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Sample records for absolute magnitude distribution

  1. The absolute magnitude distribution of cold classical Kuiper belt objects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petit, Jean-Marc; Bannister, Michele T.; Alexandersen, Mike; Chen, Ying-Tung; Gladman, Brett; Gwyn, Stephen; Kavelaars, JJ; Volk, Kathryn

    2016-10-01

    We report measurements of the low inclination component of the main Kuiper Belt showing a size freqency distribution very steep for sizes larger than H_r ~ 6.5-7.0 and then a flattening to shallower slope that is still steeper than the collisional equilibrium slope.The Outer Solar System Origins Survey (OSSOS) is ongoing and is expected to detect over 500 TNOs in a precisely calibrated and characterized survey. Combining our current sample with CFEPS and the Alexandersen et al. (2015) survey, we analyse a sample of ~180 low inclination main classical (cold) TNOs, with absolute magnitude H_r (SDSS r' like flter) in the range 5 to 8.8. We confirm that the H_r distribution can be approximated by an exponential with a very steep slope (>1) at the bright end of the distribution, as has been recognized long ago. A transition to a shallower slope occurs around H_r ~ 6.5 - 7.0, an H_r mag identified by Fraster et al (2014). Faintward of this transition, we find a second exponential to be a good approximation at least until H_r ~ 8.5, but with a slope significantly steeper than the one proposed by Fraser et al. (2014) or even the collisional equilibrium value of 0.5.The transition in the cold TNO H_r distribution thus appears to occur at larger sizes than is observed in the high inclination main classical (hot) belt, an important indicator of a different cosmogony for these two sub-components of the main classical Kuiper belt. Given the largish slope faintward of the transition, the cold population with ~100 km diameter may dominate the mass of the Kuiper belt in the 40 AU < a < 47 au region.

  2. Debiased orbit and absolute-magnitude distributions for near-Earth objects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Granvik, Mikael; Morbidelli, Alessandro; Jedicke, Robert; Bolin, Bryce; Bottke, William F.; Beshore, Edward; Vokrouhlický, David; Nesvorný, David; Michel, Patrick

    2018-09-01

    The debiased absolute-magnitude and orbit distributions as well as source regions for near-Earth objects (NEOs) provide a fundamental frame of reference for studies of individual NEOs and more complex population-level questions. We present a new four-dimensional model of the NEO population that describes debiased steady-state distributions of semimajor axis, eccentricity, inclination, and absolute magnitude H in the range 17 < H < 25. The modeling approach improves upon the methodology originally developed by Bottke et al. (2000, Science 288, 2190-2194) in that it is, for example, based on more realistic orbit distributions and uses source-specific absolute-magnitude distributions that allow for a power-law slope that varies with H. We divide the main asteroid belt into six different entrance routes or regions (ER) to the NEO region: the ν6, 3:1J, 5:2J and 2:1J resonance complexes as well as Hungarias and Phocaeas. In addition we include the Jupiter-family comets as the primary cometary source of NEOs. We calibrate the model against NEO detections by Catalina Sky Surveys' stations 703 and G96 during 2005-2012, and utilize the complementary nature of these two systems to quantify the systematic uncertainties associated to the resulting model. We find that the (fitted) H distributions have significant differences, although most of them show a minimum power-law slope at H ∼ 20. As a consequence of the differences between the ER-specific H distributions we find significant variations in, for example, the NEO orbit distribution, average lifetime, and the relative contribution of different ERs as a function of H. The most important ERs are the ν6 and 3:1J resonance complexes with JFCs contributing a few percent of NEOs on average. A significant contribution from the Hungaria group leads to notable changes compared to the predictions by Bottke et al. in, for example, the orbit distribution and average lifetime of NEOs. We predict that there are 962-56+52 (802-42+48

  3. OSSOS. II. A Sharp Transition in the Absolute Magnitude Distribution of the Kuiper Belt’s Scattering Population

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shankman, C.; Kavelaars, JJ.; Gladman, B. J.; Alexandersen, M.; Kaib, N.; Petit, J.-M.; Bannister, M. T.; Chen, Y.-T.; Gwyn, S.; Jakubik, M.; Volk, K.

    2016-02-01

    We measure the absolute magnitude, H, distribution, dN(H) ∝ 10 αH , of the scattering Trans-Neptunian Objects (TNOs) as a proxy for their size-frequency distribution. We show that the H-distribution of the scattering TNOs is not consistent with a single-slope distribution, but must transition around H g ˜ 9 to either a knee with a shallow slope or to a divot, which is a differential drop followed by second exponential distribution. Our analysis is based on a sample of 22 scattering TNOs drawn from three different TNO surveys—the Canada-France Ecliptic Plane Survey, Alexandersen et al., and the Outer Solar System Origins Survey, all of which provide well-characterized detection thresholds—combined with a cosmogonic model for the formation of the scattering TNO population. Our measured absolute magnitude distribution result is independent of the choice of cosmogonic model. Based on our analysis, we estimate that the number of scattering TNOs is (2.4-8.3) × 105 for H r < 12. A divot H-distribution is seen in a variety of formation scenarios and may explain several puzzles in Kuiper Belt science. We find that a divot H-distribution simultaneously explains the observed scattering TNO, Neptune Trojan, Plutino, and Centaur H-distributions while simultaneously predicting a large enough scattering TNO population to act as the sole supply of the Jupiter-Family Comets.

  4. OSSOS. II. A SHARP TRANSITION IN THE ABSOLUTE MAGNITUDE DISTRIBUTION OF THE KUIPER BELT’S SCATTERING POPULATION

    SciTech Connect

    Shankman, C.; Kavelaars, JJ.; Bannister, M. T.

    We measure the absolute magnitude, H, distribution, dN(H) ∝ 10{sup αH}, of the scattering Trans-Neptunian Objects (TNOs) as a proxy for their size-frequency distribution. We show that the H-distribution of the scattering TNOs is not consistent with a single-slope distribution, but must transition around H{sub g} ∼ 9 to either a knee with a shallow slope or to a divot, which is a differential drop followed by second exponential distribution. Our analysis is based on a sample of 22 scattering TNOs drawn from three different TNO surveys—the Canada–France Ecliptic Plane Survey, Alexandersen et al., and the Outer Solar System Origins Survey, all of whichmore » provide well-characterized detection thresholds—combined with a cosmogonic model for the formation of the scattering TNO population. Our measured absolute magnitude distribution result is independent of the choice of cosmogonic model. Based on our analysis, we estimate that the number of scattering TNOs is (2.4–8.3) × 10{sup 5} for H{sub r} < 12. A divot H-distribution is seen in a variety of formation scenarios and may explain several puzzles in Kuiper Belt science. We find that a divot H-distribution simultaneously explains the observed scattering TNO, Neptune Trojan, Plutino, and Centaur H-distributions while simultaneously predicting a large enough scattering TNO population to act as the sole supply of the Jupiter-Family Comets.« less

  5. The Absolute Magnitude of the Sun in Several Filters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Willmer, Christopher N. A.

    2018-06-01

    This paper presents a table with estimates of the absolute magnitude of the Sun and the conversions from vegamag to the AB and ST systems for several wide-band filters used in ground-based and space-based observatories. These estimates use the dustless spectral energy distribution (SED) of Vega, calibrated absolutely using the SED of Sirius, to set the vegamag zero-points and a composite spectrum of the Sun that coadds space-based observations from the ultraviolet to the near-infrared with models of the Solar atmosphere. The uncertainty of the absolute magnitudes is estimated by comparing the synthetic colors with photometric measurements of solar analogs and is found to be ∼0.02 mag. Combined with the uncertainty of ∼2% in the calibration of the Vega SED, the errors of these absolute magnitudes are ∼3%–4%. Using these SEDs, for three of the most utilized filters in extragalactic work the estimated absolute magnitudes of the Sun are M B = 5.44, M V = 4.81, and M K = 3.27 mag in the vegamag system and M B = 5.31, M V = 4.80, and M K = 5.08 mag in AB.

  6. Debiased estimates for NEO orbits, absolute magnitudes, and source regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Granvik, Mikael; Morbidelli, Alessandro; Jedicke, Robert; Bolin, Bryce T.; Bottke, William; Beshore, Edward C.; Vokrouhlicky, David; Nesvorny, David; Michel, Patrick

    2017-10-01

    The debiased absolute-magnitude and orbit distributions as well as source regions for near-Earth objects (NEOs) provide a fundamental frame of reference for studies on individual NEOs as well as on more complex population-level questions. We present a new four-dimensional model of the NEO population that describes debiased steady-state distributions of semimajor axis (a), eccentricity (e), inclination (i), and absolute magnitude (H). We calibrate the model using NEO detections by the 703 and G96 stations of the Catalina Sky Survey (CSS) during 2005-2012 corresponding to objects with 17distribution to change as a function of H and we carry out the fitting in an absolute sense using the biases computed for CSS (Jedicke et al. 2016, Icarus 266, 173). The model makes use of six source regions or escape routes from the main asteroid belt as identified by Granvik et al. (2017, A&A 598, A52) in addition to Jupiter-family comets: Hungaria and Phocaea asteroids, and main-belt asteroids escaping through the ν6, 3:1J, 5:2J and 2:1J resonance complexes. We account for the destruction of asteroids with small perihelion distances (Granvik et al. 2016, Nature 530, 303) by fitting a penalty function in perihelion distance. Our model accurately reproduces the observed distribution of NEOs and the predicted numbers, particularly for the larger NEOs, are in agreement with other contemporary estimates. Our model also provides updated estimates for the likelihood of the various source regions and escape routes as a function of NEO (a,e,i,H) parameters. We present the model and its predictions, and discuss them in the context of other contemporary estimates.

  7. Absolute magnitude calibration using trigonometric parallax - Incomplete, spectroscopic samples

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ratnatunga, Kavan U.; Casertano, Stefano

    1991-01-01

    A new numerical algorithm is used to calibrate the absolute magnitude of spectroscopically selected stars from their observed trigonometric parallax. This procedure, based on maximum-likelihood estimation, can retrieve unbiased estimates of the intrinsic absolute magnitude and its dispersion even from incomplete samples suffering from selection biases in apparent magnitude and color. It can also make full use of low accuracy and negative parallaxes and incorporate censorship on reported parallax values. Accurate error estimates are derived for each of the fitted parameters. The algorithm allows an a posteriori check of whether the fitted model gives a good representation of the observations. The procedure is described in general and applied to both real and simulated data.

  8. Absolute Magnitude Calibration for Dwarfs Based on the Colour-Magnitude Diagrams of Galactic Clusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karaali, S.; Gökçe, E. Yaz; Bilir, S.; Güçtekin, S. Tunçel

    2014-07-01

    We present two absolute magnitude calibrations for dwarfs based on colour-magnitude diagrams of Galactic clusters. The combination of the Mg absolute magnitudes of the dwarf fiducial sequences of the clusters M92, M13, M5, NGC 2420, M67, and NGC 6791 with the corresponding metallicities provides absolute magnitude calibration for a given (g - r)0 colour. The calibration is defined in the colour interval 0.25 ≤ (g - r)0 ≤ 1.25 mag and it covers the metallicity interval - 2.15 ≤ [Fe/H] ≤ +0.37 dex. The absolute magnitude residuals obtained by the application of the procedure to another set of Galactic clusters lie in the interval - 0.15 ≤ ΔMg ≤ +0.12 mag. The mean and standard deviation of the residuals are < ΔMg > = - 0.002 and σ = 0.065 mag, respectively. The calibration of the MJ absolute magnitude in terms of metallicity is carried out by using the fiducial sequences of the clusters M92, M13, 47 Tuc, NGC 2158, and NGC 6791. It is defined in the colour interval 0.90 ≤ (V - J)0 ≤ 1.75 mag and it covers the same metallicity interval of the Mg calibration. The absolute magnitude residuals obtained by the application of the procedure to the cluster M5 ([Fe/H] = -1.40 dex) and 46 solar metallicity, - 0.45 ≤ [Fe/H] ≤ +0.35 dex, field stars lie in the interval - 0.29 and + 0.35 mag. However, the range of 87% of them is rather shorter, - 0.20 ≤ ΔMJ ≤ +0.20 mag. The mean and standard deviation of all residuals are < ΔMJ > =0.05 and σ = 0.13 mag, respectively. The derived relations are applicable to stars older than 4 Gyr for the Mg calibration, and older than 2 Gyr for the MJ calibration. The cited limits are the ages of the youngest calibration clusters in the two systems.

  9. Metallicity and absolute magnitude calibrations for UBV photometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karataş, Y.; Schuster, W. J.

    2006-10-01

    Calibrations are presented here for metallicity ([Fe/H]) in terms of the ultraviolet excess, [δ(U - B) at B - V = 0.6, hereafter δ0.6], and also for the absolute visual magnitude (MV) and its difference with respect to the Hyades (ΔMHV) in terms of δ0.6 and (B - V), making use of high-resolution spectroscopic abundances from the literature and Hipparcos parallaxes. The relation [Fe/H]-δ0.6 has been derived for dwarf plus turn-off stars, and also for dwarf, turn-off, plus subgiant stars classified using the MV-(B - V)0 plane of Fig. 11, which is calibrated with isochrones from Bergbusch & VandenBerg (and also VandenBerg & Clem). The [Fe/H]-δ0.6 relations in our equations (5) and (6) agree well with those of Carney, as can be seen from Fig. 5(a). Within the uncertainties, the zero-points, +0.13(+/-0.05) of equation (5) and +0.13(+/-0.04) of equation (6), are in good agreement with the photometric ones of Cameron and of Carney, and close to the spectroscopic ones of Cayrel et al. and of Boesgaard & Friel for the Hyades open cluster. Good quantitative agreement between our estimated [Fe/H] abundances with those from uvby-β photometry and spectroscopic [Fe/H]spec values demonstrates that our equation (6) can be used in deriving quality photometric metal abundances for field stars and clusters using UBV data from various photometric surveys. For dwarf and turn-off stars, a new hybrid MV calibration is presented, based on Hipparcos parallaxes with σπ/π <= 0.1 and with a dispersion of +/-0.24 in MV. This hybrid MV calibration contains δ0.6 and (B - V) terms, plus higher order cross-terms of these, and is valid for the ranges of +0.37 <= (B - V)0 <= +0.88,- 0.10 <= δ0.6 <= +0.29 and 3.44 <= MV <= 7.23. For dwarf and turn-off stars, the relation for ΔMHV is revised and updated in terms of (B - V) and δ0.6, for the ranges of -0.10 <= δ0.6 <= +0.29, and +0.49 <= (B - V)0 <= +0.89, again making use of Hipparcos parallaxes with σπ/π <= 0.1. These parallaxes for

  10. The absolute magnitudes of RR Lyrae stars. II - DX Delphini

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Skillen, I.; Fernley, J. A.; Jameson, R. F.; Lynas-Gray, A. E.; Longmore, A. J.

    1989-11-01

    UV, IR and visual photometry of the short-period RR Lyrae star DX Del is presented and treated by means of the Blackwell and Shallis (1977) IR Flux Method-based formulation of the Baade-Wesselink method. Upon correcting to common reddening, extinction, and radial-velocity conversion factors, as well as applying the Baade-Wesselink analysis of Burki and Meylan (1986), it proved impossible to reproduce their results. It is suggested that the present methods are inherently more stable than those of Burki and Meylan, given their reliance on optical colors and magnitudes to derive effective temperatures and radii.

  11. Empirical photometric calibration of the Gaia red clump: Colours, effective temperature, and absolute magnitude

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruiz-Dern, L.; Babusiaux, C.; Arenou, F.; Turon, C.; Lallement, R.

    2018-01-01

    Context. Gaia Data Release 1 allows the recalibration of standard candles such as the red clump stars. To use those stars, they first need to be accurately characterised. In particular, colours are needed to derive interstellar extinction. As no filter is available for the first Gaia data release and to avoid the atmosphere model mismatch, an empirical calibration is unavoidable. Aims: The purpose of this work is to provide the first complete and robust photometric empirical calibration of the Gaia red clump stars of the solar neighbourhood through colour-colour, effective temperature-colour, and absolute magnitude-colour relations from the Gaia, Johnson, 2MASS, HIPPARCOS, Tycho-2, APASS-SLOAN, and WISE photometric systems, and the APOGEE DR13 spectroscopic temperatures. Methods: We used a 3D extinction map to select low reddening red giants. To calibrate the colour-colour and the effective temperature-colour relations, we developed a MCMC method that accounts for all variable uncertainties and selects the best model for each photometric relation. We estimated the red clump absolute magnitude through the mode of a kernel-based distribution function. Results: We provide 20 colour versus G-Ks relations and the first Teff versus G-Ks calibration. We obtained the red clump absolute magnitudes for 15 photometric bands with, in particular, MKs = (-1.606 ± 0.009) and MG = (0.495 ± 0.009) + (1.121 ± 0.128)(G-Ks-2.1). We present a dereddened Gaia-TGAS HR diagram and use the calibrations to compare its red clump and its red giant branch bump with Padova isochrones. Full Table A.1 is only available at the CDS via anonymous ftp to http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (http://130.79.128.5) or via http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr/viz-bin/qcat?J/A+A/609/A116

  12. Independent coding of absolute duration and distance magnitudes in the prefrontal cortex

    PubMed Central

    Marcos, Encarni; Tsujimoto, Satoshi

    2016-01-01

    The estimation of space and time can interfere with each other, and neuroimaging studies have shown overlapping activation in the parietal and prefrontal cortical areas. We used duration and distance discrimination tasks to determine whether space and time share resources in prefrontal cortex (PF) neurons. Monkeys were required to report which of two stimuli, a red circle or blue square, presented sequentially, were longer and farther, respectively, in the duration and distance tasks. In a previous study, we showed that relative duration and distance are coded by different populations of neurons and that the only common representation is related to goal coding. Here, we examined the coding of absolute duration and distance. Our results support a model of independent coding of absolute duration and distance metrics by demonstrating that not only relative magnitude but also absolute magnitude are independently coded in the PF. NEW & NOTEWORTHY Human behavioral studies have shown that spatial and duration judgments can interfere with each other. We investigated the neural representation of such magnitudes in the prefrontal cortex. We found that the two magnitudes are independently coded by prefrontal neurons. We suggest that the interference among magnitude judgments might depend on the goal rather than the perceptual resource sharing. PMID:27760814

  13. Modeling of magnitude distributions by the generalized truncated exponential distribution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raschke, Mathias

    2015-01-01

    The probability distribution of the magnitude can be modeled by an exponential distribution according to the Gutenberg-Richter relation. Two alternatives are the truncated exponential distribution (TED) and the cutoff exponential distribution (CED). The TED is frequently used in seismic hazard analysis although it has a weak point: when two TEDs with equal parameters except the upper bound magnitude are mixed, then the resulting distribution is not a TED. Inversely, it is also not possible to split a TED of a seismic region into TEDs of subregions with equal parameters except the upper bound magnitude. This weakness is a principal problem as seismic regions are constructed scientific objects and not natural units. We overcome it by the generalization of the abovementioned exponential distributions: the generalized truncated exponential distribution (GTED). Therein, identical exponential distributions are mixed by the probability distribution of the correct cutoff points. This distribution model is flexible in the vicinity of the upper bound magnitude and is equal to the exponential distribution for smaller magnitudes. Additionally, the exponential distributions TED and CED are special cases of the GTED. We discuss the possible ways of estimating its parameters and introduce the normalized spacing for this purpose. Furthermore, we present methods for geographic aggregation and differentiation of the GTED and demonstrate the potential and universality of our simple approach by applying it to empirical data. The considerable improvement by the GTED in contrast to the TED is indicated by a large difference between the corresponding values of the Akaike information criterion.

  14. Spectrophotometry of Wolf-Rayet stars - Intrinsic colors and absolute magnitudes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Torres-Dodgen, Ana V.; Massey, Philip

    1988-01-01

    Absolute spectrophotometry of about 10-A resolution in the range 3400-7300 A have been obtained for southern Wolf-Rayet stars, and line-free magnitudes and colors have been constructed. The emission-line contamination in the narrow-band ubvr systems of Westerlund (1966) and Smith (1968) is shown to be small for most WN stars, but to be quite significant for WC stars. It is suggested that the more severe differences in intrinsic color from star to star of the same spectral subtype noted at shorter wavelengths are due to differences in atmospheric extent. True continuum absolute visual magnitudes and intrinsic colors are obtained for the LMC WR stars. The most visually luminous WN6-WN7 stars are found to be located in the core of the 30 Doradus region.

  15. Distance and absolute magnitudes of the brightest stars in the dwarf galaxy Sextans A

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sandage, A.; Carlson, G.

    1982-01-01

    In an attempt to improve present bright star calibration, data were gathered for the brightest red and blue stars and the Cepheids in the Im V dwarf galaxy, Sextans A. On the basis of a magnitude sequence measured to V and B values of about 22 and 23, respectively, the mean magnitudes of the three brightest blue stars are V=17.98 and B=17.88. The three brightest red supergiants have V=18.09 and B=20.14. The periods and magnitudes measured for five Cepheids yield an apparent blue distance modulus of 25.67 + or - 0.2, via the P-L relation, and the mean absolute magnitudes of V=-7.56 and B=-5.53 for the red supergiants provide additional calibration of the brightest red stars as distance indicators. If Sextans A were placed at the distance of the Virgo cluster, it would appear to have a surface brightness of 23.5 mag/sq arcec. This, together with the large angular diameter, would make such a galaxy easily discoverable in the Virgo cluster by means of ground-based surveys.

  16. VizieR Online Data Catalog: R absolute magnitudes of Kuiper Belt objects (Peixinho+, 2012)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peixinho, N.; Delsanti, A.; Guilbert-Lepoutre, A.; Gafeira, R.; Lacerda, P.

    2012-06-01

    Compilation of absolute magnitude HRα, B-R color spectral features used in this work. For each object, we computed the average color index from the different papers presenting data obtained simultaneously in B and R bands (e.g. contiguous observations within a same night). When individual R apparent magnitude and date were available, we computed the HRα=R-5log(r Delta), where R is the R-band magnitude, r and Delta are the helio- and geocentric distances at the time of observation in AU, respectively. When V and V-R colors were available, we derived an R and then HRα value. We did not correct for the phase-angle α effect. This table includes also spectral information on the presence of water ice, methanol, methane, or confirmed featureless spectra, as available in the literature. We highlight only the cases with clear bands in the spectrum, which were reported/confirmed by some other work. The 1st column indicates the object identification number and name or provisional designation; the 2nd column indicates the dynamical class; the 3rd column indicates the average HRα value and 1-σ error bars; the 4th column indicates the average $B-R$ color and 1-σ error bars; the 5th column indicates the most important spectral features detected; and the 6th column points to the bibliographic references used for each object. (3 data files).

  17. The absolute magnitudes of RR Lyraes from HIPPARCOS parallaxes and proper motions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fernley, J.; Barnes, T. G.; Skillen, I.; Hawley, S. L.; Hanley, C. J.; Evans, D. W.; Solano, E.; Garrido, R.

    1998-02-01

    We have used HIPPARCOS proper motions and the method of Statistical Parallax to estimate the absolute magnitude of RR Lyrae stars. In addition we used the HIPPARCOS parallax of RR Lyrae itself to determine it's absolute magnitude. These two results are in excellent agreement with each other and give a zero-point for the RR Lyrae M_v,[Fe/H] relation of 0.77+/-0.15 at [Fe/H]=-1.53. This zero-point is in good agreement with that obtained recently by several groups using Baade-Wesselink methods which, averaged over the results from the different groups, gives M_v = 0.73+/-0.14 at [Fe/H]=-1.53. Taking the HIPPARCOS based zero-point and a value of 0.18+/-0.03 for the slope of the M_v,[Fe/H] relation from the literature we find firstly, the distance modulus of the LMC is 18.26+/-0.15 and secondly, the mean age of the Globular Clusters is 17.4+/-3.0 GYrs. These values are compared with recent estimates based on other "standard candles" that have also been calibrated with HIPPARCOS data. It is clear that, in addition to astrophysical problems, there are also problems in the application of HIPPARCOS data that are not yet fully understood. Table 1, which contains the basic data for the RR Lyraes, is available only at CDS. It may be retrieved via anonymous FTP at cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (130.79.128.5) or via the Web at http://cdsweb.u-strasbg.fr/Abstract.html

  18. Absolute nuclear material assay using count distribution (LAMBDA) space

    DOEpatents

    Prasad, Manoj K [Pleasanton, CA; Snyderman, Neal J [Berkeley, CA; Rowland, Mark S [Alamo, CA

    2012-06-05

    A method of absolute nuclear material assay of an unknown source comprising counting neutrons from the unknown source and providing an absolute nuclear material assay utilizing a model to optimally compare to the measured count distributions. In one embodiment, the step of providing an absolute nuclear material assay comprises utilizing a random sampling of analytically computed fission chain distributions to generate a continuous time-evolving sequence of event-counts by spreading the fission chain distribution in time.

  19. Absolute nuclear material assay using count distribution (LAMBDA) space

    SciTech Connect

    Prasad, Mano K.; Snyderman, Neal J.; Rowland, Mark S.

    A method of absolute nuclear material assay of an unknown source comprising counting neutrons from the unknown source and providing an absolute nuclear material assay utilizing a model to optimally compare to the measured count distributions. In one embodiment, the step of providing an absolute nuclear material assay comprises utilizing a random sampling of analytically computed fission chain distributions to generate a continuous time-evolving sequence of event-counts by spreading the fission chain distribution in time.

  20. The global distribution of magnitude 9 earthquakes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McCaffrey, R.

    2011-12-01

    The 2011 Tohoku M9 earthquake once again caught some in the earthquake community by surprise. The expectation of these massive quakes has been driven in the past by the over-reliance on our short, incomplete history of earthquakes and causal relationships derived from it. The logic applied is that if a great earthquake has not happened in the past, that we know of, one cannot happen in the future. Using the ~100-year global earthquake history, seismologists have promoted relationships between maximum earthquake sizes and other properties of subduction zones, leading to the notion that some subduction zones, like the Japan Trench, would never produce a magnitude ~9 event. The 2004 Andaman Mw = 9.2 earthquake, that occurred where there is slow subduction of old crust and a history of only moderate-sized earthquakes, seriously undermined such ideas. Given multi-century return times of the greatest earthquakes, ignorance of those return times and our very limited observation span, I suggest that we cannot yet make such determinations. Alternatively, using the length of a subduction zone that is available for slip as the predominant factor in determining maximum earthquake size, we cannot rule out that any subduction zone of a few hundred kilometers or more in length may be capable of producing a magnitude 9 or larger earthquake. Based on this method, the expected maximum size for the Japan Trench was 9.0 (McCaffrey, Geology, p. 263, 2008). The same approach portends a M > 9 for Java, with twice the population density as Honshu and much lower building standards. The Java Trench, and others where old crust subducts (Hikurangi, Marianas, Tonga, Kermadec), require increased awareness of the possibility for a great earthquake.

  1. Using A New Model for Main Sequence Turnoff Absolute Magnitudes to Measure Stellar Streams in the Milky Way Halo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weiss, Jake; Newberg, Heidi Jo; Arsenault, Matthew; Bechtel, Torrin; Desell, Travis; Newby, Matthew; Thompson, Jeffery M.

    2016-01-01

    Statistical photometric parallax is a method for using the distribution of absolute magnitudes of stellar tracers to statistically recover the underlying density distribution of these tracers. In previous work, statistical photometric parallax was used to trace the Sagittarius Dwarf tidal stream, the so-called bifurcated piece of the Sagittaritus stream, and the Virgo Overdensity through the Milky Way. We use an improved knowledge of this distribution in a new algorithm that accounts for the changes in the stellar population of color-selected stars near the photometric limit of the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS). Although we select bluer main sequence turnoff stars (MSTO) as tracers, large color errors near the survey limit cause many stars to be scattered out of our selection box and many fainter, redder stars to be scattered into our selection box. We show that we are able to recover parameters for analogues of these streams in simulated data using a maximum likelihood optimization on MilkyWay@home. We also present the preliminary results of fitting the density distribution of major Milky Way tidal streams in SDSS data. This research is supported by generous gifts from the Marvin Clan, Babette Josephs, Manit Limlamai, and the MilkyWay@home volunteers.

  2. The color-magnitude distribution of small Kuiper Belt objects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wong, Ian; Brown, Michael E.

    2015-11-01

    Occupying a vast region beyond the ice giants is an extensive swarm of minor bodies known as the Kuiper Belt. Enigmatic in their formation, composition, and evolution, these Kuiper Belt objects (KBOs) lie at the intersection of many of the most important topics in planetary science. Improved instruments and large-scale surveys have revealed a complex dynamical picture of the Kuiper Belt. Meanwhile, photometric studies have indicated that small KBOs display a wide range of colors, which may reflect a chemically diverse initial accretion environment and provide important clues to constraining the surface compositions of these objects. Notably, some recent work has shown evidence for bimodality in the colors of non-cold classical KBOs, which would have major implications for the formation and subsequent evolution of the entire KBO population. However, these previous color measurements are few and mostly come from targeted observations of known objects. As a consequence, the effect of observational biases cannot be readily removed, preventing one from obtaining an accurate picture of the true color distribution of the KBOs as a whole.We carried out a survey of KBOs using the Hyper Suprime-Cam instrument on the 8.2-meter Subaru telescope. Our observing fields targeted regions away from the ecliptic plane so as to avoid contamination from cold classical KBOs. Each field was imaged in both the g’ and i’ filters, which allowed us to calculate the g’-i’ color of each detected object. We detected more than 500 KBOs over two nights of observation, with absolute magnitudes from H=6 to H=11. Our survey increases the number of KBOs fainter than H=8 with known colors by more than an order of magnitude. We find that the distribution of colors demonstrates a robust bimodality across the entire observed range of KBO sizes, from which we can categorize individual objects into two color sub-populations -- the red and very-red KBOs. We present the very first analysis of the

  3. The orbit of Phi Cygni measured with long-baseline optical interferometry - Component masses and absolute magnitudes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Armstrong, J. T.; Hummel, C. A.; Quirrenbach, A.; Buscher, D. F.; Mozurkewich, D.; Vivekanand, M.; Simon, R. S.; Denison, C. S.; Johnston, K. J.; Pan, X.-P.

    1992-01-01

    The orbit of the double-lined spectroscopic binary Phi Cygni, the distance to the system, and the masses and absolute magnitudes of its components are presented via measurements with the Mar III Optical Interferometer. On the basis of a reexamination of the spectroscopic data of Rach & Herbig (1961), the values and uncertainties are adopted for the period and the projected semimajor axes from the present fit to the spectroscopic data and the values of the remaining elements from the present fit to the Mark III data. The elements of the true orbit are derived, and the masses and absolute magnitudes of the components, and the distance to the system are calculated.

  4. A Concurrent Mixed Methods Approach to Examining the Quantitative and Qualitative Meaningfulness of Absolute Magnitude Estimation Scales in Survey Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koskey, Kristin L. K.; Stewart, Victoria C.

    2014-01-01

    This small "n" observational study used a concurrent mixed methods approach to address a void in the literature with regard to the qualitative meaningfulness of the data yielded by absolute magnitude estimation scaling (MES) used to rate subjective stimuli. We investigated whether respondents' scales progressed from less to more and…

  5. Determining on-fault earthquake magnitude distributions from integer programming

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Geist, Eric L.; Parsons, Tom

    2018-02-01

    Earthquake magnitude distributions among faults within a fault system are determined from regional seismicity and fault slip rates using binary integer programming. A synthetic earthquake catalog (i.e., list of randomly sampled magnitudes) that spans millennia is first formed, assuming that regional seismicity follows a Gutenberg-Richter relation. Each earthquake in the synthetic catalog can occur on any fault and at any location. The objective is to minimize misfits in the target slip rate for each fault, where slip for each earthquake is scaled from its magnitude. The decision vector consists of binary variables indicating which locations are optimal among all possibilities. Uncertainty estimates in fault slip rates provide explicit upper and lower bounding constraints to the problem. An implicit constraint is that an earthquake can only be located on a fault if it is long enough to contain that earthquake. A general mixed-integer programming solver, consisting of a number of different algorithms, is used to determine the optimal decision vector. A case study is presented for the State of California, where a 4 kyr synthetic earthquake catalog is created and faults with slip ≥3 mm/yr are considered, resulting in >106 variables. The optimal magnitude distributions for each of the faults in the system span a rich diversity of shapes, ranging from characteristic to power-law distributions.

  6. Determining on-fault earthquake magnitude distributions from integer programming

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Geist, Eric L.; Parsons, Thomas E.

    2018-01-01

    Earthquake magnitude distributions among faults within a fault system are determined from regional seismicity and fault slip rates using binary integer programming. A synthetic earthquake catalog (i.e., list of randomly sampled magnitudes) that spans millennia is first formed, assuming that regional seismicity follows a Gutenberg-Richter relation. Each earthquake in the synthetic catalog can occur on any fault and at any location. The objective is to minimize misfits in the target slip rate for each fault, where slip for each earthquake is scaled from its magnitude. The decision vector consists of binary variables indicating which locations are optimal among all possibilities. Uncertainty estimates in fault slip rates provide explicit upper and lower bounding constraints to the problem. An implicit constraint is that an earthquake can only be located on a fault if it is long enough to contain that earthquake. A general mixed-integer programming solver, consisting of a number of different algorithms, is used to determine the optimal decision vector. A case study is presented for the State of California, where a 4 kyr synthetic earthquake catalog is created and faults with slip ≥3 mm/yr are considered, resulting in >106  variables. The optimal magnitude distributions for each of the faults in the system span a rich diversity of shapes, ranging from characteristic to power-law distributions

  7. Absolute Nuv magnitudes of Gaia DR1 astrometric stars and a search for hot companions in nearby systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Makarov, V. V.

    2017-10-01

    Accurate parallaxes from Gaia DR1 (TGAS) are combined with GALEX visual Nuv magnitudes to produce absolute Mnuv magnitudes and an ultraviolet HR diagram for a large sample of astrometric stars. A functional fit is derived of the lower envelope main sequence of the nearest 1403 stars (distance <40 pc), which should be reddening-free. Using this empirical fit, 50 nearby stars are selected with significant Nuv excess. These are predominantly late K and early M dwarfs, often associated with X-ray sources, and showing other manifestations of magnetic activity. The sample may include systems with hidden white dwarfs, stars younger than the Pleiades, or, most likely, tight interacting binaries of the BY Dra-type. A separate collection of 40 stars with precise trigonometric parallaxes and Nuv-G colors bluer than 2 mag is presented. It includes several known novae, white dwarfs, and binaries with hot subdwarf (sdOB) components, but most remain unexplored.

  8. An energy dependent earthquake frequency-magnitude distribution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spassiani, I.; Marzocchi, W.

    2017-12-01

    The most popular description of the frequency-magnitude distribution of seismic events is the exponential Gutenberg-Richter (G-R) law, which is widely used in earthquake forecasting and seismic hazard models. Although it has been experimentally well validated in many catalogs worldwide, it is not yet clear at which space-time scales the G-R law still holds. For instance, in a small area where a large earthquake has just happened, the probability that another very large earthquake nucleates in a short time window should diminish because it takes time to recover the same level of elastic energy just released. In short, the frequency-magnitude distribution before and after a large earthquake in a small area should be different because of the different amount of available energy.Our study is then aimed to explore a possible modification of the classical G-R distribution by including the dependence on an energy parameter. In a nutshell, this more general version of the G-R law should be such that a higher release of energy corresponds to a lower probability of strong aftershocks. In addition, this new frequency-magnitude distribution has to satisfy an invariance condition: when integrating over large areas, that is when integrating over infinite energy available, the G-R law must be recovered.Finally we apply a proposed generalization of the G-R law to different seismic catalogs to show how it works and the differences with the classical G-R law.

  9. THE FAST DECLINING TYPE Ia SUPERNOVA 2003gs, AND EVIDENCE FOR A SIGNIFICANT DISPERSION IN NEAR-INFRARED ABSOLUTE MAGNITUDES OF FAST DECLINERS AT MAXIMUM LIGHT

    SciTech Connect

    Krisciunas, Kevin; Marion, G. H.; Suntzeff, Nicholas B.

    2009-12-15

    We obtained optical photometry of SN 2003gs on 49 nights, from 2 to 494 days after T(B {sub max}). We also obtained near-IR photometry on 21 nights. SN 2003gs was the first fast declining Type Ia SN that has been well observed since SN 1999by. While it was subluminous in optical bands compared to more slowly declining Type Ia SNe, it was not subluminous at maximum light in the near-IR bands. There appears to be a bimodal distribution in the near-IR absolute magnitudes of Type Ia SNe at maximum light. Those that peak in the near-IR after T(B {sub max})more » are subluminous in the all bands. Those that peak in the near-IR prior to T(B {sub max}), such as SN 2003gs, have effectively the same near-IR absolute magnitudes at maximum light regardless of the decline rate {delta}m {sub 15}(B). Near-IR spectral evidence suggests that opacities in the outer layers of SN 2003gs are reduced much earlier than for normal Type Ia SNe. That may allow {gamma} rays that power the luminosity to escape more rapidly and accelerate the decline rate. This conclusion is consistent with the photometric behavior of SN 2003gs in the IR, which indicates a faster than normal decline from approximately normal peak brightness.« less

  10. Optimal updating magnitude in adaptive flat-distribution sampling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Cheng; Drake, Justin A.; Ma, Jianpeng; Pettitt, B. Montgomery

    2017-11-01

    We present a study on the optimization of the updating magnitude for a class of free energy methods based on flat-distribution sampling, including the Wang-Landau (WL) algorithm and metadynamics. These methods rely on adaptive construction of a bias potential that offsets the potential of mean force by histogram-based updates. The convergence of the bias potential can be improved by decreasing the updating magnitude with an optimal schedule. We show that while the asymptotically optimal schedule for the single-bin updating scheme (commonly used in the WL algorithm) is given by the known inverse-time formula, that for the Gaussian updating scheme (commonly used in metadynamics) is often more complex. We further show that the single-bin updating scheme is optimal for very long simulations, and it can be generalized to a class of bandpass updating schemes that are similarly optimal. These bandpass updating schemes target only a few long-range distribution modes and their optimal schedule is also given by the inverse-time formula. Constructed from orthogonal polynomials, the bandpass updating schemes generalize the WL and Langfeld-Lucini-Rago algorithms as an automatic parameter tuning scheme for umbrella sampling.

  11. Optimal updating magnitude in adaptive flat-distribution sampling.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Cheng; Drake, Justin A; Ma, Jianpeng; Pettitt, B Montgomery

    2017-11-07

    We present a study on the optimization of the updating magnitude for a class of free energy methods based on flat-distribution sampling, including the Wang-Landau (WL) algorithm and metadynamics. These methods rely on adaptive construction of a bias potential that offsets the potential of mean force by histogram-based updates. The convergence of the bias potential can be improved by decreasing the updating magnitude with an optimal schedule. We show that while the asymptotically optimal schedule for the single-bin updating scheme (commonly used in the WL algorithm) is given by the known inverse-time formula, that for the Gaussian updating scheme (commonly used in metadynamics) is often more complex. We further show that the single-bin updating scheme is optimal for very long simulations, and it can be generalized to a class of bandpass updating schemes that are similarly optimal. These bandpass updating schemes target only a few long-range distribution modes and their optimal schedule is also given by the inverse-time formula. Constructed from orthogonal polynomials, the bandpass updating schemes generalize the WL and Langfeld-Lucini-Rago algorithms as an automatic parameter tuning scheme for umbrella sampling.

  12. Measurement of the Absolute Magnitude and Time Courses of Mitochondrial Membrane Potential in Primary and Clonal Pancreatic Beta-Cells.

    PubMed

    Gerencser, Akos A; Mookerjee, Shona A; Jastroch, Martin; Brand, Martin D

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to simplify, improve and validate quantitative measurement of the mitochondrial membrane potential (ΔψM) in pancreatic β-cells. This built on our previously introduced calculation of the absolute magnitude of ΔψM in intact cells, using time-lapse imaging of the non-quench mode fluorescence of tetramethylrhodamine methyl ester and a bis-oxonol plasma membrane potential (ΔψP) indicator. ΔψM is a central mediator of glucose-stimulated insulin secretion in pancreatic β-cells. ΔψM is at the crossroads of cellular energy production and demand, therefore precise assay of its magnitude is a valuable tool to study how these processes interplay in insulin secretion. Dispersed islet cell cultures allowed cell type-specific, single-cell observations of cell-to-cell heterogeneity of ΔψM and ΔψP. Glucose addition caused hyperpolarization of ΔψM and depolarization of ΔψP. The hyperpolarization was a monophasic step increase, even in cells where the ΔψP depolarization was biphasic. The biphasic response of ΔψP was associated with a larger hyperpolarization of ΔψM than the monophasic response. Analysis of the relationships between ΔψP and ΔψM revealed that primary dispersed β-cells responded to glucose heterogeneously, driven by variable activation of energy metabolism. Sensitivity analysis of the calibration was consistent with β-cells having substantial cell-to-cell variations in amounts of mitochondria, and this was predicted not to impair the accuracy of determinations of relative changes in ΔψM and ΔψP. Finally, we demonstrate a significant problem with using an alternative ΔψM probe, rhodamine 123. In glucose-stimulated and oligomycin-inhibited β-cells the principles of the rhodamine 123 assay were breached, resulting in misleading conclusions.

  13. Color excesses, intrinsic colors, and absolute magnitudes of Galactic and Large Magellanic Cloud Wolf-Rayet stars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vacca, William D.; Torres-Dodgen, Ana V.

    1990-01-01

    A new method of determining the color excesses of WR stars in the Galaxy and the LMC has been developed and is used to determine the excesses for 44 Galactic and 32 LMC WR stars. The excesses are combined with line-free, narrow-band spectrophotometry to derive intrinsic colors of the WR stars of nearly all spectral subtypes. No correlation of UV spectral index or intrinsic colors with spectral subtype is found for the samples of single WN or WC stars. There is evidence that early WN stars in the LMC have flatter UV continua and redder intrinsic colors than early WN stars in the Galaxy. No separation is found between the values derived for Galactic WC stars and those obtained for LMC WC stars. The intrinsic colors are compared with those calculated from model atmospheres of WR stars and generally good agreement is found. Absolute magnitudes are derived for WR stars in the LMC and for those Galactic WR stars located in clusters and associations for which there are reliable distance estimates.

  14. Absolute magnitudes and slope parameters for 250,000 asteroids observed by Pan-STARRS PS1 - Preliminary results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vereš, Peter; Jedicke, Robert; Fitzsimmons, Alan; Denneau, Larry; Granvik, Mikael; Bolin, Bryce; Chastel, Serge; Wainscoat, Richard J.; Burgett, William S.; Chambers, Kenneth C.; Flewelling, Heather; Kaiser, Nick; Magnier, Eugen A.; Morgan, Jeff S.; Price, Paul A.; Tonry, John L.; Waters, Christopher

    2015-11-01

    We present the results of a Monte Carlo technique to calculate the absolute magnitudes (H) and slope parameters (G) of ∼240,000 asteroids observed by the Pan-STARRS1 telescope during the first 15 months of its 3-year all-sky survey mission. The system's exquisite photometry with photometric errors ≲ 0.04mag , and well-defined filter and photometric system, allowed us to derive accurate H and G even with a limited number of observations and restricted range in phase angles. Our Monte Carlo method simulates each asteroid's rotation period, amplitude and color to derive the most-likely H and G, but its major advantage is in estimating realistic statistical + systematic uncertainties and errors on each parameter. The method was tested by comparison with the well-established and accurate results for about 500 asteroids provided by Pravec et al. (Pravec, P. et al. [2012]. Icarus 221, 365-387) and then applied to determining H and G for the Pan-STARRS1 asteroids using both the Muinonen et al. (Muinonen, K. et al. [2010]. Icarus 209, 542-555) and Bowell et al. (Bowell, E. et al. [1989]. Asteroids III, Chapter Application of Photometric Models to Asteroids. University of Arizona Press, pp. 524-555) phase functions. Our results confirm the bias in MPC photometry discovered by Jurić et al. (Jurić, M. et al. [2002]. Astrophys. J. 124, 1776-1787).

  15. [Catastrophic health expenditures in Mexico: magnitude, distribution and determinants].

    PubMed

    Sesma-Vázquez, Sergio; Pérez-Rico, Raymundo; Sosa-Manzano, Carlos Lino; Gómez-Dantés, Octavio

    2005-01-01

    To describe the magnitude, distribution, and determinants of catastrophic health expenditures in Mexico. The information source was the National Performance Assessment Survey and the methodology, the one developed by the World Health Organization for assessing fair financing. Households with catastrophic expenditures were defined as those with health expenditures over 30% of their ability to pay. Multivariate analysis by logistic and linear regression were used to identify the determinants of catastrophic expenditures. A total of 3.8% of the households incurred in catastrophic health expenditures. There were huge differences by state. The uninsured, poor, and rural households showed a higher impoverishment risk. Sixty percent of the catastrophic expenditures were attributable to outpatient care and medication. A 10% increase of insured households could result in a 9.6% decrease in catastrophic expenditures. Disability, adults 60 years of age and older, and pregnancy increased the probability of catastrophic expenditures. The insurance of older adults, pregnant women, and persons with disabilities could reduce catastrophic health expenditures in Mexico.

  16. On the frequency-magnitude distribution of converging boundaries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marzocchi, W.; Laura, S.; Heuret, A.; Funiciello, F.

    2011-12-01

    The occurrence of the last mega-thrust earthquake in Japan has clearly remarked the high risk posed to society by such events in terms of social and economic losses even at large spatial scale. The primary component for a balanced and objective mitigation of the impact of these earthquakes is the correct forecast of where such kind of events may occur in the future. To date, there is a wide range of opinions about where mega-thrust earthquakes can occur. Here, we aim at presenting some detailed statistical analysis of a database of worldwide interplate earthquakes occurring at current subduction zones. The database has been recently published in the framework of the EURYI Project 'Convergent margins and seismogenesis: defining the risk of great earthquakes by using statistical data and modelling', and it provides a unique opportunity to explore in detail the seismogenic process in subducting lithosphere. In particular, the statistical analysis of this database allows us to explore many interesting scientific issues such as the existence of different frequency-magnitude distributions across the trenches, the quantitative characterization of subduction zones that are able to produce more likely mega-thrust earthquakes, the prominent features that characterize converging boundaries with different seismic activity and so on. Besides the scientific importance, such issues may lead to improve our mega-thrust earthquake forecasting capability.

  17. The differing magnitude distributions of the two Jupiter Trojan color populations

    SciTech Connect

    Wong, Ian; Brown, Michael E.; Emery, Joshua P., E-mail: iwong@caltech.edu

    The Jupiter Trojans are a significant population of minor bodies in the middle solar system that have garnered substantial interest in recent years. Several spectroscopic studies of these objects have revealed notable bimodalities with respect to near-infrared spectra, infrared albedo, and color, which suggest the existence of two distinct groups among the Trojan population. In this paper, we analyze the magnitude distributions of these two groups, which we refer to as the red and less red color populations. By compiling spectral and photometric data from several previous works, we show that the observed bimodalities are self-consistent and categorize 221 ofmore » the 842 Trojans with absolute magnitudes in the range H<12.3 into the two color populations. We demonstrate that the magnitude distributions of the two color populations are distinct to a high confidence level (>95%) and fit them individually to a broken power law, with special attention given to evaluating and correcting for incompleteness in the Trojan catalog as well as incompleteness in our categorization of objects. A comparison of the best-fit curves shows that the faint-end power-law slopes are markedly different for the two color populations, which indicates that the red and less red Trojans likely formed in different locations. We propose a few hypotheses for the origin and evolution of the Trojan population based on the analyzed data.« less

  18. Measurement of the Absolute Magnitude and Time Courses of Mitochondrial Membrane Potential in Primary and Clonal Pancreatic Beta-Cells

    PubMed Central

    Gerencser, Akos A.; Mookerjee, Shona A.; Jastroch, Martin; Brand, Martin D.

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to simplify, improve and validate quantitative measurement of the mitochondrial membrane potential (ΔψM) in pancreatic β-cells. This built on our previously introduced calculation of the absolute magnitude of ΔψM in intact cells, using time-lapse imaging of the non-quench mode fluorescence of tetramethylrhodamine methyl ester and a bis-oxonol plasma membrane potential (ΔψP) indicator. ΔψM is a central mediator of glucose-stimulated insulin secretion in pancreatic β-cells. ΔψM is at the crossroads of cellular energy production and demand, therefore precise assay of its magnitude is a valuable tool to study how these processes interplay in insulin secretion. Dispersed islet cell cultures allowed cell type-specific, single-cell observations of cell-to-cell heterogeneity of ΔψM and ΔψP. Glucose addition caused hyperpolarization of ΔψM and depolarization of ΔψP. The hyperpolarization was a monophasic step increase, even in cells where the ΔψP depolarization was biphasic. The biphasic response of ΔψP was associated with a larger hyperpolarization of ΔψM than the monophasic response. Analysis of the relationships between ΔψP and ΔψM revealed that primary dispersed β-cells responded to glucose heterogeneously, driven by variable activation of energy metabolism. Sensitivity analysis of the calibration was consistent with β-cells having substantial cell-to-cell variations in amounts of mitochondria, and this was predicted not to impair the accuracy of determinations of relative changes in ΔψM and ΔψP. Finally, we demonstrate a significant problem with using an alternative ΔψM probe, rhodamine 123. In glucose-stimulated and oligomycin-inhibited β-cells the principles of the rhodamine 123 assay were breached, resulting in misleading conclusions. PMID:27404273

  19. A Precision Determination of the Effect of Metallicity on Cepheid Absolute Magnitudes in VIJHK Bands from Magellanic Cloud Cepheids

    SciTech Connect

    Wielgórski, Piotr; Pietrzyński, Grzegorz; Zgirski, Bartłomiej

    Using high-quality observed period–luminosity ( P – L ) relations in both Magellanic Clouds in the VIJHK s bands and optical and near-infrared Wesenheit indices, we determine the effect of metallicity on Cepheid P – L relations by comparing the relative distance between the LMC and SMC as determined from the Cepheids to the difference in distance between the Clouds that has been derived with very high accuracy from late-type eclipsing binary systems. Within an uncertainty of 3%, which is dominated by the uncertainty on the mean difference in metallicity between the Cepheid populations in the LMC and SMC, wemore » find metallicity effects smaller than 2% in all bands and in the Wesenheit indices, consistent with a zero metallicity effect. This result is valid for the metallicity range from −0.35 dex to −0.75 dex corresponding to the mean [Fe/H] values for classical Cepheids in the LMC and SMC, respectively. Yet most Cepheids in galaxies beyond the Local Group and located in the less crowded outer regions of these galaxies do fall into this metallicity regime, making our result important for applications to determine the distances to spiral galaxies well beyond the Local Group. Our result supports previous findings that indicated a very small metallicity effect on the near-infrared absolute magnitudes of classical Cepheids, and resolves the dispute about the size and sign of the metallicity effect in the optical spectral range. It also resolves one of the most pressing problems in the quest toward a measurement of the Hubble constant with an accuracy of 1% from the Cepheid–supernova Ia method.« less

  20. Magnitude and Distribution of Flows into Northeastern Florida Bay

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Patino, Eduardo; Hittle, Clinton D.

    2000-01-01

    Changes in water-management practices have been made to accommodate a large and rapidly growing urban population along the Atlantic Coast and to meet the demand for intensive agricultural activities. These changes have resulted in a highly managed hydrologic system consisting of numerous canals, levees, control structures, and pumping stations that have altered the hydrology of the Everglades and Florida Bay ecosystems. Over the past decade, Florida Bay has experienced sea-grass die-off and algal blooms, which are indicators of ecological change attributed primarily to the increase in salinity and nutrient content of bay waters. Because plans are to restore sheetflow in the Everglades wetlands to its natural state, water managers anticipate a change in the magnitude and timing of freshwater exiting the mainland through the creeks that cut through the embankment or as sheetflow into Florida Bay.

  1. Magnitude and distribution of trunk stresses in telecommunications engineers.

    PubMed Central

    Nicholson, A S; David, P R; Sheppard, N J

    1981-01-01

    The incidence of back injuries has been shown to be greater in occupations as heavy manual work than light manual work. To plan a programme aimed at reducing the incidence of back injuries in industry those workers at high risk of incurring handling accidents and back injuries need to be identified and a knowledge of the specific occupational factors causing such injuries sought. This has been achieved for telecommunications engineers using epidemiological and radio pressure pill methodologies. The results verify the correlation between the back injury rates and physical work stresses of different occupational groups. The magnitude and relative frequency of trunk stresses in hazardous tasks has been determined and compared with those with lower incidences of back disorders. The study has confirmed that in examining manual handling hazards in industrial male populations a critical value of truncal stress can be applied and used to determine the safety of occupational factors in relation to their potential causing or contributing to degenerative back diseases. PMID:7317300

  2. The generalized truncated exponential distribution as a model for earthquake magnitudes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raschke, Mathias

    2015-04-01

    The random distribution of small, medium and large earthquake magnitudes follows an exponential distribution (ED) according to the Gutenberg-Richter relation. But a magnitude distribution is truncated in the range of very large magnitudes because the earthquake energy is finite and the upper tail of the exponential distribution does not fit well observations. Hence the truncated exponential distribution (TED) is frequently applied for the modelling of the magnitude distributions in the seismic hazard and risk analysis. The TED has a weak point: when two TEDs with equal parameters, except the upper bound magnitude, are mixed, then the resulting distribution is not a TED. Inversely, it is also not possible to split a TED of a seismic region into TEDs of subregions with equal parameters, except the upper bound magnitude. This weakness is a principal problem as seismic regions are constructed scientific objects and not natural units. It also applies to alternative distribution models. The presented generalized truncated exponential distribution (GTED) overcomes this weakness. The ED and the TED are special cases of the GTED. Different issues of the statistical inference are also discussed and an example of empirical data is presented in the current contribution.

  3. Ultraviolet photometry from the Orbiting Astronomical Observatory. XXI - Absolute energy distribution of stars in the ultraviolet

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bless, R. C.; Code, A. D.; Fairchild, E. T.

    1976-01-01

    The absolute energy distribution in the ultraviolet is given for the stars alpha Vir, eta UMa, and alpha Leo. The calibration is based on absolute heterochromatic photometry between 2920 and 1370 A carried out with an Aerobee sounding rocket. The fundamental radiation standard is the synchrotron radiation from 240-MeV electrons in a certain synchrotron storage ring. On the basis of the sounding-rocket calibration, the preliminary OAO-2 spectrometer calibration has been revised; the fluxes for the three program stars are tabulated in energy per second per square centimeter per unit wavelength interval.

  4. Effects of Reinforcer Magnitude and Distribution on Preference for Work Schedules

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ward-Horner, John C.; Pittenger, Alexis; Pace, Gary; Fienup, Daniel M.

    2014-01-01

    When the overall magnitude of reinforcement is matched between 2 alternative work schedules, some students prefer to complete all of their work for continuous access to a reinforcer (continuous work) rather than distributed access to a reinforcer while they work (discontinuous work). We evaluated a student's preference for continuous work by…

  5. Does Sensitivity to Magnitude Depend on the Temporal Distribution of Reinforcement?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grace, Randolph C.; Bragason, Orn

    2005-01-01

    Our research addressed the question of whether sensitivity to relative reinforcer magnitude in concurrent chains depends on the distribution of reinforcer delays when the terminal-link schedules are equal. In Experiment 1, 12 pigeons responded in a two-component procedure. In both components, the initial links were concurrent variable-interval 40…

  6. Fully distributed absolute blood flow velocity measurement for middle cerebral arteries using Doppler optical coherence tomography

    PubMed Central

    Qi, Li; Zhu, Jiang; Hancock, Aneeka M.; Dai, Cuixia; Zhang, Xuping; Frostig, Ron D.; Chen, Zhongping

    2016-01-01

    Doppler optical coherence tomography (DOCT) is considered one of the most promising functional imaging modalities for neuro biology research and has demonstrated the ability to quantify cerebral blood flow velocity at a high accuracy. However, the measurement of total absolute blood flow velocity (BFV) of major cerebral arteries is still a difficult problem since it is related to vessel geometry. In this paper, we present a volumetric vessel reconstruction approach that is capable of measuring the absolute BFV distributed along the entire middle cerebral artery (MCA) within a large field-of-view. The Doppler angle at each point of the MCA, representing the vessel geometry, is derived analytically by localizing the artery from pure DOCT images through vessel segmentation and skeletonization. Our approach could achieve automatic quantification of the fully distributed absolute BFV across different vessel branches. Experiments on rodents using swept-source optical coherence tomography showed that our approach was able to reveal the consequences of permanent MCA occlusion with absolute BFV measurement. PMID:26977365

  7. Fully distributed absolute blood flow velocity measurement for middle cerebral arteries using Doppler optical coherence tomography.

    PubMed

    Qi, Li; Zhu, Jiang; Hancock, Aneeka M; Dai, Cuixia; Zhang, Xuping; Frostig, Ron D; Chen, Zhongping

    2016-02-01

    Doppler optical coherence tomography (DOCT) is considered one of the most promising functional imaging modalities for neuro biology research and has demonstrated the ability to quantify cerebral blood flow velocity at a high accuracy. However, the measurement of total absolute blood flow velocity (BFV) of major cerebral arteries is still a difficult problem since it is related to vessel geometry. In this paper, we present a volumetric vessel reconstruction approach that is capable of measuring the absolute BFV distributed along the entire middle cerebral artery (MCA) within a large field-of-view. The Doppler angle at each point of the MCA, representing the vessel geometry, is derived analytically by localizing the artery from pure DOCT images through vessel segmentation and skeletonization. Our approach could achieve automatic quantification of the fully distributed absolute BFV across different vessel branches. Experiments on rodents using swept-source optical coherence tomography showed that our approach was able to reveal the consequences of permanent MCA occlusion with absolute BFV measurement.

  8. Cell wall microstructure, pore size distribution and absolute density of hemp shiv

    PubMed Central

    Lawrence, M.; Ansell, M. P.; Hussain, A.

    2018-01-01

    This paper, for the first time, fully characterizes the intrinsic physical parameters of hemp shiv including cell wall microstructure, pore size distribution and absolute density. Scanning electron microscopy revealed microstructural features similar to hardwoods. Confocal microscopy revealed three major layers in the cell wall: middle lamella, primary cell wall and secondary cell wall. Computed tomography improved the visualization of pore shape and pore connectivity in three dimensions. Mercury intrusion porosimetry (MIP) showed that the average accessible porosity was 76.67 ± 2.03% and pore size classes could be distinguished into micropores (3–10 nm) and macropores (0.1–1 µm and 20–80 µm). The absolute density was evaluated by helium pycnometry, MIP and Archimedes' methods. The results show that these methods can lead to misinterpretation of absolute density. The MIP method showed a realistic absolute density (1.45 g cm−3) consistent with the density of the known constituents, including lignin, cellulose and hemi-cellulose. However, helium pycnometry and Archimedes’ methods gave falsely low values owing to 10% of the volume being inaccessible pores, which require sample pretreatment in order to be filled by liquid or gas. This indicates that the determination of the cell wall density is strongly dependent on sample geometry and preparation. PMID:29765652

  9. Cell wall microstructure, pore size distribution and absolute density of hemp shiv

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Y.; Lawrence, M.; Ansell, M. P.; Hussain, A.

    2018-04-01

    This paper, for the first time, fully characterizes the intrinsic physical parameters of hemp shiv including cell wall microstructure, pore size distribution and absolute density. Scanning electron microscopy revealed microstructural features similar to hardwoods. Confocal microscopy revealed three major layers in the cell wall: middle lamella, primary cell wall and secondary cell wall. Computed tomography improved the visualization of pore shape and pore connectivity in three dimensions. Mercury intrusion porosimetry (MIP) showed that the average accessible porosity was 76.67 ± 2.03% and pore size classes could be distinguished into micropores (3-10 nm) and macropores (0.1-1 µm and 20-80 µm). The absolute density was evaluated by helium pycnometry, MIP and Archimedes' methods. The results show that these methods can lead to misinterpretation of absolute density. The MIP method showed a realistic absolute density (1.45 g cm-3) consistent with the density of the known constituents, including lignin, cellulose and hemi-cellulose. However, helium pycnometry and Archimedes' methods gave falsely low values owing to 10% of the volume being inaccessible pores, which require sample pretreatment in order to be filled by liquid or gas. This indicates that the determination of the cell wall density is strongly dependent on sample geometry and preparation.

  10. Spatio-Temporal Fluctuations of the Earthquake Magnitude Distribution: Robust Estimation and Predictive Power

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olsen, S.; Zaliapin, I.

    2008-12-01

    We establish positive correlation between the local spatio-temporal fluctuations of the earthquake magnitude distribution and the occurrence of regional earthquakes. In order to accomplish this goal, we develop a sequential Bayesian statistical estimation framework for the b-value (slope of the Gutenberg-Richter's exponential approximation to the observed magnitude distribution) and for the ratio a(t) between the earthquake intensities in two non-overlapping magnitude intervals. The time-dependent dynamics of these parameters is analyzed using Markov Chain Models (MCM). The main advantage of this approach over the traditional window-based estimation is its "soft" parameterization, which allows one to obtain stable results with realistically small samples. We furthermore discuss a statistical methodology for establishing lagged correlations between continuous and point processes. The developed methods are applied to the observed seismicity of California, Nevada, and Japan on different temporal and spatial scales. We report an oscillatory dynamics of the estimated parameters, and find that the detected oscillations are positively correlated with the occurrence of large regional earthquakes, as well as with small events with magnitudes as low as 2.5. The reported results have important implications for further development of earthquake prediction and seismic hazard assessment methods.

  11. Impact of Channel-like Erosion Patterns on the Frequency-Magnitude Distribution of Earthquakes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rohmer, J.; Aochi, H.

    2015-12-01

    Reactive flow at depth (either related to underground activities like enhancement of hydrocarbon recovery, CO2 storage or to natural flow like in hydrothermal zones) can alter fractures' topography, which might in turn change their seismic responses. Depending on the flow and reaction rates, instability of the dissolution front can lead to a wormhole-like pronounced erosion pattern (Szymczak & Ladd, JGR, 2009). In a fractal structure of rupture process (Ide & Aochi, JGR, 2005), we question how the perturbation related to well-spaced long channels alters rupture propagation initiated on a weak plane and eventually the statistical feature of rupture appearance in Frequency-Magnitude Distribution FMD (Rohmer & Aochi, GJI, 2015). Contrary to intuition, a spatially uniform dissolution is not the most remarkable case, since it affects all the events proportionally to their sizes leading to a downwards translation of FMD: the slope of FMD (b-value) remains unchanged. An in-depth parametric study was carried out by considering different pattern characteristics: spacing S varying from 0 to 100 and length L from 50 to 800 and fixing the width w=1. The figure shows that there is a region of optimum channels' characteristics for which the b-value of the Gutenberg Richter law is significantly modified with p-value ~10% (corresponding to area with red-coloured boundaries) given spacing to length ratio of the order of ~1/40: large magnitude events are more significantly affected leading to an imbalanced distribution in the magnitude bins of the FMD. The larger the spacing, the lower the channel's influence. The decrease of the b-value between intact and altered fractures can reach values down to -0.08. Besides, a spatial analysis shows that the local seismicity anomaly concentrates in a limited zone around the channels: this opens perspective for detecting these eroded regions through high-resolution imaging surveys.

  12. Hydraulic experiment on tsunami sand deposits relating with grain size distribution and magnitude of incident waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamamoto, A.; Takahashi, T.; Harada, K.; Nojima, K.

    2016-12-01

    A huge earthquake occurred off the Tohoku district in Japan on March 11th, 2011. A massive tsunami generated by the earthquake attacked coastal areas and caused serious damage. The tsunami disaster requires to reconsider tsunami measures in the Nankai Trough. Many of the measures are based on histories of large earthquakes and tsunamis. Because they are low frequency disasters and their historical documents are limited, tsunami sand deposits have been expected to analyze paleotsunamis. Tsunami sand deposits, however, are only used to confirm the fact of tsunamis and to determine the relative magnitudes. The thickness of sand layer and the grain size may be clues to estimate the tsunami force. Further, it could reveal the tsunami source. These results are also useful to improve the present tsunami measures. The objective of this study is to investigate the formation mechanism of tsunami sand deposits by hydraulic experiment. A two-dimensional water channel consisted of a wave maker, a flat section and a slope section. A movable bed section with various grain sizes and distribution of sand was set at the end of flat section. Bore waves of several heights transported the sand to the slope section by run-up. Water surface elevation and velocity were measured at several points. Tsunami sand deposit distribution was also measured along the slope section. The experimental result showed that the amount of tsunami sand deposit was relating with the grain size distribution and the magnitude of incident waves. Further, the number of incident waves affected the profile of tsunami sand deposits.

  13. Continuous-cyclic variations in the b-value of the earthquake frequency-magnitude distribution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    El-Isa, Z. H.

    2013-10-01

    Seismicity of the Earth ( M ≥ 4.5) was compiled from NEIC, IRIS and ISC catalogues and used to compute b-value based on various time windows. It is found that continuous cyclic b-variations occur on both long and short time scales, the latter being of much higher value and sometimes in excess of 0.7 of the absolute b-value. These variations occur not only yearly or monthly, but also daily. Before the occurrence of large earthquakes, b-values start increasing with variable gradients that are affected by foreshocks. In some cases, the gradient is reduced to zero or to a negative value a few days before the earthquake occurrence. In general, calculated b-values attain maxima 1 day before large earthquakes and minima soon after their occurrence. Both linear regression and maximum likelihood methods give correlatable, but variable results. It is found that an expanding time window technique from a fixed starting point is more effective in the study of b-variations. The calculated b-variations for the whole Earth, its hemispheres, quadrants and the epicentral regions of some large earthquakes are of both local and regional character, which may indicate that in such cases, the geodynamic processes acting within a certain region have a much regional effect within the Earth. The b-variations have long been known to vary with a number of local and regional factors including tectonic stresses. The results reported here indicate that geotectonic stress remains the most significant factor that controls b-variations. It is found that for earthquakes with M w ≥ 7, an increase of about 0.20 in the b-value implies a stress increase that will result in an earthquake with a magnitude one unit higher.

  14. Depth dependence of earthquake frequency-magnitude distributions in California: Implications for rupture initiation

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mori, J.; Abercrombie, R.E.

    1997-01-01

    Statistics of earthquakes in California show linear frequency-magnitude relationships in the range of M2.0 to M5.5 for various data sets. Assuming Gutenberg-Richter distributions, there is a systematic decrease in b value with increasing depth of earthquakes. We find consistent results for various data sets from northern and southern California that both include and exclude the larger aftershock sequences. We suggest that at shallow depth (???0 to 6 km) conditions with more heterogeneous material properties and lower lithospheric stress prevail. Rupture initiations are more likely to stop before growing into large earthquakes, producing relatively more smaller earthquakes and consequently higher b values. These ideas help to explain the depth-dependent observations of foreshocks in the western United States. The higher occurrence rate of foreshocks preceding shallow earthquakes can be interpreted in terms of rupture initiations that are stopped before growing into the mainshock. At greater depth (9-15 km), any rupture initiation is more likely to continue growing into a larger event, so there are fewer foreshocks. If one assumes that frequency-magnitude statistics can be used to estimate probabilities of a small rupture initiation growing into a larger earthquake, then a small (M2) rupture initiation at 9 to 12 km depth is 18 times more likely to grow into a M5.5 or larger event, compared to the same small rupture initiation at 0 to 3 km. Copyright 1997 by the American Geophysical Union.

  15. Spatial variations in the frequency-magnitude distribution of earthquakes at Mount Pinatubo volcano

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sanchez, J.J.; McNutt, S.R.; Power, J.A.; Wyss, M.

    2004-01-01

    The frequency-magnitude distribution of earthquakes measured by the b-value is mapped in two and three dimensions at Mount Pinatubo, Philippines, to a depth of 14 km below the summit. We analyzed 1406 well-located earthquakes with magnitudes MD ???0.73, recorded from late June through August 1991, using the maximum likelihood method. We found that b-values are higher than normal (b = 1.0) and range between b = 1.0 and b = 1.8. The computed b-values are lower in the areas adjacent to and west-southwest of the vent, whereas two prominent regions of anomalously high b-values (b ??? 1.7) are resolved, one located 2 km northeast of the vent between 0 and 4 km depth and a second located 5 km southeast of the vent below 8 km depth. The statistical differences between selected regions of low and high b-values are established at the 99% confidence level. The high b-value anomalies are spatially well correlated with low-velocity anomalies derived from earlier P-wave travel-time tomography studies. Our dataset was not suitable for analyzing changes in b-values as a function of time. We infer that the high b-value anomalies around Mount Pinatubo are regions of increased crack density, and/or high pore pressure, related to the presence of nearby magma bodies.

  16. Southern San Andreas Fault seismicity is consistent with the Gutenberg-Richter magnitude-frequency distribution

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Page, Morgan T.; Felzer, Karen

    2015-01-01

    The magnitudes of any collection of earthquakes nucleating in a region are generally observed to follow the Gutenberg-Richter (G-R) distribution. On some major faults, however, paleoseismic rates are higher than a G-R extrapolation from the modern rate of small earthquakes would predict. This, along with other observations, led to formulation of the characteristic earthquake hypothesis, which holds that the rate of small to moderate earthquakes is permanently low on large faults relative to the large-earthquake rate (Wesnousky et al., 1983; Schwartz and Coppersmith, 1984). We examine the rate difference between recent small to moderate earthquakes on the southern San Andreas fault (SSAF) and the paleoseismic record, hypothesizing that the discrepancy can be explained as a rate change in time rather than a deviation from G-R statistics. We find that with reasonable assumptions, the rate changes necessary to bring the small and large earthquake rates into alignment agree with the size of rate changes seen in epidemic-type aftershock sequence (ETAS) modeling, where aftershock triggering of large earthquakes drives strong fluctuations in the seismicity rates for earthquakes of all magnitudes. The necessary rate changes are also comparable to rate changes observed for other faults worldwide. These results are consistent with paleoseismic observations of temporally clustered bursts of large earthquakes on the SSAF and the absence of M greater than or equal to 7 earthquakes on the SSAF since 1857.

  17. Potential utilization of the absolute point cumulative semivariogram technique for the evaluation of distribution coefficient.

    PubMed

    Külahci, Fatih; Sen, Zekâi

    2009-09-15

    The classical solid/liquid distribution coefficient, K(d), for radionuclides in water-sediment systems is dependent on many parameters such as flow, geology, pH, acidity, alkalinity, total hardness, radioactivity concentration, etc. in a region. Considerations of all these effects require a regional analysis with an effective methodology, which has been based on the concept of the cumulative semivariogram concept in this paper. Although classical K(d) calculations are punctual and cannot represent regional pattern, in this paper a regional calculation methodology is suggested through the use of Absolute Point Cumulative SemiVariogram (APCSV) technique. The application of the methodology is presented for (137)Cs and (90)Sr measurements at a set of points in Keban Dam reservoir, Turkey.

  18. The Influence of Emission Location on the Magnitude and Spatial Distribution of Aerosols' Climate Effects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Persad, G.; Caldeira, K.

    2017-12-01

    The global distribution of anthropogenic aerosol emissions has evolved continuously since the preindustrial era - from 20th century North American and Western European emissions hotspots to present-day South and East Asian ones. With this comes a relocation of the regional radiative, dynamical, and hydrological impacts of aerosol emissions, which may influence global climate differently depending on where they occur. A lack of understanding of this relationship between aerosol emissions' location and their global climate effects, however, obscures the potential influence that aerosols' evolving geographic distribution may have on global and regional climate change—a gap which we address in this work. Using a novel suite of experiments in the CESM CAM5 atmospheric general circulation model coupled to a slab ocean, we systematically test and analyze mechanisms behind the relative climate impact of identical black carbon and sulfate aerosol emissions located in each of 8 past, present, or projected future major emissions regions. Results indicate that historically high emissions regions, such as North America and Western Europe, produce a stronger cooling effect than current and projected future high emissions regions. Aerosol emissions located in Western Europe produce 3 times the global mean cooling (-0.34 °C) as those located in East Africa or India (-0.11 °C). The aerosols' in-situ radiative effects remain relatively confined near the emissions region, but large distal cooling results from remote feedback processes - such as ice albedo and cloud changes - that are excited more strongly by emissions from certain regions than others. Results suggest that aerosol emissions from different countries should not be considered equal in the context of climate mitigation accounting, and that the evolving geographic distribution of aerosol emissions may have a substantial impact on the magnitude and spatial distribution of global climate change.

  19. Calculation of absolute protein-ligand binding free energy using distributed replica sampling.

    PubMed

    Rodinger, Tomas; Howell, P Lynne; Pomès, Régis

    2008-10-21

    Distributed replica sampling [T. Rodinger et al., J. Chem. Theory Comput. 2, 725 (2006)] is a simple and general scheme for Boltzmann sampling of conformational space by computer simulation in which multiple replicas of the system undergo a random walk in reaction coordinate or temperature space. Individual replicas are linked through a generalized Hamiltonian containing an extra potential energy term or bias which depends on the distribution of all replicas, thus enforcing the desired sampling distribution along the coordinate or parameter of interest regardless of free energy barriers. In contrast to replica exchange methods, efficient implementation of the algorithm does not require synchronicity of the individual simulations. The algorithm is inherently suited for large-scale simulations using shared or heterogeneous computing platforms such as a distributed network. In this work, we build on our original algorithm by introducing Boltzmann-weighted jumping, which allows moves of a larger magnitude and thus enhances sampling efficiency along the reaction coordinate. The approach is demonstrated using a realistic and biologically relevant application; we calculate the standard binding free energy of benzene to the L99A mutant of T4 lysozyme. Distributed replica sampling is used in conjunction with thermodynamic integration to compute the potential of mean force for extracting the ligand from protein and solvent along a nonphysical spatial coordinate. Dynamic treatment of the reaction coordinate leads to faster statistical convergence of the potential of mean force than a conventional static coordinate, which suffers from slow transitions on a rugged potential energy surface.

  20. Calculation of absolute protein-ligand binding free energy using distributed replica sampling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodinger, Tomas; Howell, P. Lynne; Pomès, Régis

    2008-10-01

    Distributed replica sampling [T. Rodinger et al., J. Chem. Theory Comput. 2, 725 (2006)] is a simple and general scheme for Boltzmann sampling of conformational space by computer simulation in which multiple replicas of the system undergo a random walk in reaction coordinate or temperature space. Individual replicas are linked through a generalized Hamiltonian containing an extra potential energy term or bias which depends on the distribution of all replicas, thus enforcing the desired sampling distribution along the coordinate or parameter of interest regardless of free energy barriers. In contrast to replica exchange methods, efficient implementation of the algorithm does not require synchronicity of the individual simulations. The algorithm is inherently suited for large-scale simulations using shared or heterogeneous computing platforms such as a distributed network. In this work, we build on our original algorithm by introducing Boltzmann-weighted jumping, which allows moves of a larger magnitude and thus enhances sampling efficiency along the reaction coordinate. The approach is demonstrated using a realistic and biologically relevant application; we calculate the standard binding free energy of benzene to the L99A mutant of T4 lysozyme. Distributed replica sampling is used in conjunction with thermodynamic integration to compute the potential of mean force for extracting the ligand from protein and solvent along a nonphysical spatial coordinate. Dynamic treatment of the reaction coordinate leads to faster statistical convergence of the potential of mean force than a conventional static coordinate, which suffers from slow transitions on a rugged potential energy surface.

  1. The Distribution and Magnitude of Glacial Erosion on 103-year Timescales at Engabreen, Norway

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rand, C.; Goehring, B. M.

    2017-12-01

    We derive the magnitudes of glacial erosion integrated over 103-year timescales across a transect transverse to the direction of ice flow at Engabreen, Norway. Understanding the distribution of glacial erosion is important for several reasons, including sediment budgeting to fjord environments, development of robust landscape evolution models, and if a better understanding between erosion and ice-bed interface properties (e.g., sliding rate, basal water pressure) can be developed, we can use records of glacial erosion to infer glaciological properties that can ultimately benefit models of past and future glaciers. With few exceptions, measurements of glacial erosion are limited to the historical past and even then are rare owing to the difficulty of accessing the glacier bed. One method proven useful in estimating glacial erosion on 103-year timescales is to measure the remaining concentrations of cosmogenic nuclides that accumulate in exposed bedrock during periods of retracted glacier extent and are removed by glacial erosion and radioactive decay during ice cover. Here we will present measurements of 14C and 10Be measured in proglacial bedrock from Engabreen. Our transects are ca. 600 and 400 meters in front of the modern ice front, and based on historical imagery, was ice covered until the recent past. Initial 10Be results show an increase in concentrations of nearly an order of magnitude from the samples near the center of the glacial trough to those on the lateral margin, consistent with conceptual models of glacial erosion parameterized in terms of sliding velocity. Naïve exposure ages that assume no subglacial erosion range from 0.22 - 9.04 ka. More importantly, we can estimate erosion depths by assuming zero erosion of the highest concentration sample along the two transects and calculate the amount of material removed to yield the lower concentrations elsewhere along the two transects. Results indicate minimum erosion depths of 1-183 cm for most ice

  2. Probabilistic performance estimators for computational chemistry methods: The empirical cumulative distribution function of absolute errors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pernot, Pascal; Savin, Andreas

    2018-06-01

    Benchmarking studies in computational chemistry use reference datasets to assess the accuracy of a method through error statistics. The commonly used error statistics, such as the mean signed and mean unsigned errors, do not inform end-users on the expected amplitude of prediction errors attached to these methods. We show that, the distributions of model errors being neither normal nor zero-centered, these error statistics cannot be used to infer prediction error probabilities. To overcome this limitation, we advocate for the use of more informative statistics, based on the empirical cumulative distribution function of unsigned errors, namely, (1) the probability for a new calculation to have an absolute error below a chosen threshold and (2) the maximal amplitude of errors one can expect with a chosen high confidence level. Those statistics are also shown to be well suited for benchmarking and ranking studies. Moreover, the standard error on all benchmarking statistics depends on the size of the reference dataset. Systematic publication of these standard errors would be very helpful to assess the statistical reliability of benchmarking conclusions.

  3. Distribution and Magnitude of Dinitrogen Fixation in the Eastern Tropical North Pacific Oxygen Deficient Zone.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Selden, C.; Mulholland, M. R.; Widner, B.; Bernhardt, P. W.; Macías Tapia, A.; Jayakumar, A.

    2016-12-01

    The Eastern Tropical North Pacific Ocean (ETNP) hosts one of the world's three major open ocean oxygen deficient zones (ODZs). Hotspots for fixed nitrogen (N) loss processes, ODZs have classically been discounted as areas of significant dinitrogen (N2) fixation, the microbe-mediated reduction of N2 to ammonium (NH4+), which has historically been ascribed primarily to euphotic, nutrient-deplete tropical waters. Challenging this paradigm, active expression of nifH (the dinitrogen reductase structural gene) has recently been documented in the ETNP, Eastern Tropical South Pacific, and Arabian Sea ODZs, implying a closer coupling of fixed nitrogen input and loss processes than previously thought. Here, we report rates of N­2 fixation measured in the ETNP ODZ along vertical gradients of oxygen, light, and dissolved N concentrations. Detailed vertical profiles of N2 fixation rates and dissolved N concentrations made within the ODZ were compared with similar profiles from oxic waters outside the ODZ. In addition, different organic carbon sources were investigated as potential rate-limiting factors for N2 fixation in sub-euphotic waters. By establishing the magnitude and distribution of N­2 fixation in the ETNP ODZ, this study contributes to current understanding of N cycling in anoxic and aphotic waters, and serves to elucidate nuances in the global N budget, enabling more accurate biogeochemical modeling. Understanding these processes in present day ODZs is crucial for predicting how ongoing anthropogenic intensification of coastal ODZs will alter biogeochemical cycles in the future.

  4. Spatiotemporal variations in the b-value of earthquake magnitude-frequency distributions: Classification and causes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    El-Isa, Z. H.; Eaton, David W.

    2014-03-01

    Interpretation of the b-value of earthquake frequency-magnitude distributions has received considerable attention in recent decades. This paper provides a comprehensive review of previous investigations of spatial and temporal variations in b-value, including their classification and possible causes. Based on least-squares regression of seismicity data compiled from the NEIC, IRIS and ISC catalogs, we find an average value of 1.02 ± 0.03 for the whole Earth and its two hemispheres, consistent with the general view that in seismically active regions the long-term average value is close to unity. Nevertheless, wide-ranging b-variations (0.3 ≤ b ≤ 2.5) have been reported in the literature. This variability has been interpreted to arise from one or more of the following factors: prevailing stress state, crustal heterogeneity, focal depth, pore pressure, geothermal gradient, tectonic setting, petrological/environmental/geophysical characteristics, clustering of events, incomplete catalog data, and/or method of calculation. Excluding the latter, all of these factors appear to be linked, directly or indirectly, with the effective state of stress. Although time-dependent changes in b-value are well documented, conflicting observations reveal either a precursory increase or decrease in b value before major earthquakes. Our compilation of published analyses suggests that statistically significant b-variations occur globally on various timescales, including annual, monthly and perhaps diurnal. Taken together, our review suggests that b-variations are most plausibly linked with changes in effective stress.

  5. [Homicides in the Americas region: magnitude, distribution and trends, 1999-2009].

    PubMed

    Gawryszewski, Vilma Pinheiro; Sanhueza, Antonio; Martinez-Piedra, Ramon; Escamilla, José Antonio; de Souza, Maria de Fátima Marinho

    2012-12-01

    The scope of this study was to describe the magnitude and distribution of deaths by homicide in the Americas and to analyze the prevailing trends. Deaths by homicide (X85 to Y09 and Y35) were analyzed in 32 countries of the Americas Region from 1999 to 2009, recorded in the Mortality Information System/Pan American Health Organization. A negative binomial model was used to study the trends. There were around 121,297 homicides (89% men and 11% women) in the Americas, annually, predominantly in the 15 to 24 and 25 to 39 year age brackets. In 2009 the homicide age-adjusted mortality rate was 15.5/100,000 in the region. Countries with lower rates/100,000 were Canada (1.8), Argentina (4.4), Cuba (4.8), Chile (5.2), and the United States (5.8), whereas the highest rates/100,000 were in El Salvador (62.9), Guatemala (51.2), Colombia (42.5), Venezuela (33.2), and Puerto Rico (25.8). From 1999-2009, the homicide trend in the region was stable. They increased in nine countries: Venezuela (p<0.001), Panama (p<0.001), El Salvador (p<0.001), Puerto Rico (p<0.001); decreased in four countries, particularly in Colombia (p<0.001); and were stable in Brazil, the United States, Ecuador and Chile. The increase in Mexico occurred in recent years. Despite all efforts, various countries have high homicide rates and they are on the increase.

  6. How much do different global GPP products agree in distribution and magnitude of GPP extremes?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, S.; Ryu, Y.; Jiang, C.

    2016-12-01

    To evaluate uncertainty of global Gross Primary Productivity (GPP) extremes, we compare three global GPP datasets derived from different data processing methods (e.g. MPI-BGC: machine-learning, MODIS GPP (MOD17): semi-empirical, Breathing Earth System Simulator (BESS): process based). We preprocess the datasets following the method from Zscheischler et al., (2012) to detect GPP extremes which occur in less than 1% of the number of whole pixels, and to identify 3D-connected spatiotemporal GPP extremes. We firstly analyze global patterns and the magnitude of GPP extremes with MPI-BGC, MOD17, and BESS over 2001-2011. For consistent analysis in the three products, spatial and temporal resolution were set at 50 km and a monthly scale, respectively. Our results indicated that the global patterns of GPP extremes derived from MPI-BGC and BESS agreed with each other by showing hotspots in Northeastern Brazil and Eastern Texas. However, the extreme events detected from MOD17 were concentrated in tropical forests (e.g. Southeast Asia and South America). The amount of GPP reduction caused by climate extremes considerably differed across the products. For example, Russian heatwave in 2010 led to 100 Tg C uncertainty (198.7 Tg C in MPI-BGC, 305.6 Tg C in MOD17, and 237.8 Tg C in BESS). Moreover, the duration of extreme events differ among the three GPP datasets for the Russian heatwave (MPI-BGC: May-Sep, MOD17: Jun-Aug, and BESS: May-Aug). To test whether Sun induced Fluorescence (SiF), a proxy of GPP, can capture GPP extremes, we investigate global distribution of GPP extreme events in BESS, MOD17 and GOME-2 SiF between 2008 and 2014 when SiF data is available. We found that extreme GPP events in GOME-2 SiF and MOD17 appear in tropical forests whereas those in BESS emerged in Northeastern Brazil and Eastern Texas. The GPP extremes by severe 2011 US drought were detected by BESS and MODIS, but not by SiF. Our findings highlight that different GPP datasets could result in varying

  7. Easy Absolute Values? Absolutely

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, Sharon E.; Mittag, Kathleen Cage

    2015-01-01

    The authors teach a problem-solving course for preservice middle-grades education majors that includes concepts dealing with absolute-value computations, equations, and inequalities. Many of these students like mathematics and plan to teach it, so they are adept at symbolic manipulations. Getting them to think differently about a concept that they…

  8. Age-specific absolute and relative organ weight distributions for B6C3F1 mice.

    PubMed

    Marino, Dale J

    2012-01-01

    The B6C3F1 mouse is the standard mouse strain used in toxicology studies conducted by the National Cancer Institute (NCI) and the National Toxicology Program (NTP). While numerous reports have been published on growth, survival, and tumor incidence, no overall compilation of organ weight data is available. Importantly, organ weight change is an endpoint used by regulatory agencies to develop toxicity reference values (TRVs) for use in human health risk assessments. Furthermore, physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) models, which utilize relative organ weights, are increasingly being used to develop TRVs. Therefore, all available absolute and relative organ weight data for untreated control B6C3F1 mice were collected from NCI/NTP studies in order to develop age-specific distributions. Results show that organ weights were collected more frequently in NCI/NTP studies at 2-wk (60 studies), 3-mo (147 studies), and 15-mo (40 studies) intervals than at other intervals, and more frequently from feeding and inhalation than drinking water studies. Liver, right kidney, lung, heart, thymus, and brain weights were most frequently collected. From the collected data, the mean and standard deviation for absolute and relative organ weights were calculated. Results show age-related increases in absolute liver, right kidney, lung, and heart weights and relatively stable brain and right testis weights. The results suggest a general variability trend in absolute organ weights of brain < right testis < right kidney < heart < liver < lung < spleen < thymus. This report describes the results of this effort.

  9. Numerical evaluation of magnetic absolute measurements with arbitrarily distributed DI-fluxgate theodolite orientations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brunke, Heinz-Peter; Matzka, Jürgen

    2018-01-01

    At geomagnetic observatories the absolute measurements are needed to determine the calibration parameters of the continuously recording vector magnetometer (variometer). Absolute measurements are indispensable for determining the vector of the geomagnetic field over long periods of time. A standard DI (declination, inclination) measuring scheme for absolute measurements establishes routines in magnetic observatories. The traditional measuring schema uses a fixed number of eight orientations (Jankowski et al., 1996).

    We present a numerical method, allowing for the evaluation of an arbitrary number (minimum of five as there are five independent parameters) of telescope orientations. Our method provides D, I and Z base values and calculated error bars of them.

    A general approach has significant advantages. Additional measurements may be seamlessly incorporated for higher accuracy. Individual erroneous readings are identified and can be discarded without invalidating the entire data set. A priori information can be incorporated. We expect the general method to also ease requirements for automated DI-flux measurements. The method can reveal certain properties of the DI theodolite which are not captured by the conventional method.

    Based on the alternative evaluation method, a new faster and less error-prone measuring schema is presented. It avoids needing to calculate the magnetic meridian prior to the inclination measurements.

    Measurements in the vicinity of the magnetic equator are possible with theodolites and without a zenith ocular.

    The implementation of the method in MATLAB is available as source code at the GFZ Data Center Brunke (2017).

  10. School Wellness Programs: Magnitude and Distribution in New York City Public Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stiefel, Leanna; Elbel, Brian; Pflugh Prescott, Melissa; Aneja, Siddhartha; Schwartz, Amy E.

    2017-01-01

    Background: Public schools provide students with opportunities to participate in many discretionary, unmandated wellness programs. Little is known about the number of these programs, their distribution across schools, and the kinds of students served. We provide evidence on these questions for New York City (NYC) public schools. Methods: Data on…

  11. Frequency, magnitude, and distribution of head impacts in Pop Warner football: the cumulative burden.

    PubMed

    Wong, Ricky H; Wong, Andrew K; Bailes, Julian E

    2014-03-01

    A growing body of research suggests that subconcussive head impacts or repetitive mild Traumatic Brain Injury (mTBI) can have cumulative and deleterious effects. Several studies have investigated head impacts in football at the professional, collegiate, and high school levels, in an attempt to elucidate the biomechanics of head impacts among football players. Youth football players, generally from 7 to 14 years of age, constitute 70% of all football players, yet burden of, and susceptibility to, head injury in this population is not well known. A novel impact sensor utilizing binary force switches (Shockbox(®)) was used to follow an entire Pop Warner football team consisting of twenty-two players for six games and five practices. The impact sensor was designed to record impacts with linear accelerations over 30g. In addition, video recording of games and practices were used to further characterize the head impacts by type of position (skilled versus unskilled), field location of impact (open field versus line of scrimmage), type of hit (tackling, tackled, or hold/push), and whether the impact was a head-to-head impact or not. We recorded a total of 480 head impacts. An average of 21.8 head impacts occurred per practice, while 61.8 occurred per game. Players had an average of 3.7 head impacts per game and 1.5 impacts per practice (p<0.001). The number of high magnitude head impacts (>80g) was 11. Two concussions were diagnosed over the course of the season. However, due to technical reasons the biomechanics of those hits resulting in concussions were not captured. Despite smaller players and slower play when compared to high school, collegiate or professional players, those involved in youth football sustain a moderate number of head impacts per season with several high magnitude impacts. Our results suggest that players involved in open-field, tackling plays that have head-to-head contact sustain impacts with the highest linear accelerations. Our data supports

  12. Comet nuclear magnitudes and a new size distribution using archived NEAT data.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bambery, R. J.; Hicks, M. D.; Pravdo, S. H.; Helin, E. F.; Lawrence, K. J.

    2002-09-01

    A reliable estimate of the size distribution of cometary nuclei provides important constraints on the formation and dynamical/physical evolution of these bodies as well as their relative proportions in the near-Earth population. The basic data of nuclear sizes has been difficult to obtain, due to the shroud of dust that envelopes the nucleus across a wide range of heliocentric distances. Only two comets, P/Halley and P/Borrelly, have had direct imaging of their nuclei from spacecraft encounters, though high spatial-resolution imaging by the Hubble Space Telescope has also yielded very reliable diameters [1]. Other observers have recently used ground-based photometry to obtain cumulative size-frequency distributions which are not in agreement [2,3]. One possible source of error is the need to include data from a wide range of telescopes and reduction techniques. We shall obtain a new estimate of the size-frequency distribution using a self-consistent data-set. The Near-Earth Asteroid Tracking (NEAT) Program at the Jet Propulsion laboratory remotely operates two 1.2-meter telescopes at widely geographically separated locations on a near-nightly basis. All NEAT data is archived and publically available through the SKYMORPH website (http:/skyview.gsfc.nasa.gov/skymorph/skymorph.html) Though optimized to discover near-Earth asteroids, we have obtained over 300 CCD images of approximately 40 short and long-period comets over the last 15 months. Though we model coma contamination for all images, we shall concentrate on the fraction of comets at heliocentric distances greater than 3 AU. Our data will be used to derive an independent comet size-frequency distribution .

  13. Magnitude and Spatial Distribution of Impact Intensity Under the Foot Relates to Initial Foot Contact Pattern.

    PubMed

    Breine, Bastiaan; Malcolm, Philippe; Segers, Veerle; Gerlo, Joeri; Derie, Rud; Pataky, Todd; Frederick, Edward C; De Clercq, Dirk

    2017-12-01

    In running, foot contact patterns (rear-, mid-, or forefoot contact) influence impact intensity and initial ankle and foot kinematics. The aim of the study was to compare impact intensity and its spatial distribution under the foot between different foot contact patterns. Forty-nine subjects ran at 3.2 m·s -1 over a level runway while ground reaction forces (GRF) and shoe-surface pressures were recorded and foot contact pattern was determined. A 4-zone footmask (forefoot, midfoot, medial and lateral rearfoot) assessed the spatial distribution of the vertical GRF under the foot. We calculated peak vertical instantaneous loading rate of the GRF (VILR) per foot zone as the impact intensity measure. Midfoot contact patterns were shown to have the lowest, and atypical rearfoot contact patterns the highest impact intensities, respectively. The greatest local impact intensity was mainly situated under the rear- and midfoot for the typical rearfoot contact patterns, under the midfoot for the atypical rearfoot contact patterns, and under the mid- and forefoot for the midfoot contact patterns. These findings indicate that different foot contact patterns could benefit from cushioning in different shoe zones.

  14. Sandpile-based model for capturing magnitude distributions and spatiotemporal clustering and separation in regional earthquakes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Batac, Rene C.; Paguirigan, Antonino A., Jr.; Tarun, Anjali B.; Longjas, Anthony G.

    2017-04-01

    We propose a cellular automata model for earthquake occurrences patterned after the sandpile model of self-organized criticality (SOC). By incorporating a single parameter describing the probability to target the most susceptible site, the model successfully reproduces the statistical signatures of seismicity. The energy distributions closely follow power-law probability density functions (PDFs) with a scaling exponent of around -1. 6, consistent with the expectations of the Gutenberg-Richter (GR) law, for a wide range of the targeted triggering probability values. Additionally, for targeted triggering probabilities within the range 0.004-0.007, we observe spatiotemporal distributions that show bimodal behavior, which is not observed previously for the original sandpile. For this critical range of values for the probability, model statistics show remarkable comparison with long-period empirical data from earthquakes from different seismogenic regions. The proposed model has key advantages, the foremost of which is the fact that it simultaneously captures the energy, space, and time statistics of earthquakes by just introducing a single parameter, while introducing minimal parameters in the simple rules of the sandpile. We believe that the critical targeting probability parameterizes the memory that is inherently present in earthquake-generating regions.

  15. Magnitude, distribution, and estimated level of underreporting of acute gastroenteritis in Jamaica.

    PubMed

    Fletcher, Stephanie M; Lewis-Fuller, Eva; Williams, Hank; Miller, Zahra; Scarlett, Henroy P; Cooper, Collin; Gordon-Johnson, Kelly-Ann; Vickers, Ivan; Shaw, Karen; Wellington, Iyanna; Thame, Jennifer; Pérez, Enrique; Indar, Lisa

    2013-12-01

    Jamaica is the third largest island in the Caribbean. The epidemiology of acute gastroenteritis (AGE) is important to Jamaica, particularly in the areas of health, tourism, and because of the potential impact on the local workforce and the economy. Data collected by the National Surveillance Unit on the prevalence of AGE transmitted by food are not accurate. To determine the true magnitude, risk factors, and the extent of underreporting of AGE in Jamaica, we conducted a cross-sectional, population-based retrospective survey during the periods of 21 February-7 March and 14-27 June 2009, corresponding to high- and low-AGE season respectively. Of the total 1,920 persons selected randomly by a multistage cluster-sampling process, 1,264 responded (response rate 65.8%). Trained interviewers administered a standardized, validated questionnaire during face-to-face interviews. The overall prevalence of self-reported AGE was 4.0% (95% CI 2.9-5.1) at a rate of 0.5 episodes/per person-year. The highest monthly prevalence of AGE (14.6%) was found among the 1-4 year(s) age-group and the lowest (2.1%) among the 25-44 years age-group. Of the 18 cases (36%) who sought medical care, 11% were hospitalized, 33% were treated with antibiotics, and 66.7% received oral rehydration fluids. Only 2 cases who sought medical care reportedly submitted stool specimens. The mean duration of diarrhoea was 3.1 days, which resulted in a mean loss of 4 productive days, with over half of the cases requiring someone to care for them. The burden of syndromic AGE for 2009 was extrapolated to be 122,711 cases, showing an underreporting factor of 58.9. For every laboratory-confirmed AGE case, it was estimated that 383 more cases were occurring in the population. This research confirms that the prevalence of AGE is underreported in Jamaica and not being adequately detected by the current surveillance system. The components of the integrated surveillance system for AGE in Jamaica, particularly the laboratory

  16. Radar prediction of absolute rain fade distributions for earth-satellite paths and general methods for extrapolation of fade statistics to other locations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goldhirsh, J.

    1982-01-01

    The first absolute rain fade distribution method described establishes absolute fade statistics at a given site by means of a sampled radar data base. The second method extrapolates absolute fade statistics from one location to another, given simultaneously measured fade and rain rate statistics at the former. Both methods employ similar conditional fade statistic concepts and long term rain rate distributions. Probability deviations in the 2-19% range, with an 11% average, were obtained upon comparison of measured and predicted levels at given attenuations. The extrapolation of fade distributions to other locations at 28 GHz showed very good agreement with measured data at three sites located in the continental temperate region.

  17. Absolute nuclear material assay

    DOEpatents

    Prasad, Manoj K [Pleasanton, CA; Snyderman, Neal J [Berkeley, CA; Rowland, Mark S [Alamo, CA

    2012-05-15

    A method of absolute nuclear material assay of an unknown source comprising counting neutrons from the unknown source and providing an absolute nuclear material assay utilizing a model to optimally compare to the measured count distributions. In one embodiment, the step of providing an absolute nuclear material assay comprises utilizing a random sampling of analytically computed fission chain distributions to generate a continuous time-evolving sequence of event-counts by spreading the fission chain distribution in time.

  18. Absolute nuclear material assay

    DOEpatents

    Prasad, Manoj K [Pleasanton, CA; Snyderman, Neal J [Berkeley, CA; Rowland, Mark S [Alamo, CA

    2010-07-13

    A method of absolute nuclear material assay of an unknown source comprising counting neutrons from the unknown source and providing an absolute nuclear material assay utilizing a model to optimally compare to the measured count distributions. In one embodiment, the step of providing an absolute nuclear material assay comprises utilizing a random sampling of analytically computed fission chain distributions to generate a continuous time-evolving sequence of event-counts by spreading the fission chain distribution in time.

  19. School Wellness Programs: Magnitude and Distribution in New York City Public Schools

    PubMed Central

    Stiefel, Leanna; Elbel, Brian; Prescott, Melissa Pflugh; Aneja, Siddhartha; Schwartz, Amy Ellen

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND Public schools provide students with opportunities to participate in many discretionary, unmandated wellness programs. Little is known about the number of these programs, their distribution across schools, and the kinds of students served. We provide evidence on these questions for New York City (NYC) public schools. METHODS Data on wellness programs were collected from program websites, NYC’s Office of School Food and Wellness, and direct contact with program sponsors for 2013. Programs were grouped into categories, nutrition, fitness, and comprehensive, and were combined with data on school characteristics available from NYC’s Department of Education. Numbers of programs and provision of programs were analyzed for relationships with demographic and school structural characteristics, using descriptive statistics and multiple regression. RESULTS Discretionary wellness programs are numerous, at 18 programs. Little evidence supports inequity according to student race/ethnicity, income, or nativity, but high schools, new schools, co-located schools, small schools, and schools with larger proportions of inexperienced teachers are less likely to provide wellness programs. CONCLUSIONS Opportunities exist to further the reach of wellness programs in public schools by modifying them for high school adoption and building capacity in schools less likely to have the administrative support to house them. PMID:27917485

  20. School Wellness Programs: Magnitude and Distribution in New York City Public Schools.

    PubMed

    Stiefel, Leanna; Elbel, Brian; Pflugh Prescott, Melissa; Aneja, Siddhartha; Schwartz, Amy E

    2017-01-01

    Public schools provide students with opportunities to participate in many discretionary, unmandated wellness programs. Little is known about the number of these programs, their distribution across schools, and the kinds of students served. We provide evidence on these questions for New York City (NYC) public schools. Data on wellness programs were collected from program websites, NYC's Office of School Food and Wellness, and direct contact with program sponsors for 2013. Programs were grouped into categories, nutrition, fitness, and comprehensive, and were combined with data on school characteristics available from NYC's Department of Education. Numbers of programs and provision of programs were analyzed for relationships with demographic and school structural characteristics, using descriptive statistics and multiple regression. Discretionary wellness programs are numerous, at 18 programs. Little evidence supports inequity according to student race/ethnicity, income, or nativity, but high schools, new schools, co-located schools, small schools, and schools with larger proportions of inexperienced teachers are less likely to provide wellness programs. Opportunities exist to further the reach of wellness programs in public schools by modifying them for high school adoption and building capacity in schools less likely to have the administrative support to house them. © 2016, American School Health Association.

  1. Determining the Absolute Magnitudes of Galactic-Bulge Red Clump Giants in the Z and Y Filters of the Vista Sky Surveys and the IRAC Filters of the Spitzer Sky Surveys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karasev, D. I.; Lutovinov, A. A.

    2018-04-01

    The properties of red clump giants in the central regions of the Galactic bulge are investigated in the photometric Z and Y bands of the infrared VVV (VISTA/ESO) survey and the [3.6], [4.5], [5.8], and [8.0] μm bands of the GLIMPSE (Spitzer/IRAC) Galactic plane survey. The absolute magnitudes for objects of this class have been determined in these bands for the first time: M Z = -0.20 ± 0.04, M Y = -0.470 ± 0.045, M [3.6] = -1.70 ± 0.03, M [4.5] = -1.60 ± 0.03, M [5.8] = -1.67 ± 0.03, and M [8.0] = -1.70 ± 0.03. A comparison of the measured magnitudes with the predictions of theoretical models for the spectra of the objects under study has demonstrated good mutual agreement and has allowed some important constraints to be obtained for the properties of bulge red clump giants. In particular, a comparison with evolutionary tracks has shown that we are dealing predominantly with the high-metallicity subgroup of bulge red clump giants. Their metallicity is slightly higher than has been thought previously, [ M/H] ≃ 0.40 ( Z ≃ 0.038) with an error of [ M/H] ≃ 0.1 dex, while the effective temperature is 4250± 150 K. Stars with an age of 9-10 Gyr are shown to dominate among the red clump giants, although some number of younger objects with an age of 8 Gyr can also be present. In addition, the distances to several Galactic bulge regions have been measured, as D = 8200-8500 pc, and the extinction law in these directions is shown to differ noticeably from the standard one.

  2. Color-magnitude distribution of face-on nearby galaxies in Sloan digital sky survey DR7

    SciTech Connect

    Jin, Shuo-Wen; Feng, Long-Long; Gu, Qiusheng

    2014-05-20

    We have analyzed the distributions in the color-magnitude diagram (CMD) of a large sample of face-on galaxies to minimize the effect of dust extinctions on galaxy color. About 300,000 galaxies with log (a/b) < 0.2 and redshift z < 0.2 are selected from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey DR7 catalog. Two methods are employed to investigate the distributions of galaxies in the CMD, including one-dimensional (1D) Gaussian fitting to the distributions in individual magnitude bins and two-dimensional (2D) Gaussian mixture model (GMM) fitting to galaxies as a whole. We find that in the 1D fitting, two Gaussians are not enoughmore » to fit galaxies with the excess present between the blue cloud and the red sequence. The fitting to this excess defines the center of the green valley in the local universe to be (u – r){sub 0.1} = –0.121M {sub r,} 0{sub .1} – 0.061. The fraction of blue cloud and red sequence galaxies turns over around M {sub r,} {sub 0.1} ∼ –20.1 mag, corresponding to stellar mass of 3 × 10{sup 10} M {sub ☉}. For the 2D GMM fitting, a total of four Gaussians are required, one for the blue cloud, one for the red sequence, and the additional two for the green valley. The fact that two Gaussians are needed to describe the distributions of galaxies in the green valley is consistent with some models that argue for two different evolutionary paths from the blue cloud to the red sequence.« less

  3. Hydraulic head estimation at unobserved locations: Approximating the distribution of the absolute error based on geologic interpretations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Langousis, Andreas; Kaleris, Vassilios; Xeygeni, Vagia; Magkou, Foteini

    2017-04-01

    Assessing the availability of groundwater reserves at a regional level, requires accurate and robust hydraulic head estimation at multiple locations of an aquifer. To that extent, one needs groundwater observation networks that can provide sufficient information to estimate the hydraulic head at unobserved locations. The density of such networks is largely influenced by the spatial distribution of the hydraulic conductivity in the aquifer, and it is usually determined through trial-and-error, by solving the groundwater flow based on a properly selected set of alternative but physically plausible geologic structures. In this work, we use: 1) dimensional analysis, and b) a pulse-based stochastic model for simulation of synthetic aquifer structures, to calculate the distribution of the absolute error in hydraulic head estimation as a function of the standardized distance from the nearest measuring locations. The resulting distributions are proved to encompass all possible small-scale structural dependencies, exhibiting characteristics (bounds, multi-modal features etc.) that can be explained using simple geometric arguments. The obtained results are promising, pointing towards the direction of establishing design criteria based on large-scale geologic maps.

  4. Evaluation of the statistical evidence for Characteristic Earthquakes in the frequency-magnitude distributions of Sumatra and other subduction zone regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Naylor, M.; Main, I. G.; Greenhough, J.; Bell, A. F.; McCloskey, J.

    2009-04-01

    The Sumatran Boxing Day earthquake and subsequent large events provide an opportunity to re-evaluate the statistical evidence for characteristic earthquake events in frequency-magnitude distributions. Our aims are to (i) improve intuition regarding the properties of samples drawn from power laws, (ii) illustrate using random samples how appropriate Poisson confidence intervals can both aid the eye and provide an appropriate statistical evaluation of data drawn from power-law distributions, and (iii) apply these confidence intervals to test for evidence of characteristic earthquakes in subduction-zone frequency-magnitude distributions. We find no need for a characteristic model to describe frequency magnitude distributions in any of the investigated subduction zones, including Sumatra, due to an emergent skew in residuals of power law count data at high magnitudes combined with a sample bias for examining large earthquakes as candidate characteristic events.

  5. Influence of the Magnitude and Spatial Distribution of Water Storage in Aquifers on the Character of Baseflow Recessions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nieber, J. L.; Li, W.

    2017-12-01

    The instantaneous groundwater discharge (Qgw) from a watershed is related to volume of drainable water stored (Sgw) within the watershed aquifer(s). The relation is hysteretic and the magnitude of the hysteresis is completely scale-dependent. In the research reported here we apply a previously calibrated (USGS) GSFLOW model to the simulation of surface and subsurface runoff for the Sagehen Creek watershed. This 29.3 km2 watershed is located in the eastern range of the Sierra Nevada Mountains, and most of the precipitation falls in the form of snow. The GSFLOW model is composed of a surface water and shallow subsurface flow hydrology model, PRMS, and a groundwater flow component based on MODFLOW. PRMS is a semi-distributed watershed model, very similar in character to the well-known SWAT model. The PRMS model is coupled with the MODFLOW model in that deep percolation generated within the PRMS model feeds into the MODFLOW model. The simulated baseflow recessions, plotted as -dQ/dt vs Q, show a strong dependence to watershed topography and plot concave downward. These plots show a somewhat weaker dependence on the hydrologic fluxes of evapotranspiration and recharge, with the concave downward shape maintained but somewhat modified by these hydrologic fluxes. As expected the Qgw vs Sgw relation is markedly hysteretic. The cause for this hysteresis is related to the magnitude of water stored, and also the spatial distribution of water stored in the watershed, with the antecedent storage in upland areas controlling the recession flow in late time, while the valley area dominates the recession flow in the early time. Both the minimum streamflow (Qmin ; the flow at the transition between early time and late time uninterrupted recession) and the intercept (intercept of the regression line fit to the recession data on a log-log scale) show a strong relationship with antecedent streamflows. The minimum streamflow, Qmin, is found to be a valid normalizing parameter for

  6. Absolute Magnetization Distribution on Back-arc Spreading Axis Hosting Hydrothermal Vents; Insight from Shinkai 6500 Magnetic Survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fujii, M.; Okino, K.; Honsho, C.; Mochizuki, N.; Szitkar, F.; Dyment, J.

    2013-12-01

    Near-bottom magnetic profiling using submersible, deep-tow, Remotely Operated Vehicle (ROV) and Autonomous Underwater Vehicle (AUV) make possible to conduct high-resolution surveys and depict detailed magnetic features reflecting, for instance, the presence of fresh lavas or hydrothermal alteration, or geomagnetic paleo-intensity variations. We conducted near-bottom three component magnetic measurements onboard submersible Shinkai 6500 in the Southern Mariana Trough, where five active hydrothermal vent fields (Snail, Yamanaka, Archean, Pica, and Urashima sites) have been found in both on- and off-axis areas of the active back-arc spreading center, to detect signals from hydrothermally altered rock and to distinguish old and new submarine lava flows. Fourteen dives were carried out at an altitude of 1-40 m during the R/V Yokosuka YK10-10 and YK10-11 cruises in 2010. We carefully corrected the effect of the induced and permanent magnetizations of the submersible by applying the correction method for the shipboard three-component magnetometer measurement modified for deep-sea measurement, and subtracted the IGRF values from the corrected data to obtain geomagnetic vector anomalies along the dive tracks. We then calculated the synthetic magnetic vector field produced by seafloor, assumed to be uniformly magnetized, using three dimensional forward modeling. Finally, values of the absolute magnetizations were estimated by using a linear transfer function in the Fourier domain from the observed and synthetic magnetic anomalies. The distribution of estimated absolute magnetization generally shows low values around the five hydrothermal vent sites. This result is consistent with the equivalent magnetization distribution obtained from previous AUV survey data. The areas of low magnetization are also consistent with hydrothermal deposits identified in video records. These results suggest that low magnetic signals are due to hydrothermal alteration zones where host rocks are

  7. Spatial variations in the frequency-magnitude distribution of earthquakes at Soufriere Hills Volcano, Montserrat, West Indies

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Power, J.A.; Wyss, M.; Latchman, J.L.

    1998-01-01

    The frequency-magnitude distribution of earthquakes measured by the b-value is determined as a function of space beneath Soufriere Hills Volcano, Montserrat, from data recorded between August 1, 1995 and March 31, 1996. A volume of anomalously high b-values (b > 3.0) with a 1.5 km radius is imaged at depths of 0 and 1.5 km beneath English's Crater and Chance's Peak. This high b-value anomaly extends southwest to Gage's Soufriere. At depths greater than 2.5 km volumes of comparatively low b-values (b-1) are found beneath St. George's Hill, Windy Hill, and below 2.5 km depth and to the south of English's Crater. We speculate the depth of high b-value anomalies under volcanoes may be a function of silica content, modified by some additional factors, with the most siliceous having these volumes that are highly fractured or contain high pore pressure at the shallowest depths. Copyright 1998 by the American Geophysical Union.

  8. Hierarchical Distributed-Lag Models: Exploring Varying Geographic Scale and Magnitude in Associations Between the Built Environment and Health

    PubMed Central

    Baek, Jonggyu; Sanchez-Vaznaugh, Emma V.; Sánchez, Brisa N.

    2016-01-01

    It is well known that associations between features of the built environment and health depend on the geographic scale used to construct environmental attributes. In the built environment literature, it has long been argued that geographic scales may vary across study locations. However, this hypothesized variation has not been systematically examined due to a lack of available statistical methods. We propose a hierarchical distributed-lag model (HDLM) for estimating the underlying overall shape of food environment–health associations as a function of distance from locations of interest. This method enables indirect assessment of relevant geographic scales and captures area-level heterogeneity in the magnitudes of associations, along with relevant distances within areas. The proposed model was used to systematically examine area-level variation in the association between availability of convenience stores around schools and children's weights. For this case study, body mass index (weight kg)/height (m)2) z scores (BMIz) for 7th grade children collected via California's 2001–2009 FitnessGram testing program were linked to a commercial database that contained locations of food outlets statewide. Findings suggested that convenience store availability may influence BMIz only in some places and at varying distances from schools. Future research should examine localized environmental or policy differences that may explain the heterogeneity in convenience store–BMIz associations. PMID:26888753

  9. Hierarchical Distributed-Lag Models: Exploring Varying Geographic Scale and Magnitude in Associations Between the Built Environment and Health.

    PubMed

    Baek, Jonggyu; Sanchez-Vaznaugh, Emma V; Sánchez, Brisa N

    2016-03-15

    It is well known that associations between features of the built environment and health depend on the geographic scale used to construct environmental attributes. In the built environment literature, it has long been argued that geographic scales may vary across study locations. However, this hypothesized variation has not been systematically examined due to a lack of available statistical methods. We propose a hierarchical distributed-lag model (HDLM) for estimating the underlying overall shape of food environment-health associations as a function of distance from locations of interest. This method enables indirect assessment of relevant geographic scales and captures area-level heterogeneity in the magnitudes of associations, along with relevant distances within areas. The proposed model was used to systematically examine area-level variation in the association between availability of convenience stores around schools and children's weights. For this case study, body mass index (weight kg)/height (m)2) z scores (BMIz) for 7th grade children collected via California's 2001-2009 FitnessGram testing program were linked to a commercial database that contained locations of food outlets statewide. Findings suggested that convenience store availability may influence BMIz only in some places and at varying distances from schools. Future research should examine localized environmental or policy differences that may explain the heterogeneity in convenience store-BMIz associations. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  10. Comment on Pisarenko et al., "Characterization of the Tail of the Distribution of Earthquake Magnitudes by Combining the GEV and GPD Descriptions of Extreme Value Theory"

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raschke, Mathias

    2016-02-01

    In this short note, I comment on the research of Pisarenko et al. (Pure Appl. Geophys 171:1599-1624, 2014) regarding the extreme value theory and statistics in the case of earthquake magnitudes. The link between the generalized extreme value distribution (GEVD) as an asymptotic model for the block maxima of a random variable and the generalized Pareto distribution (GPD) as a model for the peaks over threshold (POT) of the same random variable is presented more clearly. Inappropriately, Pisarenko et al. (Pure Appl. Geophys 171:1599-1624, 2014) have neglected to note that the approximations by GEVD and GPD work only asymptotically in most cases. This is particularly the case with truncated exponential distribution (TED), a popular distribution model for earthquake magnitudes. I explain why the classical models and methods of the extreme value theory and statistics do not work well for truncated exponential distributions. Consequently, these classical methods should be used for the estimation of the upper bound magnitude and corresponding parameters. Furthermore, I comment on various issues of statistical inference in Pisarenko et al. and propose alternatives. I argue why GPD and GEVD would work for various types of stochastic earthquake processes in time, and not only for the homogeneous (stationary) Poisson process as assumed by Pisarenko et al. (Pure Appl. Geophys 171:1599-1624, 2014). The crucial point of earthquake magnitudes is the poor convergence of their tail distribution to the GPD, and not the earthquake process over time.

  11. Re-examination of Magnitude of the AD 869 Jogan Earthquake, a Possible Predecessor of the 2011 Tohoku Earthquake, from Tsunami Deposit Distribution and Computed Inundation Distances

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Namegaya, Y.; Satake, K.

    2012-12-01

    We re-examined the magnitude of the AD 869 Jogan earthquake by comparing the inland limit of tsunami deposit and computed inundation distance for various fault models. The 869 tsunami deposit is distributed 3-4 km inland from the estimated past shorelines in Ishinomaki and Sendai plains (Shishikura et al., 2007, Annual Report on Active Fault and Paleoearthquake Researches; Sawai et al., 2007 ibid). In the previous studies (Satake et al., 2008 and Namegaya et al. 2010, ibid), we assumed 14 fault models of the Jogan earthquake including outer-rise normal fault, tsunami earthquake, interplate earthquakes, and an active fault in Sendai bay. The computed inundation area from an interplate earthquake with Mw of 8.4 (length: 200 km, width: 100 km, slip 7 m) covers the distribution of tsunami deposits in Ishinomaki and Sendai plains. However, the previous studies yielded the minimum magnitude, because we assumed that the inland limit of tsunami deposits and the computed inundation limit were the same. A post-2011 field survey indicate that the 2011 tsunami inundation distance was about 1.6 times the inland limit of tsunami deposits (e.g. Goto et al., 2011, Marine Geology). In this study, we computed tsunami inundation areas from interplate earthquake with different magnitude, fault length, and slip amount. The moment magnitude ranges from 8.0 to 8.7, the fault length ranges from 100 to 400 km, and the slip ranged from 3 to 9 m. The fault width is fixed at 100 km. The distance ratios of computed inundation to the inland limit of tsunami deposit (Inundation to Deposit Ratio or IDR) were calculated along 8 transects on Sendai and Ishinomaki plains. The results show that IDR increases with magnitude, up to Mw=8.4, when IDR becomes one, or the computed inundation is almost the same as the inland limit of tsunami deposit. IDR increases for a larger magnitude, but at a much smaller rate. This confirms that the magnitude of the 869 Jogan earthquake was at least 8.4, but it could

  12. Absolute Summ

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Phillips, Alfred, Jr.

    Summ means the entirety of the multiverse. It seems clear, from the inflation theories of A. Guth and others, that the creation of many universes is plausible. We argue that Absolute cosmological ideas, not unlike those of I. Newton, may be consistent with dynamic multiverse creations. As suggested in W. Heisenberg's uncertainty principle, and with the Anthropic Principle defended by S. Hawking, et al., human consciousness, buttressed by findings of neuroscience, may have to be considered in our models. Predictability, as A. Einstein realized with Invariants and General Relativity, may be required for new ideas to be part of physics. We present here a two postulate model geared to an Absolute Summ. The seedbed of this work is part of Akhnaton's philosophy (see S. Freud, Moses and Monotheism). Most important, however, is that the structure of human consciousness, manifest in Kenya's Rift Valley 200,000 years ago as Homo sapiens, who were the culmination of the six million year co-creation process of Hominins and Nature in Africa, allows us to do the physics that we do. .

  13. Distribution and magnitude of type I error of model-based multipoint lod scores: implications for multipoint mod scores.

    PubMed

    Xing, Chao; Elston, Robert C

    2006-07-01

    The multipoint lod score and mod score methods have been advocated for their superior power in detecting linkage. However, little has been done to determine the distribution of multipoint lod scores or to examine the properties of mod scores. In this paper we study the distribution of multipoint lod scores both analytically and by simulation. We also study by simulation the distribution of maximum multipoint lod scores when maximized over different penetrance models. The multipoint lod score is approximately normally distributed with mean and variance that depend on marker informativity, marker density, specified genetic model, number of pedigrees, pedigree structure, and pattern of affection status. When the multipoint lod scores are maximized over a set of assumed penetrances models, an excess of false positive indications of linkage appear under dominant analysis models with low penetrances and under recessive analysis models with high penetrances. Therefore, caution should be taken in interpreting results when employing multipoint lod score and mod score approaches, in particular when inferring the level of linkage significance and the mode of inheritance of a trait.

  14. Noninvasive imaging of absolute PpIX concentration distribution in nonmelanoma skin tumors at pre-PDT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sunar, Ulas; Rohrbach, Daniel; Morgan, Janet; Zeitouni, Natalie

    2013-03-01

    Photodynamic Therapy (PDT) has proven to be an effective treatment option for nonmelanoma skin cancers. The ability to quantify the concentration of drug in the treated area is crucial for effective treatment planning as well as predicting outcomes. We utilized spatial frequency domain imaging for quantifying the accurate concentration of protoporphyrin IX (PpIX) in phantoms and in vivo. We correct fluorescence against the effects of native tissue absorption and scattering parameters. First we quantified the absorption and scattering of the tissue non-invasively. Then, we corrected raw fluorescence signal by compensating for optical properties to get the absolute drug concentration. After phantom experiments, we used basal cell carcinoma (BCC) model in Gli mice to determine optical properties and drug concentration in vivo at pre-PDT.

  15. Comparison of high energy gamma rays from absolute value of b greater than 30 deg with the galactic neutral hydrogen distribution

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ozel, M. E.; Ogelman, H.; Tumer, T.; Fichtel, C. E.; Hartman, R. C.; Kniffen, D. A.; Thompson, F. J.

    1978-01-01

    High-energy gamma-ray (energy above 35 MeV) data from the SAS 2 satellite have been used to compare the intensity distribution of gamma rays with that of neutral hydrogen (H I) density along the line of sight, at high galactic latitudes (absolute values greater than 30 deg). A model has been constructed for the case where the observed gamma-ray intensity has been assumed to be the sum of a galactic component proportional to the H I distribution plus an isotropic extragalactic emission. A chi-squared test of the model parameters indicates that about 30% of the total high-latitude emission may originate within the Galaxy.

  16. The 1170 and 1202 CE Dead Sea Rift earthquakes and long-term magnitude distribution of the Dead Sea Fault zone

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hough, S.E.; Avni, R.

    2009-01-01

    In combination with the historical record, paleoseismic investigations have provided a record of large earthquakes in the Dead Sea Rift that extends back over 1500 years. Analysis of macroseismic effects can help refine magnitude estimates for large historical events. In this study we consider the detailed intensity distributions for two large events, in 1170 CE and 1202 CE, as determined from careful reinterpretation of available historical accounts, using the 1927 Jericho earthquake as a guide in their interpretation. In the absence of an intensity attenuation relationship for the Dead Sea region, we use the 1927 Jericho earthquake to develop a preliminary relationship based on a modification of the relationships developed in other regions. Using this relation, we estimate M7.6 for the 1202 earthquake and M6.6 for the 1170 earthquake. The uncertainties for both estimates are large and difficult to quantify with precision. The large uncertainties illustrate the critical need to develop a regional intensity attenuation relation. We further consider the distribution of magnitudes in the historic record and show that it is consistent with a b-value distribution with a b-value of 1. Considering the entire Dead Sea Rift zone, we show that the seismic moment release rate over the past 1500 years is sufficient, within the uncertainties of the data, to account for the plate tectonic strain rate along the plate boundary. The results reveal that an earthquake of M7.8 is expected within the zone on average every 1000 years. ?? 2011 Science From Israel/LPPLtd.

  17. New approach for absolute fluence distribution calculations in Monte Carlo simulations of light propagation in turbid media

    SciTech Connect

    Böcklin, Christoph, E-mail: boecklic@ethz.ch; Baumann, Dirk; Fröhlich, Jürg

    A novel way to attain three dimensional fluence rate maps from Monte-Carlo simulations of photon propagation is presented in this work. The propagation of light in a turbid medium is described by the radiative transfer equation and formulated in terms of radiance. For many applications, particularly in biomedical optics, the fluence rate is a more useful quantity and directly derived from the radiance by integrating over all directions. Contrary to the usual way which calculates the fluence rate from absorbed photon power, the fluence rate in this work is directly calculated from the photon packet trajectory. The voxel based algorithmmore » works in arbitrary geometries and material distributions. It is shown that the new algorithm is more efficient and also works in materials with a low or even zero absorption coefficient. The capabilities of the new algorithm are demonstrated on a curved layered structure, where a non-scattering, non-absorbing layer is sandwiched between two highly scattering layers.« less

  18. Absorption, distribution, metabolism and excretion (ADME) of the ALK inhibitor alectinib: results from an absolute bioavailability and mass balance study in healthy subjects.

    PubMed

    Morcos, Peter N; Yu, Li; Bogman, Katrijn; Sato, Mika; Katsuki, Hisakazu; Kawashima, Kosuke; Moore, David J; Whayman, Matt; Nieforth, Keith; Heinig, Katja; Guerini, Elena; Muri, Dieter; Martin-Facklam, Meret; Phipps, Alex

    2017-03-01

    1. Alectinib is a highly selective, central nervous system-active small molecule anaplastic lymphoma kinase inhibitor. 2. The absolute bioavailability, metabolism, excretion and pharmacokinetics of alectinib were studied in a two-period single-sequence crossover study. A 50 μg radiolabelled intravenous microdose of alectinib was co-administered with a single 600 mg oral dose of alectinib in the first period, and a single 600 mg/67 μCi oral dose of radiolabelled alectinib was administered in the second period to six healthy male subjects. 3. The absolute bioavailability of alectinib was moderate at 36.9%. Geometric mean clearance was 34.5 L/h, volume of distribution was 475 L and the hepatic extraction ratio was low (0.14). 4. Near-complete recovery of administered radioactivity was achieved within 168 h post-dose (98.2%) with excretion predominantly in faeces (97.8%) and negligible excretion in urine (0.456%). Alectinib and its major active metabolite, M4, were the main components in plasma, accounting for 76% of total plasma radioactivity. In faeces, 84% of dose was excreted as unchanged alectinib with metabolites M4, M1a/b and M6 contributing to 5.8%, 7.2% and 0.2% of dose, respectively. 5. This novel study design characterised the full absorption, distribution, metabolism and excretion properties in each subject, providing insight into alectinib absorption and disposition in humans.

  19. Electronic Absolute Cartesian Autocollimator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leviton, Douglas B.

    2006-01-01

    An electronic absolute Cartesian autocollimator performs the same basic optical function as does a conventional all-optical or a conventional electronic autocollimator but differs in the nature of its optical target and the manner in which the position of the image of the target is measured. The term absolute in the name of this apparatus reflects the nature of the position measurement, which, unlike in a conventional electronic autocollimator, is based absolutely on the position of the image rather than on an assumed proportionality between the position and the levels of processed analog electronic signals. The term Cartesian in the name of this apparatus reflects the nature of its optical target. Figure 1 depicts the electronic functional blocks of an electronic absolute Cartesian autocollimator along with its basic optical layout, which is the same as that of a conventional autocollimator. Referring first to the optical layout and functions only, this or any autocollimator is used to measure the compound angular deviation of a flat datum mirror with respect to the optical axis of the autocollimator itself. The optical components include an illuminated target, a beam splitter, an objective or collimating lens, and a viewer or detector (described in more detail below) at a viewing plane. The target and the viewing planes are focal planes of the lens. Target light reflected by the datum mirror is imaged on the viewing plane at unit magnification by the collimating lens. If the normal to the datum mirror is parallel to the optical axis of the autocollimator, then the target image is centered on the viewing plane. Any angular deviation of the normal from the optical axis manifests itself as a lateral displacement of the target image from the center. The magnitude of the displacement is proportional to the focal length and to the magnitude (assumed to be small) of the angular deviation. The direction of the displacement is perpendicular to the axis about which the

  20. The population, magnitudes, and sizes of Jupiter family comets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fernández, J. A.; Tancredi, G.; Rickman, H.; Licandro, J.

    1999-12-01

    We analyze the sample of measured nuclear magnitudes of the observed Jupiter family (JF) comets (taken as those with orbital periods P < 20 years and Tisserand parameters T > 2). We find a tendency of the measured nuclear magnitudes to be fainter as JF comets are observed with CCD detectors attached to medium- and large-size telescopes (e.g. Spacewatch Telescope). However, a few JF comets observed very far from the Sun (4-7 AU) show a wide dispersion of their derived absolute nuclear magnitudes which suggests that either these JF comets keep active all along the orbit, so the reported unusually bright distant magnitudes were strongly contaminated by a coma, or some of the measured ``nuclear magnitudes'' were grossly overestimated (i.e. their brightness underestimated). The cumulative mass distribution of JF comets is found to follow a power-law of index s = - 0.88 +/- 0.08, suggesting a distribution significantly steeper than that for both small main-belt asteroids and near-Earth asteroids. The cumulative mass distribution of JF comets with q < 2 AU tends to flatten for absolute (visual) nuclear magnitudes H_N > 16, which is probably due to incompleteness of discovery of fainter comets and/or a real scarcity of small comets due, perhaps, to much shorter physical lifetimes. In particular, no JF comets fainter than H_N ~ 19.5 are found in the sample, suggesting that the critical size for a comet to be still active may be of about 0.4 km radius for an assumed geometric albedo of 0.04. Possibly, smaller comet nuclei disintegrate very quickly into meteor streams. Most absolute nuclear magnitudes are found in the range 15-18, corresponding to nuclear radii in the range 0.8-3.3 km (for the same geometric albedo). We find that a large majority of JF comets with perihelion distances q > 2.5 AU are brighter than absolute nuclear magnitude H_N = 16, suggesting that only a very small fraction (a few percent) of the population of the JF comets with large q has so far been

  1. Effect of the gas flow rate on the spatiotemporal distribution of Ar(1s5) absolute densities in a ns pulsed plasma jet impinging on a glass surface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gazeli, K.; Bauville, G.; Fleury, M.; Jeanney, P.; Neveu, O.; Pasquiers, S.; Santos Sousa, J.

    2018-06-01

    This work presents spatial (axial-z and transversal-y) and temporal distributions of Ar(1s5) metastable absolute densities in an atmospheric pressure argon micro-plasma jet impinging on an ungrounded glass surface. Guided streamers are generated with a DBD device driven by pulsed positive high voltages of 6 kV in amplitude, 224 +/- 3 ns in FWHM and 20 kHz in frequency. The argon flow rate is varied between 200 and 600 sccm. The glass plate is placed at 5 mm away from the reactor’s nozzle and perpendicular to the streamers propagation. At these conditions, a diffuse stable discharge is established after the passage of the streamers allowing the quantification of the Ar(1s5) absolute density by means of a conventional TDLAS technique coupled with emission spectroscopy and ICCD imaging. The good reproducibility of the absorption signals is demonstrated. The experiments show the strong dependence of the maximum density ({0.5-4}× {10}13 {{{cm}}}-3) on the gas flow rate and the axial and transversal position. At 200 sccm, high maximum densities (> 2.4× {10}13 {{{cm}}}-3) are obtained in a small area close to the plasma source, while with increasing flow rate this area expands towards the glass plate. In the transversal direction, density maxima are obtained in a small zone around the propagation axis of the streamers. Finally, a noticeable increase is measured on the Ar(1s5) effective lifetime close to the glass surface by varying the flow rate from 200 to 600 sccm. In overall, the effective lifetime varies between ∼25 and ∼550 ns, depending on the gas flow rate and the values of z and y coordinates. The results obtained suggest that the present system can be implemented in various applications and particularly in what concerns the detection of weakly volatile organic compounds present in trace amounts on different surfaces.

  2. Evaluating the Magnitude and Duration of Cold Load Pick-up on Residential Distribution Feeders Using Multi-State Load Models

    SciTech Connect

    Schneider, Kevin P.; Sortomme, Eric; Venkata, S. S.

    The increased level of demand that is associated with the restoration of service after an outage, Cold Load Pick-Up (CLPU), can be significantly higher than pre-outage levels, even exceeding the normal distribution feeder peak demand. These high levels of demand can delay restoration efforts and in extreme cases damage equipment. The negative impacts of CLPU can be mitigated with strategies that restore the feeder in sections, minimizing the load current. The challenge for utilities is to manage the current level on critical equipment while minimizing the time to restore service to all customers. Accurately modeling CLPU events is the firstmore » step in developing improved restoration strategies that minimize restoration times. This paper presents a new method for evaluating the magnitude of the CLPU peak, and its duration, using multi-state load models. The use of multi-state load models allows for a more accurate representation of the end-use loads that are present on residential distribution feeders.« less

  3. Validation of absolute axial neutron flux distribution calculations with MCNP with 197Au(n,γ)198Au reaction rate distribution measurements at the JSI TRIGA Mark II reactor.

    PubMed

    Radulović, Vladimir; Štancar, Žiga; Snoj, Luka; Trkov, Andrej

    2014-02-01

    The calculation of axial neutron flux distributions with the MCNP code at the JSI TRIGA Mark II reactor has been validated with experimental measurements of the (197)Au(n,γ)(198)Au reaction rate. The calculated absolute reaction rate values, scaled according to the reactor power and corrected for the flux redistribution effect, are in good agreement with the experimental results. The effect of different cross-section libraries on the calculations has been investigated and shown to be minor. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Maximum magnitude earthquakes induced by fluid injection

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McGarr, Arthur F.

    2014-01-01

    Analysis of numerous case histories of earthquake sequences induced by fluid injection at depth reveals that the maximum magnitude appears to be limited according to the total volume of fluid injected. Similarly, the maximum seismic moment seems to have an upper bound proportional to the total volume of injected fluid. Activities involving fluid injection include (1) hydraulic fracturing of shale formations or coal seams to extract gas and oil, (2) disposal of wastewater from these gas and oil activities by injection into deep aquifers, and (3) the development of enhanced geothermal systems by injecting water into hot, low-permeability rock. Of these three operations, wastewater disposal is observed to be associated with the largest earthquakes, with maximum magnitudes sometimes exceeding 5. To estimate the maximum earthquake that could be induced by a given fluid injection project, the rock mass is assumed to be fully saturated, brittle, to respond to injection with a sequence of earthquakes localized to the region weakened by the pore pressure increase of the injection operation and to have a Gutenberg-Richter magnitude distribution with a b value of 1. If these assumptions correctly describe the circumstances of the largest earthquake, then the maximum seismic moment is limited to the volume of injected liquid times the modulus of rigidity. Observations from the available case histories of earthquakes induced by fluid injection are consistent with this bound on seismic moment. In view of the uncertainties in this analysis, however, this should not be regarded as an absolute physical limit.

  5. Teaching Absolute Value Meaningfully

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wade, Angela

    2012-01-01

    What is the meaning of absolute value? And why do teachers teach students how to solve absolute value equations? Absolute value is a concept introduced in first-year algebra and then reinforced in later courses. Various authors have suggested instructional methods for teaching absolute value to high school students (Wei 2005; Stallings-Roberts…

  6. Magnitude and regional distribution of cartilage loss associated with grades of joint space narrowing in radiographic osteoarthritis--data from the Osteoarthritis Initiative (OAI).

    PubMed

    Eckstein, F; Wirth, W; Hunter, D J; Guermazi, A; Kwoh, C K; Nelson, D R; Benichou, O

    2010-06-01

    Clinically, radiographic joint space narrowing (JSN) is regarded a surrogate of cartilage loss in osteoarthritis (OA). Using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), we explored the magnitude and regional distribution of differences in cartilage thickness and subchondral bone area associated with specific Osteoarthritis Research Society International (OARSI) JSN grades. Seventy-three participants with unilateral medial JSN were selected from the first half (2678 cases) of the OA Initiative cohort (45, 21, and 7 with OARSI JSN grades 1, 2, and 3, respectively, no medial JSN in the contra-lateral knee). Bilateral sagittal baseline DESSwe MRIs were segmented by experienced operators. Intra-person between-knee differences in cartilage thickness and subchondral bone areas were determined in medial femorotibial subregions. Knees with medial OARSI JSN grades 1, 2, and 3 displayed a 190 microm (5.2%), 630 microm (18%), and 1560 microm (44%) smaller cartilage thickness in weight-bearing medial femorotibial compartments compared to knees without JSN, respectively. The weight-bearing femoral condyle displayed relatively greater differences than the posterior femoral condyle or the medial tibia (MT). The central subregion within the weight-bearing medial femur (cMF) of the femoral condyle (30-75 degrees ), and the external and central subregions within the tibia displayed relatively greater JSN-associated differences compared to other medial femorotibial subregions. Knees with higher JSN grades also displayed larger than contra-lateral femorotibial subchondral bone areas. This study provides quantitative estimates of JSN-related cartilage loss, with the central part of the weight-bearing femoral condyle being most strongly affected. Knees with higher JSN grades displayed larger subchondral bone areas, suggesting that an increase in subchondral bone area occurs in advanced OA. Copyright 2010 Osteoarthritis Research Society International. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. 6.5 Years of Slow Slip Events in Cascadia: A Catalogue of SSE Surface Expressions, Interface Slip Distributions, Event Magnitudes and Relationship to Tremor.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dimitrova, L. L.; Wallace, L. M.; Haines, A. J.; Bartlow, N. M.

    2015-12-01

    Slow slip events (SSEs) in Cascadia occur at ~30-50 km depth, every 10-19 months, and typically involve slip of a few cm, producing surface displacements on the order of a few mm up to ~1cm. Are there smaller SSE signals that are currently not recognized geodetically? What is the spatial, temporal and size distribution of SSEs, and how are SSE related to tremor? We address these questions with a catalogue of all detectable SSEs spanning the last 6.5 years using a new methodology based on Vertical Derivatives of Horizontal Stress (VDoHS) rates obtained from cGPS times series. VDoHS rates, calculated by solving the force balance equations at the Earth's surface, represent the most inclusive and spatially compact surface expressions of subsurface deformation sources: VDoHS rate vectors are tightly localized above the sources and point in the direction of push or pull. We compare our results with those from the Network Inversion Filter (NIF) for selected events. We identify and characterize a spectrum of SSEs, including events with moment release at least two orders of magnitudes smaller than has been previously identified with GPS data. We catalogue events timing, interface slip distribution and moment release, and compare our results with existing tremor catalogues. VDoHS rates also reveal the boundaries between the locked and unlocked portions of the megathrust, and we can track how this varies throughout the SSE cycle. Above the locked interface, the pull of the subducted plate generates shear tractions in the overlying plate in the direction of subduction, while above the creeping section shear tractions are in the opposite direction, which is reflected in the VDoHS rates. We show that sections of the Cascadia megathrust unlock prior to some SSEs and lock thereafter, with the locked zone propagating downdip and eastward after the SSEs over weeks to months. The catalogue and movies of events will be available at http://www.ig.utexas.edu/people/staff/lada/SSEs.

  8. Diazotrophy in the Deep: An analysis of the distribution, magnitude, geochemical controls, and biological mediators of deep-sea benthic nitrogen fixation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dekas, Anne Elizabeth

    Biological nitrogen fixation (the conversion of N2 to NH3) is a critical process in the oceans, counteracting the production of N2 gas by dissimilatory bacterial metabolisms and providing a source of bioavailable nitrogen to many nitrogen-limited ecosystems. One currently poorly studied and potentially underappreciated habitat for diazotrophic organisms is the sediments of the deep-sea. Although nitrogen fixation was once thought to be negligible in non-photosynthetically driven benthic ecosystems, the present study demonstrates the occurrence and expression of a diversity of nifH genes (those necessary for nitrogen fixation), as well as a widespread ability to fix nitrogen at high rates in these locations. The following research explores the distribution, magnitude, geochemical controls, and biological mediators of nitrogen fixation at several deep-sea sediment habitats, including active methane seeps (Mound 12, Costa Rica; Eel River Basin, CA, USA; Hydrate Ridge, OR, USA; and Monterey Canyon, CA, USA), whale-fall sites (Monterey Canyon, CA), and background deep-sea sediment (off-site Mound 12 Costa Rica, off-site Hydrate Ridge, OR, USA; and Monterey Canyon, CA, USA). The first of the five chapters describes the FISH-NanoSIMS method, which we optimized for the analysis of closely associated microbial symbionts in marine sediments. The second describes an investigation of methane seep sediment from the Eel River Basin, where we recovered nifH sequences from extracted DNA, and used FISH-NanoSIMS to identify methanotrophic archaea (ANME-2) as diazotrophs, when associated with functional sulfate-reducing bacterial symbionts. The third and fourth chapters focus on the distribution and diversity of active diazotrophs (respectively) in methane seep sediment from Mound 12, Costa Rica, using a combination of 15N-labeling experiments, FISH-NanoSIMS, and RNA and DNA analysis. The fifth chapter expands the scope of the investigation by targeting diverse samples from methane

  9. Absolute neutrino mass measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Wolf, Joachim

    2011-10-06

    The neutrino mass plays an important role in particle physics, astrophysics and cosmology. In recent years the detection of neutrino flavour oscillations proved that neutrinos carry mass. However, oscillation experiments are only sensitive to the mass-squared difference of the mass eigenvalues. In contrast to cosmological observations and neutrino-less double beta decay (0v2{beta}) searches, single {beta}-decay experiments provide a direct, model-independent way to determine the absolute neutrino mass by measuring the energy spectrum of decay electrons at the endpoint region with high accuracy.Currently the best kinematic upper limits on the neutrino mass of 2.2eV have been set by two experiments inmore » Mainz and Troitsk, using tritium as beta emitter. The next generation tritium {beta}-experiment KATRIN is currently under construction in Karlsruhe/Germany by an international collaboration. KATRIN intends to improve the sensitivity by one order of magnitude to 0.2eV. The investigation of a second isotope ({sup 137}Rh) is being pursued by the international MARE collaboration using micro-calorimeters to measure the beta spectrum. The technology needed to reach 0.2eV sensitivity is still in the R and D phase. This paper reviews the present status of neutrino-mass measurements with cosmological data, 0v2{beta} decay and single {beta}-decay.« less

  10. Relationship between the frequency magnitude distribution and the visibility graph in the synthetic seismicity generated by a simple stick-slip system with asperities.

    PubMed

    Telesca, Luciano; Lovallo, Michele; Ramirez-Rojas, Alejandro; Flores-Marquez, Leticia

    2014-01-01

    By using the method of the visibility graph (VG) the synthetic seismicity generated by a simple stick-slip system with asperities is analysed. The stick-slip system mimics the interaction between tectonic plates, whose asperities are given by sandpapers of different granularity degrees. The VG properties of the seismic sequences have been put in relationship with the typical seismological parameter, the b-value of the Gutenberg-Richter law. Between the b-value of the synthetic seismicity and the slope of the least square line fitting the k-M plot (relationship between the magnitude M of each synthetic event and its connectivity degree k) a close linear relationship is found, also verified by real seismicity.

  11. Absolute biological needs.

    PubMed

    McLeod, Stephen

    2014-07-01

    Absolute needs (as against instrumental needs) are independent of the ends, goals and purposes of personal agents. Against the view that the only needs are instrumental needs, David Wiggins and Garrett Thomson have defended absolute needs on the grounds that the verb 'need' has instrumental and absolute senses. While remaining neutral about it, this article does not adopt that approach. Instead, it suggests that there are absolute biological needs. The absolute nature of these needs is defended by appeal to: their objectivity (as against mind-dependence); the universality of the phenomenon of needing across the plant and animal kingdoms; the impossibility that biological needs depend wholly upon the exercise of the abilities characteristic of personal agency; the contention that the possession of biological needs is prior to the possession of the abilities characteristic of personal agency. Finally, three philosophical usages of 'normative' are distinguished. On two of these, to describe a phenomenon or claim as 'normative' is to describe it as value-dependent. A description of a phenomenon or claim as 'normative' in the third sense does not entail such value-dependency, though it leaves open the possibility that value depends upon the phenomenon or upon the truth of the claim. It is argued that while survival needs (or claims about them) may well be normative in this third sense, they are normative in neither of the first two. Thus, the idea of absolute need is not inherently normative in either of the first two senses. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. Absolute instability of the Gaussian wake profile

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hultgren, Lennart S.; Aggarwal, Arun K.

    1987-01-01

    Linear parallel-flow stability theory has been used to investigate the effect of viscosity on the local absolute instability of a family of wake profiles with a Gaussian velocity distribution. The type of local instability, i.e., convective or absolute, is determined by the location of a branch-point singularity with zero group velocity of the complex dispersion relation for the instability waves. The effects of viscosity were found to be weak for values of the wake Reynolds number, based on the center-line velocity defect and the wake half-width, larger than about 400. Absolute instability occurs only for sufficiently large values of the center-line wake defect. The critical value of this parameter increases with decreasing wake Reynolds number, thereby indicating a shrinking region of absolute instability with decreasing wake Reynolds number. If backflow is not allowed, absolute instability does not occur for wake Reynolds numbers smaller than about 38.

  13. Combining MODIS, MISR, CALIOP, OMI, AERONET, and Models to Identify the Spatial and Temporal Distribution, Characterization, and Magnitude of Missing Urban and Wildfire Emissions Sources throughout Asia.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cohen, J. B.

    2016-12-01

    Due to intense and changing levels of emissions as well as highly non-linear chemical processing, the concentrations of aerosols and thus their impacts are not well known. Urban areas consist of the majority of the emissions of these species and their precursors over large periods of time, while wildfires contribute very large spikes, concentrated in space and over a period of weeks to months. Yet due to urban and economic expansion, as well as clouds amd low intensity burning, the spatial and temporal profiles of these species are changing, with both new sources appearing and old sources decreasing. New work incorporates measurements at different spatial andboptical resolutions from MODIS, MISR, and OMI, coupled with new sampling approaches with CALIOP and AERONET to search for, characterize, and spatially and temporally constrain aerosols. An advanced modeling system including aerosol chemistry, physics, optics, and transport, using a multi-modal and both externally mixed and core-shell mixing is used to quantify the magnitudes of these missing sources. Comparisons between the model and additional dozens of ground stations show extreme improvement when these new sources are included. This new approach is shown to identify new source regions of emissions, many of which were previously non-urbanized or were not found to contain any fire hotspots. In addition, the use of new models run under conditions including both missing local sources from regions such as the expanded urban areas in Southeast and East Asia and advanced chemical and aerosol routines, allow for a comprehensive analysis to be performed. The impacts of insitu chemistry, horizontal, and vertical transport of species, both on the Regional and Continental scale are also included. It is shown that for proper identification, especially on intra-annual and inter-annual variations, this approach is a large improvement throughout Asia, ranging from India, to Indonesia, to China and Japan. Results specific

  14. Estimating the absolute wealth of households

    PubMed Central

    Gerkey, Drew; Hadley, Craig

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Objective To estimate the absolute wealth of households using data from demographic and health surveys. Methods We developed a new metric, the absolute wealth estimate, based on the rank of each surveyed household according to its material assets and the assumed shape of the distribution of wealth among surveyed households. Using data from 156 demographic and health surveys in 66 countries, we calculated absolute wealth estimates for households. We validated the method by comparing the proportion of households defined as poor using our estimates with published World Bank poverty headcounts. We also compared the accuracy of absolute versus relative wealth estimates for the prediction of anthropometric measures. Findings The median absolute wealth estimates of 1 403 186 households were 2056 international dollars per capita (interquartile range: 723–6103). The proportion of poor households based on absolute wealth estimates were strongly correlated with World Bank estimates of populations living on less than 2.00 United States dollars per capita per day (R2 = 0.84). Absolute wealth estimates were better predictors of anthropometric measures than relative wealth indexes. Conclusion Absolute wealth estimates provide new opportunities for comparative research to assess the effects of economic resources on health and human capital, as well as the long-term health consequences of economic change and inequality. PMID:26170506

  15. Estimating the absolute wealth of households.

    PubMed

    Hruschka, Daniel J; Gerkey, Drew; Hadley, Craig

    2015-07-01

    To estimate the absolute wealth of households using data from demographic and health surveys. We developed a new metric, the absolute wealth estimate, based on the rank of each surveyed household according to its material assets and the assumed shape of the distribution of wealth among surveyed households. Using data from 156 demographic and health surveys in 66 countries, we calculated absolute wealth estimates for households. We validated the method by comparing the proportion of households defined as poor using our estimates with published World Bank poverty headcounts. We also compared the accuracy of absolute versus relative wealth estimates for the prediction of anthropometric measures. The median absolute wealth estimates of 1,403,186 households were 2056 international dollars per capita (interquartile range: 723-6103). The proportion of poor households based on absolute wealth estimates were strongly correlated with World Bank estimates of populations living on less than 2.00 United States dollars per capita per day (R(2)  = 0.84). Absolute wealth estimates were better predictors of anthropometric measures than relative wealth indexes. Absolute wealth estimates provide new opportunities for comparative research to assess the effects of economic resources on health and human capital, as well as the long-term health consequences of economic change and inequality.

  16. Determination of the absolute molecular weight averages and molecular weight distributions of alginates used as ice cream stabilizers by using multiangle laser light scattering measurements.

    PubMed

    Turquois, T; Gloria, H

    2000-11-01

    High-performance size exclusion chromatography with multiangle laser light scattering detection (HPSEC-MALLS) was used for characterizing complete molecular weight distributions for a range of commercial alginates used as ice cream stabilizers. For the samples investigated, molecular weight averages were found to vary between 115 000 and 321 700 g/mol and polydispersity indexes varied from 1. 53 to 3.25. These samples displayed a high content of low molecular weights. Thus, the weight percentage of material below 100 000 g/mol ranged between 6.9 and 54.4%.

  17. Constraints on the frequency-magnitude relation and maximum magnitudes in the UK from observed seismicity and glacio-isostatic recovery rates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Main, Ian; Irving, Duncan; Musson, Roger; Reading, Anya

    1999-05-01

    Earthquake populations have recently been shown to have many similarities with critical-point phenomena, with fractal scaling of source sizes (energy or seismic moment) corresponding to the observed Gutenberg-Richter (G-R) frequency-magnitude law holding at low magnitudes. At high magnitudes, the form of the distribution depends on the seismic moment release rate Msolar and the maximum magnitude m_max . The G-R law requires a sharp truncation at an absolute maximum magnitude for finite Msolar. In contrast, the gamma distribution has an exponential tail which allows a soft or `credible' maximum to be determined by negligible contribution to the total seismic moment release. Here we apply both distributions to seismic hazard in the mainland UK and its immediate continental shelf, constrained by a mixture of instrumental, historical and neotectonic data. Tectonic moment release rates for the seismogenic part of the lithosphere are calculated from a flexural-plate model for glacio-isostatic recovery, constrained by vertical deformation rates from tide-gauge and geomorphological data. Earthquake focal mechanisms in the UK show near-vertical strike-slip faulting, with implied directions of maximum compressive stress approximately in the NNW-SSE direction, consistent with the tectonic model. Maximum magnitudes are found to be in the range 6.3-7.5 for the G-R law, or 7.0-8.2 m_L for the gamma distribution, which compare with a maximum observed in the time period of interest of 6.1 m_L . The upper bounds are conservative estimates, based on 100 per cent seismic release of the observed vertical neotectonic deformation. Glacio-isostatic recovery is predominantly an elastic rather than a seismic process, so the true value of m_max is likely to be nearer the lower end of the quoted range.

  18. Landslide seismic magnitude

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, C. H.; Jan, J. C.; Pu, H. C.; Tu, Y.; Chen, C. C.; Wu, Y. M.

    2015-11-01

    Landslides have become one of the most deadly natural disasters on earth, not only due to a significant increase in extreme climate change caused by global warming, but also rapid economic development in topographic relief areas. How to detect landslides using a real-time system has become an important question for reducing possible landslide impacts on human society. However, traditional detection of landslides, either through direct surveys in the field or remote sensing images obtained via aircraft or satellites, is highly time consuming. Here we analyze very long period seismic signals (20-50 s) generated by large landslides such as Typhoon Morakot, which passed though Taiwan in August 2009. In addition to successfully locating 109 large landslides, we define landslide seismic magnitude based on an empirical formula: Lm = log ⁡ (A) + 0.55 log ⁡ (Δ) + 2.44, where A is the maximum displacement (μm) recorded at one seismic station and Δ is its distance (km) from the landslide. We conclude that both the location and seismic magnitude of large landslides can be rapidly estimated from broadband seismic networks for both academic and applied purposes, similar to earthquake monitoring. We suggest a real-time algorithm be set up for routine monitoring of landslides in places where they pose a frequent threat.

  19. The Type Ia Supernova Color-Magnitude Relation and Host Galaxy Dust: A Simple Hierarchical Bayesian Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mandel, Kaisey S.; Scolnic, Daniel M.; Shariff, Hikmatali; Foley, Ryan J.; Kirshner, Robert P.

    2017-06-01

    Conventional Type Ia supernova (SN Ia) cosmology analyses currently use a simplistic linear regression of magnitude versus color and light curve shape, which does not model intrinsic SN Ia variations and host galaxy dust as physically distinct effects, resulting in low color-magnitude slopes. We construct a probabilistic generative model for the dusty distribution of extinguished absolute magnitudes and apparent colors as the convolution of an intrinsic SN Ia color-magnitude distribution and a host galaxy dust reddening-extinction distribution. If the intrinsic color-magnitude (M B versus B - V) slope {β }{int} differs from the host galaxy dust law R B , this convolution results in a specific curve of mean extinguished absolute magnitude versus apparent color. The derivative of this curve smoothly transitions from {β }{int} in the blue tail to R B in the red tail of the apparent color distribution. The conventional linear fit approximates this effective curve near the average apparent color, resulting in an apparent slope {β }{app} between {β }{int} and R B . We incorporate these effects into a hierarchical Bayesian statistical model for SN Ia light curve measurements, and analyze a data set of SALT2 optical light curve fits of 248 nearby SNe Ia at z< 0.10. The conventional linear fit gives {β }{app}≈ 3. Our model finds {β }{int}=2.3+/- 0.3 and a distinct dust law of {R}B=3.8+/- 0.3, consistent with the average for Milky Way dust, while correcting a systematic distance bias of ˜0.10 mag in the tails of the apparent color distribution. Finally, we extend our model to examine the SN Ia luminosity-host mass dependence in terms of intrinsic and dust components.

  20. Variance computations for functional of absolute risk estimates.

    PubMed

    Pfeiffer, R M; Petracci, E

    2011-07-01

    We present a simple influence function based approach to compute the variances of estimates of absolute risk and functions of absolute risk. We apply this approach to criteria that assess the impact of changes in the risk factor distribution on absolute risk for an individual and at the population level. As an illustration we use an absolute risk prediction model for breast cancer that includes modifiable risk factors in addition to standard breast cancer risk factors. Influence function based variance estimates for absolute risk and the criteria are compared to bootstrap variance estimates.

  1. Variance computations for functional of absolute risk estimates

    PubMed Central

    Pfeiffer, R.M.; Petracci, E.

    2011-01-01

    We present a simple influence function based approach to compute the variances of estimates of absolute risk and functions of absolute risk. We apply this approach to criteria that assess the impact of changes in the risk factor distribution on absolute risk for an individual and at the population level. As an illustration we use an absolute risk prediction model for breast cancer that includes modifiable risk factors in addition to standard breast cancer risk factors. Influence function based variance estimates for absolute risk and the criteria are compared to bootstrap variance estimates. PMID:21643476

  2. Absolute Equilibrium Entropy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shebalin, John V.

    1997-01-01

    The entropy associated with absolute equilibrium ensemble theories of ideal, homogeneous, fluid and magneto-fluid turbulence is discussed and the three-dimensional fluid case is examined in detail. A sigma-function is defined, whose minimum value with respect to global parameters is the entropy. A comparison is made between the use of global functions sigma and phase functions H (associated with the development of various H-theorems of ideal turbulence). It is shown that the two approaches are complimentary though conceptually different: H-theorems show that an isolated system tends to equilibrium while sigma-functions allow the demonstration that entropy never decreases when two previously isolated systems are combined. This provides a more complete picture of entropy in the statistical mechanics of ideal fluids.

  3. The Type Ia Supernova Color-Magnitude Relation and Host Galaxy Dust: A Simple Hierarchical Bayesian Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mandel, Kaisey; Scolnic, Daniel; Shariff, Hikmatali; Foley, Ryan; Kirshner, Robert

    2017-01-01

    Inferring peak optical absolute magnitudes of Type Ia supernovae (SN Ia) from distance-independent measures such as their light curve shapes and colors underpins the evidence for cosmic acceleration. SN Ia with broader, slower declining optical light curves are more luminous (“broader-brighter”) and those with redder colors are dimmer. But the “redder-dimmer” color-luminosity relation widely used in cosmological SN Ia analyses confounds its two separate physical origins. An intrinsic correlation arises from the physics of exploding white dwarfs, while interstellar dust in the host galaxy also makes SN Ia appear dimmer and redder. Conventional SN Ia cosmology analyses currently use a simplistic linear regression of magnitude versus color and light curve shape, which does not model intrinsic SN Ia variations and host galaxy dust as physically distinct effects, resulting in low color-magnitude slopes. We construct a probabilistic generative model for the dusty distribution of extinguished absolute magnitudes and apparent colors as the convolution of an intrinsic SN Ia color-magnitude distribution and a host galaxy dust reddening-extinction distribution. If the intrinsic color-magnitude (MB vs. B-V) slope βint differs from the host galaxy dust law RB, this convolution results in a specific curve of mean extinguished absolute magnitude vs. apparent color. The derivative of this curve smoothly transitions from βint in the blue tail to RB in the red tail of the apparent color distribution. The conventional linear fit approximates this effective curve near the average apparent color, resulting in an apparent slope βapp between βint and RB. We incorporate these effects into a hierarchical Bayesian statistical model for SN Ia light curve measurements, and analyze a dataset of SALT2 optical light curve fits of 277 nearby SN Ia at z < 0.10. The conventional linear fit obtains βapp ≈ 3. Our model finds a βint = 2.2 ± 0.3 and a distinct dust law of RB = 3.7 ± 0

  4. Combining Earthquake Focal Mechanism Inversion and Coulomb Friction Law to Yield Tectonic Stress Magnitudes in Strike-slip Faulting Regime

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soh, I.; Chang, C.

    2017-12-01

    The techniques for estimating present-day stress states by inverting multiple earthquake focal mechanism solutions (FMS) provide orientations of the three principal stresses and their relative magnitudes. In order to estimate absolute magnitudes of the stresses that are generally required to analyze faulting mechanics, we combine the relative stress magnitude parameter (R-value) derived from the inversion process and the concept of frictional equilibrium of stress state defined by Coulomb friction law. The stress inversion in Korean Peninsula using 152 FMS data (magnitude≥2.5) conducted at regularly spaced grid points yields a consistent strike-slip faulting regime in which the maximum (S1) and the minimum (S3) principal stresses act in horizontal planes (with an S1 azimuth in ENE-WSW) and the intermediate principal stress (S2) close to vertical. However, R-value varies from 0.28 to 0.75 depending on locations, systematically increasing eastward. Based on the assumptions that the vertical stress is lithostatic, pore pressure is hydrostatic, and the maximum differential stress (S1-S3) is limited by Byerlee's friction of optimally oriented faults for slip, we estimate absolute magnitudes of the two horizontal principal stresses using R-value. As R-value increases, so do the magnitudes of the horizontal stresses. Our estimation of the stress magnitudes shows that the maximum horizontal principal stress (S1) normalized by vertical stress tends to increase from 1.3 in the west to 1.8 in the east. The estimated variation of stress magnitudes is compatible with distinct clustering of faulting types in different regions. Normal faulting events are densely populated in the west region where the horizontal stress is relatively low, whereas numerous reverse faulting events prevail in the east offshore where the horizontal stress is relatively high. Such a characteristic distribution of distinct faulting types in different regions can only be explained in terms of stress

  5. Determination of the Limiting Magnitude

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kingery, Aaron; Blaauw, Rhiannon

    2017-01-01

    The limiting magnitude of an optical camera system is an important property to understand since it is used to find the completeness limit of observations. Limiting magnitude depends on the hardware and software of the system, current weather conditions, and the angular speed of the objects observed. If an object exhibits a substantial angular rate during the exposure, its light spreads out over more pixels than the stationary stars. This spreading causes the limiting magnitude to be brighter when compared to the stellar limiting magnitude. The effect, which begins to become important when the object moves a full width at half max during a single exposure or video frame. For targets with high angular speeds or camera systems with narrow field of view or long exposures, this correction can be significant, up to several magnitudes. The stars in an image are often used to measure the limiting magnitude since they are stationary, have known brightness, and are present in large numbers, making the determination of the limiting magnitude fairly simple. In order to transform stellar limiting magnitude to object limiting magnitude, a correction must be applied accounting for the angular velocity. This technique is adopted in meteor and other fast-moving object observations, as the lack of a statistically significant sample of targets makes it virtually impossible to determine the limiting magnitude before the weather conditions change. While the weather is the dominant factor in observing satellites, the limiting magnitude for meteors also changes throughout the night due to the motion of a meteor shower or sporadic source radiant across the sky. This paper presents methods for determining the limiting stellar magnitude and the conversion to the target limiting magnitude.

  6. Moment Magnitude discussion in Austria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weginger, Stefan; Jia, Yan; Hausmann, Helmut; Lenhardt, Wolfgang

    2017-04-01

    We implemented and tested the Moment Magnitude estimation „dbmw" from the University of Trieste in our Antelope near real-time System. It is used to get a fast Moment Magnitude solutions and Ground Motion Parameter (PGA, PGV, PSA 0.3, PSA 1.0 and PSA 3.0) to calculate Shake and Interactive maps. A Moment Magnitude Catalogue was generated and compared with the Austrian Earthquake Catalogue and all available Magnitude solution of the neighbouring agencies. Relations of Mw to Ml and Ground Motion to Intensity are presented.

  7. The Ml Magnitude Scale In Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gasperini, P.; Lolli, B.; Filippucci, M.; de Simoni, B.

    To improve the reliability of Ml magnitude estimates in Italy, we have updated the database of real Wood-Anderson (WA) and of simulated Wood Anderson (SWA) am- plitudes recently revised by Gasperini (2002). This was done by the re-reading of orig- inal WA seismograms, made available by the SISMOS Project of the Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica (INGV), as well as by the analysis of further Very Broad Band (VBB) recordings of the MEDNET network of INGV for the period from 1996 to 1998. The full operability, in the last five years, of a VBB station located exactly at the same site (TRI) of a former WA instrument allowed us to reliably infer a new attenuation function from the joined WA and SWA dataset. We found a significant deviation of the attenuation law from the standard Richter table at distances larger than 400 km where the latter overestimates the magnitude up to about 0.3 units. We also computed regionalized attenuation functions accounting for the differences in the propagation properties of seismic waves between the Adriatic (less attenuating) and Tyrrhenian (more attenuating) sides of the Italian peninsula. Using this improved Ml magnitude database we were also able to further improve the computation of duration (Md) and amplitude (Ma) magnitudes computed from short period vertical seismometers of the INGV as well as to analyze the time variation of the station calibrations. We found that the absolute amplification of INGV stations is underestimated almost exactly by a factor 2 starting from the entering upon in operation of the digital acquisition system at INGV in middle 1984.

  8. Integrated Circuit Stellar Magnitude Simulator

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blackburn, James A.

    1978-01-01

    Describes an electronic circuit which can be used to demonstrate the stellar magnitude scale. Six rectangular light-emitting diodes with independently adjustable duty cycles represent stars of magnitudes 1 through 6. Experimentally verifies the logarithmic response of the eye. (Author/GA)

  9. Neural Sensitivity to Absolute and Relative Anticipated Reward in Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Vaidya, Jatin G.; Knutson, Brian; O'Leary, Daniel S.; Block, Robert I.; Magnotta, Vincent

    2013-01-01

    Adolescence is associated with a dramatic increase in risky and impulsive behaviors that have been attributed to developmental differences in neural processing of rewards. In the present study, we sought to identify age differences in anticipation of absolute and relative rewards. To do so, we modified a commonly used monetary incentive delay (MID) task in order to examine brain activity to relative anticipated reward value (neural sensitivity to the value of a reward as a function of other available rewards). This design also made it possible to examine developmental differences in brain activation to absolute anticipated reward magnitude (the degree to which neural activity increases with increasing reward magnitude). While undergoing fMRI, 18 adolescents and 18 adult participants were presented with cues associated with different reward magnitudes. After the cue, participants responded to a target to win money on that trial. Presentation of cues was blocked such that two reward cues associated with $.20, $1.00, or $5.00 were in play on a given block. Thus, the relative value of the $1.00 reward varied depending on whether it was paired with a smaller or larger reward. Reflecting age differences in neural responses to relative anticipated reward (i.e., reference dependent processing), adults, but not adolescents, demonstrated greater activity to a $1 reward when it was the larger of the two available rewards. Adults also demonstrated a more linear increase in ventral striatal activity as a function of increasing absolute reward magnitude compared to adolescents. Additionally, reduced ventral striatal sensitivity to absolute anticipated reward (i.e., the difference in activity to medium versus small rewards) correlated with higher levels of trait Impulsivity. Thus, ventral striatal activity in anticipation of absolute and relative rewards develops with age. Absolute reward processing is also linked to individual differences in Impulsivity. PMID:23544046

  10. The Galaxy Color-Magnitude Diagram in the Local Universe from GALEX and SDSS Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wyder, T. K.; GALEX Science Team

    2005-12-01

    We present the relative density of galaxies in the local universe as a function of their r-band absolute magnitudes and ultraviolet minus r-band colors. The Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) main galaxy sample selected in the r-band was matched with a sample of galaxies from the Galaxy Evolution Explorer (GALEX) Medium Imaging Survey in both the far-UV (FUV) and near-UV (NUV) bands. Simlar to previous optical studies, the distribution of galaxies in (FUV-r) and (NUV-r) is bimodal with well-defined blue and red sequences. We compare the distribution of galaxies in these colors with both the D4000 index measured from the SDSS spectra as well as the SDSS (u-r) color.

  11. VizieR Online Data Catalog: Absolute UV magnitudes of type Ia SNe (Brown+, 2010)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brown, P. J.; Roming, P. W. A.; Milne, P.; Bufano, F.; Ciardullo, R.; Elias-Rosa, N.; Filippenko, A. V.; Foley, R. J.; Gehrels, N.; Gronwall, C.; Hicken, M.; Holland, S. T.; Hoversten, E. A.; Immler, S.; Kirshner, R. P.; Li, W.; Mazzali, P.; Phillips, M. M.; Pritchard, T.; Still, M.; Turatto, M.; vanden Berk, D.

    2012-07-01

    This study includes the 14 Swift/UVOT SNe Ia from Brown et al. (2009, Cat. J/AJ/137/4517) and Milne et al. (2010ApJ...721.1627M) with low extinction (E(B-V)<0.5mag) and well-sampled light curves in at least one UV filter. (7 data files).

  12. Absolute order-of-magnitude reasoning applied to a social multi-criteria evaluation framework

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Afsordegan, A.; Sánchez, M.; Agell, N.; Aguado, J. C.; Gamboa, G.

    2016-03-01

    A social multi-criteria evaluation framework for solving a real-case problem of selecting a wind farm location in the regions of Urgell and Conca de Barberá in Catalonia (northeast of Spain) is studied. This paper applies a qualitative multi-criteria decision analysis approach based on linguistic labels assessment able to address uncertainty and deal with different levels of precision. This method is based on qualitative reasoning as an artificial intelligence technique for assessing and ranking multi-attribute alternatives with linguistic labels in order to handle uncertainty. This method is suitable for problems in the social framework such as energy planning which require the construction of a dialogue process among many social actors with high level of complexity and uncertainty. The method is compared with an existing approach, which has been applied previously in the wind farm location problem. This approach, consisting of an outranking method, is based on Condorcet's original method. The results obtained by both approaches are analysed and their performance in the selection of the wind farm location is compared in aggregation procedures. Although results show that both methods conduct to similar alternatives rankings, the study highlights both their advantages and drawbacks.

  13. Cryogenic, Absolute, High Pressure Sensor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chapman, John J. (Inventor); Shams. Qamar A. (Inventor); Powers, William T. (Inventor)

    2001-01-01

    A pressure sensor is provided for cryogenic, high pressure applications. A highly doped silicon piezoresistive pressure sensor is bonded to a silicon substrate in an absolute pressure sensing configuration. The absolute pressure sensor is bonded to an aluminum nitride substrate. Aluminum nitride has appropriate coefficient of thermal expansion for use with highly doped silicon at cryogenic temperatures. A group of sensors, either two sensors on two substrates or four sensors on a single substrate are packaged in a pressure vessel.

  14. Individual Impact Magnitude vs. Cumulative Magnitude for Estimating Concussion Odds.

    PubMed

    O'Connor, Kathryn L; Peeters, Thomas; Szymanski, Stefan; Broglio, Steven P

    2017-08-01

    Helmeted impact devices have allowed researchers to investigate the biomechanics of head impacts in vivo. While increased impact magnitude has been associated with greater concussion risk, a definitive concussive threshold has not been established. It is likely that concussion risk is not determined by a single impact itself, but a host of predisposing factors. These factors may include genetics, fatigue, and/or prior head impact exposure. The objective of the current paper is to investigate the association between cumulative head impact magnitude and concussion risk. It is hypothesized that increased cumulative magnitudes will be associated with greater concussion risk. This retrospective analysis included participants that were recruited from regional high-schools in Illinois and Michigan from 2007 to 2014 as part of an ongoing study on concussion biomechanics. Across seven seasons, 185 high school football athletes were instrumented with the Head Impact Telemetry system. Out of 185 athletes, 31 (17%) sustained a concussion, with two athletes sustaining two concussions over the study period, yielding 33 concussive events. The system recorded 78,204 impacts for all concussed players. Linear acceleration, rotational acceleration, and head impact telemetry severity profile (HITsp) magnitudes were summed within five timeframes: the day of injury, three days prior to injury, seven days prior to injury, 30 days prior to injury, and prior in-season exposure. Logistic regressions were modeled to explain concussive events based on the singular linear acceleration, rotational acceleration, and HITsp event along with the calculated summations over time. Linear acceleration, rotational acceleration, and HITsp all produced significant models estimating concussion (p < 0.05). The strongest estimators of a concussive impact were the linear acceleration (OR = 1.040, p < 0.05), rotational acceleration (OR = 1.001, p < 0.05), and HITsp (OR = 1.003, p < 0.05) for the

  15. An Integrated Model of Choices and Response Times in Absolute Identification

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Scott D.; Marley, A. A. J.; Donkin, Christopher; Heathcote, Andrew

    2008-01-01

    Recent theoretical developments in the field of absolute identification have stressed differences between relative and absolute processes, that is, whether stimulus magnitudes are judged relative to a shorter term context provided by recently presented stimuli or a longer term context provided by the entire set of stimuli. The authors developed a…

  16. Understanding Magnitudes to Understand Fractions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gabriel, Florence

    2016-01-01

    Fractions are known to be difficult to learn and difficult to teach, yet they are vital for students to have access to further mathematical concepts. This article uses evidence to support teachers employing teaching methods that focus on the conceptual understanding of the magnitude of fractions.

  17. Relativistic Absolutism in Moral Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vogt, W. Paul

    1982-01-01

    Discusses Emile Durkheim's "Moral Education: A Study in the Theory and Application of the Sociology of Education," which holds that morally healthy societies may vary in culture and organization but must possess absolute rules of moral behavior. Compares this moral theory with current theory and practice of American educators. (MJL)

  18. Development of an Empirical Local Magnitude Formula for Northern Oklahoma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spriggs, N.; Karimi, S.; Moores, A. O.

    2015-12-01

    In this paper we focus on determining a local magnitude formula for northern Oklahoma that is unbiased with distance by empirically constraining the attenuation properties within the region of interest based on the amplitude of observed seismograms. For regional networks detecting events over several hundred kilometres, distance correction terms play an important role in determining the magnitude of an event. Standard distance correction terms such as Hutton and Boore (1987) may have a significant bias with distance if applied in a region with different attenuation properties, resulting in an incorrect magnitude. We have presented data from a regional network of broadband seismometers installed in bedrock in northern Oklahoma. The events with magnitude in the range of 2.0 and 4.5, distributed evenly across this network are considered. We find that existing models show a bias with respect to hypocentral distance. Observed amplitude measurements demonstrate that there is a significant Moho bounce effect that mandates the use of a trilinear attenuation model in order to avoid bias in the distance correction terms. We present two different approaches of local magnitude calibration. The first maintains the classic definition of local magnitude as proposed by Richter. The second method calibrates local magnitude so that it agrees with moment magnitude where a regional moment tensor can be computed. To this end, regional moment tensor solutions and moment magnitudes are computed for events with magnitude larger than 3.5 to allow calibration of local magnitude to moment magnitude. For both methods the new formula results in magnitudes systematically lower than previous values computed with Eaton's (1992) model. We compare the resulting magnitudes and discuss the benefits and drawbacks of each method. Our results highlight the importance of correct calibration of the distance correction terms for accurate local magnitude assessment in regional networks.

  19. The PMA Catalogue: 420 million positions and absolute proper motions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akhmetov, V. S.; Fedorov, P. N.; Velichko, A. B.; Shulga, V. M.

    2017-07-01

    We present a catalogue that contains about 420 million absolute proper motions of stars. It was derived from the combination of positions from Gaia DR1 and 2MASS, with a mean difference of epochs of about 15 yr. Most of the systematic zonal errors inherent in the 2MASS Catalogue were eliminated before deriving the absolute proper motions. The absolute calibration procedure (zero-pointing of the proper motions) was carried out using about 1.6 million positions of extragalactic sources. The mean formal error of the absolute calibration is less than 0.35 mas yr-1. The derived proper motions cover the whole celestial sphere without gaps for a range of stellar magnitudes from 8 to 21 mag. In the sky areas where the extragalactic sources are invisible (the avoidance zone), a dedicated procedure was used that transforms the relative proper motions into absolute ones. The rms error of proper motions depends on stellar magnitude and ranges from 2-5 mas yr-1 for stars with 10 mag < G < 17 mag to 5-10 mas yr-1 for faint ones. The present catalogue contains the Gaia DR1 positions of stars for the J2015 epoch. The system of the PMA proper motions does not depend on the systematic errors of the 2MASS positions, and in the range from 14 to 21 mag represents an independent realization of a quasi-inertial reference frame in the optical and near-infrared wavelength range. The Catalogue also contains stellar magnitudes taken from the Gaia DR1 and 2MASS catalogues. A comparison of the PMA proper motions of stars with similar data from certain recent catalogues has been undertaken.

  20. New Ultra-High Sensitivity, Absolute, Linear, and Rotary Encoders

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leviton, Douglas B.

    1998-01-01

    Several new types of absolute optical encoders of both rotary and linear function are discussed. The means for encoding are complete departures from conventional optical encoders and offer advantages of compact form, immunity to damage-induced dropouts of position information, and about an order of magnitude higher sensitivity over what is commercially available. Rotary versions have sensitivity from 0.02 arcseconds down to 0.003 arcsecond while linear models have sensitivity of 10 nm.

  1. A catalog of observed nuclear magnitudes of Jupiter family comets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tancredi, G.; Fernández, J. A.; Rickman, H.; Licandro, J.

    2000-10-01

    A catalog of a sample of 105 Jupiter family (JF) comets (defined as those with Tisserand constants T > 2 and orbital periods P < 20 yr) is presented with our ``best estimates'' of their absolute nuclear magnitudes H_N = V(1,0,0). The catalog includes all the nuclear magnitudes reported after 1950 until August 1998 that appear in the International Comet Quarterly Archive of Cometary Photometric Data, the Minor Planet Center (MPC) data base, IAU Circulars, International Comet Quarterly, and a few papers devoted to some particular comets, together with our own observations. Photometric data previous to 1990 have mainly been taken from the Comet Light Curve Catalogue (CLICC) compiled by Kamél (\\cite{kamel}). We discuss the reliability of the reported nuclear magnitudes in relation to the inherent sources of errors and uncertainties, in particular the coma contamination often present even at large heliocentric distances. A large fraction of the JF comets of our sample indeed shows various degrees of activity at large heliocentric distances, which is correlated with recent downward jumps in their perihelion distances. The reliability of coma subtraction methods to compute the nuclear magnitude is also discussed. Most absolute nuclear magnitudes are found in the range 15 - 18, with no magnitudes fainter than H_N ~ 19.5. The catalog can be found at: http://www.fisica.edu.uy/ ~ gonzalo/catalog/. Table 2 and Appendix B are only available in electronic form at http://www.edpsciences.org Table 5 is also available in electronic form at the CDS via anonymous ftp to cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (130.79.128.5) or via http://cdsweb.u-strasbg.fr/Abstract.html

  2. Physics of negative absolute temperatures.

    PubMed

    Abraham, Eitan; Penrose, Oliver

    2017-01-01

    Negative absolute temperatures were introduced into experimental physics by Purcell and Pound, who successfully applied this concept to nuclear spins; nevertheless, the concept has proved controversial: a recent article aroused considerable interest by its claim, based on a classical entropy formula (the "volume entropy") due to Gibbs, that negative temperatures violated basic principles of statistical thermodynamics. Here we give a thermodynamic analysis that confirms the negative-temperature interpretation of the Purcell-Pound experiments. We also examine the principal arguments that have been advanced against the negative temperature concept; we find that these arguments are not logically compelling, and moreover that the underlying "volume" entropy formula leads to predictions inconsistent with existing experimental results on nuclear spins. We conclude that, despite the counterarguments, negative absolute temperatures make good theoretical sense and did occur in the experiments designed to produce them.

  3. The Absolute Spectrum Polarimeter (ASP)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kogut, A. J.

    2010-01-01

    The Absolute Spectrum Polarimeter (ASP) is an Explorer-class mission to map the absolute intensity and linear polarization of the cosmic microwave background and diffuse astrophysical foregrounds over the full sky from 30 GHz to 5 THz. The principal science goal is the detection and characterization of linear polarization from an inflationary epoch in the early universe, with tensor-to-scalar ratio r much greater than 1O(raised to the power of { -3}) and Compton distortion y < 10 (raised to the power of{-6}). We describe the ASP instrument and mission architecture needed to detect the signature of an inflationary epoch in the early universe using only 4 semiconductor bolometers.

  4. Absolute calibration of optical flats

    DOEpatents

    Sommargren, Gary E.

    2005-04-05

    The invention uses the phase shifting diffraction interferometer (PSDI) to provide a true point-by-point measurement of absolute flatness over the surface of optical flats. Beams exiting the fiber optics in a PSDI have perfect spherical wavefronts. The measurement beam is reflected from the optical flat and passed through an auxiliary optic to then be combined with the reference beam on a CCD. The combined beams include phase errors due to both the optic under test and the auxiliary optic. Standard phase extraction algorithms are used to calculate this combined phase error. The optical flat is then removed from the system and the measurement fiber is moved to recombine the two beams. The newly combined beams include only the phase errors due to the auxiliary optic. When the second phase measurement is subtracted from the first phase measurement, the absolute phase error of the optical flat is obtained.

  5. Moral absolutism and ectopic pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Kaczor, C

    2001-02-01

    If one accepts a version of absolutism that excludes the intentional killing of any innocent human person from conception to natural death, ectopic pregnancy poses vexing difficulties. Given that the embryonic life almost certainly will die anyway, how can one retain one's moral principle and yet adequately respond to a situation that gravely threatens the life of the mother and her future fertility? The four options of treatment most often discussed in the literature are non-intervention, salpingectomy (removal of tube with embryo), salpingostomy (removal of embryo alone), and use of methotrexate (MXT). In this essay, I review these four options and introduce a fifth (the milking technique). In order to assess these options in terms of the absolutism mentioned, it will also be necessary to discuss various accounts of the intention/foresight distinction. I conclude that salpingectomy, salpingostomy, and the milking technique are compatible with absolutist presuppositions, but not the use of methotrexate.

  6. Absolute gravity measurements in California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zumberge, M. A.; Sasagawa, G.; Kappus, M.

    1986-08-01

    An absolute gravity meter that determines the local gravitational acceleration by timing a freely falling mass with a laser interferometer has been constructed. The instrument has made measurements at 11 sites in California, four in Nevada, and one in France. The uncertainty in the results is typically 10 microgal. Repeated measurements have been made at several of the sites; only one shows a substantial change in gravity.

  7. Fresnel transform phase retrieval from magnitude.

    PubMed

    Pitts, Todd A; Greenleaf, James F

    2003-08-01

    This report presents a generalized projection method for recovering the phase of a finite support, two-dimensional signal from knowledge of its magnitude in the spatial position and Fresnel transform domains. We establish the uniqueness of sampled monochromatic scalar field phase given Fresnel transform magnitude and finite region of support constraints for complex signals. We derive an optimally relaxed version of the algorithm resulting in a significant reduction in the number of iterations needed to obtain useful results. An advantage of using the Fresnel transform (as opposed to Fourier) for measurement is that the shift-invariance of the transform operator implies retention of object location information in the transformed image magnitude. As a practical application in the context of ultrasound beam measurement we discuss the determination of small optical phase shifts from near field optical intensity distributions. Experimental data are used to reconstruct the phase shape of an optical field immediately after propagating through a wide bandwidth ultrasonic pulse. The phase of each point on the optical wavefront is proportional to the ray sum of pressure through the ultrasound pulse (assuming low ultrasonic intensity). An entire pressure field was reconstructed in three dimensions and compared with a calibrated hydrophone measurement. The comparison is excellent, demonstrating that the phase retrieval is quantitative.

  8. A double-tracer technique to characterize absorption, distribution, metabolism and excretion (ADME) of [14C]-basimglurant and absolute bioavailability after oral administration and concomitant intravenous microdose administration of [13C6]-labeled basimglurant in humans.

    PubMed

    Guerini, Elena; Schadt, Simone; Greig, Gerard; Haas, Ruth; Husser, Christophe; Zell, Manfred; Funk, Christoph; Hartung, Thomas; Gloge, Andreas; Mallalieu, Navita L

    2017-02-01

    1. The emerging technique of employing intravenous microdose administration of an isotope tracer concomitantly with an [ 14 C]-labeled oral dose was used to characterize the disposition and absolute bioavailability of a novel metabotropic glutamate 5 (mGlu5) receptor antagonist under clinical development for major depressive disorder (MDD). 2. Six healthy volunteers received a single 1 mg [ 12 C/ 14 C]-basimglurant (2.22 MBq) oral dose and a concomitant i.v. tracer dose of 100 μg of [ 13 C 6 ]-basimglurant. Concentrations of [ 12 C]-basimglurant and the stable isotope [ 13 C 6 ]-basimglurant were determined in plasma by a specific LC/MS-MS method. Total [ 14 C] radioactivity was determined in whole blood, plasma, urine and feces by liquid scintillation counting. Metabolic profiling was conducted in plasma, urine, blood cell pellet and feces samples. 3. The mean absolute bioavailability after oral administration (F) of basimglurant was ∼67% (range 45.7-77.7%). The major route of [ 14 C]-radioactivity excretion, primarily in form of metabolites, was in urine (mean recovery 73.4%), with the remainder excreted in feces (mean recovery 26.5%). The median t max for [ 12 C]-basimglurant after the oral administration was 0.71 h (range 0.58-1.00) and the mean terminal half-life was 77.2 ± 38.5 h. Terminal half-life for the [ 14 C]-basimglurant was 178 h indicating presence of metabolites with a longer terminal half-life. Five metabolites were identified with M1-Glucuronide as major and the others in trace amounts. There was minimal binding of drug to RBCs. IV pharmacokinetics was characterized with a mean ± SD CL of 11.8 ± 7.4 mL/h and a Vss of 677 ± 229 L. 4. The double-tracer technique used in this study allowed to simultaneously characterize the absolute bioavailability and disposition characteristics of the new oral molecular entity in a single study.

  9. Absolute metrology for space interferometers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salvadé, Yves; Courteville, Alain; Dändliker, René

    2017-11-01

    The crucial issue of space-based interferometers is the laser interferometric metrology systems to monitor with very high accuracy optical path differences. Although classical high-resolution laser interferometers using a single wavelength are well developed, this type of incremental interferometer has a severe drawback: any interruption of the interferometer signal results in the loss of the zero reference, which requires a new calibration, starting at zero optical path difference. We propose in this paper an absolute metrology system based on multiplewavelength interferometry.

  10. Solar Variability Magnitudes and Timescales

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kopp, Greg

    2015-08-01

    The Sun’s net radiative output varies on timescales of minutes to many millennia. The former are directly observed as part of the on-going 37-year long total solar irradiance climate data record, while the latter are inferred from solar proxy and stellar evolution models. Since the Sun provides nearly all the energy driving the Earth’s climate system, changes in the sunlight reaching our planet can have - and have had - significant impacts on life and civilizations.Total solar irradiance has been measured from space since 1978 by a series of overlapping instruments. These have shown changes in the spatially- and spectrally-integrated radiant energy at the top of the Earth’s atmosphere from timescales as short as minutes to as long as a solar cycle. The Sun’s ~0.01% variations over a few minutes are caused by the superposition of convection and oscillations, and even occasionally by a large flare. Over days to weeks, changing surface activity affects solar brightness at the ~0.1% level. The 11-year solar cycle has comparable irradiance variations with peaks near solar maxima.Secular variations are harder to discern, being limited by instrument stability and the relatively short duration of the space-borne record. Proxy models of the Sun based on cosmogenic isotope records and inferred from Earth climate signatures indicate solar brightness changes over decades to millennia, although the magnitude of these variations depends on many assumptions. Stellar evolution affects yet longer timescales and is responsible for the greatest solar variabilities.In this talk I will summarize the Sun’s variability magnitudes over different temporal ranges, showing examples relevant for climate studies as well as detections of exo-solar planets transiting Sun-like stars.

  11. Relational versus absolute representation in categorization.

    PubMed

    Edwards, Darren J; Pothos, Emmanuel M; Perlman, Amotz

    2012-01-01

    This study explores relational-like and absolute-like representations in categorization. Although there is much evidence that categorization processes can involve information about both the particular physical properties of studied instances and abstract (relational) properties, there has been little work on the factors that lead to one kind of representation as opposed to the other. We tested 370 participants in 6 experiments, in which participants had to classify new items into predefined artificial categories. In 4 experiments, we observed a predominantly relational-like mode of classification, and in 2 experiments we observed a shift toward an absolute-like mode of classification. These results suggest 3 factors that promote a relational-like mode of classification: fewer items per group, more training groups, and the presence of a time delay. Overall, we propose that less information about the distributional properties of a category or weaker memory traces for the category exemplars (induced, e.g., by having smaller categories or a time delay) can encourage relational-like categorization.

  12. Climate Absolute Radiance and Refractivity Observatory (CLARREO)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leckey, John P.

    2015-01-01

    The Climate Absolute Radiance and Refractivity Observatory (CLARREO) is a mission, led and developed by NASA, that will measure a variety of climate variables with an unprecedented accuracy to quantify and attribute climate change. CLARREO consists of three separate instruments: an infrared (IR) spectrometer, a reflected solar (RS) spectrometer, and a radio occultation (RO) instrument. The mission will contain orbiting radiometers with sufficient accuracy, including on orbit verification, to calibrate other space-based instrumentation, increasing their respective accuracy by as much as an order of magnitude. The IR spectrometer is a Fourier Transform spectrometer (FTS) working in the 5 to 50 microns wavelength region with a goal of 0.1 K (k = 3) accuracy. The FTS will achieve this accuracy using phase change cells to verify thermistor accuracy and heated halos to verify blackbody emissivity, both on orbit. The RS spectrometer will measure the reflectance of the atmosphere in the 0.32 to 2.3 microns wavelength region with an accuracy of 0.3% (k = 2). The status of the instrumentation packages and potential mission options will be presented.

  13. Rapid determination of the energy magnitude Me

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    di Giacomo, D.; Parolai, S.; Bormann, P.; Saul, J.; Grosser, H.; Wang, R.; Zschau, J.

    2009-04-01

    duration, which is calculated according to Bormann and Saul (2008). We tested our procedure for a large dataset composed by about 750 earthquakes globally distributed in the Mw range 5.5-9.3 recorded at the broadband stations managed by the IRIS, GEOFON, and GEOSCOPE global networks, as well as other regional seismic networks. Me and Mw express two different aspects of the seismic source, and a combined use of these two magnitude scales would allow a better assessment of the tsunami and shaking potential of an earthquake.. References Bormann, P., Baumbach, M., Bock, G., Grosser, H., Choy, G. L., and Boatwright, J. (2002). Seismic sources and source parameters, in IASPEI New Manual of Seismological Observatory Practice, P. Bormann (Editor), Vol. 1, GeoForschungsZentrum, Potsdam, Chapter 3, 1-94. Bormann, P., and Saul, J. (2008). The new IASPEI standard broadband magnitude mB. Seism. Res. Lett., 79(5), 699-705. Choy, G. L., and Kirby, S. (2004). Apparent stress, fault maturity and seismic hazard for normal-fault earthquakes at subduction zones. Geophys. J. Int., 159, 991-1012. Kennett, B. L. N., Engdahl, E. R., and Buland, R. (1995). Constraints on seismic velocities in the Earth from traveltimes. Geophys. J. Int., 122, 108-124. Montagner, J.-P., and Kennett, B. L. N. (1996). How to reconcile body-wave and normal-mode reference Earth models?. Geophys. J. Int., 125, 229-248. Wang, R. (1999). A simple orthonormalization method for stable and efficient computation of Green's functions. Bull. Seism. Soc. Am., 89(3), 733-741.

  14. Absolute measurements of large mirrors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Su, Peng

    The ability to produce mirrors for large astronomical telescopes is limited by the accuracy of the systems used to test the surfaces of such mirrors. Typically the mirror surfaces are measured by comparing their actual shapes to a precision master, which may be created using combinations of mirrors, lenses, and holograms. The work presented here develops several optical testing techniques that do not rely on a large or expensive precision, master reference surface. In a sense these techniques provide absolute optical testing. The Giant Magellan Telescope (GMT) has been designed with a 350 m 2 collecting area provided by a 25 m diameter primary mirror made out from seven circular independent mirror segments. These segments create an equivalent f/0.7 paraboloidal primary mirror consisting of a central segment and six outer segments. Each of the outer segments is 8.4 m in diameter and has an off-axis aspheric shape departing 14.5 mm from the best-fitting sphere. Much of the work in this dissertation is motivated by the need to measure the surfaces or such large mirrors accurately, without relying on a large or expensive precision reference surface. One method for absolute testing describing in this dissertation uses multiple measurements relative to a reference surface that is located in different positions with respect to the test surface of interest. The test measurements are performed with an algorithm that is based on the maximum likelihood (ML) method. Some methodologies for measuring large flat surfaces in the 2 m diameter range and for measuring the GMT primary mirror segments were specifically developed. For example, the optical figure of a 1.6-m flat mirror was determined to 2 nm rms accuracy using multiple 1-meter sub-aperture measurements. The optical figure of the reference surface used in the 1-meter sub-aperture measurements was also determined to the 2 nm level. The optical test methodology for a 1.7-m off axis parabola was evaluated by moving several

  15. Absolute and Relative Socioeconomic Health Inequalities across Age Groups

    PubMed Central

    van Zon, Sander K. R.; Bültmann, Ute; Mendes de Leon, Carlos F.; Reijneveld, Sijmen A.

    2015-01-01

    Background The magnitude of socioeconomic health inequalities differs across age groups. It is less clear whether socioeconomic health inequalities differ across age groups by other factors that are known to affect the relation between socioeconomic position and health, like the indicator of socioeconomic position, the health outcome, gender, and as to whether socioeconomic health inequalities are measured in absolute or in relative terms. The aim is to investigate whether absolute and relative socioeconomic health inequalities differ across age groups by indicator of socioeconomic position, health outcome and gender. Methods The study sample was derived from the baseline measurement of the LifeLines Cohort Study and consisted of 95,432 participants. Socioeconomic position was measured as educational level and household income. Physical and mental health were measured with the RAND-36. Age concerned eleven 5-years age groups. Absolute inequalities were examined by comparing means. Relative inequalities were examined by comparing Gini-coefficients. Analyses were performed for both health outcomes by both educational level and household income. Analyses were performed for all age groups, and stratified by gender. Results Absolute and relative socioeconomic health inequalities differed across age groups by indicator of socioeconomic position, health outcome, and gender. Absolute inequalities were most pronounced for mental health by household income. They were larger in younger than older age groups. Relative inequalities were most pronounced for physical health by educational level. Gini-coefficients were largest in young age groups and smallest in older age groups. Conclusions Absolute and relative socioeconomic health inequalities differed cross-sectionally across age groups by indicator of socioeconomic position, health outcome and gender. Researchers should critically consider the implications of choosing a specific age group, in addition to the indicator of

  16. Comparison of human expert and computer-automated systems using magnitude-squared coherence (MSC) and bootstrap distribution statistics for the interpretation of pattern electroretinograms (PERGs) in infants with optic nerve hypoplasia (ONH).

    PubMed

    Fisher, Anthony C; McCulloch, Daphne L; Borchert, Mark S; Garcia-Filion, Pamela; Fink, Cassandra; Eleuteri, Antonio; Simpson, David M

    2015-08-01

    Pattern electroretinograms (PERGs) have inherently low signal-to-noise ratios and can be difficult to detect when degraded by pathology or noise. We compare an objective system for automated PERG analysis with expert human interpretation in children with optic nerve hypoplasia (ONH) with PERGs ranging from clear to undetectable. PERGs were recorded uniocularly with chloral hydrate sedation in children with ONH (aged 3.5-35 months). Stimuli were reversing checks of four sizes focused using an optical system incorporating the cycloplegic refraction. Forty PERG records were analysed; 20 selected at random and 20 from eyes with good vision (fellow eyes or eyes with mild ONH) from over 300 records. Two experts identified P50 and N95 of the PERGs after manually deleting trials with movement artefact, slow-wave EEG (4-8 Hz) or other noise from raw data for 150 check reversals. The automated system first identified present/not-present responses using a magnitude-squared coherence criterion and then, for responses confirmed as present, estimated the P50 and N95 cardinal positions as the turning points in local third-order polynomials fitted in the -3 dB bandwidth [0.25 … 45] Hz. Confidence limits were estimated from bootstrap re-sampling with replacement. The automated system uses an interactive Internet-available webpage tool (see http://clinengnhs.liv.ac.uk/esp_perg_1.htm). The automated system detected 28 PERG signals above the noise level (p ≤ 0.05 for H0). Good subjective quality ratings were indicative of significant PERGs; however, poor subjective quality did not necessarily predict non-significant signals. P50 and N95 implicit times showed good agreement between the two experts and between experts and the automated system. For the N95 amplitude measured to P50, the experts differed by an average of 13% consistent with differing interpretations of peaks within noise, while the automated amplitude measure was highly correlated with the expert measures but was

  17. Cosmology with negative absolute temperatures

    SciTech Connect

    Vieira, J.P.P.; Byrnes, Christian T.; Lewis, Antony, E-mail: J.Pinto-Vieira@sussex.ac.uk, E-mail: ctb22@sussex.ac.uk, E-mail: antony@cosmologist.info

    Negative absolute temperatures (NAT) are an exotic thermodynamical consequence of quantum physics which has been known since the 1950's (having been achieved in the lab on a number of occasions). Recently, the work of Braun et al. [1] has rekindled interest in negative temperatures and hinted at a possibility of using NAT systems in the lab as dark energy analogues. This paper goes one step further, looking into the cosmological consequences of the existence of a NAT component in the Universe. NAT-dominated expanding Universes experience a borderline phantom expansion ( w < -1) with no Big Rip, and their contractingmore » counterparts are forced to bounce after the energy density becomes sufficiently large. Both scenarios might be used to solve horizon and flatness problems analogously to standard inflation and bouncing cosmologies. We discuss the difficulties in obtaining and ending a NAT-dominated epoch, and possible ways of obtaining density perturbations with an acceptable spectrum.« less

  18. Earthquakes Magnitude Predication Using Artificial Neural Network in Northern Red Sea Area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alarifi, A. S.; Alarifi, N. S.

    2009-12-01

    Earthquakes are natural hazards that do not happen very often, however they may cause huge losses in life and property. Early preparation for these hazards is a key factor to reduce their damage and consequence. Since early ages, people tried to predicate earthquakes using simple observations such as strange or a typical animal behavior. In this paper, we study data collected from existing earthquake catalogue to give better forecasting for future earthquakes. The 16000 events cover a time span of 1970 to 2009, the magnitude range from greater than 0 to less than 7.2 while the depth range from greater than 0 to less than 100km. We propose a new artificial intelligent predication system based on artificial neural network, which can be used to predicate the magnitude of future earthquakes in northern Red Sea area including the Sinai Peninsula, the Gulf of Aqaba, and the Gulf of Suez. We propose a feed forward new neural network model with multi-hidden layers to predicate earthquakes occurrences and magnitudes in northern Red Sea area. Although there are similar model that have been published before in different areas, to our best knowledge this is the first neural network model to predicate earthquake in northern Red Sea area. Furthermore, we present other forecasting methods such as moving average over different interval, normally distributed random predicator, and uniformly distributed random predicator. In addition, we present different statistical methods and data fitting such as linear, quadratic, and cubic regression. We present a details performance analyses of the proposed methods for different evaluation metrics. The results show that neural network model provides higher forecast accuracy than other proposed methods. The results show that neural network achieves an average absolute error of 2.6% while an average absolute error of 3.8%, 7.3% and 6.17% for moving average, linear regression and cubic regression, respectively. In this work, we show an analysis

  19. Percussive Force Magnitude in Permafrost

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eustes, A. W., III; Bridgford, E.; Tischler, A.; Wilcox, B. H.

    2000-01-01

    An in-depth look at percussive drilling shows that the transmission efficiency is very important; however, data for percussive drilling in hard rock or permafrost is rarely available or the existing data are very old. Transmission efficiency can be used as a measurement of the transmission of the energy in the piston to the drill steel or bit and from the bit to the rock. Having a plane and centralized impact of the piston on the drill steel can optimize the transmission efficiency from the piston to the drill steel. A transmission efficiency of near 100% between piston and drill steel is possible. The transmission efficiency between bit and rock is dependent upon the interaction within the entire system. The main factors influencing this transmission efficiency are the contact area between cutting structure and surrounding rock (energy loss due to friction heat), damping characteristics of the surrounding rock (energy dampening), and cuttings transport. Some of these parameters are not controllable. To solve the existing void regarding available drilling data, an experiment for gathering energy data in permafrost for percussive drilling was designed. Fifteen artificial permafrost samples were prepared. The samples differed in the grain size distribution to observe a possible influence of the grain size distribution on the drilling performance. The samples were then manually penetrated (with a sledge-hammer) with two different spikes.

  20. Absolute charge calibration of scintillating screens for relativistic electron detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buck, A.; Zeil, K.; Popp, A.; Schmid, K.; Jochmann, A.; Kraft, S. D.; Hidding, B.; Kudyakov, T.; Sears, C. M. S.; Veisz, L.; Karsch, S.; Pawelke, J.; Sauerbrey, R.; Cowan, T.; Krausz, F.; Schramm, U.

    2010-03-01

    We report on new charge calibrations and linearity tests with high-dynamic range for eight different scintillating screens typically used for the detection of relativistic electrons from laser-plasma based acceleration schemes. The absolute charge calibration was done with picosecond electron bunches at the ELBE linear accelerator in Dresden. The lower detection limit in our setup for the most sensitive scintillating screen (KODAK Biomax MS) was 10 fC/mm2. The screens showed a linear photon-to-charge dependency over several orders of magnitude. An onset of saturation effects starting around 10-100 pC/mm2 was found for some of the screens. Additionally, a constant light source was employed as a luminosity reference to simplify the transfer of a one-time absolute calibration to different experimental setups.

  1. Absolute Bioavailability of Osimertinib in Healthy Adults.

    PubMed

    Vishwanathan, Karthick; So, Karen; Thomas, Karen; Bramley, Alex; English, Stephen; Collier, Jo

    2018-04-23

    Osimertinib is a third-generation, central nervous system-active, epidermal growth factor receptor-tyrosine kinase inhibitor (EGFR-TKI) selective for EGFR-TKI sensitizing and T790M resistance mutations. This phase 1, open-label study (NCT02491944) investigated absolute bioavailability and pharmacokinetics (PK) of oral and intravenous (IV) osimertinib. Ten healthy subjects (21-61 years) received a single oral 80-mg dose concomitantly with a 100 μg (containing 1 μCi) IV microtracer dose of [ 14 C]osimertinib. Oral and IV PK were determined simultaneously for osimertinib and its active metabolites, AZ5104 and AZ7550. High-performance liquid chromatography and accelerator mass spectrometry were used to characterize IV dose PK. Geometric mean absolute oral bioavailability of osimertinib was 69.8% (90% confidence interval, 66.7, 72.9). Oral osimertinib was slowly absorbed (median time to maximum plasma concentration [t max ] 7.0 hours). Following t max , plasma concentrations fell in an apparent monophasic manner. IV clearance and volume of distribution were 16.8 L/h and 1285 L, respectively. Arithmetic mean elimination half-life estimates were 59.7, 52.6, and 72.6 hours for osimertinib, AZ5104, and AZ7550, respectively (oral dosing), and 54.9, 68.4, and 99.7 hours for [ 14 C]osimertinib, [ 14 C]AZ5104, and [ 14 C]AZ7550, respectively (IV dosing). Oral osimertinib was well absorbed. Simultaneous IV and oral PK analysis proved useful for complete understanding of osimertinib PK and showed that the first-pass effect was minimal for osimertinib. © 2018, The American College of Clinical Pharmacology.

  2. Rapid determination of the energy magnitude Me

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    di Giacomo, D.; Parolai, S.; Bormann, P.; Grosser, H.; Saul, J.; Wang, R.; Zschau, J.

    2009-12-01

    The magnitude of an earthquake is one of the most used parameters to evaluate the earthquake’s damage potential. Among the non-saturating magnitude scales, the energy magnitude Me is related to a well defined physical parameter of the seismic source, that is the radiated seismic energy Es (e.g. Bormann et al., 2002): Me = 2/3(log10 Es - 4.4). Me is more suitable than the moment magnitude Mw in describing an earthquake's shaking potential (Choy and Kirby, 2004). Indeed, Me is calculated over a wide frequency range of the source spectrum and represents a better measure of the shaking potential, whereas Mw is related to the low-frequency asymptote of the source spectrum and is a good measure of the fault size and hence of the static (tectonic) effect of an earthquake. We analyse teleseismic broadband P-waves signals in the distance range 20°-98° to calculate Es. To correct the frequency-dependent energy loss experienced by the P-waves during the propagation path, we use pre-calculated spectral amplitude decay functions for different frequencies obtained from numerical simulations of Green’s functions (Wang, 1999) given the reference Earth model AK135Q (Kennett et al., 1995; Montagner and Kennett, 1996). By means of these functions the correction for the various propagation effects of the recorded P-wave velocity spectra is performed in a rapid and robust way, and the calculation of ES, and hence of Me, can be computed at the single station. We show that our procedure is suitable for implementation in rapid response systems since it could provide stable Me determinations within 10-15 minutes after the earthquake’s origin time, even in case of great earthquakes. We tested our procedure for a large dataset composed by about 770 earthquakes globally distributed in the Mw range 5.5-9.3 recorded at the broadband stations managed by the IRIS, GEOFON, and GEOSCOPE global networks, as well as other regional seismic networks. Me and Mw express two different aspects of

  3. Absolute Gravity Datum in the Age of Cold Atom Gravimeters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Childers, V. A.; Eckl, M. C.

    2014-12-01

    The international gravity datum is defined today by the International Gravity Standardization Net of 1971 (IGSN-71). The data supporting this network was measured in the 1950s and 60s using pendulum and spring-based gravimeter ties (plus some new ballistic absolute meters) to replace the prior protocol of referencing all gravity values to the earlier Potsdam value. Since this time, gravimeter technology has advanced significantly with the development and refinement of the FG-5 (the current standard of the industry) and again with the soon-to-be-available cold atom interferometric absolute gravimeters. This latest development is anticipated to provide improvement in the range of two orders of magnitude as compared to the measurement accuracy of technology utilized to develop ISGN-71. In this presentation, we will explore how the IGSN-71 might best be "modernized" given today's requirements and available instruments and resources. The National Geodetic Survey (NGS), along with other relevant US Government agencies, is concerned about establishing gravity control to establish and maintain high order geodetic networks as part of the nation's essential infrastructure. The need to modernize the nation's geodetic infrastructure was highlighted in "Precise Geodetic Infrastructure, National Requirements for a Shared Resource" National Academy of Science, 2010. The NGS mission, as dictated by Congress, is to establish and maintain the National Spatial Reference System, which includes gravity measurements. Absolute gravimeters measure the total gravity field directly and do not involve ties to other measurements. Periodic "intercomparisons" of multiple absolute gravimeters at reference gravity sites are used to constrain the behavior of the instruments to ensure that each would yield reasonably similar measurements of the same location (i.e. yield a sufficiently consistent datum when measured in disparate locales). New atomic interferometric gravimeters promise a significant

  4. Magnitude processing of symbolic and non-symbolic proportions: an fMRI study.

    PubMed

    Mock, Julia; Huber, Stefan; Bloechle, Johannes; Dietrich, Julia F; Bahnmueller, Julia; Rennig, Johannes; Klein, Elise; Moeller, Korbinian

    2018-05-10

    Recent research indicates that processing proportion magnitude is associated with activation in the intraparietal sulcus. Thus, brain areas associated with the processing of numbers (i.e., absolute magnitude) were activated during processing symbolic fractions as well as non-symbolic proportions. Here, we investigated systematically the cognitive processing of symbolic (e.g., fractions and decimals) and non-symbolic proportions (e.g., dot patterns and pie charts) in a two-stage procedure. First, we investigated relative magnitude-related activations of proportion processing. Second, we evaluated whether symbolic and non-symbolic proportions share common neural substrates. We conducted an fMRI study using magnitude comparison tasks with symbolic and non-symbolic proportions, respectively. As an indicator for magnitude-related processing of proportions, the distance effect was evaluated. A conjunction analysis indicated joint activation of specific occipito-parietal areas including right intraparietal sulcus (IPS) during proportion magnitude processing. More specifically, results indicate that the IPS, which is commonly associated with absolute magnitude processing, is involved in processing relative magnitude information as well, irrespective of symbolic or non-symbolic presentation format. However, we also found distinct activation patterns for the magnitude processing of the different presentation formats. Our findings suggest that processing for the separate presentation formats is not only associated with magnitude manipulations in the IPS, but also increasing demands on executive functions and strategy use associated with frontal brain regions as well as visual attention and encoding in occipital regions. Thus, the magnitude processing of proportions may not exclusively reflect processing of number magnitude information but also rather domain-general processes.

  5. Induced earthquake magnitudes are as large as (statistically) expected

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Van Der Elst, Nicholas; Page, Morgan T.; Weiser, Deborah A.; Goebel, Thomas; Hosseini, S. Mehran

    2016-01-01

    A major question for the hazard posed by injection-induced seismicity is how large induced earthquakes can be. Are their maximum magnitudes determined by injection parameters or by tectonics? Deterministic limits on induced earthquake magnitudes have been proposed based on the size of the reservoir or the volume of fluid injected. However, if induced earthquakes occur on tectonic faults oriented favorably with respect to the tectonic stress field, then they may be limited only by the regional tectonics and connectivity of the fault network. In this study, we show that the largest magnitudes observed at fluid injection sites are consistent with the sampling statistics of the Gutenberg-Richter distribution for tectonic earthquakes, assuming no upper magnitude bound. The data pass three specific tests: (1) the largest observed earthquake at each site scales with the log of the total number of induced earthquakes, (2) the order of occurrence of the largest event is random within the induced sequence, and (3) the injected volume controls the total number of earthquakes rather than the total seismic moment. All three tests point to an injection control on earthquake nucleation but a tectonic control on earthquake magnitude. Given that the largest observed earthquakes are exactly as large as expected from the sampling statistics, we should not conclude that these are the largest earthquakes possible. Instead, the results imply that induced earthquake magnitudes should be treated with the same maximum magnitude bound that is currently used to treat seismic hazard from tectonic earthquakes.

  6. Absolute stress measurements at the rangely anticline, Northwestern Colorado

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    de la Cruz, R. V.; Raleigh, C.B.

    1972-01-01

    Five different methods of measuring absolute state of stress in rocks in situ were used at sites near Rangely, Colorado, and the results compared. For near-surface measurements, overcoring of the borehole-deformation gage is the most convenient and rapid means of obtaining reliable values for the magnitude and direction of the state of stress in rocks in situ. The magnitudes and directions of the principal stresses are compared to the geologic features of the different areas of measurement. The in situ stresses are consistent in orientation with the stress direction inferred from the earthquake focal-plane solutions and existing joint patterns but inconsistent with stress directions likely to have produced the Rangely anticline. ?? 1972.

  7. Stereotactic, Single-Dose Irradiation of Lung Tumors: A Comparison of Absolute Dose and Dose Distribution Between Pencil Beam and Monte Carlo Algorithms Based on Actual Patient CT Scans

    SciTech Connect

    Chen Huixiao; Lohr, Frank; Fritz, Peter

    2010-11-01

    Purpose: Dose calculation based on pencil beam (PB) algorithms has its shortcomings predicting dose in tissue heterogeneities. The aim of this study was to compare dose distributions of clinically applied non-intensity-modulated radiotherapy 15-MV plans for stereotactic body radiotherapy between voxel Monte Carlo (XVMC) calculation and PB calculation for lung lesions. Methods and Materials: To validate XVMC, one treatment plan was verified in an inhomogeneous thorax phantom with EDR2 film (Eastman Kodak, Rochester, NY). Both measured and calculated (PB and XVMC) dose distributions were compared regarding profiles and isodoses. Then, 35 lung plans originally created for clinical treatment by PB calculationmore » with the Eclipse planning system (Varian Medical Systems, Palo Alto, CA) were recalculated by XVMC (investigational implementation in PrecisePLAN [Elekta AB, Stockholm, Sweden]). Clinically relevant dose-volume parameters for target and lung tissue were compared and analyzed statistically. Results: The XVMC calculation agreed well with film measurements (<1% difference in lateral profile), whereas the deviation between PB calculation and film measurements was up to +15%. On analysis of 35 clinical cases, the mean dose, minimal dose and coverage dose value for 95% volume of gross tumor volume were 1.14 {+-} 1.72 Gy, 1.68 {+-} 1.47 Gy, and 1.24 {+-} 1.04 Gy lower by XVMC compared with PB, respectively (prescription dose, 30 Gy). The volume covered by the 9 Gy isodose of lung was 2.73% {+-} 3.12% higher when calculated by XVMC compared with PB. The largest differences were observed for small lesions circumferentially encompassed by lung tissue. Conclusions: Pencil beam dose calculation overestimates dose to the tumor and underestimates lung volumes exposed to a given dose consistently for 15-MV photons. The degree of difference between XVMC and PB is tumor size and location dependent. Therefore XVMC calculation is helpful to further optimize treatment

  8. Strongly nonlinear theory of rapid solidification near absolute stability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kowal, Katarzyna N.; Altieri, Anthony L.; Davis, Stephen H.

    2017-10-01

    morphological number, as well as the amplitude. The critical amplitude, at which solutions loose periodicity, depends on a single combination of parameters independent of the morphological number that indicate that non-periodic growth is most commonly present for moderate disequilibrium parameters. The spatial distribution of the interface develops deepening roots at late times. Similar spatial distributions are also seen in the limit in which both the cellular and oscillatory modes are close to absolute stability, and the roots deepen with larger departures from the two absolute stability boundaries.

  9. Developmental Foundations of Children's Fraction Magnitude Knowledge.

    PubMed

    Mou, Yi; Li, Yaoran; Hoard, Mary K; Nugent, Lara D; Chu, Felicia W; Rouder, Jeffrey N; Geary, David C

    2016-01-01

    The conceptual insight that fractions represent magnitudes is a critical yet daunting step in children's mathematical development, and the knowledge of fraction magnitudes influences children's later mathematics learning including algebra. In this study, longitudinal data were analyzed to identify the mathematical knowledge and domain-general competencies that predicted 8 th and 9 th graders' (n=122) knowledge of fraction magnitudes and its cross-grade gains. Performance on the fraction magnitude measures predicted 9 th grade algebra achievement. Understanding and fluently identifying the numerator-denominator relation in 7 th grade emerged as the key predictor of later fraction magnitudes knowledge in both 8 th and 9 th grades. Competence at using fraction procedures, knowledge of whole number magnitudes, and the central executive contributed to 9 th but not 8 th graders' fraction magnitude knowledge, and knowledge of whole number magnitude contributed to cross-grade gains. The key results suggest fluent processing of numerator-denominator relations presages students' understanding of fractions as magnitudes and that the integration of whole number and fraction magnitudes occurs gradually.

  10. Absolute optical metrology : nanometers to kilometers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dubovitsky, Serge; Lay, O. P.; Peters, R. D.; Liebe, C. C.

    2005-01-01

    We provide and overview of the developments in the field of high-accuracy absolute optical metrology with emphasis on space-based applications. Specific work on the Modulation Sideband Technology for Absolute Ranging (MSTAR) sensor is described along with novel applications of the sensor.

  11. 49 CFR 236.709 - Block, absolute.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Block, absolute. 236.709 Section 236.709 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION... Block, absolute. A block in which no train is permitted to enter while it is occupied by another train. ...

  12. Introducing the Mean Absolute Deviation "Effect" Size

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gorard, Stephen

    2015-01-01

    This paper revisits the use of effect sizes in the analysis of experimental and similar results, and reminds readers of the relative advantages of the mean absolute deviation as a measure of variation, as opposed to the more complex standard deviation. The mean absolute deviation is easier to use and understand, and more tolerant of extreme…

  13. Investigating Absolute Value: A Real World Application

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kidd, Margaret; Pagni, David

    2009-01-01

    Making connections between various representations is important in mathematics. In this article, the authors discuss the numeric, algebraic, and graphical representations of sums of absolute values of linear functions. The initial explanations are accessible to all students who have experience graphing and who understand that absolute value simply…

  14. 49 CFR 236.709 - Block, absolute.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Block, absolute. 236.709 Section 236.709 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION... Block, absolute. A block in which no train is permitted to enter while it is occupied by another train. ...

  15. Absolute Income, Relative Income, and Happiness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ball, Richard; Chernova, Kateryna

    2008-01-01

    This paper uses data from the World Values Survey to investigate how an individual's self-reported happiness is related to (i) the level of her income in absolute terms, and (ii) the level of her income relative to other people in her country. The main findings are that (i) both absolute and relative income are positively and significantly…

  16. Monolithically integrated absolute frequency comb laser system

    SciTech Connect

    Wanke, Michael C.

    2016-07-12

    Rather than down-convert optical frequencies, a QCL laser system directly generates a THz frequency comb in a compact monolithically integrated chip that can be locked to an absolute frequency without the need of a frequency-comb synthesizer. The monolithic, absolute frequency comb can provide a THz frequency reference and tool for high-resolution broad band spectroscopy.

  17. Absolute flux measurements for swift atoms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fink, M.; Kohl, D. A.; Keto, J. W.; Antoniewicz, P.

    1987-01-01

    While a torsion balance in vacuum can easily measure the momentum transfer from a gas beam impinging on a surface attached to the balance, this measurement depends on the accommodation coefficients of the atoms with the surface and the distribution of the recoil. A torsion balance is described for making absolute flux measurements independent of recoil effects. The torsion balance is a conventional taut suspension wire design and the Young modulus of the wire determines the relationship between the displacement and the applied torque. A compensating magnetic field is applied to maintain zero displacement and provide critical damping. The unique feature is to couple the impinging gas beam to the torsion balance via a Wood's horn, i.e., a thin wall tube with a gradual 90 deg bend. Just as light is trapped in a Wood's horn by specular reflection from the curved surfaces, the gas beam diffuses through the tube. Instead of trapping the beam, the end of the tube is open so that the atoms exit the tube at 90 deg to their original direction. Therefore, all of the forward momentum of the gas beam is transferred to the torsion balance independent of the angle of reflection from the surfaces inside the tube.

  18. 242Pu absolute neutron-capture cross section measurement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buckner, M. Q.; Wu, C. Y.; Henderson, R. A.; Bucher, B.; Chyzh, A.; Bredeweg, T. A.; Baramsai, B.; Couture, A.; Jandel, M.; Mosby, S.; O'Donnell, J. M.; Ullmann, J. L.

    2017-09-01

    The absolute neutron-capture cross section of 242Pu was measured at the Los Alamos Neutron Science Center using the Detector for Advanced Neutron-Capture Experiments array along with a compact parallel-plate avalanche counter for fission-fragment detection. During target fabrication, a small amount of 239Pu was added to the active target so that the absolute scale of the 242Pu(n,γ) cross section could be set according to the known 239Pu(n,f) resonance at En,R = 7.83 eV. The relative scale of the 242Pu(n,γ) cross section covers four orders of magnitude for incident neutron energies from thermal to ≈ 40 keV. The cross section reported in ENDF/B-VII.1 for the 242Pu(n,γ) En,R = 2.68 eV resonance was found to be 2.4% lower than the new absolute 242Pu(n,γ) cross section.

  19. How fault geometry controls earthquake magnitude

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bletery, Q.; Thomas, A.; Karlstrom, L.; Rempel, A. W.; Sladen, A.; De Barros, L.

    2016-12-01

    Recent large megathrust earthquakes, such as the Mw9.3 Sumatra-Andaman earthquake in 2004 and the Mw9.0 Tohoku-Oki earthquake in 2011, astonished the scientific community. The first event occurred in a relatively low-convergence-rate subduction zone where events of its size were unexpected. The second event involved 60 m of shallow slip in a region thought to be aseismicaly creeping and hence incapable of hosting very large magnitude earthquakes. These earthquakes highlight gaps in our understanding of mega-earthquake rupture processes and the factors controlling their global distribution. Here we show that gradients in dip angle exert a primary control on mega-earthquake occurrence. We calculate the curvature along the major subduction zones of the world and show that past mega-earthquakes occurred on flat (low-curvature) interfaces. A simplified analytic model demonstrates that shear strength heterogeneity increases with curvature. Stress loading on flat megathrusts is more homogeneous and hence more likely to be released simultaneously over large areas than on highly-curved faults. Therefore, the absence of asperities on large faults might counter-intuitively be a source of higher hazard.

  20. A Bayesian perspective on magnitude estimation.

    PubMed

    Petzschner, Frederike H; Glasauer, Stefan; Stephan, Klaas E

    2015-05-01

    Our representation of the physical world requires judgments of magnitudes, such as loudness, distance, or time. Interestingly, magnitude estimates are often not veridical but subject to characteristic biases. These biases are strikingly similar across different sensory modalities, suggesting common processing mechanisms that are shared by different sensory systems. However, the search for universal neurobiological principles of magnitude judgments requires guidance by formal theories. Here, we discuss a unifying Bayesian framework for understanding biases in magnitude estimation. This Bayesian perspective enables a re-interpretation of a range of established psychophysical findings, reconciles seemingly incompatible classical views on magnitude estimation, and can guide future investigations of magnitude estimation and its neurobiological mechanisms in health and in psychiatric diseases, such as schizophrenia. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Distribution

    Treesearch

    John R. Jones

    1985-01-01

    Quaking aspen is the most widely distributed native North American tree species (Little 1971, Sargent 1890). It grows in a great diversity of regions, environments, and communities (Harshberger 1911). Only one deciduous tree species in the world, the closely related Eurasian aspen (Populus tremula), has a wider range (Weigle and Frothingham 1911)....

  2. Impact of magnitude uncertainties on seismic catalogue properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leptokaropoulos, K. M.; Adamaki, A. K.; Roberts, R. G.; Gkarlaouni, C. G.; Paradisopoulou, P. M.

    2018-05-01

    Catalogue-based studies are of central importance in seismological research, to investigate the temporal, spatial and size distribution of earthquakes in specified study areas. Methods for estimating the fundamental catalogue parameters like the Gutenberg-Richter (G-R) b-value and the completeness magnitude (Mc) are well established and routinely applied. However, the magnitudes reported in seismicity catalogues contain measurement uncertainties which may significantly distort the estimation of the derived parameters. In this study, we use numerical simulations of synthetic data sets to assess the reliability of different methods for determining b-value and Mc, assuming the G-R law validity. After contaminating the synthetic catalogues with Gaussian noise (with selected standard deviations), the analysis is performed for numerous data sets of different sample size (N). The noise introduced to the data generally leads to a systematic overestimation of magnitudes close to and above Mc. This fact causes an increase of the average number of events above Mc, which in turn leads to an apparent decrease of the b-value. This may result to a significant overestimation of seismicity rate even well above the actual completeness level. The b-value can in general be reliably estimated even for relatively small data sets (N < 1000) when only magnitudes higher than the actual completeness level are used. Nevertheless, a correction of the total number of events belonging in each magnitude class (i.e. 0.1 unit) should be considered, to deal with the magnitude uncertainty effect. Because magnitude uncertainties (here with the form of Gaussian noise) are inevitable in all instrumental catalogues, this finding is fundamental for seismicity rate and seismic hazard assessment analyses. Also important is that for some data analyses significant bias cannot necessarily be avoided by choosing a high Mc value for analysis. In such cases, there may be a risk of severe miscalculation of

  3. A global algorithm for estimating Absolute Salinity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McDougall, T. J.; Jackett, D. R.; Millero, F. J.; Pawlowicz, R.; Barker, P. M.

    2012-12-01

    The International Thermodynamic Equation of Seawater - 2010 has defined the thermodynamic properties of seawater in terms of a new salinity variable, Absolute Salinity, which takes into account the spatial variation of the composition of seawater. Absolute Salinity more accurately reflects the effects of the dissolved material in seawater on the thermodynamic properties (particularly density) than does Practical Salinity. When a seawater sample has standard composition (i.e. the ratios of the constituents of sea salt are the same as those of surface water of the North Atlantic), Practical Salinity can be used to accurately evaluate the thermodynamic properties of seawater. When seawater is not of standard composition, Practical Salinity alone is not sufficient and the Absolute Salinity Anomaly needs to be estimated; this anomaly is as large as 0.025 g kg-1 in the northernmost North Pacific. Here we provide an algorithm for estimating Absolute Salinity Anomaly for any location (x, y, p) in the world ocean. To develop this algorithm, we used the Absolute Salinity Anomaly that is found by comparing the density calculated from Practical Salinity to the density measured in the laboratory. These estimates of Absolute Salinity Anomaly however are limited to the number of available observations (namely 811). In order to provide a practical method that can be used at any location in the world ocean, we take advantage of approximate relationships between Absolute Salinity Anomaly and silicate concentrations (which are available globally).

  4. Valence and magnitude ambiguity in feedback processing.

    PubMed

    Gu, Ruolei; Feng, Xue; Broster, Lucas S; Yuan, Lu; Xu, Pengfei; Luo, Yue-Jia

    2017-05-01

    Outcome feedback which indicates behavioral consequences are crucial for reinforcement learning and environmental adaptation. Nevertheless, outcome information in daily life is often totally or partially ambiguous. Studying how people interpret this kind of information would provide important knowledge about the human evaluative system. This study concentrates on the neural processing of partially ambiguous feedback, that is, either its valence or magnitude is unknown to participants. To address this topic, we sequentially presented valence and magnitude information; electroencephalography (EEG) response to each kind of presentation was recorded and analyzed. The event-related potential components feedback-related negativity (FRN) and P3 were used as indices of neural activity. Consistent with previous literature, the FRN elicited by ambiguous valence was not significantly different from that elicited by negative valence. On the other hand, the FRN elicited by ambiguous magnitude was larger than both the large and small magnitude, indicating the motivation to seek unambiguous magnitude information. The P3 elicited by ambiguous valence and ambiguous magnitude was not significantly different from that elicited by negative valence and small magnitude, respectively, indicating the emotional significance of feedback ambiguity. Finally, the aforementioned effects also manifested in the stage of information integration. These findings indicate both similarities and discrepancies between the processing of valence ambiguity and that of magnitude ambiguity, which may help understand the mechanisms of ambiguous information processing.

  5. Reward Magnitude Effects on Temporal Discrimination

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Galtress, Tiffany; Kirkpatrick, Kimberly

    2010-01-01

    Changes in reward magnitude or value have been reported to produce effects on timing behavior, which have been attributed to changes in the speed of an internal pacemaker in some instances and to attentional factors in other cases. The present experiments therefore aimed to clarify the effects of reward magnitude on timing processes. In Experiment…

  6. Absolute quantification of microbial taxon abundances.

    PubMed

    Props, Ruben; Kerckhof, Frederiek-Maarten; Rubbens, Peter; De Vrieze, Jo; Hernandez Sanabria, Emma; Waegeman, Willem; Monsieurs, Pieter; Hammes, Frederik; Boon, Nico

    2017-02-01

    High-throughput amplicon sequencing has become a well-established approach for microbial community profiling. Correlating shifts in the relative abundances of bacterial taxa with environmental gradients is the goal of many microbiome surveys. As the abundances generated by this technology are semi-quantitative by definition, the observed dynamics may not accurately reflect those of the actual taxon densities. We combined the sequencing approach (16S rRNA gene) with robust single-cell enumeration technologies (flow cytometry) to quantify the absolute taxon abundances. A detailed longitudinal analysis of the absolute abundances resulted in distinct abundance profiles that were less ambiguous and expressed in units that can be directly compared across studies. We further provide evidence that the enrichment of taxa (increase in relative abundance) does not necessarily relate to the outgrowth of taxa (increase in absolute abundance). Our results highlight that both relative and absolute abundances should be considered for a comprehensive biological interpretation of microbiome surveys.

  7. Low absolute neutrophil counts in African infants.

    PubMed

    Kourtis, Athena P; Bramson, Brian; van der Horst, Charles; Kazembe, Peter; Ahmed, Yusuf; Chasela, Charles; Hosseinipour, Mina; Knight, Rodney; Lugalia, Lebah; Tegha, Gerald; Joaki, George; Jafali, Robert; Jamieson, Denise J

    2005-07-01

    Infants of African origin have a lower normal range of absolute neutrophil counts than white infants; this fact, however, remains under appreciated by clinical researchers in the United States. During the initial stages of a clinical trial in Malawi, the authors noted an unexpectedly high number of infants with absolute neutrophil counts that would be classifiable as neutropenic using the National Institutes of Health's Division of AIDS toxicity tables. The authors argue that the relevant Division of AIDS table does not take into account the available evidence of low absolute neutrophil counts in African infants and that a systematic collection of data from many African settings might help establish the absolute neutrophil count cutpoints to be used for defining neutropenia in African populations.

  8. A New Gimmick for Assigning Absolute Configuration.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ayorinde, F. O.

    1983-01-01

    A five-step procedure is provided to help students in making the assignment absolute configuration less bothersome. Examples for both single (2-butanol) and multi-chiral carbon (3-chloro-2-butanol) molecules are included. (JN)

  9. Absolute colorimetric characterization of a DSLR camera

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guarnera, Giuseppe Claudio; Bianco, Simone; Schettini, Raimondo

    2014-03-01

    A simple but effective technique for absolute colorimetric camera characterization is proposed. It offers a large dynamic range requiring just a single, off-the-shelf target and a commonly available controllable light source for the characterization. The characterization task is broken down in two modules, respectively devoted to absolute luminance estimation and to colorimetric characterization matrix estimation. The characterized camera can be effectively used as a tele-colorimeter, giving an absolute estimation of the XYZ data in cd=m2. The user is only required to vary the f - number of the camera lens or the exposure time t, to better exploit the sensor dynamic range. The estimated absolute tristimulus values closely match the values measured by a professional spectro-radiometer.

  10. Vection: the contributions of absolute and relative visual motion.

    PubMed

    Howard, I P; Howard, A

    1994-01-01

    Inspection of a visual scene rotating about the vertical body axis induces a compelling sense of self rotation, or circular vection. Circular vection is suppressed by stationary objects seen beyond the moving display but not by stationary objects in the foreground. We hypothesised that stationary objects in the foreground facilitate vection because they introduce a relative-motion signal into what would otherwise be an absolute-motion signal. Vection latency and magnitude were measured with a full-field moving display and with stationary objects of various sizes and at various positions in the visual field. The results confirmed the hypothesis. Vection latency was longer when there were no stationary objects in view than when stationary objects were in view. The effect of stationary objects was particularly evident at low stimulus velocities. At low velocities a small stationary point significantly increased vection magnitude in spite of the fact that, at higher stimulus velocities and with other stationary objects in view, fixation on a stationary point, if anything, reduced vection. Changing the position of the stationary objects in the field of view did not affect vection latencies or magnitudes.

  11. A potential for overestimating the absolute magnitudes of second virial coefficients by small-angle X-ray scattering.

    PubMed

    Scott, David J; Patel, Trushar R; Winzor, Donald J

    2013-04-15

    Theoretical consideration is given to the effect of cosolutes (including buffer and electrolyte components) on the determination of second virial coefficients for proteins by small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS)-a factor overlooked in current analyses in terms of expressions for a two-component system. A potential deficiency of existing practices is illustrated by reassessment of published results on the effect of polyethylene glycol concentration on the second virial coefficient for urate oxidase. This error reflects the substitution of I(0,c3,0), the scattering intensity in the limit of zero scattering angle and solute concentration, for I(0,0,0), the corresponding parameter in the limit of zero cosolute concentration (c3) as well. Published static light scattering results on the dependence of the apparent molecular weight of ovalbumin on buffer concentration are extrapolated to zero concentration to obtain the true value (M2) and thereby establish the feasibility of obtaining the analogous SAXS parameter, I(0,0,0), experimentally. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. The effect of background galaxy contamination on the absolute magnitude and light curve speed class of type Ia supernovae

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boisseau, John R.; Wheeler, J. Craig

    1991-01-01

    Observational data are presented in support of the hypothesis that background galaxy contamination is present in the photometric data of Ia supernovae and that this effect can account for the observed dispersion in the light curve speeds of most of Ia supernovae. The implication is that the observed dispersion in beta is artificial and that most of Ia supernovae have nearly homogeneous light curves. The result supports the notion that Ia supernovae are good standard candles.

  13. What controls the maximum magnitude of injection-induced earthquakes?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eaton, D. W. S.

    2017-12-01

    Three different approaches for estimation of maximum magnitude are considered here, along with their implications for managing risk. The first approach is based on a deterministic limit for seismic moment proposed by McGarr (1976), which was originally designed for application to mining-induced seismicity. This approach has since been reformulated for earthquakes induced by fluid injection (McGarr, 2014). In essence, this method assumes that the upper limit for seismic moment release is constrained by the pressure-induced stress change. A deterministic limit is given by the product of shear modulus and the net injected fluid volume. This method is based on the assumptions that the medium is fully saturated and in a state of incipient failure. An alternative geometrical approach was proposed by Shapiro et al. (2011), who postulated that the rupture area for an induced earthquake falls entirely within the stimulated volume. This assumption reduces the maximum-magnitude problem to one of estimating the largest potential slip surface area within a given stimulated volume. Finally, van der Elst et al. (2016) proposed that the maximum observed magnitude, statistically speaking, is the expected maximum value for a finite sample drawn from an unbounded Gutenberg-Richter distribution. These three models imply different approaches for risk management. The deterministic method proposed by McGarr (2014) implies that a ceiling on the maximum magnitude can be imposed by limiting the net injected volume, whereas the approach developed by Shapiro et al. (2011) implies that the time-dependent maximum magnitude is governed by the spatial size of the microseismic event cloud. Finally, the sample-size hypothesis of Van der Elst et al. (2016) implies that the best available estimate of the maximum magnitude is based upon observed seismicity rate. The latter two approaches suggest that real-time monitoring is essential for effective management of risk. A reliable estimate of maximum

  14. Absolute far-ultraviolet spectrophotometry of hot subluminous stars from Voyager

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holberg, J. B.; Ali, B.; Carone, T. E.; Polidan, R. S.

    1991-01-01

    Observations, obtained with the Voyager ultraviolet spectrometers, are presented of absolute fluxes for two well-known hot subluminous stars: BD + 28 deg 4211, an sdO, and G191 - B2B, a hot DA white dwarf. Complete absolute energy distributions for these two stars, from the Lyman limit at 912 A to 1 micron, are given. For BD + 28 deg 4211, a single power law closely represents the entire observed energy distribution. For G191 - B2B, a pure hydrogen model atmosphere provides an excellent match to the entire absolute energy distribution. Voyager absolute fluxes are discussed in relation to those reported from various sounding rocket experiments, including a recent rocket observation of BD + 28 deg 4211.

  15. Magnitude scale for the Central American tsunamis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hatori, Tokutaro

    1995-09-01

    Based on the tsunami data in the Central American region, the regional characteristic of tsunami magnitude scales is discussed in relation to earthquake magnitudes during the period from 1900 to 1993. Tsunami magnitudes on the Imamura-Iida scale of the 1985 Mexico and 1992 Nicaragua tsunamis are determined to be m=2.5, judging from the tsunami height-distance diagram. The magnitude values of the Central American tsunamis are relatively small compared to earthquakes with similar size in other regions. However, there are a few large tsunamis generated by low-frequency earthquakes such as the 1992 Nicaragua earthquake. Inundation heights of these unusual tsunamis are about 10 times higher than those of normal tsunamis for the same earthquake magnitude ( M s =6.9 7.2). The Central American tsunamis having magnitude m>1 have been observed by the Japanese tide stations, but the effect of directivity toward Japan is very small compared to that of the South American tsunamis.

  16. Jasminum flexile flower absolute from India--a detailed comparison with three other jasmine absolutes.

    PubMed

    Braun, Norbert A; Kohlenberg, Birgit; Sim, Sherina; Meier, Manfred; Hammerschmidt, Franz-Josef

    2009-09-01

    Jasminum flexile flower absolute from the south of India and the corresponding vacuum headspace (VHS) sample of the absolute were analyzed using GC and GC-MS. Three other commercially available Indian jasmine absolutes from the species: J. sambac, J. officinale subsp. grandiflorum, and J. auriculatum and the respective VHS samples were used for comparison purposes. One hundred and twenty-one compounds were characterized in J. flexile flower absolute, with methyl linolate, benzyl salicylate, benzyl benzoate, (2E,6E)-farnesol, and benzyl acetate as the main constituents. A detailed olfactory evaluation was also performed.

  17. Universal Cosmic Absolute and Modern Science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kostro, Ludwik

    The official Sciences, especially all natural sciences, respect in their researches the principle of methodic naturalism i.e. they consider all phenomena as entirely natural and therefore in their scientific explanations they do never adduce or cite supernatural entities and forces. The purpose of this paper is to show that Modern Science has its own self-existent, self-acting, and self-sufficient Natural All-in Being or Omni-Being i.e. the entire Nature as a Whole that justifies the scientific methodic naturalism. Since this Natural All-in Being is one and only It should be considered as the own scientifically justified Natural Absolute of Science and should be called, in my opinion, the Universal Cosmic Absolute of Modern Science. It will be also shown that the Universal Cosmic Absolute is ontologically enormously stratified and is in its ultimate i.e. in its most fundamental stratum trans-reistic and trans-personal. It means that in its basic stratum. It is neither a Thing or a Person although It contains in Itself all things and persons with all other sentient and conscious individuals as well, On the turn of the 20th century the Science has begun to look for a theory of everything, for a final theory, for a master theory. In my opinion the natural Universal Cosmic Absolute will constitute in such a theory the radical all penetrating Ultimate Basic Reality and will substitute step by step the traditional supernatural personal Absolute.

  18. Absolute Radiation Measurements in Earth and Mars Entry Conditions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cruden, Brett A.

    2014-01-01

    This paper reports on the measurement of radiative heating for shock heated flows which simulate conditions for Mars and Earth entries. Radiation measurements are made in NASA Ames' Electric Arc Shock Tube at velocities from 3-15 km/s in mixtures of N2/O2 and CO2/N2/Ar. The technique and limitations of the measurement are summarized in some detail. The absolute measurements will be discussed in regards to spectral features, radiative magnitude and spatiotemporal trends. Via analysis of spectra it is possible to extract properties such as electron density, and rotational, vibrational and electronic temperatures. Relaxation behind the shock is analyzed to determine how these properties relax to equilibrium and are used to validate and refine kinetic models. It is found that, for some conditions, some of these values diverge from non-equilibrium indicating a lack of similarity between the shock tube and free flight conditions. Possible reasons for this are discussed.

  19. Absolute calibration of Doppler coherence imaging velocity images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Samuell, C. M.; Allen, S. L.; Meyer, W. H.; Howard, J.

    2017-08-01

    A new technique has been developed for absolutely calibrating a Doppler Coherence Imaging Spectroscopy interferometer for measuring plasma ion and neutral velocities. An optical model of the interferometer is used to generate zero-velocity reference images for the plasma spectral line of interest from a calibration source some spectral distance away. Validation of this technique using a tunable diode laser demonstrated an accuracy better than 0.2 km/s over an extrapolation range of 3.5 nm; a two order of magnitude improvement over linear approaches. While a well-characterized and very stable interferometer is required, this technique opens up the possibility of calibrated velocity measurements in difficult viewing geometries and for complex spectral line-shapes.

  20. Globular Clusters: Absolute Proper Motions and Galactic Orbits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chemel, A. A.; Glushkova, E. V.; Dambis, A. K.; Rastorguev, A. S.; Yalyalieva, L. N.; Klinichev, A. D.

    2018-04-01

    We cross-match objects from several different astronomical catalogs to determine the absolute proper motions of stars within the 30-arcmin radius fields of 115 Milky-Way globular clusters with the accuracy of 1-2 mas yr-1. The proper motions are based on positional data recovered from the USNO-B1, 2MASS, URAT1, ALLWISE, UCAC5, and Gaia DR1 surveys with up to ten positions spanning an epoch difference of up to about 65 years, and reduced to Gaia DR1 TGAS frame using UCAC5 as the reference catalog. Cluster members are photometrically identified by selecting horizontal- and red-giant branch stars on color-magnitude diagrams, and the mean absolute proper motions of the clusters with a typical formal error of about 0.4 mas yr-1 are computed by averaging the proper motions of selected members. The inferred absolute proper motions of clusters are combined with available radial-velocity data and heliocentric distance estimates to compute the cluster orbits in terms of the Galactic potential models based on Miyamoto and Nagai disk, Hernquist spheroid, and modified isothermal dark-matter halo (axisymmetric model without a bar) and the same model + rotating Ferre's bar (non-axisymmetric). Five distant clusters have higher-than-escape velocities, most likely due to large errors of computed transversal velocities, whereas the computed orbits of all other clusters remain bound to the Galaxy. Unlike previously published results, we find the bar to affect substantially the orbits of most of the clusters, even those at large Galactocentric distances, bringing appreciable chaotization, especially in the portions of the orbits close to the Galactic center, and stretching out the orbits of some of the thick-disk clusters.

  1. Absolute versus relative ascertainment of pedophilia in men.

    PubMed

    Blanchard, Ray; Kuban, Michael E; Blak, Thomas; Cantor, James M; Klassen, Philip E; Dickey, Robert

    2009-12-01

    There are at least two different criteria for assessing pedophilia in men: absolute ascertainment (their sexual interest in children is intense) and relative ascertainment (their sexual interest in children is greater than their interest in adults). The American Psychiatric Association's Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 3rd edition (DSM-III) used relative ascertainment in its diagnostic criteria for pedophilia; this was abandoned and replaced by absolute ascertainment in the DSM-III-R and all subsequent editions. The present study was conducted to demonstrate the continuing need for relative ascertainment, particularly in the laboratory assessment of pedophilia. A total of 402 heterosexual men were selected from a database of patients referred to a specialty clinic. These had undergone phallometric testing, a psychophysiological procedure in which their penile blood volume was monitored while they were presented with a standardized set of laboratory stimuli depicting male and female children, pubescents, and adults.The 130 men selected for the Teleiophilic Profile group responded substantially to prepubescent girls but even more to adult women; the 272 men selected for the Pedophilic Profile group responded weakly to prepubescent girls but even less to adult women. In terms of absolute magnitude, every patient in the Pedophilic Profile group had a lesser penile response to prepubescent girls than every patient in the Teleiophilic Profile group. Nevertheless, the Pedophilic Profile group had a significantly greater number of known sexual offenses against prepubescent girls, indicating that they contained a higher proportion of true pedophiles. These results dramatically demonstrate the utility-or perhaps necessity-of relative ascertainment in the laboratory assessment of erotic age-preference.

  2. Stimulus probability effects in absolute identification.

    PubMed

    Kent, Christopher; Lamberts, Koen

    2016-05-01

    This study investigated the effect of stimulus presentation probability on accuracy and response times in an absolute identification task. Three schedules of presentation were used to investigate the interaction between presentation probability and stimulus position within the set. Data from individual participants indicated strong effects of presentation probability on both proportion correct and response times. The effects were moderated by the ubiquitous stimulus position effect. The accuracy and response time data were predicted by an exemplar-based model of perceptual cognition (Kent & Lamberts, 2005). The bow in discriminability was also attenuated when presentation probability for middle items was relatively high, an effect that will constrain future model development. The study provides evidence for item-specific learning in absolute identification. Implications for other theories of absolute identification are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  3. Absolute gravimetry for monitoring geodynamics in Greenland.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nielsen, E.; Strykowski, G.; Forsberg, R.

    2015-12-01

    Here are presented the preliminary results of the absolute gravity measurements done in Greenland by DTU Space with their A10 absolute gravimeter (the A10-019). The purpose, besides establishing and maintaining a national gravity network, is to study geodynamics.The absolute gravity measurements are juxtaposed with the permanent GNET GNSS stations. The first measurements were conducted in 2009 and a few sites have been re-visited. As of present is there a gravity value at 18 GNET sites.There are challenges in interpreting the measurements from Greenland and several signals has to be taken into account, besides the geodynamical signals originating from the changing load of the ice, there is also a clear signal of direct attraction from different masses. Here are presented the preliminary results of our measurements in Greenland and attempts explain them through modelling of the geodynamical signals and the direct attraction from the ocean and ice.

  4. "Magnitude-based inference": a statistical review.

    PubMed

    Welsh, Alan H; Knight, Emma J

    2015-04-01

    We consider "magnitude-based inference" and its interpretation by examining in detail its use in the problem of comparing two means. We extract from the spreadsheets, which are provided to users of the analysis (http://www.sportsci.org/), a precise description of how "magnitude-based inference" is implemented. We compare the implemented version of the method with general descriptions of it and interpret the method in familiar statistical terms. We show that "magnitude-based inference" is not a progressive improvement on modern statistics. The additional probabilities introduced are not directly related to the confidence interval but, rather, are interpretable either as P values for two different nonstandard tests (for different null hypotheses) or as approximate Bayesian calculations, which also lead to a type of test. We also discuss sample size calculations associated with "magnitude-based inference" and show that the substantial reduction in sample sizes claimed for the method (30% of the sample size obtained from standard frequentist calculations) is not justifiable so the sample size calculations should not be used. Rather than using "magnitude-based inference," a better solution is to be realistic about the limitations of the data and use either confidence intervals or a fully Bayesian analysis.

  5. Absolute Distance Measurement with the MSTAR Sensor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lay, Oliver P.; Dubovitsky, Serge; Peters, Robert; Burger, Johan; Ahn, Seh-Won; Steier, William H.; Fetterman, Harrold R.; Chang, Yian

    2003-01-01

    The MSTAR sensor (Modulation Sideband Technology for Absolute Ranging) is a new system for measuring absolute distance, capable of resolving the integer cycle ambiguity of standard interferometers, and making it possible to measure distance with sub-nanometer accuracy. The sensor uses a single laser in conjunction with fast phase modulators and low frequency detectors. We describe the design of the system - the principle of operation, the metrology source, beamlaunching optics, and signal processing - and show results for target distances up to 1 meter. We then demonstrate how the system can be scaled to kilometer-scale distances.

  6. Bio-Inspired Stretchable Absolute Pressure Sensor Network

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Yue; Li, Yu-Hung; Guo, Zhiqiang; Kim, Kyunglok; Chang, Fu-Kuo; Wang, Shan X.

    2016-01-01

    A bio-inspired absolute pressure sensor network has been developed. Absolute pressure sensors, distributed on multiple silicon islands, are connected as a network by stretchable polyimide wires. This sensor network, made on a 4’’ wafer, has 77 nodes and can be mounted on various curved surfaces to cover an area up to 0.64 m × 0.64 m, which is 100 times larger than its original size. Due to Micro Electro-Mechanical system (MEMS) surface micromachining technology, ultrathin sensing nodes can be realized with thicknesses of less than 100 µm. Additionally, good linearity and high sensitivity (~14 mV/V/bar) have been achieved. Since the MEMS sensor process has also been well integrated with a flexible polymer substrate process, the entire sensor network can be fabricated in a time-efficient and cost-effective manner. Moreover, an accurate pressure contour can be obtained from the sensor network. Therefore, this absolute pressure sensor network holds significant promise for smart vehicle applications, especially for unmanned aerial vehicles. PMID:26729134

  7. The fading American dream: Trends in absolute income mobility since 1940.

    PubMed

    Chetty, Raj; Grusky, David; Hell, Maximilian; Hendren, Nathaniel; Manduca, Robert; Narang, Jimmy

    2017-04-28

    We estimated rates of "absolute income mobility"-the fraction of children who earn more than their parents-by combining data from U.S. Census and Current Population Survey cross sections with panel data from de-identified tax records. We found that rates of absolute mobility have fallen from approximately 90% for children born in 1940 to 50% for children born in the 1980s. Increasing Gross Domestic Product (GDP) growth rates alone cannot restore absolute mobility to the rates experienced by children born in the 1940s. However, distributing current GDP growth more equally across income groups as in the 1940 birth cohort would reverse more than 70% of the decline in mobility. These results imply that reviving the "American dream" of high rates of absolute mobility would require economic growth that is shared more broadly across the income distribution. Copyright © 2017, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  8. Achieving continuity: a story of stellar magnitude

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Evans, Michael S.

    2010-03-01

    Scientists tell a story of 2,000 years of stellar magnitude research that traces back to Hipparchus. This story of continuity in practices serves an important role in scientific education and outreach. STS scholars point out many ways that stories of continuity, like many narratives about science, are disconnected from practices. Yet the story of continuity in stellar magnitude is a powerful scientific achievement precisely because of its connection to practice. The historical development of star catalogues shows how specific recording practices connected past and present in a useful way. The narrative of continuity in stellar magnitude, however else it might be subject to STS critique of narrative, maintains its power because of its connection to practice. I suggest that more attention be paid to connections between practice and narrative in STS, and in particular to the ways that historical practices sustain narratives by connecting past and present.

  9. Asymmetry in power-law magnitude correlations.

    PubMed

    Podobnik, Boris; Horvatić, Davor; Tenenbaum, Joel N; Stanley, H Eugene

    2009-07-01

    Time series of increments can be created in a number of different ways from a variety of physical phenomena. For example, in the phenomenon of volatility clustering-well-known in finance-magnitudes of adjacent increments are correlated. Moreover, in some time series, magnitude correlations display asymmetry with respect to an increment's sign: the magnitude of |x_{i}| depends on the sign of the previous increment x_{i-1} . Here we define a model-independent test to measure the statistical significance of any observed asymmetry. We propose a simple stochastic process characterized by a an asymmetry parameter lambda and a method for estimating lambda . We illustrate both the test and process by analyzing physiological data.

  10. Absolutely relative or relatively absolute: violations of value invariance in human decision making.

    PubMed

    Teodorescu, Andrei R; Moran, Rani; Usher, Marius

    2016-02-01

    Making decisions based on relative rather than absolute information processing is tied to choice optimality via the accumulation of evidence differences and to canonical neural processing via accumulation of evidence ratios. These theoretical frameworks predict invariance of decision latencies to absolute intensities that maintain differences and ratios, respectively. While information about the absolute values of the choice alternatives is not necessary for choosing the best alternative, it may nevertheless hold valuable information about the context of the decision. To test the sensitivity of human decision making to absolute values, we manipulated the intensities of brightness stimuli pairs while preserving either their differences or their ratios. Although asked to choose the brighter alternative relative to the other, participants responded faster to higher absolute values. Thus, our results provide empirical evidence for human sensitivity to task irrelevant absolute values indicating a hard-wired mechanism that precedes executive control. Computational investigations of several modelling architectures reveal two alternative accounts for this phenomenon, which combine absolute and relative processing. One account involves accumulation of differences with activation dependent processing noise and the other emerges from accumulation of absolute values subject to the temporal dynamics of lateral inhibition. The potential adaptive role of such choice mechanisms is discussed.

  11. On the continuity of the stationary state distribution of DPCM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Naraghi-Pour, Morteza; Neuhoff, David L.

    1990-03-01

    Continuity and singularity properties of the stationary state distribution of differential pulse code modulation (DPCM) are explored. Two-level DPCM (i.e., delta modulation) operating on a first-order autoregressive source is considered, and it is shown that, when the magnitude of the DPCM prediciton coefficient is between zero and one-half, the stationary state distribution is singularly continuous; i.e., it is not discrete but concentrates on an uncountable set with a Lebesgue measure of zero. Consequently, it cannot be represented with a probability density function. For prediction coefficients with magnitude greater than or equal to one-half, the distribution is pure, i.e., either absolutely continuous and representable with a density function, or singular. This problem is compared to the well-known and still substantially unsolved problem of symmetric Bernoulli convolutions.

  12. Solving Absolute Value Equations Algebraically and Geometrically

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shiyuan, Wei

    2005-01-01

    The way in which students can improve their comprehension by understanding the geometrical meaning of algebraic equations or solving algebraic equation geometrically is described. Students can experiment with the conditions of the absolute value equation presented, for an interesting way to form an overall understanding of the concept.

  13. Stimulus Probability Effects in Absolute Identification

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kent, Christopher; Lamberts, Koen

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated the effect of stimulus presentation probability on accuracy and response times in an absolute identification task. Three schedules of presentation were used to investigate the interaction between presentation probability and stimulus position within the set. Data from individual participants indicated strong effects of…

  14. Increasing Capacity: Practice Effects in Absolute Identification

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dodds, Pennie; Donkin, Christopher; Brown, Scott D.; Heathcote, Andrew

    2011-01-01

    In most of the long history of the study of absolute identification--since Miller's (1956) seminal article--a severe limit on performance has been observed, and this limit has resisted improvement even by extensive practice. In a startling result, Rouder, Morey, Cowan, and Pfaltz (2004) found substantially improved performance with practice in the…

  15. On Relative and Absolute Conviction in Mathematics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weber, Keith; Mejia-Ramos, Juan Pablo

    2015-01-01

    Conviction is a central construct in mathematics education research on justification and proof. In this paper, we claim that it is important to distinguish between absolute conviction and relative conviction. We argue that researchers in mathematics education frequently have not done so and this has lead to researchers making unwarranted claims…

  16. Absolute Points for Multiple Assignment Problems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adlakha, V.; Kowalski, K.

    2006-01-01

    An algorithm is presented to solve multiple assignment problems in which a cost is incurred only when an assignment is made at a given cell. The proposed method recursively searches for single/group absolute points to identify cells that must be loaded in any optimal solution. Unlike other methods, the first solution is the optimal solution. The…

  17. Evaluation of the magnitude of EBT Gafchromic film polarization effects.

    PubMed

    Butson, M J; Cheung, T; Yu, P K N

    2009-03-01

    Gafchromic EBT film, has become a main dosimetric tools for quantitative evaluation of radiation doses in radiation therapy application. One aspect of variability using EBT Gafchromic film is the magnitude of the orientation effect when analysing the film in landscape or portrait mode. This work has utilized a > 99% plane polarized light source and a non-polarized diffuse light source to investigate the absolute magnitude of EBT Gafchromic films polarization or orientation effects. Results have shown that using a non-polarized light source produces a negligible orientation effect for EBT Gafchromic film and thus the angle of orientation is not important. However, the film exhibits a significant variation in transmitted optical density with angle of orientation to polarized light producing more than 100% increase, or over a doubling of measured OD for films irradiated with x-rays up to dose levels of 5 Gy. The maximum optical density was found to be in a plane at an angle of 14 degrees +/- 7 degrees (2 SD) when the polarizing sheet is turned clockwise with respect to the film. As the magnitude of the orientation effect follows a sinusoidal shape it becomes more critical for alignment accuracy of the film with respect to the polarizing direction in the anticlockwise direction as this will place the alignment of the polarizing axes on the steeper gradient section of the sinusoidal pattern. An average change of 4.5% per 5 degrees is seen for an anticlockwise polarizer rotation where as the effect is 1.2% per 5 degrees for an clockwise polarizer rotation. This may have consequences to the positional accuracy of placement of the EBT Gafchromic film on a scanner as even a 1 degree alignment error can cause an approximate 1% error in analysis. The magnitude of the orientation effect is therefore dependant on the degree of polarization of the scanning light source and can range from negligible (diffuse LED light source) through to more than 100% or doubling of OD variation

  18. Epistemic uncertainty in the location and magnitude of earthquakes in Italy from Macroseismic data

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bakun, W.H.; Gomez, Capera A.; Stucchi, M.

    2011-01-01

    Three independent techniques (Bakun and Wentworth, 1997; Boxer from Gasperini et al., 1999; and Macroseismic Estimation of Earthquake Parameters [MEEP; see Data and Resources section, deliverable D3] from R.M.W. Musson and M.J. Jimenez) have been proposed for estimating an earthquake location and magnitude from intensity data alone. The locations and magnitudes obtained for a given set of intensity data are almost always different, and no one technique is consistently best at matching instrumental locations and magnitudes of recent well-recorded earthquakes in Italy. Rather than attempting to select one of the three solutions as best, we use all three techniques to estimate the location and the magnitude and the epistemic uncertainties among them. The estimates are calculated using bootstrap resampled data sets with Monte Carlo sampling of a decision tree. The decision-tree branch weights are based on goodness-of-fit measures of location and magnitude for recent earthquakes. The location estimates are based on the spatial distribution of locations calculated from the bootstrap resampled data. The preferred source location is the locus of the maximum bootstrap location spatial density. The location uncertainty is obtained from contours of the bootstrap spatial density: 68% of the bootstrap locations are within the 68% confidence region, and so on. For large earthquakes, our preferred location is not associated with the epicenter but with a location on the extended rupture surface. For small earthquakes, the epicenters are generally consistent with the location uncertainties inferred from the intensity data if an epicenter inaccuracy of 2-3 km is allowed. The preferred magnitude is the median of the distribution of bootstrap magnitudes. As with location uncertainties, the uncertainties in magnitude are obtained from the distribution of bootstrap magnitudes: the bounds of the 68% uncertainty range enclose 68% of the bootstrap magnitudes, and so on. The instrumental

  19. Lamp modulator provides signal magnitude indication

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zeman, J. R.

    1970-01-01

    Lamp modulator provides visible indication of presence and magnitude of an audio signal carrying voice or data. It can be made to reflect signal variations of up to 32 decibels. Lamp life is increased by use of a bypass resistor to prevent filament failure.

  20. Maximum magnitude in the Lower Rhine Graben

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vanneste, Kris; Merino, Miguel; Stein, Seth; Vleminckx, Bart; Brooks, Eddie; Camelbeeck, Thierry

    2014-05-01

    Estimating Mmax, the assumed magnitude of the largest future earthquakes expected on a fault or in an area, involves large uncertainties. No theoretical basis exists to infer Mmax because even where we know the long-term rate of motion across a plate boundary fault, or the deformation rate across an intraplate zone, neither predict how strain will be released. As a result, quite different estimates can be made based on the assumptions used. All one can say with certainty is that Mmax is at least as large as the largest earthquake in the available record. However, because catalogs are often short relative to the average recurrence time of large earthquakes, larger earthquakes than anticipated often occur. Estimating Mmax is especially challenging within plates, where deformation rates are poorly constrained, large earthquakes are rarer and variable in space and time, and often occur on previously unrecognized faults. We explore this issue for the Lower Rhine Graben seismic zone where the largest known earthquake, the 1756 Düren earthquake, has magnitude 5.7 and should occur on average about every 400 years. However, paleoseismic studies suggest that earthquakes with magnitudes up to 6.7 occurred during the Late Pleistocene and Holocene. What to assume for Mmax is crucial for critical facilities like nuclear power plants that should be designed to withstand the maximum shaking in 10,000 years. Using the observed earthquake frequency-magnitude data, we generate synthetic earthquake histories, and sample them over shorter intervals corresponding to the real catalog's completeness. The maximum magnitudes appearing most often in the simulations tend to be those of earthquakes with mean recurrence time equal to the catalog length. Because catalogs are often short relative to the average recurrence time of large earthquakes, we expect larger earthquakes than observed to date to occur. In a next step, we will compute hazard maps for different return periods based on the

  1. Absolute calibration of a multichannel plate detector for low energy O, O-, and O+

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stephen, T. M.; Peko, B. L.

    2000-03-01

    Absolute detection efficiencies of a commercial multichannel plate detector have been measured for O, O+, and O-, impacting at normal incidence for energies ranging from 30-1000 eV. In addition, the detection efficiencies for O relative to its ions are presented, as they may have a more universal application. The absolute detection efficiencies are strongly energy dependent and significant differences are observed for the various charge states at lower energies. The detection efficiencies for the different charge states appear to converge at higher energies. The strongest energy dependence is for O+; the detection efficiency varies by three orders of magnitude across the energy range studied. The weakest dependence is for O-, which varies less than one order of magnitude.

  2. 20 CFR 404.1205 - Absolute coverage groups.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Absolute coverage groups. 404.1205 Section... Covered § 404.1205 Absolute coverage groups. (a) General. An absolute coverage group is a permanent... are not under a retirement system. An absolute coverage group may include positions which were...

  3. Detection of a Divot in the Scattering Population's Size Distribution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shankman, Cory; Gladman, B.; Kaib, N.; Kavelaars, J.; Petit, J.

    2012-10-01

    Via joint analysis of the calibrated Canada France Ecliptic Place Survey (CFEPS, Petit et al 2011, AJ 142, 131), which found scattering Kuiper Belt objects, and models of their orbital distribution, we show that there should be enough kilometer-scale scattering objects to supply the Jupiter Family Comets (JFCs). Surprisingly, our analysis favours a divot (an abrupt drop and then recovery) in the size distribution at a diameter of 100 km, which results in a temporary flattening of the cumulative size distribution until it returns to a collisional equilibrium slope. Using the absolutely calibrated CFEPS survey we estimate that there are 2 x 10**9 scattering objects with H_g < 18, which is sufficient to provide the currently estimated JFC resupply rate. We also find that the primordial disk from which the scattering objects came must have had a "hot" initial inclination distribution before the giant planets scattered it out. We find that a divot, in the absolute magnitude number distribution, with a bright-end logarithmic slope of 0.8, a drop at a g-band H magnitude of 9, and a faint side logarithmic slope of 0.5 satisfies our data and simultaneously explains several existing nagging puzzles about Kuiper Belt luminosity functions (see Gladman et al., this meeting). Multiple explanations of how such a feature could have arisen will be discussed. This research was supported by the Natural Sciences and Engineering Research Council of Canada.

  4. Magnitude and Time Course of Sleep Inertia

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-10-10

    laboratory protocol, and to avoid caffeinated drinks from midday the day before the laboratory protocol. • Non-smokers. • Non- or social drinkers only (0...see Figure 3), and snacks and non- caffeinated drinks were provided regularly throughout the protocol. Meals were balanced in terms of carbohydrate and...awakening) influences the magnitude or time course of sleep inertia effects under these conditions. 15. SUBJECT TERMS Sleep Research

  5. Magnitude and frequency of floods in Washington

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cummans, J.E.; Collings, Michael R.; Nasser, Edmund George

    1975-01-01

    Relations are provided to estimate the magnitude and frequency of floods on Washington streams. Annual-peak-flow data from stream gaging stations on unregulated streams having 1 years or more of record were used to determine a log-Pearson Type III frequency curve for each station. Flood magnitudes having recurrence intervals of 2, 5, i0, 25, 50, and 10years were then related to physical and climatic indices of the drainage basins by multiple-regression analysis using the Biomedical Computer Program BMDO2R. These regression relations are useful for estimating flood magnitudes of the specified recurrence intervals at ungaged or short-record sites. Separate sets of regression equations were defined for western and eastern parts of the State, and the State was further subdivided into 12 regions in which the annual floods exhibit similar flood characteristics. Peak flows are related most significantly in western Washington to drainage-area size and mean annual precipitation. In eastern Washington-they are related most significantly to drainage-area size, mean annual precipitation, and percentage of forest cover. Standard errors of estimate of the estimating relations range from 25 to 129 percent, and the smallest errors are generally associated with the more humid regions.

  6. Local magnitude scale for earthquakes in Turkey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kılıç, T.; Ottemöller, L.; Havskov, J.; Yanık, K.; Kılıçarslan, Ö.; Alver, F.; Özyazıcıoğlu, M.

    2017-01-01

    Based on the earthquake event data accumulated by the Turkish National Seismic Network between 2007 and 2013, the local magnitude (Richter, Ml) scale is calibrated for Turkey and the close neighborhood. A total of 137 earthquakes (Mw > 3.5) are used for the Ml inversion for the whole country. Three Ml scales, whole country, East, and West Turkey, are developed, and the scales also include the station correction terms. Since the scales for the two parts of the country are very similar, it is concluded that a single Ml scale is suitable for the whole country. Available data indicate the new scale to suffer from saturation beyond magnitude 6.5. For this data set, the horizontal amplitudes are on average larger than vertical amplitudes by a factor of 1.8. The recommendation made is to measure Ml amplitudes on the vertical channels and then add the logarithm scale factor to have a measure of maximum amplitude on the horizontal. The new Ml is compared to Mw from EMSC, and there is almost a 1:1 relationship, indicating that the new scale gives reliable magnitudes for Turkey.

  7. 237Np absolute delayed neutron yield measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Doré, D.; Ledoux, X.; Nolte, R.; Gagnon-Moisan, F.; Thulliez, L.; Litaize, O.; Roettger, S.; Serot, O.

    2017-09-01

    237Np absolute delayed neutron yields have been measured at different incident neutron energies from 1.5 to 16 MeV. The experiment was performed at the Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt (PTB) facility where the Van de Graaff accelerator and the cyclotron CV28 delivered 9 different neutron energy beams using p+T, d+D and d+T reactions. The detection system is made up of twelve 3He tubes inserted into a polyethylene cylinder. In this paper, the experimental setup and the data analysis method are described. The evolution of the absolute DN yields as a function of the neutron incident beam energies are presented and compared to experimental data found in the literature and data from the libraries.

  8. From Hubble's NGSL to Absolute Fluxes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heap, Sara R.; Lindler, Don

    2012-01-01

    Hubble's Next Generation Spectral Library (NGSL) consists of R-l000 spectra of 374 stars of assorted temperature, gravity, and metallicity. Each spectrum covers the wavelength range, 0.18-1.00 microns. The library can be viewed and/or downloaded from the website, http://archive.stsci.edu/prepds/stisngsll. Stars in the NGSL are now being used as absolute flux standards at ground-based observatories. However, the uncertainty in the absolute flux is about 2%, which does not meet the requirements of dark-energy surveys. We are therefore developing an observing procedure that should yield fluxes with uncertainties less than 1 % and will take part in an HST proposal to observe up to 15 stars using this new procedure.

  9. An absolute measure for a key currency

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oya, Shunsuke; Aihara, Kazuyuki; Hirata, Yoshito

    It is generally considered that the US dollar and the euro are the key currencies in the world and in Europe, respectively. However, there is no absolute general measure for a key currency. Here, we investigate the 24-hour periodicity of foreign exchange markets using a recurrence plot, and define an absolute measure for a key currency based on the strength of the periodicity. Moreover, we analyze the time evolution of this measure. The results show that the credibility of the US dollar has not decreased significantly since the Lehman shock, when the Lehman Brothers bankrupted and influenced the economic markets, and has increased even relatively better than that of the euro and that of the Japanese yen.

  10. Absolute photoionization cross sections of atomic oxygen

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Samson, J. A. R.; Pareek, P. N.

    1982-01-01

    The absolute values of photoionization cross sections of atomic oxygen were measured from the ionization threshold to 120 A. An auto-ionizing resonance belonging to the 2S2P4(4P)3P(3Do, 3So) transition was observed at 479.43 A and another line at 389.97 A. The experimental data is in excellent agreement with rigorous close-coupling calculations that include electron correlations in both the initial and final states.

  11. Absolute detector calibration using twin beams.

    PubMed

    Peřina, Jan; Haderka, Ondřej; Michálek, Václav; Hamar, Martin

    2012-07-01

    A method for the determination of absolute quantum detection efficiency is suggested based on the measurement of photocount statistics of twin beams. The measured histograms of joint signal-idler photocount statistics allow us to eliminate an additional noise superimposed on an ideal calibration field composed of only photon pairs. This makes the method superior above other approaches presently used. Twin beams are described using a paired variant of quantum superposition of signal and noise.

  12. Absolute photoionization cross sections of atomic oxygen

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Samson, J. A. R.; Pareek, P. N.

    1985-01-01

    The absolute values of photoionization cross sections of atomic oxygen were measured from the ionization threshold to 120 A. An auto-ionizing resonance belonging to the 2S2P4(4P)3P(3Do, 3So) transition was observed at 479.43 A and another line at 389.97 A. The experimental data is in excellent agreement with rigorous close-coupling calculations that include electron correlations in both the initial and final states.

  13. Understanding high magnitude flood risk: evidence from the past

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    MacDonald, N.

    2009-04-01

    The average length of gauged river flow records in the UK is ~25 years, which presents a problem in determining flood risk for high-magnitude flood events. Severe floods have been recorded in many UK catchments during the past 10 years, increasing the uncertainty in conventional flood risk estimates based on river flow records. Current uncertainty in flood risk has implications for society (insurance costs), individuals (personal vulnerability) and water resource managers (flood/drought risk). An alternative approach is required which can improve current understanding of the flood frequency/magnitude relationship. Historical documentary accounts are now recognised as a valuable resource when considering the flood frequency/magnitude relationship, but little consideration has been given to the temporal and spatial distribution of these records. Building on previous research based on British rivers (urban centre): Ouse (York), Trent (Nottingham), Tay (Perth), Severn (Shrewsbury), Dee (Chester), Great Ouse (Cambridge), Sussex Ouse (Lewes), Thames (Oxford), Tweed (Kelso) and Tyne (Hexham), this work considers the spatial and temporal distribution of historical flooding. The selected sites provide a network covering many of the largest river catchments in Britain, based on urban centres with long detailed documentary flood histories. The chronologies offer an opportunity to assess long-term patterns of flooding, indirectly determining periods of climatic variability and potentially increased geomorphic activity. This research represents the first coherent large scale analysis undertaken of historical multi-catchment flood chronologies, providing an unparalleled network of sites, permitting analysis of the spatial and temporal distribution of historical flood patterns on a national scale.

  14. Magnitude and frequency of floods in Arkansas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hodge, Scott A.; Tasker, Gary D.

    1995-01-01

    Methods are presented for estimating the magnitude and frequency of peak discharges of streams in Arkansas. Regression analyses were developed in which a stream's physical and flood characteristics were related. Four sets of regional regression equations were derived to predict peak discharges with selected recurrence intervals of 2, 5, 10, 25, 50, 100, and 500 years on streams draining less than 7,770 square kilometers. The regression analyses indicate that size of drainage area, main channel slope, mean basin elevation, and the basin shape factor were the most significant basin characteristics that affect magnitude and frequency of floods. The region of influence method is included in this report. This method is still being improved and is to be considered only as a second alternative to the standard method of producing regional regression equations. This method estimates unique regression equations for each recurrence interval for each ungaged site. The regression analyses indicate that size of drainage area, main channel slope, mean annual precipitation, mean basin elevation, and the basin shape factor were the most significant basin and climatic characteristics that affect magnitude and frequency of floods for this method. Certain recommendations on the use of this method are provided. A method is described for estimating the magnitude and frequency of peak discharges of streams for urban areas in Arkansas. The method is from a nationwide U.S. Geeological Survey flood frequency report which uses urban basin characteristics combined with rural discharges to estimate urban discharges. Annual peak discharges from 204 gaging stations, with drainage areas less than 7,770 square kilometers and at least 10 years of unregulated record, were used in the analysis. These data provide the basis for this analysis and are published in the Appendix of this report as supplemental data. Large rivers such as the Red, Arkansas, White, Black, St. Francis, Mississippi, and

  15. Chemical composition of French mimosa absolute oil.

    PubMed

    Perriot, Rodolphe; Breme, Katharina; Meierhenrich, Uwe J; Carenini, Elise; Ferrando, Georges; Baldovini, Nicolas

    2010-02-10

    Since decades mimosa (Acacia dealbata) absolute oil has been used in the flavor and perfume industry. Today, it finds an application in over 80 perfumes, and its worldwide industrial production is estimated five tons per year. Here we report on the chemical composition of French mimosa absolute oil. Straight-chain analogues from C6 to C26 with different functional groups (hydrocarbons, esters, aldehydes, diethyl acetals, alcohols, and ketones) were identified in the volatile fraction. Most of them are long-chain molecules: (Z)-heptadec-8-ene, heptadecane, nonadecane, and palmitic acid are the most abundant, and constituents such as 2-phenethyl alcohol, methyl anisate, and ethyl palmitate are present in smaller amounts. The heavier constituents were mainly triterpenoids such as lupenone and lupeol, which were identified as two of the main components. (Z)-Heptadec-8-ene, lupenone, and lupeol were quantified by GC-MS in SIM mode using external standards and represents 6%, 20%, and 7.8% (w/w) of the absolute oil. Moreover, odorant compounds were extracted by SPME and analyzed by GC-sniffing leading to the perception of 57 odorant zones, of which 37 compounds were identified by their odorant description, mass spectrum, retention index, and injection of the reference compound.

  16. The absolute dynamic ocean topography (ADOT)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bosch, Wolfgang; Savcenko, Roman

    The sea surface slopes relative to the geoid (an equipotential surface) basically carry the in-formation on the absolute velocity field of the surface circulation. Pure oceanographic models may remain unspecific with respect to the absolute level of the ocean topography. In contrast, the geodetic approach to estimate the ocean topography as difference between sea level and the geoid gives by definition an absolute dynamic ocean topography (ADOT). This approach requires, however, a consistent treatment of geoid and sea surface heights, the first being usually derived from a band limited spherical harmonic series of the Earth gravity field and the second observed with much higher spectral resolution by satellite altimetry. The present contribution shows a procedure for estimating the ADOT along the altimeter profiles, preserving as much sea surface height details as the consistency w.r.t. the geoid heights will allow. The consistent treatment at data gaps and the coast is particular demanding and solved by a filter correction. The ADOT profiles are inspected for their innocent properties towards the coast and compared to external estimates of the ocean topography or the velocity field of the surface circulation as derived, for example, by ARGO floats.

  17. Measurement of absolute gravity acceleration in Firenze

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Angelis, M.; Greco, F.; Pistorio, A.; Poli, N.; Prevedelli, M.; Saccorotti, G.; Sorrentino, F.; Tino, G. M.

    2011-01-01

    This paper reports the results from the accurate measurement of the acceleration of gravity g taken at two separate premises in the Polo Scientifico of the University of Firenze (Italy). In these laboratories, two separate experiments aiming at measuring the Newtonian constant and testing the Newtonian law at short distances are in progress. Both experiments require an independent knowledge on the local value of g. The only available datum, pertaining to the italian zero-order gravity network, was taken more than 20 years ago at a distance of more than 60 km from the study site. Gravity measurements were conducted using an FG5 absolute gravimeter, and accompanied by seismic recordings for evaluating the noise condition at the site. The absolute accelerations of gravity at the two laboratories are (980 492 160.6 ± 4.0) μGal and (980 492 048.3 ± 3.0) μGal for the European Laboratory for Non-Linear Spectroscopy (LENS) and Dipartimento di Fisica e Astronomia, respectively. Other than for the two referenced experiments, the data here presented will serve as a benchmark for any future study requiring an accurate knowledge of the absolute value of the acceleration of gravity in the study region.

  18. On the Perceptual Subprocess of Absolute Pitch.

    PubMed

    Kim, Seung-Goo; Knösche, Thomas R

    2017-01-01

    Absolute pitch (AP) is the rare ability of musicians to identify the pitch of tonal sound without external reference. While there have been behavioral and neuroimaging studies on the characteristics of AP, how the AP is implemented in human brains remains largely unknown. AP can be viewed as comprising of two subprocesses: perceptual (processing auditory input to extract a pitch chroma) and associative (linking an auditory representation of pitch chroma with a verbal/non-verbal label). In this review, we focus on the nature of the perceptual subprocess of AP. Two different models on how the perceptual subprocess works have been proposed: either via absolute pitch categorization (APC) or based on absolute pitch memory (APM). A major distinction between the two views is that whether the AP uses unique auditory processing (i.e., APC) that exists only in musicians with AP or it is rooted in a common phenomenon (i.e., APM), only with heightened efficiency. We review relevant behavioral and neuroimaging evidence that supports each notion. Lastly, we list open questions and potential ideas to address them.

  19. On the Perceptual Subprocess of Absolute Pitch

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Seung-Goo; Knösche, Thomas R.

    2017-01-01

    Absolute pitch (AP) is the rare ability of musicians to identify the pitch of tonal sound without external reference. While there have been behavioral and neuroimaging studies on the characteristics of AP, how the AP is implemented in human brains remains largely unknown. AP can be viewed as comprising of two subprocesses: perceptual (processing auditory input to extract a pitch chroma) and associative (linking an auditory representation of pitch chroma with a verbal/non-verbal label). In this review, we focus on the nature of the perceptual subprocess of AP. Two different models on how the perceptual subprocess works have been proposed: either via absolute pitch categorization (APC) or based on absolute pitch memory (APM). A major distinction between the two views is that whether the AP uses unique auditory processing (i.e., APC) that exists only in musicians with AP or it is rooted in a common phenomenon (i.e., APM), only with heightened efficiency. We review relevant behavioral and neuroimaging evidence that supports each notion. Lastly, we list open questions and potential ideas to address them. PMID:29085275

  20. Absolute angular encoder based on optical diffraction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Jian; Zhou, Tingting; Yuan, Bo; Wang, Liqiang

    2015-08-01

    A new encoding method for absolute angular encoder based on optical diffraction was proposed in the present study. In this method, an encoder disc is specially designed that a series of elements are uniformly spaced in one circle and each element is consisted of four diffraction gratings, which are tilted in the directions of 30°, 60°, -60° and -30°, respectively. The disc is illuminated by a coherent light and the diffractive signals are received. The positions of diffractive spots are used for absolute encoding and their intensities are for subdivision, which is different from the traditional optical encoder based on transparent/opaque binary principle. Since the track's width in the disc is not limited in the diffraction pattern, it provides a new way to solve the contradiction between the size and resolution, which is good for minimization of encoder. According to the proposed principle, the diffraction pattern disc with a diameter of 40 mm was made by lithography in the glass substrate. A prototype of absolute angular encoder with a resolution of 20" was built up. Its maximum error was tested as 78" by comparing with a small angle measuring system based on laser beam deflection.

  1. Relatively high motivation for context-evoked reward produces the magnitude effect in rats.

    PubMed

    Yuki, Shoko; Okanoya, Kazuo

    2014-09-01

    Using a concurrent-chain schedule, we demonstrated the effect of absolute reinforcement (i.e., the magnitude effect) on choice behavior in rats. In general, animals' simultaneous choices conform to a relative reinforcement ratio between alternatives. However, studies in pigeons and rats have found that on a concurrent-chain schedule, the overall reinforcement ratio, or absolute amount, also influences choice. The effect of reinforcement amount has also been studied in inter-temporal choice situations, and this effect has been referred to as the magnitude effect. The magnitude effect has been observed in humans under various conditions, but little research has assessed it in animals (e.g., pigeons and rats). The present study confirmed the effect of reinforcement amount in rats during simultaneous and inter-temporal choice situations. We used a concurrent-chain procedure to examine the cause of the magnitude effect during inter-temporal choice. Our results suggest that rats can use differences in reinforcement amount as a contextual cue during choice, and the direction of the magnitude effect in rats might be similar to humans when using the present procedure. Furthermore, our results indicate that the magnitude effect was caused by the initial-link effect when the reinforcement amount was relatively small, while a loss aversion tendency was observed when the reinforcement amount changed within a session. The emergence of the initial-link effect and loss aversion suggests that rats make choices through cognitive processes predicted by prospect theory. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Improvements in absolute seismometer sensitivity calibration using local earth gravity measurements

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Anthony, Robert E.; Ringler, Adam; Wilson, David

    2018-01-01

    The ability to determine both absolute and relative seismic amplitudes is fundamentally limited by the accuracy and precision with which scientists are able to calibrate seismometer sensitivities and characterize their response. Currently, across the Global Seismic Network (GSN), errors in midband sensitivity exceed 3% at the 95% confidence interval and are the least‐constrained response parameter in seismic recording systems. We explore a new methodology utilizing precise absolute Earth gravity measurements to determine the midband sensitivity of seismic instruments. We first determine the absolute sensitivity of Kinemetrics EpiSensor accelerometers to 0.06% at the 99% confidence interval by inverting them in a known gravity field at the Albuquerque Seismological Laboratory (ASL). After the accelerometer is calibrated, we install it in its normal configuration next to broadband seismometers and subject the sensors to identical ground motions to perform relative calibrations of the broadband sensors. Using this technique, we are able to determine the absolute midband sensitivity of the vertical components of Nanometrics Trillium Compact seismometers to within 0.11% and Streckeisen STS‐2 seismometers to within 0.14% at the 99% confidence interval. The technique enables absolute calibrations from first principles that are traceable to National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) measurements while providing nearly an order of magnitude more precision than step‐table calibrations.

  3. Statistics of Delta v magnitude for a trajectory correction maneuver containing deterministic and random components

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bollman, W. E.; Chadwick, C.

    1982-01-01

    A number of interplanetary missions now being planned involve placing deterministic maneuvers along the flight path to alter the trajectory. Lee and Boain (1973) examined the statistics of trajectory correction maneuver (TCM) magnitude with no deterministic ('bias') component. The Delta v vector magnitude statistics were generated for several values of random Delta v standard deviations using expansions in terms of infinite hypergeometric series. The present investigation uses a different technique (Monte Carlo simulation) to generate Delta v magnitude statistics for a wider selection of random Delta v standard deviations and also extends the analysis to the case of nonzero deterministic Delta v's. These Delta v magnitude statistics are plotted parametrically. The plots are useful in assisting the analyst in quickly answering questions about the statistics of Delta v magnitude for single TCM's consisting of both a deterministic and a random component. The plots provide quick insight into the nature of the Delta v magnitude distribution for the TCM.

  4. Resurgence and Alternative-Reinforcer Magnitude

    PubMed Central

    Craig, Andrew R.; Browning, Kaitlyn O.; Nall, Rusty W.; Marshall, Ciara M.; Shahan, Timothy A.

    2017-01-01

    Resurgence is defined as an increase in the frequency of a previously reinforced target response when an alternative source of reinforcement is suspended. Despite an extensive body of research examining factors that affect resurgence, the effects of alternative-reinforcer magnitude have not been examined. Thus, the present experiments aimed to fill this gap in the literature. In Experiment 1, rats pressed levers for single-pellet reinforcers during Phase 1. In Phase 2, target-lever pressing was extinguished, and alternative-lever pressing produced either five-pellet, one-pellet, or no alternative reinforcement. In Phase 3, alternative reinforcement was suspended to test for resurgence. Five-pellet alternative reinforcement produced faster elimination and greater resurgence of target-lever pressing than one-pellet alternative reinforcement. In Experiment 2, effects of decreasing alternative-reinforcer magnitude on resurgence were examined. Rats pressed levers and pulled chains for six-pellet reinforcers during Phases 1 and 2, respectively. In Phase 3, alternative reinforcement was decreased to three pellets for one group, one pellet for a second group, and suspended altogether for a third group. Shifting from six-pellet to one-pellet alternative reinforcement produced as much resurgence as suspending alternative reinforcement altogether, while shifting from six pellets to three pellets did not produce resurgence. These results suggest that alternative-reinforcer magnitude has effects on elimination and resurgence of target behavior that are similar to those of alternative-reinforcer rate. Thus, both suppression of target behavior during alternative reinforcement and resurgence when conditions of alternative reinforcement are altered may be related to variables that affect the value of the alternative-reinforcement source. PMID:28194793

  5. Resurgence and alternative-reinforcer magnitude.

    PubMed

    Craig, Andrew R; Browning, Kaitlyn O; Nall, Rusty W; Marshall, Ciara M; Shahan, Timothy A

    2017-03-01

    Resurgence is defined as an increase in the frequency of a previously reinforced target response when an alternative source of reinforcement is suspended. Despite an extensive body of research examining factors that affect resurgence, the effects of alternative-reinforcer magnitude have not been examined. Thus, the present experiments aimed to fill this gap in the literature. In Experiment 1, rats pressed levers for single-pellet reinforcers during Phase 1. In Phase 2, target-lever pressing was extinguished, and alternative-lever pressing produced either five-pellet, one-pellet, or no alternative reinforcement. In Phase 3, alternative reinforcement was suspended to test for resurgence. Five-pellet alternative reinforcement produced faster elimination and greater resurgence of target-lever pressing than one-pellet alternative reinforcement. In Experiment 2, effects of decreasing alternative-reinforcer magnitude on resurgence were examined. Rats pressed levers and pulled chains for six-pellet reinforcers during Phases 1 and 2, respectively. In Phase 3, alternative reinforcement was decreased to three pellets for one group, one pellet for a second group, and suspended altogether for a third group. Shifting from six-pellet to one-pellet alternative reinforcement produced as much resurgence as suspending alternative reinforcement altogether, while shifting from six pellets to three pellets did not produce resurgence. These results suggest that alternative-reinforcer magnitude has effects on elimination and resurgence of target behavior that are similar to those of alternative-reinforcer rate. Thus, both suppression of target behavior during alternative reinforcement and resurgence when conditions of alternative reinforcement are altered may be related to variables that affect the value of the alternative-reinforcement source. © 2017 Society for the Experimental Analysis of Behavior.

  6. Precise Relative Earthquake Magnitudes from Cross Correlation

    DOE PAGES

    Cleveland, K. Michael; Ammon, Charles J.

    2015-04-21

    We present a method to estimate precise relative magnitudes using cross correlation of seismic waveforms. Our method incorporates the intercorrelation of all events in a group of earthquakes, as opposed to individual event pairings relative to a reference event. This method works well when a reliable reference event does not exist. We illustrate the method using vertical strike-slip earthquakes located in the northeast Pacific and Panama fracture zone regions. Our results are generally consistent with the Global Centroid Moment Tensor catalog, which we use to establish a baseline for the relative event sizes.

  7. Magnitude Anomalies and Propagation of Local Phases

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-01-31

    PORTMSI 27 rue Claude Bernard 75005 PARIS - FRANCE AP()R h- ’,*174 2. SPOOSOtGINMONITAJNG AGENCY NAME(S) AND AOORIS,4ES) 1.SPONSONG/MOWTOFMG AFOSR DTBLDG...200SWJ There are three main parts in this report: - a study of magnitude anomalies in French Polynesia. A first approach gives an anomaly per station...which is roughly a function of a’zimuth valid for all French Polynesia plus a station’s constant. A more detailed study shows the influence of local

  8. Extreme Magnitude Earthquakes and their Economical Consequences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chavez, M.; Cabrera, E.; Ashworth, M.; Perea, N.; Emerson, D.; Salazar, A.; Moulinec, C.

    2011-12-01

    The frequency of occurrence of extreme magnitude earthquakes varies from tens to thousands of years, depending on the considered seismotectonic region of the world. However, the human and economic losses when their hypocenters are located in the neighborhood of heavily populated and/or industrialized regions, can be very large, as recently observed for the 1985 Mw 8.01 Michoacan, Mexico and the 2011 Mw 9 Tohoku, Japan, earthquakes. Herewith, a methodology is proposed in order to estimate the probability of exceedance of: the intensities of extreme magnitude earthquakes, PEI and of their direct economical consequences PEDEC. The PEI are obtained by using supercomputing facilities to generate samples of the 3D propagation of extreme earthquake plausible scenarios, and enlarge those samples by Monte Carlo simulation. The PEDEC are computed by using appropriate vulnerability functions combined with the scenario intensity samples, and Monte Carlo simulation. An example of the application of the methodology due to the potential occurrence of extreme Mw 8.5 subduction earthquakes on Mexico City is presented.

  9. Estuarine abandoned channel sedimentation rates record peak fluvial discharge magnitudes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gray, A. B.; Pasternack, G. B.; Watson, E. B.

    2018-04-01

    Fluvial sediment deposits can provide useful records of integrated watershed expressions including flood event magnitudes. However, floodplain and estuarine sediment deposits evolve through the interaction of watershed/marine sediment supply and transport characteristics with the local depositional environment. Thus extraction of watershed scale signals depends upon accounting for local scale effects on sediment deposition rates and character. This study presents an examination of the balance of fluvial sediment dynamics and local scale hydro-geomorphic controls on alluviation of an abandoned channel in the Salinas River Lagoon, CA. A set of three sediment cores contained discrete flood deposits that corresponded to the largest flood events over the period of accretion from 1969 to 2007. Sedimentation rates scaled with peak flood discharge and event scale sediment flux, but were not influenced by longer scale hydro-meteorological activities such as annual precipitation and water yield. Furthermore, the particle size distributions of flood deposits showed no relationship to event magnitudes. Both the responsiveness of sedimentation and unresponsiveness of particle size distributions to hydro-sedimentological event magnitudes appear to be controlled by aspects of local geomorphology that influence the connectivity of the abandoned channel to the Salinas River mainstem. Well-developed upstream plug bar formation precluded the entrainment of coarser bedload into the abandoned channel, while Salinas River mouth conditions (open/closed) in conjunction with tidal and storm surge conditions may play a role in influencing the delivery of coarser suspended load fractions. Channel adjacent sediment deposition can be valuable records of hydro-meteorological and sedimentological regimes, but local depositional settings may dominate the character of short term (interdecadal) signatures.

  10. Absolute Radiometric Calibration of EUNIS-06

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thomas, R. J.; Rabin, D. M.; Kent, B. J.; Paustian, W.

    2007-01-01

    The Extreme-Ultraviolet Normal-Incidence Spectrometer (EUNIS) is a soundingrocket payload that obtains imaged high-resolution spectra of individual solar features, providing information about the Sun's corona and upper transition region. Shortly after its successful initial flight last year, a complete end-to-end calibration was carried out to determine the instrument's absolute radiometric response over its Longwave bandpass of 300 - 370A. The measurements were done at the Rutherford-Appleton Laboratory (RAL) in England, using the same vacuum facility and EUV radiation source used in the pre-flight calibrations of both SOHO/CDS and Hinode/EIS, as well as in three post-flight calibrations of our SERTS sounding rocket payload, the precursor to EUNIS. The unique radiation source provided by the Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt (PTB) had been calibrated to an absolute accuracy of 7% (l-sigma) at 12 wavelengths covering our bandpass directly against the Berlin electron storage ring BESSY, which is itself a primary radiometric source standard. Scans of the EUNIS aperture were made to determine the instrument's absolute spectral sensitivity to +- 25%, considering all sources of error, and demonstrate that EUNIS-06 was the most sensitive solar E W spectrometer yet flown. The results will be matched against prior calibrations which relied on combining measurements of individual optical components, and on comparisons with theoretically predicted 'insensitive' line ratios. Coordinated observations were made during the EUNIS-06 flight by SOHO/CDS and EIT that will allow re-calibrations of those instruments as well. In addition, future EUNIS flights will provide similar calibration updates for TRACE, Hinode/EIS, and STEREO/SECCHI/EUVI.

  11. Achieving Climate Change Absolute Accuracy in Orbit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wielicki, Bruce A.; Young, D. F.; Mlynczak, M. G.; Thome, K. J; Leroy, S.; Corliss, J.; Anderson, J. G.; Ao, C. O.; Bantges, R.; Best, F.; hide

    2013-01-01

    The Climate Absolute Radiance and Refractivity Observatory (CLARREO) mission will provide a calibration laboratory in orbit for the purpose of accurately measuring and attributing climate change. CLARREO measurements establish new climate change benchmarks with high absolute radiometric accuracy and high statistical confidence across a wide range of essential climate variables. CLARREO's inherently high absolute accuracy will be verified and traceable on orbit to Système Internationale (SI) units. The benchmarks established by CLARREO will be critical for assessing changes in the Earth system and climate model predictive capabilities for decades into the future as society works to meet the challenge of optimizing strategies for mitigating and adapting to climate change. The CLARREO benchmarks are derived from measurements of the Earth's thermal infrared spectrum (5-50 micron), the spectrum of solar radiation reflected by the Earth and its atmosphere (320-2300 nm), and radio occultation refractivity from which accurate temperature profiles are derived. The mission has the ability to provide new spectral fingerprints of climate change, as well as to provide the first orbiting radiometer with accuracy sufficient to serve as the reference transfer standard for other space sensors, in essence serving as a "NIST [National Institute of Standards and Technology] in orbit." CLARREO will greatly improve the accuracy and relevance of a wide range of space-borne instruments for decadal climate change. Finally, CLARREO has developed new metrics and methods for determining the accuracy requirements of climate observations for a wide range of climate variables and uncertainty sources. These methods should be useful for improving our understanding of observing requirements for most climate change observations.

  12. Continuum limit of electrostatic gyrokinetic absolute equilibrium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Jian-Zhou

    2012-06-01

    Electrostatic gyrokinetic absolute equilibria with continuum velocity field are obtained through the partition function and through the Green function of the functional integral. The new results justify and explain the prescription for quantization/discretization or taking the continuum limit of velocity. The mistakes in the Appendix D of our earlier work [J.-Z. Zhu and G. W. Hammett, Phys. Plasmas 17, 122307 (2010)] are explained and corrected. If the lattice spacing for discretizing velocity is big enough, all the invariants could concentrate at the lowest Fourier modes in a negative-temperature state, which might indicate a possible variation of the dual cascade picture in 2D plasma turbulence.

  13. Fractional order absolute vibration suppression (AVS) controllers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Halevi, Yoram

    2017-04-01

    Absolute vibration suppression (AVS) is a control method for flexible structures. The first step is an accurate, infinite dimension, transfer function (TF), from actuation to measurement. This leads to the collocated, rate feedback AVS controller that in some cases completely eliminates the vibration. In case of the 1D wave equation, the TF consists of pure time delays and low order rational terms, and the AVS controller is rational. In all other cases, the TF and consequently the controller are fractional order in both the delays and the "rational parts". The paper considers stability, performance and actual implementation in such cases.

  14. Absolute method of measuring magnetic susceptibility

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Thorpe, A.; Senftle, F.E.

    1959-01-01

    An absolute method of standardization and measurement of the magnetic susceptibility of small samples is presented which can be applied to most techniques based on the Faraday method. The fact that the susceptibility is a function of the area under the curve of sample displacement versus distance of the magnet from the sample, offers a simple method of measuring the susceptibility without recourse to a standard sample. Typical results on a few substances are compared with reported values, and an error of less than 2% can be achieved. ?? 1959 The American Institute of Physics.

  15. Absolute plate motions relative to deep mantle plumes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Shimin; Yu, Hongzheng; Zhang, Qiong; Zhao, Yonghong

    2018-05-01

    Advances in whole waveform seismic tomography have revealed the presence of broad mantle plumes rooted at the base of the Earth's mantle beneath major hotspots. Hotspot tracks associated with these deep mantle plumes provide ideal constraints for inverting absolute plate motions as well as testing the fixed hotspot hypothesis. In this paper, 27 observed hotspot trends associated with 24 deep mantle plumes are used together with the MORVEL model for relative plate motions to determine an absolute plate motion model, in terms of a maximum likelihood optimization for angular data fitting, combined with an outlier data detection procedure based on statistical tests. The obtained T25M model fits 25 observed trends of globally distributed hotspot tracks to the statistically required level, while the other two hotspot trend data (Comores on Somalia and Iceland on Eurasia) are identified as outliers, which are significantly incompatible with other data. For most hotspots with rate data available, T25M predicts plate velocities significantly lower than the observed rates of hotspot volcanic migration, which cannot be fully explained by biased errors in observed rate data. Instead, the apparent hotspot motions derived by subtracting the observed hotspot migration velocities from the T25M plate velocities exhibit a combined pattern of being opposite to plate velocities and moving towards mid-ocean ridges. The newly estimated net rotation of the lithosphere is statistically compatible with three recent estimates, but differs significantly from 30 of 33 prior estimates.

  16. The absolute threshold of cone vision

    PubMed Central

    Koeing, Darran; Hofer, Heidi

    2013-01-01

    We report measurements of the absolute threshold of cone vision, which has been previously underestimated due to sub-optimal conditions or overly strict subjective response criteria. We avoided these limitations by using optimized stimuli and experimental conditions while having subjects respond within a rating scale framework. Small (1′ fwhm), brief (34 msec), monochromatic (550 nm) stimuli were foveally presented at multiple intensities in dark-adapted retina for 5 subjects. For comparison, 4 subjects underwent similar testing with rod-optimized stimuli. Cone absolute threshold, that is, the minimum light energy for which subjects were just able to detect a visual stimulus with any response criterion, was 203 ± 38 photons at the cornea, ∼0.47 log units lower than previously reported. Two-alternative forced-choice measurements in a subset of subjects yielded consistent results. Cone thresholds were less responsive to criterion changes than rod thresholds, suggesting a limit to the stimulus information recoverable from the cone mosaic in addition to the limit imposed by Poisson noise. Results were consistent with expectations for detection in the face of stimulus uncertainty. We discuss implications of these findings for modeling the first stages of human cone vision and interpreting psychophysical data acquired with adaptive optics at the spatial scale of the receptor mosaic. PMID:21270115

  17. Why to compare absolute numbers of mitochondria.

    PubMed

    Schmitt, Sabine; Schulz, Sabine; Schropp, Eva-Maria; Eberhagen, Carola; Simmons, Alisha; Beisker, Wolfgang; Aichler, Michaela; Zischka, Hans

    2014-11-01

    Prompted by pronounced structural differences between rat liver and rat hepatocellular carcinoma mitochondria, we suspected these mitochondrial populations to differ massively in their molecular composition. Aiming to reveal these mitochondrial differences, we came across the issue on how to normalize such comparisons and decided to focus on the absolute number of mitochondria. To this end, fluorescently stained mitochondria were quantified by flow cytometry. For rat liver mitochondria, this approach resulted in mitochondrial protein contents comparable to earlier reports using alternative methods. We determined similar protein contents for rat liver, heart and kidney mitochondria. In contrast, however, lower protein contents were determined for rat brain mitochondria and for mitochondria from the rat hepatocellular carcinoma cell line McA 7777. This result challenges mitochondrial comparisons that rely on equal protein amounts as a typical normalization method. Exemplarily, we therefore compared the activity and susceptibility toward inhibition of complex II of rat liver and hepatocellular carcinoma mitochondria and obtained significant discrepancies by either normalizing to protein amount or to absolute mitochondrial number. Importantly, the latter normalization, in contrast to the former, demonstrated a lower complex II activity and higher susceptibility toward inhibition in hepatocellular carcinoma mitochondria compared to liver mitochondria. These findings demonstrate that solely normalizing to protein amount may obscure essential molecular differences between mitochondrial populations. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. and Mitochondria Research Society. All rights reserved.

  18. Linear ultrasonic motor for absolute gravimeter.

    PubMed

    Jian, Yue; Yao, Zhiyuan; Silberschmidt, Vadim V

    2017-05-01

    Thanks to their compactness and suitability for vacuum applications, linear ultrasonic motors are considered as substitutes for classical electromagnetic motors as driving elements in absolute gravimeters. Still, their application is prevented by relatively low power output. To overcome this limitation and provide better stability, a V-type linear ultrasonic motor with a new clamping method is proposed for a gravimeter. In this paper, a mechanical model of stators with flexible clamping components is suggested, according to a design criterion for clamps of linear ultrasonic motors. After that, an effect of tangential and normal rigidity of the clamping components on mechanical output is studied. It is followed by discussion of a new clamping method with sufficient tangential rigidity and a capability to facilitate pre-load. Additionally, a prototype of the motor with the proposed clamping method was fabricated and the performance tests in vertical direction were implemented. Experimental results show that the suggested motor has structural stability and high dynamic performance, such as no-load speed of 1.4m/s and maximal thrust of 43N, meeting the requirements for absolute gravimeters. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Occurence and magnitude of methane - hydrate accumulations

    SciTech Connect

    Zielinski, R.E.; McIver, R.D.

    1982-01-01

    Solid, ice-like mixtures of natural gas and water have been found immobilized in rocks beneath the permafrost in Arctic basins, and in muds under deep water along the continental margins of the Americas. The muds in North America could contain almost 5.7 x 10/sup 14/ m/sup 3/, of gas, but probably only a small fraction, eg., 5.7 x 10/sup 12/ M/sup 3/, in rock porous enough to be considered reservoir rocks. None of this gas is recoverable with present technology. However, the very magnitude of the resource is so large that naturally occurring hydrates should be the object of continuingmore » study and research. 25 refs.« less

  20. Erratum: Sloan Magnitudes for the Brightest Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mallama, A.

    2018-06-01

    In the article "Sloan Magnitudes for the Brightest Stars" (JAAVSO, 2014, 42, 443), Equation 3 in section A.1. of the Appendix is incorrect; the coefficient of ((R-I) - C1) should be 0.935, rather than 0.953. The mean differences between the new and old results are 0.00 in all cases, and the standard deviations are all 0.00 or 0.01, which is less than the photometric uncertainties of the Johnson or Sloan values. A revised version of the catalog has been published at https://arxiv.org/abs/1805.09324. The revision is proposed as a bright star extension to the APASS database.

  1. Violence against women: global scope and magnitude.

    PubMed

    Watts, Charlotte; Zimmerman, Cathy

    2002-04-06

    An increasing amount of research is beginning to offer a global overview of the extent of violence against women. In this paper we discuss the magnitude of some of the most common and most severe forms of violence against women: intimate partner violence; sexual abuse by non-intimate partners; trafficking, forced prostitution, exploitation of labour, and debt bondage of women and girls; physical and sexual violence against prostitutes; sex selective abortion, female infanticide, and the deliberate neglect of girls; and rape in war. There are many potential perpetrators, including spouses and partners, parents, other family members, neighbours, and men in positions of power or influence. Most forms of violence are not unique incidents but are ongoing, and can even continue for decades. Because of the sensitivity of the subject, violence is almost universally under-reported. Nevertheless, the prevalence of such violence suggests that globally, millions of women are experiencing violence or living with its consequences.

  2. Forecasting Error Calculation with Mean Absolute Deviation and Mean Absolute Percentage Error

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khair, Ummul; Fahmi, Hasanul; Hakim, Sarudin Al; Rahim, Robbi

    2017-12-01

    Prediction using a forecasting method is one of the most important things for an organization, the selection of appropriate forecasting methods is also important but the percentage error of a method is more important in order for decision makers to adopt the right culture, the use of the Mean Absolute Deviation and Mean Absolute Percentage Error to calculate the percentage of mistakes in the least square method resulted in a percentage of 9.77% and it was decided that the least square method be worked for time series and trend data.

  3. Effects of task and age on the magnitude and structure of force fluctuations: insights into underlying neuro-behavioral processes.

    PubMed

    Vieluf, Solveig; Temprado, Jean-Jacques; Berton, Eric; Jirsa, Viktor K; Sleimen-Malkoun, Rita

    2015-03-13

    The present study aimed at characterizing the effects of increasing (relative) force level and aging on isometric force control. To achieve this objective and to infer changes in the underlying control mechanisms, measures of information transmission, as well as magnitude and time-frequency structure of behavioral variability were applied to force-time-series. Older adults were found to be weaker, more variable, and less efficient than young participants. As a function of force level, efficiency followed an inverted-U shape in both groups, suggesting a similar organization of the force control system. The time-frequency structure of force output fluctuations was only significantly affected by task conditions. Specifically, a narrower spectral distribution with more long-range correlations and an inverted-U pattern of complexity changes were observed with increasing force level. Although not significant older participants displayed on average a less complex behavior for low and intermediate force levels. The changes in force signal's regularity presented a strong dependence on time-scales, which significantly interacted with age and condition. An inverted-U profile was only observed for the time-scale relevant to the sensorimotor control process. However, in both groups the peak was not aligned with the optimum of efficiency. Our results support the view that behavioral variability, in terms of magnitude and structure, has a functional meaning and affords non-invasive markers of the adaptations of the sensorimotor control system to various constraints. The measures of efficiency and variability ought to be considered as complementary since they convey specific information on the organization of control processes. The reported weak age effect on variability and complexity measures suggests that the behavioral expression of the loss of complexity hypothesis is not as straightforward as conventionally admitted. However, group differences did not completely vanish

  4. Method and apparatus for making absolute range measurements

    DOEpatents

    Earl, Dennis D [Knoxville, TN; Allison, Stephen W [Knoxville, TN; Cates, Michael R [Oak Ridge, TN; Sanders, Alvin J [Knoxville, TN

    2002-09-24

    This invention relates to a method and apparatus for making absolute distance or ranging measurements using Fresnel diffraction. The invention employs a source of electromagnetic radiation having a known wavelength or wavelength distribution, which sends a beam of electromagnetic radiation through a screen at least partially opaque at the wavelength. The screen has an aperture sized so as to produce a Fresnel diffraction pattern. A portion of the beam travels through the aperture to a detector spaced some distance from the screen. The detector detects the central intensity of the beam as well as a set of intensities displaced from a center of the aperture. The distance from the source to the target can then be calculated based upon the known wavelength, aperture radius, and beam intensity.

  5. An absolute calibration system for millimeter-accuracy APOLLO measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adelberger, E. G.; Battat, J. B. R.; Birkmeier, K. J.; Colmenares, N. R.; Davis, R.; Hoyle, C. D.; Huang, L. R.; McMillan, R. J.; Murphy, T. W., Jr.; Schlerman, E.; Skrobol, C.; Stubbs, C. W.; Zach, A.

    2017-12-01

    Lunar laser ranging provides a number of leading experimental tests of gravitation—important in our quest to unify general relativity and the standard model of physics. The apache point observatory lunar laser-ranging operation (APOLLO) has for years achieved median range precision at the  ∼2 mm level. Yet residuals in model-measurement comparisons are an order-of-magnitude larger, raising the question of whether the ranging data are not nearly as accurate as they are precise, or if the models are incomplete or ill-conditioned. This paper describes a new absolute calibration system (ACS) intended both as a tool for exposing and eliminating sources of systematic error, and also as a means to directly calibrate ranging data in situ. The system consists of a high-repetition-rate (80 MHz) laser emitting short (< 10 ps) pulses that are locked to a cesium clock. In essence, the ACS delivers photons to the APOLLO detector at exquisitely well-defined time intervals as a ‘truth’ input against which APOLLO’s timing performance may be judged and corrected. Preliminary analysis indicates no inaccuracies in APOLLO data beyond the  ∼3 mm level, suggesting that historical APOLLO data are of high quality and motivating continued work on model capabilities. The ACS provides the means to deliver APOLLO data both accurate and precise below the 2 mm level.

  6. Using absolute gravimeter data to determine vertical gravity gradients

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Robertson, D.S.

    2001-01-01

    The position versus time data from a free-fall absolute gravimeter can be used to estimate the vertical gravity gradient in addition to the gravity value itself. Hipkin has reported success in estimating the vertical gradient value using a data set of unusually good quality. This paper explores techniques that may be applicable to a broader class of data that may be contaminated with "system response" errors of larger magnitude than were evident in the data used by Hipkin. This system response function is usually modelled as a sum of exponentially decaying sinusoidal components. The technique employed here involves combining the x0, v0 and g parameters from all the drops made during a site occupation into a single least-squares solution, and including the value of the vertical gradient and the coefficients of system response function in the same solution. The resulting non-linear equations must be solved iteratively and convergence presents some difficulties. Sparse matrix techniques are used to make the least-squares problem computationally tractable.

  7. A Conceptual Approach to Absolute Value Equations and Inequalities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ellis, Mark W.; Bryson, Janet L.

    2011-01-01

    The absolute value learning objective in high school mathematics requires students to solve far more complex absolute value equations and inequalities. When absolute value problems become more complex, students often do not have sufficient conceptual understanding to make any sense of what is happening mathematically. The authors suggest that the…

  8. Using, Seeing, Feeling, and Doing Absolute Value for Deeper Understanding

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ponce, Gregorio A.

    2008-01-01

    Using sticky notes and number lines, a hands-on activity is shared that anchors initial student thinking about absolute value. The initial point of reference should help students successfully evaluate numeric problems involving absolute value. They should also be able to solve absolute value equations and inequalities that are typically found in…

  9. 20 CFR 404.1205 - Absolute coverage groups.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Absolute coverage groups. 404.1205 Section... INSURANCE (1950- ) Coverage of Employees of State and Local Governments What Groups of Employees May Be Covered § 404.1205 Absolute coverage groups. (a) General. An absolute coverage group is a permanent...

  10. 20 CFR 404.1205 - Absolute coverage groups.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Absolute coverage groups. 404.1205 Section... INSURANCE (1950- ) Coverage of Employees of State and Local Governments What Groups of Employees May Be Covered § 404.1205 Absolute coverage groups. (a) General. An absolute coverage group is a permanent...

  11. 20 CFR 404.1205 - Absolute coverage groups.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Absolute coverage groups. 404.1205 Section... INSURANCE (1950- ) Coverage of Employees of State and Local Governments What Groups of Employees May Be Covered § 404.1205 Absolute coverage groups. (a) General. An absolute coverage group is a permanent...

  12. Modeling absolute plate and plume motions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bodinier, G. P.; Wessel, P.; Conrad, C. P.

    2016-12-01

    Paleomagnetic evidence for plume drift has made modeling of absolute plate motions challenging, especially since direct observations of plume drift are lacking. Predictions of plume drift arising from mantle convection models and broadly satisfying observed paleolatitudes have so far provided the only framework for deriving absolute plate motions over moving hotspots. However, uncertainties in mantle rheology, temperature, and initial conditions make such models nonunique. Using simulated and real data, we will show that age progressions along Pacific hotspot trails provide strong constraints on plume motions for all major trails, and furthermore that it is possible to derive models for relative plume drift from these data alone. Relative plume drift depends on the inter-hotspot distances derived from age progressions but lacks a fixed reference point and orientation. By incorporating paleolatitude histories for the Hawaii and Louisville chains we add further constraints on allowable plume motions, yet one unknown parameter remains: a longitude shift that applies equally to all plumes. To obtain a solution we could restrict either the Hawaii or Louisville plume to have latitudinal motion only, thus satisfying paleolatitude constraints. Yet, restricting one plume to latitudinal motion while all others move freely is not realistic. Consequently, it is only possible to resolve the motion of hotspots relative to an overall and unknown longitudinal shift as a function of time. Our plate motions are therefore dependent on the same shift via an unknown rotation about the north pole. Yet, as plume drifts are consequences of mantle convection, our results place strong constraints on the pattern of convection. Other considerations, such as imposed limits on plate speed, plume speed, proximity to LLSVP edges, model smoothness, or relative plate motions via ridge-spotting may add further constraints that allow a unique model of Pacific absolute plate and plume motions to be

  13. Distribution of the near-earth objects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Emel'Yanenko, V. V.; Naroenkov, S. A.; Shustov, B. M.

    2011-12-01

    This paper analyzes the distribution of the orbits of near-Earth minor bodies from the data on more than 7500 objects. The distribution of large near-Earth objects (NEOs) with absolute magnitudes of H < 18 is generally consistent with the earlier predictions (Bottke et al., 2002; Stuart, 2003), although we have revealed a previously undetected maximum in the distribution of perihelion distances q near q = 0.5 AU. The study of the orbital distribution for the entire sample of all detected objects has found new significant features. In particular, the distribution of perihelion longitudes seriously deviates from a homogeneous pattern; its variations are roughly 40% of its mean value. These deviations cannot be stochastic, which is confirmed by the Kolmogorov-Smirnov test with a more than 0.9999 probability. These features can be explained by the dynamic behavior of the minor bodies related to secular resonances with Jupiter. For the objects with H < 18, the variations in the perihelion longitude distribution are not so apparent. By extrapolating the orbital characteristics of the NEOs with H < 18, we have obtained longitudinal, latitudinal, and radial distributions of potentially hazardous objects in a heliocentric ecliptic coordinate frame. The differences in the orbital distributions of objects of different size appear not to be a consequence of observational selection, but could indicate different sources of the NEOs.

  14. Volumetric vessel reconstruction method for absolute blood flow velocity measurement in Doppler OCT images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qi, Li; Zhu, Jiang; Hancock, Aneeka M.; Dai, Cuixia; Zhang, Xuping; Frostig, Ron D.; Chen, Zhongping

    2017-02-01

    Doppler optical coherence tomography (DOCT) is considered one of the most promising functional imaging modalities for neuro biology research and has demonstrated the ability to quantify cerebral blood flow velocity at a high accuracy. However, the measurement of total absolute blood flow velocity (BFV) of major cerebral arteries is still a difficult problem since it not only relates to the properties of the laser and the scattering particles, but also relates to the geometry of both directions of the laser beam and the flow. In this paper, focusing on the analysis of cerebral hemodynamics, we presents a method to quantify the total absolute blood flow velocity in middle cerebral artery (MCA) based on volumetric vessel reconstruction from pure DOCT images. A modified region growing segmentation method is first used to localize the MCA on successive DOCT B-scan images. Vessel skeletonization, followed by an averaging gradient angle calculation method, is then carried out to obtain Doppler angles along the entire MCA. Once the Doppler angles are determined, the absolute blood flow velocity of each position on the MCA is easily found. Given a seed point position on the MCA, our approach could achieve automatic quantification of the fully distributed absolute BFV. Based on experiments conducted using a swept-source optical coherence tomography system, our approach could achieve automatic quantification of the fully distributed absolute BFV across different vessel branches in the rodent brain.

  15. Use of Absolute and Comparative Performance Feedback in Absolute and Comparative Judgments and Decisions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moore, Don A.; Klein, William M. P.

    2008-01-01

    Which matters more--beliefs about absolute ability or ability relative to others? This study set out to compare the effects of such beliefs on satisfaction with performance, self-evaluations, and bets on future performance. In Experiment 1, undergraduate participants were told they had answered 20% correct, 80% correct, or were not given their…

  16. Driven tracer with absolute negative mobility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cividini, J.; Mukamel, D.; Posch, H. A.

    2018-02-01

    Instances of negative mobility, where a system responds to a perturbation in a way opposite to naive expectation, have been studied theoretically and experimentally in numerous nonequilibrium systems. In this work we show that absolute negative mobility (ANM), whereby current is produced in a direction opposite to the drive, can occur around equilibrium states. This is demonstrated with a simple one-dimensional lattice model with a driven tracer. We derive analytical predictions in the linear response regime and elucidate the mechanism leading to ANM by studying the high-density limit. We also study numerically a model of hard Brownian disks in a narrow planar channel, for which the lattice model can be viewed as a toy model. We find that the model exhibits negative differential mobility (NDM), but no ANM.

  17. Measurement of absolute gamma emission probabilities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sumithrarachchi, Chandana S.; Rengan, Krish; Griffin, Henry C.

    2003-06-01

    The energies and emission probabilities (intensities) of gamma-rays emitted in radioactive decays of particular nuclides are the most important characteristics by which to quantify mixtures of radionuclides. Often, quantification is limited by uncertainties in measured intensities. A technique was developed to reduce these uncertainties. The method involves obtaining a pure sample of a nuclide using radiochemical techniques, and using appropriate fractions for beta and gamma measurements. The beta emission rates were measured using a liquid scintillation counter, and the gamma emission rates were measured with a high-purity germanium detector. Results were combined to obtain absolute gamma emission probabilities. All sources of uncertainties greater than 0.1% were examined. The method was tested with 38Cl and 88Rb.

  18. Absolute calibration of ultraviolet filter photometry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bless, R. C.; Fairchild, T.; Code, A. D.

    1972-01-01

    The essential features of the calibration procedure can be divided into three parts. First, the shape of the bandpass of each photometer was determined by measuring the transmissions of the individual optical components and also by measuring the response of the photometer as a whole. Secondly, each photometer was placed in the essentially-collimated synchrotron radiation bundle maintained at a constant intensity level, and the output signal was determined from about 100 points on the objective. Finally, two or three points on the objective were illuminated by synchrotron radiation at several different intensity levels covering the dynamic range of the photometers. The output signals were placed on an absolute basis by the electron counting technique described earlier.

  19. Absolute negative mobility in the anomalous diffusion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Ruyin; Chen, Chongyang; Nie, Linru

    2017-12-01

    Transport of an inertial Brownian particle driven by the multiplicative Lévy noise was investigated here. Numerical results indicate that: (i) The Lévy noise is able to induce absolute negative mobility (ANM) in the system, while disappearing in the deterministic case; (ii) the ANM can occur in the region of superdiffusion while disappearing in the region of normal diffusion, and the appropriate stable index of the Lévy noise makes the particle move along the opposite direction of the bias force to the maximum degree; (iii) symmetry breaking of the Lévy noise also causes the ANM effect. In addition, the intrinsic physical mechanism and conditions for the ANM to occur are discussed in detail. Our results have the implication that the Lévy noise plays an important role in the occurrence of the ANM phenomenon.

  20. Absolute partial photoionization cross sections of ethylene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grimm, F. A.; Whitley, T. A.; Keller, P. R.; Taylor, J. W.

    1991-07-01

    Absolute partial photoionization cross sections for ionization out of the first four valence orbitals to the X 2B 3u, A 2B 3g, B 2A g and C 2B 2u states of the C 2H 4+ ion are presented as a function of photon energy over the energy range from 12 to 26 eV. The experimental results have been compared to previously published relative partial cross sections for the first two bands at 18, 21 and 24 eV. Comparison of the experimental data with continuum multiple scattering Xα calculations provides evidence for extensive autoionization to the X 2B 3u state and confirms the predicted shape resonances in ionization to the A 2B 3g and B 2A g states. Identification of possible transitions for the autoionizing resonances have been made using multiple scattering transition state calculations on Rydberg excited states.

  1. Absolute measurements of fast neutrons using yttrium.

    PubMed

    Roshan, M V; Springham, S V; Rawat, R S; Lee, P; Krishnan, M

    2010-08-01

    Yttrium is presented as an absolute neutron detector for pulsed neutron sources. It has high sensitivity for detecting fast neutrons. Yttrium has the property of generating a monoenergetic secondary radiation in the form of a 909 keV gamma-ray caused by inelastic neutron interaction. It was calibrated numerically using MCNPX and does not need periodic recalibration. The total yttrium efficiency for detecting 2.45 MeV neutrons was determined to be f(n) approximately 4.1x10(-4) with an uncertainty of about 0.27%. The yttrium detector was employed in the NX2 plasma focus experiments and showed the neutron yield of the order of 10(8) neutrons per discharge.

  2. Measured and modelled absolute gravity in Greenland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nielsen, E.; Forsberg, R.; Strykowski, G.

    2012-12-01

    Present day changes in the ice volume in glaciated areas like Greenland will change the load on the Earth and to this change the lithosphere will respond elastically. The Earth also responds to changes in the ice volume over a millennial time scale. This response is due to the viscous properties of the mantle and is known as Glaical Isostatic Adjustment (GIA). Both signals are present in GPS and absolute gravity (AG) measurements and they will give an uncertainty in mass balance estimates calculated from these data types. It is possible to separate the two signals if both gravity and Global Positioning System (GPS) time series are available. DTU Space acquired an A10 absolute gravimeter in 2008. One purpose of this instrument is to establish AG time series in Greenland and the first measurements were conducted in 2009. Since then are 18 different Greenland GPS Network (GNET) stations visited and six of these are visited more then once. The gravity signal consists of three signals; the elastic signal, the viscous signal and the direct attraction from the ice masses. All of these signals can be modelled using various techniques. The viscous signal is modelled by solving the Sea Level Equation with an appropriate ice history and Earth model. The free code SELEN is used for this. The elastic signal is modelled as a convolution of the elastic Greens function for gravity and a model of present day ice mass changes. The direct attraction is the same as the Newtonian attraction and is calculated as this. Here we will present the preliminary results of the AG measurements in Greenland. We will also present modelled estimates of the direct attraction, the elastic and the viscous signals.

  3. Absolute GPS Positioning Using Genetic Algorithms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramillien, G.

    A new inverse approach for restoring the absolute coordinates of a ground -based station from three or four observed GPS pseudo-ranges is proposed. This stochastic method is based on simulations of natural evolution named genetic algorithms (GA). These iterative procedures provide fairly good and robust estimates of the absolute positions in the Earth's geocentric reference system. For comparison/validation, GA results are compared to the ones obtained using the classical linearized least-square scheme for the determination of the XYZ location proposed by Bancroft (1985) which is strongly limited by the number of available observations (i.e. here, the number of input pseudo-ranges must be four). The r.m.s. accuracy of the non -linear cost function reached by this latter method is typically ~10-4 m2 corresponding to ~300-500-m accuracies for each geocentric coordinate. However, GA can provide more acceptable solutions (r.m.s. errors < 10-5 m2), even when only three instantaneous pseudo-ranges are used, such as a lost of lock during a GPS survey. Tuned GA parameters used in different simulations are N=1000 starting individuals, as well as Pc=60-70% and Pm=30-40% for the crossover probability and mutation rate, respectively. Statistical tests on the ability of GA to recover acceptable coordinates in presence of important levels of noise are made simulating nearly 3000 random samples of erroneous pseudo-ranges. Here, two main sources of measurement errors are considered in the inversion: (1) typical satellite-clock errors and/or 300-metre variance atmospheric delays, and (2) Geometrical Dilution of Precision (GDOP) due to the particular GPS satellite configuration at the time of acquisition. Extracting valuable information and even from low-quality starting range observations, GA offer an interesting alternative for high -precision GPS positioning.

  4. Spatiotemporal evolution of the completeness magnitude of the Icelandic earthquake catalogue from 1991 to 2013

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Panzera, Francesco; Mignan, Arnaud; Vogfjörð, Kristin S.

    2017-07-01

    In 1991, a digital seismic monitoring network was installed in Iceland with a digital seismic system and automatic operation. After 20 years of operation, we explore for the first time its nationwide performance by analysing the spatiotemporal variations of the completeness magnitude. We use the Bayesian magnitude of completeness (BMC) method that combines local completeness magnitude observations with prior information based on the density of seismic stations. Additionally, we test the impact of earthquake location uncertainties on the BMC results, by filtering the catalogue using a multivariate analysis that identifies outliers in the hypocentre error distribution. We find that the entire North-to-South active rift zone shows a relatively low magnitude of completeness Mc in the range 0.5-1.0, highlighting the ability of the Icelandic network to detect small earthquakes. This work also demonstrates the influence of earthquake location uncertainties on the spatiotemporal magnitude of completeness analysis.

  5. Child prostitution: magnitude and related problems.

    PubMed

    Ayalew, T; Berhane, Y

    2000-07-01

    In Ethiopia, very little is known about prostitution in general and about child prostitution in particular. The objective of this study was to determine the magnitude of child prostitution and to identify problems associated with it. A cross-sectional study design was utilized. Data were collected using structured questionnaire. A total of 650 commercial sex workers were interviewed. Eighty eight (13.5%) were below the age of 18 years at the time of data collection. At the time of joining prostitution 268 (41.2%) were under 18 years of age. Poverty, disagreement with family, and peer influence were the major reasons leading to prostitution. Child prostitutes were likely to be victim of physical violence [OR = (95% C.I.) = 1.93(1.18,3.15)] and sexual violence [OR = (95% C.I.) = 2.20(1.36,3.35)] compared to adult prostitutes. Child prostitutes were about five times more likely to desire rejoining their family than the adult prostitutes [OR = (95% C.I) = 5.47(3.01;9.93)]. Strategies need to be developed to rescue child prostitutes from on-job violence, and to establish a rehabilitation program for those interested to discontinue prostitution along with efforts to minimize entry into prostitution.

  6. Extended arrays for nonlinear susceptibility magnitude imaging

    PubMed Central

    Ficko, Bradley W.; Giacometti, Paolo; Diamond, Solomon G.

    2016-01-01

    This study implements nonlinear susceptibility magnitude imaging (SMI) with multifrequency intermodulation and phase encoding. An imaging grid was constructed of cylindrical wells of 3.5-mm diameter and 4.2-mm height on a hexagonal two-dimensional 61-voxel pattern with 5-mm spacing. Patterns of sample wells were filled with 40-μl volumes of Fe3O4 starch-coated magnetic nanoparticles (mNPs) with a hydrodynamic diameter of 100 nm and a concentration of 25 mg/ml. The imaging hardware was configured with three excitation coils and three detection coils in anticipation that a larger imaging system will have arrays of excitation and detection coils. Hexagonal and bar patterns of mNP were successfully imaged (R2 > 0.9) at several orientations. This SMI demonstration extends our prior work to feature a larger coil array, enlarged field-of-view, effective phase encoding scheme, reduced mNP sample size, and more complex imaging patterns to test the feasibility of extending the method beyond the pilot scale. The results presented in this study show that nonlinear SMI holds promise for further development into a practical imaging system for medical applications. PMID:26124044

  7. Maximum earthquake magnitudes in the Aegean area constrained by tectonic moment release rates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ch. Koravos, G.; Main, I. G.; Tsapanos, T. M.; Musson, R. M. W.

    2003-01-01

    Seismic moment release is usually dominated by the largest but rarest events, making the estimation of seismic hazard inherently uncertain. This uncertainty can be reduced by combining long-term tectonic deformation rates with short-term recurrence rates. Here we adopt this strategy to estimate recurrence rates and maximum magnitudes for tectonic zones in the Aegean area. We first form a merged catalogue for historical and instrumentally recorded earthquakes in the Aegean, based on a recently published catalogue for Greece and surrounding areas covering the time period 550BC-2000AD, at varying degrees of completeness. The historical data are recalibrated to allow for changes in damping in seismic instruments around 1911. We divide the area up into zones that correspond to recent determinations of deformation rate from satellite data. In all zones we find that the Gutenberg-Richter (GR) law holds at low magnitudes. We use Akaike's information criterion to determine the best-fitting distribution at high magnitudes, and classify the resulting frequency-magnitude distributions of the zones as critical (GR law), subcritical (gamma density distribution) or supercritical (`characteristic' earthquake model) where appropriate. We determine the ratio η of seismic to tectonic moment release rate. Low values of η (<0.5) corresponding to relatively aseismic deformation, are associated with higher b values (>1.0). The seismic and tectonic moment release rates are then combined to constrain recurrence rates and maximum credible magnitudes (in the range 6.7-7.6 mW where the results are well constrained) based on extrapolating the short-term seismic data. With current earthquake data, many of the tectonic zones show a characteristic distribution that leads to an elevated probability of magnitudes around 7, but a reduced probability of larger magnitudes above this value when compared with the GR trend. A modification of the generalized gamma distribution is suggested to account

  8. Magnitude of Treatment Abandonment in Childhood Cancer.

    PubMed

    Friedrich, Paola; Lam, Catherine G; Itriago, Elena; Perez, Rafael; Ribeiro, Raul C; Arora, Ramandeep S

    2015-01-01

    illustrate the negative impact of poverty on its occurrence. The present estimates may appear small compared to the global burden of child death from malnutrition and infection (measured in millions). However, absolute numbers suggest the burden of TxA in LMC is nearly equivalent to annually losing all kids diagnosed with cancer in HIC just to TxA, without even considering deaths from disease progression, relapse or toxicity-the main causes of childhood cancer mortality in HIC. Results document the importance of monitoring and addressing TxA as part of childhood cancer outcomes in at-risk settings.

  9. Joint maximum-likelihood magnitudes of presumed underground nuclear test explosions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peacock, Sheila; Douglas, Alan; Bowers, David

    2017-08-01

    Body-wave magnitudes (mb) of 606 seismic disturbances caused by presumed underground nuclear test explosions at specific test sites between 1964 and 1996 have been derived from station amplitudes collected by the International Seismological Centre (ISC), by a joint inversion for mb and station-specific magnitude corrections. A maximum-likelihood method was used to reduce the upward bias of network mean magnitudes caused by data censoring, where arrivals at stations that do not report arrivals are assumed to be hidden by the ambient noise at the time. Threshold noise levels at each station were derived from the ISC amplitudes using the method of Kelly and Lacoss, which fits to the observed magnitude-frequency distribution a Gutenberg-Richter exponential decay truncated at low magnitudes by an error function representing the low-magnitude threshold of the station. The joint maximum-likelihood inversion is applied to arrivals from the sites: Semipalatinsk (Kazakhstan) and Novaya Zemlya, former Soviet Union; Singer (Lop Nor), China; Mururoa and Fangataufa, French Polynesia; and Nevada, USA. At sites where eight or more arrivals could be used to derive magnitudes and station terms for 25 or more explosions (Nevada, Semipalatinsk and Mururoa), the resulting magnitudes and station terms were fixed and a second inversion carried out to derive magnitudes for additional explosions with three or more arrivals. 93 more magnitudes were thus derived. During processing for station thresholds, many stations were rejected for sparsity of data, obvious errors in reported amplitude, or great departure of the reported amplitude-frequency distribution from the expected left-truncated exponential decay. Abrupt changes in monthly mean amplitude at a station apparently coincide with changes in recording equipment and/or analysis method at the station.

  10. On the use of Gaia magnitudes and new tables of bolometric corrections

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Casagrande, L.; VandenBerg, Don A.

    2018-06-01

    The availability of reliable bolometric corrections and reddening estimates, rather than the quality of parallaxes will be one of the main limiting factors in determining the luminosities of a large fraction of Gaia stars. With this goal in mind, we provide Gaia GBP, G, and GRP synthetic photometry for the entire MARCS grid, and test the performance of our synthetic colours and bolometric corrections against space-borne absolute spectrophotometry. We find indication of a magnitude-dependent offset in Gaia DR2 G magnitudes, which must be taken into account in high accuracy investigations. Our interpolation routines are easily used to derive bolometric corrections at desired stellar parameters, and to explore the dependence of Gaia photometry on Teff, log g, {[Fe/H]}, [α /{Fe}] and E(B - V). Gaia colours for the Sun and Vega, and Teff-dependent extinction coefficients, are also provided.

  11. Gyrokinetic statistical absolute equilibrium and turbulence

    SciTech Connect

    Zhu Jianzhou; Hammett, Gregory W.

    2010-12-15

    A paradigm based on the absolute equilibrium of Galerkin-truncated inviscid systems to aid in understanding turbulence [T.-D. Lee, Q. Appl. Math. 10, 69 (1952)] is taken to study gyrokinetic plasma turbulence: a finite set of Fourier modes of the collisionless gyrokinetic equations are kept and the statistical equilibria are calculated; possible implications for plasma turbulence in various situations are discussed. For the case of two spatial and one velocity dimension, in the calculation with discretization also of velocity v with N grid points (where N+1 quantities are conserved, corresponding to an energy invariant and N entropy-related invariants), the negative temperaturemore » states, corresponding to the condensation of the generalized energy into the lowest modes, are found. This indicates a generic feature of inverse energy cascade. Comparisons are made with some classical results, such as those of Charney-Hasegawa-Mima in the cold-ion limit. There is a universal shape for statistical equilibrium of gyrokinetics in three spatial and two velocity dimensions with just one conserved quantity. Possible physical relevance to turbulence, such as ITG zonal flows, and to a critical balance hypothesis are also discussed.« less

  12. Gyrokinetic Statistical Absolute Equilibrium and Turbulence

    SciTech Connect

    Jian-Zhou Zhu and Gregory W. Hammett

    2011-01-10

    A paradigm based on the absolute equilibrium of Galerkin-truncated inviscid systems to aid in understanding turbulence [T.-D. Lee, "On some statistical properties of hydrodynamical and magnetohydrodynamical fields," Q. Appl. Math. 10, 69 (1952)] is taken to study gyrokinetic plasma turbulence: A finite set of Fourier modes of the collisionless gyrokinetic equations are kept and the statistical equilibria are calculated; possible implications for plasma turbulence in various situations are discussed. For the case of two spatial and one velocity dimension, in the calculation with discretization also of velocity v with N grid points (where N + 1 quantities are conserved, correspondingmore » to an energy invariant and N entropy-related invariants), the negative temperature states, corresponding to the condensation of the generalized energy into the lowest modes, are found. This indicates a generic feature of inverse energy cascade. Comparisons are made with some classical results, such as those of Charney-Hasegawa-Mima in the cold-ion limit. There is a universal shape for statistical equilibrium of gyrokinetics in three spatial and two velocity dimensions with just one conserved quantity. Possible physical relevance to turbulence, such as ITG zonal flows, and to a critical balance hypothesis are also discussed.« less

  13. Elevation correction factor for absolute pressure measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Panek, Joseph W.; Sorrells, Mark R.

    1996-01-01

    With the arrival of highly accurate multi-port pressure measurement systems, conditions that previously did not affect overall system accuracy must now be scrutinized closely. Errors caused by elevation differences between pressure sensing elements and model pressure taps can be quantified and corrected. With multi-port pressure measurement systems, the sensing elements are connected to pressure taps that may be many feet away. The measurement system may be at a different elevation than the pressure taps due to laboratory space or test article constraints. This difference produces a pressure gradient that is inversely proportional to height within the interface tube. The pressure at the bottom of the tube will be higher than the pressure at the top due to the weight of the tube's column of air. Tubes with higher pressures will exhibit larger absolute errors due to the higher air density. The above effect is well documented but has generally been taken into account with large elevations only. With error analysis techniques, the loss in accuracy from elevation can be easily quantified. Correction factors can be applied to maintain the high accuracies of new pressure measurement systems.

  14. [Tobacco and plastic surgery: An absolute contraindication?

    PubMed

    Matusiak, C; De Runz, A; Maschino, H; Brix, M; Simon, E; Claudot, F

    2017-08-01

    Smoking increases perioperative risk regarding wound healing, infection rate and failure of microsurgical procedures. There is no present consensus about plastic and aesthetic surgical indications concerning smoking patients. The aim of our study is to analyze French plastic surgeons practices concerning smokers. A questionnaire was send by e-mail to French plastic surgeons in order to evaluate their own operative indications: patient information about smoking dangers, pre- and postoperative delay of smoking cessation, type of intervention carried out, smoking cessation supports, use of screening test and smoking limit associated to surgery refusing were studied. Statistical tests were used to compare results according to practitioner activity (liberal or public), own smoking habits and time of installation. In 148 questionnaires, only one surgeon did not explain smoking risk. Of the surgeons, 49.3% proposed smoking-cessation supports, more frequently with public practice (P=0.019). In total, 85.4% of surgeons did not use screening tests. Years of installation affected operative indication with smoking patients (P=0.02). Pre- and postoperative smoking cessation delay were on average respectively 4 and 3 weeks in accordance with literature. Potential improvements could be proposed to smoking patients' care: smoking cessation assistance, screening tests, absolute contraindication of some procedures or level of consumption to determine. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  15. Absolute Lower Bound on the Bounce Action

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sato, Ryosuke; Takimoto, Masahiro

    2018-03-01

    The decay rate of a false vacuum is determined by the minimal action solution of the tunneling field: bounce. In this Letter, we focus on models with scalar fields which have a canonical kinetic term in N (>2 ) dimensional Euclidean space, and derive an absolute lower bound on the bounce action. In the case of four-dimensional space, we show the bounce action is generically larger than 24 /λcr, where λcr≡max [-4 V (ϕ )/|ϕ |4] with the false vacuum being at ϕ =0 and V (0 )=0 . We derive this bound on the bounce action without solving the equation of motion explicitly. Our bound is derived by a quite simple discussion, and it provides useful information even if it is difficult to obtain the explicit form of the bounce solution. Our bound offers a sufficient condition for the stability of a false vacuum, and it is useful as a quick check on the vacuum stability for given models. Our bound can be applied to a broad class of scalar potential with any number of scalar fields. We also discuss a necessary condition for the bounce action taking a value close to this lower bound.

  16. Auditory processing in absolute pitch possessors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McKetton, Larissa; Schneider, Keith A.

    2018-05-01

    Absolute pitch (AP) is a rare ability in classifying a musical pitch without a reference standard. It has been of great interest to researchers studying auditory processing and music cognition since it is seldom expressed and sheds light on influences pertaining to neurodevelopmental biological predispositions and the onset of musical training. We investigated the smallest frequency that could be detected or just noticeable difference (JND) between two pitches. Here, we report significant differences in JND thresholds in AP musicians and non-AP musicians compared to non-musician control groups at both 1000 Hz and 987.76 Hz testing frequencies. Although the AP-musicians did better than non-AP musicians, the difference was not significant. In addition, we looked at neuro-anatomical correlates of musicianship and AP using structural MRI. We report increased cortical thickness of the left Heschl's Gyrus (HG) and decreased cortical thickness of the inferior frontal opercular gyrus (IFO) and circular insular sulcus volume (CIS) in AP compared to non-AP musicians and controls. These structures may therefore be optimally enhanced and reduced to form the most efficient network for AP to emerge.

  17. Absolute Plate Velocities from Seismic Anisotropy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kreemer, Corné; Zheng, Lin; Gordon, Richard

    2015-04-01

    The orientation of seismic anisotropy inferred beneath plate interiors may provide a means to estimate the motions of the plate relative to the sub-asthenospheric mantle. Here we analyze two global sets of shear-wave splitting data, that of Kreemer [2009] and an updated and expanded data set, to estimate plate motions and to better understand the dispersion of the data, correlations in the errors, and their relation to plate speed. We also explore the effect of using geologically current plate velocities (i.e., the MORVEL set of angular velocities [DeMets et al. 2010]) compared with geodetically current plate velocities (i.e., the GSRM v1.2 angular velocities [Kreemer et al. 2014]). We demonstrate that the errors in plate motion azimuths inferred from shear-wave splitting beneath any one tectonic plate are correlated with the errors of other azimuths from the same plate. To account for these correlations, we adopt a two-tier analysis: First, find the pole of rotation and confidence limits for each plate individually. Second, solve for the best fit to these poles while constraining relative plate angular velocities to consistency with the MORVEL relative plate angular velocities. The SKS-MORVEL absolute plate angular velocities (based on the Kreemer [2009] data set) are determined from the poles from eight plates weighted proportionally to the root-mean-square velocity of each plate. SKS-MORVEL indicates that eight plates (Amur, Antarctica, Caribbean, Eurasia, Lwandle, Somalia, Sundaland, and Yangtze) have angular velocities that differ insignificantly from zero. The net rotation of the lithosphere is 0.25±0.11° Ma-1 (95% confidence limits) right-handed about 57.1°S, 68.6°E. The within-plate dispersion of seismic anisotropy for oceanic lithosphere (σ=19.2° ) differs insignificantly from that for continental lithosphere (σ=21.6° ). The between-plate dispersion, however, is significantly smaller for oceanic lithosphere (σ=7.4° ) than for continental

  18. An Updated Catalog of Taiwan Earthquakes (1900-2011) with Homogenized Mw Magnitudes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, K.; Tsai, Y.; Chang, W.

    2012-12-01

    A complete and consistent catalog of earthquakes can provide good data for studying the distribution of earthquakes in a region as function of space, time and magnitude. Therefore, it is a basic tool for studying seismic hazard and mitigating hazard, and we can get the seismicity with magnitude equal to or greater than Mw from the data set. In the article for completeness and consistence, we apply a catalog of earthquakes from 1900 to 2006 with homogenized magnitude (Mw) (Chen and Tsai, 2008) as a base, and we also refer to the Hsu (1989) to incorporate available supplementary data (total 188 data) for the period 1900-1935, the supplementary data lead the cutoff threshold magnitude to be from Mw 5.5 down to 5.0, this indicates that we add the additional data has enriched the magnitude > 5.0 content. For this study, the catalog has been updated to include earthquakes up to 2011, and it is complete for Mw > 5.0, this will increase the reliability for studying seismic hazard. It is found that it is saturated for original catalog of Taiwan earthquakes compared with Harvard Mw or USGS M for magnitude > 6.5. Although, we modified the original catalog into seismic moment magnitude Mw, it still does not overcome the drawback. But, it is found for Mw < 6.5, our unified Mw are most greater than Harvard Mw or USGS M, the phenomenon indicates our unified Mw to supplement the gap above magnitude > 6.0 and somewhere magnitude > 5.5 during the time period 1973-1991 for original catalog. Therefore, it is better with Mw to report the earthquake magnitude.

  19. Absolute Radiometric Calibration of KOMPSAT-3A

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahn, H. Y.; Shin, D. Y.; Kim, J. S.; Seo, D. C.; Choi, C. U.

    2016-06-01

    This paper presents a vicarious radiometric calibration of the Korea Multi-Purpose Satellite-3A (KOMPSAT-3A) performed by the Korea Aerospace Research Institute (KARI) and the Pukyong National University Remote Sensing Group (PKNU RSG) in 2015.The primary stages of this study are summarized as follows: (1) A field campaign to determine radiometric calibrated target fields was undertaken in Mongolia and South Korea. Surface reflectance data obtained in the campaign were input to a radiative transfer code that predicted at-sensor radiance. Through this process, equations and parameters were derived for the KOMPSAT-3A sensor to enable the conversion of calibrated DN to physical units, such as at-sensor radiance or TOA reflectance. (2) To validate the absolute calibration coefficients for the KOMPSAT-3A sensor, we performed a radiometric validation with a comparison of KOMPSAT-3A and Landsat-8 TOA reflectance using one of the six PICS (Libya 4). Correlations between top-of-atmosphere (TOA) radiances and the spectral band responses of the KOMPSAT-3A sensors at the Zuunmod, Mongolia and Goheung, South Korea sites were significant for multispectral bands. The average difference in TOA reflectance between KOMPSAT-3A and Landsat-8 image over the Libya 4, Libya site in the red-green-blue (RGB) region was under 3%, whereas in the NIR band, the TOA reflectance of KOMPSAT-3A was lower than the that of Landsat-8 due to the difference in the band passes of two sensors. The KOMPSAT-3Aensor includes a band pass near 940 nm that can be strongly absorbed by water vapor and therefore displayed low reflectance. Toovercome this, we need to undertake a detailed analysis using rescale methods, such as the spectral bandwidth adjustment factor.

  20. Orion Absolute Navigation System Progress and Challenge

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holt, Greg N.; D'Souza, Christopher

    2012-01-01

    The absolute navigation design of NASA's Orion vehicle is described. It has undergone several iterations and modifications since its inception, and continues as a work-in-progress. This paper seeks to benchmark the current state of the design and some of the rationale and analysis behind it. There are specific challenges to address when preparing a timely and effective design for the Exploration Flight Test (EFT-1), while still looking ahead and providing software extensibility for future exploration missions. The primary onboard measurements in a Near-Earth or Mid-Earth environment consist of GPS pseudo-range and delta-range, but for future explorations missions the use of star-tracker and optical navigation sources need to be considered. Discussions are presented for state size and composition, processing techniques, and consider states. A presentation is given for the processing technique using the computationally stable and robust UDU formulation with an Agee-Turner Rank-One update. This allows for computational savings when dealing with many parameters which are modeled as slowly varying Gauss-Markov processes. Preliminary analysis shows up to a 50% reduction in computation versus a more traditional formulation. Several state elements are discussed and evaluated, including position, velocity, attitude, clock bias/drift, and GPS measurement biases in addition to bias, scale factor, misalignment, and non-orthogonalities of the accelerometers and gyroscopes. Another consideration is the initialization of the EKF in various scenarios. Scenarios such as single-event upset, ground command, and cold start are discussed as are strategies for whole and partial state updates as well as covariance considerations. Strategies are given for dealing with latent measurements and high-rate propagation using multi-rate architecture. The details of the rate groups and the data ow between the elements is discussed and evaluated.

  1. Absolute parameters of young stars: QZ Carinae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walker, W. S. G.; Blackford, M.; Butland, R.; Budding, E.

    2017-09-01

    New high-resolution spectroscopy and BVR photometry together with literature data on the complex massive quaternary star QZ Car are collected and analysed. Absolute parameters are found as follows. System A: M1 = 43 (±3), M2 = 19 (+3 -7), R1 = 28 (±2), R2 = 6 (±2), (⊙); T1 ˜ 28 000, T2 ˜ 33 000 K; System B: M1 = 30 (±3), M2 = 20 (±3), R1 = 10 (±0.5), R2 = 20 (±1), (⊙); T1 ˜ 36 000, T2 ˜ 30 000 K (model dependent temperatures). The wide system AB: Period = 49.5 (±1) yr, Epochs, conjunction = 1984.8 (±1), periastron = 2005.3 (±3) yr, mean separation = 65 (±3), (au); orbital inclination = 85 (+5 -15) deg, photometric distance ˜2700 (±300) pc, age = 4 (±1) Myr. Other new contributions concern: (a) analysis of the timing of minima differences (O - C)s for the eclipsing binary (System B); (b) the width of the eclipses, pointing to relatively large effects of radiation pressure; (c) inferences from the rotational widths of lines for both Systems A and B; and (d) implications for theoretical models of early-type stars. While feeling greater confidence on the quaternary's general parametrization, observational complications arising from strong wind interactions or other, unclear, causes still inhibit precision and call for continued multiwavelength observations. Our high-inclination value for the AB system helps to explain failures to resolve the wide binary in the previous years. The derived young age independently confirms membership of QZ Car to the open cluster Collinder 228.

  2. Evaluation of the Absolute Regional Temperature Potential

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shindell, D. T.

    2012-01-01

    The Absolute Regional Temperature Potential (ARTP) is one of the few climate metrics that provides estimates of impacts at a sub-global scale. The ARTP presented here gives the time-dependent temperature response in four latitude bands (90-28degS, 28degS-28degN, 28-60degN and 60-90degN) as a function of emissions based on the forcing in those bands caused by the emissions. It is based on a large set of simulations performed with a single atmosphere-ocean climate model to derive regional forcing/response relationships. Here I evaluate the robustness of those relationships using the forcing/response portion of the ARTP to estimate regional temperature responses to the historic aerosol forcing in three independent climate models. These ARTP results are in good accord with the actual responses in those models. Nearly all ARTP estimates fall within +/-20%of the actual responses, though there are some exceptions for 90-28degS and the Arctic, and in the latter the ARTP may vary with forcing agent. However, for the tropics and the Northern Hemisphere mid-latitudes in particular, the +/-20% range appears to be roughly consistent with the 95% confidence interval. Land areas within these two bands respond 39-45% and 9-39% more than the latitude band as a whole. The ARTP, presented here in a slightly revised form, thus appears to provide a relatively robust estimate for the responses of large-scale latitude bands and land areas within those bands to inhomogeneous radiative forcing and thus potentially to emissions as well. Hence this metric could allow rapid evaluation of the effects of emissions policies at a finer scale than global metrics without requiring use of a full climate model.

  3. Absolute determination of local tropospheric OH concentrations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Armerding, Wolfgang; Comes, Franz-Josef

    1994-01-01

    Long path absorption (LPA) according to Lambert Beer's law is a method to determine absolute concentrations of trace gases such as tropospheric OH. We have developed a LPA instrument which is based on a rapid tuning of the light source which is a frequency doubled dye laser. The laser is tuned across two or three OH absorption features around 308 nm with a scanning speed of 0.07 cm(exp -1)/microsecond and a repetition rate of 1.3 kHz. This high scanning speed greatly reduces the fluctuation of the light intensity caused by the atmosphere. To obtain the required high sensitivity the laser output power is additionally made constant and stabilized by an electro-optical modulator. The present sensitivity is of the order of a few times 10(exp 5) OH per cm(exp 3) for an acquisition time of a minute and an absorption path length of only 1200 meters so that a folding of the optical path in a multireflection cell was possible leading to a lateral dimension of the cell of a few meters. This allows local measurements to be made. Tropospheric measurements have been carried out in 1991 resulting in the determination of OH diurnal variation at specific days in late summer. Comparison with model calculations have been made. Interferences are mainly due to SO2 absorption. The problem of OH self generation in the multireflection cell is of minor extent. This could be shown by using different experimental methods. The minimum-maximum signal to noise ratio is about 8 x 10(exp -4) for a single scan. Due to the small size of the absorption cell the realization of an open air laboratory is possible in which by use of an additional UV light source or by additional fluxes of trace gases the chemistry can be changed under controlled conditions allowing kinetic studies of tropospheric photochemistry to be made in open air.

  4. Planck absolute entropy of a rotating BTZ black hole

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Riaz, S. M. Jawwad

    2018-04-01

    In this paper, the Planck absolute entropy and the Bekenstein-Smarr formula of the rotating Banados-Teitelboim-Zanelli (BTZ) black hole are presented via a complex thermodynamical system contributed by its inner and outer horizons. The redefined entropy approaches zero as the temperature of the rotating BTZ black hole tends to absolute zero, satisfying the Nernst formulation of a black hole. Hence, it can be regarded as the Planck absolute entropy of the rotating BTZ black hole.

  5. Sign-And-Magnitude Up/Down Counter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cole, Steven W.

    1991-01-01

    Magnitude-and-sign counter includes conventional up/down counter for magnitude part and special additional circuitry for sign part. Negative numbers indicated more directly. Counter implemented by programming erasable programmable logic device (EPLD) or programmable logic array (PLA). Used in place of conventional up/down counter to provide sign and magnitude values directly to other circuits.

  6. The absolute disparity anomaly and the mechanism of relative disparities

    PubMed Central

    Chopin, Adrien; Levi, Dennis; Knill, David; Bavelier, Daphne

    2016-01-01

    There has been a long-standing debate about the mechanisms underlying the perception of stereoscopic depth and the computation of the relative disparities that it relies on. Relative disparities between visual objects could be computed in two ways: (a) using the difference in the object's absolute disparities (Hypothesis 1) or (b) using relative disparities based on the differences in the monocular separations between objects (Hypothesis 2). To differentiate between these hypotheses, we measured stereoscopic discrimination thresholds for lines with different absolute and relative disparities. Participants were asked to judge the depth of two lines presented at the same distance from the fixation plane (absolute disparity) or the depth between two lines presented at different distances (relative disparity). We used a single stimulus method involving a unique memory component for both conditions, and no extraneous references were available. We also measured vergence noise using Nonius lines. Stereo thresholds were substantially worse for absolute disparities than for relative disparities, and the difference could not be explained by vergence noise. We attribute this difference to an absence of conscious readout of absolute disparities, termed the absolute disparity anomaly. We further show that the pattern of correlations between vergence noise and absolute and relative disparity acuities can be explained jointly by the existence of the absolute disparity anomaly and by the assumption that relative disparity information is computed from absolute disparities (Hypothesis 1). PMID:27248566

  7. The absolute disparity anomaly and the mechanism of relative disparities.

    PubMed

    Chopin, Adrien; Levi, Dennis; Knill, David; Bavelier, Daphne

    2016-06-01

    There has been a long-standing debate about the mechanisms underlying the perception of stereoscopic depth and the computation of the relative disparities that it relies on. Relative disparities between visual objects could be computed in two ways: (a) using the difference in the object's absolute disparities (Hypothesis 1) or (b) using relative disparities based on the differences in the monocular separations between objects (Hypothesis 2). To differentiate between these hypotheses, we measured stereoscopic discrimination thresholds for lines with different absolute and relative disparities. Participants were asked to judge the depth of two lines presented at the same distance from the fixation plane (absolute disparity) or the depth between two lines presented at different distances (relative disparity). We used a single stimulus method involving a unique memory component for both conditions, and no extraneous references were available. We also measured vergence noise using Nonius lines. Stereo thresholds were substantially worse for absolute disparities than for relative disparities, and the difference could not be explained by vergence noise. We attribute this difference to an absence of conscious readout of absolute disparities, termed the absolute disparity anomaly. We further show that the pattern of correlations between vergence noise and absolute and relative disparity acuities can be explained jointly by the existence of the absolute disparity anomaly and by the assumption that relative disparity information is computed from absolute disparities (Hypothesis 1).

  8. Mapping absolute tissue endogenous fluorophore concentrations with chemometric wide-field fluorescence microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Zhang; Reilley, Michael; Li, Run; Xu, Min

    2017-06-01

    We report chemometric wide-field fluorescence microscopy for imaging the spatial distribution and concentration of endogenous fluorophores in thin tissue sections. Nonnegative factorization aided by spatial diversity is used to learn both the spectral signature and the spatial distribution of endogenous fluorophores from microscopic fluorescence color images obtained under broadband excitation and detection. The absolute concentration map of individual fluorophores is derived by comparing the fluorescence from "pure" fluorophores under the identical imaging condition following the identification of the fluorescence species by its spectral signature. This method is then demonstrated by characterizing the concentration map of endogenous fluorophores (including tryptophan, elastin, nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide, and flavin adenine dinucleotide) for lung tissue specimens. The absolute concentrations of these fluorophores are all found to decrease significantly from normal, perilesional, to cancerous (squamous cell carcinoma) tissue. Discriminating tissue types using the absolute fluorophore concentration is found to be significantly more accurate than that achievable with the relative fluorescence strength. Quantification of fluorophores in terms of the absolute concentration map is also advantageous in eliminating the uncertainties due to system responses or measurement details, yielding more biologically relevant data, and simplifying the assessment of competing imaging approaches.

  9. Absolute detection efficiencies of low energy H, H -, H +, H 2+ and H 3+ incident on a multichannel plate detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peko, B. L.; Stephen, T. M.

    2000-12-01

    Measured absolute detection efficiencies are presented for H, H - and H n+ ( n=1,2,3) impacting a commercially available, dual multichannel plate (MCP) electron multiplier at kinetic energies ranging from 30 to 1000 eV. Measurements involving isotopic substitutions (D, D -, D n+) and Ar + are also presented. In addition, atomic hydrogen detection efficiencies relative to those of H + and H - are given, as they may have a more universal application. For the three charge states, H, H + and H -, the absolute detection efficiencies are markedly different at low energies and converge to a nearly uniform value of ˜70% with increasing projectile energy. The energy dependence is strongest for H +, varying nearly three orders of magnitude over the energy range studied, and weakest for H -, varying by less than one order of magnitude. In general, for the low energy positive ions at a given energy, the lighter the incident particle mass, the greater the probability of its detection.

  10. Effect of limbal marking prior to laser ablation on the magnitude of cyclotorsional error.

    PubMed

    Chen, Xiangjun; Stojanovic, Aleksandar; Stojanovic, Filip; Eidet, Jon Roger; Raeder, Sten; Øritsland, Haakon; Utheim, Tor Paaske

    2012-05-01

    To evaluate the residual registration error after limbal-marking-based manual adjustment in cyclotorsional tracker-controlled laser refractive surgery. Two hundred eyes undergoing custom surface ablation with the iVIS Suite (iVIS Technologies) were divided into limbal marked (marked) and non-limbal marked (unmarked) groups. Iris registration information was acquired preoperatively from all eyes. Preoperatively, the horizontal axis was recorded in the marked group for use in manual cyclotorsional alignment prior to surgical iris registration. During iris registration, the preoperative iris information was compared to the eye-tracker captured image. The magnitudes of the registration error angle and cyclotorsional movement during the subsequent laser ablation were recorded and analyzed. Mean magnitude of registration error angle (absolute value) was 1.82°±1.31° (range: 0.00° to 5.50°) and 2.90°±2.40° (range: 0.00° to 13.50°) for the marked and unmarked groups, respectively (P<.001). Mean magnitude of cyclotorsional movement during the laser ablation (absolute value) was 1.15°±1.34° (range: 0.00° to 7.00°) and 0.68°±0.97° (range: 0.00° to 6.00°) for the marked and unmarked groups, respectively (P=.005). Forty-six percent and 60% of eyes had registration error >2°, whereas 22% and 20% of eyes had cyclotorsional movement during ablation >2° in the marked and unmarked groups, respectively. Limbal-marking-based manual alignment prior to laser ablation significantly reduced cyclotorsional registration error. However, residual registration misalignment and cyclotorsional movements remained during ablation. Copyright 2012, SLACK Incorporated.

  11. Computing approximate random Delta v magnitude probability densities. [for spacecraft trajectory correction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chadwick, C.

    1984-01-01

    This paper describes the development and use of an algorithm to compute approximate statistics of the magnitude of a single random trajectory correction maneuver (TCM) Delta v vector. The TCM Delta v vector is modeled as a three component Cartesian vector each of whose components is a random variable having a normal (Gaussian) distribution with zero mean and possibly unequal standard deviations. The algorithm uses these standard deviations as input to produce approximations to (1) the mean and standard deviation of the magnitude of Delta v, (2) points of the probability density function of the magnitude of Delta v, and (3) points of the cumulative and inverse cumulative distribution functions of Delta v. The approximates are based on Monte Carlo techniques developed in a previous paper by the author and extended here. The algorithm described is expected to be useful in both pre-flight planning and in-flight analysis of maneuver propellant requirements for space missions.

  12. Development and validation of a cerebral oximeter capable of absolute accuracy.

    PubMed

    MacLeod, David B; Ikeda, Keita; Vacchiano, Charles; Lobbestael, Aaron; Wahr, Joyce A; Shaw, Andrew D

    2012-12-01

    Cerebral oximetry may be a valuable monitor, but few validation data are available, and most report the change from baseline rather than absolute accuracy, which may be affected by individuals whose oximetric values are outside the expected range. The authors sought to develop and validate a cerebral oximeter capable of absolute accuracy. An in vivo research study. A university human physiology laboratory. Healthy human volunteers were enrolled in calibration and validation studies of 2 cerebral oximetric sensors, the Nonin 8000CA and 8004CA. The 8000CA validation study identified 5 individuals with atypical cerebral oxygenation values; their data were used to design the 8004CA sensor, which subsequently underwent calibration and validation. Volunteers were taken through a stepwise hypoxia protocol to a minimum saturation of peripheral oxygen. Arteriovenous saturation (70% jugular bulb venous saturation and 30% arterial saturation) at 6 hypoxic plateaus was used as the reference value for the cerebral oximeter. Absolute accuracy was defined using a combination of the bias and precision of the paired saturations (A(RMS)). In the validation study for the 8000CA sensor (n = 9, 106 plateaus), relative accuracy was an A(RMS) of 2.7, with an absolute accuracy of 8.1, meeting the criteria for a relative (trend) monitor, but not an absolute monitor. In the validation study for the 8004CA sensor (n = 11, 119 plateaus), the A(RMS) of the 8004CA was 4.1, meeting the prespecified success criterion of <5.0. The Nonin cerebral oximeter using the 8004CA sensor can provide absolute data on regional cerebral saturation compared with arteriovenous saturation, even in subjects previously shown to have values outside the normal population distribution curves. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Determination of Absolute Zero Using a Computer-Based Laboratory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Amrani, D.

    2007-01-01

    We present a simple computer-based laboratory experiment for evaluating absolute zero in degrees Celsius, which can be performed in college and undergraduate physical sciences laboratory courses. With a computer, absolute zero apparatus can help demonstrators or students to observe the relationship between temperature and pressure and use…

  14. Absolute Humidity and the Seasonality of Influenza (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shaman, J. L.; Pitzer, V.; Viboud, C.; Grenfell, B.; Goldstein, E.; Lipsitch, M.

    2010-12-01

    Much of the observed wintertime increase of mortality in temperate regions is attributed to seasonal influenza. A recent re-analysis of laboratory experiments indicates that absolute humidity strongly modulates the airborne survival and transmission of the influenza virus. Here we show that the onset of increased wintertime influenza-related mortality in the United States is associated with anomalously low absolute humidity levels during the prior weeks. We then use an epidemiological model, in which observed absolute humidity conditions temper influenza transmission rates, to successfully simulate the seasonal cycle of observed influenza-related mortality. The model results indicate that direct modulation of influenza transmissibility by absolute humidity alone is sufficient to produce this observed seasonality. These findings provide epidemiological support for the hypothesis that absolute humidity drives seasonal variations of influenza transmission in temperate regions. In addition, we show that variations of the basic and effective reproductive numbers for influenza, caused by seasonal changes in absolute humidity, are consistent with the general timing of pandemic influenza outbreaks observed for 2009 A/H1N1 in temperate regions. Indeed, absolute humidity conditions correctly identify the region of the United States vulnerable to a third, wintertime wave of pandemic influenza. These findings suggest that the timing of pandemic influenza outbreaks is controlled by a combination of absolute humidity conditions, levels of susceptibility and changes in population mixing and contact rates.

  15. Novalis' Poetic Uncertainty: A "Bildung" with the Absolute

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mika, Carl

    2016-01-01

    Novalis, the Early German Romantic poet and philosopher, had at the core of his work a mysterious depiction of the "absolute." The absolute is Novalis' name for a substance that defies precise knowledge yet calls for a tentative and sensitive speculation. How one asserts a truth, represents an object, and sets about encountering things…

  16. Estimating earthquake magnitudes from reported intensities in the central and eastern United States

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Boyd, Oliver; Cramer, Chris H.

    2014-01-01

    A new macroseismic intensity prediction equation is derived for the central and eastern United States and is used to estimate the magnitudes of the 1811–1812 New Madrid, Missouri, and 1886 Charleston, South Carolina, earthquakes. This work improves upon previous derivations of intensity prediction equations by including additional intensity data, correcting magnitudes in the intensity datasets to moment magnitude, and accounting for the spatial and temporal population distributions. The new relation leads to moment magnitude estimates for the New Madrid earthquakes that are toward the lower range of previous studies. Depending on the intensity dataset to which the new macroseismic intensity prediction equation is applied, mean estimates for the 16 December 1811, 23 January 1812, and 7 February 1812 mainshocks, and 16 December 1811 dawn aftershock range from 6.9 to 7.1, 6.8 to 7.1, 7.3 to 7.6, and 6.3 to 6.5, respectively. One‐sigma uncertainties on any given estimate could be as high as 0.3–0.4 magnitude units. We also estimate a magnitude of 6.9±0.3 for the 1886 Charleston, South Carolina, earthquake. We find a greater range of magnitude estimates when also accounting for multiple macroseismic intensity prediction equations. The inability to accurately and precisely ascertain magnitude from intensities increases the uncertainty of the central United States earthquake hazard by nearly a factor of two. Relative to the 2008 national seismic hazard maps, our range of possible 1811–1812 New Madrid earthquake magnitudes increases the coefficient of variation of seismic hazard estimates for Memphis, Tennessee, by 35%–42% for ground motions expected to be exceeded with a 2% probability in 50 years and by 27%–35% for ground motions expected to be exceeded with a 10% probability in 50 years.

  17. Absolute comparison of simulated and experimental protein-folding dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Snow, Christopher D.; Nguyen, Houbi; Pande, Vijay S.; Gruebele, Martin

    2002-11-01

    Protein folding is difficult to simulate with classical molecular dynamics. Secondary structure motifs such as α-helices and β-hairpins can form in 0.1-10µs (ref. 1), whereas small proteins have been shown to fold completely in tens of microseconds. The longest folding simulation to date is a single 1-µs simulation of the villin headpiece; however, such single runs may miss many features of the folding process as it is a heterogeneous reaction involving an ensemble of transition states. Here, we have used a distributed computing implementation to produce tens of thousands of 5-20-ns trajectories (700µs) to simulate mutants of the designed mini-protein BBA5. The fast relaxation dynamics these predict were compared with the results of laser temperature-jump experiments. Our computational predictions are in excellent agreement with the experimentally determined mean folding times and equilibrium constants. The rapid folding of BBA5 is due to the swift formation of secondary structure. The convergence of experimentally and computationally accessible timescales will allow the comparison of absolute quantities characterizing in vitro and in silico (computed) protein folding.

  18. Method and apparatus for making absolute range measurements

    DOEpatents

    Allison, Stephen W.; Cates, Michael R.; Key, William S.; Sanders, Alvin J.; Earl, Dennis D.

    1999-01-01

    This invention relates to a method and apparatus for making absolute distance or ranging measurements using Fresnel diffraction. The invention employs a source of electromagnetic radiation having a known wavelength or wavelength distribution, which sends a beam of electromagnetic radiation through an object which causes it to be split (hereinafter referred to as a "beamsplitter"), and then to a target. The beam is reflected from the target onto a screen containing an aperture spaced a known distance from the beamsplitter. The aperture is sized so as to produce a Fresnel diffraction pattern. A portion of the beam travels through the aperture to a detector, spaced a known distance from the screen. The detector detects the central intensity of the beam. The distance from the object which causes the beam to be split to the target can then be calculated based upon the known wavelength, aperture radius, beam intensity, and distance from the detector to the screen. Several apparatus embodiments are disclosed for practicing the method embodiments of the present invention.

  19. Method and apparatus for making absolute range measurements

    DOEpatents

    Allison, S.W.; Cates, M.R.; Key, W.S.; Sanders, A.J.; Earl, D.D.

    1999-06-22

    This invention relates to a method and apparatus for making absolute distance or ranging measurements using Fresnel diffraction. The invention employs a source of electromagnetic radiation having a known wavelength or wavelength distribution, which sends a beam of electromagnetic radiation through an object which causes it to be split (hereinafter referred to as a beam splitter''), and then to a target. The beam is reflected from the target onto a screen containing an aperture spaced a known distance from the beam splitter. The aperture is sized so as to produce a Fresnel diffraction pattern. A portion of the beam travels through the aperture to a detector, spaced a known distance from the screen. The detector detects the central intensity of the beam. The distance from the object which causes the beam to be split to the target can then be calculated based upon the known wavelength, aperture radius, beam intensity, and distance from the detector to the screen. Several apparatus embodiments are disclosed for practicing the method embodiments of the present invention. 9 figs.

  20. Dichotomy and perceptual distortions in absolute pitch ability

    PubMed Central

    Athos, E. Alexandra; Levinson, Barbara; Kistler, Amy; Zemansky, Jason; Bostrom, Alan; Freimer, Nelson; Gitschier, Jane

    2007-01-01

    Absolute pitch (AP) is the rare ability to identify the pitch of a tone without the aid of a reference tone. Understanding both the nature and genesis of AP can provide insights into neuroplasticity in the auditory system. We explored factors that may influence the accuracy of pitch perception in AP subjects both during the development of the trait and in later age. We used a Web-based survey and a pitch-labeling test to collect perceptual data from 2,213 individuals, 981 (44%) of whom proved to have extraordinary pitch-naming ability. The bimodal distribution in pitch-naming ability signifies AP as a distinct perceptual trait, with possible implications for its genetic basis. The wealth of these data has allowed us to uncover unsuspected note-naming irregularities suggestive of a “perceptual magnet” centered at the note “A.” In addition, we document a gradual decline in pitch-naming accuracy with age, characterized by a perceptual shift in the “sharp” direction. These findings speak both to the process of acquisition of AP and to its stability. PMID:17724340

  1. Absolute calibration of optical streak cameras on picosecond time scales using supercontinuum generation

    DOE PAGES

    Patankar, S.; Gumbrell, E. T.; Robinson, T. S.; ...

    2017-08-17

    Here we report a new method using high stability, laser-driven supercontinuum generation in a liquid cell to calibrate the absolute photon response of fast optical streak cameras as a function of wavelength when operating at fastest sweep speeds. A stable, pulsed white light source based around the use of self-phase modulation in a salt solution was developed to provide the required brightness on picosecond timescales, enabling streak camera calibration in fully dynamic operation. The measured spectral brightness allowed for absolute photon response calibration over a broad spectral range (425-650nm). Calibrations performed with two Axis Photonique streak cameras using the Photonismore » P820PSU streak tube demonstrated responses which qualitatively follow the photocathode response. Peak sensitivities were 1 photon/count above background. The absolute dynamic sensitivity is less than the static by up to an order of magnitude. We attribute this to the dynamic response of the phosphor being lower.« less

  2. Robust control design with real parameter uncertainty using absolute stability theory. Ph.D. Thesis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    How, Jonathan P.; Hall, Steven R.

    1993-01-01

    The purpose of this thesis is to investigate an extension of mu theory for robust control design by considering systems with linear and nonlinear real parameter uncertainties. In the process, explicit connections are made between mixed mu and absolute stability theory. In particular, it is shown that the upper bounds for mixed mu are a generalization of results from absolute stability theory. Both state space and frequency domain criteria are developed for several nonlinearities and stability multipliers using the wealth of literature on absolute stability theory and the concepts of supply rates and storage functions. The state space conditions are expressed in terms of Riccati equations and parameter-dependent Lyapunov functions. For controller synthesis, these stability conditions are used to form an overbound of the H2 performance objective. A geometric interpretation of the equivalent frequency domain criteria in terms of off-axis circles clarifies the important role of the multiplier and shows that both the magnitude and phase of the uncertainty are considered. A numerical algorithm is developed to design robust controllers that minimize the bound on an H2 cost functional and satisfy an analysis test based on the Popov stability multiplier. The controller and multiplier coefficients are optimized simultaneously, which avoids the iteration and curve-fitting procedures required by the D-K procedure of mu synthesis. Several benchmark problems and experiments on the Middeck Active Control Experiment at M.I.T. demonstrate that these controllers achieve good robust performance and guaranteed stability bounds.

  3. The Size Distribution of Near-Earth Objects Larger Than 10 m

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trilling, D. E.; Valdes, F.; Allen, L.; James, D.; Fuentes, C.; Herrera, D.; Axelrod, T.; Rajagopal, J.

    2017-10-01

    We analyzed data from the first year of a survey for Near-Earth Objects (NEOs) that we are carrying out with the Dark Energy Camera (DECam) on the 4 m Blanco telescope at the Cerro Tololo Inter-American Observatory. We implanted synthetic NEOs into the data stream to derive our nightly detection efficiency as a function of magnitude and rate of motion. Using these measured efficiencies and the solar system absolute magnitudes derived by the Minor Planet Center for the 1377 measurements of 235 unique NEOs detected, we directly derive, for the first time from a single observational data set, the NEO size distribution from 1 km down to 10 m. We find that there are {10}6.6 NEOs larger than 10 m. This result implies a factor of 10 fewer small NEOs than some previous results, though our derived size distribution is in good agreement with several other estimates.

  4. Absolute radiometric calibration of advanced remote sensing systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Slater, P. N.

    1982-01-01

    The distinction between the uses of relative and absolute spectroradiometric calibration of remote sensing systems is discussed. The advantages of detector-based absolute calibration are described, and the categories of relative and absolute system calibrations are listed. The limitations and problems associated with three common methods used for the absolute calibration of remote sensing systems are addressed. Two methods are proposed for the in-flight absolute calibration of advanced multispectral linear array systems. One makes use of a sun-illuminated panel in front of the sensor, the radiance of which is monitored by a spectrally flat pyroelectric radiometer. The other uses a large, uniform, high-radiance reference ground surface. The ground and atmospheric measurements required as input to a radiative transfer program to predict the radiance level at the entrance pupil of the orbital sensor are discussed, and the ground instrumentation is described.

  5. Advancing Absolute Calibration for JWST and Other Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rieke, George; Bohlin, Ralph; Boyajian, Tabetha; Carey, Sean; Casagrande, Luca; Deustua, Susana; Gordon, Karl; Kraemer, Kathleen; Marengo, Massimo; Schlawin, Everett; Su, Kate; Sloan, Greg; Volk, Kevin

    2017-10-01

    We propose to exploit the unique optical stability of the Spitzer telescope, along with that of IRAC, to (1) transfer the accurate absolute calibration obtained with MSX on very bright stars directly to two reference stars within the dynamic range of the JWST imagers (and of other modern instrumentation); (2) establish a second accurate absolute calibration based on the absolutely calibrated spectrum of the sun, transferred onto the astronomical system via alpha Cen A; and (3) provide accurate infrared measurements for the 11 (of 15) highest priority stars with no such data but with accurate interferometrically measured diameters, allowing us to optimize determinations of effective temperatures using the infrared flux method and thus to extend the accurate absolute calibration spectrally. This program is integral to plans for an accurate absolute calibration of JWST and will also provide a valuable Spitzer legacy.

  6. Hubble Space Telescope Observations of M32: The Color-Magnitude Diagram

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grillmair, C. J.; Lauer, T. R.; Worthey, G.; Faber, S. M.; Freedman, W. L.; Madore, B. F.; Ajhar, E. A.; Baum, W. A.; Holtzman, J. A.; Lynds, C. R.; hide

    1996-01-01

    We present a V--I color-magnitude diagram for a region 1'--2' the center of M32 based on Hubble Space Telescope WFPC2 images. The broad color-luminosity distribution of red giants shows that the stellar population comprises stars with a wide range in metallicity.

  7. Developmental Foundations of Children’s Fraction Magnitude Knowledge

    PubMed Central

    Mou, Yi; Li, Yaoran; Hoard, Mary K.; Nugent, Lara D.; Chu, Felicia W.; Rouder, Jeffrey N.; Geary, David C.

    2016-01-01

    The conceptual insight that fractions represent magnitudes is a critical yet daunting step in children’s mathematical development, and the knowledge of fraction magnitudes influences children’s later mathematics learning including algebra. In this study, longitudinal data were analyzed to identify the mathematical knowledge and domain-general competencies that predicted 8th and 9th graders’ (n=122) knowledge of fraction magnitudes and its cross-grade gains. Performance on the fraction magnitude measures predicted 9th grade algebra achievement. Understanding and fluently identifying the numerator-denominator relation in 7th grade emerged as the key predictor of later fraction magnitudes knowledge in both 8th and 9th grades. Competence at using fraction procedures, knowledge of whole number magnitudes, and the central executive contributed to 9th but not 8th graders’ fraction magnitude knowledge, and knowledge of whole number magnitude contributed to cross-grade gains. The key results suggest fluent processing of numerator-denominator relations presages students’ understanding of fractions as magnitudes and that the integration of whole number and fraction magnitudes occurs gradually. PMID:27773965

  8. Magnitude Estimation for Large Earthquakes from Borehole Recordings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eshaghi, A.; Tiampo, K. F.; Ghofrani, H.; Atkinson, G.

    2012-12-01

    We present a simple and fast method for magnitude determination technique for earthquake and tsunami early warning systems based on strong ground motion prediction equations (GMPEs) in Japan. This method incorporates borehole strong motion records provided by the Kiban Kyoshin network (KiK-net) stations. We analyzed strong ground motion data from large magnitude earthquakes (5.0 ≤ M ≤ 8.1) with focal depths < 50 km and epicentral distances of up to 400 km from 1996 to 2010. Using both peak ground acceleration (PGA) and peak ground velocity (PGV) we derived GMPEs in Japan. These GMPEs are used as the basis for regional magnitude determination. Predicted magnitudes from PGA values (Mpga) and predicted magnitudes from PGV values (Mpgv) were defined. Mpga and Mpgv strongly correlate with the moment magnitude of the event, provided sufficient records for each event are available. The results show that Mpgv has a smaller standard deviation in comparison to Mpga when compared with the estimated magnitudes and provides a more accurate early assessment of earthquake magnitude. We test this new method to estimate the magnitude of the 2011 Tohoku earthquake and we present the results of this estimation. PGA and PGV from borehole recordings allow us to estimate the magnitude of this event 156 s and 105 s after the earthquake onset, respectively. We demonstrate that the incorporation of borehole strong ground-motion records immediately available after the occurrence of large earthquakes significantly increases the accuracy of earthquake magnitude estimation and the associated improvement in earthquake and tsunami early warning systems performance. Moment magnitude versus predicted magnitude (Mpga and Mpgv).

  9. A Novel Method for Age Estimation in Solar-Type Stars Through GALEX FUV Magnitudes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ho, Kelly; Subramonian, Arjun; Smith, Graeme; Shouru Shieh

    2018-01-01

    Utilizing an inverse association known to exist between Galaxy Evolution Explorer (GALEX) far ultraviolet (FUV) magnitudes and the chromospheric activity of F, G, and K dwarfs, we explored a method of age estimation in solar-type stars through GALEX FUV magnitudes. Sample solar-type star data were collected from refereed publications and filtered by B-V and absolute visual magnitude to ensure similarities in temperature and luminosity to the Sun. We determined FUV-B and calculated a residual index Q for all the stars, using the temperature-induced upper bound on FUV-B as the fiducial. Plotting current age estimates for the stars against Q, we discovered a strong and significant association between the variables. By applying a log-linear transformation to the data to produce a strong correlation between Q and loge Age, we confirmed the association between Q and age to be exponential. Thus, least-squares regression was used to generate an exponential model relating Q to age in solar-type stars, which can be used by astronomers. The Q-method of stellar age estimation is simple and more efficient than existing spectroscopic methods and has applications to galactic archaeology and stellar chemical composition analysis.

  10. Absolute Bunch Length Measurements at the ALS by Incoherent Synchrotron Radiation Fluctuation Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Filippetto, D.; /Frascati; Sannibale, F.

    2008-01-24

    By analyzing the pulse to pulse intensity fluctuations of the radiation emitted by a charge particle in the incoherent part of the spectrum, it is possible to extract information about the spatial distribution of the beam. At the Advanced Light Source (ALS) of the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, we have developed and tested a simple scheme based on this principle that allows for the absolute measurement of the bunch length. A description of the method and the experimental results are presented.

  11. Effects of magnitude, depth, and time on cellular seismology forecasts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fisher, Steven Wolf

    This study finds that, in most cases analyzed to date, past seismicity tends to delineate zones where future earthquakes are likely to occur. Network seismicity catalogs for the New Madrid Seismic Zone (NMSZ), Australia (AUS), California (CA), and Alaska (AK) are analyzed using modified versions of the Cellular Seismology (CS) method of Kafka (2002, 2007). The percentage of later occurring earthquakes located near earlier occurring earthquakes typically exceeds the expected percentage for randomly distributed later occurring earthquakes, and the specific percentage is influenced by several variables, including magnitude, depth, time, and tectonic setting. At 33% map area coverage, hit percents are typically 85-95% in the NMSZ, 50-60% in AUS, 75-85% in CA, and 75-85% in AK. Statistical significance testing is performed on trials analyzing the same variables so that the overall regions can be compared, although some tests are inconclusive due to the small number of earthquake sample sizes. These results offer useful insights into understanding the capabilities and limits of CS studies, which can provide guidance for improving the seismicity-based components of seismic hazard assessments.

  12. Developmental Dyscalculia in Adults: Beyond Numerical Magnitude Impairment.

    PubMed

    De Visscher, Alice; Noël, Marie-Pascale; Pesenti, Mauro; Dormal, Valérie

    2017-09-01

    Numerous studies have tried to identify the core deficit of developmental dyscalculia (DD), mainly by assessing a possible deficit of the mental representation of numerical magnitude. Research in healthy adults has shown that numerosity, duration, and space share a partly common system of magnitude processing and representation. However, in DD, numerosity processing has until now received much more attention than the processing of other non-numerical magnitudes. To assess whether or not the processing of non-numerical magnitudes is impaired in DD, the performance of 15 adults with DD and 15 control participants was compared in four categorization tasks using numerosities, lengths, durations, and faces (as non-magnitude-based control stimuli). Results showed that adults with DD were impaired in processing numerosity and duration, while their performance in length and face categorization did not differ from controls' performance. Our findings support the idea of a nonsymbolic magnitude deficit in DD, affecting numerosity and duration processing but not length processing.

  13. Magnitude and intensity: Measures of earthquake size and severity

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Spall, Henry

    1982-01-01

    Earthquakes can be measured in terms of either the amount of energy they release (magnitude) or the degree of ground shaking they cause at a particular locality (intensity).  Although magnitude and intensity are basically different measures of an earthquake, they are frequently confused by the public and new reports of earthquakes.  Part of the confusion probably arises from the general similarity of scales used express these quantities.  The various magnitude scales represent logarithmic expressions of the energy released by an earthquake.  Magnitude is calculated from the record made by an earthquake on a calibrated seismograph.  There are no upper or lower limits to magnitude, although no measured earthquakes have exceeded magnitude 8.9.

  14. A highly accurate absolute gravimetric network for Albania, Kosovo and Montenegro

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ullrich, Christian; Ruess, Diethard; Butta, Hubert; Qirko, Kristaq; Pavicevic, Bozidar; Murat, Meha

    2016-04-01

    The objective of this project is to establish a basic gravity network in Albania, Kosovo and Montenegro to enable further investigations in geodetic and geophysical issues. Therefore the first time in history absolute gravity measurements were performed in these countries. The Norwegian mapping authority Kartverket is assisting the national mapping authorities in Kosovo (KCA) (Kosovo Cadastral Agency - Agjencia Kadastrale e Kosovës), Albania (ASIG) (Autoriteti Shtetëror i Informacionit Gjeohapësinor) and in Montenegro (REA) (Real Estate Administration of Montenegro - Uprava za nekretnine Crne Gore) in improving the geodetic frameworks. The gravity measurements are funded by Kartverket. The absolute gravimetric measurements were performed from BEV (Federal Office of Metrology and Surveying) with the absolute gravimeter FG5-242. As a national metrology institute (NMI) the Metrology Service of the BEV maintains the national standards for the realisation of the legal units of measurement and ensures their international equivalence and recognition. Laser and clock of the absolute gravimeter were calibrated before and after the measurements. The absolute gravimetric survey was carried out from September to October 2015. Finally all 8 scheduled stations were successfully measured: there are three stations located in Montenegro, two stations in Kosovo and three stations in Albania. The stations are distributed over the countries to establish a gravity network for each country. The vertical gradients were measured at all 8 stations with the relative gravimeter Scintrex CG5. The high class quality of some absolute gravity stations can be used for gravity monitoring activities in future. The measurement uncertainties of the absolute gravity measurements range around 2.5 micro Gal at all stations (1 microgal = 10-8 m/s2). In Montenegro the large gravity difference of 200 MilliGal between station Zabljak and Podgorica can be even used for calibration of relative gravimeters

  15. Fourier transform magnitudes are unique pattern recognition templates.

    PubMed

    Gardenier, P H; McCallum, B C; Bates, R H

    1986-01-01

    Fourier transform magnitudes are commonly used in the generation of templates in pattern recognition applications. We report on recent advances in Fourier phase retrieval which are relevant to pattern recognition. We emphasise in particular that the intrinsic form of a finite, positive image is, in general, uniquely related to the magnitude of its Fourier transform. We state conditions under which the Fourier phase can be reconstructed from samples of the Fourier magnitude, and describe a method of achieving this. Computational examples of restoration of Fourier phase (and hence, by Fourier transformation, the intrinsic form of the image) from samples of the Fourier magnitude are also presented.

  16. Intensity, magnitude, location and attenuation in India for felt earthquakes since 1762

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Szeliga, Walter; Hough, Susan; Martin, Stacey; Bilham, Roger

    2010-01-01

    A comprehensive, consistently interpreted new catalog of felt intensities for India (Martin and Szeliga, 2010, this issue) includes intensities for 570 earthquakes; instrumental magnitudes and locations are available for 100 of these events. We use the intensity values for 29 of the instrumentally recorded events to develop new intensity versus attenuation relations for the Indian subcontinent and the Himalayan region. We then use these relations to determine the locations and magnitudes of 234 historical events, using the method of Bakun and Wentworth (1997). For the remaining 336 events, intensity distributions are too sparse to determine magnitude or location. We evaluate magnitude and location accuracy of newly located events by comparing the instrumental- with the intensity-derived location for 29 calibration events, for which more than 15 intensity observations are available. With few exceptions, most intensity-derived locations lie within a fault length of the instrumentally determined location. For events in which the azimuthal distribution of intensities is limited, we conclude that the formal error bounds from the regression of Bakun and Wentworth (1997) do not reflect the true uncertainties. We also find that the regression underestimates the uncertainties of the location and magnitude of the 1819 Allah Bund earthquake, for which a location has been inferred from mapped surface deformation. Comparing our inferred attenuation relations to those developed for other regions, we find that attenuation for Himalayan events is comparable to intensity attenuation in California (Bakun and Wentworth, 1997), while intensity attenuation for cratonic events is higher than intensity attenuation reported for central/eastern North America (Bakun et al., 2003). Further, we present evidence that intensities of intraplate earthquakes have a nonlinear dependence on magnitude such that attenuation relations based largely on small-to-moderate earthquakes may significantly

  17. Intensity, magnitude, location, and attenuation in India for felt earthquakes since 1762

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Szeliga, W.; Hough, S.; Martin, S.; Bilham, R.

    2010-01-01

    A comprehensive, consistently interpreted new catalog of felt intensities for India (Martin and Szeliga, 2010, this issue) includes intensities for 570 earth-quakes; instrumental magnitudes and locations are available for 100 of these events. We use the intensity values for 29 of the instrumentally recorded events to develop new intensity versus attenuation relations for the Indian subcontinent and the Himalayan region. We then use these relations to determine the locations and magnitudes of 234 historical events, using the method of Bakun and Wentworth (1997). For the remaining 336 events, intensity distributions are too sparse to determine magnitude or location. We evaluate magnitude and location accuracy of newly located events by comparing the instrumental-with the intensity-derived location for 29 calibration events, for which more than 15 intensity observations are available. With few exceptions, most intensity-derived locations lie within a fault length of the instrumentally determined location. For events in which the azimuthal distribution of intensities is limited, we conclude that the formal error bounds from the regression of Bakun and Wentworth (1997) do not reflect the true uncertainties. We also find that the regression underestimates the uncertainties of the location and magnitude of the 1819 Allah Bund earthquake, for which a location has been inferred from mapped surface deformation. Comparing our inferred attenuation relations to those developed for other regions, we find that attenuation for Himalayan events is comparable to intensity attenuation in California (Bakun and Wentworth, 1997), while intensity attenuation for cratonic events is higher than intensity attenuation reported for central/eastern North America (Bakun et al., 2003). Further, we present evidence that intensities of intraplate earth-quakes have a nonlinear dependence on magnitude such that attenuation relations based largely on small-to-moderate earthquakes may significantly

  18. Absolute cross-sections for DNA strand breaks and crosslinks induced by low energy electrons

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Wenzhuang; Chen, Shiliang; Dong, Yanfang; Cloutier, Pierre; Sanche, Léon

    2016-01-01

    Absolute cross sections (CSs) for the interaction of low energy electrons with condensed macromolecules are essential parameters to accurately model ionizing radiation induced reactions. To determine CSs for various conformational DNA damage induced by 2–20 eV electrons, we investigated the influence of the attenuation length (AL) and penetration factor (f) using a mathematical model. Solid films of super-coiled plasmid DNA with thicknesses of 10, 15 and 20 nm were irradiated with 4.6, 5.6, 9.6 and 14.6 eV electrons. DNA conformational changes were quantified by gel electrophoresis, and the respective yields were extrapolated from exposure–response curves. The absolute CS, AL and f values were generated by applying the model developed by Rezaee et al. The values of AL were found to lie between 11 and 16 nm with the maximum at 14.6 eV. The absolute CSs for the loss of the supercoiled (LS) configuration and production of crosslinks (CL), single strand breaks (SSB) and double strand breaks (DSB) induced by 4.6, 5.6, 9.6 and 14.6 eV electrons are obtained. The CSs for SSB are smaller, but similar to those for LS, indicating that SSB are the main conformational damage. The CSs for DSB and CL are about one order of magnitude smaller than those of LS and SSB. The value of f is found to be independent of electron energy, which allows extending the absolute CSs for these types of damage within the range 2–20 eV, from previous measurements of effective CSs. When comparison is possible, the absolute CSs are found to be in good agreement with those obtained from previous similar studies with double-stranded DNA. The high values of the absolute CSs of 4.6 and 9.6 eV provide quantitative evidence for the high efficiency of low energy electrons to induce DNA damage via the formation of transient anions. PMID:27878170

  19. Absolute cross-sections for DNA strand breaks and crosslinks induced by low energy electrons.

    PubMed

    Chen, Wenzhuang; Chen, Shiliang; Dong, Yanfang; Cloutier, Pierre; Zheng, Yi; Sanche, Léon

    2016-12-07

    Absolute cross sections (CSs) for the interaction of low energy electrons with condensed macromolecules are essential parameters to accurately model ionizing radiation induced reactions. To determine CSs for various conformational DNA damage induced by 2-20 eV electrons, we investigated the influence of the attenuation length (AL) and penetration factor (f) using a mathematical model. Solid films of supercoiled plasmid DNA with thicknesses of 10, 15 and 20 nm were irradiated with 4.6, 5.6, 9.6 and 14.6 eV electrons. DNA conformational changes were quantified by gel electrophoresis, and the respective yields were extrapolated from exposure-response curves. The absolute CS, AL and f values were generated by applying the model developed by Rezaee et al. The values of AL were found to lie between 11 and 16 nm with the maximum at 14.6 eV. The absolute CSs for the loss of the supercoiled (LS) configuration and production of crosslinks (CL), single strand breaks (SSB) and double strand breaks (DSB) induced by 4.6, 5.6, 9.6 and 14.6 eV electrons are obtained. The CSs for SSB are smaller, but similar to those for LS, indicating that SSB are the main conformational damage. The CSs for DSB and CL are about one order of magnitude smaller than those of LS and SSB. The value of f is found to be independent of electron energy, which allows extending the absolute CSs for these types of damage within the range 2-20 eV, from previous measurements of effective CSs. When comparison is possible, the absolute CSs are found to be in good agreement with those obtained from previous similar studies with double-stranded DNA. The high values of the absolute CSs of 4.6 and 9.6 eV provide quantitative evidence for the high efficiency of low energy electrons to induce DNA damage via the formation of transient anions.

  20. Absolute quantum yield measurement of powder samples.

    PubMed

    Moreno, Luis A

    2012-05-12

    quantum yield calculation. 5. Corrected quantum yield calculation. 6. Chromaticity coordinates calculation using Report Generator program. The Hitachi F-7000 Quantum Yield Measurement System offer advantages for this application, as follows: High sensitivity (S/N ratio 800 or better RMS). Signal is the Raman band of water measured under the following conditions: Ex wavelength 350 nm, band pass Ex and Em 5 nm, response 2 sec), noise is measured at the maximum of the Raman peak. High sensitivity allows measurement of samples even with low quantum yield. Using this system we have measured quantum yields as low as 0.1 for a sample of salicylic acid and as high as 0.8 for a sample of magnesium tungstate. Highly accurate measurement with a dynamic range of 6 orders of magnitude allows for measurements of both sharp scattering peaks with high intensity, as well as broad fluorescence peaks of low intensity under the same conditions. High measuring throughput and reduced light exposure to the sample, due to a high scanning speed of up to 60,000 nm/minute and automatic shutter function. Measurement of quantum yield over a wide wavelength range from 240 to 800 nm. Accurate quantum yield measurements are the result of collecting instrument spectral response and integrating sphere correction factors before measuring the sample. Large selection of calculated parameters provided by dedicated and easy to use software. During this video we will measure sodium salicylate in powder form which is known to have a quantum yield value of 0.4 to 0.5.

  1. Rapid, Vehicle-Based Identification of Location and Magnitude of Urban Natural Gas Pipeline Leaks.

    PubMed

    von Fischer, Joseph C; Cooley, Daniel; Chamberlain, Sam; Gaylord, Adam; Griebenow, Claire J; Hamburg, Steven P; Salo, Jessica; Schumacher, Russ; Theobald, David; Ham, Jay

    2017-04-04

    Information about the location and magnitudes of natural gas (NG) leaks from urban distribution pipelines is important for minimizing greenhouse gas emissions and optimizing investment in pipeline management. To enable rapid collection of such data, we developed a relatively simple method using high-precision methane analyzers in Google Street View cars. Our data indicate that this automated leak survey system can document patterns in leak location and magnitude within and among cities, even without wind data. We found that urban areas with prevalent corrosion-prone distribution lines (Boston, MA, Staten Island, NY, and Syracuse, NY), leaked approximately 25-fold more methane than cities with more modern pipeline materials (Burlington, VT, and Indianapolis, IN). Although this mobile monitoring method produces conservative estimates of leak rates and leak counts, it can still help prioritize both leak repairs and replacement of leak-prone sections of distribution lines, thus minimizing methane emissions over short and long terms.

  2. Preliminary Magnitude of Completeness Quantification of Improved BMKG Catalog (2008-2016) in Indonesian Region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Diantari, H. C.; Suryanto, W.; Anggraini, A.; Irnaka, T. M.; Susilanto, P.; Ngadmanto, D.

    2018-03-01

    We present a magnitude of completeness (Mc) quantification based on BMKG improved earthquake catalog which generated from Ina-TEWS seismograph network. The Mc quantification can help us determine the lowest magnitude which can be recorded perfectly as a function of space and time. We use the BMKG improved earthquake catalog from 2008 to 2016 which has been converted to moment magnitude (Mw) and declustered. The value of Mc is computed by determining the initial point of deviation patterns in Frequency Magnitude Distribution (FMD) chart following the Gutenberg-Richter equations. In the next step, we calculate the temporal variation of Mc and b-value using maximum likelihood method annually. We found that the Mc value is decreasing and produced a varying b-value. It indicates that the development of seismograph network from 2008 to 2016 can affect the value of Mc although it is not significant. We analyze temporal variation of Mc value, and correlate it with the spatial distribution of seismograph in Indonesia. The spatial distribution of seismograph installation shows that the western part of Indonesia has more dense seismograph compared to the eastern region. However, the eastern part of Indonesia has a high level of seismicity compared to the western region. Based upon the results, additional seismograph installation in the eastern part of Indonesia should be taken into consideration.

  3. Scaling relation between earthquake magnitude and the departure time from P wave similar growth

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Noda, Shunta; Ellsworth, William L.

    2016-01-01

    We introduce a new scaling relation between earthquake magnitude (M) and a characteristic of initial P wave displacement. By examining Japanese K-NET data averaged in bins partitioned by Mw and hypocentral distance, we demonstrate that the P wave displacement briefly displays similar growth at the onset of rupture and that the departure time (Tdp), which is defined as the time of departure from similarity of the absolute displacement after applying a band-pass filter, correlates with the final M in a range of 4.5 ≤ Mw ≤ 7. The scaling relation between Mw and Tdp implies that useful information on the final M can be derived while the event is still in progress because Tdp occurs before the completion of rupture. We conclude that the scaling relation is important not only for earthquake early warning but also for the source physics of earthquakes.

  4. Magnitude Knowledge: The Common Core of Numerical Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Siegler, Robert S.

    2016-01-01

    The integrated theory of numerical development posits that a central theme of numerical development from infancy to adulthood is progressive broadening of the types and ranges of numbers whose magnitudes are accurately represented. The process includes four overlapping trends: (1) representing increasingly precisely the magnitudes of non-symbolic…

  5. Magnitude Knowledge: The Common Core of Numerical Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Siegler, Robert S.

    2016-01-01

    The integrated theory of numerical development posits that a central theme of numerical development from infancy to adulthood is progressive broadening of the types and ranges of numbers whose magnitudes are accurately represented. The process includes four overlapping trends: 1) representing increasingly precisely the magnitudes of non-symbolic…

  6. Reinforcement Magnitude: An Evaluation of Preference and Reinforcer Efficacy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trosclair-Lasserre, Nicole M.; Lerman, Dorothea C.; Call, Nathan A.; Addison, Laura R.; Kodak, Tiffany

    2008-01-01

    Consideration of reinforcer magnitude may be important for maximizing the efficacy of treatment for problem behavior. Nonetheless, relatively little is known about children's preferences for different magnitudes of social reinforcement or the extent to which preference is related to differences in reinforcer efficacy. The purpose of the current…

  7. The Weight of Time: Affordances for an Integrated Magnitude System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lu, Aitao; Mo, Lei; Hodges, Bert H.

    2011-01-01

    In five experiments we explored the effects of weight on time in different action contexts to test the hypothesis that an integrated magnitude system is tuned to affordances. Larger magnitudes generally seem longer; however, Lu and colleagues (2009) found that if numbers were presented as weights in a range heavy enough to affect lifting, the…

  8. Linear Numerical-Magnitude Representations Aid Children's Memory for Numbers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thompson, Clarissa A.; Siegler, Robert S.

    2010-01-01

    We investigated the relation between children's numerical-magnitude representations and their memory for numbers. Results of three experiments indicated that the more linear children's magnitude representations were, the more closely their memory of the numbers approximated the numbers presented. This relation was present for preschoolers and…

  9. Using Magnitude Estimation Scaling in Business Communication Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sturges, David L.

    1990-01-01

    Critically analyzes magnitude estimation scaling for its potential use in business communication research. Finds that the 12-15 percent increase in explained variance by magnitude estimation over categorical scaling methods may be useful in theory building but may not be sufficient to justify its added expense in applied business communication…

  10. The Effects of Reinforcer Magnitude on Timing in Rats

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ludvig, Elliot A.; Conover, Kent; Shizgal, Peter

    2007-01-01

    The relation between reinforcer magnitude and timing behavior was studied using a peak procedure. Four rats received multiple consecutive sessions with both low and high levels of brain stimulation reward (BSR). Rats paused longer and had later start times during sessions when their responses were reinforced with low-magnitude BSR. When estimated…

  11. Number Games, Magnitude Representation, and Basic Number Skills in Preschoolers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whyte, Jemma Catherine; Bull, Rebecca

    2008-01-01

    The effect of 3 intervention board games (linear number, linear color, and nonlinear number) on young children's (mean age = 3.8 years) counting abilities, number naming, magnitude comprehension, accuracy in number-to-position estimation tasks, and best-fit numerical magnitude representations was examined. Pre- and posttest performance was…

  12. Rapid Earthquake Magnitude Estimation for Early Warning Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goldberg, Dara; Bock, Yehuda; Melgar, Diego

    2017-04-01

    Earthquake magnitude is a concise metric that provides invaluable information about the destructive potential of a seismic event. Rapid estimation of magnitude for earthquake and tsunami early warning purposes requires reliance on near-field instrumentation. For large magnitude events, ground motions can exceed the dynamic range of near-field broadband seismic instrumentation (clipping). Strong motion accelerometers are designed with low gains to better capture strong shaking. Estimating earthquake magnitude rapidly from near-source strong-motion data requires integration of acceleration waveforms to displacement. However, integration amplifies small errors, creating unphysical drift that must be eliminated with a high pass filter. The loss of the long period information due to filtering is an impediment to magnitude estimation in real-time; the relation between ground motion measured with strong-motion instrumentation and magnitude saturates, leading to underestimation of earthquake magnitude. Using station displacements from Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) observations, we can supplement the high frequency information recorded by traditional seismic systems with long-period observations to better inform rapid response. Unlike seismic-only instrumentation, ground motions measured with GNSS scale with magnitude without saturation [Crowell et al., 2013; Melgar et al., 2015]. We refine the current magnitude scaling relations using peak ground displacement (PGD) by adding a large GNSS dataset of earthquakes in Japan. Because it does not suffer from saturation, GNSS alone has significant advantages over seismic-only instrumentation for rapid magnitude estimation of large events. The earthquake's magnitude can be estimated within 2-3 minutes of earthquake onset time [Melgar et al., 2013]. We demonstrate that seismogeodesy, the optimal combination of GNSS and seismic data at collocated stations, provides the added benefit of improving the sensitivity of

  13. Reinforcement Magnitude: An Evaluation of Preference and Reinforcer Efficacy

    PubMed Central

    Trosclair-Lasserre, Nicole M; Lerman, Dorothea C; Call, Nathan A; Addison, Laura R; Kodak, Tiffany

    2008-01-01

    Consideration of reinforcer magnitude may be important for maximizing the efficacy of treatment for problem behavior. Nonetheless, relatively little is known about children's preferences for different magnitudes of social reinforcement or the extent to which preference is related to differences in reinforcer efficacy. The purpose of the current study was to evaluate the relations among reinforcer magnitude, preference, and efficacy by drawing on the procedures and results of basic experimentation in this area. Three children who engaged in problem behavior that was maintained by social positive reinforcement (attention, access to tangible items) participated. Results indicated that preference for different magnitudes of social reinforcement may predict reinforcer efficacy and that magnitude effects may be mediated by the schedule requirement. PMID:18595284

  14. Reinforcement magnitude: an evaluation of preference and reinforcer efficacy.

    PubMed

    Trosclair-Lasserre, Nicole M; Lerman, Dorothea C; Call, Nathan A; Addison, Laura R; Kodak, Tiffany

    2008-01-01

    Consideration of reinforcer magnitude may be important for maximizing the efficacy of treatment for problem behavior. Nonetheless, relatively little is known about children's preferences for different magnitudes of social reinforcement or the extent to which preference is related to differences in reinforcer efficacy. The purpose of the current study was to evaluate the relations among reinforcer magnitude, preference, and efficacy by drawing on the procedures and results of basic experimentation in this area. Three children who engaged in problem behavior that was maintained by social positive reinforcement (attention, access to tangible items) participated. Results indicated that preference for different magnitudes of social reinforcement may predict reinforcer efficacy and that magnitude effects may be mediated by the schedule requirement.

  15. Absolute calibration of sniffer probes on Wendelstein 7-X

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moseev, D.; Laqua, H. P.; Marsen, S.; Stange, T.; Braune, H.; Erckmann, V.; Gellert, F.; Oosterbeek, J. W.

    2016-08-01

    Here we report the first measurements of the power levels of stray radiation in the vacuum vessel of Wendelstein 7-X using absolutely calibrated sniffer probes. The absolute calibration is achieved by using calibrated sources of stray radiation and the implicit measurement of the quality factor of the Wendelstein 7-X empty vacuum vessel. Normalized absolute calibration coefficients agree with the cross-calibration coefficients that are obtained by the direct measurements, indicating that the measured absolute calibration coefficients and stray radiation levels in the vessel are valid. Close to the launcher, the stray radiation in the empty vessel reaches power levels up to 340 kW/m2 per MW injected beam power. Furthest away from the launcher, i.e., half a toroidal turn, still 90 kW/m2 per MW injected beam power is measured.

  16. Absolute calibration of sniffer probes on Wendelstein 7-X.

    PubMed

    Moseev, D; Laqua, H P; Marsen, S; Stange, T; Braune, H; Erckmann, V; Gellert, F; Oosterbeek, J W

    2016-08-01

    Here we report the first measurements of the power levels of stray radiation in the vacuum vessel of Wendelstein 7-X using absolutely calibrated sniffer probes. The absolute calibration is achieved by using calibrated sources of stray radiation and the implicit measurement of the quality factor of the Wendelstein 7-X empty vacuum vessel. Normalized absolute calibration coefficients agree with the cross-calibration coefficients that are obtained by the direct measurements, indicating that the measured absolute calibration coefficients and stray radiation levels in the vessel are valid. Close to the launcher, the stray radiation in the empty vessel reaches power levels up to 340 kW/m(2) per MW injected beam power. Furthest away from the launcher, i.e., half a toroidal turn, still 90 kW/m(2) per MW injected beam power is measured.

  17. Absolute Value Boundedness, Operator Decomposition, and Stochastic Media and Equations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Adomian, G.; Miao, C. C.

    1973-01-01

    The research accomplished during this period is reported. Published abstracts and technical reports are listed. Articles presented include: boundedness of absolute values of generalized Fourier coefficients, propagation in stochastic media, and stationary conditions for stochastic differential equations.

  18. Probative value of absolute and relative judgments in eyewitness identification.

    PubMed

    Clark, Steven E; Erickson, Michael A; Breneman, Jesse

    2011-10-01

    It is well-accepted that eyewitness identification decisions based on relative judgments are less accurate than identification decisions based on absolute judgments. However, the theoretical foundation for this view has not been established. In this study relative and absolute judgments were compared through simulations of the WITNESS model (Clark, Appl Cogn Psychol 17:629-654, 2003) to address the question: Do suspect identifications based on absolute judgments have higher probative value than suspect identifications based on relative judgments? Simulations of the WITNESS model showed a consistent advantage for absolute judgments over relative judgments for suspect-matched lineups. However, simulations of same-foils lineups showed a complex interaction based on the accuracy of memory and the similarity relationships among lineup members.

  19. Temporal Dynamics of Microbial Rhodopsin Fluorescence Reports Absolute Membrane Voltage

    PubMed Central

    Hou, Jennifer H.; Venkatachalam, Veena; Cohen, Adam E.

    2014-01-01

    Plasma membrane voltage is a fundamentally important property of a living cell; its value is tightly coupled to membrane transport, the dynamics of transmembrane proteins, and to intercellular communication. Accurate measurement of the membrane voltage could elucidate subtle changes in cellular physiology, but existing genetically encoded fluorescent voltage reporters are better at reporting relative changes than absolute numbers. We developed an Archaerhodopsin-based fluorescent voltage sensor whose time-domain response to a stepwise change in illumination encodes the absolute membrane voltage. We validated this sensor in human embryonic kidney cells. Measurements were robust to variation in imaging parameters and in gene expression levels, and reported voltage with an absolute accuracy of 10 mV. With further improvements in membrane trafficking and signal amplitude, time-domain encoding of absolute voltage could be applied to investigate many important and previously intractable bioelectric phenomena. PMID:24507604

  20. Preparation of an oakmoss absolute with reduced allergenic potential.

    PubMed

    Ehret, C; Maupetit, P; Petrzilka, M; Klecak, G

    1992-06-01

    Synopsis Oakmoss absolute, an extract of the lichen Evernia prunastri, is known to cause allergenic skin reactions due to the presence of certain aromatic aldehydes such as atranorin, chloratranorin, ethyl hematommate and ethyl chlorohematommate. In this paper it is shown that treatment of Oakmoss absolute with amino acids such as lysine and/or leucine, lowers considerably the content of these allergenic constituents including atranol and chloratranol. The resulting Oakmoss absolute, which exhibits an excellent olfactive quality, was tested extensively in comparative studies on guinea pigs and on man. The results of the Guinea Pig Maximization Test (GPMT) and Human Repeated Insult Patch Test (HRIPT) indicate that, in comparison with the commercial test sample, the allergenicity of this new quality of Oakmoss absolute was considerably reduced, and consequently better skin tolerance of this fragrance for man was achieved.

  1. Reliable absolute analog code retrieval approach for 3D measurement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Shuang; Zhang, Jing; Yu, Xiaoyang; Sun, Xiaoming; Wu, Haibin; Chen, Deyun

    2017-11-01

    The wrapped phase of phase-shifting approach can be unwrapped by using Gray code, but both the wrapped phase error and Gray code decoding error can result in period jump error, which will lead to gross measurement error. Therefore, this paper presents a reliable absolute analog code retrieval approach. The combination of unequal-period Gray code and phase shifting patterns at high frequencies are used to obtain high-frequency absolute analog code, and at low frequencies, the same unequal-period combination patterns are used to obtain the low-frequency absolute analog code. Next, the difference between the two absolute analog codes was employed to eliminate period jump errors, and a reliable unwrapped result can be obtained. Error analysis was used to determine the applicable conditions, and this approach was verified through theoretical analysis. The proposed approach was further verified experimentally. Theoretical analysis and experimental results demonstrate that the proposed approach can perform reliable analog code unwrapping.

  2. Absolute branching fraction measurements of exclusive D0 semileptonic decays.

    PubMed

    Coan, T E; Gao, Y S; Liu, F; Artuso, M; Boulahouache, C; Blusk, S; Butt, J; Dambasuren, E; Dorjkhaidav, O; Li, J; Menaa, N; Mountain, R; Nandakumar, R; Redjimi, R; Sia, R; Skwarnicki, T; Stone, S; Wang, J C; Zhang, K; Csorna, S E; Bonvicini, G; Cinabro, D; Dubrovin, M; Briere, R A; Chen, G P; Chen, J; Ferguson, T; Tatishvili, G; Vogel, H; Watkins, M E; Rosner, J L; Adam, N E; Alexander, J P; Berkelman, K; Cassel, D G; Crede, V; Duboscq, J E; Ecklund, K M; Ehrlich, R; Fields, L; Gibbons, L; Gittelman, B; Gray, R; Gray, S W; Hartill, D L; Heltsley, B K; Hertz, D; Hsu, L; Jones, C D; Kandaswamy, J; Kreinick, D L; Kuznetsov, V E; Mahlke-Krüger, H; Meyer, T O; Onyisi, P U E; Patterson, J R; Peterson, D; Pivarski, J; Phillips, E A; Riley, D; Ryd, A; Sadoff, A J; Schwarthoff, H; Shepherd, M R; Stroiney, S; Sun, W M; Urner, D; Wilksen, T; Weinberger, M; Athar, S B; Avery, P; Breva-Newell, L; Patel, R; Potlia, V; Stoeck, H; Yelton, J; Rubin, P; Cawlfield, C; Eisenstein, B I; Gollin, G D; Karliner, I; Kim, D; Lowrey, N; Naik, P; Sedlack, C; Selen, M; Williams, J; Wiss, J; Edwards, K W; Besson, D; Pedlar, T K; Cronin-Hennessy, D; Gao, K Y; Gong, D T; Kubota, Y; Klein, T; Lang, B W; Li, S Z; Poling, R; Scott, A W; Smith, A; Dobbs, S; Metreveli, Z; Seth, K K; Tomaradze, A; Zweber, P; Ernst, J; Mahmood, A H; Severini, H; Asner, D M; Dytman, S A; Love, W; Mehrabyan, S; Mueller, J A; Savinov, V; Li, Z; Lopez, A; Mendez, H; Ramirez, J; Huang, G S; Miller, D H; Pavlunin, V; Sanghi, B; Shibata, E I; Shipsey, I P J; Adams, G S; Chasse, M; Cravey, M; Cummings, J P; Danko, I; Napolitano, J; He, Q; Muramatsu, H; Park, C S; Park, W; Thorndike, E H

    2005-10-28

    With the first data sample collected by the CLEO-c detector at the psi(3770) resonance we have studied four exclusive semileptonic decays of the D0 meson. Our results include the first observation and absolute branching fraction measurement for D0 --> p-e+ve and improved measurements of the absolute branching fractions for D0 decays to K-e+ve, pi-e+ve, and K*-e+ve.

  3. Computationally Aided Absolute Stereochemical Determination of Enantioenriched Amines.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jun; Gholami, Hadi; Ding, Xinliang; Chun, Minji; Vasileiou, Chrysoula; Nehira, Tatsuo; Borhan, Babak

    2017-03-17

    A simple and efficient protocol for sensing the absolute stereochemistry and enantiomeric excess of chiral monoamines is reported. Preparation of the sample requires a single-step reaction of the 1,1'-(bromomethylene)dinaphthalene (BDN) with the chiral amine. Analysis of the exciton coupled circular dichroism generated from the BDN-derivatized chiral amine sample, along with comparison to conformational analysis performed computationally, yields the absolute stereochemistry of the parent chiral monoamine.

  4. Absolute and Convective Instability of a Liquid Jet in Microgravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lin, Sung P.; Vihinen, I.; Honohan, A.; Hudman, Michael D.

    1996-01-01

    The transition from convective to absolute instability is observed in the 2.2 second drop tower of the NASA Lewis Research Center. In convective instability the disturbance grows spatially as it is convected downstream. In absolute instability the disturbance propagates both downstream and upstream, and manifests itself as an expanding sphere. The transition Reynolds numbers are determined for two different Weber numbers by use of Glycerin and a Silicone oil. Preliminary comparisons with theory are made.

  5. Structure elucidation and absolute stereochemistry of isomeric monoterpene chromane esters.

    PubMed

    Batista, João M; Batista, Andrea N L; Mota, Jonas S; Cass, Quezia B; Kato, Massuo J; Bolzani, Vanderlan S; Freedman, Teresa B; López, Silvia N; Furlan, Maysa; Nafie, Laurence A

    2011-04-15

    Six novel monoterpene chromane esters were isolated from the aerial parts of Peperomia obtusifolia (Piperaceae) using chiral chromatography. This is the first time that chiral chromane esters of this kind, ones with a tethered chiral terpene, have been isolated in nature. Due to their structural features, it is not currently possible to assess directly their absolute stereochemistry using any of the standard classical approaches, such as X-ray crystallography, NMR, optical rotation, or electronic circular dichroism (ECD). Herein we report the absolute configuration of these molecules, involving four chiral centers, using vibrational circular dichroism (VCD) and density functional theory (DFT) (B3LYP/6-31G*) calculations. This work further reinforces the capability of VCD to determine unambiguously the absolute configuration of structurally complex molecules in solution, without crystallization or derivatization, and demonstrates the sensitivity of VCD to specify the absolute configuration for just one among a number of chiral centers. We also demonstrate the sufficiency of using the so-called inexpensive basis set 6-31G* compared to the triple-ζ basis set TZVP for absolute configuration analysis of larger molecules using VCD. Overall, this work extends our knowledge of secondary metabolites in plants and provides a straightforward way to determine the absolute configuration of complex natural products involving a chiral parent moiety combined with a chiral terpene adduct.

  6. Absolute Soft X-ray Emission Measurements at the Nike Laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weaver, J.; Atkin, R.; Boyer, C.; Colombant, D.; Feldman, U.; Fielding, D.; Gardner, J.; Holland, G.; Klapisch, M.; Mostovych, A. N.; Obenscain, S.; Seely, J. F.

    2002-11-01

    Recent experiments at the Nike laser facility have demonstrated that, when a low intensity prepulse ( 2main laser intensity) is used to heat a thin Au or Pd coating on a planar CH target, the growth of non-uniformities due to laser imprint can be reduced from the growth observed for an uncoated CH target. The absolute radiation intensity in the soft x-ray region (0.1-1 keV) has a important role in the energy balance for layered targets. There is an ongoing effort to characterize the soft x-ray emission using an absolutely calibrated transmission grating spectrometer and filtered diode modules. Measurements of the angular distribution of the emission from unlayered solid targets (Au, Pd, CH) have recently been made using an array of moveable filtered diode modules. The data from the angular distribution studies will be presented. A new absolutely calibrated, time-resolving transmission grating spectrometer has been installed at the Nike. The new version has improved spectral resolution, selectable transmission filters, and the potential for simultaneous temporal, spatial, and spectral resolution. Preliminary data from the new spectrometer will be presented and future experiments will be briefly discussed. *Work was supported by DoE

  7. Adolescents with Developmental Dyscalculia Do Not Have a Generalized Magnitude Deficit - Processing of Discrete and Continuous Magnitudes.

    PubMed

    McCaskey, Ursina; von Aster, Michael; O'Gorman Tuura, Ruth; Kucian, Karin

    2017-01-01

    The link between number and space has been discussed in the literature for some time, resulting in the theory that number, space and time might be part of a generalized magnitude system. To date, several behavioral and neuroimaging findings support the notion of a generalized magnitude system, although contradictory results showing a partial overlap or separate magnitude systems are also found. The possible existence of a generalized magnitude processing area leads to the question how individuals with developmental dyscalculia (DD), known for deficits in numerical-arithmetical abilities, process magnitudes. By means of neuropsychological tests and functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) we aimed to examine the relationship between number and space in typical and atypical development. Participants were 16 adolescents with DD (14.1 years) and 14 typically developing (TD) peers (13.8 years). In the fMRI paradigm participants had to perform discrete (arrays of dots) and continuous magnitude (angles) comparisons as well as a mental rotation task. In the neuropsychological tests, adolescents with dyscalculia performed significantly worse in numerical and complex visuo-spatial tasks. However, they showed similar results to TD peers when making discrete and continuous magnitude decisions during the neuropsychological tests and the fMRI paradigm. A conjunction analysis of the fMRI data revealed commonly activated higher order visual (inferior and middle occipital gyrus) and parietal (inferior and superior parietal lobe) magnitude areas for the discrete and continuous magnitude tasks. Moreover, no differences were found when contrasting both magnitude processing conditions, favoring the possibility of a generalized magnitude system. Group comparisons further revealed that dyscalculic subjects showed increased activation in domain general regions, whilst TD peers activate domain specific areas to a greater extent. In conclusion, our results point to the existence of a

  8. Adolescents with Developmental Dyscalculia Do Not Have a Generalized Magnitude Deficit – Processing of Discrete and Continuous Magnitudes

    PubMed Central

    McCaskey, Ursina; von Aster, Michael; O’Gorman Tuura, Ruth; Kucian, Karin

    2017-01-01

    The link between number and space has been discussed in the literature for some time, resulting in the theory that number, space and time might be part of a generalized magnitude system. To date, several behavioral and neuroimaging findings support the notion of a generalized magnitude system, although contradictory results showing a partial overlap or separate magnitude systems are also found. The possible existence of a generalized magnitude processing area leads to the question how individuals with developmental dyscalculia (DD), known for deficits in numerical-arithmetical abilities, process magnitudes. By means of neuropsychological tests and functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) we aimed to examine the relationship between number and space in typical and atypical development. Participants were 16 adolescents with DD (14.1 years) and 14 typically developing (TD) peers (13.8 years). In the fMRI paradigm participants had to perform discrete (arrays of dots) and continuous magnitude (angles) comparisons as well as a mental rotation task. In the neuropsychological tests, adolescents with dyscalculia performed significantly worse in numerical and complex visuo-spatial tasks. However, they showed similar results to TD peers when making discrete and continuous magnitude decisions during the neuropsychological tests and the fMRI paradigm. A conjunction analysis of the fMRI data revealed commonly activated higher order visual (inferior and middle occipital gyrus) and parietal (inferior and superior parietal lobe) magnitude areas for the discrete and continuous magnitude tasks. Moreover, no differences were found when contrasting both magnitude processing conditions, favoring the possibility of a generalized magnitude system. Group comparisons further revealed that dyscalculic subjects showed increased activation in domain general regions, whilst TD peers activate domain specific areas to a greater extent. In conclusion, our results point to the existence of a

  9. Conversion of Local and Surface-Wave Magnitudes to Moment Magnitude for Earthquakes in the Chinese Mainland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, X.; Gao, M.

    2017-12-01

    The magnitude of an earthquake is one of its basic parameters and is a measure of its scale. It plays a significant role in seismology and earthquake engineering research, particularly in the calculations of the seismic rate and b value in earthquake prediction and seismic hazard analysis. However, several current types of magnitudes used in seismology research, such as local magnitude (ML), surface wave magnitude (MS), and body-wave magnitude (MB), have a common limitation, which is the magnitude saturation phenomenon. Fortunately, the problem of magnitude saturation was solved by a formula for calculating the seismic moment magnitude (MW) based on the seismic moment, which describes the seismic source strength. Now the moment magnitude is very commonly used in seismology research. However, in China, the earthquake scale is primarily based on local and surface-wave magnitudes. In the present work, we studied the empirical relationships between moment magnitude (MW) and local magnitude (ML) as well as surface wave magnitude (MS) in the Chinese Mainland. The China Earthquake Networks Center (CENC) ML catalog, China Seismograph Network (CSN) MS catalog, ANSS Comprehensive Earthquake Catalog (ComCat), and Global Centroid Moment Tensor (GCMT) are adopted to regress the relationships using the orthogonal regression method. The obtained relationships are as follows: MW=0.64+0.87MS; MW=1.16+0.75ML. Therefore, in China, if the moment magnitude of an earthquake is not reported by any agency in the world, we can use the equations mentioned above for converting ML to MW and MS to MW. These relationships are very important, because they will allow the China earthquake catalogs to be used more effectively for seismic hazard analysis, earthquake prediction, and other seismology research. We also computed the relationships of and (where Mo is the seismic moment) by linear regression using the Global Centroid Moment Tensor. The obtained relationships are as follows: logMo=18

  10. Bias in Magnitude Estimation Following Left Hemisphere Injury

    PubMed Central

    Woods, Adam J.; Mennemeier, Mark; Garcia-Rill, Edgar; Meythaler, Jay; Mark, Victor W.; Jewel, George R.; Murphy, Heather

    2015-01-01

    There is a growing interest both in identifying the neural mechanisms of magnitude estimation and in identifying forms of bias that can explain aspects of behavioral syndromes like unilateral neglect. Magnitude estimation is associated with activation of temporo-parietal cortex in both cerebral hemispheres of normal subjects; however, it is unclear if and how left hemisphere lesions bias magnitude estimation because the infrequency of neglect and the presence of aphasia in these subjects confound examination. In contrast, we examined magnitude estimation using 12 different types of sensory stimuli that spanned five sensory domains in two patients with very different clinical presentations following unilateral left hemisphere stroke. One patient had neglect sub-acutely without aphasia. The other had aphasia chronically after a temporo-parietal lesion but not neglect. The neglect patient was re-examined 48 hours after being treated with modafinil (Provigil) for decreased arousal. Both patients demonstrated bias in magnitude estimation relative to normal subjects (n=83). Alertness improved in the neglect patient after taking modafinil. His neglect also resolved and his magnitude estimates more closely resembled those of normal subjects. This is the first evidence, to our knowledge, that the left hemisphere injury can bias magnitude estimation in a manner similar but not identical to that associated with right hemisphere injury. PMID:16434066

  11. Reward magnitude tracking by neural populations in ventral striatum

    PubMed Central

    Fiallos, Ana M.; Bricault, Sarah J.; Cai, Lili X.; Worku, Hermoon A.; Colonnese, Matthew T.; Westmeyer, Gil; Jasanoff, Alan

    2017-01-01

    Evaluation of the magnitudes of intrinsically rewarding stimuli is essential for assigning value and guiding behavior. By combining parametric manipulation of a primary reward, medial forebrain bundle (MFB) microstimulation, with functional magnetic imaging (fMRI) in rodents, we delineated a broad network of structures activated by behaviorally characterized levels of rewarding stimulation. Correlation of psychometric behavioral measurements with fMRI response magnitudes revealed regions whose activity corresponded closely to the subjective magnitude of rewards. The largest and most reliable focus of reward magnitude tracking was observed in the shell region of the nucleus accumbens (NAc). Although the nonlinear nature of neurovascular coupling complicates interpretation of fMRI findings in precise neurophysiological terms, reward magnitude tracking was not observed in vascular compartments and could not be explained by saturation of region-specific hemodynamic responses. In addition, local pharmacological inactivation of NAc changed the profile of animals’ responses to rewards of different magnitudes without altering mean reward response rates, further supporting a hypothesis that neural population activity in this region contributes to assessment of reward magnitudes. PMID:27789262

  12. Using Google Earth to Teach the Magnitude of Deep Time

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parker, Joel D.

    2011-01-01

    Most timeline analogies of geologic and evolutionary time are fundamentally flawed. They trade off the problem of grasping very long times for the problem of grasping very short distances. The result is an understanding of relative time with little comprehension of absolute time. Earlier work has shown that the distances most easily understood by…

  13. Absolute x-ray energy calibration and monitoring using a diffraction-based method

    SciTech Connect

    Hong, Xinguo, E-mail: xhong@bnl.gov; Weidner, Donald J.; Duffy, Thomas S.

    2016-07-27

    In this paper, we report some recent developments of the diffraction-based absolute X-ray energy calibration method. In this calibration method, high spatial resolution of the measured detector offset is essential. To this end, a remotely controlled long-translation motorized stage was employed instead of the less convenient gauge blocks. It is found that the precision of absolute X-ray energy calibration (ΔE/E) is readily achieved down to the level of 10{sup −4} for high-energy monochromatic X-rays (e.g. 80 keV). Examples of applications to pair distribution function (PDF) measurements and energy monitoring for high-energy X-rays are presented.

  14. Redefinition of the crater-density and absolute-age boundaries for the chronostratigraphic system of Mars

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Werner, S.C.; Tanaka, K.L.

    2011-01-01

    For the boundaries of each chronostratigraphic epoch on Mars, we present systematically derived crater-size frequencies based on crater counts of geologic referent surfaces and three proposed " standard" crater size-frequency production distributions as defined by (a) a simple -2 power law, (b) Neukum and Ivanov, (c) Hartmann. In turn, these crater count values are converted to model-absolute ages based on the inferred cratering rate histories. We present a new boundary definition for the Late Hesperian-Early Amazonian transition. Our fitting of crater size-frequency distributions to the chronostratigraphic record of Mars permits the assignment of cumulative counts of craters down to 100. m, 1. km, 2. km, 5. km, and 16. km diameters to martian epochs. Due to differences in the " standard" crater size-frequency production distributions, a generalized crater-density-based definition to the chronostratigraphic system cannot be provided. For the diameter range used for the boundary definitions, the resulting model absolute age fits vary within 1.5% for a given set of production function and chronology model ages. Crater distributions translated to absolute ages utilizing different curve descriptions can result in absolute age differences exceeding 10%. ?? 2011 Elsevier Inc.

  15. Defining Tsunami Magnitude as Measure of Potential Impact

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Titov, V. V.; Tang, L.

    2016-12-01

    The goal of tsunami forecast, as a system for predicting potential impact of a tsunami at coastlines, requires quick estimate of a tsunami magnitude. This goal has been recognized since the beginning of tsunami research. The work of Kajiura, Soloviev, Abe, Murty, and many others discussed several scales for tsunami magnitude based on estimates of tsunami energy. However, difficulties of estimating tsunami energy based on available tsunami measurements at coastal sea-level stations has carried significant uncertainties and has been virtually impossible in real time, before tsunami impacts coastlines. The slow process of tsunami magnitude estimates, including collection of vast amount of available coastal sea-level data from affected coastlines, made it impractical to use any tsunami magnitude scales in tsunami warning operations. Uncertainties of estimates made tsunami magnitudes difficult to use as universal scale for tsunami analysis. Historically, the earthquake magnitude has been used as a proxy of tsunami impact estimates, since real-time seismic data is available of real-time processing and ample amount of seismic data is available for an elaborate post event analysis. This measure of tsunami impact carries significant uncertainties in quantitative tsunami impact estimates, since the relation between the earthquake and generated tsunami energy varies from case to case. In this work, we argue that current tsunami measurement capabilities and real-time modeling tools allow for establishing robust tsunami magnitude that will be useful for tsunami warning as a quick estimate for tsunami impact and for post-event analysis as a universal scale for tsunamis inter-comparison. We present a method for estimating the tsunami magnitude based on tsunami energy and present application of the magnitude analysis for several historical events for inter-comparison with existing methods.

  16. Comparison of magnetic probe calibration at nano and millitesla magnitudes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pahl, Ryan A.; Rovey, Joshua L.; Pommerenke, David J.

    2014-01-01

    Magnetic field probes are invaluable diagnostics for pulsed inductive plasma devices where field magnitudes on the order of tenths of tesla or larger are common. Typical methods of providing a broadband calibration of dot{{B}} probes involve either a Helmholtz coil driven by a function generator or a network analyzer. Both calibration methods typically produce field magnitudes of tens of microtesla or less, at least three and as many as six orders of magnitude lower than their intended use. This calibration factor is then assumed constant regardless of magnetic field magnitude and the effects of experimental setup are ignored. This work quantifies the variation in calibration factor observed when calibrating magnetic field probes in low field magnitudes. Calibration of two dot{{B}} probe designs as functions of frequency and field magnitude are presented. The first dot{{B}} probe design is the most commonly used design and is constructed from two hand-wound inductors in a differential configuration. The second probe uses surface mounted inductors in a differential configuration with balanced shielding to further reduce common mode noise. Calibration factors are determined experimentally using an 80.4 mm radius Helmholtz coil in two separate configurations over a frequency range of 100-1000 kHz. A conventional low magnitude calibration using a vector network analyzer produced a field magnitude of 158 nT and yielded calibration factors of 15 663 ± 1.7% and 4920 ± 0.6% {T}/{V {s}} at 457 kHz for the surface mounted and hand-wound probes, respectively. A relevant magnitude calibration using a pulsed-power setup with field magnitudes of 8.7-354 mT yielded calibration factors of 14 615 ± 0.3% and 4507 ± 0.4% {T}/{V {s}} at 457 kHz for the surface mounted inductor and hand-wound probe, respectively. Low-magnitude calibration resulted in a larger calibration factor, with an average difference of 9.7% for the surface mounted probe and 12.0% for the hand-wound probe. The

  17. Characteristics of North Korea nuclear test and KMA magnitude scale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jeon, Y. S.; Lee, D.; Min, K.; Hwang, E. H.; Lee, J.; Park, E.; Jo, E.; Lee, M. S.

    2017-12-01

    Democratic People's Republic of Korea(DPRK) carried out 6th nuclear test on 3 Sep. 2017 at 03:30 UTC. Korea Meteorological Administration(KMA) announced to the public that the event took place in the DPRK's test site, Punggye-ri with the magnitude 5.7. This event is larger than previous one in terms of magnitude and showed that measured magnitude strongly depends on the frequency band of data. After we applied several magnitude scales such as Everdon(1967), Nuttli(1967), and Hong & Lee(2012) to this event, we found that magnitude ranges from 5.3 to 6.7 which depends on frequency band and epicentral distance of signal. 6th DPRK test experiment indicated that spectral amplitude ratio of 6th/5th near 2.37 Hz shows similar amplification compatible to relative spectral magnitude 5.7, while spectral amplitude ratio of 6th/5th near 1.0 Hz marks relative spectral magnitude about 6.1. Relative spectral magnitude varies with frequencies and decreases as frequency increase. We found that systematic non-linearity exists for spectral amplitude ratio of 6th/5th from 1.0 to 10.0 Hz, while it's characteristic is not found at 5th/4th and 4th/3th. A methodology is presented for determining mb(Pn) magnitude of underground nuclear explosions from local Pn phase. 582 waveforms from vertical component of broadband and acceleration seismographs at 120 stations in the epicenter distance from 340 to 800 km are used to calibrate mb(Pn) magnitude scaling for DPRK's nuclear tests. The mb(Pn) estimates of regional events for Korean Peninsula are determined to be mb(Pn) ? = log10(A) + 2.1164×log10(d) - 0.2721, where A is the peak-to-peak Pn amplitude in μm and d is the epicentral distance in km. Systematic non-linearity does not observed at frequency band from 0.1 to 1.0 Hz. The magnitude of 6th event is mb(Pn) 6.08 and mb(Pn) 4.52, 4.92, 4.84 and 5.03 for 2nd, 3rd, 4th and 5th respectively. Further research of applicable mb(Pn) magnitude scaling is required for all frequency band and

  18. Self-Referenced Method for Estimating Refractive Index and Absolute Absorption of Loose Semiconductor Powders

    DOE PAGES

    Huang, Huafeng; Colabello, Diane M.; Sklute, Elizabeth C.; ...

    2017-04-23

    The absolute absorption coefficient, α(E), is a critical design parameter for devices using semiconductors for light harvesting associated with renewable energy production, both for classic technologies such as photovoltaics and for emerging technologies such as direct solar fuel production. While α(E) is well-known for many classic simple semiconductors used in photovoltaic applications, the absolute values of α(E) are typically unknown for the complex semiconductors being explored for solar fuel production due to the absence of single crystals or crystalline epitaxial films that are needed for conventional methods of determining α(E). In this work, a simple self-referenced method for estimating bothmore » the refractive indices, n(E), and absolute absorption coefficients, α(E), for loose powder samples using diffuse reflectance data is demonstrated. In this method, the sample refractive index can be deduced by refining n to maximize the agreement between the relative absorption spectrum calculated from bidirectional reflectance data (calculated through a Hapke transform which depends on n) and integrating sphere diffuse reflectance data (calculated through a Kubleka–Munk transform which does not depend on n). This new method can be quickly used to screen the suitability of emerging semiconductor systems for light-harvesting applications. The effectiveness of this approach is tested using the simple classic semiconductors Ge and Fe 2O 3 as well as the complex semiconductors La 2MoO 5 and La 4Mo 2O 11. The method is shown to work well for powders with a narrow size distribution (exemplified by Fe 2O 3) and to be ineffective for semiconductors with a broad size distribution (exemplified by Ge). As such, it provides a means for rapidly estimating the absolute optical properties of complex solids which are only available as loose powders.« less

  19. Conformational Transitions and Convergence of Absolute Binding Free Energy Calculations

    PubMed Central

    Lapelosa, Mauro; Gallicchio, Emilio; Levy, Ronald M.

    2011-01-01

    The Binding Energy Distribution Analysis Method (BEDAM) is employed to compute the standard binding free energies of a series of ligands to a FK506 binding protein (FKBP12) with implicit solvation. Binding free energy estimates are in reasonably good agreement with experimental affinities. The conformations of the complexes identified by the simulations are in good agreement with crystallographic data, which was not used to restrain ligand orientations. The BEDAM method is based on λ -hopping Hamiltonian parallel Replica Exchange (HREM) molecular dynamics conformational sampling, the OPLS-AA/AGBNP2 effective potential, and multi-state free energy estimators (MBAR). Achieving converged and accurate results depends on all of these elements of the calculation. Convergence of the binding free energy is tied to the level of convergence of binding energy distributions at critical intermediate states where bound and unbound states are at equilibrium, and where the rate of binding/unbinding conformational transitions is maximal. This finding mirrors similar observations in the context of order/disorder transitions as for example in protein folding. Insights concerning the physical mechanism of ligand binding and unbinding are obtained. Convergence for the largest FK506 ligand is achieved only after imposing strict conformational restraints, which however require accurate prior structural knowledge of the structure of the complex. The analytical AGBNP2 model is found to underestimate the magnitude of the hydrophobic driving force towards binding in these systems characterized by loosely packed protein-ligand binding interfaces. Rescoring of the binding energies using a numerical surface area model corrects this deficiency. This study illustrates the complex interplay between energy models, exploration of conformational space, and free energy estimators needed to obtain robust estimates from binding free energy calculations. PMID:22368530

  20. Characteristics of Gyeongju earthquake, moment magnitude 5.5 and relative relocations of aftershocks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cho, ChangSoo; Son, Minkyung

    2017-04-01

    There is low seismicity in the korea peninsula. According historical record in the historic book, There were several strong earthquake in the korea peninsula. Especially in Gyeongju of capital city of the Silla dynasty, few strong earthquakes caused the fatalities of several hundreds people 1,300 years ago and damaged the houses and make the wall of castles collapsed. Moderate strong earthquake of moment magnitude 5.5 hit the city in September 12, 2016. Over 1000 aftershocks were detected. The numbers of occurrences of aftershock over time follows omori's law well. The distribution of relative locations of 561 events using clustering aftershocks by cross-correlation between P and S waveform of the events showed the strike NNE 25 30 o and dip 68 74o of fault plane to cause the earthquake matched with the fault plane solution of moment tensor inversion well. The depth of range of the events is from 11km to 16km. The width of distribution of event locations is about 5km length. The direction of maximum horizontal stress by inversion of stress for the moment solutions of main event and large aftershocks is similar to the known maximum horizontal stress direction of the korea peninsula. The relation curves between moment magnitude and local magnitude of aftershocks shows that the moment magnitude increases slightly more for events of size less than 2.0

  1. Removal of intensity bias in magnitude spin-echo MRI images by nonlinear diffusion filtering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Samsonov, Alexei A.; Johnson, Chris R.

    2004-05-01

    MRI data analysis is routinely done on the magnitude part of complex images. While both real and imaginary image channels contain Gaussian noise, magnitude MRI data are characterized by Rice distribution. However, conventional filtering methods often assume image noise to be zero mean and Gaussian distributed. Estimation of an underlying image using magnitude data produces biased result. The bias may lead to significant image errors, especially in areas of low signal-to-noise ratio (SNR). The incorporation of the Rice PDF into a noise filtering procedure can significantly complicate the method both algorithmically and computationally. In this paper, we demonstrate that inherent image phase smoothness of spin-echo MRI images could be utilized for separate filtering of real and imaginary complex image channels to achieve unbiased image denoising. The concept is demonstrated with a novel nonlinear diffusion filtering scheme developed for complex image filtering. In our proposed method, the separate diffusion processes are coupled through combined diffusion coefficients determined from the image magnitude. The new method has been validated with simulated and real MRI data. The new method has provided efficient denoising and bias removal in conventional and black-blood angiography MRI images obtained using fast spin echo acquisition protocols.

  2. Auditory working memory predicts individual differences in absolute pitch learning.

    PubMed

    Van Hedger, Stephen C; Heald, Shannon L M; Koch, Rachelle; Nusbaum, Howard C

    2015-07-01

    Absolute pitch (AP) is typically defined as the ability to label an isolated tone as a musical note in the absence of a reference tone. At first glance the acquisition of AP note categories seems like a perceptual learning task, since individuals must assign a category label to a stimulus based on a single perceptual dimension (pitch) while ignoring other perceptual dimensions (e.g., loudness, octave, instrument). AP, however, is rarely discussed in terms of domain-general perceptual learning mechanisms. This is because AP is typically assumed to depend on a critical period of development, in which early exposure to pitches and musical labels is thought to be necessary for the development of AP precluding the possibility of adult acquisition of AP. Despite this view of AP, several previous studies have found evidence that absolute pitch category learning is, to an extent, trainable in a post-critical period adult population, even if the performance typically achieved by this population is below the performance of a "true" AP possessor. The current studies attempt to understand the individual differences in learning to categorize notes using absolute pitch cues by testing a specific prediction regarding cognitive capacity related to categorization - to what extent does an individual's general auditory working memory capacity (WMC) predict the success of absolute pitch category acquisition. Since WMC has been shown to predict performance on a wide variety of other perceptual and category learning tasks, we predict that individuals with higher WMC should be better at learning absolute pitch note categories than individuals with lower WMC. Across two studies, we demonstrate that auditory WMC predicts the efficacy of learning absolute pitch note categories. These results suggest that a higher general auditory WMC might underlie the formation of absolute pitch categories for post-critical period adults. Implications for understanding the mechanisms that underlie the

  3. A preliminary report on the magnetic measurements of samples 72275 and 72255. [direction and magnitude of remanent magnetization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Banerjee, S. K.

    1974-01-01

    The direction and magnitude of natural remanent magnetization of five approximately 3-g subsamples of 72275 and 72255 and the high field saturation magnetization, coercive force, and isothermal remanent magnetization of 100-mg chip from each of these samples, were studied. Given an understanding of the magnetization processes, group 1 experiments provide information about the absolute direction of the ancient magnetizing field and a qualitative estimate of its size (paleointensity). The group 2 experiments yield a quantitative estimate of the iron content and a qualitative ideal of the grain sizes.

  4. Dissociable processes for orientation discrimination learning and contextual illusion magnitude.

    PubMed

    Wilks, Charlotte Elizabeth Holmes; Rees, Geraint; Schwarzkopf, Dietrich Samuel

    2014-01-01

    Previous research suggests an inverse relationship between human orientation discrimination sensitivity and tilt illusion magnitude. To test whether these perceptual functions are inherently linked, we measured both orientation discrimination sensitivity and the magnitude of the tilt illusion before and after participants had been trained for three days on an orientation discrimination task. Discrimination sensitivity improved with training and this improvement remained one month after the initial learning. However, tilt illusion magnitude remained unchanged before and after orientation training, at either trained or untrained orientations. Our results suggest that orientation discrimination sensitivity and illusion magnitude are not inherently linked. They also provide further evidence that, at least for the training periods we employed, perceptual learning of orientation discrimination may involve high-level processes.

  5. Dissociable Processes for Orientation Discrimination Learning and Contextual Illusion Magnitude

    PubMed Central

    Wilks, Charlotte Elizabeth Holmes; Rees, Geraint; Schwarzkopf, Dietrich Samuel

    2014-01-01

    Previous research suggests an inverse relationship between human orientation discrimination sensitivity and tilt illusion magnitude. To test whether these perceptual functions are inherently linked, we measured both orientation discrimination sensitivity and the magnitude of the tilt illusion before and after participants had been trained for three days on an orientation discrimination task. Discrimination sensitivity improved with training and this improvement remained one month after the initial learning. However, tilt illusion magnitude remained unchanged before and after orientation training, at either trained or untrained orientations. Our results suggest that orientation discrimination sensitivity and illusion magnitude are not inherently linked. They also provide further evidence that, at least for the training periods we employed, perceptual learning of orientation discrimination may involve high-level processes. PMID:25061816

  6. When Should Zero Be Included on a Scale Showing Magnitude?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kozak, Marcin

    2011-01-01

    This article addresses an important problem of graphing quantitative data: should one include zero on the scale showing magnitude? Based on a real time series example, the problem is discussed and some recommendations are proposed.

  7. Number games, magnitude representation, and basic number skills in preschoolers.

    PubMed

    Whyte, Jemma Catherine; Bull, Rebecca

    2008-03-01

    The effect of 3 intervention board games (linear number, linear color, and nonlinear number) on young children's (mean age = 3.8 years) counting abilities, number naming, magnitude comprehension, accuracy in number-to-position estimation tasks, and best-fit numerical magnitude representations was examined. Pre- and posttest performance was compared following four 25-min intervention sessions. The linear number board game significantly improved children's performance in all posttest measures and facilitated a shift from a logarithmic to a linear representation of numerical magnitude, emphasizing the importance of spatial cues in estimation. Exposure to the number card games involving nonsymbolic magnitude judgments and association of symbolic and nonsymbolic quantities, but without any linear spatial cues, improved some aspects of children's basic number skills but not numerical estimation precision.

  8. I love my baffling, backward, counterintuitive, overly complicated magnitudes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sirola, Christopher

    2017-02-01

    All professions have their jargon. But astronomy goes the extra parsec. Here's an example. Vega, one of the brighter stars in the night sky, has an apparent magnitude (i.e., an apparent brightness) of approximately zero. Polaris, the North Star, has an apparent magnitude of about +2. Despite this, Vega appears brighter than Polaris, and not by two, but by a factor of about six times.

  9. Magnitude knowledge: the common core of numerical development.

    PubMed

    Siegler, Robert S

    2016-05-01

    The integrated theory of numerical development posits that a central theme of numerical development from infancy to adulthood is progressive broadening of the types and ranges of numbers whose magnitudes are accurately represented. The process includes four overlapping trends: (1) representing increasingly precisely the magnitudes of non-symbolic numbers, (2) connecting small symbolic numbers to their non-symbolic referents, (3) extending understanding from smaller to larger whole numbers, and (4) accurately representing the magnitudes of rational numbers. The present review identifies substantial commonalities, as well as differences, in these four aspects of numerical development. With both whole and rational numbers, numerical magnitude knowledge is concurrently correlated with, longitudinally predictive of, and causally related to multiple aspects of mathematical understanding, including arithmetic and overall math achievement. Moreover, interventions focused on increasing numerical magnitude knowledge often generalize to other aspects of mathematics. The cognitive processes of association and analogy seem to play especially large roles in this development. Thus, acquisition of numerical magnitude knowledge can be seen as the common core of numerical development. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. Local magnitude calibration of the Hellenic Unified Seismic Network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scordilis, E. M.; Kementzetzidou, D.; Papazachos, B. C.

    2016-01-01

    A new relation is proposed for accurate determination of local magnitudes in Greece. This relation is based on a large number of synthetic Wood-Anderson (SWA) seismograms corresponding to 782 regional shallow earthquakes which occurred during the period 2007-2013 and recorded by 98 digital broad-band stations. These stations are installed and operated by the following: (a) the National Observatory of Athens (HL), (b) the Department of Geophysics of the Aristotle University of Thessaloniki (HT), (c) the Seismological Laboratory of the University of Athens (HA), and (d) the Seismological Laboratory of the Patras University (HP). The seismological networks of the above institutions constitute the recently (2004) established Hellenic Unified Seismic Network (HUSN). These records are used to calculate a refined geometrical spreading factor and an anelastic attenuation coefficient, representative for Greece and surrounding areas, proper for accurate calculation of local magnitudes in this region. Individual station corrections depending on the crustal structure variations in their vicinity and possible inconsistencies in instruments responses are also considered in order to further ameliorate magnitude estimation accuracy. Comparison of such calculated local magnitudes with corresponding original moment magnitudes, based on an independent dataset, revealed that these magnitude scales are equivalent for a wide range of values.

  11. Numerical magnitude processing in children with mild intellectual disabilities.

    PubMed

    Brankaer, Carmen; Ghesquière, Pol; De Smedt, Bert

    2011-01-01

    The present study investigated numerical magnitude processing in children with mild intellectual disabilities (MID) and examined whether these children have difficulties in the ability to represent numerical magnitudes and/or difficulties in the ability to access numerical magnitudes from formal symbols. We compared the performance of 26 children with MID on a symbolic (digits) and a non-symbolic (dot-arrays) comparison task with the performance of two control groups of typically developing children: one group matched on chronological age and one group matched on mathematical ability level. Findings revealed that children with MID performed more poorly than their typically developing chronological age-matched peers on both the symbolic and non-symbolic comparison tasks, while their performance did not substantially differ from the ability-matched control group. These findings suggest that the development of numerical magnitude representation in children with MID is marked by a delay. This performance pattern was observed for both symbolic and non-symbolic comparison tasks, although difficulties on the former task were more prominent. Interventions in children with MID should therefore foster both the development of magnitude representations and the connections between symbols and the magnitudes they represent. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. The magnitude of innovation and its evolution in social animals.

    PubMed

    Arbilly, Michal; Laland, Kevin N

    2017-02-08

    Innovative behaviour in animals, ranging from invertebrates to humans, is increasingly recognized as an important topic for investigation by behavioural researchers. However, what constitutes an innovation remains controversial, and difficult to quantify. Drawing on a broad definition whereby any behaviour with a new component to it is an innovation, we propose a quantitative measure, which we call the magnitude of innovation , to describe the extent to which an innovative behaviour is novel. This allows us to distinguish between innovations that are a slight change to existing behaviours (low magnitude), and innovations that are substantially different (high magnitude). Using mathematical modelling and evolutionary computer simulations, we explored how aspects of social interaction, cognition and natural selection affect the frequency and magnitude of innovation. We show that high-magnitude innovations are likely to arise regularly even if the frequency of innovation is low, as long as this frequency is relatively constant, and that the selectivity of social learning and the existence of social rewards, such as prestige and royalties, are crucial for innovative behaviour to evolve. We suggest that consideration of the magnitude of innovation may prove a useful tool in the study of the evolution of cognition and of culture. © 2017 The Author(s).

  13. The magnitude of innovation and its evolution in social animals

    PubMed Central

    2017-01-01

    Innovative behaviour in animals, ranging from invertebrates to humans, is increasingly recognized as an important topic for investigation by behavioural researchers. However, what constitutes an innovation remains controversial, and difficult to quantify. Drawing on a broad definition whereby any behaviour with a new component to it is an innovation, we propose a quantitative measure, which we call the magnitude of innovation, to describe the extent to which an innovative behaviour is novel. This allows us to distinguish between innovations that are a slight change to existing behaviours (low magnitude), and innovations that are substantially different (high magnitude). Using mathematical modelling and evolutionary computer simulations, we explored how aspects of social interaction, cognition and natural selection affect the frequency and magnitude of innovation. We show that high-magnitude innovations are likely to arise regularly even if the frequency of innovation is low, as long as this frequency is relatively constant, and that the selectivity of social learning and the existence of social rewards, such as prestige and royalties, are crucial for innovative behaviour to evolve. We suggest that consideration of the magnitude of innovation may prove a useful tool in the study of the evolution of cognition and of culture. PMID:28179515

  14. High-resolution absolute position detection using a multiple grating

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schilling, Ulrich; Drabarek, Pawel; Kuehnle, Goetz; Tiziani, Hans J.

    1996-08-01

    To control electro-mechanical engines, high-resolution linear and rotary encoders are needed. Interferometric methods (grating interferometers) promise a resolution of a few nanometers, but have an ambiguity range of some microns. Incremental encoders increase the absolute measurement range by counting the signal periods starting from a defined initial point. In many applications, however, it is not possible to move to this initial point, so that absolute encoders have to be used. Absolute encoders generally have a scale with two or more tracks placed next to each other. Therefore, they use a two-dimensional grating structure to measure a one-dimensional position. We present a new method, which uses a one-dimensional structure to determine the position in one dimension. It is based on a grating with a large grating period up to some millimeters, having the same diffraction efficiency in several predefined diffraction orders (multiple grating). By combining the phase signals of the different diffraction orders, it is possible to establish the position in an absolute range of the grating period with a resolution like incremental grating interferometers. The principal functionality was demonstrated by applying the multiple grating in a heterodyne grating interferometer. The heterodyne frequency was generated by a frequency modulated laser in an unbalanced interferometer. In experimental measurements an absolute range of 8 mm was obtained while achieving a resolution of 10 nm.

  15. Absolute irradiance of the Moon for on-orbit calibration

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stone, T.C.; Kieffer, H.H.; ,

    2002-01-01

    The recognized need for on-orbit calibration of remote sensing imaging instruments drives the ROLO project effort to characterize the Moon for use as an absolute radiance source. For over 5 years the ground-based ROLO telescopes have acquired spatially-resolved lunar images in 23 VNIR (Moon diameter ???500 pixels) and 9 SWIR (???250 pixels) passbands at phase angles within ??90 degrees. A numerical model for lunar irradiance has been developed which fits hundreds of ROLO images in each band, corrected for atmospheric extinction and calibrated to absolute radiance, then integrated to irradiance. The band-coupled extinction algorithm uses absorption spectra of several gases and aerosols derived from MODTRAN to fit time-dependent component abundances to nightly observations of standard stars. The absolute radiance scale is based upon independent telescopic measurements of the star Vega. The fitting process yields uncertainties in lunar relative irradiance over small ranges of phase angle and the full range of lunar libration well under 0.5%. A larger source of uncertainty enters in the absolute solar spectral irradiance, especially in the SWIR, where solar models disagree by up to 6%. Results of ROLO model direct comparisons to spacecraft observations demonstrate the ability of the technique to track sensor responsivity drifts to sub-percent precision. Intercomparisons among instruments provide key insights into both calibration issues and the absolute scale for lunar irradiance.

  16. The Ethics of Information: Absolute Risk Reduction and Patient Understanding of Screening

    PubMed Central

    Meslin, Eric M.

    2008-01-01

    Some experts have argued that patients should routinely be told the specific magnitude and absolute probability of potential risks and benefits of screening tests. This position is motivated by the idea that framing risk information in ways that are less precise violates the ethical principle of respect for autonomy and its application in informed consent or shared decision-making. In this Perspective, we consider a number of problems with this view that have not been adequately addressed. The most important challenges stem from the danger that patients will misunderstand the information or have irrational responses to it. Any initiative in this area should take such factors into account and should consider carefully how to apply the ethical principles of respect for autonomy and beneficence. PMID:18421509

  17. 3D absolute hypocentral determination - 13 years of seismicity in Ecuadorian subduction zone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Font, Yvonne; Segovia, Monica; Theunissen, Thomas

    2010-05-01

    of azimuthal coverage, record frequency and signal quality. Then, we define 5 domains: Offshore/coast, North-Andean margin, Volcanic chain, Southern Ecuador, and a domain deeper than 50 km. We process earthquake location only if at least 3 proximal stations exist in the event's domain. This data selection allows providing consistent quality location. The third step consists in improving the 3D MAXI technique that is well adapted to perform absolute earthquake location in velocity model presenting strong lateral Vp heterogeneities. The resulting catalogue allows specifying the deformation in the subduction system. All seismicity previously detected before trench occurs indeed between the trench and the coastal range. South of 0°, facing the subducting Carnegie Ridge, the seismicity aligns along the interplate seismogenic zone between an updip limit shallower than ~8 km and a downdip limit that reaches up to 50 km depth. The active seismogenic zone is interrupted by a gap that extends right beneath the coastal range. At these latitudes, a diffuse intraplate deformation also affects the subducting plate, probably induced by the locally thickened lithosphere flexure. Between the trench and the coast, earthquake distribution clearly defines a gap, which size is comparable to the 1942 M7.9 asperity (ellipse of axes ~55/35 km). A slab is clearly defines and dips around 25 to 30°. The slab seismicity is systematically interrupted between 100-170 km, approximately beneath the volcanic chain. North of 0°, i.e. in the megathrust earthquake domain, the interseismic activity is clearly reduced. The interplate distribution seems to gather along alignments perpendicular to the trench attesting probably of the margin segmentation. The North Andean overriding margin is undergoing active deformation, especially at the location where the Andean Chain strike changes of direction. At these latitudes, no earthquake occurs deeper than 100 km depth.

  18. SU-F-T-492: The Impact of Water Temperature On Absolute Dose Calibration

    SciTech Connect

    Islam, N; Podgorsak, M; Roswell Park Cancer Institute, Buffalo, NY

    Purpose: The Task Group 51 (TG 51) protocol prescribes that dose calibration of photon beams be done by irradiating an ionization chamber in a water tank at pre-defined depths. Methodologies are provided to account for variations in measurement conditions by applying correction factors. However, the protocol does not completely account for the impact of water temperature. It is well established that water temperature will influence the density of air in the ion chamber collecting volume. Water temperature, however, will also influence the size of the collecting volume via thermal expansion of the cavity wall and the density of the watermore » in the tank. In this work the overall effect of water temperature on absolute dosimetry has been investigated. Methods: Dose measurements were made using a Farmer-type ion chamber for 6 and 23 MV photon beams with water temperatures ranging from 10 to 40°C. A reference ion chamber was used to account for fluctuations in beam output between successive measurements. Results: For the same beam output, the dose determined using TG 51 was dependent on the temperature of the water in the tank. A linear regression of the data suggests that the dependence is statistically significant with p-values of the slope equal to 0.003 and 0.01 for 6 and 23 MV beams, respectively. For a 10 degree increase in water phantom temperature, the absolute dose determined with TG 51 increased by 0.27% and 0.31% for 6 and 23 MV beams, respectively. Conclusion: There is a measurable effect of water temperature on absolute dose calibration. To account for this effect, a reference temperature can be defined and a correction factor applied to account for deviations from this reference temperature during beam calibration. Such a factor is expected to be of similar magnitude to most of the existing TG 51 correction factors.« less

  19. Microfabricated Collector-Generator Electrode Sensor for Measuring Absolute pH and Oxygen Concentrations.

    PubMed

    Dengler, Adam K; Wightman, R Mark; McCarty, Gregory S

    2015-10-20

    Fast-scan cyclic voltammetry (FSCV) has attracted attention for studying in vivo neurotransmission due to its subsecond temporal resolution, selectivity, and sensitivity. Traditional FSCV measurements use background subtraction to isolate changes in the local electrochemical environment, providing detailed information on fluctuations in the concentration of electroactive species. This background subtraction removes information about constant or slowly changing concentrations. However, determination of background concentrations is still important for understanding functioning brain tissue. For example, neural activity is known to consume oxygen and produce carbon dioxide which affects local levels of oxygen and pH. Here, we present a microfabricated microelectrode array which uses FSCV to detect the absolute levels of oxygen and pH in vitro. The sensor is a collector-generator electrode array with carbon microelectrodes spaced 5 μm apart. In this work, a periodic potential step is applied at the generator producing transient local changes in the electrochemical environment. The collector electrode continuously performs FSCV enabling these induced changes in concentration to be recorded with the sensitivity and selectivity of FSCV. A negative potential step applied at the generator produces a transient local pH shift at the collector. The generator-induced pH signal is detected using FSCV at the collector and correlated to absolute solution pH by postcalibration of the anodic peak position. In addition, in oxygenated solutions a negative potential step at the generator produces hydrogen peroxide by reducing oxygen. Hydrogen peroxide is detected with FSCV at the collector electrode, and the magnitude of the oxidative peak is proportional to absolute oxygen concentrations. Oxygen interference on the pH signal is minimal and can be accounted for with a postcalibration.

  20. The Impact of Different Absolute Solar Irradiance Values on Current Climate Model Simulations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rind, David H.; Lean, Judith L.; Jonas, Jeffrey

    2014-01-01

    Simulations of the preindustrial and doubled CO2 climates are made with the GISS Global Climate Middle Atmosphere Model 3 using two different estimates of the absolute solar irradiance value: a higher value measured by solar radiometers in the 1990s and a lower value measured recently by the Solar Radiation and Climate Experiment. Each of the model simulations is adjusted to achieve global energy balance; without this adjustment the difference in irradiance produces a global temperature change of 0.48C, comparable to the cooling estimated for the Maunder Minimum. The results indicate that by altering cloud cover the model properly compensates for the different absolute solar irradiance values on a global level when simulating both preindustrial and doubled CO2 climates. On a regional level, the preindustrial climate simulations and the patterns of change with doubled CO2 concentrations are again remarkably similar, but there are some differences. Using a higher absolute solar irradiance value and the requisite cloud cover affects the model's depictions of high-latitude surface air temperature, sea level pressure, and stratospheric ozone, as well as tropical precipitation. In the climate change experiments it leads to an underestimation of North Atlantic warming, reduced precipitation in the tropical western Pacific, and smaller total ozone growth at high northern latitudes. Although significant, these differences are typically modest compared with the magnitude of the regional changes expected for doubled greenhouse gas concentrations. Nevertheless, the model simulations demonstrate that achieving the highest possible fidelity when simulating regional climate change requires that climate models use as input the most accurate (lower) solar irradiance value.

  1. Absolute colors and phase coefficients of Trans-Neptunian objects: HV - HR colors.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ayala-Loera, Carmen; Alvarez-Candal, Alvaro; Ortiz, Jose Luis; Duffard, Rene; Fernández-Valenzuela, Estela; Santos-Sanz, Pablo; Morales, Nicolas

    2017-10-01

    We present results of our photometric follow up of Trans-Neptunian objects (TNOs). New data for 35 objects, together with previously data presented in Alvarez-Candal et al. 2016, as well as data from literature allow us to obtain absolute magnitudes and absolute coefficients HV (βV) for 113 TNOs and HR (βR) for 117 TNOs from which we obtained absolute colors HV - HR, and relative phase coefficients Δβ, for 106 objects.We explored associations between HV - HR and Δβ vs. orbital and physical parameters of TNOs, such associations were tested by Spearman’s coefficient rs . The correlations we found between HV - HR and orbital parameters semimayor axis a, eccentricity e, and inclination i, reflect observational biases: first, against farther fainter objects; second, against eccentric and high-inclination orbits.We followed Brown criteria (Brown 2012), and separated into two groups: large and small using HV = 4.5 instead of D=500 km. We detected a gap at HV = 4.5 which not reported before to the best of our knowledge.We found a strong anticorrelation between HV - HR and Δβ, with rs = -0.8273, which indicates that redder objects have steeper phase curves in the R filter than in the V filter, while the opposite is true for bluer objects. The anticorrelation holds if we consider different bins in semi-major axis and separate between large HV < 4.5 mag (D > 500 km) and small objects HV > 4.5 mag (D < 500 km). Therefore, we conclude it is intrinsic to the TNO (and associated) populations. As many different surfaces types, sizes, and dynamical evolutions of TNOs we considered in our sample, we cannot assure that we are seeing an evolutionary effect, but probably something related to the porosity and compation of the surfaces. Further studies are granted.

  2. The Dependence of Cloud Property Trend Detection on Absolute Calibration Accuracy of Passive Satellite Sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shea, Y.; Wielicki, B. A.; Sun-Mack, S.; Minnis, P.; Zelinka, M. D.

    2016-12-01

    Detecting trends in climate variables on global, decadal scales requires highly accurate, stable measurements and retrieval algorithms. Trend uncertainty depends on its magnitude, natural variability, and instrument and retrieval algorithm accuracy and stability. We applied a climate accuracy framework to quantify the impact of absolute calibration on cloud property trend uncertainty. The cloud properties studied were cloud fraction, effective temperature, optical thickness, and effective radius retrieved using the Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) Cloud Property Retrieval System, which uses Moderate-resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer measurements (MODIS). Modeling experiments from the fifth phase of the Climate Model Intercomparison Project (CMIP5) agree that net cloud feedback is likely positive but disagree regarding its magnitude, mainly due to uncertainty in shortwave cloud feedback. With the climate accuracy framework we determined the time to detect trends for instruments with various calibration accuracies. We estimated a relationship between cloud property trend uncertainty, cloud feedback, and Equilibrium Climate Sensitivity and also between effective radius trend uncertainty and aerosol indirect effect trends. The direct relationship between instrument accuracy requirements and climate model output provides the level of instrument absolute accuracy needed to reduce climate model projection uncertainty. Different cloud types have varied radiative impacts on the climate system depending on several attributes, such as their thermodynamic phase, altitude, and optical thickness. Therefore, we also conducted these studies by cloud types for a clearer understanding of instrument accuracy requirements needed to detect changes in their cloud properties. Combining this information with the radiative impact of different cloud types helps to prioritize among requirements for future satellite sensors and understanding the climate detection

  3. The Near-infrared Tip of the Red Giant Branch. II. An Absolute Calibration in the Large Magellanic Cloud

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoyt, Taylor J.; Freedman, Wendy L.; Madore, Barry F.; Seibert, Mark; Beaton, Rachael L.; Hatt, Dylan; Jang, In Sung; Lee, Myung Gyoon; Monson, Andrew J.; Rich, Jeffrey A.

    2018-05-01

    We present a new empirical JHK absolute calibration of the tip of the red giant branch (TRGB) in the Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC). We use published data from the extensive Near-Infrared Synoptic Survey containing 3.5 million stars, 65,000 of which are red giants that fall within one magnitude of the TRGB. Adopting the TRGB slopes from a companion study of the isolated dwarf galaxy IC 1613, as well as an LMC distance modulus of μ 0 = 18.49 mag from (geometric) detached eclipsing binaries, we derive absolute JHK zero points for the near-infrared TRGB. For a comparison with measurements in the bar alone, we apply the calibrated JHK TRGB to a 500 deg2 area of the 2MASS survey. The TRGB reveals the 3D structure of the LMC with a tilt in the direction perpendicular to the major axis of the bar, which is in agreement with previous studies.

  4. Absolute measurement of the 242Pu neutron-capture cross section

    DOE PAGES

    Buckner, M. Q.; Wu, C. Y.; Henderson, R. A.; ...

    2016-04-21

    Here, the absolute neutron-capture cross section of 242Pu was measured at the Los Alamos Neutron Science Center using the Detector for Advanced Neutron-Capture Experiments array along with a compact parallel-plate avalanche counter for fission-fragment detection. The first direct measurement of the 242Pu(n,γ) cross section was made over the incident neutron energy range from thermal to ≈ 6 keV, and the absolute scale of the (n,γ) cross section was set according to the known 239Pu(n,f) resonance at E n,R = 7.83 eV. This was accomplished by adding a small quantity of 239Pu to the 242Pu sample. The relative scale of themore » cross section, with a range of four orders of magnitude, was determined for incident neutron energies from thermal to ≈ 40 keV. Our data, in general, are in agreement with previous measurements and those reported in ENDF/B-VII.1; the 242Pu(n,γ) cross section at the E n,R = 2.68 eV resonance is within 2.4% of the evaluated value. However, discrepancies exist at higher energies; our data are ≈30% lower than the evaluated data at E n ≈ 1 keV and are approximately 2σ away from the previous measurement at E n ≈ 20 keV.« less

  5. System and method for calibrating a rotary absolute position sensor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davis, Donald R. (Inventor); Permenter, Frank Noble (Inventor); Radford, Nicolaus A (Inventor)

    2012-01-01

    A system includes a rotary device, a rotary absolute position (RAP) sensor generating encoded pairs of voltage signals describing positional data of the rotary device, a host machine, and an algorithm. The algorithm calculates calibration parameters usable to determine an absolute position of the rotary device using the encoded pairs, and is adapted for linearly-mapping an ellipse defined by the encoded pairs to thereby calculate the calibration parameters. A method of calibrating the RAP sensor includes measuring the rotary position as encoded pairs of voltage signals, linearly-mapping an ellipse defined by the encoded pairs to thereby calculate the calibration parameters, and calculating an absolute position of the rotary device using the calibration parameters. The calibration parameters include a positive definite matrix (A) and a center point (q) of the ellipse. The voltage signals may include an encoded sine and cosine of a rotary angle of the rotary device.

  6. Determining absolute protein numbers by quantitative fluorescence microscopy.

    PubMed

    Verdaasdonk, Jolien Suzanne; Lawrimore, Josh; Bloom, Kerry

    2014-01-01

    Biological questions are increasingly being addressed using a wide range of quantitative analytical tools to examine protein complex composition. Knowledge of the absolute number of proteins present provides insights into organization, function, and maintenance and is used in mathematical modeling of complex cellular dynamics. In this chapter, we outline and describe three microscopy-based methods for determining absolute protein numbers--fluorescence correlation spectroscopy, stepwise photobleaching, and ratiometric comparison of fluorescence intensity to known standards. In addition, we discuss the various fluorescently labeled proteins that have been used as standards for both stepwise photobleaching and ratiometric comparison analysis. A detailed procedure for determining absolute protein number by ratiometric comparison is outlined in the second half of this chapter. Counting proteins by quantitative microscopy is a relatively simple yet very powerful analytical tool that will increase our understanding of protein complex composition. © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Method and apparatus for two-dimensional absolute optical encoding

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leviton, Douglas B. (Inventor)

    2004-01-01

    This invention presents a two-dimensional absolute optical encoder and a method for determining position of an object in accordance with information from the encoder. The encoder of the present invention comprises a scale having a pattern being predetermined to indicate an absolute location on the scale, means for illuminating the scale, means for forming an image of the pattern; and detector means for outputting signals derived from the portion of the image of the pattern which lies within a field of view of the detector means, the field of view defining an image reference coordinate system, and analyzing means, receiving the signals from the detector means, for determining the absolute location of the object. There are two types of scale patterns presented in this invention: grid type and starfield type.

  8. Transfer of absolute and relative predictiveness in human contingency learning.

    PubMed

    Kattner, Florian

    2015-03-01

    Previous animal-learning studies have shown that the effect of the predictive history of a cue on its associability depends on whether priority was set to the absolute or relative predictiveness of that cue. The present study tested this assumption in a human contingency-learning task. In both experiments, one group of participants was trained with predictive and nonpredictive cues that were presented according to an absolute-predictiveness principle (either continuously or partially reinforced cue configurations), whereas a second group was trained with co-occurring cues that differed in predictiveness (emphasizing the relative predictive validity of the cues). In both groups, later test discriminations were learned more readily if the discriminative cues had been predictive in the previous learning stage than if they had been nonpredictive. These results imply that both the absolute and relative predictiveness of a cue lead positive transfer with regard to its associability. The data are discussed with respect to attentional models of associative learning.

  9. Absolute marine gravimetry with matter-wave interferometry.

    PubMed

    Bidel, Y; Zahzam, N; Blanchard, C; Bonnin, A; Cadoret, M; Bresson, A; Rouxel, D; Lequentrec-Lalancette, M F

    2018-02-12

    Measuring gravity from an aircraft or a ship is essential in geodesy, geophysics, mineral and hydrocarbon exploration, and navigation. Today, only relative sensors are available for onboard gravimetry. This is a major drawback because of the calibration and drift estimation procedures which lead to important operational constraints. Atom interferometry is a promising technology to obtain onboard absolute gravimeter. But, despite high performances obtained in static condition, no precise measurements were reported in dynamic. Here, we present absolute gravity measurements from a ship with a sensor based on atom interferometry. Despite rough sea conditions, we obtained precision below 10 -5  m s -2 . The atom gravimeter was also compared with a commercial spring gravimeter and showed better performances. This demonstration opens the way to the next generation of inertial sensors (accelerometer, gyroscope) based on atom interferometry which should provide high-precision absolute measurements from a moving platform.

  10. Absolute Coefficients and the Graphical Representation of Airfoil Characteristics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Munk, Max

    1921-01-01

    It is argued that there should be an agreement as to what conventions to use in determining absolute coefficients used in aeronautics and in how to plot those coefficients. Of particular importance are the absolute coefficients of lift and drag. The author argues for the use of the German method over the kind in common use in the United States and England, and for the Continental over the usual American and British method of graphically representing the characteristics of an airfoil. The author notes that, on the whole, it appears that the use of natural absolute coefficients in a polar diagram is the logical method for presentation of airfoil characteristics, and that serious consideration should be given to the advisability of adopting this method in all countries, in order to advance uniformity and accuracy in the science of aeronautics.

  11. Estimating the Maximum Magnitude of Induced Earthquakes With Dynamic Rupture Simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gilmour, E.; Daub, E. G.

    2017-12-01

    Seismicity in Oklahoma has been sharply increasing as the result of wastewater injection. The earthquakes, thought to be induced from changes in pore pressure due to fluid injection, nucleate along existing faults. Induced earthquakes currently dominate central and eastern United States seismicity (Keranen et al. 2016). Induced earthquakes have only been occurring in the central US for a short time; therefore, too few induced earthquakes have been observed in this region to know their maximum magnitude. The lack of knowledge regarding the maximum magnitude of induced earthquakes means that large uncertainties exist in the seismic hazard for the central United States. While induced earthquakes follow the Gutenberg-Richter relation (van der Elst et al. 2016), it is unclear if there are limits to their magnitudes. An estimate of the maximum magnitude of the induced earthquakes is crucial for understanding their impact on seismic hazard. While other estimates of the maximum magnitude exist, those estimates are observational or statistical, and cannot take into account the possibility of larger events that have not yet been observed. Here, we take a physical approach to studying the maximum magnitude based on dynamic ruptures simulations. We run a suite of two-dimensional ruptures simulations to physically determine how ruptures propagate. The simulations use the known parameters of principle stress orientation and rupture locations. We vary the other unknown parameters of the ruptures simulations to obtain a large number of rupture simulation results reflecting different possible sets of parameters, and use these results to train a neural network to complete the ruptures simulations. Then using a Markov Chain Monte Carlo method to check different combinations of parameters, the trained neural network is used to create synthetic magnitude-frequency distributions to compare to the real earthquake catalog. This method allows us to find sets of parameters that are

  12. The Absolute Bioavailability and Effect of Food on the Pharmacokinetics of Odanacatib: A Stable-Label i.v./Oral Study in Healthy Postmenopausal Women.

    PubMed

    Zajic, Stefan; Rossenu, Stefaan; Hreniuk, David; Kesisoglou, Filippos; McCrea, Jacqueline; Liu, Fang; Sun, Li; Witter, Rose; Gauthier, Don; Helmy, Roy; Joss, Darrick; Ni, Tong; Stoltz, Randall; Stone, Julie; Stoch, S Aubrey

    2016-09-01

    A stable-label i.v./oral study design was conducted to investigate the pharmacokinetics (PK) of odanacatib. Healthy, postmenopausal women received oral doses of unlabeled odanacatib administered simultaneously with a reference of 1 mg i.v. stable (13)C-labeled odanacatib. The absolute bioavailability of odanacatib was 30% at 50 mg (the phase 3 dose) and 70% at 10 mg, which is consistent with solubility-limited absorption. Odanacatib exposure (area under the curve from zero to infinity) increased by 15% and 63% when 50 mg was administered with low-fat and high-fat meals, respectively. This magnitude of the food effect is unlikely to be clinically important. The volume of distribution was ∼100 liters. The clearance was ∼0.8 l/h (13 ml/min), supporting that odanacatib is a low-extraction ratio drug. Population PK modeling indicated that 88% of individuals had completed absorption of >80% bioavailable drug within 24 hours, with modest additional absorption after 24 hours and periodic fluctuations in plasma concentrations contributing to late values for time to Cmax in some subjects. Copyright © 2016 by The American Society for Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics.

  13. Far-ultraviolet energy distributions of the metal-poor A stars HD 109995 and HD 161817

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boehm-Vitense, E.

    1981-01-01

    Low-resolution IUE spectra at wavelengths between 1300 and 3400 A of the metal-poor stars HD 109995 (A1p) and HD 161817 (A4p) have been compared with model-atmosphere energy distributions computed by Kurucz (1979). Good overall agreement is found. Effective temperatures, metal abundances, and angular diameters could be determined. Assuming an absolute visual magnitude of 0.7, the previously determined gravity log = 3 yields masses of 0.5 solar masses for both stars. It is found that the theoretical UBV colors calculated earlier agree reaonably well with the ones observed for these stars.

  14. Linking Comparisons of Absolute Gravimeters: A Proof of Concept for a new Global Absolute Gravity Reference System.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wziontek, H.; Palinkas, V.; Falk, R.; Vaľko, M.

    2016-12-01

    Since decades, absolute gravimeters are compared on a regular basis on an international level, starting at the International Bureau for Weights and Measures (BIPM) in 1981. Usually, these comparisons are based on constant reference values deduced from all accepted measurements acquired during the comparison period. Temporal changes between comparison epochs are usually not considered. Resolution No. 2, adopted by IAG during the IUGG General Assembly in Prague 2015, initiates the establishment of a Global Absolute Gravity Reference System based on key comparisons of absolute gravimeters (AG) under the International Committee for Weights and Measures (CIPM) in order to establish a common level in the microGal range. A stable and unique reference frame can only be achieved, if different AG are taking part in different kind of comparisons. Systematic deviations between the respective comparison reference values can be detected, if the AG can be considered stable over time. The continuous operation of superconducting gravimeters (SG) on selected stations further supports the temporal link of comparison reference values by establishing a reference function over time. By a homogenous reprocessing of different comparison epochs and including AG and SG time series at selected stations, links between several comparisons will be established and temporal comparison reference functions will be derived. By this, comparisons on a regional level can be traced to back to the level of key comparisons, providing a reference for other absolute gravimeters. It will be proved and discussed, how such a concept can be used to support the future absolute gravity reference system.

  15. Absolute branching fraction measurements of exclusive D+ semileptonic decays.

    PubMed

    Huang, G S; Miller, D H; Pavlunin, V; Sanghi, B; Shipsey, I P J; Adams, G S; Chasse, M; Cravey, M; Cummings, J P; Danko, I; Napolitano, J; He, Q; Muramatsu, H; Park, C S; Park, W; Thorndike, E H; Coan, T E; Gao, Y S; Liu, F; Artuso, M; Boulahouache, C; Blusk, S; Butt, J; Dambasuren, E; Dorjkhaidav, O; Li, J; Menaa, N; Mountain, R; Nandakumar, R; Randrianarivony, K; Redjimi, R; Sia, R; Skwarnicki, T; Stone, S; Wang, J C; Zhang, K; Csorna, S E; Bonvicini, G; Cinabro, D; Dubrovin, M; Briere, R A; Chen, G P; Chen, J; Ferguson, T; Tatishvili, G; Vogel, H; Watkins, M E; Rosner, J L; Adam, N E; Alexander, J P; Berkelman, K; Cassel, D G; Crede, V; Duboscq, J E; Ecklund, K M; Ehrlich, R; Fields, L; Gibbons, L; Gittelman, B; Gray, R; Gray, S W; Hartill, D L; Heltsley, B K; Hertz, D; Hsu, L; Jones, C D; Kandaswamy, J; Kreinick, D L; Kuznetsov, V E; Mahlke-Krüger, H; Meyer, T O; Onyisi, P U E; Patterson, J R; Peterson, D; Phillips, E A; Pivarski, J; Riley, D; Ryd, A; Sadoff, A J; Schwarthoff, H; Shi, X; Shepherd, M R; Stroiney, S; Sun, W M; Urner, D; Weaver, K M; Wilksen, T; Weinberger, M; Athar, S B; Avery, P; Breva-Newell, L; Patel, R; Potlia, V; Stoeck, H; Yelton, J; Rubin, P; Cawlfield, C; Eisenstein, B I; Gollin, G D; Karliner, I; Kim, D; Lowrey, N; Naik, P; Sedlack, C; Selen, M; Williams, J; Wiss, J; Edwards, K W; Besson, D; Pedlar, T K; Cronin-Hennessy, D; Gao, K Y; Gong, D T; Hietala, J; Kubota, Y; Klein, T; Lang, B W; Li, S Z; Poling, R; Scott, A W; Smith, A; Dobbs, S; Metreveli, Z; Seth, K K; Tomaradze, A; Zweber, P; Ernst, J; Mahmood, A H; Severini, H; Asner, D M; Dytman, S A; Love, W; Mehrabyan, S; Mueller, J A; Savinov, V; Li, Z; Lopez, A; Mendez, H; Ramirez, J

    2005-10-28

    Using data collected at the psi(3770) resonance with the CLEO-c detector at the Cornell e+e- storage ring, we present improved measurements of the absolute branching fractions of D+decays to K0e+ve, pi0e+ve, K*0e+ve, and p0e+ve, and the first observation and absolute branching fraction measurement of D+ --> omega e+ve. We also report the most precise tests to date of isospin invariance in semileptonic D0 and D+ decays.

  16. Absolute photon-flux measurements in the vacuum ultraviolet

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Samson, J. A. R.; Haddad, G. N.

    1974-01-01

    Absolute photon-flux measurements in the vacuum ultraviolet have extended to short wavelengths by use of rare-gas ionization chambers. The technique involves the measurement of the ion current as a function of the gas pressure in the ion chamber. The true value of the ion current, and hence the absolute photon flux, is obtained by extrapolating the ion current to zero gas pressure. Examples are given at 162 and 266 A. The short-wavelength limit is determined only by the sensitivity of the current-measuring apparatus and by present knowledge of the photoionization processes that occur in the rate gases.

  17. Absolute Stability Analysis of a Phase Plane Controlled Spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jang, Jiann-Woei; Plummer, Michael; Bedrossian, Nazareth; Hall, Charles; Jackson, Mark; Spanos, Pol

    2010-01-01

    Many aerospace attitude control systems utilize phase plane control schemes that include nonlinear elements such as dead zone and ideal relay. To evaluate phase plane control robustness, stability margin prediction methods must be developed. Absolute stability is extended to predict stability margins and to define an abort condition. A constrained optimization approach is also used to design flex filters for roll control. The design goal is to optimize vehicle tracking performance while maintaining adequate stability margins. Absolute stability is shown to provide satisfactory stability constraints for the optimization.

  18. Non-Invasive Method of Determining Absolute Intracranial Pressure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yost, William T. (Inventor); Cantrell, John H., Jr. (Inventor); Hargens, Alan E. (Inventor)

    2004-01-01

    A method is presented for determining absolute intracranial pressure (ICP) in a patient. Skull expansion is monitored while changes in ICP are induced. The patient's blood pressure is measured when skull expansion is approximately zero. The measured blood pressure is indicative of a reference ICP value. Subsequently, the method causes a known change in ICP and measured the change in skull expansion associated therewith. The absolute ICP is a function of the reference ICP value, the known change in ICP and its associated change in skull expansion; and a measured change in skull expansion.

  19. Improved Absolute Radiometric Calibration of a UHF Airborne Radar

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chapin, Elaine; Hawkins, Brian P.; Harcke, Leif; Hensley, Scott; Lou, Yunling; Michel, Thierry R.; Moreira, Laila; Muellerschoen, Ronald J.; Shimada, Joanne G.; Tham, Kean W.; hide

    2015-01-01

    The AirMOSS airborne SAR operates at UHF and produces fully polarimetric imagery. The AirMOSS radar data are used to produce Root Zone Soil Moisture (RZSM) depth profiles. The absolute radiometric accuracy of the imagery, ideally of better than 0.5 dB, is key to retrieving RZSM, especially in wet soils where the backscatter as a function of soil moisture function tends to flatten out. In this paper we assess the absolute radiometric uncertainty in previously delivered data, describe a method to utilize Built In Test (BIT) data to improve the radiometric calibration, and evaluate the improvement from applying the method.

  20. A generalized population dynamics model for reproductive interference with absolute density dependence.

    PubMed

    Kyogoku, Daisuke; Sota, Teiji

    2017-05-17

    Interspecific mating interactions, or reproductive interference, can affect population dynamics, species distribution and abundance. Previous population dynamics models have assumed that the impact of frequency-dependent reproductive interference depends on the relative abundances of species. However, this assumption could be an oversimplification inappropriate for making quantitative predictions. Therefore, a more general model to forecast population dynamics in the presence of reproductive interference is required. Here we developed a population dynamics model to describe the absolute density dependence of reproductive interference, which appears likely when encounter rate between individuals is important. Our model (i) can produce diverse shapes of isoclines depending on parameter values and (ii) predicts weaker reproductive interference when absolute density is low. These novel characteristics can create conditions where coexistence is stable and independent from the initial conditions. We assessed the utility of our model in an empirical study using an experimental pair of seed beetle species, Callosobruchus maculatus and Callosobruchus chinensis. Reproductive interference became stronger with increasing total beetle density even when the frequencies of the two species were kept constant. Our model described the effects of absolute density and showed a better fit to the empirical data than the existing model overall.

  1. Absolute atomic hydrogen densities in a radio frequency discharge measured by two-photon laser induced fluorescence imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chérigier, L.; Czarnetzki, U.; Luggenhölscher, D.; Schulz-von der Gathen, V.; Döbele, H. F.

    1999-01-01

    Absolute atomic hydrogen densities were measured in the gaseous electronics conference reference cell parallel plate reactor by Doppler-free two-photon absorption laser induced fluorescence spectroscopy (TALIF) at λ=205 nm. The capacitively coupled radio frequency discharge was operated at 13.56 MHz in pure hydrogen under various input power and pressure conditions. The Doppler-free excitation technique with an unfocused laser beam together with imaging the fluorescence radiation by an intensified charge coupled device camera allows instantaneous spatial resolution along the radial direction. Absolute density calibration is obtained with the aid of a flow tube reactor and titration with NO2. The influence of spatial intensity inhomogenities along the laser beam and subsequent fluorescence are corrected by TALIF in xenon. A full mapping of the absolute density distribution between the electrodes was obtained. The detection limit for atomic hydrogen amounts to about 2×1018 m-3. The dissociation degree is of the order of a few percent.

  2. Cognitive factors affecting children's nonsymbolic and symbolic magnitude judgment abilities: A latent profile analysis.

    PubMed

    Chew, Cindy S; Forte, Jason D; Reeve, Robert A

    2016-12-01

    Early math abilities are claimed to be linked to magnitude representation ability. Some claim that nonsymbolic magnitude abilities scaffold the acquisition of symbolic (Arabic number) magnitude abilities and influence math ability. Others claim that symbolic magnitude abilities, and ipso facto math abilities, are independent of nonsymbolic abilities and instead depend on the ability to process number symbols (e.g., 2, 7). Currently, the issue of whether symbolic abilities are or are not related to nonsymbolic abilities, and the cognitive factors associated with nonsymbolic-symbolic relationships, remains unresolved. We suggest that different nonsymbolic-symbolic relationships reside within the general magnitude ability distribution and that different cognitive abilities are likely associated with these different relationships. We further suggest that the different nonsymbolic-symbolic relationships and cognitive abilities in combination differentially predict math abilities. To test these claims, we used latent profile analysis to identify nonsymbolic-symbolic judgment patterns of 124, 5- to 7-year-olds. We also assessed four cognitive factors (visuospatial working memory [VSWM], naming numbers, nonverbal IQ, and basic reaction time [RT]) and two math abilities (number transcoding and single-digit addition abilities). Four nonsymbolic-symbolic ability profiles were identified. Naming numbers, VSWM, and basic RT abilities were differentially associated with the different ability profiles and in combination differentially predicted math abilities. Findings show that different patterns of nonsymbolic-symbolic magnitude abilities can be identified and suggest that an adequate account of math development should specify the inter-relationship between cognitive factors and nonsymbolic-symbolic ability patterns. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. On the impact of the magnitude of interstellar pressure on physical properties of molecular cloud

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anathpindika, S.; Burkert, A.; Kuiper, R.

    2017-04-01

    Recently reported variations in the typical physical properties of Galactic and extra-Galactic molecular clouds (MCs), and, in their star-forming ability, have been attributed to local variations in the magnitude of interstellar pressure. Inferences from these surveys have called into question two long-standing beliefs that: (1) MCs are virialized and (2) they obey the Larson's third law. Here we invoked the framework of cloud formation via collision between warm gas-flows to examine if these latest observational inferences can be reconciled. To this end, we traced the temporal evolution of the gas surface density, the fraction of dense gas, the distribution of gas column density (N-PDF) and the virial nature of the assembled clouds. We conclude that these physical properties exhibit temporal variation and their respective peak magnitude also increases in proportion with the magnitude of external pressure, Pext. The velocity dispersion in assembled clouds appears to follow the power law, σ _{gas}∝ P_{ext}^{0.23}. The power-law tail of the N-PDFs at higher densities becomes shallower with increasing magnitude of external pressure for Pext/kB ≲ 107 K cm-3; at higher magnitudes such as those typically found in the Galactic Central Molecular Zone (Pext/kB > 107 K cm-3), the power-law shows significant steepening. While our results are broadly consistent with inferences from various recent observational surveys, it appears that MCs do not exhibit a unique set of properties, but rather a wide variety that can be reconciled with a range of magnitudes of pressure between 104 and 108 K cm-3.

  4. Magnitude-based Inference”: A Statistical Review

    PubMed Central

    Welsh, Alan H.; Knight, Emma J.

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Purpose We consider “magnitude-based inference” and its interpretation by examining in detail its use in the problem of comparing two means. Methods We extract from the spreadsheets, which are provided to users of the analysis (http://www.sportsci.org/), a precise description of how “magnitude-based inference” is implemented. We compare the implemented version of the method with general descriptions of it and interpret the method in familiar statistical terms. Results and Conclusions We show that “magnitude-based inference” is not a progressive improvement on modern statistics. The additional probabilities introduced are not directly related to the confidence interval but, rather, are interpretable either as P values for two different nonstandard tests (for different null hypotheses) or as approximate Bayesian calculations, which also lead to a type of test. We also discuss sample size calculations associated with “magnitude-based inference” and show that the substantial reduction in sample sizes claimed for the method (30% of the sample size obtained from standard frequentist calculations) is not justifiable so the sample size calculations should not be used. Rather than using “magnitude-based inference,” a better solution is to be realistic about the limitations of the data and use either confidence intervals or a fully Bayesian analysis. PMID:25051387

  5. [Low magnitude whole-body vibration and postmenopausal osteoporosis].

    PubMed

    Li, Huiming; Li, Liang

    2018-04-01

    Postmenopausal osteoporosis is a type of osteoporosis with high bone transformation rate, caused by a decrease of estrogen in the body, which is a systemic bone disease characterized by decreased bone mass and increased risk of fracture. In recent years, as a kind of non-pharmacologic treatment of osteoporosis, defined by whole-body vibration less than 1 g ( g = 9.81 m/s 2 ), low magnitude whole-body vibration is widely concerned, mainly because of its small side effects, simple operation and relative safety. Studies have shown that low magnitude whole-body vibration can improve bone strength, bone volume and bone density. But a lot of research found that, the therapeutic effects of low magnitude whole-body vibration are different depending on ages and hormone levels of subjects for animal models or human patients. There has been no definite vibration therapy can be applied to each subject so far. Studies of whole-body and cellular level suggest that low magnitude whole-body vibration stimulation is likely to be associated with changes of hormone levels and directed differentiation of stem cells. Based on the analysis of related literature in recent years, this paper made a review from vibration parameters, vibration effects and the mechanisms, to provide scientific basis and clinical guidance for the treatment of postmenopausal osteoporosis with low magnitude whole-body vibration.

  6. Moment Magnitudes and Local Magnitudes for Small Earthquakes: Implications for Ground-Motion Prediction and b-values

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baltay, A.; Hanks, T. C.; Vernon, F.

    2016-12-01

    We illustrate two essential consequences of the systematic difference between moment magnitude and local magnitude for small earthquakes, illuminating the underlying earthquake physics. Moment magnitude, M 2/3 log M0, is uniformly valid for all earthquake sizes [Hanks and Kanamori, 1979]. However, the relationship between local magnitude ML and moment is itself magnitude dependent. For moderate events, 3< M < 7, M and M­L are coincident; for earthquakes smaller than M3, ML log M0 [Hanks and Boore, 1984]. This is a consequence of the saturation of the apparent corner frequency fc as it becoming greater than the largest observable frequency, fmax; In this regime, stress drop no longer controls ground motion. This implies that ML and M differ by a factor of 1.5 for these small events. While this idea is not new, its implications are important as more small-magnitude data are incorporated into earthquake hazard research. With a large dataset of M<3 earthquakes recorded on the ANZA network, we demonstrate striking consequences of the difference between M and ML. ML scales as the log peak ground motions (e.g., PGA or PGV) for these small earthquakes, which yields log PGA log M0 [Boore, 1986]. We plot nearly 15,000 records of PGA and PGV at close stations, adjusted for site conditions and for geometrical spreading to 10 km. The slope of the log of ground motion is 1.0*ML­, or 1.5*M, confirming the relationship, and that fc >> fmax. Just as importantly, if this relation is overlooked, prediction of large-magnitude ground motion from small earthquakes will be misguided. We also consider the effect of this magnitude scale difference on b-value. The oft-cited b-value of 1 should hold for small magnitudes, given M. Use of ML necessitates b=2/3 for the same data set; use of mixed, or unknown, magnitudes complicates the matter further. This is of particular import when estimating the rate of large earthquakes when one has limited data on their recurrence, as is the case for

  7. Differentiating induced and natural seismicity using space-time-magnitude statistics applied to the Coso Geothermal field

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schoenball, Martin; Davatzes, Nicholas C.; Glen, Jonathan M. G.

    2015-01-01

    A remarkable characteristic of earthquakes is their clustering in time and space, displaying their self-similarity. It remains to be tested if natural and induced earthquakes share the same behavior. We study natural and induced earthquakes comparatively in the same tectonic setting at the Coso Geothermal Field. Covering the preproduction and coproduction periods from 1981 to 2013, we analyze interevent times, spatial dimension, and frequency-size distributions for natural and induced earthquakes. Individually, these distributions are statistically indistinguishable. Determining the distribution of nearest neighbor distances in a combined space-time-magnitude metric, lets us identify clear differences between both kinds of seismicity. Compared to natural earthquakes, induced earthquakes feature a larger population of background seismicity and nearest neighbors at large magnitude rescaled times and small magnitude rescaled distances. Local stress perturbations induced by field operations appear to be strong enough to drive local faults through several seismic cycles and reactivate them after time periods on the order of a year.

  8. Improving absolute gravity estimates by the L p -norm approximation of the ballistic trajectory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nagornyi, V. D.; Svitlov, S.; Araya, A.

    2016-04-01

    Iteratively re-weighted least squares (IRLS) were used to simulate the L p -norm approximation of the ballistic trajectory in absolute gravimeters. Two iterations of the IRLS delivered sufficient accuracy of the approximation without a significant bias. The simulations were performed on different samplings and perturbations of the trajectory. For the platykurtic distributions of the perturbations, the L p -approximation with 3  <  p  <  4 was found to yield several times more precise gravity estimates compared to the standard least-squares. The simulation results were confirmed by processing real gravity observations performed at the excessive noise conditions.

  9. Laser, GPS and absolute gravimetry vertical positioning time series comparison at the OCA observatory, France

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nicolas, J.; Nocquet, J.; van Camp, M.; Coulot, D.

    2003-12-01

    Time-dependent displacements of stations usually have magnitude close to the accuracy of each individual technique, and it still remains difficult to separate the true geophysical motion from possible artifacts inherent to each space geodetic technique. The Observatoire de la C“te d'Azur (OCA), located at Grasse, France benefits from the collocation of several geodetic instruments and techniques (3 laser ranging stations, and a permanent GPS) what allows us to do a direct comparison of the time series. Moreover, absolute gravimetry measurement campaigns have also been regularly performed since 1997, first by the "Ecole et Observatoire des Sciences de la Terre (EOST) of Strasbourg, France, and more recently by the Royal Observatory of Belgium. This study presents a comparison between the positioning time series of the vertical component derived from the SLR and GPS analysis with the gravimetric results from 1997 to 2003. The laser station coordinates are based on a LAGEOS -1 and -2 combined solution using reference 10-day arc orbits, the ITRF2000 reference frame, and the IERS96 conventions. Different GPS weekly global solutions provided from several IGS are combined and compared to the SLR results. The absolute gravimetry measurements are converted into vertical displacements with a classical gradient. The laser time series indicate a strong annual signal at the level of about 3-4 cm peak to peak amplitude on the vertical component. Absolute gravimetry data agrees with the SLR results. GPS positioning solutions also indicate a significant annual term, but with a magnitude of only 50% of the one shown by the SLR solution and by the gravimetry measurements. Similar annual terms are also observed on other SLR sites we processed, but usually with! lower and various amplitudes. These annual signals are also compared to vertical positioning variations corresponding to an atmospheric loading model. We present the level of agreement between the different techniques and we

  10. Executive Function and Magnitude Skills in Preschool Children

    PubMed Central

    Prager, Emily O.; Sera, Maria D.; Carlson, Stephanie M.

    2016-01-01

    Executive Function (EF) has been highlighted as a potentially important factor for mathematical understanding. The relation has been well established in school-aged children but has been less explored at younger ages. The current study investigated the relation between EF and mathematics in preschool aged children. Participants were 142 typically developing 3- and 4-year-olds. Controlling for verbal ability, a significant positive correlation was found between EF and general math abilities in this age group. Importantly, we further examined this relation causally by varying the EF load on a magnitude comparison task. Results suggested a developmental pattern wherein 3-year-olds’ performance on the magnitude comparison task was worst when EF was taxed the most. Conversely, 4-year-olds performed well on the magnitude task despite varying EF demands, suggesting that EF might play a critical role in the development of math concepts. PMID:27082019

  11. [Nurses' professional prestige: estimate of magnitudes and expanded categories].

    PubMed

    Sousa, F A; da Silva, J A

    2001-01-01

    The prestige of professionals such as social workers, biologists, dentists, nurses, engineers, pharmacists, physicists, physical therapists, speech-language pathologists, physicians, psychologists, chemists and sociologists was scaled by the psychophysical methods of estimation of magnitudes and expanded categories. Results showed that: 1) when we increase the limited amplitude of categories, this method has the same characteristics as those of the estimation of magnitudes. 2) the relationship between the estimations of magnitudes and estimations of expanded categories is a power function with an exponent that is not significantly different from 1.0. These data enabled the following conclusions: 1--The nursing profession is in the seventh or eighth position regarding the prestige of the 13 professions whereas physicians are in the first position in the scale obtained by the used methods; 2--the orders resulting from the methods produce positions of prestige that highly agree for the different professions.

  12. Application of a time-magnitude prediction model for earthquakes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    An, Weiping; Jin, Xueshen; Yang, Jialiang; Dong, Peng; Zhao, Jun; Zhang, He

    2007-06-01

    In this paper we discuss the physical meaning of the magnitude-time model parameters for earthquake prediction. The gestation process for strong earthquake in all eleven seismic zones in China can be described by the magnitude-time prediction model using the computations of the parameters of the model. The average model parameter values for China are: b = 0.383, c=0.154, d = 0.035, B = 0.844, C = -0.209, and D = 0.188. The robustness of the model parameters is estimated from the variation in the minimum magnitude of the transformed data, the spatial extent, and the temporal period. Analysis of the spatial and temporal suitability of the model indicates that the computation unit size should be at least 4° × 4° for seismic zones in North China, at least 3° × 3° in Southwest and Northwest China, and the time period should be as long as possible.

  13. Magnitude comparison with different types of rational numbers.

    PubMed

    DeWolf, Melissa; Grounds, Margaret A; Bassok, Miriam; Holyoak, Keith J

    2014-02-01

    An important issue in understanding mathematical cognition involves the similarities and differences between the magnitude representations associated with various types of rational numbers. For single-digit integers, evidence indicates that magnitudes are represented as analog values on a mental number line, such that magnitude comparisons are made more quickly and accurately as the numerical distance between numbers increases (the distance effect). Evidence concerning a distance effect for compositional numbers (e.g., multidigit whole numbers, fractions and decimals) is mixed. We compared the patterns of response times and errors for college students in magnitude comparison tasks across closely matched sets of rational numbers (e.g., 22/37, 0.595, 595). In Experiment 1, a distance effect was found for both fractions and decimals, but response times were dramatically slower for fractions than for decimals. Experiments 2 and 3 compared performance across fractions, decimals, and 3-digit integers. Response patterns for decimals and integers were extremely similar but, as in Experiment 1, magnitude comparisons based on fractions were dramatically slower, even when the decimals varied in precision (i.e., number of place digits) and could not be compared in the same way as multidigit integers (Experiment 3). Our findings indicate that comparisons of all three types of numbers exhibit a distance effect, but that processing often involves strategic focus on components of numbers. Fractions impose an especially high processing burden due to their bipartite (a/b) structure. In contrast to the other number types, the magnitude values associated with fractions appear to be less precise, and more dependent on explicit calculation. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved.

  14. 20 CFR 404.1205 - Absolute coverage groups.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Absolute coverage groups. 404.1205 Section 404.1205 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION FEDERAL OLD-AGE, SURVIVORS AND DISABILITY... grouping of employees, e.g., all the employees of a city or town. It is a coverage group for coverage and...

  15. Population-based absolute risk estimation with survey data

    PubMed Central

    Kovalchik, Stephanie A.; Pfeiffer, Ruth M.

    2013-01-01

    Absolute risk is the probability that a cause-specific event occurs in a given time interval in the presence of competing events. We present methods to estimate population-based absolute risk from a complex survey cohort that can accommodate multiple exposure-specific competing risks. The hazard function for each event type consists of an individualized relative risk multiplied by a baseline hazard function, which is modeled nonparametrically or parametrically with a piecewise exponential model. An influence method is used to derive a Taylor-linearized variance estimate for the absolute risk estimates. We introduce novel measures of the cause-specific influences that can guide modeling choices for the competing event components of the model. To illustrate our methodology, we build and validate cause-specific absolute risk models for cardiovascular and cancer deaths using data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Our applications demonstrate the usefulness of survey-based risk prediction models for predicting health outcomes and quantifying the potential impact of disease prevention programs at the population level. PMID:23686614

  16. Absolute Risk Aversion and the Returns to Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brunello, Giorgio

    2002-01-01

    Uses 1995 Italian household income and wealth survey to measure individual absolute risk aversion of 1,583 married Italian male household heads. Uses this measure as an instrument for attained education in a standard-log earnings equation. Finds that the IV estimate of the marginal return to schooling is much higher than the ordinary least squares…

  17. Absolute Value Inequalities: High School Students' Solutions and Misconceptions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Almog, Nava; Ilany, Bat-Sheva

    2012-01-01

    Inequalities are one of the foundational subjects in high school math curricula, but there is a lack of academic research into how students learn certain types of inequalities. This article fills part of the research gap by presenting the findings of a study that examined high school students' methods of approaching absolute value inequalities,…

  18. Relative versus Absolute Stimulus Control in the Temporal Bisection Task

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Carvalho, Marilia Pinhiero; Machado, Armando

    2012-01-01

    When subjects learn to associate two sample durations with two comparison keys, do they learn to associate the keys with the short and long samples (relational hypothesis), or with the specific sample durations (absolute hypothesis)? We exposed 16 pigeons to an ABA design in which phases A and B corresponded to tasks using samples of 1 s and 4 s,…

  19. Regions of absolute ultimate boundedness for discrete-time systems.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Siljak, D. D.; Weissenberger, S.

    1972-01-01

    This paper considers discrete-time systems of the Lur'e-Postnikov class where the linear part is not asymptotically stable and the nonlinear characteristic satisfies only partially the usual sector condition. Estimates of the resulting finite regions of absolute ultimate boundedness are calculated by means of a quadratic Liapunov function.

  20. Analysis of standard reference materials by absolute INAA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heft, R. E.; Koszykowski, R. F.

    1981-07-01

    Three standard reference materials: flyash, soil, and ASI 4340 steel, are analyzed by a method of absolute instrumental neutron activation analysis. Two different light water pool-type reactors were used to produce equivalent analytical results even though the epithermal to thermal flux ratio in one reactor was higher than that in the other by a factor of two.

  1. Absolute Interrogative Intonation Patterns in Buenos Aires Spanish

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Su Ar

    2010-01-01

    In Spanish, each uttered phrase, depending on its use, has one of a variety of intonation patterns. For example, a phrase such as "Maria viene manana" "Mary is coming tomorrow" can be used as a declarative or as an absolute interrogative (a yes/no question) depending on the intonation pattern that a speaker produces. …

  2. NIST Stars: Absolute Spectrophotometric Calibration of Vega and Sirius

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deustua, Susana; Woodward, John T.; Rice, Joseph P.; Brown, Steven W.; Maxwell, Stephen E.; Alberding, Brian G.; Lykke, Keith R.

    2018-01-01

    Absolute flux calibration of standard stars, traceable to SI (International System of Units) standards, is essential for 21st century astrophysics. Dark energy investigations that rely on observations of Type Ia supernovae and precise photometric redshifts of weakly lensed galaxies require a minimum accuracy of 0.5 % in the absolute color calibration. Studies that aim to address fundamental stellar astrophysics also benefit. In the era of large telescopes and all sky surveys well-calibrated standard stars that do not saturate and that are available over the whole sky are needed. Significant effort has been expended to obtain absolute measurements of the fundamental standards Vega and Sirius (and other stars) in the visible and near infrared, achieving total uncertainties between1% and 3%, depending on wavelength, that do not meet the needed accuracy. The NIST Stars program aims to determine the top-of-the-atmosphere absolute spectral irradiance of bright stars to an uncertainty less than 1% from a ground-based observatory. NIST Stars has developed a novel, fully SI-traceable laboratory calibration strategy that will enable achieving the desired accuracy. This strategy has two key components. The first is the SI-traceable calibration of the entire instrument system, and the second is the repeated spectroscopic measurement of the target star throughout the night. We will describe our experimental strategy, present preliminary results for Vega and Sirius and an end-to-end uncertainty budget

  3. Absolute and relative educational inequalities in depression in Europe.

    PubMed

    Dudal, Pieter; Bracke, Piet

    2016-09-01

    To investigate (1) the size of absolute and relative educational inequalities in depression, (2) their variation between European countries, and (3) their relationship with underlying prevalence rates. Analyses are based on the European Social Survey, rounds three and six (N = 57,419). Depression is measured using the shortened Centre of Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale. Education is coded by use of the International Standard Classification of Education. Country-specific logistic regressions are applied. Results point to an elevated risk of depressive symptoms among the lower educated. The cross-national patterns differ between absolute and relative measurements. For men, large relative inequalities are found for countries including Denmark and Sweden, but are accompanied by small absolute inequalities. For women, large relative and absolute inequalities are found in Belgium, Bulgaria, and Hungary. Results point to an empirical association between inequalities and the underlying prevalence rates. However, the strength of the association is only moderate. This research stresses the importance of including both measurements for comparative research and suggests the inclusion of the level of population health in research into inequalities in health.

  4. Lyman alpha SMM/UVSP absolute calibration and geocoronal correction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fontenla, Juan M.; Reichmann, Edwin J.

    1987-01-01

    Lyman alpha observations from the Ultraviolet Spectrometer Polarimeter (UVSP) instrument of the Solar Maximum Mission (SMM) spacecraft were analyzed and provide instrumental calibration details. Specific values of the instrument quantum efficiency, Lyman alpha absolute intensity, and correction for geocoronal absorption are presented.

  5. Absolute configurations of zingiberenols isolated from ginger (Zingiber officinale) rhizomes

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The sesquiterpene alcohol zingiberenol, or 1,10-bisaboladien-3-ol, was isolated some time ago from ginger, Zingiber officinale, rhizomes, but its absolute configuration had not been determined. With three chiral centers present in the molecule, zingiberenol can exist in eight stereoisomeric forms. ...

  6. High-magnitude head impact exposure in youth football.

    PubMed

    Campolettano, Eamon T; Gellner, Ryan A; Rowson, Steven

    2017-12-01

    OBJECTIVE Even in the absence of a clinically diagnosed concussion, research suggests that neurocognitive changes may develop in football players as a result of frequent head impacts that occur during football games and practices. The objectives of this study were to determine the specific situations in which high-magnitude impacts (accelerations exceeding 40 g) occur in youth football games and practices and to assess how representative practice activities are of games with regard to high-magnitude head impact exposure. METHODS A total of 45 players (mean age 10.7 ± 1.1 years) on 2 youth teams (Juniors [mean age 9.9 ± 0.6 years; mean body mass 38.9 ± 9.9 kg] and Seniors [mean age 11.9 ± 0.6 years; mean body mass 51.4 ± 11.8 kg]) wore helmets instrumented with accelerometer arrays to record head impact accelerations for all practices and games. Video recordings from practices and games were used to verify all high-magnitude head impacts, identify specific impact characteristics, and determine the amount of time spent in each activity. RESULTS A total of 7590 impacts were recorded, of which 571 resulted in high-magnitude head impact accelerations exceeding 40 g (8%). Impacts were characterized based on the position played by the team member who received the impact, the part of the field where the impact occurred, whether the impact occurred during a game or practice play, and the cause of the impact. High-magnitude impacts occurred most frequently in the open field in both games (59.4%) and practices (67.5%). "Back" position players experienced a greater proportion of high-magnitude head impacts than players at other positions. The 2 teams in this study structured their practice sessions similarly with respect to time spent in each drill, but impact rates differed for each drill between the teams. CONCLUSIONS High-magnitude head impact exposure in games and practice drills was quantified and used as the basis for comparison of exposure in the 2 settings. In

  7. Color-magnitude relations in nearby galaxy clusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rasheed, Mariwan A.; Mohammad, Khalid K.

    2018-06-01

    The rest-frame (g-r) /Mr color-magnitude relations of 12 Abell-type clusters are analyzed in the redshift range (0.02≲ z ≲ 0.10) and within a projected radius of 0.75 Mpc using photometric data from SDSS-DR9. We show that the color-magnitude relation parameters (slope, zero-point, and scatter) do not exhibit significant evolution within this low-redshift range. Thus, we can say that during the look-back time of z ˜ 0.1 all red sequence galaxies evolve passively, without any star formation activity.

  8. High-magnitude head impact exposure in youth football

    PubMed Central

    Campolettano, Eamon T.; Gellner, Ryan A.; Rowson, Steven

    2018-01-01

    OBJECTIVE Even in the absence of a clinically diagnosed concussion, research suggests that neurocognitive changes may develop in football players as a result of frequent head impacts that occur during football games and practices. The objectives of this study were to determine the specific situations in which high-magnitude impacts (accelerations exceeding 40g) occur in youth football games and practices and to assess how representative practice activities are of games with regard to high-magnitude head impact exposure. METHODS A total of 45 players (mean age 10.7 ± 1.1 years) on 2 youth teams (Juniors [mean age 9.9 ± 0.6 years; mean body mass 38.9 ± 9.9 kg] and Seniors [mean age 11.9 ± 0.6 years; mean body mass 51.4 ± 11.8 kg]) wore helmets instrumented with accelerometer arrays to record head impact accelerations for all practices and games. Video recordings from practices and games were used to verify all high-magnitude head impacts, identify specific impact characteristics, and determine the amount of time spent in each activity. RESULTS A total of 7590 impacts were recorded, of which 571 resulted in high-magnitude head impact accelerations exceeding 40g (8%). Impacts were characterized based on the position played by the team member who received the impact, the part of the field where the impact occurred, whether the impact occurred during a game or practice play, and the cause of the impact. High-magnitude impacts occurred most frequently in the open field in both games (59.4%) and practices (67.5%). “Back” position players experienced a greater proportion of high-magnitude head impacts than players at other positions. The 2 teams in this study structured their practice sessions similarly with respect to time spent in each drill, but impact rates differed for each drill between the teams. CONCLUSIONS High-magnitude head impact exposure in games and practice drills was quantified and used as the basis for comparison of exposure in the 2 settings. In

  9. Research on temperature characteristics of laser energy meter absorber irradiated by ms magnitude long pulse laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Nan; Qiao, Chunhong; Fan, Chengyu; Zhang, Jinghui; Yang, Gaochao

    2017-10-01

    The research on temperature characteristics for large-energy laser energy meter absorber is about continuous wave (CW) laser before. For the measuring requirements of millisecond magnitude long pulse laser energy, the temperature characteristics for absorber are numerically calculated and analyzed. In calculation, the temperature field distributions are described by heat conduction equations, and the metal cylinder cavity is used for absorber model. The results show that, the temperature of absorber inwall appears periodic oscillation with pulse structure, the oscillation period and amplitude respectively relate to the pulse repetition frequency and single pulse energy. With the wall deep increasing, the oscillation amplitude decreases rapidly. The temperature of absorber outerwall is without periodism, and rises gradually with time. The factors to affect the temperature rise of absorber are single pulse energy, pulse width and repetition frequency. When the laser irradiation stops, the temperature between absorber inwall and outerwall will reach agreement rapidly. After special technology processing to enhance the capacity of resisting laser damage for absorber inwall, the ms magnitude long pulse laser energy can be obtained with the method of measuring the temperature of absorber outerwall. Meanwhile, by optimization design of absorber structure, when the repetition frequency of ms magnitude pulse laser is less than 10Hz, the energy of every pulse for low repetition frequency pulse sequence can be measured. The work offers valuable references for the design of ms magnitude large-energy pulse laser energy meter.

  10. Estimators of The Magnitude-Squared Spectrum and Methods for Incorporating SNR Uncertainty

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Yang; Loizou, Philipos C.

    2011-01-01

    Statistical estimators of the magnitude-squared spectrum are derived based on the assumption that the magnitude-squared spectrum of the noisy speech signal can be computed as the sum of the (clean) signal and noise magnitude-squared spectra. Maximum a posterior (MAP) and minimum mean square error (MMSE) estimators are derived based on a Gaussian statistical model. The gain function of the MAP estimator was found to be identical to the gain function used in the ideal binary mask (IdBM) that is widely used in computational auditory scene analysis (CASA). As such, it was binary and assumed the value of 1 if the local SNR exceeded 0 dB, and assumed the value of 0 otherwise. By modeling the local instantaneous SNR as an F-distributed random variable, soft masking methods were derived incorporating SNR uncertainty. The soft masking method, in particular, which weighted the noisy magnitude-squared spectrum by the a priori probability that the local SNR exceeds 0 dB was shown to be identical to the Wiener gain function. Results indicated that the proposed estimators yielded significantly better speech quality than the conventional MMSE spectral power estimators, in terms of yielding lower residual noise and lower speech distortion. PMID:21886543

  11. Standardization approaches in absolute quantitative proteomics with mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Calderón-Celis, Francisco; Encinar, Jorge Ruiz; Sanz-Medel, Alfredo

    2017-07-31

    Mass spectrometry-based approaches have enabled important breakthroughs in quantitative proteomics in the last decades. This development is reflected in the better quantitative assessment of protein levels as well as to understand post-translational modifications and protein complexes and networks. Nowadays, the focus of quantitative proteomics shifted from the relative determination of proteins (ie, differential expression between two or more cellular states) to absolute quantity determination, required for a more-thorough characterization of biological models and comprehension of the proteome dynamism, as well as for the search and validation of novel protein biomarkers. However, the physico-chemical environment of the analyte species affects strongly the ionization efficiency in most mass spectrometry (MS) types, which thereby require the use of specially designed standardization approaches to provide absolute quantifications. Most common of such approaches nowadays include (i) the use of stable isotope-labeled peptide standards, isotopologues to the target proteotypic peptides expected after tryptic digestion of the target protein; (ii) use of stable isotope-labeled protein standards to compensate for sample preparation, sample loss, and proteolysis steps; (iii) isobaric reagents, which after fragmentation in the MS/MS analysis provide a final detectable mass shift, can be used to tag both analyte and standard samples; (iv) label-free approaches in which the absolute quantitative data are not obtained through the use of any kind of labeling, but from computational normalization of the raw data and adequate standards; (v) elemental mass spectrometry-based workflows able to provide directly absolute quantification of peptides/proteins that contain an ICP-detectable element. A critical insight from the Analytical Chemistry perspective of the different standardization approaches and their combinations used so far for absolute quantitative MS-based (molecular and

  12. Towards absolute laser spectroscopic CO2 isotope ratio measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anyangwe Nwaboh, Javis; Werhahn, Olav; Ebert, Volker

    2017-04-01

    Knowledge of isotope composition of carbon dioxide (CO2) in the atmosphere is necessary to identify sources and sinks of this key greenhouse gas. In the last years, laser spectroscopic techniques such as cavity ring-down spectroscopy (CRDS) and tunable diode laser absorption spectroscopy (TDLAS) have been shown to perform accurate isotope ratio measurements for CO2 and other gases like water vapour (H2O) [1,2]. Typically, isotope ratios are reported in literature referring to reference materials provided by e.g. the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA). However, there could be some benefit if field deployable absolute isotope ratio measurement methods were developed to address issues such as exhausted reference material like the Pee Dee Belemnite (PDB) standard. Absolute isotope ratio measurements would be particularly important for situations where reference materials do not even exist. Here, we present CRDS and TDLAS-based absolute isotope ratios (13C/12C ) in atmospheric CO2. We demonstrate the capabilities of the used methods by measuring CO2 isotope ratios in gas standards. We compare our results to values reported for the isotope certified gas standards. Guide to the expression of uncertainty in measurement (GUM) compliant uncertainty budgets on the CRDS and TDLAS absolute isotope ratio measurements are presented, and traceability is addressed. We outline the current impediments in realizing high accuracy absolute isotope ratio measurements using laser spectroscopic methods, propose solutions and the way forward. Acknowledgement Parts of this work have been carried out within the European Metrology Research Programme (EMRP) ENV52 project-HIGHGAS. The EMRP is jointly funded by the EMRP participating countries within EURAMET and the European Union. References [1] B. Kühnreich, S. Wagner, J. C. Habig,·O. Möhler, H. Saathoff, V. Ebert, Appl. Phys. B 119:177-187 (2015). [2] E. Kerstel, L. Gianfrani, Appl. Phys. B 92, 439-449 (2008).

  13. Working Memory Strategies during Rational Number Magnitude Processing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hurst, Michelle; Cordes, Sara

    2017-01-01

    Rational number understanding is a critical building block for success in more advanced mathematics; however, how rational number magnitudes are conceptualized is not fully understood. In the current study, we used a dual-task working memory (WM) interference paradigm to investigate the dominant type of strategy (i.e., requiring verbal WM…

  14. Neural representations of magnitude for natural and rational numbers.

    PubMed

    DeWolf, Melissa; Chiang, Jeffrey N; Bassok, Miriam; Holyoak, Keith J; Monti, Martin M

    2016-11-01

    Humans have developed multiple symbolic representations for numbers, including natural numbers (positive integers) as well as rational numbers (both fractions and decimals). Despite a considerable body of behavioral and neuroimaging research, it is currently unknown whether different notations map onto a single, fully abstract, magnitude code, or whether separate representations exist for specific number types (e.g., natural versus rational) or number representations (e.g., base-10 versus fractions). We address this question by comparing brain metabolic response during a magnitude comparison task involving (on different trials) integers, decimals, and fractions. Univariate and multivariate analyses revealed that the strength and pattern of activation for fractions differed systematically, within the intraparietal sulcus, from that of both decimals and integers, while the latter two number representations appeared virtually indistinguishable. These results demonstrate that the two major notations formats for rational numbers, fractions and decimals, evoke distinct neural representations of magnitude, with decimals representations being more closely linked to those of integers than to those of magnitude-equivalent fractions. Our findings thus suggest that number representation (base-10 versus fractions) is an important organizational principle for the neural substrate underlying mathematical cognition. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Magnitude Dependent Seismic Quiescence of 2008 Wenchuan Earthquake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suyehiro, K.; Sacks, S. I.; Takanami, T.; Smith, D. E.; Rydelek, P. A.

    2014-12-01

    The change in seismicity leading to the Wenchuan Earthquake in 2008 (Mw 7.9) has been studied by various authors based on statistics and/or pattern recognitions (Huang, 2008; Yan et al., 2009; Chen and Wang, 2010; Yi et al., 2011). We show, in particular, that the magnitude-dependent seismic quiescence is observed for the Wenchuan earthquake and that it adds to other similar observations. Such studies on seismic quiescence prior to major earthquakes include 1982 Urakawa-Oki earthquake (M 7.1) (Taylor et al., 1992), 1994 Hokkaido-Toho-Oki earthquake (Mw=8.2) (Takanami et al., 1996), 2011 Tohoku earthquake (Mw=9.0) (Katsumata, 2011). Smith and Sacks (2013) proposed a magnitude-dependent quiescence based on a physical earthquake model (Rydelek and Sacks, 1995) and demonstrated the quiescence can be reproduced by the introduction of "asperities" (dilantacy hardened zones). Actual observations indicate the change occurs in a broader area than the eventual earthquake fault zone. In order to accept the explanation, we need to verify the model as the model predicts somewhat controversial features of earthquakes such as the magnitude dependent stress drop at lower magnitude range or the dynamically appearing asperities and repeating slips in some parts of the rupture zone. We show supportive observations. We will also need to verify the dilatancy diffusion to be taking place. So far, we only seem to have indirect evidences, which need to be more quantitatively substantiated.

  16. What Is the Meaning of the Physical Magnitude "Work"?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kanderakis, Nikos

    2014-01-01

    Usually, in physics textbooks, the physical magnitude "work" is introduced as the product of a force multiplied by its displacement, in relation to the transfer of energy. In other words, "work" is presented as an internal affair of physics theory, while its relation to the world of experience, that is its empirical meaning, is…

  17. Magnitude Bias of Microlensed Sources toward the Large Magellanic Cloud.

    PubMed

    Zhao; Graff; Guhathakurta

    2000-03-20

    There are lines of evidence suggesting that some of the observed microlensing events in the direction of the Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC) are caused by ordinary star lenses as opposed to dark MACHOs in the Galactic halo. Efficient lensing by ordinary stars generally requires the presence of one or more additional concentrations of stars along the line of sight to the LMC disk. If such a population behind the LMC disk exists, then the source stars (for lensing by LMC disk objects) will be drawn preferentially from the background population and will show systematic differences from LMC field stars. One such difference is that the (lensed) source stars will be farther away than the average LMC field stars, and this should be reflected in their apparent baseline magnitudes. We focus on red clump stars; these should appear in the color-magnitude diagram at a few tenths of a magnitude fainter than the field red clump. Suggestively, one of the two near-clump confirmed events, MACHO-LMC-1, is a few tenths of magnitude fainter than the clump.

  18. Common magnitude representation of fractions and decimals is task dependent.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Li; Fang, Qiaochu; Gabriel, Florence C; Szűcs, Denes

    2016-01-01

    Although several studies have compared the representation of fractions and decimals, no study has investigated whether fractions and decimals, as two types of rational numbers, share a common representation of magnitude. The current study aimed to answer the question of whether fractions and decimals share a common representation of magnitude and whether the answer is influenced by task paradigms. We included two different number pairs, which were presented sequentially: fraction-decimal mixed pairs and decimal-fraction mixed pairs in all four experiments. Results showed that when the mixed pairs were very close numerically with the distance 0.1 or 0.3, there was a significant distance effect in the comparison task but not in the matching task. However, when the mixed pairs were further apart numerically with the distance 0.3 or 1.3, the distance effect appeared in the matching task regardless of the specific stimuli. We conclude that magnitudes of fractions and decimals can be represented in a common manner, but how they are represented is dependent on the given task. Fractions and decimals could be translated into a common representation of magnitude in the numerical comparison task. In the numerical matching task, fractions and decimals also shared a common representation. However, both of them were represented coarsely, leading to a weak distance effect. Specifically, fractions and decimals produced a significant distance effect only when the numerical distance was larger.

  19. Discriminability and Sensitivity to Reinforcer Magnitude in a Detection Task

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alsop, Brent; Porritt, Melissa

    2006-01-01

    Three pigeons discriminated between two sample stimuli (intensities of red light). The difficulty of the discrimination was varied over four levels. At each level, the relative reinforcer magnitude for the two correct responses was varied across conditions, and the reinforcer rates were equal. Within levels, discriminability between the sample…

  20. Fraction Development in Children: Importance of Building Numerical Magnitude Understanding

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jordan, Nancy C.; Carrique, Jessica; Hansen, Nicole; Resnick, Ilyse

    2016-01-01

    This chapter situates fraction learning within the integrated theory of numerical development. We argue that the understanding of numerical magnitudes for whole numbers as well as for fractions is critical to fraction learning in particular and mathematics achievement more generally. Results from the Delaware Longitudinal Study, which examined…

  1. Improving Children's Knowledge of Fraction Magnitudes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fazio, Lisa K.; Kennedy, Casey A.; Siegler, Robert S.

    2016-01-01

    We examined whether playing a computerized fraction game, based on the integrated theory of numerical development and on the Common Core State Standards' suggestions for teaching fractions, would improve children's fraction magnitude understanding. Fourth and fifth-graders were given brief instruction about unit fractions and played "Catch…

  2. Strategy Use and Strategy Choice in Fraction Magnitude Comparison

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fazio, Lisa K.; DeWolf, Melissa; Siegler, Robert S.

    2016-01-01

    We examined, on a trial-by-trial basis, fraction magnitude comparison strategies of adults with more and less mathematical knowledge. College students with high mathematical proficiency used a large variety of strategies that were well tailored to the characteristics of the problems and that were guaranteed to yield correct performance if executed…

  3. Representation of numerical magnitude in math-anxious individuals.

    PubMed

    Colomé, Àngels

    2018-01-01

    Larger distance effects in high math-anxious individuals (HMA) performing comparison tasks have previously been interpreted as indicating less precise magnitude representation in this population. A recent study by Dietrich, Huber, Moeller, and Klein limited the effects of math anxiety to symbolic comparison, in which they found larger distance effects for HMA, despite equivalent size effects. However, the question of whether distance effects in symbolic comparison reflect the properties of the magnitude representation or decisional processes is currently under debate. This study was designed to further explore the relation between math anxiety and magnitude representation through three different tasks. HMA and low math-anxious individuals (LMA) performed a non-symbolic comparison, in which no group differences were found. Furthermore, we did not replicate previous findings in an Arabic digit comparison, in which HMA individuals showed equivalent distance effects to their LMA peers. Lastly, there were no group differences in a counting Stroop task. Altogether, an explanation of math anxiety differences in terms of less precise magnitude representation is not supported.

  4. Quality of Explanation as an Indicator of Fraction Magnitude Understanding

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foreman-Murray, Lindsay; Fuchs, Lynn S.

    2018-01-01

    Student explanations of their mathematical thinking and conclusions have become a greater part of the assessment landscape in recent years. With a sample of 71 4th-grade students at-risk for mathematics learning disabilities, we investigated the relation between student accuracy in comparing the magnitude of fractions and the quality of students'…

  5. Establishing Ion Ratio Thresholds Based on Absolute Peak Area for Absolute Protein Quantification using Protein Cleavage Isotope Dilution Mass Spectrometry

    PubMed Central

    Loziuk, Philip L.; Sederoff, Ronald R.; Chiang, Vincent L.; Muddiman, David C.

    2014-01-01

    Quantitative mass spectrometry has become central to the field of proteomics and metabolomics. Selected reaction monitoring is a widely used method for the absolute quantification of proteins and metabolites. This method renders high specificity using several product ions measured simultaneously. With growing interest in quantification of molecular species in complex biological samples, confident identification and quantitation has been of particular concern. A method to confirm purity or contamination of product ion spectra has become necessary for achieving accurate and precise quantification. Ion abundance ratio assessments were introduced to alleviate some of these issues. Ion abundance ratios are based on the consistent relative abundance (RA) of specific product ions with respect to the total abundance of all product ions. To date, no standardized method of implementing ion abundance ratios has been established. Thresholds by which product ion contamination is confirmed vary widely and are often arbitrary. This study sought to establish criteria by which the relative abundance of product ions can be evaluated in an absolute quantification experiment. These findings suggest that evaluation of the absolute ion abundance for any given transition is necessary in order to effectively implement RA thresholds. Overall, the variation of the RA value was observed to be relatively constant beyond an absolute threshold ion abundance. Finally, these RA values were observed to fluctuate significantly over a 3 year period, suggesting that these values should be assessed as close as possible to the time at which data is collected for quantification. PMID:25154770

  6. [Prognostic value of absolute monocyte count in chronic lymphocytic leukaemia].

    PubMed

    Szerafin, László; Jakó, János; Riskó, Ferenc

    2015-04-01

    The low peripheral absolute lymphocyte and high monocyte count have been reported to correlate with poor clinical outcome in various lymphomas and other cancers. However, a few data known about the prognostic value of absolute monocyte count in chronic lymphocytic leukaemia. The aim of the authors was to investigate the impact of absolute monocyte count measured at the time of diagnosis in patients with chronic lymphocytic leukaemia on the time to treatment and overal survival. Between January 1, 2005 and December 31, 2012, 223 patients with newly-diagnosed chronic lymphocytic leukaemia were included. The rate of patients needing treatment, time to treatment, overal survival and causes of mortality based on Rai stages, CD38, ZAP-70 positivity and absolute monocyte count were analyzed. Therapy was necessary in 21.1%, 57.4%, 88.9%, 88.9% and 100% of patients in Rai stage 0, I, II, III an IV, respectively; in 61.9% and 60.8% of patients exhibiting CD38 and ZAP-70 positivity, respectively; and in 76.9%, 21.2% and 66.2% of patients if the absolute monocyte count was <0.25 G/l, between 0.25-0.75 G/l and >0.75 G/l, respectively. The median time to treatment and the median overal survival were 19.5, 65, and 35.5 months; and 41.5, 65, and 49.5 months according to the three groups of monocyte counts. The relative risk of beginning the therapy was 1.62 (p<0.01) in patients with absolute monocyte count <0.25 G/l or >0.75 G/l, as compared to those with 0.25-0.75 G/l, and the risk of overal survival was 2.41 (p<0.01) in patients with absolute monocyte count lower than 0.25 G/l as compared to those with higher than 0.25 G/l. The relative risks remained significant in Rai 0 patients, too. The leading causes of mortality were infections (41.7%) and the chronic lymphocytic leukaemia (58.3%) in patients with low monocyte count, while tumours (25.9-35.3%) and other events (48.1 and 11.8%) occurred in patients with medium or high monocyte counts. Patients with low and high monocyte

  7. Individual Movement Variability Magnitudes Are Explained by Cortical Neural Variability.

    PubMed

    Haar, Shlomi; Donchin, Opher; Dinstein, Ilan

    2017-09-13

    Humans exhibit considerable motor variability even across trivial reaching movements. This variability can be separated into specific kinematic components such as extent and direction that are thought to be governed by distinct neural processes. Here, we report that individual subjects (males and females) exhibit different magnitudes of kinematic variability, which are consistent (within individual) across movements to different targets and regardless of which arm (right or left) was used to perform the movements. Simultaneous fMRI recordings revealed that the same subjects also exhibited different magnitudes of fMRI variability across movements in a variety of motor system areas. These fMRI variability magnitudes were also consistent across movements to different targets when performed with either arm. Cortical fMRI variability in the posterior-parietal cortex of individual subjects explained their movement-extent variability. This relationship was apparent only in posterior-parietal cortex and not in other motor system areas, thereby suggesting that individuals with more variable movement preparation exhibit larger kinematic variability. We therefore propose that neural and kinematic variability are reliable and interrelated individual characteristics that may predispose individual subjects to exhibit distinct motor capabilities. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Neural activity and movement kinematics are remarkably variable. Although intertrial variability is rarely studied, here, we demonstrate that individual human subjects exhibit distinct magnitudes of neural and kinematic variability that are reproducible across movements to different targets and when performing these movements with either arm. Furthermore, when examining the relationship between cortical variability and movement variability, we find that cortical fMRI variability in parietal cortex of individual subjects explained their movement extent variability. This enabled us to explain why some subjects

  8. Larger aftershocks happen farther away: nonseparability of magnitude and spatial distributions of aftershocks

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Van Der Elst, Nicholas; Shaw, Bruce E.

    2015-01-01

    Aftershocks may be driven by stress concentrations left by the main shock rupture or by elastic stress transfer to adjacent fault sections or strands. Aftershocks that occur within the initial rupture may be limited in size, because the scale of the stress concentrations should be smaller than the primary rupture itself. On the other hand, aftershocks that occur on adjacent fault segments outside the primary rupture may have no such size limitation. Here we use high-precision double-difference relocated earthquake catalogs to demonstrate that larger aftershocks occur farther away than smaller aftershocks, when measured from the centroid of early aftershock activity—a proxy for the initial rupture. Aftershocks as large as or larger than the initiating event nucleate almost exclusively in the outer regions of the aftershock zone. This observation is interpreted as a signature of elastic rebound in the earthquake catalog and can be used to improve forecasting of large aftershocks.

  9. Surface waters of the Washita River basin in Oklahoma--magnitude, distribution, and quality of streamflow

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Laine, L.L.

    1958-01-01

    Analysis of streamflow data shows that water supply in the Washita River basin is variable, ranging from substantial amounts and almost continuous flow in the Washita River in the lower end of the basin to somewhat limited and intermittent flow in the upper part of the basin. The total yield of the basin averages 1,557,000 acre-ft per year, of which somewhat less than 1.3 percent is contributed by headwater areas in Texas. The surface waters are generally of acceptable quality for drinking purposes, excellent for irrigation uses, and suitable for many industrial purposes. In Oklahoma the high amounts of runoff tend to occur in the spring months. High runoff may occur during any month in the year but, in general, the available streamflow is relatively small in the summer. Most tributary streams have little sustained base flow and many are dry at times each year. Because of the high variability in flow, development of storage will be necessary to attain maximum utilization of the available water supplies. This report gives the average discharge at most gaging stations and at several additional sites for the 16-year period October 1938 to September 1954, used as a standard period in this report. Data are also shown on water available at several gaging stations and other sites for a given percentage of the time during the 16-year standard period. For several gaging stations data are given on minimum discharges for periods of various length during the most critical periods of record. For all gaging stations a summary of available basic data on streamflow is presented on a monthly annual basis. For other sites at which discharge measurements have been made, a tabulation of observed discharge is given. (available as photostat copy only)

  10. Distribution, Magnitude and Characterization of the Toxicity of Ukrainian Estuarine Sediments

    EPA Science Inventory

    During the Soviet era, Ukraine, then called the Ukrainian Soviet Socialist Republic, was one of the largest and most important industrial and agricultural regions of the Soviet Union. This industrial and agricultural activity resulted in the contamination of Ukraine’s environmen...

  11. Accounting for commercial vehicles in urban transportation models : task 3, magnitude and distribution.

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    1995-02-01

    The Federal Highway Administration has recently embarked on a major study of potential changes in federal policy relating to truck size and weight. The intention of this working paper is to provide researchers and policy analysts involved in this stu...

  12. Type Ia Supernova Intrinsic Magnitude Dispersion and the Fitting of Cosmological Parameters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, A. G.

    2011-02-01

    I present an analysis for fitting cosmological parameters from a Hubble diagram of a standard candle with unknown intrinsic magnitude dispersion. The dispersion is determined from the data, simultaneously with the cosmological parameters. This contrasts with the strategies used to date. The advantages of the presented analysis are that it is done in a single fit (it is not iterative), it provides a statistically founded and unbiased estimate of the intrinsic dispersion, and its cosmological-parameter uncertainties account for the intrinsic-dispersion uncertainty. Applied to Type Ia supernovae, my strategy provides a statistical measure to test for subtypes and assess the significance of any magnitude corrections applied to the calibrated candle. Parameter bias and differences between likelihood distributions produced by the presented and currently used fitters are negligibly small for existing and projected supernova data sets.

  13. Calculation of Confidence Intervals for the Maximum Magnitude of Earthquakes in Different Seismotectonic Zones of Iran

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salamat, Mona; Zare, Mehdi; Holschneider, Matthias; Zöller, Gert

    2017-03-01

    The problem of estimating the maximum possible earthquake magnitude m_max has attracted growing attention in recent years. Due to sparse data, the role of uncertainties becomes crucial. In this work, we determine the uncertainties related to the maximum magnitude in terms of confidence intervals. Using an earthquake catalog of Iran, m_max is estimated for different predefined levels of confidence in six seismotectonic zones. Assuming the doubly truncated Gutenberg-Richter distribution as a statistical model for earthquake magnitudes, confidence intervals for the maximum possible magnitude of earthquakes are calculated in each zone. While the lower limit of the confidence interval is the magnitude of the maximum observed event,the upper limit is calculated from the catalog and the statistical model. For this aim, we use the original catalog which no declustering methods applied on as well as a declustered version of the catalog. Based on the study by Holschneider et al. (Bull Seismol Soc Am 101(4):1649-1659, 2011), the confidence interval for m_max is frequently unbounded, especially if high levels of confidence are required. In this case, no information is gained from the data. Therefore, we elaborate for which settings finite confidence levels are obtained. In this work, Iran is divided into six seismotectonic zones, namely Alborz, Azerbaijan, Zagros, Makran, Kopet Dagh, Central Iran. Although calculations of the confidence interval in Central Iran and Zagros seismotectonic zones are relatively acceptable for meaningful levels of confidence, results in Kopet Dagh, Alborz, Azerbaijan and Makran are not that much promising. The results indicate that estimating m_max from an earthquake catalog for reasonable levels of confidence alone is almost impossible.

  14. Transforming GSC-II Magnitudes into JWST/FGS Count Rates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holfeltz, Sherie T.; Chayer, P.; Nelan, E. P.

    2010-01-01

    The JWST Fine Guidance Sensor (FGS) will provide the positions of guide stars to the spacecraft attitude control system to facilitate the fine pointing of the Observatory. The FGS is an infrared camera operating in an unfiltered passband from 0.6 to 5.3 microns. The ground system will select guide stars from the Guide Star Catalog II (GSC-II), which is an all-sky catalog with three optical passbands (BJ, RF, IN) derived from photographic plates, and from 2MASS. We present a method for predicting a guide star's FGS photon count rate, which is needed to operate the FGS. The method consists of first deriving equations for transforming the GSC-II optical passbands into J, H, and K for stars that are below the 2MASS faint limiting magnitude, based upon fitting the distribution of brighter stars in color-color diagrams using GSC-II and 2MASS photometry. Next, we convolve the BJ, RF, IN and predicted J, H, and K magnitudes (or 2MASS magnitudes if available) for a given star with the wavelength dependent throughput and sensitivity of the telescope and FGS. To estimate the accuracy of this method for stars that are too faint for 2MASS, we compare the predicted J, H, and K magnitudes for a large sample of stars to data from the United Kingdom Infrared Telescope (UKIRT) Deep Sky Survey (UKIDSS) Large Area Survey (LAS). Using synthetic magnitudes computed from Kurucz models for stars of different spectral types, we show that the method should provide reliable FGS count rates.

  15. Magnitude and Rupture Area Scaling Relationships of Seismicity at The Northwest Geysers EGS Demonstration Project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dreger, D. S.; Boyd, O. S.; Taira, T.; Gritto, R.

    2017-12-01

    Enhanced Geothermal System (EGS) resource development requires knowledge of subsurface physical parameters to quantify the evolution of fracture networks. Spatio-temporal source properties, including source dimension, rupture area, slip, rupture speed, and slip velocity of induced seismicity are of interest at The Geysers geothermal field, northern California to map the coseismic facture density of the EGS swarm. In this investigation we extend our previous finite-source analysis of selected M>4 earthquakes to examine source properties of smaller magnitude seismicity located in the Northwest Geysers Enhanced Geothermal System (EGS) demonstration project. Moment rate time histories of the source are found using empirical Green's function (eGf) deconvolution using the method of Mori (1993) as implemented by Dreger et al. (2007). The moment rate functions (MRFs) from data recorded using the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) short-period geophone network are inverted for finite-source parameters including the spatial distribution of fault slip, rupture velocity, and the orientation of the causative fault plane. The results show complexity in the MRF for the studied earthquakes. Thus far the estimated rupture area and the magnitude-area trend of the smaller magnitude Geysers seismicity is found to agree with the empirical relationships of Wells and Coppersmith (1994) and Leonard (2010), which were developed for much larger M>5.5 earthquakes worldwide indicating self-similar behavior extending to M2 earthquakes. We will present finite-source inversion results of the micro-earthquakes, attempting to extend the analysis to sub Mw, and demonstrate their magnitude-area scaling. The extension of the scaling laws will then enable the mapping of coseismic fracture density of the EGS swarm in the Northwest Geysers based on catalog moment magnitude estimates.

  16. Very Fast Estimation of Epicentral Distance and Magnitude from a Single Three Component Seismic Station Using Machine Learning Techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ochoa Gutierrez, L. H.; Niño Vasquez, L. F.; Vargas-Jimenez, C. A.

    2012-12-01

    To minimize adverse effects originated by high magnitude earthquakes, early warning has become a powerful tool to anticipate a seismic wave arrival to an specific location and lets to bring people and government agencies opportune information to initiate a fast response. To do this, a very fast and accurate characterization of the event must be done but this process is often made using seismograms recorded in at least 4 stations where processing time is usually greater than the wave travel time to the interest area, mainly in coarse networks. A faster process can be done if only one three component seismic station is used that is the closest unsaturated station respect to the epicenter. Here we present a Support Vector Regression algorithm which calculates Magnitude and Epicentral Distance using only 5 seconds of signal since P wave onset. This algorithm was trained with 36 records of historical earthquakes where the input were regression parameters of an exponential function estimated by least squares, corresponding to the waveform envelope and the maximum value of the observed waveform for each component in one single station. A 10 fold Cross Validation was applied for a Normalized Polynomial Kernel obtaining the mean absolute error for different exponents and complexity parameters. Magnitude could be estimated with 0.16 of mean absolute error and the distance with an error of 7.5 km for distances within 60 to 120 km. This kind of algorithm is easy to implement in hardware and can be used directly in the field station to make possible the broadcast of estimations of this values to generate fast decisions at seismological control centers, increasing the possibility to have an effective reactiontribute and Descriptors calculator for SVR model training and test

  17. The use of absolute gravity data for the validation of Global Geopotential Models and for improving quasigeoid heights determined from satellite-only Global Geopotential Models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Godah, Walyeldeen; Krynski, Jan; Szelachowska, Malgorzata

    2018-05-01

    The objective of this paper is to demonstrate the usefulness of absolute gravity data for the validation of Global Geopotential Models (GGMs). It is also aimed at improving quasigeoid heights determined from satellite-only GGMs using absolute gravity data. The area of Poland, as a unique one, covered with a homogeneously distributed set of absolute gravity data, has been selected as a study area. The gravity anomalies obtained from GGMs were validated using the corresponding ones determined from absolute gravity data. The spectral enhancement method was implemented to overcome the spectral inconsistency in data being validated. The quasigeoid heights obtained from the satellite-only GGM as well as from the satellite-only GGM in combination with absolute gravity data were evaluated with high accuracy GNSS/levelling data. Estimated accuracy of gravity anomalies obtained from GGMs investigated is of 1.7 mGal. Considering omitted gravity signal, e.g. from degree and order 101 to 2190, satellite-only GGMs can be validated at the accuracy level of 1 mGal using absolute gravity data. An improvement up to 59% in the accuracy of quasigeoid heights obtained from the satellite-only GGM can be observed when combining the satellite-only GGM with absolute gravity data.

  18. Experimental programme on absolute fission fragment yields with the lohengrin spectrometer: New optical and statistical methodologies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abdelaziz, Chebboubi; Grégoire, Kessedjian; Olivier, Serot; Sylvain, Julien-Laferriere; Christophe, Sage; Florence, Martin; Olivier, Méplan; David, Bernard; Olivier, Litaize; Aurélien, Blanc; Herbert, Faust; Paolo, Mutti; Ulli, Köster; Alain, Letourneau; Thomas, Materna; Michal, Rapala

    2017-09-01

    The study of fission yields has a major impact on the characterization and understanding of the fission process and is mandatory for reactor applications. In the past with the LOHENGRIN spectrometer of the ILL, priority has been given for the studies in the light fission fragment mass range. The LPSC in collaboration with ILL and CEA has developed a measurement program on symmetric and heavy mass fission fragment distributions. The combination of measurements with ionisation chamber and Ge detectors is necessary to describe precisely the heavy fission fragment region in mass and charge. Recently, new measurements of fission yields and kinetic energy distributions are has been made on the 233U(nth,f) reaction. The focus of this work has been on the new optical and statistical methodology and the self-normalization of the data to provide new absolute measurements, independently of any libraries, and the associated experimental covariance matrix.

  19. Dynamically balanced absolute sea level of the global ocean derived from near-surface velocity observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Niiler, Pearn P.; Maximenko, Nikolai A.; McWilliams, James C.

    2003-11-01

    The 1992-2002 time-mean absolute sea level distribution of the global ocean is computed for the first time from observations of near-surface velocity. For this computation, we use the near-surface horizontal momentum balance. The velocity observed by drifters is used to compute the Coriolis force and the force due to acceleration of water parcels. The anomaly of horizontal pressure gradient is derived from satellite altimetry and corrects the temporal bias in drifter data distribution. NCEP reanalysis winds are used to compute the force due to Ekman currents. The mean sea level gradient force, which closes the momentum balance, is integrated for mean sea level. We find that our computation agrees, within uncertainties, with the sea level computed from the geostrophic, hydrostatic momentum balance using historical mean density, except in the Antarctic Circumpolar Current. A consistent horizontally and vertically dynamically balanced, near-surface, global pressure field has now been derived from observations.

  20. Absolute 1* quantum yields for the ICN A state by diode laser gain versus absorption spectroscopy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hess, Wayne P.; Leone, Stephen R.

    1987-01-01

    Absolute I* quantum yields were measured as a function of wavelength for room temperature photodissociation of the ICN A state continuum. The temperature yields are obtained by the technique of time-resolved diode laser gain-versus-absorption spectroscopy. Quantum yields are evaluated at seven wavelengths from 248 to 284 nm. The yield at 266 nm is 66.0 +/- 2% and it falls off to 53.4 +/- 2% and 44.0 +/- 4% at 284 and 248 respectively. The latter values are significantly higher than those obtained by previous workers using infrared fluorescence. Estimates of I* quantum yields obtained from analysis of CN photofragment rotational distributions, as discussed by other workers, are in good agreement with the I* yields. The results are considered in conjunction with recent theoretical and experimental work on the CN rotational distributions and with previous I* yield results.

  1. Absolute measurement of the extreme UV solar flux

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carlson, R. W.; Ogawa, H. S.; Judge, D. L.; Phillips, E.

    1984-01-01

    A windowless rare-gas ionization chamber has been developed to measure the absolute value of the solar extreme UV flux in the 50-575-A region. Successful results were obtained on a solar-pointing sounding rocket. The ionization chamber, operated in total absorption, is an inherently stable absolute detector of ionizing UV radiation and was designed to be independent of effects from secondary ionization and gas effusion. The net error of the measurement is + or - 7.3 percent, which is primarily due to residual outgassing in the instrument, other errors such as multiple ionization, photoelectron collection, and extrapolation to the zero atmospheric optical depth being small in comparison. For the day of the flight, Aug. 10, 1982, the solar irradiance (50-575 A), normalized to unit solar distance, was found to be 5.71 + or - 0.42 x 10 to the 10th photons per sq cm sec.

  2. Absolute limit on rotation of gravitationally bound stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Glendenning, N. K.

    1994-03-01

    The authors seek an absolute limit on the rotational period for a neutron star as a function of its mass, based on the minimal constraints imposed by Einstein's theory of relativity, Le Chatelier's principle, causality, and a low-density equation of state, uncertainties which can be evaluated as to their effect on the result. This establishes a limiting curve in the mass-period plane below which no pulsar that is a neutron star can lie. For example, the minimum possible Kepler period, which is an absolute limit on rotation below which mass-shedding would occur, is 0.33 ms for a M = 1.442 solar mass neutron star (the mass of PSR1913+16). If the limit were found to be broken by any pulsar, it would signal that the confined hadronic phase of ordinary nucleons and nuclei is only metastable.

  3. Comparisons of absolute gravimeters (COOMET.M.G-S1)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vinnichenko, Mr Alexander; Germak, Alessandro, Dr

    2017-01-01

    This report describes the results of the RMO supplementary comparison COOMET.M.G-S1 (also known as bilateral comparison COOMET 634/UA/14). The comparison measurements between the two participants NSC 'IM' (pilot laboratory) and INRIM were started in December 2015 and finished in January 2016. Participants of comparisons were conducted at their national standards the measurements of the free fall acceleration in gravimetric point laboratory of absolute gravimetry of INRIM named INRiM.2. Absolute measurements of gravimetric acceleration were conducted by ballistic gravimeters. The agreement between the two participants is good. Main text To reach the main text of this paper, click on Final Report. Note that this text is that which appears in Appendix B of the BIPM key comparison database kcdb.bipm.org/. The final report has been peer-reviewed and approved for publication by the CCM, according to the provisions of the CIPM Mutual Recognition Arrangement (CIPM MRA).

  4. The importance and attainment of accurate absolute radiometric calibration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Slater, P. N.

    1984-01-01

    The importance of accurate absolute radiometric calibration is discussed by reference to the needs of those wishing to validate or use models describing the interaction of electromagnetic radiation with the atmosphere and earth surface features. The in-flight calibration methods used for the Landsat Thematic Mapper (TM) and the Systeme Probatoire d'Observation de la Terre, Haute Resolution visible (SPOT/HRV) systems are described and their limitations discussed. The questionable stability of in-flight absolute calibration methods suggests the use of a radiative transfer program to predict the apparent radiance, at the entrance pupil of the sensor, of a ground site of measured reflectance imaged through a well characterized atmosphere. The uncertainties of such a method are discussed.

  5. Remote ultrasound palpation for robotic interventions using absolute elastography.

    PubMed

    Schneider, Caitlin; Baghani, Ali; Rohling, Robert; Salcudean, Septimiu

    2012-01-01

    Although robotic surgery has addressed many of the challenges presented by minimally invasive surgery, haptic feedback and the lack of knowledge of tissue stiffness is an unsolved problem. This paper presents a system for finding the absolute elastic properties of tissue using a freehand ultrasound scanning technique, which utilizes the da Vinci Surgical robot and a custom 2D ultrasound transducer for intraoperative use. An external exciter creates shear waves in the tissue, and a local frequency estimation method computes the shear modulus. Results are reported for both phantom and in vivo models. This system can be extended to any 6 degree-of-freedom tracking method and any 2D transducer to provide real-time absolute elastic properties of tissue.

  6. Automated absolute phase retrieval in across-track interferometry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Madsen, Soren N.; Zebker, Howard A.

    1992-01-01

    Discussed is a key element in the processing of topographic radar maps acquired by the NASA/JPL airborne synthetic aperture radar configured as an across-track interferometer (TOPSAR). TOPSAR utilizes a single transmit and two receive antennas; the three-dimensional target location is determined by triangulation based on a known baseline and two measured slant ranges. The slant range difference is determined very accurately from the phase difference between the signals received by the two antennas. This phase is measured modulo 2pi, whereas it is the absolute phase which relates directly to the difference in slant range. It is shown that splitting the range bandwidth into two subbands in the processor and processing each individually allows for the absolute phase. The underlying principles and system errors which must be considered are discussed, together with the implementation and results from processing data acquired during the summer of 1991.

  7. Absolute quantification methods in tissue near-infrared spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matcher, Steven J.; Kirkpatrick, Peter J.; Nahid, K.; Cope, Mark; Delpy, David T.

    1995-05-01

    Recent work aimed at providing an absolute measurement of tissue haemoglobin saturation and a new instrument development, the spatially resolved spectrometer (SRS), are discussed. The theoretical basis of operation of this device and its hardware implementation are described and the results of validation studies on tissue simulating phantoms are presented as are preliminary measurements on human volunteers and observations on patients undergoing neurosurgery. In its present form the instrument appears to produce absolute haemoglobin saturation values for resting human skeletal muscle and the normally perfused human head which are rather low based on physiological expectations. However, we obtained a tight correlation between the saturation values measured by the SRS instrument and those obtained from blood-gas analysis of samples drawn from a jugular bulb catheter in one neurosurgery subject during clamping of the right carotid arteries.

  8. Absolute pitch does not depend on early musical training.

    PubMed

    Ross, David A; Olson, Ingrid R; Gore, John C

    2003-11-01

    The etiology and defining characteristics of absolute pitch (AP) have been controversial. To test the importance of musical training in the development of this skill, we developed a new paradigm for identifying AP that is independent of a subject's musical experience. We confirm the efficacy of the paradigm using classically defined AP and non-AP musicians. We then present data from a nonmusician who nevertheless appears to possess AP. We conclude that musical training is not necessary for the development of AP.

  9. On the Absolutely Continuous Spectrum of Stark Operators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perelman, Galina

    The stability of the absolutely continuous spectrum of the one-dimensional Stark operator under perturbations of the potential is discussed. The focus is on proving this stability under minimal assumptions on smoothness of the perturbation. A general criterion is presented together with some applications. These include the case of periodic perturbations where we show that any perturbation vL1()∩H-1/2() preserves the a.c. spectrum.

  10. Absolute-gravity stations in Western Dronning Maud Land, Antarctica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mäkinen, Jaakko; Rasindra, Ravik; Chand, Uttam; Tiwari, Virendra; Lukin, Valery; Anisimov, Michail; Melvaer, Yngve; Melland, Gudmund; Koivula, Hannu; Näränen, Jyri; Poutanen, Markku

    2013-04-01

    Absolute-gravity stations are an important part of the geodetic infrastructure of the Antarctic. They provide accurate starting values for gravity surveys performed e.g. for the determination of the geoid, for geological studies and for geophysical investigations. The time variation in gravity determined from repeated absolute-gravity measurements provides insights into the Glacial Isostatic Adjustment (GIA) and into solid Earth deformation due to variation in contemporary ice load. Given sufficient joint coverage with International Terrestrial Reference Frame (ITRF) sites, gravity rates in high latitudes could in principle provide an independent check of the geocentricity of the z-dot (velocities in the direction of the rotation axis of the Earth) of the ITRF. We review the absolute gravity stations in Western and Central Dronning Maud Land. The oldest station is at the Finnish base Aboa, with 5 measurements by the Finnish Geodetic Institute (FGI) starting with the FINNARP 1993 expedition. Measurements at Maitri (India) and Novolazarevskaya (Russia) were first performed in 2004 by the National Geophysical Research Institute (NGRI) of India, and by the FGI, respectively. In the season 2010/11 a new station was constructed at Troll (Norway). In the season 2011/12 the aforementioned four sites were occupied by the FG5-221 absolute gravimeter of the FGI. At Sanae IV (South Africa) there are previous occupations by the FG5-221, in 2003/4 and 2005/6. All these bases have continuous GNSS stations. Numerous supporting measurements have been made at the sites: microgravity networks, levelling and GNSS ties to excentres etc., for controlling the stability of the stations. At some sites, nearby glacier elevations were surveyed to monitor the attraction of the variable close-field snow and ice masses. We give a description of the sites and the measurements performed at them. The work has benefited from the co-operation in the COST Action ES0701 "Improved Constraints on Models

  11. Results from a U.S. Absolute Gravity Survey,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-01-01

    National Bureau of Standards. La . ... ,., 831A08 NOV -2- 1. Introduction We have recently completed an absolute gravity survey at twelve sites in the...Air Force Geophysics Laboratory (AFGL) and the Istituto di Metrologia -7- "G. Colonnetti" (IMGC) [Marson and Alasia, 1978, 19801. All three...for ab- solute measurements of the earth’s gravity, Metrologia , in press, 1982. L 4 !" Table 1. Gravity values transferred to the floor in gal (cm

  12. Diagnostic Application of Absolute Neutron Activation Analysis in Hematology

    SciTech Connect

    Zamboni, C.B.; Oliveira, L.C.; Dalaqua, L. Jr.

    2004-10-03

    The Absolute Neutron Activation Analysis (ANAA) technique was used to determine element concentrations of Cl and Na in blood of healthy group (male and female blood donators), select from Blood Banks at Sao Paulo city, to provide information which can help in diagnosis of patients. This study permitted to perform a discussion about the advantages and limitations of using this nuclear methodology in hematological examinations.

  13. Absolute intensity of radiation emitted by uranium plasmas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jalufka, N. W.; Lee, J. H.; Mcfarland, D. R.

    1975-01-01

    The absolute intensity of radiation emitted by fissioning and nonfissioning uranium plasmas in the spectral range from 350 nm to 1000 nm was measured. The plasma was produced in a plasma-focus apparatus and the plasma properties are simular to those anticipated for plasma-core nuclear reactors. The results are expected to contribute to the establishment of design criteria for the development of plasma-core reactors.

  14. On the Absolute Age of the Globular Cluster M92

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Di Cecco, A.; Becucci, R.; Bono, G.; Monelli, M.; Stetson, P. B.; Degl'Innocenti, S.; Prada Moroni, P. G.; Nonino, M.; Weiss, A.; Buonanno, R.; Calamida, A.; Caputo, F.; Corsi, C. E.; Ferraro, I.; Iannicola, G.; Pulone, L.; Romaniello, M.; Walker, A. R.

    2010-09-01

    We present precise and deep optical photometry of the globular M92. Data were collected in three different photometric systems: Sloan Digital Sky Survey (g‧, r‧, i‧, and z‧ MegaCam at CFHT), Johnson-Kron-Cousins (B, V, and I; various ground-based telescopes), and Advanced Camera for Surveys (ACS) Vegamag (F475W, F555W, and F814W; Hubble Space Telescope). Special attention was given to the photometric calibration, and the precision of the ground-based data is generally better than 0.01 mag. We computed a new set of α-enhanced evolutionary models accounting for the gravitational settling of heavy elements at fixed chemical composition ([α/Fe] = +0.3, [Fe/H] = -2.32 dex, and Y = 0.248). The isochrones—assuming the same true distance modulus (μ = 14.74 mag), the same reddening [E(B - V) = 0.025 ± 0.010 mag], and the same reddening law—account for the stellar distribution along the main sequence and the red giant branch in different color-magnitude diagrams (i‧, g‧ - i‧ i‧, and g‧ - r‧ i‧, g‧ - z‧ I, and B - I and F814W and F475W-F814W). The same outcome applies to the comparison between the predicted zero-age horizontal-branch (ZAHB) and the HB stars. We also found a cluster age of 11 ± 1.5 Gyr, in good agreement with previous estimates. The error budget accounts for uncertainties in the input physics and the photometry. To test the possible occurrence of CNO-enhanced stars, we also computed two sets of α- and CNO-enhanced (by a factor of 3) models, both at fixed total metallicity ([M/H] = -2.10 dex) and at fixed iron abundance. We found that the isochrones based on the former set give the same cluster age (11 ± 1.5 Gyr) as the canonical α-enhanced isochrones. The isochrones based on the latter set also give a similar cluster age (10 ± 1.5 Gyr). These findings support previous results concerning the weak sensitivity of cluster isochrones to CNO-enhanced chemical mixtures. This paper makes use of data obtained from the Isaac Newton

  15. Absolute gravimetry as an operational tool for geodynamics research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Torge, W.

    Relative gravimetric techniques have been used for nearly 30 years for measuring non-tidal gravity variations with time, and thus have contributed to geodynamics research by monitoring vertical crustal movements and internal mass shifts. With today's accuracy of about ± 0.05µms-2 (or 5µGal), significant results have been obtained in numerous control nets of local extension, especially in connection with seismic and volcanic events. Nevertheless, the main drawbacks of relative gravimetry, which are deficiencies in absolute datum and calibration, set a limit for its application, especially with respect to large-scale networks and long-term investigations. These problems can now be successfully attacked by absolute gravimetry, with transportable gravimeters available since about 20 years. While the absolute technique during the first two centuries of gravimetry's history was based on the pendulum method, the free-fall method can now be employed taking advantage of laser-interferometry, electronic timing, vacuum and shock absorbing techniques, and on-line computer-control. The accuracy inherent in advanced instruments is about ± 0.05 µms-2. In field work, generally an accuracy of ±0.1 µms-2 may be expected, strongly depending on local environmental conditions.

  16. Neutron activation analysis of certified samples by the absolute method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kadem, F.; Belouadah, N.; Idiri, Z.

    2015-07-01

    The nuclear reactions analysis technique is mainly based on the relative method or the use of activation cross sections. In order to validate nuclear data for the calculated cross section evaluated from systematic studies, we used the neutron activation analysis technique (NAA) to determine the various constituent concentrations of certified samples for animal blood, milk and hay. In this analysis, the absolute method is used. The neutron activation technique involves irradiating the sample and subsequently performing a measurement of the activity of the sample. The fundamental equation of the activation connects several physical parameters including the cross section that is essential for the quantitative determination of the different elements composing the sample without resorting to the use of standard sample. Called the absolute method, it allows a measurement as accurate as the relative method. The results obtained by the absolute method showed that the values are as precise as the relative method requiring the use of standard sample for each element to be quantified.

  17. An absolute photometric system at 10 and 20 microns

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rieke, G. H.; Lebofsky, M. J.; Low, F. J.

    1985-01-01

    Two new direct calibrations at 10 and 20 microns are presented in which terrestrial flux standards are referred to infrared standard stars. These measurements give both good agreement and higher accuracy when compared with previous direct calibrations. As a result, the absolute calibrations at 10 and 20 microns have now been determined with accuracies of 3 and 8 percent, respectively. A variety of absolute calibrations based on extrapolation of stellar spectra from the visible to 10 microns are reviewed. Current atmospheric models of A-type stars underestimate their fluxes by about 10 percent at 10 microns, whereas models of solar-type stars agree well with the direct calibrations. The calibration at 20 microns can probably be determined to about 5 percent by extrapolation from the more accurate result at 10 microns. The photometric system at 10 and 20 microns is updated to reflect the new absolute calibration, to base its zero point directly on the colors of A0 stars, and to improve the accuracy in the comparison of the standard stars.

  18. Peripheral absolute threshold spectral sensitivity in retinitis pigmentosa.

    PubMed Central

    Massof, R W; Johnson, M A; Finkelstein, D

    1981-01-01

    Dark-adapted spectral sensitivities were measured in the peripheral retinas of 38 patients diagnosed as having typical retinitis pigmentosa (RP) and in 3 normal volunteers. The patients included those having autosomal dominant and autosomal recessive inheritance patterns. Results were analysed by comparisons with the CIE standard scotopic spectral visibility function and with Judd's modification of the photopic spectral visibility function, with consideration of contributions from changes in spectral transmission of preretinal media. The data show 3 general patterns. One group of patients had absolute threshold spectral sensitivities that were fit by Judd's photopic visibility curve. Absolute threshold spectral sensitivities for a second group of patients were fit by a normal scotopic spectral visibility curve. The third group of patients had absolute threshold spectral sensitivities that were fit by a combination of scotopic and photopic spectral visibility curves. The autosomal dominant and autosomal recessive modes of inheritance were represented in each group of patients. These data indicate that RP patients have normal rod and/or cone spectral sensitivities, and support the subclassification of patients described previously by Massof and Finkelstein. PMID:7459312

  19. Design considerations and validation of the MSTAR absolute metrology system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peters, Robert D.; Lay, Oliver P.; Dubovitsky, Serge; Burger, Johan; Jeganathan, Muthu

    2004-08-01

    Absolute metrology measures the actual distance between two optical fiducials. A number of methods have been employed, including pulsed time-of-flight, intensity-modulated optical beam, and two-color interferometry. The rms accuracy is currently limited to ~5 microns. Resolving the integer number of wavelengths requires a 1-sigma range accuracy of ~0.1 microns. Closing this gap has a large pay-off: the range (length measurement) accuracy can be increased substantially using the unambiguous optical phase. The MSTAR sensor (Modulation Sideband Technology for Absolute Ranging) is a new system for measuring absolute distance, capable of resolving the integer cycle ambiguity of standard interferometers, and making it possible to measure distance with sub-nanometer accuracy. In this paper, we present recent experiments that use dispersed white light interferometry to independently validate the zero-point of the system. We also describe progress towards reducing the size of optics, and stabilizing the laser wavelength for operation over larger target ranges. MSTAR is a general-purpose tool for conveniently measuring length with much greater accuracy than was previously possible, and has a wide range of possible applications.

  20. Alpha absolute power measurement in panic disorder with agoraphobia patients.

    PubMed

    de Carvalho, Marcele Regine; Velasques, Bruna Brandão; Freire, Rafael C; Cagy, Maurício; Marques, Juliana Bittencourt; Teixeira, Silmar; Rangé, Bernard P; Piedade, Roberto; Ribeiro, Pedro; Nardi, Antonio Egidio; Akiskal, Hagop Souren

    2013-10-01

    Panic attacks are thought to be a result from a dysfunctional coordination of cortical and brainstem sensory information leading to heightened amygdala activity with subsequent neuroendocrine, autonomic and behavioral activation. Prefrontal areas may be responsible for inhibitory top-down control processes and alpha synchronization seems to reflect this modulation. The objective of this study was to measure frontal absolute alpha-power with qEEG in 24 subjects with panic disorder and agoraphobia (PDA) compared to 21 healthy controls. qEEG data were acquired while participants watched a computer simulation, consisting of moments classified as "high anxiety"(HAM) and "low anxiety" (LAM). qEEG data were also acquired during two rest conditions, before and after the computer simulation display. We observed a higher absolute alpha-power in controls when compared to the PDA patients while watching the computer simulation. The main finding was an interaction between the moment and group factors on frontal cortex. Our findings suggest that the decreased alpha-power in the frontal cortex for the PDA group may reflect a state of high excitability. Our results suggest a possible deficiency in top-down control processes of anxiety reflected by a low absolute alpha-power in the PDA group while watching the computer simulation and they highlight that prefrontal regions and frontal region nearby the temporal area are recruited during the exposure to anxiogenic stimuli. © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.