitrate in root but higher in shoot and the higher (15)N-glycine in root but lower in shoot suggested that most (15)N-nitrate uptake by root transported to shoot rapidly, with the shoot being important for nitrate assimilation, and the N contribution of glycine was limited by post-uptake metabolism. The amount of glycine that was taken up by the plant was likely limited by root uptake at low light intensities and by the metabolism of ammonium produced by glycine at high light intensities. These results indicate that pakchoi has the ability to uptake a large quantity of glycine, but that uptake is strongly regulated by light intensity, with metabolism in the root inhibiting its N contribution. PMID:26882864

  3. Light intensity affects the uptake and metabolism of glycine by pakchoi (Brassica chinensis L.)

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Qingxu; Cao, Xiaochuang; Wu, Lianghuan; Mi, Wenhai; Feng, Ying

    2016-01-01

    The uptake of glycine by pakchoi (Brassica chinensis L.), when supplied as single N-source or in a mixture of glycine and inorganic N, was studied at different light intensities under sterile conditions. At the optimal intensity (414 μmol m−2 s−1) for plant growth, glycine, nitrate, and ammonium contributed 29.4%, 39.5%, and 31.1% shoot N, respectively, and light intensity altered the preferential absorption of N sources. The lower 15N-nitrate in root but higher in shoot and the higher 15N-glycine in root but lower in shoot suggested that most 15N-nitrate uptake by root transported to shoot rapidly, with the shoot being important for nitrate assimilation, and the N contribution of glycine was limited by post-uptake metabolism. The amount of glycine that was taken up by the plant was likely limited by root uptake at low light intensities and by the metabolism of ammonium produced by glycine at high light intensities. These results indicate that pakchoi has the ability to uptake a large quantity of glycine, but that uptake is strongly regulated by light intensity, with metabolism in the root inhibiting its N contribution. PMID:26882864

  4. Light intensity affects the uptake and metabolism of glycine by pakchoi (Brassica chinensis L.)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Qingxu; Cao, Xiaochuang; Wu, Lianghuan; Mi, Wenhai; Feng, Ying

    2016-02-01

    The uptake of glycine by pakchoi (Brassica chinensis L.), when supplied as single N-source or in a mixture of glycine and inorganic N, was studied at different light intensities under sterile conditions. At the optimal intensity (414 μmol m‑2 s‑1) for plant growth, glycine, nitrate, and ammonium contributed 29.4%, 39.5%, and 31.1% shoot N, respectively, and light intensity altered the preferential absorption of N sources. The lower 15N-nitrate in root but higher in shoot and the higher 15N-glycine in root but lower in shoot suggested that most 15N-nitrate uptake by root transported to shoot rapidly, with the shoot being important for nitrate assimilation, and the N contribution of glycine was limited by post-uptake metabolism. The amount of glycine that was taken up by the plant was likely limited by root uptake at low light intensities and by the metabolism of ammonium produced by glycine at high light intensities. These results indicate that pakchoi has the ability to uptake a large quantity of glycine, but that uptake is strongly regulated by light intensity, with metabolism in the root inhibiting its N contribution.

  5. Light intensity affects the uptake and metabolism of glycine by pakchoi (Brassica chinensis L.)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Qingxu; Cao, Xiaochuang; Wu, Lianghuan; Mi, Wenhai; Feng, Ying

    2016-02-01

    The uptake of glycine by pakchoi (Brassica chinensis L.), when supplied as single N-source or in a mixture of glycine and inorganic N, was studied at different light intensities under sterile conditions. At the optimal intensity (414 μmol m-2 s-1) for plant growth, glycine, nitrate, and ammonium contributed 29.4%, 39.5%, and 31.1% shoot N, respectively, and light intensity altered the preferential absorption of N sources. The lower 15N-nitrate in root but higher in shoot and the higher 15N-glycine in root but lower in shoot suggested that most 15N-nitrate uptake by root transported to shoot rapidly, with the shoot being important for nitrate assimilation, and the N contribution of glycine was limited by post-uptake metabolism. The amount of glycine that was taken up by the plant was likely limited by root uptake at low light intensities and by the metabolism of ammonium produced by glycine at high light intensities. These results indicate that pakchoi has the ability to uptake a large quantity of glycine, but that uptake is strongly regulated by light intensity, with metabolism in the root inhibiting its N contribution.

  6. Biomass and carotenoid production in photosynthetic bacteria wastewater treatment: effects of light intensity.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Qin; Zhang, Panyue; Zhang, Guangming

    2014-11-01

    This study investigated the feasibility of using photosynthetic bacteria (PSB) to produce biomass and carotenoid while treating wastewater. The effects of light intensity on the biomass, carotenoid and bacteriochlorophyll accumulation in together with pollutant removal were studied. Results showed that it was feasible to use PSB to treat wastewater as well as to produce biomass or carotenoid. 2000 lux was an optimal intensity for biomass production and COD removal, and the corresponding values were 2645 mg/L and 94.7%. 8000 lux was an optimal light intensity for carotenoid production (1.455 mg/L). Mechanism analysis displayed that the greater the bacteriochlorophyll and carotenoid were secreted, the lower the light conversion efficiency turned out to be. The highest light conversion efficiency was achieved at 500 lux; the ATP production, biomass production, and COD removal were the highest at 2000 lux, but the bacteriochlorophyll and carotenoid content were the lowest at 2000 lux. PMID:25218205

  7. Biomass and carotenoid production in photosynthetic bacteria wastewater treatment: effects of light intensity.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Qin; Zhang, Panyue; Zhang, Guangming

    2014-11-01

    This study investigated the feasibility of using photosynthetic bacteria (PSB) to produce biomass and carotenoid while treating wastewater. The effects of light intensity on the biomass, carotenoid and bacteriochlorophyll accumulation in together with pollutant removal were studied. Results showed that it was feasible to use PSB to treat wastewater as well as to produce biomass or carotenoid. 2000 lux was an optimal intensity for biomass production and COD removal, and the corresponding values were 2645 mg/L and 94.7%. 8000 lux was an optimal light intensity for carotenoid production (1.455 mg/L). Mechanism analysis displayed that the greater the bacteriochlorophyll and carotenoid were secreted, the lower the light conversion efficiency turned out to be. The highest light conversion efficiency was achieved at 500 lux; the ATP production, biomass production, and COD removal were the highest at 2000 lux, but the bacteriochlorophyll and carotenoid content were the lowest at 2000 lux.

  8. Growth and biopigment accumulation of cyanobacterium Spirulina platensis at different light intensities and temperature

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Manoj; Kulshreshtha, Jyoti; Singh, Gajendra Pal

    2011-01-01

    In order to find out optimum culture condition for algal growth, the effect of light irradiance and temperature on growth rate, biomass composition and pigment production of Spirulina platensis were studied in axenic batch cultures. Growth kinetics of cultures showed a wide range of temperature tolerance from 20 °C to 40 °C. Maximum growth rate, cell production with maximum accumulation of chlorophyll and phycobilliproteins were found at temperature 35 °C and 2,000 lux light intensity. But with further increase in temperature and light intensity, reduction in growth rate was observed. Carotenoid content was found maximum at 3,500 lux. Improvement in the carotenoid content with increase in light intensity is an adaptive mechanism of cyanobacterium S.platensis for photoprotection, could be a good basis for the exploitation of microalgae as a source of biopigments. PMID:24031731

  9. Lighting, sleep and circadian rhythm: An intervention study in the intensive care unit.

    PubMed

    Engwall, Marie; Fridh, Isabell; Johansson, Lotta; Bergbom, Ingegerd; Lindahl, Berit

    2015-12-01

    Patients in an intensive care unit (ICU) may risk disruption of their circadian rhythm. In an intervention research project a cycled lighting system was set up in an ICU room to support patients' circadian rhythm. Part I aimed to compare experiences of the lighting environment in two rooms with different lighting environments by lighting experiences questionnaire. The results indicated differences in advantage for the patients in the intervention room (n=48), in perception of daytime brightness (p=0.004). In nighttime, greater lighting variation (p=0.005) was found in the ordinary room (n=52). Part II aimed to describe experiences of lighting in the room equipped with the cycled lighting environment. Patients (n=19) were interviewed and the results were presented in categories: "A dynamic lighting environment", "Impact of lighting on patients' sleep", "The impact of lighting/lights on circadian rhythm" and "The lighting calms". Most had experiences from sleep disorders and half had nightmares/sights and circadian rhythm disruption. Nearly all were pleased with the cycled lighting environment, which together with daylight supported their circadian rhythm. In night's actual lighting levels helped patients and staff to connect which engendered feelings of calm.

  10. Effect of light intensity on linear shrinkage of photo-activated composite resins during setting.

    PubMed

    Inoue, K; Howashi, G; Kanetou, T; Masumi, S; Ueno, O; Fujii, K

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this investigation was to examine the effects of light intensity on linear shrinkage of photo-activated composite resins during setting. The materials used were four commercially available photo-activated composite resins. Three light-irradiation instruments were selected and prepared so as to obtain four light intensities (200, 480, 800 and 1600 mW cm(-2)). The linear shrinkage during setting was examined 10 min after light irradiation using a trial balance plastometer, and the specimen thickness was 2.0 mm for all materials. The depth of cure was examined according to the test method described in the International Organization for Standardization (ISO/FDIS 4049: 2000(E)). In measuring the linear shrinkage 60 s from the start of light irradiation for 10 s, there was a significant correlation (r = 0.89-0.94) between the amount of linear shrinkage and the light intensity: an increase in light intensity produced a greater linear shrinkage. Furthermore, there was a significant correlation (r = 0.92-1.0) between the linear shrinkage and the irradiation time: an increase in irradiation time resulted in a greater linear shrinkage. Values of the depth of cure ranged from 1.69 to 3.75 mm. PMID:15634297

  11. Wave mixing in nominally undoped Sn2P2S6 at high light intensities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shumelyuk, A.; Wesner, M.; Imlau, M.; Odoulov, S.

    2009-06-01

    The intensity dependence of the photorefractive response of Sn2P2S6 is studied for the Kr+-laser wavelength of 647 nm and pump-beam intensities of up to 10 W/cm2. A considerable enhancement of the two-beam coupling gain factor with increasing intensity at a grating spacing of ≃1 μm is attributed to a light-induced increase of the effective trap density. The large gain reached at high intensities is applied for the build up of a double phase conjugate mirror with a sub-millisecond switch-on time.

  12. Dispersive white light combined with a frequency-modulated continuous-wave interferometer for high-resolution absolute measurements of distance.

    PubMed

    Rovati, L; Minoni, U; Docchio, F

    1997-06-15

    A nonincremental interferometer for the absolute measurement of distances is presented. The measuring technique is based on both dispersive white-light (DWL) interferometry and frequency-modulated continuous-wave (FMCW) interferometry. The proposed configuration integrates both techniques in the same interferometer by use of a single laser diode. This solution enables the results from the coarse measurements from the FMCW interferometer to be combined with the fine readouts from the DWL interferometer. Preliminary experimental results confirm the capability of the system to combine the advantages of the two techniques. PMID:18185683

  13. Theory of light quenching: effects of fluorescence polarization, intensity, and anisotropy decays.

    PubMed Central

    Kuśba, J; Bogdanov, V; Gryczynski, I; Lakowicz, J R

    1994-01-01

    Experimental studies have recently demonstrated that fluorescence emission can be quenched by laser light pulses from modern high repetition rate lasers, a phenomenon we call "light quenching." We now describe the theory of light quenching and some of its effects on the steady-state and time-resolved intensity and anisotropy decays of fluorophores. Light quenching can decrease or increase the steady-state or time-zero anisotropy. Remarkably, the light quenching can break the usual z axis symmetry of the excited-state population, and the emission polarization can range from -1 to +1 under selected conditions. The measured anisotropy (or polarization) depends upon whether the observation axis is parallel or perpendicular to the propagation direction of the light quenching beam. The effects of light quenching are different for a single pulse, which results in both excitation and quenching, as compared with a time-delayed quenching pulse. Time-delayed light quenching pulses can result in step-like changes in the time-dependent intensity or anisotropy and are predicted to cause oscillations in the frequency-domain intensity and anisotropy decays. The increasing availability of pulsed laser sources offers the opportunity for a new class of two-pulse or multiple-pulse experiments where the sample is prepared by an excitation pulse, the excited state population is modified by the quenching pulse(s), followed by time- or frequency-domain measurements of the resulting emission. PMID:7858140

  14. Dynamic reorganization of photosystem II supercomplexes in response to variations in light intensities.

    PubMed

    Albanese, Pascal; Manfredi, Marcello; Meneghesso, Andrea; Marengo, Emilio; Saracco, Guido; Barber, James; Morosinotto, Tomas; Pagliano, Cristina

    2016-10-01

    Plants are sessile organisms and need to acclimate to ever-changing light conditions in order to survive. These changes trigger a dynamic reorganization of the membrane protein complexes in the thylakoid membranes. Photosystem II (PSII) and its light harvesting system (LHCII) are the major target of this acclimation response, and accumulating evidences indicate that the amount and composition of PSII-LHCII supercomplexes in thylakoids are dynamically adjusted in response to changes in light intensity and quality. In this study, we characterized the PSII-LHCII supercomplexes in thylakoid membranes of pea plants in response to long-term acclimation to different light intensities. We provide evidence of a reorganization of the PSII-LHCII supercomplexes showing distinct changes in their antenna moiety. Mass spectrometry analysis revealed a specific reduction of Lhcb3, Lhcb6 and M-LHCII trimers bound to the PSII cores, while the Lhcb4.3 isoform increased in response to high light intensities. The modulation of Lhcb protein content correlates with the reduction of the functional PSII antenna size. These results suggest that the Lhcb3, Lhcb4.3 and Lhcb6 antenna subunits are major players in modulation of the PSII antenna size upon long-term acclimation to increased light levels. PsbS was not detected in the isolated PSII-LHCII supercomplexes at any light condition, despite an increased accumulation in thylakoids of high light acclimated plants, suggesting that PsbS is not a constitutive component of PSII-LHCII supercomplexes.

  15. Light colour and intensity alters reproductive/seasonal responses in Japanese quail.

    PubMed

    Yadav, Suneeta; Chaturvedi, Chandra Mohini

    2015-08-01

    An extensive literature is available on the photoperiodic responses of avian species but studies on light colour and wavelength from light emitting diode (LED) sources on reproduction are limited. Hence, an experiment was designed to study the effect of different colours and intensities of light on the reproductive responses of Japanese quail. Three-week old quail were exposed to five different light conditions with a long photoperiod (LD 16:8): WT (white fluorescent light 100 lux as control), W LED (white light emitting diode, 30 lux), B LED (blue LED, 30 lux), G LED (green LED, 30 lux) and R-LED (red LED, 30 lux). The cloacal gland size, an indicator of androgenic activity, was monitored weekly. The results indicated an early initiation of gonadal growth in WT quail which continued and maintained a plateau throughout the period of study. On the other hand, in general low intensity light, there was a decreased amplitude of the reproductive cycle and the quail exposed to different colour lights (green, red and blue lights) used different incubation times to initiate their gonadal growth and exhibited a gonadal cycle of a different duration up to 15.5 weeks. Thereafter, the gonad of quail of all the LED groups started developing again (including the blue LED exposed quail which remained undeveloped until this age) and attained the increased degree of growth until 26.5 weeks of age. During the second cycle, gonads of green and red light exposed quail continued to increase and maintained a plateau of development similar to WT exposed control while white and blue LED exposed quail exhibited spontaneous regression and attained complete sexual quiescence. Based on our study, it is suggested that long term exposure to blue LED light of low intensity may induce gonadal regression even under long-day conditions (LD 16:8), while exposure to green and red lights appears to maintain a constant photosensitivity after one complete gonadal cycle.

  16. The effect of low light intensity on the maintenance of circadian synchrony in human subjects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Winget, C. M.; Lyman, J.; Beljan, J. R.

    1977-01-01

    The light-intensity threshold for humans is not known. In past space flights owing to power restrictions, light intensities have been minimal and reported to be as low as 15 ft. c. This study was conducted to determine whether the light (L)/dark (D) environment of 16L : 8D at the relatively low light intensity of 15 ft. c. was adequate for the maintenance of circadian synchrony in human subjects. Six healthy male subjects aged 20-23 years were exposed for 21 days to a 16L : 8D photoperiod. During the first 7 days the light intensity was 100 ft. c.; it was reduced to 15 ft. c. during the next 7 days and increased again to 100 ft. c. during the last 7 days of the study. Rectal temperature (RT) and heart rate (HR) were recorded continuously throughout the 21 days of the study. In the 100 ft. c. 16L : 8D the RT and HR rhythms remained stable and circadian throughout. When the light intensity was decreased to 15 ft. c. the periodicity of the HR rhythm was significantly decreased and this rhythm showed marked instability. In contrast the period of the RT rhythm did not change but a consistent phase delay occurred due to a delay in the lights-on associated rise in RT. These divergent effects on these two rhythms in internal desynchronization and performance decrement during the 15 ft. c. exposure. The data emphasize the need for establishing accurately the minimal lighting requirements for the maintenance of circadian rhythms of humans in confined environments.

  17. Inherent visible light signature of an intense underwater ultraviolet light source due to combined Raman and fluorescence effects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mazel, Charles H.; Kalata-Olson, Jody; Pham, Chuong N.

    2000-07-01

    We investigated the utility of a portable, intense source of ultraviolet light for diver use in support of Very Shallow Water operations. The working hypothesis was that the light would be of use to divers at short-to-medium ranges (up to several meters) while remaining invisible to surface observers due to the incoherent insensitivity of the human eye to ultraviolet light. The light source contained an arc discharge lamp rich in short wavelengths and was fitted with a filter that transmitted only the near ultraviolet portion of the spectrum. In-water tests were made in darkness using Navy divers both in a natural coastal environment and in a test tank. It was found that the light was of limited utility to the divers. In addition, the light was not covert because of a bluish-white glow associated with the ultraviolet beam. Subsequent measurements demonstrated that the visible glow was produced by a combination of fluorescence of dissolved organic matter in the water and Raman scatter from the water itself. The relative importance of the two factors varied with water type. These two effects that transform light from the invisible to the visible impose inherent limitations on the use of ultraviolet light for covert operations.

  18. The effect of background galaxy contamination on the absolute magnitude and light curve speed class of type Ia supernovae

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boisseau, John R.; Wheeler, J. Craig

    1991-01-01

    Observational data are presented in support of the hypothesis that background galaxy contamination is present in the photometric data of Ia supernovae and that this effect can account for the observed dispersion in the light curve speeds of most of Ia supernovae. The implication is that the observed dispersion in beta is artificial and that most of Ia supernovae have nearly homogeneous light curves. The result supports the notion that Ia supernovae are good standard candles.

  19. Third-order optical intensity correlation measurements of pseudo-thermal light

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Xi-Hao; Wu, Wei; Meng, Shao-Ying; Li, Ming-Fei

    2014-09-01

    Third-order Hanbrury Brown—Twiss and double-slit interference experiments with a pseudo-thermal light are performed by recording intensities in single, double and triple optical paths, respectively. The experimental results verifies the theoretical prediction that the indispensable condition for achieving a interference pattern or ghost image in Nth-order intensity correlation measurements is the synchronous detection of the same light field by each reference detector, no matter the intensities recorded in one, or two, or N optical paths. It is shown that, when the reference detectors are scanned in the opposite directions, the visibility and resolution of the third-order spatial correlation function of thermal light is much better than that scanned in the same direction, but it is no use for obtaining the Nth-order interference pattern or ghost image in the thermal Nth-order interference or ghost imaging.

  20. Inactivation of microalgae in ballast water with pulse intense light treatment.

    PubMed

    Feng, Daolun; Shi, Jidong; Sun, Dan

    2015-01-15

    The exotic emission of ballast water has threatened the coastal ecological environment and people's health in many countries. This paper firstly introduces pulse intense light to treat ballast water. 99.9 ± 0.09% inactivation of Heterosigma akashiwo and 99.9 ± 0.16% inactivation of Pyramimonas sp. are observed under treatment conditions of 350 V pulse peak voltage, 15 Hz pulse frequency, 5 ms pulse width and 1.78 L/min flow rate. The energy consumption of the self-designed pulse intense light treatment system is about 2.90-5.14 times higher than that of the typical commercial UV ballast water treatment system. The results indicate that pulse intense light is an effective technique for ballast water treatment, while it is only a competitive one when drastic decreasing in energy consumption is accomplished.

  1. Technical brief: Constant intense light exposure to lesion and initiate regeneration in normally pigmented zebrafish.

    PubMed

    Rajaram, Kamya; Summerbell, Emily R; Patton, James G

    2014-01-01

    Zebrafish are capable of robust and spontaneous regeneration of injured retina. Constant intense light exposure to adult albino zebrafish specifically causes apoptosis of rod and cone photoreceptor cells and is an excellent model to study the molecular mechanisms underlying photoreceptor regeneration. However, this paradigm has only been applied to lesion zebrafish of the nonpigmented albino genetic background, which precludes the use of numerous transgenic reporter lines that are widely used to study regeneration. Here, we explored the effectiveness of constant intense light exposure in causing photoreceptor apoptosis and stimulating regeneration in normally pigmented zebrafish retinas. We show that constant intense light exposure causes widespread photoreceptor damage in the dorsal-central retinas of pigmented zebrafish. Photoreceptor loss triggers dedifferentiation and proliferation of Müller glia as well as progenitor cell proliferation. We also demonstrate that the timeline of regeneration response is comparable between the albino and the pigmented retinas. PMID:25324680

  2. Quantitatively relating gene expression to light intensity via the serial connection of blue light sensor and CRISPRi.

    PubMed

    Wu, Hongyi; Wang, Yushu; Wang, You; Cao, Xinang; Wu, Yifan; Meng, Zhuofei; Su, Qiang; Wang, Zhongying; Yang, Shuai; Xu, Weijian; Liu, Shiyi; Cheng, Pan; Wu, Jianxuan; Khan, Md Rezaul Islam; He, Lin; Ma, Gang

    2014-12-19

    The ability to regulate endogenous gene expression is critical in biological research. Existing technologies, such as RNA interference, zinc-finger regulators, transcription-activator-like effectors, and CRISPR-mediated regulation, though proved to be competent in significantly altering expression levels, do not provide a quantitative adjustment of regulation effect. As a solution to this problem, we place CRISPR-mediated interference under the control of blue light: while dCas9 protein is constitutively expressed, guide RNA transcription is regulated by YF1-FixJ-PFixK2, a blue light responding system. With a computer-controlled luminous device, the quantitative relationship between target gene expression and light intensity has been determined. As the light intensifies, the expression level of target gene gradually ascends. This remarkable property enables sensor-CRISPRi to accurately interrogate cellular activities.

  3. A light intensity function suitable for multimode fiber-optic sensors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    He, Gang; Cuomo, Frank W.

    1991-01-01

    Intensity distribution functions on the image plane are derived under the assumption that a multimode optic fiber is illuminated by a light source which can be approximated by infinite uniangular beams carrying equal power. The application of the theory to a Lambertian source is discussed. Experimental results, based on the observation of the light intensity distribution imaged on an opaque screen and collected by a digital camera, are presented. The theoretical and experimental data are compared to verify that the intensity function is an accurate model for describing the realistic approach to sensor design. The limitations of the uniangular and uniform intensity distribution models are discussed on the basis of theoretical and experimental results.

  4. Effect of ambient temperature and light intensity on physiological reactions of heavy broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    Olanrewaju, H A; Purswell, J L; Collier, S D; Branton, S L

    2010-12-01

    The effects of ambient temperature, light intensity, and their interaction on blood acid-base balance, metabolites, and electrolytes in broiler chickens under environmentally controlled conditions were examined in 2 trials. The experiment consisted of a factorial arrangement of treatments in a randomized complete block design. The 9 treatments consisted of 3 levels of temperatures (low = 15.6°C; moderate = 21.1°C; high = 26.7°C) from 21 to 56 d of age and 3 levels of light intensities (0.5, 3.0, 20 lx) from 8 to 56 d of age at 50% RH. A total of 540 Ross 708 chicks were randomly distributed into 9 environmentally controlled chambers (30 male and 30 female chicks/chamber) at 1 d of age. Feed and water were provided ad libitum. Venous blood samples were collected on d 21 (baseline), 28, 42, and 56. High ambient temperature significantly (P ≤ 0.05) reduced BW, partial pressure of CO(2), bicarbonate, hematocrit, hemoglobin, K(+), and Na(+) along with significantly (P ≤ 0.05) elevated pH level, Cl(-), glucose, osmolality, and anion gap concentrations. Partial pressure of O(2) was slightly increased in response to increased ambient temperature. There was no effect of light intensity on most of the blood variables examined. Acid-base regulation during high ambient temperature and light intensity exposure did not deteriorate despite a lower partial pressure of CO(2), which consequently increased blood pH because of a compensatory decrease in HCO(3)(-) concentration. Plasma corticosterone was not affected by temperature, light intensity, or their interaction. These results indicate that continuous exposure of broiler chickens to varying light intensities had a minor effect on physiological blood variables, whereas high ambient temperature markedly affected various blood variables without inducing stress in broilers.

  5. Effect of ambient temperature and light intensity on physiological reactions of heavy broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    Olanrewaju, H A; Purswell, J L; Collier, S D; Branton, S L

    2010-12-01

    The effects of ambient temperature, light intensity, and their interaction on blood acid-base balance, metabolites, and electrolytes in broiler chickens under environmentally controlled conditions were examined in 2 trials. The experiment consisted of a factorial arrangement of treatments in a randomized complete block design. The 9 treatments consisted of 3 levels of temperatures (low = 15.6°C; moderate = 21.1°C; high = 26.7°C) from 21 to 56 d of age and 3 levels of light intensities (0.5, 3.0, 20 lx) from 8 to 56 d of age at 50% RH. A total of 540 Ross 708 chicks were randomly distributed into 9 environmentally controlled chambers (30 male and 30 female chicks/chamber) at 1 d of age. Feed and water were provided ad libitum. Venous blood samples were collected on d 21 (baseline), 28, 42, and 56. High ambient temperature significantly (P ≤ 0.05) reduced BW, partial pressure of CO(2), bicarbonate, hematocrit, hemoglobin, K(+), and Na(+) along with significantly (P ≤ 0.05) elevated pH level, Cl(-), glucose, osmolality, and anion gap concentrations. Partial pressure of O(2) was slightly increased in response to increased ambient temperature. There was no effect of light intensity on most of the blood variables examined. Acid-base regulation during high ambient temperature and light intensity exposure did not deteriorate despite a lower partial pressure of CO(2), which consequently increased blood pH because of a compensatory decrease in HCO(3)(-) concentration. Plasma corticosterone was not affected by temperature, light intensity, or their interaction. These results indicate that continuous exposure of broiler chickens to varying light intensities had a minor effect on physiological blood variables, whereas high ambient temperature markedly affected various blood variables without inducing stress in broilers. PMID:21076106

  6. Light fields with an axially expanded intensity distribution for stable three-dimensional optical trapping.

    PubMed

    Zwick, Susanne; Schaub, Christian; Haist, Tobias; Osten, Wolfgang

    2010-09-13

    We introduce a new kind of light field to improve and simplify the trapping process of axially displaced particles. To this end we employ a light field with an axially expanded intensity distribution, which at the same time enables stable axial trapping. We present simulations of the axial intensity distribution of the novel trapping field and first experimental results, which demonstrate the improvement of the reliability of the axial trapping process. The method can be used to automate trapping of particles that are located outside of the focal plane of the microscope.

  7. Using a Hexagonal Mirror for Varying Light Intensity in the Measurement of Small-Angle Variation.

    PubMed

    Hsieh, Meng-Chang; Lin, Jiun-You; Chang, Chia-Ou

    2016-08-16

    Precision positioning and control are critical to industrial-use processing machines. In order to have components fabricated with excellent precision, the measurement of small-angle variations must be as accurate as possible. To achieve this goal, this study provides a new and simple optical mechanism by varying light intensity. A He-Ne laser beam was passed through an attenuator and into a beam splitter. The reflected light was used as an intensity reference for calibrating the measurement. The transmitted light as a test light entered the optical mechanism hexagonal mirror, the optical mechanism of which was created by us, and then it entered the power detector after four consecutive reflections inside the mirror. When the hexagonal mirror was rotated by a small angle, the laser beam was parallel shifted. Once the laser beam was shifted, the hitting area on the detector was changed; it might be partially outside the sensing zone and would cause the variation of detection intensity. This variation of light intensity can be employed to measure small-angle variations. The experimental results demonstrate the feasibility of this method. The resolution and sensitivity are 3 × 10(-40) and 4 mW/° in the angular range of 0.6°, respectively, and 9.3 × 10(-50) and 13 mW/° in the angular range of 0.25°.

  8. Using a Hexagonal Mirror for Varying Light Intensity in the Measurement of Small-Angle Variation.

    PubMed

    Hsieh, Meng-Chang; Lin, Jiun-You; Chang, Chia-Ou

    2016-01-01

    Precision positioning and control are critical to industrial-use processing machines. In order to have components fabricated with excellent precision, the measurement of small-angle variations must be as accurate as possible. To achieve this goal, this study provides a new and simple optical mechanism by varying light intensity. A He-Ne laser beam was passed through an attenuator and into a beam splitter. The reflected light was used as an intensity reference for calibrating the measurement. The transmitted light as a test light entered the optical mechanism hexagonal mirror, the optical mechanism of which was created by us, and then it entered the power detector after four consecutive reflections inside the mirror. When the hexagonal mirror was rotated by a small angle, the laser beam was parallel shifted. Once the laser beam was shifted, the hitting area on the detector was changed; it might be partially outside the sensing zone and would cause the variation of detection intensity. This variation of light intensity can be employed to measure small-angle variations. The experimental results demonstrate the feasibility of this method. The resolution and sensitivity are 3 × 10(-40) and 4 mW/° in the angular range of 0.6°, respectively, and 9.3 × 10(-50) and 13 mW/° in the angular range of 0.25°. PMID:27537893

  9. The effect of mechanical cleaning and thermal disinfection on light intensity provided by fibrelight Macintosh laryngoscopes.

    PubMed

    Bucx, M J L; De Gast, H M; Veldhuis, J; Hassing, L H; Meulemans, A; Kammeyer, A

    2003-05-01

    The increased use of thermal decontamination procedures for fibrelight laryngoscope blades, to comply with international guidelines, will have considerable economical effects. We evaluated the effect of mechanical cleaning plus thermal disinfection at 90 degrees C, with or without subsequent steam sterilisation at 134 degrees C, on light intensity provided by fibrelight laryngoscopes. After mounting the blades in a special frame with a built-in light source, light intensity was measured using radiometer/photometer. In total, 14 blades provided by 11 companies were tested. The majority of fibrelight laryngoscope blades were fairly resistant to the damaging effects of machine washing plus disinfection at 90 degrees C (mean [range] reduction in light intensity 34.6%[2.1-78.3%]). However, when exposed to an additional sterilisation procedure at 134 degrees C, the majority of blades were unable to withstand the combined treatment for 300 cycles (mean [range] reduction in light intensity 86.5%[32.0-98.7%]). This study stresses the need for fibrelight laryngoscope blades which are more resistant to thermal decontamination procedures than those available at present.

  10. Using a Hexagonal Mirror for Varying Light Intensity in the Measurement of Small-Angle Variation

    PubMed Central

    Hsieh, Meng-Chang; Lin, Jiun-You; Chang, Chia-Ou

    2016-01-01

    Precision positioning and control are critical to industrial-use processing machines. In order to have components fabricated with excellent precision, the measurement of small-angle variations must be as accurate as possible. To achieve this goal, this study provides a new and simple optical mechanism by varying light intensity. A He-Ne laser beam was passed through an attenuator and into a beam splitter. The reflected light was used as an intensity reference for calibrating the measurement. The transmitted light as a test light entered the optical mechanism hexagonal mirror, the optical mechanism of which was created by us, and then it entered the power detector after four consecutive reflections inside the mirror. When the hexagonal mirror was rotated by a small angle, the laser beam was parallel shifted. Once the laser beam was shifted, the hitting area on the detector was changed; it might be partially outside the sensing zone and would cause the variation of detection intensity. This variation of light intensity can be employed to measure small-angle variations. The experimental results demonstrate the feasibility of this method. The resolution and sensitivity are 3 × 10−40 and 4 mW/° in the angular range of 0.6°, respectively, and 9.3 × 10−50 and 13 mW/° in the angular range of 0.25°. PMID:27537893

  11. High light intensity protects photosynthetic apparatus of pea plants against exposure to lead.

    PubMed

    Romanowska, E; Wróblewska, B; Drozak, A; Siedlecka, M

    2006-01-01

    The electron transport rates and coupling factor activity in the chloroplasts; adenylate contents, rates of photosynthesis and respiration in the leaves as well as activity of isolated mitochondria were investigated in Pisum sativum L. leaves of plants grown under low or high light intensity and exposed after detachment to 5 mM Pb(NO(3))(2). The presence of Pb(2+) reduced rate of photosynthesis in the leaves from plants grown under the high light (HL) and low light (LL) conditions, whereas the respiration was enhanced in the leaves from HL plants. Mitochondria from Pb(2+) treated HL-leaves oxidized glycine at a higher rate than those isolated from LL leaves. ATP content in the Pb-treated leaves increased to a greater extend in the HL than LL grown plants. Similarly ATP synthase activity increased markedly when chloroplasts isolated from control and Pb-treated leaves of HL and LL grown plants were subjected to high intensity light. The presence of Pb ions was found inhibit ATP synthase activity only in chloroplasts from LL grown plants or those illuminated with low intensity light. Low light intensity during growth also lowered PSI electron transport rates and the Pb(2+) induced changes in photochemical activity of this photosystem were visible only in the chloroplasts isolated from LL grown plants. The activity of PSII was influenced by Pb ions on similar manner in both light conditions. This study demonstrates that leaves from plants grown under HL conditions were more resistant to lead toxicity than those obtained from the LL grown plants. The data indicate that light conditions during growth might play a role in regulation of photosynthetic and respiratory energy conservation in heavy metal stressed plants by increasing the flexibility of the stoichiometry of ATP to ADP production.

  12. Light intensity alters the extent of arsenic toxicity in Helianthus annuus L. seedlings.

    PubMed

    Yadav, Geeta; Srivastava, Prabhat Kumar; Singh, Vijay Pratap; Prasad, Sheo Mohan

    2014-06-01

    The present study is aimed at assessing the extent of arsenic (As) toxicity under three different light intensities-optimum (400 μmole photon m(-2) s(-1)), sub-optimum (225 μmole photon m(-2) s(-1)), and low (75 μmole photon m(-2) s(-1))-exposed to Helianthus annuus L. var. DRSF-113 seedlings by examining various physiological and biochemical parameters. Irrespective of the light intensities under which H. annuus L. seedlings were grown, there was an As dose (low, i.e., 6 mg kg(-1) soil, As1; and high, i.e., 12 mg kg(-1) soil, As2)-dependent decrease in all the growth parameters, viz., fresh mass, shoot length, and root length. Optimum light-grown seedlings exhibited better growth performance than the sub-optimum and low light-grown seedlings; however, low light-grown plants had maximum root and shoot lengths. Accumulation of As in the plant tissues depended upon its concentration used, proximity of the plant tissue, and intensity of the light. Greater intensity of light allowed greater assimilation of photosynthates accompanied by more uptake of nutrients along with As from the medium. The levels of chlorophyll a, b, and carotenoids declined with increasing concentrations of As. Seedlings acquired maximum Chl a and b under optimum light which were more compatible to face As1 and As2 doses of As, also evident from the overall status of enzymatic (SOD, POD, CAT, and GST) and non-enzymatic antioxidant (Pro).

  13. Delayed detonation models for normal and subluminous type Ia sueprnovae: Absolute brightness, light curves, and molecule formation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoflich, P.; Khokhlov, A. M.; Wheeler, J. C.

    1995-01-01

    We compute optical and infrared light curves of the pulsating class of delayed detonation models for Type Ia supernovae (SN Ia's) using an elaborate treatment of the Local Thermodynamic Equilbrium (LTE) radiation transport, equation of state and ionization balance, expansion opacity including the cooling by CO, Co(+), and SiO, and a Monte Carlo gamma-ray deposition scheme. The models have an amount of Ni-56 in the range from approximately or equal to 0.1 solar mass up to 0.7 solar mass depending on the density at which the transition from a deflagration to a detonation occurs. Models with a large nickel production give light curves comparable to those of typical Type Ia supernovae. Subluminous supernovae can be explained by models with a low nickel production. Multiband light curves are presented in comparison with the normally bright event SN 1992bc and the subluminous events Sn 1991bg and SN 1992bo to establish the principle that the delayed detonation paradigm in Chandrasekhar mass models may give a common explosion mechanism accounting for both normal and subluminous SN Ia's. Secondary IR-maxima are formed in the models of normal SN Ia's as a photospheric effect if the photospheric radius continues to increase well after maximum light. Secondary maxima appear later and stronger in models with moderate expansion velocities and with radioactive material closer to the surface. Model light curves for subluminous SN Ia's tend to show only one 'late' IR-maximum. In some delayed detonation models shell-like envelopes form, which consist of unburned carbon and oxygen. The formation of molecules in these envelopes is addressed. If the model retains a C/O-envelope and is subluminous, strong vibration bands of CO may appear, typically several weeks past maximum light. CO should be very weak or absent in normal Sn Ia's.

  14. Systematic study of highly efficient white light generation in transparent materials using intense femtosecond laser pulses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dharmadhikari, A. K.; Rajgara, F. A.; Mathur, D.

    2005-01-01

    We report the results of a systematic study of white light generation in different high band-gap optical media (BaF2, acrylic, water and BK-7 glass) using ultrashort (45 fs) laser pulses. We have investigated the influence of different parameters, such as focal position of the incident laser light within the medium, the polarization state of the incident laser radiation and the pulse duration of the incident laser beam on the white light generation. Our results indicate that for intense, ultrashort pulses, the position of physical focus inside the media is crucial in the generation, with high efficiency, of white light spectra over the wavelength range 400 1100 nm. Linearly polarized incident laser light generates white light with higher intensity in the blue region than circularly polarized light. Ultrashort (45 fs) pulses generate a flatter spectrum with higher white light conversion efficiency than longer (300 fs) pulses of the same laser power. We believe that a flat response over a wide range of wavelengths in the continuum may be efficiently compressed for generation of sub-10 fs pulses.

  15. Effect of light intensity on flight control and temporal properties of photoreceptors in bumblebees.

    PubMed

    Reber, Therese; Vähäkainu, Antti; Baird, Emily; Weckström, Matti; Warrant, Eric; Dacke, Marie

    2015-05-01

    To control flight, insects rely on the pattern of visual motion generated on the retina as they move through the environment. When light levels fall, vision becomes less reliable and flight control thus becomes more challenging. Here, we investigated the effect of light intensity on flight control by filming the trajectories of free-flying bumblebees (Bombus terrestris, Linnaeus 1758) in an experimental tunnel at different light levels. As light levels fell, flight speed decreased and the flight trajectories became more tortuous but the bees were still remarkably good at centring their flight about the tunnel's midline. To investigate whether this robust flight performance can be explained by visual adaptations in the bumblebee retina, we also examined the response speed of the green-sensitive photoreceptors at the same light intensities. We found that the response speed of the photoreceptors significantly decreased as light levels fell. This indicates that bumblebees have both behavioural (reduction in flight speed) and retinal (reduction in response speed of the photoreceptors) adaptations to allow them to fly in dim light. However, the more tortuous flight paths recorded in dim light suggest that these adaptations do not support flight with the same precision during the twilight hours of the day.

  16. Effects of plant size, temperature, and light intensity on flowering of Phalaenopsis hybrids in Mediterranean greenhouses.

    PubMed

    Paradiso, Roberta; De Pascale, Stefania

    2014-01-01

    Mediterranean greenhouses for cultivation of Phalaenopsis orchids reproduce the warm, humid, and shaded environment of tropical underbrush. Heating represents the highest production cost, due to the high thermal requirements and the long unproductive phase of juvenility, in which plants attain the critical size for flowering. Our researches aimed to investigate the effect of plant size, temperature, and light intensity, during the phase of flower induction, on flowering of modern genotypes selected for Mediterranean greenhouses. Three experiments were carried out to compare (i) plant size: reduced size versus size considered optimal for flowering (hybrids "Sogo Yukidian," "Chain Xen Diamond," and "Pinlong"); (ii) temperature: moderate reduction of temperature versus standard thermal regime (hybrid "Premium"); (iii) light intensity: supplemental lighting versus reference light intensity (hybrid "Premium"). The premature exposure of plants to the inductive treatment delayed the beginning of flowering and reduced the flower stem quality, in all the tested hybrids. In "Premium," the lower temperature did not affect flowering earliness and commercial quality of flower stems compared to the standard regime, whereas it promoted stem branching. In the same hybrid, supplemental lighting anticipated flowering and promoted the emission of the second stem and the stem branching, compared to the reference light regime.

  17. [Influence of light wavelength and intensity on the reduction of divalent mercury in aquatic system].

    PubMed

    Li, Xi-Jia; Zhong, Zi-Xuan; Sun, Rong-Guo; Yang, Kun; Wang, Ding-Yong

    2014-05-01

    Laboratory experiments were conducted to investigate the photo-reduction of HgCI2, under various light wavelengths and intensities. The whole process was tracked by changing Hg0 concentrations in argon and Hg0 flux was calculated for qualitative and quantitative analysis; the rate order was determined by both differential and integral methods. The principal results indicated: Higher mercury emission flux was observed under shorter light wavelength and stronger intensity, which shows the important role of photoenergy in the reaction. The degree of mercury reduction was determined by radiation wavelength and intensity, and it was also influenced by solution volume and the flow rate of carrier gas. Under different light conditions, Hg0 concentrations in argon all increased at the beginning and decreased after a specific time period, since the main reactions in rising period were the photo-reduction of Hg2+ and the emission of Hg0 while the reaction in decreasing period was the emission of Hg0 only. The rate order under visible light was the first order while it was the second order under UVA and UVB, which attributes to the fact that coordination complex has certain light absorption band, which is related with the available light wavelength provided by experimental lamps.

  18. Absolute band intensities in the nu19/nu23 (530 cm(-1)) and nu7 (777 cm(-1)) bands of acetone ((CH3)2CO) from 232 to 295 K

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wang, W. F.; Stevenson, A.; Reuter, D. C.; Sirota, J. M.

    2000-01-01

    Absolute band intensities of acetone ((CH3)2CO) in the nu19/nu23 and nu7 band systems near 530 and 777 cm(-1), respectively, were measured at temperatures of 232, 262 and 295 K, using a Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectrometer. No evident temperature dependence for the band intensities was observed. The dipole moments and the fundamental band intensities were derived in the harmonic oscillator approximation. The results are useful for the spectroscopic retrieval of acetone concentrations in the upper atmosphere.

  19. Red Color Light at Different Intensities Affects the Performance, Behavioral Activities and Welfare of Broilers.

    PubMed

    Senaratna, D; Samarakone, T S; Gunawardena, W W D A

    2016-07-01

    Red light (RL) marked higher weight gain (WG) and preference of broilers compared to other light colors. This study aimed to investigate how different intensities of RL affect the performance, behavior and welfare of broilers. RL treatments were T1 = high intensity (320 lux), T2 = medium intensity (20 lux); T3 = dim intensity (5 lux), T4 = control/white light at (20 lux) provided on 20L:4D schedule and T5 = negative control; 12 hours dark: 12 hours day light. Cobb strain broilers were used in a Complete Randomize Design with 6 replicates. WG, water/feed intake, feed conversion ratio (FCR), mortality, behavior and welfare were assessed. At 35 d, significantly (p<0.05) highest body weight (2,147.06 g±99) was recorded by T3. Lowest body weight (1,640.55 g±56) and FCR (1.34) were recorded by T5. Skin weight was the only carcass parameter showed a significant (p<0.05) influence giving the highest (56.2 g) and the lowest (12.6 g) values for T5 and T1 respectively. Reduced welfare status indicated by significantly (p<0.05) higher foot pad lesions, hock burns and breast blisters was found under T3, due to reduced expression of behavior. Highest walking (2.08%±1%) was performed under T1 in the evening during 29 to 35 days. Highest dust bathing (3.01%±2%) was performed in the morning during 22 to 28 days and highest bird interaction (BI) (4.87%±4%) was observed in the evening by T5 during 14 to 21 days. Light intensity×day session×age interaction was significantly (p<0.05) affected walking, dust bathing and BI. Light intensity significantly (p<0.05) affected certain behaviors such as lying, eating, drinking, standing, walking, preening while lying, wing/leg stretching, sleeping, dozing, BI, vocalization, idling. In conclusion, birds essentially required provision of light in the night for better performance. Exposed to 5 lux contributed to higher WG, potentially indicating compromised welfare status. Further researches are suggested to investigate RL intensity based

  20. Red Color Light at Different Intensities Affects the Performance, Behavioral Activities and Welfare of Broilers

    PubMed Central

    Senaratna, D.; Samarakone, T. S.; Gunawardena, W. W. D. A.

    2016-01-01

    Red light (RL) marked higher weight gain (WG) and preference of broilers compared to other light colors. This study aimed to investigate how different intensities of RL affect the performance, behavior and welfare of broilers. RL treatments were T1 = high intensity (320 lux), T2 = medium intensity (20 lux); T3 = dim intensity (5 lux), T4 = control/white light at (20 lux) provided on 20L:4D schedule and T5 = negative control; 12 hours dark: 12 hours day light. Cobb strain broilers were used in a Complete Randomize Design with 6 replicates. WG, water/feed intake, feed conversion ratio (FCR), mortality, behavior and welfare were assessed. At 35 d, significantly (p<0.05) highest body weight (2,147.06 g±99) was recorded by T3. Lowest body weight (1,640.55 g±56) and FCR (1.34) were recorded by T5. Skin weight was the only carcass parameter showed a significant (p<0.05) influence giving the highest (56.2 g) and the lowest (12.6 g) values for T5 and T1 respectively. Reduced welfare status indicated by significantly (p<0.05) higher foot pad lesions, hock burns and breast blisters was found under T3, due to reduced expression of behavior. Highest walking (2.08%±1%) was performed under T1 in the evening during 29 to 35 days. Highest dust bathing (3.01%±2%) was performed in the morning during 22 to 28 days and highest bird interaction (BI) (4.87%±4%) was observed in the evening by T5 during 14 to 21 days. Light intensity×day session×age interaction was significantly (p<0.05) affected walking, dust bathing and BI. Light intensity significantly (p<0.05) affected certain behaviors such as lying, eating, drinking, standing, walking, preening while lying, wing/leg stretching, sleeping, dozing, BI, vocalization, idling. In conclusion, birds essentially required provision of light in the night for better performance. Exposed to 5 lux contributed to higher WG, potentially indicating compromised welfare status. Further researches are suggested to investigate RL intensity based

  1. Red Color Light at Different Intensities Affects the Performance, Behavioral Activities and Welfare of Broilers.

    PubMed

    Senaratna, D; Samarakone, T S; Gunawardena, W W D A

    2016-07-01

    Red light (RL) marked higher weight gain (WG) and preference of broilers compared to other light colors. This study aimed to investigate how different intensities of RL affect the performance, behavior and welfare of broilers. RL treatments were T1 = high intensity (320 lux), T2 = medium intensity (20 lux); T3 = dim intensity (5 lux), T4 = control/white light at (20 lux) provided on 20L:4D schedule and T5 = negative control; 12 hours dark: 12 hours day light. Cobb strain broilers were used in a Complete Randomize Design with 6 replicates. WG, water/feed intake, feed conversion ratio (FCR), mortality, behavior and welfare were assessed. At 35 d, significantly (p<0.05) highest body weight (2,147.06 g±99) was recorded by T3. Lowest body weight (1,640.55 g±56) and FCR (1.34) were recorded by T5. Skin weight was the only carcass parameter showed a significant (p<0.05) influence giving the highest (56.2 g) and the lowest (12.6 g) values for T5 and T1 respectively. Reduced welfare status indicated by significantly (p<0.05) higher foot pad lesions, hock burns and breast blisters was found under T3, due to reduced expression of behavior. Highest walking (2.08%±1%) was performed under T1 in the evening during 29 to 35 days. Highest dust bathing (3.01%±2%) was performed in the morning during 22 to 28 days and highest bird interaction (BI) (4.87%±4%) was observed in the evening by T5 during 14 to 21 days. Light intensity×day session×age interaction was significantly (p<0.05) affected walking, dust bathing and BI. Light intensity significantly (p<0.05) affected certain behaviors such as lying, eating, drinking, standing, walking, preening while lying, wing/leg stretching, sleeping, dozing, BI, vocalization, idling. In conclusion, birds essentially required provision of light in the night for better performance. Exposed to 5 lux contributed to higher WG, potentially indicating compromised welfare status. Further researches are suggested to investigate RL intensity based

  2. Molecular bases and photobiological consequences of light intensity adaptation in photosynthetic organisms

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Y-B.; Durnford, D.; Koblizek, M.; Falkowski, P. G.

    2003-02-10

    By applying a combination of light transitions, uncouplers, and inhibitors of photosynthetic electron transport inhibitors we modulate the redox poise of many components in the plastid and examine the pattern of expression of cab1 gene. This gene encodes the major light harvesting protein that services photosystem II. While our results have confirmed our own previous finding that light intensity regulation of cab1 gene expression is signaled by the redox state of the PQ pool, we have also identified additional sensor(s) located in the PET chain.

  3. Photoprotective capacity of non-photochemical quenching in plants acclimated to different light intensities.

    PubMed

    Ware, Maxwell A; Belgio, Erica; Ruban, Alexander V

    2015-12-01

    Arabidopsis plants grown at low light were exposed to a gradually increasing actinic light routine. This method allows for the discerning of the photoprotective component of NPQ, pNPQ and photoinhibition. They exhibited lower values of Photosystem II (PSII) yield in comparison to high-light grown plants, and higher calculated dark fluorescence level (F'o calc.) than the measured one (F'o act.). As a result, in low-light grown plants, the values of qP measured in the dark appeared higher than 1. Normally, F'o act. and F'o calc. match well at moderate light intensities but F'o act. becomes higher at increasing intensities due to reaction centre (RCII) damage; this indicates the onset of photoinhibition. To explain the unusual increase of qP in the dark in low-light grown plants, we have undertaken an analysis of PSII antenna size using biochemical and spectroscopic approaches. Sucrose gradient separation of thylakoid membrane complexes and fast fluorescence induction experiments illustrated that the relative PSII cross section does not increase appreciably with the rise in PSII antenna size in the low-light grown plants. This suggests that part of the increased LHCII antenna is less efficiently coupled to the RCII. A model based upon the existence of an uncoupled population LHCII is proposed to explain the discrepancies in calculated and measured values of F'o.

  4. Genetic analysis of biomass and photosynthetic parameters in wheat grown in different light intensities.

    PubMed

    Li, Hongwei; Wang, Gui; Zheng, Qi; Li, Bin; Jing, Ruilian; Li, Zhensheng

    2014-06-01

    Growth light intensities largely determine photosynthesis, biomass, and grain yield of cereal crops. To explore the genetic basis of light responses of biomass and photosynthetic parameters in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.), a quantitative trait locus (QTL) analysis was carried out in a doubled haploid (DH) population grown in low light (LL), medium light (ML), and high light (HL), respectively. The results showed that the wheat seedlings grown in HL produced more biomass with lower total chlorophyll content (Chl), carotenoid content, and maximum photochemical efficiency of photosystem II (Fv/Fm) while the wheat seedlings grown in LL produced less biomass with higher Chl compared with those grown in ML. In total, 48 QTLs were identified to be associated with the investigated parameters in relation to growth light intensities. These QTLs were mapped to 15 chromosomes which individually explained 6.3%-36.0% of the phenotypic variance, of which chromosomes 3A, 1D, and 6B were specifically involved in LL response, 5D and 7A specifically involved in ML response, and 4B specifically involved in HL response. Several light-responsive QTLs were co-located with QTLs for photosynthetic parameters, biomass, and grain weight under various conditions which may provide new hints to uncover the genetic control of photosynthesis, biomass, and grain weight.

  5. The influence of light intensity and photoperiod on duckweed biomass and starch accumulation for bioethanol production.

    PubMed

    Yin, Yehu; Yu, Changjiang; Yu, Li; Zhao, Jinshan; Sun, Changjiang; Ma, Yubin; Zhou, Gongke

    2015-01-01

    Duckweed has been considered as a valuable feedstock for bioethanol production due to its high biomass and starch production. To investigate the effects of light conditions on duckweed biomass and starch production, Lemna aequinoctialis 6000 was cultivated at different photoperiods (12:12, 16:8 and 24:0h) and light intensities (20, 50, 80, 110, 200 and 400μmolm(-2)s(-1)). The results showed that the duckweed biomass and starch production was increased with increasing light intensity and photoperiod except at 200 and 400μmolm(-2)s(-1). Considering the light cost, 110μmolm(-2)s(-1) was optimum light condition for starch accumulation with the highest maximum growth rate, biomass and starch production of 8.90gm(-2)day(-1), 233.25gm(-2) and 98.70gm(-2), respectively. Moreover, the results suggested that high light induction was a promising method for duckweed starch accumulation. This study provides optimized light conditions for future industrial large-scale duckweed cultivation.

  6. The Effect of Light Intensity and Noise on the Classroom Behaviour of Pupils with Asperger Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Menzinger, Bernhard; Jackson, Robin

    2009-01-01

    The focus of the study reported in this article is the behavioural response of pupils with Asperger syndrome to light and sound intensity and the development of ways to help them to cope with such sensory stimuli. A number of practical ways of minimising the negative effects of various sensory stimuli are noted: (1) the establishment of "a place…

  7. Light Intensity and Carbon Dioxide Availability Impact Antioxidant Activity in Green Onions (Allium fistulosumm L)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Levine, Lanfang; Bisbee, Patricia; Pare, Paul

    The prospect of long-duration manned space missions poses many challenges, including the development of a sustainable life support system and effective methods of space-radiation protection. To mitigate the risk of increased space-radiation, functional foods rich in antioxidant properties such as green onions are of particular interest. However it has yet to be established whether antioxidant properties can be preserved or enhanced in space environment where carbon dioxide, lighting intensity, gravity and pressure differ from which plants have acclimated to on earth. In this study, green onions (Allium fistulosumm L. cultivar Kinka) rich in antioxidant flavonoids are used as a model system to investigate variations in antioxidant capacity with plants grown under varying light intensities and CO2 concentrations. The antioxidant potential is determined using both radical cation scavenging and oxygen radical absorbance assays. For all light intensities assayed, antioxidant potential in water extract of green onions per gram biomass declined with CO2 increases up to 1200 ppm, and then leveled off with further CO2 increase to 4000 ppm. This inverse carbon dioxide versus antioxidant activity correlation suggests lower accumulation rates for water soluble antioxidant compounds compared to total biomass under increasing CO2 concentrations. The effect of increasing atmospheric CO2 concentration on antioxidant activity of ethanol extracts were light intensity dependent. The implications of these findings are discussed in the context of traditional plant antioxidants including vitamin C and the major onion flavonoid quercetin.

  8. Interactive effects of ammonia and light intensity on hematochemical variables in broiler chickens

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This study examined the influence of atmospheric ammonia exposure, light intensity, and their interaction on blood gases, electrolytes, and acid-base balance in broiler chickens under environmentally controlled conditions. The experiment consisted of a 3 × 3 factorial arranged in a randomized comple...

  9. Effect of ambient temperature and light intensity on physiological reactions of heavy broiler chickens

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The effects of ambient temperature, light intensity, and their interaction on blood acid-base balance, metabolites, and electrolytes in broiler chickens under environmentally controlled conditions were examined in 2 trials. The experiment was consisted of a factorial arrangement of treatments in a r...

  10. Effect of varying light intensity on blood physiological reactions of broiler chickens grown to heavy weights

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This study investigated effects of varying levels of light intensities (25, 10, 5, 2.5, and 0.2 lx) from 22 to 56 d of age at 50% RH on blood acid-base balance, metabolites, and electrolytes of heavy broilers reared under environmentally controlled conditions. Four identical trials were conducted wi...

  11. Electronic and structural response of materials to fast intense laser pulses, including light-induced superconductivity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allen, Roland E.

    2016-06-01

    This is a very brief discussion of some experimental and theoretical studies of materials responding to fast intense laser pulses, with emphasis on those cases where the electronic response and structural response are both potentially important (and ordinarily coupled). Examples are nonthermal insulator-to-metal transitions and light-induced superconductivity in cuprates, fullerenes, and an organic Mott insulator.

  12. 14 CFR 27.1395 - Maximum intensities in overlapping beams of forward and rear position lights.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Maximum intensities in overlapping beams of forward and rear position lights. 27.1395 Section 27.1395 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: NORMAL CATEGORY...

  13. 14 CFR 27.1395 - Maximum intensities in overlapping beams of forward and rear position lights.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Maximum intensities in overlapping beams of forward and rear position lights. 27.1395 Section 27.1395 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: NORMAL CATEGORY...

  14. Effect of varying light intensity on welfare indices of broiler chickens grown to heavy weights

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The effects of varying light-intensity on ocular, immue, fear, and leg health of broiler chickens grown to heavy weights under environmentally controlled conditions were evaluated. Four identical trials were conducted with two replications per trial. In each trial, 600 Ross 308 chicks were randomly ...

  15. [Effects of light intensity on photosynthesis and dry matter production of flue-cured tobacco at its seedling stage].

    PubMed

    Wang, Rui; Liu, Guo-Shun; Chen, Guo-Hua; Xiang, De-En; Wu, Yun-Ping

    2010-08-01

    Taking flue-cured tobacco Yunyan 87 as test material, this paper studied its photosynthesis and dry matter production at seedling stage under 100%, 88%, 72%, and 62% natural light intensities. At noon of sunny days, 100% natural light intensity inhibited the photosynthesis, while proper shading (88% natural light intensity) could eliminate the inhibition, and the daily photosynthesis was significantly higher than other treatments. Shading reduced the light saturation point and compensation point, enhanced the apparent quantum yield of photosynthesis and the net photosynthetic rate under weak light, increased the chlorophyll a and chlorophyll b contents, but decreased the chlorophyll a/b and cartenoids contents. Under 88% natural light intensity, tobacco seedlings had higher light saturation point, lower compensation point, higher suitability to the change of light intensity, and higher photosynthetic potentiality. 100% natural light intensity was more advantageous to the transfer of dry matter and soluble sugar to stem, while 88% natural light intensity was more beneficial to the transfer of dry matter and soluble sugar to root. Under the conditions of this experiment, proper shading (88% natural light intensity treatment) could improve the seedling quality of flue-cured tobacco.

  16. Simulation of reflected light intensity changes during navigation and radio-frequency lesioning in the brain.

    PubMed

    Johansson, Johannes D; Fredriksson, Ingemar; Wårdell, Karin; Eriksson, Ola

    2009-01-01

    An electrode with adjacent optical fibers for measurements during navigation and radio frequency lesioning in the brain is modeled for Monte Carlo simulations of light transport in brain tissue. Relative reflected light intensity at 780 nm, I780, from this electrode and probes with identical fiber configuration are simulated using the intensity from native white matter as reference. Models are made of homogeneous native and coagulated gray, thalamus, and white matter as well as blood. Dual layer models, including models with a layer of cerebrospinal fluid between the fibers and the brain tissue, are also made. Simulated I780 was 0.16 for gray matter, 0.67 for coagulate gray matter, 0.36 for thalamus, 0.39 for coagulated thalamus, unity for white matter, 0.70 for coagulated white matter, and 0.24 for blood. Thalamic matter is also found to reflect more light than gray matter and less than white matter in clinical studies. In conclusion, the reflected light intensity can be used to differentiate between gray and white matter during navigation. Furthermore, coagulation of light gray tissue, such as the thalamus, might be difficult to detect using I780, but coagulation in darker gray tissue should result in a rapid increase of I780.

  17. PSB27: A thylakoid protein enabling Arabidopsis to adapt to changing light intensity.

    PubMed

    Hou, Xin; Fu, Aigen; Garcia, Veder J; Buchanan, Bob B; Luan, Sheng

    2015-02-01

    In earlier studies we have identified FKBP20-2 and CYP38 as soluble proteins of the chloroplast thylakoid lumen that are required for the formation of photosystem II supercomplexes (PSII SCs). Subsequent work has identified another potential candidate functional in SC formation (PSB27). We have followed up on this possibility and isolated mutants defective in the PSB27 gene. In addition to lack of PSII SCs, mutant plants were severely stunted when cultivated with light of variable intensity. The stunted growth was associated with lower PSII efficiency and defective starch accumulation. In response to high light exposure, the mutant plants also displayed enhanced ROS production, leading to decreased biosynthesis of anthocyanin. Unexpectedly, we detected a second defect in the mutant, namely in CP26, an antenna protein known to be required for the formation of PSII SCs that has been linked to state transitions. Lack of PSII SCs was found to be independent of PSB27, but was due to a mutation in the previously described cp26 gene that we found had no effect on light adaptation. The present results suggest that PSII SCs, despite being required for state transitions, are not associated with acclimation to changing light intensity. Our results are consistent with the conclusion that PSB27 plays an essential role in enabling plants to adapt to fluctuating light intensity through a mechanism distinct from photosystem II supercomplexes and state transitions.

  18. The effect of low light intensity on the maintenance of circadian synchrony in human subjects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Winget, C. M.; Lyman, J.; Beljan, J. R.

    1976-01-01

    Experiments were conducted on six healthy male subjects aged 20-23 yr and exposed for 21 days in a confined regulated environment to 16L:8D light:dark cycle with a view toward determining whether the light environment of 16L:8D at the relatively low light intensity of 15 ft.c. is adequate for the maintenance of circadian synchrony in man. The light intensity was 100 ft.c. during the first seven days, reduced to 15 ft.c. during the next seven days, and increased again to 100 ft.c. during the last seven days. Rectal temperature (RT) and heart rate (HR) were recorded throughout the three phases. In the 100 ft.c. regime, the RT and HR rhythms remained stable and circadian throughout. It is shown that 15 ft.c. light intensity is at or below threshold for maintaining circadian synchrony of human physiologic rhythms marked by instability and internal desynchronization with degradation of performance and well-being.

  19. Simulation of reflected light intensity changes during navigation and radio-frequency lesioning in the brain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johansson, Johannes D.; Fredriksson, Ingemar; Wa˚Rdell, Karin; Eriksson, Ola

    2009-07-01

    An electrode with adjacent optical fibers for measurements during navigation and radio frequency lesioning in the brain is modeled for Monte Carlo simulations of light transport in brain tissue. Relative reflected light intensity at 780 nm, I780, from this electrode and probes with identical fiber configuration are simulated using the intensity from native white matter as reference. Models are made of homogeneous native and coagulated gray, thalamus, and white matter as well as blood. Dual layer models, including models with a layer of cerebrospinal fluid between the fibers and the brain tissue, are also made. Simulated I780 was 0.16 for gray matter, 0.67 for coagulate gray matter, 0.36 for thalamus, 0.39 for coagulated thalamus, unity for white matter, 0.70 for coagulated white matter, and 0.24 for blood. Thalamic matter is also found to reflect more light than gray matter and less than white matter in clinical studies. In conclusion, the reflected light intensity can be used to differentiate between gray and white matter during navigation. Furthermore, coagulation of light gray tissue, such as the thalamus, might be difficult to detect using I780, but coagulation in darker gray tissue should result in a rapid increase of I780.

  20. Detection of light and vibration modulates bioluminescence intensity in the glowworm, Arachnocampa flava.

    PubMed

    Mills, Rebecca; Popple, Julie-Anne; Veidt, Martin; Merritt, David John

    2016-04-01

    Glowworms are larval fungus gnats that emit light from a specialised abdominal light organ. The light attracts small arthropod prey to their web-like silk snares. Larvae glow throughout the night and can modulate their bioluminescence in response to sensory input. To better understand light output regulation and its ecological significance, we examined the larvae's reaction to light exposure, vibration and sound. Exposure to a 5-min light pulse in the laboratory causes larvae to exponentially decrease their light output over 5-10 min until they completely switch off. They gradually return to pre-exposure levels but do not show a rebound. Larvae are most sensitive to ultraviolet light, then blue, green and red. Vibration of the larval snares results in a several-fold increase in bioluminescence over 20-30 s, followed by an exponential return to pre-exposure levels over 15-30 min. Under some conditions, larvae can respond to vibration by initiating bioluminescence when they are not glowing; however, the response is reduced compared to when they are glowing. We propose that inhibitory and excitatory mechanisms combine to modulate bioluminescence intensity by regulating biochemical reactions or gating the access of air to the light organ.

  1. Study of liquid crystal based on auto-controlling light intensity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ye, Na; Tang, Yuanhe; Kai, Liu; Liu, Hanchen; Gao, Haiyang; Zhang, Ruixia; Zhao, Gaoxiang; Liang, Yuan; Li, Qing; Yang, Xusan

    2008-12-01

    A liquid crystal panel module coupled in the image intensifier which has been coupled the magnetic mirror has been proposed. The normal imaging under strong light and the part gating of light intensity control can be achieved by changing the transmittance of these pixel points which is changed by the voltage imposed on pixel points. Influence of the response time and transmittance of the liquid crystal to the entire system have been researched, that liquid crystal can achieve part gating function has been confirmed through experiments. Liquid crystal display module (LCP)'s response time is 22ms by using the 650nm, 4mw SZ-04 laser and the transmittance of LCP ranges from 1.28 to 25.60%.It has been proved that the liquid crystal selected in this article fit for the entire LCP. Photography effect graphs achieved by part gating of light intensity have been got.

  2. Correlated pulsations in auroral light intensity and narrow band VLF emissions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hansen, H. J.; Scourfield, M. W. J.; Rash, J. P. S.

    Observations at Sanae, Antarctica of pulsating aurora with a low light level TV system have been combined with simultaneous records of narrow band VLF emissions. Both auroral light and VLF intensities display a significant peak at 1.3±0.3 Hz in the power spectrum. The peaks in the auroral light intensity variations lead those in the VLF by times between zero and 200 ms, as revealed by cross-spectral analysis. Furthermore the 4 kHz VLF component leads the 3.5 kHz component by zero to 100 ms. These results are explained in terms of cyclotron resonance between the auroral electrons and VLF in a region displaced 8000 km from the equatorial plane.

  3. Net effect of many gravitational fields on the intensity of celestial light sources. Master's thesis

    SciTech Connect

    Cipperly, G.E.

    1982-12-01

    This thesis investigates the lens-like action of the gravitational fields of celestial bodies, which can alter the apparent intensity of more distant sources. Previous work in this area has shown that the chance of an individual body being sufficiently well aligned with a source to cause a very large gravitational intensity change is small. The issue addressed in this study is the possibility of there being a significant total change in the intensity of a source due to the combined effects of the gravitational fields of all celestial bodies, and in particular, the potential impact on intensity distance measurements, that is, determination of the distances of celestial light sources by means of intensity comparisons. It is first shown that the problem can be treated in flat space by associating an appropriate index of refraction with gravitational fields. A wave approach is taken in deriving the total deflection of a ray by the field of a single point mass. A statistical analysis is then performed to determine the expression for the mean total change in the intensity of celestial light sources due to the combined fields of all intervening bodies.

  4. Economic Analysis of Greenhouse Lighting: Light Emitting Diodes vs. High Intensity Discharge Fixtures

    PubMed Central

    Nelson, Jacob A.; Bugbee, Bruce

    2014-01-01

    Lighting technologies for plant growth are improving rapidly, providing numerous options for supplemental lighting in greenhouses. Here we report the photosynthetic (400–700 nm) photon efficiency and photon distribution pattern of two double-ended HPS fixtures, five mogul-base HPS fixtures, ten LED fixtures, three ceramic metal halide fixtures, and two fluorescent fixtures. The two most efficient LED and the two most efficient double-ended HPS fixtures had nearly identical efficiencies at 1.66 to 1.70 micromoles per joule. These four fixtures represent a dramatic improvement over the 1.02 micromoles per joule efficiency of the mogul-base HPS fixtures that are in common use. The best ceramic metal halide and fluorescent fixtures had efficiencies of 1.46 and 0.95 micromoles per joule, respectively. We also calculated the initial capital cost of fixtures per photon delivered and determined that LED fixtures cost five to ten times more than HPS fixtures. The five-year electric plus fixture cost per mole of photons is thus 2.3 times higher for LED fixtures, due to high capital costs. Compared to electric costs, our analysis indicates that the long-term maintenance costs are small for both technologies. If widely spaced benches are a necessary part of a production system, the unique ability of LED fixtures to efficiently focus photons on specific areas can be used to improve the photon capture by plant canopies. Our analysis demonstrates, however, that the cost per photon delivered is higher in these systems, regardless of fixture category. The lowest lighting system costs are realized when an efficient fixture is coupled with effective canopy photon capture. PMID:24905835

  5. Economic analysis of greenhouse lighting: light emitting diodes vs. high intensity discharge fixtures.

    PubMed

    Nelson, Jacob A; Bugbee, Bruce

    2014-01-01

    Lighting technologies for plant growth are improving rapidly, providing numerous options for supplemental lighting in greenhouses. Here we report the photosynthetic (400-700 nm) photon efficiency and photon distribution pattern of two double-ended HPS fixtures, five mogul-base HPS fixtures, ten LED fixtures, three ceramic metal halide fixtures, and two fluorescent fixtures. The two most efficient LED and the two most efficient double-ended HPS fixtures had nearly identical efficiencies at 1.66 to 1.70 micromoles per joule. These four fixtures represent a dramatic improvement over the 1.02 micromoles per joule efficiency of the mogul-base HPS fixtures that are in common use. The best ceramic metal halide and fluorescent fixtures had efficiencies of 1.46 and 0.95 micromoles per joule, respectively. We also calculated the initial capital cost of fixtures per photon delivered and determined that LED fixtures cost five to ten times more than HPS fixtures. The five-year electric plus fixture cost per mole of photons is thus 2.3 times higher for LED fixtures, due to high capital costs. Compared to electric costs, our analysis indicates that the long-term maintenance costs are small for both technologies. If widely spaced benches are a necessary part of a production system, the unique ability of LED fixtures to efficiently focus photons on specific areas can be used to improve the photon capture by plant canopies. Our analysis demonstrates, however, that the cost per photon delivered is higher in these systems, regardless of fixture category. The lowest lighting system costs are realized when an efficient fixture is coupled with effective canopy photon capture.

  6. Absolute Rovibrational Intensities for the Chi(sup 1)Sigma(sup +) v=3 <-- 0 Band of (12)C(16)O Obtained with Kitt Peak and BOMEM FTS Instruments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chackerian, Charles, Jr.; Kshirsagar, R. J.; Giver, L. P.; Brown, L. R.; Condon, Estelle P. (Technical Monitor)

    1999-01-01

    This work was initiated to compare absolute line intensities retrieved with the Kitt Peak FTS (Fourier Transform Spectrometer) and Ames BOMEM FTS. Since thermal contaminations can be a problem using the BOMEM instrument if proper precautions are not taken it was thought that measurements done at 6300 per cm would more easily result in satisfactory intercomparisons. Very recent measurements of the CO 3 <-- 0 band fine intensities confirms results reported here that the intensities listed in HITRAN (High Resolution Molecular Absorption Database) for this band are on the order of six to seven percent too low. All of the infrared intensities in the current HITRAN tabulation are based on the electric dipole moment function reported fifteen years ago. The latter in turn was partly based on intensities for the 3 <-- 0 band reported thirty years ago. We have, therefore, redetermined the electric dipole moment function of ground electronic state CO.

  7. Response to variable light intensity in photoacclimated algae and cyanobacteria exposed to atrazine.

    PubMed

    Deblois, Charles P; Dufresne, Karine; Juneau, Philippe

    2013-01-15

    Atrazine is frequently detected in freshwater ecosystems exposed to agricultural waste waters and runoffs worldwide and it can affect non-target organisms (mainly photoautotrophic) and modify community structure. Meanwhile, light environment is known to vary between aquatic ecosystems, but also before and during the exposure to atrazine and these variations may modify the sensitivity to atrazine of photoautotroph organisms. In this study, 10 species of phytoplankton (chlorophytes, baccilariophytes and cyanophytes) acclimated to low or high light intensities were exposed to atrazine and light of different intensities to compare their combined effect. Our data showed that chlorophytes and baccilariophytes were more resistant to atrazine compared to cyanophytes for all light conditions. Atrazine was found to inhibit Φ'(M), Ψ(0), P(M) and non-photochemical quenching for all species indicating an effect on electron transport, primary production and photoregulation processes. These data also indicate a higher sensitivity of Ψ(0) (average Ψ(0)-EC(50) of 91 ± 11 nM or 19.6 ± 0.9 μgL(-1)) compared to Φ'(M) (average Φ'(M)-EC(50) of 217 ± 19 nM or 46.8 ± 4.1 μgL(-1)) and suggest that photoregulation processes activated in presence of light decrease the effect of atrazine. We also showed that increasing light intensity decreased Φ'(M)-EC(50) in both low (except baccilariophytes) and high light acclimated conditions. Despite this similarity, most species acclimated to high light were found to have higher or similar Φ'(M)-EC(50) compared to low light acclimated cells and thus, were less sensitive to atrazine in low light and high light environments. We concluded that an increase in the plastoquinone pool induced by acclimation to high light decreased the sensitivity to atrazine in phytoplankton and we hypothesized that the effect observed was the result of a dilution of atrazine toxicity through increased binding site availability (quinones) combined with increased

  8. Combined effects of light intensity and NH{4/+}-enrichment on growth, pigmentation, and photosynthetic performance of Ulva prolifera (Chlorophyta)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Zhiguang; Wu, Haiyi; Zhan, Dongmei; Sun, Fuxin; Sun, Jianzhang; Wang, Guangce

    2014-09-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of light intensity and enhanced nitrogen supply on the growth and photosynthesis of the green-tide macroalga, Ulva prolifera. Thalli of U. prolifera were grown in natural or NH{4/+}-enriched seawater under two different light intensities for 7 days, and then the growth rate, pigmentation, and photosynthetic performance of the thalli were evaluated. The results show that the relative growth rate (RGR) was markedly higher under the high light level than under the low light level. Enrichment with NH{4/+} enhanced the RGR under high light intensity, but did not affect RGR under low light intensity. In low light conditions, NH{4/+} -enrichment resulted in a marked decrease in the maximal photosynthetic rate ( P m) and the maximum carbon fixation rate ( V max), but it did not affect the half saturation constant for carbon ( K 0.5) or the ratio of V max to K 0.5, which reflects the carbon acquisition efficiency. In high light conditions, P m, K 0.5, and the dark respiration rate ( R d) increased under NH{4/+} enrichment, but V max and the V max / K 0.5 ratio decreased. Regardless of the light intensity, NH{4/+}-enrichment did not affect the apparent photosynthetic efficiency ( α), which reflects the ability of the alga to use light energy at low light levels. Under both low and high light intensities, the chlorophyll a (Chl a), chlorophyll b (Chl b), and carotenoids (Car) contents in thalli were higher in NH{4/+}-enriched than in natural seawater, except that there was a decrease in the Chl b content of thalli in NH{4/+}-enriched seawater under low light intensity. Therefore, NH{4/+} enrichment improved the growth and photosynthetic performance of U. prolifera under high light intensity, but not under low light intensity. We discuss the possible mechanisms underlying these physiological responses.

  9. An intense, high-repetition nanosecond light source using a commercially available Xe-arc lamp

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Araki, Tsutomu; Yamada, Akihisa; Uchida, Teruo

    1993-07-01

    We describe the construction and emission characteristics of a Xe light source that produces broadband emission spectrum (250-650 nm) and high-repetition pulsed light of nanosecond duration. The standard dc-operated Xe-arc lamp, which is commercially available, is employed as the primary light source, with modified circuitry to realize pulsed operation. A dc voltage higher than 5 kV is applied to the electrode gap through a high-value resistor in order to generate a periodical discharge of current between the electrode gap. In order to further increase the intensity of the light pulses, the electrical polarity of the electrode must be in inverse connection relative to the normal connection under the dc operation. Intense light pulses as large as 20 W (peak value) of 3 ns width were generated repetitively from the Xe lamp. Fluorescence lifetimes of a quinine-sulfate solution and a fluorescent cell nucleus were measured to demonstrate the usefulness of the light source.

  10. Effects of light intensity and temperature on Cryptomonas ovata (Cryptophyceae) growth and nutrient uptake rates

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cloern, James E.

    1977-01-01

    Specific growth rate of Cryptomonas ovata var. palustris Pringsheim was measured in batch culture at 14 light-temperature combinations. Both the maximum growth rate (μm) and optimum light intensity (Iopt) fit an empirical function that increases exponentially with temperature up to an optimum (Topt), then declines rapidly as temperature exceeds Topt. Incorporation of these functions into Steele's growth equation gives a good estimate of specific growth rate over a wide range of temperature and light intensity. Rates of phosphate, ammonium and nitrate uptake were measured separately at 16 combinations of irradiance and temperature and following a spike addition of all starved cells initially took up nutrient at a rapid rate. This transitory surge was followed by a period of steady, substrate-saturated uptake that persisted until external nutrient concentration fell. Substrate-saturated NO3−-uptake proceeded at very slow rates in the dark and was stimulated by both increased temperature and irradiance; NH4+-uptake apparently proceeded at a basal rate at 8 and l4 C and was also stimulated by increased temperature and irradiance. Rates of NH4−-uptake were much higher than NO3−-uptake at all light-temperature combinations. Below 20 C, PO4−3-uptake was more rapid in dark than in light, but was light enhanced at 26 C.

  11. The effect of steam sterilisation at 134 degrees C on light intensity provided by fibrelight Macintosh laryngoscopes.

    PubMed

    Bucx, M J; Veldman, D J; Beenhakker, M M; Koster, R

    1999-09-01

    We studied the repeated effect of sterilisation on light intensity in laryngoscopes from Penlon, Riester, Heine (two different blades), Medicon and Upsher. Light intensity was measured by a light meter using two methods. Measurements were performed before the decontamination procedure was carried out and subsequently after each series of 25 procedures until a total of 200 cycles was reached. Using method 1 (and 2), the reduction in light intensity after 200 cycles was 100% (100%; no light emitted), 37% (13%), 75% (69%), 79% (60%), 37% (14%) and 63% (55%) for each blade, respectively.

  12. New approach for absolute fluence distribution calculations in Monte Carlo simulations of light propagation in turbid media

    SciTech Connect

    Böcklin, Christoph Baumann, Dirk; Fröhlich, Jürg

    2014-02-14

    A novel way to attain three dimensional fluence rate maps from Monte-Carlo simulations of photon propagation is presented in this work. The propagation of light in a turbid medium is described by the radiative transfer equation and formulated in terms of radiance. For many applications, particularly in biomedical optics, the fluence rate is a more useful quantity and directly derived from the radiance by integrating over all directions. Contrary to the usual way which calculates the fluence rate from absorbed photon power, the fluence rate in this work is directly calculated from the photon packet trajectory. The voxel based algorithm works in arbitrary geometries and material distributions. It is shown that the new algorithm is more efficient and also works in materials with a low or even zero absorption coefficient. The capabilities of the new algorithm are demonstrated on a curved layered structure, where a non-scattering, non-absorbing layer is sandwiched between two highly scattering layers.

  13. Towards determination of absolute molar mass of cellulose polymer by size exclusion chromatography with mulitple angle laser light scattering detection.

    PubMed

    Pawcenis, Dominika; Thomas, Jacob L; Łojewski, Tomasz; Milczarek, Jakub M; Łojewska, Joanna

    2015-08-28

    The study focuses on determination of a set of crucial parameters for molar mass calculation of cellulose from the results of size exclusion chromatography coupled with multiple angle laser light scattering (MALLS) and differential refractive index (DRI) detectors. In the present work, cellulose has been derivatised to obtain cellulose tricarbanilate (CTC) soluble in tetrahydrofuran (THF). The parameters of Rayleigh scattering in the MALLS detector: refractive index increment (dn/dc) and second virial coefficient (A2) of CTC in THF were determined for laser wavelength 658nm. In order to avoid errors resulting from cellulose derivatisation by-products present in the CTC solution, the so called "on-line" method of measuring dn/dc and A2 was applied. Based on the A2 determination, its influence on cellulose molar mass calculations and cellulose molecular dimensions were critically assessed. The latter includes evaluation of artificially aged cellulose towards conceivable branching by conformation plot analysis.

  14. Towards determination of absolute molar mass of cellulose polymer by size exclusion chromatography with mulitple angle laser light scattering detection.

    PubMed

    Pawcenis, Dominika; Thomas, Jacob L; Łojewski, Tomasz; Milczarek, Jakub M; Łojewska, Joanna

    2015-08-28

    The study focuses on determination of a set of crucial parameters for molar mass calculation of cellulose from the results of size exclusion chromatography coupled with multiple angle laser light scattering (MALLS) and differential refractive index (DRI) detectors. In the present work, cellulose has been derivatised to obtain cellulose tricarbanilate (CTC) soluble in tetrahydrofuran (THF). The parameters of Rayleigh scattering in the MALLS detector: refractive index increment (dn/dc) and second virial coefficient (A2) of CTC in THF were determined for laser wavelength 658nm. In order to avoid errors resulting from cellulose derivatisation by-products present in the CTC solution, the so called "on-line" method of measuring dn/dc and A2 was applied. Based on the A2 determination, its influence on cellulose molar mass calculations and cellulose molecular dimensions were critically assessed. The latter includes evaluation of artificially aged cellulose towards conceivable branching by conformation plot analysis. PMID:26210115

  15. Development of light source using micro hollow cathode plasma for monitoring absolute densities of metal atoms in magnetron sputtering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ohta, Takayuki; Tachibana, Yoshihiro; Ito, Masafumi; Takashima, Seigo; Higashijima, Yasuhiro; Kano, Hiroyuki; den, Shoji; Hori, Masaru

    2007-10-01

    The quantitative analysis of metal atoms is important for understanding the chemistry and controlling the conditions in sputtering process. The light source, which emits multi-atomic lines simultaneously, is required for diagnostics of behaviors of many kind of metallic atom at the same time. In this study, a multi-micro hollow cathode lamp for simultaneous monitoring of multi-metal atoms in sputtering process was developed. The emissions of Cu, Zn, Fe, and Mo for analysis were simultaneously obtained from 4 hollows. The Cu and Mo densities in the magnetron sputtering were measured using absorption spectroscopy employing the multi-micro hollow cathode lamp. Those densities were measured to be from 10^9 to 10^10 cm-3 in the RF power range from 0 to 100 W at a pressure of 5 Pa. The simultaneous measurement of the atomic densities in the sputtering plasma has been performed.

  16. Light intensity modulation by coccoliths of Emiliania huxleyi as a micro-photo-regulator

    PubMed Central

    Mizukawa, Yuri; Miyashita, Yuito; Satoh, Manami; Shiraiwa, Yoshihiro; Iwasaka, Masakazu

    2015-01-01

    In this study, we present experimental evidence showing that coccoliths have light-scattering anisotropy that contributes to a possible control of solar light exposure in the ocean. Changing the angle between the incident light and an applied magnetic field causes differences in the light-scattering intensities of a suspension of coccoliths isolated from Emiliania huxleyi. The magnetic field effect is induced by the diamagnetic torque force directing the coccolith radial plane perpendicular to the applied magnetic fields at 400 to 500 mT. The developed technique reveals the light-scattering anisotropies in the 3-μm-diameter floating coccoliths by orienting themselves in response to the magnetic fields. The detached coccolith scatters radially the light incident to its radial plane. The experimental results on magnetically oriented coccoliths show that an individual coccolith has a specific direction of light scattering, although the possible physiological effect of the coccolith remains for further study, focusing on the light-scattering anisotropies of coccoliths on living cells. PMID:26323524

  17. Absolute Summ

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Phillips, Alfred, Jr.

    Summ means the entirety of the multiverse. It seems clear, from the inflation theories of A. Guth and others, that the creation of many universes is plausible. We argue that Absolute cosmological ideas, not unlike those of I. Newton, may be consistent with dynamic multiverse creations. As suggested in W. Heisenberg's uncertainty principle, and with the Anthropic Principle defended by S. Hawking, et al., human consciousness, buttressed by findings of neuroscience, may have to be considered in our models. Predictability, as A. Einstein realized with Invariants and General Relativity, may be required for new ideas to be part of physics. We present here a two postulate model geared to an Absolute Summ. The seedbed of this work is part of Akhnaton's philosophy (see S. Freud, Moses and Monotheism). Most important, however, is that the structure of human consciousness, manifest in Kenya's Rift Valley 200,000 years ago as Homo sapiens, who were the culmination of the six million year co-creation process of Hominins and Nature in Africa, allows us to do the physics that we do. .

  18. Influence of distance and incident angle on light intensities in intravascular optical coherence tomography pullback runs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Shengnan; Eggermont, Jeroen; Wolterbeek, Ron; Lelieveldy, Boudewijn P. F.; Dijkstra, Jouke

    2016-02-01

    Intravascular optical coherence tomography (IVOCT) is an intravascular imaging modality which enables the visualization arterial structures at the micro-structural level. The interpretations of these structures is mainly on the basis of relative image intensities. However, even for homogeneous tissue light intensities can differ. In this study the incident light intensity is modeled to be related to the catheter position. Two factors, the distance between catheter and inner lumen wall as well as the incident angle of the light upon the lumen wall, are considered. A three-level hierarchical model is constructed to statistically validate this model to include the potential effect of different pullbacks and/or frame numbers. The model is solved using 169 images out of 9 pull-backs recorded with a St.Jude Medical IVOCT system. F-tests results indicate that both the distance and the incident angle contribute to the model statistically significantly with p < 0.001. Based on the results from the statistical analysis, a potential compensation method is introduced to normalize the IVOCT intensities for the catheter position effects and small shadows.

  19. Correlated peak relative light intensity and peak current in triggered lightning subsequent return strokes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Idone, V. P.; Orville, R. E.

    1985-01-01

    The correlation between peak relative light intensity L(R) and stroke peak current I(R) is examined for 39 subsequent return strokes in two triggered lightning flashes. One flash contained 19 strokes and the other 20 strokes for which direct measurements were available of the return stroke peak current at ground. Peak currents ranged from 1.6 to 21 kA. The measurements of peak relative light intensity were obtained from photographic streak recordings using calibrated film and microsecond resolution. Correlations, significant at better than the 0.1 percent level, were found for several functional relationships. Although a relation between L(R) and I(R) is evident in these data, none of the analytical relations considered is clearly favored. The correlation between L(R) and the maximum rate of current rise is also examined, but less correlation than between L(R) and I(R) is found. In addition, the peak relative intensity near ground is evaluated for 22 dart leaders, and a mean ratio of peak dart leader to peak return stroke relative light intensity was found to be 0.1 with a range of 0.02-0.23. Using two different methods, the peak current near ground in these dart leaders is estimated to range from 0.1 to 6 kA.

  20. [Effects of moisture and light intensity on ecophysiological characteristics of muskmelon seedlings].

    PubMed

    Mao, Wei-guang; Wu, Zhen; Huang, Jun; Guo, Shi-rong

    2007-11-01

    The muskmelon variety 'Xiholuotuo' was used as a test material in order to study the combined effects of substrate moisture and light intensity on growth, development and ecophysiological characteristics of muskmelon seedings in greenhouse. The results showed that the different substrate moisture and light intensity remarkably influenced the growth and development of muskmelon seedlings. With reduction of substrate moisture, chl a, chl b and chl a + b increased, while relative water content (RWC) of leaf and specific leaf area (SLA) declined. Under 60%-80% water-holding capacity of substrate, net photosynthetic rate was the highest. With the decrease of light intensity, chl a, chl b, chl a+b, RWC, SLA and intercellular CO2 concentration (Ci) went up, while chl a/b and net photosynthetic rate reduced. Among all the treatments, muskmelon seedlings with 80% water-holding capacity of substrate and 100% light density in greenhouse presented the most strong growth vigor, the highest healthy index and net photosynthetic rate.

  1. Partial gating image intensifier based on liquid crystal auto-controlling light intensity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Ruixia; Tang, Yuanhe; Liu, Kai; Liu, Hanchen; Yang, Xusan; Gao, Haiyang; Liang, Yuan; Li, Qing; Ye, Na; Zhao, Gaoxiang

    2008-12-01

    In order to enlarge the dynamic range of image intensifier, and CCD can work normally under the strong light (105lx), based on the generation II image intensifier, we have brought forward an novel equipment of double lens optical system including a liquid crystal panel (twisted nematic liquid crystal panel LCX023-CMT) and a photometric CCD which detects the illuminance real-time. The light intensity is controlled by liquid crystal automatically and the partial gating can be realized. The principle of auto-controlling light intensity is introduced detailedly in this paper. And the transmittance of liquid crystal has been simulated. Experimental result displays that the optical transmittance changed from 1.28% to 25.60% with the gray levels from 0 to 250. The high linearity relation of transmittance to gray levels is obtained when the gray levels change from 90 to 220. The feasibility of partial light intensity auto-controlled by liquid crystal has been further proved by the two obvious contrast pictures that one is photographed with the liquid crystal panel and another without.

  2. Shockley-Read-Hall recombination in P3HT:PCBM solar cells as observed under ultralow light intensities

    SciTech Connect

    Tzabari, Lior; Tessler, Nir

    2011-03-15

    We present light intensity dependent measurements of the quantum efficiency of P3HT:PCBM photovoltaic devices. Unlike previous studies we focus on ultralow light intensities down to 10{sup -3} mW/cm{sup 2}. We find that although when the devices are excited at intensities close to 1 Sun they exhibit very little bias or light intensity dependence, this is clearly not the case for light intensities below 1 mW/cm{sup 2}, where the cell's efficiency becomes highly dependent on the bias and light intensity. Using a simple model for the device efficiency we can fit the experimental data across a wide range of parameters and thus separate the effects of generation efficiency (geminate recombination) and charge recombination. Our finding suggests that recombination through trap (charge transfer) states is an important loss mechanism and we are able to quantify the density and depth of these states.

  3. Influence of Green, Red and Blue Light Emitting Diodes on Multiprotein Complex Proteins and Photosynthetic Activity under Different Light Intensities in Lettuce Leaves (Lactuca sativa L.)

    PubMed Central

    Muneer, Sowbiya; Kim, Eun Jeong; Park, Jeong Suk; Lee, Jeong Hyun

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the response of light emitting diodes (LEDs) at different light intensities (70 and 80 for green LEDs, 88 and 238 for red LEDs and 80 and 238 μmol m−2 s−1 for blue LEDs) at three wavelengths in lettuce leaves. Lettuce leaves were exposed to (522 nm), red (639 nm) and blue (470 nm) LEDs of different light intensities. Thylakoid multiprotein complex proteins and photosynthetic metabolism were then investigated. Biomass and photosynthetic parameters increased with an increasing light intensity under blue LED illumination and decreased when illuminated with red and green LEDs with decreased light intensity. The expression of multiprotein complex proteins including PSII-core dimer and PSII-core monomer using blue LEDs illumination was higher at higher light intensity (238 μmol m−2 s−1) and was lowered with decreased light intensity (70–80 μmol m−2 s−1). The responses of chloroplast sub-compartment proteins, including those active in stomatal opening and closing, and leaf physiological responses at different light intensities, indicated induced growth enhancement upon illumination with blue LEDs. High intensity blue LEDs promote plant growth by controlling the integrity of chloroplast proteins that optimize photosynthetic performance in the natural environment. PMID:24642884

  4. Modulation transfer function of partial gating detector by liquid crystal auto-controlling light intensity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Xusan; Tang, Yuanhe; Liu, Kai; Liu, Hanchen; Gao, Haiyang; Li, Qing; Zhang, Ruixia; Ye, Na; Liang, Yuan; Zhao, Gaoxiang

    2008-12-01

    Based on the electro-optical properties of liquid crystal, we have designed a novel partial gating detector. Liquid crystal can be taken to change its own transmission according to the light intensity outside. Every single pixel of the image is real-time modulated by liquid crystal, thus the strong light is weakened and low light goes through the detector normally .The purpose of partial-gating strong light (>105lx) can be achieved by this detector. The modulation transfer function (MTF) equations of the main optical sub-systems are calculated in this paper, they are liquid crystal panels, linear fiber panel and CCD array detector. According to the relevant size, the MTF value of this system is fitted out. The result is MTF= 0.518 at Nyquist frequency.

  5. Light intensity and temperature affect systemic spread of silencing signal in transient agroinfiltration studies.

    PubMed

    Patil, Basavaprabhu L; Fauquet, Claude M

    2015-06-01

    RNA silencing is a sequence-specific post-transcriptional gene inactivation mechanism that operates in diverse organisms and that can extend beyond its site of initiation, owing to the movement of the silencing signal, called non-autonomous gene silencing. Previous studies have shown that several factors manifest the movement of the silencing signal, such as the size (21 or 24 nucleotides) of the secondary small interfering RNA (siRNA) produced, the steady-state concentration of siRNAs and their cognate messenger RNA (mRNA) or a change in the sink-source status of plant parts affecting phloem translocation. Our study shows that both light intensity and temperature have a significant impact on the systemic movement of the silencing signal in transient agroinfiltration studies in Nicotiana benthamiana. At higher light intensities (≥ 450 μE/m(2)/s) and higher temperatures (≥ 30 °C), gene silencing was localized to leaf tissue that was infiltrated, without any systemic spread. Interestingly, in these light and temperature conditions (≥ 450 μE/m(2) /s and ≥ 30 °C), the N. benthamiana plants showed recovery from the viral symptoms. However, the reduced systemic silencing and reduced viral symptom severity at higher light intensities were caused by a change in the sink-source status of the plant, ultimately affecting the phloem translocation of small RNAs or the viral genome. In contrast, at lower light intensities (<300 μE/m(2)/s) with a constant temperature of 25 °C, there was strong systemic movement of the silencing signal in the N. benthamiana plants and reduced recovery from virus infections. The accumulation of gene-specific siRNAs was reduced at higher temperature as a result of a reduction in the accumulation of transcript on transient agroinfiltration of RNA interference (RNAi) constructs, mostly because of poor T-DNA transfer activity of Agrobacterium, possibly also accompanied by reduced phloem translocation.

  6. Dual gradients of light intensity and nutrient concentration for full-factorial mapping of photosynthetic productivity.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Brian; Graham, Percival J; Sinton, David

    2016-08-01

    Optimizing bioproduct generation from microalgae is complicated by the myriad of coupled parameters affecting photosynthetic productivity. Quantifying the effect of multiple coupled parameters in full-factorial fashion requires a prohibitively high number of experiments. We present a simple hydrogel-based platform for the rapid, full-factorial mapping of light and nutrient availability on the growth and lipid accumulation of microalgae. We accomplish this without microfabrication using thin sheets of cell-laden hydrogels. By immobilizing the algae in a hydrogel matrix we are able to take full advantage of the continuous spatial chemical gradient produced by a diffusion-based gradient generator while eliminating the need for chambers. We map the effect of light intensities between 0 μmol m(-2) s(-1) and 130 μmol m(-2) s(-1) (∼28 W m(-2)) coupled with ammonium concentrations between 0 mM and 7 mM on Chlamydomonas reinhardtii. Our data set, verified with bulk experiments, clarifies the role of ammonium availability on the photosynthetic productivity Chlamydomonas reinhardtii, demonstrating the dependence of ammonium inhibition on light intensity. Specifically, a sharp optimal growth peak emerges at approximately 2 mM only for light intensities between 80 and 100 μmol m(-2) s(-1)- suggesting that ammonium inhibition is insignificant at lower light intensities. We speculate that this phenomenon is due to the regulation of the high affinity ammonium transport system in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii as well as free ammonia toxicity. The complexity of this photosynthetic biological response highlights the importance of full-factorial data sets as enabled here. PMID:27364571

  7. Antioxidant capacity reduced in scallions grown under elevated CO 2 independent of assayed light intensity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Levine, Lanfang H.; Paré, Paul W.

    2009-10-01

    Long-duration manned space missions mandate the development of a sustainable life support system and effective countermeasures against damaging space radiation. To mitigate the risk of inevitable exposure to space radiation, cultivation of fresh fruits and vegetables rich in antioxidants is an attractive alternative to pharmacological agents. However it has yet to be established whether antioxidant properties of crops can be preserved or enhanced in a space environment where environmental conditions differ from that which plants have acclimated to on earth. Scallion ( Allium fistulosum) rich in antioxidant vitamins C and A, and flavonoids was used as a model plant to study the impact of a range of CO 2 concentrations and light intensities that are likely encountered in a space habitat on food quality traits. Scallions were hydroponically grown in controlled environmental chambers under a combination of 3 CO 2 concentrations of 400, 1200 and 4000 μmol mol -1 and 3 light intensity levels of 150, 300, 450 μmol m -2 s -1. Total antioxidant activity (TAA) of scallion extracts was determined using a radical cation scavenging assay. Both elevated CO 2 and increasing light intensity enhanced biomass accumulation, but effects on TAA (based on dry weight) differed. TAA was reduced for plants grown under elevated CO 2, but remained unchanged with increases in light intensity. Elevated CO 2 stimulated greater biomass production than antioxidants, while an increase in photosynthetic photo flux promoted the synthesis of antioxidant compounds at a rate similar to that of biomass. Consequently light is a more effective stimulus than CO 2 for antioxidant production.

  8. Absolute intensities and self-, N2-, and air-broadened Lorentz halfwidths for selected lines in the nu3 band of (C-12)H3D from measurements with a tunable diode laser spectrometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Malathy Devi, V.; Benner, D. C.; Rinsland, C. P.; Smith, M. A. H.; Thakur, K. B.

    1986-01-01

    Absolute intensities and self-, air- and N2-broadened half-widths have been determined for the first time for individual lines in the nu3(A1) band of (C-12)H3D near 7.6 microns from measurements of individual vibration-rotation lines using a tunable diode laser spectrometer. The intensity measurements are believed to be accurate to within three percent. Within experimental uncertainties, equal broadening efficiencies are found for both air and nitrogen. Self-broadened half-widths determined for three transitions yield an average half-width value of 0.803 + or -0.0010/cm/atm at 296 K.

  9. Magnetic orientation in birds: non-compass responses under monochromatic light of increased intensity.

    PubMed Central

    Wiltschko, Wolfgang; Munro, Ursula; Ford, Hugh; Wiltschko, Roswitha

    2003-01-01

    Migratory Australian silvereyes (Zosterops lateralis) were tested under monochromatic light at wavelengths of 424 nm blue and 565 nm green. At a low light level of 7 x 10(15) quanta m(-2) s(-1) in the local geomagnetic field, the birds preferred their seasonally appropriate southern migratory direction under both wavelengths. Their reversal of headings when the vertical component of the magnetic field was inverted indicated normal use of the avian inclination compass. A higher light intensity of 43 x 10(15) quanta m(-2) s(-1), however, caused a fundamental change in behaviour: under bright blue, the silvereyes showed an axial tendency along the east-west axis; under bright green, they showed a unimodal preference of a west-northwesterly direction that followed a shift in magnetic north, but was not reversed by inverting the vertical component of the magnetic field. Hence it is not based on the inclination compass. The change in behaviour at higher light intensities suggests a complex interaction between at least two receptors. The polar nature of the response under bright green cannot be explained by the current models of light-dependent magnetoreception and will lead to new considerations on these receptive processes. PMID:14561276

  10. Magnetic orientation in birds: non-compass responses under monochromatic light of increased intensity.

    PubMed

    Wiltschko, Wolfgang; Munro, Ursula; Ford, Hugh; Wiltschko, Roswitha

    2003-10-22

    Migratory Australian silvereyes (Zosterops lateralis) were tested under monochromatic light at wavelengths of 424 nm blue and 565 nm green. At a low light level of 7 x 10(15) quanta m(-2) s(-1) in the local geomagnetic field, the birds preferred their seasonally appropriate southern migratory direction under both wavelengths. Their reversal of headings when the vertical component of the magnetic field was inverted indicated normal use of the avian inclination compass. A higher light intensity of 43 x 10(15) quanta m(-2) s(-1), however, caused a fundamental change in behaviour: under bright blue, the silvereyes showed an axial tendency along the east-west axis; under bright green, they showed a unimodal preference of a west-northwesterly direction that followed a shift in magnetic north, but was not reversed by inverting the vertical component of the magnetic field. Hence it is not based on the inclination compass. The change in behaviour at higher light intensities suggests a complex interaction between at least two receptors. The polar nature of the response under bright green cannot be explained by the current models of light-dependent magnetoreception and will lead to new considerations on these receptive processes. PMID:14561276

  11. A comparative study of hair removal at an NHS hospital: Luminette intense pulsed light versus electrolysis.

    PubMed

    Harris, Karen; Ferguson, Janice; Hills, Samantha

    2014-04-01

    Twenty-five women, referred for hair removal by electrolysis, were enrolled in a split face study to treat facial hirsutism. Each patient was treated on six occasions: one-half of the face with electrolysis and the other side with an intense pulsed light source. Patients were evaluated with respect to reduction in hair counts, side effects and discomfort during treatment. Re-growth was assessed at 3, 6 and 9 months following treatment. All patients, except one with very sparse, fair hair growth, preferred treatment with the Intense Pulsed Light and rated their average hair reduction with this method as 77% after five treatments. The overall patient satisfaction rates as determined by visual analogue scales were 8.3 out of 10 for IPL and 5.4 out of 10 for electrolysis.

  12. A coordinate transformation method for calculating the 3D light intensity distribution in ICF hohlraum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Zhili; Li, Xiaoyan; Zhao, Kuixia; Chen, Xudong; Chen, Mingyu; Pu, Jixiong

    2016-06-01

    For an inertial confinement fusion (ICF) system, the light intensity distribution in the hohlraum is key to the initial plasma excitation and later laser-plasma interaction process. Based on the concept of coordinate transformation of spatial points and vector, we present a robust method with a detailed procedure that makes the calculation of the three dimensional (3D) light intensity distribution in hohlraum easily. The method is intuitive but powerful enough to solve the complex cases of random number of laser beams with arbitrary polarization states and incidence angles. Its application is exemplified in the Shenguang III Facility (SG-III) that verifies its effectiveness and it is useful for guiding the design of hohlraum structure parameter.

  13. Chronic neuropathic facial pain after intense pulsed light hair removal. Clinical features and pharmacological management

    PubMed Central

    Párraga-Manzol, Gabriela; Sánchez-Torres, Alba; Moreno-Arias, Gerardo

    2015-01-01

    Intense Pulsed Light (IPL) photodepilation is usually performed as a hair removal method. The treatment is recommended to be indicated by a physician, depending on each patient and on its characteristics. However, the use of laser devices by medical laypersons is frequent and it can suppose a risk of damage for the patients. Most side effects associated to IPL photodepilation are transient, minimal and disappear without sequelae. However, permanent side effects can occur. Some of the complications are laser related but many of them are caused by an operator error or mismanagement. In this work, we report a clinical case of a patient that developed a chronic neuropathic facial pain following IPL hair removal for unwanted hair in the upper lip. The specific diagnosis was painful post-traumatic trigeminal neuropathy, reference 13.1.2.3 according to the International Headache Society (IHS). Key words:Neuropathic facial pain, photodepilation, intense pulse light. PMID:26535105

  14. Absorption and scattering of light by Pt, Pd, Ag, and Au nanodisks: absolute cross sections and branching ratios.

    PubMed

    Langhammer, Christoph; Kasemo, Bengt; Zorić, Igor

    2007-05-21

    Localized surface plasmons (LSPs) of metallic nanoparticles decay either radiatively or via an electron-hole pair cascade. In this work, the authors have experimentally and theoretically explored the branching ratio of the radiative and nonradiative LSP decay channels for nanodisks of Ag, Au, Pt, and Pd, with diameters D ranging from 38 to 530 nm and height h=20 nm, supported on a fused silica substrate. The branching ratio for the two plasmon decay channels was obtained by measuring the absorption and scattering cross sections as a function of photon energy. The former was obtained from measured extinction and scattering coefficients, using an integrating sphere detector combined with particle density measurements obtained from scanning electron microscopy images of the nanoparticles. Partly angle-resolved measurements of the scattered light allowed the authors to clearly identify contributions from dipolar and higher plasmonic modes to the extinction, scattering, and absorption cross sections. Based on these experiments they find that absorption dominates the total scattering cross section in all the examined cases for small metallic nanodisks (D<100 nm). For D>100 nm absorption still dominates for Pt and Pd nanodisks, while scattering dominates for Au and Ag. A theoretical approach, where the metal disks are approximated as oblate spheroids, is used to account for the trends in the measured cross sections. The field problem is solved in the electrostatic limit. The spheroid is treated as an induced dipole for which the dipolar polarizability is calculated based on spheroid geometry and the (bulk) dielectric response function of the metal the spheroid consists of and the dielectric medium surrounding it. One might expect this model to be inappropriate for disks with D>100 nm since effects due to the retardation of the incoming field across the metallic nanodisk and contributions from higher plasmonic modes are neglected. However, this model describes quite well

  15. From Intensity Profile to Surface Normal: Photometric Stereo for Unknown Light Sources and Isotropic Reflectances.

    PubMed

    Lu, Feng; Matsushita, Yasuyuki; Sato, Imari; Okabe, Takahiro; Sato, Yoichi

    2015-10-01

    We propose an uncalibrated photometric stereo method that works with general and unknown isotropic reflectances. Our method uses a pixel intensity profile, which is a sequence of radiance intensities recorded at a pixel under unknown varying directional illumination. We show that for general isotropic materials and uniformly distributed light directions, the geodesic distance between intensity profiles is linearly related to the angular difference of their corresponding surface normals, and that the intensity distribution of the intensity profile reveals reflectance properties. Based on these observations, we develop two methods for surface normal estimation; one for a general setting that uses only the recorded intensity profiles, the other for the case where a BRDF database is available while the exact BRDF of the target scene is still unknown. Quantitative and qualitative evaluations are conducted using both synthetic and real-world scenes, which show the state-of-the-art accuracy of smaller than 10 degree without using reference data and 5 degree with reference data for all 100 materials in MERL database.

  16. 14 CFR 29.1391 - Minimum intensities in the horizontal plane of forward and rear position lights.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Minimum intensities in the horizontal plane of forward and rear position lights. 29.1391 Section 29.1391 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION... Equipment Lights § 29.1391 Minimum intensities in the horizontal plane of forward and rear position...

  17. 14 CFR 25.1391 - Minimum intensities in the horizontal plane of forward and rear position lights.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Minimum intensities in the horizontal plane of forward and rear position lights. 25.1391 Section 25.1391 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION... Equipment Lights § 25.1391 Minimum intensities in the horizontal plane of forward and rear position...

  18. 14 CFR 27.1391 - Minimum intensities in the horizontal plane of forward and rear position lights.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Minimum intensities in the horizontal plane of forward and rear position lights. 27.1391 Section 27.1391 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION... Equipment Lights § 27.1391 Minimum intensities in the horizontal plane of forward and rear position...

  19. 14 CFR 25.1391 - Minimum intensities in the horizontal plane of forward and rear position lights.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Minimum intensities in the horizontal plane of forward and rear position lights. 25.1391 Section 25.1391 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION... Equipment Lights § 25.1391 Minimum intensities in the horizontal plane of forward and rear position...

  20. 14 CFR 25.1391 - Minimum intensities in the horizontal plane of forward and rear position lights.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Minimum intensities in the horizontal plane of forward and rear position lights. 25.1391 Section 25.1391 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION... Equipment Lights § 25.1391 Minimum intensities in the horizontal plane of forward and rear position...

  1. 14 CFR 29.1391 - Minimum intensities in the horizontal plane of forward and rear position lights.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Minimum intensities in the horizontal plane of forward and rear position lights. 29.1391 Section 29.1391 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION... Equipment Lights § 29.1391 Minimum intensities in the horizontal plane of forward and rear position...

  2. 14 CFR 25.1391 - Minimum intensities in the horizontal plane of forward and rear position lights.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Minimum intensities in the horizontal plane of forward and rear position lights. 25.1391 Section 25.1391 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION... Equipment Lights § 25.1391 Minimum intensities in the horizontal plane of forward and rear position...

  3. 14 CFR 27.1391 - Minimum intensities in the horizontal plane of forward and rear position lights.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Minimum intensities in the horizontal plane of forward and rear position lights. 27.1391 Section 27.1391 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION... Equipment Lights § 27.1391 Minimum intensities in the horizontal plane of forward and rear position...

  4. 14 CFR 29.1391 - Minimum intensities in the horizontal plane of forward and rear position lights.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Minimum intensities in the horizontal plane of forward and rear position lights. 29.1391 Section 29.1391 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION... Equipment Lights § 29.1391 Minimum intensities in the horizontal plane of forward and rear position...

  5. 14 CFR 27.1391 - Minimum intensities in the horizontal plane of forward and rear position lights.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Minimum intensities in the horizontal plane of forward and rear position lights. 27.1391 Section 27.1391 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION... Equipment Lights § 27.1391 Minimum intensities in the horizontal plane of forward and rear position...

  6. 14 CFR 29.1391 - Minimum intensities in the horizontal plane of forward and rear position lights.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Minimum intensities in the horizontal plane of forward and rear position lights. 29.1391 Section 29.1391 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION... Equipment Lights § 29.1391 Minimum intensities in the horizontal plane of forward and rear position...

  7. 14 CFR 29.1391 - Minimum intensities in the horizontal plane of forward and rear position lights.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Minimum intensities in the horizontal plane of forward and rear position lights. 29.1391 Section 29.1391 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION... Equipment Lights § 29.1391 Minimum intensities in the horizontal plane of forward and rear position...

  8. 14 CFR 25.1391 - Minimum intensities in the horizontal plane of forward and rear position lights.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Minimum intensities in the horizontal plane of forward and rear position lights. 25.1391 Section 25.1391 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION... Equipment Lights § 25.1391 Minimum intensities in the horizontal plane of forward and rear position...

  9. [Effects of grafting on photosynthesis of sweet pepper seedlings under low temperature and weak light intensity].

    PubMed

    Zheng, Nan; Wang, Mei-ling; Wang, Hong-tao; Ai, Xi-zhen

    2009-03-01

    Sweet pepper 'Chifengtexuan' seedlings were grafted onto 'Weishi' and 'Buyeding' rootstocks, treated with low temperature (8 degrees C/ 5 degrees C) and weak light intensity (100 micromol x m(-2) s(-1)) for 7 days, and then recovered under normal conditions (25 degrees C/ 18 degrees C, PFD 550-600 micromol x s(-1)) for 3 days to study the variations of their gas exchange parameters, carboxylation efficiency, and fluorescence parameters, with the own-rooted 'Chifengtexuan' seedlings as the control. The results showed that on the 3rd day of low temperature and weak light intensity stress, the photosynthetic rate (Pn), stomatal conductance (Gs), and carboxylation efficiency (CE) of both own-rooted and grafted seedling leaves decreased more than 50%, and after then, the Pn and Gs tended to stable while CE decreased continually. The intercellular CO2 concentration (Ci) declined first, but enhanced after the 4th day of the stress. Low temperature and weak light intensity decreased the maximal photochemical efficiency of PS II in darkness (Fv/Fm), actual photochemical efficiency of PS II during illumination (phi (PS II)) and electron transport rate (ETR), but increased the initial fluorescence (Fo), which implied that the stress caused definite damage of photosynthetic apparatus. However, the damage diminished after 3 days of recovery. Comparing with those of own-rooted seedlings, the Pn, Gs, CE, phi(PS II), and Fv/Fm of grafted seedlings increased to various degrees, and Fo decreased markedly during the stress. It was concluded that grafting could promote the photosynthetic function, and alleviate the effects of low temperature and weak light intensity on the photosynthesis of sweet pepper seedlings.

  10. Fabry-Perot fiber pressure sensor based on white light interferometry and intensity demodulation method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Zhenwu; Li, Weixiang; Zhang, Dapeng; Pan, Yong; Meng, Qingbin; Liu, Guangwei; Ge, Fuwei; Zhang, Xian

    2009-05-01

    We have designed an intensity-demodulated sensing system based on Fabry-Perot interferometer and fiber Bragg grating (FBG) for pressure measurement. The structure of the sensor probe is presented. It is an optical fiber extrinsic Fabry-Perot interferometer(EFPI) composed of silica tube and optical fibers. The variable quantity of cavity length of the EFPI is equal to that of silica tube, which has direct proportion to external pressure. The sensing system is interrogated by broadband light. In order to compensate intensity fluctuation, we use an FBG as a narrow band filter to obtain the sensing signal and reference signal from white-light interference fringe returned from EFPI. The sensing signal is in the reflected beam from FBG, and the reference signal is contained in reflected beam and transmitted beam of FBG simultaneously. Then two output light signals are transformed into current signals by two photodiodes. Subsequently two current signals are processed at the same time. After the signals being treated with circuit, the inherent disadvantage of intensity-demodulated sensor is removed. It is also to say the sensing system has immunity from the drift of light source power and fluctuation in fiber attenuation by using only a FBG. Meanwhile, the system has advantages of fast response, simple circuitry, strong ability of intensity compensation and low cost. Experimental results show that the experimental data are consistent with theoretical analysis. The dynamic range of sensor is from 0 to 500KPa, and the resolution reaches to 0.5KPa. The sensing system can be used to measure pressure in inflammable and explosive circumstance such as oil height of super oil storage tanks.

  11. GLIDE: a grid-based light-weight infrastructure for data-intensive environments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mattmann, Chris A.; Malek, Sam; Beckman, Nels; Mikic-Rakic, Marija; Medvidovic, Nenad; Chrichton, Daniel J.

    2005-01-01

    The promise of the grid is that it will enable public access and sharing of immense amounts of computational and data resources among dynamic coalitions of individuals and institutions. However, the current grid solutions make several limiting assumptions that curtail their widespread adoption. To address these limitations, we present GLIDE, a prototype light-weight, data-intensive middleware infrastructure that enables access to the robust data and computational power of the grid on DREAM platforms.

  12. Dairy wastewater treatment using an activated sludge-microalgae system at different light intensities.

    PubMed

    Tricolici, O; Bumbac, C; Patroescu, V; Postolache, C

    2014-01-01

    A microalgae-bacteria system was used for dairy industry wastewater treatment in sequenced batch mode in a photobioreactor. The research investigated the influence of two light intensities: 360 and 820 μmol m(-2)s(-1) on treatment performances, microalgal cell recovery and dynamics of the protozoan community. Results showed that the light intensity of 360 μmol m(-2)s(-1) was found to be insufficient to support photosynthetic activity after the increase of bacterial biomass leading to the decrease of organic matter and ammonium removal efficiencies from 95 to 78% and 95 to 41%, respectively. Maximum microalgal cells recovery was about 63%. Continuous modification in the protozoan community was also noticed during this test. Increasing the light intensity to 820 μmol m(-2)s(-1) led to better microalgal cells recovery (up to 88%) and improved treatment performances. However, the decrease of protozoan richness to small flagellates and free-swimming ciliates was noticed. Moreover, the developed protozoan trophic network was found to be different from that identified in the conventional activated sludge system. The study emphasized that high increase of bacterial biomass promoted in nutrient- and organic matter-rich wastewater can strongly affect the treatment performances as a result of the shadow effect produced on the photoautotrophic microalgae aggregates. PMID:24759517

  13. Natural variation in tocochromanols content in Arabidopsis thaliana accessions - the effect of temperature and light intensity.

    PubMed

    Gabruk, Michał; Habina, Iwona; Kruk, Jerzy; Dłużewska, Jolanta; Szymańska, Renata

    2016-06-01

    In this study, 25 accessions of Arabidopsis thaliana originating from a variety of climate conditions were grown under controlled circumstances of different light intensity and temperature. The accessions were analyzed for prenyllipids content and composition, as well as expression of the genes involved in tocochromanol biosynthesis (vte1-5). It was found that the applied conditions did not strongly affect total tocochromanols content and there was no apparent correlation of the tocochromanol content with the origin of the accessions. However, the presented results indicate that the temperature, more than the light intensity, affects the expression of the vte1-5 genes and the content of some prenyllipids. An interesting observation was that under low growth temperature, the hydroxy-plastochromanol (PC-OH) to plastochromanol (PC) ratio was considerably increased regardless of the light intensity in most of the accessions. PC-OH is known to be formed as a result of singlet oxygen stress, therefore this observation indicates that the singlet oxygen production is enhanced under low temperature. Unexpectedly, the highest increase in the PC-OH/PC ratio was found for accessions originating from cold climate (Shigu, Krazo-1 and Lov-5), even though such plants could be expected to be more resistant to low temperature stress.

  14. Role of intensity fluctuations in third-order correlation double-slit interference of thermal light.

    PubMed

    Chen, Xi-Hao; Chen, Wen; Meng, Shao-Ying; Wu, Wei; Wu, Ling-An; Zhai, Guang-Jie

    2013-07-01

    A third-order double-slit interference experiment with a pseudothermal light source in the high-intensity limit has been performed by actually recording the intensities in three optical paths. It is shown that not only can the visibility be dramatically enhanced compared to the second-order case as previously theoretically predicted and shown experimentally, but also that the higher visibility is a consequence of the contribution of third-order correlation interaction terms, which is equal to the sum of all contributions from second-order correlation. It is interesting that, when the two reference detectors are scanned in opposite directions, negative values for the third-order correlation term of the intensity fluctuations may appear. The phenomenon can be completely explained by the theory of classical statistical optics and is the first concrete demonstration of the influence of the third-order correlation terms.

  15. Sharply autofocused ring-Airy beams transforming into non-linear intense light bullets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Panagiotopoulos, P.; Papazoglou, D. G.; Couairon, A.; Tzortzakis, S.

    2013-10-01

    Controlling the propagation of intense optical wavepackets in transparent media is not a trivial task. During propagation, low- and high-order non-linear effects, including the Kerr effect, multiphoton absorption and ionization, lead to an uncontrolled complex reshaping of the optical wavepacket that involves pulse splitting, refocusing cycles in space and significant variations of the focus. Here we demonstrate both numerically and experimentally that intense, abruptly autofocusing beams in the form of accelerating ring-Airy beams are able to reshape into non-linear intense light-bullet wavepackets propagating over extended distances, while their positioning in space is extremely well defined. These unique wavepackets can offer significant advantages in numerous fields such as the generation of high harmonics and attosecond physics or the precise micro-engineering of materials.

  16. The effects of oxygen concentration and light intensity on the photostability of zwitterionic chromophores

    SciTech Connect

    Raymond, S. G.; Williams, G. V. M.; Lochocki, B.; Bhuiyan, M. D. H.; Kay, A. J.; Quilty, J. W.

    2009-06-01

    Photostability measurements at different oxygen partial pressures and light intensities have been made on host-guest films containing amorphous polycarbonate and an organic chromophore with a high second order nonlinear optical figure of merit. We find that the photodegradation quantum efficiency dramatically increases with increasing oxygen partial pressure. At very low oxygen partial pressures (8x10{sup -6} bar) the average number of photons required to photodegrade a chromophore is as high as 2x10{sup 8} at 655 nm. The photodegradation quantum efficiency in air is observed to decrease with increasing optical intensity. We show that this is due to a reduced oxygen content in the film caused by chromophore photodegradation rather than ground state bleaching. There is an anomalous increase and then decrease in the photoluminescence intensity that cannot easily be explained.

  17. Fractal dynamics of light scattering intensity fluctuation in disordered dusty plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    Safaai, S. S.; Muniandy, S. V.; Chew, W. X.; Asgari, H.; Yap, S. L.; Wong, C. S.

    2013-10-15

    Dynamic light scattering (DLS) technique is a simple and yet powerful technique for characterizing particle properties and dynamics in complex liquids and gases, including dusty plasmas. Intensity fluctuation in DLS experiments often studied using correlation analysis with assumption that the fluctuation is statistically stationary. In this study, the temporal variation of the nonstationary intensity fluctuation is analyzed directly to show the existence of fractal characteristics by employing wavelet scalogram approach. Wavelet based scale decomposition approach is used to separate non-scaling background noise (without dust) from scaling intensity fluctuation from dusty plasma. The Hurst exponents for light intensity fluctuation in dusty plasma at different neutral gas pressures are determined. At low pressures, weaker damping of dust motions via collisions with neutral gases results in stronger persistent behavior in the fluctuation of DLS time series. The fractal scaling Hurst exponent is demonstrated to be useful for characterizing structural phases in complex disordered dusty plasma, especially when particle configuration or sizes are highly inhomogeneous which makes the standard pair-correlation function difficult to interpret. The results from fractal analysis are compared with alternative interpretation of disorder based on approximate entropy and particle transport using mean square displacement.

  18. Effect of light intensity on the formation of the photochemical apparatus in the green bacterium Chloropseudomonas ethylicum.

    PubMed

    Holt, S C; Conti, S F; Fuller, R C

    1966-01-01

    Holt, Stanley C. (Dartmouth Medical School, Hanover, N.H.), S. F. Conti, and R. C. Fuller. Effect of light intensity on the formation of the photochemical apparatus in the green bacterium Chloropseudomonas ethylicum. J. Bacteriol. 91:349-355. 1966.-When the green bacterium Chloropseudomonas ethylicum was grown at various light intensities, the formation of the photosynthetic vesicles was found to be an inverse function of the light intensity at which the cells were grown. The specific chlorophyll content of isolated vesicles varied as the light intensity was changed over a wide range. Thus, the regulation of chlorophyll content in C. ethylicum in response to a change in light intensity is achieved both by a change in the number of vesicles that are formed and by a change in the specific chlorophyll content of these vesicles.

  19. Effect of Light Intensity and Photoperiod on Growth and Biochemical Composition of a Local Isolate of Nostoc calcicola.

    PubMed

    Khajepour, Fateme; Hosseini, Seyed Abbas; Ghorbani Nasrabadi, Rasoul; Markou, Giorgos

    2015-08-01

    A study was conducted to investigate the effect of light intensity (21, 42, and 63 μmol photons m(-2) s(-1)) and photoperiod (8:16, 12:12, and 16:8 h light/dark) on the biomass production and its biochemical composition (total carotenoids, chlorophyll a, phycoerythrin (PE), phycocyanin (PC) and allophycocyanin (APC), total protein, and carbohydrates) of a local isolate of Nostoc calcicola. The results revealed that N. calcicola prefers dim light; however, the most of the levels of light intensity and photoperiod investigated did not have a significant impact on biomass production. Increasing light intensity biomass content of chlorophyll a, PE, PC, APC, and total protein decreased, while total carotenoids and carbohydrate increased. The same behavior was observed also when light duration (photoperiod) increased. The interaction effect of increasing light intensity and photoperiod resulted in an increase of carbohydrate and total carotenoids, and to the decrease of chlorophyll a, PE, PC, APC, and total protein content. The results indicate that varying the light regime, it is capable to manipulate the biochemical composition of the local isolate of N. calcicola, producing either valuable phycobiliproteins or proteins under low light intensity and shorter photoperiods, or producing carbohydrates and carotenoids under higher light intensities and longer photoperiods. PMID:26100389

  20. Experimental Study on Light Flash Radiant Intensity Generated by Strong Shock 2A12 Aluminum Plate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tang, Enling; Zhang, Lijiao; Zhang, Qingming; Shi, Xiaohan; Wang, Meng; Wang, Di; Xiang, Shenghai; Xia, Jin; Han, Yafei; Xu, Mingyang; Wu, Jin; Zhang, Shuang; Yuan, Jianfei

    2015-07-01

    In order to study the light flash radiant intensity produced by strong shock on a 2A12 aluminum target at the same projectile incidence angles and different shock velocities, experimental measurements were conducted for light flash phenomena of a 2A12 aluminum projectile impacting a 2A12 aluminum target under the conditions of different impact velocity and the same projectile incidence angles of 45° by using an optical pyrometer measurement system and a two-stage light gas gun loading system. Experimental results show that the peak values of the light flash radiant intensity for the wavelength of 550 nm are largest in the wavelength ranges of 600 nm, 650 nm and 700 nm when a 2A12 aluminum projectile impacts a double-layer 2A12 aluminum plate in the present experimental conditions. supported by National Natural Science Foundation of China (Nos. 10972145, 11272218, 11472178), State Key Program of National Natural Science of China (No. 11032003), Program for Liaoning Excellent Talents in University, China (No. LR2013008)

  1. Intensity of an oxygen saturation image improved using scanning NIR-LED light irradiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsai, Hsin-Yi; Yang, Ching-Ching; Hung, Min-Wei; Huang, Kuo-Cheng

    2014-09-01

    A near-infrared (940 nm) image of skin tissue can be substantially enhanced using optical scanning technology (OST) that can reduce the scattering effect and remove the wrinkles or fine hair in the image. Using OST to create the skin tissue image ensured that the contour of blood vessels became more clear than that obtained from the divergent light source. In addition, the oxygen saturation of the blood vessels and tissues obtained using OST were approximately 98.65 and 93.17%, respectively, exhibiting an increase of more than 20% compared with that obtained using divergent light, and approached the value when measured using commercial pulse oximetry. Because the proposed method has a deep light penetration depth and high image intensity and resolution for oxygen saturation analysis, it is highly appropriate to be applied to future studies on diabetes and cardiovascular diseases.

  2. Rapid firing of printed pastes for BSF solar cell under high intensity light source

    SciTech Connect

    Okamoto, K.; Nammori, T.; Nunoi, T.; Takemoto, T.; Tsuji, T.

    1982-09-01

    This paper describes a technique of rapid firing of screen-printed aluminum paste for back surface field (BSF) solar cell under high intensity light source. Excellent antireflection coating and shallow junction were formed at the same time with a phosphoric-titanate compound solution spun over etched P-type silicon surface. An aluminum paste was printed on the rear surface of the cell. A P/sup +/ layer was formed by alloying an aluminum paste under high energy density visible light source. The silicon substrate absorbed light energy from heating lamps efficiently due to the effect of original TiO/sub 2/ anti-reflection coating. As a result, it is possible to fire an aluminum paste effectively in less than 30 seconds because of the high heating rate of the substrate.

  3. Effect of photoperiod, light intensity and carbon sources on biomass and lipid productivities of Isochrysis galbana.

    PubMed

    Babuskin, Srinivasan; Radhakrishnan, Kesavan; Babu, Packirisamy Azhagu Saravana; Sivarajan, Meenakshisundaram; Sukumar, Muthusamy

    2014-08-01

    Biomass and lipid productivities of Isochrysis galbana were optimized using nutrients of molasses (4, 8, 12 g l(-1)), glucose (4, 8, 12 g l(-1)), glycerol (4, 8, 12 g l(-1)) and yeast extract (2 g l(-1)). Combinations of carbon sources at different ratios were evaluated in which the alga was grown at three different light intensities (50, 100 and 150 μmol m(-2) s(-1)) under the influence of three different photoperiod cycles (12/12, 18/6 and 24/0 h light/dark). A maximum cell density of 8.35 g l(-1) with 32 % (w/w) lipid was achieved for mixotrophic growth at 100 μmol m(-2) s(-1) and 18/6 h light/dark with molasses/glucose (20:80 w/w). Mixotrophic cultivation using molasses, glucose and glycerol was thus effective for the cultivation of I. galbana.

  4. 14 CFR 29.1393 - Minimum intensities in any vertical plane of forward and rear position lights.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Minimum intensities in any vertical plane... Equipment Lights § 29.1393 Minimum intensities in any vertical plane of forward and rear position lights... above or below the horizontal plane Intensity, I 0° 1.00 0° to 5° .90 5° to 10° .80 10° to 15° .70...

  5. 14 CFR 25.1393 - Minimum intensities in any vertical plane of forward and rear position lights.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Minimum intensities in any vertical plane... Equipment Lights § 25.1393 Minimum intensities in any vertical plane of forward and rear position lights... above or below the horizontal plane Intensity, l 0° 1.00 0° to 5° 0.90 5° to 10° 0.80 10° to 15° 0.70...

  6. 14 CFR 29.1393 - Minimum intensities in any vertical plane of forward and rear position lights.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Minimum intensities in any vertical plane... Equipment Lights § 29.1393 Minimum intensities in any vertical plane of forward and rear position lights... above or below the horizontal plane Intensity, I 0° 1.00 0° to 5° .90 5° to 10° .80 10° to 15° .70...

  7. 14 CFR 27.1393 - Minimum intensities in any vertical plane of forward and rear position lights.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Minimum intensities in any vertical plane... Equipment Lights § 27.1393 Minimum intensities in any vertical plane of forward and rear position lights... above or below the horizontal plane Intensity, l 0° 1.00 0° to 5° 0.90 5° to 10° 0.80 10° to 15° 0.70...

  8. 14 CFR 25.1393 - Minimum intensities in any vertical plane of forward and rear position lights.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Minimum intensities in any vertical plane... Equipment Lights § 25.1393 Minimum intensities in any vertical plane of forward and rear position lights... above or below the horizontal plane Intensity, l 0° 1.00 0° to 5° 0.90 5° to 10° 0.80 10° to 15° 0.70...

  9. 14 CFR 29.1393 - Minimum intensities in any vertical plane of forward and rear position lights.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Minimum intensities in any vertical plane... Equipment Lights § 29.1393 Minimum intensities in any vertical plane of forward and rear position lights... above or below the horizontal plane Intensity, I 0° 1.00 0° to 5° .90 5° to 10° .80 10° to 15° .70...

  10. 14 CFR 27.1393 - Minimum intensities in any vertical plane of forward and rear position lights.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Minimum intensities in any vertical plane... Equipment Lights § 27.1393 Minimum intensities in any vertical plane of forward and rear position lights... above or below the horizontal plane Intensity, l 0° 1.00 0° to 5° 0.90 5° to 10° 0.80 10° to 15° 0.70...

  11. 14 CFR 27.1393 - Minimum intensities in any vertical plane of forward and rear position lights.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Minimum intensities in any vertical plane... Equipment Lights § 27.1393 Minimum intensities in any vertical plane of forward and rear position lights... above or below the horizontal plane Intensity, l 0° 1.00 0° to 5° 0.90 5° to 10° 0.80 10° to 15° 0.70...

  12. 14 CFR 25.1393 - Minimum intensities in any vertical plane of forward and rear position lights.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Minimum intensities in any vertical plane... Equipment Lights § 25.1393 Minimum intensities in any vertical plane of forward and rear position lights... above or below the horizontal plane Intensity, l 0° 1.00 0° to 5° 0.90 5° to 10° 0.80 10° to 15° 0.70...

  13. 14 CFR 29.1393 - Minimum intensities in any vertical plane of forward and rear position lights.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Minimum intensities in any vertical plane... Equipment Lights § 29.1393 Minimum intensities in any vertical plane of forward and rear position lights... above or below the horizontal plane Intensity, I 0° 1.00 0° to 5° .90 5° to 10° .80 10° to 15° .70...

  14. 14 CFR 25.1393 - Minimum intensities in any vertical plane of forward and rear position lights.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Minimum intensities in any vertical plane... Equipment Lights § 25.1393 Minimum intensities in any vertical plane of forward and rear position lights... above or below the horizontal plane Intensity, l 0° 1.00 0° to 5° 0.90 5° to 10° 0.80 10° to 15° 0.70...

  15. 14 CFR 25.1393 - Minimum intensities in any vertical plane of forward and rear position lights.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Minimum intensities in any vertical plane... Equipment Lights § 25.1393 Minimum intensities in any vertical plane of forward and rear position lights... above or below the horizontal plane Intensity, l 0° 1.00 0° to 5° 0.90 5° to 10° 0.80 10° to 15° 0.70...

  16. 14 CFR 29.1393 - Minimum intensities in any vertical plane of forward and rear position lights.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Minimum intensities in any vertical plane... Equipment Lights § 29.1393 Minimum intensities in any vertical plane of forward and rear position lights... above or below the horizontal plane Intensity, I 0° 1.00 0° to 5° .90 5° to 10° .80 10° to 15° .70...

  17. Measurement of the intensity of the beam in the abort gap at the Tevatron utilizing synchrotron light

    SciTech Connect

    Thurman-Keup, R.; Lorman, E.; Meyer, T.; Pordes, S.; De Santis, S.; /LBL, Berkeley

    2005-05-01

    This paper discusses the implementation of abort gap beam intensity monitoring at the Tevatron collider at Fermilab. There are two somewhat independent monitors which measure the intensity of the synchrotron light emitted by particles in the abort gaps. One system uses a gated Photomultiplier Tube (PMT) to measure the light intensity, and the other system uses a single lens telescope, gated image intensifier, and Charge Injection Device (CID) camera to image the beam.

  18. Oxygen vacancies and intense luminescence in manganese loaded Zno microflowers for visible light water splitting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sambandam, Balaji; Michael, Robin Jude Vimal; Manoharan, Periakaruppan T.

    2015-08-01

    ZnO nanorods and Mn/ZnO microflowers with nano-sized petals exhibit singly ionized oxygen vacancies, V+O. This is strongly supported by a green photoluminescence emission at 2.22 eV and an EPR g value of 1.953, both of which are suppressed greatly after annealing in an oxygen atmosphere. A strong red emission observed during exposure to X-rays reveals the presence of F+ centres as a consequence of the V+O. Mn/ZnO displayed enhanced H2 generation with visible light exposure, when compared to pure ZnO and annealed Mn/ZnO in the visible region, which directly correlated with the oxygen vacancy concentration. There is an interesting correlation between the intensities of the EPR lines at the g-value of 1.953 due to the oxygen vacancies, the intensity of light emitted from the exposure to X-rays, the intensity of the photoluminescence due to oxygen vacancies and the quantity of H2 produced by the photocatalytic effect when comparing the three different nanomaterials, viz. pure ZnO, Mn/ZnO before and after annealing, all having been made exactly by the same methodologies.ZnO nanorods and Mn/ZnO microflowers with nano-sized petals exhibit singly ionized oxygen vacancies, V+O. This is strongly supported by a green photoluminescence emission at 2.22 eV and an EPR g value of 1.953, both of which are suppressed greatly after annealing in an oxygen atmosphere. A strong red emission observed during exposure to X-rays reveals the presence of F+ centres as a consequence of the V+O. Mn/ZnO displayed enhanced H2 generation with visible light exposure, when compared to pure ZnO and annealed Mn/ZnO in the visible region, which directly correlated with the oxygen vacancy concentration. There is an interesting correlation between the intensities of the EPR lines at the g-value of 1.953 due to the oxygen vacancies, the intensity of light emitted from the exposure to X-rays, the intensity of the photoluminescence due to oxygen vacancies and the quantity of H2 produced by the

  19. Inhibition of enteric pathogens and surrogates using integrated, high intensity 405nm led light on the surface of almonds

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The disinfecting properties of 405 nm light were investigated against Escherichia coli O157:H7, Salmonella, and their non-pathogenic surrogate bacteria on the surface of almonds. High intensity monochromatic blue light (MBL) was generated from an array of narrow-band 405 nm light-emitting diodes (LE...

  20. Long lifetime, low intensity light source for use in nighttime viewing of equipment maps and other writings

    DOEpatents

    Frank, Alan M.; Edwards, William R.

    1983-01-01

    A long-lifetime light source with sufficiently low intensity to be used for reading a map or other writing at nighttime, while not obscuring the user's normal night vision. This light source includes a diode electrically connected in series with a small power source and a lens properly positioned to focus at least a portion of the light produced by the diode.

  1. Effects of diurnal bright/dim light intensity on circadian core temperature and activity rhythms in the Japanese macaque.

    PubMed

    Takasu, Nana; Nigi, Hideo; Tokura, Hiromi

    2002-12-01

    Circadian rhythms of core temperature and activity were studied using three Japanese macaques under influences of two different light intensities during the daytime. Nocturnal core temperature and activity onset time were lower and advanced, respectively, in bright as compared to dim light. These results suggest the possibility that diurnal bright light could influence the circadian organization.

  2. Absolute intensity calibration of flat-field space-resolved extreme ultraviolet spectrometer using radial profiles of visible and extreme ultraviolet bremsstrahlung continuum emitted from high-density plasmas in Large Helical Device

    SciTech Connect

    Dong Chunfeng; Wang Erhui; Morita, Shigeru; Goto, Motoshi

    2011-11-15

    A precise absolute intensity calibration of a flat-field space-resolved extreme ultraviolet (EUV) spectrometer working in wavelength range of 60-400 A is carried out using a new calibration technique based on radial profile measurement of the bremsstrahlung continuum in Large Helical Device. A peaked vertical profile of the EUV bremsstrahlung continuum has been successfully observed in high-density plasmas (n{sub e}{>=} 10{sup 14} cm{sup -3}) with hydrogen ice pellet injection. The absolute calibration can be done by comparing the EUV bremsstrahlung profile with the visible bremsstrahlung profile of which the absolute value has been already calibrated using a standard lamp. The line-integrated profile of measured visible bremsstrahlung continuum is firstly converted into the local emissivity profile by considering a magnetic surface distortion due to the plasma pressure, and the local emissivity profile of EUV bremsstrahlung is secondly calculated by taking into account the electron temperature profile and free-free gaunt factor. The line-integrated profile of the EUV bremsstrahlung continuum is finally calculated from the local emissivity profile in order to compare with measured EUV bremsstrahlung profile. The absolute intensity calibration can be done by comparing measured and calculated EUV bremsstrahlung profiles. The calibration factor is thus obtained as a function of wavelength with excellent accuracy. It is also found in the profile analysis that the grating reflectivity of EUV emissions is constant along the direction perpendicular to the wavelength dispersion. Uncertainties on the calibration factor determined with the present method are discussed including charge-coupled device operation modes.

  3. The impact of light intensity on shade-induced leaf senescence.

    PubMed

    Brouwer, Bastiaan; Ziolkowska, Agnieszka; Bagard, Matthieu; Keech, Olivier; Gardeström, Per

    2012-06-01

    Plants often have to cope with altered light conditions, which in leaves induce various physiological responses ranging from photosynthetic acclimation to leaf senescence. However, our knowledge of the regulatory pathways by which shade and darkness induce leaf senescence remains incomplete. To determine to what extent reduced light intensities regulate the induction of leaf senescence, we performed a functional comparison between Arabidopsis leaves subjected to a range of shading treatments. Individually covered leaves, which remained attached to the plant, were compared with respect to chlorophyll, protein, histology, expression of senescence-associated genes, capacity for photosynthesis and respiration, and light compensation point (LCP). Mild shading induced photosynthetic acclimation and resource partitioning, which, together with a decreased respiration, lowered the LCP. Leaf senescence was induced only under strong shade, coinciding with a negative carbon balance and independent of the red/far-red ratio. Interestingly, while senescence was significantly delayed at very low light compared with darkness, phytochrome A mutant plants showed enhanced chlorophyll degradation under all shading treatments except complete darkness. Taken together, our results suggest that the induction of leaf senescence during shading depends on the efficiency of carbon fixation, which in turn appears to be modulated via light receptors such as phytochrome A.

  4. The influence of low intensities of light pollution on bat communities in a semi-natural context.

    PubMed

    Lacoeuilhe, Aurelie; Machon, Nathalie; Julien, Jean-François; Le Bocq, Agathe; Kerbiriou, Christian

    2014-01-01

    Anthropogenic light pollution is an increasingly significant issue worldwide. Over the past century, the use of artificial lighting has increased in association with human activity. Artificial lights are suspected to have substantial effects on the ecology of many species, e.g., by producing discontinuities in the territories of nocturnal animals. We analyzed the potential influence of the intensity and type of artificial light on bat activity in a semi-natural landscape in France. We used a species approach, followed by a trait-based approach, to light sensitivity. We also investigated whether the effect of light could be related to foraging traits. We performed acoustic surveys at sites located along a gradient of light intensities to assess the activity of 15 species of bats. We identified 2 functional response groups of species: one group that was light-tolerant and one group that was light-intolerant. Among the species in the latter group that appear to be disadvantaged by lighting conditions, many are rare and threatened in Europe, whereas the species from the former group are better able to thrive in disturbed habitats such as lighted areas and may actually benefit from artificial lighting. Finally, several methods of controlling light pollution are suggested for the conservation of bat communities. Recommendations for light management and the creation of dim-light corridors are proposed; these strategies may play an important role in protecting against the impact of light pollution on nocturnal animals.

  5. The influence of low intensities of light pollution on bat communities in a semi-natural context.

    PubMed

    Lacoeuilhe, Aurelie; Machon, Nathalie; Julien, Jean-François; Le Bocq, Agathe; Kerbiriou, Christian

    2014-01-01

    Anthropogenic light pollution is an increasingly significant issue worldwide. Over the past century, the use of artificial lighting has increased in association with human activity. Artificial lights are suspected to have substantial effects on the ecology of many species, e.g., by producing discontinuities in the territories of nocturnal animals. We analyzed the potential influence of the intensity and type of artificial light on bat activity in a semi-natural landscape in France. We used a species approach, followed by a trait-based approach, to light sensitivity. We also investigated whether the effect of light could be related to foraging traits. We performed acoustic surveys at sites located along a gradient of light intensities to assess the activity of 15 species of bats. We identified 2 functional response groups of species: one group that was light-tolerant and one group that was light-intolerant. Among the species in the latter group that appear to be disadvantaged by lighting conditions, many are rare and threatened in Europe, whereas the species from the former group are better able to thrive in disturbed habitats such as lighted areas and may actually benefit from artificial lighting. Finally, several methods of controlling light pollution are suggested for the conservation of bat communities. Recommendations for light management and the creation of dim-light corridors are proposed; these strategies may play an important role in protecting against the impact of light pollution on nocturnal animals. PMID:25360638

  6. The Influence of Low Intensities of Light Pollution on Bat Communities in a Semi-Natural Context

    PubMed Central

    Lacoeuilhe, Aurelie; Machon, Nathalie; Julien, Jean-François; Le Bocq, Agathe; Kerbiriou, Christian

    2014-01-01

    Anthropogenic light pollution is an increasingly significant issue worldwide. Over the past century, the use of artificial lighting has increased in association with human activity. Artificial lights are suspected to have substantial effects on the ecology of many species, e.g., by producing discontinuities in the territories of nocturnal animals. We analyzed the potential influence of the intensity and type of artificial light on bat activity in a semi-natural landscape in France. We used a species approach, followed by a trait-based approach, to light sensitivity. We also investigated whether the effect of light could be related to foraging traits. We performed acoustic surveys at sites located along a gradient of light intensities to assess the activity of 15 species of bats. We identified 2 functional response groups of species: one group that was light-tolerant and one group that was light-intolerant. Among the species in the latter group that appear to be disadvantaged by lighting conditions, many are rare and threatened in Europe, whereas the species from the former group are better able to thrive in disturbed habitats such as lighted areas and may actually benefit from artificial lighting. Finally, several methods of controlling light pollution are suggested for the conservation of bat communities. Recommendations for light management and the creation of dim-light corridors are proposed; these strategies may play an important role in protecting against the impact of light pollution on nocturnal animals. PMID:25360638

  7. Method and apparatus for measuring the intensity and phase of an ultrashort light pulse

    DOEpatents

    Kane, Daniel J.; Trebino, Rick P.

    1998-01-01

    The pulse shape I(t) and phase evolution x(t) of ultrashort light pulses are obtained using an instantaneously responding nonlinear optical medium to form a signal pulse. A light pulse, such a laser pulse, is split into a gate pulse and a probe pulse, where the gate pulse is delayed relative to the probe pulse. The gate pulse and the probe pulse are combined within an instantaneously responding optical medium to form a signal pulse functionally related to a temporal slice of the gate pulse corresponding to the time delay of the probe pulse. The signal pulse is then input to a wavelength-selective device to output pulse field information comprising intensity vs. frequency for a first value of the time delay. The time delay is varied over a range of values effective to yield an intensity plot of signal intensity vs. wavelength and delay. In one embodiment, the beams are overlapped at an angle so that a selected range of delay times is within the intersection to produce a simultaneous output over the time delays of interest.

  8. Pigment-targeted light wavelength and intensity promotes efficient photoautotrophic growth of Cyanobacteria.

    PubMed

    Bland, Erik; Angenent, Largus T

    2016-09-01

    A consensus is lacking whether monochromatic rather than broad-spectrum illumination is more efficient for photosynthetic microbe production platforms. Light wavelength and intensity were tuned to pigment composition for growth of the Cyanobacterium Synechocystis PCC 6803. Phycocyanin (PC)-targeting LEDs (620nm) provided more than 6times the peak efficiency of white LEDs, with peak efficiency growth rates of 0.063h(-1) at 81μEm(-2)s(-1) and 0.039h(-1) at 126μEm(-2)s(-1) for red and white LEDs, respectively. Chlorophyll a (Chl a)-targeting LEDs (680- and 440-nm) performed poorly. Indeed, 10 times greater mass abundance was observed for PC than Chl a. PC levels did not change while Chl a levels decreased when Synechocystis transitioned from white light at 50μEm(-2)s(-1) to 250μEm(-2)s(-1) with 620nm, 680nm, or white LEDs. This work demonstrates that light wavelengths and intensity need to be optimized for each strain. PMID:27285573

  9. Root Growth Reacts Rapidly and More Pronounced Than Shoot Growth Towards Increasing Light Intensity in Tobacco Seedlings

    PubMed Central

    Nagel, Kerstin A

    2006-01-01

    Light intensity is crucial for plant growth and often fluctuates on a small time scale due to altering climate conditions or sunflecks. Recently, we performed a study that looked into the growth effect of a sudden elevation of light intensity on Nicotiana tabacum seedlings.1 It was shown that an increase in light intensity leads to a pronounced increase of root-shoot-ratio as root growth reacts strongly and rapidly to an increase of light intensity. In transition experiments from low (60 µmol m−2 s−1) to high (300 µmol m−2 s−1) light intensity, root growth increased by a factor of four within four days, reaching the steady-state level measured in plants that were cultivated in high-light conditions. During the first three hours after light increase, strong fluctuations of the velocity of the root tip were observed that were putatively caused by a superposition of hydraulic and photosynthetic acclimation to the altered conditions. Experiments with externally applied sucrose and with transgenic plants having reduced capacity for sucrose synthesis indicated clearly that increasing light intensity rapidly enhanced root growth by elevating sucrose export from shoot to root. PMID:19704663

  10. Sedentary behaviors and light-intensity activities in relation to colorectal cancer risk.

    PubMed

    Keum, NaNa; Cao, Yin; Oh, Hannah; Smith-Warner, Stephanie A; Orav, John; Wu, Kana; Fuchs, Charles S; Cho, Eunyoung; Giovannucci, Edward L

    2016-05-01

    A recent meta-analysis found that sedentary behaviors are associated with an increased colorectal cancer (CRC) risk. Yet, the finding on TV viewing time, the most widely used surrogate of sedentary behaviors, was based on only two studies. Furthermore, light-intensity activities (e.g., standing and slow walking), non-sedentary by posture but close to sedentary behaviors by Metabolic Equivalent Task values, have not been investigated in relation to CRC risk. Thus, we prospectively analyzed the relationships based on 69,715 women from Nurses' Health Study (1992-2010) and 36,806 men from Health Professionals Follow-Up Study (1988 - 2010). Throughout follow-up, time spent on sedentary behaviors including sitting watching TV and on light-intensity activities were assessed repeatedly; incidence of CRC was ascertained. Hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were estimated using Cox proportional hazards models from each cohort. A total of 1,119 and 913 incident cases were documented from women and men, respectively. The multivariable HR comparing ≥ 21 versus < 7 hr/week of sitting watching TV was 1.21 (95% CI = 1.02 to 1.43, ptrend =.01) in women and 1.06 (95% CI = 0.84 to 1.34, ptrend =.93) in men. In women, those highly sedentary and physically less active had an approximately 41% elevated risk of CRC (95% CI = 1.03 to 1.92) compared with those less sedentary and physically more active. The other sedentary behaviors and light-intensity activities were not related to CRC risk in women or men. In conclusion, we found that prolonged sitting time watching TV was associated with an increased CRC risk in women but not in men. PMID:26649988

  11. Diagrammatic treatment of coherent backscattering of intense light by cold atoms with degenerate energy levels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shatokhin, V. N.; Blattmann, R.; Wellens, T.; Buchleitner, A.

    2014-08-01

    We present a generalization of the diagrammatic pump-probe approach to coherent backscattering (CBS) of intense laser light for atoms with degenerate energy levels. We employ this approach for a characterization of the double-scattering signal from optically pumped atoms with the transition Jg→Je=Jg+1 in the helicity-preserving polarization channel. We show that, in the saturation regime, the internal degeneracy becomes manifest for atoms with Jg≥1, leading to a faster decrease of the CBS enhancement factor with increasing saturation parameter than in the nondegenerate case.

  12. Comparison of laser and intense pulsed light sintering (IPL) for inkjet-printed copper nanoparticle layers

    PubMed Central

    Niittynen, Juha; Sowade, Enrico; Kang, Hyunkyoo; Baumann, Reinhard R.; Mäntysalo, Matti

    2015-01-01

    In this contribution we discuss the sintering of an inkjet-printed copper nanoparticle ink based on electrical performance and microstructure analysis. Laser and intense pulsed light (IPL) sintering are employed in order to compare the different techniques and their feasibility for electronics manufacturing. A conductivity of more than 20% of that of bulk copper material has been obtained with both sintering methods. Laser and IPL sintering techniques are considered to be complementary techniques and are highly suitable in different application fields. PMID:25743631

  13. Low-cost vibration sensor based on dual fiber Bragg gratings and light intensity measurement.

    PubMed

    Gao, Xueqing; Wang, Yongjiao; Yuan, Bo; Yuan, Yinquan; Dai, Yawen; Xu, Gang

    2013-09-20

    A vibration monitoring system based on light intensity measurement has been constructed, and the designed accelerometer is based on steel cantilever frame and dual fiber Bragg gratings (FBGs). By using numerical simulations for the dual FBGs, the dependence relationship of the area of main lobes on the difference of initial central wavelengths is obtained and the most optimal choice for the initial value and the vibration amplitude of the difference of central wavelengths of two FBGs is suggested. The vibration monitoring experiments are finished, and the measured data are identical to the simulated results.

  14. Reactive Sintering of Copper Nanoparticles Using Intense Pulsed Light for Printed Electronics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ryu, Jongeun; Kim, Hak-Sung; Hahn, H. Thomas

    2011-01-01

    Most commercial copper nanoparticles are covered with an oxide shell and cannot be sintered into conducting lines/films by conventional thermal sintering. To address this issue, past efforts have utilized complex reduction schemes and sophisticated chambers to prevent oxidation, thereby rendering the process cost ineffective. To alleviate these problems, we demonstrate a reactive sintering process using intense pulsed light (IPL) in the present study. The IPL process successfully removed the oxide shells of copper nanoparticles, leaving a conductive, pure copper film in a short period of time (2 ms) under ambient conditions. The in situ copper oxide reduction mechanism was studied using several different experiments and analyses. We observed instant copper oxide reduction and sintering through poly( N-vinylpyrrolidone) functionalization of copper nanoparticles, followed by IPL irradiation. This phenomenon may be explained by oxide reduction either via an intermediate acid created by ultraviolet (UV) light irradiation or by hydroxyl (-OH) end groups, which act like long-chain alcohol reductants.

  15. Low intensity noise and narrow line-width diode laser light at 540 nm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Lirong; Tamaki, Ryo; Kasai, Katsuyuki; Okada-Shudo, Yoshiko; Watanabe, Masayoshi; Zhang, Yun

    2015-05-01

    We present a convenient method to generate high quality single-frequency green light at a wavelength of 540 nm. It consists of a noise suppressed external cavity diode laser at a wavelength of 1080 nm by optical filtering and resonant optical feedback, and a frequency doubling of the fundamental light with an a-cut KTP crystal. Highly efficient conversion is realized by type II non-critical phase matching. A stable single-frequency operation with a maximum power of about 20 mW is performed for more than 3 h. Both the intensity noise and line-width reach the level of a monolithic nonplanar ring laser, which is well known for its extraordinarily narrow line-width and extremely low noise among available single-frequency operating lasers.

  16. Absolute number density calibration of the absorption by ground-state lead atoms of the 283. 3-nm resonance line from a high-intensity lead hollow cathode lamp and the calculated effect of argon pressures

    SciTech Connect

    Simons, J.W.; McClean, R.E. ); Oldenborg, R.C. )

    1991-03-21

    The absolute number density calibration for the absorption by ground-state lead atoms of the 283.3-nm resonance line from a high-intensity lead hollow cathode lamp (Photron superlamp) is determined and found to be the same as that of a standard hollow cathode lamp. Comparisons of the calibrations to theoretical calculations are found to be quite satisfactory. The effects of argon pressures in the absorption cell on the calibration are examined theoretically by using a simple Lorentzian broadening and shifting model. These calculations show the expected reduction in sensitivity and increasing linearity of Beer-Lambert plots with increasing argon pressure.

  17. Absolute Rovibrational Intensities, Self-Broadening and Self-Shift Coefficients for the X(sup 1) Sigma(+) V=3 (left arrow) V=0 Band (C-12)(O-16)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chackerian, Charles, Jr.; Freedman, R.; Giver, L. P.; Brown, L. R.

    2001-01-01

    The rotationless transition moment squared for the x(sup 1) sigma (sup +) v=3 (left arrow) v=0 band of CO is measured to be the absolute value of R (sub 3-0) squared = 1.7127(25)x 10(exp -7) Debye squared. This value is about 8.6 percent smaller than the value assumed for HITRAN 2000. The Herman-Wallis intensity factor of this band is F=1+0.01168(11)m+0.0001065(79)m squared. The determination of self-broadening coefficients is improved with the inclusion of line narrowing; self-shifts are also reported.

  18. Ultrasound modulated light blood flow measurement using intensity autocorrelation function: a Monte-Carlo simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsalach, A.; Metzger, Y.; Breskin, I.; Zeitak, R.; Shechter, R.

    2014-03-01

    Development of techniques for continuous measurement of regional blood flow, and in particular cerebral blood flow (CBF), is essential for monitoring critical care patients. Recently, a novel technique, based on ultrasound modulation of light was developed for non-invasive, continuous CBF monitoring (termed ultrasound-tagged light (UTL or UT-NIRS)), and shown to correlate with readings of 133 Xe SPECT1 and laser Doppler2. Coherent light is introduced into the tissue concurrently with an Ultrasound (US) field. Displacement of scattering centers within the sampled volume induced by Brownian motion, blood flow and the US field affects the photons' temporal correlation. Hence, the temporal fluctuations of the obtained speckle pattern provide dynamic information about the blood flow. We developed a comprehensive simulation, combining the effects of Brownian motion, US and flow on the obtained speckle pattern. Photons trajectories within the tissue are generated using a Monte-Carlo based model. Then, the temporal changes in the optical path due to displacement of scattering centers are determined, and the corresponding interference pattern over time is derived. Finally, the light intensity autocorrelation function of a single speckle is calculated, from which the tissue decorrelation time is determined. The simulation's results are compared with in-vitro experiments, using a digital correlator, demonstrating decorrelation time prediction within the 95% confidence interval. This model may assist in the development of optical based methods for blood flow measurements and particularly, in methods using the acousto-optic effect.

  19. Effects of moderate-intensity light on vitamin A-deficient rat retinas

    SciTech Connect

    Carter-Dawson, L.; Kuwabara, T.; Bieri, J.G.

    1981-05-01

    The effects of moderate-intensity light (150 to 200 ft-cd) on retinal structure were compared between retinol-adequate and retinol-deficient rats after 1 to 6 days of light exposure during the 12 hr light phase of the cycle. Both damage to the outer segments and loss of photoreceptor cells were accelerated in retinol-adequate rats. Outer segments in retinas of retinol-adequate rats showed an abnormal staining pattern and disruption of disc structure in the distal portion about 2 days before those of retinol-deficient rats. After 4 days of exposure 24% of the photoreceptor cells had degenerated in the retinol-adequate retinas, but only 6% in the retinol-deficient retinas. By 6 days 65% and 41% of the photoreceptors had degenerated in the retinol-adequate and retinol-deficient retinas, respectively. Thus light exposure induced more rapid degeneration of photoreceptor cells in rats receiving adequate retinol than in those deficient in this vitamin.

  20. Detection of internal structure by scattered light intensity: Application to kidney cell sorting

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goolsby, C. L.; Kunze, M. E.

    1985-01-01

    Scattered light measurements in flow cytometry were sucessfully used to distinguish cells on the basis of differing morphology and internal structure. Differences in scattered light patterns due to changes in internal structure would be expected to occur at large scattering angles. Practically, the results of these calculations suggest that in experimental situations an array of detectors would be useful. Although in general the detection of the scattered light intensity at several intervals within the 10 to 60 region would be sufficient, there are many examples where increased sensitivity could be acheived at other angles. The ability to measure at many different angular intervals would allow the experimenter to empirically select the optimum intervals for the varying conditions of cell size, N/C ratio, granule size and internal structure from sample to sample. The feasibility of making scattered light measurements at many different intervals in flow cytometry was demonstrated. The implementation of simplified versions of these techniques in conjunction with independant measurements of cell size could potentially improve the usefulness of flow cytometry in the study of the internal structure of cells.

  1. Phenotypic plasticity of Neonotonia wightii and Pueraria phaseoloides grown under different light intensities.

    PubMed

    Santos, Leonardo D T; Da Cruz, Leandro R; Dos Santos, Samuel A; Sant'anna-Santos, Bruno F; Dos Santos, Izabela T; De Oliveira, Ariane M; Barros, Rodrigo E; Santos, Márcia V; Faria, Rodrigo M

    2015-03-01

    Plants have the ability to undergo morphophysiological changes based on availability of light. The present study evaluated biomass accumulation, leaf morphoanatomy and physiology of Neonotonia wightii and Pueraria phaseoloides grown in full sunlight, as well as in 30% and 50% shade. Two assays were performed, one for each species, using a randomized block design with 10 replicates. A higher accumulation of fresh mass in the shoot of the plants was observed for both species under cultivation in 50% shade, while no differences were detected between the full sunlight and 30% shade. N. wightii and P. phaseoloides showed increase in area and reduction in thickness leaf when cultivated in 50% shade. There were no changes in photosynthetic rate, stomatal conductance, water use efficiency and evapotranspiration of P. phaseoloides plants because growth environment. However, the shade treatments caused alterations in physiological parameters of N. wightii. In both species, structural changes in the mesophyll occurred depending on the availability of light; however, the amount of leaf blade tissue remained unaltered. Despite the influence of light intensity variation on the morphophysiological plasticity of N. wightii and P. phaseoloides, no effects on biomass accumulation were observed in response to light. PMID:25714076

  2. Effect of blue LED light intensity on carotenoid accumulation in citrus juice sacs.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Lancui; Ma, Gang; Yamawaki, Kazuki; Ikoma, Yoshinori; Matsumoto, Hikaru; Yoshioka, Terutaka; Ohta, Satoshi; Kato, Masaya

    2015-09-01

    In the present study, the effects of blue LED light intensity on carotenoid accumulation and expression of genes related to carotenoid biosynthesis were investigated in the juice sacs of Satsuma mandarin (Citrus unshiu Marc.) and Valencia orange (Citrus sinensis Osbeck) in vitro. The results showed that 100 μmol m(-2)s(-1) blue LED light (100B) was effective for increasing carotenoid content, especially β-cryptoxanthin, in Satsuma mandarin after cultured in vitro for four weeks. In Valencia orange, in contrast, 50 μmol m(-2)s(-1) blue LED light (50B) treatment was effective for inducing carotenoid accumulation through increasing the contents of two major carotenoids, all-trans-violaxanthin and 9-cis-violaxanthin. In addition, gene expression results showed that the simultaneous increases in the expression of genes (CitPSY, CitPDS, CitZDS, CitLCYb2, and CitHYb) involved in producing β,β-xanthophylls were well consistent with the accumulation of β-cryptoxanthin in Satsuma mandarin under 100B, and violaxanthin in Valencia orange under 50B. The results presented herein contribute to further elucidating the regulatory mechanism of carotenoid accumulation by blue LED light.

  3. Effects of light intensity on growth, immune responses, antioxidant capability and disease resistance of juvenile blunt snout bream Megalobrama amblycephala.

    PubMed

    Tian, Hong-Yan; Zhang, Ding-Dong; Xu, Chao; Wang, Fei; Liu, Wen-Bin

    2015-12-01

    Light is necessary for many fish species to develop and grow normally since most fishes are visual feeders. However, too intense light may be stressful or even lethal. Thus, this study was conducted to evaluate the effect of light intensity on growth, immune response, antioxidant capability and disease resistance of juvenile blunt snout bream Megalobrama amblycephala. Fish (18.04 ± 0.22 g) randomly divided into 5 groups were exposed to a range of light intensities (100, 200, 400, 800 and 1600 lx) in cultures for 8 weeks. After the feeding trial, fish were challenged by Aeromonas hydrophila and cumulative mortality was recorded for the next 96 h. The results demonstrated that fish subjected to 400 lx showed the greatest weight gain (125.70 ± 5.29%). Plasma levels of glucose and lactate increased with light intensity rising from 100 lx to 1600 lx while the lowest plasma levels of cortisol was observed at 400 lx group. Post-challenged haemato-immunological parameters (including plasma lysozyme and alternative complement activities, as well as plasma nitric oxide level and globulin contents) improved with light intensity increasing from 100 lx to 400 lx, and then decreased with further increasing light intensity. However, antioxidant biomarkers such as liver catalase and malondialdehyde showed an opposite trend with immune response with the lowest values observed at 400 lx groups. The application of light intensity at 1600 lx significantly lowered liver glutathione activity to 76.78 ± 6.91 μmol g(-1). Within a range of light intensity from 100 to 400 lx, no differences were observed in liver total superoxide dismutase and glutathione peroxidase activities while they were significantly higher at 800 and 1600 lx. After challenge, the lowest mortality was observed in fish exposed to 400 lx. It was significantly lower than that of fish exposed to 100 and 1600 lx. The results of the present study indicated that high light intensities (more than 800 lx) not only produced

  4. Effects of light intensity on growth, immune responses, antioxidant capability and disease resistance of juvenile blunt snout bream Megalobrama amblycephala.

    PubMed

    Tian, Hong-Yan; Zhang, Ding-Dong; Xu, Chao; Wang, Fei; Liu, Wen-Bin

    2015-12-01

    Light is necessary for many fish species to develop and grow normally since most fishes are visual feeders. However, too intense light may be stressful or even lethal. Thus, this study was conducted to evaluate the effect of light intensity on growth, immune response, antioxidant capability and disease resistance of juvenile blunt snout bream Megalobrama amblycephala. Fish (18.04 ± 0.22 g) randomly divided into 5 groups were exposed to a range of light intensities (100, 200, 400, 800 and 1600 lx) in cultures for 8 weeks. After the feeding trial, fish were challenged by Aeromonas hydrophila and cumulative mortality was recorded for the next 96 h. The results demonstrated that fish subjected to 400 lx showed the greatest weight gain (125.70 ± 5.29%). Plasma levels of glucose and lactate increased with light intensity rising from 100 lx to 1600 lx while the lowest plasma levels of cortisol was observed at 400 lx group. Post-challenged haemato-immunological parameters (including plasma lysozyme and alternative complement activities, as well as plasma nitric oxide level and globulin contents) improved with light intensity increasing from 100 lx to 400 lx, and then decreased with further increasing light intensity. However, antioxidant biomarkers such as liver catalase and malondialdehyde showed an opposite trend with immune response with the lowest values observed at 400 lx groups. The application of light intensity at 1600 lx significantly lowered liver glutathione activity to 76.78 ± 6.91 μmol g(-1). Within a range of light intensity from 100 to 400 lx, no differences were observed in liver total superoxide dismutase and glutathione peroxidase activities while they were significantly higher at 800 and 1600 lx. After challenge, the lowest mortality was observed in fish exposed to 400 lx. It was significantly lower than that of fish exposed to 100 and 1600 lx. The results of the present study indicated that high light intensities (more than 800 lx) not only produced

  5. Effects of forward and backward transitions in light intensities in tau-illuminance curves of the rat motor activity rhythm under constant dim light.

    PubMed

    Cambras, Trinitat; Díez-Noguera, Antoni

    2012-07-01

    Circadian rhythms are strongly influenced by light intensity, the effects of which may persist beyond the duration of light exposure (aftereffects). Here, the authors constructed period-illuminance curves for the motor activity circadian rhythm of male and female rats by recording the effects of a series of small upward and downward steps in light intensity (illuminance ranging between .01 lux of dim red light and 1 lux of white light) on their activity. In all cases, stepwise changes were made in five logarithmic steps (irradiance: dim red light: .692 µW/cm(2) and white light: .006, .016, .044, .12, and .315 µW/cm(2), corresponding, respectively, to .02, .05, .14, .13, and 1 lux measured at cage level), with changes in intensity every 2 wks. One group of rats (DLD) started in dim red light, moved up to 1 lux white light, and then back down to the original light intensity. Another group (LDL) started at 1 lux, moved down to .01 lux, and then back up to the original intensity. Motor activity data were recorded throughout the experiment and tau values, the percentage of variance explained by the rhythm, and the mean motor activity for each stage and group were calculated. The results show differences in the dynamics of tau values between the DLD and LDL groups and between males and females. In the LDL group, the tau values of both males and females were dependent on light intensity, and were similar for the forward and backward transitions. In other words, no aftereffects were found, and no differences were detected between males and females. In the DLD group, however, differences were found between males and females. Males had a tau value of 24 h 20 min under dim red light, 25 h 40 min under 1 lux, and 24 h 50 min on return to dim red light. It is noticeable that the tau values of the backward branch of the illuminance curve contradicted classical predictions, since at .38 and .14 lux the tau values were shorter than those found under the same intensities after

  6. A validated model to predict microalgae growth in outdoor pond cultures subjected to fluctuating light intensities and water temperatures

    SciTech Connect

    Huesemann, Michael H.; Crowe, Braden J.; Waller, Peter; Chavis, Aaron R.; Hobbs, Samuel J.; Edmundson, Scott J.; Wigmosta, Mark S.

    2015-12-11

    Here, a microalgae biomass growth model was developed for screening novel strains for their potential to exhibit high biomass productivities under nutrient-replete conditions in outdoor ponds subjected to fluctuating light intensities and water temperatures. Growth is modeled by first estimating the light attenuation by biomass according to a scatter-corrected Beer-Lambert Law, and then calculating the specific growth rate in discretized culture volume slices that receive declining light intensities due to attenuation. The model requires the following experimentally determined strain-specific input parameters: specific growth rate as a function of light intensity and temperature, biomass loss rate in the dark as a function of temperature and average light intensity during the preceding light period, and the scatter-corrected biomass light absorption coefficient. The model was successful in predicting the growth performance and biomass productivity of three different microalgae species (Chlorella sorokiniana, Nannochloropsis salina, and Picochlorum sp.) in raceway pond cultures (batch and semi-continuous) subjected to diurnal sunlight intensity and water temperature variations. Model predictions were moderately sensitive to minor deviations in input parameters. To increase the predictive power of this and other microalgae biomass growth models, a better understanding of the effects of mixing-induced rapid light dark cycles on photo-inhibition and short-term biomass losses due to dark respiration in the aphotic zone of the pond is needed.

  7. Quantifying the effects of light intensity on bioproduction and maintenance energy during photosynthetic growth of Rhodobacter sphaeroides.

    PubMed

    Imam, Saheed; Fitzgerald, Colin M; Cook, Emily M; Donohue, Timothy J; Noguera, Daniel R

    2015-02-01

    Obtaining a better understanding of the physiology and bioenergetics of photosynthetic microbes is an important step toward optimizing these systems for light energy capture or production of valuable commodities. In this work, we analyzed the effect of light intensity on bioproduction, biomass formation, and maintenance energy during photoheterotrophic growth of Rhodobacter sphaeroides. Using data obtained from steady-state bioreactors operated at varying dilution rates and light intensities, we found that irradiance had a significant impact on biomass yield and composition, with significant changes in photopigment, phospholipid, and biopolymer storage contents. We also observed a linear relationship between incident light intensity and H2 production rate between 3 and 10 W m(-2), with saturation observed at 100 W m(-2). The light conversion efficiency to H2 was also higher at lower light intensities. Photosynthetic maintenance energy requirements were also significantly affected by light intensity, with links to differences in biomass composition and the need to maintain redox homeostasis. Inclusion of the measured condition-dependent biomass and maintenance energy parameters and the measured photon uptake rate into a genome-scale metabolic model for R. sphaeroides (iRsp1140) significantly improved its predictive performance. We discuss how our analyses provide new insights into the light-dependent changes in bioenergetic requirements and physiology during photosynthetic growth of R. sphaeroides and potentially other photosynthetic organisms.

  8. A validated model to predict microalgae growth in outdoor pond cultures subjected to fluctuating light intensities and water temperatures

    DOE PAGES

    Huesemann, Michael H.; Crowe, Braden J.; Waller, Peter; Chavis, Aaron R.; Hobbs, Samuel J.; Edmundson, Scott J.; Wigmosta, Mark S.

    2015-12-11

    Here, a microalgae biomass growth model was developed for screening novel strains for their potential to exhibit high biomass productivities under nutrient-replete conditions in outdoor ponds subjected to fluctuating light intensities and water temperatures. Growth is modeled by first estimating the light attenuation by biomass according to a scatter-corrected Beer-Lambert Law, and then calculating the specific growth rate in discretized culture volume slices that receive declining light intensities due to attenuation. The model requires the following experimentally determined strain-specific input parameters: specific growth rate as a function of light intensity and temperature, biomass loss rate in the dark as amore » function of temperature and average light intensity during the preceding light period, and the scatter-corrected biomass light absorption coefficient. The model was successful in predicting the growth performance and biomass productivity of three different microalgae species (Chlorella sorokiniana, Nannochloropsis salina, and Picochlorum sp.) in raceway pond cultures (batch and semi-continuous) subjected to diurnal sunlight intensity and water temperature variations. Model predictions were moderately sensitive to minor deviations in input parameters. To increase the predictive power of this and other microalgae biomass growth models, a better understanding of the effects of mixing-induced rapid light dark cycles on photo-inhibition and short-term biomass losses due to dark respiration in the aphotic zone of the pond is needed.« less

  9. Effect of Low-intensity Red and Far-red Light and High-intensity White Light on the Flowering Response of the Long-day Plant Lemna gibba G3 1

    PubMed Central

    Cleland, Charles F.; Briggs, Winslow R.

    1968-01-01

    The long-day plant Lemna gibba L., strain G3 exhibits a relatively low sensitivity to short, white-light interruptions given during the dark period of a short-day cycle. However, the plants are fairly sensitive to low-intensity red light treatments given during a 15-hour dark period on the third day of a 2LD-(9L:15D)-2LD-7SD schedule. Far-red light is almost as effective as red light, and attempts to reverse the red light response with subsequent far-red light treatments have not been successful. Blue light proved to be without effect. When plants were grown on a 48-hour cycle with 15 minutes of red light every 4 hours during the dark period, the critical daylength was reduced from about 32 hours to slightly less than 12 hours. Continuous red light induced a fairly good flowering response. However, as little as 1 hour of white light each day gave a significant improvement in the flowering response over that of the continuous red light control. White light of 600 to 700 ft-c was more effective than white light of 60 to 70 ft-c. The white light was much more effective when divided into 2 equal exposures given 8 to 12 hours apart. These results suggest an increase in light sensitivity with regard to flower induction about 8 to 10 hours after the start of the light period. Images PMID:16656749

  10. Nutritional quality of ten leafy vegetables harvested at two light intensities.

    PubMed

    Colonna, Emma; Rouphael, Youssef; Barbieri, Giancarlo; De Pascale, Stefania

    2016-05-15

    The nutritional composition of ten leafy vegetables (chicory, green lettuce, lamb's lettuce, mizuna, red chard, red lettuce, rocket, spinach, Swiss chard, and tatsoi) and quality traits of the selected leafy vegetables in relation to the light intensity (low and high Photosynthetically Active Radiation; PAR) at time of harvest were determined. Irrespective of the light intensity at time of harvest, the highest leaf dry matter (DM), proteins, nitrate, P, K and Ca contents were observed in rocket followed by mizuna. The highest lipophilic antioxidant activity (LAA) was recorded in red lettuce and rocket, whereas ascorbic acid (AA) and total phenolic (TP) contents of red lettuce were higher compared to the other leafy vegetables. When leafy vegetables were harvested at low as opposed to high PAR, the leaf content was higher in DM, protein, K, Ca and Mg, hydrophilic antioxidant activity (HAA), and LAA by 12.5%, 10.0%, 12.6%, 23.7%, 14.1%, 11.9%, and 18.5%, respectively. The highest values in TP for chicory, green lettuce, lamb's lettuce, mizuna, red chard, and red lettuce, were observed under high PAR.

  11. Nutritional quality of ten leafy vegetables harvested at two light intensities.

    PubMed

    Colonna, Emma; Rouphael, Youssef; Barbieri, Giancarlo; De Pascale, Stefania

    2016-05-15

    The nutritional composition of ten leafy vegetables (chicory, green lettuce, lamb's lettuce, mizuna, red chard, red lettuce, rocket, spinach, Swiss chard, and tatsoi) and quality traits of the selected leafy vegetables in relation to the light intensity (low and high Photosynthetically Active Radiation; PAR) at time of harvest were determined. Irrespective of the light intensity at time of harvest, the highest leaf dry matter (DM), proteins, nitrate, P, K and Ca contents were observed in rocket followed by mizuna. The highest lipophilic antioxidant activity (LAA) was recorded in red lettuce and rocket, whereas ascorbic acid (AA) and total phenolic (TP) contents of red lettuce were higher compared to the other leafy vegetables. When leafy vegetables were harvested at low as opposed to high PAR, the leaf content was higher in DM, protein, K, Ca and Mg, hydrophilic antioxidant activity (HAA), and LAA by 12.5%, 10.0%, 12.6%, 23.7%, 14.1%, 11.9%, and 18.5%, respectively. The highest values in TP for chicory, green lettuce, lamb's lettuce, mizuna, red chard, and red lettuce, were observed under high PAR. PMID:26776027

  12. Characterization of material ablation driven by laser generated intense extreme ultraviolet light

    SciTech Connect

    Tanaka, Nozomi Masuda, Masaya; Deguchi, Ryo; Murakami, Masakatsu; Fujioka, Shinsuke; Yogo, Akifumi; Nishimura, Hiroaki; Sunahara, Atsushi

    2015-09-14

    We present a comparative study on the hydrodynamic behaviour of plasmas generated by material ablation by the irradiation of nanosecond extreme ultraviolet (EUV or XUV) or infrared laser pulses on solid samples. It was clarified that the difference in the photon energy deposition and following material heating mechanism between these two lights result in the difference in the plasma parameters and plasma expansion characteristics. Silicon plate was ablated by either focused intense EUV pulse (λ = 9–25 nm, 10 ns) or laser pulse (λ = 1064 nm, 10 ns), both with an intensity of ∼10{sup 9 }W/cm{sup 2}. Both the angular distributions and energy spectra of the expanding ions revealed that the photoionized plasma generated by the EUV light differs significantly from that produced by the laser. The laser-generated plasma undergoes spherical expansion, whereas the EUV-generated plasma undergoes planar expansion in a comparatively narrow angular range. It is presumed that the EUV radiation is transmitted through the expanding plasma and directly photoionizes the samples in the solid phase, consequently forming a high-density and high-pressure plasma. Due to a steep pressure gradient along the direction of the target normal, the EUV plasma expands straightforward resulting in the narrower angular distribution observed.

  13. Absolute Bunch Length Measurements by Incoherent Radiation Fluctuation Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Sannibale, F.; Stupakov, G.V.; Zolotorev, M.S.; Filippetto, D.; Jagerhofer, L.; /Vienna, Tech. U.

    2009-12-09

    By analyzing the pulse to pulse intensity fluctuations of the radiation emitted by a charge particle in the incoherent part of the spectrum, it is possible to extract information about the spatial distribution of the beam. At the Advanced Light Source (ALS) of the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, we have developed and successfully tested a simple scheme based on this principle that allows for the absolute measurement of the rms bunch length. A description of the method and the experimental results are presented.

  14. Absolute bunch length measurements by incoherent radiation fluctuation analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Sannibale, Fernando; Stupakov, Gennady; Zolotorev, Max; Filippetto, Daniele; Jagerhofer, Lukas

    2008-09-29

    By analyzing the pulse to pulse intensity fluctuations of the radiation emitted by a charge particle in the incoherent part of the spectrum, it is possible to extract information about the spatial distribution of the beam. At the Advanced Light Source (ALS) of the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, we have developed and successfully tested a simple scheme based on this principle that allows for the absolute measurement of the rms bunch length. A description of the method and the experimental results are presented.

  15. Light-dependent magnetoreception in birds: the behaviour of European robins, Erithacus rubecula, under monochromatic light of various wavelengths and intensities.

    PubMed

    Wiltschko, W; Wiltschko, R

    2001-10-01

    To investigate how magnetoreception is affected by the wavelength and intensity of light, we tested European robins, Erithacus rubecula, under monochromatic lights of various wavelengths at two intensities using oriented behaviour as an indicator of whether the birds could derive directional information from the geomagnetic field. At a quantal flux of 7 x 10(15) quanta s(-1) m(-2), the birds were well oriented in their migratory direction east of North under 424 nm blue, 510 nm turquoise and 565 nm green light, whereas they were disoriented under 590 nm yellow light. Increasing the intensity of light at the same wavelengths more than sixfold to 43 x 10(15) quanta s(-1) m(-2) resulted in a change in behaviour: under bright blue and green light, the birds now showed a preference for the East-West axis, with the majority of headings at the western end; under bright turquoise light, they oriented unimodally towards a direction slightly west of North. Under bright yellow light, the birds continued to be disoriented. These findings suggest a rather complex relationship between the receptors involved in magnetoreception. Magnetoreception appears to follow rules that are different from those of vision, suggesting that light-dependent magnetoreception may involve receptors and neuronal pathways of its own.

  16. Sound Velocity and Diffraction Intensity Measurements Based on Raman-Nath Theory of the Interaction of Light and Ultrasound

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Neeson, John F.; Austin, Stephen

    1975-01-01

    Describes a method for the measurement of the velocity of sound in various liquids based on the Raman-Nath theory of light-sound interaction. Utilizes an analog computer program to calculate the intensity of light scattered into various diffraction orders. (CP)

  17. Angular intensity of nonequilibrium interfacial dynamic light scattering: Succinonitrile and naphthalene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Williams, L. M.; Cummins, H. Z.; Ladeira, L. O.; Mesquita, O. N.

    1992-03-01

    We have investigated the phenomenon of intense dynamic light scattering at the nonequilibrium crystal-melt interface in succinonitrile and naphthalene, in order to resolve the ongoing controversy over its origin. Of the several models that have been proposed to explain this phenomenon, the microbubble model of H. Z. Cummins et al. [Solid State Commun. 60, 857 (1986)] and the mesophase model proposed by J. Bilgram and co-workers [P. Boni, J. H. Bilgram, and W. Kanzig, Phys. Rev. A 28, 2953 (1983)] are the only two still considered to be consistent with most of the experimental observations. In these experiments the angular dependence of the scattered light was investigated. In the mesophase model the angular dependence of the scattered light is described by the Ornstein-Zernike form I(q)=I0(1+q2ξ2)-1, whereas light scattered by bubbles can be modeled by the Mie scattering theory. The data for both materials were found to be incompatible with the Ornstein-Zernike form, but could be reasonably well fit by the Mie theory. The behavior of the onset of scattering was also investigated, and it was found that the product R0t0v2g was a constant, where R0 is the onset radius, t0 the onset time, and vg the crystal growth velocity. This result is consistent with the analysis of Mesquita et al. [Phys. Rev. B 38, 1550 (1988)], in which the onset of the scattering was modeled by considering the rate of buildup of dissolved gas at the advancing crystal-melt interface. The time taken for the disappearance of the scattering after growth was terminated was also investigated. Lastly, the gases dissolved in our samples of succinonitrile were identified by mass spectroscopy and found to have a composition similar to air.

  18. Long lifetime, low intensity light source for use in nighttime viewing of equipment maps and other writings

    DOEpatents

    Frank, A.M.; Edwards, W.R.

    1982-03-23

    A long-lifetime light source is discussed with sufficiently low intensity to be used for reading a map or other writing at nightime, while not obscuring the user's normal night vision. This light source includes a diode electrically connected in series with a small power source and a lens properly positioned to focus at least a portion of the light produced by the diode.

  19. Long lifetime, low intensity light source for use in nighttime viewing of equipment maps and other writings

    DOEpatents

    Frank, A.M.; Edwards, W.R.

    1983-10-11

    A long-lifetime light source with sufficiently low intensity to be used for reading a map or other writing at nighttime, while not obscuring the user's normal night vision is disclosed. This light source includes a diode electrically connected in series with a small power source and a lens properly positioned to focus at least a portion of the light produced by the diode. 1 fig.

  20. New findings regarding light intensity and its effects as a zeitgeber in the Sprague-Dawley rat

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tischler, A. C.; Winget, C. M.; Holley, D. C.; Deroshia, C. W.; Gott, J.; Mele, G.; Callahan, P. X.

    1993-01-01

    In most mammals, the suprachiasmatic nucleus of the anterior hypothalamus has been implicated as the central driving mechanism of circadian rhythmicity. The photic input from the retina, via the retino-hypothalamic tract, and modulation from the pineal gland help regulate the clock. In this study, we investigated the effects of low light intensity on the circadian system of the Sprague-Dawley rat. A series of light intensity experiments were conducted to determine if a light level of 0.1 Lux will maintain entrained circadian rhythms of feeding, drinking, and locomotor activity.

  1. The effects of high intensity visible and ultraviolet light on the death of microorganisms.

    PubMed

    Chichester, C O; Maxwell, W A

    1969-01-01

    The expectation that microorganisms would be exposed to very high visible light intensity in a space environment led to the investigation of the killing of microorganisms by visible light. The carotenoid-containing yeast Rhodotorula glutinis was one of the several organisms investigated. It was found that despite the carotenoid content of the organism it can be killed by endogenous photosensitized oxidation. While the effects of various parameters such as culture age, temperature, etc., were studied, particular emphasis was placed upon the development of action spectrum, determination of sites of action and the mechanism by which cells are killed. The portion of the spectrum responsible for lethality lies between 300 and 400 nm with an apparent maximum response around 390 nm. The nucleus appeared to be damaged, as evidenced by a mutagenic effect when cells were radiated with light above 300 nm. Previously the only reported mutagenic responses from light of these wavelengths have been noted when cells have been irradiated in the presence of added sensitizing dyes. Increased leakage of irradiated cells indicated permeability membranes have undergone damage. Overall respiration of the cells is also decreased at a rate corresponding to the loss in viability. Such random damage to cells indicates that whatever the damaging species is, it must be quite non-specific. The sensitizing agent could be a free radical and evidence has been developed to support such a proposal. The sulfhydryl-containing compounds cysteine and gluthathione are capable of protecting the cells from death. Since these compounds are known to protect the organisms from ionizing radiation by the trapping of free radicals, it is logical to presume that the damaging species is a free radical. Little or no protection is offered to the microorganism by fat-soluble antioxidants such as tocopherol and related species. This would indicate that the primary lethal site must be in the water phase. It is likely

  2. Membrane development in purple photosynthetic bacteria in response to alterations in light intensity and oxygen tension.

    PubMed

    Niederman, Robert A

    2013-10-01

    Studies on membrane development in purple bacteria during adaptation to alterations in light intensity and oxygen tension are reviewed. Anoxygenic phototrophic such as the purple α-proteobacterium Rhodobacter sphaeroides have served as simple, dynamic, and experimentally accessible model organisms for studies of the photosynthetic apparatus. A major landmark in photosynthesis research, which dramatically illustrates this point, was provided by the determination of the X-ray structure of the reaction center (RC) in Blastochloris viridis (Deisenhofer and Michel, EMBO J 8:2149-2170, 1989), once it was realized that this represented the general structure for the photosystem II RC present in all oxygenic phototrophs. This seminal advance, together with a considerable body of subsequent research on the light-harvesting (LH) and electron transfer components of the photosynthetic apparatus has provided a firm basis for the current understanding of how phototrophs acclimate to alterations in light intensity and quality. Oxygenic phototrophs adapt to these changes by extensive thylakoid membrane remodeling, which results in a dramatic supramolecular reordering to assure that an appropriate flow of quinone redox species occurs within the membrane bilayer for efficient and rapid electron transfer. Despite the high level of photosynthetic unit organization in Rba. sphaeroides as observed by atomic force microscopy (AFM), fluorescence induction/relaxation measurements have demonstrated that the addition of the peripheral LH2 antenna complex in cells adapting to low-intensity illumination results in a slowing of the rate of electron transfer turnover by the RC of up to an order of magnitude. This is ascribed to constraints in quinone redox species diffusion between the RC and cytochrome bc1 complexes arising from the increased packing density as the intracytoplasmic membrane (ICM) bilayer becomes crowded with LH2 rings. In addition to downshifts in light intensity as a paradigm

  3. Interactions between light intensity and phosphorus nutrition affect the phosphate-mining capacity of white lupin (Lupinus albus L.).

    PubMed

    Cheng, Lingyun; Tang, Xiaoyan; Vance, Carroll P; White, Philip J; Zhang, Fusuo; Shen, Jianbo

    2014-07-01

    Light intensity affects photosynthetic carbon (C) fixation and the supply of carbon to roots. To evaluate interactions between carbon supply and phosphorus (P) supply, effects of light intensity on sucrose accumulation, root growth, cluster root formation, carboxylate exudation, and P uptake capacity were studied in white lupin (Lupinus albus L.) grown hydroponically with either 200 µmol m(-2) s(-1) or 600 µmol m(-2) s(-1) light and a sufficient (50 µM P) or deficient (1 µM P) P supply. Plant biomass and root:shoot ratio increased with increasing light intensity, particularly when plants were supplied with sufficient P. Both low P supply and increasing light intensity increased the production of cluster roots and citrate exudation. Transcripts of a phosphoenol pyruvate carboxylase gene (LaPEPC3) in cluster roots (which is related to the exudation of citrate), transcripts of a phosphate transporter gene (LaPT1), and P uptake all increased with increasing light intensity, under both P-sufficient and P-deficient conditions. Across all four experimental treatments, increased cluster root formation and carboxylate exudation were associated with lower P concentration in the shoot and greater sucrose concentration in the roots. It is suggested that C in excess of shoot growth capabilities is translocated to the roots as sucrose, which serves as both a nutritional signal and a C-substrate for carboxylate exudation and cluster root formation.

  4. Interactions between light intensity and phosphorus nutrition affect the phosphate-mining capacity of white lupin (Lupinus albus L.).

    PubMed

    Cheng, Lingyun; Tang, Xiaoyan; Vance, Carroll P; White, Philip J; Zhang, Fusuo; Shen, Jianbo

    2014-07-01

    Light intensity affects photosynthetic carbon (C) fixation and the supply of carbon to roots. To evaluate interactions between carbon supply and phosphorus (P) supply, effects of light intensity on sucrose accumulation, root growth, cluster root formation, carboxylate exudation, and P uptake capacity were studied in white lupin (Lupinus albus L.) grown hydroponically with either 200 µmol m(-2) s(-1) or 600 µmol m(-2) s(-1) light and a sufficient (50 µM P) or deficient (1 µM P) P supply. Plant biomass and root:shoot ratio increased with increasing light intensity, particularly when plants were supplied with sufficient P. Both low P supply and increasing light intensity increased the production of cluster roots and citrate exudation. Transcripts of a phosphoenol pyruvate carboxylase gene (LaPEPC3) in cluster roots (which is related to the exudation of citrate), transcripts of a phosphate transporter gene (LaPT1), and P uptake all increased with increasing light intensity, under both P-sufficient and P-deficient conditions. Across all four experimental treatments, increased cluster root formation and carboxylate exudation were associated with lower P concentration in the shoot and greater sucrose concentration in the roots. It is suggested that C in excess of shoot growth capabilities is translocated to the roots as sucrose, which serves as both a nutritional signal and a C-substrate for carboxylate exudation and cluster root formation. PMID:24723402

  5. Clinical therapeutic effect of intense pulse light PhotoDerm for vascular dermatosis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qiu, Li-Jun; Xu, Li-Wei; Li, Ying-Yi; Yang, Ji-Qing; Qi, Jia-Xue

    2008-12-01

    Objective: To observe the clinical therapeutic effect of intense pulsed light PhotoDerm (IPL PhotoDerm) for vascular dermatosis and analysis the possible factors affecting the therapeutic effect. Methods: Treat all blank kinds of vascular dermatosis 85 cases with IPL PhotoDerm, observe the therapeutic effect and no obvious side-effects of vascular dermatosis. Results: The cure rate of telangiectasis, arterial spider nevus, strawberry nevus, avermrus uemongioma and nevus flammeus with IPL PhotoDerm is respective 76.5%, 91.7%, 88.9%, 27.8%, 15%, and the cure rate in three times is respective 35.3%, 91.7%, 66.7%, 5.6% and 5%. 6 eases appear pigmentation, pigment subsidence or atrophic scar. Conclusion: The therapeutic effect of vascular dermatosis with IPL PhotoDerm is satisfying, and the no obvious side-effects is less.

  6. Optoelectrofluidic field separation based on light-intensity gradients and its applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoon, Jinsung; Lee, Sanghyun; Kang, Kwan Hyoung

    2010-11-01

    Optoelectrofluidic field separation (OEFS) of particles under light-intensity gradient (LIG) is reported, where the LIG illumination on the photoconductive layer converts the short-ranged dielectrophoresis (DEP) force to the long-ranged one. The long-ranged DEP force can compete with the hydrodynamic force by alternating current electro-osmosis (ACEO) over the entire illumination area for realizing effective field separation of particles. Results of the field separation and concentration of diverse particle pairs (0.82--16 μm) are well demonstrated, and conditions determining the critical radius and effective particle manipulation are discussed. In addition, expanding the OEFS to biological applications such as rapid cell manipulation and separation will be discussed. The OEFS with LIG strategy could be a promising manipulation method of particles including biological cells in many applications where a rapid manipulation of particles over the entire working area is of interest.

  7. A foraging advantage for dichromatic marmosets (Callithrix geoffroyi) at low light intensity.

    PubMed

    Caine, Nancy G; Osorio, Daniel; Mundy, Nicholas I

    2010-02-23

    Most New World monkey species have both dichromatic and trichromatic individuals present in the same population. The selective forces acting to maintain the variation are hotly debated and are relevant to the evolution of the 'routine' trichromatic colour vision found in catarrhine primates. While trichromats have a foraging advantage for red food compared with dichromats, visual tasks which dichromats perform better have received less attention. Here we examine the effects of light intensity on foraging success among marmosets. We find that dichromats outperform trichomats when foraging in shade, but not in sun. The simplest explanation is that dichromats pay more attention to achromatic cues than trichromats. However, dichromats did not show a preference for foraging in shade compared with trichromats. Our results reveal several interesting parallels with a recent study in capuchin monkeys (Cebus capucinus), and suggest that dichromat advantage for certain tasks contributes to maintenance of the colour vision polymorphism. PMID:19740895

  8. Using light-scattering intensities to discriminate waterdrops from coal mine dusts. Information circular/1993

    SciTech Connect

    Vinson, R.P.

    1993-01-01

    The U.S. Bureau of Mines conducts research to protect the health of the Nation's coal miners. The Bureau is pursuing a research program to eliminate coal workers' pneumoconiosis (CWP) by the reduction of respirable coal mine dust in the mine air. A basic requirement for this task is instrumentation to measure respirable coal mine dust concentrations quickly and accurately. The Bureau's research program is applying these advances to develop a photometer that can discriminate between various coal mine aerosols. One objective of this program is to collect scattering signatures of coal mine aerosols. Scattering signatures are the intensities of light scattered by aerosols as a function of angle. Bureau researchers used an instrument, called the DAWN-A, to collect the scattering signatures of various coal mine aerosols for analysis and comparison. The report describes and discusses this work.

  9. High-resolution and wide-bandwidth light intensity fiber optic displacement sensor for MEMS metrology.

    PubMed

    Orłowska, Karolina; Świątkowski, Michał; Kunicki, Piotr; Kopiec, Daniel; Gotszalk, Teodor

    2016-08-01

    We report on the design, properties, and applications of a high-resolution and wide-bandwidth light intensity fiber optic displacement sensor for microelectromechanical system (MEMS) metrology. There are two types of structures that the system is dedicated to: vibrating with both high and low frequencies. In order to ensure high-frequency and high-resolution measurements, frequency down mixing and selective signal processing were applied. The obtained effective measuring bandwidth ranges from single hertz to 1 megahertz. The achieved resolution presented here is 116  pm/Hz1/2 and 138  pm/Hz1/2 for low-frequency and high-frequency operation modes, respectively, whereas the measurement of static displacement is 100 μm.

  10. High-resolution and wide-bandwidth light intensity fiber optic displacement sensor for MEMS metrology.

    PubMed

    Orłowska, Karolina; Świątkowski, Michał; Kunicki, Piotr; Kopiec, Daniel; Gotszalk, Teodor

    2016-08-01

    We report on the design, properties, and applications of a high-resolution and wide-bandwidth light intensity fiber optic displacement sensor for microelectromechanical system (MEMS) metrology. There are two types of structures that the system is dedicated to: vibrating with both high and low frequencies. In order to ensure high-frequency and high-resolution measurements, frequency down mixing and selective signal processing were applied. The obtained effective measuring bandwidth ranges from single hertz to 1 megahertz. The achieved resolution presented here is 116  pm/Hz1/2 and 138  pm/Hz1/2 for low-frequency and high-frequency operation modes, respectively, whereas the measurement of static displacement is 100 μm. PMID:27505377

  11. Ultraviolet light attenuates vasospasm development: low-intensity 325-nm illumination in animal model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morimoto, Yuji; Nakai, Kanji; Arai, Tsunenori; Shima, Katsuji; Kikuchi, Makoto

    1999-06-01

    We studied whether prophylactic low-intensity ultraviolet light (UV) irradiation reduces development of delayed cerebral vasospasm in rabbit model. Eleven rabbits had carotid angiography and placement of silicon sheaths around the right common carotid artery (CCA). Just before the placement, CCAs of 6 in the 11 animals were adventitiously exposed to UV (10 mJ/mm2) emitted from a helium-cadmium laser (wavelength equals 325 nm). Sheaths were filled with autologous blood in all of 11 animals. Vasospasm developed 24 to 48 hours (Day 2) later. The CCA luminal diameter without UV irradiation was 77% of the Day 0 state. The prophylactic laser treatment reduced the development of vasospasm, 90% of the Day 0 state. Histological examination of the treated CCA revealed extended smooth muscle cells. There was no endothelial damage. These results suggest that UV is effective for prophylaxis of cerebral vasospasm.

  12. Radiation emission from ultra-relativistic plasma electrons in short-intense laser light interactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ondarza-Rovira, R.; Boyd, TJM

    2016-05-01

    Intense femtosecond laser light incident on overcritical density plasmas has shown to emit a prolific number of high-order harmonics of the driver frequency, with spectra characterised by power-law decays. When the laser pulse is p-polarised, plasma effects do modify the harmonic spectrum, weakening the so-called universal decay index p = 8/3 to 5/3. In this work appeal is made to a single particle radiation model in support of the predictions from particle-in-cell (PIC) simulations. Using these, we further show that the emission radiated by electrons -those that are relativistically accelerated inside the plasma, after being expelled into vacuum, the so-called Brunel electrons- is characterised not only by the plasma line but also by ultraviolet harmonic orders characterised by the 5/3 decay index.

  13. A case of faun tail naevus treated by intense pulsed light.

    PubMed

    Lee, Hye In; Rho, Yong Kwan; Kim, Beom Joon; Kim, Myeung Nam

    2009-05-01

    A faun tail is abnormal lumbar hypertrichosis that is characterized by a wide, often triangular or lozenge-shaped patch of coarse hair, and this hair is usually several inches long. Faun tail is a rare entity. A 36-year-old male presented with a triangular shaped hair tuft with terminal hair on the lumbosacral area, and he'd had this unusual hair since birth. There were no neurologic signs or abnormality on his spine X-ray. The MRI scan showed disc degeneration and loss of lodordosis. We report here on a rare case of faun tail, which was a form of localized hypertrichosis on the lumbosacral area, and this was successfully treated with intense pulsed (IPL) light. PMID:20523773

  14. Using Multivariate Regression Model with Least Absolute Shrinkage and Selection Operator (LASSO) to Predict the Incidence of Xerostomia after Intensity-Modulated Radiotherapy for Head and Neck Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Ting, Hui-Min; Chang, Liyun; Huang, Yu-Jie; Wu, Jia-Ming; Wang, Hung-Yu; Horng, Mong-Fong; Chang, Chun-Ming; Lan, Jen-Hong; Huang, Ya-Yu; Fang, Fu-Min; Leung, Stephen Wan

    2014-01-01

    Purpose The aim of this study was to develop a multivariate logistic regression model with least absolute shrinkage and selection operator (LASSO) to make valid predictions about the incidence of moderate-to-severe patient-rated xerostomia among head and neck cancer (HNC) patients treated with IMRT. Methods and Materials Quality of life questionnaire datasets from 206 patients with HNC were analyzed. The European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer QLQ-H&N35 and QLQ-C30 questionnaires were used as the endpoint evaluation. The primary endpoint (grade 3+ xerostomia) was defined as moderate-to-severe xerostomia at 3 (XER3m) and 12 months (XER12m) after the completion of IMRT. Normal tissue complication probability (NTCP) models were developed. The optimal and suboptimal numbers of prognostic factors for a multivariate logistic regression model were determined using the LASSO with bootstrapping technique. Statistical analysis was performed using the scaled Brier score, Nagelkerke R2, chi-squared test, Omnibus, Hosmer-Lemeshow test, and the AUC. Results Eight prognostic factors were selected by LASSO for the 3-month time point: Dmean-c, Dmean-i, age, financial status, T stage, AJCC stage, smoking, and education. Nine prognostic factors were selected for the 12-month time point: Dmean-i, education, Dmean-c, smoking, T stage, baseline xerostomia, alcohol abuse, family history, and node classification. In the selection of the suboptimal number of prognostic factors by LASSO, three suboptimal prognostic factors were fine-tuned by Hosmer-Lemeshow test and AUC, i.e., Dmean-c, Dmean-i, and age for the 3-month time point. Five suboptimal prognostic factors were also selected for the 12-month time point, i.e., Dmean-i, education, Dmean-c, smoking, and T stage. The overall performance for both time points of the NTCP model in terms of scaled Brier score, Omnibus, and Nagelkerke R2 was satisfactory and corresponded well with the expected values. Conclusions

  15. Correlation between the channel-bottom light intensity and channel-base current of a rocket-triggered lightning flash

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, M.; Wang, D.; Wang, J.; Takagi, N.; Gamerota, W. R.; Uman, M. A.; Jordan, D. M.; Pilkey, J. T.; Ngin, T.

    2014-12-01

    The correlations between channel-bottom light intensity and channel-base current of all discharge processes of a rocket-and-wire-triggered lightning flash, including initial continuous current (ICC) pulses, ICC pulse background continuing current (IBCC), return strokes, M components, and M component background continuing currents (MBCC), have been investigated. A rough linear correlation has been found between the current squared and the light intensity for ICC pulses (including peaks of different ICC pulses), IBCC, the initial rising stage (IRS) of return strokes (including current peaks of different strokes), and MBCC. The slopes of the correlation regression lines for the current squared versus light intensity of ICC pulses and IBCC are similar, but they are about 2-3 times smaller than the slopes of MBCC and 5-7 times smaller than the slopes of the IRS of return strokes. In contrast, a rough linear correlation has been found between the current and the light intensity for the later slow decay stage of return strokes and for the M components. The slopes of the correlation regression lines of the current versus the light intensity for these latter two processes are found to be similar. No simple correlation has been found between the current and the light intensity for the initial fast decay stage (IFDS) of return strokes. The duration of the IFDS of return strokes generally lasts from several microseconds to several tens of microseconds and is more or less directly proportional to the corresponding peak return stroke current squared. A time delay ranging from 12 µs to 300 µs has been found between the current and the light intensity of all ICC pulses and M components. The time delay decreases as the corresponding peak current increases.

  16. Emotion differentiation and intensity during acute tobacco abstinence: A comparison of heavy and light smokers

    PubMed Central

    Sheets, Erin S.; Bujarski, Spencer; Leventhal, Adam M.; Ray, Lara A.

    2015-01-01

    The ability to recognize and label discrete emotions, termed emotion differentiation, is particularly pertinent to overall emotion regulation abilities. Patterns of deficient emotion differentiation have been associated with mood and anxiety disorders but have yet to be examined in relation to nicotine dependence. This study employed ecological momentary assessment to examine smokers’ subjective experience of discrete emotions during 24-h of forced tobacco abstinence. Thirty daily smokers rated their emotions up to 23 times over the 24-hour period, and smoking abstinence was biologically verified. From these data, we computed individual difference measures of emotion differentiation, overall emotion intensity, and emotional variability. As hypothesized, heavy smokers reported poorer negative emotion differentiation than light smokers (d = 0.55), along with more intense negative emotion (d = 0.97) and greater negative emotion variability (d = 0.97). No differences were observed in positive emotion differentiation. Across the sample, poorer negative emotion differentiation was associated with greater endorsement of psychological motives to smoke, including negative and positive reinforcement motives, while positive emotion differentiation was not. PMID:25885662

  17. Emotion differentiation and intensity during acute tobacco abstinence: A comparison of heavy and light smokers.

    PubMed

    Sheets, Erin S; Bujarski, Spencer; Leventhal, Adam M; Ray, Lara A

    2015-08-01

    The ability to recognize and label discrete emotions, termed emotion differentiation, is particularly pertinent to overall emotion regulation abilities. Patterns of deficient emotion differentiation have been associated with mood and anxiety disorders but have yet to be examined in relation to nicotine dependence. This study employed ecological momentary assessment to examine smokers' subjective experience of discrete emotions during 24-h of forced tobacco abstinence. Thirty daily smokers rated their emotions up to 23 times over the 24-hour period, and smoking abstinence was biologically verified. From these data, we computed individual difference measures of emotion differentiation, overall emotion intensity, and emotional variability. As hypothesized, heavy smokers reported poorer negative emotion differentiation than light smokers (d=0.55), along with more intense negative emotion (d=0.97) and greater negative emotion variability (d=0.97). No differences were observed in positive emotion differentiation. Across the sample, poorer negative emotion differentiation was associated with greater endorsement of psychological motives to smoke, including negative and positive reinforcement motives, while positive emotion differentiation was not. PMID:25885662

  18. Emotion differentiation and intensity during acute tobacco abstinence: A comparison of heavy and light smokers.

    PubMed

    Sheets, Erin S; Bujarski, Spencer; Leventhal, Adam M; Ray, Lara A

    2015-08-01

    The ability to recognize and label discrete emotions, termed emotion differentiation, is particularly pertinent to overall emotion regulation abilities. Patterns of deficient emotion differentiation have been associated with mood and anxiety disorders but have yet to be examined in relation to nicotine dependence. This study employed ecological momentary assessment to examine smokers' subjective experience of discrete emotions during 24-h of forced tobacco abstinence. Thirty daily smokers rated their emotions up to 23 times over the 24-hour period, and smoking abstinence was biologically verified. From these data, we computed individual difference measures of emotion differentiation, overall emotion intensity, and emotional variability. As hypothesized, heavy smokers reported poorer negative emotion differentiation than light smokers (d=0.55), along with more intense negative emotion (d=0.97) and greater negative emotion variability (d=0.97). No differences were observed in positive emotion differentiation. Across the sample, poorer negative emotion differentiation was associated with greater endorsement of psychological motives to smoke, including negative and positive reinforcement motives, while positive emotion differentiation was not.

  19. The influence of photoperiod and light intensity on the growth and photosynthesis of Dunaliella salina (chlorophyta) CCAP 19/30.

    PubMed

    Xu, Yanan; Ibrahim, Iskander M; Harvey, Patricia J

    2016-09-01

    The green microalga Dunaliella salina survives in a wide range of salinities via mechanisms involving glycerol synthesis and degradation and is exploited for large amounts of nutraceutical carotenoids produced under stressed conditions. In this study, D. salina CCAP 19/30 was cultured in varying photoperiods and light intensities to study the relationship of light with different growth measurement parameters, with cellular contents of glycerol, starch and carotenoids, and with photosynthesis and respiration. Results show CCAP 19/30 regulated cell volume when growing under light/dark cycles: cell volume increased in the light and decreased in the dark, and these changes corresponded to changes in cellular glycerol content. The decrease in cell volume in the dark was independent of cell division and biological clock and was regulated by the photoperiod of the light/dark cycle. When the light intensity was increased to above 1000 μmol photons m(-2) s(-1), cells displayed evidence of photodamage. However, these cells also maintained the maximum level of photosynthesis efficiency and respiration possible, and the growth rate increased as light intensity increased. Significantly, the intracellular glycerol content also increased, >2-fold compared to the content in light intensity of 500 μmol photons m(-2) s(-1), but there was no commensurate increase in the pool size of carotenoids. These data suggest that in CCAP 19/30 glycerol stabilized the photosynthetic apparatus for maximum performance in high light intensities, a role normally attributed to carotenoids.

  20. The influence of photoperiod and light intensity on the growth and photosynthesis of Dunaliella salina (chlorophyta) CCAP 19/30.

    PubMed

    Xu, Yanan; Ibrahim, Iskander M; Harvey, Patricia J

    2016-09-01

    The green microalga Dunaliella salina survives in a wide range of salinities via mechanisms involving glycerol synthesis and degradation and is exploited for large amounts of nutraceutical carotenoids produced under stressed conditions. In this study, D. salina CCAP 19/30 was cultured in varying photoperiods and light intensities to study the relationship of light with different growth measurement parameters, with cellular contents of glycerol, starch and carotenoids, and with photosynthesis and respiration. Results show CCAP 19/30 regulated cell volume when growing under light/dark cycles: cell volume increased in the light and decreased in the dark, and these changes corresponded to changes in cellular glycerol content. The decrease in cell volume in the dark was independent of cell division and biological clock and was regulated by the photoperiod of the light/dark cycle. When the light intensity was increased to above 1000 μmol photons m(-2) s(-1), cells displayed evidence of photodamage. However, these cells also maintained the maximum level of photosynthesis efficiency and respiration possible, and the growth rate increased as light intensity increased. Significantly, the intracellular glycerol content also increased, >2-fold compared to the content in light intensity of 500 μmol photons m(-2) s(-1), but there was no commensurate increase in the pool size of carotenoids. These data suggest that in CCAP 19/30 glycerol stabilized the photosynthetic apparatus for maximum performance in high light intensities, a role normally attributed to carotenoids. PMID:27231875

  1. Intense Pulsed Light Pulse Configuration Manipulation Can Resolve the Classic Conflict Between Safety and Efficacy.

    PubMed

    Belenky, Inna; Tagger, Cruzy; Bingham, Andrea

    2015-11-01

    The widely used intense pulse light (IPL) technology was first commercially launched to the medical market in 1994 and similar to lasers, is based on the basic principle of selective photothermolysis. The main conflict during treatments with light-based technologies is between safety and efficacy of the treatment. The aim of this study was to evaluate new IPL technology, which integrates three different pulse configurations, with specific attention on the safety and efficacy of the treatment. 101 volunteers (with Fitzpatrick skin types I-VI) were treated as follows: 9 patients underwent 8 bi-weekly acne clearance treatments, 51 patients underwent 6-12 hair removal treatments, 11 patients were treated for general skin rejuvenation, 15 patients were treated for pigmentation lesions, and 15 patients were treated for vascular lesions. No serious adverse events were recorded. All patients that were treated for hair removal achieved significant hair clearance. The patients with facial rosacea responded the fastest to the treatment. Eight of nine patients that were treated for acne clearance achieved significant reduction in acne appearance. The results represented in this study support the approach that when taking into consideration both efficacy of the treatment and safety of the patients, the system should be "flexible" enough to allow exact treatment settings profile for each patient, according to their skin type and the symptom's biophysical characteristics. < PMID:26580874

  2. Effect of light intensity on physiological changes, carbon allocation and neutral lipid accumulation in oleaginous microalgae.

    PubMed

    He, Qiaoning; Yang, Haijian; Wu, Lei; Hu, Chunxiang

    2015-09-01

    Chlorella sp. and Monoraphidium sp. were the potential microalgal species for lipid production. This study aimed to investigate different light intensities (40, 200, 400 μmol photon m(-2) s(-1)) on physiological changes, photosynthetic carbon partitioning and neutral lipid accumulation in both microalgae. Results suggested that under high light (HL, 400 μmol photon m(-2) s(-1)), chlorophyll degraded, protein and carbohydrate content decreased; more carbon allocated into lipid as well as most of intracellular space was occupied by lipid bodies. Moreover, with the lipid accumulation, Fv/Fm decreased and ROS scavenging enzyme increased. Membrane lipid reduced dramatic (29.73-37.97%) to format NL (71.66% of total lipid in Chlorella sp. L1 and 60.65% in Monoraphidium dybowskii Y2). The NL productivity under HL (51.36 and 49.71 mg L(-1) d(-1)) were more than 3 times of those under LL. Additionally, FAME profiles proved that the useful fatty acid components for biodiesel production were enhanced under HL.

  3. Beyond the partial light intensity imager: Eliminating Moiré patterns

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tang, Yuanhe; Liu, Qingsong; Wu, Yong; Yu, Yang; Yang, Xusan; Gao, Haiyang; Wang, Xiaolin

    2015-11-01

    A partial light intensity imager (PLII) was proposed in our previous research for enhancing the dynamic range to 2.2×105 lx in strong light. Moiré patterns may occur, however, since the PLII employs both a liquid crystal display (LCD) and a charge-coupled device (CCD) camera as its key devices, which can be regarded as two gratings. This research calculates the fringe widths and spectra for both the LCD and the CCD, and analyzes the relationship between the fringe width and the applied voltage on each pixel of the LCD. According to the theoretical results, we find that changing the rotational angle of the liquid crystal (LC) molecule by regulating the applied voltage is an effective method to eliminate the Moiré patterns in the PLII. Based on this principle, an experiment has been designed, and the Moiré patterns fringe width is alleviated from 20 pixels to10 pixels distance before and after, and the results verify the correctness of the theoretical analysis.

  4. Eutrophication and algal blooms in channel type reservoirs: a novel enclosure experiment by changing light intensity.

    PubMed

    Cao, Chengjin; Zheng, Binghui; Chen, Zhenlou; Huang, Minsheng; Zhang, Jialei

    2011-01-01

    To explore eutrophication and algal bloom mechanisms in channel type reservoirs, a novel enclosure experiment was conducted by changing light intensity (LI) in the Daning River of the Three Gorges Reservoir (TGR). Square enclosures (side 5.0 m) were covered on the surface with shading materials of different thickness, and with their bases open to the river. Changes and characteristics of the main eutrophication factors under the same water quality and hydrodynamic conditions but different LI were evaluated. All experimental water samples were neutral and alkalescent, with high nitrogen and phosphate concentrations, low potassium permanganate index, stable water quality, and different LI. At the same water depth, LI decreased with increasing shade material, while dissolved oxygen and water temperature were both stable. The growth peak of phytoplankton was with light of 345-4390 lux underwater or 558-7450 lux above the water surface, and water temperature of 25.6-26.5 degrees C. Algae were observed in all water samples, accounting for 6 phylum and 57 species, with algal density changing frequently. The results showed that significantly strong or weak light was unfavorable for phytoplankton growth and the function together with suitable temperature and LI and ample sunshine encouraged algal blooms under the same water quality and hydrodynamic conditions. Correlation analysis indicated that algae reduced gradually lengthwise along water depth in the same enclosure while pH became high. The power exponent relationship between chlorophyll a (Chl-a) and LI was found by curve fitting, that is Chl-a = K(LI)(n).

  5. Effect of light intensity on the total lipid and fatty acid composition of six strains of marine diatoms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liang, Ying; Mai, Kang-Sen; Sun, Shi-Chun; Yu, Dao-Zhan

    2001-09-01

    The effect of light intensity (1500 lx and 5000 lx) on the total lipid and fatty acid composition of six strains of marine diatoms Cylindrotheca fusiformis (B211), Phaeodactylum tricornutum (B114, B118 and B221) Nitzschia closterium (B222) and Chaetoceros gracilis (B13) was investigated. The total lipids of B13, B114, and B211 grown at 5000 lx were lower than those grown at 1500 lx. No evident changes were observed in B118, B221 and B222. Fatty acid composition changed considerably at different light intensity although no consistent correlation between the relative proportion of a single FA and light intensity. The major fatty acids of the 6 strains were 14∶0, 16∶0, 16∶1 (n-7) and 20∶5(n-3). Cylindrotheca fusiformis had high percentage of 20∶4n 6(9.2 10.9%). The total polyunsaturated fatty acid in all 6 strains decreased with increasing light intensity. The percentage of the highly unsaturated fatty acid eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) decreased with increasing light intensity in all strains except Chaetoceros gracilis.

  6. Purifying synthetic high-strength wastewater by microalgae chlorella vulgaris under various light emitting diode wavelengths and intensities

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    The high-strength wastewater is now well known as a threat to the natural water since it is highly possible to arouse water eutrophication or algal blooms. The effects of various light emitting diode wavelengths and intensities on the microalgae biological wastewater treatment system was studied in this research. The various nutrient removals and economic efficiencies represented similar variation trends, and these variations under both high C and N loading treatments were similar too. The order for microalgae C. vulgaris reproduction in terms of dry weight and nutrient removal efficiency both were red > white > yellow > blue, under high carbon and nitrogen loading treatments, indicating that the red light was the optimum light wavelength. Furthermore, considering the optimal light intensity in terms of nutrient removal efficiency was 2500 and 2000 μmol/m2•s, while in terms of economic efficiency was 1000, 1500 and 2000 μmol/m2•s. Therefore, the optimum light intensity was found to be 2000 μmol/m2•s. In addition, the optimal experimental illumination time was determined as 120 h. The Chlorella vulgaris microalgae biological wastewater treatment system utilized in this research was able to purify the high-strength carbon and nitrogen wastewater effectively under optimum light wavelength and intensity. PMID:24499586

  7. Effect of light intensity on food detection in captive great fruit-eating bats, Artibeus lituratus (Chiroptera: Phyllostomidae).

    PubMed

    Gutierrez, Eduardo de A; Pessoa, Valdir F; Aguiar, Ludmilla M S; Pessoa, Daniel M A

    2014-11-01

    Bats are known for their well-developed echolocation. However, several experiments focused on the bat visual system have shown evidence of the importance of visual cues under specific luminosity for different aspects of bat biology, including foraging behavior. This study examined the foraging abilities of five female great fruit-eating bats, Artibeus lituratus, under different light intensities. Animals were given a series of tasks to test for discrimination between a food target against an inedible background, under light levels similar to the twilight illumination (18lx), the full moon (2lx) and complete darkness (0lx). We found that the bats required a longer time frame to detect targets under a light intensity similar to twilight, possibly due to inhibitory effects present under a more intense light level. Additionally, bats were more efficient at detecting and capturing targets under light conditions similar to the luminosity of a full moon, suggesting that visual cues were important for target discrimination. These results demonstrate that light intensity affects foraging behavior and enables the use of visual cues for food detection in frugivorous bats. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Neotropical Behaviour.

  8. Acne phototherapy using UV-free high-intensity narrow-band blue light: a three-center clinical study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shalita, Alan R.; Harth, Yoram; Elman, Monica; Slatkine, Michael; Talpalariu, Gerry; Rosenberg, Yitzhak; Korman, Avner; Klein, Arieh

    2001-05-01

    Propionibacterium. acnes is a Gram positive, microaerophilic bacterium which takes a part in the pathogenesis of inflammatory acne. P. acnes is capable to produce high amounts endogenic porphyrins with no need of any trigger molecules. Light in the violet-blue range (407-420 nm) has been shown to exhibit a phototoxic effect on Propionibacterium acnes when irradiated in vitro. The purpose of our study was to test the clinical effects of a high intensity narrowband blue light source on papulo pustular acne. A total of 35 patients in 3 centers were treated twice a week with a high intensity metal halide lamp illuminating the entire face (20x20 cm2) or the back with visible light in the 407-420 nm range at an intensity of 90 mW/cm2 (CureLight Ltd.) for a total of 4 weeks. UV is totally cut off. In each treatment the patient was exposed to light for 8-15 minutes. After 8 treatments, 80% of the patients with mild to moderate papulo-pustular acne showed significant improvement at reducing the numbers of non- inflammatory, inflammatory and total facial lesions. Inflammatory lesion count decrease by a mean of 68%. No side effects to the treatment were noticed. In conclusion, full face or back illumination with the high intensity pure blue light we used exhibits a rapid significant decrease in acne lesions counts in 8 biweekly treatments.

  9. Effect of light intensity on food detection in captive great fruit-eating bats, Artibeus lituratus (Chiroptera: Phyllostomidae).

    PubMed

    Gutierrez, Eduardo de A; Pessoa, Valdir F; Aguiar, Ludmilla M S; Pessoa, Daniel M A

    2014-11-01

    Bats are known for their well-developed echolocation. However, several experiments focused on the bat visual system have shown evidence of the importance of visual cues under specific luminosity for different aspects of bat biology, including foraging behavior. This study examined the foraging abilities of five female great fruit-eating bats, Artibeus lituratus, under different light intensities. Animals were given a series of tasks to test for discrimination between a food target against an inedible background, under light levels similar to the twilight illumination (18lx), the full moon (2lx) and complete darkness (0lx). We found that the bats required a longer time frame to detect targets under a light intensity similar to twilight, possibly due to inhibitory effects present under a more intense light level. Additionally, bats were more efficient at detecting and capturing targets under light conditions similar to the luminosity of a full moon, suggesting that visual cues were important for target discrimination. These results demonstrate that light intensity affects foraging behavior and enables the use of visual cues for food detection in frugivorous bats. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Neotropical Behaviour. PMID:25153795

  10. The effects of photoperiod and light intensity on the sporulation of Brazilian and Norwegian isolates of Neozygites floridana.

    PubMed

    de Castro, Thiago Rodrigues; Wekesa, Vitalis Wafula; Moral, Rafael de Andrade; Demétrio, Clarice Garcia Borges; Delalibera, Italo; Klingen, Ingeborg

    2013-11-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the effects of light intensity and duration (photoperiod) on the sporulation (discharge of primary conidia) and conidia germination (from non-infective primary conidia to infective capilliconidia) of Neozygites floridana isolates from Tetranychus urticae originating from Norway and Brazil. Two light intensities (40 and 208 μmolm(-2)s(-1)), three photoperiods (24 h of continuous light (24 h D), 12 h of darkness followed by 12 h of light (12 h D: 12 h L) and 24 h of continuous darkness (24 h D)) and two temperatures (18°C and 23°C) were tested. The fungus produced similar amounts of primary conidia and capilliconidia at 12 h D:12 h and 24 h D, indicating that the fungus discharges almost all of its conidia during the first 12 h of darkness. Light had less of an effect on the production of primary conidia than on capilliconidia formation. At 24 h L, capilliconidia formation was significantly lower for all tested light intensities, temperatures and isolates compared to 12 h D:12 h L and 24 h D. At both light intensities, 24 h L resulted in a significantly lower capilliconidia formation for the Norwegian isolate compared to the Brazilian isolate. Our data suggest that, even though 24 h L reduced sporulation, some capilliconidia formation may occur at the low light intensities found on the underside of strawberry leaves during parts of the day as well as the top of a non-shaded strawberry leaf during the dim evening and morning hours in the tropics and during the dim, long summer days in temperate regions. PMID:24007762

  11. Teaching Absolute Value Meaningfully

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wade, Angela

    2012-01-01

    What is the meaning of absolute value? And why do teachers teach students how to solve absolute value equations? Absolute value is a concept introduced in first-year algebra and then reinforced in later courses. Various authors have suggested instructional methods for teaching absolute value to high school students (Wei 2005; Stallings-Roberts…

  12. Cystic acne improved by photodynamic therapy with short-contact 5-aminolevulinic acid and sequential combination of intense pulsed light and blue light activation.

    PubMed

    Melnick, Stuart

    2005-01-01

    Photodynamic therapy with short-contact 5-aminolevulinic acid (Levulan Kerastick, Dusa Pharmaceuticals, Inc.) and activation by intense pulsed light in an initial treatment and blue light in 3 subsequent treatments has resulted in significant improvement in severity of acne, reduction in the number of lesions, improvement in skin texture, and smoothing of scar edges in an Asian patient with severe (class 4) facial cystic acne and scarring. PMID:16302560

  13. Upconverting-nanoparticle-assisted photochemistry induced by low-intensity near-infrared light: how low can we go?

    PubMed

    Chen, Zhijun; Sun, Wen; Butt, Hans-Jürgen; Wu, Si

    2015-06-15

    Upconverting nanoparticles (UCNPs) convert near-infrared (NIR) light into UV or visible light that can trigger photoreactions of photosensitive compounds. In this paper, we demonstrate how to reduce the intensity of NIR light for UCNP-assisted photochemistry. We synthesized two types of UCNPs with different emission bands and five photosensitive compounds with different absorption bands. A λ=974 nm laser was used to induce photoreactions in all of the investigated photosensitive compounds in the presence of the UCNPs. The excitation thresholds of the photoreactions induced by λ=974 nm light were measured. The lowest threshold was 0.5 W cm(-2) , which is lower than the maximum permissible exposure of skin (0.726 W cm(-2) ). We demonstrate that low-intensity NIR light can induce photoreactions after passing through a piece of tissue without damaging the tissue. Our results indicate that the threshold for UCNP- assisted photochemistry can be reduced by using highly photosensitive compounds that absorb upconverted visible light. Low excitation intensity in UCNP-assisted photochemistry is important for biomedical applications because it minimizes the overheating problems of NIR light and causes less photodamage to biomaterials.

  14. [Sound affects the discrimination of weak intensities of light in the visual cortex of the rabbit depending on time intervals between sound and light].

    PubMed

    Polianskiĭ, V B; Alymkulov, D É; Evtikhin, D V; Chernyshev, B V

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, we researched an influence of sound (2000 Hz, 70 dB, 40 ms) to the discrimination of low-light intensities (0.3 and 1 cd/m2) in the visual cortex of the rabbit. We used a recording of evoked potentials from the visual cortex of awaked rabbits in chronic experiments. The sound was switched on with different time slots before and after the replacement of the light intensities at each other (range from -750 to +150 ms). Sound itself caused no response. In 42 experiments on 3 rabbits we revealed that' he sound has a significant modulating effect on the discrimination of low-light intensities in the range of time shifts from -300 to +50 ms. Maximum sound effect was manifested in the transition of light from a high-intensity (1 cd/m2) to lower (0.3 cd/m2). Analyses of the phases of visual evoked potentials revealed that significant influence of sound to the light occurs in the intervals -300, -100, -60, -40, -20, 0, -20 and + 50 ms. We found that phase P2 (120-150 ms from the moment of replacement of the light stimuli) is most affected by sound in response to the replacement of low-light intensities both in the number of significant (p < 0.05) time slots (7) and the impact of sound on the light response. In phase P2 the impact of sound was almost exclusively facilitating (by 19-36%) compared with the responses to the light, whereas in phases N1 80-110 ms) and N2 (180-250 ms) were only 2-3 intervals with the significant influence of the sound. And the degree of response facilitation to light was ranged by 8-12%. We assumed that the effect of sound on the light response in visual cortex is delayed that caused by the passage of auditory signal through the auditory,parietal cortex, superior colliculus.

  15. Effect of light intensity on the degree of ammonia toxicity on PSII activity of Arthrospira platensis and Chlorella vulgaris.

    PubMed

    Markou, Giorgos; Muylaert, Koenraad

    2016-09-01

    Herein the effect of increasing light intensity on the degree of ammonia toxicity and its impact on the photosynthetic performance of Arthrospira and Chlorella was investigated using Chl fluorescence as a technique to characterize their photosystem II (PSII) activity. The results revealed that the increase of light intensity amplifies the ammonia toxicity on PSII. Chl fluorescence transients shown that at a given free ammonia (FA) concentration (100mg-N/L), the photochemistry potential decreased by increasing light intensity. The inhibition of the PSII was not reversible either by re-incubating the cells under dark or under decreased FA concentration. Moreover, the decrease of photochemical and non-photochemical quenching (NPQ) of fluorescence suggest that ammonia toxicity decreases the open available PSII centers, as well the inability of PSII to transfer the generated electrons beyond QA. The collapse of NPQ suggests that ammonia toxicity inhibits the photoprotection mechanism(s) and hence renders PSII more sensitive to photoinhibition. PMID:27262720

  16. Light intensity stabilization based on the second harmonic of the photoelastic modulator detection in the atomic magnetometer.

    PubMed

    Duan, Lihong; Fang, Jiancheng; Li, Rujie; Jiang, Liwei; Ding, Ming; Wang, Wei

    2015-12-14

    The fluctuations of the probe light intensity seriously affect the performance of the sensitive atomic magnetometer. Here we propose a novel method for the intensity stabilization based on the second harmonic component of the photoelastic modulator (PEM) detection in the atomic magnetometer. The method not only could be used to eliminate the intensity fluctuations of the laser source, but also remove the fluctuations from the optical components caused by the environment. A relative fluctuation of the light intensity of 0.035% was achieved and the corresponding fluctuation of the output signal of the atomic magnetometer has decreased about two orders of magnitude from 4.06% to 0.041%. As the scheme proposed here only contains optical devices and does not require additional feedback controlled equipments, it is especially suitable for the integration of the atomic magnetometer.

  17. Light Intensity Fibre Optic Sensor for MEMS displacement and vibration metrology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Orłowska, Karolina; Słupski, Piotr; Świątkowski, Michał; Kunicki, Piotr; Sankowska, Anna; Gotszalk, Teodor

    2015-01-01

    Micro- and Electro-Mechanical Systems (MEMS) form a group of transducers used for very precise mass sensing (in the range of femtograms) and force detection (in the range of piconewtons) changes. These can be read by the resonant frequency shift or amplitude of mechanical vibration changes. Monitoring of optical path is one of the ways in which this detection can occur. The use of fibre construction makes the read-out system even more attractive. There are two popular types of Fibre Optics Displacement Sensors (FODS). The first - with amplitude of optical wave modulation - intensity sensors. The second - with phase modulation - fibre optics interferometers. In this paper Intensity Fibre Optic Displacement Sensor (I-FODS) for MEMS displacement metrology has been presented. A system formed by simple optical fibre optics, light source and photodetector had been tested and evaluated in order to obtain the highest possible sensitivity and resolution, using low-cost standard telecommunications equipment. The sensor's system is dedicated to MEMS amplitude of vibrations metrology and allows displacement monitoring in the range up to 400 μm with the resolution of 15 nm and the sensitivity of 0.19 V/nm for a mirror reflecting surface. The paper shows Quartz Tuning Fork (QTF) as an example of the MEMS with a very rough surface and its resonance frequency is equal to about 32 kHz. The designed I-FODS allows the QTF amplitude measurements with the resolution of 92 nm and the sensitivity of 0.017 mV/nm.

  18. Intense light pulses decontamination of minimally processed vegetables and their shelf-life.

    PubMed

    Gómez-López, V M; Devlieghere, F; Bonduelle, V; Debevere, J

    2005-08-15

    Intense light pulses (ILP) is a new method intended for decontamination of food surfaces by killing microorganisms using short time high frequency pulses of an intense broad spectrum, rich in UV-C light. This work studied in a first step the effect of food components on the killing efficiency of ILP. In a second step, the decontamination of eight minimally processed (MP) vegetables by ILP was evaluated, and thirdly, the effect of this treatment on the shelf-life of MP cabbage and lettuce stored at 7 degrees C in equilibrium modified atmosphere packages was assessed by monitoring headspace gas concentrations, microbial populations and sensory attributes. Proteins and oil decreased the decontamination effect of ILP, whilst carbohydrates and water showed variable results depending on the microorganism. For this reason, high protein and fat containing food products have little potential to be efficiently treated by ILP. Vegetables, on the other hand, do not contain high concentrations of both compounds and could therefore be suitable for ILP treatment. For the eight tested MP vegetables, log reductions up to 2.04 were achieved on aerobic mesophilic counts. For the shelf-life studies, respiration rates at 3% O2 and 7 degrees C were 14.63, 17.89, 9.17 and 16.83 ml O2/h kg produce for control and treated cabbage, and control and treated lettuce respectively; used packaging configurations prevented anoxic conditions during the storage times. Log reductions of 0.54 and 0.46 for aerobic psychrothrophic count (APC) were achieved after flashing MP cabbage and lettuce respectively. APC of treated cabbage became equal than that from control at day 2, and higher at day 7, when the tolerance limit (8 log) was reached and the panel detected the presence of unacceptable levels of off-odours. Control never reached 8 log in APC and were sensory acceptable until the end of the experiment (9 days). In MP lettuce, APC of controls reached rejectable levels at day 2, whilst that of treated

  19. Intense light pulses decontamination of minimally processed vegetables and their shelf-life.

    PubMed

    Gómez-López, V M; Devlieghere, F; Bonduelle, V; Debevere, J

    2005-08-15

    Intense light pulses (ILP) is a new method intended for decontamination of food surfaces by killing microorganisms using short time high frequency pulses of an intense broad spectrum, rich in UV-C light. This work studied in a first step the effect of food components on the killing efficiency of ILP. In a second step, the decontamination of eight minimally processed (MP) vegetables by ILP was evaluated, and thirdly, the effect of this treatment on the shelf-life of MP cabbage and lettuce stored at 7 degrees C in equilibrium modified atmosphere packages was assessed by monitoring headspace gas concentrations, microbial populations and sensory attributes. Proteins and oil decreased the decontamination effect of ILP, whilst carbohydrates and water showed variable results depending on the microorganism. For this reason, high protein and fat containing food products have little potential to be efficiently treated by ILP. Vegetables, on the other hand, do not contain high concentrations of both compounds and could therefore be suitable for ILP treatment. For the eight tested MP vegetables, log reductions up to 2.04 were achieved on aerobic mesophilic counts. For the shelf-life studies, respiration rates at 3% O2 and 7 degrees C were 14.63, 17.89, 9.17 and 16.83 ml O2/h kg produce for control and treated cabbage, and control and treated lettuce respectively; used packaging configurations prevented anoxic conditions during the storage times. Log reductions of 0.54 and 0.46 for aerobic psychrothrophic count (APC) were achieved after flashing MP cabbage and lettuce respectively. APC of treated cabbage became equal than that from control at day 2, and higher at day 7, when the tolerance limit (8 log) was reached and the panel detected the presence of unacceptable levels of off-odours. Control never reached 8 log in APC and were sensory acceptable until the end of the experiment (9 days). In MP lettuce, APC of controls reached rejectable levels at day 2, whilst that of treated

  20. Effect of oxygen concentration on the growth of Nannochloropsis sp. at low light intensity.

    PubMed

    Raso, Sayam; van Genugten, Bernard; Vermuë, Marian; Wijffels, René H

    2012-08-01

    In large-scale microalgal production in tubular photobioreactors, the build-up of O(2) along the tubes is one of the major bottlenecks to obtain high productivities. Oxygen inhibits the growth, since it competes with carbon dioxide for the Rubisco enzyme involved in the CO(2) fixation to generate biomass. The effect of oxygen on growth of Nannochloropsis sp. was experimentally determined in a fully controlled flat-panel photobioreactor operated in turbidostat mode using an incident photon flux density of 100 μmol photons m(-2) s(-1) and with only the oxygen concentration as variable parameter. The dissolved oxygen concentration was varied from 20 to 250% air saturation. Results showed that there was no clear effect of oxygen concentration on specific growth rate (mean of 0.48 ± 0.40 day(-1)) upon increasing the oxygen concentration from 20% to 75% air saturation. Upon further increasing the oxygen concentration, however, a linear decrease in specific growth rate was observed, ranging from 0.48 ± 0.40 day(-1) at a dissolved oxygen concentration of 75% air saturation to 0.18 ± 0.01 day(-1) at 250% air saturation. In vitro data on isolated Rubisco were used to predict the quantum yield at different oxygen concentrations in the medium. The predicted decrease in quantum yield matches well with the observed decrease that was measured in vivo. These results indicate that the effect of oxygen on growth of Nannochloropsis sp. at low light intensity is only due to competitive inhibition of the Rubisco enzyme. At these sub-saturating light conditions, the presence of high concentrations of oxygen in the medium induced slightly higher carotenoid content, but the increased levels of this protective antioxidant did not diminish the growth-inhibiting effects of oxygen on the Rubisco.

  1. Intense pulsed light induces synthesis of dermal extracellular proteins in vitro.

    PubMed

    Cuerda-Galindo, E; Díaz-Gil, G; Palomar-Gallego, M A; Linares-GarcíaValdecasas, R

    2015-09-01

    Intense pulsed light (IPL) devices have been shown to be highly effective for the skin rejuvenation. In our study, we try to elucidate effects of IPL in fibroblast proliferation, in gene expression, and in extracellular matrix protein production. 1BR3G human skin fibroblasts were used to test the effects of an IPL device (MiniSilk FT, Deka®). Fibroblasts were divided into three groups: group 1 was irradiated with filter 800-1200 nm (frequency 10 Hz, 15 s, fluence 60.1 J/cm) twice; group 2 was irradiated with filter 550-1200 nm (double pulse 5 ms + 5 ms, delay 10 ms, fluence 13 J/cm2) twice; and group 3 was irradiated with filter 550-1200 nm (frequency 10 Hz, 15 s, fluence 60.1 J/cm2) twice. To determine changes in gene expression, messenger RNA (mRNA) levels for collagen types I and III and metalloproteinase 1 (MMP-1) were performed 48 h after irradiation. To determine changes in hyaluronic acid, versican, and decorin, mRNA and ELISA tests were performed after 48 h of treatment. In addition to this, a Picro-Sirius red staining for collagen was made. The study showed an increase of mRNA and hyaluronic acid, decorin, and versican production. With RT-PCR assays, an increase mRNA for collagen type I, type III, and MMP-1 was observed. Collagen and hyaluronic synthesis was increased in all groups with no differences among them, while decorin and versican synthesis was higher in those groups irradiated with 550-1200-nm filters with no dependence of type pulse or total energy dose. IPL applied in vitro cultured cells increases fibroblasts activity. Synthesis of extracellular proteins seems to be produced more specifically in determined wavelengths, which could demonstrate a biochemical mechanism light depending. PMID:26188855

  2. Organotellurium-mediated living radical polymerization under photoirradiation by a low-intensity light-emitting diode

    PubMed Central

    Nakamura, Yasuyuki

    2013-01-01

    Summary A low-intensity (6 W) light-emitting diode (LED) effectively activated an organotellurium chain transfer agent and the dormant species, promoting well-controlled radical polymerization. The use of the LED provided many advantages over the previously reported high-intensity Hg lamp, including high energy efficiency during the polymerization, and easy availability of the low-cost light source. Structurally well-defined poly(methyl methacrylate), poly(methyl acrylate), and polystyrene, with narrow molecular weight distributions, were synthesized under LED irradiation with or without a neutral density filter. PMID:23946861

  3. Modulation of defect modes intensity by controlled light scattering in photonic crystal with liquid crystal domain structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gunyakov, V. A.; Krakhalev, M. N.; Zyryanov, V. Ya.; Shabanov, V. F.; Loiko, V. A.

    2016-07-01

    A method to modulate the defect modes intensity in a multilayer photonic crystal with a nematic liquid crystal layer arranged midmost has been proposed. The various electrohydrodynamic domain structures (Williams domains, oblique rolls and grid pattern) were formed in the nematic layer under the action of ac electric field. The domains cause a polarization-sensitive light scattering which leads to an anisotropic reduction of the defect modes intensity. Thus by varying the applied voltage, we can tune gradually the transmittance spectrum of photonic crystal. In addition, the spectrum strongly depends on the light polarization direction above threshold voltage.

  4. Performance of photoperiod and light intensity on biogas upgrade and biogas effluent nutrient reduction by the microalgae Chlorella sp.

    PubMed

    Yan, Cheng; Zheng, Zheng

    2013-07-01

    Biogas is an environment-friendly fuel but that must be upgraded before being utilized. The method about removing CO2 from biogas by microalgal culturing using biogas effluent as nutrient medium in this study could effectively upgrade biogas and simultaneously reduce the biogas effluent nutrient. Results showed that the optimum parameters for microalgal growth and biogas effluent nutrient reduction was moderate light intensity with middle photoperiod. While low light intensity with long photoperiod and moderate light intensity with middle photoperiod obtained the best biogas CO2 removal and biogas upgrade effects. Therefore, the optimal parameters were moderate light intensity 350 μmol m(-2)s(-1) with middle photoperiod 14 h light:10h dark. Under this condition, the microalgal dry weight, CH4 concentration, reduction efficiency of chemical oxygen demand, total nitrogen, and total phosphorus was 615.84 ± 33.07 mg L(-1), 92.16 ± 2.83% (v/v), 88.74 ± 3.45%, 83.94 ± 3.51%, and 80.43 ± 4.17%, respectively.

  5. The influence of light intensity and photoperiod on the growth and lipid content of microalgae Nannochloropsis sp.

    PubMed

    Wahidin, Suzana; Idris, Ani; Shaleh, Sitti Raehanah Muhamad

    2013-02-01

    Illumination factors such as length of photoperiod and intensity can affect growth of microalgae and lipid content. In order to optimize microalgal growth in mass culture system and lipid content, the effects of light intensity and photoperiod cycle on the growth of the marine microalgae, Nannochloropsis sp. were studied in batch culture. Nannochloropsis sp. was grown aseptically for 9 days at three different light intensities (50, 100 and 200 μmol m(-2) s(-1)) and three different photoperiod cycles (24:0, 18:06 and 12:12 h light:dark) at 23 °C cultivation temperature. Under the light intensity of 100 μmol m(-2) s(-1) and photoperiod of 18 h light: 6 h dark cycle, Nannochloropsis sp. was found to grow favorably with a maximum cell concentration of 6.5×10(7) cells mL(-1), which corresponds to the growth rate of 0.339 d(-1) after 8 day cultivation and the lipid content was found to be 31.3%. PMID:23232218

  6. The Cytotoxic Effects of Low Intensity Visible and Infrared Light on Human Breast Cancer (MCF7) cells.

    PubMed

    Peidaee, P; Almansour, N; Shukla, R; Pirogova, E

    2013-01-01

    A concept of using low intensity light therapy (LILT) as an alternative approach to cancer treatment is at early stages of development; while the therapeutic effects of LILT as a non-invasive treatment modality for localized joint and soft tissue wound healing are widely corroborated. The LEDs-based exposure system was designed and constructed to irradiate the selected cancer and normal cells and evaluate the biological effects induced by light exposures in visible and infrared light range. In this study, human breast cancer (MCF7) cells and human epidermal melanocytes (HEM) cells (control) were exposed to selected far infrared light (3400nm, 3600nm, 3800nm, 3900nm, 4100nm and 4300nm) and visible and near infrared wavelengths (466nm, 585nm, 626nm, 810nm, 850nm and 950nm). The optical intensities of LEDs used for exposures were in the range of 15µW to 30µW. Cellular morphological changes of exposed and sham-exposed cells were evaluated using light microscopy. The cytotoxic effects of these low intensity light exposures on human cancer and normal cell lines were quantitatively determined by Lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) cytotoxic activity and PrestoBlue™ cell viability assays. Findings reveal that far-infrared exposures were able to reduce cell viability of MCF7 cells as measured by increased LDH release activity and PrestoBlue™ assays. Further investigation of the effects of light irradiation on different types of cancer cells, study of possible signaling pathways affected by electromagnetic radiation (EMR) and in vivo experimentation are required in order to draw a firm conclusion about the efficacy of low intensity light as an alternative non-invasive cancer treatment.

  7. Flight control and landing precision in the nocturnal bee Megalopta is robust to large changes in light intensity

    PubMed Central

    Baird, Emily; Fernandez, Diana C.; Wcislo, William T.; Warrant, Eric J.

    2015-01-01

    Like their diurnal relatives, Megalopta genalis use visual information to control flight. Unlike their diurnal relatives, however, they do this at extremely low light intensities. Although Megalopta has developed optical specializations to increase visual sensitivity, theoretical studies suggest that this enhanced sensitivity does not enable them to capture enough light to use visual information to reliably control flight in the rainforest at night. It has been proposed that Megalopta gain extra sensitivity by summing visual information over time. While enhancing the reliability of vision, this strategy would decrease the accuracy with which they can detect image motion—a crucial cue for flight control. Here, we test this temporal summation hypothesis by investigating how Megalopta's flight control and landing precision is affected by light intensity and compare our findings with the results of similar experiments performed on the diurnal bumblebee Bombus terrestris, to explore the extent to which Megalopta's adaptations to dim light affect their precision. We find that, unlike Bombus, light intensity does not affect flight and landing precision in Megalopta. Overall, we find little evidence that Megalopta uses a temporal summation strategy in dim light, while we find strong support for the use of this strategy in Bombus. PMID:26578977

  8. Flight control and landing precision in the nocturnal bee Megalopta is robust to large changes in light intensity.

    PubMed

    Baird, Emily; Fernandez, Diana C; Wcislo, William T; Warrant, Eric J

    2015-01-01

    Like their diurnal relatives, Megalopta genalis use visual information to control flight. Unlike their diurnal relatives, however, they do this at extremely low light intensities. Although Megalopta has developed optical specializations to increase visual sensitivity, theoretical studies suggest that this enhanced sensitivity does not enable them to capture enough light to use visual information to reliably control flight in the rainforest at night. It has been proposed that Megalopta gain extra sensitivity by summing visual information over time. While enhancing the reliability of vision, this strategy would decrease the accuracy with which they can detect image motion-a crucial cue for flight control. Here, we test this temporal summation hypothesis by investigating how Megalopta's flight control and landing precision is affected by light intensity and compare our findings with the results of similar experiments performed on the diurnal bumblebee Bombus terrestris, to explore the extent to which Megalopta's adaptations to dim light affect their precision. We find that, unlike Bombus, light intensity does not affect flight and landing precision in Megalopta. Overall, we find little evidence that Megalopta uses a temporal summation strategy in dim light, while we find strong support for the use of this strategy in Bombus. PMID:26578977

  9. Effects of Light Intensity Activity on CVD Risk Factors: A Systematic Review of Intervention Studies

    PubMed Central

    Batacan, Romeo B.; Duncan, Mitch J.; Dalbo, Vincent J.; Tucker, Patrick S.; Fenning, Andrew S.

    2015-01-01

    The effects of light intensity physical activity (LIPA) on cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors remain to be established. This review summarizes the effects of LIPA on CVD risk factors and CVD-related markers in adults. A systematic search of four electronic databases (PubMed, Academic Search Complete, SPORTDiscus, and CINAHL) examining LIPA and CVD risk factors (body composition, blood pressure, glucose, insulin, glycosylated hemoglobin, and lipid profile) and CVD-related markers (maximal oxygen uptake, heart rate, C-reactive protein, interleukin-6, tumor necrosis factor-alpha, and tumor necrosis factor receptors 1 and 2) published between 1970 and 2015 was performed on 15 March 2015. A total of 33 intervention studies examining the effect of LIPA on CVD risk factors and markers were included in this review. Results indicated that LIPA did not improve CVD risk factors and CVD-related markers in healthy individuals. LIPA was found to improve systolic and diastolic blood pressure in physically inactive populations with a medical condition. Reviewed studies show little support for the role of LIPA to reduce CVD risk factors. Many of the included studies were of low to fair study quality and used low doses of LIPA. Further studies are needed to establish the value of LIPA in reducing CVD risk. PMID:26543862

  10. Effects of Light Intensity Activity on CVD Risk Factors: A Systematic Review of Intervention Studies.

    PubMed

    Batacan, Romeo B; Duncan, Mitch J; Dalbo, Vincent J; Tucker, Patrick S; Fenning, Andrew S

    2015-01-01

    The effects of light intensity physical activity (LIPA) on cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors remain to be established. This review summarizes the effects of LIPA on CVD risk factors and CVD-related markers in adults. A systematic search of four electronic databases (PubMed, Academic Search Complete, SPORTDiscus, and CINAHL) examining LIPA and CVD risk factors (body composition, blood pressure, glucose, insulin, glycosylated hemoglobin, and lipid profile) and CVD-related markers (maximal oxygen uptake, heart rate, C-reactive protein, interleukin-6, tumor necrosis factor-alpha, and tumor necrosis factor receptors 1 and 2) published between 1970 and 2015 was performed on 15 March 2015. A total of 33 intervention studies examining the effect of LIPA on CVD risk factors and markers were included in this review. Results indicated that LIPA did not improve CVD risk factors and CVD-related markers in healthy individuals. LIPA was found to improve systolic and diastolic blood pressure in physically inactive populations with a medical condition. Reviewed studies show little support for the role of LIPA to reduce CVD risk factors. Many of the included studies were of low to fair study quality and used low doses of LIPA. Further studies are needed to establish the value of LIPA in reducing CVD risk. PMID:26543862

  11. How sugars might coordinate chloroplast and nuclear gene expression during acclimation to high light intensities.

    PubMed

    Häusler, Rainer E; Heinrichs, Luisa; Schmitz, Jessica; Flügge, Ulf-Ingo

    2014-07-01

    The concept of retrograde control of nuclear gene expression assumes the generation of signals inside the chloroplasts, which are either released from or sensed inside of the organelle. In both cases, downstream signaling pathways lead eventually to a differential regulation of nuclear gene expression and the production of proteins required in the chloroplast. This concept appears reasonable as the majority of the over 3000 predicted plastidial proteins are encoded by nuclear genes. Hence, the nucleus needs information on the status of the chloroplasts, such as during acclimation responses, which trigger massive changes in the protein composition of the thylakoid membrane and in the stroma. Here, we propose an additional control mechanism of nuclear- and plastome-encoded photosynthesis genes, taking advantage of pathways involved in sugar- or hormonal signaling. Sugars are major end products of photosynthesis and their contents respond very sensitively to changes in light intensities. Based on recent findings, we ask the question as to whether the carbohydrate status outside the chloroplast can be directly sensed within the chloroplast stroma. Sugars might synchronize the responsiveness of both genomes and thereby help to coordinate the expression of plastome- and nuclear-encoded photosynthesis genes in concert with other, more specific retrograde signals.

  12. Intense pulsed light versus benzoyl peroxide 5% gel in treatment of acne vulgaris.

    PubMed

    El-Latif, Azmy Ahmed Abd; Hassan, Faisal Abdel Aziz; Elshahed, Ahmed Rashad; Mohamed, Amr Ghareeb; Elsaie, Mohamed L

    2014-05-01

    Acne is a common disorder affecting the pilosebaceous unit. Despite many advances in the treatments of acne vulgaris the best option is still controversial as the pathogenesis of acne is rather complex, necessitating various combination therapies. The objective of this study is to compare the clinical efficacy of intense pulsed light therapy (IPL) versus benzoyl peroxide 5% for the treatment of inflammatory acne. Fifty patients of both sexes, (15 males and 35 females) aged (18-27 years), with mild-to-severe acne and Fitzpatrick skin phototype IV were enrolled in this study. The patients were equally divided into two groups. The first group was treated by benzoyl peroxide while the second group was treated by IPL. For both therapies, patients experienced a significant reduction in the mean of the inflammatory lesion counts over the treatment period. Comparing the effects of both therapies, BP produced better results than IPL. The difference in the results was statistically significant at the midpoint of the study. However, this difference was insignificant at the end of study. Treatment with both benzoyl peroxide and IPL resulted in considerable improvement of the acne after 5 weeks of treatment. Comparing the effects of both therapies, BP produced better results than IPL. The difference in the results was statistically significant at the midpoint of the study. However, this difference was insignificant at the end of study.

  13. Fabrication of Elemental Copper by Intense Pulsed Light Processing of a Copper Nitrate Hydroxide Ink.

    PubMed

    Draper, Gabriel L; Dharmadasa, Ruvini; Staats, Meghan E; Lavery, Brandon W; Druffel, Thad

    2015-08-01

    Printed electronics and renewable energy technologies have shown a growing demand for scalable copper and copper precursor inks. An alternative copper precursor ink of copper nitrate hydroxide, Cu2(OH)3NO3, was aqueously synthesized under ambient conditions with copper nitrate and potassium hydroxide reagents. Films were deposited by screen-printing and subsequently processed with intense pulsed light. The Cu2(OH)3NO3 quickly transformed in less than 100 s using 40 (2 ms, 12.8 J cm(-2)) pulses into CuO. At higher energy densities, the sintering improved the bulk film quality. The direct formation of Cu from the Cu2(OH)3NO3 requires a reducing agent; therefore, fructose and glucose were added to the inks. Rather than oxidizing, the thermal decomposition of the sugars led to a reducing environment and direct conversion of the films into elemental copper. The chemical and physical transformations were studied with XRD, SEM, FTIR and UV-vis. PMID:26154246

  14. Radioprotective Action of Low-Intensity Light into the Red Absorption Band of Endogenous Molecular Oxygen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ivanov, A. V.; Mashalov, A. A.; Zakharov, S. D.

    2016-08-01

    Application of ionizing radiation in oncology (radiation therapy) is a widespread way to eliminate malignant tumors. Normal tissues are inevitable included in any radiation field, and their reliable protection is actual till now. All attempts to solve the problem are based on search of effective radioprotectors, i.e. chemical compounds of various classes, which should be entered into the patient. To date about 50,000 compounds with some radioprotection properties had been tested, but the most effective of them have been simultaneously the most toxic. Here the preliminary results of researches devoted to development of an optical technique on basis of the light-oxygen effect for the protection of women with breast cancer from side effects of the radiation therapy are presented. A low intensity emission of the semiconductor laser in a red spectral interval was used to excite a very small quantity of endogenous molecular oxygen in O2(1Δg) state. It is shown, that application of the method at occurrence of earliest signs of radiation injury allows notably reducing dangerous breaks in radiation therapy course.

  15. Effect of light intensity on Opisthorchis viverrini cercarial shedding levels from Bithynia snails--a preliminary study.

    PubMed

    Kaewkes, Sasithorn; Kaewkes, Wanlop; Boonmars, Thidarut; Sripa, Banchob

    2012-03-01

    Opisthorchis viverrini requires Bithynia snails as the first intermediate host and cyprinid fish as the second intermediate host. Very low natural infection rates have been reported in Bithynia snails, but very high rates have been found in cyprinid fish in the same endemic region. This study investigated the effect of light intensity, the most important stimulus, on the quantity of O. viverrini cercariae shed from naturally infected Bithynia (Digoniostoma) siamensis goniomphalos snails. Snails were evaluated for cercariae output every hour after exposure to various light intensities for a total period of 7h. The same infected snail was tested under different intensities of light: in the dark, and at 1000, 3000 and 5000 lx. The data showed that under exposure to 1000 and 3000 lx of light, the average percentage and number of cercariae released were higher than that exposed to 5000 lx during the first 2h of the experiment. In contrast, under higher illumination (5000 lx) a longer time (6h) was required to stimulate the peak emergence of cercariae. Darkness was not able to induce O. viverrini cercariae emergence. Among the three intensities of light, exposure at 1000 lx induced the highest average number of released cercariae per snail and the highest percentage of cercarial emergence within the first 2h (125, 54.86%), followed by exposure at 3000 lx (69, 25.58%) and 5000 lx (12, 7.78%). The results suggest that the light intensity of 1000 lx for 2h would be optimal for O. viverrini cercarial shedding from naturally infected B. (D.) siamensis goniomphalos snails.

  16. Influence of light intensity on the toxicity of atrazine to the submerged freshwater aquatic macrophyte Elodea canadensis.

    PubMed

    Brain, Richard A; Hoberg, James; Hosmer, Alan J; Wall, Steven B

    2012-05-01

    Light intensity can have a profound influence on the degree of phytotoxicity experienced by plants exposed to photosystem II (PSII) inhibiting herbicides. This relationship was evaluated in the submerged aquatic macrophyte Elodea canadensis exposed to three different concentrations of atrazine (510, 1000 and 2000 μg a.i./L) plus an untreated control at three different light intensities (0, 500 and 6000 lx) under static-renewal conditions for 14 days. Under 500 lx light intensity, control plants demonstrated a rapid increase in shoot length but minimal increase in dry shoot weight, suggesting limited photosynthesis. Based on shoot-length and biomass, growth was not affected by any atrazine exposure relative to controls under dark conditions (0 lx). Under low-light conditions at 500 lx, exposures to 510, 1000 and 2000 μg a.i./L atrazine significantly decreased net shoot lengths by 34%, 38% and 35%, respectively, relative to corresponding (500 lx) controls. However, atrazine exposure under this light condition did not significantly decrease biomass (dry shoot weight). Compared to 6000 lx, only approximately 8% of photosynthetically active radiation (PAR) was measured under 500 lx intensity, indicating that minimal PAR was available for photosynthesis. Under optimal light conditions (6000 lx), net shoot lengths significantly decreased in the treated atrazine groups by 48%, 51% and 68%, and net dry shoot weights (biomass) were significantly decreased by 79%, 81% and 91%, respectively, relative to corresponding (6000 lx) controls. These data show that under low light conditions, atrazine-induced effects on dry shoot weight (biomass) are dependent on available PAR and active photosynthesis.

  17. Proteomic Study Related to Vascular Connections in Watermelon Scions Grafted onto Bottle-Gourd Rootstock under Different Light Intensities

    PubMed Central

    Muneer, Sowbiya; Ko, Chung Ho; Soundararajan, Prabhakaran; Manivnnan, Abinaya; Park, Yoo Gyeong; Jeong, Byoung Ryong

    2015-01-01

    Although grafting is broadly used in the production of crops, no information is available about the proteins involved in vascular connections between rootstock and scion. Similarly, proteome changes under the light intensities widely used for grafted seedlings are of practical use. The objective of this study was to determine the proteome of vascular connections using watermelon (Citrullus vulgaris Schrad.) ‘Sambok Honey’ and ‘Speed’ as the scion and bottle gourd (Lagenaria siceraria Stanld.) ‘RS Dongjanggun’ as the rootstock grown under different light intensities (25, 50, 75 and 100 μmol m−2 s−1). Our proteomic analysis revealed 24 and 27 differentially expressed proteins in ‘Sambok Honey’ and ‘Speed’, respectively, under different light intensities. The identified proteins were largely involved in ion binding, amino acid metabolism, transcriptional regulation and defense response. The enhancement of ion-binding, transcriptional regulation, amino acid metabolism, and defense response proteins suggests a strengthening of the connection between the rootstock and scion under high light intensity. Indeed, the accumulation of key enzymes in the biological processes described above appears to play an important role in the vascular connections of grafted seedlings. Moreover, it appears that 100 μmol m−2 s−1 results in better protein expression responses in grafted seedlings. PMID:25789769

  18. Proteomic study related to vascular connections in watermelon scions grafted onto bottle-gourd rootstock under different light intensities.

    PubMed

    Muneer, Sowbiya; Ko, Chung Ho; Soundararajan, Prabhakaran; Manivnnan, Abinaya; Park, Yoo Gyeong; Jeong, Byoung Ryong

    2015-01-01

    Although grafting is broadly used in the production of crops, no information is available about the proteins involved in vascular connections between rootstock and scion. Similarly, proteome changes under the light intensities widely used for grafted seedlings are of practical use. The objective of this study was to determine the proteome of vascular connections using watermelon (Citrullus vulgaris Schrad.) 'Sambok Honey' and 'Speed' as the scion and bottle gourd (Lagenaria siceraria Stanld.) 'RS Dongjanggun' as the rootstock grown under different light intensities (25, 50, 75 and 100 μmol m-2 s-1). Our proteomic analysis revealed 24 and 27 differentially expressed proteins in 'Sambok Honey' and 'Speed', respectively, under different light intensities. The identified proteins were largely involved in ion binding, amino acid metabolism, transcriptional regulation and defense response. The enhancement of ion-binding, transcriptional regulation, amino acid metabolism, and defense response proteins suggests a strengthening of the connection between the rootstock and scion under high light intensity. Indeed, the accumulation of key enzymes in the biological processes described above appears to play an important role in the vascular connections of grafted seedlings. Moreover, it appears that 100 μmol m-2 s-1 results in better protein expression responses in grafted seedlings. PMID:25789769

  19. Interactive effects of photoperiod and light intensity on blood physiological and biochemical reactions of broilers grown to heavy weights

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The effects of photoperiod, light intensity, and their interaction on blood acid-base balance, metabolites, and electrolytes in broiler chickens under environmentally controlled conditions were examined in 2 trials. The experiment was consisted of a factorial arrangement of treatments in a randomize...

  20. Microhardness of composite resin cured through different primary tooth thicknesses with different light intensities and curing times: In vitro study

    PubMed Central

    Mazhari, Fatemeh; Ajami, Behjatolmolok; Moazzami, Saied Mostafa; Baghaee, Bahareh; Hafez, Bahareh

    2016-01-01

    Objective: The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of increased exposure time and light intensity on microhardness of cured composite through different thicknesses of tooth structure in primary teeth. Materials and Methods: One hundred and seventy cylindrical resin composite specimens were prepared. All specimens were divided into 17 experimental and control groups. “Light-emitting diode” light curing unit (LCU) applied directly or through 1, 2, and 3 mm thicknesses tooth slices for experimental groups. The irradiation protocols were 25 and 50 s at 650 mW/cm2 and 15 and 30 s at 1100 mW/cm2. The “quartz-tungsten-halogen” LCU (400 mW/cm2) for 40 s was used in control group. Microhardness was measured by the Vickers hardness test. Results: Indirectly cured specimens and those cured through a 1 mm thick tooth structure, an increase in intensity caused hardness drop. In the specimens cured through 2 and 3 mm thick tooth structures, increased intensity and/or exposure time did not show any appropriate changes on microhardness. Conclusion: Irradiation through a 1.0 mm thick tooth slice resulted in reduced microhardness although it was still within the clinically acceptable level. The hardness values of the specimens cured through 2 or 3 mm thick tooth slices fell below the clinically acceptable level even after doubling the exposure time and/or light intensity. PMID:27095897

  1. 14 CFR 27.1391 - Minimum intensities in the horizontal plane of forward and rear position lights.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Minimum intensities in the horizontal plane of forward and rear position lights. 27.1391 Section 27.1391 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: NORMAL CATEGORY...

  2. 14 CFR 27.1391 - Minimum intensities in the horizontal plane of forward and rear position lights.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Minimum intensities in the horizontal plane of forward and rear position lights. 27.1391 Section 27.1391 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: NORMAL CATEGORY...

  3. 14 CFR 27.1393 - Minimum intensities in any vertical plane of forward and rear position lights.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Minimum intensities in any vertical plane of forward and rear position lights. 27.1393 Section 27.1393 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: NORMAL CATEGORY...

  4. 14 CFR 27.1393 - Minimum intensities in any vertical plane of forward and rear position lights.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Minimum intensities in any vertical plane of forward and rear position lights. 27.1393 Section 27.1393 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: NORMAL CATEGORY...

  5. [Effects of light intensity on associated enzyme activity and gene expression during callus formation of Vitis vinifera].

    PubMed

    Liu, Rong; Yang, Guowei; Wu, Yueyan; Rao, Huiyun; Li, Xuefu; Li, Meiqin; Qian, Pingxian

    2015-08-01

    We analyzed the best light intensity for callus induction and maintenance in Vitis vinifera and explored the mechanism of grape callus browning. Tender stem segments of grape cultivar "gold finger" were used to study the effects of different light intensities (0, 500, 1 000, 1 500, 2 000, 2 500, 3 000 and 4 000 Lx) on the induction rate, browning rate and associated enzyme activity and gene expression during Vitis vinifera callus formation. The callus induction rate under 0, 500, 1 000 and 1 500 Lx was more than 92%, significantly higher than in other treatments (P < 0.05). A lower browning rate and better callus growth were also observed during subculture under 1 000 and 1 500 Lx treatments. We found that chlorogenic acid, caffeic acid, p-hydroxybenzoic acid and coumaric acid contents were correlated with the browning rate of callus, among which chlorogenic acid content was positively correlated with the browning rate (P < 0.05). Peroxidase (POD) and polyphenol oxidase (PPO) activities were negatively correlated with the browning rate of callus (P < 0.01). The POD, PPO and phenylalanine ammonialyase (PAL) expression levels were positively correlated with the browning rate at P < 0.05 or P < 0.01. An appropriate light intensity for the tissue culture of Vitis vinifera was 1 000-1 500 Lx, higher or lower light intensities significantly impaired normal callus growth. PMID:26762043

  6. Light-intensity-induced characterization of elastic constants and d33 piezoelectric coefficient of PLZT single fiber based transducers.

    PubMed

    Kozielski, Lucjan; Erhart, Jiri; Clemens, Frank Jörg

    2013-02-12

    Enhanced functionality of electro-optic devices by implementing piezoelectric micro fibers into their construction is proposed. Lanthanum-modified lead zirconate titanate (PLZT) ceramics are known to exhibit high light transparency, desirable electro-optic properties and fast response. In this study PLZT fibers with a diameter of around 300 microns were produced by a thermoplastic processing method and their light-induced impedance and piezoelectric coefficient were investigated at relatively low light intensity (below 50 mW/cm2). The authors experimentally proved higher performance of light controlled microfiber transducers in comparison to their bulk form. The advantage of the high surface area to volume ratio is shown to be an excellent technique to design high quality light sensors by using fibrous materials. The UV absorption induced change in elastic constants of 3% and 4% for the piezoelectric coefficient d(33).

  7. Eosinophil count - absolute

    MedlinePlus

    Eosinophils; Absolute eosinophil count ... the white blood cell count to give the absolute eosinophil count. ... than 500 cells per microliter (cells/mcL). Normal value ranges may vary slightly among different laboratories. Talk ...

  8. Serum neurofilament light chain protein is a measure of disease intensity in frontotemporal dementia

    PubMed Central

    Woollacott, Ione O.C.; Dick, Katrina M.; Brotherhood, Emilie; Gordon, Elizabeth; Fellows, Alexander; Toombs, Jamie; Druyeh, Ronald; Cardoso, M. Jorge; Ourselin, Sebastien; Nicholas, Jennifer M.; Norgren, Niklas; Mead, Simon; Andreasson, Ulf; Blennow, Kaj; Schott, Jonathan M.; Fox, Nick C.; Warren, Jason D.; Zetterberg, Henrik

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To investigate serum neurofilament light chain (NfL) concentrations in frontotemporal dementia (FTD) and to see whether they are associated with the severity of disease. Methods: Serum samples were collected from 74 participants (34 with behavioral variant FTD [bvFTD], 3 with FTD and motor neuron disease and 37 with primary progressive aphasia [PPA]) and 28 healthy controls. Twenty-four of the FTD participants carried a pathogenic mutation in C9orf72 (9), microtubule-associated protein tau (MAPT; 11), or progranulin (GRN; 4). Serum NfL concentrations were determined with the NF-Light kit transferred onto the single-molecule array platform and compared between FTD and healthy controls and between the FTD clinical and genetic subtypes. We also assessed the relationship between NfL concentrations and measures of cognition and brain volume. Results: Serum NfL concentrations were higher in patients with FTD overall (mean 77.9 pg/mL [SD 51.3 pg/mL]) than controls (19.6 pg/mL [SD 8.2 pg/mL]; p < 0.001). Concentrations were also significantly higher in bvFTD (57.8 pg/mL [SD 33.1 pg/mL]) and both the semantic and nonfluent variants of PPA (95.9 and 82.5 pg/mL [SD 33.0 and 33.8 pg/mL], respectively) compared with controls and in semantic variant PPA compared with logopenic variant PPA. Concentrations were significantly higher than controls in both the C9orf72 and MAPT subgroups (79.2 and 40.5 pg/mL [SD 48.2 and 20.9 pg/mL], respectively) with a trend to a higher level in the GRN subgroup (138.5 pg/mL [SD 103.3 pg/mL). However, there was variability within all groups. Serum concentrations correlated particularly with frontal lobe atrophy rate (r = 0.53, p = 0.003). Conclusions: Increased serum NfL concentrations are seen in FTD but show wide variability within each clinical and genetic group. Higher concentrations may reflect the intensity of the disease in FTD and are associated with more rapid atrophy of the frontal lobes. PMID:27581216

  9. Effects of various LED light wavelengths and intensities on microalgae-based simultaneous biogas upgrading and digestate nutrient reduction process.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Yongjun; Wang, Juan; Zhang, Hui; Yan, Cheng; Zhang, Yuejin

    2013-05-01

    Biogas is a well-known, primary renewable energy source, but its utilizations are possible only after upgrading. The microalgae-based bag photo-bioreactor utilized in this research could effectively upgrade biogas and simultaneously reduce the nutrient content in digestate. Red light was determined as the optimal light wavelength for microalgae growth, biogas upgrading, and digestate nutrient reduction. In the range of moderate light intensities (i.e., 800, 1200, 1600, and 2000 μmol m(-2) s(-1)), higher light intensities achieved higher biogas upgrade and larger digestate nutrient reduction. Methane content attained the highest value of 92.74±3.56% (v/v). The highest chemical oxygen demand, total nitrogen, and total phosphorus reduction efficiency of digestate were 85.35±1.04%, 77.98±1.84%, and 73.03±2.14%, respectively. Considering the reduction and economic efficiencies of the carbon dioxide content of biogas and digestate nutrient as well as the biogas upgrading standard, the optimal light intensity range was determined to be from 1200 to 1600 μmol m(-2) s(-1). PMID:23567717

  10. Changes in intensity and spectral distribution of fluorescence. Effect of light treatment on normal and DCMU-poisoned Anacystis nidulans.

    PubMed

    Papageorgiou, G; Govindjee

    1967-07-01

    The intensity of the "steady-state" fluorescence of "aerobic" Anacystis nidulans is variable under prolonged illumination with orange (590 mmu) or blue (440 mmu) light for both normally photosynthesizing and DCMU-poisoned cells. In general, orange light illumination causes an increase of the fluorescence intensity followed by a decrease, while blue light causes an increase until a steady level is reached. Poisoned Anacystis cells show four to eight times larger changes in fluorescence intensity than the normal cells; the detailed time course of fluorescence changes is also different in poisoned and normal cells. When algae are cooled to -196 degrees C in light, the light-induced changes in the "steady-state" fluorescence disappear in both types of cells. Difference fluorescence spectra, constructed by subtracting the fluorescence spectra taken after 5-15 min of illumination from those after 60-90 min of illumination, show a doublet structure of the difference band with a major peak coinciding with the Anacystis emission maximum (685 mmu) and a minor peak located at about 693 mmu.

  11. Light intensity-dependent modulation of chlorophyll b biosynthesis and photosynthesis by overexpression of chlorophyllide a oxygenase in tobacco.

    PubMed

    Biswal, Ajaya K; Pattanayak, Gopal K; Pandey, Shiv S; Leelavathi, Sadhu; Reddy, Vanga S; Govindjee; Tripathy, Baishnab C

    2012-05-01

    Chlorophyll b is synthesized by the oxidation of a methyl group on the B ring of a tetrapyrrole molecule to a formyl group by chlorophyllide a oxygenase (CAO). The full-length CAO from Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) was overexpressed in tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum) that grows well at light intensities much higher than those tolerated by Arabidopsis. This resulted in an increased synthesis of glutamate semialdehyde, 5-aminolevulinic acid, magnesium-porphyrins, and chlorophylls. Overexpression of CAO resulted in increased chlorophyll b synthesis and a decreased chlorophyll a/b ratio in low light-grown as well as high light-grown tobacco plants; this effect, however, was more pronounced in high light. The increased potential of the protochlorophyllide oxidoreductase activity and chlorophyll biosynthesis compensated for the usual loss of chlorophylls in high light. Increased chlorophyll b synthesis in CAO-overexpressed plants was accompanied not only by an increased abundance of light-harvesting chlorophyll proteins but also of other proteins of the electron transport chain, which led to an increase in the capture of light as well as enhanced (40%-80%) electron transport rates of photosystems I and II at both limiting and saturating light intensities. Although the quantum yield of carbon dioxide fixation remained unchanged, the light-saturated photosynthetic carbon assimilation, starch content, and dry matter accumulation increased in CAO-overexpressed plants grown in both low- and high-light regimes. These results demonstrate that controlled up-regulation of chlorophyll b biosynthesis comodulates the expression of several thylakoid membrane proteins that increase both the antenna size and the electron transport rates and enhance carbon dioxide assimilation, starch content, and dry matter accumulation.

  12. Visible-light optical coherence tomography-based multimodal retinal imaging for improvement of fluorescent intensity quantification

    PubMed Central

    Nafar, Zahra; Jiang, Minshan; Wen, Rong; Jiao, Shuliang

    2016-01-01

    We developed a spectral-domain visible-light optical coherence tomography (VIS-OCT) based multimodal imaging technique which can accomplish simultaneous OCT and fluorescence imaging with a single broadband light source. Phantom experiments showed that by using the simultaneously acquired OCT images as a reference, the effect of light attenuation on the intensity of the fluorescent images by materials in front of the fluorescent target can be compensated. This capability of the multimodal imaging technique is of high importance for achieving quantification of the true intensities of autofluorescence (AF) imaging of the retina. We applied the technique in retinal imaging including AF imaging of the retinal pigment epithelium and fluorescein angiography (FA). We successfully demonstrated the effect of compensation on AF and FA images with the simultaneously acquired VIS-OCT images. PMID:27699094

  13. Visible-light optical coherence tomography-based multimodal retinal imaging for improvement of fluorescent intensity quantification

    PubMed Central

    Nafar, Zahra; Jiang, Minshan; Wen, Rong; Jiao, Shuliang

    2016-01-01

    We developed a spectral-domain visible-light optical coherence tomography (VIS-OCT) based multimodal imaging technique which can accomplish simultaneous OCT and fluorescence imaging with a single broadband light source. Phantom experiments showed that by using the simultaneously acquired OCT images as a reference, the effect of light attenuation on the intensity of the fluorescent images by materials in front of the fluorescent target can be compensated. This capability of the multimodal imaging technique is of high importance for achieving quantification of the true intensities of autofluorescence (AF) imaging of the retina. We applied the technique in retinal imaging including AF imaging of the retinal pigment epithelium and fluorescein angiography (FA). We successfully demonstrated the effect of compensation on AF and FA images with the simultaneously acquired VIS-OCT images.

  14. The effects of taurine on vigabatrin, high light intensity and mydriasis induced retinal toxicity in the pigmented rat.

    PubMed

    Rasmussen, Allan D; Truchot, Nathalie; Pickersgill, Nigel; Thale, Zia Irene; Rosolen, Serge G; Botteron, Catherine

    2015-01-01

    The overall purpose of this study was to establish a model that may be used for examining the effect of Vigabatrin-induced retinal toxicity in pigmented rats, and subsequently examine the possible effects of taurine on the retinal toxicity. In the first part of the study, pigmented Long Evans rats were subjected to combinations of induced mydriasis, low/high light intensities (40/2000 lx) and oral administration of near-MTD (Maximum Tolerated Dose) doses (200 mg/kg/day) of Vigabatrin for up to 6 weeks. The combination of mydriasis and high light intensity applied to Long Evans rats resulted in retinal damage that was increased by the administration of Vigabatrin. In the second part of the study Long Evans rats were subjected to combinations of induced mydriasis and high/low light intensity (40/2000 lx) while being orally administered low (30 mg/kg/day) or high (200 mg/kg/day) doses of Vigabatrin for up to 6 weeks. In addition, selected groups of animals were administered taurine via the drinking water (20 mg/ml), resulting in systemic taurine concentrations of approximately threefold the endogenous concentration. The combined results of the studies demonstrate that retinal damage can be induced in pigmented animals when combining mydriasis and high light intensity. Retinal damage was functionally evaluated by electroretinography (ERG), then confirmed by histopathology. While depending on mydriasis and high light intensity, administration of Vigabatrin increased the retinal toxicity and resulted in the formation of rosette-like structures in the retina in a dose-related manner. Administration of taurine did not alleviate the Vigabatrin-induced retinal toxicity, as demonstrated either functionally by ERG or morphologically, although systemic concentrations of 3-fold the endogenous levels were reached, and it was thus not possible to demonstrate a protective effect of taurine in these pigmented animals. PMID:25446799

  15. The light intensity under which cells are grown controls the type of peripheral light-harvesting complexes that are assembled in a purple photosynthetic bacterium.

    PubMed

    Brotosudarmo, Tatas H P; Collins, Aaron M; Gall, Andrew; Roszak, Aleksander W; Gardiner, Alastair T; Blankenship, Robert E; Cogdell, Richard J

    2011-11-15

    The differing composition of LH2 (peripheral light-harvesting) complexes present in Rhodopseudomonas palustris 2.1.6 have been investigated when cells are grown under progressively decreasing light intensity. Detailed analysis of their absorption spectra reveals that there must be more than two types of LH2 complexes present. Purified HL (high-light) and LL (low-light) LH2 complexes have mixed apoprotein compositions. The HL complexes contain PucAB(a) and PucAB(b) apoproteins. The LL complexes contain PucAB(a), PucAB(d) and PucB(b)-only apoproteins. This mixed apoprotein composition can explain their resonance Raman spectra. Crystallographic studies and molecular sieve chromatography suggest that both the HL and the LL complexes are nonameric. Furthermore, the electron-density maps do not support the existence of an additional Bchl (bacteriochlorophyll) molecule; rather the density is attributed to the N-termini of the α-polypeptide.

  16. The light intensity under which cells are grown controls the type of peripheral light-harvesting complexes that are assembled in a purple photosynthetic bacterium

    SciTech Connect

    Brotosudarmo, Tatas H. P.; Collins, Aaron M.; Gall, Andrew; Roszak, Aleksander W.; Gardiner, Alastair T.; Blankenship, Robert E.; Cogdell, Richard J.

    2011-11-15

    The differing composition of LH2 (peripheral light-harvesting) complexes present in Rhodopseudomonas palustris 2.1.6 have been investigated when cells are grown under progressively decreasing light intensity. Analysis of the absorption spectra reveals there must be more than two types of LH2 complexes present. Purified HL (high-light) and LL (low-light) LH2 complexes have mixed apoprotein compositions. The HL complexes contain PucABa and PucABb apoproteins. The LL complexes contain PucABa, PucABd and PucBb-only apoproteins. This mixed apoprotein composition can explain their resonance Raman spectra.

  17. Chlororespiration is involved in the adaptation of Brassica plants to heat and high light intensity.

    PubMed

    Díaz, Milagros; de Haro, Virginia; Muñoz, Romualdo; Quiles, María José

    2007-12-01

    Two species of Brassica were used to study their acclimation to heat and high illumination during the first stages of development. One, Brassica fruticulosa, is a wild species from south-east Spain and is adapted to both heat and high light intensity in its natural habitat, while the other, Brassica oleracea, is an agricultural species that is widely cultivated throughout the world. Growing Brassica plants under high irradiance and moderate heat was seen to affect the growth parameters and the functioning of the photosynthetic apparatus. The photosystem II (PSII) quantum yields and the capacity of photosynthetic electron transport, which were lower in B. fruticulosa than in B. oleracea, decreased in B. oleracea plants when grown under stress conditions, indicating inhibition of PSII. However, in B. fruticulosa, the values of these parameters were similar to the values of control plants. Photosystem I (PSI) activity was higher in B. fruticulosa than in B. oleracea, and in both species this activity increased in plants exposed to heat and high illumination. Immunoblot analysis of thylakoid membranes using specific antibodies raised against the NDH-K subunit of the thylakoidal NADH dehydrogenase complex (NADH DH) and against plastid terminal oxidase (PTOX) revealed a higher amount of both proteins in B. fruticulosa than in B. oleracea. In addition, PTOX activity in plastoquinone oxidation, and NADH DH activity in thylakoid membranes were higher in the wild species (B. fruticulosa) than in the agricultural species (B. oleracea). The results indicate that tolerance to high illumination and heat of the photosynthetic activity was higher in the wild species than in the agricultural species, suggesting that plant adaptation to these stresses in natural conditions favours subsequent acclimation, and that the chlororespiration process is involved in adaptation to heat and high illumination in Brassica.

  18. The Spatial Intensity Distribution of the UV Light in HH Objects. Revisited

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moro-Martin, A.; Noriego-Crespo, A.; Boehm, K.-H.; Raga, A. C.

    1996-01-01

    Simple kinematical bow shock models have successfylly explained many of the observed features in Herbig-Haro objects. It is shown that similar models can be applied to the spatial intensity distribution of the UV lines observed by IUE. Archival IUE spectra have been used for the HH 1, HH 2(H+A'), HH 2(G+B), HH 24A, HH 32A, HH 43(A+B+C), and HH 47A objects where the brightest UV lines (C IV (lambda)1549,Si III(lambda)1891, C III] (lambda)1909, C II] (lambda)2326, MgII (lambda)2799) were studied, as well as the UV continuum (modeled by the hydrogen two-photon contiuum). The quality of the IUE data is rather limited due to the broad point spread function and the low signal-to-noise, and therefore the models were degraded to make them comparable to the observations. The physical parameters used in the models were obtained from previous optical studies and varied accordingly to match the observations, but within the known uncertainties. The objects were modeled by a single bow shock model (i.e., HH 1, HH 24A, HH 32A, and HH 47A) or the superposition of two (i.e., HH 2(H+A') and HH 2(G+B) or more (i.e., HH 43(A+B+C)) of them. The idea was to take into account the complexity of the morphology of these objects, and the contribution to the UV light from diffrent condensations within the IUE aperature.

  19. Assessment of incident intensity on laser speckle contrast imaging using a nematic liquid crystal spatial light modulator (Conference Presentation)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kirby, Mitchell A.; Khaksari, Kosar; Kirkpatrick, Sean J.

    2016-03-01

    In this work the effects of incident intensity and effective camera dynamic range on image acquisition of both frozen and time-averaged dynamic speckle patterns, and their effects on laser speckle contrast imaging are addressed. A nematic liquid crystal, phase-only, spatial light modulator (SLM) was employed to generate laser speckle in a controlled and repeatable fashion. By addressing the calculated spatial contrast of frozen and time-averaged dynamic speckle patterns imaged across a wide range of intensities, we present a description of optimum intensity characteristics that should be observed when using LSCI. The results indicate the importance of assessing the intensity of the signal quantized by the camera in LSCI. By analyzing intensity PDF's during image acquisition of speckle patterns used in LSCI, an optimum incident intensity can be detected when a single, polarized speckle frame displays the first order statistics characteristic of fully developed speckle. Our results indicate that there is a range of laser power densities where the ensuing imaged speckle exhibit optimum sensitivity to flow as well as relatively constant calculated contrast values. It is clear that at high intensities, high frequency information is lost due to camera saturation, resulting in a decrease in contrast. When imaging speckle at low intensity, there is a risk for loss of data during the digital quantization process. The results are presented in a generalized fashion, so they should be applicable to any LSCI system, regardless of incident laser power or camera depth.

  20. Interactive effects of photoperiod and light intensity on blood physiological and biochemical reactions of broilers grown to heavy weights.

    PubMed

    Olanrewaju, H A; Purswell, J L; Collier, S D; Branton, S L

    2013-04-01

    The effects of photoperiod, light intensity, and their interaction on blood acid-base balance, metabolites, and electrolytes in broiler chickens under environmentally controlled conditions were examined in 2 trials. A 3 × 3 factorial experiment in a randomized complete block design was used in this study. In each trial, all treatment groups were provided 23L:1D with 20 lx of intensity from placement to 7 d, and then subjected to the treatments. The 9 treatments consisted of 3 photoperiods [long/continuous (23L:1D) from d 8 to 56, regular/intermittent (2L:2D), and short/nonintermittent (8L:16D) from d 8 to 48 and 23L:1D from d 49 to 56, respectively] and exposure to 3 light intensities (10, 5.0, and 0.5 lx) from d 8 through d 56 at 50% RH. Feed and water were provided ad libitum. Venous blood samples were collected on d 7, 14, 28, 42, and 56. Main effects indicated that short/nonintermittent photoperiod significantly (P < 0.05) reduced BW, pH, partial pressure of O2, saturated O2, Na(+), K(+), Ca(2+), Cl(-), osmolality, triiodothyronine (T3), and total protein along with significantly (P < 0.05) elevated partial pressure of CO2, hematocrit, hemoglobin, and lactate concentrations. In addition, there were no effects of photoperiod on HCO3(-), glucose, anion gap, and thyroxine (T4). Plasma corticosterone was not affected by photoperiod, light intensity, or their interaction. There was no effect of light intensity on most of the blood variables examined. Acid-base regulation during photoperiod and light intensity exposure did not deteriorate despite a lower pH and higher partial pressure of CO2 with normal HCO3(-). These results indicate that continuous exposure of broiler chickens to varying light intensities had a minor effect on blood physiological variables, whereas the short photoperiod markedly affected most blood physiological variables without inducing physiological stress in broilers.

  1. Arabidopsis ROOT PHOTOTROPISM2 Contributes to the Adaptation to High-Intensity Light in Phototropic Responses

    PubMed Central

    Haga, Ken; Tsuchida-Mayama, Tomoko; Yamada, Mizuki; Sakai, Tatsuya

    2015-01-01

    Living organisms adapt to changing light environments via mechanisms that enhance photosensitivity under darkness and attenuate photosensitivity under bright light conditions. In hypocotyl phototropism, phototropin1 (phot1) blue light photoreceptors mediate both the pulse light-induced, first positive phototropism and the continuous light-induced, second positive phototropism, suggesting the existence of a mechanism that alters their photosensitivity. Here, we show that light induction of ROOT PHOTOTROPISM2 (RPT2) underlies photosensory adaptation in hypocotyl phototropism of Arabidopsis thaliana. rpt2 loss-of-function mutants exhibited increased photosensitivity to very low fluence blue light but were insensitive to low fluence blue light. Expression of RPT2 prior to phototropic stimulation in etiolated seedlings reduced photosensitivity during first positive phototropism and accelerated second positive phototropism. Our microscopy and biochemical analyses indicated that blue light irradiation causes dephosphorylation of NONPHOTOTROPIC HYPOCOTYL3 (NPH3) proteins and mediates their release from the plasma membrane. These phenomena correlate closely with the desensitization of phot1 signaling during the transition period from first positive phototropism to second positive phototropism. RPT2 modulated the phosphorylation of NPH3 and promoted reconstruction of the phot1-NPH3 complex on the plasma membrane. We conclude that photosensitivity is increased in the absence of RPT2 and that this results in the desensitization of phot1. Light-mediated induction of RPT2 then reduces the photosensitivity of phot1, which is required for second positive phototropism under bright light conditions. PMID:25873385

  2. Research on reduction of long-term distortions and suppression of light intensity fluctuations in a TDLAS system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tu, Guo-jie; Wang, Yu; Dong, Feng-zhong; Xia, Hua; Pang, Tao; Zhang, Zhi-rong; Wu, Bian

    2011-11-01

    For any tunable diode laser absorption spectroscopy (TDLAS) system, its performance is often degraded by long-term distortion and fluctuations of light intensity. The source of long-term distortion and the corresponding proposal are discussed at first in this paper. It is proved that the long-term distortion of the system is mainly induced by the change of wavelength dependent transfer function. A balanced optical path can be used to reduce it effectively. In order to decrease the disturbance of intensity fluctuation, a novel method for online correction is presented. It is developed according to the linear relation between the peaks of harmonic power spectra and the incident light intensity. It is demonstrated by the experiments and explained as residual sum frequency and difference frequency power of signal and reference after the lock-in amplifier. This method could achieve real-time light intensity correction with only little calculation. By using a 17.5m multi-pass cell, the experiments show that the system can achieve about 20ppmv stability for long-term continual monitoring. Allan variance indicates that the detection limit for short-term measurement is between 0.3ppmv and 1.5ppmv depending on the response time allowed by the instrument.

  3. The effect of visible-light intensity on shape evolution and antibacterial properties of triangular silver nanostructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ashkarran, Ali Akbar

    2016-08-01

    Triangular silver nanostructures represent a novel class of nanomaterials with tunable surface plasmon resonance (SPR). By controlling the size and geometry of these structures, their SPR peaks could be tuned from the visible to the near-infrared region with numerous applications in optoelectronic, sensors, nanomedicine and specially cancer diagnosis and treatment. In this study, triangular silver nanostructures were prepared by photoinducing of spherical silver nanoparticles (NPs) with an average diameter of 10 nm. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and ultra violet visible (UV-Vis) spectroscopy were used to characterize silver triangles. We have found that uniform triangular silver nanostructures can be obtained using an appropriate visible-light illumination to the primary spherical silver NPs. TEM images indicated that formation of triangular structures depends on the intensity of light source. The effect of intensity of visible-light source on the geometry and size distribution of silver triangles was investigated. It was found that formation of triangular structures in addition to their size and shape evolution strongly depends on the intensity of the light illumination. Furthermore, a comparative study on the antibacterial activities of silver triangles of different sizes reveals that silver triangles experience a size-dependent interaction with the gram-negative Escherichia coli bacteria.

  4. Hand rejuvenation using standard Intense Pulsed Light (IPL) in Asian patients

    PubMed Central

    Maruyama, Seiichi

    2016-01-01

    Background: In recent years, facial rejuvenation using Intense Pulsed Light (IPL) is in demand and there have been many reports. However, hand rejuvenation, which aims to treat lentigines on the dorsal hand and wrinkles, is in demand but with few reports. In this study, hand rejuvenation was attempted using two wavelengths of a standard IPL system. It focuses mainly on improvement of lentigines, and efficacy on wrinkles on the dorsal hand will be discussed as well. Subjects and Methods: The subjects were 128 Japanese patients (average age 58.1) who had lentigines and wrinkles on the dorsa of both hands, and the wavelength spectra of 560 – 1200 nm and 515 – 1200 nm were applied. In general, the number of treatments was not fixed, and further treatments beyond the first treatment were added only when asked for by the patient. Lentigines were assessed on 4 levels and wrinkles on 3 levels. Results: The results in lentigines were graded “Excellent” in 45.3%, “Good” in 14.8%, “Unchanged” in 37.5% and “Bad” in 2.3% of the patients. Dark-toned lentigines in particular improved after one treatment. On the other hand, the results in wrinkles were graded as “Effective” in 25.0%, “Hard to tell” in 39.1% and “Ineffective” in 35.9% of the patients after the first treatment, but there was increased improvement in some cases after multiple treatments. Conclusions: By using appropriate IPL parameters with specific cut-off filters, dark-toned and flat senile lentigines could be treated effectively with a small number of treatments. On the other hand, improvement of fine dorsal wrinkles was noticed but more finesse is needed as to how to apply IPL and to decide on the number of treatments. Further study is necessary, but overall it can be said that IPL is an effective choice for hand rejuvenation. PMID:27141154

  5. Correlation of spatial intensity distribution of light reaching the retina and restoration of vision by optogenetic stimulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shivalingaiah, Shivaranjani; Gu, Ling; Mohanty, Samarendra K.

    2011-03-01

    Stimulation of retinal neuronal cells using optogenetics via use of chanelrhodopsin-2 (ChR2) and blue light has opened up a new direction for restoration of vision with respect to treatment of Retinitis pigmentosa (RP). In addition to delivery of ChR2 to specific retinal layer using genetic engineering, threshold level of blue light needs to be delivered onto the retina for generating action potential and successful behavioral outcome. We report measurement of intensity distribution of light reaching the retina of Retinitis pigmentosa (RP) mouse models and compared those results with theoretical simulations of light propagation in eye. The parameters for the stimulating source positioning in front of eye was determined for optimal light delivery to the retina. In contrast to earlier viral method based delivery of ChR2 onto retinal ganglion cells, in-vivo electroporation method was employed for retina-transfection of RP mice. The behavioral improvement in mice with Thy1-ChR2-YFP transfected retina, expressing ChR2 in retinal ganglion cells, was found to correlate with stimulation intensity.

  6. A protocol for quantitative measurement of light intensity levels in food service operations.

    PubMed

    Kassa, Hailu; Keil, Charles; Fent, Kenneth W

    2004-09-01

    Food service workers conduct informal inspections of food service operations to ensure that food contamination does not occur. This activity requires proper lighting. Compliance with lighting standards is usually assessed by a qualitative, visual inspection method. Recent studies suggest, however, that qualitative inspections only minimally reduce risks of foodborne-disease outbreaks. To evaluate the efficacy of qualitative lighting level assessments, this study quantitatively measured lighting in walk-in coolers and at food preparation counters in 57 food service establishments. Measurements were conducted alongside regular sanitarian inspections. Of the 55 walk-in coolers evaluated, 12 had fluorescent and 43 had incandescent lighting. The geometic mean (GM) light level at the center of coolers with fluorescent lighting was 15.3 foot-candles (ft-c) (range: 6.4-85.5). Seventy-five percent of these coolers met the standard of 10 ft-c. The GM level at the center of coolers with incandescent lighting was 3.43 ft-c (range: 1.0-16.7). Seven percent of the incandescently lit coolers met the standard. Inadequate cooler illumination was indicated on only four sanitarian inspection reports. The GM level at 185 food preparation counters was 38.7 ft-c (range: 2.9-196.8). At 47 percent of the establishments, no counters met the 50 ft-c standard. Twenty-three percent of the establishments met the standard at all evaluated counters. Inadequate counter illumination was noted only once by a sanitarian. Qualitative assessments did not identify most of the lighting standard violations. Additional training and integration of quantitative assessments into inspections are warranted. Fluorescent lighting produced significantly higher light levels and pass rates in coolers and should become the lighting type of choice. Finally, gaps in the standards were identified and should be addressed. PMID:15468511

  7. Detection of 15 dB Squeezed States of Light and their Application for the Absolute Calibration of Photoelectric Quantum Efficiency.

    PubMed

    Vahlbruch, Henning; Mehmet, Moritz; Danzmann, Karsten; Schnabel, Roman

    2016-09-01

    Squeezed states of light belong to the most prominent nonclassical resources. They have compelling applications in metrology, which has been demonstrated by their routine exploitation for improving the sensitivity of a gravitational-wave detector since 2010. Here, we report on the direct measurement of 15 dB squeezed vacuum states of light and their application to calibrate the quantum efficiency of photoelectric detection. The object of calibration is a customized InGaAs positive intrinsic negative (p-i-n) photodiode optimized for high external quantum efficiency. The calibration yields a value of 99.5% with a 0.5% (k=2) uncertainty for a photon flux of the order 10^{17}  s^{-1} at a wavelength of 1064 nm. The calibration neither requires any standard nor knowledge of the incident light power and thus represents a valuable application of squeezed states of light in quantum metrology. PMID:27661673

  8. Visible Light-Driven Photocatalytic Activity of Oleic Acid-Coated TiO2 Nanoparticles Synthesized from Absolute Ethanol Solution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Huihui; Liu, Bin; Yin, Shu; Sato, Tsugio; Wang, Yuhua

    2015-10-01

    The one-step synthesis of oleic acid-coated TiO2 nanoparticles with visible light-driven photocatalytic activity was reported by this manuscript, using oleic acid-ethanol as crucial starting materials. The photocatalytic degradation of nitrogen monoxide (deNOx) in the gas phase was investigated in a continuous reactor using a series of TiO2 semiconductors, prepared from oleic acid- or acetic acid-ethanol solution. The surface modification on TiO2 by organic fatty acid, oleic acid, could reinvest TiO2 photocatalyst with the excellent visible light response. The deNOx ability is almost as high as 30 % destruction in the visible light region ( λ > 510 nm) which is similar to the nitrogen-doped TiO2. Meanwhile, acetic acid, a monobasic acid, has a weaker ability on visible light modification of TiO2.

  9. Detection of 15 dB Squeezed States of Light and their Application for the Absolute Calibration of Photoelectric Quantum Efficiency

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vahlbruch, Henning; Mehmet, Moritz; Danzmann, Karsten; Schnabel, Roman

    2016-09-01

    Squeezed states of light belong to the most prominent nonclassical resources. They have compelling applications in metrology, which has been demonstrated by their routine exploitation for improving the sensitivity of a gravitational-wave detector since 2010. Here, we report on the direct measurement of 15 dB squeezed vacuum states of light and their application to calibrate the quantum efficiency of photoelectric detection. The object of calibration is a customized InGaAs positive intrinsic negative (p-i-n) photodiode optimized for high external quantum efficiency. The calibration yields a value of 99.5% with a 0.5% (k =2 ) uncertainty for a photon flux of the order 1 017 s-1 at a wavelength of 1064 nm. The calibration neither requires any standard nor knowledge of the incident light power and thus represents a valuable application of squeezed states of light in quantum metrology.

  10. Red light as a 12-oxo-leukotriene B₄ antagonist: an explanation for the efficacy of intensive red light in the therapy of peripheral inflammatory diseases.

    PubMed

    Paschke, Fritz; Rabong, Constantin; Schuster, Christoph

    2014-12-01

    To explain the successful treatment of various inflammatory diseases by using intensive red light, a non-linear theory is presented for the interaction of electric dipoles with light involving frequency doubling. It is applied to analyze the influence of light on organic molecules with permanent electric dipoles. The molecule 5-hydroxy-12-oxo-(5S,6Z,8E,10E,14Z)-6,8,10,14-eicosatetraenoic acid, 12-oxo-leukotriene B4 (12-Oxo-LTB4, an intermediate in the lipoxygenase-catalyzed path of arachidonic acid metabolism), is suspected to play a major role in the healing process, as, first, it plays a key role in the metabolism of leukotriene B4 (LTB4), which in many diseases acts as a source of inflammatory reactions; second, its dipole resonance is located at a wavelength of 316 nm, which can be excited by a 632 nm source through frequency doubling. From the structure of 12-Oxo-LTB4 and the knowledge of the partial charges of its 54 atoms, the equivalent values for dipole charges and dipole moment are derived. The power balance demonstrates that intensive red light with a power density of 0.4 W/cm2 transfers sufficient energy to 12-Oxo-LTB4 to render it biologically inactive. Hence, by generating a reactive high-energy leukotriene pathway intermediate, the law of mass action steers the chemical equilibrium to interrupt the inflammatory cascade.

  11. Step-cure polymerization: effect of initial light intensity on resin/dentin bond strength in class I cavities.

    PubMed

    Santos, Alex José Souza; Sarmento, Carlos Frederico; Abuabara, Abuabara; Aguiar, Flávio Henrique Baggio; Lovadino, José Roberto

    2006-01-01

    This in vitro study assessed the effect of a step-cure light curing method on resin/dentin bond strength on the buccal wall of Class I cavities in human teeth. Occlusal enamel was removed to expose a flat dentin surface. Twenty four box-shaped cavities (C-factor = 4.5) were prepared in dentin. Prime&Bond 2.1 was applied and TPH Spectrum (Dentsply) was inserted using a bulk-filling increment. The composite was light-cured using either a step-cure photoactivation technique or a one-step continuous curing method. For step-cure polymerization, the initial cure intensity was varied by changing the distance between the light source and the resin surface. The light-cured resins were cured using four low light intensities: 150(G1), 200(G2), 250(G3) and 300(G4) mW/cm2. In the continuous exposure curing method, the samples were light-activated for 40 seconds at 740 mW/cm2 and irradiation was applied in a box-shaped cavity and a flat cavity (exposed buccal wall, C-factor = 0.22). Samples were prepared for TBS testing by creating bonded beams (of approximately 0.8 mm2) obtained from the buccal wall. The data were analyzed using one-way ANOVA, Tukey Test and Dunnett's Test at a significance level of 0.05. The mean TBS values for the continuous exposure group in the flat and box-shaped cavities were 24.31 and 10.23 MPa, respectively. The corresponding TBS for step-cure polymerization was 23.13 (G3), 18.83 (G2), 14.87 (G1) and 13.26 MPa (G4). Bond strength values to the cavity wall were lower in the three-dimensional cavities and dependent on the light curing method (p < 0.05). The use of a low initial light intensity (200-250 mW/cm2) for 10 seconds followed by high irradiation intensity provided the best bond strengths, similar to bonding in a flat cavity.

  12. Inactivation of micro-organisms isolated from infected lower limb arthroplasties using high-intensity narrow-spectrum (HINS) light.

    PubMed

    Gupta, S; Maclean, M; Anderson, J G; MacGregor, S J; Meek, R M D; Grant, M H

    2015-02-01

    High-intensity narrow-spectrum (HINS) light is a novel violet-blue light inactivation technology which kills bacteria through a photodynamic process, and has been shown to have bactericidal activity against a wide range of species. Specimens from patients with infected hip and knee arthroplasties were collected over a one-year period (1 May 2009 to 30 April 2010). A range of these microbial isolates were tested for sensitivity to HINS-light. During testing, suspensions of the pathogens were exposed to increasing doses of HINS-light (of 123mW/cm(2) irradiance). Non-light exposed control samples were also used. The samples were then plated onto agar plates and incubated at 37°C for 24 hours before enumeration. Complete inactivation (greater than 4-log10 reduction) was achieved for all of the isolates. The typical inactivation curve showed a slow initial reaction followed by a rapid period of inactivation. The doses of HINS-light required ranged between 118 and 2214 J/cm(2). Gram-positive bacteria were generally found to be more susceptible than Gram-negative. As HINS-light uses visible wavelengths, it can be safely used in the presence of patients and staff. This unique feature could lead to its possible use in the prevention of infection during surgery and post-operative dressing changes. Cite this article: Bone Joint J 2015;97-B:283-8.

  13. Scattering Intensity and Directionality Probed Along Individual Zinc Oxide Nanorods with Precisely Controlled Light Polarization and Nanorod Orientation

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Daniel S.; Singh, Manpreet; Song, Sheng; Chang, Jae Young; Kang, Yongkoo; Hahm, Jong-in

    2015-01-01

    We elucidated the light-matter interaction of individual ZnO NRs with a monochromatic beam of linearly polarized light that scatters elastically from the ZnO NRs by performing forward scattering and back-aperture imaging in a dark-field setting. We precisely controlled the electric field vector of the incident light and the NR orientation within the plane of light interaction during both modes of measurement, and spatially resolved the scattering response from different interaction points along the NR long axis. We then discerned, for the first time, the effects of light polarization, analyzer angle, and NR orientation on the intensity and directionality of the optical responses both qualitatively and quantitatively along the length of the single ZnO NRs. We identified distinctive scattering profiles from individual ZnO NRs subject to incident light polarization with controlled NR orientation from the forward dark-field scattering and back-aperture imaging modes. The fundamental light interaction behavior of ZnO NRs is likely to govern their functional outcomes in photonics, optoelectronics, and sensor devices. Hence, our efforts provided much needed insight into unique optical responses from individual 1D ZnO nanomaterials, which could be highly beneficial in developing next-generation optoelectronic systems and optical biodetectors with improved device efficiency and sensitivity. PMID:26568952

  14. Association between absolute volumes of lung spared from low-dose irradiation and radiation-induced lung injury after intensity-modulated radiotherapy in lung cancer: a retrospective analysis

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Jinmei; Hong, Jinsheng; Zou, Xi; Lv, Wenlong; Guo, Feibao; Hong, Hualan; Zhang, Weijian

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the association between absolute volumes of lung spared from low-dose irradiation and radiation-induced lung injury (RILI) after intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) for lung cancer. The normal lung relative volumes receiving greater than 5, 10, 20 and 30 Gy (V5–30) mean lung dose (MLD), and absolute volumes spared from greater than 5, 10, 20 and 30 Gy (AVS5–30) for the bilateral and ipsilateral lungs of 83 patients were recorded. Any association of clinical factors and dose–volume parameters with Grade ≥2 RILI was analyzed. The median follow-up was 12.3 months; 18 (21.7%) cases of Grade 2 RILI, seven (8.4%) of Grade 3 and two (2.4%) of Grade 4 were observed. Univariate analysis revealed the located lobe of the primary tumor. V5, V10, V20, MLD of the ipsilateral lung, V5, V10, V20, V30 and MLD of the bilateral lung, and AVS5 and AVS10 of the ipsilateral lung were associated with Grade ≥2 RILI (P < 0.05). Multivariate analysis indicated AVS5 of the ipsilateral lung was prognostic for Grade ≥2 RILI (P = 0.010, OR = 0.272, 95% CI: 0.102–0.729). Receiver operating characteristic curves indicated Grade ≥2 RILI could be predicted using AVS5 of the ipsilateral lung (area under curve, 0.668; cutoff value, 564.9 cm3; sensitivity, 60.7%; specificity, 70.4%). The incidence of Grade ≥2 RILI was significantly lower with AVS5 of the ipsilateral lung ≥564.9 cm3 than with AVS5 < 564.9 cm3 (P = 0.008). Low-dose irradiation relative volumes and MLD of the bilateral or ipsilateral lung were associated with Grade ≥2 RILI, and AVS5 of the ipsilateral lung was prognostic for Grade ≥2 RILI for lung cancer after IMRT. PMID:26454068

  15. The relationship between maximum tolerated light intensity and photoprotective energy dissipation in the photosynthetic antenna: chloroplast gains and losses

    PubMed Central

    Ruban, Alexander V.; Belgio, Erica

    2014-01-01

    The principle of quantifying the efficiency of protection of photosystem II (PSII) reaction centres against photoinhibition by non-photochemical energy dissipation (NPQ) has been recently introduced by Ruban & Murchie (2012 Biochim. Biophys. Acta 1817, 977–982 (doi:10.1016/j.bbabio.2012.03.026)). This is based upon the assessment of two key parameters: (i) the relationship between the PSII yield and NPQ, and (ii) the fraction of intact PSII reaction centres in the dark after illumination. In this paper, we have quantified the relationship between the amplitude of NPQ and the light intensity at which all PSII reaction centres remain intact for plants with different levels of PsbS protein, known to play a key role in the process. It was found that the same, nearly linear, relationship exists between the levels of the protective NPQ component (pNPQ) and the tolerated light intensity in all types of studied plants. This approach allowed for the quantification of the maximum tolerated light intensity, the light intensity at which all plant leaves become photoinhibited, the fraction of (most likely) unnecessary or ‘wasteful’ NPQ, and the fraction of photoinhibited PSII reaction centres under conditions of prolonged illumination by full sunlight. It was concluded that the governing factors in the photoprotection of PSII are the level and rate of protective pNPQ formation, which are often in discord with the amplitude of the conventional measure of photoprotection, the quickly reversible NPQ component, qE. Hence, we recommend pNPQ as a more informative and less ambiguous parameter than qE, as it reflects the effectiveness and limitations of the major photoprotective process of the photosynthetic membrane. PMID:24591709

  16. The relationship between maximum tolerated light intensity and photoprotective energy dissipation in the photosynthetic antenna: chloroplast gains and losses.

    PubMed

    Ruban, Alexander V; Belgio, Erica

    2014-04-19

    The principle of quantifying the efficiency of protection of photosystem II (PSII) reaction centres against photoinhibition by non-photochemical energy dissipation (NPQ) has been recently introduced by Ruban & Murchie (2012 Biochim. Biophys. Acta 1817, 977-982 (doi:10.1016/j.bbabio.2012.03.026)). This is based upon the assessment of two key parameters: (i) the relationship between the PSII yield and NPQ, and (ii) the fraction of intact PSII reaction centres in the dark after illumination. In this paper, we have quantified the relationship between the amplitude of NPQ and the light intensity at which all PSII reaction centres remain intact for plants with different levels of PsbS protein, known to play a key role in the process. It was found that the same, nearly linear, relationship exists between the levels of the protective NPQ component (pNPQ) and the tolerated light intensity in all types of studied plants. This approach allowed for the quantification of the maximum tolerated light intensity, the light intensity at which all plant leaves become photoinhibited, the fraction of (most likely) unnecessary or 'wasteful' NPQ, and the fraction of photoinhibited PSII reaction centres under conditions of prolonged illumination by full sunlight. It was concluded that the governing factors in the photoprotection of PSII are the level and rate of protective pNPQ formation, which are often in discord with the amplitude of the conventional measure of photoprotection, the quickly reversible NPQ component, qE. Hence, we recommend pNPQ as a more informative and less ambiguous parameter than qE, as it reflects the effectiveness and limitations of the major photoprotective process of the photosynthetic membrane.

  17. Absolute nuclear material assay

    DOEpatents

    Prasad, Manoj K.; Snyderman, Neal J.; Rowland, Mark S.

    2012-05-15

    A method of absolute nuclear material assay of an unknown source comprising counting neutrons from the unknown source and providing an absolute nuclear material assay utilizing a model to optimally compare to the measured count distributions. In one embodiment, the step of providing an absolute nuclear material assay comprises utilizing a random sampling of analytically computed fission chain distributions to generate a continuous time-evolving sequence of event-counts by spreading the fission chain distribution in time.

  18. Absolute nuclear material assay

    DOEpatents

    Prasad, Manoj K.; Snyderman, Neal J.; Rowland, Mark S.

    2010-07-13

    A method of absolute nuclear material assay of an unknown source comprising counting neutrons from the unknown source and providing an absolute nuclear material assay utilizing a model to optimally compare to the measured count distributions. In one embodiment, the step of providing an absolute nuclear material assay comprises utilizing a random sampling of analytically computed fission chain distributions to generate a continuous time-evolving sequence of event-counts by spreading the fission chain distribution in time.

  19. Photo-enhanced toxicity of fluoranthene to Gulf of Mexico marine organisms at different larval ages and ultraviolet light intensities.

    PubMed

    Finch, Bryson E; Stubblefield, William A

    2016-05-01

    Significant increases in toxicity have been observed as a result of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) absorption of ultraviolet (UV) radiation in aquatic organisms. Early life stage aquatic organisms are predicted to be more susceptible to PAH photo-enhanced toxicity as a result of their translucence and tendency to inhabit shallow littoral or surface waters. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the sensitivity of varying ages of larval mysid shrimp (Americamysis bahia), inland silverside (Menidia beryllina), sheepshead minnow (Cyprinodon variegatus), and Gulf killifish (Fundulus grandis) to photo-enhanced toxicity and to examine the correlation between photo-enhanced toxicity and organism pigmentation. Organisms were exposed to fluoranthene and artificial UV light at different larval ages and results were compared using median lethal concentrations (LC50s) and the lethal time-to-death (LT50s). In addition, a high UV light intensity, short-duration (4-h) experiment was conducted at approximately 24 W/m(2) of ultraviolet radiation A (UV-A) and compared with a low-intensity, long-duration (12-h) experiment at approximately 8 W/m(2) of UV-A. The results indicated decreased toxicity with increasing age for all larval organisms. The amount of organism pigmentation was correlated with observed LC50 and LT50 values. High-intensity short-duration exposure resulted in greater toxicity than low-intensity long-duration UV treatments for mysid shrimp, inland silverside, and sheepshead minnow. Data from these experiments suggest that toxicity is dependent on age, pigmentation, UV light intensity, and fluoranthene concentration. PMID:26590351

  20. Photo-enhanced toxicity of fluoranthene to Gulf of Mexico marine organisms at different larval ages and ultraviolet light intensities.

    PubMed

    Finch, Bryson E; Stubblefield, William A

    2016-05-01

    Significant increases in toxicity have been observed as a result of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) absorption of ultraviolet (UV) radiation in aquatic organisms. Early life stage aquatic organisms are predicted to be more susceptible to PAH photo-enhanced toxicity as a result of their translucence and tendency to inhabit shallow littoral or surface waters. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the sensitivity of varying ages of larval mysid shrimp (Americamysis bahia), inland silverside (Menidia beryllina), sheepshead minnow (Cyprinodon variegatus), and Gulf killifish (Fundulus grandis) to photo-enhanced toxicity and to examine the correlation between photo-enhanced toxicity and organism pigmentation. Organisms were exposed to fluoranthene and artificial UV light at different larval ages and results were compared using median lethal concentrations (LC50s) and the lethal time-to-death (LT50s). In addition, a high UV light intensity, short-duration (4-h) experiment was conducted at approximately 24 W/m(2) of ultraviolet radiation A (UV-A) and compared with a low-intensity, long-duration (12-h) experiment at approximately 8 W/m(2) of UV-A. The results indicated decreased toxicity with increasing age for all larval organisms. The amount of organism pigmentation was correlated with observed LC50 and LT50 values. High-intensity short-duration exposure resulted in greater toxicity than low-intensity long-duration UV treatments for mysid shrimp, inland silverside, and sheepshead minnow. Data from these experiments suggest that toxicity is dependent on age, pigmentation, UV light intensity, and fluoranthene concentration.