Science.gov

Sample records for absolute mass scale

  1. Absolute neutrino mass scale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Capelli, Silvia; Di Bari, Pasquale

    2013-04-01

    Neutrino oscillation experiments firmly established non-vanishing neutrino masses, a result that can be regarded as a strong motivation to extend the Standard Model. In spite of being the lightest massive particles, neutrinos likely represent an important bridge to new physics at very high energies and offer new opportunities to address some of the current cosmological puzzles, such as the matter-antimatter asymmetry of the Universe and Dark Matter. In this context, the determination of the absolute neutrino mass scale is a key issue within modern High Energy Physics. The talks in this parallel session well describe the current exciting experimental activity aiming to determining the absolute neutrino mass scale and offer an overview of a few models beyond the Standard Model that have been proposed in order to explain the neutrino masses giving a prediction for the absolute neutrino mass scale and solving the cosmological puzzles.

  2. Probing the Absolute Mass Scale of Neutrinos

    SciTech Connect

    Prof. Joseph A. Formaggio

    2011-10-12

    The experimental efforts of the Neutrino Physics Group at MIT center primarily around the exploration of neutrino mass and its significance within the context of nuclear physics, particle physics, and cosmology. The group has played a prominent role in the Sudbury Neutrino Observatory, a neutrino experiment dedicated to measure neutrino oscillations from 8B neutrinos created in the sun. The group is now focusing its efforts in the measurement of the neutrino mass directly via the use of tritium beta decay. The MIT group has primary responsibilities in the Karlsruhe Tritium Neutrino mass experiment, expected to begin data taking by 2013. Specifically, the MIT group is responsible for the design and development of the global Monte Carlo framework to be used by the KATRIN collaboration, as well as responsibilities directly associated with the construction of the focal plane detector. In addition, the MIT group is sponsoring a new research endeavor for neutrino mass measurements, known as Project 8, to push beyond the limitations of current neutrino mass experiments.

  3. Strong thermal leptogenesis and the absolute neutrino mass scale

    SciTech Connect

    Bari, Pasquale Di; King, Sophie E.; Fiorentin, Michele Re E-mail: sk1806@soton.ac.uk

    2014-03-01

    We show that successful strong thermal leptogenesis, where the final asymmetry is independent of the initial conditions and in particular a large pre-existing asymmetry is efficiently washed-out, favours values of the lightest neutrino mass m{sub 1}∼>10 meV for normal ordering (NO) and m{sub 1}∼>3 meV for inverted ordering (IO) for models with orthogonal matrix entries respecting |Ω{sub ij}{sup 2}|∼<2. We show analytically why lower values of m{sub 1} require a higher level of fine tuning in the seesaw formula and/or in the flavoured decay parameters (in the electronic for NO, in the muonic for IO). We also show how this constraint exists thanks to the measured values of the neutrino mixing angles and could be tightened by a future determination of the Dirac phase. Our analysis also allows us to place a more stringent constraint for a specific model or class of models, such as SO(10)-inspired models, and shows that some models cannot realise strong thermal leptogenesis for any value of m{sub 1}. A scatter plot analysis fully supports the analytical results. We also briefly discuss the interplay with absolute neutrino mass scale experiments concluding that they will be able in the coming years to either corner strong thermal leptogenesis or find positive signals pointing to a non-vanishing m{sub 1}. Since the constraint is much stronger for NO than for IO, it is very important that new data from planned neutrino oscillation experiments will be able to solve the ambiguity.

  4. The possibility of constructing the hydrogen scale of the absolute atomic masses of the elements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuz'min, I. I.

    2009-12-01

    The paper presents a scheme for the experimental-empirical construction of the existing chemical, physical, and carbon scales of the relative nonintegral atomic masses of the elements. The quantitative interrelation between the nonintegral relative atomic masses, their minimized fractional positive and negative natural deviations from integral numbers, and their integral parts are reproduced mathematically. Nonisotopic fractional deviations are shown to be a consequence of methodological side effects of the scheme for theoretical processing of the data of thorough physical and chemical measurements performed by Stas and Aston in constructing scales of relative atomic masses. In conformity with the Prout hypothesis, the absolute atomic mass unit and the corresponding Avogadro’s number value are suggested for the construction of the hydrogen scale of absolute atomic masses of nonisotopic elements, individual isotopes, and isotope-containing elements.

  5. Kelvin and the absolute temperature scale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Erlichson, Herman

    2001-07-01

    This paper describes the absolute temperature scale of Kelvin (William Thomson). Kelvin found that Carnot's axiom about heat being a conserved quantity had to be abandoned. Nevertheless, he found that Carnot's fundamental work on heat engines was correct. Using the concept of a Carnot engine Kelvin found that Q1/Q2 = T1/T2. Thermometers are not used to obtain absolute temperatures since they are calculated temperatures.

  6. An absolute radius scale for Saturn's rings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nicholson, Philip D.; Cooke, Maren L.; Pelton, Emily

    1990-01-01

    Radio and stellar occultation observations of Saturn's rings made by the Voyager spacecraft are discussed. The data reveal systematic discrepancies of almost 10 km in some parts of the rings, limiting some of the investigations. A revised solution for Saturn's rotation pole has been proposed which removes the discrepancies between the stellar and radio occultation profiles. Corrections to previously published radii vary from -2 to -10 km for the radio occultation, and +5 to -6 km for the stellar occultation. An examination of spiral density waves in the outer A Ring supports that the revised absolute radii are in error by no more than 2 km.

  7. Observables sensitive to absolute neutrino masses. II

    SciTech Connect

    Fogli, G. L.; Marrone, A.; Rotunno, A. M.; Lisi, E.; Melchiorri, A.; Palazzo, A.; Silk, J.; Slosar, A.

    2008-08-01

    In this followup to Phys. Rev. D 75, 053001 (2007) , we report updated constraints on neutrino mass-mixing parameters, in light of recent neutrino oscillation data (KamLAND, SNO, and MINOS) and cosmological observations (WMAP 5-year and other data). We discuss their interplay with the final 0{nu}2{beta} decay results in {sup 76}Ge claimed by part of the Heidelberg-Moscow Collaboration, using recent evaluations of the corresponding nuclear matrix elements, and their uncertainties. We also comment on the 0{nu}2{beta} limits in {sup 130}Te recently set by Cuoricino and on prospective limits or signals from the Karlsruhe tritium neutrino experiment.

  8. The Electromotive Series and Other Non-Absolute Scales

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peckham, Gavin D.

    1998-01-01

    This article describes an analogy which may be used to illustrate the principles that underlie the establishment of non-absolute scales of measurements that are evaluated relative to a chosen reference point. The analogy is interwoven with the establishment of the electromotive series, but may be extended to other parameters such as the Celsius and Fahrenheit temperature scales, potential energies, formation and reaction enthalpies, etc.

  9. Large-Scale Measurement of Absolute Protein Glycosylation Stoichiometry.

    PubMed

    Sun, Shisheng; Zhang, Hui

    2015-07-07

    Protein glycosylation is one of the most important protein modifications. Glycosylation site occupancy alteration has been implicated in human diseases and cancers. However, current glycoproteomic methods focus on the identification and quantification of glycosylated peptides and glycosylation sites but not glycosylation occupancy or glycoform stoichiometry. Here we describe a method for large-scale determination of the absolute glycosylation stoichiometry using three independent relative ratios. Using this method, we determined 117 absolute N-glycosylation occupancies in OVCAR-3 cells. Finally, we investigated the possible functions and the determinants for partial glycosylation.

  10. Absolute calibration of Apollo lunar orbital mass spectrometer.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yeager, P. R.; Smith, A.; Jackson, J. J.; Hoffman, J. H.

    1973-01-01

    Recent experiments were conducted in Langley Research Center's molecular beam system to perform an absolute calibration of the lunar orbital mass spectrometer which was flown on the Apollo 15 and 16 missions. Tests were performed with several models of the instrument using two test gases, argon and neon, in the 1 ntorr to .1 picotorr range. Sensitivity to argon at spacecraft orbital velocity was .00028 A/torr enabling partial pressures in the .01-picotorr range to be measured at the spacecraft altitude. Neon sensitivity was nearly a factor of 5 less. Test data support the feasibility of using the lunar orbital mass spectrometer as a tool to gather information about the lunar atmosphere.

  11. Selected Reaction Monitoring Mass Spectrometry for Absolute Protein Quantification.

    PubMed

    Manes, Nathan P; Mann, Jessica M; Nita-Lazar, Aleksandra

    2015-08-17

    Absolute quantification of target proteins within complex biological samples is critical to a wide range of research and clinical applications. This protocol provides step-by-step instructions for the development and application of quantitative assays using selected reaction monitoring (SRM) mass spectrometry (MS). First, likely quantotypic target peptides are identified based on numerous criteria. This includes identifying proteotypic peptides, avoiding sites of posttranslational modification, and analyzing the uniqueness of the target peptide to the target protein. Next, crude external peptide standards are synthesized and used to develop SRM assays, and the resulting assays are used to perform qualitative analyses of the biological samples. Finally, purified, quantified, heavy isotope labeled internal peptide standards are prepared and used to perform isotope dilution series SRM assays. Analysis of all of the resulting MS data is presented. This protocol was used to accurately assay the absolute abundance of proteins of the chemotaxis signaling pathway within RAW 264.7 cells (a mouse monocyte/macrophage cell line). The quantification of Gi2 (a heterotrimeric G-protein α-subunit) is described in detail.

  12. Communication: The absolute shielding scales of oxygen and sulfur revisited

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Komorovsky, Stanislav; Repisky, Michal; Malkin, Elena; Ruud, Kenneth; Gauss, Jürgen

    2015-03-01

    We present an updated semi-experimental absolute shielding scale for the 17O and 33S nuclei. These new shielding scales are based on accurate rotational microwave data for the spin-rotation constants of H217O [Puzzarini et al., J. Chem. Phys. 131, 234304 (2009)], C17O [Cazzoli et al., Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys. 4, 3575 (2002)], and H233S [Helgaker et al., J. Chem. Phys. 139, 244308 (2013)] corrected both for vibrational and temperature effects estimated at the CCSD(T) level of theory as well as for the relativistic corrections to the relation between the spin-rotation constant and the absolute shielding constant. Our best estimate for the oxygen shielding constants of H217O is 328.4(3) ppm and for C17O -59.05(59) ppm. The relativistic correction for the sulfur shielding of H233S amounts to 3.3%, and the new sulfur shielding constant for this molecule is 742.9(4.6) ppm.

  13. Communication: The absolute shielding scales of oxygen and sulfur revisited.

    PubMed

    Komorovsky, Stanislav; Repisky, Michal; Malkin, Elena; Ruud, Kenneth; Gauss, Jürgen

    2015-03-07

    We present an updated semi-experimental absolute shielding scale for the (17)O and (33)S nuclei. These new shielding scales are based on accurate rotational microwave data for the spin-rotation constants of H2(17)O [Puzzarini et al., J. Chem. Phys. 131, 234304 (2009)], C(17)O [Cazzoli et al., Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys. 4, 3575 (2002)], and H2(33)S [Helgaker et al., J. Chem. Phys. 139, 244308 (2013)] corrected both for vibrational and temperature effects estimated at the CCSD(T) level of theory as well as for the relativistic corrections to the relation between the spin-rotation constant and the absolute shielding constant. Our best estimate for the oxygen shielding constants of H2(17)O is 328.4(3) ppm and for C(17)O -59.05(59) ppm. The relativistic correction for the sulfur shielding of H2(33)S amounts to 3.3%, and the new sulfur shielding constant for this molecule is 742.9(4.6) ppm.

  14. Communication: The absolute shielding scales of oxygen and sulfur revisited

    SciTech Connect

    Komorovsky, Stanislav; Repisky, Michal; Malkin, Elena; Ruud, Kenneth; Gauss, Jürgen

    2015-03-07

    We present an updated semi-experimental absolute shielding scale for the {sup 17}O and {sup 33}S nuclei. These new shielding scales are based on accurate rotational microwave data for the spin–rotation constants of H{sub 2}{sup 17}O [Puzzarini et al., J. Chem. Phys. 131, 234304 (2009)], C{sup 17}O [Cazzoli et al., Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys. 4, 3575 (2002)], and H{sub 2}{sup 33}S [Helgaker et al., J. Chem. Phys. 139, 244308 (2013)] corrected both for vibrational and temperature effects estimated at the CCSD(T) level of theory as well as for the relativistic corrections to the relation between the spin–rotation constant and the absolute shielding constant. Our best estimate for the oxygen shielding constants of H{sub 2}{sup 17}O is 328.4(3) ppm and for C{sup 17}O −59.05(59) ppm. The relativistic correction for the sulfur shielding of H{sub 2}{sup 33}S amounts to 3.3%, and the new sulfur shielding constant for this molecule is 742.9(4.6) ppm.

  15. An absolute scale for measuring the utility of money

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thomas, P. J.

    2010-07-01

    Measurement of the utility of money is essential in the insurance industry, for prioritising public spending schemes and for the evaluation of decisions on protection systems in high-hazard industries. Up to this time, however, there has been no universally agreed measure for the utility of money, with many utility functions being in common use. In this paper, we shall derive a single family of utility functions, which have risk-aversion as the only free parameter. The fact that they return a utility of zero at their low, reference datum, either the utility of no money or of one unit of money, irrespective of the value of risk-aversion used, qualifies them to be regarded as absolute scales for the utility of money. Evidence of validation for the concept will be offered based on inferential measurements of risk-aversion, using diverse measurement data.

  16. On measuring the absolute scale of baryon acoustic oscillations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sutherland, Will

    2012-10-01

    The baryon acoustic oscillation (BAO) feature in the distribution of galaxies provides a fundamental standard ruler which is widely used to constrain cosmological parameters. In most analyses, the comoving length of the ruler is inferred from a combination of cosmic microwave background (CMB) observations and theory. However, this inferred length may be biased by various non-standard effects in early universe physics; this can lead to biased inferences of cosmological parameters such as H0, Ωm and w, so it would be valuable to measure the absolute BAO length by combining a galaxy redshift survey and a suitable direct low-z distance measurement. One obstacle is that low-redshift BAO surveys mainly constrain the ratio rS/DV(z), where DV is a dilation scale which is not directly observable by standard candles. Here, we find a new approximation DV(z)≃34DL(43z)(1+43z)-1(1-0.02455 z3+0.0105 z4) which connects DV to the standard luminosity distance DL at a somewhat higher redshift; this is shown to be very accurate (relative error <0.2 per cent) for all Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe compatible Friedmann models at z < 0.4, with very weak dependence on cosmological parameters H0, Ωm, Ωk, w. This provides a route to measure the absolute BAO length using only observations at z ≲ 0.3, including Type Ia supernovae, and potentially future H0-free physical distance indicators such as gravitational lenses or gravitational wave standard sirens. This would provide a zero-parameter check of the standard cosmology at 103 ≲ z ≲ 105, and can constrain the number of relativistic species Neff with fewer degeneracies than the CMB.

  17. Constraining absolute neutrino masses via detection of galactic supernova neutrinos at JUNO

    SciTech Connect

    Lu, Jia-Shu; Cao, Jun; Li, Yu-Feng; Zhou, Shun E-mail: caoj@ihep.ac.cn E-mail: zhoush@ihep.ac.cn

    2015-05-01

    A high-statistics measurement of the neutrinos from a galactic core-collapse supernova is extremely important for understanding the explosion mechanism, and studying the intrinsic properties of neutrinos themselves. In this paper, we explore the possibility to constrain the absolute scale of neutrino masses m{sub ν} via the detection of galactic supernova neutrinos at the Jiangmen Underground Neutrino Observatory (JUNO) with a 20 kiloton liquid-scintillator detector. In assumption of a nearly-degenerate neutrino mass spectrum and a normal mass ordering, the upper bound on the absolute neutrino mass is found to be m{sub ν} < (0.83 ± 0.24) eV at the 95% confidence level for a typical galactic supernova at a distance of 10 kpc, where the mean value and standard deviation are shown to account for statistical fluctuations. For comparison, we find that the bound in the Super-Kamiokande experiment is m{sub ν} < (0.94 ± 0.28) eV at the same confidence level. However, the upper bound will be relaxed when the model parameters characterizing the time structure of supernova neutrino fluxes are not exactly known, and when the neutrino mass ordering is inverted.

  18. Constraining absolute neutrino masses via detection of galactic supernova neutrinos at JUNO

    SciTech Connect

    Lu, Jia-Shu; Cao, Jun; Li, Yu-Feng; Zhou, Shun

    2015-05-26

    A high-statistics measurement of the neutrinos from a galactic core-collapse supernova is extremely important for understanding the explosion mechanism, and studying the intrinsic properties of neutrinos themselves. In this paper, we explore the possibility to constrain the absolute scale of neutrino masses m{sub ν} via the detection of galactic supernova neutrinos at the Jiangmen Underground Neutrino Observatory (JUNO) with a 20 kiloton liquid-scintillator detector. In assumption of a nearly-degenerate neutrino mass spectrum and a normal mass ordering, the upper bound on the absolute neutrino mass is found to be m{sub ν}<(0.83±0.24) eV at the 95% confidence level for a typical galactic supernova at a distance of 10 kpc, where the mean value and standard deviation are shown to account for statistical fluctuations. For comparison, we find that the bound in the Super-Kamiokande experiment is m{sub ν}<(0.94±0.28) eV at the same confidence level. However, the upper bound will be relaxed when the model parameters characterizing the time structure of supernova neutrino fluxes are not exactly known, and when the neutrino mass ordering is inverted.

  19. Establishing ion ratio thresholds based on absolute peak area for absolute protein quantification using protein cleavage isotope dilution mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Loziuk, Philip L; Sederoff, Ronald R; Chiang, Vincent L; Muddiman, David C

    2014-11-07

    Quantitative mass spectrometry has become central to the field of proteomics and metabolomics. Selected reaction monitoring is a widely used method for the absolute quantification of proteins and metabolites. This method renders high specificity using several product ions measured simultaneously. With growing interest in quantification of molecular species in complex biological samples, confident identification and quantitation has been of particular concern. A method to confirm purity or contamination of product ion spectra has become necessary for achieving accurate and precise quantification. Ion abundance ratio assessments were introduced to alleviate some of these issues. Ion abundance ratios are based on the consistent relative abundance (RA) of specific product ions with respect to the total abundance of all product ions. To date, no standardized method of implementing ion abundance ratios has been established. Thresholds by which product ion contamination is confirmed vary widely and are often arbitrary. This study sought to establish criteria by which the relative abundance of product ions can be evaluated in an absolute quantification experiment. These findings suggest that evaluation of the absolute ion abundance for any given transition is necessary in order to effectively implement RA thresholds. Overall, the variation of the RA value was observed to be relatively constant beyond an absolute threshold ion abundance. Finally, these RA values were observed to fluctuate significantly over a 3 year period, suggesting that these values should be assessed as close as possible to the time at which data is collected for quantification.

  20. Absolute mass of neutrinos and the first unique forbidden β decay of Re187

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dvornický, Rastislav; Muto, Kazuo; Šimkovic, Fedor; Faessler, Amand

    2011-04-01

    The planned rhenium β-decay experiment, called the “Microcalorimeter Arrays for a Rhenium Experiment” (MARE), might probe the absolute mass scale of neutrinos with the same sensitivity as the Karlsruhe tritium neutrino mass (KATRIN) experiment, which will take commissioning data in 2011 and will proceed for 5 years. We present the energy distribution of emitted electrons for the first unique forbidden β decay of Re187. It is found that the p-wave emission of electron dominates over the s wave. By assuming mixing of three neutrinos, the Kurie function for the rhenium β decay is derived. It is shown that the Kurie plot near the end point is within a good accuracy linear in the limit of massless neutrinos like the Kurie plot of the superallowed β decay of H3.

  1. TRITIUM-β-DECAY Experiments - the Direct way to the Absolute Neutrino Mass

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bornschein, Lutz

    2013-11-01

    Tritium-β-decay experiments provide the most sensitive approach to measure the absolute neutrino mass in a model independent way. The Karlsruhe Tritium Neutrino experiment KATRIN will measure the neutrino mass scale with an expected sensitivity of 0.2 eV/c2 (90% C.L.) and so will help to clarify the roles of neutrinos in the early universe. KATRIN investigates spectroscopically the electron spectrum from tritium β-decay 3 H -> 3 {He} + {e}^ - + bar ν e close to the kinematic endpoint of 18.6 keV. It will use a windowless gaseous tritium source in combination with an electrostatic filter for energy analysis. KATRIN is currently under construction at the Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT) Campus North. This proceeding will give an overview of the status of the main components of the KATRIN experiment.

  2. Absolute mass of neutrinos and the first unique forbidden {beta} decay of {sup 187}Re

    SciTech Connect

    Dvornicky, Rastislav; Simkovic, Fedor; Muto, Kazuo; Faessler, Amand

    2011-04-15

    The planned rhenium {beta}-decay experiment, called the ''Microcalorimeter Arrays for a Rhenium Experiment'' (MARE), might probe the absolute mass scale of neutrinos with the same sensitivity as the Karlsruhe tritium neutrino mass (KATRIN) experiment, which will take commissioning data in 2011 and will proceed for 5 years. We present the energy distribution of emitted electrons for the first unique forbidden {beta} decay of {sup 187}Re. It is found that the p-wave emission of electron dominates over the s wave. By assuming mixing of three neutrinos, the Kurie function for the rhenium {beta} decay is derived. It is shown that the Kurie plot near the end point is within a good accuracy linear in the limit of massless neutrinos like the Kurie plot of the superallowed {beta} decay of {sup 3}H.

  3. A Simple Watt Balance for the Absolute Determination of Mass

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Quinn, Terry; Quinn, Lucas; Davis, Richard

    2013-01-01

    A watt balance is an electromechanical device that allows a mass to be determined in terms of measurable electrical and mechanical quantities, themselves traceable to the fundamental constants of physics. International plans are well advanced to redefine the unit of mass, the kilogram, in terms of a fixed numerical value for the Planck constant. A…

  4. The Absolute Mass of Neutrino and the First Unique Forbidden β-DECAY of 187Re

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dvornický, Rastislav; Šimkovic, Fedor; Muto, Kazuo

    2011-10-01

    The planned rhenium β-decay experiment MARE might probe the absolute mass scale of neutrinos with the same sensitivity as the tritium β-decay experiment KATRIN, which will start data taking in 2011 and will proceed for five years. We present the energy distribution of emitted electrons for the first unique forbidden β-decay of 187Re. It is found that the p-wave emission of electron dominates over the s-wave. By assuming mixing of three neutrinos the Kurie function for the rhenium β-decay is derived. It is shown that the Kurie plot near the endpoint is within a good accuracy linear in the limit of massless neutrinos like the Kurie plot of the superallowed βof 3H.

  5. A self-consistent, absolute isochronal age scale for young moving groups in the solar neighbourhood

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bell, Cameron P. M.; Mamajek, Eric E.; Naylor, Tim

    2015-11-01

    We present a self-consistent, absolute isochronal age scale for young ( ≲ 200 Myr), nearby ( ≲ 100 pc) moving groups in the solar neighbourhood based on homogeneous fitting of semi-empirical pre-main-sequence model isochrones using the τ2 maximum-likelihood fitting statistic of Naylor & Jeffries in the MV, V - J colour-magnitude diagram. The final adopted ages for the groups are as follows: 149^{+51}_{-19} {Myr} for the AB Dor moving group, 24 ± 3 Myr for the β Pic moving group (BPMG), 45^{+11}_{-7} {Myr} for the Carina association, 42^{+6}_{-4} {Myr} for the Columba association, 11 ± 3 Myr for the η Cha cluster, 45 ± 4 Myr for the Tucana-Horologium moving group (Tuc-Hor), 10 ± 3 Myr for the TW Hya association and 22^{+4}_{-3} {Myr} for the 32 Ori group. At this stage we are uncomfortable assigning a final, unambiguous age to the Argus association as our membership list for the association appears to suffer from a high level of contamination, and therefore it remains unclear whether these stars represent a single population of coeval stars. Our isochronal ages for both the BPMG and Tuc-Hor are consistent with recent lithium depletion boundary (LDB) ages, which unlike isochronal ages, are relatively insensitive to the choice of low-mass evolutionary models. This consistency between the isochronal and LDB ages instils confidence that our self-consistent, absolute age scale for young, nearby moving groups is robust, and hence we suggest that these ages be adopted for future studies of these groups. Software implementing the methods described in this study is available from http://www.astro.ex.ac.uk/people/timn/tau-squared/.

  6. The assessment of protective behavioral strategies: comparing the absolute frequency and contingent frequency response scales.

    PubMed

    Kite, Benjamin A; Pearson, Matthew R; Henson, James M

    2013-12-01

    The purpose of the present studies was to examine the effects of response scale on the observed relationships between protective behavioral strategies (PBS) measures and alcohol-related outcomes. We reasoned that an "absolute frequency" scale (stem: "how many times …"; response scale: 0 times to 11+ times) conflates the frequency of using PBS with the frequency of consuming alcohol; thus, we hypothesized that the use of an absolute frequency response scale would result in positive relationships between types of PBS and alcohol-related outcomes. Alternatively, a "contingent frequency" scale (stem: "When drinking … how often …"; response scale: never to always) does not conflate frequency of alcohol use with use of PBS; therefore, we hypothesized that use of a contingent frequency scale would result in negative relationships between use of PBS and alcohol-related outcomes. Two published measures of PBS were used across studies: the Protective Behavioral Strategies Survey (PBSS) and the Strategy Questionnaire (SQ). Across three studies, we demonstrate that when measured using a contingent frequency response scale, PBS measures relate negatively to alcohol-related outcomes in a theoretically consistent manner; however, when PBS measures were measured on an absolute frequency response scale, they were nonsignificantly or positively related to alcohol-related outcomes. We discuss the implications of these findings for the assessment of PBS.

  7. Kelvin Absolute Temperature Scale Identified as Length Scale and Related to de Broglie Thermal Wavelength

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sohrab, Siavash

    Thermodynamic equilibrium between matter and radiation leads to de Broglie wavelength λdβ = h /mβvrβ and frequency νdβ = k /mβvrβ of matter waves and stochastic definitions of Planck h =hk =mk <λrk > c and Boltzmann k =kk =mk <νrk > c constants, λrkνrk = c , that respectively relate to spatial (λ) and temporal (ν) aspects of vacuum fluctuations. Photon massmk =√{ hk /c3 } , amu =√{ hkc } = 1 /No , and universal gas constant Ro =No k =√{ k / hc } result in internal Uk = Nhνrk = Nmkc2 = 3 Nmkvmpk2 = 3 NkT and potential pV = uN\\vcirc / 3 = N\\ucirc / 3 = NkT energy of photon gas in Casimir vacuum such that H = TS = 4 NkT . Therefore, Kelvin absolute thermodynamic temperature scale [degree K] is identified as length scale [meter] and related to most probable wavelength and de Broglie thermal wavelength as Tβ =λmpβ =λdβ / 3 . Parallel to Wien displacement law obtained from Planck distribution, the displacement law λwS T =c2 /√{ 3} is obtained from Maxwell -Boltzmann distribution of speed of ``photon clusters''. The propagation speeds of sound waves in ideal gas versus light waves in photon gas are described in terms of vrβ in harmony with perceptions of Huygens. Newton formula for speed of long waves in canals √{ p / ρ } is modified to √{ gh } =√{ γp / ρ } in accordance with adiabatic theory of Laplace.

  8. Absolute and Relative Reliability of Percentage of Syllables Stuttered and Severity Rating Scales

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Karimi, Hamid; O'Brian, Sue; Onslow, Mark; Jones, Mark

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: Percentage of syllables stuttered (%SS) and severity rating (SR) scales are measures in common use to quantify stuttering severity and its changes during basic and clinical research conditions. However, their reliability has not been assessed with indices measuring both relative and absolute reliability. This study was designed to provide…

  9. Global-Scale Location and Distance Estimates: Common Representations and Strategies in Absolute and Relative Judgments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Friedman, Alinda; Montello, Daniel R.

    2006-01-01

    The authors examined whether absolute and relative judgments about global-scale locations and distances were generated from common representations. At the end of a 10-week class on the regional geography of the United States, participants estimated the latitudes of 16 North American cities and all possible pairwise distances between them. Although…

  10. Energy dispersive X-ray analysis on an absolute scale in scanning transmission electron microscopy.

    PubMed

    Chen, Z; D'Alfonso, A J; Weyland, M; Taplin, D J; Allen, L J; Findlay, S D

    2015-10-01

    We demonstrate absolute scale agreement between the number of X-ray counts in energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy using an atomic-scale coherent electron probe and first-principles simulations. Scan-averaged spectra were collected across a range of thicknesses with precisely determined and controlled microscope parameters. Ionization cross-sections were calculated using the quantum excitation of phonons model, incorporating dynamical (multiple) electron scattering, which is seen to be important even for very thin specimens.

  11. Verification of 235U mass content in nuclear fuel plates by an absolute method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    El-Gammal, W.

    2007-01-01

    Nuclear Safeguards is referred to a verification System by which a State can control all nuclear materials (NM) and nuclear activities under its authority. An effective and efficient Safeguards System must include a system of measurements with capabilities sufficient to verify such NM. Measurements of NM using absolute methods could eliminate the dependency on NM Standards, which are necessary for other relative or semi-absolute methods. In this work, an absolute method has been investigated to verify the 235U mass content in nuclear fuel plates of Material Testing Reactor (MTR) type. The most intense gamma-ray signature at 185.7 keV emitted after α-decay of the 235U nuclei was employed in the method. The measuring system (an HPGe-spectrometer) was mathematically calibrated for efficiency using the general Monte Carlo transport code MCNP-4B. The calibration results and the measured net count rate were used to estimate the 235U mass content in fuel plates at different detector-to-fuel plate distances. Two sets of fuel plates, containing natural and low enriched uranium, were measured at the Fuel Fabrication Facility. Average accuracies for the estimated 235U masses of about 2.62% and 0.3% are obtained for the fuel plates containing natural and low enriched uranium; respectively, with a precision of about 3%.

  12. Absolute silicon molar mass measurements, the Avogadro constant and the redefinition of the kilogram

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vocke, R. D., Jr.; Rabb, S. A.; Turk, G. C.

    2014-10-01

    The results of an absolute silicon molar mass determination of two independent sets of samples from the highly 28Si-enriched crystal (AVO28) produced by the International Avogadro Coordination are presented and compared with results published by the Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt (PTB, Germany), the National Research Council (NRC, Canada) and the National Metrology Institute of Japan (NMIJ, Japan). This study developed and describes significant changes to the published protocols for producing absolute silicon isotope ratios. The measurements were made at very high resolution on a multi-collector inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometer using tetramethylammonium hydroxide (TMAH) to dissolve and dilute all samples. The various changes in the measurement protocol and the use of TMAH resulted in significant improvements to the silicon isotope ratio precision over previously reported measurements and in particular, the robustness of the 29Si/30Si ratio of the AVO28 material. These new results suggest that a limited isotopic variability is present in the AVO28 material. The presence of this variability is at present singular and therefore its significance is not well understood. Fortunately, its magnitude is small enough so as to have an insignificant effect on the overall uncertainty of an Avogadro constant derived from the average molar mass of all four AVO28 silicon samples measured in this study. The NIST results confirm the AVO28 molar mass values reported by PTB and NMIJ and confirm that the virtual element-isotope dilution mass spectrometry approach to calibrated absolute isotope ratio measurements developed by PTB is capable of very high precision as well as accuracy. The Avogadro constant NA and derived Planck constant h based on these measurements, together with their associated standard uncertainties, are 6.02214076(19) × 1023 mol-1 and 6.62607017(21) × 10-34 Js, respectively.

  13. Absolute lower limits on the masses of selectrons and sneutrinos in the MSSM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    ALEPH Collaboration; Heister, A.; Schael, S.; Barate, R.; Brunelière, R.; de Bonis, I.; Decamp, D.; Goy, C.; Jezequel, S.; Lees, J.-P.; Martin, F.; Merle, E.; Minard, M.-N.; Pietrzyk, B.; Trocmé, B.; Boix, G.; Bravo, S.; Casado, M. P.; Chmeissani, M.; Crespo, J. M.; Fernandez, E.; Fernandez-Bosman, M.; Garrido, Ll.; Graugés, E.; Lopez, J.; Martinez, M.; Merino, G.; Pacheco, A.; Paneque, D.; Ruiz, H.; Colaleo, A.; Creanza, D.; de Filippis, N.; de Palma, M.; Iaselli, G.; Maggi, G.; Maggi, M.; Nuzzo, S.; Ranieri, A.; Raso, G.; Ruggieri, F.; Selvaggi, G.; Silvestris, L.; Tempesta, P.; Tricomi, A.; Zito, G.; Huang, X.; Lin, J.; Ouyang, Q.; Wang, T.; Xie, Y.; Xu, R.; Xue, S.; Zhang, J.; Zhang, L.; Zhao, W.; Abbaneo, D.; Azzurri, P.; Barklow, T.; Buchmüller, O.; Cattaneo, M.; Cerutti, F.; Clerbaux, B.; Drevermann, H.; Forty, R. W.; Frank, M.; Gianotti, F.; Greening, T. C.; Hansen, J. B.; Harvey, J.; Hutchcroft, D. E.; Janot, P.; Jost, B.; Kado, M.; Mato, P.; Moutoussi, A.; Ranjard, F.; Rolandi, L.; Schlatter, D.; Sguazzoni, G.; Tejessy, W.; Teubert, F.; Valassi, A.; Videau, I.; Ward, J. J.; Badaud, F.; Dessagne, S.; Falvard, A.; Fayolle, D.; Gay, P.; Jousset, J.; Michel, B.; Monteil, S.; Pallin, D.; Pascolo, J. M.; Perret, P.; Hansen, J. D.; Hansen, J. R.; Hansen, P. H.; Nilsson, B. S.; Kyriakis, A.; Markou, C.; Simopoulou, E.; Vayaki, A.; Zachariadou, K.; Blondel, A.; Brient, J.-C.; Machefert, F.; Rougé, A.; Swynghedauw, M.; Tanaka, R.; Videau, H.; Ciulli, V.; Focardi, E.; Parrini, G.; Antonelli, A.; Antonelli, M.; Bencivenni, G.; Bossi, F.; Capon, G.; Chiarella, V.; Laurelli, P.; Mannocchi, G.; Murtas, G. P.; Passalacqua, L.; Kennedy, J.; Lynch, J. G.; Negus, P.; O'Shea, V.; Thompson, A. S.; Wasserbaech, S.; Cavanaugh, R.; Dhamotharan, S.; Geweniger, C.; Hanke, P.; Hepp, V.; Kluge, E. E.; Leibenguth, G.; Putzer, A.; Stenzel, H.; Tittel, K.; Wunsch, M.; Beuselinck, R.; Cameron, W.; Davies, G.; Dornan, P. J.; Girone, M.; Hill, R. D.; Marinelli, N.; Nowell, J.; Rutherford, S. A.; Sedgbeer, J. K.; Thompson, J. C.; White, R.; Ghete, V. M.; Girtler, P.; Kneringer, E.; Kuhn, D.; Rudolph, G.; Bouhova-Thacker, E.; Bowdery, C. K.; Clarke, D. P.; Ellis, G.; Finch, A. J.; Foster, F.; Hughes, G.; Jones, R. W. L.; Pearson, M. R.; Robertson, N. A.; Smizanska, M.; van der Aa, O.; Delaere, C.; Lemaitre, V.; Blumenschein, U.; Hölldorfer, F.; Jakobs, K.; Kayser, F.; Kleinknecht, K.; Müller, A.-S.; Quast, G.; Renk, B.; Sander, H.-G.; Schmeling, S.; Wachsmuth, H.; Zeitnitz, C.; Ziegler, T.; Bonissent, A.; Coyle, P.; Curtil, C.; Ealet, A.; Fouchez, D.; Payre, P.; Tilquin, A.; Ragusa, F.; David, A.; Dietl, H.; Ganis, G.; Hüttmann, K.; Lütjens, G.; Männer, W.; Moser, H.-G.; Settles, R.; Wolf, G.; Boucrot, J.; Callot, O.; Davier, M.; Duflot, L.; Grivaz, J.-F.; Heusse, Ph.; Jacholkowska, A.; Serin, L.; Veillet, J.-J.; de Vivie de Régie, J.-B.; Yuan, C.; Bagliesi, G.; Boccali, T.; Foà, L.; Giammanco, A.; Giassi, A.; Ligabue, F.; Messineo, A.; Palla, F.; Sanguinetti, G.; Sciabà, A.; Tenchini, R.; Venturi, A.; Verdini, P. G.; Awunor, O.; Blair, G. A.; Cowan, G.; Garcia-Bellido, A.; Green, M. G.; Jones, L. T.; Medcalf, T.; Misiejuk, A.; Strong, J. A.; Teixeira-Dias, P.; Clifft, R. W.; Edgecock, T. R.; Norton, P. R.; Tomalin, I. R.; Bloch-Devaux, B.; Boumediene, D.; Colas, P.; Fabbro, B.; Lançon, E.; Lemaire, M.-C.; Locci, E.; Perez, P.; Rander, J.; Tuchming, B.; Vallage, B.; Konstantinidis, N.; Litke, A. M.; Taylor, G.; Booth, C. N.; Cartwright, S.; Combley, F.; Hodgson, P. N.; Lehto, M.; Thompson, L. F.; Böhrer, A.; Brandt, S.; Grupen, C.; Hess, J.; Ngac, A.; Prange, G.; Sieler, U.; Borean, C.; Giannini, G.; He, H.; Putz, J.; Rothberg, J.; Armstrong, S. R.; Berkelman, K.; Cranmer, K.; Ferguson, D. P. S.; Gao, Y.; González, S.; Hayes, O. J.; Hu, H.; Jin, S.; Kile, J.; McNamara, P. A.; Nielsen, J.; Pan, Y. B.; von Wimmersperg-Toeller, J. H.; Wiedenmann, W.; Wu, J.; Wu, Sau Lan; Wu, X.; Zobernig, G.; Dissertori, G.

    2002-09-01

    The results of searches for selectrons, charginos and neutralinos performed with the data collected by the ALEPH detector at LEP at centre-of-mass energies up to 209 GeV are interpreted in the framework of the Minimal Supersymmetric extension of the Standard Model with R-parity conservation. Under the assumptions of gaugino and sfermion mass unification and no sfermion mixing, an absolute lower limit of 73 GeV/c2 is set on the mass of the lighter selectron e~R at the 95% confidence level. Similarly, limits on the masses of the heavier selectron e~L and of the sneutrino ν~e are set at 107 and 84 GeV/c2, respectively. Additional constraints are derived from the results of the searches for Higgs bosons. The results are also interpreted in the framework of minimal supergravity.

  14. Sulfur-based absolute quantification of proteins using isotope dilution inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Hyun-Seok; Heun Kim, Sook; Jeong, Ji-Seon; Lee, Yong-Moon; Yim, Yong-Hyeon

    2015-10-01

    An element-based reductive approach provides an effective means of realizing International System of Units (SI) traceability for high-purity biological standards. Here, we develop an absolute protein quantification method using double isotope dilution (ID) inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) combined with microwave-assisted acid digestion for the first time. We validated the method and applied it to certify the candidate protein certified reference material (CRM) of human growth hormone (hGH). The concentration of hGH was determined by analysing the total amount of sulfur in hGH. Next, the size-exclusion chromatography method was used with ICP-MS to characterize and quantify sulfur-containing impurities. By subtracting the contribution of sulfur-containing impurities from the total sulfur content in the hGH CRM, we obtained a SI-traceable certification value. The quantification result obtained with the present method based on sulfur analysis was in excellent agreement with the result determined via a well-established protein quantification method based on amino acid analysis using conventional acid hydrolysis combined with an ID liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. The element-based protein quantification method developed here can be generally used for SI-traceable absolute quantification of proteins, especially pure-protein standards.

  15. Lifespan metabolic potential of the unicellular organisms expressed by Boltzmann constant, absolute temperature and proton mass

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Atanasov, Atanas Todorov

    2016-12-01

    The unicellular organisms and phages are the first appeared fundamental living organisms on the Earth. The total metabolic energy (Els, J) of these organisms can be expressed by their lifespan metabolic potential (Als, J/kg) and body mass (M, kg): Els =Als M. In this study we found a different expression - by Boltzmann's constant (k, J/K), nucleon mass (mp+, kg) of protons (and neutrons), body mass (M, kg) of organism or mass (Ms) of biomolecules (proteins, nucleotides, polysaccharides and lipids) building organism, and the absolute temperature (T, K). The found equations are: Els= (M/mp+)kT for phages and Els=(Ms/mp+)kT for the unicellular organisms. From these equations the lifespan metabolic potential can be expressed as: Als=Els/M= (k/mp+)T for phages and Als=Els/M= (k/3.3mp+)T for unicellular organisms. The temperature-normated lifespan metabolic potential (Als/T, J/K.kg) is equals to the ratio between Boltzmann's constant and nucleon mass: Als/T=k/mp+ for phages and Als/T=k/3.3mp+ for unicellular organisms. The numerical value of the k/mp+ ratio is equals to 8.254×103 J/K.kg, and the numerical value of k/3.3mp+ ratio is equal to 2.497×103 J/K.kg. These values of temperature-normated lifespan metabolic potential could be considered fundamental for the unicellular organisms.

  16. Absolute Calibration of the Radio Astronomy Flux Density Scale at 22 to 43 GHz Using Planck

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Partridge, B.; López-Caniego, M.; Perley, R. A.; Stevens, J.; Butler, B. J.; Rocha, G.; Walter, B.; Zacchei, A.

    2016-04-01

    The Planck mission detected thousands of extragalactic radio sources at frequencies from 28 to 857 GHz. Planck's calibration is absolute (in the sense that it is based on the satellite’s annual motion around the Sun and the temperature of the cosmic microwave background), and its beams are well characterized at sub-percent levels. Thus, Planck's flux density measurements of compact sources are absolute in the same sense. We have made coordinated Very Large Array (VLA) and Australia Telescope Compact Array (ATCA) observations of 65 strong, unresolved Planck sources in order to transfer Planck's calibration to ground-based instruments at 22, 28, and 43 GHz. The results are compared to microwave flux density scales currently based on planetary observations. Despite the scatter introduced by the variability of many of the sources, the flux density scales are determined to 1%-2% accuracy. At 28 GHz, the flux density scale used by the VLA runs 2%-3% ± 1.0% below Planck values with an uncertainty of +/- 1.0%; at 43 GHz, the discrepancy increases to 5%-6% ± 1.4% for both ATCA and the VLA.

  17. Estimation of Absolute Protein Quantities of Unlabeled Samples by Selected Reaction Monitoring Mass Spectrometry*

    PubMed Central

    Ludwig, Christina; Claassen, Manfred; Schmidt, Alexander; Aebersold, Ruedi

    2012-01-01

    For many research questions in modern molecular and systems biology, information about absolute protein quantities is imperative. This information includes, for example, kinetic modeling of processes, protein turnover determinations, stoichiometric investigations of protein complexes, or quantitative comparisons of different proteins within one sample or across samples. To date, the vast majority of proteomic studies are limited to providing relative quantitative comparisons of protein levels between limited numbers of samples. Here we describe and demonstrate the utility of a targeting MS technique for the estimation of absolute protein abundance in unlabeled and nonfractionated cell lysates. The method is based on selected reaction monitoring (SRM) mass spectrometry and the “best flyer” hypothesis, which assumes that the specific MS signal intensity of the most intense tryptic peptides per protein is approximately constant throughout a whole proteome. SRM-targeted best flyer peptides were selected for each protein from the peptide precursor ion signal intensities from directed MS data. The most intense transitions per peptide were selected from full MS/MS scans of crude synthetic analogs. We used Monte Carlo cross-validation to systematically investigate the accuracy of the technique as a function of the number of measured best flyer peptides and the number of SRM transitions per peptide. We found that a linear model based on the two most intense transitions of the three best flying peptides per proteins (TopPep3/TopTra2) generated optimal results with a cross-correlated mean fold error of 1.8 and a squared Pearson coefficient R2 of 0.88. Applying the optimized model to lysates of the microbe Leptospira interrogans, we detected significant protein abundance changes of 39 target proteins upon antibiotic treatment, which correlate well with literature values. The described method is generally applicable and exploits the inherent performance advantages of SRM

  18. Absolute masses and radii determination in multiplanetary systems without stellar models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Almenara, J. M.; Díaz, R. F.; Mardling, R.; Barros, S. C. C.; Damiani, C.; Bruno, G.; Bonfils, X.; Deleuil, M.

    2015-11-01

    The masses and radii of extrasolar planets are key observables for understanding their interior, formation and evolution. While transit photometry and Doppler spectroscopy are used to measure the radii and masses respectively of planets relative to those of their host star, estimates for the true values of these quantities rely on theoretical models of the host star which are known to suffer from systematic differences with observations. When a system is composed of more than two bodies, extra information is contained in the transit photometry and radial velocity data. Velocity information (finite speed-of-light, Doppler) is needed to break the Newtonian MR-3 degeneracy. We performed a photodynamical modelling of the two-planet transiting system Kepler-117 using all photometric and spectroscopic data available. We demonstrate how absolute masses and radii of single-star planetary systems can be obtained without resorting to stellar models. Limited by the precision of available radial velocities (38 m s-1), we achieve accuracies of 20 per cent in the radii and 70 per cent in the masses, while simulated 1 m s-1 precision radial velocities lower these to 1 per cent for the radii and 2 per cent for the masses. Since transiting multiplanet systems are common, this technique can be used to measure precisely the mass and radius of a large sample of stars and planets. We anticipate these measurements will become common when the TESS and PLATO mission provide high-precision light curves of a large sample of bright stars. These determinations will improve our knowledge about stars and planets, and provide strong constraints on theoretical models.

  19. Observables sensitive to absolute neutrino masses: A reappraisal after WMAP 3-year and first MINOS results

    SciTech Connect

    Fogli, G. L.; Lisi, E.; Marrone, A.; Melchiorri, A.; Serra, P.; Palazzo, A.; Silk, J.; Slosar, A.

    2007-03-01

    In the light of recent neutrino oscillation and nonoscillation data, we revisit the phenomenological constraints applicable to three observables sensitive to absolute neutrino masses: The effective neutrino mass in single beta decay (m{sub {beta}}); the effective Majorana neutrino mass in neutrinoless double beta decay (m{sub {beta}}{sub {beta}}); and the sum of neutrino masses in cosmology ({sigma}). In particular, we include the constraints coming from the first Main Injector Neutrino Oscillation Search (MINOS) data and from the Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe (WMAP) three-year (3y) data, as well as other relevant cosmological data and priors. We find that the largest neutrino squared mass difference is determined with a 15% accuracy (at 2{sigma}) after adding MINOS to world data. We also find upper bounds on the sum of neutrino masses {sigma} ranging from {approx}2 eV (WMAP-3y data only) to {approx}0.2 eV (all cosmological data) at 2{sigma}, in agreement with previous studies. In addition, we discuss the connection of such bounds with those placed on the matter power spectrum normalization parameter {sigma}{sub 8}. We show how the partial degeneracy between {sigma} and {sigma}{sub 8} in WMAP-3y data is broken by adding further cosmological data, and how the overall preference of such data for relatively high values of {sigma}{sub 8} pushes the upper bound of {sigma} in the sub-eV range. Finally, for various combination of data sets, we revisit the (in)compatibility between current {sigma} and m{sub {beta}}{sub {beta}} constraints (and claims), and derive quantitative predictions for future single and double beta decay experiments.

  20. Absolute isotopic composition and atomic weight of neodymium using thermal ionization mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Motian; Zhou, Tao; Wang, Jun; Lu, Hai; Fang, Xiang; Guo, Chunhua; Li, Qiuli; Li, Chaofeng

    2005-01-01

    Synthetic mixtures prepared gravimetrically from highly enriched isotopes of neodymium in the form of oxides of well-defined purity were used to calibrate a thermal ionization mass spectrometer. A new error analysis was applied to calculate the final uncertainty of the atomic weight value. Measurements on natural neodymium samples yielded an absolute isotopic composition of 27.153(19) atomic percent (at.%) 142Nd, 12.173(18) at.% 143Nd, 23.798(12) at.% 144Nd, 8.293(7) at.% 145Nd, 17.189(17) at.% 146Nd, 5.756(8) at.% 148Nd, and 5.638(9) at.% 150Nd, and the atomic weight of neodymium as 144.2415(13), with uncertainties given on the basis of 95% confidence limits. No isotopic fractionation was found in terrestrial neodymium materials.

  1. Observables sensitive to absolute neutrino masses: Constraints and correlations from world neutrino data

    SciTech Connect

    Fogli, G.L.; Lisi, E.; Marrone, A.; Palazzo, A.; Melchiorri, A.; Serra, P.; Silk, J.

    2004-12-01

    In the context of three-flavor neutrino mixing, we present a thorough study of the phenomenological constraints applicable to three observables sensitive to absolute neutrino masses: The effective neutrino mass in Tritium beta-decay (m{sub {beta}}); the effective Majorana neutrino mass in neutrinoless double beta-decay (m{sub {beta}}{sub {beta}}); and the sum of neutrino masses in cosmology ({sigma}). We discuss the correlations among these variables which arise from the combination of all the available neutrino oscillation data, in both normal and inverse neutrino mass hierarchy. We set upper limits on m{sub {beta}} by combining updated results from the Mainz and Troitsk experiments. We also consider the latest results on m{sub {beta}}{sub {beta}} from the Heidelberg-Moscow experiment, both with and without the lower bound claimed by such experiment. We derive upper limits on {sigma} from an updated combination of data from the Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe (WMAP) satellite and the two degrees Fields (2dF) Galaxy Redshifts Survey, with and without Lyman-{alpha} forest data from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS), in models with a nonzero running of the spectral index of primordial inflationary perturbations. The results are discussed in terms of two-dimensional projections of the globally allowed region in the (m{sub {beta}},m{sub {beta}}{sub {beta}},{sigma}) parameter space, which neatly show the relative impact of each data set. In particular, the (in)compatibility between {sigma} and m{sub {beta}}{sub {beta}} constraints is highlighted for various combinations of data. We also briefly discuss how future neutrino data (both oscillatory and nonoscillatory) can further probe the currently allowed regions.

  2. New low-cost dimensionally stable composite linear absolute position encoder scale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hassler, William L., Jr.; Nakayama, Robert K.

    1990-11-01

    A major problem in the use of standard linear position encoders is that the etched glass scales they use have a coefficient of thermal expansion (C. T. E. ) of about 1 1 . Oppm/ C. This means that their position measurements drift with changes in environmental temperature proportional to their C. T. E. . A new low cost dimensionally stable composite scale was made for use in a new absolute linear position encoder. The unidirectional Polyphenylene Sulfide/AS4 carbon fiber composite material that this scale is made of was tested for dimensional stability with respect to changes in temperature humidity and creep. The C. T. E. of the scale material was measured to be nominally 0. 29 ppm/ C with a standard deviation of 0. 12 over the operating temperature range of -2 to 62 C. The overall displacement strain due to 98 moisture absorption relative to 0 moisture absorption was measured to be 9 ppm. The strain due to stress-relief creep was found to be a maximum of 3 ppm over a period of 173 days. These results show that a linear position encoder scale made of this material is superior to those made of the standard glass currently being used and more cost effective than fused silica for most applications. 1.

  3. Absolute densities, masses, and radii of the WASP-47 system determined dynamically

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Almenara, J. M.; Díaz, R. F.; Bonfils, X.; Udry, S.

    2016-10-01

    We present a self-consistent modelling of the available light curve and radial velocity data of WASP-47 that takes into account the gravitational interactions between all known bodies in the system. The joint analysis of light curve and radial velocity data in a multi-planetary system allows deriving absolute densities, radii, and masses without the use of theoretical stellar models. For WASP-47 the precision is limited by the reduced dynamical information that is due to the short time span of the K2 light curve. We achieve a precision of around 22% for the radii of the star and the transiting planets, between 40% and 60% for their masses, and between 1.5% and 38% for their densities. All values agree with previously reported measurements. When theoretical stellar models are included, the system parameters are determined with a precision that exceeds that achieved by previous studies, thanks to the self-consistent modelling of light curve and radial velocity data.

  4. The orbit of Phi Cygni measured with long-baseline optical interferometry - Component masses and absolute magnitudes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Armstrong, J. T.; Hummel, C. A.; Quirrenbach, A.; Buscher, D. F.; Mozurkewich, D.; Vivekanand, M.; Simon, R. S.; Denison, C. S.; Johnston, K. J.; Pan, X.-P.

    1992-01-01

    The orbit of the double-lined spectroscopic binary Phi Cygni, the distance to the system, and the masses and absolute magnitudes of its components are presented via measurements with the Mar III Optical Interferometer. On the basis of a reexamination of the spectroscopic data of Rach & Herbig (1961), the values and uncertainties are adopted for the period and the projected semimajor axes from the present fit to the spectroscopic data and the values of the remaining elements from the present fit to the Mark III data. The elements of the true orbit are derived, and the masses and absolute magnitudes of the components, and the distance to the system are calculated.

  5. Low-scale gaugino mass unification

    SciTech Connect

    Endo, Motoi; Yoshioka, Koichi

    2008-07-15

    We study a new class of scenarios with the gaugino mass unification at the weak scale. The unification conditions are generally classified and then, the mirage gauge mediation is explored where the low-energy mass spectrum is governed by a mirage of unified gauge coupling which is seen by low-energy observers. The gaugino masses have natural and stable low-scale unification. The mass parameters of scalar quarks and leptons are given by gauge couplings but exhibit no large mass hierarchy. They are nonuniversal even when mediated at the gauge coupling unification scale. In addition, the gravitino is rather heavy and not the lightest superparticle. These facts are in contrast to existing gauge and mirage mediation models. We also present several explicit models for dynamically realizing the TeV-scale unification.

  6. A Concurrent Mixed Methods Approach to Examining the Quantitative and Qualitative Meaningfulness of Absolute Magnitude Estimation Scales in Survey Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koskey, Kristin L. K.; Stewart, Victoria C.

    2014-01-01

    This small "n" observational study used a concurrent mixed methods approach to address a void in the literature with regard to the qualitative meaningfulness of the data yielded by absolute magnitude estimation scaling (MES) used to rate subjective stimuli. We investigated whether respondents' scales progressed from less to more and…

  7. Length measurement in absolute scale via low-dispersion optical cavity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pravdova, Lenka; Lesundak, Adam; Smid, Radek; Hrabina, Jan; Rerucha, Simon; Cip, Ondrej

    2016-12-01

    We report on the length measuring instrument with the absolute scale that was based on the combination of an optical frequency comb and a passive optical cavity. The time spacing of short femtosecond pulses, generated by the optical frequency comb, is optically phase locked onto the cavity free spectral range with a derivative spectroscopy technique so that the value of the repetition frequency of the femtosecond laser is tied to and determines the measured displacement. The instantaneous value of the femtosecond pulse train frequency is counted by a frequency counter. This counted value corresponds to the length given by the spacing between the two mirrors of the passive cavity. The phase lock between the femtosecond pulsed beam and the passive cavity is possible due to the low-dispersion of the cavity mirrors, where the silver coating on the mirrors was used to provide the low dispersion for the broadband radiation of the comb. Every reflection on the output mirror feeds a portion of the beam back to the cavity so that the output beam is a result of multiple interfering components. The parameters of the output beam are given not only by the parameters of the mirrors but mainly by the absolute distance between the mirror surfaces. Thus, one cavity mirror can be considered as the reference starting point of the distance to be measured and the other mirror is the measuring probe surveying the unknown distance. The measuring mirror of the experimental setup of the low-dispersion cavity is mounted on a piezoelectric actuator which provides small changes in the cavity length we used to test the length measurement method. For the verification of the measurement accuracy a reference incremental interferometer was integrated into our system so that the displacement of the piezoelectric actuator could be obtained with both measuring methods simultaneously.

  8. Weyl invariance with a nontrivial mass scale

    SciTech Connect

    Álvarez, Enrique; González-Martín, Sergio

    2016-09-07

    A theory with a mass scale and yet Weyl invariant is presented. The theory is not invariant under all diffeomorphisms but only under transverse ones. This is the reason why Weyl invariance does not imply scale invariance in a free falling frame. Physical implications of this framework are discussed.

  9. The protoelectric potential map (PPM): an absolute two-dimensional chemical potential scale for a global understanding of chemistry.

    PubMed

    Radtke, Valentin; Himmel, Daniel; Pütz, Katharina; Goll, Sascha K; Krossing, Ingo

    2014-04-07

    We introduce the protoelectric potential map (PPM) as a novel, two-dimensional plot of the absolute reduction potential (peabs scale) combined with the absolute protochemical potential (Brønsted acidity: pHabs scale). The validity of this thermodynamically derived PPM is solvent-independent due to the scale zero points, which were chosen as the ideal electron gas and the ideal proton gas at standard conditions. To tie a chemical environment to these reference states, the standard Gibbs energies for the transfer of the gaseous electrons/protons to the medium are needed as anchor points. Thereby, the thermodynamics of any redox, acid-base or combined system in any medium can be related to any other, resulting in a predictability of reactions even over different media or phase boundaries. Instruction is given on how to construct the PPM from the anchor points derived and tabulated with this work. Since efforts to establish "absolute" reduction potential scales and also "absolute" pH scales already exist, a short review in this field is given and brought into relation to the PPM. Some comments on the electrochemical validation and realization conclude this concept article.

  10. In-Flight Measurement of the Absolute Energy Scale of the Fermi Large Area Telescope

    SciTech Connect

    Ackermann, M.; Ajello, M.; Allafort, A.; Atwood, W.B.; Axelsson, M.; Baldini, L.; Barbiellini, G.; Bastieri, D.; Bechtol, K.; Bellazzini, R.; Berenji, B.; Bloom, E.D.; Bonamente, E.; Borgland, A.W.; Bouvier, A.; Bregeon, J.; Brez, A.; Brigida, M.; Bruel, P.; Buehler, R.; Buson, S.; /more authors..

    2012-09-20

    The Large Area Telescope (LAT) on-board the Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope is a pair-conversion telescope designed to survey the gamma-ray sky from 20 MeV to several hundreds of GeV. In this energy band there are no astronomical sources with sufficiently well known and sharp spectral features to allow an absolute calibration of the LAT energy scale. However, the geomagnetic cutoff in the cosmic ray electron-plus-positron (CRE) spectrum in low Earth orbit does provide such a spectral feature. The energy and spectral shape of this cutoff can be calculated with the aid of a numerical code tracing charged particles in the Earth's magnetic field. By comparing the cutoff value with that measured by the LAT in different geomagnetic positions, we have obtained several calibration points between {approx}6 and {approx}13 GeV with an estimated uncertainty of {approx}2%. An energy calibration with such high accuracy reduces the systematic uncertainty in LAT measurements of, for example, the spectral cutoff in the emission from gamma ray pulsars.

  11. In-Flight Measurement of the Absolute Energy Scale of the Fermi Large Area Telescope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ackermann, M.; Ajello, M.; Allafort, A.; Atwood, W. B.; Axelsson, M.; Baldini, L.; Barbielini, G; Bastieri, D.; Bechtol, K.; Bellazzini, R.; Berenji, B,; Bloom, E. D.; Bonamente, E.; Borgland, A. W.; Bouvier, A.; Bregeon, J.; Brez, A.; Brigida, M.; Bruel, P.; Buehler, R.; Gehrels, N.; Hays, E.; McEnery, J. E.; Thompson, D. J.; Troja, E. J.

    2012-01-01

    The Large Area Telescope (LAT) on-board the Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope is a pair-conversion telescope designed to survey the gamma-ray sky from 20 MeV to several hundreds of GeV. In this energy band there are no astronomical sources with sufficiently well known and sharp spectral features to allow an absolute calibration of the LAT energy scale. However, the geomagnetic cutoff in the cosmic ray electron- plus-positron (CRE) spectrum in low Earth orbit does provide such a spectral feature. The energy and spectral shape of this cutoff can be calculated with the aid of a numerical code tracing charged particles in the Earth's magnetic field. By comparing the cutoff value with that measured by the LAT in different geomagnetic positions, we have obtained several calibration points between approx. 6 and approx. 13 GeV with an estimated uncertainty of approx. 2%. An energy calibration with such high accuracy reduces the systematic uncertainty in LAT measurements of, for example, the spectral cutoff in the emission from gamma ray pulsars.

  12. NMR absolute shielding scale and nuclear magnetic dipole moment of (207)Pb.

    PubMed

    Adrjan, Bożena; Makulski, Włodzimierz; Jackowski, Karol; Demissie, Taye B; Ruud, Kenneth; Antušek, Andrej; Jaszuński, Michał

    2016-06-28

    An absolute shielding scale is proposed for (207)Pb nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy. It is based on ab initio calculations performed on an isolated tetramethyllead Pb(CH3)4 molecule and the assignment of the experimental resonance frequency from the gas-phase NMR spectra of Pb(CH3)4, extrapolated to zero density of the buffer gas to obtain the result for an isolated molecule. The computed (207)Pb shielding constant is 10 790 ppm for the isolated molecule, leading to a shielding of 10799.7 ppm for liquid Pb(CH3)4 which is the accepted reference standard for (207)Pb NMR spectra. The new experimental and theoretical data are used to determine μ((207)Pb), the nuclear magnetic dipole moment of (207)Pb, by applying the standard relationship between NMR frequencies, shielding constants and nuclear moments of two nuclei in the same external magnetic field. Using the gas-phase (207)Pb and (reference) proton results and the theoretical value of the Pb shielding in Pb(CH3)4, we find μ((207)Pb) = 0.59064 μN. The analysis of new experimental and theoretical data obtained for the Pb(2+) ion in water solutions provides similar values of μ((207)Pb), in the range of 0.59000-0.59131 μN.

  13. Absolute and allometric relationships between internal morphology and body mass in the adult collared peccary, Tayassu tajacu (Tayassuidae).

    PubMed

    Lochmiller, R L; Hellgren, E C; Grant, W E

    1986-01-01

    Selected morphological features of 8 adult male and 8 adult female collared peccaries (Tayassu tajacu) shot from southern Texas during March 1983 are described. A total of 16 adult peccaries with an average body mass of 18.68 +/- 0.61 (SE) Kg was examined. Significant differences between males and females were observed for absolute and relative mass of liver and lungs, and relative heart mass. These visceral organs were heavier among females than males. Significant sex effects were also found for absolute and relative mass of the dorsal scent gland. The dorsal scent gland contributed twice as much to total body mass in males as in females. No sexual dimorphisms of the gastrointestinal tract were noted. Females had a significantly greater portion of total visceral fat deposited around the kidneys than did males. Relative mass of the mandible was significantly greater in males than in females. Adult males had extremely large accessory sex glands. The bulbourethral and seminal vesicle glands comprised 0.27 per cent of the total body mass. Allometric growth coefficients (b) varied among the various organs and glands examined, ranging from below (eyes, b = 0.34) to well above (seminal vesicles, b = 1.87) unity. Growth coefficients of lungs, kidneys, pituitary gland, and thyroid gland during adulthood greatly exceeded respective values in developing nurslings.

  14. Absolute mass lower limit for the lightest neutralino of the MSSM from e+e- data at s up to 209 GeV

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heister, A.; Schael, S.; Barate, R.; Brunelière, R.; de Bonis, I.; Decamp, D.; Goy, C.; Jézéquel, S.; Lees, J.-P.; Martin, F.; Merle, E.; Minard, M.-N.; Pietrzyk, B.; Trocmé, B.; Bravo, S.; Casado, M. P.; Chmeissani, M.; Crespo, J. M.; Fernandez, E.; Fernandez-Bosman, M.; Garrido, Ll; Martinez, M.; Pacheco, A.; Ruiz, H.; Colaleo, A.; Creanza, D.; de Filippis, N.; de Palma, M.; Iaselli, G.; Maggi, G.; Maggi, M.; Nuzzo, S.; Ranieri, A.; Raso, G.; Ruggieri, F.; Selvaggi, G.; Silvestris, L.; Tempesta, P.; Tricomi, A.; Zito, G.; Huang, X.; Lin, J.; Ouyang, Q.; Wang, T.; Xie, Y.; Xu, R.; Xue, S.; Zhang, J.; Zhang, L.; Zhao, W.; Abbaneo, D.; Barklow, T.; Buchmüller, O.; Cattaneo, M.; Clerbaux, B.; Drevermann, H.; Forty, R. W.; Frank, M.; Gianotti, F.; Hansen, J. B.; Harvey, J.; Hutchcroft, D. E.; Janot, P.; Jost, B.; Kado, M.; Mato, P.; Moutoussi, A.; Ranjard, F.; Rolandi, L.; Schlatter, D.; Sguazzoni, G.; Teubert, F.; Valassi, A.; Videau, I.; Badaud, F.; Dessagne, S.; Falvard, A.; Fayolle, D.; Gay, P.; Jousset, J.; Michel, B.; Monteil, S.; Pallin, D.; Pascolo, J. M.; Perret, P.; Hansen, J. D.; Hansen, J. R.; Hansen, P. H.; Kraan, A. C.; Nilsson, B. S.; Kyriakis, A.; Markou, C.; Simopoulou, E.; Vayaki, A.; Zachariadou, K.; Blondel, A.; Brient, J.-C.; Machefert, F.; Rougé, A.; Videau, H.; Ciulli, V.; Focardi, E.; Parrini, G.; Antonelli, A.; Antonelli, M.; Bencivenni, G.; Bossi, F.; Capon, G.; Cerutti, F.; Chiarella, V.; Laurelli, P.; Mannocchi, G.; Murtas, G. P.; Passalacqua, L.; Kennedy, J.; Lynch, J. G.; Negus, P.; O'Shea, V.; Thompson, A. S.; Wasserbaech, S.; Cavanaugh, R.; Dhamotharan, S.; Geweniger, C.; Hanke, P.; Hepp, V.; Kluge, E. E.; Putzer, A.; Stenzel, H.; Tittel, K.; Wunsch, M.; Beuselinck, R.; Cameron, W.; Davies, G.; Dornan, P. J.; Girone, M.; Hill, R. D.; Marinelli, N.; Nowell, J.; Rutherford, S. A.; Sedgbeer, J. K.; Thompson, J. C.; White, R.; Ghete, V. M.; Girtler, P.; Kneringer, E.; Kuhn, D.; Rudolph, G.; Bouhova-Thacker, E.; Bowdery, C. K.; Clarke, D. P.; Ellis, G.; Finch, A. J.; Foster, F.; Hughes, G.; Jones, R. W. L.; Pearson, M. R.; Robertson, N. A.; Smizanska, M.; van der Aa, O.; Delaere, C.; Leibenguth, G.; Lemaitre, V.; Blumenschein, U.; Hölldorfer, F.; Jakobs, K.; Kayser, F.; Kleinknecht, K.; Müller, A.-S.; Renk, B.; Sander, H.-G.; Schmeling, S.; Wachsmuth, H.; Zeitnitz, C.; Ziegler, T.; Bonissent, A.; Coyle, P.; Curtil, C.; Ealet, A.; Fouchez, D.; Payre, P.; Tilquin, A.; Ragusa, F.; David, A.; Dietl, H.; Ganis, G.; Hüttmann, K.; Lütjens, G.; Männer, W.; Moser, H.-G.; Settles, R.; Villegas, M.; Wolf, G.; Boucrot, J.; Callot, O.; Davier, M.; Duflot, L.; Grivaz, J.-F.; Heusse, Ph; Jacholkowska, A.; Serin, L.; Veillet, J.-J.; de Vivie de Régie, J.-B.; Azzurri, P.; Bagliesi, G.; Boccali, T.; Foà, L.; Giammanco, A.; Giassi, A.; Ligabue, F.; Messineo, A.; Palla, F.; Sanguinetti, G.; Sciabà, A.; Spagnolo, P.; Tenchini, R.; Venturi, A.; Verdini, P. G.; Awunor, O.; Blair, G. A.; Cowan, G.; Garcia-Bellido, A.; Green, M. G.; Medcalf, T.; Misiejuk, A.; Strong, J. A.; Teixeira-Dias, P.; Clifft, R. W.; Edgecock, T. R.; Norton, P. R.; Tomalin, I. R.; Ward, J. J.; Bloch-Devaux, B.; Boumediene, D.; Colas, P.; Fabbro, B.; Lançon, E.; Lemaire, M.-C.; Locci, E.; Perez, P.; Rander, J.; Tuchming, B.; Vallage, B.; Litke, A. M.; Taylor, G.; Booth, C. N.; Cartwright, S.; Combley, F.; Hodgson, P. N.; Lehto, M.; Thompson, L. F.; Böhrer, A.; Brandt, S.; Grupen, C.; Hess, J.; Ngac, A.; Prange, G.; Borean, C.; Giannini, G.; He, H.; Putz, J.; Rothberg, J.; Armstrong, S. R.; Berkelman, K.; Cranmer, K.; Ferguson, D. P. S.; Gao, Y.; González, S.; Hayes, O. J.; Hu, H.; Jin, S.; Kile, J.; McNamara, P. A.; Nielsen, J.; Pan, Y. B.; von Wimmersperg-Toeller, J. H.; Wiedenmann, W.; Wu, J.; Lan Wu, Sau; Wu, X.; Zobernig, G.; Dissertori, G.; Aleph Collaboration

    2004-03-01

    Charginos and neutralinos are searched for in the data collected by the ALEPH experiment at LEP for centre-of-mass energies up to 209 GeV. The negative result of these searches is combined with those from searches for sleptons and Higgs bosons to derive an absolute lower limit of 43.1 GeV/c2 on the mass of the lightest supersymmetric particle (LSP), assumed to be the lightest neutralino. This limit is obtained in the framework of the MSSM with R-parity conservation and with gaugino and sfermion mass unification at the GUT scale and assuming no mixing in the stau sector. The LSP limit degrades only slightly to 42.4 GeV/c2 if stau mixing is considered. Within the more constrained framework of minimal supergravity, the limit is 50 GeV/c2.

  15. Generalized Swiss-cheese cosmologies: Mass scales

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grenon, Cédric; Lake, Kayll

    2010-01-01

    We generalize the Swiss-cheese cosmologies so as to include nonzero linear momenta of the associated boundary surfaces. The evolution of mass scales in these generalized cosmologies is studied for a variety of models for the background without having to specify any details within the local inhomogeneities. We find that the final effective gravitational mass and size of the evolving inhomogeneities depends on their linear momenta but these properties are essentially unaffected by the details of the background model.

  16. Neutrino mass as the probe of intermediate mass scales

    SciTech Connect

    Senjanovic, G.

    1980-01-01

    A discussion of the calculability of neutrino mass is presented. The possibility of neutrinos being either Dirac or Majorana particles is analyzed in detail. Arguments are offered in favor of the Majorana case: the smallness of neutrino mass is linked to the maximality of parity violation in weak interactions. It is shown how the measured value of neutrino mass would probe the existence of an intermediate mass scale, presumably in the TeV region, at which parity is supposed to become a good symmetry. Experimental consequences of the proposed scheme are discussed, in particular the neutrino-less double ..beta.. decay, where observation would provide a crucial test of the model, and rare muon decays such as ..mu.. ..-->.. e..gamma.. and ..mu.. ..-->.. ee anti e. Finally, the embedding of this model in an O(10) grand unified theory is analyzed, with the emphasis on the implications for intermediate mass scales that it offers. It is concluded that the proposed scheme provides a distinct and testable alternative for understanding the smallness of neutrino mass. 4 figures.

  17. Mass scaling of leptons and quarks

    SciTech Connect

    Rosen, G.

    1992-10-01

    The mass scaling of leptons and quarks is associated with a dynamical symmetry Lie group G and considered to be regulated in a two-dimensional subgroup parameter space S{sub 1}{sup (1)} x S{sub 1}{sup (2)}, a torus that is half-integer Fibonacci. By postregulating simple conditions on the mass dilatation pathways in S{sub 1}{sup (1)} x S{sub 1}{sup (2)}, one obtains mass values consistent with experiment for all twelve leptons and quarks. In particular, the neutrinos {nu}{sub e}, {nu}{sub {mu}}, {nu}{sub {tau}} are predicted to have masses 4.932731 eV, 1.019932 keV and 17.20978 keV, respectively, while the top quark t is predicted to have the mass 145.0027 GeV. 6 refs., 2 figs., 2 tabs.

  18. Relative Atomic Mass Scale: A Teaching Aid.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baumgartner, Erwin; And Others

    1988-01-01

    Proposes the use of a relative atomic mass (RAM) scale in which hydrogen is assigned a value from one as a teaching aid for better understanding the concept of RAM. Helps to clarify the ideas and concepts about this topic. (CW)

  19. Absolute calibration of the Greenland time scale: implications for Antarctic time scales and for Δ 14C

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shackleton, N. J.; Fairbanks, R. G.; Chiu, Tzu-chien; Parrenin, F.

    2004-07-01

    We propose a new age scale for the two ice cores (GRIP and GISP2) that were drilled at Greenland summit, based on accelerator mass spectrometry 14C dating of foraminifera in core MD95-2042 (Paleoceanography 15 (2000) 565), calibrated by means of recently obtained paired 14C and 230Th measurements on pristine corals (Marine radiocarbon calibration curve spanning 10,500 to 50,000 years BP (thousand years before present) Based on paired 230Th/ 234U/ 238U and 14C dates on Pristine Corals Geological Society of America Bulletin, 2003, submitted for publication). The record of core MD95-2042 can be correlated very precisely to the Greenland ice cores. Between 30 and 40 ka BP our scale is 1.4 ka older than the GRIP SS09sea time scale (Journal of Quaternary Science 16 (2001) 299). At the older end of Marine Isotope Stage 3 we use published 230Th dates from speleothems to calibrate the record. Using this scale we show a Δ 14C record that is broadly consistent with the modelled record (Earth Planet. Sci. Lett. 200 (2002) 177) and with the data of Hughen et al. (Science 303 (2004) 202), but not consistent with the high values obtained by Beck et al. (Science 292 (2001) 2453) or by Voelker et al. (Radiocarbon 40 (1998) 517). We show how a set of age scales for the Antarctic ice cores can be derived that are both fully consistent with the Greenland scale, and glaciologically reasonable.

  20. Mass reach scaling for future hadron colliders

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rizzo, Thomas G.

    2015-04-01

    The primary goal of any future hadron collider is to discover new physics (NP) associated with a high mass scale, , beyond the range of the LHC. In order to maintain the same relative mass reach for rate-limited NP, , as increases, Richter recently reminded us that the required integrated luminosity obtainable at future hadron colliders (FHC) must grow rapidly, , in the limit of naive scaling. This would imply, e.g., a 50-fold increase in the required integrated luminosity when going from the 14 TeV LHC to a FHC with TeV, an increase that would prove quite challenging on many different fronts. In this paper we point out, due to the scaling violations associated with the evolution of the parton density functions (PDFs) and the running of the strong coupling, , that the actual luminosity necessary in order to maintain any fixed value of the relative mass reach is somewhat greater than this scaling result indicates. However, the actual values of the required luminosity scaling are found to be dependent upon the detailed nature of the NP being considered. Here we elucidate this point explicitly by employing several specific benchmark examples of possible NP scenarios and briefly discuss the (relatively weak) search impact in each case if these luminosity goals are not met.

  1. Identification and absolute quantification of enzymes in laundry detergents by liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Gaubert, Alexandra; Jeudy, Jérémy; Rougemont, Blandine; Bordes, Claire; Lemoine, Jérôme; Casabianca, Hervé; Salvador, Arnaud

    2016-07-01

    In a stricter legislative context, greener detergent formulations are developed. In this way, synthetic surfactants are frequently replaced by bio-sourced surfactants and/or used at lower concentrations in combination with enzymes. In this paper, a LC-MS/MS method was developed for the identification and quantification of enzymes in laundry detergents. Prior to the LC-MS/MS analyses, a specific sample preparation protocol was developed due to matrix complexity (high surfactant percentages). Then for each enzyme family mainly used in detergent formulations (protease, amylase, cellulase, and lipase), specific peptides were identified on a high resolution platform. A LC-MS/MS method was then developed in selected reaction monitoring (SRM) MS mode for the light and corresponding heavy peptides. The method was linear on the peptide concentration ranges 25-1000 ng/mL for protease, lipase, and cellulase; 50-1000 ng/mL for amylase; and 5-1000 ng/mL for cellulase in both water and laundry detergent matrices. The application of the developed analytical strategy to real commercial laundry detergents enabled enzyme identification and absolute quantification. For the first time, identification and absolute quantification of enzymes in laundry detergent was realized by LC-MS/MS in a single run. Graphical Abstract Identification and quantification of enzymes by LC-MS/MS.

  2. Scaling Stellar Mass Estimates of Dwarf Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carr, Brandon Michael; McQuinn, Kristen B.; Cannon, John M.; Dalcanton, Julianne; Dolphin, Andrew E.; Skillman, Evan D.; Williams, Benjamin F.; van Zee, Liese

    2017-01-01

    Hubble Space Telescope (HST) optical imaging of resolved stellar populations has been used to constrain the star formation history (SFH) and chemical evolution of many nearby dwarf galaxies. However, even for dwarf galaxies, the angle subtended by nearby systems can be greater than the HST field of view. Thus, estimates of stellar mass from the HST footprint do not accurately represent the total mass of the system, impacting how SFH results can be used in holistic comparisons of galaxy properties. Here, we use the SFHs of dwarfs combined with stellar population synthesis models to determine mass-to-light ratios for individual galaxies, and compare these values with measured infrared luminosities from Spitzer IRAC data. In this way, we determine what fraction of mass is not included in the HST field of view. To test our methodology, we focus on dwarfs whose stellar disks are contained within the HST observations. Then, we also apply this method to galaxies with larger angular sizes to scale the stellar masses accordingly.

  3. Investigation of Absolute and Relative Scaling Conceptions of Students in Introductory College Chemistry Courses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gerlach, Karrie; Trate, Jaclyn; Blecking, Anja; Geissinger, Peter; Murphy, Kristen

    2014-01-01

    Scale as a theme in science instruction is not a new idea. As early as the mid-1980s, scale was identified as an important component of a student's overall science literacy. However, the study of scale and the scale literacy of students in varying levels of education have received less attention than other science-literacy components. Foremost…

  4. Absolute Quantification of Rifampicin by MALDI Imaging Mass Spectrometry Using Multiple TOF/TOF Events in a Single Laser Shot.

    PubMed

    Prentice, Boone M; Chumbley, Chad W; Caprioli, Richard M

    2017-01-01

    Matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization imaging mass spectrometry (MALDI IMS) allows for the visualization of molecular distributions within tissue sections. While providing excellent molecular specificity and spatial information, absolute quantification by MALDI IMS remains challenging. Especially in the low molecular weight region of the spectrum, analysis is complicated by matrix interferences and ionization suppression. Though tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS) can be used to ensure chemical specificity and improve sensitivity by eliminating chemical noise, typical MALDI MS/MS modalities only scan for a single MS/MS event per laser shot. Herein, we describe TOF/TOF instrumentation that enables multiple fragmentation events to be performed in a single laser shot, allowing the intensity of the analyte to be referenced to the intensity of the internal standard in each laser shot while maintaining the benefits of MS/MS. This approach is illustrated by the quantitative analyses of rifampicin (RIF), an antibiotic used to treat tuberculosis, in pooled human plasma using rifapentine (RPT) as an internal standard. The results show greater than 4-fold improvements in relative standard deviation as well as improved coefficients of determination (R(2)) and accuracy (>93% quality controls, <9% relative errors). This technology is used as an imaging modality to measure absolute RIF concentrations in liver tissue from an animal dosed in vivo. Each microspot in the quantitative image measures the local RIF concentration in the tissue section, providing absolute pixel-to-pixel quantification from different tissue microenvironments. The average concentration determined by IMS is in agreement with the concentration determined by HPLC-MS/MS, showing a percent difference of 10.6%. Graphical Abstract ᅟ.

  5. Absolute Quantification of Rifampicin by MALDI Imaging Mass Spectrometry Using Multiple TOF/TOF Events in a Single Laser Shot

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prentice, Boone M.; Chumbley, Chad W.; Caprioli, Richard M.

    2017-01-01

    Matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization imaging mass spectrometry (MALDI IMS) allows for the visualization of molecular distributions within tissue sections. While providing excellent molecular specificity and spatial information, absolute quantification by MALDI IMS remains challenging. Especially in the low molecular weight region of the spectrum, analysis is complicated by matrix interferences and ionization suppression. Though tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS) can be used to ensure chemical specificity and improve sensitivity by eliminating chemical noise, typical MALDI MS/MS modalities only scan for a single MS/MS event per laser shot. Herein, we describe TOF/TOF instrumentation that enables multiple fragmentation events to be performed in a single laser shot, allowing the intensity of the analyte to be referenced to the intensity of the internal standard in each laser shot while maintaining the benefits of MS/MS. This approach is illustrated by the quantitative analyses of rifampicin (RIF), an antibiotic used to treat tuberculosis, in pooled human plasma using rifapentine (RPT) as an internal standard. The results show greater than 4-fold improvements in relative standard deviation as well as improved coefficients of determination (R2) and accuracy (>93% quality controls, <9% relative errors). This technology is used as an imaging modality to measure absolute RIF concentrations in liver tissue from an animal dosed in vivo. Each microspot in the quantitative image measures the local RIF concentration in the tissue section, providing absolute pixel-to-pixel quantification from different tissue microenvironments. The average concentration determined by IMS is in agreement with the concentration determined by HPLC-MS/MS, showing a percent difference of 10.6%.

  6. Easy Absolute Values? Absolutely

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, Sharon E.; Mittag, Kathleen Cage

    2015-01-01

    The authors teach a problem-solving course for preservice middle-grades education majors that includes concepts dealing with absolute-value computations, equations, and inequalities. Many of these students like mathematics and plan to teach it, so they are adept at symbolic manipulations. Getting them to think differently about a concept that they…

  7. Music Proficiency and Quantification of Absolute Pitch: A Large-Scale Study among Brazilian Musicians.

    PubMed

    Leite, Raphael B C; Mota-Rolim, Sergio A; Queiroz, Claudio M T

    2016-01-01

    Absolute pitch (AP) is the ability to identify and name the pitch of a sound without external reference. Often, accuracy and speed at naming isolated musical pitches are correlated with demographic, biological, and acoustical parameters to gain insight into the genesis and evolution of this ability in specific cohorts. However, the majority of those studies were conducted in North America, Europe, or Asia. To fill this gap, here we investigated the pitch-naming performance in a large population of Brazilian conservatory musicians (N = 200). As previously shown, we found that the population performance was rather a continuum than an "all-or-none" ability. By comparing the observed distribution of correct responses to a theoretical binomial distribution, we estimated the prevalence of AP as being 18% amongst regular music students. High accuracy thresholds (e.g., 85% of correct responses) yielded a prevalence of 4%, suggesting that AP might have been underestimated in previous reports. Irrespective of the threshold used, AP prevalence was higher in musicians who started their musical practice and formal musical education early in life. Finally, we compared the performance of those music students (average proficiency group) with another group of students selected to take part in the conservatory orchestra (high proficiency group, N = 30). Interestingly, the prevalence of AP was higher in the latter in comparison to the former group. In addition, even when the response was incorrect, the mean absolute deviation from the correct response was smaller in the high proficiency group compared to the average proficiency group (Glass's Δ: 0.5). Taken together, our results show that the prevalence of AP in Brazilian students is similar to other non-tonal language populations, although this measure is highly dependent on the scoring threshold used. Despite corroborating that early involvement with musical practice and formal education can foster AP ability, the present data

  8. Music Proficiency and Quantification of Absolute Pitch: A Large-Scale Study among Brazilian Musicians

    PubMed Central

    Leite, Raphael B. C.; Mota-Rolim, Sergio A.; Queiroz, Claudio M. T.

    2016-01-01

    Absolute pitch (AP) is the ability to identify and name the pitch of a sound without external reference. Often, accuracy and speed at naming isolated musical pitches are correlated with demographic, biological, and acoustical parameters to gain insight into the genesis and evolution of this ability in specific cohorts. However, the majority of those studies were conducted in North America, Europe, or Asia. To fill this gap, here we investigated the pitch-naming performance in a large population of Brazilian conservatory musicians (N = 200). As previously shown, we found that the population performance was rather a continuum than an “all-or-none” ability. By comparing the observed distribution of correct responses to a theoretical binomial distribution, we estimated the prevalence of AP as being 18% amongst regular music students. High accuracy thresholds (e.g., 85% of correct responses) yielded a prevalence of 4%, suggesting that AP might have been underestimated in previous reports. Irrespective of the threshold used, AP prevalence was higher in musicians who started their musical practice and formal musical education early in life. Finally, we compared the performance of those music students (average proficiency group) with another group of students selected to take part in the conservatory orchestra (high proficiency group, N = 30). Interestingly, the prevalence of AP was higher in the latter in comparison to the former group. In addition, even when the response was incorrect, the mean absolute deviation from the correct response was smaller in the high proficiency group compared to the average proficiency group (Glass's Δ: 0.5). Taken together, our results show that the prevalence of AP in Brazilian students is similar to other non-tonal language populations, although this measure is highly dependent on the scoring threshold used. Despite corroborating that early involvement with musical practice and formal education can foster AP ability, the present data

  9. The orbital motion, absolute mass and high-altitude winds of exoplanet HD 209458b.

    PubMed

    Snellen, Ignas A G; de Kok, Remco J; de Mooij, Ernst J W; Albrecht, Simon

    2010-06-24

    For extrasolar planets discovered using the radial velocity method, the spectral characterization of the host star leads to a mass estimate of the star and subsequently of the orbiting planet. If the orbital velocity of the planet could be determined, the masses of both star and planet could be calculated using Newton's law of gravity, just as in the case of stellar double-line eclipsing binaries. Here we report high-dispersion ground-based spectroscopy of a transit of the extrasolar planet HD 209458b. We see a significant wavelength shift in absorption lines from carbon monoxide in the planet's atmosphere, which we conclude arises from a change in the radial component of the planet's orbital velocity. The masses of the star and planet are 1.00 +/- 0.22M(Sun) and 0.64 +/- 0.09M(Jup) respectively. A blueshift of the carbon monoxide signal of approximately 2 km s(-1) with respect to the systemic velocity of the host star suggests the presence of a strong wind flowing from the irradiated dayside to the non-irradiated nightside of the planet within the 0.01-0.1 mbar atmospheric pressure range probed by these observations. The strength of the carbon monoxide signal suggests a carbon monoxide mixing ratio of (1-3) x 10(-3) in this planet's upper atmosphere.

  10. Absolute parameter determination in low-mass eclipsing binaries - Radiative parameters for BH Vir, ZZ UMA and CR CAS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clement, R.; Reglero, V.; Garcia, M.; Fabregat, J.; Bravo, A.; Suso, J.

    1993-01-01

    A new uvby and H-beta monitoring program of low mass eclipsing binaries is currently being carried out in the framework of a 5-yr observational program which also involves radial velocity determinations. The scope of this work is to provide very accurate absolute astrophysical parameters: mass, radius, and effective temperatures, for main-sequence late-type stars. One of the main goals is to improve the mass-luminosity relation in the low and intermediate mass range. A second objective is to perform accurate tests of the most recent grids of evolutionary models. This program is complementary to that currently being implemented by the Copenhagen group. In this contribution we present the photometric preliminary results obtained for three of the systems included in our long-term survey: BH Vir, ZZ UMa, and CR Cas for which primary eclipses have been observed. Particular attention is paid to the determination of reddening, distances, and radiative properties. A more detailed study will be carried out when the light curves and radial velocity measurements are completed.

  11. Simultaneous Determination of Absolute Configuration and Quantity of Lipopeptides Using Chiral Liquid Chromatography/Mass Spectrometry and Diastereomeric Internal Standards.

    PubMed

    Nemati, Reza; Dietz, Christopher; Anstadt, Emily; Clark, Robert; Smith, Michael; Nichols, Frank; Yao, Xudong

    2017-02-28

    Lipopeptides promote innate immune response and are related to disease pathology. To investigate the newly emerging roles of lipopeptides, accurate measurements of stereoisomers with multiple chiral centers are essential yet challenging. This work uses (3R)- and (3S)-(15-methyl-3-((13-methyltetradecanoyl)oxy)hexadecanoyl)glycyl-l-serine, abbreviated as l-serine-(R+S)-Lipid 654, to develop a method that combines chiral liquid chromatography, a diastereomeric mixture of isotopically labeled internal standards, and multiple reaction monitoring mass spectrometry. The new method allows for simultaneously determining the absolute configuration and quantity of stereoisomers of bacteria-derived lipopeptides. Total lipid extracts of nine evaluated bacteria strains had different amounts, but only the (R)-isoform of l-serine-Lipid 654. The developed method also allowed for the first quantitative analysis of hydrolysis of a nonphospholipid as a novel substrate of honey bee venom phospholipase A2.

  12. The brightness temperature of Venus and the absolute flux-density scale at 608 MHz.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Muhleman, D. O.; Berge, G. L.; Orton, G. S.

    1973-01-01

    The disk temperature of Venus was measured at 608 MHz near the inferior conjunction of 1972, and a value of 498 plus or minus 33 K was obtained using a nominal CKL flux-density scale. The result is consistent with earlier measurements, but has a much smaller uncertainty. Our theoretical model prediction is larger by a factor of 1.21 plus or minus 0.09. This discrepancy has been noticed previously for frequencies below 1400 MHz, but was generally disregarded because of the large observational uncertainties. No way could be found to change the model to produce agreement without causing a conflict with well-established properties of Venus. Thus it is suggested that the flux-density scale may require an upward revision, at least near this frequency, in excess of what has previously been considered likely.

  13. Precision and accuracy in the quantitative analysis of biological samples by accelerator mass spectrometry: application in microdose absolute bioavailability studies.

    PubMed

    Gao, Lan; Li, Jing; Kasserra, Claudia; Song, Qi; Arjomand, Ali; Hesk, David; Chowdhury, Swapan K

    2011-07-15

    Determination of the pharmacokinetics and absolute bioavailability of an experimental compound, SCH 900518, following a 89.7 nCi (100 μg) intravenous (iv) dose of (14)C-SCH 900518 2 h post 200 mg oral administration of nonradiolabeled SCH 900518 to six healthy male subjects has been described. The plasma concentration of SCH 900518 was measured using a validated LC-MS/MS system, and accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) was used for quantitative plasma (14)C-SCH 900518 concentration determination. Calibration standards and quality controls were included for every batch of sample analysis by AMS to ensure acceptable quality of the assay. Plasma (14)C-SCH 900518 concentrations were derived from the regression function established from the calibration standards, rather than directly from isotopic ratios from AMS measurement. The precision and accuracy of quality controls and calibration standards met the requirements of bioanalytical guidance (U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Food and Drug Administration, Center for Drug Evaluation and Research, Center for Veterinary Medicine. Guidance for Industry: Bioanalytical Method Validation (ucm070107), May 2001. http://www.fda.gov/downloads/Drugs/GuidanceCompilanceRegulatoryInformation/Guidances/ucm070107.pdf ). The AMS measurement had a linear response range from 0.0159 to 9.07 dpm/mL for plasma (14)C-SCH 900158 concentrations. The CV and accuracy were 3.4-8.5% and 94-108% (82-119% for the lower limit of quantitation (LLOQ)), respectively, with a correlation coefficient of 0.9998. The absolute bioavailability was calculated from the dose-normalized area under the curve of iv and oral doses after the plasma concentrations were plotted vs the sampling time post oral dose. The mean absolute bioavailability of SCH 900518 was 40.8% (range 16.8-60.6%). The typical accuracy and standard deviation in AMS quantitative analysis of drugs from human plasma samples have been reported for the first time, and the impact of these

  14. Length scales in alloy dissolution and measurement of absolute interfacial free energy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rugolo, J.; Erlebacher, J.; Sieradzki, K.

    2006-12-01

    De-alloying is the selective dissolution of one or more of the elemental components of an alloy. In binary alloys that exhibit complete solid solubility, de-alloying of the less noble component results in the formation of nanoporous metals, a materials class that has attracted attention for applications such as catalysis, sensing and actuation. In addition, the occurrence of de-alloying in metallic alloy systems under stress is known to result in stress-corrosion cracking, a key failure mechanism in fossil fuel and nuclear plants, ageing aircraft, and also an important concern in the design of nuclear-waste storage containers. Central to the design of corrosion-resistant alloys is the identification of a composition-dependent electrochemical critical potential, Vcrit, above which the current rises dramatically with potential, signalling the onset of bulk de-alloying. Below Vcrit, the surface is passivated by the accumulation of up to several monolayers of the more noble component. The current understanding of the processes that control Vcrit is incomplete. Here, we report on de-alloying results of Ag/Au superlattices that clarify the role of pre-existing length scales in alloy dissolution. Our data motivated us to re-analyse existing data on critical potentials of Ag-Au alloys and develop a simple unifying picture that accounts for the compositional dependence of solid-solution alloy critical potentials.

  15. Length scales in alloy dissolution and measurement of absolute interfacial free energy.

    PubMed

    Rugolo, J; Erlebacher, J; Sieradzki, K

    2006-12-01

    De-alloying is the selective dissolution of one or more of the elemental components of an alloy. In binary alloys that exhibit complete solid solubility, de-alloying of the less noble component results in the formation of nanoporous metals, a materials class that has attracted attention for applications such as catalysis, sensing and actuation. In addition, the occurrence of de-alloying in metallic alloy systems under stress is known to result in stress-corrosion cracking, a key failure mechanism in fossil fuel and nuclear plants, ageing aircraft, and also an important concern in the design of nuclear-waste storage containers. Central to the design of corrosion-resistant alloys is the identification of a composition-dependent electrochemical critical potential, Vcrit, above which the current rises dramatically with potential, signalling the onset of bulk de-alloying. Below Vcrit, the surface is passivated by the accumulation of up to several monolayers of the more noble component. The current understanding of the processes that control Vcrit is incomplete. Here, we report on de-alloying results of Ag/Au superlattices that clarify the role of pre-existing length scales in alloy dissolution. Our data motivated us to re-analyse existing data on critical potentials of Ag-Au alloys and develop a simple unifying picture that accounts for the compositional dependence of solid-solution alloy critical potentials.

  16. High-accuracy absolute rotation rate measurements with a large ring laser gyro: establishing the scale factor.

    PubMed

    Hurst, Robert B; Mayerbacher, Marinus; Gebauer, Andre; Schreiber, K Ulrich; Wells, Jon-Paul R

    2017-02-01

    Large ring lasers have exceeded the performance of navigational gyroscopes by several orders of magnitude and have become useful tools for geodesy. In order to apply them to tests in fundamental physics, remaining systematic errors have to be significantly reduced. We derive a modified expression for the Sagnac frequency of a square ring laser gyro under Earth rotation. The modifications include corrections for dispersion (of both the gain medium and the mirrors), for the Goos-Hänchen effect in the mirrors, and for refractive index of the gas filling the cavity. The corrections were measured and calculated for the 16  m2 Grossring laser located at the Geodetic Observatory Wettzell. The optical frequency and the free spectral range of this laser were measured, allowing unique determination of the longitudinal mode number, and measurement of the dispersion. Ultimately we find that the absolute scale factor of the gyroscope can be estimated to an accuracy of approximately 1 part in 108.

  17. Absolute pitch among students at the Shanghai Conservatory of Music: a large-scale direct-test study.

    PubMed

    Deutsch, Diana; Li, Xiaonuo; Shen, Jing

    2013-11-01

    This paper reports a large-scale direct-test study of absolute pitch (AP) in students at the Shanghai Conservatory of Music. Overall note-naming scores were very high, with high scores correlating positively with early onset of musical training. Students who had begun training at age ≤5 yr scored 83% correct not allowing for semitone errors and 90% correct allowing for semitone errors. Performance levels were higher for white key pitches than for black key pitches. This effect was greater for orchestral performers than for pianists, indicating that it cannot be attributed to early training on the piano. Rather, accuracy in identifying notes of different names (C, C#, D, etc.) correlated with their frequency of occurrence in a large sample of music taken from the Western tonal repertoire. There was also an effect of pitch range, so that performance on tones in the two-octave range beginning on Middle C was higher than on tones in the octave below Middle C. In addition, semitone errors tended to be on the sharp side. The evidence also ran counter to the hypothesis, previously advanced by others, that the note A plays a special role in pitch identification judgments.

  18. DAQ Software Contributions, Absolute Scale Energy Calibration and Background Evaluation for the NOvA Experiment at Fermilab

    SciTech Connect

    Flumerfelt, Eric Lewis

    2015-08-01

    The NOvA (NuMI Off-axis ve [nu_e] Appearance) Experiment is a long-baseline accelerator neutrino experiment currently in its second year of operations. NOvA uses the Neutrinos from the Main Injector (NuMI) beam at Fermilab, and there are two main off-axis detectors: a Near Detector at Fermilab and a Far Detector 810 km away at Ash River, MN. The work reported herein is in support of the NOvA Experiment, through contributions to the development of data acquisition software, providing an accurate, absolute-scale energy calibration for electromagnetic showers in NOvA detector elements, crucial to the primary electron neutrino search, and through an initial evaluation of the cosmic background rate in the NOvA Far Detector, which is situated on the surface without significant overburden. Additional support work for the NOvA Experiment is also detailed, including DAQ Server Administration duties and a study of NOvA’s sensitivity to neutrino oscillations into a “sterile” state.

  19. Catchment-scale variability of absolute versus temporal anomaly soil moisture: Time-invariant part not always plays the leading role

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Xiaodong; Zhao, Xining; Si, Bing Cheng; Brocca, Luca; Hu, Wei; Wu, Pute

    2015-10-01

    Recently, the characterization of soil moisture spatiotemporal variability is recommended to consider temporal soil moisture anomalies because of their distinctive behaviors with absolute soil moisture and their importance in hydrological applications. Here we characterized soil moisture spatiotemporal variability in the Yuanzegou catchment (0.58 km2) on the Loess Plateau of China, considering both absolute soil moisture and temporal anomalies. The dataset contained soil moisture observations in the 0-80 cm between 2009 and 2011 at 78 sampling locations. The spatial variance of time-invariant temporal means was shown to be the primary contributor (61.7-76.2%) to the total variance but the magnitude of this contribution was much lower than observed in large-scale studies. The seasonal variation in contribution can be attributed into differences in soil wetness conditions; lower contribution was found at intermediate wetness for spatial variances of temporal mean and temporal anomalies. Furthermore, the upward-convex relationship between spatial variance and spatial means of absolute soil moisture was mainly characterized by the covariance of temporal mean and temporal anomalies. Time stability of absolute soil moisture and its components were analyzed by using both the "accuracy" metric mean relative difference (MRD) and the "precision" metric variance of relative difference (VRD). As MRD was considered, time stability of absolute soil moisture primarily characterized time-invariant patterns. However, as VRD was used, the time stability of absolute soil moisture characterized only a small part of time-invariant or -variant pattern.

  20. Peak mass in large-scale structure and dynamical friction.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Del Popolo, A.; Gambera, M.

    1996-04-01

    We show how the results given by several authors relatively to the mass of a density peak are changed when small scale substructure induced by dynamical friction are taken into account. The peak mass obtained is compared to the result of Peacock & Heavens (1990) and to the peak mass when dynamical friction is absent to show how these effects conspire to reduce the mass accreted by the peak.

  1. Local supersymmetry and the problem of the mass scales

    SciTech Connect

    Nilles, H.P.

    1983-02-01

    Spontaneously broken supergravity might help us to understand the puzzle of the mass scales in grand unified models. We describe the general mechanism and point out the remaining problems. Some new results on local supercolor are presented.

  2. Small Scale Mass Flow Plug Calibration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sasson, Jonathan

    2015-01-01

    A simple control volume model has been developed to calculate the discharge coefficient through a mass flow plug (MFP) and validated with a calibration experiment. The maximum error of the model in the operating region of the MFP is 0.54%. The model uses the MFP geometry and operating pressure and temperature to couple continuity, momentum, energy, an equation of state, and wall shear. Effects of boundary layer growth and the reduction in cross-sectional flow area are calculated using an in- integral method. A CFD calibration is shown to be of lower accuracy with a maximum error of 1.35%, and slower by a factor of 100. Effects of total pressure distortion are taken into account in the experiment. Distortion creates a loss in flow rate and can be characterized by two different distortion descriptors.

  3. Absolute-energy-scale calibration of ARGO-YBJ for light primaries in multi-TeV region with the Moon shadow observation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bartoli, B.; Bernardini, P.; Bi, X. J.; Cao, Z.; Catalanotti, S.; Chen, S. Z.; Chen, T. L.; Cui, S. W.; Dai, B. Z.; D'Amone, A.; Danzengluobu; De Mitri, I.; D'Ettorre Piazzoli, B.; Di Girolamo, T.; Di Sciascio, G.; Feng, C. F.; Feng, Zhaoyang; Feng, Zhenyong; Gou, Q. B.; Guo, Y. Q.; He, H. H.; Hu, Haibing; Hu, Hongbo; Iacovacci, M.; Iuppa, R.; Jia, H. Y.; Labaciren; Li, H. J.; Liu, C.; Liu, J.; Liu, M. Y.; Lu, H.; Ma, L. L.; Ma, X. H.; Mancarella, G.; Mari, S. M.; Marsella, G.; Mastroianni, S.; Montini, P.; Ning, C. C.; Perrone, L.; Pistilli, P.; Salvini, P.; Santonico, R.; Shen, P. R.; Sheng, X. D.; Shi, F.; Surdo, A.; Tan, Y. H.; Vallania, P.; Vernetto, S.; Vigorito, C.; Wang, H.; Wu, C. Y.; Wu, H. R.; Xue, L.; Yang, Q. Y.; Yang, X. C.; Yao, Z. G.; Yuan, A. F.; Zha, M.; Zhang, H. M.; Zhang, L.; Zhang, X. Y.; Zhang, Y.; Zhao, J.; Zhaxiciren; Zhaxisangzhu; Zhou, X. X.; Zhu, F. R.; Zhu, Q. Q.; collaboration), (The ARGO-YBJ

    2017-04-01

    In 2011 ARGO-YBJ experiment has reported a work to study the absolute rigidity scale of the primary cosmic ray particles based on the Moon's shadow observation. Given the progress in high energy hadronic interaction models with LHC data, in cosmic ray chemical composition measurement and in experimental data accumulation, more updates can be researched. This paper aims to further disentangle the composition dependence in absolute-energy-scale calibration by using specific moon-shadow data which mainly is comprised of light component cosmic rays. Results show that, 17% energy scale error is estimated from 3 TeV to 50 TeV. To validate the performance of this technique, the light component cosmic ray spectrum in the same energy region is shown.

  4. Universal temperature and body-mass scaling of feeding rates

    PubMed Central

    Rall, Björn C.; Brose, Ulrich; Hartvig, Martin; Kalinkat, Gregor; Schwarzmüller, Florian; Vucic-Pestic, Olivera; Petchey, Owen L.

    2012-01-01

    Knowledge of feeding rates is the basis to understand interaction strength and subsequently the stability of ecosystems and biodiversity. Feeding rates, as all biological rates, depend on consumer and resource body masses and environmental temperature. Despite five decades of research on functional responses as quantitative models of feeding rates, a unifying framework of how they scale with body masses and temperature is still lacking. This is perplexing, considering that the strength of functional responses (i.e. interaction strengths) is crucially important for the stability of simple consumer–resource systems and the persistence, sustainability and biodiversity of complex communities. Here, we present the largest currently available database on functional response parameters and their scaling with body mass and temperature. Moreover, these data are integrated across ecosystems and metabolic types of species. Surprisingly, we found general temperature dependencies that differed from the Arrhenius terms predicted by metabolic models. Additionally, the body-mass-scaling relationships were more complex than expected and differed across ecosystems and metabolic types. At local scales (taxonomically narrow groups of consumer–resource pairs), we found hump-shaped deviations from the temperature and body-mass-scaling relationships. Despite the complexity of our results, these body-mass- and temperature-scaling models remain useful as a mechanistic basis for predicting the consequences of warming for interaction strengths, population dynamics and network stability across communities differing in their size structure. PMID:23007080

  5. Determination of subjective similarity for pairs of masses and pairs of clustered microcalcifications on mammograms: Comparison of similarity ranking scores and absolute similarity ratings

    SciTech Connect

    Muramatsu, Chisako; Li Qiang; Schmidt, Robert A.; Shiraishi, Junji; Suzuki, Kenji; Newstead, Gillian M.; Doi, Kunio

    2007-07-15

    The presentation of images that are similar to that of an unknown lesion seen on a mammogram may be helpful for radiologists to correctly diagnose that lesion. For similar images to be useful, they must be quite similar from the radiologists' point of view. We have been trying to quantify the radiologists' impression of similarity for pairs of lesions and to establish a ''gold standard'' for development and evaluation of a computerized scheme for selecting such similar images. However, it is considered difficult to reliably and accurately determine similarity ratings, because they are subjective. In this study, we compared the subjective similarities obtained by two different methods, an absolute rating method and a 2-alternative forced-choice (2AFC) method, to demonstrate that reliable similarity ratings can be determined by the responses of a group of radiologists. The absolute similarity ratings were previously obtained for pairs of masses and pairs of microcalcifications from five and nine radiologists, respectively. In this study, similarity ranking scores for eight pairs of masses and eight pairs of microcalcifications were determined by use of the 2AFC method. In the first session, the eight pairs of masses and eight pairs of microcalcifications were grouped and compared separately for determining the similarity ranking scores. In the second session, another similarity ranking score was determined by use of mixed pairs, i.e., by comparison of the similarity of a mass pair with that of a calcification pair. Four pairs of masses and four pairs of microcalcifications were grouped together to create two sets of eight pairs. The average absolute similarity ratings and the average similarity ranking scores showed very good correlations in the first study (Pearson's correlation coefficients: 0.94 and 0.98 for masses and microcalcifications, respectively). Moreover, in the second study, the correlations between the absolute ratings and the ranking scores were also

  6. Halo mass function and the free streaming scale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schneider, Aurel; Smith, Robert E.; Reed, Darren

    2013-08-01

    The nature of structure formation around the particle free streaming scale is still far from understood. Many attempts to simulate hot, warm and cold dark matter cosmologies with a free streaming cut-off have been performed with cosmological particle-based simulations, but they all suffer from spurious structure formation at scales below their respective free streaming scales - i.e. where the physics of halo formation is most affected by free streaming. We perform a series of high-resolution numerical simulations of different warm dark matter (WDM) models, and develop an approximate method to subtract artificial structures in the measured halo mass function. The corrected measurements are then used to construct and calibrate an extended Press-Schechter (EPS) model with sharp-k window function and adequate mass assignment. The EPS model gives accurate predictions for the low-redshift halo mass function of cold dark matter (CDM) and WDM models, but it significantly underpredicts the halo abundance at high redshifts. By taking into account the ellipticity of the initial patches and connecting the characteristic filter scale to the smallest ellipsoidal axis, we are able to eliminate this inconsistency and obtain an accurate mass function over all redshifts and all dark matter particle masses covered by the simulations. As an additional application we use our model to predict the microhalo abundance of the standard neutralino-CDM scenario and we give the first quantitative prediction of the mass function over the full range of scales of CDM structure formation.

  7. Use of an intravenous microdose of 14C-labeled drug and accelerator mass spectrometry to measure absolute oral bioavailability in dogs; cross-comparison of assay methods by accelerator mass spectrometry and liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Miyaji, Yoshihiro; Ishizuka, Tomoko; Kawai, Kenji; Hamabe, Yoshimi; Miyaoka, Teiji; Oh-hara, Toshinari; Ikeda, Toshihiko; Kurihara, Atsushi

    2009-01-01

    A technique utilizing simultaneous intravenous microdosing of (14)C-labeled drug with oral dosing of non-labeled drug for measurement of absolute bioavailability was evaluated using R-142086 in male dogs. Plasma concentrations of R-142086 were measured by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) and those of (14)C-R-142086 were measured by accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS). The absence of metabolites in the plasma and urine was confirmed by a single radioactive peak of the parent compound in the chromatogram after intravenous microdosing of (14)C-R-142086 (1.5 microg/kg). Although plasma concentrations of R-142086 determined by LC-MS/MS were approximately 20% higher than those of (14)C-R-142086 as determined by AMS, there was excellent correlation (r=0.994) between both concentrations after intravenous dosing of (14)C-R-142086 (0.3 mg/kg). The oral bioavailability of R-142086 at 1 mg/kg obtained by simultaneous intravenous microdosing of (14)C-R-142086 was 16.1%, this being slightly higher than the value (12.5%) obtained by separate intravenous dosing of R-142086 (0.3 mg/kg). In conclusion, on utilizing simultaneous intravenous microdosing of (14)C-labeled drug in conjunction with AMS analysis, absolute bioavailability could be approximately measured in dogs, but without total accuracy. Bioavailability in humans may possibly be approximately measured at an earlier stage and at a lower cost.

  8. The scaling of eye size with body mass in birds

    PubMed Central

    Brooke, M. de L.; Hanley, S.; Laughlin, S. B.

    1999-01-01

    We developed a simple method that uses skulls to estimate the diameter, and hence the mass, of birds' eyes. Allometric analysis demonstrated that, within five orders (parrots, pigeons, petrels, raptors and owls) and across 104 families of flying birds, eye mass is proportional to (body mass)0.68 over a range of body masses (6 g to 11.3 kg). As expected from their habits and visual ecology, raptors and owls have enlarged eyes, with masses 1.4 and 2.2 times greater than average birds of the same weight. Taking existing relationships for flight speed on body mass, we find that resolution increases close to (flight speed)1.333. Consequently, large birds resolve objects at a longer time to contact than small birds. Eye radius and skull size co-vary in strict proportion, suggesting common physiological, aerodynamic and mechanical constraints. Because eye mass scales close to brain mass, metabolic rate and information processing could also be limiting, but the precise factors determining the scaling of eye to body have not been identified.

  9. Effective Planck mass and the scale of inflation

    SciTech Connect

    Kleban, Matthew; Porrati, Massimo; Mirbabayi, Mehrdad E-mail: mehrdadm@ias.edu

    2016-01-01

    A recent paper argued that it is not possible to infer the energy scale of inflation from the amplitude of tensor fluctuations in the Cosmic Microwave Background, because the usual connection is substantially altered if there are a large number of universally coupled fields present during inflation, with mass less than the inflationary Hubble scale. We give a simple argument demonstrating that this is incorrect.

  10. a Metric Approach Through Mass-Length Acceleration Scales

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mendoza, S.

    2015-01-01

    A metric approach through mass-length acceleration scales is built in regions where usually dark matter and dark energy are introduced. The approach is based on pure observations of dynamical motion of stars and of bending of light through gravitational lensing. A first cosmological calibration is done using the SNIa magnitude-redshift relation and turns out to be equivalent with the approach made at galactic and extragalactic scales.

  11. Absolute measurement of subnanometer scale vibration of cochlear partition of an excised guinea pig cochlea using spectral-domain phase-sensitive optical coherence tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Subhash, Hrebesh M.; Choudhury, Niloy; Jacques, Steven L.; Wang, Ruikang K.; Chen, Fangyi; Zha, Dingjun; Nuttall, Alfred L.

    2012-01-01

    Direct measurement of absolute vibration parameters from different locations within the mammalian organ of Corti is crucial for understanding the hearing mechanics such as how sound propagates through the cochlea and how sound stimulates the vibration of various structures of the cochlea, namely, basilar membrane (BM), recticular lamina, outer hair cells and tectorial membrane (TM). In this study we demonstrate the feasibility a modified phase-sensitive spectral domain optical coherence tomography system to provide subnanometer scale vibration information from multiple angles within the imaging beam. The system has the potential to provide depth resolved absolute vibration measurement of tissue microstructures from each of the delay-encoded vibration images with a noise floor of ~0.3nm at 200Hz.

  12. Geoelectrical Measurement of Multi-Scale Mass Transfer Parameters

    SciTech Connect

    Day-Lewis, Frederick David; Singha, Kamini; Johnson, Timothy C.; Haggerty, Roy; Binley, Andrew; Lane, John W.

    2014-11-25

    Mass transfer affects contaminant transport and is thought to control the efficiency of aquifer remediation at a number of sites within the Department of Energy (DOE) complex. An improved understanding of mass transfer is critical to meeting the enormous scientific and engineering challenges currently facing DOE. Informed design of site remedies and long-term stewardship of radionuclide-contaminated sites will require new cost-effective laboratory and field techniques to measure the parameters controlling mass transfer spatially and across a range of scales. In this project, we sought to capitalize on the geophysical signatures of mass transfer. Previous numerical modeling and pilot-scale field experiments suggested that mass transfer produces a geoelectrical signature—a hysteretic relation between sampled (mobile-domain) fluid conductivity and bulk (mobile + immobile) conductivity—over a range of scales relevant to aquifer remediation. In this work, we investigated the geoelectrical signature of mass transfer during tracer transport in a series of controlled experiments to determine the operation of controlling parameters, and also investigated the use of complex-resistivity (CR) as a means of quantifying mass transfer parameters in situ without tracer experiments. In an add-on component to our grant, we additionally considered nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) to help parse mobile from immobile porosities. Including the NMR component, our revised study objectives were to: 1. Develop and demonstrate geophysical approaches to measure mass-transfer parameters spatially and over a range of scales, including the combination of electrical resistivity monitoring, tracer tests, complex resistivity, nuclear magnetic resonance, and materials characterization; and 2. Provide mass-transfer estimates for improved understanding of contaminant fate and transport at DOE sites, such as uranium transport at the Hanford 300 Area. To achieve our objectives, we implemented a 3

  13. Absolute Zero

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Donnelly, Russell J.; Sheibley, D.; Belloni, M.; Stamper-Kurn, D.; Vinen, W. F.

    2006-12-01

    Absolute Zero is a two hour PBS special attempting to bring to the general public some of the advances made in 400 years of thermodynamics. It is based on the book “Absolute Zero and the Conquest of Cold” by Tom Shachtman. Absolute Zero will call long-overdue attention to the remarkable strides that have been made in low-temperature physics, a field that has produced 27 Nobel Prizes. It will explore the ongoing interplay between science and technology through historical examples including refrigerators, ice machines, frozen foods, liquid oxygen and nitrogen as well as much colder fluids such as liquid hydrogen and liquid helium. A website has been established to promote the series: www.absolutezerocampaign.org. It contains information on the series, aimed primarily at students at the middle school level. There is a wealth of material here and we hope interested teachers will draw their student’s attention to this website and its substantial contents, which have been carefully vetted for accuracy.

  14. Implicit Priors in Galaxy Cluster Mass and Scaling Relation Determinations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mantz, A.; Allen, S. W.

    2011-01-01

    Deriving the total masses of galaxy clusters from observations of the intracluster medium (ICM) generally requires some prior information, in addition to the assumptions of hydrostatic equilibrium and spherical symmetry. Often, this information takes the form of particular parametrized functions used to describe the cluster gas density and temperature profiles. In this paper, we investigate the implicit priors on hydrostatic masses that result from this fully parametric approach, and the implications of such priors for scaling relations formed from those masses. We show that the application of such fully parametric models of the ICM naturally imposes a prior on the slopes of the derived scaling relations, favoring the self-similar model, and argue that this prior may be influential in practice. In contrast, this bias does not exist for techniques which adopt an explicit prior on the form of the mass profile but describe the ICM non-parametrically. Constraints on the slope of the cluster mass-temperature relation in the literature show a separation based the approach employed, with the results from fully parametric ICM modeling clustering nearer the self-similar value. Given that a primary goal of scaling relation analyses is to test the self-similar model, the application of methods subject to strong, implicit priors should be avoided. Alternative methods and best practices are discussed.

  15. HMC algorithm with multiple time scale integration and mass preconditioning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Urbach, C.; Jansen, K.; Shindler, A.; Wenger, U.

    2006-01-01

    We present a variant of the HMC algorithm with mass preconditioning (Hasenbusch acceleration) and multiple time scale integration. We have tested this variant for standard Wilson fermions at β=5.6 and at pion masses ranging from 380 to 680 MeV. We show that in this situation its performance is comparable to the recently proposed HMC variant with domain decomposition as preconditioner. We give an update of the "Berlin Wall" figure, comparing the performance of our variant of the HMC algorithm to other published performance data. Advantages of the HMC algorithm with mass preconditioning and multiple time scale integration are that it is straightforward to implement and can be used in combination with a wide variety of lattice Dirac operators.

  16. Chemo-Enzymatic Synthesis of (13)C Labeled Complex N-Glycans As Internal Standards for the Absolute Glycan Quantification by Mass Spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Echeverria, Begoña; Etxebarria, Juan; Ruiz, Nerea; Hernandez, Álvaro; Calvo, Javier; Haberger, Markus; Reusch, Dietmar; Reichardt, Niels-Christian

    2015-11-17

    Methods for the absolute quantification of glycans are needed in glycoproteomics, during development and production of biopharmaceuticals and for the clinical analysis of glycan disease markers. Here we present a strategy for the chemo-enzymatic synthesis of (13)C labeled N-glycan libraries and provide an example for their use as internal standards in the profiling and absolute quantification of mAb glycans by matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time-of-flight (MALDI-TOF) mass spectrometry. A synthetic biantennary glycan precursor was (13)C-labeled on all four amino sugar residues and enzymatically derivatized to produce a library of 15 glycan isotopologues with a mass increment of 8 Da over the natural products. Asymmetrically elongated glycans were accessible by performing enzymatic reactions on partially protected UV-absorbing intermediates, subsequent fractionation by preparative HPLC, and final hydrogenation. Using a preformulated mixture of eight internal standards, we quantified the glycans in a monoclonal therapeutic antibody with excellent precision and speed.

  17. Improvement of modal scaling factors using mass additive technique

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zhang, Qiang; Allemang, Randall J.; Wei, Max L.; Brown, David L.

    1987-01-01

    A general investigation into the improvement of modal scaling factors of an experimental modal model using additive technique is discussed. Data base required by the proposed method consists of an experimental modal model (a set of complex eigenvalues and eigenvectors) of the original structure and a corresponding set of complex eigenvalues of the mass-added structure. Three analytical methods,i.e., first order and second order perturbation methods, and local eigenvalue modification technique, are proposed to predict the improved modal scaling factors. Difficulties encountered in scaling closely spaced modes are discussed. Methods to compute the necessary rotational modal vectors at the mass additive points are also proposed to increase the accuracy of the analytical prediction.

  18. Absolute quantification of dengue virus serotype 4 chimera vaccine candidate in Vero cell culture by targeted mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Rougemont, Blandine; Simon, Romain; Carrière, Romain; Biarc, Jordane; Fonbonne, Catherine; Salvador, Arnaud; Huillet, Céline; Berard, Yves; Adam, Olivier; Manin, Catherine; Lemoine, Jérôme

    2015-10-01

    Infection by dengue flavivirus is transmitted by mosquitoes and affects tens to hundreds of millions people around the world each year. Four serotypes have been described, all of which cause similar disease. Currently, there no approved vaccines or specific therapeutics for dengue, although several vaccine prototypes are in different stages of clinical development. Among them, a chimeric vaccine, built from the replication machinery of the yellow fever 17D virus, has shown promising results in phase III trials. Accurate quantitation of expressed viral particles in alive attenuated viral antigen vaccine is essential and determination of infectious titer is usually the method of choice. The current paper describes an alternative or orthogonal strategy, namely, a multiplexed and absolute assay of four proteins of the chimera yellow fever/dengue serotype 4 virus using targeted MS in SRM mode. Over 1 month, variability of the assay using a partially purified Vero cell extract was between 8 and 17%, and accuracy was between 80 and 120%. In addition, the assay was linear between 6.25 and 200 nmol/L and could therefore be used in the near future to quantify dengue virus type 4 during production and purification from Vero cells.

  19. The need for an intermediate mass scale in GUTs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shafi, Q.

    1983-01-01

    The minimal SU(5) grand unified field theory (GUT) model fails to resolve the strong charge parity (CP) problem, suffers from the cosmological monopole problem, sheds no light on the nature of the 'dark' mass in the universe, and predicts an unacceptably low value for the baryon asymmetry. All these problems can be overcome in suitable grand unified axion models with an intermediate mass scale of about 10 to the 11th power to 10 to the 12th power GeV. An example based on the gauge group SO(10) is presented. Among other things, it predicts that the axions comprise the 'dark' mass in the universe, and that there exists a galactic monopole flux of 10 to the -8th power to 10 to the -7th power/sq cm/yr. Other topics that are briefly discussed include proton decay, family symmetry, neutrino masses and the gauge hierarchy problem.

  20. NMR shielding constants in PH3, absolute shielding scale, and the nuclear magnetic moment of 31P.

    PubMed

    Lantto, Perttu; Jackowski, Karol; Makulski, Włodzimierz; Olejniczak, Małgorzata; Jaszuński, Michał

    2011-09-29

    Ab initio values of the absolute shielding constants of phosphorus and hydrogen in PH(3) were determined, and their accuracy is discussed. In particular, we analyzed the relativistic corrections to nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) shielding constants, comparing the constants computed using the four-component Dirac-Hartree-Fock approach, the four-component density functional theory (DFT), and the Breit-Pauli perturbation theory (BPPT) with nonrelativistic Hartree-Fock or DFT reference functions. For the equilibrium geometry, we obtained σ(P) = 624.309 ppm and σ(H) = 29.761 ppm. Resonance frequencies of both nuclei were measured in gas-phase NMR experiments, and the results were extrapolated to zero density to provide the frequency ratio for an isolated PH(3) molecule. This ratio, together with the computed shielding constants, was used to determine a new value of the nuclear magnetic dipole moment of (31)P: μ(P) = 1.1309246(50) μ(N).

  1. Mass variation in outcome to high production activity in Kamojang Geothermal Field, Indonesia: A reservoir monitoring with relative and absolute gravimetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sofyan, Y.; Kamah, Y.; Nishijima, J.; Fujimitsu, Y.; Ehara, S.; Fukuda, Y.; Taniguchi, M.

    2011-11-01

    The Kamojang Geothermal Field (KGF) is a typical vapor dominated hydrothermal system in west Java, Indonesia. This geothermal field is the oldest exploited geothermal field in Indonesia. From 1983 to 2005, more than 160 million tons of steam has been exploited from the KGF and more than 30 million tons of condensed water and river water were injected to the reservoir system. Regarding to the electricity demand, installed capacity of KGF increased from 30 MWe to 140 MWe in 1987 and 200 MWe in 2007. Mass variation in the geothermal reservoir can be measured by using the map of the gravity changes. Gravity changes observed in the KGF between 1999 and 2005 at 51 benchmarks are interpreted in terms of a change of mass. Concerning to the production mass increase, gravity changes also observed between 1999 and 2008 at 30 benchmarks. The recent gravity measurement was conducted using absolute gravimeter in 2009 and 2010 at 12 gravity benchmarks. Mass variation in the reservoir was caused by production and injection activities. Mass variation in KGF from 1999 to 2005 is about -3.34 Mt/year while is about -3.78 Mt/year from 1999 to 2008. Another period between 2009 and 2010, mass variation decreased about -8.24 Mt. According to the history of production and injection, natural recharge to the KGF's reservoir is estimated at about 2.77 Mt/year from 1999 to 2005 and 2.75 Mt/year from 1999 to 2008. Between 2009 and 2010, KGF has a bigger mass deficiency rate throughout 200 MWe maintain production.

  2. Geoelectrical Measurement of Multi-Scale Mass Transfer Parameters

    SciTech Connect

    Day-Lewis, Frederick; Singha, Kamini; Haggerty, Roy; Johnson, Tim; Binley, Andrew; Lane, John

    2014-01-16

    Mass transfer affects contaminant transport and is thought to control the efficiency of aquifer remediation at a number of sites within the Department of Energy (DOE) complex. An improved understanding of mass transfer is critical to meeting the enormous scientific and engineering challenges currently facing DOE. Informed design of site remedies and long-term stewardship of radionuclide-contaminated sites will require new cost-effective laboratory and field techniques to measure the parameters controlling mass transfer spatially and across a range of scales. In this project, we sought to capitalize on the geophysical signatures of mass transfer. Previous numerical modeling and pilot-scale field experiments suggested that mass transfer produces a geoelectrical signature—a hysteretic relation between sampled (mobile-domain) fluid conductivity and bulk (mobile + immobile) conductivity—over a range of scales relevant to aquifer remediation. In this work, we investigated the geoelectrical signature of mass transfer during tracer transport in a series of controlled experiments to determine the operation of controlling parameters, and also investigated the use of complex-resistivity (CR) as a means of quantifying mass transfer parameters in situ without tracer experiments. In an add-on component to our grant, we additionally considered nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) to help parse mobile from immobile porosities. Including the NMR component, our revised study objectives were to: 1. Develop and demonstrate geophysical approaches to measure mass-transfer parameters spatially and over a range of scales, including the combination of electrical resistivity monitoring, tracer tests, complex resistivity, nuclear magnetic resonance, and materials characterization; and 2. Provide mass-transfer estimates for improved understanding of contaminant fate and transport at DOE sites, such as uranium transport at the Hanford 300 Area. To achieve our objectives, we implemented a 3

  3. Absolute Summ

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Phillips, Alfred, Jr.

    Summ means the entirety of the multiverse. It seems clear, from the inflation theories of A. Guth and others, that the creation of many universes is plausible. We argue that Absolute cosmological ideas, not unlike those of I. Newton, may be consistent with dynamic multiverse creations. As suggested in W. Heisenberg's uncertainty principle, and with the Anthropic Principle defended by S. Hawking, et al., human consciousness, buttressed by findings of neuroscience, may have to be considered in our models. Predictability, as A. Einstein realized with Invariants and General Relativity, may be required for new ideas to be part of physics. We present here a two postulate model geared to an Absolute Summ. The seedbed of this work is part of Akhnaton's philosophy (see S. Freud, Moses and Monotheism). Most important, however, is that the structure of human consciousness, manifest in Kenya's Rift Valley 200,000 years ago as Homo sapiens, who were the culmination of the six million year co-creation process of Hominins and Nature in Africa, allows us to do the physics that we do. .

  4. MODELING MULTI-WAVELENGTH STELLAR ASTROMETRY. III. DETERMINATION OF THE ABSOLUTE MASSES OF EXOPLANETS AND THEIR HOST STARS

    SciTech Connect

    Coughlin, J. L.; Lopez-Morales, Mercedes

    2012-05-10

    Astrometric measurements of stellar systems are becoming significantly more precise and common, with many ground- and space-based instruments and missions approaching 1 {mu}as precision. We examine the multi-wavelength astrometric orbits of exoplanetary systems via both analytical formulae and numerical modeling. Exoplanets have a combination of reflected and thermally emitted light that causes the photocenter of the system to shift increasingly farther away from the host star with increasing wavelength. We find that, if observed at long enough wavelengths, the planet can dominate the astrometric motion of the system, and thus it is possible to directly measure the orbits of both the planet and star, and thus directly determine the physical masses of the star and planet, using multi-wavelength astrometry. In general, this technique works best for, though is certainly not limited to, systems that have large, high-mass stars and large, low-mass planets, which is a unique parameter space not covered by other exoplanet characterization techniques. Exoplanets that happen to transit their host star present unique cases where the physical radii of the planet and star can be directly determined via astrometry alone. Planetary albedos and day-night contrast ratios may also be probed via this technique due to the unique signature they impart on the observed astrometric orbits. We develop a tool to examine the prospects for near-term detection of this effect, and give examples of some exoplanets that appear to be good targets for detection in the K to N infrared observing bands, if the required precision can be achieved.

  5. Absolute method for the assay of oleuropein in olive oils by atmospheric pressure chemical ionization tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    De Nino, Antonio; Di Donna, Leonardo; Mazzotti, Fabio; Muzzalupo, Enzo; Perri, Enzo; Sindona, Giovanni; Tagarelli, Antonio

    2005-09-15

    Oleuropein (OLP, 1), the active ingredient present (i) in food integrators extracted from olive leaves, (ii) in table olives, and (iii) in extra virgin olive oils is a nutraceutical whose health benefits have been widely documented. A new analytical method for its assay, which is based on the utilization of atmospheric pressure chemical ionization tandem mass spectrometry and on the use of a synthetic labeled analogue, the 4-trideuteriocarboxyoleuropein (2), as an internal standard, is presented. The results obtained with extra virgin olive oils from different cultivars and different Italian regions are discussed.

  6. Novel concept for the mass spectrometric determination of absolute isotopic abundances with improved measurement uncertainty: Part 1 - theoretical derivation and feasibility study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rienitz, Olaf; Pramann, Axel; Schiel, Detlef

    2010-01-01

    The development of a new method for the experimental determination of absolute isotopic abundances using a modified isotope dilution mass spectrometry (IDMS) technique is described. The intention and thus main application will be the quantification of molar masses M of highly enriched materials with improved measurement uncertainty (Urel(M) [approximate] 10-8 with k = 2). In part 1 of the current work, the theoretical foundation of the new method and its mathematical derivation is shown in detail, while part 2 will cover the experiments based on the new method described. Its core idea is the introduction of a virtual element (VE) consisting of all isotopes but the one having the largest or smallest abundance. IDMS is used to determine the mass fraction of this VE in its matrix, namely the element itself. A new set of equations serve to calculate all isotopic abundances (even the large one omitted with the introduction of the VE) merely from the mass fraction of the VE. A comprehensive uncertainty budget according to the Guide to the Expression of Uncertainty in Measurement (GUM) was set up in order to discuss and validate the novel concept. The hypothetical input data of the uncertainty budget were estimated to resemble a silicon material highly enriched with respect to 28Si used in the context of the international Avogadro Project. Considering the calculated results, the experimental determination of the molar mass of the above mentioned silicon seems very promising. As far as the authors know, this will be the first time IDMS was applied to determine a molar mass.

  7. Absolute Photometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hartig, George

    1990-12-01

    The absolute sensitivity of the FOS will be determined in SV by observing 2 stars at 3 epochs, first in 3 apertures (1.0", 0.5", and 0.3" circular) and then in 1 aperture (1.0" circular). In cycle 1, one star, BD+28D4211 will be observed in the 1.0" aperture to establish the stability of the sensitivity and flat field characteristics and improve the accuracy obtained in SV. This star will also be observed through the paired apertures since these are not calibrated in SV. The stars will be observed in most detector/grating combinations. The data will be averaged to form the inverse sensitivity functions required by RSDP.

  8. Allometric scaling of mortality rates with body mass in abalones.

    PubMed

    Rossetto, Marisa; De Leo, Giulio A; Bevacqua, Daniele; Micheli, Fiorenza

    2012-04-01

    The existence of an allometric relationship between mortality rates and body mass has been theorized and extensively documented across taxa. Within species, however, the allometry between mortality rates and body mass has received substantially less attention and the consistency of such scaling patterns at the intra-specific level is controversial. We reviewed 73 experimental studies to examine the relationship between mortality rates and body size among seven species of abalone (Haliotis spp.), a marine herbivorous mollusk. Both in the field and in the laboratory, log-transformed mortality rates were negatively correlated with log-transformed individual body mass for all species considered, with allometric exponents remarkably similar among species. This regular pattern confirms previous findings that juvenile abalones suffer higher mortality rates than adult individuals. Field mortality rates were higher overall than those measured in the laboratory, and the relationship between mortality and body mass tended to be steeper in field than in laboratory conditions for all species considered. These results suggest that in the natural environment, additional mortality factors, especially linked to predation, could significantly contribute to mortality, particularly at small body sizes. On the other hand, the consistent allometry of mortality rates versus body mass in laboratory conditions suggests that other sources of mortality, beside predation, are size-dependent in abalone.

  9. Absolute quantification of E1, ubiquitin-like proteins and Nedd8-MLN4924 adduct by mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Yang, Xiaofeng; Brownell, James E; Xu, Qing; Zhu, Fengying; Ma, Jingya; Loke, Huay-Keng; Rollins, Neil; Soucy, Teresa A; Minissale, James J; Thomas, Michael P; Mallender, William D; Dick, Lawrence R; Li, Ping; Liao, Hua

    2013-09-01

    Ubiquitin (Ub) and ubiquitin-like (Ubl) proteins regulate a variety of important cellular processes by forming covalent conjugates with target proteins or lipids. Ubl conjugation is catalyzed by a cascade of proteins including activating enzymes (E1), conjugating enzymes (E2), and in many cases ligation enzymes (E3). The discovery of MLN4924 (Brownell et al., Mol Cell 37: 102-111, 1), an investigational small molecule that is a mechanism-based inhibitor of NEDD8-activating enzyme (NAE), reveals a promising strategy of targeting E1/Ubl pathway for therapeutic purposes. In order to better understand, the biochemical dynamics of Ubl conjugation in cells and tissues, we have developed a mass spectrometry-based method to quantify E1 and Ubls using isotope-labeled proteins as internal standards. Furthermore, we have used the described method to quantify levels of the covalent Nedd8-inhibitor adduct formed in MLN4924 treated cells and tissues. The Nedd8-MLN4924 adduct is a tight-binding inhibitor of NAE, and its cellular concentration represents an indirect pharmacodynamic readout of NAE/Nedd8 pathway inhibition.

  10. Large scale electromechanical transistor with application in mass sensing

    SciTech Connect

    Jin, Leisheng; Li, Lijie

    2014-12-07

    Nanomechanical transistor (NMT) has evolved from the single electron transistor, a device that operates by shuttling electrons with a self-excited central conductor. The unfavoured aspects of the NMT are the complexity of the fabrication process and its signal processing unit, which could potentially be overcome by designing much larger devices. This paper reports a new design of large scale electromechanical transistor (LSEMT), still taking advantage of the principle of shuttling electrons. However, because of the large size, nonlinear electrostatic forces induced by the transistor itself are not sufficient to drive the mechanical member into vibration—an external force has to be used. In this paper, a LSEMT device is modelled, and its new application in mass sensing is postulated using two coupled mechanical cantilevers, with one of them being embedded in the transistor. The sensor is capable of detecting added mass using the eigenstate shifts method by reading the change of electrical current from the transistor, which has much higher sensitivity than conventional eigenfrequency shift approach used in classical cantilever based mass sensors. Numerical simulations are conducted to investigate the performance of the mass sensor.

  11. Mass Efficiencies for Common Large-Scale Precision Space Structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, R. Brett; Agnes, Gregory S.

    2005-01-01

    This paper presents a mass-based trade study for large-scale deployable triangular trusses, where the longerons can be monocoque tubes, isogrid tubes, or coilable longeron trusses. Such structures are typically used to support heavy reflectors, solar panels, or other instruments, and are subject to thermal gradients that can vary a great deal based on orbital altitude, location in orbit, and self-shadowing. While multi layer insulation (MLI) blankets are commonly used to minimize the magnitude of these thermal disturbances, they subject the truss to a nonstructural mass penalty. This paper investigates the impact of these add-on thermal protection layers on selecting the lightest precision structure for a given loading scenario.

  12. Plasmon mass scale in classical nonequilibrium gauge theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lappi, T.; Peuron, J.

    2017-01-01

    Classical lattice Yang-Mills calculations provide a good way to understand different nonequilibrium phenomena in nonperturbatively overoccupied systems. Above the Debye scale the classical theory can be matched smoothly to kinetic theory. The aim of this work is to study the limits of this quasiparticle picture by determining the plasmon mass in classical real-time Yang-Mills theory on a lattice in three spatial dimensions. We compare three methods to determine the plasmon mass: a hard thermal loop expression in terms of the particle distribution, an effective dispersion relation constructed from fields and their time derivatives, and the measurement of oscillations between electric and magnetic field modes after artificially introducing a homogeneous color electric field. We find that a version of the dispersion relation that uses electric fields and their time derivatives agrees with the other methods within 50%.

  13. Absolute fragmentation cross sections in atom-molecule collisions: Scaling laws for non-statistical fragmentation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon molecules

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, T.; Gatchell, M.; Stockett, M. H.; Alexander, J. D.; Schmidt, H. T.; Cederquist, H.; Zettergren, H.; Zhang, Y.; Rousseau, P.; Maclot, S.; Delaunay, R.; Adoui, L.; Domaracka, A.; Huber, B. A.

    2014-06-14

    We present scaling laws for absolute cross sections for non-statistical fragmentation in collisions between Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAH/PAH{sup +}) and hydrogen or helium atoms with kinetic energies ranging from 50 eV to 10 keV. Further, we calculate the total fragmentation cross sections (including statistical fragmentation) for 110 eV PAH/PAH{sup +} + He collisions, and show that they compare well with experimental results. We demonstrate that non-statistical fragmentation becomes dominant for large PAHs and that it yields highly reactive fragments forming strong covalent bonds with atoms (H and N) and molecules (C{sub 6}H{sub 5}). Thus nonstatistical fragmentation may be an effective initial step in the formation of, e.g., Polycyclic Aromatic Nitrogen Heterocycles (PANHs). This relates to recent discussions on the evolution of PAHNs in space and the reactivities of defect graphene structures.

  14. Using GPS and absolute gravity observations to separate the effects of present-day and Pleistocene ice-mass changes in South East Greenland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Dam, T.; Francis, O.; Wahr, J.; Khan, S. A.; Bevis, M.; van den Broeke, M. R.

    2017-02-01

    Measurements of vertical crustal uplift from bedrock sites around the edge of the Greenland ice sheet (GrIS) can be used to constrain present day mass loss. Interpreting any observed crustal displacement around the GrIS in terms of present day changes in ice is complicated, however, by the glacial isostatic adjustment (GIA) signal. With GPS observations alone, it is impossible to separate the uplift driven by present day mass changes from that due to ice mass changes in the past. Wahr et al. (1995) demonstrated that viscoelastic surface displacements were related to the viscoelastic gravity changes through a proportionality constant that is nearly independent of the choice of Earth viscosity or ice history model. Thus, by making measurements of both gravity and surface motion at a bedrock site, the viscoelastic effects could be removed from the observations and we would be able to constrain present day ice mass changes. Alternatively, we could use the same observations of surface displacements and gravity to determine the GIA signal. In this paper, we extend the theory of Wahr et al. (1995) by introducing a constant, Z, that represents the ratio between the elastic changes in gravity and elastic uplift at a particular site due to present day mass changes. Further, we combine 20 yrs of GPS observations of uplift with eight absolute gravity observations over the same period to determine the GIA signal near Kulusuk, a site on the southeastern side of the GrIS, to experimentally demonstrate the theory. We estimate that the GIA signal in the region is 4.49 ± 1.44mm/yr and is inconsistent with most previously reported model predictions that demonstrate that the GIA signal here is negative. However, as there is very little in situ data to constrain the GIA rate in this part of Greenland, the Earth model or the ice history reconstructions could be inaccurate (Khan et al., 2016). Improving the estimate of GIA in this region of Greenland will allow us to better determine

  15. Absolute quantification of Pru av 2 in sweet cherry fruit by liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry with the use of a stable isotope-labelled peptide.

    PubMed

    Ippoushi, Katsunari; Sasanuma, Motoe; Oike, Hideaki; Kobori, Masuko; Maeda-Yamamoto, Mari

    2016-08-01

    Pru av 2, a pathogenesis-related (PR) protein present in the sweet cherry (Prunus avium L.) fruit, is the principal allergen of cherry and one of the chief causes of pollen food syndrome (oral allergy syndrome). In this study, a quantitative assay for this protein was developed with the use of the protein absolute quantification (AQUA) method, which consists of liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry (LC/MS/MS) employing TGC[CAM]STDASGK[(13)C6,(15)N2], a stable isotope-labelled internal standard (SIIS) peptide. This assay gave a linear relationship (r(2)>0.99) in a concentration range (2.3-600fmol/μL), and the overall coefficient of variation (CV) for multiple tests was 14.6%. Thus, the contents of this allergenic protein in sweet cherry products could be determined using this assay. This assay should be valuable for allergological investigations of Pru av 2 in sweet cherry and detection of protein contamination in foods.

  16. Cluster-continuum quasichemical theory calculation of the lithium ion solvation in water, acetonitrile and dimethyl sulfoxide: an absolute single-ion solvation free energy scale.

    PubMed

    Carvalho, Nathalia F; Pliego, Josefredo R

    2015-10-28

    Absolute single-ion solvation free energy is a very useful property for understanding solution phase chemistry. The real solvation free energy of an ion depends on its interaction with the solvent molecules and on the net potential inside the solute cavity. The tetraphenyl arsonium-tetraphenyl borate (TATB) assumption as well as the cluster-continuum quasichemical theory (CC-QCT) approach for Li(+) solvation allows access to a solvation scale excluding the net potential. We have determined this free energy scale investigating the solvation of the lithium ion in water (H2O), acetonitrile (CH3CN) and dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) solvents via the CC-QCT approach. Our calculations at the MP2 and MP4 levels with basis sets up to the QZVPP+diff quality, and including solvation of the clusters and solvent molecules by the dielectric continuum SMD method, predict the solvation free energy of Li(+) as -116.1, -120.6 and -123.6 kcal mol(-1) in H2O, CH3CN and DMSO solvents, respectively (1 mol L(-1) standard state). These values are compatible with the solvation free energy of the proton of -253.4, -253.2 and -261.1 kcal mol(-1) in H2O, CH3CN and DMSO solvents, respectively. Deviations from the experimental TATB scale are only 1.3 kcal mol(-1) in H2O and 1.8 kcal mol(-1) in DMSO solvents. However, in the case of CH3CN, the deviation reaches a value of 9.2 kcal mol(-1). The present study suggests that the experimental TATB scale is inconsistent for CH3CN. A total of 125 values of the solvation free energy of ions in these three solvents were obtained. These new data should be useful for the development of theoretical solvation models.

  17. Comprehensive Absolute Quantification of the Cytosolic Proteome of Bacillus subtilis by Data Independent, Parallel Fragmentation in Liquid Chromatography/Mass Spectrometry (LC/MSE)*

    PubMed Central

    Muntel, Jan; Fromion, Vincent; Goelzer, Anne; Maaβ, Sandra; Mäder, Ulrike; Büttner, Knut; Hecker, Michael; Becher, Dörte

    2014-01-01

    In the growing field of systems biology, the knowledge of protein concentrations is highly required to truly understand metabolic and adaptational networks within the cells. Therefore we established a workflow relying on long chromatographic separation and mass spectrometric analysis by data independent, parallel fragmentation of all precursor ions at the same time (LC/MSE). By prevention of discrimination of co-eluting low and high abundant peptides a high average sequence coverage of 40% could be achieved, resulting in identification of almost half of the predicted cytosolic proteome of the Gram-positive model organism Bacillus subtilis (>1,050 proteins). Absolute quantification was achieved by correlation of average MS signal intensities of the three most intense peptides of a protein to the signal intensity of a spiked standard protein digest. Comparative analysis with heavily labeled peptides (AQUA approach) showed the use of only one standard digest is sufficient for global quantification. The quantification results covered almost four orders of magnitude, ranging roughly from 10 to 150,000 copies per cell. To prove this method for its biological relevance selected physiological aspects of B. subtilis cells grown under conditions requiring either amino acid synthesis or alternatively amino acid degradation were analyzed. This allowed both in particular the validation of the adjustment of protein levels by known regulatory events and in general a perspective of new insights into bacterial physiology. Within new findings the analysis of “protein costs” of cellular processes is extremely important. Such a comprehensive and detailed characterization of cellular protein concentrations based on data independent, parallel fragmentation in liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry (LC/MSE) data has been performed for the first time and should pave the way for future comprehensive quantitative characterization of microorganisms as physiological entities. PMID

  18. Membranes for nanometer-scale mass fast transport

    DOEpatents

    Bakajin, Olgica; Holt, Jason; Noy, Aleksandr; Park, Hyung Gyu

    2011-10-18

    Nanoporous membranes comprising single walled, double walled, and multiwalled carbon nanotubes embedded in a matrix material were fabricated for fluid mechanics and mass transfer studies on the nanometer scale and commercial applications. Average pore size can be 2 nm to 20 nm, or seven nm or less, or two nanometers or less. The membrane can be free of large voids spanning the membrane such that transport of material such as gas or liquid occurs exclusively through the tubes. Fast fluid, vapor, and liquid transport are observed. Versatile micromachining methods can be used for membrane fabrication. A single chip can comprise multiple membranes. These membranes are a robust platform for the study of confined molecular transport, with applications in liquid and gas separations and chemical sensing including desalination, dialysis, and fabric formation.

  19. The Many Scales of Seismogenic Mass Wasting at Stratovolcanoes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allstadt, K.

    2015-12-01

    Stratovolcanoes consist of some of the most unstable terrain in the world, and mass wasting processes are a major contributor to volcanic hazards. These hazards persist even during periods of volcanic quiescence and, unlike volcanic activity, events often occur without warning. Mass movements range in scale from small daily rock and icefall events to extremely rare sector collapses. Many events generate observable seismic waves that are frequently picked up by seismic networks at volcanoes. Seismic waves from surface events are different than those from earthquakes and are not nearly as well-characterized or understood. Traditional seismologic methods (e.g., location, magnitude) can rarely be applied, and therefore surface events are not often included in earthquake catalogs. For this reason, many investigations of seismogenic surface processes are limited to case studies of individual events and/or single event types. In order to improve our understanding of typical characteristics of different types of events, we have compiled a catalog of over 30 significant historical events (1997-present), mainly from North American stratovolcanoes, that were well-recorded seismically and also have complementary data. Event types range widely from outburst floods and debris flows/lahars to rock avalanches, rock falls, and dome collapses. We summarize the general seismic characteristics of each event type (e.g., frequency content, attenuation, duration, scaling relations, waveform patterns) and discuss the possibilities and limitations of how seismic recordings of surface events can be used to better understand the surface dynamics of volcanoes. Finally, we discuss what might be needed to institute surface event monitoring and/or early warning systems.

  20. Large-scale mass distribution in the Illustris simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haider, M.; Steinhauser, D.; Vogelsberger, M.; Genel, S.; Springel, V.; Torrey, P.; Hernquist, L.

    2016-04-01

    Observations at low redshifts thus far fail to account for all of the baryons expected in the Universe according to cosmological constraints. A large fraction of the baryons presumably resides in a thin and warm-hot medium between the galaxies, where they are difficult to observe due to their low densities and high temperatures. Cosmological simulations of structure formation can be used to verify this picture and provide quantitative predictions for the distribution of mass in different large-scale structure components. Here we study the distribution of baryons and dark matter at different epochs using data from the Illustris simulation. We identify regions of different dark matter density with the primary constituents of large-scale structure, allowing us to measure mass and volume of haloes, filaments and voids. At redshift zero, we find that 49 per cent of the dark matter and 23 per cent of the baryons are within haloes more massive than the resolution limit of 2 × 108 M⊙. The filaments of the cosmic web host a further 45 per cent of the dark matter and 46 per cent of the baryons. The remaining 31 per cent of the baryons reside in voids. The majority of these baryons have been transported there through active galactic nuclei feedback. We note that the feedback model of Illustris is too strong for heavy haloes, therefore it is likely that we are overestimating this amount. Categorizing the baryons according to their density and temperature, we find that 17.8 per cent of them are in a condensed state, 21.6 per cent are present as cold, diffuse gas, and 53.9 per cent are found in the state of a warm-hot intergalactic medium.

  1. Direct Geoelectrical Evidence of Mass Transfer at the Lab scale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Swanson, R. D.; Singha, K.; Day-Lewis, F. D.; Keating, K.; Binley, A.; Clifford, J.; Haggerty, R.

    2011-12-01

    At many field sites, anomalous tailing behavior-- a long, slow decrease of solute concentration in time-- is observed yet cannot be explained with the advection-dispersion model. One explanation for this commonly observed behavior is the exchange of solute between mobile and immobile domains; however, direct experimental observations of this controlling process remain elusive. Circumstantial evidence for a less-mobile phase is typically inferred from tailing behavior observed in fluid samples of the mobile phase. Electrical methods provide a measure of the total solutes in both the immobile and mobile domain and therefore have been hypothesized to provide, in combination with fluid sampling, direct experimental evidence for a less-mobile and mobile model, yet experimental evidence is needed to support this claim. Here, we conduct column solute tracer tests and measure both electrical resistivity and fluid conductivity on unconsolidated, well-sorted sand in addition to fine and coarse fractions of the porous zeolite clinoptilolite. We examine nearly co-located time-lapse standard fluid conductivity and bulk apparent resistivity measurements to identify solute exchange between multiple domains at the lab scale. Our results show extensive tailing behavior in both fluid and bulk electrical conductivity measurements in the zeolite but not in sand, providing evidence for a mobile-immobile framework. Transport parameters are estimated by minimizing the root-mean-square error between the observed and simulated fluid conductivity in COMSOL Multiphysics. These best-fit parameters support our claims of mass transfer occurring in the zeolite columns and provide the first direct electrical evidence of dual-domain mass transport at the lab scale.

  2. 40 CFR Appendix I to Subpart A of... - Global Warming Potentials (Mass Basis), Referenced to the Absolute GWP for the Adopted Carbon...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...), Referenced to the Absolute GWP for the Adopted Carbon Cycle Model CO2 Decay Response and Future CO2... Absolute GWP for the Adopted Carbon Cycle Model CO2 Decay Response and Future CO2 Atmospheric... C2 F4 Cl2 6900 9300 8300 CFC-115 C2 F5 Cl 6200 9300 13000 H-1301 CF3 Br 6200 5600 2200 Carbon...

  3. 40 CFR Appendix I to Subpart A of... - Global Warming Potentials (Mass Basis), Referenced to the Absolute GWP for the Adopted Carbon...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...), Referenced to the Absolute GWP for the Adopted Carbon Cycle Model CO2 Decay Response and Future CO2... Absolute GWP for the Adopted Carbon Cycle Model CO2 Decay Response and Future CO2 Atmospheric... C2 F4 Cl2 6900 9300 8300 CFC-115 C2 F5 Cl 6200 9300 13000 H-1301 CF3 Br 6200 5600 2200 Carbon...

  4. 40 CFR Appendix I to Subpart A of... - Global Warming Potentials (Mass Basis), Referenced to the Absolute GWP for the Adopted Carbon...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...), Referenced to the Absolute GWP for the Adopted Carbon Cycle Model CO2 Decay Response and Future CO2... Absolute GWP for the Adopted Carbon Cycle Model CO2 Decay Response and Future CO2 Atmospheric... C2 F4 Cl2 6900 9300 8300 CFC-115 C2 F5 Cl 6200 9300 13000 H-1301 CF3 Br 6200 5600 2200 Carbon...

  5. 40 CFR Appendix I to Subpart A of... - Global Warming Potentials (Mass Basis), Referenced to the Absolute GWP for the Adopted Carbon...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...), Referenced to the Absolute GWP for the Adopted Carbon Cycle Model CO2 Decay Response and Future CO2... Absolute GWP for the Adopted Carbon Cycle Model CO2 Decay Response and Future CO2 Atmospheric... C2 F4 Cl2 6900 9300 8300 CFC-115 C2 F5 Cl 6200 9300 13000 H-1301 CF3 Br 6200 5600 2200 Carbon...

  6. 40 CFR Appendix I to Subpart A of... - Global Warming Potentials (Mass Basis), Referenced to the Absolute GWP for the Adopted Carbon...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...), Referenced to the Absolute GWP for the Adopted Carbon Cycle Model CO2 Decay Response and Future CO2... Absolute GWP for the Adopted Carbon Cycle Model CO2 Decay Response and Future CO2 Atmospheric... C2 F4 Cl2 6900 9300 8300 CFC-115 C2 F5 Cl 6200 9300 13000 H-1301 CF3 Br 6200 5600 2200 Carbon...

  7. Direct geoelectrical evidence of mass transfer at the laboratory scale

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Swanson, Ryan D.; Singha, Kamini; Day-Lewis, Frederick D.; Binley, Andrew; Keating, Kristina; Haggerty, Roy

    2012-01-01

    Previous field-scale experimental data and numerical modeling suggest that the dual-domain mass transfer (DDMT) of electrolytic tracers has an observable geoelectrical signature. Here we present controlled laboratory experiments confirming the electrical signature of DDMT and demonstrate the use of time-lapse electrical measurements in conjunction with concentration measurements to estimate the parameters controlling DDMT, i.e., the mobile and immobile porosity and rate at which solute exchanges between mobile and immobile domains. We conducted column tracer tests on unconsolidated quartz sand and a material with a high secondary porosity: the zeolite clinoptilolite. During NaCl tracer tests we collected nearly colocated bulk direct-current electrical conductivity (σb) and fluid conductivity (σf) measurements. Our results for the zeolite show (1) extensive tailing and (2) a hysteretic relation between σf and σb, thus providing evidence of mass transfer not observed within the quartz sand. To identify best-fit parameters and evaluate parameter sensitivity, we performed over 2700 simulations of σf, varying the immobile and mobile domain and mass transfer rate. We emphasized the fit to late-time tailing by minimizing the Box-Cox power transformed root-mean square error between the observed and simulated σf. Low-field proton nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) measurements provide an independent quantification of the volumes of the mobile and immobile domains. The best-fit parameters based on σf match the NMR measurements of the immobile and mobile domain porosities and provide the first direct electrical evidence for DDMT. Our results underscore the potential of using electrical measurements for DDMT parameter inference.

  8. Direct geoelectrical evidence of mass transfer at the laboratory scale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Swanson, Ryan D.; Singha, Kamini; Day-Lewis, Frederick D.; Binley, Andrew; Keating, Kristina; Haggerty, Roy

    2012-10-01

    Previous field-scale experimental data and numerical modeling suggest that the dual-domain mass transfer (DDMT) of electrolytic tracers has an observable geoelectrical signature. Here we present controlled laboratory experiments confirming the electrical signature of DDMT and demonstrate the use of time-lapse electrical measurements in conjunction with concentration measurements to estimate the parameters controlling DDMT, i.e., the mobile and immobile porosity and rate at which solute exchanges between mobile and immobile domains. We conducted column tracer tests on unconsolidated quartz sand and a material with a high secondary porosity: the zeolite clinoptilolite. During NaCl tracer tests we collected nearly colocated bulk direct-current electrical conductivity (σb) and fluid conductivity (σf) measurements. Our results for the zeolite show (1) extensive tailing and (2) a hysteretic relation between σf and σb, thus providing evidence of mass transfer not observed within the quartz sand. To identify best-fit parameters and evaluate parameter sensitivity, we performed over 2700 simulations of σf, varying the immobile and mobile domain and mass transfer rate. We emphasized the fit to late-time tailing by minimizing the Box-Cox power transformed root-mean square error between the observed and simulated σf. Low-field proton nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) measurements provide an independent quantification of the volumes of the mobile and immobile domains. The best-fit parameters based on σf match the NMR measurements of the immobile and mobile domain porosities and provide the first direct electrical evidence for DDMT. Our results underscore the potential of using electrical measurements for DDMT parameter inference.

  9. A Steeper than Linear Disk Mass-Stellar Mass Scaling Relation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pascucci, Ilaria; SLICK, EOS

    2017-01-01

    The disk mass is among the most important input parameter of planet formation models as it determines the number and masses of the planets that can form. I will present an ALMA 887 micron survey of the disk population around objects from 2 to 0.03Msun in the nearby 2 Myr-old Chamaeleon I star-forming region. Assuming isothermal and optically thin emission, we convert the 887 micron flux densities into dust disk masses (Mdust) and show that the Mdust-Mstar scaling relation is steeper than linear. By re-analyzing all millimeter data available for nearby regions in a self-consistent way, we find that the 1-3 Myr-old regions of Taurus, Lupus, and Chamaeleon I share the same Mdust-Mstar relation, while the 10 Myr-old Upper Sco association has an even steeper relation. Theoretical models of grain growth, drift, and fragmentation reproduce this trend and suggest that disks are in the fragmentation-limited regime. In this regime millimeter grains will be located closer in around lower-mass stars, a prediction that can be tested with deeper and higher spatial resolution ALMA observations.

  10. Absolute multilateration between spheres

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muelaner, Jody; Wadsworth, William; Azini, Maria; Mullineux, Glen; Hughes, Ben; Reichold, Armin

    2017-04-01

    Environmental effects typically limit the accuracy of large scale coordinate measurements in applications such as aircraft production and particle accelerator alignment. This paper presents an initial design for a novel measurement technique with analysis and simulation showing that that it could overcome the environmental limitations to provide a step change in large scale coordinate measurement accuracy. Referred to as absolute multilateration between spheres (AMS), it involves using absolute distance interferometry to directly measure the distances between pairs of plain steel spheres. A large portion of each sphere remains accessible as a reference datum, while the laser path can be shielded from environmental disturbances. As a single scale bar this can provide accurate scale information to be used for instrument verification or network measurement scaling. Since spheres can be simultaneously measured from multiple directions, it also allows highly accurate multilateration-based coordinate measurements to act as a large scale datum structure for localized measurements, or to be integrated within assembly tooling, coordinate measurement machines or robotic machinery. Analysis and simulation show that AMS can be self-aligned to achieve a theoretical combined standard uncertainty for the independent uncertainties of an individual 1 m scale bar of approximately 0.49 µm. It is also shown that combined with a 1 µm m‑1 standard uncertainty in the central reference system this could result in coordinate standard uncertainty magnitudes of 42 µm over a slender 1 m by 20 m network. This would be a sufficient step change in accuracy to enable next generation aerospace structures with natural laminar flow and part-to-part interchangeability.

  11. THE (BLACK HOLE)-BULGE MASS SCALING RELATION AT LOW MASSES

    SciTech Connect

    Graham, Alister W.; Scott, Nicholas

    2015-01-01

    Several recent papers have reported on the occurrence of active galactic nuclei (AGNs) containing undermassive black holes relative to a linear scaling relation between black hole mass (M {sub bh}) and host spheroid stellar mass (M {sub sph,} {sub *}). However, dramatic revisions to the M {sub bh}-M {sub sph,} {sub *} and M {sub bh}-L {sub sph} relations, based on samples containing predominantly inactive galaxies, have recently identified a new steeper relation at M {sub bh} ≲ (2-10) × 10{sup 8} M {sub ☉}, roughly corresponding to M {sub sph,} {sub *} ≲ (0.3-1) × 10{sup 11} M {sub ☉}. We show that this steeper, quadratic-like M {sub bh}-M {sub sph,} {sub *} relation defined by the Sérsic galaxies, i.e., galaxies without partially depleted cores, roughly tracks the apparent offset of the AGN having 10{sup 5} ≲ M {sub bh}/M {sub ☉} ≲ 0.5 × 10{sup 8}. That is, these AGNs are not randomly offset with low black hole masses, but also follow a steeper (nonlinear) relation. As noted by Busch et al., confirmation or rejection of a possible AGN offset from the steeper M {sub bh}-M {sub sph,} {sub *} relation defined by the Sérsic galaxies will benefit from improved stellar mass-to-light ratios for the spheroids hosting these AGNs. Several implications for formation theories are noted. Furthermore, reasons for possible under- and overmassive black holes, the potential existence of intermediate mass black holes (<10{sup 5} M {sub ☉}), and the new steep (black hole)-(nuclear star cluster) relation, M{sub bh}∝M{sub nc}{sup 2.7±0.7}, are also discussed.

  12. Micro-scale mass-transfer variations during electrodeposition

    SciTech Connect

    Sutija, D.P.

    1991-08-01

    Results of two studies on micro-scale mass-transfer enhancement are reported: (1) Profiled cross-sections of striated zinc surfaces deposited in laminar channel flow were analyzed with fast-fourier transforms (FFT) to determine preferred striation wavelengths. Striation frequency increases with current density until a minimum separation between striae of 150 {mu}m is reached. Beyond this point, independent of substrate used, striae meld together and form a relatively smooth, nodular deposit. Substrates equipped with artificial micron-sized protrusions result in significantly different macro-morphology in zinc deposits. Micro-patterned electrodes (MPE) with hemispherical protrusions 5 {mu}m in diameter yield thin zinc striae at current densities that ordinarily produce random nodular deposits. MPEs with artificial hemi-cylinders, 2.5 {mu}m in height and spaced 250 {mu}m apart, form striae with a period which matches the spacing of micron-sized ridges. (2) A novel, corrosion-resistant micromosaic electrode was fabricated on a silicon wafer. Measurements of mass-transport enhancement to a vertical micromosaic electrode caused by parallel bubble streams rising inside of the diffusion boundary-layer demonstrated the presence of two co-temporal enhancement mechanisms: surface-renewal increases the limiting current within five bubble diameters of the rising column, while bubble-induced laminar flows cause weaker enhancement over a much broader swath. The enhancement caused by bubble curtains is predicted accurately by linear superposition of single-column enhancements. Two columns of smaller H{sub 2} bubbles generated at the same volumetric rate as a single column of larger bubbles cause higher peak and far-field enhancements. 168 refs., 96 figs., 6 tabs.

  13. Small angle neutron scattering on an absolute intensity scale and the internal surface of diatom frustules from three species of differing morphologies.

    PubMed

    Garvey, C J; Strobl, M; Percot, A; Saroun, J; Haug, J; Vyverman, W; Chepurnov, V A; Ferris, J M

    2013-05-01

    The internal nanostructure of the diatoms Cyclotella meneghiniana, Seminavis robusta and Achnanthes subsessilis was investigated using small angle neutron scattering (SANS) to examine thin biosilica samples, consisting of isotropic (powder) from their isolated cell walls. The interpretation of SANS data was assisted by several other measurements. The N2 adsorption, interpreted within the Branuer-Emmet-Teller isotherm, yielded the specific surface area of the material. Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) and Raman spectroscopy indicates that the isolated material is amorphous silica with small amounts of organic cell wall materials acting as a filling material between the silica particles. A two-phase (air and amorphous silica) model was used to interpret small angle neutron scattering data. After correction for instrumental resolution, the measurements on two SANS instruments covered an extended range of scattering vectors 0.0011 nm(-1) < q < 5.6 nm(-1), giving an almost continuous SANS curve over a range of scattering vectors, q, on an absolute scale of intensity for each sample. Each of the samples gave a characteristic scattering curve where log (intensity) versus log (q) has a -4 dependence, with other features superimposed. In the high-q regime, departure from this behaviour was observed at a length-scales equivalent to the proposed unitary silica particle. The limiting Porod scattering law was used to determine the specific area per unit of volume of each sample illuminated by the neutron beam. The Porod behaviour, and divergence from this behaviour, is discussed in terms of various structural features and the proposed mechanisms for the bio-assembly of unitary silica particles in frustules.

  14. Genome-scale Proteome Quantification by DEEP SEQ Mass Spectrometry

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Feng; Lu, Yu; Ficarro, Scott B.; Adelmant, Guillaume; Jiang, Wenyu; Luckey, C. John; Marto, Jarrod A.

    2013-01-01

    Advances in chemistry and massively parallel detection underlie DNA sequencing platforms that are poised for application in personalized medicine. In stark contrast, systematic generation of protein-level data lags well-behind genomics in virtually every aspect: depth of coverage, throughput, ease of sample preparation, and experimental time. Here, to bridge this gap, we develop an approach based on simple detergent lysis and single-enzyme digest, extreme, orthogonal separation of peptides, and true nanoflow LC-MS/MS that provides high peak capacity and ionization efficiency. This automated, deep efficient peptide sequencing and quantification (DEEP SEQ) mass spectrometry platform provides genome-scale proteome coverage equivalent to RNA-seq ribosomal profiling and accurate quantification for multiplexed isotope labels. In a model of the embryonic to epiblast transition in murine stem cells, we unambiguously quantify 11,352 gene products that span 70% of Swiss-Prot and capture protein regulation across the full detectable range of high-throughput gene expression and protein translation. PMID:23863870

  15. Teaching Absolute Value Meaningfully

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wade, Angela

    2012-01-01

    What is the meaning of absolute value? And why do teachers teach students how to solve absolute value equations? Absolute value is a concept introduced in first-year algebra and then reinforced in later courses. Various authors have suggested instructional methods for teaching absolute value to high school students (Wei 2005; Stallings-Roberts…

  16. Capillary isoelectric focusing-tandem mass spectrometry and reversed-phase liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry for quantitative proteomic analysis of differentiating PC12 cells by eight-plex isobaric tags for relative and absolute quantification.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Guijie; Sun, Liangliang; Keithley, Richard B; Dovichi, Norman J

    2013-08-06

    We report the application of capillary isoelectric focusing for quantitative analysis of a complex proteome. Biological duplicates were generated from PC12 cells at days 0, 3, 7, and 12 following treatment with nerve growth factor. These biological duplicates were digested with trypsin, labeled using eight-plex isobaric tags for relative and absolute quantification (iTRAQ) chemistry, and pooled. The pooled peptides were separated into 25 fractions using reversed-phase liquid chromatography (RPLC). Technical duplicates of each fraction were separated by capillary isoelectric focusing (cIEF) using a set of amino acids as ampholytes. The cIEF column was interfaced to an Orbitrap Velos mass spectrometer with an electrokinetically pumped sheath-flow nanospray interface. This HPLC-cIEF-electrospray-tandem mass spectrometry (ESI-MS/MS) approach identified 835 protein groups and produced 2,329 unique peptides IDs. The biological duplicates were analyzed in parallel using conventional strong-cation exchange (SCX)-RPLC-ESI-MS/MS. The iTRAQ peptides were first separated into eight fractions using SCX. Each fraction was then analyzed by RPLC-ESI-MS/MS. The SCX-RPLC approach generated 1,369 protein groups and 3,494 unique peptide IDs. For protein quantitation, 96 and 198 differentially expressed proteins were obtained with RPLC-cIEF and SCX-RPLC, respectively. The combined set identified 231 proteins. Protein expression changes measured by RPLC-cEIF and SCX-RPLC were highly correlated.

  17. Large Scale Chemical Cross-linking Mass Spectrometry Perspectives

    PubMed Central

    Zybailov, Boris L.; Glazko, Galina V.; Jaiswal, Mihir; Raney, Kevin D.

    2014-01-01

    The spectacular heterogeneity of a complex protein mixture from biological samples becomes even more difficult to tackle when one’s attention is shifted towards different protein complex topologies, transient interactions, or localization of PPIs. Meticulous protein-by-protein affinity pull-downs and yeast-two-hybrid screens are the two approaches currently used to decipher proteome-wide interaction networks. Another method is to employ chemical cross-linking, which gives not only identities of interactors, but could also provide information on the sites of interactions and interaction interfaces. Despite significant advances in mass spectrometry instrumentation over the last decade, mapping Protein-Protein Interactions (PPIs) using chemical cross-linking remains time consuming and requires substantial expertise, even in the simplest of systems. While robust methodologies and software exist for the analysis of binary PPIs and also for the single protein structure refinement using cross-linking-derived constraints, undertaking a proteome-wide cross-linking study is highly complex. Difficulties include i) identifying cross-linkers of the right length and selectivity that could capture interactions of interest; ii) enrichment of the cross-linked species; iii) identification and validation of the cross-linked peptides and cross-linked sites. In this review we examine existing literature aimed at the large-scale protein cross-linking and discuss possible paths for improvement. We also discuss short-length cross-linkers of broad specificity such as formaldehyde and diazirine-based photo-cross-linkers. These cross-linkers could potentially capture many types of interactions, without strict requirement for a particular amino-acid to be present at a given protein-protein interface. How these shortlength, broad specificity cross-linkers be applied to proteome-wide studies? We will suggest specific advances in methodology, instrumentation and software that are needed to

  18. Scaling Relationships between Leaf Mass and Total Plant Mass across Chinese Forests

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Shanshan; Li, Yan; Wang, Genxuan

    2014-01-01

    Biomass partitioning is important for illustrating terrestrial ecosystem carbon flux. West, Brown and Enquist (WBE) model predicts that an optimal 3/4 allometric scaling of leaf mass and total biomass of individual plants will be applied in diverse communities. However, amount of scientific evidence suggests an involvement of some biological and environmental factors in interpreting the variation of scaling exponent observed in empirical studies. In this paper, biomass information of 1175 forested communities in China was collected and categorized into groups in terms of leaf form and function, as well as their locations to test whether the allocation pattern was conserved or variable with internal and/or environmental variations. Model Type II regression protocol was adopted to perform all the regressions. The results empirically showed that the slopes varied significantly across diverse forested biomes, between conifer and broadleaved forests, and between evergreen and deciduous forests. Based on the results, leaf form and function and their relations to environments play a significant role in the modification of the WBE model to explore more accurate laws in nature. PMID:24759801

  19. Absolute Quantitation of Met Using Mass Spectrometry for Clinical Application: Assay Precision, Stability, and Correlation with MET Gene Amplification in FFPE Tumor Tissue

    PubMed Central

    Catenacci, Daniel V. T.; Liao, Wei-Li; Thyparambil, Sheeno; Henderson, Les; Xu, Peng; Zhao, Lei; Rambo, Brittany; Hart, John; Xiao, Shu-Yuan; Bengali, Kathleen; Uzzell, Jamar; Darfler, Marlene; Krizman, David B.; Cecchi, Fabiola; Bottaro, Donald P.; Karrison, Theodore; Veenstra, Timothy D.; Hembrough, Todd; Burrows, Jon

    2014-01-01

    Background Overexpression of Met tyrosine kinase receptor is associated with poor prognosis. Overexpression, and particularly MET amplification, are predictive of response to Met-specific therapy in preclinical models. Immunohistochemistry (IHC) of formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded (FFPE) tissues is currently used to select for ‘high Met’ expressing tumors for Met inhibitor trials. IHC suffers from antibody non-specificity, lack of quantitative resolution, and, when quantifying multiple proteins, inefficient use of scarce tissue. Methods After describing the development of the Liquid-Tissue-Selected Reaction Monitoring-mass spectrometry (LT-SRM-MS) Met assay, we evaluated the expression level of Met in 130 FFPE gastroesophageal cancer (GEC) tissues. We assessed the correlation of SRM Met expression to IHC and mean MET gene copy number (GCN)/nucleus or MET/CEP7 ratio by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH). Results Proteomic mapping of recombinant Met identified 418TEFTTALQR426 as the optimal SRM peptide. Limits of detection (LOD) and quantitation (LOQ) for this peptide were 150 and 200 amol/µg tumor protein, respectively. The assay demonstrated excellent precision and temporal stability of measurements in serial sections analyzed one year apart. Expression levels of 130 GEC tissues ranged (<150 amol/µg to 4669.5 amol/µg. High correlation was observed between SRM Met expression and both MET GCN and MET/CEP7 ratio as determined by FISH (n = 30; R2 = 0.898). IHC did not correlate well with SRM (n = 44; R2 = 0.537) nor FISH GCN (n = 31; R2 = 0.509). A Met SRM level of ≥1500 amol/µg was 100% sensitive (95% CI 0.69–1) and 100% specific (95% CI 0.92–1) for MET amplification. Conclusions The Met SRM assay measured the absolute Met levels in clinical tissues with high precision. Compared to IHC, SRM provided a quantitative and linear measurement of Met expression, reliably distinguishing between non-amplified and amplified MET

  20. Energy, entropy and mass scaling relations for elliptical galaxies. Towards a physical understanding of their photometric properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Márquez, I.; Lima Neto, G. B.; Capelato, H.; Durret, F.; Lanzoni, B.; Gerbal, D.

    2001-12-01

    In the present paper, we show that elliptical galaxies (Es) obey a scaling relation between potential energy and mass. Since they are relaxed systems in a post violent-relaxation stage, they are quasi-equilibrium gravitational systems and therefore they also have a quasi-constant specific entropy. Assuming that light traces mass, these two laws imply that in the space defined by the three Sérsic law parameters (intensity Sigma0 , scale a and shape nu ), elliptical galaxies are distributed on two intersecting 2-manifolds: the Entropic Surface and the Energy-Mass Surface. Using a sample of 132 galaxies belonging to three nearby clusters, we have verified that ellipticals indeed follow these laws. This also implies that they are distributed along the intersection line (the Energy-Entropy line), thus they constitute a one-parameter family. These two physical laws (separately or combined), allow to find the theoretical origin of several observed photometrical relations, such as the correlation between absolute magnitude and effective surface brightness, and the fact that ellipticals are located on a surface in the [log Reff, -2.5 log Sigma0, log nu ] space. The fact that elliptical galaxies are a one-parameter family has important implications for cosmology and galaxy formation and evolution models. Moreover, the Energy-Entropy line could be used as a distance indicator.

  1. Body mass scaling of projected frontal area in competitive cyclists.

    PubMed

    Heil, D P

    2001-08-01

    The primary purpose of this study was to evaluate the scaling relationship between body mass (mb) and projected frontal area (AP) of competitive male cyclists whilst allowing statistically for the influence of bicycle geometry. A group of 21 cyclists [mean mb 74.4 (SD 7.2) kg, mean height 1.82 (SD 0.06) m, mean age 23.6 (SD 5.1) years] volunteered to have AP determined from photographs at three trunk angles (TA: 5 degrees, 15 degrees, 25 degrees) for each of three seat-tube angles (STA: 70 degrees, 75 degrees, 80 degrees) using a modified cycle ergometer. Using multiple log-linear regression analysis procedures, the following equation was developed: Body AP (meters squared) = 0.00433 x (STA0.172) x (TA0.0965) x (mb0.762) (r2 = 0.73, SEE = 0.017 m2) (n = 183 images total). This equation indicates that after allowing for the independent influence of STA and TA on AP, AP was proportional to mb raised to the +0.762 power (i.e. Ap is directly proportional to 0.762). The 95% confidence interval for this exponent (0.670-0.854) barely included the theoretical two-thirds value but not the +0.55 value for AP or the +0.32 value for submaximal metabolic power (Ws) of outdoor cycling reported in the literature. Further analysis of wind tunnel data reported in the literature suggests that the coefficient of drag (CD) is proportional to mb raised to the -0.45 power. When combined with the present study findings, it is suggested that the drag area (CD x AP), which should be proportional to Ws at submaximal cycling velocities, is proportional to mb to the +0.312 power (i.e. CD x AP is directly proportional to mb-0.45) x (mb+0.762) = mb+0.312), which is consistent with the +0.32 exponent for Ws in the literature.

  2. Scale effects and morphological diversification in hindlimb segment mass proportions in neognath birds

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Introduction In spite of considerable work on the linear proportions of limbs in amniotes, it remains unknown whether differences in scale effects between proximal and distal limb segments has the potential to influence locomotor costs in amniote lineages and how changes in the mass proportions of limbs have factored into amniote diversification. To broaden our understanding of how the mass proportions of limbs vary within amniote lineages, I collected data on hindlimb segment masses – thigh, shank, pes, tarsometatarsal segment, and digits – from 38 species of neognath birds, one of the most speciose amniote clades. I scaled each of these traits against measures of body size (body mass) and hindlimb size (hindlimb length) to test for departures from isometry. Additionally, I applied two parameters of trait evolution (Pagel’s λ and δ) to understand patterns of diversification in hindlimb segment mass in neognaths. Results All segment masses are positively allometric with body mass. Segment masses are isometric with hindlimb length. When examining scale effects in the neognath subclade Land Birds, segment masses were again positively allometric with body mass; however, shank, pedal, and tarsometatarsal segment masses were also positively allometric with hindlimb length. Methods of branch length scaling to detect phylogenetic signal (i.e., Pagel’s λ) and increasing or decreasing rates of trait change over time (i.e., Pagel’s δ) suffer from wide confidence intervals, likely due to small sample size and deep divergence times. Conclusions The scaling of segment masses appears to be more strongly related to the scaling of limb bone mass as opposed to length, and the scaling of hindlimb mass distribution is more a function of scale effects in limb posture than proximo-distal differences in the scaling of limb segment mass. Though negative allometry of segment masses appears to be precluded by the need for mechanically sound limbs, the positive allometry of

  3. Mass-stiffness change method for scaling of operational mode shapes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khatibi, M. M.; Ashory, M. R.; Malekjafarian, A.; Brincker, R.

    2012-01-01

    In Operational Modal Analysis (OMA) the structure is excited by unknown forces and only the response signals are measured. Therefore, the mode shapes cannot be scaled straightforward from the test. The mass change method is a well-known way to estimate the scaling factors of mode shapes by adding mass to the selected points of structure. In the mass change method, the scaling factors are estimated using the frequency shift due to the added masses to the structure. However, in the mass change method the frequency shifts for the first modes of structure are less than those of the higher modes based on the sensitivity analysis. In the conventional scaling methods, the mode shapes are required to change slightly by the mass change for all the modes under investigation. As a result, the first modes do not experience a significant frequency shift and they cannot be scaled precisely. In this paper a method is applied for scaling of the operational mode shapes on a basis of both mass and stiffness change of the test structure. It is shown that the advantage of the applied method is that the first modes of the structure are more affected by the stiffness changes and consequently the corresponding scaled mode shapes are more accurate. The numerical and experimental results show that the accuracy of the scaled mode shapes improves by using the proposed mass-stiffness change method.

  4. Conceptual Design and Demonstration of Space Scale for Measuring Mass in Microgravity Environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Youn-Kyu; Lee, Joo-Hee; Choi, Gi-Hyuk; Choi, Ik-Hyeon

    2015-12-01

    In this study, a new idea for developing a space scale for measuring mass in a microgravity environment was proposed by using the inertial force properties of an object to measure its mass. The space scale detected the momentum change of the specimen and reference masses by using a load-cell sensor as the force transducer based on Newton's laws of motion. In addition, the space scale calculated the specimen mass by comparing the inertial forces of the specimen and reference masses in the same acceleration field. By using this concept, a space scale with a capacity of 3 kg based on the law of momentum conservation was implemented and demonstrated under microgravity conditions onboard International Space Station (ISS) with an accuracy of ±1 g. By the performance analysis on the space scale, it was verified that an instrument with a compact size could be implemented and be quickly measured with a reasonable accuracy under microgravity conditions.

  5. Absolutely classical spin states

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bohnet-Waldraff, F.; Giraud, O.; Braun, D.

    2017-01-01

    We introduce the concept of "absolutely classical" spin states, in analogy to absolutely separable states of bipartite quantum systems. Absolutely classical states are states that remain classical (i.e., a convex sum of projectors on coherent states of a spin j ) under any unitary transformation applied to them. We investigate the maximal size of the ball of absolutely classical states centered on the maximally mixed state and derive a lower bound for its radius as a function of the total spin quantum number. We also obtain a numerical estimate of this maximal radius and compare it to the case of absolutely separable states.

  6. Database applicaton for absolute spectrophotometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bochkov, Valery V.; Shumko, Sergiy

    2002-12-01

    32-bit database application with multidocument interface for Windows has been developed to calculate absolute energy distributions of observed spectra. The original database contains wavelength calibrated observed spectra which had been already passed through apparatus reductions such as flatfielding, background and apparatus noise subtracting. Absolute energy distributions of observed spectra are defined in unique scale by means of registering them simultaneously with artificial intensity standard. Observations of sequence of spectrophotometric standards are used to define absolute energy of the artificial standard. Observations of spectrophotometric standards are used to define optical extinction in selected moments. FFT algorithm implemented in the application allows performing convolution (deconvolution) spectra with user-defined PSF. The object-oriented interface has been created using facilities of C++ libraries. Client/server model with Windows Socket functionality based on TCP/IP protocol is used to develop the application. It supports Dynamic Data Exchange conversation in server mode and uses Microsoft Exchange communication facilities.

  7. A common mass scaling for satellite systems of gaseous planets.

    PubMed

    Canup, Robin M; Ward, William R

    2006-06-15

    The Solar System's outer planets that contain hydrogen gas all host systems of multiple moons, which notably each contain a similar fraction of their respective planet's mass (approximately 10(-4)). This mass fraction is two to three orders of magnitude smaller than that of the largest satellites of the solid planets (such as the Earth's Moon), and its common value for gas planets has been puzzling. Here we model satellite growth and loss as a forming giant planet accumulates gas and rock-ice solids from solar orbit. We find that the mass fraction of its satellite system is regulated to approximately 10(-4) by a balance of two competing processes: the supply of inflowing material to the satellites, and satellite loss through orbital decay driven by the gas. We show that the overall properties of the satellite systems of Jupiter, Saturn and Uranus arise naturally, and suggest that similar processes could limit the largest moons of extrasolar Jupiter-mass planets to Moon-to-Mars size.

  8. Recipe Estimation Using Mass Spectrometer and Large-Scale Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mamun, Al; Nakamoto, Takamichi

    An odor recorder is an instrument capable of determining the qualitative and quantitative composition of the target smell (e.g. apple), so called odor recipe. A variety of smells can be generated by blending multiple odor components; an odor recorder can reproduce smells as well as record them so that the sensor array output pattern of the blended odor can match that of the target odor. Although the range of smell to be recorded has been so far limited, this work enhances that range using mass spectrometry without GC. We previously proposed the algorithm to select appropriate odor components among huge number of candidates. Here we applied this proposed algorithm experimentally for reproducing different eight fruit flavors using odor components selected from our laboratory database, composed of recorded mass patterns of 190 components. The blended and target smells were compared using sensory test (triangle test). Sensory test revealed that the smell blended according to the estimated recipe using our proposed method was almost the same as the target one. Moreover, even if the less contributed components in mass spectra are eliminated from the estimated recipe, the flavor remains almost similar to that of the target one.

  9. Structure and dating errors in the geologic time scale and periodicity in mass extinctions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stothers, Richard B.

    1989-01-01

    Structure in the geologic time scale reflects a partly paleontological origin. As a result, ages of Cenozoic and Mesozoic stage boundaries exhibit a weak 28-Myr periodicity that is similar to the strong 26-Myr periodicity detected in mass extinctions of marine life by Raup and Sepkoski. Radiometric dating errors in the geologic time scale, to which the mass extinctions are stratigraphically tied, do not necessarily lessen the likelihood of a significant periodicity in mass extinctions, but do spread the acceptable values of the period over the range 25-27 Myr for the Harland et al. time scale or 25-30 Myr for the DNAG time scale. If the Odin time scale is adopted, acceptable periods fall between 24 and 33 Myr, but are not robust against dating errors. Some indirect evidence from independently-dated flood-basalt volcanic horizons tends to favor the Odin time scale.

  10. Systematic Uncertainties in the Spectroscopic Measurements of Neutron-star Masses and Radii from Thermonuclear X-Ray Bursts. III. Absolute Flux Calibration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Güver, Tolga; Özel, Feryal; Marshall, Herman; Psaltis, Dimitrios; Guainazzi, Matteo; Díaz-Trigo, Maria

    2016-09-01

    Many techniques for measuring neutron star radii rely on absolute flux measurements in the X-rays. As a result, one of the fundamental uncertainties in these spectroscopic measurements arises from the absolute flux calibrations of the detectors being used. Using the stable X-ray burster, GS 1826-238, and its simultaneous observations by Chandra HETG/ACIS-S and RXTE/PCA as well as by XMM-Newton EPIC-pn and RXTE/PCA, we quantify the degree of uncertainty in the flux calibration by assessing the differences between the measured fluxes during bursts. We find that the RXTE/PCA and the Chandra gratings measurements agree with each other within their formal uncertainties, increasing our confidence in these flux measurements. In contrast, XMM-Newton EPIC-pn measures 14.0 ± 0.3% less flux than the RXTE/PCA. This is consistent with the previously reported discrepancy with the flux measurements of EPIC-pn, compared with EPIC MOS1, MOS2, and ACIS-S detectors. We also show that any intrinsic time-dependent systematic uncertainty that may exist in the calibration of the satellites has already been implicity taken into account in the neutron star radius measurements.

  11. Absolute Standards for Climate Measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leckey, J.

    2016-10-01

    In a world of changing climate, political uncertainty, and ever-changing budgets, the benefit of measurements traceable to SI standards increases by the day. To truly resolve climate change trends on a decadal time scale, on-orbit measurements need to be referenced to something that is both absolute and unchanging. One such mission is the Climate Absolute Radiance and Refractivity Observatory (CLARREO) that will measure a variety of climate variables with an unprecedented accuracy to definitively quantify climate change. In the CLARREO mission, we will utilize phase change cells in which a material is melted to calibrate the temperature of a blackbody that can then be observed by a spectrometer. A material's melting point is an unchanging physical constant that, through a series of transfers, can ultimately calibrate a spectrometer on an absolute scale. CLARREO consists of two primary instruments: an infrared (IR) spectrometer and a reflected solar (RS) spectrometer. The mission will contain orbiting radiometers with sufficient accuracy to calibrate other space-based instrumentation and thus transferring the absolute traceability. The status of various mission options will be presented.

  12. A universal scaling relationship between body mass and proximal limb bone dimensions in quadrupedal terrestrial tetrapods

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Body size is intimately related to the physiology and ecology of an organism. Therefore, accurate and consistent body mass estimates are essential for inferring numerous aspects of paleobiology in extinct taxa, and investigating large-scale evolutionary and ecological patterns in the history of life. Scaling relationships between skeletal measurements and body mass in birds and mammals are commonly used to predict body mass in extinct members of these crown clades, but the applicability of these models for predicting mass in more distantly related stem taxa, such as non-avian dinosaurs and non-mammalian synapsids, has been criticized on biomechanical grounds. Here we test the major criticisms of scaling methods for estimating body mass using an extensive dataset of mammalian and non-avian reptilian species derived from individual skeletons with live weights. Results Significant differences in the limb scaling of mammals and reptiles are noted in comparisons of limb proportions and limb length to body mass. Remarkably, however, the relationship between proximal (stylopodial) limb bone circumference and body mass is highly conserved in extant terrestrial mammals and reptiles, in spite of their disparate limb postures, gaits, and phylogenetic histories. As a result, we are able to conclusively reject the main criticisms of scaling methods that question the applicability of a universal scaling equation for estimating body mass in distantly related taxa. Conclusions The conserved nature of the relationship between stylopodial circumference and body mass suggests that the minimum diaphyseal circumference of the major weight-bearing bones is only weakly influenced by the varied forces exerted on the limbs (that is, compression or torsion) and most strongly related to the mass of the animal. Our results, therefore, provide a much-needed, robust, phylogenetically corrected framework for accurate and consistent estimation of body mass in extinct terrestrial

  13. Absolute nuclear material assay

    DOEpatents

    Prasad, Manoj K [Pleasanton, CA; Snyderman, Neal J [Berkeley, CA; Rowland, Mark S [Alamo, CA

    2012-05-15

    A method of absolute nuclear material assay of an unknown source comprising counting neutrons from the unknown source and providing an absolute nuclear material assay utilizing a model to optimally compare to the measured count distributions. In one embodiment, the step of providing an absolute nuclear material assay comprises utilizing a random sampling of analytically computed fission chain distributions to generate a continuous time-evolving sequence of event-counts by spreading the fission chain distribution in time.

  14. Absolute nuclear material assay

    DOEpatents

    Prasad, Manoj K.; Snyderman, Neal J.; Rowland, Mark S.

    2010-07-13

    A method of absolute nuclear material assay of an unknown source comprising counting neutrons from the unknown source and providing an absolute nuclear material assay utilizing a model to optimally compare to the measured count distributions. In one embodiment, the step of providing an absolute nuclear material assay comprises utilizing a random sampling of analytically computed fission chain distributions to generate a continuous time-evolving sequence of event-counts by spreading the fission chain distribution in time.

  15. Scaling Relations of Mass, Velocity, and Radius for Disk Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schulz, Earl

    2017-02-01

    I demonstrate four tight correlations of total baryonic mass, velocity, and radius for a set of nearby disk galaxies: the mass–velocity relation {M}{{t}}\\propto {V}4; the mass–radius relation {M}{{t}}\\propto {R}2; the radius–velocity relation R\\propto {V}2; and the mass–radius–velocity relation {M}{{t}}\\propto {{RV}}2. The mass–velocity relation is the familiar Baryonic Tully–Fisher relation, and versions of the other three relations, using magnitude rather than baryonic mass, are also well known. These four observed correlations follow from a pair of more fundamental relations. First, the centripetal acceleration at the edge of the stellar disk is proportional to the acceleration predicted by Newtonian physics, and second, this acceleration is a constant that is related to Milgrom’s constant. The two primary relations can be manipulated algebraically to generate the four observed correlations and allow little room for dark matter inside the radius of the stellar disk. The primary relations do not explain the velocity of the outer gaseous disks of spiral galaxies, which do not trace the Newtonian gravitational field of the observed matter.

  16. Absolute shielding scales for Al, Ga, and In and revised nuclear magnetic dipole moments of {sup 27}Al, {sup 69}Ga, {sup 71}Ga, {sup 113}In, and {sup 115}In nuclei

    SciTech Connect

    Antušek, A. Holka, F.

    2015-08-21

    We present coupled cluster calculations of NMR shielding constants of aluminum, gallium, and indium in water-ion clusters. In addition, relativistic and dynamical corrections and the influence of the second solvation shell are evaluated. The final NMR shielding constants define new absolute shielding scales, 600.0 ± 4.1 ppm, 2044.4 ± 31.4 ppm, and 4507.7 ± 63.7 ppm for aluminum, gallium, and indium, respectively. The nuclear magnetic dipole moments for {sup 27}Al, {sup 69}Ga, {sup 71}Ga, {sup 113}In, and {sup 115}In isotopes are corrected by combining the computed shielding constants with experimental NMR frequencies. The absolute magnitude of the correction increases along the series and for indium isotopes it reaches approximately −8.0 × 10{sup −3} of the nuclear magneton.

  17. Jet-dominated advective systems of all mass scales

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Körding, Elmar; Fender, R.

    We show that the radio emission of black hole (BH) and neutron star (NS) X-ray binaries (XRBs) follows the analytical prediction of a jet model where the jet carries a constant fraction of the accretion power. The radio emission can therefore be used as a tracer of the accretion rate. This measure is normalised with efficiently radiating objects. As it is independent of the X-ray fluxes, the measure allows us to compare the accretion rate dependency of the bolometric X-ray lumi- nosity of BHs and NSs. For NSs, it scales linearly with accretion rate while the scaling for BHs is quadratic - as expected for inefficient accretion flows. We find the same behaviour in AGN. This new approach uses the jet power to obtain the accretion rate. Thus, we know both the jet power and the radiated power of an accreting BH. This allows us to show that some accretion power is likely to be advected into the black hole, while the jet power dominates over the bolometric luminosity of a hard state BH.

  18. Absolute OH and O radical densities in effluent of a He/H2O micro-scaled atmospheric pressure plasma jet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benedikt, J.; Schröder, D.; Schneider, S.; Willems, G.; Pajdarová, A.; Vlček, J.; Schulz-von der Gathen, V.

    2016-08-01

    The effluent of a micro-scaled atmospheric pressure plasma jet (μ-APPJ) operated in helium with admixtures of water vapor (≲ {{10}4} ppm) has been analyzed by means of cavity ring-down laser absorption spectroscopy and molecular beam mass spectrometry to measure hydroxyl (OH) radical densities, and by two-photon absorption laser-induced fluorescence spectroscopy to measure atomic oxygen (O) densities. Additionally, the performance of the bubbler as a source of water vapor in the helium feed gas has been carefully characterized and calibrated. The largest OH and O densities in the effluent of 2× {{10}14}~\\text{c}{{\\text{m}}-3} and 3.2× {{10}13}~\\text{c}{{\\text{m}}-3} , respectively, have been measured at around 6000 ppm. The highest selectivity is reached around 1500 ppm, where the OH density is at  ∼63% of its maximum value and is 14 times larger than the O density. The measured density profiles and distance variations are compared to the results of a 2D axially symmetric fluid model of species transport and reaction kinetics in the plasma effluent. It is shown that the main loss of OH radicals in the effluent is their mutual reaction. In the case of O, reactions with other species than OH also have to be considered to explain the density decay in the effluent. The results presented here provide additional information for understanding the plasma-chemical processes in non-equilibrium atmospheric pressure plasmas. They also open the way to applying μ-APPJ with He/H2O as a selective source of OH radicals.

  19. Parametric scaling from species relative abundances to absolute abundances in the computation of biological diversity: a first proposal using Shannon's entropy.

    PubMed

    Ricotta, Carlo

    2003-01-01

    Traditional diversity measures such as the Shannon entropy are generally computed from the species' relative abundance vector of a given community to the exclusion of species' absolute abundances. In this paper, I first mention some examples where the total information content associated with a given community may be more adequate than Shannon's average information content for a better understanding of ecosystem functioning. Next, I propose a parametric measure of statistical information that contains both Shannon's entropy and total information content as special cases of this more general function.

  20. Physics at the 100 GeV mass scale: Proceedings

    SciTech Connect

    Brennan, E.C.

    1990-01-01

    This report contains the following papers: heavy quarks--experimental; the theory of heavy flavour production; precision experiments in electroweak interactions; theory of precision electroweak measurements; applications of QCD to hadron-hadron collisions; W{sup +}W{sup {minus}} interactions and the search for the Higgs Boson; electroweak symmetry breaking: Higgs/Whatever; electron-positron storage rings as heavy quark factories; prospects for next-generation e{sup +}e{sup {minus}} linear colliders; current prospects for hadron colliders; hadron colliders beyond the SSC; recent results on weak decays of charmed mesons from the Mark 3 experiment; recent CLEO results on bottom and charm; recent results on B-decays from ARGUE; a review of recent results on the hadron and photoproduction of charm; search for the top quark at UA1; recent results from the UA2 experiment at the CERN {bar p}p collider; selected preliminary results from CDF; new measurement of the phase difference {Phi}{sub 00} {minus} {Phi}{sub {plus minus}} in CP--violating K{sup 0} decays; a recent result on CP violation by E731 at Fermilab; rare kaon decay experiments; CP violation; inverse muon decay, neutrino dimuon production, and a search for neutral heavy leptons at the tevatron; first results from MACRO; a superstring theory underview; recent results from TRISTAN ; measurements of the Z boson resonance parameters at SLC; decays of the Z boson; and theory--weak neutral currents and the Z mass after the SLC.

  1. Magnetic origin of black hole winds across the mass scale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fukumura, Keigo; Kazanas, Demosthenes; Shrader, Chris; Behar, Ehud; Tombesi, Francesco; Contopoulos, Ioannis

    2017-03-01

    Invariably, black hole accretion disks seem to produce plasma outflows that result in blue-shifted absorption features in their spectra1. The X-ray absorption-line properties of these outflows are diverse, ranging in velocity from non-relativistic2 (~300 km s-1) to sub-relativistic3 (~0.1c, where c is the speed of light) and a similarly broad range in the ionization states of the wind plasma2,4. We report here that semi-analytical, self-similar magnetohydrodynamic wind models that have successfully accounted for the X-ray absorber properties of supermassive black holes5,6 also offer a good fit to the high-resolution X-ray spectrum of the accreting stellar-mass black hole GRO J1655-40. This provides an explicit theoretical argument of their magnetohydrodynamic origin (aligned with earlier observational claims)7 and supports the notion of a universal magnetic structure of the observed winds across all known black hole sizes.

  2. Body mass scaling of passive oxygen diffusion in endotherms and ectotherms

    PubMed Central

    Gillooly, James F.; Gomez, Juan Pablo; Mavrodiev, Evgeny V.; Rong, Yue; McLamore, Eric S.

    2016-01-01

    The area and thickness of respiratory surfaces, and the constraints they impose on passive oxygen diffusion, have been linked to differences in oxygen consumption rates and/or aerobic activity levels in vertebrates. However, it remains unclear how respiratory surfaces and associated diffusion rates vary with body mass across vertebrates, particularly in relation to the body mass scaling of oxygen consumption rates. Here we address these issues by first quantifying the body mass dependence of respiratory surface area and respiratory barrier thickness for a diversity of endotherms (birds and mammals) and ectotherms (fishes, amphibians, and reptiles). Based on these findings, we then use Fick’s law to predict the body mass scaling of oxygen diffusion for each group. Finally, we compare the predicted body mass dependence of oxygen diffusion to that of oxygen consumption in endotherms and ectotherms. We find that the slopes and intercepts of the relationships describing the body mass dependence of passive oxygen diffusion in these two groups are statistically indistinguishable from those describing the body mass dependence of oxygen consumption. Thus, the area and thickness of respiratory surfaces combine to match oxygen diffusion capacity to oxygen consumption rates in both air- and water-breathing vertebrates. In particular, the substantially lower oxygen consumption rates of ectotherms of a given body mass relative to those of endotherms correspond to differences in oxygen diffusion capacity. These results provide insights into the long-standing effort to understand the structural attributes of organisms that underlie the body mass scaling of oxygen consumption. PMID:27118837

  3. Body mass scaling of passive oxygen diffusion in endotherms and ectotherms.

    PubMed

    Gillooly, James F; Gomez, Juan Pablo; Mavrodiev, Evgeny V; Rong, Yue; McLamore, Eric S

    2016-05-10

    The area and thickness of respiratory surfaces, and the constraints they impose on passive oxygen diffusion, have been linked to differences in oxygen consumption rates and/or aerobic activity levels in vertebrates. However, it remains unclear how respiratory surfaces and associated diffusion rates vary with body mass across vertebrates, particularly in relation to the body mass scaling of oxygen consumption rates. Here we address these issues by first quantifying the body mass dependence of respiratory surface area and respiratory barrier thickness for a diversity of endotherms (birds and mammals) and ectotherms (fishes, amphibians, and reptiles). Based on these findings, we then use Fick's law to predict the body mass scaling of oxygen diffusion for each group. Finally, we compare the predicted body mass dependence of oxygen diffusion to that of oxygen consumption in endotherms and ectotherms. We find that the slopes and intercepts of the relationships describing the body mass dependence of passive oxygen diffusion in these two groups are statistically indistinguishable from those describing the body mass dependence of oxygen consumption. Thus, the area and thickness of respiratory surfaces combine to match oxygen diffusion capacity to oxygen consumption rates in both air- and water-breathing vertebrates. In particular, the substantially lower oxygen consumption rates of ectotherms of a given body mass relative to those of endotherms correspond to differences in oxygen diffusion capacity. These results provide insights into the long-standing effort to understand the structural attributes of organisms that underlie the body mass scaling of oxygen consumption.

  4. Electroporation : bio-electrochemical mass transfer at the nano scale.

    SciTech Connect

    Davalos, Rafael V.

    2005-01-01

    This article provides a brief review of the field of electroporation and introduces a new microdevice that facilitates studies to test theories, gain understanding, and control this important biomedical technology. Electroporation, a bio-electrochemical process whose fundamentals are not yet understood, is a means of permeating the cell membrane by applying a voltage across the cell and forming nano-scale pores in the membrane. It has become an important field in biotechnology and medicine for the controlled introduction of macromolecules, such as gene constructs and drugs, into various cells. It is viewed as an engineering alternative to biological techniques for the genetic engineering of cells. To study and control electroporation, we have created a low-cost microelectroporation chip that incorporates a live biological cell with an electric circuit. The device revealed an important behavior of cells in electrical fields. They produce measurable electrical information about the electroporation state of the cell that may enable precise control of the process. The device can be used to facilitate fundamental studies of electroporation and can become useful in providing precise control over biotechnological processes.

  5. Measured and modelled absolute gravity in Greenland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nielsen, E.; Forsberg, R.; Strykowski, G.

    2012-12-01

    Present day changes in the ice volume in glaciated areas like Greenland will change the load on the Earth and to this change the lithosphere will respond elastically. The Earth also responds to changes in the ice volume over a millennial time scale. This response is due to the viscous properties of the mantle and is known as Glaical Isostatic Adjustment (GIA). Both signals are present in GPS and absolute gravity (AG) measurements and they will give an uncertainty in mass balance estimates calculated from these data types. It is possible to separate the two signals if both gravity and Global Positioning System (GPS) time series are available. DTU Space acquired an A10 absolute gravimeter in 2008. One purpose of this instrument is to establish AG time series in Greenland and the first measurements were conducted in 2009. Since then are 18 different Greenland GPS Network (GNET) stations visited and six of these are visited more then once. The gravity signal consists of three signals; the elastic signal, the viscous signal and the direct attraction from the ice masses. All of these signals can be modelled using various techniques. The viscous signal is modelled by solving the Sea Level Equation with an appropriate ice history and Earth model. The free code SELEN is used for this. The elastic signal is modelled as a convolution of the elastic Greens function for gravity and a model of present day ice mass changes. The direct attraction is the same as the Newtonian attraction and is calculated as this. Here we will present the preliminary results of the AG measurements in Greenland. We will also present modelled estimates of the direct attraction, the elastic and the viscous signals.

  6. Absolute number densities of helium metastable atoms determined by atomic absorption spectroscopy in helium plasma-based discharges used as ambient desorption/ionization sources for mass spectrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reininger, Charlotte; Woodfield, Kellie; Keelor, Joel D.; Kaylor, Adam; Fernández, Facundo M.; Farnsworth, Paul B.

    2014-10-01

    The absolute number densities of helium atoms in the 2s 3S1 metastable state were determined in four plasma-based ambient desorption/ionization sources by atomic absorption spectroscopy. The plasmas included a high-frequency dielectric barrier discharge (HF-DBD), a low temperature plasma (LTP), and two atmospheric-pressure glow discharges, one with AC excitation and the other with DC excitation. Peak densities in the luminous plumes downstream from the discharge capillaries of the HF-DBD and the LTP were 1.39 × 1012 cm- 3 and 0.011 × 1012 cm- 3, respectively. Neither glow discharge produced a visible afterglow, and no metastable atoms were detected downstream from the capillary exits. However, densities of 0.58 × 1012 cm- 3 and 0.97 × 1012 cm- 3 were measured in the interelectrode regions of the AC and DC glow discharges, respectively. Time-resolved measurements of metastable atom densities revealed significant random variations in the timing of pulsed absorption signals with respect to the voltage waveforms applied to the discharges.

  7. The dynamical masses, densities, and star formation scaling relations of Lyα galaxies

    SciTech Connect

    Rhoads, James E.; Malhotra, Sangeeta; Richardson, Mark L. A.; McLinden, Emily M.; Finkelstein, Steven L.; Fynbo, Johan P. U.; Tilvi, Vithal S.

    2014-01-01

    We present the first dynamical mass measurements for Lyα galaxies at high redshift, based on velocity dispersion measurements from rest-frame optical emission lines and size measurements from Hubble Space Telescope imaging, for nine galaxies drawn from four surveys. We use these measurements to study Lyα galaxies in the context of galaxy scaling relations. The resulting dynamical masses range from 10{sup 9} to 10{sup 10} M {sub ☉}. We also fit stellar population models to our sample and use them to place the Lyα sample on a stellar mass versus line width relation. The Lyα galaxies generally follow the same scaling relation as star-forming galaxies at lower redshift, although, lower stellar mass fits are also acceptable in ∼1/3 of the Lyα galaxies. Using the dynamical masses as an upper limit on gas mass, we show that Lyα galaxies have unusually active star formation for their gas mass surface density. This behavior is consistent with what is observed in starburst galaxies, despite the typically smaller masses and sizes of the Lyα galaxy population. Finally, we examine the mass densities of these galaxies and show that their future evolution likely requires dissipational ('wet') merging. In short, we find that Lyα galaxies are low-mass cousins of larger starbursts.

  8. Absolute quantitation of protein posttranslational modification isoform.

    PubMed

    Yang, Zhu; Li, Ning

    2015-01-01

    Mass spectrometry has been widely applied in characterization and quantification of proteins from complex biological samples. Because the numbers of absolute amounts of proteins are needed in construction of mathematical models for molecular systems of various biological phenotypes and phenomena, a number of quantitative proteomic methods have been adopted to measure absolute quantities of proteins using mass spectrometry. The liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) coupled with internal peptide standards, i.e., the stable isotope-coded peptide dilution series, which was originated from the field of analytical chemistry, becomes a widely applied method in absolute quantitative proteomics research. This approach provides more and more absolute protein quantitation results of high confidence. As quantitative study of posttranslational modification (PTM) that modulates the biological activity of proteins is crucial for biological science and each isoform may contribute a unique biological function, degradation, and/or subcellular location, the absolute quantitation of protein PTM isoforms has become more relevant to its biological significance. In order to obtain the absolute cellular amount of a PTM isoform of a protein accurately, impacts of protein fractionation, protein enrichment, and proteolytic digestion yield should be taken into consideration and those effects before differentially stable isotope-coded PTM peptide standards are spiked into sample peptides have to be corrected. Assisted with stable isotope-labeled peptide standards, the absolute quantitation of isoforms of posttranslationally modified protein (AQUIP) method takes all these factors into account and determines the absolute amount of a protein PTM isoform from the absolute amount of the protein of interest and the PTM occupancy at the site of the protein. The absolute amount of the protein of interest is inferred by quantifying both the absolute amounts of a few PTM

  9. Simultaneous estimation of local-scale and flow path-scale dual-domain mass transfer parameters using geoelectrical monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Briggs, Martin A.; Day-Lewis, Frederick D.; Ong, John B. T.; Curtis, Gary P.; Lane, John W.

    2013-09-01

    Anomalous solute transport, modeled as rate-limited mass transfer, has an observable geoelectrical signature that can be exploited to infer the controlling parameters. Previous experiments indicate the combination of time-lapse geoelectrical and fluid conductivity measurements collected during ionic tracer experiments provides valuable insight into the exchange of solute between mobile and immobile porosity. Here, we use geoelectrical measurements to monitor tracer experiments at a former uranium mill tailings site in Naturita, Colorado. We use nonlinear regression to calibrate dual-domain mass transfer solute-transport models to field data. This method differs from previous approaches by calibrating the model simultaneously to observed fluid conductivity and geoelectrical tracer signals using two parameter scales: effective parameters for the flow path upgradient of the monitoring point and the parameters local to the monitoring point. We use regression statistics to rigorously evaluate the information content and sensitivity of fluid conductivity and geophysical data, demonstrating multiple scales of mass transfer parameters can simultaneously be estimated. Our results show, for the first time, field-scale spatial variability of mass transfer parameters (i.e., exchange-rate coefficient, porosity) between local and upgradient effective parameters; hence our approach provides insight into spatial variability and scaling behavior. Additional synthetic modeling is used to evaluate the scope of applicability of our approach, indicating greater range than earlier work using temporal moments and a Lagrangian-based Damköhler number. The introduced Eulerian-based Damköhler is useful for estimating tracer injection duration needed to evaluate mass transfer exchange rates that range over several orders of magnitude.

  10. Simultaneous estimation of local-scale and flow path-scale dual-domain mass transfer parameters using geoelectrical monitoring

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Briggs, Martin A.; Day-Lewis, Frederick D.; Ong, John B.; Curtis, Gary P.; Lane, Jr., John W.

    2013-01-01

    Anomalous solute transport, modeled as rate-limited mass transfer, has an observable geoelectrical signature that can be exploited to infer the controlling parameters. Previous experiments indicate the combination of time-lapse geoelectrical and fluid conductivity measurements collected during ionic tracer experiments provides valuable insight into the exchange of solute between mobile and immobile porosity. Here, we use geoelectrical measurements to monitor tracer experiments at a former uranium mill tailings site in Naturita, Colorado. We use nonlinear regression to calibrate dual-domain mass transfer solute-transport models to field data. This method differs from previous approaches by calibrating the model simultaneously to observed fluid conductivity and geoelectrical tracer signals using two parameter scales: effective parameters for the flow path upgradient of the monitoring point and the parameters local to the monitoring point. We use regression statistics to rigorously evaluate the information content and sensitivity of fluid conductivity and geophysical data, demonstrating multiple scales of mass transfer parameters can simultaneously be estimated. Our results show, for the first time, field-scale spatial variability of mass transfer parameters (i.e., exchange-rate coefficient, porosity) between local and upgradient effective parameters; hence our approach provides insight into spatial variability and scaling behavior. Additional synthetic modeling is used to evaluate the scope of applicability of our approach, indicating greater range than earlier work using temporal moments and a Lagrangian-based Damköhler number. The introduced Eulerian-based Damköhler is useful for estimating tracer injection duration needed to evaluate mass transfer exchange rates that range over several orders of magnitude.

  11. A Steeper than Linear Disk Mass-Stellar Mass Scaling Relation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pascucci, I.; Testi, L.; Herczeg, G. J.; Long, F.; Manara, C. F.; Hendler, N.; Mulders, G. D.; Krijt, S.; Ciesla, F.; Henning, Th.; Mohanty, S.; Drabek-Maunder, E.; Apai, D.; Szűcs, L.; Sacco, G.; Olofsson, J.

    2016-11-01

    The disk mass is among the most important input parameter for every planet formation model to determine the number and masses of the planets that can form. We present an ALMA 887 μm survey of the disk population around objects from ˜2 to 0.03 M ⊙ in the nearby ˜2 Myr old Chamaeleon I star-forming region. We detect thermal dust emission from 66 out of 93 disks, spatially resolve 34 of them, and identify two disks with large dust cavities of about 45 au in radius. Assuming isothermal and optically thin emission, we convert the 887 μm flux densities into dust disk masses, hereafter M dust. We find that the {M}{dust}{--}{M}* relation is steeper than linear and of the form M dust ∝ (M *)1.3-1.9, where the range in the power-law index reflects two extremes of the possible relation between the average dust temperature and stellar luminosity. By reanalyzing all millimeter data available for nearby regions in a self-consistent way, we show that the 1-3 Myr old regions of Taurus, Lupus, and Chamaeleon I share the same {M}{dust}{--}{M}* relation, while the 10 Myr old Upper Sco association has a steeper relation. Theoretical models of grain growth, drift, and fragmentation reproduce this trend and suggest that disks are in the fragmentation-limited regime. In this regime millimeter grains will be located closer in around lower-mass stars, a prediction that can be tested with deeper and higher spatial resolution ALMA observations.

  12. TESTING THE ASTEROSEISMIC MASS SCALE USING METAL-POOR STARS CHARACTERIZED WITH APOGEE AND KEPLER

    SciTech Connect

    Epstein, Courtney R.; Johnson, Jennifer A.; Tayar, Jamie; Pinsonneault, Marc; Elsworth, Yvonne P.; Chaplin, William J.; Shetrone, Matthew; Mosser, Benoît; Hekker, Saskia; Harding, Paul; Silva Aguirre, Víctor; Basu, Sarbani; Beers, Timothy C.; Bizyaev, Dmitry; Bedding, Timothy R.; Frinchaboy, Peter M.; García, Rafael A.; and others

    2014-04-20

    Fundamental stellar properties, such as mass, radius, and age, can be inferred using asteroseismology. Cool stars with convective envelopes have turbulent motions that can stochastically drive and damp pulsations. The properties of the oscillation frequency power spectrum can be tied to mass and radius through solar-scaled asteroseismic relations. Stellar properties derived using these scaling relations need verification over a range of metallicities. Because the age and mass of halo stars are well-constrained by astrophysical priors, they provide an independent, empirical check on asteroseismic mass estimates in the low-metallicity regime. We identify nine metal-poor red giants (including six stars that are kinematically associated with the halo) from a sample observed by both the Kepler space telescope and the Sloan Digital Sky Survey-III APOGEE spectroscopic survey. We compare masses inferred using asteroseismology to those expected for halo and thick-disk stars. Although our sample is small, standard scaling relations, combined with asteroseismic parameters from the APOKASC Catalog, produce masses that are systematically higher (<ΔM > =0.17 ± 0.05 M {sub ☉}) than astrophysical expectations. The magnitude of the mass discrepancy is reduced by known theoretical corrections to the measured large frequency separation scaling relationship. Using alternative methods for measuring asteroseismic parameters induces systematic shifts at the 0.04 M {sub ☉} level. We also compare published asteroseismic analyses with scaling relationship masses to examine the impact of using the frequency of maximum power as a constraint. Upcoming APOKASC observations will provide a larger sample of ∼100 metal-poor stars, important for detailed asteroseismic characterization of Galactic stellar populations.

  13. UPDATED MASS SCALING RELATIONS FOR NUCLEAR STAR CLUSTERS AND A COMPARISON TO SUPERMASSIVE BLACK HOLES

    SciTech Connect

    Scott, Nicholas; Graham, Alister W.

    2013-02-15

    We investigate whether or not nuclear star clusters and supermassive black holes (SMBHs) follow a common set of mass scaling relations with their host galaxy's properties, and hence can be considered to form a single class of central massive object (CMO). We have compiled a large sample of galaxies with measured nuclear star cluster masses and host galaxy properties from the literature and fit log-linear scaling relations. We find that nuclear star cluster mass, M {sub NC}, correlates most tightly with the host galaxy's velocity dispersion: log M {sub NC} = (2.11 {+-} 0.31)log ({sigma}/54) + (6.63 {+-} 0.09), but has a slope dramatically shallower than the relation defined by SMBHs. We find that the nuclear star cluster mass relations involving host galaxy (and spheroid) luminosity and stellar and dynamical mass, intercept with but are in general shallower than the corresponding black hole scaling relations. In particular, M {sub NC}{proportional_to}M {sup 0.55{+-}0.15} {sub Gal,dyn}; the nuclear cluster mass is not a constant fraction of its host galaxy or spheroid mass. We conclude that nuclear stellar clusters and SMBHs do not form a single family of CMOs.

  14. Quantitative, nondestructive assessment of beech scale (Hemiptera: Cryptococcidae) density using digital image analysis of wax masses.

    PubMed

    Teale, Stephen A; Letkowski, Steven; Matusick, George; Stehman, Stephen V; Castello, John D

    2009-08-01

    Beech scale, Cryptococcus fagisuga Lindinger, is a non-native invasive insect associated with beech bark disease. A quantitative method of measuring viable scale density at the levels of the individual tree and localized bark patches was developed. Bark patches (10 cm(2)) were removed at 0, 1, and 2 m above the ground and at the four cardinal directions from 13 trees in northern New York and 12 trees in northern Michigan. Digital photographs of each patch were made, and the wax mass area was measured from two random 1-cm(2) subsamples on each bark patch using image analysis software. Viable scale insects were counted after removing the wax under a dissecting microscope. Separate regression analyses at the whole tree level for the New York and Michigan sites each showed a strong positive relationship of wax mass area with the number of underlying viable scale insects. The relationships for the New York and Michigan data were not significantly different from each other, and when pooling data from the two sites, there was still a significant positive relationship between wax mass area and the number of scale insects. The relationships between viable scale insects and wax mass area were different at the 0-, 1-, and 2-m sampling heights but do not seem to affect the relationship. This method does not disrupt the insect or its interactions with the host tree.

  15. MALDI imaging mass spectrometry reveals multiple clinically relevant masses in colorectal cancer using large-scale tissue microarrays.

    PubMed

    Hinsch, Andrea; Buchholz, Malte; Odinga, Sinje; Borkowski, Carina; Koop, Christina; Izbicki, Jacob R; Wurlitzer, Marcus; Krech, Till; Wilczak, Waldemar; Steurer, Stefan; Jacobsen, Frank; Burandt, Eike-Christian; Stahl, Phillip; Simon, Ronald; Sauter, Guido; Schlüter, Hartmut

    2017-01-24

    For identification of clinically relevant masses to predict status, grade, relapse and prognosis of colorectal cancer we applied MALDI imaging mass spectrometry (IMS) to a tissue micro array (TMA) containing formalin-fixed and paraffin-embedded tissue samples from 349 patients. Analysis of our MALDI-IMS data revealed 27 different m/z signals associated with epithelial structures. Comparison of these signals showed significant association with status, grade and Ki-67 labeling index. 15 out of 27 IMS signals revealed a significant association with survival. For 7 signals (m/z 654, 776, 788, 904, 944, 975, and 1013) the absence, and for 8 signals (m/z 643, 678, 836, 886, 898, 1095, 1459, and 1477) the presence was associated with decreased life expectancy, including 5 masses (m/z 788, 836, 904, 944, and 1013) that provided prognostic information independently from the established prognosticators pT and pN. Combination of these 5 masses resulted in a 3-step classifier that provided prognostic information superior to univariate analysis. In addition, a total of 19 masses were associated with tumor stage, grade, metastasis, and cell proliferation. Our data demonstrate the suitability of combining IMS and large-scale TMAs to simultaneously identify and validate clinically useful molecular marker.

  16. Scaling of offspring number and mass to plant and animal size: model and meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Mulder, Christian

    2008-01-01

    The scaling of reproductive parameters to body size is important for understanding ecological and evolutionary patterns. Here, we derived allometric relationships for the number and mass of seeds, eggs and neonates from an existing model on population production. In a separate meta-analysis, we collected 79 empirical regressions on offspring mass and number covering different taxa and various habitats. The literature review served as a validation of the model, whereas, vice versa, consistency of isolated regressions with each other and related ecological quantities was checked with the model. The total offspring mass delivered in a reproductive event scaled to adult size with slopes in the range of about 3/4 to 1. Exponents for individual seed, egg and neonate mass varied around 1/2 for most heterotherms and between 3/4 and 1 for most homeotherms. The scaling of the progeny number released in a sowing, clutch or litter was opposite to that of their size. The linear regressions fitted into a triangular envelope where maximum offspring mass is limited by the size of the adult. Minimum seed and egg size scaled with weight exponents of approximately 0 up to 1/4. These patterns can be explained by the influence of parents on the fate of their offspring, covering the continuum of r-strategists (pelagic–aquatic, arial, most invertebrates, heterotherms) and K-strategists (littoral–terrestrial, some invertebrates, homeotherms). PMID:18196279

  17. Eclipsing Binaries as Astrophysical Laboratories: CM Draconis - Accurate Absolute Physical Properties of Low Mass Stars and an Independent Estimate of the Primordial Helium Abundance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McCook, G. P.; Guinan, E. F.; Saumon, D.; Kang, Y. W.

    1997-05-01

    CM Draconis (Gl 630.1; Vmax = +12.93) is an important eclipsing binary consisting of two dM4.5e stars with an orbital period of 1.2684 days. This binary is a high velocity star (s= 164 km/s) and the brighter member of a common proper motion pair with a cool faint white dwarf companion (LP 101-16). CM Dra and its white dwarf companion were once considered by Zwicky to belong to a class of "pygmy stars", but they turned out to be ordinary old, cool white dwarfs or faint red dwarfs. Lacy (ApJ 218,444L) determined the first orbital and physical properties of CM Dra from the analysis of his light and radial velocity curves. In addition to providing directly measured masses, radii, and luminosities for low mass stars, CM Dra was also recognized by Lacy and later by Paczynski and Sienkiewicz (ApJ 286,332) as an important laboratory for cosmology, as a possible old Pop II object where it may be possible to determine the primordial helium abundance. Recently, Metcalfe et al.(ApJ 456,356) obtained accurate RV measures for CM Dra and recomputed refined elements along with its helium abundance. Starting in 1995, we have been carrying out intensive RI photoelectric photometry of CM Dra to obtain well defined, accurate light curves so that its fundamental properties can be improved, and at the same time, to search for evidence of planets around the binary from planetary transit eclipses. During 1996 and 1997 well defined light curves were secured and these were combined with the RV measures of Metcalfe et al. (1996) to determine the orbital and physical parameters of the system, including a refined orbital period. A recent version of the Wilson-Devinney program was used to analyze the data. New radii, masses, mean densities, Teff, and luminosities were found as well as a re-determination of the helium abundance (Y). The results of the recent analyses of the light and RV curves will be presented and modelling results discussed. This research is supported by NSF grants AST-9315365

  18. Development and validation of a liquid chromatography/electrospray ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry method for relative and absolute quantification of steroidal alkaloids in Fritillaria species.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Jian-Liang; Li, Ping; Li, Hui-Jun; Jiang, Yan; Ren, Mei-Ting; Liu, Ying

    2008-01-04

    Steroidal alkaloids are naturally occurring nitrogen-containing compounds in many edible or medicinal plants, such as potato, tomato, Fritillaria and American hellebore, which possess a variety of toxicological and pharmacological effects on humans. The aim of this study is to explore the potential of liquid chromatography/electrospray ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (LC/ESI-TOF-MS) method in the determination of these important alkaloids in plant matrices. The application of this method has been proven through 26 naturally occurring steroidal alkaloids in Fritillaria species. Accurate mass measurements within 4 ppm error were obtained for all the alkaloids detected out of various plant matrices, which allowed an unequivocal identification of the target steroidal alkaloids. The bunching factor for mass spectrometer, an important parameter significantly affecting the precision and accuracy of quantitative method, was firstly optimized in this work and satisfactory precision and linearity were achieved by the optimization of that parameter. The ranges of RSD values of intra-day and inter-day variability for all alkaloids were decreased remarkably from 41.8-159% and 13.2-140% to 0.32-7.98% and 2.37-16.1%, respectively, when the value of bunching factor was optimized from 1 to 3. Linearity of response more than two orders of magnitude was also demonstrated (regression coefficient >0.99). The LC/TOF-MS detection method offered improvements to the sensitivity, compared with previously applied LC (or GC) methods, with limits of detection down to 0.0014-0.0335 microg/ml. The results in this paper illustrate the robustness and applicability of LC/TOF-MS for steroidal alkaloids analysis in plant samples. In addition, relative quantitative determination of steroidal alkaloid with one popular analyte verticinone which is commercially available was also investigated in order to break through the choke point of lack of standards in phytochemical analysis. The

  19. Estimating Absolute Site Effects

    SciTech Connect

    Malagnini, L; Mayeda, K M; Akinci, A; Bragato, P L

    2004-07-15

    The authors use previously determined direct-wave attenuation functions as well as stable, coda-derived source excitation spectra to isolate the absolute S-wave site effect for the horizontal and vertical components of weak ground motion. They used selected stations in the seismic network of the eastern Alps, and find the following: (1) all ''hard rock'' sites exhibited deamplification phenomena due to absorption at frequencies ranging between 0.5 and 12 Hz (the available bandwidth), on both the horizontal and vertical components; (2) ''hard rock'' site transfer functions showed large variability at high-frequency; (3) vertical-motion site transfer functions show strong frequency-dependence, and (4) H/V spectral ratios do not reproduce the characteristics of the true horizontal site transfer functions; (5) traditional, relative site terms obtained by using reference ''rock sites'' can be misleading in inferring the behaviors of true site transfer functions, since most rock sites have non-flat responses due to shallow heterogeneities resulting from varying degrees of weathering. They also use their stable source spectra to estimate total radiated seismic energy and compare against previous results. they find that the earthquakes in this region exhibit non-constant dynamic stress drop scaling which gives further support for a fundamental difference in rupture dynamics between small and large earthquakes. To correct the vertical and horizontal S-wave spectra for attenuation, they used detailed regional attenuation functions derived by Malagnini et al. (2002) who determined frequency-dependent geometrical spreading and Q for the region. These corrections account for the gross path effects (i.e., all distance-dependent effects), although the source and site effects are still present in the distance-corrected spectra. The main goal of this study is to isolate the absolute site effect (as a function of frequency) by removing the source spectrum (moment-rate spectrum) from

  20. Bias in C IV-based quasar black hole mass scaling relationships from reverberation mapped samples

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brotherton, Michael S.; Runnoe, J. C.; Shang, Zhaohui; DiPompeo, M. A.

    2015-08-01

    The masses of the black holes powering quasars represent a fundamental parameter of active galaxies. Estimates of quasar black hole masses using single-epoch spectra are quite uncertain, and require quantitative improvement. We recently identified a correction for C IV λ1549-based scaling relationships used to estimate quasar black hole masses that relies on the continuum-subtracted peak flux ratio of the ultraviolet emission-line blend Si IV + O IV] (the λ1400 feature) to that of C IV. This parameter correlates with the suite of associated quasar spectral properties collectively known as `Eigenvector 1' (EV1). Here we use a sample of 85 quasars with quasi-simultaneous optical-ultraviolet spectrophotometry to demonstrate how biases in the average EV1 properties can create systematic biases in C IV-based black hole mass scaling relationships. This effect results in nearly an order of magnitude moving from objects with small , which have overestimated black hole masses, to objects with large , which have underestimated values. We show that existing reverberation-mapped samples of quasars with ultraviolet spectra - used to calibrate C IV-based scaling relationships - have significant EV1 biases that result in predictions of black hole masses nearly 50 per cent too high for the average quasar. We offer corrections and suggestions to account for this bias.

  1. LHC phenomenology of natural MSSM with non-universal gaugino masses at the unification scale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abe, Hiroyuki; Kawamura, Junichiro; Omura, Yuji

    2015-08-01

    In this letter, we study collider phenomenology in the supersymmetric Standard Model with a certain type of non-universal gaugino masses at the gauge coupling unification scale, motivated by the little hierarchy problem. In this scenario, especially the wino mass is relatively large compared to the gluino mass at the unification scale, and the heavy wino can relax the fine-tuning of the higgsino mass parameter, so-called μ-parameter. Besides, it will enhance the lightest Higgs boson mass due to the relatively large left-right mixing of top squarks through the renormalization group (RG) effect. Then 125 GeV Higgs boson could be accomplished, even if the top squarks are lighter than 1 TeV and the μ parameter is within a few hundreds GeV. The right-handed top squark tends to be lighter than the other sfermions due to the RG runnings, then we focus on the top squark search at the LHC. Since the top squark is almost right-handed and the higgsinos are nearly degenerate, 2 b + E T miss channel is the most sensitive to this scenario. We figure out current and expected experimental bounds on the lightest top squark mass and model parameters at the gauge coupling unification scale.

  2. Online, absolute quantitation of propranolol from spatially distinct 20-μm and 40-μm dissections of brain, liver, and kidney thin tissue sections by laser microdissection – liquid vortex capture – mass spectrometry

    DOE PAGES

    Kertesz, Vilmos; Vavrek, Marissa; Freddo, Carol; ...

    2016-05-23

    Here, spatial resolved quantitation of chemical species in thin tissue sections by mass spectrometric methods has been constrained by the need for matrix-matched standards or other arduous calibration protocols and procedures to mitigate matrix effects (e.g., spatially varying ionization suppression). Reported here is the use of laser cut and drop sampling with a laser microdissection-liquid vortex capture electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry (LMD-LVC/ESI-MS/MS) system for online and absolute quantitation of propranolol in mouse brain, kidney, and liver thin tissue sections of mice administered with the drug at a 7.5 mg/kg dose, intravenously. In this procedure either 20 μm x 20more » μm or 40 μm x 40 μm tissue microdissections were cut and dropped into the flowing solvent of the capture probe. During transport to the ESI source drug related material was completely extracted from the tissue into the solvent, which contained a known concentration of propranolol-d7 as an internal standard. This allowed absolute quantitation to be achieved with an external calibration curve generated from standards containing the same fixed concentration of propranolold-d7 and varied concentrations of propranolol. Average propranolol concentrations determined with the laser cut and drop sampling method closely agreed with concentration values obtained from 2.3 mm diameter tissue punches from serial sections that were extracted and quantified by HPLC/ESI-MS/MS measurements. In addition, the relative abundance of hydroxypropranolol glucuronide metabolites were recorded and found to be consistent with previous findings.« less

  3. Online, absolute quantitation of propranolol from spatially distinct 20-μm and 40-μm dissections of brain, liver, and kidney thin tissue sections by laser microdissection – liquid vortex capture – mass spectrometry

    SciTech Connect

    Kertesz, Vilmos; Vavrek, Marissa; Freddo, Carol; Van Berkel, Gary J.; Cahill, John F.; Weiskittel, Taylor M.

    2016-05-23

    Here, spatial resolved quantitation of chemical species in thin tissue sections by mass spectrometric methods has been constrained by the need for matrix-matched standards or other arduous calibration protocols and procedures to mitigate matrix effects (e.g., spatially varying ionization suppression). Reported here is the use of laser cut and drop sampling with a laser microdissection-liquid vortex capture electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry (LMD-LVC/ESI-MS/MS) system for online and absolute quantitation of propranolol in mouse brain, kidney, and liver thin tissue sections of mice administered with the drug at a 7.5 mg/kg dose, intravenously. In this procedure either 20 μm x 20 μm or 40 μm x 40 μm tissue microdissections were cut and dropped into the flowing solvent of the capture probe. During transport to the ESI source drug related material was completely extracted from the tissue into the solvent, which contained a known concentration of propranolol-d7 as an internal standard. This allowed absolute quantitation to be achieved with an external calibration curve generated from standards containing the same fixed concentration of propranolold-d7 and varied concentrations of propranolol. Average propranolol concentrations determined with the laser cut and drop sampling method closely agreed with concentration values obtained from 2.3 mm diameter tissue punches from serial sections that were extracted and quantified by HPLC/ESI-MS/MS measurements. In addition, the relative abundance of hydroxypropranolol glucuronide metabolites were recorded and found to be consistent with previous findings.

  4. Absolute and relative blindsight.

    PubMed

    Balsdon, Tarryn; Azzopardi, Paul

    2015-03-01

    The concept of relative blindsight, referring to a difference in conscious awareness between conditions otherwise matched for performance, was introduced by Lau and Passingham (2006) as a way of identifying the neural correlates of consciousness (NCC) in fMRI experiments. By analogy, absolute blindsight refers to a difference between performance and awareness regardless of whether it is possible to match performance across conditions. Here, we address the question of whether relative and absolute blindsight in normal observers can be accounted for by response bias. In our replication of Lau and Passingham's experiment, the relative blindsight effect was abolished when performance was assessed by means of a bias-free 2AFC task or when the criterion for awareness was varied. Furthermore, there was no evidence of either relative or absolute blindsight when both performance and awareness were assessed with bias-free measures derived from confidence ratings using signal detection theory. This suggests that both relative and absolute blindsight in normal observers amount to no more than variations in response bias in the assessment of performance and awareness. Consideration of the properties of psychometric functions reveals a number of ways in which relative and absolute blindsight could arise trivially and elucidates a basis for the distinction between Type 1 and Type 2 blindsight.

  5. Systematic study of the effects of mass and time scaling techniques applied in numerical rock mechanics simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heinze, Thomas; Jansen, Gunnar; Galvan, Boris; Miller, Stephen A.

    2016-08-01

    Numerical modeling is a well established tool in rock mechanics studies investigating a wide range of problems. Implicit methods for solving linear equations have the advantage of being unconditionally stable, while explicit methods, although limited by the time step, are often used because of their limited memory demand, their scalability in parallel computing, and simple implementation of complex boundary conditions. In numerical modeling of explicit elastoplastic dynamics where the time step is limited by the material density, mass scaling techniques can be used to overcome this limit and significantly reduce computation time. While often used, the effect of mass and time scaling and how it may influence the numerical results is rarely-mentioned in publications, and choosing the right scaling technique is typically performed by trial and error. To our knowledge, no systematic studies have addressed how mass scaling might affect the numerical results. In this paper, we present results from an extensive and systematic study of the influence of mass and time scaling on the behavior of a variety of rock-mechanical models. We employ a finite difference scheme to model uniaxial and biaxial compression experiments using different mass and time scaling factors, and with physical models of increasing complexity up to a cohesion-weakening frictional-strengthening model (CWFS). We also introduce a normalized energy ratio to assist analyzing mass scaling effects. We find the tested models to be less sensitive to time scaling than to mass scaling, so mass scaling has higher potential for decreasing computational costs. However, we also demonstrate that mass scaling may lead to quantitatively wrong results, so care must be taken in interpreting stress values when mass scaling is used in complicated rock mechanics simulations. Mass scaling significantly influences the stress-strain response of numerical rocks because mass scaling acts as an artificial hardening agent on rock

  6. Effects of reservoir heterogeneity on scaling of effective mass transfer coefficient for solute transport.

    PubMed

    Leung, Juliana Y; Srinivasan, Sanjay

    2016-09-01

    Modeling transport process at large scale requires proper scale-up of subsurface heterogeneity and an understanding of its interaction with the underlying transport mechanisms. A technique based on volume averaging is applied to quantitatively assess the scaling characteristics of effective mass transfer coefficient in heterogeneous reservoir models. The effective mass transfer coefficient represents the combined contribution from diffusion and dispersion to the transport of non-reactive solute particles within a fluid phase. Although treatment of transport problems with the volume averaging technique has been published in the past, application to geological systems exhibiting realistic spatial variability remains a challenge. Previously, the authors developed a new procedure where results from a fine-scale numerical flow simulation reflecting the full physics of the transport process albeit over a sub-volume of the reservoir are integrated with the volume averaging technique to provide effective description of transport properties. The procedure is extended such that spatial averaging is performed at the local-heterogeneity scale. In this paper, the transport of a passive (non-reactive) solute is simulated on multiple reservoir models exhibiting different patterns of heterogeneities, and the scaling behavior of effective mass transfer coefficient (Keff) is examined and compared. One such set of models exhibit power-law (fractal) characteristics, and the variability of dispersion and Keff with scale is in good agreement with analytical expressions described in the literature. This work offers an insight into the impacts of heterogeneity on the scaling of effective transport parameters. A key finding is that spatial heterogeneity models with similar univariate and bivariate statistics may exhibit different scaling characteristics because of the influence of higher order statistics. More mixing is observed in the channelized models with higher-order continuity. It

  7. Effects of reservoir heterogeneity on scaling of effective mass transfer coefficient for solute transport

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leung, Juliana Y.; Srinivasan, Sanjay

    2016-09-01

    Modeling transport process at large scale requires proper scale-up of subsurface heterogeneity and an understanding of its interaction with the underlying transport mechanisms. A technique based on volume averaging is applied to quantitatively assess the scaling characteristics of effective mass transfer coefficient in heterogeneous reservoir models. The effective mass transfer coefficient represents the combined contribution from diffusion and dispersion to the transport of non-reactive solute particles within a fluid phase. Although treatment of transport problems with the volume averaging technique has been published in the past, application to geological systems exhibiting realistic spatial variability remains a challenge. Previously, the authors developed a new procedure where results from a fine-scale numerical flow simulation reflecting the full physics of the transport process albeit over a sub-volume of the reservoir are integrated with the volume averaging technique to provide effective description of transport properties. The procedure is extended such that spatial averaging is performed at the local-heterogeneity scale. In this paper, the transport of a passive (non-reactive) solute is simulated on multiple reservoir models exhibiting different patterns of heterogeneities, and the scaling behavior of effective mass transfer coefficient (Keff) is examined and compared. One such set of models exhibit power-law (fractal) characteristics, and the variability of dispersion and Keff with scale is in good agreement with analytical expressions described in the literature. This work offers an insight into the impacts of heterogeneity on the scaling of effective transport parameters. A key finding is that spatial heterogeneity models with similar univariate and bivariate statistics may exhibit different scaling characteristics because of the influence of higher order statistics. More mixing is observed in the channelized models with higher-order continuity. It

  8. Final Report: Geoelectrical Measurement of Multi-Scale Mass Transfer Parameters

    SciTech Connect

    Haggerty, Roy; Day-Lewis, Fred; Singha, Kamini; Johnson, Timothy; Binley, Andrew; Lane, John

    2014-03-20

    Mass transfer affects contaminant transport and is thought to control the efficiency of aquifer remediation at a number of sites within the Department of Energy (DOE) complex. An improved understanding of mass transfer is critical to meeting the enormous scientific and engineering challenges currently facing DOE. Informed design of site remedies and long-term stewardship of radionuclide-contaminated sites will require new cost-effective laboratory and field techniques to measure the parameters controlling mass transfer spatially and across a range of scales. In this project, we sought to capitalize on the geophysical signatures of mass transfer. Previous numerical modeling and pilot-scale field experiments suggested that mass transfer produces a geoelectrical signature—a hysteretic relation between sampled (mobile-domain) fluid conductivity and bulk (mobile + immobile) conductivity—over a range of scales relevant to aquifer remediation. In this work, we investigated the geoelectrical signature of mass transfer during tracer transport in a series of controlled experiments to determine the operation of controlling parameters, and also investigated the use of complex-resistivity (CR) as a means of quantifying mass transfer parameters in situ without tracer experiments. In an add-on component to our grant, we additionally considered nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) to help parse mobile from immobile porosities. Including the NMR component, our revised study objectives were to: 1. Develop and demonstrate geophysical approaches to measure mass-transfer parameters spatially and over a range of scales, including the combination of electrical resistivity monitoring, tracer tests, complex resistivity, nuclear magnetic resonance, and materials characterization; and 2. Provide mass-transfer estimates for improved understanding of contaminant fate and transport at DOE sites, such as uranium transport at the Hanford 300 Area. To achieve our objectives, we implemented a 3

  9. CFHTLenS: weak lensing calibrated scaling relations for low-mass clusters of galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kettula, K.; Giodini, S.; van Uitert, E.; Hoekstra, H.; Finoguenov, A.; Lerchster, M.; Erben, T.; Heymans, C.; Hildebrandt, H.; Kitching, T. D.; Mahdavi, A.; Mellier, Y.; Miller, L.; Mirkazemi, M.; Van Waerbeke, L.; Coupon, J.; Egami, E.; Fu, L.; Hudson, M. J.; Kneib, J. P.; Kuijken, K.; McCracken, H. J.; Pereira, M. J.; Rowe, B.; Schrabback, T.; Tanaka, M.; Velander, M.

    2015-08-01

    We present weak lensing and X-ray analysis of 12 low-mass clusters from the Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope Lensing Survey and XMM-CFHTLS surveys. We combine these systems with high-mass systems from Canadian Cluster Comparison Project and low-mass systems from Cosmic Evolution Survey to obtain a sample of 70 systems, spanning over two orders of magnitude in mass. We measure core-excised LX-TX, M-LX and M-TX scaling relations and include corrections for observational biases. By providing fully bias-corrected relations, we give the current limitations for LX and TX as cluster mass proxies. We demonstrate that TX benefits from a significantly lower intrinsic scatter at fixed mass than LX. By studying the residuals of the bias-corrected relations, we show for the first time using weak lensing masses that galaxy groups seem more luminous and warmer for their mass than clusters. This implies a steepening of the M-LX and M-TX relations at low masses. We verify the inferred steepening using a different high-mass sample from the literature and show that variance between samples is the dominant effect leading to discrepant scaling relations. We divide our sample into subsamples of merging and relaxed systems, and find that mergers may have enhanced scatter in lensing measurements, most likely due to stronger triaxiality and more substructure. For the LX-TX relation, which is unaffected by lensing measurements, we find the opposite trend in scatter. We also explore the effects of X-ray cross-calibration and find that Chandra calibration leads to flatter LX-TX and M-TX relations than XMM-Newton.

  10. Do insect metabolic rates at rest and during flight scale with body mass?

    PubMed

    Niven, Jeremy E; Scharlemann, Jörn P W

    2005-09-22

    Energetically costly behaviours, such as flight, push physiological systems to their limits requiring metabolic rates (MR) that are highly elevated above the resting MR (RMR). Both RMR and MR during exercise (e.g. flight or running) in birds and mammals scale allometrically, although there is little consensus about the underlying mechanisms or the scaling relationships themselves. Even less is known about the allometric scaling of RMR and MR during exercise in insects. We analysed data on the resting and flight MR (FMR) of over 50 insect species that fly to determine whether RMR and FMR scale allometrically. RMR scaled with body mass to the power of 0.66 (M0.66), whereas FMR scaled with M1.10. Further analysis suggested that FMR scaled with two separate relationships; insects weighing less than 10mg had fourfold lower FMR than predicted from the scaling of FMR in insects weighing more than 10mg, although both groups scaled with M0.86. The scaling exponents of RMR and FMR in insects were not significantly different from those of birds and mammals, suggesting that they might be determined by similar factors. We argue that low FMR in small insects suggests these insects may be making considerable energy savings during flight, which could be extremely important for the physiology and evolution of insect flight.

  11. The absolute path command

    SciTech Connect

    Moody, A.

    2012-05-11

    The ap command traveres all symlinks in a given file, directory, or executable name to identify the final absolute path. It can print just the final path, each intermediate link along with the symlink chan, and the permissions and ownership of each directory component in the final path. It has functionality similar to "which", except that it shows the final path instead of the first path. It is also similar to "pwd", but it can provide the absolute path to a relative directory from the current working directory.

  12. Improved scaling laws for stage inert mass of space propulsion systems. Volume 1: Summary

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1971-01-01

    Summarized is a study which satisfies the need for improved scaling laws for stage inert mass of space propulsion systems. The resulting laws are applicable to current and future vehicle systems and designs for a comprehensive spectrum of anticipated planetary missions.

  13. Scaling of wingbeat frequency with body mass in bats and limits to maximum bat size.

    PubMed

    Norberg, Ulla M Lindhe; Norberg, R Åke

    2012-03-01

    The ability to fly opens up ecological opportunities but flight mechanics and muscle energetics impose constraints, one of which is that the maximum body size must be kept below a rather low limit. The muscle power available for flight increases in proportion to flight muscle mass and wingbeat frequency. The maximum wingbeat frequency attainable among increasingly large animals decreases faster than the minimum frequency required, so eventually they coincide, thereby defining the maximum body mass at which the available power just matches up to the power required for sustained aerobic flight. Here, we report new wingbeat frequency data for 27 morphologically diverse bat species representing nine families, and additional data from the literature for another 38 species, together spanning a range from 2.0 to 870 g. For these species, wingbeat frequency decreases with increasing body mass as M(b)(-0.26). We filmed 25 of our 27 species in free flight outdoors, and for these the wingbeat frequency varies as M(b)(-0.30). These exponents are strikingly similar to the body mass dependency M(b)(-0.27) among birds, but the wingbeat frequency is higher in birds than in bats for any given body mass. The downstroke muscle mass is also a larger proportion of the body mass in birds. We applied these empirically based scaling functions for wingbeat frequency in bats to biomechanical theories about how the power required for flight and the power available converge as animal size increases. To this end we estimated the muscle mass-specific power required for the largest flying extant bird (12-16 kg) and assumed that the largest potential bat would exert similar muscle mass-specific power. Given the observed scaling of wingbeat frequency and the proportion of the body mass that is made up by flight muscles in birds and bats, we estimated the maximum potential body mass for bats to be 1.1-2.3 kg. The largest bats, extinct or extant, weigh 1.6 kg. This is within the range expected if it

  14. Large-scale multiplex absolute protein quantification of drug-metabolizing enzymes and transporters in human intestine, liver, and kidney microsomes by SWATH-MS: Comparison with MRM/SRM and HR-MRM/PRM.

    PubMed

    Nakamura, Kenji; Hirayama-Kurogi, Mio; Ito, Shingo; Kuno, Takuya; Yoneyama, Toshihiro; Obuchi, Wataru; Terasaki, Tetsuya; Ohtsuki, Sumio

    2016-08-01

    The purpose of the present study was to examine simultaneously the absolute protein amounts of 152 membrane and membrane-associated proteins, including 30 metabolizing enzymes and 107 transporters, in pooled microsomal fractions of human liver, kidney, and intestine by means of SWATH-MS with stable isotope-labeled internal standard peptides, and to compare the results with those obtained by MRM/SRM and high resolution (HR)-MRM/PRM. The protein expression levels of 27 metabolizing enzymes, 54 transporters, and six other membrane proteins were quantitated by SWATH-MS; other targets were below the lower limits of quantitation. Most of the values determined by SWATH-MS differed by less than 50% from those obtained by MRM/SRM or HR-MRM/PRM. Various metabolizing enzymes were expressed in liver microsomes more abundantly than in other microsomes. Ten, 13, and eight transporters listed as important for drugs by International Transporter Consortium were quantified in liver, kidney, and intestinal microsomes, respectively. Our results indicate that SWATH-MS enables large-scale multiplex absolute protein quantification while retaining similar quantitative capability to MRM/SRM or HR-MRM/PRM. SWATH-MS is expected to be useful methodology in the context of drug development for elucidating the molecular mechanisms of drug absorption, metabolism, and excretion in the human body based on protein profile information.

  15. Temperature effects on mass-scaling exponents in colonial animals: a manipulative test.

    PubMed

    Barneche, Diego R; White, Craig R; Marshall, Dustin J

    2017-01-01

    Body size and temperature are fundamental drivers of ecological processes because they determine metabolic rates at the individual level. Whether these drivers act independently on individual-level metabolic rates remains uncertain. Most studies of intraspecific scaling of unitary organisms must rely on preexisting differences in size to examine its relationship with metabolic rate, thereby potentially confounding size-correlated traits (e.g., age, nutrition) with size, which can affect metabolic rate. Here, we use a size manipulation approach to test whether metabolic mass scaling and temperature dependence interact in four species (two phyla) of colonial marine invertebrates. Size manipulation in colonial organisms allows tests of how ecological processes (e.g., predation) affect individual physiology and consequently population- and community-level energy flux. Body mass and temperature interacted in two species, with one species exhibiting decreased and the other increased mass-scaling exponents with increasing temperature. The allometric scaling of metabolic rate that we observe in three species contrasts with the isometric scaling of ingestion rates observed in some colonial marine invertebrates. Thus, we suggest that the often observed competitive superiority of colonial over unitary organisms may arise because the difference between energy intake and expenditure increases more strongly with size in colonial organisms.

  16. An Objective Evaluation of Mass Scaling Techniques Utilizing Computational Human Body Finite Element Models.

    PubMed

    Davis, Matthew L; Scott Gayzik, F

    2016-10-01

    Biofidelity response corridors developed from post-mortem human subjects are commonly used in the design and validation of anthropomorphic test devices and computational human body models (HBMs). Typically, corridors are derived from a diverse pool of biomechanical data and later normalized to a target body habitus. The objective of this study was to use morphed computational HBMs to compare the ability of various scaling techniques to scale response data from a reference to a target anthropometry. HBMs are ideally suited for this type of study since they uphold the assumptions of equal density and modulus that are implicit in scaling method development. In total, six scaling procedures were evaluated, four from the literature (equal-stress equal-velocity, ESEV, and three variations of impulse momentum) and two which are introduced in the paper (ESEV using a ratio of effective masses, ESEV-EffMass, and a kinetic energy approach). In total, 24 simulations were performed, representing both pendulum and full body impacts for three representative HBMs. These simulations were quantitatively compared using the International Organization for Standardization (ISO) ISO-TS18571 standard. Based on these results, ESEV-EffMass achieved the highest overall similarity score (indicating that it is most proficient at scaling a reference response to a target). Additionally, ESEV was found to perform poorly for two degree-of-freedom (DOF) systems. However, the results also indicated that no single technique was clearly the most appropriate for all scenarios.

  17. The dependence of the mass-metallicity relation on large-scale environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Po-Feng; Zahid, H. Jabran; Hwang, Ho Seong; Geller, Margaret J.

    2017-03-01

    We examine the relation between gas-phase oxygen abundance and stellar mass - the MZ relation - as a function of the large-scale galaxy environment parametrized by the local density. The dependence of the MZ relation on the environment is small. The metallicity where the MZ relation saturates and the slope of the MZ relation are both independent of the local density. The impact of the large-scale environment is completely parametrized by the anticorrelation between local density and the turnover stellar mass where the MZ relation begins to saturate. Analytical modelling suggests that the anticorrelation between the local density and turnover stellar mass is a consequence of a variation in the gas content of star-forming galaxies. Across ˜1 order of magnitude in local density, the gas content at a fixed stellar mass varies by ˜5 per cent. Variation of the specific star formation rate with the environment is consistent with this interpretation. At a fixed stellar mass, galaxies in low-density environments have lower metallicities because they are slightly more gas-rich than galaxies in high-density environments. Modelling the shape of the mass-metallicity relation thus provides an indirect means to probe subtle variations in the gas content of star-forming galaxies.

  18. Active damping control unit using a small scale proof mass electrodynamic actuator.

    PubMed

    González Díaz, Cristóbal; Paulitsch, Christoph; Gardonio, Paolo

    2008-08-01

    This paper presents a study on the design and use of a small scale proof mass electrodynamic actuator, with a low mounting resonance frequency, for velocity feedback control on a thin rectangular panel. A stability-performance formula is derived, which can be effectively used to assess the down scaling effects on the stability and control performance of the feedback loop. The design and tests of a velocity feedback loop with a prototype small scale proof mass actuator are also presented. When a feedback control having a gain margin of about 6 dB is implemented, so that there is little control spillover effect around the fundamental resonance of the actuator, reductions of vibration between 5 dB and 10 dB in the frequency band between 80 Hz and 250 Hz have been measured at the control position.

  19. Covariance in the thermal SZ-weak lensing mass scaling relation of galaxy clusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shirasaki, Masato; Nagai, Daisuke; Lau, Erwin T.

    2016-08-01

    The thermal Sunyaev-Zel'dovich (tSZ) effect signal is widely recognized as a robust mass proxy of galaxy clusters with small intrinsic scatter. However, recent observational calibration of the tSZ scaling relation using weak lensing (WL) mass exhibits considerably larger scatter than the intrinsic scatter predicted from numerical simulations. This raises a question as to whether we can realize the full statistical power of ongoing and upcoming tSZ-WL observations of galaxy clusters. In this work, we investigate the origin of observed scatter in the tSZ-WL scaling relation, using mock maps of galaxy clusters extracted from cosmological hydrodynamic simulations. We show that the inferred intrinsic scatter from mock tSZ-WL analyses is considerably larger than the intrinsic scatter measured in simulations, and comparable to the scatter in the observed tSZ-WL relation. We show that this enhanced scatter originates from the combination of the projection of correlated structures along the line of sight and the uncertainty in the cluster radius associated with WL mass estimates, causing the amplitude of the scatter to depend on the covariance between tSZ and WL signals. We present a statistical model to recover the unbiased cluster scaling relation and cosmological parameter by taking into account the covariance in the tSZ-WL mass relation from multiwavelength cluster surveys.

  20. Absolute Distance Measurement with the MSTAR Sensor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lay, Oliver P.; Dubovitsky, Serge; Peters, Robert; Burger, Johan; Ahn, Seh-Won; Steier, William H.; Fetterman, Harrold R.; Chang, Yian

    2003-01-01

    The MSTAR sensor (Modulation Sideband Technology for Absolute Ranging) is a new system for measuring absolute distance, capable of resolving the integer cycle ambiguity of standard interferometers, and making it possible to measure distance with sub-nanometer accuracy. The sensor uses a single laser in conjunction with fast phase modulators and low frequency detectors. We describe the design of the system - the principle of operation, the metrology source, beamlaunching optics, and signal processing - and show results for target distances up to 1 meter. We then demonstrate how the system can be scaled to kilometer-scale distances.

  1. General Formalism of Mass Scaling Approach for Replica-Exchange Molecular Dynamics and its Application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nagai, Tetsuro

    2017-01-01

    Replica-exchange molecular dynamics (REMD) has demonstrated its efficiency by combining trajectories of a wide range of temperatures. As an extension of the method, the author formalizes the mass-manipulating replica-exchange molecular dynamics (MMREMD) method that allows for arbitrary mass scaling with respect to temperature and individual particles. The formalism enables the versatile application of mass-scaling approaches to the REMD method. The key change introduced in the novel formalism is the generalized rules for the velocity and momentum scaling after accepted replica-exchange attempts. As an application of this general formalism, the refinement of the viscosity-REMD (V-REMD) method [P. H. Nguyen, J. Chem. Phys. 132, 144109 (2010)] is presented. Numerical results are provided using a pilot system, demonstrating easier and more optimized applicability of the new version of V-REMD as well as the importance of adherence to the generalized velocity scaling rules. With the new formalism, more sound and efficient simulations will be performed.

  2. Nano-Scale Secondary Ion Mass Spectrometry - A new analytical tool in biogeochemistry and soil ecology

    SciTech Connect

    Herrmann, A M; Ritz, K; Nunan, N; Clode, P L; Pett-Ridge, J; Kilburn, M R; Murphy, D V; O'Donnell, A G; Stockdale, E A

    2006-10-18

    Soils are structurally heterogeneous across a wide range of spatio-temporal scales. Consequently, external environmental conditions do not have a uniform effect throughout the soil, resulting in a large diversity of micro-habitats. It has been suggested that soil function can be studied without explicit consideration of such fine detail, but recent research has indicated that the micro-scale distribution of organisms may be of importance for a mechanistic understanding of many soil functions. Due to a lack of techniques with adequate sensitivity for data collection at appropriate scales, the question 'How important are various soil processes acting at different scales for ecological function?' is challenging to answer. The nano-scale secondary ion mass spectrometer (NanoSIMS) represents the latest generation of ion microprobes which link high-resolution microscopy with isotopic analysis. The main advantage of NanoSIMS over other secondary ion mass spectrometers is the ability to operate at high mass resolution, whilst maintaining both excellent signal transmission and spatial resolution ({approx}50 nm). NanoSIMS has been used previously in studies focusing on presolar materials from meteorites, in material science, biology, geology and mineralogy. Recently, the potential of NanoSIMS as a new tool in the study of biophysical interfaces in soils has been demonstrated. This paper describes the principles of NanoSIMS and discusses the potential of this tool to contribute to the field of biogeochemistry and soil ecology. Practical considerations (sample size and preparation, simultaneous collection of isotopes, mass resolution, isobaric interference and quantification of the isotopes of interest) are discussed. Adequate sample preparation avoiding biases in the interpretation of NanoSIMS data due to artifacts and identification of regions-of interest are of most concerns in using NanoSIMS as a new tool in biogeochemistry and soil ecology. Finally, we review the areas of

  3. In-situ determination of field-scale NAPL mass transfer coefficients: Performance, simulation and analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mobile, Michael; Widdowson, Mark; Stewart, Lloyd; Nyman, Jennifer; Deeb, Rula; Kavanaugh, Michael; Mercer, James; Gallagher, Daniel

    2016-04-01

    Better estimates of non-aqueous phase liquid (NAPL) mass, its persistence into the future, and the potential impact of source reduction are critical needs for determining the optimal path to clean up sites impacted by NAPLs. One impediment to constraining time estimates of source depletion is the uncertainty in the rate of mass transfer between NAPLs and groundwater. In this study, an innovative field test is demonstrated for the purpose of quantifying field-scale NAPL mass transfer coefficients (klN) within a source zone of a fuel-contaminated site. Initial evaluation of the test concept using a numerical model revealed that the aqueous phase concentration response to the injection of clean groundwater within a source zone was a function of NAPL mass transfer. Under rate limited conditions, NAPL dissolution together with the injection flow rate and the radial distance to monitoring points directly controlled time of travel. Concentration responses observed in the field test were consistent with the hypothetical model results allowing field-scale NAPL mass transfer coefficients to be quantified. Site models for groundwater flow and solute transport were systematically calibrated and utilized for data analysis. Results show klN for benzene varied from 0.022 to 0.60 d- 1. Variability in results was attributed to a highly heterogeneous horizon consisting of layered media of varying physical properties.

  4. TESTING A SCALE-INDEPENDENT METHOD TO MEASURE THE MASS OF BLACK HOLES

    SciTech Connect

    Gliozzi, M.; Titarchuk, L.; Satyapal, S.; Price, D.; Jang, I.

    2011-07-01

    Estimating the black hole mass at the center of galaxies is a fundamental step not only for understanding the physics of accretion, but also for the cosmological evolution of galaxies. Recently, a new method, based solely on X-ray data, was successfully applied to determine the black hole mass in Galactic systems. Since X-rays are thought to be produced via Comptonization process both in stellar and supermassive black holes, in principle, the same method may be applied to estimate the mass in supermassive black holes. In this work we test this hypothesis by performing a systematic analysis of a sample of active galactic nuclei, whose black hole mass has been already determined via reverberation mapping and which possess high-quality XMM-Newton archival data. The good agreement obtained between the black hole masses derived with this novel scaling technique and the reverberation mapping values suggests that this method is robust and works equally well on stellar and supermassive black holes, making it a truly scale-independent technique for black hole determination.

  5. The intraspecific scaling of metabolic rate with body mass in fishes depends on lifestyle and temperature.

    PubMed

    Killen, Shaun S; Atkinson, David; Glazier, Douglas S

    2010-02-01

    Metabolic energy fuels all biological processes, and therefore theories that explain the scaling of metabolic rate with body mass potentially have great predictive power in ecology. A new model, that could improve this predictive power, postulates that the metabolic scaling exponent (b) varies between 2/3 and 1, and is inversely related to the elevation of the intraspecific scaling relationship (metabolic level, L), which in turn varies systematically among species in response to various ecological factors. We test these predictions by examining the effects of lifestyle, swimming mode and temperature on intraspecific scaling of resting metabolic rate among 89 species of teleost fish. As predicted, b decreased as L increased with temperature, and with shifts in lifestyle from bathyal and benthic to benthopelagic to pelagic. This effect of lifestyle on b may be related to varying amounts of energetically expensive tissues associated with different capacities for swimming during predator-prey interactions.

  6. The hyperfine structure in the rotational spectra of D2(17)O and HD(17)O: Confirmation of the absolute nuclear magnetic shielding scale for oxygen.

    PubMed

    Puzzarini, Cristina; Cazzoli, Gabriele; Harding, Michael E; Vázquez, Juana; Gauss, Jürgen

    2015-03-28

    Guided by theoretical predictions, the hyperfine structures of the rotational spectra of mono- and bideuterated-water containing (17)O have been experimentally investigated. To reach sub-Doppler resolution, required to resolve the hyperfine structure due to deuterium quadrupole coupling as well as to spin-rotation (SR) and dipolar spin-spin couplings, the Lamb-dip technique has been employed. The experimental investigation and in particular, the spectral analysis have been supported by high-level quantum-chemical computations employing coupled-cluster techniques and, for the first time, a complete experimental determination of the hyperfine parameters involved was possible. The experimentally determined (17)O spin-rotation constants of D2 (17)O and HD(17)O were used to derive the paramagnetic part of the corresponding nuclear magnetic shielding constants. Together with the computed diamagnetic contributions as well as the vibrational and temperature corrections, the latter constants have been employed to confirm the oxygen nuclear magnetic shielding scale, recently established on the basis of spin-rotation data for H2 (17)O [Puzzarini et al., J. Chem. Phys. 131, 234304 (2009)].

  7. Baryon asymmetry via leptogenesis in a neutrino mass model with complex scaling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Samanta, Rome; Chakraborty, Mainak; Roy, Probir; Ghosal, Ambar

    2017-03-01

    Baryogenesis via leptogenesis is investigated in a specific model of light neutrino masses and mixing angles. The latter was proposed on the basis of an assumed complex-extended scaling property of the neutrino Majorana mass matrix Mν, derived with a type-1 seesaw from a Dirac mass matrix mD and a heavy singlet neutrino Majorana mass matrix MR. One of its important features, highlighted here, is that there is a common source of the origin of a nonzero θ13 and the CP violating lepton asymmetry through the imaginary part of mD. The model predicted CP violation to be maximal for the Dirac type and vanishing for the Majorana type. We assume strongly hierarchical mass eigenvalues for MR. The leptonic CP asymmetry parameter εα1 mm with lepton flavor α, originating from the decays of the lightest of the heavy neutrinos N1 (of mass M1) at a temperature T ~ M1, is what matters here with the lepton asymmetries, originating from the decays of N2,3, being washed out. The light leptonic and heavy neutrino number densities (normalized to the entropy density) are evolved via Boltzmann equations down to electroweak temperatures to yield a baryon asymmetry through sphaleronic transitions. The effects of flavored vs. unflavored leptogenesis in the three mass regimes (1) M1 < 109 GeV, (2) 109 GeV < M1 < 1012 GeV and (3) M1 > 1012 GeV are numerically worked out for both a normal and an inverted mass ordering of the light neutrinos. Corresponding results on the baryon asymmetry of the universe are obtained, displayed and discussed. For values close to the best-fit points of the input neutrino mass and mixing parameters, obtained from neutrino oscillation experiments, successful baryogenesis is achieved for the mass regime (2) and a normal mass ordering of the light neutrinos with a nonzero θ13 playing a crucial role. However, the other possibility of an inverted mass ordering for the same mass regime, though disfavored, cannot be excluded. A discussion is also given on the

  8. Precise determination of the absolute isotopic abundance ratio and the atomic weight of chlorine in three international reference materials by the positive thermal ionization mass spectrometer-Cs2Cl+-graphite method.

    PubMed

    Wei, Hai-Zhen; Jiang, Shao-Yong; Xiao, Ying-Kai; Wang, Jun; Lu, Hai; Wu, Bin; Wu, He-Pin; Li, Qing; Luo, Chong-Guang

    2012-12-04

    Because the variation in chlorine isotopic abundances of naturally occurring chlorine bearing substances is significant, the IUPAC Inorganic Chemistry Division, Commission on Isotopic Abundances and Atomic Weights (CIAAW-IUPAC) decided that the uncertainty of atomic weight of chlorine (A(r)(Cl)) should be increased so that the implied range was related to terrestrial variability in 1999 (Coplen, T. B. Atomic weights of the elements 1999 (IUPAC Technical Report), Pure Appl. Chem.2001, 73(4), 667-683; and then, it emphasized that the standard atomic weights of ten elements including chlorine were not constants of nature but depend upon the physical, chemical, and nuclear history of the materials in 2009 (Wieser, M. E.; Coplen, T. B. Pure Appl. Chem.2011, 83(2), 359-396). According to the agreement by CIAAW that an atomic weight could be defined for one specified sample of terrestrial origin (Wieser, M. E.; Coplen, T. B. Pure Appl. Chem.2011, 83(2), 359-396), the absolute isotope ratios and atomic weight of chlorine in standard reference materials (NIST 975, NIST 975a, ISL 354) were accurately determined using the high-precision positive thermal ionization mass spectrometer (PTIMS)-Cs(2)Cl(+)-graphite method. After eliminating the weighing error caused from evaporation by designing a special weighing container and accurately determining the chlorine contents in two highly enriched Na(37)Cl and Na(35)Cl salts by the current constant coulometric titration, one series of gravimetric synthetic mixtures prepared from two highly enriched Na(37)Cl and Na(35)Cl salts was used to calibrate two thermal ionization mass spectrometers in two individual laboratories. The correction factors (i.e., K(37/35) = R(37/35meas)/R(37/35calc)) were obtained from five cycles of iterative calculations on the basis of calculated and determined R((37)Cl/(35)Cl) values in gravimetric synthetic mixtures. The absolute R((37)Cl/(35)Cl) ratios for NIST SRM 975, NIST 975a, and ISL 354 by the precise

  9. The Effect of Scale on the Mechanical Properties of Jointed Rock Masses

    SciTech Connect

    Heuze, F E

    2004-05-24

    These notes were prepared for presentation at the Defense Threat Reduction Agency's (DTRA) Hard Target Research and Analysis Center (HTRAC), at the occasion of a short course held on June 14-15, 2004. The material is intended for analysts who must evaluate the geo-mechanical characteristics of sites of interest, in order to provide appropriate input to calculations of ground shock effects on underground facilities in rock masses. These analysts are associated with the Interagency Geotechnical Assessment Team (IGAT). Because geological discontinuities introduce scale effects on the mechanical properties of rock formations, these large-scale properties cannot be estimated on the basis of tests on small cores.

  10. SUSY Threshold Effects on Quark and Lepton Masses at the GUT Scale

    SciTech Connect

    Antusch, Stefan

    2008-11-23

    We discuss the impact of supersymmetric (SUSY) threshold corrections on the values of the running quark and charged lepton masses at the GUT scale within the large tan{beta} regime of the MSSM. In addition to the typically dominant SUSY QCD contributions for the quarks, we also include the electroweak contributions for quarks and leptons which can have significant effects. We provide the GUT scale ranges of quark and charged lepton Yukawa couplings as well as of the ratios m{sub {mu}}/m{sub s}, m{sub e}/m{sub d}, y{sub {tau}}/y{sub b} and y{sub t}/y{sub b} for three example ranges of SUSY parameters and discuss how the enlarged ranges due to threshold effects might open up new possibilities for constructing GUT models of fermion masses and mixings. This is a brief summary of the work of Ref. [1].

  11. Quark and lepton masses at the GUT scale including supersymmetric threshold corrections

    SciTech Connect

    Antusch, S.; Spinrath, M.

    2008-10-01

    We investigate the effect of supersymmetric (SUSY) threshold corrections on the values of the running quark and charged lepton masses at the grand unified theory (GUT) scale within the large tan{beta} regime of the minimal supersymmetric standard model. In addition to the typically dominant SUSY QCD contributions for the quarks, we also include the electroweak contributions for quarks and leptons and show that they can have significant effects. We provide the GUT scale ranges of quark and charged lepton Yukawa couplings as well as of the ratios m{sub {mu}}/m{sub s}, m{sub e}/m{sub d}, y{sub {tau}}/y{sub b} and y{sub t}/y{sub b} for three example ranges of SUSY parameters. We discuss how the enlarged ranges due to threshold effects might open up new possibilities for constructing GUT models of fermion masses and mixings.

  12. Mass composition of high-energy cosmic rays and scaling violation in their interactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wdowczyk, J.; Wolfendale, A. W.

    1983-11-01

    Published results of proton-antiproton-collider experiments at energies of about 200 TeV (Kafka et al., 1977; Vernov et al., 1977) and EAS observations (Hara et al., 1981; Danilova et al., 1981) are analyzed in terms of theoretical models of the mass composition of high-energy cosmic rays. The scaling model with an asymptotic condition at about 100 GeV requires a different mass composition at higher energies, but this is not confirmed by the experimental and observational data, which are summarized and presented graphically. Deviation from scaling is shown to increase with increasing energy from 1 to 100 TeV and to continue up to about 10 PeV, but to be less severe above 100 PeV, in general agreement with the changing-interactive-characteristic model of Olejniczak et al. (1977).

  13. Starobinsky-like inflation and neutrino masses in a no-scale SO(10) model

    SciTech Connect

    Ellis, John; Garcia, Marcos A.G.; Nagata, Natsumi; Nanopoulos, Dimitri V.; Olive, Keith A.

    2016-11-08

    Using a no-scale supergravity framework, we construct an SO(10) model that makes predictions for cosmic microwave background observables similar to those of the Starobinsky model of inflation, and incorporates a double-seesaw model for neutrino masses consistent with oscillation experiments and late-time cosmology. We pay particular attention to the behaviour of the scalar fields during inflation and the subsequent reheating.

  14. Starobinsky-like inflation and neutrino masses in a no-scale SO(10) model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ellis, John; Garcia, Marcos A. G.; Nagata, Natsumi; Nanopoulos, Dimitri V.; Olive, Keith A.

    2016-11-01

    Using a no-scale supergravity framework, we construct an SO(10) model that makes predictions for cosmic microwave background observables similar to those of the Starobinsky model of inflation, and incorporates a double-seesaw model for neutrino masses consistent with oscillation experiments and late-time cosmology. We pay particular attention to the behaviour of the scalar fields during inflation and the subsequent reheating.

  15. A common mass scale for satellite galaxies of the Milky Way.

    PubMed

    Strigari, Louis E; Bullock, James S; Kaplinghat, Manoj; Simon, Joshua D; Geha, Marla; Willman, Beth; Walker, Matthew G

    2008-08-28

    The Milky Way has at least twenty-three known satellite galaxies that shine with luminosities ranging from about a thousand to a billion times that of the Sun. Half of these galaxies were discovered in the past few years in the Sloan Digital Sky Survey, and they are among the least luminous galaxies in the known Universe. A determination of the mass of these galaxies provides a test of galaxy formation at the smallest scales and probes the nature of the dark matter that dominates the mass density of the Universe. Here we use new measurements of the velocities of the stars in these galaxies to show that they are consistent with them having a common mass of about 10(7) within their central 300 parsecs. This result demonstrates that the faintest of the Milky Way satellites are the most dark-matter-dominated galaxies known, and could be a hint of a new scale in galaxy formation or a characteristic scale for the clustering of dark matter.

  16. Scaling of free-ranging primate energetics with body mass predicts low energy expenditure in humans.

    PubMed

    Simmen, Bruno; Darlu, Pierre; Hladik, Claude Marcel; Pasquet, Patrick

    2015-01-01

    Studies of how a mammal's daily energy expenditure scales with its body mass suggest that humans, whether Westerners, agro-pastoralists, or hunter-gatherers, all have much lower energy expenditures for their body mass than other mammals. However, non-human primates also differ from other mammals in several life history traits suggestive of low energy use. Judging by field metabolic rates of free-ranging strepsirhine and haplorhine primates with different lifestyle and body mass, estimated using doubly labeled water, primates have lower energy expenditure than other similar-sized eutherian mammals. Daily energy expenditure in humans fell along the regression line of non-human primates. The results suggest that thrifty energy use could be an ancient strategy of primates. Although physical activity is a major component of energy balance, our results suggest a need to revise the basis for establishing norms of energy expenditure in modern humans.

  17. Measurable neutrino mass scale in A{sub 4}xSU(5)

    SciTech Connect

    Antusch, S.; Spinrath, M.; King, Stephen F.

    2011-01-01

    We propose a supersymmetric A{sub 4}xSU(5) model of quasidegenerate neutrinos which predicts the effective neutrino mass m{sub ee} relevant for neutrinoless double beta decay to be proportional to the neutrino mass scale, thereby allowing its determination approximately independently of unknown Majorana phases. Such a natural quasidegeneracy is achieved by using A{sub 4} family symmetry (as an example of a non-Abelian family symmetry with real triplet representations) to enforce a contribution to the neutrino mass matrix proportional to the identity. Tribimaximal neutrino mixing as well as quark CP violation with {alpha}{approx_equal}90 deg. d a leptonic CP phase {delta}{sub MNS{approx_equal}}90 deg. arise from the breaking of the A{sub 4} family symmetry by the vacuum expectation values of four 'flavon' fields pointing in specific postulated directions in flavor space.

  18. Small-scale characterization of wet powder masses suitable for extrusion-spheronization.

    PubMed

    Tuleu, C; Chaumeil, J C

    1998-05-01

    The method of compresso-rheology with an Instron 5567 was used for flow assessment of wet powder mass in order to improve its formulation. In our experiments, the method was efficient for selection of the excipient (Avicel CL611) able to improve the extrusion behavior of the high-dose wet powder mass. The method also allowed the determination of the minima and maxima of the wetting agent volume necessary to identify the correct moisture content for extrusion (20%). The results were not discriminative for the choice of the Avicel CL611 amount in the formulae even if an average amount necessary to improve extrudability of the active ingredient could have been estimated at about 10%. Nevertheless, this method appeared to be a rapid and easy small-scale method for studying wet powder mass, cause only a few grams of solids are required, this rheometer should prove useful in formulation research.

  19. A Comparison of Mass Transport Models for Evaluating U(VI) Desorption at the Decimeter Scale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kannappan, R.; Hay, M. B.; Miller, A. W.; Kohler, M.; Rodriguez, D.; Curtis, G. P.

    2013-12-01

    Uranium (VI) is a contaminant of concern in aquifers at many former uranium mills and processing facilities. Estimating the time-scale for desorption is important for addressing the long term risk of groundwater contamination. Determination of the rate limiting processes in desorption requires the evaluation of hydrodynamic and chemical conditions at a site along with the nature of the processes themselves. This research compares different mass transport models against the results of a decimeter scale laboratory desorption experiment. Different grain size fractions of contaminated sediments from the Naturita Uranium Mill Tailings Remediation Act site were used to create porous media systems with known physical and chemical heterogeneity. The goal is to better understand the mass transport limitations associated with uranium desorption. Two dimensional reactive transport models with no immobile zones, a single immobile zone and multiple immobile zones with a distribution of rate coefficients were compared with observations at selected monitoring locations in the domain and with the flux-averaged concentrations in the effluent. The artificial heterogeneity provided regions with a contrast of desorption rates relative to the adjacent advective rates; flow interruption events showed variable extents of the commonly observed concentration rebound indicative of mass transfer out of immobile zones which were generally reproduced by the model. A comparison of the alternative model results will be used to determine the level of complexity necessary to accurately represent mass transport in the individual breakthrough curves at sampling ports and in the integrated breakthrough curve for the entire experiment.

  20. Scaling of metabolic rate on body mass in small laboratory mammals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pace, N.; Rahlmann, D. F.; Smith, A. H.

    1980-01-01

    The scaling of metabolic heat production rate on body mass is investigated for five species of small laboratory mammal in order to define selection of animals of metabolic rates and size range appropriate for the measurement of changes in the scaling relationship upon exposure to weightlessness in Shuttle/Spacelab experiment. Metabolic rates were measured according to oxygen consumption and carbon dioxide production for individual male and female Swiss-Webster mice, Syrian hamsters, Simonsen albino rats, Hartley guinea pigs and New Zealand white rabbits, which range in mass from 0.05 to 5 kg mature body size, at ages of 1, 2, 3, 5, 8, 12, 18 and 24 months. The metabolic intensity, defined as the heat produced per hour per kg body mass, is found to decrease dramatically with age until the animals are 6 to 8 months old, with little or no sex difference. When plotted on a logarithmic graph, the relation of metabolic rate to total body mass is found to obey a power law of index 0.676, which differs significantly from the classical value of 0.75. When the values for the mice are removed, however, an index of 0.749 is obtained. It is thus proposed that six male animals, 8 months of age, of each of the four remaining species be used to study the effects of gravitational loading on the metabolic energy requirements of terrestrial animals.

  1. Extended scaling and residual flavor symmetry in the neutrino Majorana mass matrix

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Samanta, Rome; Roy, Probir; Ghosal, Ambar

    2016-12-01

    The residual symmetry approach, along with a complex extension for some flavor invariance, is a powerful tool to uncover the flavor structure of the 3 × 3 neutrino Majorana mass matrix M_ν toward gaining insights into neutrino mixing. We utilize this to propose a complex extension of the real scaling ansatz for M_ν which was introduced some years ago. Unlike the latter, our proposal allows a nonzero mass for each of the three light neutrinos as well as a nonvanishing θ _{13}. The generation of light neutrino masses via the type-I seesaw mechanism is also demonstrated. A major result of this scheme is that leptonic Dirac CP-violation must be maximal while atmospheric neutrino mixing does not need to be exactly maximal. Moreover, each of the two allowed Majorana phases, to be probed by the search for nuclear 0ν β β decay, has to be at one of its two CP-conserving values. There are other interesting consequences such as the allowed occurrence of a normal mass ordering which is not favored by the real scaling ansatz. Our predictions will be tested in ongoing and future neutrino oscillation experiments at T2K, NOν A and DUNE.

  2. Bridged single-walled carbon nanotube-based atomic-scale mass sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ali-Akbari, H. R.; Shaat, M.; Abdelkefi, A.

    2016-08-01

    The potentials of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) as mechanical resonators for atomic-scale mass sensing are presented. To this aim, a nonlocal continuum-based model is proposed to study the dynamic behavior of bridged single-walled carbon nanotube-based mass nanosensors. The carbon nanotube (CNT) is considered as an elastic Euler-Bernoulli beam with von Kármán type geometric nonlinearity. Eringen's nonlocal elastic field theory is utilized to model the interatomic long-range interactions within the structure of the CNT. This developed model accounts for the arbitrary position of the deposited atomic-mass. The natural frequencies and associated mode shapes are determined based on an eigenvalue problem analysis. An atom of xenon (Xe) is first considered as a specific case where the results show that the natural frequencies and mode shapes of the CNT are strongly dependent on the location of the deposited Xe and the nonlocal parameter of the CNT. It is also indicated that the first vibrational mode is the most sensitive when the mass is deposited at the middle of a single-walled carbon nanotube. However, when deposited in other locations, it is demonstrated that the second or third vibrational modes may be more sensitive. To investigate the sensitivity of bridged single-walled CNTs as mass sensors, different noble gases are considered, namely Xe, argon (Ar), and helium (He). It is shown that the sensitivity of the single-walled CNT to the Ar and He gases is much lower than the Xe gas due to the significant decrease in their masses. The derived model and performed analysis are so needed for mass sensing applications and particularly when the detected mass is randomly deposited.

  3. Concurrent Application of ANC and THM to assess the 13C(α, n)16O Absolute Cross Section at Astrophysical Energies and Possible Consequences for Neutron Production in Low-mass AGB Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trippella, O.; La Cognata, M.

    2017-03-01

    The {}13{{C}}{(α ,n)}16{{O}} reaction is considered to be the main neutron source responsible for the production of heavy nuclides (from {Sr} to {Bi}) through slow n-capture nucleosynthesis (s-process) at low temperatures during the asymptotic giant branch phase of low-mass stars (≲ 3{--}4 {M}ȯ , or LMSs). In recent years, several direct and indirect measurements have been carried out to determine the cross section at the energies of astrophysical interest (around 190+/- 40 {keV}). However, they yield inconsistent results that cause a highly uncertain reaction rate and affect the neutron release in LMSs. In this work we have combined two indirect approaches, the asymptotic normalization coefficient and the Trojan horse method, to unambiguously determine the absolute value of the {}13{{C}}{(α ,n)}16{{O}} astrophysical factor. With these, we have determined a very accurate reaction rate to be introduced into astrophysical models of s-process nucleosynthesis in LMSs. Calculations using this recommended rate have shown limited variations in the production of those neutron-rich nuclei (with 86≤slant A≤slant 209) that receive contribution only by slow neutron captures.

  4. The Flux-Rope Scaling of the Acceleration of Coronal Mass Ejections and Eruptive Prominences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, J.; Marqué, C.; Vourlidas, A.; Krall, J.; Schuck, P. W.

    2006-09-01

    The new flux-rope scaling law of the acceleration of coronal mass ejections (CMEs) derived by Chen & Krall is quantitatively tested by comparing the theoretical prediction with the near-Sun acceleration profiles of 13 eruptive prominences (EPs) and four CMEs. A CME and associated EP are assumed to be organized by an underlying magnetic flux rope (MFR) with specific structural and geometrical relationships. The scaling law states that if the initial structure is a flux rope with a footpoint separation distance of Sf, then the height Zmax at which the acceleration measured at the centroid of the apex reaches maximum scales with Sf. The primary source of prominence data is the radio data from the archive of the Nobeyama Radio Observatory. A number of Hα events are also included. For CMEs, previously published events with good coverage of the initial acceleration are used. For each event, observed quantities are used to determine Sf and Zmax. It is shown that for the events included in the present study, Zmax scales with Sf in accordance with the scaling law. The result is consistent with the hypothesis that the preeruption magnetic structure underlying a CME and the associated EP is a flux rope driven by the toroidal Lorentz hoop force. The scaling law may constitute a quantitative observable discriminator of the preeruption magnetic geometry underlying CMEs/EPs and the driving force.

  5. Electronic Absolute Cartesian Autocollimator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leviton, Douglas B.

    2006-01-01

    An electronic absolute Cartesian autocollimator performs the same basic optical function as does a conventional all-optical or a conventional electronic autocollimator but differs in the nature of its optical target and the manner in which the position of the image of the target is measured. The term absolute in the name of this apparatus reflects the nature of the position measurement, which, unlike in a conventional electronic autocollimator, is based absolutely on the position of the image rather than on an assumed proportionality between the position and the levels of processed analog electronic signals. The term Cartesian in the name of this apparatus reflects the nature of its optical target. Figure 1 depicts the electronic functional blocks of an electronic absolute Cartesian autocollimator along with its basic optical layout, which is the same as that of a conventional autocollimator. Referring first to the optical layout and functions only, this or any autocollimator is used to measure the compound angular deviation of a flat datum mirror with respect to the optical axis of the autocollimator itself. The optical components include an illuminated target, a beam splitter, an objective or collimating lens, and a viewer or detector (described in more detail below) at a viewing plane. The target and the viewing planes are focal planes of the lens. Target light reflected by the datum mirror is imaged on the viewing plane at unit magnification by the collimating lens. If the normal to the datum mirror is parallel to the optical axis of the autocollimator, then the target image is centered on the viewing plane. Any angular deviation of the normal from the optical axis manifests itself as a lateral displacement of the target image from the center. The magnitude of the displacement is proportional to the focal length and to the magnitude (assumed to be small) of the angular deviation. The direction of the displacement is perpendicular to the axis about which the

  6. Absolute airborne gravimetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baumann, Henri

    This work consists of a feasibility study of a first stage prototype airborne absolute gravimeter system. In contrast to relative systems, which are using spring gravimeters, the measurements acquired by absolute systems are uncorrelated and the instrument is not suffering from problems like instrumental drift, frequency response of the spring and possible variation of the calibration factor. The major problem we had to resolve were to reduce the influence of the non-gravitational accelerations included in the measurements. We studied two different approaches to resolve it: direct mechanical filtering, and post-processing digital compensation. The first part of the work describes in detail the different mechanical passive filters of vibrations, which were studied and tested in the laboratory and later in a small truck in movement. For these tests as well as for the airborne measurements an absolute gravimeter FG5-L from Micro-G Ltd was used together with an Inertial navigation system Litton-200, a vertical accelerometer EpiSensor, and GPS receivers for positioning. These tests showed that only the use of an optical table gives acceptable results. However, it is unable to compensate for the effects of the accelerations of the drag free chamber. The second part describes the strategy of the data processing. It is based on modeling the perturbing accelerations by means of GPS, EpiSensor and INS data. In the third part the airborne experiment is described in detail, from the mounting in the aircraft and data processing to the different problems encountered during the evaluation of the quality and accuracy of the results. In the part of data processing the different steps conducted from the raw apparent gravity data and the trajectories to the estimation of the true gravity are explained. A comparison between the estimated airborne data and those obtained by ground upward continuation at flight altitude allows to state that airborne absolute gravimetry is feasible and

  7. Mass, phylogeny, and temperature are sufficient to explain differences in metabolic scaling across mammalian orders?

    PubMed

    Griebeler, Eva Maria; Werner, Jan

    2016-12-01

    Whether basal metabolic rate-body mass scaling relationships have a single exponent is highly discussed, and also the correct statistical model to establish relationships. Here, we aimed (1) to identify statistically best scaling models for 17 mammalian orders, Marsupialia, Eutheria and all mammals, and (2) thereby to prove whether correcting for differences in species' body temperature and their shared evolutionary history improves models and their biological interpretability. We used the large dataset from Sieg et al. (The American Naturalist174, 2009, 720) providing species' body mass (BM), basal metabolic rate (BMR) and body temperature (T). We applied different statistical approaches to identify the best scaling model for each taxon: ordinary least squares regression analysis (OLS) and phylogenetically informed analysis (PGLS), both without and with controlling for T. Under each approach, we tested linear equations (log-log-transformed data) estimating scaling exponents and normalization constants, and such with a variable normalization constant and a fixed exponent of either ⅔ or ¾, and also a curvature. Only under temperature correction, an additional variable coefficient modeled the influence of T on BMR. Except for Pholidata and Carnivora, in all taxa studied linear models were clearly supported over a curvature by AICc. They indicated no single exponent at the level of orders or at higher taxonomic levels. The majority of all best models corrected for phylogeny, whereas only half of them included T. When correcting for T, the mathematically expected correlation between the exponent (b) and the normalization constant (a) in the standard scaling model y = a x(b) was removed, but the normalization constant and temperature coefficient still correlated strongly. In six taxa, T and BM correlated positively or negatively. All this hampers a disentangling of the effect of BM, T and other factors on BMR, and an interpretation of linear BMR-BM scaling

  8. Large-scale subduction of continental crust implied by India-Asia mass-balance calculation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ingalls, Miquela; Rowley, David B.; Currie, Brian; Colman, Albert S.

    2016-11-01

    Continental crust is buoyant compared with its oceanic counterpart and resists subduction into the mantle. When two continents collide, the mass balance for the continental crust is therefore assumed to be maintained. Here we use estimates of pre-collisional crustal thickness and convergence history derived from plate kinematic models to calculate the crustal mass balance in the India-Asia collisional system. Using the current best estimates for the timing of the diachronous onset of collision between India and Eurasia, we find that about 50% of the pre-collisional continental crustal mass cannot be accounted for in the crustal reservoir preserved at Earth's surface today--represented by the mass preserved in the thickened crust that makes up the Himalaya, Tibet and much of adjacent Asia, as well as southeast Asian tectonic escape and exported eroded sediments. This implies large-scale subduction of continental crust during the collision, with a mass equivalent to about 15% of the total oceanic crustal subduction flux since 56 million years ago. We suggest that similar contamination of the mantle by direct input of radiogenic continental crustal materials during past continent-continent collisions is reflected in some ocean crust and ocean island basalt geochemistry. The subduction of continental crust may therefore contribute significantly to the evolution of mantle geochemistry.

  9. What determines large scale galaxy clustering: halo mass or local density?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pujol, Arnau; Hoffmann, Kai; Jiménez, Noelia; Gaztañaga, Enrique

    2017-02-01

    Using a dark matter simulation we show how halo bias is determined by local density and not by halo mass. This is not totally surprising as, according to the peak-background split model, local matter density (bar δ) is the property that constrains bias at large scales. Massive haloes have a high clustering because they reside in high density regions. Small haloes can be found in a wide range of environments which differentially determine their clustering amplitudes. This contradicts the assumption made by standard halo occupation distribution (HOD) models that bias and occupation of haloes is determined solely by their mass. We show that the bias of central galaxies from semi-analytic models of galaxy formation as a function of luminosity and colour is therefore not correctly predicted by the standard HOD model. Using bar δ (of matter or galaxies) instead of halo mass, the HOD model correctly predicts galaxy bias. These results indicate the need to include information about local density and not only mass in order to correctly apply HOD analysis in these galaxy samples. This new model can be readily applied to observations and has the advantage that, in contrast with the dark matter halo mass, the galaxy density can be directly observed.

  10. Large-Scale Ichthyoplankton and Water Mass Distribution along the South Brazil Shelf

    PubMed Central

    de Macedo-Soares, Luis Carlos Pinto; Garcia, Carlos Alberto Eiras; Freire, Andrea Santarosa; Muelbert, José Henrique

    2014-01-01

    Ichthyoplankton is an essential component of pelagic ecosystems, and environmental factors play an important role in determining its distribution. We have investigated simultaneous latitudinal and cross-shelf gradients in ichthyoplankton abundance to test the hypothesis that the large-scale distribution of fish larvae in the South Brazil Shelf is associated with water mass composition. Vertical plankton tows were collected between 21°27′ and 34°51′S at 107 stations, in austral late spring and early summer seasons. Samples were taken with a conical-cylindrical plankton net from the depth of chlorophyll maxima to the surface in deep stations, or from 10 m from the bottom to the surface in shallow waters. Salinity and temperature were obtained with a CTD/rosette system, which provided seawater for chlorophyll-a and nutrient concentrations. The influence of water mass on larval fish species was studied using Indicator Species Analysis, whereas environmental effects on the distribution of larval fish species were analyzed by Distance-based Redundancy Analysis. Larval fish species were associated with specific water masses: in the north, Sardinella brasiliensis was found in Shelf Water; whereas in the south, Engraulis anchoita inhabited the Plata Plume Water. At the slope, Tropical Water was characterized by the bristlemouth Cyclothone acclinidens. The concurrent analysis showed the importance of both cross-shelf and latitudinal gradients on the large-scale distribution of larval fish species. Our findings reveal that ichthyoplankton composition and large-scale spatial distribution are determined by water mass composition in both latitudinal and cross-shelf gradients. PMID:24614798

  11. The scaling of leaf area and mass: the cost of light interception increases with leaf size

    PubMed Central

    Milla, Rubén; Reich, Peter B

    2007-01-01

    For leaves, the light-capturing surface area per unit dry mass investment (specific leaf area, SLA) is a key trait from physiological, ecological and biophysical perspectives. To address whether SLA declines with leaf size, as hypothesized due to increasing costs of support in larger leaves, we compiled data on intraspecific variation in leaf dry mass (LM) and leaf surface area (LA) for 6334 leaves of 157 species. We used the power function LM=α LAβ to test whether, within each species, large leaves deploy less surface area per unit dry mass than small leaves. Comparing scaling exponents (β) showed that more species had a statistically significant decrease in SLA as leaf size increased (61) than the opposite (7) and the average β was significantly greater than 1 (βmean=1.10, 95% CI 1.08–1.13). However, scaling exponents varied markedly from the few species that decreased to the many that increased SLA disproportionately fast as leaf size increased. This variation was unrelated to growth form, ecosystem of origin or climate. The average within-species tendency found here (allometric decrease of SLA with leaf size, averaging 13%) is in accord with concurrent findings on global-scale trends among species, although the substantial scatter around the central tendency suggests that the leaf size dependency does not obligately shape SLA. Nonetheless, the generally greater mass per unit leaf area of larger than smaller leaves directly translates into a greater cost to build and maintain a unit of leaf area, which, all else being equal, should constrain the maximum leaf size displayed. PMID:17591590

  12. Absolute-structure reports.

    PubMed

    Flack, Howard D

    2013-08-01

    All the 139 noncentrosymmetric crystal structures published in Acta Crystallographica Section C between January 2011 and November 2012 inclusive have been used as the basis of a detailed study of the reporting of absolute structure. These structure determinations cover a wide range of space groups, chemical composition and resonant-scattering contribution. Defining A and D as the average and difference of the intensities of Friedel opposites, their level of fit has been examined using 2AD and selected-D plots. It was found, regardless of the expected resonant-scattering contribution to Friedel opposites, that the Friedel-difference intensities are often dominated by random uncertainty and systematic error. An analysis of data collection strategy is provided. It is found that crystal-structure determinations resulting in a Flack parameter close to 0.5 may not necessarily be from crystals twinned by inversion. Friedifstat is shown to be a robust estimator of the resonant-scattering contribution to Friedel opposites, very little affected by the particular space group of a structure nor by the occupation of special positions. There is considerable confusion in the text of papers presenting achiral noncentrosymmetric crystal structures. Recommendations are provided for the optimal way of treating noncentrosymmetric crystal structures for which the experimenter has no interest in determining the absolute structure.

  13. Scaling of basal metabolic rate with body mass and temperature in mammals.

    PubMed

    Clarke, Andrew; Rothery, Peter; Isaac, Nick J B

    2010-05-01

    1. We present a statistical analysis of the scaling of resting (basal) metabolic rate, BMR, with body mass, B(m) and body temperature, T(b), in mammals. 2. Whilst the majority of the variance in ln BMR is explained by ln B(m), the T(b) term is statistically significant. The best fit model was quadratic, indicating that the scaling of ln BMR with ln B(m) varies with body size; the value of any scaling exponent estimated for a sample of mammals will therefore depend on the size distribution of species in the study. This effect can account for much of the variation in scaling exponents reported in the literature for mammals. 3. In all models, inclusion of T(b) reduced the strength of scaling with ln B(m). The model including T(b) suggests that birds and mammals have a similar underlying thermal dependence of BMR, equivalent to a Q(10) of 2.9 across the range of T(b) values 32-42 degrees C. 4. There was significant heterogeneity in both the mass scaling exponent and mean BMR across mammalian orders, with a tendency for orders dominated by larger taxa to have steeper scaling exponents. This heterogeneity was particularly marked across orders with smaller mean B(m) and the taxonomic composition of the sample will thus also affect the observed scaling exponent. After correcting for the effects of ln B(m) and T(b), Soricomorpha, Didelphimorphia and Artiodactyla had the highest BMR of those orders represented by more than 10 species in the data set. 5. Inclusion of T(b) in the model removed the effect of diet category evident from a model in ln B(m) alone and widely reported in the literature; this was caused by a strong interaction between diet category and T(b) in mammals. 6. Inclusion of mean ambient temperature, T(a), in the model indicated a significant inverse relationship between ln BMR and T(a), complicated by an interaction between T(a) and T(b). All other things being equal, a polar mammal living at -10 degrees C has a body temperature approximately 2.7 degrees C

  14. Absolute Equilibrium Entropy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shebalin, John V.

    1997-01-01

    The entropy associated with absolute equilibrium ensemble theories of ideal, homogeneous, fluid and magneto-fluid turbulence is discussed and the three-dimensional fluid case is examined in detail. A sigma-function is defined, whose minimum value with respect to global parameters is the entropy. A comparison is made between the use of global functions sigma and phase functions H (associated with the development of various H-theorems of ideal turbulence). It is shown that the two approaches are complimentary though conceptually different: H-theorems show that an isolated system tends to equilibrium while sigma-functions allow the demonstration that entropy never decreases when two previously isolated systems are combined. This provides a more complete picture of entropy in the statistical mechanics of ideal fluids.

  15. Comparison of Antarctic Basin Scale Mass Change from GRACE/GOCE and CryoSat-2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bouman, J.; McMillan, M.; Ivins, E. R.; Blossfeld, M.; Fuchs, M.; Horwath, M.

    2014-12-01

    When data of the GRACE satellite gravity mission are combined with those of the satellite gravity gradiometer mission GOCE, it can be shown that trends in ice mass balance can be resolved at basin scale for the Amundsen Sea Sector in West Antarctica. We will extend our analysis to the complete Antarctic continent, paying special attention to unavoidable leakage effects between basins, and glacial isotactic adjustment and its uncertainty. In addition, it is known that the gravitational flattening coefficient is better determined from satellite laser ranging (SLR) than from GRACE. The GRACE C20 coefficients are therefore routinely replaced by those from SLR. We will show that an alternative SLR time series, using tracking data to more satellites, may give ice mass trend differences of 10 - 15 Gt/yr (in the order of 13% of the total signal) compared with the commonly applied SLR time series. With data of the CryoSat-2 radar altimeter mission Antarctic ice sheet elevation changes can be determined, which can be converted to mass changes. GRACE/GOCE and CryoSat-2 ice mass trends will be compared and the possible cause of differences will be discussed.

  16. Deviations from Born-Oppenheimer mass scaling in spectroscopy and ultracold molecular physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lutz, Jesse J.; Hutson, Jeremy M.

    2016-12-01

    We investigate Born-Oppenheimer breakdown (BOB) effects (beyond the usual mass scaling) for the electronic ground states of a series of homonuclear and heteronuclear alkali-metal diatoms, together with the Sr2 and Yb2 diatomics. Several widely available electronic structure software packages are used to calculate the leading contributions to the total isotope shift for commonly occurring isotopologs of each species. Computed quantities include diagonal Born-Oppenheimer corrections (mass shifts) and isotopic field shifts. Mass shifts dominate for light nuclei up to and including K, but field shifts contribute significantly for Rb and Sr and are dominant for Yb. We compare the ab initio mass-shift functions for Li2, LiK and LiRb with spectroscopically derived ground-state BOB functions from the literature. We find good agreement in the values of the functions for LiK and LiRb at their equilibrium geometries, but significant disagreement with the shapes of the functions for all 3 systems. The differences may be due to contributions of nonadiabatic terms to the empirical BOB functions. We present a semiclassical model for the effect of BOB corrections on the binding energies of near-threshold states and the positions of zero-energy Feshbach resonances.

  17. On the doublet/triplet splitting and intermediate mass scales in locally supersymmetric SO(10)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pulido, João

    1985-01-01

    In the light of the doublet/triplet splitting, the possibilities for an intermediate mass scale in locally supersymmetric SO(10) are analysed. It is found that the subgroup SU(4)c × SU(2)L × SU(2)R and more generally left-right symmetric models are unlikely to survive as intermediate symmetries since they imply too large values of the weak mixing angle. An alternative model using the subgroup SU(3)c × U(1)L × U(1)R is discussed. Requirements from global SUSY preservation impose an extra constraint and predictions for the grand unification and the intermediate masses are obtained at MX ~ 6 × 1015 GeV and MI ~ 1012 GeV. Address after March 1984: Centro de Fisica da Materia Condensada, Av. Prof. Gama Pinto, 2, 1699 Lisbon Codex, Portugal.

  18. Mass scaling and nonadiabatic effects in photoassociation spectroscopy of ultracold strontium atoms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borkowski, Mateusz; Morzyński, Piotr; Ciuryło, Roman; Julienne, Paul S.; Yan, Mi; DeSalvo, Brian J.; Killian, T. C.

    2014-09-01

    We report photoassociation spectroscopy of ultracold Sr86 atoms near the intercombination line and provide theoretical models to describe the obtained bound-state energies. We show that using only the molecular states correlating with the 1S0+3P1 asymptote is insufficient to provide a mass-scaled theoretical model that would reproduce the bound-state energies for all isotopes investigated to date: Sr84,Sr86, and Sr88. We attribute that to the recently discovered avoided crossing between the 1S0+3P1 0u+ (3Πu) and 1S0+1D2 0u+ (1Σu+) potential curves at short range and we build a mass-scaled interaction model that quantitatively reproduces the available 0u+ and 1u bound-state energies for the three stable bosonic isotopes. We also provide isotope-specific two-channel models that incorporate the rotational (Coriolis) mixing between the 0u+ and 1u curves which, while not mass scaled, are capable of quantitatively describing the vibrational splittings observed in experiment. We find that the use of state-of-the-art ab initio potential curves significantly improves the quantitative description of the Coriolis mixing between the two -8-GHz bound states in Sr88 over the previously used model potentials. We show that one of the recently reported energy levels in Sr84 does not follow the long-range bound-state series and theorize on the possible causes. Finally, we give the Coriolis-mixing angles and linear Zeeman coefficients for all of the photoassociation lines. The long-range van der Waals coefficients C6(0u+)=3868(50) a.u. and C6(1u)=4085(50) a.u. are reported.

  19. The new discussion of a neutrino mass and issues in the formation of large-scale structure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Melott, Adrian L.

    1991-01-01

    It is argued that the discrepancy between the large-scale structure predicted by cosmological models with neutrino mass (hot dark matter) do not differ drastically from the observed structure. Evidence from the correlation amplitude, nonlinearity and the onset of galaxy formation, large-scale streaming velocities, and the topology of large-scale structure is considered. Hot dark matter models seem to be as accurate predictors of the large-scale structure as are cold dark matter models.

  20. Investigation of the Large Scale Evolution and Topology of Coronal Mass Ejections in the Solar Wind

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Riley, Peter

    1999-01-01

    This investigation is concerned with the large-scale evolution and topology of Coronal Mass Ejections (CMEs) in the solar wind. During this reporting period we have analyzed a series of low density intervals in the ACE (Advanced Composition Explorer) plasma data set that bear many similarities to CMEs. We have begun a series of 3D, MHD (Magnetohydrodynamics) coronal models to probe potential causes of these events. We also edited two manuscripts concerning the properties of CMEs in the solar wind. One was re-submitted to the Journal of Geophysical Research.

  1. Lensing convergence and the neutrino mass scale in galaxy redshift surveys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cardona, Wilmar; Durrer, Ruth; Kunz, Martin; Montanari, Francesco

    2016-08-01

    We demonstrate the importance of including the lensing contribution in galaxy clustering analyses with large galaxy redshift surveys. It is well known that radial cross-correlations between different redshift bins of galaxy surveys are dominated by lensing. But we show here that also neglecting lensing in the autocorrelations within one bin severely biases cosmological parameter estimation with redshift surveys. It leads to significant shifts for several cosmological parameters, most notably the scalar spectral index and the neutrino mass scale. Especially the latter parameter is one of the main targets of future galaxy surveys.

  2. Thermoneutral zone and scaling of metabolic rate on body mass in small mammals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pace, N.; Rahlmann, D. F.

    1983-01-01

    A 4-species animal model suitable for experimental study of the effect of change in gravitational loading on the scale relationship between metabolic rate and total body mass is used to study the effect of temperature on metabolic rate in six male animals, 8-10 months of age, of each of the four species in the ambient temperature range 20-36 C. The measurements taken permitted partitioning of total body heat output into sensible heat loss by radiation, conduction and convection, and into latent heat loss by evaporation of water from the body surface. It is shown that the condition of thermoneutrality is important for metabolic scale effect studies, and that the thermoneutral zone for the species considered here is a narrow one.

  3. Pore-scale supercritical CO2 dissolution and mass transfer under drainage conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, Chun; Zhou, Quanlin; Oostrom, Mart; Kneafsey, Timothy J.; Mehta, Hardeep

    2017-02-01

    Recently, both core- and pore-scale imbibition experiments have shown non-equilibrium dissolution of supercritical CO2 (scCO2) and a prolonged depletion of residual scCO2. In this study, pore-scale scCO2 dissolution and mass transfer under drainage conditions were investigated using a two-dimensional heterogeneous micromodel and a novel fluorescent water dye with a sensitive pH range between 3.7 and 6.5. Drainage experiments were conducted at 9 MPa and 40 °C by injecting scCO2 into the sandstone-analogue pore network initially saturated by water without dissolved CO2 (dsCO2). During the experiments, time-lapse images of dye intensity, reflecting water pH, were obtained. These images show non-uniform pH in individual pores and pore clusters, with average pH levels gradually decreasing with time. Further analysis on selected pores and pore clusters shows that (1) rate-limited mass transfer prevails with slowly decreasing pH over time when the scCO2-water interface area is low with respect to the volume of water-filled pores and pore clusters, (2) fast scCO2 dissolution and phase equilibrium occurs when scCO2 bubbles invade into water-filled pores, significantly enhancing the area-to-volume ratio, and (3) a transition from rate-limited to diffusion-limited mass transfer occurs in a single pore when a medium area-to-volume ratio is prevalent. The analysis also shows that two fundamental processes - scCO2 dissolution at phase interfaces and diffusion of dsCO2 at the pore scale (10-100 μm) observed after scCO2 bubble invasion into water-filled pores without pore throat constraints - are relatively fast. The overall slow dissolution of scCO2 in the millimeter-scale micromodel can be attributed to the small area-to-volume ratios that represent pore-throat configurations and characteristics of phase interfaces. This finding is applicable for the behavior of dissolution at pore, core, and field scales when water-filled pores and pore clusters of varying size are surrounded

  4. Precise Higgs mass calculations in (non-)minimal supersymmetry at both high and low scales

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Athron, Peter; Park, Jae-hyeon; Steudtner, Tom; Stöckinger, Dominik; Voigt, Alexander

    2017-01-01

    We present FlexibleEFTHiggs, a method for calculating the SM-like Higgs pole mass in SUSY (and even non-SUSY) models, which combines an effective field theory approach with a diagrammatic calculation. It thus achieves an all order resummation of leading logarithms together with the inclusion of all non-logarithmic 1-loop contributions. We implement this method into FlexibleSUSY and study its properties in the MSSM, NMSSM, E6SSM and MRSSM. In the MSSM, it correctly interpolates between the known results of effective field theory calculations in the literature for a high SUSY scale and fixed- order calculations in the full theory for a sub-TeV SUSY scale. We compare our MSSM results to those from public codes and identify the origin of the most significant deviations between the overline{DR} programs. We then perform a similar comparison in the remaining three non-minimal models. For all four models we estimate the theoretical uncertainty of Flex- ibleEFTHiggs and the fixed-order overline{DR} programs thereby finding that the former becomes more precise than the latter for a SUSY scale above a few TeV. Even for sub-TeV SUSY scales, FlexibleEFTHiggs maintains the uncertainty estimate around 2-3 GeV, remaining a competitive alternative to existing fixed-order computations.

  5. Measurement of Galaxy Cluster Integrated Comptonization and Mass Scaling Relations with the South Pole Telescope

    SciTech Connect

    Saliwanchik, B. R.; et al.

    2015-01-22

    We describe a method for measuring the integrated Comptonization (Y (SZ)) of clusters of galaxies from measurements of the Sunyaev-Zel'dovich (SZ) effect in multiple frequency bands and use this method to characterize a sample of galaxy clusters detected in the South Pole Telescope (SPT) data. We use a Markov Chain Monte Carlo method to fit a β-model source profile and integrate Y (SZ) within an angular aperture on the sky. In simulated observations of an SPT-like survey that include cosmic microwave background anisotropy, point sources, and atmospheric and instrumental noise at typical SPT-SZ survey levels, we show that we can accurately recover β-model parameters for inputted clusters. We measure Y (SZ) for simulated semi-analytic clusters and find that Y (SZ) is most accurately determined in an angular aperture comparable to the SPT beam size. We demonstrate the utility of this method to measure Y (SZ) and to constrain mass scaling relations using X-ray mass estimates for a sample of 18 galaxy clusters from the SPT-SZ survey. Measuring Y (SZ) within a 0.'75 radius aperture, we find an intrinsic log-normal scatter of 21% ± 11% in Y (SZ) at a fixed mass. Measuring Y (SZ) within a 0.3 Mpc projected radius (equivalent to 0.'75 at the survey median redshift z = 0.6), we find a scatter of 26% ± 9%. Prior to this study, the SPT observable found to have the lowest scatter with mass was cluster detection significance. We demonstrate, from both simulations and SPT observed clusters that Y (SZ) measured within an aperture comparable to the SPT beam size is equivalent, in terms of scatter with cluster mass, to SPT cluster detection significance.

  6. Characterizing the small scale structures in the earliest stages of low-mass star formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vilhelm Persson, Magnus; van Dishoeck, Ewine; Tobin, John; Harsono, Daniel; Jørgensen, Jes K.

    2015-08-01

    In deeply-embedded low-mass protostars, the density and temperature distribution in the inner few hundred AU’s are poorly constrained. In sources where the envelope is less massive, i.e. the Class I stage, disks with Keplerian rotation have been inferred using C18O lines. However, constraining the various disk characteristics turns out to be difficult even in this case. Continuum and molecular line observations of optically thin tracers at very high sensitivity and resolution are needed to constrain the density, temperature and kinematics. Ultimately the assumed structure affects the determination of molecular abundances.We are attempting to model high-resolution dust continuum radio-interferometric observations of a few deeply-embedded low-mass protostars with a power-law disk model embedded in a spherical envelope.We model the interferometric visibilities taken with either the Plateau de Bure Interferometer or the ALMA telescope, probing scales down to a few tens of AU in some cases. Given the assumptions, the study shows disk sizes in the deeply-embedded phase that could be slightly larger than typical found in the more evolved Class I sources. The fitting also highlights that models for the physical structure of the inner envelope, on 500-2000 AU scales, needs to be improved. With future high sensitivity observations, we could potentially also be able to constrain any vertical density and temperature structure. In this poster I will present the

  7. Exploring mass-scaling physics and outflow geometry in accreting black holes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Connors, Riley Michael Thomas

    2017-01-01

    One of the main tasks facing studies of black hole accretion in both black hole X-ray binaries (XRB) and Active Galactic Nuclei (AGN) is to break spectral model-fitting degeneracies. We explore two methods of simultaneous spectral modelling to reduce these degeneracies: (a) simultaneous fitting of XRBs and AGN, and (b) folding in timing properties in a novel way to better understand the outflow evolution of XRBs during outburst.It is a long-standing idea that AGN are scaled up versions of XRBs, such that the physics of accretion cares only about accretion rate, and not the black hole mass. We show that this principle of scale-invariance may provide us with a way to break degeneracies in broadband spectral modelling of both XRBs and AGN, focusing primarily on low-luminosity sources where degeneracies are more prevalent. We simultaneously model the broadband spectra of the two most quiescent (LX ~ 10-9 LEdd) accreting black holes on opposite ends of the mass scale, the XRB A0620-00 and Sgr A*, the Galactic centre supermassive black hole (during bright flaring). We use an outflow-dominated model capable of reproducing the broadband spectrum from radio to X-ray frequencies, co-evolving parameters that are representative of the mass-scaling properties. Such a method reduces the degeneracies in our model parameters, contributing to answering this question regarding the dominant emission mechanisms.We adopt a similar technique to investigate how spatial parameters of an XRB outflow can be better understood by tracking our model parameters as a function of the XRB variability properties during outburst, focusing in particular on GX 339-4. I shall discuss how utilising a novel characterisation of the timing properties of XRBs allows us to do this in a simple, quantitative way.We are currently developing our models further to incorporate the most up-to-date disc reflection routines in order to describe the jet/disc interaction more accurately. I shall briefly discuss this

  8. Resonance frequency and mass identification of zeptogram-scale nanosensor based on the nonlocal beam theory.

    PubMed

    Li, Xian-Fang; Tang, Guo-Jin; Shen, Zhi-Bin; Lee, Kang Yong

    2015-01-01

    Free vibration and mass detection of carbon nanotube-based sensors are studied in this paper. Since the mechanical properties of carbon nanotubes possess a size effect, the nonlocal beam model is used to characterize flexural vibration of nanosensors carrying a concentrated nanoparticle, where the size effect is reflected by a nonlocal parameter. For nanocantilever or bridged sensor, frequency equations are derived when a nanoparticle is carried at the free end or the middle, respectively. Exact resonance frequencies are numerically determined for clamped-free, simply-supported, and clamped-clamped resonators. Alternative approximations of fundamental frequency are given in closed form within the relative error less than 0.4%, 0.6%, and 1.4% for cantilever, simply-supported, and bridged sensors, respectively. Mass identification formulae are derived in terms of the frequency shift. Identified masses via the present approach coincide with those using the molecular mechanics approach and reach as low as 10(-24)kg. The obtained results indicate that the nonlocal effect decreases the resonance frequency except for the fundamental frequency of nanocantilever sensor. These results are helpful to the design of micro/nanomechanical zeptogram-scale biosensor.

  9. Shifts in mass scaling of respiration, feeding, and growth rates across life-form transitions in marine pelagic organisms.

    PubMed

    Kiørboe, Thomas; Hirst, Andrew G

    2014-04-01

    The metabolic rate of organisms may be viewed as a basic property from which other vital rates and many ecological patterns emerge and that follows a universal allometric mass scaling law, or it may be considered a property of the organism that emerges as a result of the adaptation to the environment, with consequently fewer universal mass scaling properties. Here, we examine the mass scaling of respiration and maximum feeding (clearance and ingestion rates) and growth rates of heterotrophic pelagic organisms over an ∼10(15) range in body mass. We show that clearance and respiration rates have life-form-dependent allometries that have similar scaling but different intercepts, such that the mass-specific rates converge on a rather narrow size-independent range. In contrast, ingestion and growth rates follow a near-universal taxa-independent ∼3/4 mass scaling power law. We argue that the declining mass-specific clearance rates with size within taxa is related to the inherent decrease in feeding efficiency of any particular feeding mode. The transitions between feeding mode and simultaneous transitions in clearance and respiration rates may then represent adaptations to the food environment and be the result of the optimization of trade-offs that allow sufficient feeding and growth rates to balance mortality.

  10. Effect of enhanced manganese oxidation in the hyporheic zone on basin-scale geochemical mass balance

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Harvey, J.W.; Fuller, C.C.

    1998-01-01

    cumulative effect of hyporheic exchange in Pinal Creek basin was to remove approximately 20% of the dissolved manganese flowing out of the drainage basin. Our results illustrate that the cumulative significance of reactive uptake in the hyporheic zone depends on the balance between chemical reaction rates, hyporheic porewater residence time, and turnover of streamflow through hyporheic flow paths. The similarity between the hyporheic reaction timescale (1??(s) ??? 1.3 hours), and the hyporheic porewater residence timescale (t(s) ??? 8 min) ensured that there was adequate time for the reaction to progress. Furthermore, it was the similarity between the turnover length for stream water flow through hyporheic flow paths (L(s) = stream velocity/storage-zone exchange coefficient ??? 1.3 km) and the length of Pinal Creek (L ??? 7 km), which ensured that all stream water passed through hyporheic flow paths several times. As a means to generalize our findings to other sites where similar types of hydrologic and chemical information are available, we suggest a cumulative significance index for hyporheic reactions, R(s) = ??(s)t(s)L/L(s) (dimensionless); higher values indicate a greater potential for hyporheic reactions to influence geochemical mass balance. Our experience in Pinal Creek basin suggests that values of R(s) > 0.2 characterize systems where hyporheic reactions are likely to influence geochemical mass balance at the drainage-basin scale.

  11. Alignments of Dark Matter Halos with Large-scale Tidal Fields: Mass and Redshift Dependence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Sijie; Wang, Huiyuan; Mo, H. J.; Shi, Jingjing

    2016-07-01

    Large-scale tidal fields estimated directly from the distribution of dark matter halos are used to investigate how halo shapes and spin vectors are aligned with the cosmic web. The major, intermediate, and minor axes of halos are aligned with the corresponding tidal axes, and halo spin axes tend to be parallel with the intermediate axes and perpendicular to the major axes of the tidal field. The strengths of these alignments generally increase with halo mass and redshift, but the dependence is only on the peak height, ν \\equiv {δ }{{c}}/σ ({M}{{h}},z). The scaling relations of the alignment strengths with the value of ν indicate that the alignment strengths remain roughly constant when the structures within which the halos reside are still in a quasi-linear regime, but decreases as nonlinear evolution becomes more important. We also calculate the alignments in projection so that our results can be compared directly with observations. Finally, we investigate the alignments of tidal tensors on large scales, and use the results to understand alignments of halo pairs separated at various distances. Our results suggest that the coherent structure of the tidal field is the underlying reason for the alignments of halos and galaxies seen in numerical simulations and in observations.

  12. Scaling Relations in Coronal Mass Ejections and Energetic Proton Events Associated with Solar Superflares

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takahashi, Takuya; Mizuno, Yoshiyuki; Shibata, Kazunari

    2016-12-01

    In order to discuss the potential impact of solar “superflares” on space weather, we investigated statistical relations among energetic proton peak flux with energy higher than 10 MeV (F p ), CME speed near the Sun (V CME) obtained by Solar and Heliospheric Observatory/LASCO coronagraph, and flare soft X-ray peak flux in the 1-8 Å band (F SXR) during 110 major solar proton events recorded from 1996 to 2014. The linear regression fit results in the scaling relations {V}{CME}\\propto {F}{SXR}α , {F}p\\propto {F}{SXR}β , and {F}p\\propto {V}{CME}γ with α = 0.30 ± 0.04, β = 1.19 ± 0.08, and γ = 4.35 ± 0.50, respectively. On the basis of simple physical assumptions, on the other hand, we derive scaling relations expressing CME mass (M CME), CME speed, and energetic proton flux in terms of total flare energy (E flare) as {M}{CME}\\propto {E}{flare}2/3, {V}{CME}\\propto {E}{flare}1/6, and {F}p\\propto {E}{flare}5/6\\propto {V}{CME}5, respectively. We then combine the derived scaling relations with observation and estimated the upper limit of V CME and F p to be associated with possible solar superflares.

  13. The black hole mass scale of classical and pseudo bulges in active galaxies

    SciTech Connect

    Ho, Luis C.; Kim, Minjin

    2014-07-01

    The mass estimator used to calculate black hole (BH) masses in broad-line active galactic nuclei (AGNs) relies on a virial coefficient (the 'f factor') that is determined by comparing reverberation-mapped (RM) AGNs with measured bulge stellar velocity dispersions against the M {sub BH}-σ{sub *} relation of inactive galaxies. It has recently been recognized that only classical bulges and ellipticals obey a tight M {sub BH}-σ{sub *} relation; pseudobulges have a different zero point and much larger scatter. Motivated by these developments, we reevaluate the f factor for RM AGNs with available σ{sub *} measurements, updated Hβ RM lags, and new bulge classifications based on detailed decomposition of high-resolution ground-based and space-based images. Separate calibrations are provided for the two bulge types, whose virial coefficients differ by a factor of ∼2: f = 6.3 ± 1.5 for classical bulges and ellipticals and f = 3.2 ± 0.7 for pseudobulges. The structure and kinematics of the broad-line region, at least as crudely encoded in the f factor, seems to be related to the large-scale properties or formation history of the bulge. Lastly, we investigate the bulge stellar masses of the RM AGNs, show evidence for recent star formation in the AGN hosts that correlates with Eddington ratio, and discuss the potential utility of the M {sub BH}-M {sub bulge} relation as a more promising alternative to the conventionally used M {sub BH}-σ{sub *} relation for future refinement of the virial mass estimator for AGNs.

  14. Mass

    SciTech Connect

    Quigg, Chris

    2007-12-05

    In the classical physics we inherited from Isaac Newton, mass does not arise, it simply is. The mass of a classical object is the sum of the masses of its parts. Albert Einstein showed that the mass of a body is a measure of its energy content, inviting us to consider the origins of mass. The protons we accelerate at Fermilab are prime examples of Einsteinian matter: nearly all of their mass arises from stored energy. Missing mass led to the discovery of the noble gases, and a new form of missing mass leads us to the notion of dark matter. Starting with a brief guided tour of the meanings of mass, the colloquium will explore the multiple origins of mass. We will see how far we have come toward understanding mass, and survey the issues that guide our research today.

  15. ON THE ASSEMBLY OF THE MILKY WAY DWARF SATELLITES AND THEIR COMMON MASS SCALE

    SciTech Connect

    Rashkov, Valery; Madau, Piero; Kuhlen, Michael; Diemand, Juerg

    2012-02-01

    We use a particle tagging technique to dynamically populate the N-body Via Lactea II high-resolution simulation with stars. The method is calibrated using the observed luminosity function of Milky Way (MW) satellites and the concentration of their stellar populations, and self-consistently follows the accretion and disruption of progenitor dwarfs and the buildup of the stellar halo in a cosmological 'live host'. Simple prescriptions for assigning stellar populations to collisionless particles are able to reproduce many properties of the observed MW halo and its surviving dwarf satellites, like velocity dispersions, sizes, brightness profiles, metallicities, and spatial distribution. Our model predicts the existence of approximately 1850 subhalos harboring 'extremely faint' satellites (with mass-to-light ratios >5 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 3}) lying beyond the Sloan Digital Sky Survey detection threshold. Of these, about 20 are 'first galaxies', i.e., satellites that formed a stellar mass above 10 M{sub Sun} before redshift 9. The 10 most luminous satellites (L > 10{sup 6} L{sub Sun }) in the simulation are hosted by subhalos with peak circular velocities today in the range V{sub max} = 10-40 km s{sup -1} that have shed between 80% and 99% of their dark mass after being accreted at redshifts 1.7 < z < 4.6. The satellite maximum circular velocity V{sub max} and stellar line-of-sight velocity dispersion {sigma}{sub los} today follow the relation V{sub max} = 2.2{sigma}{sub los}. We apply a standard mass estimation algorithm based on Jeans modeling of the line-of-sight velocity dispersion profiles to the simulated dwarf spheroidals and test the accuracy of this technique. The inner (within 300 pc) mass-luminosity relation for currently detectable satellites is nearly flat in our model, in qualitative agreement with the 'common mass scale' found in MW dwarfs. We do, however, predict a weak, but significant positive correlation for these objects: M{sub 300}{proportional

  16. Applicability and limits of simple hydrodynamic scaling for collisions of water-rich bodies in different mass regimes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burger, C.; Schäfer, C. M.

    2017-03-01

    We investigate the outcome of collisions in very different mass regimes, but an otherwise identical parameter setup, comprising the impact velocity (v/vesc), impact angle, mass ratio, and initial composition, w.r.t. simple hydrodynamic scaling. The colliding bodies' masses range from ≈ 10^{16} to 10^{24} kg, which includes km-sized planetesimals up to planetary-sized objects. Our analysis of the results comprises the time evolution of fragment masses, the fragments' water contents and fragment dynamics, where we start with bodies consisting of basalt and water ice. The usual assumption of hydrodynamic scaling over a wider range of masses is based on material behavior similar to a fluid, or a rubble pile, respectively. All our simulations are carried out once including full solid-body physics, and once for strengthless ? but otherwise identical ? bodies, to test for the influence of material strength. We find that scale-invariance over a wider range of masses is mostly only a very crude approximation at best, but can be applied to constrained mass ranges if tested carefully. For the chosen scenarios the outcomes of solid-body objects compared to strengthless fluid bodies differ most for our intermediate masses, but are similar for the lowest and highest masses. The most energetic, planet-sized collisions produce considerably faster and more fragments, which is also reflected in high water losses ? above 50% in a single collision.

  17. Size, effect of flexible proof mass on the mechanical behavior of micron-scale cantilevers for energy harvesting appications.

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, M.; Hong, S.; Miller, D. J.; Dugundji, J.; Wardle, B. L.

    2011-12-15

    Mechanical behavior of micron-scale cantilevers with a distributed, flexible proof mass is investigated to understand proof mass size effects on the performance of microelectromechanical system energy harvesters. Single-crystal silicon beams with proof masses of various lengths were fabricated using focused ion beam milling and tested using atomic force microscopy. Comparison of three different modeling results with measured data reveals that a 'two-beam' method has the most accurate predictive capability in terms of both resonant frequency and strain. Accurate strain prediction is essential because energy harvested scales with strain squared and maximum strain will be a design limit in fatigue.

  18. Large scale nanoparticle screening for small molecule analysis in laser desorption ionization mass spectrometry

    DOE PAGES

    Yagnik, Gargey B.; Hansen, Rebecca L.; Korte, Andrew R.; ...

    2016-08-30

    Nanoparticles (NPs) have been suggested as efficient matrixes for small molecule profiling and imaging by laser-desorption ionization mass spectrometry (LDI-MS), but so far there has been no systematic study comparing different NPs in the analysis of various classes of small molecules. Here, we present a large scale screening of 13 NPs for the analysis of two dozen small metabolite molecules. Many NPs showed much higher LDI efficiency than organic matrixes in positive mode and some NPs showed comparable efficiencies for selected analytes in negative mode. Our results suggest that a thermally driven desorption process is a key factor for metalmore » oxide NPs, but chemical interactions are also very important, especially for other NPs. Furthermore, the screening results provide a useful guideline for the selection of NPs in the LDI-MS analysis of small molecules.« less

  19. The central engine of quasars and AGNs - Scaling to solar mass black holes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kazanas, D.

    1988-01-01

    The model of the previous paper (Ellison and Kazanas, hereafter EK) can be readily scaled to model systems with black holes 3-10 solar masses, such as those expected to exist in certain Galactic X-ray binaries. The model can account in a straightforward way for the bimodal behavior of Cyg X-1 and the other Galactic black hole candidates (White and Marshall 1984; White, et al., 1984). It is argued that the change in the spectrum with luminosity is due to the drastic increase of both the source compactness and luminosity with small changes in the accretion rate, and conversion of most of the energy into electron-positron pairs which render the source optically thick and modify its spectrum. It is also argued that similar effects may be observed in AGNs.

  20. Large-scale shell-model calculations of nuclei around mass 210

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Teruya, E.; Higashiyama, K.; Yoshinaga, N.

    2016-06-01

    Large-scale shell-model calculations are performed for even-even, odd-mass, and doubly odd nuclei of Pb, Bi, Po, At, Rn, and Fr isotopes in the neutron deficit region (Z ≥82 ,N ≤126 ) assuming 208Pb as a doubly magic core. All the six single-particle orbitals between the magic numbers 82 and 126, namely, 0 h9 /2,1 f7 /2,0 i13 /2,2 p3 /2,1 f5 /2 , and 2 p1 /2 , are considered. For a phenomenological effective two-body interaction, one set of the monopole pairing and quadrupole-quadrupole interactions including the multipole-pairing interactions is adopted for all the nuclei considered. The calculated energies and electromagnetic properties are compared with the experimental data. Furthermore, many isomeric states are analyzed in terms of the shell-model configurations.

  1. Large scale nanoparticle screening for small molecule analysis in laser desorption ionization mass spectrometry

    SciTech Connect

    Yagnik, Gargey B.; Hansen, Rebecca L.; Korte, Andrew R.; Reichert, Malinda D.; Vela, Javier; Lee, Young Jin

    2016-08-30

    Nanoparticles (NPs) have been suggested as efficient matrixes for small molecule profiling and imaging by laser-desorption ionization mass spectrometry (LDI-MS), but so far there has been no systematic study comparing different NPs in the analysis of various classes of small molecules. Here, we present a large scale screening of 13 NPs for the analysis of two dozen small metabolite molecules. Many NPs showed much higher LDI efficiency than organic matrixes in positive mode and some NPs showed comparable efficiencies for selected analytes in negative mode. Our results suggest that a thermally driven desorption process is a key factor for metal oxide NPs, but chemical interactions are also very important, especially for other NPs. Furthermore, the screening results provide a useful guideline for the selection of NPs in the LDI-MS analysis of small molecules.

  2. Higgs mass from compositeness at a multi-TeV scale

    DOE PAGES

    Cheng, Hsin -Chia; Dobrescu, Bogdan A.; Gu, Jiayin

    2014-08-18

    Within composite Higgs models based on the top seesaw mechanism, we show that the Higgs field can arise as the pseudo Nambu-Goldstone boson of the broken U(3)more » $$_{L}$$ chiral symmetry associated with a vector-like quark and the t-b doublet. As a result, the lightest CP-even neutral state of the composite scalar sector is lighter than the top quark, and can be identified as the newly discovered Higgs boson. As a result, constraints on weak-isospin violation push the chiral symmetry breaking scale above a few TeV, implying that other composite scalars are probably too heavy to be probed at the LHC, but may be within reach at a future hadron collider with center-of-mass energy of about 100 TeV.« less

  3. REGULATION OF BLACK HOLE WINDS AND JETS ACROSS THE MASS SCALE

    SciTech Connect

    King, A. L.; Miller, J. M.; Gueltekin, K.; Raymond, J.; Fabian, A. C.; Cackett, E. M.; Reynolds, C. S.; Allen, S. W.; Proga, D.; Kallman, T. R.

    2013-01-10

    We present a study of the mechanical power generated by both winds and jets across the black hole mass scale. We begin with the study of ionized X-ray winds and present a uniform analysis using Chandra grating spectra. The high-quality grating spectra facilitate the characterization of the outflow velocity, ionization, and column density of the absorbing gas. We find that the kinetic power of the winds, derived from these observed quantities, scales with increasing bolometric luminosity as log (L {sub wind,42}/C{sub v} ) = (1.58 {+-} 0.07)log (L {sub Bol,42}) - (3.19 {+-} 0.19). This suggests that supermassive black holes may be more efficient than stellar-mass black holes in launching winds, per unit filling factor, C{sub v} . If the black hole binary (BHB) and active galactic nucleus (AGN) samples are fit individually, the slopes flatten to {alpha}{sup BHB} = 0.91 {+-} 0.31 and {alpha}{sup AGN} = 0.63 {+-} 0.30 (formally consistent within errors). The broad fit and individual fits both characterize the data fairly well, and the possibility of common slopes may point to common driving mechanisms across the mass scale. For comparison, we examine jet production, estimating jet power based on the energy required to inflate local bubbles. The jet relation is log (L {sub Jet,42}) = (1.18 {+-} 0.24)log (L {sub Bondi,42}) - (0.96 {+-} 0.43). The energetics of the bubble associated with Cygnus X-1 are particularly difficult to determine, and the bubble could be a background supernova remnant. If we exclude Cygnus X-1 from our fits, then the jets follow a relation consistent with the winds, but with a higher intercept, log (L {sub Jet,42}) = (1.34 {+-} 0.50)log (L {sub Bondi,42}) - (0.80 {+-} 0.82). The formal consistency in the wind and jet scaling relations, when assuming that L {sub Bol} and L {sub Bondi} are both proxies for mass accretion rate, suggests that a common launching mechanism may drive both flows; magnetic processes, such as magnetohydrodynamics and

  4. Higgs mass from compositeness at a multi-TeV scale

    SciTech Connect

    Cheng, Hsin -Chia; Dobrescu, Bogdan A.; Gu, Jiayin

    2014-08-18

    Within composite Higgs models based on the top seesaw mechanism, we show that the Higgs field can arise as the pseudo Nambu-Goldstone boson of the broken U(3)$_{L}$ chiral symmetry associated with a vector-like quark and the t-b doublet. As a result, the lightest CP-even neutral state of the composite scalar sector is lighter than the top quark, and can be identified as the newly discovered Higgs boson. As a result, constraints on weak-isospin violation push the chiral symmetry breaking scale above a few TeV, implying that other composite scalars are probably too heavy to be probed at the LHC, but may be within reach at a future hadron collider with center-of-mass energy of about 100 TeV.

  5. Implementing mass-scale red cell genotyping at a blood center

    PubMed Central

    Flegel, Willy A.; Gottschall, Jerome L.; Denomme, Gregory A.

    2015-01-01

    Background When problems with compatibility beyond ABO and RhD arise, currently transfusion services search their inventories and perform time-consuming serologic testing to locate antigen-negative blood. These clinically important blood group antigens can be detected reliably by red cell genotyping, which is a technology whereby DNA-based techniques are used to evaluate gene polymorphisms that determine the expression of red cell antigens. We introduced mass-scale genotyping and measured availability of genotyped blood. Study design and methods All non-Caucasian donors qualified for genotyping along with Caucasian donors who had a history of repeat donation. Mass-scale red cell genotyping, performed on an electronic interfaced open array platform, was implemented to screen blood donors for 32 SNPs that predicted 42 blood group antigens. Genotype screening results were confirmed by phenotyping, when needed for antigen-negative transfusion, prior to release of the red cell unit. Results Approximately 22,000 donors were red cell genotyped within 4 months and a total of 43,066 donors in 4 years. There were 463 discordances (0.52% of 89,596 genotypes with a phenotype). Among the 307 resolved discordances, approximate equal numbers represented historical serological or genotyping discrepancies (n=151 and n=156, respectively). In the final year of the study, an average of 29% of the daily inventory had a genotype. Conclusions Red cell genotyping of blood donors using an electronic interface created a large and stable supply of red cell units with historical genotypes. The database served the needs of antigen-negative blood requests for a large regional blood center, and allowed us to abandon screening by serology. PMID:26094790

  6. The Universal “Heartbeat” Oscillations in Black Hole Systems Across the Mass-scale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Qingwen; Czerny, Bozena; Grzedzielski, Mikolaj; Janiuk, Agnieszka; Gu, Wei-Min; Dong, Ai-jun; Cao, Xiao-Feng; You, Bei; Yan, Zhen; Sun, Mou-Yuan

    2016-12-01

    The hyperluminous X-ray source (HLX-1, peak X-ray luminosity ˜ {10}42 {erg} {{{s}}}-1) near the spiral galaxy ESO 243-49, which underwent recurrent outbursts within a period of ˜400 days, is possibly the best candidate for an intermediate mass black hole (IMBH). The physical reason for this quasiperiodic variability is still unclear. We explore the possibility of radiation-pressure instability in the accretion disk by modeling the light curve of HLX-1, and find that it can roughly reproduce the duration, period, and amplitude of the recurrent outbursts in HLX-1 with an IMBH of ˜ {10}5 {M}⊙ . Our result provides a possible mechanism to explain the recurrent outbursts in HLX-1. We further find a universal correlation between the outburst duration and the bolometric luminosity for the black hole (BH) sources with a very broad mass range (e.g., X-ray binaries, HLX-1, and active galactic nuclei), which is roughly consistent with the prediction of radiation-pressure instability of the accretion disk. These results imply that “heartbeat” oscillations triggered by radiation-pressure instability may appear in different-scale BH systems.

  7. The large-scale observational signatures of low-mass galaxies during reionization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dixon, Keri L.; Iliev, Ilian T.; Mellema, Garrelt; Ahn, Kyungjin; Shapiro, Paul R.

    2016-03-01

    Observations of the epoch of reionization give us clues about the nature and evolution of the sources of ionizing photons, or early stars and galaxies. We present a new suite of structure formation and radiative transfer (RT) simulations from the PRACE4LOFAR project designed to investigate whether the mechanism of radiative feedback, or the suppression of star formation in ionized regions from UV radiation, can be inferred from these observations. Our source halo mass extends down to 108 M⊙, with sources in the mass range 108-109 M⊙ expected to be particularly susceptible to feedback from ionizing radiation, and we vary the aggressiveness and nature of this suppression. Not only do we have four distinct source models, we also include two box sizes (67 and 349 Mpc), each with two grid resolutions. This suite of simulations allows us to investigate the robustness of our results. All of our simulations are broadly consistent with the observed electron-scattering optical depth of the cosmic microwave background and the neutral fraction and photoionization rate of hydrogen at z ˜ 6. In particular, we investigate the redshifted 21-cm emission in anticipation of upcoming radio interferometer observations. We find that the overall shape of the 21-cm signal and various statistics are robust to the exact nature of source suppression, the box size, and the resolution. There are some promising model discriminators in the non-Gaussianity and small-scale power spectrum of the 21-cm signal.

  8. Reconnection Properties of Large-scale Current Sheets During Coronal Mass Ejection Eruptions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lynch, B. J.; Edmondson, J. K.; Kazachenko, M. D.; Guidoni, S. E.

    2016-07-01

    We present a detailed analysis of the properties of magnetic reconnection at large-scale current sheets (CSs) in a high cadence version of the Lynch & Edmondson 2.5D MHD simulation of sympathetic magnetic breakout eruptions from a pseudostreamer source region. We examine the resistive tearing and break-up of the three main CSs into chains of X- and O-type null points and follow the dynamics of magnetic island growth, their merging, transit, and ejection with the reconnection exhaust. For each CS, we quantify the evolution of the length-to-width aspect ratio (up to ˜100:1), Lundquist number (˜103), and reconnection rate (inflow-to-outflow ratios reaching ˜0.40). We examine the statistical and spectral properties of the fluctuations in the CSs resulting from the plasmoid instability, including the distribution of magnetic island area, mass, and flux content. We show that the temporal evolution of the spectral index of the reconnection-generated magnetic energy density fluctuations appear to reflect global properties of the CS evolution. Our results are in excellent agreement with recent, high-resolution reconnection-in-a-box simulations even though our CSs’ formation, growth, and dynamics are intrinsically coupled to the global evolution of sequential sympathetic coronal mass ejection eruptions.

  9. Estimation of root zone storage capacity at the catchment scale using improved Mass Curve Technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Jie; Xu, Zongxue; Singh, Vijay P.

    2016-09-01

    The root zone storage capacity (Sr) greatly influences runoff generation, soil water movement, and vegetation growth and is hence an important variable for ecological and hydrological modelling. However, due to the great heterogeneity in soil texture and structure, there seems to be no effective approach to monitor or estimate Sr at the catchment scale presently. To fill the gap, in this study the Mass Curve Technique (MCT) was improved by incorporating a snowmelt module for the estimation of Sr at the catchment scale in different climatic regions. The ;range of perturbation; method was also used to generate different scenarios for determining the sensitivity of the improved MCT-derived Sr to its influencing factors after the evaluation of plausibility of Sr derived from the improved MCT. Results can be showed as: (i) Sr estimates of different catchments varied greatly from ∼10 mm to ∼200 mm with the changes of climatic conditions and underlying surface characteristics. (ii) The improved MCT is a simple but powerful tool for the Sr estimation in different climatic regions of China, and incorporation of more catchments into Sr comparisons can further improve our knowledge on the variability of Sr. (iii) Variation of Sr values is an integrated consequence of variations in rainfall, snowmelt water and evapotranspiration. Sr values are most sensitive to variations in evapotranspiration of ecosystems. Besides, Sr values with a longer return period are more stable than those with a shorter return period when affected by fluctuations in its influencing factors.

  10. A scale of greatness and causal classification of mass extinctions: Implications for mechanisms

    PubMed Central

    Şengör, A. M. Celâl; Atayman, Saniye; Özeren, Sinan

    2008-01-01

    A quantitative scale for measuring greatness, G, of mass extinctions is proposed on the basis of rate of biodiversity diminution expressed as the product of the loss of biodiversity, called magnitude (M), and the inverse of time in which that loss occurs, designated as intensity (I). On this scale, the catastrophic Cretaceous–Tertiary (K-T) extinction appears as the greatest since the Ordovician and the only one with a probable extraterrestrial cause. The end-Permian extinction was less great but with a large magnitude (M) and smaller intensity (I); only some of its individual episodes involved some semblance of catastrophe. Other extinctions during the Phanerozoic, with the possible exception of the end-Silurian diversity plunge, were parts of a forced oscillatory phenomenon and seem caused by marine- and land-habitat destruction during continental assemblies that led to elimination of shelves and (after the Devonian) rain forests and enlargement of deserts. Glaciations and orogenies that shortened and thickened the continental crust only exacerbated these effects. During the Mesozoic and Cainozoic, the evolution of life was linearly progressive, interrupted catastrophically only at the K-T boundary. The end-Triassic extinction was more like the Paleozoic extinctions in nature and probably also in its cause. By contrast, the current extinction resembles none of the earlier ones and may end up being the greatest of all. PMID:18779562

  11. A lower fragmentation mass scale for clumps in high redshift galaxies: a systematic numerical study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tamburello, Valentina; Mayer, Lucio; Shen, Sijing; Wadsley, James

    2015-08-01

    We perform a systematic study of the effect of sub-grid physics, resolution and structural parameters on the fragmentation of gas-rich galaxy discs into massive star forming clumps due to gravitational instability. We use the state-of-the-art zoom-in cosmological hydrodynamical simulation ARGO (Fiacconi et al. 2015) to set up the initial conditions of our models, and then carry out 26 high resolution controlled simulations of high-z galaxies using the GASOLINE2 code, which includes a modern, numerically robust SPH implementation.We find that when blast-wave feedback is included, the formation of long-lived, gravitationally bound clumps requires disc gas fractions of at least 50% and massive discs, which should have Vmax > 200 km/s at z ˜ 2, more massive than the typical galaxies expected at those redshifts.Less than 50 Myr after formation, clumps have stellar masses in the range 4 × 106 - 5 × 107 M⊙.Formation of clumps with mass exceeding ˜108 M⊙ is a rare occurrence, since it requires mergers between multiple massive clumps, as we verified by tracing back in time the particles belonging to such clumps. Such mergers happen after a few orbital times (˜200-300 Myr), but normally clumps migrate inward and are tidally disrupted on shorter timescales.Clump sizes are in the range 100-500 pc. We argue that giant clumps identified in observations (˜109 M⊙ and 1 kpc in size) might either have a different origin, such as minor mergers and clumpy gas accretion, or their sizes and masses may be overestimated due to resolution issues.Using an analytical model, already developed to explain the fragmentation scale in gravitationally unstable 3D protoplanetary discs, we can predict fairly accurately the characteristic gaseous masses of clumps soon after fragmentation, when standard Toome analysis becomes invalid.Due to their modest size, clumps have little effect on bulge growth as they migrate to the center. In our unstable discs a small bulge can form irrespective of

  12. AS ABOVE, SO BELOW: EXPLOITING MASS SCALING IN BLACK HOLE ACCRETION TO BREAK DEGENERACIES IN SPECTRAL INTERPRETATION

    SciTech Connect

    Markoff, Sera; Silva, Catia V.; Nowak, Michael A.; Gallo, Elena; Plotkin, Richard M.; Hynes, Robert; Wilms, Jörn; Maitra, Dipankar; Drappeau, Samia E-mail: C.V.DeJesusSilva@uva.nl E-mail: egallo@umich.edu E-mail: joern.wilms@sternwarte.uni-erlangen.de E-mail: samia.drappeau@irap.omp.eu

    2015-10-20

    Over the past decade, evidence has mounted that several aspects of black hole (BH) accretion physics proceed in a mass-invariant way. One of the best examples of this scaling is the empirical “fundamental plane of BH accretion” relation linking mass, radio, and X-ray luminosity over eight orders of magnitude in BH mass. The currently favored theoretical interpretation of this relation is that the physics governing power output in weakly accreting BHs depends more on relative accretion rate than on mass. In order to test this theory, we explore whether a mass-invariant approach can simultaneously explain the broadband spectral energy distributions from two BHs at opposite ends of the mass scale but that are at similar Eddington accretion fractions. We find that the same model, with the same value of several fitted physical parameters expressed in mass-scaling units to enforce self-similarity, can provide a good description of two data sets from V404 Cyg and M81*, a stellar and supermassive BH, respectively. Furthermore, only one of several potential emission scenarios for the X-ray band is successful, suggesting it is the dominant process driving the fundamental plane relation at this accretion rate. This approach thus holds promise for breaking current degeneracies in the interpretation of BH high-energy spectra and for constructing better prescriptions of BH accretion for use in various local and cosmological feedback applications.

  13. Moon: Basin-Forming Impacts in Scale, Time, and as Thermal and Mass Input

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Werner, Stephanie C.; Zhu, Meng Hua; Rolf, Tobias; Wünnemann, Kai

    2016-04-01

    A striking feature on the lunar surface is the population of impact basins. These large-scale structures have diameters of several 100 to >2000 km and their signature is clearly visible in present-day observables such as the gravity field. The chronology of lunar basins is essential for understanding the age of the lunar surface and its early evolution. We introduce new basin size-projectile size scaling relationships derived from numerical modelling. We make use of the size relation between diameters of inner ring, Bouguer gravity anomaly, main ring, and the result of the numerical simulations suggesting a size link between Bouguer gravity anomaly and transient crater diameter. Thus, we have a reliable tool set to evaluate the sequence of basin forming events in time, determine the thermal anomaly introduced, ejecta distributions, and the mass delivered to the Moon. We explore how large basin-forming impacts affected the internal evolution of the Moon, which is inevitably linked to the surface, e.g. via volcanism and heat loss. Recently proposed global lunar evolution models can explain various observations on the present-day Moon, but do not, or only partly, consider the thermal input of large basin-forming impacts. Therefore, we couple here the thermochemical evolution of the Moon with its early bombardment. We use the mantle convection code StagYY to model the long-term evolution of the Moon. In order to investigate the role of impact processes, we consider an insulating (low thermal conductivity) ejecta blanket (representing the lunar regolith) with variable thickness and degree of insulation as well as the impact-induced heat anomaly. To determine the ejecta cover we use recent scaling law that links ejecta thickness to the distance to the rim of the source basin. The impact-induced heat anomaly is determined by performing basin formation modeling using the shock physics code iSALE. Our results with a single impact event indicate that the shock-induced impact

  14. Combinatorial Approach for Large-scale Identification of Linked Peptides from Tandem Mass Spectrometry Spectra*

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Jian; Anania, Veronica G.; Knott, Jeff; Rush, John; Lill, Jennie R.; Bourne, Philip E.; Bandeira, Nuno

    2014-01-01

    The combination of chemical cross-linking and mass spectrometry has recently been shown to constitute a powerful tool for studying protein–protein interactions and elucidating the structure of large protein complexes. However, computational methods for interpreting the complex MS/MS spectra from linked peptides are still in their infancy, making the high-throughput application of this approach largely impractical. Because of the lack of large annotated datasets, most current approaches do not capture the specific fragmentation patterns of linked peptides and therefore are not optimal for the identification of cross-linked peptides. Here we propose a generic approach to address this problem and demonstrate it using disulfide-bridged peptide libraries to (i) efficiently generate large mass spectral reference data for linked peptides at a low cost and (ii) automatically train an algorithm that can efficiently and accurately identify linked peptides from MS/MS spectra. We show that using this approach we were able to identify thousands of MS/MS spectra from disulfide-bridged peptides through comparison with proteome-scale sequence databases and significantly improve the sensitivity of cross-linked peptide identification. This allowed us to identify 60% more direct pairwise interactions between the protein subunits in the 20S proteasome complex than existing tools on cross-linking studies of the proteasome complexes. The basic framework of this approach and the MS/MS reference dataset generated should be valuable resources for the future development of new tools for the identification of linked peptides. PMID:24493012

  15. The influence of mantle viscosity structure and past decadal to millennial-scale ice mass changes on present-day land motion in Greenland.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simpson, Matthew; Wake, Leanne; Milne, Glenn; Huybrechts, Philippe

    2010-05-01

    We show predictions of present-day vertical land motion in Greenland using a recently developed Glacial Isostatic Adjustment (GIA) model, calibrated using both relative sea-level observations and geomorphological contraints on ice extent (Simpson et al., 2009). Predictions from our GIA model are in good agreement to the relatively small number of GPS measurements of absolute vertical motion from south and southwest Greenland. This suggests that our model of ice sheet evolution over the Holocene period is reasonably accurate. The uplift predictions are highly sensitive to variations of upper mantle viscosity; depending on the Earth model adopted different periods of ice loading change dominate the present-day response in particular regions of Greenland. We shall present a suite of results to demonstrate this sensitivity. We also consider the possible influence of more recent changes in the ice sheet by applying a second ice model; specifically, a surface mass balance (SMB) model (Wake et al., 2009), which covers the period 1866 to 2005. Predictions from this model suggest that decadal-scale SMB changes over the last c. 140 years play only a small role in determining the present-day viscous response. However, high rates of peripheral thinning from 1995 to 2005 in the SMB model produce large elastic uplift rates in west and southwest Greenland. Using the same SMB model, we extend our study period to cover the last thousand years (for which there is less accurate climate data) and constrain ice mass changes over this time using new high resolution records of relative sea-level change. Our preliminary findings suggest that century-scale ice mass variation over the last thousand years may contribute significantly to the present-day viscous response. Simpson, M.J.R, Milne, G.A., Huybrechts, P., Long, A.J., 2009. Calibrating a glaciological model of the Greenland ice sheet from the last glacial maximum to present-day using field observations of relative sea level and ice

  16. Absolute measurement of length with nanometric resolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Apostol, D.; Garoi, F.; Timcu, A.; Damian, V.; Logofatu, P. C.; Nascov, V.

    2005-08-01

    Laser interferometer displacement measuring transducers have a well-defined traceability route to the definition of the meter. The laser interferometer is de-facto length scale for applications in micro and nano technologies. However their physical unit -half lambda is too large for nanometric resolution. Fringe interpolation-usual technique to improve the resolution-lack of reproducibility could be avoided using the principles of absolute distance measurement. Absolute distance refers to the use of interferometric techniques for determining the position of an object without the necessity of measuring continuous displacements between points. The interference pattern as produced by the interference of two point-like coherent sources is fitted to a geometric model so as to determine the longitudinal location of the target by minimizing least square errors. The longitudinal coordinate of the target was measured with accuracy better than 1 nm, for a target position range of 0.4μm.

  17. Probing absolute spin polarization at the nanoscale.

    PubMed

    Eltschka, Matthias; Jäck, Berthold; Assig, Maximilian; Kondrashov, Oleg V; Skvortsov, Mikhail A; Etzkorn, Markus; Ast, Christian R; Kern, Klaus

    2014-12-10

    Probing absolute values of spin polarization at the nanoscale offers insight into the fundamental mechanisms of spin-dependent transport. Employing the Zeeman splitting in superconducting tips (Meservey-Tedrow-Fulde effect), we introduce a novel spin-polarized scanning tunneling microscopy that combines the probing capability of the absolute values of spin polarization with precise control at the atomic scale. We utilize our novel approach to measure the locally resolved spin polarization of magnetic Co nanoislands on Cu(111). We find that the spin polarization is enhanced by 65% when increasing the width of the tunnel barrier by only 2.3 Å due to the different decay of the electron orbitals into vacuum.

  18. Convective kinetic energy equation under the mass-flux subgrid-scale parameterization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yano, Jun-Ichi

    2015-03-01

    The present paper originally derives the convective kinetic energy equation under mass-flux subgrid-scale parameterization in a formal manner based on the segmentally-constant approximation (SCA). Though this equation is long since presented by Arakawa and Schubert (1974), a formal derivation is not known in the literature. The derivation of this formulation is of increasing interests in recent years due to the fact that it can explain basic aspects of the convective dynamics such as discharge-recharge and transition from shallow to deep convection. The derivation is presented in two manners: (i) for the case that only the vertical component of the velocity is considered and (ii) the case that both the horizontal and vertical components are considered. The equation reduces to the same form as originally presented by Arakwa and Schubert in both cases, but with the energy dissipation term defined differently. In both cases, nevertheless, the energy "dissipation" (loss) term consists of the three principal contributions: (i) entrainment-detrainment, (ii) outflow from top of convection, and (iii) pressure effects. Additionally, inflow from the bottom of convection contributing to a growth of convection is also formally counted as a part of the dissipation term. The eddy dissipation is also included for a completeness. The order-of-magnitude analysis shows that the convective kinetic energy "dissipation" is dominated by the pressure effects, and it may be approximately described by Rayleigh damping with a constant time scale of the order of 102-103 s. The conclusion is also supported by a supplementary analysis of a cloud-resolving model (CRM) simulation. The Appendix discusses how the loss term ("dissipation") of the convective kinetic energy is qualitatively different from the conventional eddy-dissipation process found in turbulent flows.

  19. Convergence of macroscopic tongue anatomy in ruminants and scaling relationships with body mass or tongue length.

    PubMed

    Meier, Andrea R; Schmuck, Ute; Meloro, Carlo; Clauss, Marcus; Hofmann, Reinhold R

    2016-03-01

    Various morphological measures demonstrate convergent evolution in ruminants with their natural diet, in particular with respect to the browser/grazer dichotomy. Here, we report quantitative macroanatomical measures of the tongue (length and width of specific parts) of 65 ruminant species and relate them to either body mass (BM) or total tongue length, and to the percentage of grass in the natural diet (%grass). Models without and with accounting for the phylogenetic structures of the dataset were used, and models were ranked using Akaike's Information Criterion. Scaling relationships followed geometric principles, that is, length measures scaled with BM to the power of 0.33. Models that used tongue length rather than BM as a body size proxy were consistently ranked better, indicating that using size proxies that are less susceptible to a wider variety of factors (such as BM that fluctuates with body condition) should be attempted whenever possible. The proportion of the freely mobile tongue tip of the total tongue (and hence also the corpus length) was negatively correlated to %grass, in accordance with concepts that the feeding mechanism of browsers requires more mobile tongues. It should be noted that some nonbrowsers, such as cattle, use a peculiar mechanism for grazing that also requires long, mobile tongues, but they appear to be exceptions. A larger corpus width with increasing %grass corresponds to differences in snout shape with broader snouts in grazers. The Torus linguae is longer with increasing %grass, a finding that still warrants functional interpretation. This study shows that tongue measures covary with diet in ruminants. In contrast, the shape of the tongue (straight or "hourglass-shaped" as measured by the ratio of the widest and smallest corpus width) is unrelated to diet and is influenced strongly by phylogeny.

  20. Cryogenic, Absolute, High Pressure Sensor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chapman, John J. (Inventor); Shams. Qamar A. (Inventor); Powers, William T. (Inventor)

    2001-01-01

    A pressure sensor is provided for cryogenic, high pressure applications. A highly doped silicon piezoresistive pressure sensor is bonded to a silicon substrate in an absolute pressure sensing configuration. The absolute pressure sensor is bonded to an aluminum nitride substrate. Aluminum nitride has appropriate coefficient of thermal expansion for use with highly doped silicon at cryogenic temperatures. A group of sensors, either two sensors on two substrates or four sensors on a single substrate are packaged in a pressure vessel.

  1. Synoptic scale forecast skill and systematic errors in the MASS 2.0 model. [Mesoscale Atmospheric Simulation System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Koch, S. E.; Skillman, W. C.; Kocin, P. J.; Wetzel, P. J.; Brill, K. F.

    1985-01-01

    The synoptic scale performance characteristics of MASS 2.0 are determined by comparing filtered 12-24 hr model forecasts to same-case forecasts made by the National Meteorological Center's synoptic-scale Limited-area Fine Mesh model. Characteristics of the two systems are contrasted, and the analysis methodology used to determine statistical skill scores and systematic errors is described. The overall relative performance of the two models in the sample is documented, and important systematic errors uncovered are presented.

  2. Mining Large Scale Tandem Mass Spectrometry Data for Protein Modifications Using Spectral Libraries.

    PubMed

    Horlacher, Oliver; Lisacek, Frederique; Müller, Markus

    2016-03-04

    Experimental improvements in post-translational modification (PTM) detection by tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS) has allowed the identification of vast numbers of PTMs. Open modification searches (OMSs) of MS/MS data, which do not require prior knowledge of the modifications present in the sample, further increased the diversity of detected PTMs. Despite much effort, there is still a lack of functional annotation of PTMs. One possibility to narrow the annotation gap is to mine MS/MS data deposited in public repositories and to correlate the PTM presence with biological meta-information attached to the data. Since the data volume can be quite substantial and contain tens of millions of MS/MS spectra, the data mining tools must be able to cope with big data. Here, we present two tools, Liberator and MzMod, which are built using the MzJava class library and the Apache Spark large scale computing framework. Liberator builds large MS/MS spectrum libraries, and MzMod searches them in an OMS mode. We applied these tools to a recently published set of 25 million spectra from 30 human tissues and present tissue specific PTMs. We also compared the results to the ones obtained with the OMS tool MODa and the search engine X!Tandem.

  3. Mass-producible and efficient optical antennas with CMOS-fabricated nanometer-scale gap.

    PubMed

    Seok, Tae Joon; Jamshidi, Arash; Eggleston, Michael; Wu, Ming C

    2013-07-15

    Optical antennas have been widely used for sensitive photodetection, efficient light emission, high resolution imaging, and biochemical sensing because of their ability to capture and focus light energy beyond the diffraction limit. However, widespread application of optical antennas has been limited due to lack of appropriate methods for uniform and large area fabrication of antennas as well as difficulty in achieving an efficient design with small mode volume (gap spacing < 10nm). Here, we present a novel optical antenna design, arch-dipole antenna, with optimal radiation efficiency and small mode volume, 5 nm gap spacing, fabricated by CMOS-compatible deep-UV spacer lithography. We demonstrate strong surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) signal with an enhancement factor exceeding 108 from the arch-dipole antenna array, which is two orders of magnitude stronger than that from the standard dipole antenna array fabricated by e-beam lithography. Since the antenna gap spacing, the critical dimension of the antenna, can be defined by deep-UV lithography, efficient optical antenna arrays with nanometer-scale gap can be mass-produced using current CMOS technology.

  4. Mass scale screening of common arboviral infections by an affordable, cost effective RT-PCR method

    PubMed Central

    Taraphdar, Debjani; Sarkar, Arindam; Chatterjee, Shyamalendu

    2012-01-01

    Objective To develop a rapid, cost effective RT-PCR method for the mass scale diagnosis of such diseases at the viremia stage to find out the actual disease burden in that area. Methods For this purpose, cases with the history of only short febrile illness were considered. Thus 157 samples with the history of dengue/chikungunya like illness and only 58 samples with a history of acute encephalitis syndrome (AES) were selected. Results Out of 157 samples, 42 and 74 were detected as dengue and chikungunya, respectively and out of 58 AES cases only 23 could be detected as Japanese encephalitis by this RT-PCR method. Conclusions This cost effective RT-PCR method can detect the total positive cases that remain undetected by ELISA method. Moreover, this method is capable to detect the viral RNA from patients' sera even after the appearance of IgM antibody at one fifth costs as compared with the other commercially available kits. PMID:23569876

  5. Pilot scale study on steam explosion and mass balance for higher sugar recovery from rice straw.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Sandeep; Kumar, Ravindra; Gaur, Ruchi; Agrawal, Ruchi; Gupta, Ravi P; Tuli, Deepak K; Das, Biswapriya

    2015-01-01

    Pretreatment of rice straw on pilot scale steam explosion has been attempted to achieve maximum sugar recovery. Three different reaction media viz. water, sulfuric acid and phosphoric acid (0.5%, w/w) were explored for pretreatment by varying operating temperature (160, 180 and 200°C) and reaction time (5 and 10min). Using water and 0.5% SA showed almost similar sugar recovery (∼87%) at 200 and 180°C respectively. However, detailed studies showed that the former caused higher production of oligomeric sugars (13.56g/L) than the later (3.34g/L). Monomeric sugar, followed the reverse trend (7.83 and 11.62g/L respectively). Higher oligomers have a pronounced effect in reducing enzymatic sugar yield as observed in case of water. Mass balance studies for water and SA assisted SE gave total saccharification yield as 81.8% and 77.1% respectively. However, techno-economical viability will have a trade-off between these advantages and disadvantages offered by the pretreatment medium.

  6. Large-scale Extreme-Ultraviolet Disturbances Associated with a Limb Coronal Mass Ejection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dai, Y.; Auchère, F.; Vial, J.-C.; Tang, Y. H.; Zong, W. G.

    2010-01-01

    We present composite observations of a coronal mass ejection (CME) and the associated large-scale extreme-ultraviolet (EUV) disturbances on 2007 December 31 by the Extreme-ultraviolet Imager (EUVI) and COR1 coronagraph on board the recent Solar Terrestrial Relations Observatory mission. For this limb event, the EUV disturbances exhibit some typical characteristics of EUV Imaging Telescope waves: (1) in the 195 Å bandpass, diffuse brightenings are observed propagating oppositely away from the flare site with a velocity of ~260 km s-1, leaving dimmings behind; (2) when the brightenings encounter the boundary of a polar coronal hole, they stop there to form a stationary front. Multi-temperature analysis of the propagating EUV disturbances favors a heating process over a density enhancement in the disturbance region. Furthermore, the EUVI-COR1 composite display shows unambiguously that the propagation of the diffuse brightenings coincides with a large lateral expansion of the CME, which consequently results in a double-loop-structured CME leading edge. Based on these observational facts, we suggest that the wave-like EUV disturbances are a result of magnetic reconfiguration related to the CME liftoff rather than true waves in the corona. Reconnections between the expanding CME magnetic field lines and surrounding quiet-Sun magnetic loops account for the propagating diffuse brightenings; dimmings appear behind them as a consequence of volume expansion. X-ray and radio data provide us with complementary evidence.

  7. Investigation of the Large Scale Evolution and Topology of Coronal Mass Ejections in the Solar Wind

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Riley, Pete

    2001-01-01

    This investigation is concerned with the large-scale evolution and topology of coronal mass ejections (CMEs) in the solar wind. During the course of this three-year investigation, we have undertaken a number of studies that are discussed in more detail in this report. For example, we conducted an analysis of all CMEs observed by the Ulysses spacecraft during its in-ecliptic phase between 1 and 5 AU. In addition to studying the properties of the ejecta, we also analyzed the shocks that could be unambiguously associated with the fast CMEs. We also analyzed a series of 'density holes' observed in the solar wind that bear many similarities with CMEs. To complement this analysis, we conducted a series of 1-D and 2 1/2-D fluid, MHD, and hybrid simulations to address a number of specific issues related to CME evolution in the solar wind. For example, we used fluid simulations to address the interpretation of negative electron temperature-density relationships often observed within CME/cloud intervals. As part of this investigation, a number of fruitful international collaborations were forged. Finally, the results of this work were presented at nine scientific meetings and communicated in eight scientific, refereed papers.

  8. Quantifying in-stream retention of nitrate at catchment scales using a practical mass balance approach.

    PubMed

    Schwientek, Marc; Selle, Benny

    2016-02-01

    As field data on in-stream nitrate retention is scarce at catchment scales, this study aimed at quantifying net retention of nitrate within the entire river network of a fourth-order stream. For this purpose, a practical mass balance approach combined with a Lagrangian sampling scheme was applied and seasonally repeated to estimate daily in-stream net retention of nitrate for a 17.4 km long, agriculturally influenced, segment of the Steinlach River in southwestern Germany. This river segment represents approximately 70% of the length of the main stem and about 32% of the streambed area of the entire river network. Sampling days in spring and summer were biogeochemically more active than in autumn and winter. Results obtained for the main stem of Steinlach River were subsequently extrapolated to the stream network in the catchment. It was demonstrated that, for baseflow conditions in spring and summer, in-stream nitrate retention could sum up to a relevant term of the catchment's nitrogen balance if the entire stream network was considered.

  9. An industry-scale mass marking technique for tracing farmed fish escapees.

    PubMed

    Warren-Myers, Fletcher; Dempster, Tim; Fjelldal, Per Gunnar; Hansen, Tom; Swearer, Stephen E

    2015-01-01

    Farmed fish escape and enter the environment with subsequent effects on wild populations. Reducing escapes requires the ability to trace individuals back to the point of escape, so that escape causes can be identified and technical standards improved. Here, we tested if stable isotope otolith fingerprint marks delivered during routine vaccination could be an accurate, feasible and cost effective marking method, suitable for industrial-scale application. We tested seven stable isotopes, (134)Ba, (135)Ba, (136)Ba, (137)Ba, (86)Sr, (87)Sr and (26)Mg, on farmed Atlantic salmon reared in freshwater, in experimental conditions designed to reflect commercial practice. Marking was 100% successful with individual Ba isotopes at concentrations as low as 0.001 µg. g-1 fish and for Sr isotopes at 1 µg. g-1 fish. Our results suggest that 63 unique fingerprint marks can be made at low cost using Ba (0.0002 - 0.02 $US per mark) and Sr (0.46 - 0.82 $US per mark) isotopes. Stable isotope fingerprinting during vaccination is feasible for commercial application if applied at a company level within the world's largest salmon producing nations. Introducing a mass marking scheme would enable tracing of escapees back to point of origin, which could drive greater compliance, better farm design and improved management practices to reduce escapes.

  10. Geoelectrical Measurement of Multi-Scale Mass Transfer Parameters Final Report to the Subsurface Biogeochemical Research Program

    SciTech Connect

    Day-Lewis, Frederick; Singha, Kamini; Haggerty, Roy; Johnson, Timothy; Binley, Andrew; Lane, John

    2014-03-10

    . In this project, we sought to capitalize on the geophysical signatures of mass transfer. Previous numerical modeling and pilot-scale field experiments suggested that mass transfer produces a geoelectrical signature—a hysteretic relation between sampled (mobile-domain) fluid conductivity and bulk (mobile + immobile) conductivity—over a range of scales relevant to aquifer remediation. In this work, we investigated the geoelectrical signature of mass transfer during tracer transport in a series of controlled experiments to determine the operation of controlling parameters, and also investigated the use of complex-resistivity (CR) as a means of quantifying mass transfer parameters in situ without tracer experiments. In an add-on component to our grant, we additionally considered nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) to help parse mobile from immobile porosities. Our study objectives were to: 1. Develop and demonstrate geophysical approaches to measure mass-transfer parameters spatially and over a range of scales, including the combination of electrical resistivity monitoring, tracer tests, complex resistivity, nuclear magnetic resonance, and materials characterization; and 2. Provide mass-transfer estimates for improved understanding of contaminant fate and transport at DOE sites, such as uranium transport at the Hanford 300 Area. To achieve our objectives, we implemented a 3-part research plan involving (1) development of computer codes and techniques to estimate mass-transfer parameters from time-lapse electrical data; (2) bench-scale experiments on synthetic materials and materials from cores from the Hanford 300 Area; and (3) field demonstration experiments at the DOE’s Hanford 300 Area.

  11. Weak-lensing-inferred scaling relations of galaxy clusters in the RCS2: mass-richness, mass-concentration, mass-bias, and more

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Uitert, Edo; Gilbank, David G.; Hoekstra, Henk; Semboloni, Elisabetta; Gladders, Michael D.; Yee, Howard K. C.

    2016-02-01

    We study a sample of ~104 galaxy clusters in the redshift range 0.2 masses M200 > 5×1013 h70-1 M⊙, discovered in the second Red-sequence Cluster Survey (RCS2). The depth and excellent image quality of the RCS2 enabled us to detect the cluster-mass cross-correlation up to z ~ 0.7. To obtain cluster masses, concentrations, and halo biases, we fit a cluster halo model simultaneously to the lensing signal and to the projected density profile of red-sequence cluster members, because the latter provides tight constraints on the cluster miscentring distribution. We parametrised the mass-richness relation as M200 = A × (N200/ 20)α and find A =(15.0±0.8)×1013 h70-1 M⊙ and α = 0.73 ± 0.07 at low redshift (0.2 < z < 0.35). At intermediate redshift (0.35 < z < 0.55), we find a higher normalisation, which points towards a fractional increase in the richness towards lower redshift caused by the build-up of the red sequence. The miscentring distribution is well constrained. Only ~30% of our BCGs coincide with the peak of the dark matter distribution. The distribution of the remaining BCGs are modelled with a 2D-Gaussian, whose width increases from 0.2 to 0.4 h70-1 Mpc towards higher masses. The ratio of width and r200 is constant with mass and has an average value of 0.44 ± 0.01. The mass-concentration and mass-bias relations agree fairly well with literature results at low redshift, but have a higher normalisation at higher redshifts, possibly because of selection and projection effects. The concentration of the satellite distribution decreases with mass and is correlated to the concentration of the halo.

  12. Chemical composition of French mimosa absolute oil.

    PubMed

    Perriot, Rodolphe; Breme, Katharina; Meierhenrich, Uwe J; Carenini, Elise; Ferrando, Georges; Baldovini, Nicolas

    2010-02-10

    Since decades mimosa (Acacia dealbata) absolute oil has been used in the flavor and perfume industry. Today, it finds an application in over 80 perfumes, and its worldwide industrial production is estimated five tons per year. Here we report on the chemical composition of French mimosa absolute oil. Straight-chain analogues from C6 to C26 with different functional groups (hydrocarbons, esters, aldehydes, diethyl acetals, alcohols, and ketones) were identified in the volatile fraction. Most of them are long-chain molecules: (Z)-heptadec-8-ene, heptadecane, nonadecane, and palmitic acid are the most abundant, and constituents such as 2-phenethyl alcohol, methyl anisate, and ethyl palmitate are present in smaller amounts. The heavier constituents were mainly triterpenoids such as lupenone and lupeol, which were identified as two of the main components. (Z)-Heptadec-8-ene, lupenone, and lupeol were quantified by GC-MS in SIM mode using external standards and represents 6%, 20%, and 7.8% (w/w) of the absolute oil. Moreover, odorant compounds were extracted by SPME and analyzed by GC-sniffing leading to the perception of 57 odorant zones, of which 37 compounds were identified by their odorant description, mass spectrum, retention index, and injection of the reference compound.

  13. Pore-scale supercritical CO2 dissolution and mass transfer under imbibition conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, Chun; Zhou, Quanlin; Kneafsey, Timothy J.; Oostrom, Mart; Wietsma, Thomas W.; Yu, Qingchun

    2016-06-01

    In modeling of geological carbon storage, dissolution of supercritical CO2 (scCO2) is often assumed to be instantaneous with equilibrium phase partitioning. In contrast, recent core-scale imbibition experiments have shown a prolonged depletion of residual scCO2 by dissolution, implying a non-equilibrium mechanism. In this study, eight pore-scale scCO2 dissolution experiments in a 2D heterogeneous, sandstone-analog micromodel were conducted at supercritical conditions (9 MPa and 40 °C). The micromodel was first saturated with deionized (DI) water and drained by injecting scCO2 to establish a stable scCO2 saturation. DI water was then injected at constant flow rates after scCO2 drainage was completed. High resolution time-lapse images of scCO2 and water distributions were obtained during imbibition and dissolution, aided by a scCO2-soluble fluorescent dye introduced with scCO2 during drainage. These images were used to estimate scCO2 saturations and scCO2 depletion rates. Experimental results show that (1) a time-independent, varying number of water-flow channels are created during imbibition and later dominant dissolution by the random nature of water flow at the micromodel inlet, and (2) a time-dependent number of water-flow channels are created by coupled imbibition and dissolution following completion of dominant imbibition. The number of water-flow paths, constant or transient in nature, greatly affects the overall depletion rate of scCO2 by dissolution. The average mass fraction of dissolved CO2 (dsCO2) in water effluent varies from 0.38% to 2.72% of CO2 solubility, indicating non-equilibrium scCO2 dissolution in the millimeter-scale pore network. In general, the transient depletion rate decreases as trapped, discontinuous scCO2 bubbles and clusters within water-flow paths dissolve, then remains low with dissolution of large bypassed scCO2 clusters at their interfaces with longitudinal water flow, and finally increases with coupled transverse water flow and

  14. Pore-scale supercritical CO2 dissolution and mass transfer under imbibition conditions

    SciTech Connect

    Chang, Chun; Zhou, Quanlin; Kneafsey, Timothy J.; Oostrom, Mart; Wietsma, Thomas W.; Yu, Qingchun

    2016-06-01

    In modeling of geological carbon storage, dissolution of supercritical CO2 (scCO2) is often assumed to be instantaneous with equilibrium phase partitioning. In contrast, recent core-scale imbibition experiments have shown a prolonged depletion of residual scCO2 by dissolution, implying a non-equilibrium mechanism. In this study, eight pore-scale scCO2 dissolution experiments in a 2D heterogeneous, sandstone-analogue micromodel were conducted at supercritical conditions (9 MPa and 40 °C). The micromodel was first saturated with deionized (DI) water and drained by injecting scCO2 to establish a stable scCO2 saturation. DI water was then injected at constant flow rates after scCO2 drainage was completed. High resolution time-lapse images of scCO2 and water distributions were obtained during imbibition and dissolution, aided by a scCO2-soluble fluorescent dye introduced with scCO2 during drainage. These images were used to estimate scCO2 saturations and scCO2 depletion rates. Experimental results show that (1) a time-independent, varying number of water-flow channels are created during imbibition and later dominant dissolution by the random nature of water flow at the micromodel inlet, and (2) a time-dependent number of water-flow channels are created by coupled imbibition and dissolution following completion of dominant imbibition. The number of water-flow paths, constant or transient in nature, greatly affects the overall depletion rate of scCO2 by dissolution. The average mass fraction of dissolved CO2 (dsCO2) in water effluent varies from 0.38% to 2.72% of CO2 solubility, indicating non-equilibrium scCO2 dissolution in the millimeter-scale pore network. In general, the transient depletion rate decreases as trapped, discontinuous scCO2 bubbles and clusters within water-flow paths dissolve, then remains low with dissolution of large bypassed scCO2 clusters at their interfaces with longitudinal water flow, and finally increases with coupled transverse water flow and

  15. Method and apparatus for two-dimensional absolute optical encoding

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leviton, Douglas B. (Inventor)

    2004-01-01

    This invention presents a two-dimensional absolute optical encoder and a method for determining position of an object in accordance with information from the encoder. The encoder of the present invention comprises a scale having a pattern being predetermined to indicate an absolute location on the scale, means for illuminating the scale, means for forming an image of the pattern; and detector means for outputting signals derived from the portion of the image of the pattern which lies within a field of view of the detector means, the field of view defining an image reference coordinate system, and analyzing means, receiving the signals from the detector means, for determining the absolute location of the object. There are two types of scale patterns presented in this invention: grid type and starfield type.

  16. The potential for optical beam shaping of UV laser sources for mass scale quarantine disinfection applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lizotte, Todd

    2010-08-01

    Recent events concerning H1N1 "swine flu", have demonstrated to the world the significant potential of rapid increases in death and illness among all age groups and even among the healthy population [1] when a highly infectious influenza virus is introduced. In terms of mass casualties due to a pandemic, preparedness and response planning must be done. One course of action to prevent a pandemic outbreak or reduce the impact of a bioterrorist event is the use of isolation or quarantine facilities. The first level of isolation or quarantine is within the personal residence of the person exposed or infected. In the case where, the specific virus is extremely contagious and its onset of symptoms is rapid and severe, there will be a need for the deployment and setup of larger self contained quarantine facilities. Such facilities are used to house infectious individuals to minimize the exposure of susceptible individuals to contagious individuals, especially when specialized care or treatment is required and during the viral shedding period (5 to 7 days). These types of facilities require non-shared air conditioning, heating and ventilating systems where 100% of air is vented to the outside through a series of disinfection systems and staged filters. Although chemical disinfection is possible, there is a desire to incorporate intense UV radiation as a means to deactivate and disinfect airborne virus within hospital settings and isolated mass scale quarantine facilities. UV radiation is also being considered for disinfection of contaminated surfaces, such as table tops, walls and floors in hospitals and temporary quarantine facilities. In such applications the use of UV bulb technology can create many problems, for instance bulb technology requires numerous bulbs to treat a large volume of air, generates significant heat, uses significant power and does not produce large fluxes of UV light efficiently. This paper provides several methods of creating quarantine level

  17. Science 101: Do Balances and Scales Determine an Object's Mass or Its Weight?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robertson, William C.

    2008-01-01

    The typical elementary-school explanation of the difference between mass and weight goes something like the following: Mass is the amount of matter contained in an object. If you travel to the Moon, another planet, or anywhere far away from Earth, your mass doesn't change. Weight is how hard Earth pulls on you. When you travel to the Moon or…

  18. Neutrino footprint in large scale structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garay, Carlos Peña; Verde, Licia; Jimenez, Raul

    2017-03-01

    Recent constrains on the sum of neutrino masses inferred by analyzing cosmological data, show that detecting a non-zero neutrino mass is within reach of forthcoming cosmological surveys. Such a measurement will imply a direct determination of the absolute neutrino mass scale. Physically, the measurement relies on constraining the shape of the matter power spectrum below the neutrino free streaming scale: massive neutrinos erase power at these scales. However, detection of a lack of small-scale power from cosmological data could also be due to a host of other effects. It is therefore of paramount importance to validate neutrinos as the source of power suppression at small scales. We show that, independent on hierarchy, neutrinos always show a footprint on large, linear scales; the exact location and properties are fully specified by the measured power suppression (an astrophysical measurement) and atmospheric neutrinos mass splitting (a neutrino oscillation experiment measurement). This feature cannot be easily mimicked by systematic uncertainties in the cosmological data analysis or modifications in the cosmological model. Therefore the measurement of such a feature, up to 1% relative change in the power spectrum for extreme differences in the mass eigenstates mass ratios, is a smoking gun for confirming the determination of the absolute neutrino mass scale from cosmological observations. It also demonstrates the synergy between astrophysics and particle physics experiments.

  19. Absolute NMR shielding scales and nuclear spin–rotation constants in {sup 175}LuX and {sup 197}AuX (X = {sup 19}F, {sup 35}Cl, {sup 79}Br and {sup 127}I)

    SciTech Connect

    Demissie, Taye B. Komorovsky, Stanislav; Repisky, Michal; Ruud, Kenneth; Jaszuński, Michał

    2015-10-28

    We present nuclear spin–rotation constants, absolute nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) shielding constants, and shielding spans of all the nuclei in {sup 175}LuX and {sup 197}AuX (X = {sup 19}F, {sup 35}Cl, {sup 79}Br, {sup 127}I), calculated using coupled-cluster singles-and-doubles with a perturbative triples (CCSD(T)) correction theory, four-component relativistic density functional theory (relativistic DFT), and non-relativistic DFT. The total nuclear spin–rotation constants determined by adding the relativistic corrections obtained from DFT calculations to the CCSD(T) values are in general in agreement with available experimental data, indicating that the computational approach followed in this study allows us to predict reliable results for the unknown spin–rotation constants in these molecules. The total NMR absolute shielding constants are determined for all the nuclei following the same approach as that applied for the nuclear spin–rotation constants. In most of the molecules, relativistic effects significantly change the computed shielding constants, demonstrating that straightforward application of the non-relativistic formula relating the electronic contribution to the nuclear spin–rotation constants and the paramagnetic contribution to the shielding constants does not yield correct results. We also analyze the origin of the unusually large absolute shielding constant and its relativistic correction of gold in AuF compared to the other gold monohalides.

  20. Absolute NMR shielding scales and nuclear spin-rotation constants in (175)LuX and (197)AuX (X = (19)F, (35)Cl, (79)Br and (127)I).

    PubMed

    Demissie, Taye B; Jaszuński, Michał; Komorovsky, Stanislav; Repisky, Michal; Ruud, Kenneth

    2015-10-28

    We present nuclear spin-rotation constants, absolute nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) shielding constants, and shielding spans of all the nuclei in (175)LuX and (197)AuX (X = (19)F, (35)Cl, (79)Br, (127)I), calculated using coupled-cluster singles-and-doubles with a perturbative triples (CCSD(T)) correction theory, four-component relativistic density functional theory (relativistic DFT), and non-relativistic DFT. The total nuclear spin-rotation constants determined by adding the relativistic corrections obtained from DFT calculations to the CCSD(T) values are in general in agreement with available experimental data, indicating that the computational approach followed in this study allows us to predict reliable results for the unknown spin-rotation constants in these molecules. The total NMR absolute shielding constants are determined for all the nuclei following the same approach as that applied for the nuclear spin-rotation constants. In most of the molecules, relativistic effects significantly change the computed shielding constants, demonstrating that straightforward application of the non-relativistic formula relating the electronic contribution to the nuclear spin-rotation constants and the paramagnetic contribution to the shielding constants does not yield correct results. We also analyze the origin of the unusually large absolute shielding constant and its relativistic correction of gold in AuF compared to the other gold monohalides.

  1. Absolute NMR shielding scales and nuclear spin-rotation constants in 175LuX and 197AuX (X = 19F, 35Cl, 79Br and 127I)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Demissie, Taye B.; Jaszuński, Michał; Komorovsky, Stanislav; Repisky, Michal; Ruud, Kenneth

    2015-10-01

    We present nuclear spin-rotation constants, absolute nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) shielding constants, and shielding spans of all the nuclei in 175LuX and 197AuX (X = 19F, 35Cl, 79Br, 127I), calculated using coupled-cluster singles-and-doubles with a perturbative triples (CCSD(T)) correction theory, four-component relativistic density functional theory (relativistic DFT), and non-relativistic DFT. The total nuclear spin-rotation constants determined by adding the relativistic corrections obtained from DFT calculations to the CCSD(T) values are in general in agreement with available experimental data, indicating that the computational approach followed in this study allows us to predict reliable results for the unknown spin-rotation constants in these molecules. The total NMR absolute shielding constants are determined for all the nuclei following the same approach as that applied for the nuclear spin-rotation constants. In most of the molecules, relativistic effects significantly change the computed shielding constants, demonstrating that straightforward application of the non-relativistic formula relating the electronic contribution to the nuclear spin-rotation constants and the paramagnetic contribution to the shielding constants does not yield correct results. We also analyze the origin of the unusually large absolute shielding constant and its relativistic correction of gold in AuF compared to the other gold monohalides.

  2. Label free screening of enzyme inhibitors at femtomole scale using segmented flow electrospray ionization mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Sun, Shuwen; Slaney, Thomas R; Kennedy, Robert T

    2012-07-03

    Droplet-based microfluidics is an attractive platform for screening and optimizing chemical reactions. Using this approach, it is possible to reliably manipulate nanoliter volume samples and perform operations such as reagent addition with high precision, automation, and throughput. Most studies using droplet microfluidics have relied on optical techniques to detect the reaction; however, this requires engineering color or fluorescence change into the reaction being studied. In this work, we couple electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (ESI-MS) to nanoliter scale segmented flow reactions to enable direct (label-free) analysis of reaction products. The system is applied to a screen of inhibitors for cathepsin B. In this approach, solutions of test compounds (including three known inhibitors) are arranged as an array of nanoliter droplets in a tube segmented by perfluorodecalin. The samples are pumped through a series of tees to add enzyme, substrate (peptides), and quenchant. The resulting reaction mixtures are then infused into a metal-coated, fused silica ESI emitter for MS analysis. The system has potential for high-throughput as reagent addition steps are performed at 0.7 s per sample and ESI-MS at up to 1.2 s per sample. Carryover is inconsequential in the ESI emitter and between 2 and 9% per reagent addition depending on the tee utilized. The assay was reliable with a Z-factor of ~0.8. The method required 0.8 pmol of test compound, 1.6 pmol of substrate, and 5 fmol of enzyme per reaction. Segmented flow ESI-MS allows direct, label free screening of reactions at good throughput and ultralow sample consumption.

  3. Higgs mass, superconnections, and the TeV-scale left-right symmetric model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aydemir, Ufuk; Minic, Djordje; Sun, Chen; Takeuchi, Tatsu

    2015-02-01

    We discuss the physical implications of formulating the Standard Model (SM) in terms of the superconnection formalism involving the superalgebra s u (2 /1 ). In particular, we discuss the prediction of the Higgs mass according to the formalism and point out that it is ˜170 GeV , in clear disagreement with experiment. To remedy this problem, we extend the formalism to the superalgebra s u (2 /2 ), which extends the SM to the left-right symmetric model (LRSM) and accommodates a ˜126 GeV Higgs boson. Both the SM in the s u (2 /1 ) case and the LRSM in the s u (2 /2 ) case are argued to emerge at ˜4 TeV from an underlying theory in which the spacetime geometry is modified by the addition of a discrete extra dimension. The formulation of the exterior derivative in this model space suggests a deep connection between the modified geometry, which can be described in the language of noncommutative geometry, and the spontaneous breaking of the gauge symmetries. The implication is that spontaneous symmetry breaking could actually be geometric/quantum gravitational in nature. The nondecoupling phenomenon seen in the Higgs sector can then be reinterpreted in a new light as due to the mixing of low energy (SM) physics and high energy physics associated with quantum gravity, such as string theory. The phenomenology of a TeV scale LRSM is also discussed, and we argue that some exciting discoveries may await us at the LHC, and other near-future experiments.

  4. Physical properties and evolutionary time scales of disks around solar-type and intermediate mass stars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Strom, Stephen E.; Edwards, Suzan

    1993-01-01

    Recent observations of circumstellar disks and their evolutionary timescales are reviewed. It is concluded that disks appear to be a natural outcome of the star-formation process. The disks surrounding young stars initially are massive, with optically thick structures comprised of gas and micron-sized grains. Disk masses are found to range from 0.01 to 0.2 solar masses for solar-type PMS stars, and from 0.01 to 6 solar masses for young, intermediate mass stars. Massive, optically thick accretion disks have accretion rates between 10 exp -8 and 10 exp -6 solar masses/yr for solar type PMS stars and between 10 exp -6 and 10 exp -4 solar masses/yr for intermediate stars. The results suggest that a significant fraction of the mass comprising the star may have passed through a circumstellar accretion disk.

  5. Absolute classification with unsupervised clustering

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jeon, Byeungwoo; Landgrebe, D. A.

    1992-01-01

    An absolute classification algorithm is proposed in which the class definition through training samples or otherwise is required only for a particular class of interest. The absolute classification is considered as a problem of unsupervised clustering when one cluster is known initially. The definitions and statistics of the other classes are automatically developed through the weighted unsupervised clustering procedure, which is developed to keep the cluster corresponding to the class of interest from losing its identity as the class of interest. Once all the classes are developed, a conventional relative classifier such as the maximum-likelihood classifier is used in the classification.

  6. Scaling of convex hull volume to body mass in modern primates, non-primate mammals and birds.

    PubMed

    Brassey, Charlotte A; Sellers, William I

    2014-01-01

    The volumetric method of 'convex hulling' has recently been put forward as a mass prediction technique for fossil vertebrates. Convex hulling involves the calculation of minimum convex hull volumes (vol(CH)) from the complete mounted skeletons of modern museum specimens, which are subsequently regressed against body mass (Mb) to derive predictive equations for extinct species. The convex hulling technique has recently been applied to estimate body mass in giant sauropods and fossil ratites, however the biomechanical signal contained within vol(CH) has remained unclear. Specifically, when vol(CH) scaling departs from isometry in a group of vertebrates, how might this be interpreted? Here we derive predictive equations for primates, non-primate mammals and birds and compare the scaling behaviour of Mb to volCH between groups. We find predictive equations to be characterised by extremely high correlation coefficients (r(2) = 0.97-0.99) and low mean percentage prediction error (11-20%). Results suggest non-primate mammals scale body mass to volCH isometrically (b = 0.92, 95%CI = 0.85-1.00, p = 0.08). Birds scale body mass to volCH with negative allometry (b = 0.81, 95%CI = 0.70-0.91, p = 0.011) and apparent density (volCH/Mb) therefore decreases with mass (r(2) = 0.36, p<0.05). In contrast, primates scale body mass to vol(CH) with positive allometry (b = 1.07, 95%CI = 1.01-1.12, p = 0.05) and apparent density therefore increases with size (r(2) = 0.46, p = 0.025). We interpret such departures from isometry in the context of the 'missing mass' of soft tissues that are excluded from the convex hulling process. We conclude that the convex hulling technique can be justifiably applied to the fossil record when a large proportion of the skeleton is preserved. However we emphasise the need for future studies to quantify interspecific variation in the distribution of soft tissues such as muscle, integument and body fat.

  7. A field comparison of BTEX mass flow rates based on integral pumping tests and point scale measurements.

    PubMed

    Dietze, Michael; Dietrich, Peter

    2011-03-25

    Measuring contaminant flow rates at control cross sections is the most accurate method to evaluate natural attenuation processes in the saturated subsurface. In most instances, point scale measurement is the method of choice due to practical reasons and cost factors. However, at many field sites, the monitoring network is too sparse for a reliable estimation of contaminant and groundwater flow rates. Therefore, integral pumping tests have been developed as an alternative. In this study, we compare mass flow rates obtained by integral pumping test results and point scale data. We compare results of both methods with regard to uncertainties due to estimation errors and mass flow estimations based on two different point scale networks. The differences between benzene and groundwater flow rate estimates resulting from point scale samples and integral pumping tests were 6.44% and 6.97%, respectively, demonstrating the applicability of both methods at the site. Point scale-based data, especially with use of cost efficient Direct-Push technique, can be applied to show the contaminant distribution at a site and may be followed by a denser point scale network or an integral method. Nevertheless, a combination of both methods decreases uncertainties.

  8. Integral Length and Time Scales of Velocity, Heat and Mass At and Near a Turbulent Free Surface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Curtis, G. M.; Zappa, C. J.; Variano, E. A.

    2010-12-01

    Turbulence enhances both heat and CO2 gas exchange at a free surface. At the air-water interface, heat and mass transport is controlled by a thin thermal/diffusive boundary layer. Turbulence in the flow acts to thin the heat and mass boundary layers, thereby increasing the rate at which surface water is mixed into the bulk. Surface water is typically cool, and mixing replaces it with warmer water from the bulk. In our experiment, and in many environmental cases, the surface has a higher concentration of dissolved CO2 and carbonate species. . The dissolved gas is transported between the surface and bulk in a similar way to the heat. Because of this similarity, attempts are often made to find and exploit a relationship between the heat and mass transfer. Using a laboratory tank, which generates turbulence with very low mean shear flow, we measured heat and mass transfer by using infrared imagery to map the two-dimensional surface temperature field and by using planar laser-induced fluorescence (PLIF) to map the two-dimensional subsurface CO2 flux. In addition, particle image velocimetry (PIV) was used to measure subsurface velocity fields. A comparative analysis of these results allows us to determine the similarities and differences between heat, mass, and momentum transport at a free surface. This will contribute to the use of one quantity to predict transport of the others. The setup used here, i.e., turbulence with very low mean shear at the surface, allows us to evaluate the turbulent components of interfacial flux in a way that can be applied equally well to flows created by wind, waves, or current. Here, we quantify the integral length and time scales of the surface temperature and sub-surface CO2 and velocity measurements. Initial analysis shows that the integral length scales of temperature at the surface are significantly smaller than the sub-surface velocity scales. However, the integral scale of sub-surface velocity decreases approaching the surface. The

  9. Large-scale inhomogeneity in sapphire test masses revealed by Rayleigh scattering imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yan, Zewu; Ju, Li; Eon, François; Gras, Slawomir; Zhao, Chunnong; Jacob, John; Blair, David G.

    2004-03-01

    Rayleigh scattering in test masses can introduce noise and reduce the sensitivity of laser interferometric gravitational wave detectors. In this paper, we present laser Rayleigh scattering imaging as a technique to investigate sapphire test masses. The system provides three-dimensional Rayleigh scattering mapping of entire test masses and quantitative evaluation of the Rayleigh scattering coefficient. Rayleigh scattering mapping of two sapphire samples reveals point defects as well as inhomogeneous structures in the samples. We present results showing significant non-uniform scattering within two 4.5 kg sapphire test masses manufactured by the heat exchanger method.

  10. A large scale test dataset to determine optimal retention index threshold based on three mass spectral similarity measures

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Jun; Koo, Imhoi; Wang, Bing; Gao, Qing-Wei; Zheng, Chun-Hou; Zhang, Xiang

    2012-01-01

    Retention index (RI) is useful for metabolite identification. However, when RI is integrated with mass spectral similarity for metabolite identification, many controversial RI threshold setup are reported in literatures. In this study, a large scale test dataset of 5844 compounds with both mass spectra and RI information were created from National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) repetitive mass spectra (MS) and RI library. Three MS similarity measures: NIST composite measure, the real part of Discrete Fourier Transform (DFT.R) and the detail of Discrete Wavelet Transform (DWT.D) were used to investigate the accuracy of compound identification using the test dataset. To imitate real identification experiments, NIST MS main library was employed as reference library and the test dataset was used as search data. Our study shows that the optimal RI thresholds are 22, 15, and 15 i.u. for the NIST composite, DFT.R and DWT.D measures, respectively, when the RI and mass spectral similarity are integrated for compound identification. Compared to the mass spectrum matching, using both RI and mass spectral matching can improve the identification accuracy by 1.7%, 3.5%, and 3.5% for the three mass spectral similarity measures, respectively. It is concluded that the improvement of RI matching for compound identification heavily depends on the method of MS spectral similarity measure and the accuracy of RI data. PMID:22771253

  11. Absolute transition probabilities of phosphorus.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, M. H.; Roig, R. A.; Bengtson, R. D.

    1971-01-01

    Use of a gas-driven shock tube to measure the absolute strengths of 21 P I lines and 126 P II lines (from 3300 to 6900 A). Accuracy for prominent, isolated neutral and ionic lines is estimated to be 28 to 40% and 18 to 30%, respectively. The data and the corresponding theoretical predictions are examined for conformity with the sum rules.-

  12. Relativistic Absolutism in Moral Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vogt, W. Paul

    1982-01-01

    Discusses Emile Durkheim's "Moral Education: A Study in the Theory and Application of the Sociology of Education," which holds that morally healthy societies may vary in culture and organization but must possess absolute rules of moral behavior. Compares this moral theory with current theory and practice of American educators. (MJL)

  13. Scaling of the photon index vs. mass accretion rate correlation and estimate of black hole mass in M101 ULX-1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Titarchuk, Lev; Seifina, Elena

    2016-01-01

    We report the results of Swift and Chandra observations of an ultraluminous X-ray source, ULX-1 in M101. We show strong observational evidence that M101 ULX-1 undergoes spectral transitions from the low/hard state to the high/soft state during these observations. The spectra of M101 ULX-1 are well fitted by the so-called bulk motion Comptonization (BMC) model for all spectral states. We have established the photon index (Γ) saturation level, Γsat = 2.8 ± 0.1, in the Γ versus mass accretion rate (Ṁ) correlation. This Γ-Ṁ correlation allows us to evaluate black hole (BH) mass in M101 ULX-1 to be MBH ~ (3.2-4.3) × 104 M⊙, assuming the spread in distance to M101 (from 6.4 ± 0.5 Mpc to 7.4 ± 0.6 Mpc). For this BH mass estimate we apply the scaling method, using Galactic BHs XTE J1550-564, H 1743-322 and 4U 1630-472 as reference sources. The Γ vs. Ṁ correlation revealed in M101 ULX-1 is similar to that in a number of Galactic BHs and clearly exhibits the correlation along with the strong Γ saturation at ≈ 2.8. This is robust observational evidence for the presence of a BH in M101 ULX-1. We also find that the seed (disk) photon temperatures are low, on the order of 40-100 eV, which is consistent with high BH mass in M101 ULX-1. Thus, we suggest that the central object in M101 ULX-1 has intermediate BH mass on the order of 104 solar masses.

  14. Scaling of Convex Hull Volume to Body Mass in Modern Primates, Non-Primate Mammals and Birds

    PubMed Central

    Brassey, Charlotte A.; Sellers, William I.

    2014-01-01

    The volumetric method of ‘convex hulling’ has recently been put forward as a mass prediction technique for fossil vertebrates. Convex hulling involves the calculation of minimum convex hull volumes (volCH) from the complete mounted skeletons of modern museum specimens, which are subsequently regressed against body mass (Mb) to derive predictive equations for extinct species. The convex hulling technique has recently been applied to estimate body mass in giant sauropods and fossil ratites, however the biomechanical signal contained within volCH has remained unclear. Specifically, when volCH scaling departs from isometry in a group of vertebrates, how might this be interpreted? Here we derive predictive equations for primates, non-primate mammals and birds and compare the scaling behaviour of Mb to volCH between groups. We find predictive equations to be characterised by extremely high correlation coefficients (r2 = 0.97–0.99) and low mean percentage prediction error (11–20%). Results suggest non-primate mammals scale body mass to volCH isometrically (b = 0.92, 95%CI = 0.85–1.00, p = 0.08). Birds scale body mass to volCH with negative allometry (b = 0.81, 95%CI = 0.70–0.91, p = 0.011) and apparent density (volCH/Mb) therefore decreases with mass (r2 = 0.36, p<0.05). In contrast, primates scale body mass to volCH with positive allometry (b = 1.07, 95%CI = 1.01–1.12, p = 0.05) and apparent density therefore increases with size (r2 = 0.46, p = 0.025). We interpret such departures from isometry in the context of the ‘missing mass’ of soft tissues that are excluded from the convex hulling process. We conclude that the convex hulling technique can be justifiably applied to the fossil record when a large proportion of the skeleton is preserved. However we emphasise the need for future studies to quantify interspecific variation in the distribution of soft tissues such as muscle, integument and body fat

  15. Absolute limit on rotation of gravitationally bound stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Glendenning, N. K.

    1994-03-01

    The authors seek an absolute limit on the rotational period for a neutron star as a function of its mass, based on the minimal constraints imposed by Einstein's theory of relativity, Le Chatelier's principle, causality, and a low-density equation of state, uncertainties which can be evaluated as to their effect on the result. This establishes a limiting curve in the mass-period plane below which no pulsar that is a neutron star can lie. For example, the minimum possible Kepler period, which is an absolute limit on rotation below which mass-shedding would occur, is 0.33 ms for a M = 1.442 solar mass neutron star (the mass of PSR1913+16). If the limit were found to be broken by any pulsar, it would signal that the confined hadronic phase of ordinary nucleons and nuclei is only metastable.

  16. NMSPEC: A Fortran code for the sparticle and Higgs masses in the NMSSM with GUT scale boundary conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ellwanger, Ulrich; Hugonie, Cyril

    2007-08-01

    NMSPEC is a Fortran code that computes the sparticle and Higgs masses, as well as Higgs decay widths and couplings in the NMSSM, with soft SUSY breaking terms specified at M. Exceptions are the soft singlet mass ms2 and the singlet self-coupling κ, that are both determined in terms of the other parameters through the minimization equations of the Higgs potential. We present a first analysis of the NMSSM parameter space with universal SUSY breaking terms at M—except for m and A—that passes present experimental constraints on sparticle and Higgs masses. We discuss in some detail a region in parameter space where a SM-like Higgs boson decays dominantly into two CP odd singlet-like Higgs states. Program summaryManuscript title: NMSPEC: A Fortran code for the sparticle and Higgs masses in the NMSSM with GUT scale boundary conditions Authors: Ulrich Ellwanger, Cyril Hugonie Program title: NMSPEC Catalogue identifier: ADZD_v1_0 Program summary URL:http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/summaries/ADZD_v1_0.html Program obtainable from: CPC Program Library, Queen's University, Belfast, N. Ireland Licensing provisions: Standard CPC licence, http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/licence/licence.html No. of lines in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 121 539 No. of bytes in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 1 560 340 Distribution format: tar.gz Programming language: FORTRAN Computer: Mac, PC, Sun, Dec, Alpha Operating system: Mac OSC, Linux, Unix, Windows RAM: 2M bytes Keywords: Supersymmetry, Higgs masses, sparticle masses, NMSSM PACS: 12.60.Jv, 14.80.Cp, 14.80.Ly Classification: 11.6 Nature of problem: Computation of the Higgs and Sparticle spectrum in the NMSSM with GUT scale boundary conditions, check of theoretical and experimental constraints. Solution method: Integration of the RGEs for all couplings and mass terms from the GUT scale to the Susy scale using a modified Runge-Kutta method; computation and diagonalization of all mass matrices including up to two loop

  17. Large-scale identification of proteins in human salivary proteome by liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry and two-dimensional gel electrophoresis-mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Hu, Shen; Xie, Yongming; Ramachandran, Prasanna; Ogorzalek Loo, Rachel R; Li, Yang; Loo, Joseph A; Wong, David T

    2005-04-01

    Human saliva contains a large number of proteins and peptides (salivary proteome) that help maintain homeostasis in the oral cavity. Global analysis of human salivary proteome is important for understanding oral health and disease pathogenesis. In this study, large-scale identification of salivary proteins was demonstrated by using shotgun proteomics and two-dimensinal gel electrophoresis-mass spectrometry (2-DE-MS). For the shotgun approach, whole saliva proteins were prefractionated according to molecular weight. The smallest fraction, presumably containing salivary peptides, was directly separated by capillary liquid chromatography (LC). However, the large protein fractions were digested into peptides for subsequent LC separation. Separated peptides were analyzed by on-line electrospray tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS) using a quadrupole-time of flight mass spectrometer, and the obtained spectra were automatically processed to search human protein sequence database for protein identification. Additionally, 2-DE was used to map out the proteins in whole saliva. Protein spots 105 in number were excised and in-gel digested; and the resulting peptide fragments were measured by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization-mass spectrometry and sequenced by LC-MS/MS for protein identification. In total, we cataloged 309 proteins from human whole saliva by using these two proteomic approaches.

  18. Taking care of business in a flash: constraining the time-scale for low-mass satellite quenching with ELVIS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fillingham, Sean P.; Cooper, Michael C.; Wheeler, Coral; Garrison-Kimmel, Shea; Boylan-Kolchin, Michael; Bullock, James S.

    2015-12-01

    The vast majority of dwarf satellites orbiting the Milky Way and M31 are quenched, while comparable galaxies in the field are gas rich and star forming. Assuming that this dichotomy is driven by environmental quenching, we use the Exploring the Local Volume in Simulations (ELVIS) suite of N-body simulations to constrain the characteristic time-scale upon which satellites must quench following infall into the virial volumes of their hosts. The high satellite quenched fraction observed in the Local Group demands an extremely short quenching time-scale (˜2 Gyr) for dwarf satellites in the mass range M⋆ ˜ 106-108 M⊙. This quenching time-scale is significantly shorter than that required to explain the quenched fraction of more massive satellites (˜8 Gyr), both in the Local Group and in more massive host haloes, suggesting a dramatic change in the dominant satellite quenching mechanism at M⋆ ≲ 108 M⊙. Combining our work with the results of complementary analyses in the literature, we conclude that the suppression of star formation in massive satellites (M⋆ ˜ 108-1011 M⊙) is broadly consistent with being driven by starvation, such that the satellite quenching time-scale corresponds to the cold gas depletion time. Below a critical stellar mass scale of ˜108 M⊙, however, the required quenching times are much shorter than the expected cold gas depletion times. Instead, quenching must act on a time-scale comparable to the dynamical time of the host halo. We posit that ram-pressure stripping can naturally explain this behaviour, with the critical mass (of M⋆ ˜ 108 M⊙) corresponding to haloes with gravitational restoring forces that are too weak to overcome the drag force encountered when moving through an extended, hot circumgalactic medium.

  19. The absolute threshold of cone vision

    PubMed Central

    Koeing, Darran; Hofer, Heidi

    2013-01-01

    We report measurements of the absolute threshold of cone vision, which has been previously underestimated due to sub-optimal conditions or overly strict subjective response criteria. We avoided these limitations by using optimized stimuli and experimental conditions while having subjects respond within a rating scale framework. Small (1′ fwhm), brief (34 msec), monochromatic (550 nm) stimuli were foveally presented at multiple intensities in dark-adapted retina for 5 subjects. For comparison, 4 subjects underwent similar testing with rod-optimized stimuli. Cone absolute threshold, that is, the minimum light energy for which subjects were just able to detect a visual stimulus with any response criterion, was 203 ± 38 photons at the cornea, ∼0.47 log units lower than previously reported. Two-alternative forced-choice measurements in a subset of subjects yielded consistent results. Cone thresholds were less responsive to criterion changes than rod thresholds, suggesting a limit to the stimulus information recoverable from the cone mosaic in addition to the limit imposed by Poisson noise. Results were consistent with expectations for detection in the face of stimulus uncertainty. We discuss implications of these findings for modeling the first stages of human cone vision and interpreting psychophysical data acquired with adaptive optics at the spatial scale of the receptor mosaic. PMID:21270115

  20. Determination of Black Hole Mass in Cyg X-1 by Scaling of Spectral Index-QPO Frequency Correlation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shaposhnikov, Nickolai; Titarchuk, Lev

    2007-01-01

    It is well established that timing and spectral properties of Galactic Black Hole (BH) X-ray binaries (XRB) are strongly correlated. In particular, it has been shown that low frequency Quasi-Periodic Oscillation (QPO) nu(sub low) - photon index GAMMA correlation curves have a specific pattern. In a number of the sources studied the shape of the index-low frequency QPO correlations are self-similar with a position offset in the nu(sub low) - GAMMA plane determined by a BH mass M(sub BH). Specifically, Titarchuk & Fiorito (2004) gave strong theoretical and observational arguments that the QPO frequency values in this nu(sub low) - GAMMA correlation should be inversely proportional to M(sub BH). A simple translation of the correlation for a given source along frequency axis leads to the observed correlation for another source. As a result of this translation one can obtain a scaling factor which is simply a BH mass ratio for these particular sources. This property of the correlations offers a fundamentally new method for BH mass determination in XRBs. Here we use the observed QPO-index correlations observed in three BH sources: GRO J1655-40, GRS 1915+105 and Cyg X-1. The BH mass of (6.3 plus or minus 0.5) solar mass in GRO J1655-40 is obtained using optical observations. RXTE observations during the recent 2005 outburst yielded sufficient data to establish the correlation pattern during both rise and decay of the event. We use GRO J1655-40 as a standard reference source to measure the BH mass in Cyg X-1. We also revisit the GRS 1915+105 data as a further test of our scaling method. We obtain the BH mass in Cyg X-1 in the range 7.6-9.9.

  1. Molecular mass dependence of point-to-set correlation length scale in polymers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hanson, Ben; Pryamitsyn, Victor; Ganesan, Venkat

    2012-08-01

    We use a recently proposed metric, termed the point-to-set correlation functions, to probe the molecular weight dependence of the relevant static length scales in glass-forming oligomeric chain liquids of 4, 5, 8, and 10 repeat units. In agreement with the results for simple, monatomic fluids, we find that static length scales of the oligomers increase monotonically when the temperature is lowered towards the glass transition temperature of the fluid. More interestingly, the static length scale increases with increasing chain length. Within the bounds of error in our simulations, the static length scale appears to scale as the radius of gyration of the oligomer, but with a prefactor, which is much larger than unity and which grows with the temperature. The preceding behavior contrasts with the length scales extracted from the radial distribution function of the oligomer system, which is practically independent of the chain length.

  2. Exploring Scale Effect Using Geographically Weighted Regression on Mass Dataset of Urban Robbery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yavuz, Ö.; Tecim, V.

    2013-05-01

    Urban geographers have been studying to explain factors influencing crime on cases limited by their study areas. Researchers have a common opinion that explanatory variables modelling crime on those cases might be irrelevant for another one. None of the researchers tested significance of these variables with changing scales of the study area. Because their data did not allow them to study with different scales. This research examines the scale effect with various data from a wide range of data sources. Geographically Weighted Regression (GWR) method is used to explain that effect, after organizing data by Geographical Information System (GIS) technologies. Explanatory variables deduced for district scale are different from those for grid scale. Hence, the explanatory variables may change not only for different geographical areas but also for different scales of the same area.

  3. Measurement of the High-Mass Drell-Yan Cross Section and Limits on Quark-Electron Compositeness Scales

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abbott, B.; Abolins, M.; Abramov, V.; Acharya, B. S.; Adam, I.; Adams, D. L.; Adams, M.; Ahn, S.; Aihara, H.; Alves, G. A.; Amos, N.; Anderson, E. W.; Baarmand, M. M.; Babintsev, V. V.; Babukhadia, L.; Baden, A.; Baldin, B.; Banerjee, S.; Bantly, J.; Barberis, E.; Baringer, P.; Bartlett, J. F.; Belyaev, A.; Beri, S. B.; Bertram, I.; Bezzubov, V. A.; Bhat, P. C.; Bhatnagar, V.; Bhattacharjee, M.; Biswas, N.; Blazey, G.; Blessing, S.; Bloom, P.; Boehnlein, A.; Bojko, N. I.; Borcherding, F.; Boswell, C.; Brandt, A.; Breedon, R.; Brock, R.; Bross, A.; Buchholz, D.; Burtovoi, V. S.; Butler, J. M.; Carvalho, W.; Casey, D.; Casilum, Z.; Castilla-Valdez, H.; Chakraborty, D.; Chang, S.-M.; Chekulaev, S. V.; Chen, W.; Choi, S.; Chopra, S.; Choudhary, B. C.; Christenson, J. H.; Chung, M.; Claes, D.; Clark, A. R.; Cobau, W. G.; Cochran, J.; Coney, L.; Cooper, W. E.; Cretsinger, C.; Cullen-Vidal, D.; Cummings, M. A.; Cutts, D.; Dahl, O. I.; Davis, K.; de, K.; del Signore, K.; Demarteau, M.; Denisov, D.; Denisov, S. P.; Diehl, H. T.; Diesburg, M.; di Loreto, G.; Draper, P.; Ducros, Y.; Dudko, L. V.; Dugad, S. R.; Dyshkant, A.; Edmunds, D.; Ellison, J.; Elvira, V. D.; Engelmann, R.; Eno, S.; Eppley, G.; Ermolov, P.; Eroshin, O. V.; Evdokimov, V. N.; Fahland, T.; Fatyga, M. K.; Feher, S.; Fein, D.; Ferbel, T.; Finocchiaro, G.; Fisk, H. E.; Fisyak, Y.; Flattum, E.; Forden, G. E.; Fortner, M.; Frame, K. C.; Fuess, S.; Gallas, E.; Galyaev, A. N.; Gartung, P.; Gavrilov, V.; Geld, T. L.; Genik, R. J.; Genser, K.; Gerber, C. E.; Gershtein, Y.; Gibbard, B.; Gobbi, B.; Gómez, B.; Gómez, G.; Goncharov, P. I.; González Solís, J. L.; Gordon, H.; Goss, L. T.; Gounder, K.; Goussiou, A.; Graf, N.; Grannis, P. D.; Green, D. R.; Greenlee, H.; Grinstein, S.; Grudberg, P.; Grünendahl, S.; Guglielmo, G.; Guida, J. A.; Guida, J. M.; Gupta, A.; Gurzhiev, S. N.; Gutierrez, G.; Gutierrez, P.; Hadley, N. J.; Haggerty, H.; Hagopian, S.; Hagopian, V.; Hahn, K. S.; Hall, R. E.; Hanlet, P.; Hansen, S.; Hauptman, J. M.; Hedin, D.; Heinson, A. P.; Heintz, U.; Hernández-Montoya, R.; Heuring, T.; Hirosky, R.; Hobbs, J. D.; Hoeneisen, B.; Hoftun, J. S.; Hsieh, F.; Hu, Tong; Ito, A. S.; Jaques, J.; Jerger, S. A.; Jesik, R.; Joffe-Minor, T.; Johns, K.; Johnson, M.; Jonckheere, A.; Jones, M.; Jöstlein, H.; Jun, S. Y.; Jung, C. K.; Kahn, S.; Kalbfleisch, G.; Karmanov, D.; Karmgard, D.; Kehoe, R.; Kelly, M. L.; Kim, S. K.; Klima, B.; Klopfenstein, C.; Ko, W.; Kohli, J. M.; Koltick, D.; Kostritskiy, A. V.; Kotcher, J.; Kotwal, A. V.; Kozelov, A. V.; Kozlovsky, E. A.; Krane, J.; Krishnaswamy, M. R.; Krzywdzinski, S.; Kuleshov, S.; Kulik, Y.; Kunori, S.; Landry, F.; Landsberg, G.; Lauer, B.; Leflat, A.; Li, J.; Li, Q. Z.; Lima, J. G.; Lincoln, D.; Linn, S. L.; Linnemann, J.; Lipton, R.; Lobkowicz, F.; Loken, S. C.; Lucotte, A.; Lueking, L.; Lyon, A. L.; Maciel, A. K.; Madaras, R. J.; Madden, R.; Magaña-Mendoza, L.; Manankov, V.; Mani, S.; Mao, H. S.; Markeloff, R.; Marshall, T.; Martin, M. I.; Mauritz, K. M.; May, B.; Mayorov, A. A.; McCarthy, R.; McDonald, J.; McKibben, T.; McKinley, J.; McMahon, T.; Melanson, H. L.; Merkin, M.; Merritt, K. W.; Miao, C.; Miettinen, H.; Mincer, A.; Mishra, C. S.; Mokhov, N.; Mondal, N. K.; Montgomery, H. E.; Mooney, P.; Mostafa, M.; da Motta, H.; Murphy, C.; Nang, F.; Narain, M.; Narasimham, V. S.; Narayanan, A.; Neal, H. A.; Negret, J. P.; Nemethy, P.; Norman, D.; Oesch, L.; Oguri, V.; Oliveira, E.; Oltman, E.; Oshima, N.; Owen, D.; Padley, P.; Para, A.; Park, Y. M.; Partridge, R.; Parua, N.; Paterno, M.; Pawlik, B.; Perkins, J.; Peters, M.; Piegaia, R.; Piekarz, H.; Pischalnikov, Y.; Pope, B. G.; Prosper, H. B.; Protopopescu, S.; Qian, J.; Quintas, P. Z.; Raja, R.; Rajagopalan, S.; Ramirez, O.; Reucroft, S.; Rijssenbeek, M.; Rockwell, T.; Roco, M.; Rubinov, P.; Ruchti, R.; Rutherfoord, J.; Sánchez-Hernández, A.; Santoro, A.; Sawyer, L.; Schamberger, R. D.; Schellman, H.; Sculli, J.; Shabalina, E.; Shaffer, C.; Shankar, H. C.; Shivpuri, R. K.; Shpakov, D.; Shupe, M.; Singh, H.; Singh, J. B.; Sirotenko, V.; Smith, E.; Smith, R. P.; Snihur, R.; Snow, G. R.; Snow, J.; Snyder, S.; Solomon, J.; Sosebee, M.; Sotnikova, N.; Souza, M.; Steinbrück, G.; Stephens, R. W.; Stevenson, M. L.; Stichelbaut, F.; Stoker, D.; Stolin, V.; Stoyanova, D. A.; Strauss, M.; Streets, K.; Strovink, M.; Sznajder, A.; Tamburello, P.; Tarazi, J.; Tartaglia, M.; Thomas, T. L.; Thompson, J.; Trippe, T. G.; Tuts, P. M.; Vaniev, V.; Varelas, N.; Varnes, E. W.; Vititoe, D.; Volkov, A. A.; Vorobiev, A. P.; Wahl, H. D.; Wang, G.; Warchol, J.; Watts, G.; Wayne, M.; Weerts, H.; White, A.; White, J. T.; Wightman, J. A.; Willis, S.; Wimpenny, S. J.; Wirjawan, J. V.; Womersley, J.; Won, E.; Wood, D. R.; Wu, Z.; Yamada, R.; Yamin, P.; Yasuda, T.; Yepes, P.

    1999-06-01

    We present a measurement of the Drell-Yan cross section at high dielectron invariant mass using 120 pb -1 of data collected in pp¯ collisions at s = 1.8 TeV by the D0 Collaboration during 1992-1996. No deviation from standard model expectations is observed. We use the data to set limits on the quark-electron compositeness scale. The 95% confidence level lower limits on the compositeness scale vary between 3.3 and 6.1 TeV depending on the assumed form of the effective contact interaction.

  4. Determining Absolute Zero Using a Tuning Fork

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goldader, Jeffrey D.

    2008-04-01

    The Celsius and Kelvin temperature scales, we tell our students, are related. We explain that a change in temperature of 1°C corresponds to a change of 1 Kelvin and that atoms and molecules have zero kinetic energy at zero Kelvin, -273°C. In this paper, we will show how students can derive the relationship between the Celsius and Kelvin temperature scales using a simple, well-known physics experiment. By making multiple measurements of the speed of sound at different temperatures, using the classic physics experiment of determining the speed of sound with a tuning fork and variable-length tube, they can determine the temperature at which the speed of sound is zero—absolute zero.

  5. An estimate of global absolute dynamic topography

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tai, C.-K.; Wunsch, C.

    1984-01-01

    The absolute dynamic topography of the world ocean is estimated from the largest scales to a short-wavelength cutoff of about 6700 km for the period July through September, 1978. The data base consisted of the time-averaged sea-surface topography determined by Seasat and geoid estimates made at the Goddard Space Flight Center. The issues are those of accuracy and resolution. Use of the altimetric surface as a geoid estimate beyond the short-wavelength cutoff reduces the spectral leakage in the estimated dynamic topography from erroneous small-scale geoid estimates without contaminating the low wavenumbers. Comparison of the result with a similarly filtered version of Levitus' (1982) historical average dynamic topography shows good qualitative agreement. There is quantitative disagreement, but it is within the estimated errors of both methods of calculation.

  6. MAGNETIC FIELD PROPERTIES IN HIGH-MASS STAR FORMATION FROM LARGE TO SMALL SCALES: A STATISTICAL ANALYSIS FROM POLARIZATION DATA

    SciTech Connect

    Koch, Patrick M.; Tang, Ya-Wen; Ho, Paul T. P.

    2010-09-20

    Polarization data from high-mass star formation regions (W51 e2/e8, Orion BN/KL) are used to derive statistical properties of the plane of sky projected magnetic field. Structure function and auto-correlation function are calculated for observations with various resolutions from the BIMA and SMA interferometers, covering a range in physical scales from {approx}70 mpc to {approx}2.1 mpc. Results for the magnetic field turbulent dispersion, its turbulent-to-mean field strength ratio, and the large-scale polarization angle correlation length are presented as a function of the physical scale at the star formation sites. Power-law scaling relations emerge for some of these physical quantities. The turbulent-to-mean field strength ratio is found to be close to constant over the sampled observing range, with a hint of a decrease toward smaller scales, indicating that the role of the magnetic field and turbulence is evolving with the physical scale. A statistical method is proposed to separate large- and small-scale correlations from an initial ensemble of polarization segments. This also leads to a definition of a turbulent polarization angle correlation length.

  7. Stepping in Elton's footprints: a general scaling model for body masses and trophic levels across ecosystems.

    PubMed

    Riede, Jens O; Brose, Ulrich; Ebenman, Bo; Jacob, Ute; Thompson, Ross; Townsend, Colin R; Jonsson, Tomas

    2011-02-01

    Despite growing awareness of the significance of body-size and predator-prey body-mass ratios for the stability of ecological networks, our understanding of their distribution within ecosystems is incomplete. Here, we study the relationships between predator and prey size, body-mass ratios and predator trophic levels using body-mass estimates of 1313 predators (invertebrates, ectotherm and endotherm vertebrates) from 35 food-webs (marine, stream, lake and terrestrial). Across all ecosystem and predator types, except for streams (which appear to have a different size structure in their predator-prey interactions), we find that (1) geometric mean prey mass increases with predator mass with a power-law exponent greater than unity and (2) predator size increases with trophic level. Consistent with our theoretical derivations, we show that the quantitative nature of these relationships implies systematic decreases in predator-prey body-mass ratios with the trophic level of the predator. Thus, predators are, on an average, more similar in size to their prey at the top of food-webs than that closer to the base. These findings contradict the traditional Eltonian paradigm and have implications for our understanding of body-mass constraints on food-web topology, community dynamics and stability.

  8. Comparison of direct and geodetic mass balances on an annual time scale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fischer, A.; Schneider, H.; Merkel, G.; Sailer, R.

    2011-02-01

    Very accurate airborne laserscanning (ALS) elevation data was used to calculate the annual volume changes for Hintereisferner and Kesselwandferner in the Ötztal Alps, Austria for 2001/2002-2008/2009. The comparison of the altitude of 51 recently GPS surveyed ground control points showed that the accuracy of the ALS DEMs is better than 0.3 m. The geodetic mass balance was calculated from the volume change using detailed maps of the firn cover and applying corrections for the seasonal snow cover. The maximum snow height at the time of the elevation data flight was 0.5 m averaged over the glacier surface. The volume change data was compared to in situ mass balance data for the total area and at the stakes. For the total period of 8 yr, the difference between the geodetic and the direct mass balance is 2.398 m w.e. on Hintereisferner and 1.380 m w.e. on Kesselwandferner, corresponding to about two times the mean annual mass balance. The vertical ice flow velocity was measured and found to be on the same order of magnitude as the mass balance at KWF. This is an indicator that volume change data does not allow the calculation of ablation or accumulation rates without detailed measurements or models of the vertical ice flow velocity. Therefore, only direct mass balance data allow process studies or investigation of the climatic controls of the resulting mass changes.

  9. Time-scale of changes in Antarctic and Greenland ice sheet mass balance.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rignot, E. J.

    2011-12-01

    I review estimates of ice sheet mass balance during the time period 1992 to 2011 and how the data record has been extended to 1957 in Greenland and 1975 in Antarctica. The long record from the mass budget method calculates the difference between surface mass balance reconstructed from regional atmospheric climate models - I will review why such models are more accurate than prior reconstructions of surface mass balance - with the ice discharge deduced from the flux of ice across the grounding line of major outlet glaciers. Over the time period 2002-2011, we compare this record with the GRACE data and find an excellent agreement in mass, mass loss, and acceleration in mass loss for both the Greenland and Antarctic ice sheets, excluding surrounding glaciers and ice caps. Comparison of GRACE and the flux method suggests that 9 years of GRACE data are sufficient to extract long-term trends, except perhaps in Antarctica; 20 years of data significantly reduces the uncertainty in estimated acceleration of the mass loss; and longer time periods are essential to detect potential changes in precipitation in Antarctica. From these results, it is clear that monitoring ice sheet mass balance over several decades is critical. We have only begun this effort in the 1990s with the advent of new satellites. The 2007-2009 IPY provided a new impetus for polar research and international collaboration that must be continued well into the 21rst century and also include major observational gaps that will limit progress in providing more realistic predictions of ice sheet evolution.

  10. Experimental scaling law for mass ablation rate from a Sn plasma generated by a 1064 nm laser

    SciTech Connect

    Burdt, Russell A.; Yuspeh, Sam; Najmabadi, Farrokh; Sequoia, Kevin L.; Tao Yezheng; Tillack, Mark S.

    2009-08-01

    The ablation depth in planar Sn targets irradiated with a pulsed 1064 nm laser was investigated over laser intensities from 3x10{sup 11} to 2x10{sup 12} W/cm{sup 2}. The ablation depth was measured by irradiating a thin layer of Sn evaporated onto a Si wafer, and looking for signatures of Si ions in the expanding plasma with spectroscopic and particle diagnostics. It was found that ablation depth scales with laser intensity to the (5/9)th power, which is consistent with analytical models of steady-state laser ablation, as well as empirical formulae from previous studies of mass ablation rate in overlapping parameter space. In addition, the scaling of mass ablation rate with atomic number of the target as given by empirical formulae in previous studies using targets such as C and Al, are shown to remain valid for the higher atomic number of the target (Z=50) used in these experiments.

  11. Improved scaling laws for stage inert mass of space propulsion systems. Volume 2: System modeling and weight data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1971-01-01

    Technical models and analytical approaches used to develop the weight data for vehicle system concepts using advanced technology are reported. Weight data are supplied for the following major system elements: engine, pressurization, propellant containers, structural shells and secondary structure, and environmental protection shields for the meteoroid and thermal design requirements. Scaling laws, improved and a simplified set, are developed from the system weight data. The laws consider the implications of the major design parameters and mission requirements on the stage inert mass.

  12. Herschel -ATLAS: revealing dust build-up and decline across gas, dust and stellar mass selected samples - I. Scaling relations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Vis, P.; Dunne, L.; Maddox, S.; Gomez, H. L.; Clark, C. J. R.; Bauer, A. E.; Viaene, S.; Schofield, S. P.; Baes, M.; Baker, A. J.; Bourne, N.; Driver, S. P.; Dye, S.; Eales, S. A.; Furlanetto, C.; Ivison, R. J.; Robotham, A. S. G.; Rowlands, K.; Smith, D. J. B.; Smith, M. W. L.; Valiante, E.; Wright, A. H.

    2017-02-01

    We present a study of the dust, stars and atomic gas (H I) in an H I-selected sample of local galaxies (z < 0.035) in the Herschel Astrophysical Terahertz Large Area Survey fields. This H I-selected sample reveals a population of very high gas fraction (>80 per cent), low stellar mass sources that appear to be in the earliest stages of their evolution. We compare this sample with dust- and stellar-mass-selected samples to study the dust and gas scaling relations over a wide range of gas fractions (proxy for evolutionary state of a galaxy). The most robust scaling relations for gas and dust are those linked to near-ultraviolet - r (specific star formation rate) and gas fraction; these do not depend on sample selection or environment. At the highest gas fractions, our additional sample shows that the dust content is well below expectations from extrapolating scaling relations for more evolved sources, and dust is not a good tracer of the gas content. The specific dust mass for local galaxies peaks at a gas fraction of ˜75 per cent. The atomic gas depletion time is also longer for high gas fraction galaxies, opposite to the trend found for molecular gas depletion time-scale. We link this trend to the changing efficiency of conversion of H I to H2 as galaxies increase in stellar mass surface density during their evolution. Finally, we show that galaxies start out barely obscured and increase in obscuration as they evolve, yet there is no clear and simple link between obscuration and global galaxy properties.

  13. Emanations of dark matter: Muon anomalous magnetic moment, radiative neutrino mass, and novel leptogenesis at the TeV scale

    SciTech Connect

    Hambye, Thomas; Kannike, Kristjan; Raidal, Martti; Ma, Ernest

    2007-05-01

    The evidence for dark matter signals a new class of particles at the TeV scale, which may manifest themselves indirectly through loop effects. In a simple model we show that these loop effects may be responsible for the enhanced muon anomalous magnetic moment, for the neutrino mass, as well as for leptogenesis in a novel way. This scenario can be verified at LHC and/or ILC experiments.

  14. The dynamics of superclusters - Initial determination of the mass density of the universe at large scales

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ford, H. C.; Ciardullo, R.; Harms, R. J.; Bartko, F.

    1981-01-01

    The radial velocities of cluster members of two rich, large superclusters have been measured in order to probe the supercluster mass densities, and simple evolutionary models have been computed to place limits upon the mass density within each supercluster. These superclusters represent true physical associations of size of about 100 Mpc seen presently at an early stage of evolution. One supercluster is weakly bound, the other probably barely bound, but possibly marginally unbound. Gravity has noticeably slowed the Hubble expansion of both superclusters. Galaxy surface-density counts and the density enhancement of Abell clusters within each supercluster were used to derive the ratio of mass densities of the superclusters to the mean field mass density. The results strongly exclude a closed universe.

  15. Comparison of direct and geodetic mass balances on a multi-annual time scale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fischer, A.

    2011-02-01

    The geodetic mass balances of six Austrian glaciers over 19 periods between 1953 and 2006 are compared to the direct mass balances over the same periods. For two glaciers, Hintereisferner and Kesselwandferner, case studies showing possible reasons for discrepancies between the geodetic and the direct mass balance are presented. The mean annual geodetic mass balance for all periods is -0.5 m w.e. a-1, the mean annual direct mass balance -0.4 m w.e. a-1. The mean cumulative difference is -0.6 m w.e., the minimum -7.3 m w.e., and the maximum 5.6 m w.e. The accuracy of geodetic mass balance may depend on the accuracy of the DEMs, which ranges from 2 m w.e. for photogrammetric data to 0.02 m w.e. for airborne laser scanning (LiDAR) data. Basal melt, seasonal snow cover, and density changes of the surface layer also contribute up to 0.7 m w.e. to the difference between the two methods over the investigated period of 10 yr. On Hintereisferner, the fraction of area covered by snow or firn has been changing within 1953-2006. The accumulation area is not identical with the firn area, and both are not coincident with areas of volume gain. Longer periods between the acquisition of the DEMs do not necessarily result in a higher accuracy of the geodetic mass balance. Trends in the difference between the direct and the geodetic data vary from glacier to glacier and can differ systematically for specific glaciers under specific types of climate forcing. Ultimately, geodetic and direct mass balance data are complementary, and great care must be taken when attempting to combine them.

  16. LoCuSS: THE SUNYAEV-ZEL'DOVICH EFFECT AND WEAK-LENSING MASS SCALING RELATION

    SciTech Connect

    Marrone, Daniel P.; Carlstrom, John E.; Gralla, Megan; Greer, Christopher H.; Hennessy, Ryan; Leitch, Erik M.; Plagge, Thomas; Smith, Graham P.; Okabe, Nobuhiro; Bonamente, Massimiliano; Hasler, Nicole; Culverhouse, Thomas L.; Hawkins, David; Lamb, James W.; Muchovej, Stephen; Joy, Marshall; Martino, Rossella; Mazzotta, Pasquale; Miller, Amber; Mroczkowski, Tony; and others

    2012-08-01

    We present the first weak-lensing-based scaling relation between galaxy cluster mass, M{sub WL}, and integrated Compton parameter Y{sub sph}. Observations of 18 galaxy clusters at z {approx_equal} 0.2 were obtained with the Subaru 8.2 m telescope and the Sunyaev-Zel'dovich Array. The M{sub WL}-Y{sub sph} scaling relations, measured at {Delta} = 500, 1000, and 2500 {rho}{sub c}, are consistent in slope and normalization with previous results derived under the assumption of hydrostatic equilibrium (HSE). We find an intrinsic scatter in M{sub WL} at fixed Y{sub sph} of 20%, larger than both previous measurements of M{sub HSE}-Y{sub sph} scatter as well as the scatter in true mass at fixed Y{sub sph} found in simulations. Moreover, the scatter in our lensing-based scaling relations is morphology dependent, with 30%-40% larger M{sub WL} for undisturbed compared to disturbed clusters at the same Y{sub sph} at r{sub 500}. Further examination suggests that the segregation may be explained by the inability of our spherical lens models to faithfully describe the three-dimensional structure of the clusters, in particular, the structure along the line of sight. We find that the ellipticity of the brightest cluster galaxy, a proxy for halo orientation, correlates well with the offset in mass from the mean scaling relation, which supports this picture. This provides empirical evidence that line-of-sight projection effects are an important systematic uncertainty in lensing-based scaling relations.

  17. Modelling Energy Loss Mechanisms and a Determination of the Electron Energy Scale for the CDF Run II W Mass Measurement

    SciTech Connect

    Riddick, Thomas

    2012-06-15

    The calibration of the calorimeter energy scale is vital to measuring the mass of the W boson at CDF Run II. For the second measurement of the W boson mass at CDF Run II, two independent simulations were developed. This thesis presents a detailed description of the modification and validation of Bremsstrahlung and pair production modelling in one of these simulations, UCL Fast Simulation, comparing to both geant4 and real data where appropriate. The total systematic uncertainty on the measurement of the W boson mass in the W → eve channel from residual inaccuracies in Bremsstrahlung modelling is estimated as 6.2 ±3.2 MeV/c2 and the total systematic uncertainty from residual inaccuracies in pair production modelling is estimated as 2.8± 2.7 MeV=c2. Two independent methods are used to calibrate the calorimeter energy scale in UCL Fast Simulation; the results of these two methods are compared to produce a measurement of the Z boson mass as a cross-check on the accuracy of the simulation.

  18. An experimental scale-model study of seismic response of an underground opening in jointed rock mass

    SciTech Connect

    Kana, D.D.; Fox, D.J.; Hsiung, S.; Chowdhury, A.H.

    1997-02-01

    This report describes an experimental investigation conducted by the Center for Nuclear Waste Regulatory Analyses (CNWRA) to (i) obtain a better understanding of the seismic response of an underground opening in a highly-fractured and jointed rock mass and (ii) generate a data set that can be used to evaluate the capabilities (analytical methods) to calculate such response. This report describes the design and implementation of simulated seismic experiments and results for a 1/15 scale model of a jointed rock mass with a circular tunnel in the middle. The discussion on the design of the scale model includes a description of the associated similitude theory, physical design rationale, model material development, preliminary analytical evaluation, instrumentation design and calibration, and model assembly and pretest procedures. The thrust of this discussion is intended to provide the information necessary to understand the experimental setup and to provide the background necessary to understand the experimental results. The discussion on the experimental procedures and results includes the seismic input test procedures, test runs, and measured excitation and response time histories. The closure of the tunnel due to various levels of seismic activity is presented. A threshold level of seismic input amplitude was required before significant rock mass motion occurred. The experiment, though designed as a two-dimensional representation of a rock mass, behaved in a somewhat three-dimensional manner, which will have an effect on subsequent analytical model comparison.

  19. Absolute calibration of optical flats

    DOEpatents

    Sommargren, Gary E.

    2005-04-05

    The invention uses the phase shifting diffraction interferometer (PSDI) to provide a true point-by-point measurement of absolute flatness over the surface of optical flats. Beams exiting the fiber optics in a PSDI have perfect spherical wavefronts. The measurement beam is reflected from the optical flat and passed through an auxiliary optic to then be combined with the reference beam on a CCD. The combined beams include phase errors due to both the optic under test and the auxiliary optic. Standard phase extraction algorithms are used to calculate this combined phase error. The optical flat is then removed from the system and the measurement fiber is moved to recombine the two beams. The newly combined beams include only the phase errors due to the auxiliary optic. When the second phase measurement is subtracted from the first phase measurement, the absolute phase error of the optical flat is obtained.

  20. The Absolute Spectrum Polarimeter (ASP)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kogut, A. J.

    2010-01-01

    The Absolute Spectrum Polarimeter (ASP) is an Explorer-class mission to map the absolute intensity and linear polarization of the cosmic microwave background and diffuse astrophysical foregrounds over the full sky from 30 GHz to 5 THz. The principal science goal is the detection and characterization of linear polarization from an inflationary epoch in the early universe, with tensor-to-scalar ratio r much greater than 1O(raised to the power of { -3}) and Compton distortion y < 10 (raised to the power of{-6}). We describe the ASP instrument and mission architecture needed to detect the signature of an inflationary epoch in the early universe using only 4 semiconductor bolometers.

  1. Physics of negative absolute temperatures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abraham, Eitan; Penrose, Oliver

    2017-01-01

    Negative absolute temperatures were introduced into experimental physics by Purcell and Pound, who successfully applied this concept to nuclear spins; nevertheless, the concept has proved controversial: a recent article aroused considerable interest by its claim, based on a classical entropy formula (the "volume entropy") due to Gibbs, that negative temperatures violated basic principles of statistical thermodynamics. Here we give a thermodynamic analysis that confirms the negative-temperature interpretation of the Purcell-Pound experiments. We also examine the principal arguments that have been advanced against the negative temperature concept; we find that these arguments are not logically compelling, and moreover that the underlying "volume" entropy formula leads to predictions inconsistent with existing experimental results on nuclear spins. We conclude that, despite the counterarguments, negative absolute temperatures make good theoretical sense and did occur in the experiments designed to produce them.

  2. Optomechanics for absolute rotation detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davuluri, Sankar

    2016-07-01

    In this article, we present an application of optomechanical cavity for the absolute rotation detection. The optomechanical cavity is arranged in a Michelson interferometer in such a way that the classical centrifugal force due to rotation changes the length of the optomechanical cavity. The change in the cavity length induces a shift in the frequency of the cavity mode. The phase shift corresponding to the frequency shift in the cavity mode is measured at the interferometer output to estimate the angular velocity of absolute rotation. We derived an analytic expression to estimate the minimum detectable rotation rate in our scheme for a given optomechanical cavity. Temperature dependence of the rotation detection sensitivity is studied.

  3. An effective indicator of continental scale cold air outbreaks in northern winter: the intensity variation of the meridional mass circulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ren, R.; Yu, Y.; Cai, M.

    2015-12-01

    This study reports that the intensity variation of the meridional mass circulation can be an effective leading indicator of cold air outbreaks (CAOs) over midlatitudes in northern winter. It is found that continental-scale coldness by cold air outbreaks (CAOs) tend to preferentially occur within a week after stronger mass circulation events defined as the peak time when the net mass transport across 60°N in the upper warm or the lower cold air branch exceeds ~88×109 kg s-1. During weaker mass circulation events when the net mass transport across 60°N is below ~71.6×109 kg s-1, most areas of the mid-latitudes are generally in mild condition except the northern part of Western Europe. Composite pattern of circulation anomalies during stronger mass circulation events greatly resemble that of the winter-mean, with the two main routes of anomalous cold air outbreaks being along the climatological routes of polar cold air, namely, via East Asia and North America. The Siberian High shifts westward during stronger mass circulation events, opening up a third route of cold air outbreaks through Eastern Europe. The relationship of CAOs with Arctic Oscillation (AO) is less robust because temporal changes of AO are resulted from a small imbalance between the poleward and equatorward branches of the mass circulation. Only when the poleward branch leads the equatorward branch (44% of all cases), CAOs tend to take place within a week after a negative phase of AO. The daily ERA-Interim reanalysis data set for the 32 winters in 1979-2011 were used in this study.

  4. Detailed comparison of the geodetic and direct glaciological mass balances on an annual time scale at Hintereisferner, Austria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klug, Christoph; Bollmann, Erik; Galos, Stephan; Kaser, Georg; Prinz, Rainer; Rieg, Lorenzo; Sailer, Rudolf

    2016-04-01

    The quantification of glacier mass changes is fundamental for glacier monitoring and provides important information for climate change assessments, hydrological applications and sea-level changes. On Alpine glaciers two methods of measuring glacier mass changes are widely applied: the direct glaciological method and the geodetic method. Over the last decades several studies compared the mass balance estimates obtained by both methods to identify and correct stochastic and systematic errors. In almost all of these studies, the time span for comparison between the two methods is about one decade or longer. On Hintereisferner (HEF; Ötztal Alps, Austria) mass balance measurements were initiated in the glaciological year 1952/53, resulting in a consistent mass balance data set with an estimated accuracy of ±0.2 m w.e. a-1. Furthermore, 11 airborne laser scanning (ALS) campaigns were conducted between 2001 and 2011 at HEF, all consistent in accuracy as well as in precision (± 0.04 to 0.10 m for slopes ≤ 50°). This is a world-wide unique ALS dataset of a glacierized alpine catchment. Flight campaigns were performed close to the end of the hydrological year (30th September). Resulting data provide high quality topographic information to derive glacier mass changes by applying the geodetic method. On sub-decadal time-scales such method comparisons are rare, or reveal unexplainable large discrepancies between both mass balance methods. In this study we estimate stochastic and systematic uncertainties of the ALS data for processing volume changes, and quantify methodological differences, such as density assumptions, unequal measurement dates, crevasses and glacier dynamics. Hence, we present a method to compare direct glaciological and geodetic mass balances on an annual basis. In a first step, we calculate the annual geodetic mass balance of HEF between 2001 and 2011, resulting in a thickness change map of the glacier. In a second step, the snow cover, which has

  5. Surface mass balance on Fimbul ice shelf, East Antarctica: Comparison of field measurements and large-scale studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sinisalo, Anna; Anschütz, Helgard; Aasen, Anne Târând; Langley, Kirsty; Deschwanden, Angela; Kohler, Jack; Matsuoka, Kenichi; Hamran, Svein-Erik; Øyan, Mats-Jørgen; Schlosser, Elisabeth; Hagen, Jon Ove; Nøst, Ole Anders; Isaksson, Elisabeth

    2013-10-01

    challenges remain for estimating the Antarctic ice sheet surface mass balance (SMB), which represents a major uncertainty in predictions of future sea-level rise. Validating continental scale studies is hampered by the sparse distribution of in situ data. Here we present a 26 year mean SMB of the Fimbul ice shelf in East Antarctica between 1983-2009, and recent interannual variability since 2010. We compare these data to the results of large-scale SMB studies for similar time periods, obtained from regional atmospheric modeling and remote sensing. Our in situ data include ground penetrating radar, firn cores, and mass balance stakes and provide information on both temporal and spatial scales. The 26 year mean SMB on the Fimbul ice shelf varies between 170 and 620 kg m-2 a-1 giving a regional average value of 310 ± 70 kg m-2 a-1. Our measurements indicate higher long-term accumulation over large parts of the ice shelf compared to the large-scale studies. We also show that the variability of the mean annual SMB, which can be up to 90%, can be a dominant factor in short-term estimates. The results emphasize the importance of using a combination of ground-based validation data, regional climate models, and remote sensing over a relevant time period in order to achieve a reliable SMB for Antarctica.

  6. Comparison of direct and geodetic mass balances on a multi-annual time scale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fischer, A.

    2010-07-01

    Glacier mass balance is measured with the direct or the geodetic method. In this study, the geodetic mass balances of six Austrian glaciers in 19 periods between 1953 and 2006 are compared to the direct mass balances in the same periods. The mean annual geodetic mass balance for all periods is -0.5 m w.e./year. The mean difference between the geodetic and the direct data is -0.7 m w.e., the minimum -7.3 m w.e. and the maximum 5.6 m w.e. The accuracy of geodetic mass balance resulting from the accuracy of the DEMs ranges from 2 m w.e. for photogrammetric data to 0.002 m w.e. for LIDAR data. Basal melt, seasonal snow cover and density changes of the surface layer contribute up to 0.7 m w.e. for the period of 10 years to the difference to the direct method. The characteristics of published data of Griesgletscher, Gulkana Glacier, Lemon Creek glacier, South Cascade, Storbreen, Storglaciären, and Zongo Glacier is similar to these Austrian glaciers. For 26 analyzed periods with an average length of 18 years the mean difference between the geodetic and the direct data is -0.4 m w.e., the minimum -7.2 m w.e. and the maximum 3.6 m w.e. Longer periods between the acquisition of the DEMs do not necessarily result in a higher accuracy of the geodetic mass balance. Specific glaciers show specific trends of the difference between the direct and the geodetic data according to their type and state. In conclusion, geodetic and direct mass balance data are complementary, but differ systematically.

  7. Large-scale transport of a CO-enhanced air mass from Europe to the Middle East

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Connors, V. S.; Miles, T.; Reichle, H. G., Jr.

    1989-01-01

    On November 14, 1981, the shuttle-borne Measurement of Air Pollution from Satellites (MAPS) experiment observed a carbon monoxide (CO) enhanced air mass in the middle troposphere over the Middle East. The primary source of this polluted air was estimated by constructing adiabatic isentropic trajectories backwards from the MAPS measurement location over a 36 h period. The isentropic diagnostics indicate that CO-enhanced air was transported southeastward over the Mediterranean from an organized synoptic-scale weather regime, albeit of moderate intensity, influencing central Europe on November 12. Examination of the evolving synoptic scale vertical velocity and precipitation patterns during this period, in conjuction with Meteosat visible, infrared, and water vapor imagery, suggests that the presence of this disturbed weather system over Europe may have created upward transport of CO-enhanced air between the boundary-layer and midtropospheric levels, and subsequent entrainment in the large-scale northwesterly jet stream flow over Europe and the Mediterranean.

  8. On the risk of false positive identification using multiple ion monitoring in qualitative mass spectrometry: large-scale intercomparisons with a comprehensive mass spectral library.

    PubMed

    Stein, Stephen E; Heller, David N

    2006-06-01

    Analysts involved in qualitative mass spectrometry have long debated the minimum data requirements for demonstrating that signals from an unknown sample are identical to those from a known compound. Often this process is carried out by comparing a few selected ions acquired by multiple ion monitoring (MIM), with due allowance for expected variability in response. In a few past experiments with electron-ionization mass spectrometry (EI-MS), the number of ions selected and the allowable variability in relative abundance were tested by comparing one spectrum against a library of mass spectra, where library spectra served to represent potential false positive signals in an analysis. We extended these experiments by carrying out large-scale intercomparisons between thousands of spectra and a library of one hundred thousand EI mass spectra. The results were analyzed to gain insights into the identification confidence associated with various numbers of selected ions. A new parameter was investigated for the first time, to take into account that a library spectrum with a different base peak than the search spectrum may still cause a false positive identification. The influence of peak correlation among the specific ions in all the library mass spectra was also studied. Our computations showed that (1) false positive identifications can result from similar compounds, or low-abundance peaks in unrelated compounds if the method calls for detection at very low levels; (2) a MIM method's identification confidence improves in a roughly continuous manner as more ions are monitored, about one order of magnitude for each additional ion selected; (3) full scan spectra still represent the best alternative, if instrument sensitivity is adequate. The use of large scale intercomparisons with a comprehensive library is the only way to provide direct evidence in support of these conclusions, which otherwise depend on the judgment and experience of individual analysts. There are

  9. Scales

    MedlinePlus

    Scales are a visible peeling or flaking of outer skin layers. These layers are called the stratum ... Scales may be caused by dry skin, certain inflammatory skin conditions, or infections. Eczema , ringworm , and psoriasis ...

  10. Absolute limit on rotation of gravitationally bound stars

    SciTech Connect

    Glendenning, N.K.

    1994-03-01

    The authors seek an absolute limit on the rotational period for a neutron star as a function of its mass, based on the minimal constraints imposed by Einstein`s theory of relativity, Le Chatelier`s principle, causality and a low-density equation of state, uncertainties which can be evaluated as to their effect on the result. This establishes a limiting curve in the mass-period plane below which no pulsar that is a neutron star can lie. For example, the minimum possible Kepler period, which is an absolute limit on rotation below which mass-shedding would occur, is 0.33 ms for a M = 1.442 M{circle_dot} neutron star (the mass of PSR1913+16). If the limit were found to be broken by any pulsar, it would signal that the confined hadronic phase of ordinary nucleons and nuclei is only metastable, an extraordinary conclusion.

  11. [Estimation of absolute risk for fracture].

    PubMed

    Fujiwara, Saeko

    2009-03-01

    Osteoporosis treatment aims to prevent fractures and maintain the QOL of the elderly. However, persons at high risk of future fracture cannot be effectively identified on the basis of bone density (BMD) alone, although BMD is used as an diagnostic criterion. Therefore, the WHO recommended that absolute risk for fracture (10-year probability of fracture) for each individual be evaluated and used as an index for intervention threshold. The 10-year probability of fracture is calculated based on age, sex, BMD at the femoral neck (body mass index if BMD is not available), history of previous fractures, parental hip fracture history, smoking, steroid use, rheumatoid arthritis, secondary osteoporosis and alcohol consumption. The WHO has just announced the development of a calculation tool (FRAX: WHO Fracture Risk Assessment Tool) in February this year. Fractures could be prevented more effectively if, based on each country's medical circumstances, an absolute risk value for fracture to determine when to start medical treatment is established and persons at high risk of fracture are identified and treated accordingly.

  12. Final scientific and technical report: New experiments to measure the neutrino mass scale

    SciTech Connect

    Monreal, Benjamin

    2016-11-19

    In this work, we made material progress towards future measurements of the mass of the neutrino. The neutrino is a fundamental particle, first observed in the 1950s and subjected to particularly intense study over the past 20 years. It is now known to have some, non-zero mass, but we are in an unusual situation of knowing the mass exists but not knowing what value it takes. The mass may be determined by precise measurements of certain radioactive decay distributions, particularly the beta decay of tritium. The KATRIN experiment is an international project which is nearing the beginning of a tritium measurement campaign using a large electrostatic spectrumeter. This research included participation in KATRIN, including construction and delivery of a key calibration subsystem, the ``Rear Section''. To obtain sensitivity beyond KATRIN's, new techniques are required; this work included R\\&D on a new technique we call CRES (Cyclotron Resonance Electron Spectroscopy) which has promise to enable even-more-sensitive tritium decay measurements. We successfully carried out CRES spectroscopy in a model system in 2014, making an important step towards the design of a next-generation tritium experiment with new neutrino mass measurement abilities.

  13. Constraining the physical structure of the inner few 100 AU scales of deeply embedded low-mass protostars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Persson, M. V.; Harsono, D.; Tobin, J. J.; van Dishoeck, E. F.; Jørgensen, J. K.; Murillo, N.; Lai, S.-P.

    2016-05-01

    Context. The physical structure of deeply embedded low-mass protostars (Class 0) on scales of less than 300 AU is still poorly constrained. While molecular line observations demonstrate the presence of disks with Keplerian rotation toward a handful of sources, others show no hint of rotation. Determining the structure on small scales (a few 100 AU) is crucial for understanding the physical and chemical evolution from cores to disks. Aims: We determine the presence and characteristics of compact, disk-like structures in deeply embedded low-mass protostars. A related goal is investigating how the derived structure affects the determination of gas-phase molecular abundances on hot-core scales. Methods: Two models of the emission, a Gaussian disk intensity distribution and a parametrized power-law disk model, are fitted to subarcsecond resolution interferometric continuum observations of five Class 0 sources, including one source with a confirmed Keplerian disk. Prior to fitting the models to the de-projected real visibilities, the estimated envelope from an independent model and any companion sources are subtracted. For reference, a spherically symmetric single power-law envelope is fitted to the larger scale emission (~1000 AU) and investigated further for one of the sources on smaller scales. Results: The radii of the fitted disk-like structures range from ~90-170 AU, and the derived masses depend on the method. Using the Gaussian disk model results in masses of 54-556 × 10-3 M⊙, and using the power-law disk model gives 9-140 × 10-3 M⊙. While the disk radii agree with previous estimates the masses are different for some of the sources studied. Assuming a typical temperature distribution (r-0.5), the fractional amount of mass in the disk above 100 K varies from 7% to 30%. Conclusions: A thin disk model can approximate the emission and physical structure in the inner few 100 AU scales of the studied deeply embedded low-mass protostars and paves the way for

  14. TeV-scale seesaw mechanism catalyzed by the electron mass

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grimus, W.; Lavoura, L.

    2010-04-01

    We construct a model in which the neutrino Dirac mass terms are of order the electron mass and the seesaw mechanism proceeds via right-handed neutrinos with masses of order TeV. In our model the spectra of the three light and of the three heavy neutrinos are closely related. Since the mixing between light and heavy neutrinos is small, the model predicts no effects in pp and ppbar colliders. Possible signatures of the model are the lepton-number-violating process ee→HH, where H is a charged scalar particle, lepton-flavour-violating decays like μ→eee, or a sizable contribution to the anomalous magnetic dipole moment of the muon.

  15. Advances in the Metrology of Absolute Value Assignments to Isotopic Reference Materials: Consequences from the Avogadro Project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vocke, Robert; Rabb, Savelas

    2015-04-01

    All isotope amount ratios (hereafter referred to as isotope ratios) produced and measured on any mass spectrometer are biased. This unfortunate situation results mainly from the physical processes in the source area where ions are produced. Because the ionized atoms in poly-isotopic elements have different masses, such processes are typically mass dependent and lead to what is commonly referred to as mass fractionation (for thermal ionization and electron impact sources) and mass bias (for inductively coupled plasma sources.) This biasing process produces a measured isotope ratio that is either larger or smaller than the "true" ratio in the sample. This has led to the development of numerous fractionation "laws" that seek to correct for these effects, many of which are not based on the physical processes giving rise to the biases. The search for tighter and reproducible precisions has led to two isotope ratio measurement systems that exist side-by-side. One still seeks to measure "absolute" isotope ratios while the other utilizes an artifact based measurement system called a delta-scale. The common element between these two measurement systems is the utilization of isotope reference materials (iRMs). These iRMs are used to validate a fractionation "law" in the former case and function as a scale anchor in the latter. Many value assignments of iRMs are based on "best measurements" by the original groups producing the reference material, a not entirely satisfactory approach. Other iRMs, with absolute isotope ratio values, have been produced by calibrated measurements following the Atomic Weight approach (AW) pioneered by NBS nearly 50 years ago. Unfortunately, the AW is not capable of calibrating the new generation of iRMs to sufficient precision. So how do we get iRMs with isotope ratios of sufficient precision and without bias? Such a focus is not to denigrate the extremely precise delta-scale measurements presently being made on non-traditional and tradition

  16. On exact and approximated formulations for scaling-mode shapes in operational modal analysis by mass and stiffness change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    López-Aenlle, M.; Brincker, R.; Pelayo, F.; Canteli, A. F.

    2012-01-01

    When operational modal analysis (OMA) is used to estimate modal parameters, mode shapes cannot be mass normalized. In the past few years, some equations have been proposed to scale mode shapes using the mass-change method, which consists of repeating modal testing after changing the mass at different points of the structure where the mode shapes are known. In this paper, the structural-dynamic-modification theory is used to derive a set of equations, from which all the existing formulations can be derived. It is shown that the known equations can be divided into two types, the exact and the approximated equations, where the former type does in fact fulfill the equations derived from the theory of structural modification, whereas the remaining equations do not, mainly because the change of the mode shapes of the modified structure is not properly taken into account. By simulations, the paper illustrates the large difference in accuracy between the approximate and the exact formulations. The paper provides two new exact formulations for the scaling factors, one for the non-modified structure and - for the first time in the literature - one for the modified structure. The simulations indicate the influence of errors from the measured natural frequencies and mode shapes on the estimation of the scaling factors using the two exact formulations from the literature and the new exact formulation proposed in this paper. In addition, the paper illustrates statistics of the errors on mode-shape scaling. All simulations were carried out using a plate with closely spaced modes.

  17. Absolute Proteome Composition and Dynamics during Dormancy and Resuscitation of Mycobacterium tuberculosis.

    PubMed

    Schubert, Olga T; Ludwig, Christina; Kogadeeva, Maria; Zimmermann, Michael; Rosenberger, George; Gengenbacher, Martin; Gillet, Ludovic C; Collins, Ben C; Röst, Hannes L; Kaufmann, Stefan H E; Sauer, Uwe; Aebersold, Ruedi

    2015-07-08

    Mycobacterium tuberculosis remains a health concern due to its ability to enter a non-replicative dormant state linked to drug resistance. Understanding transitions into and out of dormancy will inform therapeutic strategies. We implemented a universally applicable, label-free approach to estimate absolute cellular protein concentrations on a proteome-wide scale based on SWATH mass spectrometry. We applied this approach to examine proteomic reorganization of M. tuberculosis during exponential growth, hypoxia-induced dormancy, and resuscitation. The resulting data set covering >2,000 proteins reveals how protein biomass is distributed among cellular functions during these states. The stress-induced DosR regulon contributes 20% to cellular protein content during dormancy, whereas ribosomal proteins remain largely unchanged at 5%-7%. Absolute protein concentrations furthermore allow protein alterations to be translated into changes in maximal enzymatic reaction velocities, enhancing understanding of metabolic adaptations. Thus, global absolute protein measurements provide a quantitative description of microbial states, which can support the development of therapeutic interventions.

  18. THE SMALL-SCALE PHYSICAL STRUCTURE AND FRAGMENTATION DIFFERENCE OF TWO EMBEDDED INTERMEDIATE-MASS PROTOSTARS IN ORION

    SciTech Connect

    Van Kempen, T. A.; Longmore, S. N.; Johnstone, D.; Pillai, T.; Fuente, A.

    2012-06-01

    Intermediate-mass (IM) protostars, the bridge between the very common solar-like protostars and the more massive, but rarer, O and B stars, can only be studied at high physical spatial resolutions in a handful of clouds. In this paper, we present and analyze the continuum results from an observing campaign at the Submillimeter Array (SMA) targeting two well-studied IM protostars in Orion, NGC 2071 and L1641 S3 MMS 1. The extended SMA (eSMA) probes structure at angular resolutions up to 0.''2, revealing protostellar disks on scales of {approx}200 AU. Continuum flux measurements on these scales indicate that a significant amount of mass, a few tens of M{sub Sun }, is present. Envelope, stellar, and disk masses are derived using compact, extended, and eSMA configurations and compared against spectral energy distribution fitting models. We hypothesize that fragmentation into three components occurred within NGC 2071 at an early time, when the envelopes were less than 10% of their current masses, e.g., <0.5 M{sub Sun }. No fragmentation occurred for L1641 S3 MMS 1. For NGC 2071, evidence is given that the bulk of the envelope material currently around each source was accreted after the initial fragmentation. In addition, about 30% of the total core mass is not yet associated to one of the three sources. A global accretion model is favored and a potential accretion history of NGC 2071 is presented. It is shown that the relatively low level of fragmentation in NGC 2071 was stifled compared to the expected fragmentation from a Jeans argument. Similarly, the lack of fragmentation in L1641 S3 MMS 1 is likely due to similar arguments.

  19. Oxygen mass transfer and scale-up studies in baffled roller bioreactors.

    PubMed

    Nikakhtari, H; Song, W; Nemati, M; Hill, G A

    2014-02-01

    Oxygen mass transfer was studied in conventional, bead mill and baffled roller bioreactors. Using central composite rotational design, impacts of size, rotation speed and working volume on the oxygen mass transfer were evaluated. Baffled roller bioreactor outperformed its conventional and bead mill counterparts, with the highest k(L)a obtained in these configurations being 0.58, 0.19, 0.41 min(-1), respectively. Performances of the bead mill and baffled roller bioreactor were only comparable when a high bead loading (40%) was applied. Regardless of configuration increase in rotation speed and decrease in working volume improved the oxygen mass transfer rate. Increase in size led to enhanced mass transfer and higher k(L)a in baffled roller bioreactor (0.49 min(-1) for 2.2 L and 1.31 min(-1) for 55 L bioreactors). Finally, the experimentally determined k(L)a in the baffled roller bioreactors of different sizes fit reasonably well to an empirical correlation describing the k(L)a in terms of dimensionless numbers.

  20. Mixing and mass transfer in a pilot scale U-loop bioreactor.

    PubMed

    Petersen, Leander A H; Villadsen, John; Jørgensen, Sten B; Gernaey, Krist V

    2017-02-01

    A system capable of handling a large volumetric gas fraction while providing a high gas to liquid mass transfer is a necessity if the metanotrophic bacterium Methylococcus capsulatus is to be used in single cell protein (SCP) production. In this study, mixing time and mass transfer coefficients were determined in a 0.15 m(3) forced flow U-loop fermenter of a novel construction. The effect on the impeller drawn power when a gas was introduced into the system was also studied. Mixing time decreased and mass transfer increased with increasing volumetric liquid flow rate and specific power input. This happened also for a large volume fraction of the gas, which was shown to have only minor effect on the power drawn from the pump impeller. Very large mass transfer coefficients, considerably higher than those obtainable in an STR and previous tubular loop reactors, could be achieved in the U-loop fermenter equipped with static mixers at modest volumetric liquid and gas flow rates. Biotechnol. Bioeng. 2017;114: 344-354. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. First assessment of triclosan, triclocarban and paraben mass loads at a very large regional scale: case of Paris conurbation (France).

    PubMed

    Gasperi, Johnny; Geara, Darine; Lorgeoux, Catherine; Bressy, Adèle; Zedek, Sifax; Rocher, Vincent; El Samrani, Antoine; Chebbo, Ghassan; Moilleron, Régis

    2014-09-15

    The objective of this study was to examine the occurrence of parabens (5 congeners), triclosan (TCS) and triclocarban (TCC) at the scale of the Parisian sewer network and to provide representative knowledge on these compounds in France for a large area. For this purpose and in collaboration with the Parisian public sanitation service (SIAAP) in charge of the collect and treatment of the Parisian wastewater, this study focused on seven main sewer trunks of the Paris conurbation, accounting for 1900,000 m(3) d(-1), i.e., about 8 million inhabitants. Concentrations lying in the 2000-20000 ng l(-1) ranges were found in wastewater, confirming the ubiquity of parabens, TCS and TCC in our environment and household products. Parabens (>97%) and to a lesser extent TCS (68% in median) were mainly associated to the dissolved fraction, as demonstrated by low KD and KOC values. For the first time, this study also evaluated the pollutant mass loads per population equivalent (PE) of parabens, TCS and TCC at the large and representative scale of the Parisian conurbation. Hence, the median mass loads varied from 176 to 3040 μg PE(-1) d(-1) for parabens and from 26 to 762 μg PE(-1) d(-1) for TCS and TCC. Based on these results and according to the assumptions done, the extrapolation of the mass loads at the national scale pointed out an annual mass loads between 51.8 and 100.7 ty(-1) for methyl paraben (MeP) and between 11.2 and 23.5 ty(-1) for TCS. Mass loads per equivalent habitant and national mass loads are both extremely relevant and innovative data. Contrary to other countries, such data are nowadays rather difficult to gain in France and neither enquiry nor database provides access to information on the use and production of these chemicals. Since cosmetic industries are voluntarily and fully engaged in the substitution of parabens, triclosan and triclocarban in personal care product, this study could constitute a "time reference status" which could be used as a basis for

  2. Short time-scale AGN X-ray variability with EXOSAT: black hole mass and normalized variability amplitude

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McHardy, I. M.

    2013-03-01

    The old EXOSAT medium energy measurements of high-frequency (HF) active galactic nuclei (AGN) power spectral normalization are re-examined in the light of accurate black hole mass determinations which were not available when these data were first published by Green et al. It is found that the normalized variability amplitude (NVA), measured directly from the power spectrum, is proportional to Mβ, where β ˜ -0.54 ± 0.08. As NVA is the square root of the power, these observations show that the normalization of the HF power spectrum for this sample of AGN varies very close to inversely with black hole mass. Almost the same value of β is obtained whether the quasar 3C 273 is included in the sample or not, suggesting that the same process that drives X-ray variability in Seyfert galaxies applies also to 3C 273. These observations support the work of Gierliński et al. who show that an almost exactly linear anticorrelation is required if the normalizations of the HF power spectra of AGN and X-ray binary systems are to scale similarly. These observations are also consistent with a number of studies showing that the short time-scale variance of AGN X-ray light curves varies approximately inversely with mass.

  3. Mathematical Model for Absolute Magnetic Measuring Systems in Industrial Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fügenschuh, Armin; Fügenschuh, Marzena; Ludszuweit, Marina; Mojsic, Aleksandar; Sokół, Joanna

    2015-09-01

    Scales for measuring systems are either based on incremental or absolute measuring methods. Incremental scales need to initialize a measurement cycle at a reference point. From there, the position is computed by counting increments of a periodic graduation. Absolute methods do not need reference points, since the position can be read directly from the scale. The positions on the complete scales are encoded using two incremental tracks with different graduation. We present a new method for absolute measuring using only one track for position encoding up to micrometre range. Instead of the common perpendicular magnetic areas, we use a pattern of trapezoidal magnetic areas, to store more complex information. For positioning, we use the magnetic field where every position is characterized by a set of values measured by a hall sensor array. We implement a method for reconstruction of absolute positions from the set of unique measured values. We compare two patterns with respect to uniqueness, accuracy, stability and robustness of positioning. We discuss how stability and robustness are influenced by different errors during the measurement in real applications and how those errors can be compensated.

  4. Absolute calibration of optical tweezers

    SciTech Connect

    Viana, N.B.; Mazolli, A.; Maia Neto, P.A.; Nussenzveig, H.M.; Rocha, M.S.; Mesquita, O.N.

    2006-03-27

    As a step toward absolute calibration of optical tweezers, a first-principles theory of trapping forces with no adjustable parameters, corrected for spherical aberration, is experimentally tested. Employing two very different setups, we find generally very good agreement for the transverse trap stiffness as a function of microsphere radius for a broad range of radii, including the values employed in practice, and at different sample chamber depths. The domain of validity of the WKB ('geometrical optics') approximation to the theory is verified. Theoretical predictions for the trapping threshold, peak position, depth variation, multiple equilibria, and 'jump' effects are also confirmed.

  5. Absolute irradiance of the Moon for on-orbit calibration

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stone, T.C.; Kieffer, H.H.; ,

    2002-01-01

    The recognized need for on-orbit calibration of remote sensing imaging instruments drives the ROLO project effort to characterize the Moon for use as an absolute radiance source. For over 5 years the ground-based ROLO telescopes have acquired spatially-resolved lunar images in 23 VNIR (Moon diameter ???500 pixels) and 9 SWIR (???250 pixels) passbands at phase angles within ??90 degrees. A numerical model for lunar irradiance has been developed which fits hundreds of ROLO images in each band, corrected for atmospheric extinction and calibrated to absolute radiance, then integrated to irradiance. The band-coupled extinction algorithm uses absorption spectra of several gases and aerosols derived from MODTRAN to fit time-dependent component abundances to nightly observations of standard stars. The absolute radiance scale is based upon independent telescopic measurements of the star Vega. The fitting process yields uncertainties in lunar relative irradiance over small ranges of phase angle and the full range of lunar libration well under 0.5%. A larger source of uncertainty enters in the absolute solar spectral irradiance, especially in the SWIR, where solar models disagree by up to 6%. Results of ROLO model direct comparisons to spacecraft observations demonstrate the ability of the technique to track sensor responsivity drifts to sub-percent precision. Intercomparisons among instruments provide key insights into both calibration issues and the absolute scale for lunar irradiance.

  6. Lower limit on the gravitino mass in low-scale gauge mediation with mH ≃ 125 GeV

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ibe, Masahiro; Yanagida, Tsutomu T.

    2017-01-01

    We revisit low-scale gauge mediation models in light of recent observations of CMB Lensing and Cosmic Shear which put a severe upper limit on the gravitino mass, m3/2 ≲ 4.7eV. With such a stringent constraint, many models of low-scale gauge mediation are disfavored when the squark masses are required to be rather large to explain the observed Higgs boson mass unless the gravitino abundance is diluted by late time entropy production. In this note, we discuss a type of low-scale gauge mediation models which satisfy both the observed Higgs boson mass and the upper limit on the gravitino mass. We also show that the gravitino mass cannot be smaller than about 1 eV even in such models, which may be tested in future observations of 21 cm line fluctuations.

  7. Contrasting effects of mass-flowering crops on bee pollination of hedge plants at different spatial and temporal scales.

    PubMed

    Kovács-Hostyánszki, Anikó; Haenke, Sebastian; Batáry, Péter; Jauker, Birgit; Báldi, András; Tscharntke, Teja; Holzschuh, Andrea

    2013-12-01

    Landscape-wide mass-flowering of oilseed rape (canola Brassica napus) can considerably affect wild bee communities and pollination success of wild plants. We aimed to assess the impact of oilseed rape on the pollination of wild plants and bee abundance during and after oilseed-rape bloom, including effects on crop-noncrop spillover at landscape and adjacent-field scales. We focused on two shrub species (hawthorn Crataegus spp., dog rose Rosa canina) and adjacent herb flowering in forest edges, connected hedges, and isolated hedges in Lower Saxony, Germany. We selected 35 landscape circles of 1 km radius, differing in the amount of oilseed rape; 18 were adjacent to oilseed rape and 17 to cereal fields, and we quantified bee density via pan traps at all sites. Adjacent oilseed rape positively affected fruit mass and seed number per fruit of simultaneously flowering hawthorn (no effect on dog rose, which flowers after the oilseed rape bloom). At the landscape scale, oilseed rape had a negative effect on bumble bee density in the hedges during flowering due to dilution of pollinators per unit area and the consequently intensified competition between oilseed rape and wild shrubs, but a positive effect after flowering when bees moved to the hedges, which still provided resources. In contrast, positive landscape-scale effects of oilseed rape were found throughout the season in forest edges, suggesting that edges support nesting activity and enhanced food resources. Our results show that oilseed rape effects on bee abundances and pollination success in seminatural habitats depend on the spatial and temporal scale considered and on the habitat type, the wild plant species, and the time of crop flowering. These scale-dependent positive and negative effects should be considered in evaluations of landscape-scale configuration and composition of crops. Food resources provided by mass-flowering crops should be most beneficial for landscape-wide enhancement of wild bee

  8. Scaling of metabolic rate on body mass in small mammals at 2.0 g

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pace, N.; Smith, A. H.

    1983-01-01

    It is postulated that augmentation of gravitational loading should produce a shift in the classic Kleiber mammalian allometric relationship between metabolic rate and total body mass by an increase in both these parameters. Oxygen consumption rate and body mass measurements of 10 male rabbits 8 months of age were obtained initially for 1.0 g, and then over a 9-week period of chronic centrifugation at 2.0 g. Analysis of covariance showed that the positioning constant at 2.0 g is increased by 17 percent from that at 1.0 g at the P less than 0.001 level, and the exponent is increased by 8 percent at the P = 0.008 level. It is concluded that abatement of gravitational loading in spaceflight will result in a lowering of both allometric parameters.

  9. The Scaling of Stellar Mass and Central Stellar Velocity Dispersion for Quiescent Galaxies at z<0.7

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zahid, H. Jabran; Geller, Margaret J.; Fabricant, Daniel G.; Hwang, Ho Seong

    2016-12-01

    We examine the relation between stellar mass and central stellar velocity dispersion—the M * σ relation—for massive quiescent galaxies at z < 0.7. We measure the local relation from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey and the intermediate redshift relation from the Smithsonian Hectospec Lensing Survey. Both samples are highly complete (>85%) and we consistently measure the stellar mass and velocity dispersion for the two samples. The M * σ relation and its scatter are independent of redshift with σ \\propto {M}* 0.3 for M * ≳ 1010.3 M ⊙. The measured slope of the M * σ relation is the same as the scaling between the total halo mass and the dark matter halo velocity dispersion obtained by N-body simulations. This consistency suggests that massive quiescent galaxies are virialized systems, where the central dark matter concentration is either a constant or negligible fraction of the stellar mass. The relation between the total galaxy mass (stellar + dark matter) and the central stellar velocity dispersion is consistent with the observed relation between the total mass of a galaxy cluster and the velocity dispersion of the cluster members. This result suggests that the central stellar velocity dispersion is directly proportional to the velocity dispersion of the dark matter halo. Thus, the central stellar velocity dispersion is a fundamental, directly observable property of galaxies, which may robustly connect galaxies to dark matter halos in N-body simulations. To interpret the results further in the context of ΛCDM, it would be useful to analyze the relationship between the velocity dispersion of stellar particles and the velocity dispersion characterizing their dark matter halos in high-resolution cosmological hydrodynamic simulations.

  10. Large-scale identification of endogenous secretory peptides using electron transfer dissociation mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Sasaki, Kazuki; Osaki, Tsukasa; Minamino, Naoto

    2013-03-01

    Mass spectrometry-based unbiased analysis of the full complement of secretory peptides is expected to facilitate the identification of unknown biologically active peptides. However, tandem MS sequencing of endogenous peptides in their native form has proven difficult because they show size heterogeneity and contain multiple internal basic residues, the characteristics not found in peptide fragments produced by in vitro digestion. Endogenous peptides remain largely unexplored by electron transfer dissociation (ETD), despite its widespread use in bottom-up proteomics. We used ETD, in comparison to collision induced dissociation (CID), to identify endogenous peptides derived from secretory granules of a human endocrine cell line. For mass accuracy, both MS and tandem MS were analyzed on an Orbitrap. CID and ETD, performed in different LC-MS runs, resulted in the identification of 795 and 569 unique peptides (ranging from 1000 to 15000 Da), respectively, with an overlap of 397. Peptides larger than 3000 Da accounted for 54% in CID and 46% in ETD identifications. Although numerically outperformed by CID, ETD provided more extensive fragmentation, leading to the identification of peptides that are not reached by CID. This advantage was demonstrated in identifying a new antimicrobial peptide from neurosecretory protein VGF (non-acronymic), VGF[554-577]-NH2, or in differentiating nearly isobaric peptides (mass difference less than 2 ppm) that arise from alternatively spliced exons of the gastrin-releasing peptide gene. CID and ETD complemented each other to add to our knowledge of the proteolytic processing sites of proteins implicated in the regulated secretory pathway. An advantage of the use of both fragmentation methods was also noted in localization of phosphorylation sites. These findings point to the utility of ETD mass spectrometry in the global study of endogenous peptides, or peptidomics.

  11. Large-scale Identification of Endogenous Secretory Peptides Using Electron Transfer Dissociation Mass Spectrometry*

    PubMed Central

    Sasaki, Kazuki; Osaki, Tsukasa; Minamino, Naoto

    2013-01-01

    Mass spectrometry-based unbiased analysis of the full complement of secretory peptides is expected to facilitate the identification of unknown biologically active peptides. However, tandem MS sequencing of endogenous peptides in their native form has proven difficult because they show size heterogeneity and contain multiple internal basic residues, the characteristics not found in peptide fragments produced by in vitro digestion. Endogenous peptides remain largely unexplored by electron transfer dissociation (ETD), despite its widespread use in bottom-up proteomics. We used ETD, in comparison to collision induced dissociation (CID), to identify endogenous peptides derived from secretory granules of a human endocrine cell line. For mass accuracy, both MS and tandem MS were analyzed on an Orbitrap. CID and ETD, performed in different LC-MS runs, resulted in the identification of 795 and 569 unique peptides (ranging from 1000 to 15000 Da), respectively, with an overlap of 397. Peptides larger than 3000 Da accounted for 54% in CID and 46% in ETD identifications. Although numerically outperformed by CID, ETD provided more extensive fragmentation, leading to the identification of peptides that are not reached by CID. This advantage was demonstrated in identifying a new antimicrobial peptide from neurosecretory protein VGF (non-acronymic), VGF[554–577]-NH2, or in differentiating nearly isobaric peptides (mass difference less than 2 ppm) that arise from alternatively spliced exons of the gastrin-releasing peptide gene. CID and ETD complemented each other to add to our knowledge of the proteolytic processing sites of proteins implicated in the regulated secretory pathway. An advantage of the use of both fragmentation methods was also noted in localization of phosphorylation sites. These findings point to the utility of ETD mass spectrometry in the global study of endogenous peptides, or peptidomics. PMID:23250050

  12. Grand unification and low scale implications: D₂ parity for unification and neutrino masses

    SciTech Connect

    Tavartkiladze, Zurab

    2014-01-01

    The Grand Unified SU(5)-SU(5)´ model, augmented with D₂ Parity, is considered. The latter play crucial role for phenomenology. The model has several novel properties and gives interesting phenomenological implications. The charged leptons together with right handed (or sterile) neutrinos emerge es composite states. Within considered scenario, we study the charged fermion and neutrino mass generation. Moreover, we show that the model gives successful gauge coupling unification.

  13. A SCALING RELATION BETWEEN MEGAMASER DISK RADIUS AND BLACK HOLE MASS IN ACTIVE GALACTIC NUCLEI

    SciTech Connect

    Wardle, Mark; Yusef-Zadeh, Farhad E-mail: zadeh@northwestern.edu

    2012-05-10

    Several thin, Keplerian, sub-parsec megamaser disks have been discovered in the nuclei of active galaxies and used to precisely determine the mass of their host black holes. We show that there is an empirical linear correlation between the disk radius and the black hole mass. We demonstrate that such disks are naturally formed by the partial capture of molecular clouds passing through the galactic nucleus and temporarily engulfing the central supermassive black hole. Imperfect cancellation of the angular momenta of the cloud material colliding after passing on opposite sides of the hole leads to the formation of a compact disk. The radial extent of the disk is determined by the efficiency of this process and the Bondi-Hoyle capture radius of the black hole, and naturally produces the empirical linear correlation of the radial extent of the maser distribution with black hole mass. The disk has sufficient column density to allow X-ray irradiation from the central source to generate physical and chemical conditions conducive to the formation of 22 GHz H{sub 2}O masers. For initial cloud column densities {approx}< 10{sup 23.5} cm{sup -2} the disk is non-self-gravitating, consistent with the ordered kinematics of the edge-on megamaser disks; for higher cloud columns the disk would fragment and produce a compact stellar disk similar to that observed around Sgr A* at the galactic center.

  14. The effect of inclusion of Δ resonances in relativistic mean-field model with scaled hadron masses and coupling constants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maslov, K. A.; Kolomeitsev, E. E.; Voskresensky, D. N.

    2017-01-01

    Knowledge of the equation of state of the baryon matter plays a decisive role in the description of neutron stars. With an increase of the baryon density the filling of Fermi seas of hyperons and Δ isobars becomes possible. Their inclusion into standard relativistic mean-field models results in a strong softening of the equation of state and a lowering of the maximum neutron star mass below the measured values. We extend a relativistic mean-field model with scaled hadron masses and coupling constants developed in our previous works and take into account now not only hyperons but also the Δ isobars. We analyze available empirical information to put constraints on coupling constants of Δs to mesonic mean fields. We show that the resulting equation of state satisfies majority of presently known experimental constraints.

  15. Nano-Scale Secondary Ion Mass Spectrometry: Potential And Pitfalls Of This Technique For Soil Organic Matter Stabilization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Herrmann, A. M.

    2007-12-01

    The mechanisms by which organic matter is stabilized in soils are still poorly understood, and it is notable that some postulated mechanisms are currently only weakly supported by data. A major obstacle to progress is the lack of techniques of adequate sensitivity and resolution for data collection needed to further our understanding of soil organic matter stabilization at relevant scales. Nano-Secondary Ion Mass Spectrometry (NanoSIMS) is a cutting edge technology linking high resolution microscopy with isotopic analysis, which allows precise, spatially-explicit, elemental and isotopic analysis at micro-and nanoscale. The power of NanoSIMS lies in the ability of the instrument to distinguish stable isotopes of elements with a high sensitivity, i.e. concentrations in parts per million can be detected. The level of spatial resolution achievable is better than 50 nm (133Cs+ primary beam) with NanoSIMS, a significant improvement on other SIMS instruments and on X-ray micro-analytical techniques. These instruments have been applied to studies of presolar materials from meteorites, in material science, geology and mineralogy as well as biology. Recently, the potential of NanoSIMS has been demonstrated to explore in situ the biophysical interface in soils (Herrmann et al., 2007). I will present recent findings illustrating the capacity of NanoSIMS to improve our fundamental understanding of soil processes at the nano- and micro-scale, along with my experiences in the methodological approaches that need consideration with respect to experimental design and sample preparation. Herrmann, AM, Clode, PL, Fletcher, IR, Nunan N, Stockdale, EA, O'Donnell, AG, Murphy, DV, 2007. A novel method for the study of the biophysical interface in soils using nano-scale secondary ion mass spectrometry. Rapid Communications in Mass Spectrometry 21, 29-34.

  16. Windows-based guided data capture software for mass-scale thermophysical and thermochemical property data collection.

    PubMed

    Diky, Vladimir V; Chirico, Robert D; Wilhoit, Randolph C; Dong, Qian; Frenkel, Michael

    2003-01-01

    Guided data capture software (GDC) is described for mass-scale abstraction from the literature of experimental thermophysical and thermochemical property data for organic chemical systems involving one, two, and three components, chemical reactions, and chemical equilibria. Property values are captured with a strictly hierarchical system based upon rigorous application of the thermodynamic constraints of the Gibbs phase rule with full traceability to source documents. Key features of the program and its adherence to scientific principles are described with particular emphasis on data-quality issues, both in terms of data accuracy and database integrity.

  17. An Investigation of the Large Scale Evolution and Topology of Coronal Mass Ejections in the Solar Wind

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Riley, Peter

    2000-01-01

    This investigation is concerned with the large-scale evolution and topology of coronal mass ejections (CMEs) in the solar wind. During this reporting period we have focused on several aspects of CME properties, their identification and their evolution in the solar wind. The work included both analysis of Ulysses and ACE observations as well as fluid and magnetohydrodynamic simulations. In addition, we analyzed a series of "density holes" observed in the solar wind, that bear many similarities with CMEs. Finally, this work was communicated to the scientific community at three meetings and has led to three scientific papers that are in various stages of review.

  18. Perturbativity and mass scales in the minimal left-right symmetric model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maiezza, Alessio; Nemevšek, Miha; Nesti, Fabrizio

    2016-08-01

    The scalar sector of the minimal left-right model at TeV scale is revisited in light of the large quartic coupling needed for a heavy flavor-changing scalar. The stability and perturbativity of the effective potential is discussed and merged with constraints from low-energy processes. Thus, the perturbative level of the left-right scale is sharpened. Lower limits on the triplet scalars are also derived: The left-handed triplet is bounded by oblique parameters, while the doubly charged right-handed component is limited by the h →γ γ , Z γ decays. Current constraints disfavor their detection as long as WR is within the reach of the LHC.

  19. Coronal mass ejection and solar flare initiation processes without appreciable changes of the large-scale magnetic field topology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Veselovsky, I. S.; Panasenco, O. A.

    We demonstrate that spurious three-dimensional re-constructions from two-dimensional images and movies of solar flares and coronal mass ejections can arise as a result of viewing conditions and projection effects, which are not always properly taken into account in the current literature. Theory and observations indicate that eruptions can proceed with or without large-scale topological changes of prominences and coronal magnetic fields. Electric currents and plasma drifts in crossed electric and magnetic fields play not negligible, but important role. This means that large-scale magnetic reconnections understood as topological transitions in the magnetic field are not always necessary for eruptions. The scenario of expanding and rising non-planar systems of preexisting loops and arcades, which are deforming when shearing at bottom parts, twisting and rotating at summits, satisfactory fits available observations. Movies are presented demonstrating this type of behavior with a preserved magnetic connectivity.

  20. Hydraulic Performance and Mass Transfer Efficiency of Engineering Scale Centrifugal Contactors

    SciTech Connect

    David Meikrantz; Troy Garn; Nick Mann; Jack Law; Terry Todd

    2007-09-01

    Annular centrifugal contactors (ACCs) are being evaluated for process-scale solvent extraction operations in support of Advanced Fuel Cycle Initiative (AFCI) separations goals. Process-scale annular centrifugal contactors have the potential for high stage efficiency if properly employed and optimized for the application. Hydraulic performance issues related to flow instability and classical flooding are likely unimportant, especially for units with high throughputs. However, annular mixing increases rapidly with increasing rotor diameter while maintaining a fixed g force at the rotor wall. In addition, for engineering/process-scale contactors, elevated rotor speeds and/or throughput rates, can lead to organic phase foaming at the rotor discharge collector area. Foam buildup in the upper rotor head area can aspirate additional vapor from the contactor housing resulting in a complete loss of separation equilibrium. Variable speed drives are thus desirable to optimize and balance the operating parameters to help ensure acceptable performance. Proper venting of larger contactors is required to balance pressures across individual stages and prevent vapor lock due to foam aspiration.

  1. Scaling skeletal muscle function to mass in patients with moderate-to-severe COPD.

    PubMed

    Malaguti, Carla; Nery, Luiz E; Dal Corso, Simone; Nápolis, Lara; De Fuccio, Marcelo Bicalho; Castro, Marise; Neder, J Alberto

    2006-11-01

    Skeletal muscle performance and muscle mass are commonly reduced in patients with advanced chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). It is currently unclear, however, whether negative changes in muscle structure and function are proportionately related to each other in these patients. In a cross-sectional study, 39 patients (post-bronchodilator FEV1=49.7+/-15.5% pred) and 17 controls were submitted to knee isokinetic dynamometry [peak torque (PT), isometric strength (IS), and total work (TW)] and dual energy X-ray absorptiometry for the evaluation of leg muscle mass (LMM). Muscle function (F) was normalised for LMM by using ratio standards (F.LMM-1), power function ratios (F.LMM-b, where b is usually not equal 1), and analysis of covariance (ANCOVA). Patients with COPD presented with reduced PT, IS, TW, and LMM as compared to controls: there were significant linear correlations among these variables in both groups (P<0.05). Ratio standards of PT.LMM-1 and TW.LMM-1 were, on average, 14% lower in patients than controls (P<0.01). The coefficients for allometric correction of IS and TW were significantly higher in patients as compared to controls (0.975 vs. 0.603 and 1.471 vs. 0.824, respectively, P<0.05), i.e. more LMM was needed to generate a given functional output in patients than normal subjects. In addition, adjusted means of muscle function variables by ANCOVA were 11-18% lower for patients than controls with LMM as the covariate (P<0.05). We conclude that factors other than simple atrophy (i.e. mass-independent mechanisms) might play a role in explaining the COPD-related skeletal muscle dysfunction.

  2. Tracer Transport by Deep Convection: Implications of the Connection Between Convective Mass Fluxes and Large-Scale Circulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lawrence, M. G.; Salzmann, M.; Tost, H.; Joeckel, P.; Lelieveld, J.

    2007-12-01

    Global chemistry-transport models (CTMs) generally simulate vertical tracer transport by deep convection separately from the advective transport due to large-scale mean winds, even though a component of the large-scale transport, for instance in the Hadley and Walker cells, occurs in deep convective updrafts. This split treatment of vertical transport can have several significant implications for CTM simulations, such as numerical diffusion, misinterpretation of the transport characteristics in convectively active regions, and underestimation of the effects of convective tracer transport on ozone and other gases. Here we show that there is a significant overlap between the convective and large-scale advective vertical transport fluxes in the CTM MATCH, and discuss the main implications for tracer transport studies which can be expected due to this. We also give an outlook to the next step of this study, in which we are examining the connection between diagnosed convective mass fluxes and the vertical fluxes in the tropical Hadley and Walker Cells using the ECHAM5/MESSy GCM, which is set up with a flexible framework allowing the use of several different convection parameterizations. From the direct comparison of multiple deep convection parameterizations within the same model we expect to gain a better sense of the relationship between parameterized deep convection and large-scale circulations, as well as of the present uncertainty due to differences in convection parameterizations. This work is anticipated to contribute to the objectives of Activity 2 (vertical tracer distributions) of AC&C.

  3. An Efficient Algorithm for Clustering of Large-Scale Mass Spectrometry Data.

    PubMed

    Saeed, Fahad; Pisitkun, Trairak; Knepper, Mark A; Hoffert, Jason D

    2012-10-04

    High-throughput spectrometers are capable of producing data sets containing thousands of spectra for a single biological sample. These data sets contain a substantial amount of redundancy from peptides that may get selected multiple times in a LC-MS/MS experiment. In this paper, we present an efficient algorithm, CAMS (Clustering Algorithm for Mass Spectra) for clustering mass spectrometry data which increases both the sensitivity and confidence of spectral assignment. CAMS utilizes a novel metric, called F-set, that allows accurate identification of the spectra that are similar. A graph theoretic framework is defined that allows the use of F-set metric efficiently for accurate cluster identifications. The accuracy of the algorithm is tested on real HCD and CID data sets with varying amounts of peptides. Our experiments show that the proposed algorithm is able to cluster spectra with very high accuracy in a reasonable amount of time for large spectral data sets. Thus, the algorithm is able to decrease the computational time by compressing the data sets while increasing the throughput of the data by interpreting low S/N spectra.

  4. The Color and Stellar Mass Dependence of Small-scale Galaxy Clustering in SDSS-III BOSS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Law-Smith, Jamie; Eisenstein, Daniel J.

    2017-02-01

    We measure the color and stellar mass dependence of clustering in spectroscopic galaxies at 0.6 < z < 0.65 using data from the Baryon Oscillation Spectroscopic Survey component of the Sloan Digital Sky Survey. We greatly increase the statistical precision of our clustering measurements by using the cross-correlation of 66,657 spectroscopic galaxies to a sample of 6.6 million fainter photometric galaxies. The clustering amplitude w(R) is measured as the ratio of the mean excess number of photometric galaxies found within a specified radius annulus around a spectroscopic galaxy to that from a random photometric galaxy distribution. We recover many of the familiar trends at high signal-to-noise ratio. We find the ratio of the clustering amplitudes of red and blue massive galaxies to be {w}{red}/{w}{blue}=1.92+/- 0.11 in our smallest annulus of 75–125 kpc. At our largest radii (2–4 Mpc), we find {w}{red}/{w}{blue}=1.24+/- 0.05. Red galaxies therefore have denser environments than their blue counterparts at z ∼ 0.625, and this effect increases with decreasing radius. Irrespective of color, we find that w(R) does not obey a simple power-law relation with radius, showing a dip around 1 Mpc. Holding stellar mass fixed, we find a clear differentiation between clustering in red and blue galaxies, showing that clustering is not solely determined by stellar mass. Holding color fixed, we find that clustering increases with stellar mass, especially for red galaxies at small scales (more than a factor of 2 effect over 0.75 dex in stellar mass).

  5. Assessing Regional Scale Fluxes of Mass, Momentum, and Energy with Small Environmental Research Aircraft

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zulueta, Rommel Callejo

    Natural ecosystems are rarely structurally or functionally homogeneous. This is true for the complex coastal regions of Magdalena Bay, Baja California Sur, Mexico, and the Barrow Peninsula on the Arctic Coastal Plain of Alaska. The coastal region of Magdalena Bay is comprised of the Pacific coastal ocean, eutrophic lagoon, mangroves, and desert ecosystems all adjacent and within a few kilometers, while the Barrow Peninsula is a mosaic of small ponds, thaw lakes, different aged vegetated thaw-lake basins ( VDTLBs ) and interstitial tundra which have been dynamically formed by both short- and long-term processes. We used a combination of tower- and small environmental research aircraft (SERA)-based eddy covariance measurements to characterize the spatial and temporal patterns of CO2, latent, and sensible heat fluxes along with MODIS NDVI, and land surface information, to scale the SERA-based CO2 fluxes up to the regional scale. In the first part of this research, the spatial variability in ecosystem fluxes from the Pacific coastal ocean, eutrophic lagoon, mangroves, and desert areas of northern Magdalena Bay were studied. SERA-derived average midday CO2 fluxes from the desert showed a slight uptake of -1.32 mumol CO2 m-2 s-1, the coastal ocean also showed uptake of -3.48 mumol CO2 m-2 s -1, and the lagoon mangroves showed the highest uptake of -8.11 mumol CO2 m-2 s-1. Additional simultaneous measurements of NDVI allowed simple linear modeling of CO2 flux as a function of NDVI for the mangroves of the Magdalena Bay region. In the second part of this research, the spatial variability of ecosystem fluxes across the 1802 km2 Barrow Peninsula region was studied. During typical 2006 summer conditions, the midday hourly CO2 flux over the region was -2.04 x 105 kgCO2 hr-1. The CO2 fluxes among the interstitial tundra, Ancient and Old VDTLBs, as well as between the Medium and Young VDTLBs were not significantly different. Combined, the interstitial tundra and Old and Ancient

  6. Meso-scale testing and development of test procedures to maintain mass balance.

    PubMed

    Bonner, James; Page, Cheryl; Fuller, Chris

    2003-01-01

    The Conrad Blucher Institute for Surveying and Science (Texas A&M University--Corpus Christi) has conducted numerous petroleum experiments at the Shoreline Environmental Research Facility (Corpus Christi, Texas, USA). The meso-scale facility has multiple wave tanks, permitting some control in experimental design of the investigations, but allowing for real-world conditions. This paper outlines the evolution of a materials balance approach in conducting petroleum experiments at the facility. The first attempt at a materials balance was during a 1998 study on the fate/effects of dispersant use on crude oil. Both water column and beach sediment samples were collected. For the materials balance, the defined environmental compartments for oil accumulation were sediments, water column, and the water surface, while the discharge from the tanks was presumed to be the primary sink. The "lessons learned" included a need to quantify oil adhesion to the tank surfaces. This was resolved by adhering strips of the polymer tank lining to the tank sides that could be later removed and extracted for oil. Also, a protocol was needed to quantify any floating oil on the water surface. A water surface (oil slick) quantification protocol was developed, involving the use of solid-phase extraction disks. This protocol was first tested during a shoreline cleaner experiment, and later refined in subsequent dispersant effectiveness studies. The effectiveness tests were designed to simulate shallow embayments which created the need for additional adjustments in the tanks. Since dispersant efficacy is largely affected by hydrodynamics, it was necessary to scale the hydrodynamic conditions of the tanks to those expected in our prototype system (Corpus Christi Bay, Texas). The use of a scaled model permits the experiment to be reproduced and/or evaluated under different conditions. To minimize wave reflection in the tank, a parabolic wave dissipater was built. In terms of materials balance, this

  7. Computer-aided mass detection in mammography: False positive reduction via gray-scale invariant ranklet texture features

    SciTech Connect

    Masotti, Matteo; Lanconelli, Nico; Campanini, Renato

    2009-02-15

    In this work, gray-scale invariant ranklet texture features are proposed for false positive reduction (FPR) in computer-aided detection (CAD) of breast masses. Two main considerations are at the basis of this proposal. First, false positive (FP) marks surviving our previous CAD system seem to be characterized by specific texture properties that can be used to discriminate them from masses. Second, our previous CAD system achieves invariance to linear/nonlinear monotonic gray-scale transformations by encoding regions of interest into ranklet images through the ranklet transform, an image transformation similar to the wavelet transform, yet dealing with pixels' ranks rather than with their gray-scale values. Therefore, the new FPR approach proposed herein defines a set of texture features which are calculated directly from the ranklet images corresponding to the regions of interest surviving our previous CAD system, hence, ranklet texture features; then, a support vector machine (SVM) classifier is used for discrimination. As a result of this approach, texture-based information is used to discriminate FP marks surviving our previous CAD system; at the same time, invariance to linear/nonlinear monotonic gray-scale transformations of the new CAD system is guaranteed, as ranklet texture features are calculated from ranklet images that have this property themselves by construction. To emphasize the gray-scale invariance of both the previous and new CAD systems, training and testing are carried out without any in-between parameters' adjustment on mammograms having different gray-scale dynamics; in particular, training is carried out on analog digitized mammograms taken from a publicly available digital database, whereas testing is performed on full-field digital mammograms taken from an in-house database. Free-response receiver operating characteristic (FROC) curve analysis of the two CAD systems demonstrates that the new approach achieves a higher reduction of FP marks

  8. Cosmology with negative absolute temperatures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vieira, J. P. P.; Byrnes, Christian T.; Lewis, Antony

    2016-08-01

    Negative absolute temperatures (NAT) are an exotic thermodynamical consequence of quantum physics which has been known since the 1950's (having been achieved in the lab on a number of occasions). Recently, the work of Braun et al. [1] has rekindled interest in negative temperatures and hinted at a possibility of using NAT systems in the lab as dark energy analogues. This paper goes one step further, looking into the cosmological consequences of the existence of a NAT component in the Universe. NAT-dominated expanding Universes experience a borderline phantom expansion (w < -1) with no Big Rip, and their contracting counterparts are forced to bounce after the energy density becomes sufficiently large. Both scenarios might be used to solve horizon and flatness problems analogously to standard inflation and bouncing cosmologies. We discuss the difficulties in obtaining and ending a NAT-dominated epoch, and possible ways of obtaining density perturbations with an acceptable spectrum.

  9. The KATRIN Neutrino Mass Experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parno, Diana; Katrin Collaboration

    2017-01-01

    While neutrino oscillation experiments have demonstrated that the particles have non-zero mass, the absolute neutrino mass scale is still unknown. The Karlsruhe Tritium Neutrino experiment (KATRIN) is designed to improve on previous laboratory limits by an order of magnitude, probing the effective neutrino mass with a sensitivity approaching 0.2 eV at 90% confidence via the kinematics of tritium beta decay. At the same time, KATRIN has the potential to scan for sterile neutrinos at eV and keV scales. After years of preparation, all major components are now on site and commissioning is underway. I will report on the current status of the experiment, including recent results and preparations for the introduction of tritium later this year. US participation in KATRIN is supported by the U.S. Department of Energy Office of Science, Office of Nuclear Physics under Award Number DE-FG02-97ER41020.

  10. Recovery after mass extinction: evolutionary assembly in large-scale biosphere dynamics.

    PubMed Central

    Solé, Ricard V; Montoya, José M; Erwin, Douglas H

    2002-01-01

    Biotic recoveries following mass extinctions are characterized by a process in which whole ecologies are reconstructed from low-diversity systems, often characterized by opportunistic groups. The recovery process provides an unexpected window to ecosystem dynamics. In many aspects, recovery is very similar to ecological succession, but important differences are also apparently linked to the innovative patterns of niche construction observed in the fossil record. In this paper, we analyse the similarities and differences between ecological succession and evolutionary recovery to provide a preliminary ecological theory of recoveries. A simple evolutionary model with three trophic levels is presented, and its properties (closely resembling those observed in the fossil record) are compared with characteristic patterns of ecological response to disturbances in continuous models of three-level ecosystems. PMID:12079530

  11. Micromorphology in unconsolidated landslide sediments - investigating mass movement deposits at a different scale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jaeger, Daniel; Menzies, John

    2015-04-01

    In order to reliably reconstruct a landslide event, its triggers, movements and the main factors of influence, a profound knowledge of the slide masses' inner architecture and their internal processes is of great importance. As van der Meer (1996) states, micromorphology permits a complete examination of particles, matrix and all components contained in unconsolidated sediments, as well as an insight into their internal arrangement. So far, thin sections and micromorphology are mainly used for studying marine, periglacial and glacial sediments (e.g. Maltman 1988; van der Meer 1993, Menzies 2000, van Fliet-Lanoe 2010, van der Meer & Menzies 2011). Comparatively little work has been carried out with a focus on landslides (e.g. Bertran & Texier 1999). Therefore, our work is a first attempt at investigating unconsolidated deposits of landslides in the low mountain areas of southern Germany using micromorphological tools. The objective was to observe sedimentary microstructures in order to gain an understanding of the sediments' internal movement, deformation etc. during a slide event. On the investigated landslides near Ebermannstadt (Franconian Alb), Gailnau (Frankenhöhe region) and Talheim (Swabian Alb) samples were taken from small pits or outcrops (depths between 50 cm - 300 cm below the surface) in the upper, central and lower part (foot) of the slide mass. The thin section analyses revealed several differences between the three environments and within the specific landslides themselves. Most prominently, several structures (e.g. water-escape-structures, flow-noses and rotational structures) indicate a crucial impact of water in all three slide masses. Furthermore, the thin sections showed heterogeneous compositions of different sediment materials and aggregates, presumably transported, mixed together and deformed during the slide movement. In Ebermannstadt and Talheim, several ductile and brittle deformation structures (rotational structures, marbled structures

  12. The effect of baryons on the variance and the skewness of the mass distribution in the Universe at small scales

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guillet, T.; Teyssier, R.; Colombi, S.

    2010-06-01

    We study the dissipative effects of baryon physics on cosmic statistics at small scales using a cosmological simulation of a (50Mpch-1)3 volume of universe. The MareNostrum simulation was performed using the adaptive mesh refinement (AMR) code RAMSES, and includes most of the physical ingredients which are part of the current theory of galaxy formation, such as metal-dependent cooling and UV heating, subgrid modelling of the interstellar medium, star formation and supernova feedback. We reran the same initial conditions for a dark matter only universe, as a reference point for baryon-free cosmic statistics. In this paper, we present the measured small-scale amplification of σ2 and S3 due to baryonic physics and their interpretation in the framework of the halo model. As shown in recent studies, the effect of baryons on the matter power spectrum can be accounted for at scales k <~ 10hMpc-1 by modifying the halo concentration parameter. We propose to extend this result by using a composite halo profile, which is a linear combination of a Navarro, Frenk and White profile for the dark matter component and an exponential disc profile mimicking the baryonic component at the heart of the halo. This halo profile form is physically motivated and depends on two parameters, the mass fraction f d of baryons in the disc and the ratio λd of the disc's characteristic scale to the halo's virial radius. We find this composite profile to reproduce both the small-scale variance and skewness boosts measured in the simulation up to k ~ 102hMpc-1 for physically meaningful values of the parameters f d and λd. Although simulations like the one presented here usually suffer from various problems when compared to observations, our modified halo model could be used as a fitting model to improve the determination of cosmological parameters from weak lensing convergence spectra and skewness measurements.

  13. Body mass of prefledging Emperor Geese Chen canagica: Large-scale effects of interspecific densities and food availability

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lake, B.C.; Schmutz, J.A.; Lindberg, M.S.; Ely, C.R.; Eldridge, W.D.; Broerman, F.J.

    2008-01-01

    We studied body mass of prefledging Emperor Geese Chen canagica at three locations across the Yukon-Kuskokwim Delta, Alaska, during 1990-2004 to investigate whether large-scale variation in body mass was related to interspecific competition for food. From 1990 to 2004, densities of Cackling Geese Branta hutchinsii minima more than doubled and were c. 2-5?? greater than densities of Emperor Geese, which were relatively constant over time. Body mass of prefledging Emperor Geese was strongly related (negatively) to interspecific densities of geese (combined density of Cackling and Emperor Geese) and positively related to measures of food availability (grazing lawn extent and net above-ground primary productivity (NAPP)). Grazing by geese resulted in consumption of ??? 90% of the NAPP that occurred in grazing lawns during the brood-rearing period, suggesting that density-dependent interspecific competition was from exploitation of common food resources. Efforts to increase the population size of Emperor Geese would benefit from considering competitive interactions among goose species and with forage plants. ?? 2008 The Authors.

  14. AMUSE-Field I: NUCLEAR X-RAY PROPERTIES OF LOCAL FIELD AND GROUP SPHEROIDS ACROSS THE STELLAR MASS SCALE

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, Brendan; Gallo, Elena; Treu, Tommaso; Woo, Jong-Hak

    2012-03-01

    We present the first results from AMUSE-Field, a Chandra survey designed to characterize the occurrence and intensity of low-level accretion onto supermassive black holes (SMBHs) at the center of local early-type field galaxies. This is accomplished by means of a Large Program targeting a distance-limited (<30 Mpc) sample of 103 early types spanning a wide range in stellar masses. We acquired new ACIS-S observations for 61 objects down to a limiting (0.3-10 keV) luminosity of 2.5 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 38} erg s{sup -1}, and we include an additional 42 objects with archival (typically deeper) coverage. A nuclear X-ray source is detected in 52 out of the 103 galaxies. After accounting for potential contamination from low-mass X-ray binaries, we estimate that the fraction of accreting SMBHs within the sample is 45% {+-} 7%, which sets a firm lower limit on the occupation fraction within the field. The measured nuclear X-ray luminosities are invariably highly sub-Eddington, with L{sub X}/L{sub Edd} ratios between {approx}10{sup -4} and 10{sup -8}. As also found in a companion survey targeting Virgo early types, the active fraction increases with increasing host galaxy stellar mass, reflective of 'Eddington incompleteness' within the lower-mass objects. For the Field sample, the average nuclear X-ray luminosity scales with the host stellar mass as M{sup 0.71{+-}0.10}{sub star}, with an intrinsic scatter of 0.73 {+-} 0.09 dex. Qualitatively similar results hold for morphologically homogeneous (type E) or uniform sensitivity (new observations only) subsets. A majority of the AMUSE-Field galaxies (78%) inhabit groups, enabling us to investigate the influence of group richness on nuclear activity. We see no evidence for a positive correlation between nuclear X-ray luminosity, normalized to host properties, and galaxy density. Rather, while the scatter is substantial, it appears that the Eddington-scaled X-ray luminosity of group members may be slightly lower than for

  15. AMUSE-Field I: Nuclear X-Ray Properties of Local Field and Group Spheroids across the Stellar Mass Scale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miller, Brendan; Gallo, Elena; Treu, Tommaso; Woo, Jong-Hak

    2012-03-01

    We present the first results from AMUSE-Field, a Chandra survey designed to characterize the occurrence and intensity of low-level accretion onto supermassive black holes (SMBHs) at the center of local early-type field galaxies. This is accomplished by means of a Large Program targeting a distance-limited (<30 Mpc) sample of 103 early types spanning a wide range in stellar masses. We acquired new ACIS-S observations for 61 objects down to a limiting (0.3-10 keV) luminosity of 2.5 × 1038 erg s-1, and we include an additional 42 objects with archival (typically deeper) coverage. A nuclear X-ray source is detected in 52 out of the 103 galaxies. After accounting for potential contamination from low-mass X-ray binaries, we estimate that the fraction of accreting SMBHs within the sample is 45% ± 7%, which sets a firm lower limit on the occupation fraction within the field. The measured nuclear X-ray luminosities are invariably highly sub-Eddington, with L X/L Edd ratios between ~10-4 and 10-8. As also found in a companion survey targeting Virgo early types, the active fraction increases with increasing host galaxy stellar mass, reflective of "Eddington incompleteness" within the lower-mass objects. For the Field sample, the average nuclear X-ray luminosity scales with the host stellar mass as M 0.71 ± 0.10 star, with an intrinsic scatter of 0.73 ± 0.09 dex. Qualitatively similar results hold for morphologically homogeneous (type E) or uniform sensitivity (new observations only) subsets. A majority of the AMUSE-Field galaxies (78%) inhabit groups, enabling us to investigate the influence of group richness on nuclear activity. We see no evidence for a positive correlation between nuclear X-ray luminosity, normalized to host properties, and galaxy density. Rather, while the scatter is substantial, it appears that the Eddington-scaled X-ray luminosity of group members may be slightly lower than for isolated galaxies, and that this trend continues to cluster early types.

  16. Large-Scale Metabolite Analysis of Standards and Human Serum by Laser Desorption Ionization Mass Spectrometry from Silicon Nanopost Arrays.

    PubMed

    Korte, Andrew R; Stopka, Sylwia A; Morris, Nicholas; Razunguzwa, Trust; Vertes, Akos

    2016-09-20

    The unique challenges presented by metabolomics have driven the development of new mass spectrometry (MS)-based techniques for small molecule analysis. We have previously demonstrated silicon nanopost arrays (NAPA) to be an effective substrate for laser desorption ionization (LDI) of small molecules for MS. However, the utility of NAPA-LDI-MS for a wide range of metabolite classes has not been investigated. Here we apply NAPA-LDI-MS to the large-scale acquisition of high-resolution mass spectra and tandem mass spectra from a collection of metabolite standards covering a range of compound classes including amino acids, nucleotides, carbohydrates, xenobiotics, lipids, and other classes. In untargeted analysis of metabolite standard mixtures, detection was achieved for 374 compounds and useful MS/MS spectra were obtained for 287 compounds, without individual optimization of ionization or fragmentation conditions. Metabolite detection was evaluated in the context of 31 metabolic pathways, and NAPA-LDI-MS was found to provide detection for 63% of investigated pathway metabolites. Individual, targeted analysis of the 20 common amino acids provided detection of 100% of the investigated compounds, demonstrating that improved coverage is possible through optimization and targeting of individual analytes or analyte classes. In direct analysis of aqueous and organic extracts from human serum samples, spectral features were assigned to a total of 108 small metabolites and lipids. Glucose and amino acids were quantitated within their physiological concentration ranges. The broad coverage demonstrated by this large-scale screening experiment opens the door for use of NAPA-LDI-MS in numerous metabolite analysis applications.

  17. Relative and absolute reliability of measures of linoleic acid-derived oxylipins in human plasma.

    PubMed

    Gouveia-Figueira, Sandra; Bosson, Jenny A; Unosson, Jon; Behndig, Annelie F; Nording, Malin L; Fowler, Christopher J

    2015-09-01

    Modern analytical techniques allow for the measurement of oxylipins derived from linoleic acid in biological samples. Most validatory work has concerned extraction techniques, repeated analysis of aliquots from the same biological sample, and the influence of external factors such as diet and heparin treatment upon their levels, whereas less is known about the relative and absolute reliability of measurements undertaken on different days. A cohort of nineteen healthy males were used, where samples were taken at the same time of day on two occasions, at least 7 days apart. Relative reliability was assessed using Lin's concordance correlation coefficients (CCC) and intraclass correlation coefficients (ICC). Absolute reliability was assessed by Bland-Altman analyses. Nine linoleic acid oxylipins were investigated. ICC and CCC values ranged from acceptable (0.56 [13-HODE]) to poor (near zero [9(10)- and 12(13)-EpOME]). Bland-Altman limits of agreement were in general quite wide, ranging from ±0.5 (12,13-DiHOME) to ±2 (9(10)-EpOME; log10 scale). It is concluded that relative reliability of linoleic acid-derived oxylipins varies between lipids with compounds such as the HODEs showing better relative reliability than compounds such as the EpOMEs. These differences should be kept in mind when designing and interpreting experiments correlating plasma levels of these lipids with factors such as age, body mass index, rating scales etc.

  18. Technical Note: A comparison of model and empirical measures of catchment scale effective energy and mass transfer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rasmussen, C.; Gallo, E. L.

    2013-03-01

    Recent work suggests that a coupled energy and mass transfer term (EEMT), that includes the energy associated with effective precipitation and primary production, may serve as a robust prediction parameter of critical zone structure and function. However, the models used to estimate EEMT have been solely based on long term climatological data with little validation using point to catchment scale empirical data. Here we compare catchment scale EEMT estimates generated using two distinct approaches: (1) EEMT modelled using the established methodology based on estimates of monthly effective precipitation and net primary production derived from climatological data, and (2) empirical catchment scale EEMT estimated using data from 86 catchments of the Model Parameterization Experiment (MOPEX) and MOD17A3 annual net primary production (NPP) product derived from Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS). Results indicated positive and significant linear correspondence between model and empirical measures but with modelled EEMT values consistently greater than empirical measures of EEMT. Empirical catchment estimates of the energy associated with effective precipitation (EPPT) were calculated using a mass balance approach and base flow that accounts for water losses to quick surface runoff not accounted for in the climatologically modelled EPPT. Similarly, local controls on primary production such as solar radiation and nutrient limitation were not explicitly included in the climatologically based estimates of energy associated with primary production (EBIO) whereas these were captured in the remotely sensed MODIS NPP data. There was significant positive correlation between catchment aridity and the fraction of total energy partitioned into EBIO, where the EBIO increases as the average percentage catchment woody plant cover decreases. In summary, the data indicated strong correspondence between model and empirical measures of EEMT that agree well with catchment

  19. Constraints on neutrino masses from the study of the nearby large-scale structure and galaxy cluster counts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Böhringer, Hans; Chon, Gayoung

    2016-07-01

    The high precision measurements of the cosmic microwave background by the Planck survey yielded tight constraints on cosmological parameters and the statistics of the density fluctuations at the time of recombination. This provides the means for a critical study of structure formation in the Universe by comparing the microwave background results with present epoch measurements of the cosmic large-scale structure. It can reveal subtle effects such as how different forms of Dark Matter may modify structure growth. Currently most interesting is the damping effect of structure growth by massive neutrinos. Different observations of low redshift matter density fluctuations provided evidence for a signature of massive neutrinos. Here we discuss the study of the cosmic large-scale structure with a complete sample of nearby, X-ray luminous clusters from our REFLEX cluster survey. From the observed X-ray luminosity function and its reproduction for different cosmological models, we obtain tight constraints on the cosmological parameters describing the matter density, Ωm, and the density fluctuation amplitude, σ8. A comparison of these constraints with the Planck results shows a discrepancy in the framework of a pure ΛCDM model, but the results can be reconciled, if we allow for a neutrino mass in the range of 0.17 eV to 0.7 eV. Also some others, but not all of the observations of the nearby large-scale structure provide evidence or trends for signatures of massive neutrinos. With further improvement in the systematics and future survey projects, these indications will develop into a definitive measurement of neutrino masses.

  20. Solute mass transfer from near field to far field in a HLWR experiment at real scale.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buil, B.; Peña, J.; Gómez, P.; Garralón, A.; Turrero, M. J.; Sánchez, L.; Durán, J. M.

    2009-04-01

    The FEBEX experiment located in Grimsel (Switzerland) is a 1:1 simulation of a high level waste disposal facility in crystalline rock according to the Spanish concept: two electrical heaters of dimension and weight equivalent to those of the real canisters were installed concentrically with the drift and simulated the thermal effect of the wastes and surrounded by a clay barrier constructed from highly-compacted bentonite blocks. This experiment started in 1996 and the external rim of bentonite is saturated with the granitic water. The difference between the chemical gradients generated by the bentonite porewater and the granitic water made possible the movement of solute into the geosphere. The experiment reproduces in the most realistic conditions, all the processes affecting the radionuclide migration in a HLWR. Two boreholes parallel to the axis of the FEBEX drift were drilled in granite relatively close to the bentonite surface (20 and 60cm) in order to highlight the solute migration mechanisms in crystalline host rock, influenced by the presence of the bentonite buffer and by the geochemical gradients generated at the bentonite/granite interface. After three years of periodic water sampling campaigns in those boreholes, the chemical composition of waters reveal that there is an appreciable increase of Na and Cl concentration in time in the waters sampled from the borehole located at 20cm from the bentonite surface. On the other hand, the Na/Cl ratio in waters is similar to the Na/Cl ratio in the bentonite porewater. For this reason Cl and Na are considered as the main natural tracers indicating the mass transfer process between the bentonite porewater and the granite. A diffusion transport modelling (PHREEQC) was used to describe the mass transfer process. The results show that the Cl and Na concentration in the granitic waters is the result of a diffusive transport from the bentonite to the granite, with a calculated De≈ 5,0E-11 m2/s. These results could

  1. Structurally controlled 'teleconnection' of large-scale mass wasting (Eastern Alps)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ostermann, Marc; Sanders, Diethard

    2015-04-01

    In the Brenner Pass area (Eastern Alps) , closely ahead of the most northward outlier ('nose') of the Southern-Alpine continental indenter, abundant deep-seated gravitational slope deformations and a cluster of five post-glacial rockslides are present. The indenter of roughly triangular shape formed during Neogene collision of the Southern-Alpine basement with the Eastern-Alpine nappe stack. Compression by the indenter activated a N-S striking, roughly W-E extensional fault northward of the nose of the indenter (Brenner-normal fault; BNF), and lengthened the Eastern-Alpine edifice along a set of major strike-slip faults. These fault zones display high seismicity, and are the preferred locus of catastrophic rapid slope failures (rockslides, rock avalanches) and deep-seated gravitational slope deformations. The seismotectonic stress field, earthquake activity, and structural data all indicate that the South-Alpine indenter still - or again - exerts compression; in consequence, the northward adjacent Eastern Alps are subject mainly to extension and strike-slip. For the rockslides in the Brenner Pass area, and for the deep-seated gravitational slope deformations, the fault zones combined with high seismic activity predispose massive slope failures. Structural data and earthquakes mainly record ~W-E extension within an Eastern Alpine basement block (Oetztal-Stubai basement complex) in the hangingwall of the BNF. In the Northern Calcareous Alps NW of the Oetztal-Stubai basement complex, dextral faults provide defacement scars for large rockfalls and rockslides. Towards the West, these dextral faults merge into a NNW-SSE striking sinistral fault zone that, in turn, displays high seismic activity and is the locus of another rockslide cluster (Fern Pass cluster; Prager et al., 2008). By its kinematics dictated by the South-Alpine indenter, the relatively rigid Oetztal-Stubai basement block relays faulting and associated mass-wasting over a N-S distance of more than 60

  2. Large-scale collision cross-section profiling on a travelling wave ion mobility mass spectrometer

    PubMed Central

    Lietz, Christopher B.; Yu, Qing; Li, Lingjun

    2014-01-01

    Ion mobility (IM) is a gas-phase electrophoretic method that separates ions according to charge and ion-neutral collision cross-section (CCS). Herein, we attempt to apply a travelling wave (TW) IM polyalanine calibration method to shotgun proteomics and create a large peptide CCS database. Mass spectrometry methods that utilize IM, such as HDMSE, often use high transmission voltages for sensitive analysis. However, polyalanine calibration has only been demonstrated with low voltage transmission used to prevent gas-phase activation. If polyalanine ions change conformation under higher transmission voltages used for HDMSE, the calibration may no longer be valid. Thus, we aimed to characterize the accuracy of calibration and CCS measurement under high transmission voltages on a TW IM instrument using the polyalanine calibration method and found that the additional error was not significant. We also evaluated the potential error introduced by liquid chromatography (LC)-HDMSE analysis, and found it to be insignificant as well, validating the calibration method. Finally, we demonstrated the utility of building a large-population peptide CCS database by investigating the effects of terminal lysine position, via LysC or LysN digestion, on the formation of two structural sub-families formed by triply charged ions. PMID:24845359

  3. Minimum mass design of large-scale space trusses subjected to thermal gradients

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, R. Brett; Agnes, Gregory S.

    2006-01-01

    Lightweight, deployable trusses are commonly used to support space-borne instruments including RF reflectors, radar panels, and telescope optics. While in orbit, these support structures are subjected to thermal gradients that vary with altitude, location in orbit, and self-shadowing. Since these instruments have tight dimensional-stability requirements, their truss members are often covered with multi-layer insulation (MLI) blankets to minimize thermal distortions. This paper develops a radiation heat transfer model to predict the thermal gradient experienced by a triangular truss supporting a long, linear radar panel in Medium Earth Orbit (MEO). The influence of self-shadowing effects of the radar panel are included in the analysis, and the influence of both MLI thickness and outer covers/coatings on the magnitude of the thermal gradient are formed into a simple, two-dimensional analysis. This thermal model is then used to size and estimate the structural mass of a triangular truss that meets a given set of structural requirements.

  4. Large-scale human skin lipidomics by quantitative, high-throughput shotgun mass spectrometry

    PubMed Central

    Sadowski, Tomasz; Klose, Christian; Gerl, Mathias J.; Wójcik-Maciejewicz, Anna; Herzog, Ronny; Simons, Kai; Reich, Adam; Surma, Michal A.

    2017-01-01

    The lipid composition of human skin is essential for its function; however the simultaneous quantification of a wide range of stratum corneum (SC) and sebaceous lipids is not trivial. We developed and validated a quantitative high-throughput shotgun mass spectrometry-based platform for lipid analysis of tape-stripped SC skin samples. It features coverage of 16 lipid classes; total quantification to the level of individual lipid molecules; high reproducibility and high-throughput capabilities. With this method we conducted a large lipidomic survey of 268 human SC samples, where we investigated the relationship between sampling depth and lipid composition, lipidome variability in samples from 14 different sampling sites on the human body and finally, we assessed the impact of age and sex on lipidome variability in 104 healthy subjects. We found sebaceous lipids to constitute an abundant component of the SC lipidome as they diffuse into the topmost SC layers forming a gradient. Lipidomic variability with respect to sampling depth, site and subject is considerable, and mainly accredited to sebaceous lipids, while stratum corneum lipids vary less. This stresses the importance of sampling design and the role of sebaceous lipids in skin studies. PMID:28266621

  5. ESO 243-49 HLX-1: scaling of X-ray spectral properties and black hole mass determination

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Titarchuk, Lev; Seifina, Elena

    2016-11-01

    We report the results of Swift/XRT observations (2008-2015) of a hyper-luminous X-ray source, ESO 243-49 HLX-1. We demonstrate a strong observational evidence that ESO 243-49 HLX-1 undergoes spectral transitions from the low/hard state to the high/soft state during these observations. The spectra of ESO 243-49 HLX-1 are well fitted by the so-called bulk motion Comptonization model for all spectral states. We have established the photon index (Γ) saturation level, Γsat = 3.0 ± 0.1, in the Γ versus mass accretion rate (Ṁ) correlation. This Γ-Ṁ correlation allows us to estimate black hole (BH) mass in ESO 243-49 HLX-1 to be MBH 7 × 104 M⊙ assuming the distance to ESO 243-49 of 95 Mpc. For the BH mass estimate we use the scaling method taking Galactic BHs XTE J1550-564, H 1743-322 and 4U 1630-472, and an extragalactic BH source, M101 ULX-1 as reference sources. The Γ versus Ṁ correlation revealed in ESO 243-49 HLX-1 is similar to those in a number of Galactic and extragalactic BHs and it clearly shows the correlation along with the strong Γ saturation at ≈3. This is a robust observational evidence for the presence of a BH in ESO 243-49 HLX-1. We also find that the seed (disk) photon temperatures are quite low, of order of 50-140 eV which are consistent with high BH mass in ESO 243-49 HLX-1.

  6. Articulated Multimedia Physics, Lesson 14, Gases, The Gas Laws, and Absolute Temperature.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New York Inst. of Tech., Old Westbury.

    As the fourteenth lesson of the Articulated Multimedia Physics Course, instructional materials are presented in this study guide with relation to gases, gas laws, and absolute temperature. The topics are concerned with the kinetic theory of gases, thermometric scales, Charles' law, ideal gases, Boyle's law, absolute zero, and gas pressures. The…

  7. Impact of co-digestion on existing salt and nutrient mass balances for a full-scale dairy energy project.

    PubMed

    Camarillo, Mary Kay; Stringfellow, William T; Spier, Chelsea L; Hanlon, Jeremy S; Domen, Jeremy K

    2013-10-15

    Anaerobic digestion of manure and other agricultural waste streams with subsequent energy production can result in more sustainable dairy operations; however, importation of digester feedstocks onto dairy farms alters previously established carbon, nutrient, and salinity mass balances. Salt and nutrient mass balance must be maintained to avoid groundwater contamination and salination. To better understand salt and nutrient contributions of imported methane-producing substrates, a mass balance for a full-scale dairy biomass energy project was developed for solids, carbon, nitrogen, sulfur, phosphorus, chloride, and potassium. Digester feedstocks, consisting of thickened manure flush-water slurry, screened manure solids, sudan grass silage, and feed-waste, were tracked separately in the mass balance. The error in mass balance closure for most elements was less than 5%. Manure contributed 69.2% of influent dry matter while contributing 77.7% of nitrogen, 90.9% of sulfur, and 73.4% of phosphorus. Sudan grass silage contributed high quantities of chloride and potassium, 33.3% and 43.4%, respectively, relative to the dry matter contribution of 22.3%. Five potential off-site co-digestates (egg waste, grape pomace, milk waste, pasta waste, whey wastewater) were evaluated for anaerobic digestion based on salt and nutrient content in addition to bio-methane potential. Egg waste and wine grape pomace appeared the most promising co-digestates due to their high methane potentials relative to bulk volume. Increasing power production from the current rate of 369 kW to the design value of 710 kW would require co-digestion with either 26800 L d(-1) egg waste or 60900 kg d(-1) grape pomace. However, importation of egg waste would more than double nitrogen loading, resulting in an increase of 172% above the baseline while co-digestion with grape pomace would increase potassium by 279%. Careful selection of imported co-digestates and management of digester effluent is required to

  8. Solomon Sea circulation and water mass modifications: response at ENSO time-scales

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Verron, J. A.; Melet, A. V.; Gourdeau, L.; Djath, N.

    2012-12-01

    The South Pacific low latitude western boundary currents (LLWBCs) carry waters of subtropical origin through the Solomon Sea before joining the equatorial Pacific. Changes in their properties or transport are assumed to impact ENSO dynamics. At ENSO time-scales, the LLWBCs transport tends to counterbalance the interior geostrophic one. However, the Solomon Sea is a strong constraint to the propagation of the LLWBCs. In this study, the response of the Solomon Sea circulation to ENSO is investigated based on a numerical simulation. The transport anomalies entering the Solomon Sea from the south are confined to the top 250 m of the water column, and represent 9 Sv (which is half of the mean transport).The induced circulation anomalies are not symmetric between the two ENSO states because of (1) a bathymetric control at Vitiaz Strait, that plays a stronger role during El Niño, and (2) an additional inflow at Solomon Strait during La Niña events. In terms of temperature and salinity, modifications are particularly notable for the thermocline water during El Niño conditions, with cooler and fresher waters compared to a climatological mean. The surface water at Vitiaz Strait and the upper thermocline water at Solomon Strait, feeding respectively the equatorial Pacific warm pool and the Equatorial Undercurrent, particularly affect the heat and salt fluxes. These fluxes can change by up to a factor of 2 between El Niño and La Niña conditions.

  9. Moonlight Drives Ocean-Scale Mass Vertical Migration of Zooplankton during the Arctic Winter.

    PubMed

    Last, Kim S; Hobbs, Laura; Berge, Jørgen; Brierley, Andrew S; Cottier, Finlo

    2016-01-25

    In extreme high-latitude marine environments that are without solar illumination in winter, light-mediated patterns of biological migration have historically been considered non-existent [1]. However, diel vertical migration (DVM) of zooplankton has been shown to occur even during the darkest part of the polar night, when illumination levels are exceptionally low [2, 3]. This paradox is, as yet, unexplained. Here, we present evidence of an unexpected uniform behavior across the entire Arctic, in fjord, shelf, slope and open sea, where vertical migrations of zooplankton are driven by lunar illumination. A shift from solar-day (24-hr period) to lunar-day (24.8-hr period) vertical migration takes place in winter when the moon rises above the horizon. Further, mass sinking of zooplankton from the surface waters and accumulation at a depth of ∼50 m occurs every 29.5 days in winter, coincident with the periods of full moon. Moonlight may enable predation of zooplankton by carnivorous zooplankters, fish, and birds now known to feed during the polar night [4]. Although primary production is almost nil at this time, lunar vertical migration (LVM) may facilitate monthly pulses of carbon remineralization, as they occur continuously in illuminated mesopelagic systems [5], due to community respiration of carnivorous and detritivorous zooplankton. The extent of LVM during the winter suggests that the behavior is highly conserved and adaptive and therefore needs to be considered as "baseline" zooplankton activity in a changing Arctic ocean [6-9]. VIDEO ABSTRACT.

  10. Planetesimal Initial Mass Functions and Creation Rates Under Turbulent Concentration Using Scale-Dependent Cascades

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cuzzi, J. N.; Hartlep, T.; Estrada, P.

    2016-01-01

    The initial accretion of primitive bodies from freely-floating nebula particles remains problematic. Traditional growth-by-sticking models in turbulent nebulae encounter a "meter-size barrier" due to both drift and destruction, or even a millimeter-to-centimeter-size "bouncing" barrier. Recent suggestions have been made that some "lucky" particles might be able to outgrow the collision and/or drift barriers, and lead to so-called "streaming instabilities" or SI. However, new full models of growth by sticking in the presence of radial drift show that lucky particles (the largest particles, at the tail of the size distribution, that grow beyond the nominal fragmentation and drift barriers) are far too rare to lead to any collective effects such as streaming or gravitational instabilities. Thus we need to focus on typical radii gamma(sub M) which contain most of the mass. Our models of disks with weak-to-moderate turbulence, which include all the most recent experimental constraints on collisional growth, erosion, bouncing, and fragmentation, as well as radial drift, find that growth stalls quite generally at sizes gamma(sub M) which are too small to settle into layers which are dense enough for any collective effects (streaming or gravitational instabilities) to arise. Even if growth by sticking could somehow breach the nominal barriers (perhaps if the actual sticking or strength is larger than current estimates for pure ice or pure silicate, with specific grain sizes), turbulent nebulae present subsequent formidable obstacles to incremental growth through the 1-10km size range. On the other hand, non-turbulent nebulae alpha is less than 10(Sup -4).

  11. Exploring electron beam induced heat and mass transport at the atomic scale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kisielowski, Christian

    2011-03-01

    In recent years the performance of mid-voltage electron microscopes was significantly boosted to reach deep sub-Ångstrom resolution around 0.5 Å at 300 kV in broad beam (TEM) and focused probe (STEM) modes. Atomic resolution microscopy at voltages as low as 50 kV (and possibly below) was fostered. As a result the detection of single atoms across the Periodic Table of Elements is now possible even if light atoms are considered. After decades of striving for resolution enhancement, electron microscopy has now reached a limit that is given at a fundamental level by the Coulomb scattering process itself and by beam-sample interactions, which set a maximum dose limit that can be easily reached for soft and hard materials with the developed high-brightness electron guns. Consequently, new frontiers for electron microscopy emerge and this contribution addresses dynamic processes at the single atom level that can now be captured in time series of images at frequencies below 1 Hz reaching towards kHz. In this frequency range much of the observed atom dynamics is electron beam induced and the control of beam-sample interaction imposes constraints as well as opportunities. In this contribution it is shown that it seems feasible to exploit beam sample interactions to gain better insight into heat and mass transport in soft and hard matter at atomic resolution. This work was supported by the U.S. Department of Energy under Contract No. DE-AC02-05CH11231.

  12. The Impact of In-situ Chemical Oxidation on Contaminant Mass Discharge: Linking Source-Zone and Plume-Scale Characterizations of Remediation Performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brusseau, M. L.; Carroll, K. C.; Baker, J. B.; Allen, T.; DiGuiseppi, W.; Hatton, J.; Morrison, C.; Russo, A. E.; Berkompas, J. L.

    2011-12-01

    A large-scale permanganate-based in-situ chemical oxidation (ISCO) effort has been conducted over the past ten years at a federal Superfund site in Tucson, AZ, for which trichloroethene (TCE) is the primary contaminant of concern. Remediation performance was assessed by examining the impact of treatment on contaminant mass discharge, an approach that has been used for only a very few prior ISCO projects. Contaminant mass discharge tests were conducted before and after permanganate injection to measure the impact at the source-zone scale. The results indicate that ISCO caused a significant reduction in mass discharge (approximately 75%). The standard approach of characterizing discharge at the source-zone scale was supplemented with additional characterization at the plume scale, which was evaluated by examining the change in contaminant mass discharge associated with the pump-and-treat system. The integrated contaminant mass discharge decreased by approximately 70%, consistent with the source-zone-scale measurements. The integrated mass discharge rebounded from 0.1 to 0.2 Kg/d within one year after cessation of permanganate injections, after which it has been stable for several years. Collection of the integrated contaminant mass discharge data throughout the ISCO treatment period provided a high-resolution, real-time analysis of the site-wide impact of ISCO, thereby linking source-zone remediation to impacts on overall risk. The results indicate that ISCO was successful in reducing contaminant mass discharge at this site, which comprises a highly heterogeneous subsurface environment. Analysis of TCE sediment concentration data for core material collected before and after ISCO supports the hypothesis that the remaining mass discharge is associated in part with poorly-accessible contaminant mass residing within lower-permeability zones.

  13. Impact of In Situ Chemical Oxidation on Contaminant Mass Discharge: Linking Source-Zone and Plume-Scale Characterizations of Remediation Performance

    SciTech Connect

    Brusseau, M. L.; Carroll, Kenneth C.; Allen, Tim J.; Baker, Joseph R.; DiGuiseppi, W.; Hatton, J.; Morrison, C.; Russo, A.; Berkompas, J.

    2011-05-26

    A large-scale permanganate-based in situ chemical oxidation (ISCO) effort has been conducted over the past ten years at a federal Superfund site in Tucson, AZ, for which trichloroethene (TCE) is the primary contaminant of concern. Remediation performance was assessed by examining the impact of treatment on contaminant mass discharge, an approach that has been used for only a very few prior ISCO projects. Contaminant mass discharge tests were conducted before and after permanganate injection to measure the impact at the source-zone scale. The results indicate that ISCO caused a significant reduction in mass discharge (approximately 75%). The standard approach of characterizing discharge at the source-zone scale was supplemented with additional characterization at the plume scale, which was evaluated by examining the change in contaminant mass discharge associated with the pump-and-treat system. The integrated contaminant mass discharge decreased by approximately 70%, consistent with the source-zone-scale measurements. The integrated mass discharge rebounded from 0.1 to 0.2 kg/d within one year after cessation of permanganate injections, after which it has been stable for several years. Collection of the integrated contaminant mass discharge data throughout the ISCO treatment period provided a high-resolution, real-time analysis of the site-wide impact of ISCO, thereby linking source-zone remediation to impacts on overall risk. The results indicate that ISCO was successful in reducing contaminant mass discharge at this site, which comprises a highly heterogeneous subsurface environment. Analysis of TCE sediment concentration data for core material collected before and after ISCO supports the hypothesis that the remaining mass discharge is associated in part with poorly accessible contaminant mass residing within lower permeability zones.

  14. Impact of in situ chemical oxidation on contaminant mass discharge: linking source-zone and plume-scale characterizations of remediation performance.

    PubMed

    Brusseau, M L; Carroll, K C; Allen, T; Baker, J; Diguiseppi, W; Hatton, J; Morrison, C; Russo, A; Berkompas, J

    2011-06-15

    A large-scale permanganate-based in situ chemical oxidation (ISCO) effort has been conducted over the past ten years at a federal Superfund site in Tucson, AZ, for which trichloroethene (TCE) is the primary contaminant of concern. Remediation performance was assessed by examining the impact of treatment on contaminant mass discharge, an approach that has been used for only a very few prior ISCO projects. Contaminant mass discharge tests were conducted before and after permanganate injection to measure the impact at the source-zone scale. The results indicate that ISCO caused a significant reduction in mass discharge (approximately 75%). The standard approach of characterizing discharge at the source-zone scale was supplemented with additional characterization at the plume scale, which was evaluated by examining the change in contaminant mass discharge associated with the pump-and-treat system. The integrated contaminant mass discharge decreased by approximately 70%, consistent with the source-zone-scale measurements. The integrated mass discharge rebounded from 0.1 to 0.2 kg/d within one year after cessation of permanganate injections, after which it has been stable for several years. Collection of the integrated contaminant mass discharge data throughout the ISCO treatment period provided a high-resolution, real-time analysis of the site-wide impact of ISCO, thereby linking source-zone remediation to impacts on overall risk. The results indicate that ISCO was successful in reducing contaminant mass discharge at this site, which comprises a highly heterogeneous subsurface environment. Analysis of TCE sediment concentration data for core material collected before and after ISCO supports the hypothesis that the remaining mass discharge is associated in part with poorly accessible contaminant mass residing within lower-permeability zones.

  15. Combination of snowpack modelling and TLS observations to analyze small scale spatial varaiability of snowpack energy and mass balance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Revuelto, Jesús; Vionnet, Vincent; López-Moreno, Juan Ignacio; Lafaysse, Matthieu; Morin, Samuel

    2015-04-01

    Improving the comprehension on how the different energetic balance components affect the snowpack mass balance during the melting period is important from a hydrological point of view. An accurate Snow Water Equivalent (SWE) distribution is needed for this objective, but unfortunately SWE measurement over large areas is not feasible nowadays. This distribution can be provided by a snowpack model but simulations often differ from the real state, because some physical processes are not yet properly modelled. In this study, we take advantage of distributed snowpack simulations corrected throughout the snow season with several snow depth distributions measured with a Terrestrial Laser Scanner (TLS). This allows us to obtain a more realistic SWE evolution and analyse its relations with the snowpack surface energy balance during the melting period considering small scale spatial variability. For 2012, 2013 and 2014 snow seasons several intensive TLS snow depth data acquisitions were accomplished at Izas Experimental catchment; a 52ha study site located in central Spanish Pyrenees with an elevation that ranges between 2050 to 2350m above sea level. The detailed snowpack model Crocus has been used for simulating the snowpack evolution at 5m grid spacing during these three snow seasons, driven by downscaled meteorological fields from the SAFRAN reanalysis. Shadow effects on direct solar radiation are explicitly considered in the snowpack simulation. When a snow depth distribution map measured with the TLS was available, the simulation was stopped and the modelled snow depth distribution was adjusted to match observations. Afterwards the snow simulation was restarted, being subsequently simulated a more realistic snowpack distribution. Considering this improved simulation, the components of the surface energy balance simulated by Crocus were analysed in relation to the simulated mass balance dynamics during the melting period. In such a way a Principal Component Analysis

  16. Method of differential-phase/absolute-amplitude QAM

    DOEpatents

    Dimsdle, Jeffrey William

    2008-10-21

    A method of quadrature amplitude modulation involving encoding phase differentially and amplitude absolutely, allowing for a high data rate and spectral efficiency in data transmission and other communication applications, and allowing for amplitude scaling to facilitate data recovery; amplitude scale tracking to track-out rapid and severe scale variations and facilitate successful demodulation and data retrieval; 2.sup.N power carrier recovery; incoherent demodulation where coherent carrier recovery is not possible or practical due to signal degradation; coherent demodulation; multipath equalization to equalize frequency dependent multipath; and demodulation filtering.

  17. Method of differential-phase/absolute-amplitude QAM

    DOEpatents

    Dimsdle, Jeffrey William

    2007-07-03

    A method of quadrature amplitude modulation involving encoding phase differentially and amplitude absolutely, allowing for a high data rate and spectral efficiency in data transmission and other communication applications, and allowing for amplitude scaling to facilitate data recovery; amplitude scale tracking to track-out rapid and severe scale variations and facilitate successful demodulation and data retrieval; 2.sup.N power carrier recovery; incoherent demodulation where coherent carrier recovery is not possible or practical due to signal degradation; coherent demodulation; multipath equalization to equalize frequency dependent multipath; and demodulation filtering.

  18. Method of differential-phase/absolute-amplitude QAM

    DOEpatents

    Dimsdle, Jeffrey William

    2007-10-02

    A method of quadrature amplitude modulation involving encoding phase differentially and amplitude absolutely, allowing for a high data rate and spectral efficiency in data transmission and other communication applications, and allowing for amplitude scaling to facilitate data recovery; amplitude scale tracking to track-out rapid and severe scale variations and facilitate successful demodulation and data retrieval; 2.sup.N power carrier recovery; incoherent demodulation where coherent carrier recovery is not possible or practical due to signal degradation; coherent demodulation; multipath equalization to equalize frequency dependent multipath; and demodulation filtering.

  19. Method of differential-phase/absolute-amplitude QAM

    SciTech Connect

    Dimsdle, Jeffrey William

    2009-09-01

    A method of quadrature amplitude modulation involving encoding phase differentially and amplitude absolutely, allowing for a high data rate and spectral efficiency in data transmission and other communication applications, and allowing for amplitude scaling to facilitate data recovery; amplitude scale tracking to track-out rapid and severe scale variations and facilitate successful demodulation and data retrieval; 2.sup.N power carrier recovery; incoherent demodulation where coherent carrier recovery is not possible or practical due to signal degradation; coherent demodulation; multipath equalization to equalize frequency dependent multipath; and demodulation filtering.

  20. Method of differential-phase/absolute-amplitude QAM

    DOEpatents

    Dimsdle, Jeffrey William

    2007-07-17

    A method of quadrature amplitude modulation involving encoding phase differentially and amplitude absolutely, allowing for a high data rate and spectral efficiency in data transmission and other communication applications, and allowing for amplitude scaling to facilitate data recovery; amplitude scale tracking to track-out rapid and severe scale variations and facilitate successful demodulation and data retrieval; 2.sup.N power carrier recovery; incoherent demodulation where coherent carrier recovery is not possible or practical due to signal degradation; coherent demodulation; multipath equalization to equalize frequency dependent multipath; and demodulation filtering.

  1. The Absolute Gravimeter FG5 - Adjustment and Residual Data Evaluation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Orlob, M.; Braun, A.; Henton, J.; Courtier, N.; Liard, J.

    2009-05-01

    The most widely used method of direct terrestrial gravity determination is performed by using a ballistic absolute gravimeter. Today, the FG5 (Micro-g LaCoste; Lafayette, CO) is the most common free-fall absolute gravimeter. It uses the Michelson-type interferometer to determine the absolute gravity value with accuracies up to one part- per-billion of g. Furthermore, absolute gravimeter measurements can be used to assist in the validation and interpretation of temporal variations of the global gravity field, e.g. from the GRACE mission. In addition, absolute gravimetry allows for monitoring gravity changes which are caused by subsurface mass redistributions and/or vertical displacements. In this study,adjustment software was developed and applied to the raw data sets of FG5#106 and FG5#236, made available by Natural Resources Canada. Both data sets have been collected at the same time and place which leads to an intercomparison of the instruments performance. The adjustment software was validated against the official FG5 software package developed by Micro-g Lacoste. In order to identify potential environmental or instrument disturbances in the observed time series, a Lomb- Scargle periodogram analysis was employed. The absolute gravimeter FG5 is particularly sensitive to low frequencies between 0-3Hz. Hence, the focus of the analysis is to detect signals in the band of 0-100 Hz. An artificial signal was added to the measurements for demonstration purposes. Both the performance of the adjustment software and the Lomb-Scargle analysis will be discussed.

  2. Evaluation of the Absolute Regional Temperature Potential

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shindell, D. T.

    2012-01-01

    The Absolute Regional Temperature Potential (ARTP) is one of the few climate metrics that provides estimates of impacts at a sub-global scale. The ARTP presented here gives the time-dependent temperature response in four latitude bands (90-28degS, 28degS-28degN, 28-60degN and 60-90degN) as a function of emissions based on the forcing in those bands caused by the emissions. It is based on a large set of simulations performed with a single atmosphere-ocean climate model to derive regional forcing/response relationships. Here I evaluate the robustness of those relationships using the forcing/response portion of the ARTP to estimate regional temperature responses to the historic aerosol forcing in three independent climate models. These ARTP results are in good accord with the actual responses in those models. Nearly all ARTP estimates fall within +/-20%of the actual responses, though there are some exceptions for 90-28degS and the Arctic, and in the latter the ARTP may vary with forcing agent. However, for the tropics and the Northern Hemisphere mid-latitudes in particular, the +/-20% range appears to be roughly consistent with the 95% confidence interval. Land areas within these two bands respond 39-45% and 9-39% more than the latitude band as a whole. The ARTP, presented here in a slightly revised form, thus appears to provide a relatively robust estimate for the responses of large-scale latitude bands and land areas within those bands to inhomogeneous radiative forcing and thus potentially to emissions as well. Hence this metric could allow rapid evaluation of the effects of emissions policies at a finer scale than global metrics without requiring use of a full climate model.

  3. Large-Scale Mass Spectrometry Imaging Investigation of Consequences of Cortical Spreading Depression in a Transgenic Mouse Model of Migraine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carreira, Ricardo J.; Shyti, Reinald; Balluff, Benjamin; Abdelmoula, Walid M.; van Heiningen, Sandra H.; van Zeijl, Rene J.; Dijkstra, Jouke; Ferrari, Michel D.; Tolner, Else A.; McDonnell, Liam A.; van den Maagdenberg, Arn M. J. M.

    2015-06-01

    Cortical spreading depression (CSD) is the electrophysiological correlate of migraine aura. Transgenic mice carrying the R192Q missense mutation in the Cacna1a gene, which in patients causes familial hemiplegic migraine type 1 (FHM1), exhibit increased propensity to CSD. Herein, mass spectrometry imaging (MSI) was applied for the first time to an animal cohort of transgenic and wild type mice to study the biomolecular changes following CSD in the brain. Ninety-six coronal brain sections from 32 mice were analyzed by MALDI-MSI. All MSI datasets were registered to the Allen Brain Atlas reference atlas of the mouse brain so that the molecular signatures of distinct brain regions could be compared. A number of metabolites and peptides showed substantial changes in the brain associated with CSD. Among those, different mass spectral features showed significant ( t-test, P < 0.05) changes in the cortex, 146 and 377 Da, and in the thalamus, 1820 and 1834 Da, of the CSD-affected hemisphere of FHM1 R192Q mice. Our findings reveal CSD- and genotype-specific molecular changes in the brain of FHM1 transgenic mice that may further our understanding about the role of CSD in migraine pathophysiology. The results also demonstrate the utility of aligning MSI datasets to a common reference atlas for large-scale MSI investigations.

  4. Monitoring the variations of the oxygen transfer rate in a full scale membrane bioreactor using daily mass balances.

    PubMed

    Racault, Y; Stricker, A-E; Husson, A; Gillot, S

    2011-01-01

    Oxygen transfer in biological wastewater treatment processes with high sludge concentration, such as membrane bioreactor (MBR), is an important issue. The variation of alpha-factor versus mixed liquor suspended solids (MLSS) concentration was investigated in a full scale MBR plant under process conditions, using mass balances. Exhaustive data from the Supervisory Control And Data Acquisition (SCADA) and from additional online sensors (COD, DO, MLSS) were used to calculate the daily oxygen consumption (OC) using a non-steady state mass balance for COD and total N on a 24-h basis. To close the oxygen balance, OC has to match the total oxygen transfer rate (OTRtot) of the system, which is provided by fine bubble (FB) diffusers in the aeration tank and coarse bubbles (CB) in separate membrane tanks. First assessing OTR(CB) then closing the balance OC = OTRtot allowed to calculate OTR(FB) and to fit an exponential relationship between OTR(FB) and MLSS. A comparison of the alpha-factor obtained by this balance method and by direct measurements with the off-gas method on the same plant is presented and discussed.

  5. Large-scale phosphoproteome of human whole saliva using disulfide-thiol interchange covalent chromatography and mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Salih, Erdjan; Siqueira, Walter L; Helmerhorst, Eva J; Oppenheim, Frank G

    2010-12-01

    To date, only a handful of phosphoproteins with important biological functions have been identified and characterized in oral fluids, and these include some of the abundant protein constituents of saliva. Whole saliva (WS) samples were trypsin digested, followed by chemical derivatization using dithiothreitol (DTT) of the phospho-serine/threonine-containing peptides. The DTT-phosphopeptides were enriched by covalent disulfide-thiol interchange chromatography and analysis by nanoflow liquid chromatography and electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry (LC-ESI-MS/MS). The specificity of DTT chemical derivatization was evaluated separately under different base-catalyzed conditions with NaOH and Ba(OH)(2), blocking cysteine residues by iodoacetamide and enzymatic O-deglycosylation prior to DTT reaction. Further analysis of WS samples that were subjected to either of these conditions provided supporting evidence for phosphoprotein identifications. The combined chemical strategies and mass spectrometric analyses identified 65 phosphoproteins in WS; of these, 28 were based on two or more peptide identification criteria with high confidence and 37 were based on a single phosphopeptide identification. Most of the identified proteins (∼80%) were previously unknown phosphoprotein components. This study represents the first large-scale documentation of phosphoproteins of WS. The origins and identity of WS phosphoproteome suggest significant implications for both basic science and the development of novel biomarkers/diagnostic tools for systemic and oral disease states.

  6. The hyperfine structure in the rotational spectra of D{sub 2}{sup 17}O and HD{sup 17}O: Confirmation of the absolute nuclear magnetic shielding scale for oxygen

    SciTech Connect

    Puzzarini, Cristina Cazzoli, Gabriele; Harding, Michael E.; Vázquez, Juana; Gauss, Jürgen

    2015-03-28

    Guided by theoretical predictions, the hyperfine structures of the rotational spectra of mono- and bideuterated-water containing {sup 17}O have been experimentally investigated. To reach sub-Doppler resolution, required to resolve the hyperfine structure due to deuterium quadrupole coupling as well as to spin-rotation (SR) and dipolar spin-spin couplings, the Lamb-dip technique has been employed. The experimental investigation and in particular, the spectral analysis have been supported by high-level quantum-chemical computations employing coupled-cluster techniques and, for the first time, a complete experimental determination of the hyperfine parameters involved was possible. The experimentally determined {sup 17}O spin-rotation constants of D{sub 2}{sup 17}O and HD{sup 17}O were used to derive the paramagnetic part of the corresponding nuclear magnetic shielding constants. Together with the computed diamagnetic contributions as well as the vibrational and temperature corrections, the latter constants have been employed to confirm the oxygen nuclear magnetic shielding scale, recently established on the basis of spin-rotation data for H{sub 2}{sup 17}O [Puzzarini et al., J. Chem. Phys. 131, 234304 (2009)].

  7. Cryo-Tracker mass gauging system testing in a large-scale expendable launch vehicle LOX tank simulator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schieb, Daniel J.; Haberbusch, Mark S.; Yeckley, Alexander J.

    2006-05-01

    Sierra Lobo tested its patented Cryo-Tracker(R) probe and Mass Gauging System in a large scale Expendable Launch Vehicle (ELV) liquid oxygen tank simulation for NASA. Typical Liquid Oxygen (LOX) tank operations were simulated at Lockheed Martin's Engineering Propulsion Laboratory in Denver, Colorado. The Cryo-Tracker(R) probe is 33 feet long, the longest built to date. It was mounted in the tank at only two locations, separated by 26 feet. Each test simulated typical Lockheed Martin booster pre-launch tanking operations, including filling the tank with LOX at fill rates typically used at the launch pad, and maintaining the fill level for a period representative of a typical pad hold. The Cryo-Tracker(R) Mass Gauging System was the primary instrument used for monitoring the fill and controlling the topping operations. Each test also simulated a typical flight profile, expelling the LOX at representative pressures and expulsion flow rates. During expulsion, the Cryo-Tracker(R) System served to generate an Engine Cut-Off (ECO) signal. Test objectives were as follows: Cryo-Tracker(R) data will be validated by flight-like propellant instruments currently used in launch vehicles; the probe will survive the harsh environment (which will be documented by a digital video camera) with no loss of signal or structural integrity; the system will successfully measure liquid levels and temperatures under all conditions and calculate propellant mass in real-time; the system will successfully demonstrate its feasibility as a control sensor for LOX filling and topping operations, as well as for engine cut-off. All objectives were met and the test results are presented.

  8. Scales

    ScienceCinema

    Murray Gibson

    2016-07-12

    Musical scales involve notes that, sounded simultaneously (chords), sound good together. The result is the left brain meeting the right brain — a Pythagorean interval of overlapping notes. This synergy would suggest less difference between the working of the right brain and the left brain than common wisdom would dictate. The pleasing sound of harmony comes when two notes share a common harmonic, meaning that their frequencies are in simple integer ratios, such as 3/2 (G/C) or 5/4 (E/C).

  9. Scales

    SciTech Connect

    Murray Gibson

    2007-04-27

    Musical scales involve notes that, sounded simultaneously (chords), sound good together. The result is the left brain meeting the right brain — a Pythagorean interval of overlapping notes. This synergy would suggest less difference between the working of the right brain and the left brain than common wisdom would dictate. The pleasing sound of harmony comes when two notes share a common harmonic, meaning that their frequencies are in simple integer ratios, such as 3/2 (G/C) or 5/4 (E/C).

  10. Studies of wall shear and mass transfer in a large scale model of neonatal high-frequency jet ventilation.

    PubMed

    Muller, W J; Gerjarusek, S; Scherer, P W

    1990-01-01

    The problem of endotracheal erosion associated with neonatal high-frequency jet ventilation (HFJV) is investigated through measurement of air velocity profiles in a scaled up model of the system. Fluid mechanical scaling principles are applied in order to construct a model within which velocity profiles are measured by hot-wire anemometry. The effects of two different jet geometries are investigated. Velocity gradients measured near the tracheal wall are used to measure the shear stresses caused by the jet flow on the wall. The Chilton-Colburn analogy between the transport of momentum and mass is applied to investigate tracheal drying caused by the high shear flow. Shear forces are seen to be more than two times higher for jets located near the endotracheal tube wall than for those located axisymmetrically in the center of the tube. Since water vapor fluxes are dependent on these shears, they are also higher for the asymmetric case. Fluxes are shown to be greatly dependent on the temperature and relative humidity of the inspired gas. Water from the tracheal surface may be depleted within one second if inspired gases are inadequately heated and humidified. It is recommended that the design of neonatal HFJV devices include delivery of heated (near body temperature), humidified (as close to 100% humidity as possible) gases through an axisymmetric jet to best avoid the problem of endotracheal erosion.

  11. Coronal mass ejection rate and the evolution of the large-scale K-coronal density distribution

    SciTech Connect

    Sime, D.G.

    1989-01-01

    Recently reported occurrence rates of coronal mass ejections (CMEs) are compared with the time scale for the long-term evolution of the global white light coronal density distribution. This time scale is estimated from the synoptic observations of the corona made from Mauna Loa, Hawaii, by a seies of K-coronameters. The data span a period of more than 20 years and show evolution rates which vary with time roughly in phase with the solar activity cycle. However, there are detailed differences between the sunspot number curve and the long-term behavior of this quantity. When the occurrence rates of CMEs observed from orbiting coronagraphs, available mainly during the descending phase of the activity cycle, are compared with this evolution time, it is found that the two quantities are inversely proportional. From energy considerations, it is unlikely that there is a causal relationship between CMEs and this coronal evolution. Rather, the result indicates that the processes which lead to the global evolution are intimately related to those which give rise to CMEs, a hypothesis consistent with current theories that CMEs arise from preexisting magnetic structures which become stressed by the global magnetic field rearrangement to the point of instability. copyright American Geophysical Union 1989

  12. Sub-seismic scale folding and thrusting within an exposed mass transport deposit: A case study from NW Argentina

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sobiesiak, Matheus S.; Alsop, G. Ian; Kneller, Ben; Milana, Juan Pablo

    2017-03-01

    While imaging of mass transport deposits (MTDs) by seismic reflection techniques commonly reveals thrusts and large blocks that affect entire deposits, associated systems of folds are generally less apparent as they are typically below the limits of seismic resolution. However, such sub-seismic scale structures are important as they permit the direction of emplacement, gross kinematics and internal strain within MTDs to be determined. Here we present a rigorous description of two outcrop-scale MTDs exposed in La Peña gorge, northwestern Argentina. These Carboniferous MTDs enable us to illustrate structural changes from a compressional domain, marked by sets of imbricated sandstone layers, into an extensional domain, characterized by sheared blocks of sandstone embedded in a finer matrix. Folds may be progressively modified during slump translation, resulting in asymmetric folds, which undergo subsequent deformation leading to sheared fold limbs together with detached and rotated fold hinges. In order to constrain transport directions within the MTDs, we measured fold hinges, mud clast alignment, and thrust planes as kinematic indicators. We propose emplacement models for both MTDs based on the overall deformational behaviour of sandstone beds during translation. The first model is based on the internal geometries and structures of a fault-dominated MTD, and the second model is based on layer-normal shearing in a fold-dominated MTD.

  13. AMiBA: SCALING RELATIONS BETWEEN THE INTEGRATED COMPTON-y AND X-RAY-DERIVED TEMPERATURE, MASS, AND LUMINOSITY

    SciTech Connect

    Huang, Chih-Wei Locutus; Wu, Jiun-Huei Proty; Liao, Yu-Wei; Lin, Kai-Yang; Wang, Fu-Cheng; Chiueh, Tzihong; Ho, Paul T. P.; Koch, Patrick M.; Liu, Guo-Chin; Molnar, Sandor M.; Nishioka, Hiroaki; Altamirano, Pablo; Chang, Chia-Hao; Chang, Shu-Hao; Chang, Su-Wei; Chen, Ming-Tang; Han, Chih-Chiang; Huang, Yau-De; Umetsu, Keiichi; Birkinshaw, Mark

    2010-06-10

    We investigate the scaling relations between the X-ray and the thermal Sunyaev-Zel'dovich effect properties of clusters of galaxies, using data taken during 2007 by the Y. T. Lee Array for Microwave Background Anisotropy (AMiBA) at 94 GHz for the six clusters A1689, A1995, A2142, A2163, A2261, and A2390. The scaling relations relate the integrated Compton-y parameter Y {sub 2500} to the X-ray-derived gas temperature T {sub e}, total mass M {sub 2500}, and bolometric luminosity L{sub X} within r {sub 2500}. Our results for the power-law index and normalization are both consistent with the self-similar model and other studies in the literature except for the Y {sub 2500}-L{sub X} relation, for which a physical explanation is given though further investigation may be still needed. Our results not only provide confidence for the AMiBA project but also support our understanding of galaxy clusters.

  14. Large-scale inhomogeneities in solutions of low molar mass compounds and mixtures of liquids: supramolecular structures or nanobubbles?

    PubMed

    Sedlák, Marián; Rak, Dmytro

    2013-02-28

    In textbooks, undersaturated solutions of low molar mass compounds and mixtures of freely miscible liquids are considered as homogeneous at larger length scales exceeding appreciably dimensions of individual molecules. However, growing experimental evidence reveals that it is not the case. Large-scale structures with sizes on the order of 100 nm are present in solutions and mixtures used in everyday life and research practice, especially in aqueous systems. These mesoscale inhomogeneities are long-lived, and (relatively slow) kinetics of their formation can be monitored upon mixing the components. Nevertheless, the nature of these structures and mechanisms behind their formation are not clear yet. Since it was previously suggested that these can be nanobubbles stabilized by adsorbed solute at the gas/solvent interface, we devote the current study to addressing this question. Static and dynamic light scattering was used to investigate solutions and mixtures prepared at ordinary conditions (equilibrated with air at 1 atm), prepared with degassed solvent, and solutions and mixtures degassed after formation of large structures. The behavior of large structures in strong gravitational centrifugal fields was also investigated. Systems from various categories were chosen for this study: aqueous solutions of an inorganic ionic compound (MgSO4), organic ionic compound (citric acid), uncharged organic compound (urea), and a mixture of water with organic solvent freely miscible with water (tert-butyl alcohol). Obtained results show that these structures are not nanobubbles in all cases. Visualization of large-scale structures via nanoparticle tracking analysis is presented. NTA results confirm conclusions from our previous light scattering work.

  15. A LOCAL BASELINE OF THE BLACK HOLE MASS SCALING RELATIONS FOR ACTIVE GALAXIES. I. METHODOLOGY AND RESULTS OF PILOT STUDY

    SciTech Connect

    Bennert, Vardha Nicola; Auger, Matthew W.; Treu, Tommaso; Woo, Jong-Hak; Malkan, Matthew A. E-mail: mauger@physics.ucsb.edu E-mail: woo@astro.snu.ac.kr

    2011-01-10

    We present high-quality Keck/LRIS long-slit spectroscopy of a pilot sample of 25 local active galaxies selected from the SDSS (0.02 {<=}z {<=} 0.1; M{sub BH}>10{sup 7} M{sub sun}) to study the relations between black hole mass (M{sub BH}) and host-galaxy properties. We determine stellar kinematics of the host galaxy, deriving stellar-velocity dispersion profiles and rotation curves from three spectral regions (including CaH and K, MgIb triplet, and Ca II triplet). In addition, we perform surface photometry on SDSS images, using a newly developed code for joint multi-band analysis. BH masses are estimated from the width of the H{beta} emission line and the host-galaxy free 5100 A active galactic nucleus (AGN) luminosity. Combining results from spectroscopy and imaging allows us to study four M{sub BH} scaling relations: M{sub BH}-{sigma}, M{sub BH}-L{sub sph}, M{sub BH}-M{sub sph,*}, and M{sub BH}-M{sub sph,dyn}. We find the following results. First, stellar-velocity dispersions determined from aperture spectra (e.g., SDSS fiber spectra or unresolved data from distant galaxies) can be biased, depending on aperture size, AGN contamination, and host-galaxy morphology. However, such a bias cannot explain the offset seen in the M{sub BH}-{sigma} relation at higher redshifts. Second, while the CaT region is the cleanest to determine stellar-velocity dispersions, both the MgIb region, corrected for Fe II emission, and the CaHK region, although often swamped by the AGN power-law continuum and emission lines, can give results accurate to within a few percent. Third, the M{sub BH} scaling relations of our pilot sample agree in slope and scatter with those of other local active and inactive galaxies. In the next papers of the series we will quantify the scaling relations, exploiting the full sample of {approx}100 objects.

  16. Exploiting the multiplexing capabilities of tandem mass tags for high-throughput estimation of cellular protein abundances by mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Ahrné, Erik; Martinez-Segura, Amalia; Syed, Afzal Pasha; Vina-Vilaseca, Arnau; Gruber, Andreas J; Marguerat, Samuel; Schmidt, Alexander

    2015-09-01

    The generation of dynamic models of biological processes critically depends on the determination of precise cellular concentrations of biomolecules. Measurements of system-wide absolute protein levels are particularly valuable information in systems biology. Recently, mass spectrometry based proteomics approaches have been developed to estimate protein concentrations on a proteome-wide scale. However, for very complex proteomes, fractionation steps are required, increasing samples number and instrument analysis time. As a result, the number of full proteomes that can be routinely analyzed is limited. Here we combined absolute quantification strategies with the multiplexing capabilities of isobaric tandem mass tags to determine cellular protein abundances in a high throughput and proteome-wide scale even for highly complex biological systems, such as a whole human cell line. We generated two independent data sets to demonstrate the power of the approach regarding sample throughput, dynamic range, quantitative precision and accuracy as well as proteome coverage in comparison to existing mass spectrometry based strategies.

  17. Convective and large-scale mass flux profiles over tropical oceans determined from synergistic analysis of a suite of satellite observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Masunaga, Hirohiko; Luo, Zhengzhao Johnny

    2016-07-01

    A new, satellite-based methodology is developed to evaluate convective mass flux and large-scale total mass flux. To derive the convective mass flux, candidate profiles of in-cloud vertical velocity are first constructed with a simple plume model under the constraint of ambient sounding and then narrowed down to the solution that matches satellite-derived cloud top buoyancy. Meanwhile, the large-scale total mass flux is provided separately from satellite soundings by a method developed previously. All satellite snapshots are sorted into a composite time series that delineates the evolution of a vigorous and organized convective system. Principal findings are the following. First, convective mass flux is modulated primarily by convective cloud cover, with the intensity of individual convection being less variable over time. Second, convective mass flux dominates the total mass flux only during the early hours of the convective evolution; as convective system matures, a residual mass flux builds up in the mass flux balance that is reminiscent of stratiform dynamics. The method developed in this study is expected to be of unique utility for future observational diagnosis of tropical convective dynamics and for evaluation of global climate model cumulus parameterizations in a global sense.

  18. Convective and large-scale mass flux profiles over tropical oceans determined from synergistic analysis of a suite of satellite observations.

    PubMed

    Masunaga, Hirohiko; Luo, Zhengzhao Johnny

    2016-07-16

    A new, satellite-based methodology is developed to evaluate convective mass flux and large-scale total mass flux. To derive the convective mass flux, candidate profiles of in-cloud vertical velocity are first constructed with a simple plume model under the constraint of ambient sounding and then narrowed down to the solution that matches satellite-derived cloud top buoyancy. Meanwhile, the large-scale total mass flux is provided separately from satellite soundings by a method developed previously. All satellite snapshots are sorted into a composite time series that delineates the evolution of a vigorous and organized convective system. Principal findings are the following. First, convective mass flux is modulated primarily by convective cloud cover, with the intensity of individual convection being less variable over time. Second, convective mass flux dominates the total mass flux only during the early hours of the convective evolution; as convective system matures, a residual mass flux builds up in the mass flux balance that is reminiscent of stratiform dynamics. The method developed in this study is expected to be of unique utility for future observational diagnosis of tropical convective dynamics and for evaluation of global climate model cumulus parameterizations in a global sense.

  19. Envelope structure on 700 AU scales and the molecular outflows of low-mass young stellar objects.

    PubMed

    Hogerheijde, M R; van Dishoeck, E F; Blake, G A; van Langevelde, H J

    1998-07-20

    Aperture synthesis observations of HCO+ J = 1-0, 13CO 1-0, and C18O 1-0 obtained with the Owens Valley Millimeter Array are used to probe the small-scale (5" approximately 700 AU) structure of the molecular envelopes of a well-defined sample of nine embedded low-mass young stellar objects in Taurus. The interferometer results can be understood in terms of: (1) a core of radius approximately or less than 1000 AU surrounding the central star, possibly flattened and rotating; (2) condensations scattered throughout the envelope that may be left over from the inhomogeneous structure of the original cloud core or that may have grown during collapse; and (3) material within the outflow or along the walls of the outflow cavity. Masses of the central cores are 0.001-0.1 M (solar), and agree well with dust continuum measurements. Averaged over the central 20" (3000 AU) region, an HCO+ abundance of 4 x 10(-8) is inferred, with a spread of a factor of 3 between the different sources. Reanalysis of previously presented single-dish data yields an HCO+ abundance of (5.0 +/- 1.7) x 10(-9), which may indicate an average increase by a factor of a few on the smaller scales sampled by the interferometer. Part of this apparent abundance variation could be explained by contributions from extended cloud emission to the single-dish C18O lines, and uncertainties in the assumed excitation temperatures and opacities. The properties of the molecular envelopes and outflows are further investigated through single-dish observations of 12CO J = 6-5, 4-3, and 3-2, 13CO 6-5 and 3-2, and C18O 3-2 and 2-1, obtained with the James Clerk Maxwell and IRAM 30 m telescopes, along with the Caltech Submillimeter Observatory. Ratios of the mid-J CO lines are used to estimate the excitation temperature, with values of 25-80 K derived for the gas near line centre. The outflow wings show a similar range, although Tex is enhanced by a factor of 2-3 in at least two sources. In contrast to the well-studied L1551

  20. Envelope structure on 700 AU scales and the molecular outflows of low-mass young stellar objects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hogerheijde, M. R.; van Dishoeck, E. F.; Blake, G. A.; van Langevelde, H. J.

    1998-01-01

    Aperture synthesis observations of HCO+ J = 1-0, 13CO 1-0, and C18O 1-0 obtained with the Owens Valley Millimeter Array are used to probe the small-scale (5" approximately 700 AU) structure of the molecular envelopes of a well-defined sample of nine embedded low-mass young stellar objects in Taurus. The interferometer results can be understood in terms of: (1) a core of radius approximately or less than 1000 AU surrounding the central star, possibly flattened and rotating; (2) condensations scattered throughout the envelope that may be left over from the inhomogeneous structure of the original cloud core or that may have grown during collapse; and (3) material within the outflow or along the walls of the outflow cavity. Masses of the central cores are 0.001-0.1 M (solar), and agree well with dust continuum measurements. Averaged over the central 20" (3000 AU) region, an HCO+ abundance of 4 x 10(-8) is inferred, with a spread of a factor of 3 between the different sources. Reanalysis of previously presented single-dish data yields an HCO+ abundance of (5.0 +/- 1.7) x 10(-9), which may indicate an average increase by a factor of a few on the smaller scales sampled by the interferometer. Part of this apparent abundance variation could be explained by contributions from extended cloud emission to the single-dish C18O lines, and uncertainties in the assumed excitation temperatures and opacities. The properties of the molecular envelopes and outflows are further investigated through single-dish observations of 12CO J = 6-5, 4-3, and 3-2, 13CO 6-5 and 3-2, and C18O 3-2 and 2-1, obtained with the James Clerk Maxwell and IRAM 30 m telescopes, along with the Caltech Submillimeter Observatory. Ratios of the mid-J CO lines are used to estimate the excitation temperature, with values of 25-80 K derived for the gas near line centre. The outflow wings show a similar range, although Tex is enhanced by a factor of 2-3 in at least two sources. In contrast to the well-studied L1551

  1. Absolute optical metrology : nanometers to kilometers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dubovitsky, Serge; Lay, O. P.; Peters, R. D.; Liebe, C. C.

    2005-01-01

    We provide and overview of the developments in the field of high-accuracy absolute optical metrology with emphasis on space-based applications. Specific work on the Modulation Sideband Technology for Absolute Ranging (MSTAR) sensor is described along with novel applications of the sensor.

  2. ON A SUFFICIENT CONDITION FOR ABSOLUTE CONTINUITY.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    The formulation of a condition which yields absolute continuity when combined with continuity and bounded variation is the problem considered in the...Briefly, the formulation is achieved through a discussion which develops a proof by contradiction of a sufficiently theorem for absolute continuity which uses in its hypothesis the condition of continuity and bounded variation .

  3. Introducing the Mean Absolute Deviation "Effect" Size

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gorard, Stephen

    2015-01-01

    This paper revisits the use of effect sizes in the analysis of experimental and similar results, and reminds readers of the relative advantages of the mean absolute deviation as a measure of variation, as opposed to the more complex standard deviation. The mean absolute deviation is easier to use and understand, and more tolerant of extreme…

  4. Monolithically integrated absolute frequency comb laser system

    SciTech Connect

    Wanke, Michael C.

    2016-07-12

    Rather than down-convert optical frequencies, a QCL laser system directly generates a THz frequency comb in a compact monolithically integrated chip that can be locked to an absolute frequency without the need of a frequency-comb synthesizer. The monolithic, absolute frequency comb can provide a THz frequency reference and tool for high-resolution broad band spectroscopy.

  5. Large-scale variability of wind erosion mass flux rates at Owens Lake 1. Vertical profiles of horizontal mass fluxes of wind-eroded particles with diameter greater than 50 μm

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gillette, Dale A.; Fryrear, D.W.; Xiao, Jing Bing; Stockton, Paul; Ono, Duane; Helm, Paula J.; Gill, Thomas E; Ley, Trevor

    1997-01-01

    A field experiment at Owens (dry) Lake, California, tested whether and how the relative profiles of airborne horizontal mass fluxes for >50-μm wind-eroded particles changed with friction velocity. The horizontal mass flux at almost all measured heights increased proportionally to the cube of friction velocity above an apparent threshold friction velocity for all sediment tested and increased with height except at one coarse-sand site where the relative horizontal mass flux profile did not change with friction velocity. Size distributions for long-time-averaged horizontal mass flux samples showed a saltation layer from the surface to a height between 30 and 50 cm, above which suspended particles dominate. Measurements from a large dust source area on a line parallel to the wind showed that even though the saltation flux reached equilibrium ∼650 m downwind of the starting point of erosion, weakly suspended particles were still input into the atmosphere 1567 m downwind of the starting point; thus the saltating fraction of the total mass flux decreased after 650 m. The scale length difference and ratio of 70/30 suspended mass flux to saltation mass flux at the farthest down wind sampling site confirm that suspended particles are very important for mass budgets in large source areas and that saltation mass flux can be a variable fraction of total horizontal mass flux for soils with a substantial fraction of <100-μm particles.

  6. Absolute instability of the Gaussian wake profile

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hultgren, Lennart S.; Aggarwal, Arun K.

    1987-01-01

    Linear parallel-flow stability theory has been used to investigate the effect of viscosity on the local absolute instability of a family of wake profiles with a Gaussian velocity distribution. The type of local instability, i.e., convective or absolute, is determined by the location of a branch-point singularity with zero group velocity of the complex dispersion relation for the instability waves. The effects of viscosity were found to be weak for values of the wake Reynolds number, based on the center-line velocity defect and the wake half-width, larger than about 400. Absolute instability occurs only for sufficiently large values of the center-line wake defect. The critical value of this parameter increases with decreasing wake Reynolds number, thereby indicating a shrinking region of absolute instability with decreasing wake Reynolds number. If backflow is not allowed, absolute instability does not occur for wake Reynolds numbers smaller than about 38.

  7. Absolute calibration in the 1750 - 3350 A region

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Strongylis, G. J.; Bohlin, R. C.

    1977-01-01

    The absolute flux measurements in the rocket ultraviolet made by Bohlin, Frimout, and Lillie (BFL) are revised using a more correct treatment of the air extinction that enters the air calibration of their instrument. The absorption by molecular oxygen and ozone, Rayleigh scattering, and extinction by aerosols is tabulated for general use in ultraviolet calibrations performed in air. The revised absolute flux of eta UMa and final fluxes for alpha Lyr and zeta Oph are presented in the 1750-3350 A region. The absolute flux of the star eta UMa is compared to four other independent determinations in the 1200-3400 A region and a maximum difference of 35% is found near 1500 A between the OAO-2 and Apollo 17 fluxes. The rocket measurements of BFL, the ANS and TD-1 satellite data, and the Apollo 17 data are compared to the ultraviolet fluxes from the OAO-2, demonstrating a photometric reproducibility of about + or - 3 percent. Therefore, all four sets of spectrophotometry can be reduced to a common absolute scale.

  8. A new scoring model for characterization of adnexal masses based on two-dimensional gray-scale and colour Doppler sonographic features

    PubMed Central

    Abbas, A.M.; Zahran, K.M.; Nasr, A.; Kamel, H.S.

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To determine the most discriminating two-dimensional gray-scale and colour Doppler sonographic features that allow differentiation between malignant and benign adnexal masses, and to develop a scoring model that would enable more accurate diagnosis with those features. Methods: A cross sectional prospective study was conducted on patients scheduled for surgery due to presence of adnexal masses at Woman’s Health Center, Assiut University, Egypt between October 2012 and October 2013. All patients were evaluated by 2D ultrasound for morphological features of the masses combined with colour Doppler examination of their vessels. The final diagnosis, based on histopathological analysis, was used as a gold standard. Results: One hundred forty-six patients were recruited, 104 with benign masses, 42 with malignant masses. Features that allowed statistically significant discrimination of benignity from malignancy were; volume of mass, type of mass, presence and thickness of septae, presence and length of papillary projections, location of vessels at colour Doppler and colour score. A scoring model was formulated combining these features together; Assiut Scoring Model (ASM). The cut-off level with the highest accuracy in detection of malignancy, was ≥6, had a sensitivity of 93.5% and specificity of 92.2%. Conclusion: Our Scoring Model; a multiparameter scoring using four gray-scale ultrasound and two colour Doppler features, had shown a high sensitivity and specificity for prediction of malignancy in adnexal masses compared with previous scoring systems. PMID:25009729

  9. The kinematic Sunyaev-Zel'dovich effect of the large-scale structure (I): dependence on neutrino mass

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roncarelli, M.; Villaescusa-Navarro, F.; Baldi, M.

    2017-01-01

    The study of neutrinos in astrophysics requires the combination of different observational probes. The temperature anisotropies of the cosmic microwave background induced via the kinematic Sunyaev-Zel'dovich (kSZ) effect may provide interesting information since they are expected to receive significant contribution from high-redshift plasma. We present a set of cosmological hydrodynamical simulations that include a treatment of the neutrino component considering 4 different sum of neutrino masses: Σmν = (0, 0.15, 0.3, 0.6) eV. Using their outputs we modelled the kSZ effect due to the large-scale structure after the reionisation by producing mock maps, then computed the kSZ power spectrum and studied how it depends on zre and Σmν. We also run as set of 4 simulations to study and correct possible systematics due to resolution, finite box size and astrophysics. With massless neutrinos we obtain D^kSZ_{3000}=4.0 μK2 (zre=8.8), enough to account for all of the kSZ signal of D^kSZ_{3000}=(2.9 ± 1.3)μK2 measured with the South Pole Telescope (George et al. 2015). This translates into an upper limit on the kSZ effect due to patchy reionisation of D^kSZ,patchy_{3000}<1.0 μK2 (95% C.L.). Massive neutrinos induce a damping of kSZ effect power of about 8, 12 and 40 per cent for Σmν = (0.15, 0.3, 0.6) eV, respectively. We study the dependence of the kSZ signal with zre and the neutrino mass fraction, fν, and obtain D^kSZ_{3000}∝zre0.26(1 - fν)14.3. Interestingly, the scaling with fν is significantly shallower with respect to the equivalent thermal SZ effect, and may be used to break the degeneracy with other cosmological parameters.

  10. The ghost component of the mass balances at the Critical Zone scale: the chemical reactivity of immobile water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nsir, K.; Mercury, L.; Azaroual, M.; Coquet, Y.

    2014-12-01

    The critical zone (CZ) is characterized by the duality between mass transport processes such as diffusion and flow of gases, fluids, and solids and localized bio-geochemical interactions especially linked to the "immobile" capillary/adsorbed water. Open questions are towards the role of capillarity onto reactive mechanisms: is there a geochemical signature of capillary water that can change the bio-geochemical balance? The research efforts focused on this issue to develop modeling tools integrating capillary effects at the soil-profile or CZ scale. Water suction gains geochemical significance when ranging from 20 to 200 MPa, meaning high tension and low amount of stretched water with its specific thermophysical properties (Mercury and Tardy, 2001; Mercury et al., 2003; 2004; Pettenati et al., 2008). Therefore, our interest is directed to the dry end of the water retention curve (WRC). The recent model from Silva and Grifoll (2007) proposed a full-range soil-water retention functions, extending the description to the adsorbed films down to the monolayer thickness. At this stage, it becomes possible to evaluate the role of both capillary pockets and adsorbed films at all water content in the geochemical dynamics of non-saturated soils. We developed from that point by fitting the WRC not through a continuous porous network, but through a decomposition into two porous domains (immobile/mobile domains), each with its own potential-water content law. This amounts to treat the WRC according to an intrinsic dual porosity scheme, and make easier to involve chemical effects at each potential-water content couple. A simple test simulation is developed with calcite rock kinetically interacting with immobile and mobile water, themselves connected by diffusive and advective gradients in the limits of the immobile-mobile contact area. The reactive transport simulations are run with HP1 (Jacques and Šimůnek, 2005). The mass balance exporting toward groundwater is calculated with

  11. Technical Note: A comparison of model and empirical measures of catchment-scale effective energy and mass transfer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rasmussen, C.; Gallo, E. L.

    2013-09-01

    Recent work suggests that a coupled effective energy and mass transfer (EEMT) term, which includes the energy associated with effective precipitation and primary production, may serve as a robust prediction parameter of critical zone structure and function. However, the models used to estimate EEMT have been solely based on long-term climatological data with little validation using direct empirical measures of energy, water, and carbon balances. Here we compare catchment-scale EEMT estimates generated using two distinct approaches: (1) EEMT modeled using the established methodology based on estimates of monthly effective precipitation and net primary production derived from climatological data, and (2) empirical catchment-scale EEMT estimated using data from 86 catchments of the Model Parameter Estimation Experiment (MOPEX) and MOD17A3 annual net primary production (NPP) product derived from Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS). Results indicated positive and significant linear correspondence (R2 = 0.75; P < 0.001) between model and empirical measures with an average root mean square error (RMSE) of 4.86 MJ m-2 yr-1. Modeled EEMT values were consistently greater than empirical measures of EEMT. Empirical catchment estimates of the energy associated with effective precipitation (EPPT) were calculated using a mass balance approach that accounts for water losses to quick surface runoff not accounted for in the climatologically modeled EPPT. Similarly, local controls on primary production such as solar radiation and nutrient limitation were not explicitly included in the climatologically based estimates of energy associated with primary production (EBIO), whereas these were captured in the remotely sensed MODIS NPP data. These differences likely explain the greater estimate of modeled EEMT relative to the empirical measures. There was significant positive correlation between catchment aridity and the fraction of EEMT partitioned into EBIO (FBIO), with

  12. Heat and mass transfer scale-up issues during freeze drying: II. Control and characterization of the degree of supercooling.

    PubMed

    Rambhatla, Shailaja; Ramot, Roee; Bhugra, Chandan; Pikal, Michael J

    2004-08-05

    This study aims to investigate the effect of the ice nucleation temperature on the primary drying process using an ice fog technique for temperature-controlled nucleation. In order to facilitate scale up of the freeze-drying process, this research seeks to find a correlation of the product resistance and the degree of supercooling with the specific surface area of the product. Freeze-drying experiments were performed using 5% wt/vol solutions of sucrose, dextran, hydroxyethyl starch (HES), and mannitol. Temperature-controlled nucleation was achieved using the ice fog technique where cold nitrogen gas was introduced into the chamber to form an "ice fog," thereby facilitating nucleation of samples at the temperature of interest. Manometric temperature measurement (MTM) was used during primary drying to evaluate the product resistance as a function of cake thickness. Specific surface areas (SSA) of the freeze-dried cakes were determined. The ice fog technique was refined to successfully control the ice nucleation temperature of solutions within 1 degrees C. A significant increase in product resistance was produced by a decrease in nucleation temperature. The SSA was found to increase with decreasing nucleation temperature, and the product resistance increased with increasing SSA. The ice fog technique can be refined into a viable method for nucleation temperature control. The SSA of the product correlates well with the degree of supercooling and with the resistance of the product to mass transfer (ie, flow of water vapor through the dry layer). Using this correlation and SSA measurements, one could predict scale-up drying differences and accordingly alter the freeze-drying process so as to bring about equivalence of product temperature history during lyophilization.

  13. UNIVERSAL SCALING OF THE 3:2 TWIN-PEAK QUASI-PERIODIC OSCILLATION FREQUENCIES WITH BLACK HOLE MASS AND SPIN REVISITED

    SciTech Connect

    Zhou, Xin-Lin; Yuan, Weimin; Pan, Hai-Wu; Liu, Zhu

    2015-01-01

    We discuss further observational support of an idea formulated a decade ago by Abramowicz, Kluźniak, McClintock and Remillard. They demonstrated that the 3:2 pairs of frequencies of the twin-peak black hole (BH) high-frequency quasi-periodic oscillations (QPOs) scale inversely with the BH masses and that the scaling covers the entire range from stellar to supermassive BHs. For this reason, they believed that the QPOs may be used for accurate measurements of masses and spins of BHs.

  14. All Creatures Great and Small: Probing the Evolution and Structure of Mass from Sub-Galactic to Supercluster Scales using Gravitational Lensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lagattuta, David James

    Understanding the distribution of mass on cosmic scales provides context for a number of astrophysical topics, including galaxy evolution, structure formation, and cosmology. In this dissertation, I present new research into the distribution of mass throughout the universe, ranging from small (sub-galactic) to large (Supercluster) scales. This work is spread over four separate studies, each focusing on slightly different cosmological distance scales. In the first study, I employ strong and weak gravitational lensing to measure the mass profiles of a sample of massive elliptical galaxies at moderate redshift (z ˜ 0.6). I find that the total mass profile is best described by an isothermal (r -2) distribution, which disagrees with predictions made by numerical simulations. This disagreement provides important clues about the poorly understood interactions between dark matter and baryons. Furthermore, I compare these results to those of a low-redshift (z ˜ 0.2) galaxy sample, and this allows me to constrain the evolution of galaxy-scale mass profiles over a timescale of ˜ 7 billion years. In the second and third studies, I combine strong lensing constraints and high-resolution adaptive optics imaging to develop new mass models for the lens systems B0128+437 and B1938+666. I use these models to search for the presence of small-scale substructures (satellite galaxies) in the vicinity of the host lens. While structure formation models predict a large number of substructure galaxies orbiting a host, this does not agree with observations of the local universe, where only a handful of satellites are seen. I compare the upper-limit substructure constraints from the two strong lenses to the properties of known Milky Way satellites, and lay the foundation for a comprehensive census of extragalactic substructure, using a large sample of lenses to better resolve the tension between theory and observation. Finally, in the fourth study, I focus on mass at super-galactic scales

  15. Absolute realization of low BRDF value

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Zilong; Liao, Ningfang; Li, Ping; Wang, Yu

    2010-10-01

    Low BRDF value is widespread used in many critical domains such as space and military fairs. These values below 0.1 Sr-1 . So the Absolute realization of these value is the most critical issue in the absolute measurement of BRDF. To develop the Absolute value realization theory of BRDF , defining an arithmetic operators of BRDF , achieving an absolute measurement Eq. of BRDF based on radiance. This is a new theory method to solve the realization problem of low BRDF value. This theory method is realized on a self-designed common double orientation structure in space. By designing an adding structure to extend the range of the measurement system and a control and processing software, Absolute realization of low BRDF value is achieved. A material of low BRDF value is measured in this measurement system and the spectral BRDF value are showed within different angles allover the space. All these values are below 0.4 Sr-1 . This process is a representative procedure about the measurement of low BRDF value. A corresponding uncertainty analysis of this measurement data is given depend on the new theory of absolute realization and the performance of the measurement system. The relative expand uncertainty of the measurement data is 0.078. This uncertainty analysis is suitable for all measurements using the new theory of absolute realization and the corresponding measurement system.

  16. The Multi-Scale Mass Transfer Processes Controlling Natural Attenuation and Engineered Remediation: An IFC Focused on Hanford’s 300 Area Uranium Plume Quality Assurance Project Plan

    SciTech Connect

    Fix, N. J.

    2008-01-31

    The purpose of the project is to conduct research at an Integrated Field-Scale Research Challenge Site in the Hanford Site 300 Area, CERCLA OU 300-FF-5 (Figure 1), to investigate multi-scale mass transfer processes associated with a subsurface uranium plume impacting both the vadose zone and groundwater. The project will investigate a series of science questions posed for research related to the effect of spatial heterogeneities, the importance of scale, coupled interactions between biogeochemical, hydrologic, and mass transfer processes, and measurements/approaches needed to characterize a mass-transfer dominated system. The research will be conducted by evaluating three (3) different hypotheses focused on multi-scale mass transfer processes in the vadose zone and groundwater, their influence on field-scale U(VI) biogeochemistry and transport, and their implications to natural systems and remediation. The project also includes goals to 1) provide relevant materials and field experimental opportunities for other ERSD researchers and 2) generate a lasting, accessible, and high-quality field experimental database that can be used by the scientific community for testing and validation of new conceptual and numerical models of subsurface reactive transport.

  17. The Vimos VLT Deep Survey. Stellar mass segregation and large-scale galaxy environment in the redshift range 0.2 < z < 1.4

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scodeggio, M.; Vergani, D.; Cucciati, O.; Iovino, A.; Franzetti, P.; Garilli, B.; Lamareille, F.; Bolzonella, M.; Pozzetti, L.; Abbas, U.; Marinoni, C.; Contini, T.; Bottini, D.; Le Brun, V.; Le Fèvre, O.; Maccagni, D.; Scaramella, R.; Tresse, L.; Vettolani, G.; Zanichelli, A.; Adami, C.; Arnouts, S.; Bardelli, S.; Cappi, A.; Charlot, S.; Ciliegi, P.; Foucaud, S.; Gavignaud, I.; Guzzo, L.; Ilbert, O.; McCracken, H. J.; Marano, B.; Mazure, A.; Meneux, B.; Merighi, R.; Paltani, S.; Pellò, R.; Pollo, A.; Radovich, M.; Zamorani, G.; Zucca, E.; Bondi, M.; Bongiorno, A.; Brinchmann, J.; de La Torre, S.; de Ravel, L.; Gregorini, L.; Memeo, P.; Perez-Montero, E.; Mellier, Y.; Temporin, S.; Walcher, C. J.

    2009-07-01

    Context: Hierarchical models of galaxy formation predict that the properties of a dark matter halo depend on the large-scale environment surrounding the halo. As a result of this correlation, we expect massive haloes to be present in larger number in overdense regions than in underdense ones. Given that a correlation exists between a galaxy stellar mass and the hosting dark matter halo mass, the segregation in dark matter halo mass should then result in a segregation in the distribution of stellar mass in the galaxy population. Aims: In this work we study the distribution of galaxy stellar mass and rest-frame optical color as a function of the large-scale galaxy distribution using the VLT VIMOS Deep Survey sample, in order to verify the presence of segregation in the properties of the galaxy population. Methods: We use VVDS redshift measurements and multi-band photometric data to derive estimates of the stellar mass, rest-frame optical color, and of the large-scale galaxy density, on a scale of approximately 8 Mpc, for a sample of 5619 galaxies in the redshift range 0.2mass and optical color segregation over the whole redshift interval covered by our sample, such that the median value of the mass distribution is larger and the rest-frame optical color is redder in regions of high galaxy density. The amplitude of the mass segregation changes little with redshift, at least in the high stellar mass regime that we can uniformly sample over the 0.2 < z < 1.4 redshift interval. The color segregation, instead, decreases significantly for z > 0.7. However, when we consider only galaxies in narrow bins of stellar mass, in order to exclude the effects of stellar mass segregation on galaxy properties, we no longer observe any significant color segregation. Based on data obtained with the European Southern Observatory Very Large Telescope, Paranal, Chile, program 070.A-9007(A), and on data obtained at the Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope

  18. Mass balance for POPs in a real scale fluidized bed combustor co-incinerating automotive shredder residue.

    PubMed

    Van Caneghem, J; Block, C; Vermeulen, I; Van Brecht, A; Van Royen, P; Jaspers, M; Wauters, G; Vandecasteele, C

    2010-09-15

    The European directive 2000/53/EC implies a "reuse and recovery" rate for end-of-life vehicles (ELVs) of 95% to be reached by the year 2015. One of the options to increase the actual average European "reuse and recovery" rate of approximately 78% (EU 15, 2008) is incineration of automotive shredder residue (ASR) with energy-recovery. The mass balance and the congener fingerprints for PCDD/Fs, dioxin-like PCBs, PCBs and PAHs in a real scale fluidized bed combustor (FBC) incinerating 25% ASR with 25% refuse derived fuel (RDF) and 50% waste water treatment sludge (WWT sludge) were investigated. The PCDD/F, dioxin-like PCB, PCB and PAH concentrations in this input waste mix were more than hundred times higher than in the usual waste feed of the incinerator (30% RFD and 70% WWT sludge). In the outputs of the FBC, however, the concentrations of these POP groups were comparable or only slightly higher than in the outputs generated during the incineration of the usual waste feed. The considered POPs in the waste were destroyed efficiently and the formation of new POPs during cooling of the flue gas appeared to a large extent independent of the POP concentrations in the incinerated waste.

  19. Large-Scale Phosphoproteome of Human Whole Saliva Using Disulphide-Thiol-Interchange Covalent Chromatography and Mass Spectrometry

    PubMed Central

    Salih, Erdjan; Siqueira, Walter L.; Helmerhorst, Eva J.; Oppenheim, Frank G.

    2010-01-01

    Thus far only a handful of phosphoproteins with important biological functions have been identified and characterized in oral fluids and these include some of the abundant protein constituents of saliva. Whole saliva (WS) samples were trypsin digested followed by chemical derivatization using dithiothreitol (DTT) of the phospho-serine/threonine containing peptides. The DTT-phosphopeptides were enriched by covalent disulphide-thiol-interchange chromatography and analysis by nano-flow LC-ESI-MS/MS. The specificity of DTT chemical derivatization was evaluated separately under different base-catalyzed conditions with NaOH and Ba(OH)2, blocking cysteine residues by iodoacetamide and enzymatic O-deglycosylation prior to DTT reaction. Further analysis of WS samples which were subjected to either of these conditions provided supporting evidence for phosphoprotein identifications. The combined chemical strategies and mass spectrometric analyses identified 65 phosphoproteins in WS of which 28 were based on two or more peptide identification criteria with high confidence, and 37 were based on a single phosphopeptide identification. Most of the identified proteins, ~80%, were hitherto unknown phosphoprotein components. This study represents the first large-scale documentation of phosphoproteins of WS. The origins and identity of WS phosphoproteome suggest significant implications for both basic science and the development of novel biomarkers/diagnostic tools for both systemic and oral disease states. PMID:20659418

  20. Large-scale profiling of diterpenoid glycosides from Stevia rebaudiana using ultrahigh performance liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Shafii, Behnaz; Vismeh, Ramin; Beaudry, Randy; Warner, Ryan; Jones, A Daniel

    2012-07-01

    The plant Stevia rebaudiana accumulates a suite of diterpenoid metabolites that are natural sweeteners finding increased use as sugar substitutes. To guide breeding of stevia plants that accumulate substances with desirable flavor in high yield, rapid and accurate methods are needed to profile these substances in plant populations. This report describes an 8-min ultrahigh performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry method for separation and quantification of seven stevia glycosides including steviolbioside; stevioside; rebaudiosides A, B, and C; rubusoside; and dulcoside as well as aglycones steviol and isosteviol. This negative mode electrospray ionization/multiple reaction monitoring method yielded low limits of detection <1 ng/mL for steviol, 6 ng/mL for isosteviol, and <15 ng/mL for all stevia glycosides. Stevioside and Reb A, B, and C were quantified in more than 1,100 extracts from stevia leaves as part of a large-scale profiling exercise. Leaf tissue levels in this population spanned about two orders of magnitude for stevioside (2-125 mg/g dry weight), Reb A (2.5-164 mg/g), Reb B (0.5-50 mg/g), and Reb C (1.5-125 mg/g), but levels of individual metabolites exhibited independent variation. The wide spread of metabolite levels highlights the utility and importance of performing targeted metabolic profiling for large plant populations.

  1. Evaluation of a CT triage protocol for mass casualty incidents: results from two large-scale exercises.

    PubMed

    Körner, Markus; Krötz, Michael M; Wirth, Stefan; Huber-Wagner, Stefan; Kanz, Karl-Georg; Boehm, Holger F; Reiser, Maximilian; Linsenmaier, Ulrich

    2009-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the feasibility, stability, and reproducibility of a dedicated CT protocol for the triage of patients in two separate large-scale exercises that simulated a mass casualty incident (MCI). In both exercises, a bomb explosion at the local soccer stadium that had caused about 100 casualties was simulated. Seven casualties who were rated "critical" by on-site field triage were admitted to the emergency department and underwent whole-body CT. The CT workflow was simulated with phantoms. The history of the casualties was matched to existing CT examinations that were used for evaluation of image reading under MCI conditions. The times needed for transfer and preparation of patients, examination, image reconstruction, total time in the CT examination room, image transfer to PACS, and image reading were recorded, and mean capacities were calculated and compared using the Mann-Whitney U test. We found no significant time differences in transfer and preparation of patients, duration of CT data acquisition, image reconstruction, total time in the CT room, and reading of the images. The calculated capacities per hour were 9.4 vs. 9.8 for examinations completed, and 8.2 vs. 7.2 for reports completed. In conclusion, CT triage is feasible and produced constant results with this dedicated and fast protocol.

  2. Deconstructing European Poverty Measures: What Relative and Absolute Scales Measure

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burkhauser, Richard V.

    2009-01-01

    Forster and d'Ercole (2009) outline the dominant method of conceptualization and operationalization of European poverty measures that informed the EU in its development of the questionnaire for the European Union--Survey of Income and Living Conditions (EU-SILC). They do so in the context of their explanation of how the Organization for Economic…

  3. Oblique-incidence sounder measurements with absolute propagation delay timing

    SciTech Connect

    Daehler, M.

    1990-05-03

    Timing from the Global Position Satellite (GPS) system has been applied to HF oblique incidence sounder measurements to produce ionograms whose propagation delay time scale is absolutely calibrated. Such a calibration is useful for interpreting ionograms in terms of the electron density true-height profile for the ionosphere responsible for the propagation. Use of the time variations in the shape of the electron density profile, in conjunction with an HF propagation model, is expected to provide better near-term (1-24 hour) HF propagation forecasts than are available from current updating systems, which use only the MUF. Such a capability may provide the basis for HF frequency management techniques which are more efficient than current methods. Absolute timing and other techniques applicable to automatic extraction of the electron-density profile from an ionogram will be discussed.

  4. A New Gimmick for Assigning Absolute Configuration.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ayorinde, F. O.

    1983-01-01

    A five-step procedure is provided to help students in making the assignment absolute configuration less bothersome. Examples for both single (2-butanol) and multi-chiral carbon (3-chloro-2-butanol) molecules are included. (JN)

  5. Magnifying absolute instruments for optically homogeneous regions

    SciTech Connect

    Tyc, Tomas

    2011-09-15

    We propose a class of magnifying absolute optical instruments with a positive isotropic refractive index. They create magnified stigmatic images, either virtual or real, of optically homogeneous three-dimensional spatial regions within geometrical optics.

  6. The Simplicity Argument and Absolute Morality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mijuskovic, Ben

    1975-01-01

    In this paper the author has maintained that there is a similarity of thought to be found in the writings of Cudworth, Emerson, and Husserl in his investigation of an absolute system of morality. (Author/RK)

  7. Orion Absolute Navigation System Progress and Challenge

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holt, Greg N.; D'Souza, Christopher

    2012-01-01

    The absolute navigation design of NASA's Orion vehicle is described. It has undergone several iterations and modifications since its inception, and continues as a work-in-progress. This paper seeks to benchmark the current state of the design and some of the rationale and analysis behind it. There are specific challenges to address when preparing a timely and effective design for the Exploration Flight Test (EFT-1), while still looking ahead and providing software extensibility for future exploration missions. The primary onboard measurements in a Near-Earth or Mid-Earth environment consist of GPS pseudo-range and delta-range, but for future explorations missions the use of star-tracker and optical navigation sources need to be considered. Discussions are presented for state size and composition, processing techniques, and consider states. A presentation is given for the processing technique using the computationally stable and robust UDU formulation with an Agee-Turner Rank-One update. This allows for computational savings when dealing with many parameters which are modeled as slowly varying Gauss-Markov processes. Preliminary analysis shows up to a 50% reduction in computation versus a more traditional formulation. Several state elements are discussed and evaluated, including position, velocity, attitude, clock bias/drift, and GPS measurement biases in addition to bias, scale factor, misalignment, and non-orthogonalities of the accelerometers and gyroscopes. Another consideration is the initialization of the EKF in various scenarios. Scenarios such as single-event upset, ground command, and cold start are discussed as are strategies for whole and partial state updates as well as covariance considerations. Strategies are given for dealing with latent measurements and high-rate propagation using multi-rate architecture. The details of the rate groups and the data ow between the elements is discussed and evaluated.

  8. Absolute cross sections of compound nucleus reactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Capurro, O. A.

    1993-11-01

    The program SEEF is a Fortran IV computer code for the extraction of absolute cross sections of compound nucleus reactions. When the evaporation residue is fed by its parents, only cumulative cross sections will be obtained from off-line gamma ray measurements. But, if one has the parent excitation function (experimental or calculated), this code will make it possible to determine absolute cross sections of any exit channel.

  9. The Scales of Time, Length, Mass, Energy, and Other Fundamental Physical Quantities in the Atomic World and the Use of Atomic Units in Quantum Mechanical Calculations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Teo, Boon K.; Li, Wai-Kee

    2011-01-01

    This article is divided into two parts. In the first part, the atomic unit (au) system is introduced and the scales of time, space (length), and speed, as well as those of mass and energy, in the atomic world are discussed. In the second part, the utility of atomic units in quantum mechanical and spectroscopic calculations is illustrated with…

  10. Absolute properties of the triple star HP Aurigae

    SciTech Connect

    Lacy, Claud H. Sandberg; Burks, Charles L.; Torres, Guillermo; Wolf, Marek E-mail: clburks@email.uark.edu E-mail: wolf@cesnet.cz

    2014-01-01

    New photometric, spectroscopic, and eclipse timing observations of the eclipsing binary star HP Aur allow for very accurate orbital determinations, even in the presence of a third body and transient starspot activity. The eclipsing binary masses are determined to an accuracy of ±0.4% and the radii to ±0.6%. The masses are 0.9543 ± 0.0041 and 0.8094 ± 0.0036 solar masses, and the radii are 1.0278 ± 0.0042 and 0.7758 ± 0.0034 solar radii, respectively. The orbital period in the outer orbit is accurately determined for the first time: 4.332 ± 0.011 yr. A comparison with current theories of stellar evolution shows that the components' absolute properties can be well-matched by the current models at an age of about 7 billion years.

  11. A complete solution classification and unified algorithmic treatment for the one- and two-step asymmetric S-transverse mass event scale statistic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walker, Joel W.

    2014-08-01

    The M T2, or "s-transverse mass", statistic was developed to associate a parent mass scale to a missing transverse energy signature, given that escaping particles are generally expected in pairs, while collider experiments are sensitive to just a single transverse momentum vector sum. This document focuses on the generalized extension of that statistic to asymmetric one- and two-step decay chains, with arbitrary child particle masses and upstream missing transverse momentum. It provides a unified theoretical formulation, complete solution classification, taxonomy of critical points, and technical algorithmic prescription for treatment of the event scale. An implementation of the described algorithm is available for download, and is also a deployable component of the author's selection cut software package AEAC uS (Algorithmic Event Arbiter and C ut Selector). appendices address combinatoric event assembly, algorithm validation, and a complete pseudocode.

  12. Estimating Dispersivity, Mass Recovery, and Water Hold Up in Field-Scale Leaching Studies by Use of a Capacity Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Young, D. F.; Carleton, J. N.

    2012-12-01

    The USEPA uses field-scale tests (about 1 ha) to evaluate the leaching potential of pesticides used under realistic agricultural conditions. These tests include a bromide tracer to assess the hydrodynamics of the study site. We analyzed 21 of these bromide leaching studies to determine dispersivity, applied tracer mass recovery, and water retention in the vadose zone. Breakthrough curves were generated for various depths (typically 3 to 4 depths at 1-m intervals) at each of the 21 sites as functions of cumulative infiltration, using measured bromide pore water concentrations. Because the field sites were subjected to natural hydrologic conditions (i.e., evaporation, precipitation, and occasional irrigation), the leaching flow rate at each depth was not directly measurable, so leaching rates were estimated using a capacity model driven by measured daily rainfall, evaporation, and temperature. With the leaching rate thus estimated, the first moment of the bromide breakthrough at each depth was determined. Using the first moment, the effective soil-pore water volume was estimated, which allowed the fitting of a one-dimensional advection-dispersion model and optimization of a dispersion coefficient. Results showed indication of an increase in dispersivity with depth (e.g. dispersivity averaged about 10 cm at the 1-m depth, and around 35 cm at the 4-m depth). Peclet numbers ranged from 4 to 40, but averaged about 10 and varied little with depth. Using this method, apparent recovery of applied bromide varied widely from 8% to 250%, with an average of 60% (standard deviation also 60%) indicating the uncertainty involved in estimating breakthrough curves using field-scale data. Apparent water holdup was consistently greater than the reported field capacity, indicating that measured field capacity may provide low estimates of soil water for use in capacity models. It is important to note that the capacity model concept coupled to the advection dispersion model is the USEPA

  13. Large Scale Mass Spectrometry-based Identifications of Enzyme-mediated Protein Methylation Are Subject to High False Discovery Rates.

    PubMed

    Hart-Smith, Gene; Yagoub, Daniel; Tay, Aidan P; Pickford, Russell; Wilkins, Marc R

    2016-03-01

    All large scale LC-MS/MS post-translational methylation site discovery experiments require methylpeptide spectrum matches (methyl-PSMs) to be identified at acceptably low false discovery rates (FDRs). To meet estimated methyl-PSM FDRs, methyl-PSM filtering criteria are often determined using the target-decoy approach. The efficacy of this methyl-PSM filtering approach has, however, yet to be thoroughly evaluated. Here, we conduct a systematic analysis of methyl-PSM FDRs across a range of sample preparation workflows (each differing in their exposure to the alcohols methanol and isopropyl alcohol) and mass spectrometric instrument platforms (each employing a different mode of MS/MS dissociation). Through (13)CD3-methionine labeling (heavy-methyl SILAC) of Saccharomyces cerevisiae cells and in-depth manual data inspection, accurate lists of true positive methyl-PSMs were determined, allowing methyl-PSM FDRs to be compared with target-decoy approach-derived methyl-PSM FDR estimates. These results show that global FDR estimates produce extremely unreliable methyl-PSM filtering criteria; we demonstrate that this is an unavoidable consequence of the high number of amino acid combinations capable of producing peptide sequences that are isobaric to methylated peptides of a different sequence. Separate methyl-PSM FDR estimates were also found to be unreliable due to prevalent sources of false positive methyl-PSMs that produce high peptide identity score distributions. Incorrect methylation site localizations, peptides containing cysteinyl-S-β-propionamide, and methylated glutamic or aspartic acid residues can partially, but not wholly, account for these false positive methyl-PSMs. Together, these results indicate that the target-decoy approach is an unreliable means of estimating methyl-PSM FDRs and methyl-PSM filtering criteria. We suggest that orthogonal methylpeptide validation (e.g. heavy-methyl SILAC or its offshoots) should be considered a prerequisite for obtaining

  14. Large Scale Mass Spectrometry-based Identifications of Enzyme-mediated Protein Methylation Are Subject to High False Discovery Rates*

    PubMed Central

    Hart-Smith, Gene; Yagoub, Daniel; Tay, Aidan P.; Pickford, Russell; Wilkins, Marc R.

    2016-01-01

    All large scale LC-MS/MS post-translational methylation site discovery experiments require methylpeptide spectrum matches (methyl-PSMs) to be identified at acceptably low false discovery rates (FDRs). To meet estimated methyl-PSM FDRs, methyl-PSM filtering criteria are often determined using the target-decoy approach. The efficacy of this methyl-PSM filtering approach has, however, yet to be thoroughly evaluated. Here, we conduct a systematic analysis of methyl-PSM FDRs across a range of sample preparation workflows (each differing in their exposure to the alcohols methanol and isopropyl alcohol) and mass spectrometric instrument platforms (each employing a different mode of MS/MS dissociation). Through 13CD3-methionine labeling (heavy-methyl SILAC) of Saccharomyces cerevisiae cells and in-depth manual data inspection, accurate lists of true positive methyl-PSMs were determined, allowing methyl-PSM FDRs to be compared with target-decoy approach-derived methyl-PSM FDR estimates. These results show that global FDR estimates produce extremely unreliable methyl-PSM filtering criteria; we demonstrate that this is an unavoidable consequence of the high number of amino acid combinations capable of producing peptide sequences that are isobaric to methylated peptides of a different sequence. Separate methyl-PSM FDR estimates were also found to be unreliable due to prevalent sources of false positive methyl-PSMs that produce high peptide identity score distributions. Incorrect methylation site localizations, peptides containing cysteinyl-S-β-propionamide, and methylated glutamic or aspartic acid residues can partially, but not wholly, account for these false positive methyl-PSMs. Together, these results indicate that the target-decoy approach is an unreliable means of estimating methyl-PSM FDRs and methyl-PSM filtering criteria. We suggest that orthogonal methylpeptide validation (e.g. heavy-methyl SILAC or its offshoots) should be considered a prerequisite for obtaining