Science.gov

Sample records for absolute mass scale

  1. Probing the Absolute Mass Scale of Neutrinos

    SciTech Connect

    Prof. Joseph A. Formaggio

    2011-10-12

    The experimental efforts of the Neutrino Physics Group at MIT center primarily around the exploration of neutrino mass and its significance within the context of nuclear physics, particle physics, and cosmology. The group has played a prominent role in the Sudbury Neutrino Observatory, a neutrino experiment dedicated to measure neutrino oscillations from 8B neutrinos created in the sun. The group is now focusing its efforts in the measurement of the neutrino mass directly via the use of tritium beta decay. The MIT group has primary responsibilities in the Karlsruhe Tritium Neutrino mass experiment, expected to begin data taking by 2013. Specifically, the MIT group is responsible for the design and development of the global Monte Carlo framework to be used by the KATRIN collaboration, as well as responsibilities directly associated with the construction of the focal plane detector. In addition, the MIT group is sponsoring a new research endeavor for neutrino mass measurements, known as Project 8, to push beyond the limitations of current neutrino mass experiments.

  2. Strong thermal leptogenesis and the absolute neutrino mass scale

    SciTech Connect

    Bari, Pasquale Di; King, Sophie E.; Fiorentin, Michele Re E-mail: sk1806@soton.ac.uk

    2014-03-01

    We show that successful strong thermal leptogenesis, where the final asymmetry is independent of the initial conditions and in particular a large pre-existing asymmetry is efficiently washed-out, favours values of the lightest neutrino mass m{sub 1}∼>10 meV for normal ordering (NO) and m{sub 1}∼>3 meV for inverted ordering (IO) for models with orthogonal matrix entries respecting |Ω{sub ij}{sup 2}|∼<2. We show analytically why lower values of m{sub 1} require a higher level of fine tuning in the seesaw formula and/or in the flavoured decay parameters (in the electronic for NO, in the muonic for IO). We also show how this constraint exists thanks to the measured values of the neutrino mixing angles and could be tightened by a future determination of the Dirac phase. Our analysis also allows us to place a more stringent constraint for a specific model or class of models, such as SO(10)-inspired models, and shows that some models cannot realise strong thermal leptogenesis for any value of m{sub 1}. A scatter plot analysis fully supports the analytical results. We also briefly discuss the interplay with absolute neutrino mass scale experiments concluding that they will be able in the coming years to either corner strong thermal leptogenesis or find positive signals pointing to a non-vanishing m{sub 1}. Since the constraint is much stronger for NO than for IO, it is very important that new data from planned neutrino oscillation experiments will be able to solve the ambiguity.

  3. The possibility of constructing the hydrogen scale of the absolute atomic masses of the elements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuz'min, I. I.

    2009-12-01

    The paper presents a scheme for the experimental-empirical construction of the existing chemical, physical, and carbon scales of the relative nonintegral atomic masses of the elements. The quantitative interrelation between the nonintegral relative atomic masses, their minimized fractional positive and negative natural deviations from integral numbers, and their integral parts are reproduced mathematically. Nonisotopic fractional deviations are shown to be a consequence of methodological side effects of the scheme for theoretical processing of the data of thorough physical and chemical measurements performed by Stas and Aston in constructing scales of relative atomic masses. In conformity with the Prout hypothesis, the absolute atomic mass unit and the corresponding Avogadro’s number value are suggested for the construction of the hydrogen scale of absolute atomic masses of nonisotopic elements, individual isotopes, and isotope-containing elements.

  4. Absolute neutrino mass measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Wolf, Joachim

    2011-10-06

    The neutrino mass plays an important role in particle physics, astrophysics and cosmology. In recent years the detection of neutrino flavour oscillations proved that neutrinos carry mass. However, oscillation experiments are only sensitive to the mass-squared difference of the mass eigenvalues. In contrast to cosmological observations and neutrino-less double beta decay (0v2{beta}) searches, single {beta}-decay experiments provide a direct, model-independent way to determine the absolute neutrino mass by measuring the energy spectrum of decay electrons at the endpoint region with high accuracy.Currently the best kinematic upper limits on the neutrino mass of 2.2eV have been set by two experiments in Mainz and Troitsk, using tritium as beta emitter. The next generation tritium {beta}-experiment KATRIN is currently under construction in Karlsruhe/Germany by an international collaboration. KATRIN intends to improve the sensitivity by one order of magnitude to 0.2eV. The investigation of a second isotope ({sup 137}Rh) is being pursued by the international MARE collaboration using micro-calorimeters to measure the beta spectrum. The technology needed to reach 0.2eV sensitivity is still in the R and D phase. This paper reviews the present status of neutrino-mass measurements with cosmological data, 0v2{beta} decay and single {beta}-decay.

  5. Absolute flux scale for radioastronomy

    SciTech Connect

    Ivanov, V.P.; Stankevich, K.S.

    1986-07-01

    The authors propose and provide support for a new absolute flux scale for radio astronomy, which is not encumbered with the inadequacies of the previous scales. In constructing it the method of relative spectra was used (a powerful tool for choosing reference spectra). A review is given of previous flux scales. The authors compare the AIS scale with the scale they propose. Both scales are based on absolute measurements by the ''artificial moon'' method, and they are practically coincident in the range from 0.96 to 6 GHz. At frequencies above 6 GHz, 0.96 GHz, the AIS scale is overestimated because of incorrect extrapolation of the spectra of the primary and secondary standards. The major results which have emerged from this review of absolute scales in radio astronomy are summarized.

  6. Observables sensitive to absolute neutrino masses. II

    SciTech Connect

    Fogli, G. L.; Marrone, A.; Rotunno, A. M.; Lisi, E.; Melchiorri, A.; Palazzo, A.; Silk, J.; Slosar, A.

    2008-08-01

    In this followup to Phys. Rev. D 75, 053001 (2007) , we report updated constraints on neutrino mass-mixing parameters, in light of recent neutrino oscillation data (KamLAND, SNO, and MINOS) and cosmological observations (WMAP 5-year and other data). We discuss their interplay with the final 0{nu}2{beta} decay results in {sup 76}Ge claimed by part of the Heidelberg-Moscow Collaboration, using recent evaluations of the corresponding nuclear matrix elements, and their uncertainties. We also comment on the 0{nu}2{beta} limits in {sup 130}Te recently set by Cuoricino and on prospective limits or signals from the Karlsruhe tritium neutrino experiment.

  7. Proposal for an absolute, atomic definition of mass

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wignall, J. W. G.

    1991-11-01

    It is proposed that the mass of a particle be defined absolutely as its de Broglie frequency, measured as the mean de Broglie wavelength of the particle when it has a mean speed (v) and Lorentz factor (gamma); the masses of systems too large to have a measurable de Broglie wavelength mean are then to be derived by specifying the usual inertial and additive properties of mass. This definition avoids the use of an arbitrary macroscopic standard such as the prototype kilogram, and, if present theory is correct, does not even require the choice of a specific particle as a mass standard. Suggestions are made as to how this absolute mass can be realized and measured at the macroscopic level and, finally, some comments are made on the effect of the new definition on the form of the equations of physics.

  8. Electroweak absolute, meta-, and thermal stability in neutrino mass models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lindner, Manfred; Patel, Hiren H.; Radovčić, Branimir

    2016-04-01

    We analyze the stability of the electroweak vacuum in neutrino mass models containing right-handed neutrinos or fermionic isotriplets. In addition to considering absolute stability, we place limits on the Yukawa couplings of new fermions based on metastability and thermal stability in the early Universe. Our results reveal that the upper limits on the neutrino Yukawa couplings can change significantly when the top quark mass is allowed to vary within the experimental range of uncertainty in its determination.

  9. Mid-infrared absolute spectral responsivity scale based on an absolute cryogenic radiometer and an optical parametric oscillator laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Kun; Shi, Xueshun; Chen, Haidong; Liu, Yulong; Liu, Changming; Chen, Kunfeng; Li, Ligong; Gan, Haiyong; Ma, Chong

    2016-06-01

    We are reporting on a laser-based absolute spectral responsivity scale in the mid-infrared spectral range. By using a mid-infrared tunable optical parametric oscillator as the laser source, the absolute responsivity scale has been established by calibrating thin-film thermopile detectors against an absolute cryogenic radiometer. The thin-film thermopile detectors can be then used as transfer standard detectors. The extended uncertainty of the absolute spectral responsivity measurement has been analyzed to be 0.58%–0.68% (k  =  2).

  10. Mid-infrared absolute spectral responsivity scale based on an absolute cryogenic radiometer and an optical parametric oscillator laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Kun; Shi, Xueshun; Chen, Haidong; Liu, Yulong; Liu, Changming; Chen, Kunfeng; Li, Ligong; Gan, Haiyong; Ma, Chong

    2016-06-01

    We are reporting on a laser-based absolute spectral responsivity scale in the mid-infrared spectral range. By using a mid-infrared tunable optical parametric oscillator as the laser source, the absolute responsivity scale has been established by calibrating thin-film thermopile detectors against an absolute cryogenic radiometer. The thin-film thermopile detectors can be then used as transfer standard detectors. The extended uncertainty of the absolute spectral responsivity measurement has been analyzed to be 0.58%-0.68% (k  =  2).

  11. Communication: The absolute shielding scales of oxygen and sulfur revisited

    SciTech Connect

    Komorovsky, Stanislav; Repisky, Michal; Malkin, Elena; Ruud, Kenneth; Gauss, Jürgen

    2015-03-07

    We present an updated semi-experimental absolute shielding scale for the {sup 17}O and {sup 33}S nuclei. These new shielding scales are based on accurate rotational microwave data for the spin–rotation constants of H{sub 2}{sup 17}O [Puzzarini et al., J. Chem. Phys. 131, 234304 (2009)], C{sup 17}O [Cazzoli et al., Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys. 4, 3575 (2002)], and H{sub 2}{sup 33}S [Helgaker et al., J. Chem. Phys. 139, 244308 (2013)] corrected both for vibrational and temperature effects estimated at the CCSD(T) level of theory as well as for the relativistic corrections to the relation between the spin–rotation constant and the absolute shielding constant. Our best estimate for the oxygen shielding constants of H{sub 2}{sup 17}O is 328.4(3) ppm and for C{sup 17}O −59.05(59) ppm. The relativistic correction for the sulfur shielding of H{sub 2}{sup 33}S amounts to 3.3%, and the new sulfur shielding constant for this molecule is 742.9(4.6) ppm.

  12. An absolute scale for measuring the utility of money

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thomas, P. J.

    2010-07-01

    Measurement of the utility of money is essential in the insurance industry, for prioritising public spending schemes and for the evaluation of decisions on protection systems in high-hazard industries. Up to this time, however, there has been no universally agreed measure for the utility of money, with many utility functions being in common use. In this paper, we shall derive a single family of utility functions, which have risk-aversion as the only free parameter. The fact that they return a utility of zero at their low, reference datum, either the utility of no money or of one unit of money, irrespective of the value of risk-aversion used, qualifies them to be regarded as absolute scales for the utility of money. Evidence of validation for the concept will be offered based on inferential measurements of risk-aversion, using diverse measurement data.

  13. An absolute interval scale of order for point patterns

    PubMed Central

    Protonotarios, Emmanouil D.; Baum, Buzz; Johnston, Alan; Hunter, Ginger L.; Griffin, Lewis D.

    2014-01-01

    Human observers readily make judgements about the degree of order in planar arrangements of points (point patterns). Here, based on pairwise ranking of 20 point patterns by degree of order, we have been able to show that judgements of order are highly consistent across individuals and the dimension of order has an interval scale structure spanning roughly 10 just-notable-differences (jnd) between disorder and order. We describe a geometric algorithm that estimates order to an accuracy of half a jnd by quantifying the variability of the size and shape of spaces between points. The algorithm is 70% more accurate than the best available measures. By anchoring the output of the algorithm so that Poisson point processes score on average 0, perfect lattices score 10 and unit steps correspond closely to jnds, we construct an absolute interval scale of order. We demonstrate its utility in biology by using this scale to quantify order during the development of the pattern of bristles on the dorsal thorax of the fruit fly. PMID:25079866

  14. Improved statistical determination of absolute neutrino masses via radiative emission of neutrino pairs from atoms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Jue; Zhou, Shun

    2016-06-01

    The atomic transition from an excited state |e ⟩ to the ground state |g ⟩ by emitting a neutrino pair and a photon, i.e., |e ⟩→|g ⟩+|γ ⟩+|νi⟩+|ν¯j⟩ with i , j =1 , 2, 3, has been proposed by Yoshimura and his collaborators as an alternative way to determine the absolute scale m0 of neutrino masses. More recently, a statistical analysis of the fine structure of the photon spectrum from this atomic process has been performed [N. Song et al. Phys. Rev. D 93, 013020 (2016)] to quantitatively examine the experimental requirements for a realistic determination of absolute neutrino masses. In this paper, we show how to improve the statistical analysis and demonstrate that the previously required detection time can be reduced by one order of magnitude for the case of a 3 σ determination of m0˜0.01 eV with an accuracy better than 10%. Such an improvement is very encouraging for further investigations on measuring absolute neutrino masses through atomic processes.

  15. Constraining absolute neutrino masses via detection of galactic supernova neutrinos at JUNO

    SciTech Connect

    Lu, Jia-Shu; Cao, Jun; Li, Yu-Feng; Zhou, Shun

    2015-05-26

    A high-statistics measurement of the neutrinos from a galactic core-collapse supernova is extremely important for understanding the explosion mechanism, and studying the intrinsic properties of neutrinos themselves. In this paper, we explore the possibility to constrain the absolute scale of neutrino masses m{sub ν} via the detection of galactic supernova neutrinos at the Jiangmen Underground Neutrino Observatory (JUNO) with a 20 kiloton liquid-scintillator detector. In assumption of a nearly-degenerate neutrino mass spectrum and a normal mass ordering, the upper bound on the absolute neutrino mass is found to be m{sub ν}<(0.83±0.24) eV at the 95% confidence level for a typical galactic supernova at a distance of 10 kpc, where the mean value and standard deviation are shown to account for statistical fluctuations. For comparison, we find that the bound in the Super-Kamiokande experiment is m{sub ν}<(0.94±0.28) eV at the same confidence level. However, the upper bound will be relaxed when the model parameters characterizing the time structure of supernova neutrino fluxes are not exactly known, and when the neutrino mass ordering is inverted.

  16. Constraining absolute neutrino masses via detection of galactic supernova neutrinos at JUNO

    SciTech Connect

    Lu, Jia-Shu; Cao, Jun; Li, Yu-Feng; Zhou, Shun E-mail: caoj@ihep.ac.cn E-mail: zhoush@ihep.ac.cn

    2015-05-01

    A high-statistics measurement of the neutrinos from a galactic core-collapse supernova is extremely important for understanding the explosion mechanism, and studying the intrinsic properties of neutrinos themselves. In this paper, we explore the possibility to constrain the absolute scale of neutrino masses m{sub ν} via the detection of galactic supernova neutrinos at the Jiangmen Underground Neutrino Observatory (JUNO) with a 20 kiloton liquid-scintillator detector. In assumption of a nearly-degenerate neutrino mass spectrum and a normal mass ordering, the upper bound on the absolute neutrino mass is found to be m{sub ν} < (0.83 ± 0.24) eV at the 95% confidence level for a typical galactic supernova at a distance of 10 kpc, where the mean value and standard deviation are shown to account for statistical fluctuations. For comparison, we find that the bound in the Super-Kamiokande experiment is m{sub ν} < (0.94 ± 0.28) eV at the same confidence level. However, the upper bound will be relaxed when the model parameters characterizing the time structure of supernova neutrino fluxes are not exactly known, and when the neutrino mass ordering is inverted.

  17. Absolute mass of neutrinos and the first unique forbidden {beta} decay of {sup 187}Re

    SciTech Connect

    Dvornicky, Rastislav; Simkovic, Fedor; Muto, Kazuo; Faessler, Amand

    2011-04-15

    The planned rhenium {beta}-decay experiment, called the ''Microcalorimeter Arrays for a Rhenium Experiment'' (MARE), might probe the absolute mass scale of neutrinos with the same sensitivity as the Karlsruhe tritium neutrino mass (KATRIN) experiment, which will take commissioning data in 2011 and will proceed for 5 years. We present the energy distribution of emitted electrons for the first unique forbidden {beta} decay of {sup 187}Re. It is found that the p-wave emission of electron dominates over the s wave. By assuming mixing of three neutrinos, the Kurie function for the rhenium {beta} decay is derived. It is shown that the Kurie plot near the end point is within a good accuracy linear in the limit of massless neutrinos like the Kurie plot of the superallowed {beta} decay of {sup 3}H.

  18. A Simple Watt Balance for the Absolute Determination of Mass

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Quinn, Terry; Quinn, Lucas; Davis, Richard

    2013-01-01

    A watt balance is an electromechanical device that allows a mass to be determined in terms of measurable electrical and mechanical quantities, themselves traceable to the fundamental constants of physics. International plans are well advanced to redefine the unit of mass, the kilogram, in terms of a fixed numerical value for the Planck constant. A…

  19. Extension of the absolute flux density scale to 22.285 GHz. [radio astronomy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Janssen, M. A.; Golden, L. M.; Welch, W. J.

    1974-01-01

    Extending the absolute flux density scale at microwave wavelengths, the absolute flux densities at 22.285 GHz of several standard sources were determined using the absolute calibrations of the 6.1 meter antenna of the Hat Creek Observatory. Interpolation formulas for each nonthermal standard source have been derived by combining these data with those determined at lower frequencies. The suitability of employing the standard sources for calibrating other antennas is discussed.

  20. A self-consistent, absolute isochronal age scale for young moving groups in the solar neighbourhood

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bell, Cameron P. M.; Mamajek, Eric E.; Naylor, Tim

    2015-11-01

    We present a self-consistent, absolute isochronal age scale for young ( ≲ 200 Myr), nearby ( ≲ 100 pc) moving groups in the solar neighbourhood based on homogeneous fitting of semi-empirical pre-main-sequence model isochrones using the τ2 maximum-likelihood fitting statistic of Naylor & Jeffries in the MV, V - J colour-magnitude diagram. The final adopted ages for the groups are as follows: 149^{+51}_{-19} {Myr} for the AB Dor moving group, 24 ± 3 Myr for the β Pic moving group (BPMG), 45^{+11}_{-7} {Myr} for the Carina association, 42^{+6}_{-4} {Myr} for the Columba association, 11 ± 3 Myr for the η Cha cluster, 45 ± 4 Myr for the Tucana-Horologium moving group (Tuc-Hor), 10 ± 3 Myr for the TW Hya association and 22^{+4}_{-3} {Myr} for the 32 Ori group. At this stage we are uncomfortable assigning a final, unambiguous age to the Argus association as our membership list for the association appears to suffer from a high level of contamination, and therefore it remains unclear whether these stars represent a single population of coeval stars. Our isochronal ages for both the BPMG and Tuc-Hor are consistent with recent lithium depletion boundary (LDB) ages, which unlike isochronal ages, are relatively insensitive to the choice of low-mass evolutionary models. This consistency between the isochronal and LDB ages instils confidence that our self-consistent, absolute age scale for young, nearby moving groups is robust, and hence we suggest that these ages be adopted for future studies of these groups. Software implementing the methods described in this study is available from http://www.astro.ex.ac.uk/people/timn/tau-squared/.

  1. Model-based evaluation of microbial mass fractions: effect of absolute anaerobic reaction time on microbial mass fractions.

    PubMed

    Tunçal, Tolga

    2010-04-14

    Although enhanced biological phosphorus removal processes (EBPR) are popular methods for nutrient control, unstable treatment performances of full-scale systems are still not well understood. In this study, the interaction between electron acceptors present at the start of the anaerobic phase of an EBPR system and the amount of organic acids generated from simple substrate (rbsCOD) was investigated in a full-scale wastewater treatment plant. Quantification of microbial groups including phosphorus-accumulating microorganisms (PAOs), denitrifying PAOs (DPAOs), glycogen-accumulating microorganisms (GAOs) and ordinary heterotrophic microorganisms (OHOs) was based on a modified dynamic model. The intracellular phosphorus content of PAOs was also determined by the execution of mass balances for the biological stages of the plant. The EBPR activities observed in the plant and in batch tests (under idealized conditions) were compared with each other statistically as well. Modelling efforts indicated that the use of absolute anaerobic reaction (eta1) instead of nominal anaerobic reaction time (eta), to estimate the amount of available substrate for PAOs, significantly improved model accuracy. Another interesting result of the study was the differences in EBPR characteristics observed in idealized and real conditions. PMID:20480829

  2. Separating climate-induced mass transfers and instrumental effects from tectonic signal in repeated absolute gravity measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Van Camp, M.; Viron, O.; Avouac, J. P.

    2016-05-01

    We estimate the signature of the climate-induced mass transfers in repeated absolute gravity measurements based on satellite gravimetric measurements from the Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) mission. We show results at the globe scale and compare them with repeated absolute gravity (AG) time behavior in three zones where AG surveys have been published: Northwestern Europe, Canada, and Tibet. For 10 yearly campaigns, the uncertainties affecting the determination of a linear gravity rate of change range 3-4 nm/s2/a in most cases, in the absence of instrumental artifacts. The results are consistent with what is observed for long-term repeated campaigns. We also discuss the possible artifact that can result from using short AG survey to determine the tectonic effects in a zone of high hydrological variability. We call into question the tectonic interpretation of several gravity changes reported from stations in Tibet, in particular the variation observed prior to the 2015 Gorkha earthquake.

  3. Kelvin Absolute Temperature Scale Identified as Length Scale and Related to de Broglie Thermal Wavelength

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sohrab, Siavash

    Thermodynamic equilibrium between matter and radiation leads to de Broglie wavelength λdβ = h /mβvrβ and frequency νdβ = k /mβvrβ of matter waves and stochastic definitions of Planck h =hk =mk <λrk > c and Boltzmann k =kk =mk <νrk > c constants, λrkνrk = c , that respectively relate to spatial (λ) and temporal (ν) aspects of vacuum fluctuations. Photon massmk =√{ hk /c3 } , amu =√{ hkc } = 1 /No , and universal gas constant Ro =No k =√{ k / hc } result in internal Uk = Nhνrk = Nmkc2 = 3 Nmkvmpk2 = 3 NkT and potential pV = uN\\vcirc / 3 = N\\ucirc / 3 = NkT energy of photon gas in Casimir vacuum such that H = TS = 4 NkT . Therefore, Kelvin absolute thermodynamic temperature scale [degree K] is identified as length scale [meter] and related to most probable wavelength and de Broglie thermal wavelength as Tβ =λmpβ =λdβ / 3 . Parallel to Wien displacement law obtained from Planck distribution, the displacement law λwS T =c2 /√{ 3} is obtained from Maxwell -Boltzmann distribution of speed of ``photon clusters''. The propagation speeds of sound waves in ideal gas versus light waves in photon gas are described in terms of vrβ in harmony with perceptions of Huygens. Newton formula for speed of long waves in canals √{ p / ρ } is modified to √{ gh } =√{ γp / ρ } in accordance with adiabatic theory of Laplace.

  4. Absolute and Relative Reliability of Percentage of Syllables Stuttered and Severity Rating Scales

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Karimi, Hamid; O'Brian, Sue; Onslow, Mark; Jones, Mark

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: Percentage of syllables stuttered (%SS) and severity rating (SR) scales are measures in common use to quantify stuttering severity and its changes during basic and clinical research conditions. However, their reliability has not been assessed with indices measuring both relative and absolute reliability. This study was designed to provide…

  5. Global-Scale Location and Distance Estimates: Common Representations and Strategies in Absolute and Relative Judgments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Friedman, Alinda; Montello, Daniel R.

    2006-01-01

    The authors examined whether absolute and relative judgments about global-scale locations and distances were generated from common representations. At the end of a 10-week class on the regional geography of the United States, participants estimated the latitudes of 16 North American cities and all possible pairwise distances between them. Although…

  6. Energy dispersive X-ray analysis on an absolute scale in scanning transmission electron microscopy.

    PubMed

    Chen, Z; D'Alfonso, A J; Weyland, M; Taplin, D J; Allen, L J; Findlay, S D

    2015-10-01

    We demonstrate absolute scale agreement between the number of X-ray counts in energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy using an atomic-scale coherent electron probe and first-principles simulations. Scan-averaged spectra were collected across a range of thicknesses with precisely determined and controlled microscope parameters. Ionization cross-sections were calculated using the quantum excitation of phonons model, incorporating dynamical (multiple) electron scattering, which is seen to be important even for very thin specimens.

  7. Verification of 235U mass content in nuclear fuel plates by an absolute method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    El-Gammal, W.

    2007-01-01

    Nuclear Safeguards is referred to a verification System by which a State can control all nuclear materials (NM) and nuclear activities under its authority. An effective and efficient Safeguards System must include a system of measurements with capabilities sufficient to verify such NM. Measurements of NM using absolute methods could eliminate the dependency on NM Standards, which are necessary for other relative or semi-absolute methods. In this work, an absolute method has been investigated to verify the 235U mass content in nuclear fuel plates of Material Testing Reactor (MTR) type. The most intense gamma-ray signature at 185.7 keV emitted after α-decay of the 235U nuclei was employed in the method. The measuring system (an HPGe-spectrometer) was mathematically calibrated for efficiency using the general Monte Carlo transport code MCNP-4B. The calibration results and the measured net count rate were used to estimate the 235U mass content in fuel plates at different detector-to-fuel plate distances. Two sets of fuel plates, containing natural and low enriched uranium, were measured at the Fuel Fabrication Facility. Average accuracies for the estimated 235U masses of about 2.62% and 0.3% are obtained for the fuel plates containing natural and low enriched uranium; respectively, with a precision of about 3%.

  8. Absolute shielding scale for 31P from gas-phase NMR studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jameson, Cynthia J.; De Dios, Angel; Keith Jameson, A.

    1990-04-01

    Differences in the 31P nuclear shielding in the zero-pressure limit have been measured in seven compounds. An absolute 31P shielding scale based on the PH 3 molecular beam data is established and the absolute shielding of the standard liquid reference (85% aqueous H 3PO 4) is found to be 328.35 ppm, based on PH 3 being 594.45 ± 0.63 ppm. Comparisons with ab initio calculations show that calculations using local origins (the IGLO method) are in good agreement with experiment.

  9. Sulfur-based absolute quantification of proteins using isotope dilution inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Hyun-Seok; Heun Kim, Sook; Jeong, Ji-Seon; Lee, Yong-Moon; Yim, Yong-Hyeon

    2015-10-01

    An element-based reductive approach provides an effective means of realizing International System of Units (SI) traceability for high-purity biological standards. Here, we develop an absolute protein quantification method using double isotope dilution (ID) inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) combined with microwave-assisted acid digestion for the first time. We validated the method and applied it to certify the candidate protein certified reference material (CRM) of human growth hormone (hGH). The concentration of hGH was determined by analysing the total amount of sulfur in hGH. Next, the size-exclusion chromatography method was used with ICP-MS to characterize and quantify sulfur-containing impurities. By subtracting the contribution of sulfur-containing impurities from the total sulfur content in the hGH CRM, we obtained a SI-traceable certification value. The quantification result obtained with the present method based on sulfur analysis was in excellent agreement with the result determined via a well-established protein quantification method based on amino acid analysis using conventional acid hydrolysis combined with an ID liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. The element-based protein quantification method developed here can be generally used for SI-traceable absolute quantification of proteins, especially pure-protein standards.

  10. Estimation of absolute protein quantities of unlabeled samples by selected reaction monitoring mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Ludwig, Christina; Claassen, Manfred; Schmidt, Alexander; Aebersold, Ruedi

    2012-03-01

    For many research questions in modern molecular and systems biology, information about absolute protein quantities is imperative. This information includes, for example, kinetic modeling of processes, protein turnover determinations, stoichiometric investigations of protein complexes, or quantitative comparisons of different proteins within one sample or across samples. To date, the vast majority of proteomic studies are limited to providing relative quantitative comparisons of protein levels between limited numbers of samples. Here we describe and demonstrate the utility of a targeting MS technique for the estimation of absolute protein abundance in unlabeled and nonfractionated cell lysates. The method is based on selected reaction monitoring (SRM) mass spectrometry and the "best flyer" hypothesis, which assumes that the specific MS signal intensity of the most intense tryptic peptides per protein is approximately constant throughout a whole proteome. SRM-targeted best flyer peptides were selected for each protein from the peptide precursor ion signal intensities from directed MS data. The most intense transitions per peptide were selected from full MS/MS scans of crude synthetic analogs. We used Monte Carlo cross-validation to systematically investigate the accuracy of the technique as a function of the number of measured best flyer peptides and the number of SRM transitions per peptide. We found that a linear model based on the two most intense transitions of the three best flying peptides per proteins (TopPep3/TopTra2) generated optimal results with a cross-correlated mean fold error of 1.8 and a squared Pearson coefficient R(2) of 0.88. Applying the optimized model to lysates of the microbe Leptospira interrogans, we detected significant protein abundance changes of 39 target proteins upon antibiotic treatment, which correlate well with literature values. The described method is generally applicable and exploits the inherent performance advantages of SRM

  11. Absolute Calibration of the Radio Astronomy Flux Density Scale at 22 to 43 GHz Using Planck

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Partridge, B.; López-Caniego, M.; Perley, R. A.; Stevens, J.; Butler, B. J.; Rocha, G.; Walter, B.; Zacchei, A.

    2016-04-01

    The Planck mission detected thousands of extragalactic radio sources at frequencies from 28 to 857 GHz. Planck's calibration is absolute (in the sense that it is based on the satellite’s annual motion around the Sun and the temperature of the cosmic microwave background), and its beams are well characterized at sub-percent levels. Thus, Planck's flux density measurements of compact sources are absolute in the same sense. We have made coordinated Very Large Array (VLA) and Australia Telescope Compact Array (ATCA) observations of 65 strong, unresolved Planck sources in order to transfer Planck's calibration to ground-based instruments at 22, 28, and 43 GHz. The results are compared to microwave flux density scales currently based on planetary observations. Despite the scatter introduced by the variability of many of the sources, the flux density scales are determined to 1%-2% accuracy. At 28 GHz, the flux density scale used by the VLA runs 2%-3% ± 1.0% below Planck values with an uncertainty of +/- 1.0%; at 43 GHz, the discrepancy increases to 5%-6% ± 1.4% for both ATCA and the VLA.

  12. Mass spectrometry-based absolute quantification reveals rhythmic variation of mouse circadian clock proteins.

    PubMed

    Narumi, Ryohei; Shimizu, Yoshihiro; Ukai-Tadenuma, Maki; Ode, Koji L; Kanda, Genki N; Shinohara, Yuta; Sato, Aya; Matsumoto, Katsuhiko; Ueda, Hiroki R

    2016-06-14

    Absolute values of protein expression levels in cells are crucial information for understanding cellular biological systems. Precise quantification of proteins can be achieved by liquid chromatography (LC)-mass spectrometry (MS) analysis of enzymatic digests of proteins in the presence of isotope-labeled internal standards. Thus, development of a simple and easy way for the preparation of internal standards is advantageous for the analyses of multiple target proteins, which will allow systems-level studies. Here we describe a method, termed MS-based Quantification By isotope-labeled Cell-free products (MS-QBiC), which provides the simple and high-throughput preparation of internal standards by using a reconstituted cell-free protein synthesis system, and thereby facilitates both multiplexed and sensitive quantification of absolute amounts of target proteins. This method was applied to a systems-level dynamic analysis of mammalian circadian clock proteins, which consist of transcription factors and protein kinases that govern central and peripheral circadian clocks in mammals. Sixteen proteins from 20 selected circadian clock proteins were successfully quantified from mouse liver over a 24-h time series, and 14 proteins had circadian variations. Quantified values were applied to detect internal body time using a previously developed molecular timetable method. The analyses showed that single time-point data from wild-type mice can predict the endogenous state of the circadian clock, whereas data from clock mutant mice are not applicable because of the disappearance of circadian variation. PMID:27247408

  13. Observables sensitive to absolute neutrino masses: A reappraisal after WMAP 3-year and first MINOS results

    SciTech Connect

    Fogli, G. L.; Lisi, E.; Marrone, A.; Melchiorri, A.; Serra, P.; Palazzo, A.; Silk, J.; Slosar, A.

    2007-03-01

    In the light of recent neutrino oscillation and nonoscillation data, we revisit the phenomenological constraints applicable to three observables sensitive to absolute neutrino masses: The effective neutrino mass in single beta decay (m{sub {beta}}); the effective Majorana neutrino mass in neutrinoless double beta decay (m{sub {beta}}{sub {beta}}); and the sum of neutrino masses in cosmology ({sigma}). In particular, we include the constraints coming from the first Main Injector Neutrino Oscillation Search (MINOS) data and from the Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe (WMAP) three-year (3y) data, as well as other relevant cosmological data and priors. We find that the largest neutrino squared mass difference is determined with a 15% accuracy (at 2{sigma}) after adding MINOS to world data. We also find upper bounds on the sum of neutrino masses {sigma} ranging from {approx}2 eV (WMAP-3y data only) to {approx}0.2 eV (all cosmological data) at 2{sigma}, in agreement with previous studies. In addition, we discuss the connection of such bounds with those placed on the matter power spectrum normalization parameter {sigma}{sub 8}. We show how the partial degeneracy between {sigma} and {sigma}{sub 8} in WMAP-3y data is broken by adding further cosmological data, and how the overall preference of such data for relatively high values of {sigma}{sub 8} pushes the upper bound of {sigma} in the sub-eV range. Finally, for various combination of data sets, we revisit the (in)compatibility between current {sigma} and m{sub {beta}}{sub {beta}} constraints (and claims), and derive quantitative predictions for future single and double beta decay experiments.

  14. Absolute isotopic composition and atomic weight of neodymium using thermal ionization mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Motian; Zhou, Tao; Wang, Jun; Lu, Hai; Fang, Xiang; Guo, Chunhua; Li, Qiuli; Li, Chaofeng

    2005-01-01

    Synthetic mixtures prepared gravimetrically from highly enriched isotopes of neodymium in the form of oxides of well-defined purity were used to calibrate a thermal ionization mass spectrometer. A new error analysis was applied to calculate the final uncertainty of the atomic weight value. Measurements on natural neodymium samples yielded an absolute isotopic composition of 27.153(19) atomic percent (at.%) 142Nd, 12.173(18) at.% 143Nd, 23.798(12) at.% 144Nd, 8.293(7) at.% 145Nd, 17.189(17) at.% 146Nd, 5.756(8) at.% 148Nd, and 5.638(9) at.% 150Nd, and the atomic weight of neodymium as 144.2415(13), with uncertainties given on the basis of 95% confidence limits. No isotopic fractionation was found in terrestrial neodymium materials.

  15. Observables sensitive to absolute neutrino masses: Constraints and correlations from world neutrino data

    SciTech Connect

    Fogli, G.L.; Lisi, E.; Marrone, A.; Palazzo, A.; Melchiorri, A.; Serra, P.; Silk, J.

    2004-12-01

    In the context of three-flavor neutrino mixing, we present a thorough study of the phenomenological constraints applicable to three observables sensitive to absolute neutrino masses: The effective neutrino mass in Tritium beta-decay (m{sub {beta}}); the effective Majorana neutrino mass in neutrinoless double beta-decay (m{sub {beta}}{sub {beta}}); and the sum of neutrino masses in cosmology ({sigma}). We discuss the correlations among these variables which arise from the combination of all the available neutrino oscillation data, in both normal and inverse neutrino mass hierarchy. We set upper limits on m{sub {beta}} by combining updated results from the Mainz and Troitsk experiments. We also consider the latest results on m{sub {beta}}{sub {beta}} from the Heidelberg-Moscow experiment, both with and without the lower bound claimed by such experiment. We derive upper limits on {sigma} from an updated combination of data from the Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe (WMAP) satellite and the two degrees Fields (2dF) Galaxy Redshifts Survey, with and without Lyman-{alpha} forest data from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS), in models with a nonzero running of the spectral index of primordial inflationary perturbations. The results are discussed in terms of two-dimensional projections of the globally allowed region in the (m{sub {beta}},m{sub {beta}}{sub {beta}},{sigma}) parameter space, which neatly show the relative impact of each data set. In particular, the (in)compatibility between {sigma} and m{sub {beta}}{sub {beta}} constraints is highlighted for various combinations of data. We also briefly discuss how future neutrino data (both oscillatory and nonoscillatory) can further probe the currently allowed regions.

  16. Absolute densities, masses, and radii of the WASP-47 system determined dynamically

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Almenara, J. M.; Díaz, R. F.; Bonfils, X.; Udry, S.

    2016-10-01

    We present a self-consistent modelling of the available light curve and radial velocity data of WASP-47 that takes into account the gravitational interactions between all known bodies in the system. The joint analysis of light curve and radial velocity data in a multi-planetary system allows deriving absolute densities, radii, and masses without the use of theoretical stellar models. For WASP-47 the precision is limited by the reduced dynamical information that is due to the short time span of the K2 light curve. We achieve a precision of around 22% for the radii of the star and the transiting planets, between 40% and 60% for their masses, and between 1.5% and 38% for their densities. All values agree with previously reported measurements. When theoretical stellar models are included, the system parameters are determined with a precision that exceeds that achieved by previous studies, thanks to the self-consistent modelling of light curve and radial velocity data.

  17. Evaluation of serum phosphopeptides as potential cancer biomarkers by mass spectrometric absolute quantification.

    PubMed

    Zhai, Guijin; Wu, Xiaoyan; Luo, Qun; Wu, Kui; Zhao, Yao; Liu, Jianan; Xiong, Shaoxiang; Feng, Yu-Qi; Yang, Liping; Wang, Fuyi

    2014-07-01

    Mass spectrometric quantification of phosphopeptides is a challenge due to the ion suppression effect of highly abundant non-phosphorylated peptides in complex samples such as serum. Several strategies for relative quantification of serum phosphopeptides based on MS have been developed, but the power of relative quantities was limited when making direct comparisons between two groups of samples or acting as a clinical examination index. Herein, we describe an MS absolute quantification strategy combined with Titania Coated Magnetic Hollow Mesoporous Silica Microspheres (TiO2/MHMSM) enrichment and stable isotopic acetyl labeling for phosphopeptides in human serum. Four endogenous serum phosphopeptides generated by degradation of fibrinogen were identified by LC-ESI-MS/MS following TiO2/MHMSM enrichment. The ESI-MS signal intensity ratios of the four phosphopeptide standards labeled with N-acetoxy-H3-succinimide (H3-NAS) and N-acetoxy-D3-succinimide (D3-NAS), following TiO2/MHMSM capture are linearly correlated with the molar ratios of the "light" to "heavy" phosphopeptides over the range of 0.1-4 with an r(2) of up to 0.998 and a slope of close to 1. The recovery of the four phosphopeptides spiked at low, medium and high levels in human sera were 98.4-111.9% with RSDs ranging 2.0-10.1%. The absolute quantification of the phosphopeptides in serum samples of 20 healthy persons and 20 gastric cancer patients by the developed method demonstrated that 3 out of the 4 phosphopeptides showed remarkable variation in serum level between healthy and cancer groups, and the phosphopeptide DpSGEGDFLAEGGGVR is significantly down-regulated in the serum of patients, being a potential biomarker for gastric cancer diagnosis. PMID:24840465

  18. The orbit of Phi Cygni measured with long-baseline optical interferometry - Component masses and absolute magnitudes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Armstrong, J. T.; Hummel, C. A.; Quirrenbach, A.; Buscher, D. F.; Mozurkewich, D.; Vivekanand, M.; Simon, R. S.; Denison, C. S.; Johnston, K. J.; Pan, X.-P.

    1992-01-01

    The orbit of the double-lined spectroscopic binary Phi Cygni, the distance to the system, and the masses and absolute magnitudes of its components are presented via measurements with the Mar III Optical Interferometer. On the basis of a reexamination of the spectroscopic data of Rach & Herbig (1961), the values and uncertainties are adopted for the period and the projected semimajor axes from the present fit to the spectroscopic data and the values of the remaining elements from the present fit to the Mark III data. The elements of the true orbit are derived, and the masses and absolute magnitudes of the components, and the distance to the system are calculated.

  19. Global-scale location and distance estimates: common representations and strategies in absolute and relative judgments.

    PubMed

    Friedman, Alinda; Montello, Daniel R

    2006-03-01

    The authors examined whether absolute and relative judgments about global-scale locations and distances were generated from common representations. At the end of a 10-week class on the regional geography of the United States, participants estimated the latitudes of 16 North American cities and all possible pairwise distances between them. Although participants were relative experts, their latitude estimates revealed the presence of psychologically based regions with large gaps between them and a tendency to stretch North America southward toward the equator. The distance estimates revealed the same properties in the representation recovered via multidimensional scaling. Though the aggregated within- and between-regions distance estimates were fitted by Stevens's law (S. S. Stevens, 1957), this was an averaging artifact: The appropriateness of a power function to describe distance estimates depended on the regional membership of the cities. The authors conclude that plausible reasoning strategies, combined with regionalized representations and beliefs about the location of these relative to global landmarks, underlie global-scale latitude and distance judgments.

  20. Absolute Quantitative MALDI Imaging Mass Spectrometry: A Case of Rifampicin in Liver Tissues.

    PubMed

    Chumbley, Chad W; Reyzer, Michelle L; Allen, Jamie L; Marriner, Gwendolyn A; Via, Laura E; Barry, Clifton E; Caprioli, Richard M

    2016-02-16

    Matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization (MALDI) imaging mass spectrometry (IMS) elucidates molecular distributions in thin tissue sections. Absolute pixel-to-pixel quantitation has remained a challenge, primarily lacking validation of the appropriate analytical methods. In the present work, isotopically labeled internal standards are applied to tissue sections to maximize quantitative reproducibility and yield accurate quantitative results. We have developed a tissue model for rifampicin (RIF), an antibiotic used to treat tuberculosis, and have tested different methods of applying an isotopically labeled internal standard for MALDI IMS analysis. The application of the standard and subsequently the matrix onto tissue sections resulted in quantitation that was not statistically significantly different from results obtained using HPLC-MS/MS of tissue extracts. Quantitative IMS experiments were performed on liver tissue from an animal dosed in vivo. Each microspot in the quantitative images measures the local concentration of RIF in the thin tissue section. Lower concentrations were detected from the blood vessels and around the portal tracts. The quantitative values obtained from these measurements were comparable (>90% similarity) to HPLC-MS/MS results obtained from extracts of the same tissue.

  1. Low-scale gaugino mass unification

    SciTech Connect

    Endo, Motoi; Yoshioka, Koichi

    2008-07-15

    We study a new class of scenarios with the gaugino mass unification at the weak scale. The unification conditions are generally classified and then, the mirage gauge mediation is explored where the low-energy mass spectrum is governed by a mirage of unified gauge coupling which is seen by low-energy observers. The gaugino masses have natural and stable low-scale unification. The mass parameters of scalar quarks and leptons are given by gauge couplings but exhibit no large mass hierarchy. They are nonuniversal even when mediated at the gauge coupling unification scale. In addition, the gravitino is rather heavy and not the lightest superparticle. These facts are in contrast to existing gauge and mirage mediation models. We also present several explicit models for dynamically realizing the TeV-scale unification.

  2. A Concurrent Mixed Methods Approach to Examining the Quantitative and Qualitative Meaningfulness of Absolute Magnitude Estimation Scales in Survey Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koskey, Kristin L. K.; Stewart, Victoria C.

    2014-01-01

    This small "n" observational study used a concurrent mixed methods approach to address a void in the literature with regard to the qualitative meaningfulness of the data yielded by absolute magnitude estimation scaling (MES) used to rate subjective stimuli. We investigated whether respondents' scales progressed from less to more and…

  3. Weyl invariance with a nontrivial mass scale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Álvarez, Enrique; González-Martín, Sergio

    2016-09-01

    A theory with a mass scale and yet Weyl invariant is presented. The theory is not invariant under all diffeomorphisms but only under transverse ones. This is the reason why Weyl invariance does not imply scale invariance in a free falling frame. Physical implications of this framework are discussed.

  4. In-Flight Measurement of the Absolute Energy Scale of the Fermi Large Area Telescope

    SciTech Connect

    Ackermann, M.; Ajello, M.; Allafort, A.; Atwood, W.B.; Axelsson, M.; Baldini, L.; Barbiellini, G.; Bastieri, D.; Bechtol, K.; Bellazzini, R.; Berenji, B.; Bloom, E.D.; Bonamente, E.; Borgland, A.W.; Bouvier, A.; Bregeon, J.; Brez, A.; Brigida, M.; Bruel, P.; Buehler, R.; Buson, S.; /more authors..

    2012-09-20

    The Large Area Telescope (LAT) on-board the Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope is a pair-conversion telescope designed to survey the gamma-ray sky from 20 MeV to several hundreds of GeV. In this energy band there are no astronomical sources with sufficiently well known and sharp spectral features to allow an absolute calibration of the LAT energy scale. However, the geomagnetic cutoff in the cosmic ray electron-plus-positron (CRE) spectrum in low Earth orbit does provide such a spectral feature. The energy and spectral shape of this cutoff can be calculated with the aid of a numerical code tracing charged particles in the Earth's magnetic field. By comparing the cutoff value with that measured by the LAT in different geomagnetic positions, we have obtained several calibration points between {approx}6 and {approx}13 GeV with an estimated uncertainty of {approx}2%. An energy calibration with such high accuracy reduces the systematic uncertainty in LAT measurements of, for example, the spectral cutoff in the emission from gamma ray pulsars.

  5. NMR absolute shielding scale and nuclear magnetic dipole moment of (207)Pb.

    PubMed

    Adrjan, Bożena; Makulski, Włodzimierz; Jackowski, Karol; Demissie, Taye B; Ruud, Kenneth; Antušek, Andrej; Jaszuński, Michał

    2016-06-28

    An absolute shielding scale is proposed for (207)Pb nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy. It is based on ab initio calculations performed on an isolated tetramethyllead Pb(CH3)4 molecule and the assignment of the experimental resonance frequency from the gas-phase NMR spectra of Pb(CH3)4, extrapolated to zero density of the buffer gas to obtain the result for an isolated molecule. The computed (207)Pb shielding constant is 10 790 ppm for the isolated molecule, leading to a shielding of 10799.7 ppm for liquid Pb(CH3)4 which is the accepted reference standard for (207)Pb NMR spectra. The new experimental and theoretical data are used to determine μ((207)Pb), the nuclear magnetic dipole moment of (207)Pb, by applying the standard relationship between NMR frequencies, shielding constants and nuclear moments of two nuclei in the same external magnetic field. Using the gas-phase (207)Pb and (reference) proton results and the theoretical value of the Pb shielding in Pb(CH3)4, we find μ((207)Pb) = 0.59064 μN. The analysis of new experimental and theoretical data obtained for the Pb(2+) ion in water solutions provides similar values of μ((207)Pb), in the range of 0.59000-0.59131 μN. PMID:27265668

  6. In-Flight Measurement of the Absolute Energy Scale of the Fermi Large Area Telescope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ackermann, M.; Ajello, M.; Allafort, A.; Atwood, W. B.; Axelsson, M.; Baldini, L.; Barbielini, G; Bastieri, D.; Bechtol, K.; Bellazzini, R.; Berenji, B,; Bloom, E. D.; Bonamente, E.; Borgland, A. W.; Bouvier, A.; Bregeon, J.; Brez, A.; Brigida, M.; Bruel, P.; Buehler, R.; Gehrels, N.; Hays, E.; McEnery, J. E.; Thompson, D. J.; Troja, E. J.

    2012-01-01

    The Large Area Telescope (LAT) on-board the Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope is a pair-conversion telescope designed to survey the gamma-ray sky from 20 MeV to several hundreds of GeV. In this energy band there are no astronomical sources with sufficiently well known and sharp spectral features to allow an absolute calibration of the LAT energy scale. However, the geomagnetic cutoff in the cosmic ray electron- plus-positron (CRE) spectrum in low Earth orbit does provide such a spectral feature. The energy and spectral shape of this cutoff can be calculated with the aid of a numerical code tracing charged particles in the Earth's magnetic field. By comparing the cutoff value with that measured by the LAT in different geomagnetic positions, we have obtained several calibration points between approx. 6 and approx. 13 GeV with an estimated uncertainty of approx. 2%. An energy calibration with such high accuracy reduces the systematic uncertainty in LAT measurements of, for example, the spectral cutoff in the emission from gamma ray pulsars.

  7. Metal-tag labeling coupled with multiple reaction monitoring-mass spectrometry for absolute quantitation of proteins.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xueying; Wang, Xin; Qin, Weijie; Lin, Hongjun; Wang, Jifeng; Wei, Junying; Zhang, Yangjun; Qian, Xiaohong

    2013-09-21

    Mass spectrometry-based quantitative proteomics, consisting of relative and absolute parts, has been used to discover and validate proteins with key functions related to physiological and pathological processes. Currently, stable isotope dilution-multiple reaction monitoring-mass spectrometry (SID-MRM-MS) is the most commonly used method for the absolute determination of proteins in a biological sample. A prerequisite for this method is obtaining internal standards with isotope labels. Although many approaches have been developed for the labeling and preparation of internal peptides, expensive stable isotope labeling coupled with SID-MRM-MS has limited the application and development of an absolute quantitative method. Recently, a low-cost strategy using metal-tag labeling and MS has been developed for relative quantification of peptides or proteins. The introduction of labeling using metal tags has the merits of allowing multiple labeling and enlarging the mass shift to overcome the overlap of adjacent isotope clusters. However, most papers described MRM-MS for protein absolute quantification based on the metal in its peptides labelled with metal by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP MS) but not on its peptides labelled with metal. In this work, a novel approach based on metal-tag labeling coupled with MRM-MS was established for the absolute quantification of peptides or proteins. The principle of the method is that a bifunctional chelator, 1,4,7,10-tetraazacyclododecane-1,4,7,10-tetraacetic acid bearing an N-hydroxysuccinimide ester (DOTA-NHS ester), is used to modify the N-termini of signature peptides from a target protein, and the modified peptides then chelate a certain metal, such as thulium, to form metal-tagged peptides (Tm-DOTA-P). Internal peptides are chemically synthesized and labeled with another metal, such as terbium (Tb-DOTA-P), as the internal standard. Both the Tb-DOTA- and Tm-DOTA-labeled peptides in samples can be analysed via

  8. Absolute and allometric relationships between internal morphology and body mass in the adult collared peccary, Tayassu tajacu (Tayassuidae).

    PubMed

    Lochmiller, R L; Hellgren, E C; Grant, W E

    1986-01-01

    Selected morphological features of 8 adult male and 8 adult female collared peccaries (Tayassu tajacu) shot from southern Texas during March 1983 are described. A total of 16 adult peccaries with an average body mass of 18.68 +/- 0.61 (SE) Kg was examined. Significant differences between males and females were observed for absolute and relative mass of liver and lungs, and relative heart mass. These visceral organs were heavier among females than males. Significant sex effects were also found for absolute and relative mass of the dorsal scent gland. The dorsal scent gland contributed twice as much to total body mass in males as in females. No sexual dimorphisms of the gastrointestinal tract were noted. Females had a significantly greater portion of total visceral fat deposited around the kidneys than did males. Relative mass of the mandible was significantly greater in males than in females. Adult males had extremely large accessory sex glands. The bulbourethral and seminal vesicle glands comprised 0.27 per cent of the total body mass. Allometric growth coefficients (b) varied among the various organs and glands examined, ranging from below (eyes, b = 0.34) to well above (seminal vesicles, b = 1.87) unity. Growth coefficients of lungs, kidneys, pituitary gland, and thyroid gland during adulthood greatly exceeded respective values in developing nurslings.

  9. Generalized Swiss-cheese cosmologies: Mass scales

    SciTech Connect

    Grenon, Cedric; Lake, Kayll

    2010-01-15

    We generalize the Swiss-cheese cosmologies so as to include nonzero linear momenta of the associated boundary surfaces. The evolution of mass scales in these generalized cosmologies is studied for a variety of models for the background without having to specify any details within the local inhomogeneities. We find that the final effective gravitational mass and size of the evolving inhomogeneities depends on their linear momenta but these properties are essentially unaffected by the details of the background model.

  10. Generalized Swiss-cheese cosmologies: Mass scales

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grenon, Cédric; Lake, Kayll

    2010-01-01

    We generalize the Swiss-cheese cosmologies so as to include nonzero linear momenta of the associated boundary surfaces. The evolution of mass scales in these generalized cosmologies is studied for a variety of models for the background without having to specify any details within the local inhomogeneities. We find that the final effective gravitational mass and size of the evolving inhomogeneities depends on their linear momenta but these properties are essentially unaffected by the details of the background model.

  11. Neutrino mass as the probe of intermediate mass scales

    SciTech Connect

    Senjanovic, G.

    1980-01-01

    A discussion of the calculability of neutrino mass is presented. The possibility of neutrinos being either Dirac or Majorana particles is analyzed in detail. Arguments are offered in favor of the Majorana case: the smallness of neutrino mass is linked to the maximality of parity violation in weak interactions. It is shown how the measured value of neutrino mass would probe the existence of an intermediate mass scale, presumably in the TeV region, at which parity is supposed to become a good symmetry. Experimental consequences of the proposed scheme are discussed, in particular the neutrino-less double ..beta.. decay, where observation would provide a crucial test of the model, and rare muon decays such as ..mu.. ..-->.. e..gamma.. and ..mu.. ..-->.. ee anti e. Finally, the embedding of this model in an O(10) grand unified theory is analyzed, with the emphasis on the implications for intermediate mass scales that it offers. It is concluded that the proposed scheme provides a distinct and testable alternative for understanding the smallness of neutrino mass. 4 figures.

  12. How To Determine SUSY Mass Scales Now

    SciTech Connect

    Heinemeyer, S.

    2008-11-23

    Currently available experimental data from electroweak precision observables (EWPO), B-physics observables (BPO) and cosmological data can be combined to extract the preferred value of SUSY mass scales. We review recent results on the predictions of the masses of supersymmetric particles and the indirect determination of the lightest Higgs boson mass. Special emphasis is put on models going beyond the Constrained Minimal Supersymmetric Standard Model (CMSSM), such as the Non-Universal Higgs Model type I (NUHM1), or gauge and anomaloy mediated SUSY breaking.

  13. How To Determine SUSY Mass Scales Now

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heinemeyer, S.

    2008-11-01

    Currently available experimental data from electroweak precision observables (EWPO), B-physics observables (BPO) and cosmological data can be combined to extract the preferred value of SUSY mass scales. We review recent results on the predictions of the masses of supersymmetric particles and the indirect determination of the lightest Higgs boson mass. Special emphasis is put on models going beyond the Constrained Minimal Supersymmetric Standard Model (CMSSM), such as the Non-Universal Higgs Model type I (NUHM1), or gauge and anomaloy mediated SUSY breaking.

  14. Relative Atomic Mass Scale: A Teaching Aid.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baumgartner, Erwin; And Others

    1988-01-01

    Proposes the use of a relative atomic mass (RAM) scale in which hydrogen is assigned a value from one as a teaching aid for better understanding the concept of RAM. Helps to clarify the ideas and concepts about this topic. (CW)

  15. Mass reach scaling for future hadron colliders

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rizzo, Thomas G.

    2015-04-01

    The primary goal of any future hadron collider is to discover new physics (NP) associated with a high mass scale, , beyond the range of the LHC. In order to maintain the same relative mass reach for rate-limited NP, , as increases, Richter recently reminded us that the required integrated luminosity obtainable at future hadron colliders (FHC) must grow rapidly, , in the limit of naive scaling. This would imply, e.g., a 50-fold increase in the required integrated luminosity when going from the 14 TeV LHC to a FHC with TeV, an increase that would prove quite challenging on many different fronts. In this paper we point out, due to the scaling violations associated with the evolution of the parton density functions (PDFs) and the running of the strong coupling, , that the actual luminosity necessary in order to maintain any fixed value of the relative mass reach is somewhat greater than this scaling result indicates. However, the actual values of the required luminosity scaling are found to be dependent upon the detailed nature of the NP being considered. Here we elucidate this point explicitly by employing several specific benchmark examples of possible NP scenarios and briefly discuss the (relatively weak) search impact in each case if these luminosity goals are not met.

  16. Identification and absolute quantification of enzymes in laundry detergents by liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Gaubert, Alexandra; Jeudy, Jérémy; Rougemont, Blandine; Bordes, Claire; Lemoine, Jérôme; Casabianca, Hervé; Salvador, Arnaud

    2016-07-01

    In a stricter legislative context, greener detergent formulations are developed. In this way, synthetic surfactants are frequently replaced by bio-sourced surfactants and/or used at lower concentrations in combination with enzymes. In this paper, a LC-MS/MS method was developed for the identification and quantification of enzymes in laundry detergents. Prior to the LC-MS/MS analyses, a specific sample preparation protocol was developed due to matrix complexity (high surfactant percentages). Then for each enzyme family mainly used in detergent formulations (protease, amylase, cellulase, and lipase), specific peptides were identified on a high resolution platform. A LC-MS/MS method was then developed in selected reaction monitoring (SRM) MS mode for the light and corresponding heavy peptides. The method was linear on the peptide concentration ranges 25-1000 ng/mL for protease, lipase, and cellulase; 50-1000 ng/mL for amylase; and 5-1000 ng/mL for cellulase in both water and laundry detergent matrices. The application of the developed analytical strategy to real commercial laundry detergents enabled enzyme identification and absolute quantification. For the first time, identification and absolute quantification of enzymes in laundry detergent was realized by LC-MS/MS in a single run. Graphical Abstract Identification and quantification of enzymes by LC-MS/MS.

  17. Absolute quantification of norovirus capsid protein in food, water, and soil using synthetic peptides with electrospray and MALDI mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Hartmann, Erica M; Colquhoun, David R; Schwab, Kellogg J; Halden, Rolf U

    2015-04-01

    Norovirus infections are one of the most prominent public health problems of microbial origin in the U.S. and other industrialized countries. Surveillance is necessary to prevent secondary infection, confirm successful cleanup after outbreaks, and track the causative agent. Quantitative mass spectrometry, based on absolute quantitation with stable-isotope labeled peptides, is a promising tool for norovirus monitoring because of its speed, sensitivity, and robustness in the face of environmental inhibitors. In the current study, we present two new methods for the detection of the norovirus genogroup I capsid protein using electrospray and matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization (MALDI) mass spectrometry. The peptide TLDPIEVPLEDVR was used to quantify norovirus-like particles down to 500 attomoles with electrospray and 100 attomoles with MALDI. With MALDI, we also demonstrate a detection limit of 1 femtomole and a quantitative dynamic range of 5 orders of magnitude in the presence of an environmental matrix effect. Due to the rapid processing time and applicability to a wide range of environmental sample types (bacterial lysate, produce, milk, soil, and groundwater), mass spectrometry-based absolute quantitation has a strong potential for use in public health and environmental sciences.

  18. Absolute Quantification of Norovirus Capsid Protein in Food, Water, and Soil Using Synthetic Peptides with Electrospray and MALDI Mass Spectrometry

    PubMed Central

    Hartmann, Erica M.; Colquhoun, David R.; Schwab, Kellogg J.; Halden, Rolf U.

    2015-01-01

    Norovirus infections are one of the most prominent public health problems of microbial origin in the U.S. and other industrialized countries. Surveillance is necessary to prevent secondary infection, confirm successful cleanup after outbreaks, and track the causative agent. Quantitative mass spectrometry, based on absolute quantitation with stable-isotope labeled peptides, is a promising tool for norovirus monitoring because of its speed, sensitivity, and robustness in the face of environmental inhibitors. In the current study, we present two new methods for the detection of the norovirus genogroup I capsid protein using electrospray and matrixassisted laser desorption/ionization (MALDI) mass spectrometry. The peptide TLDPIEVPLEDVR was used to quantify norovirus-like particles down to 500 attomoles with electrospray and 100 attomoles with MALDI. With MALDI, we also demonstrate a detection limit of 1 femtomole and a quantitative dynamic range of 5 orders of magnitude in the presence of an environmental matrix effect. Due to the rapid processing time and applicability to a wide range of environmental sample types (bacterial lysate, produce, milk, soil, and groundwater), mass spectrometry-based absolute quantitation has a strong potential for use in public health and environmental sciences. PMID:25603302

  19. Investigation of Absolute and Relative Scaling Conceptions of Students in Introductory College Chemistry Courses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gerlach, Karrie; Trate, Jaclyn; Blecking, Anja; Geissinger, Peter; Murphy, Kristen

    2014-01-01

    Scale as a theme in science instruction is not a new idea. As early as the mid-1980s, scale was identified as an important component of a student's overall science literacy. However, the study of scale and the scale literacy of students in varying levels of education have received less attention than other science-literacy components.…

  20. Absolute Quantification of Rifampicin by MALDI Imaging Mass Spectrometry Using Multiple TOF/TOF Events in a Single Laser Shot

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prentice, Boone M.; Chumbley, Chad W.; Caprioli, Richard M.

    2016-09-01

    Matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization imaging mass spectrometry (MALDI IMS) allows for the visualization of molecular distributions within tissue sections. While providing excellent molecular specificity and spatial information, absolute quantification by MALDI IMS remains challenging. Especially in the low molecular weight region of the spectrum, analysis is complicated by matrix interferences and ionization suppression. Though tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS) can be used to ensure chemical specificity and improve sensitivity by eliminating chemical noise, typical MALDI MS/MS modalities only scan for a single MS/MS event per laser shot. Herein, we describe TOF/TOF instrumentation that enables multiple fragmentation events to be performed in a single laser shot, allowing the intensity of the analyte to be referenced to the intensity of the internal standard in each laser shot while maintaining the benefits of MS/MS. This approach is illustrated by the quantitative analyses of rifampicin (RIF), an antibiotic used to treat tuberculosis, in pooled human plasma using rifapentine (RPT) as an internal standard. The results show greater than 4-fold improvements in relative standard deviation as well as improved coefficients of determination (R2) and accuracy (>93% quality controls, <9% relative errors). This technology is used as an imaging modality to measure absolute RIF concentrations in liver tissue from an animal dosed in vivo. Each microspot in the quantitative image measures the local RIF concentration in the tissue section, providing absolute pixel-to-pixel quantification from different tissue microenvironments. The average concentration determined by IMS is in agreement with the concentration determined by HPLC-MS/MS, showing a percent difference of 10.6%.

  1. Easy Absolute Values? Absolutely

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, Sharon E.; Mittag, Kathleen Cage

    2015-01-01

    The authors teach a problem-solving course for preservice middle-grades education majors that includes concepts dealing with absolute-value computations, equations, and inequalities. Many of these students like mathematics and plan to teach it, so they are adept at symbolic manipulations. Getting them to think differently about a concept that they…

  2. Symbolic Formulation of Large-scale Open-loop Multibody Systems for Vibration Analysis Using Absolute Joint Coordinates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Wei; Chen, Xuedong; Luo, Xin; Huang, Qingjiu

    A novel symbolic formulation is presented to model dynamics of large-scale open-loop holonomic multibody systems, by using absolute joint coordinates and via matrix transformation, instead of solving constraint equations. The resulting minimal set of second-order linear ordinary differential equations (ODEs) can be used for linear vibration analysis and control directly. The ODEs are generated in three steps. Firstly, a set of linearized ODEs are formulated in terms of absolute coordinates without considering any constraint. Secondly, an overall transform matrix representing constraint topology for the entire constrained system is generated. Finally, matrices for a minimal set of ODEs for the open-loop holonomic multibody system are obtained via matrix transformation. The correctness and efficiency of the presented algorithm are verified by numerical experiments on various cases of holonomic multibody systems with different open-loop topologies, including chain topology and tree topology. It is indicated that the proposed method can significantly improve efficiency without losing computational accuracy.

  3. A novel double-focusing time-of-flight mass spectrometer for absolute recoil ion cross sections measurements.

    PubMed

    Sigaud, L; de Jesus, V L B; Ferreira, Natalia; Montenegro, E C

    2016-08-01

    In this work, the inclusion of an Einzel-like lens inside the time-of-flight drift tube of a standard mass spectrometer coupled to a gas cell-to study ionization of atoms and molecules by electron impact-is described. Both this lens and a conical collimator are responsible for further focalization of the ions and charged molecular fragments inside the spectrometer, allowing a much better resolution at the time-of-flight spectra, leading to a separation of a single mass-to-charge unit up to 100 a.m.u. The procedure to obtain the overall absolute efficiency of the spectrometer and micro-channel plate detector is also discussed. PMID:27587105

  4. A novel double-focusing time-of-flight mass spectrometer for absolute recoil ion cross sections measurements.

    PubMed

    Sigaud, L; de Jesus, V L B; Ferreira, Natalia; Montenegro, E C

    2016-08-01

    In this work, the inclusion of an Einzel-like lens inside the time-of-flight drift tube of a standard mass spectrometer coupled to a gas cell-to study ionization of atoms and molecules by electron impact-is described. Both this lens and a conical collimator are responsible for further focalization of the ions and charged molecular fragments inside the spectrometer, allowing a much better resolution at the time-of-flight spectra, leading to a separation of a single mass-to-charge unit up to 100 a.m.u. The procedure to obtain the overall absolute efficiency of the spectrometer and micro-channel plate detector is also discussed.

  5. A novel double-focusing time-of-flight mass spectrometer for absolute recoil ion cross sections measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sigaud, L.; de Jesus, V. L. B.; Ferreira, Natalia; Montenegro, E. C.

    2016-08-01

    In this work, the inclusion of an Einzel-like lens inside the time-of-flight drift tube of a standard mass spectrometer coupled to a gas cell—to study ionization of atoms and molecules by electron impact—is described. Both this lens and a conical collimator are responsible for further focalization of the ions and charged molecular fragments inside the spectrometer, allowing a much better resolution at the time-of-flight spectra, leading to a separation of a single mass-to-charge unit up to 100 a.m.u. The procedure to obtain the overall absolute efficiency of the spectrometer and micro-channel plate detector is also discussed.

  6. The orbital motion, absolute mass and high-altitude winds of exoplanet HD 209458b.

    PubMed

    Snellen, Ignas A G; de Kok, Remco J; de Mooij, Ernst J W; Albrecht, Simon

    2010-06-24

    For extrasolar planets discovered using the radial velocity method, the spectral characterization of the host star leads to a mass estimate of the star and subsequently of the orbiting planet. If the orbital velocity of the planet could be determined, the masses of both star and planet could be calculated using Newton's law of gravity, just as in the case of stellar double-line eclipsing binaries. Here we report high-dispersion ground-based spectroscopy of a transit of the extrasolar planet HD 209458b. We see a significant wavelength shift in absorption lines from carbon monoxide in the planet's atmosphere, which we conclude arises from a change in the radial component of the planet's orbital velocity. The masses of the star and planet are 1.00 +/- 0.22M(Sun) and 0.64 +/- 0.09M(Jup) respectively. A blueshift of the carbon monoxide signal of approximately 2 km s(-1) with respect to the systemic velocity of the host star suggests the presence of a strong wind flowing from the irradiated dayside to the non-irradiated nightside of the planet within the 0.01-0.1 mbar atmospheric pressure range probed by these observations. The strength of the carbon monoxide signal suggests a carbon monoxide mixing ratio of (1-3) x 10(-3) in this planet's upper atmosphere.

  7. The orbital motion, absolute mass and high-altitude winds of exoplanet HD 209458b.

    PubMed

    Snellen, Ignas A G; de Kok, Remco J; de Mooij, Ernst J W; Albrecht, Simon

    2010-06-24

    For extrasolar planets discovered using the radial velocity method, the spectral characterization of the host star leads to a mass estimate of the star and subsequently of the orbiting planet. If the orbital velocity of the planet could be determined, the masses of both star and planet could be calculated using Newton's law of gravity, just as in the case of stellar double-line eclipsing binaries. Here we report high-dispersion ground-based spectroscopy of a transit of the extrasolar planet HD 209458b. We see a significant wavelength shift in absorption lines from carbon monoxide in the planet's atmosphere, which we conclude arises from a change in the radial component of the planet's orbital velocity. The masses of the star and planet are 1.00 +/- 0.22M(Sun) and 0.64 +/- 0.09M(Jup) respectively. A blueshift of the carbon monoxide signal of approximately 2 km s(-1) with respect to the systemic velocity of the host star suggests the presence of a strong wind flowing from the irradiated dayside to the non-irradiated nightside of the planet within the 0.01-0.1 mbar atmospheric pressure range probed by these observations. The strength of the carbon monoxide signal suggests a carbon monoxide mixing ratio of (1-3) x 10(-3) in this planet's upper atmosphere. PMID:20577209

  8. White-light scanning interferometer for absolute nano-scale gap thickness measurement.

    PubMed

    Xu, Zhiguang; Shilpiekandula, Vijay; Youcef-toumi, Kamal; Yoon, Soon Fatt

    2009-08-17

    A special configuration of white-light scanning interferometer is described for measuring the absolute air gap thickness between two planar plates brought into close proximity. The measured gap is not located in any interference arm of the interferometer, but acts as an amplitude-and-phase modulator of the light source. Compared with the common white-light interferometer our approach avoids the influence of the chromatic dispersion of the planar plates on the gap thickness quantification. It covers a large measurement range of from approximate contact to tens of microns with a high resolution of 0.1 nm. Detailed analytical models are presented and signal-processing algorithms based on convolution and correlation techniques are developed. Practical measurements are carried out and the experimental results match well with the analysis and simulation. Short-time and long-time repeatabilities are both tested to prove the high performance of our method.

  9. Gas-phase NMR measurements, absolute shielding scales, and magnetic dipole moments of 29Si and 73Ge nuclei.

    PubMed

    Makulski, W; Jackowski, K; Antusek, A; Jaszuński, M

    2006-10-12

    New gas-phase NMR measurements of the shielding constants of 29Si, 73Ge, and 1H nuclei in SiH4 and GeH4 are reported. The results, extrapolated to zero density, provide accurate isolated molecule values, best suited for comparison with theoretical calculations. Using the recent ab initio results for these molecules and the measured chemical shifts, we determine the absolute shielding scales for 29Si and 73Ge. This allows us to provide new values of the nuclear magnetic dipole moments for these two nuclei; in addition, we examine the dipole moments of 13C and 119Sn.

  10. Music Proficiency and Quantification of Absolute Pitch: A Large-Scale Study among Brazilian Musicians

    PubMed Central

    Leite, Raphael B. C.; Mota-Rolim, Sergio A.; Queiroz, Claudio M. T.

    2016-01-01

    Absolute pitch (AP) is the ability to identify and name the pitch of a sound without external reference. Often, accuracy and speed at naming isolated musical pitches are correlated with demographic, biological, and acoustical parameters to gain insight into the genesis and evolution of this ability in specific cohorts. However, the majority of those studies were conducted in North America, Europe, or Asia. To fill this gap, here we investigated the pitch-naming performance in a large population of Brazilian conservatory musicians (N = 200). As previously shown, we found that the population performance was rather a continuum than an “all-or-none” ability. By comparing the observed distribution of correct responses to a theoretical binomial distribution, we estimated the prevalence of AP as being 18% amongst regular music students. High accuracy thresholds (e.g., 85% of correct responses) yielded a prevalence of 4%, suggesting that AP might have been underestimated in previous reports. Irrespective of the threshold used, AP prevalence was higher in musicians who started their musical practice and formal musical education early in life. Finally, we compared the performance of those music students (average proficiency group) with another group of students selected to take part in the conservatory orchestra (high proficiency group, N = 30). Interestingly, the prevalence of AP was higher in the latter in comparison to the former group. In addition, even when the response was incorrect, the mean absolute deviation from the correct response was smaller in the high proficiency group compared to the average proficiency group (Glass's Δ: 0.5). Taken together, our results show that the prevalence of AP in Brazilian students is similar to other non-tonal language populations, although this measure is highly dependent on the scoring threshold used. Despite corroborating that early involvement with musical practice and formal education can foster AP ability, the present data

  11. Identification of atranorin and related potential allergens in oakmoss absolute by high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry using negative ion atmospheric pressure chemical ionization.

    PubMed

    Hiserodt, R D; Swijter, D F; Mussinan, C J

    2000-08-01

    This paper describes the first high-performance liquid chromatographic-tandem mass spectrometric method for the identification of atranorin and related potential allergens in oakmoss absolute. Oakmoss absolute is ubiquitous in the fragrance industry and is a key component in many fine perfumes. However, oakmoss absolute causes an allergic response in some individuals. Research is focused toward establishing the identity of the compounds causing the allergic response so a quality controlled oakmoss with reduced allergenic potential can be prepared. Consequently a highly selective and specific analytical method is necessary to support this effort. This is not available with the existing HPLC methods using UV detection. PMID:10949477

  12. Toward an absolute NMR shielding scale using the spin-rotation tensor within a relativistic framework.

    PubMed

    Aucar, I Agustín; Gomez, Sergio S; Giribet, Claudia G; Aucar, Gustavo A

    2016-08-24

    One of the most influential articles showing the best way to get the absolute values of NMR magnetic shieldings, σ (non-measurables) from both accurate measurements and theoretical calculations, was published a long time ago by Flygare. His model was shown to break down when heavy atoms are involved. This fact motivated the development of new theories of nuclear spin-rotation (SR) tensors, which consider electronic relativistic effects. One was published recently by some of us. In this article we take another step further and propose three different models that generalize Flygare's model. All of them are written using four-component relativistic expressions, though the two-component relativistic SO-S term also appears in one. The first clues for these developments were built from the relationship among σ and the SR tensors within the two-component relativistic LRESC model. Besides, we had to introduce a few other well defined assumptions: (i) relativistic corrections must be included in a way to best reproduce the relationship among the (e-e) term (called "paramagnetic" within the non-relativistic domain) of σ and its equivalent part of the SR tensor, (ii) as happens in Flygare's rule, the shielding of free atoms shall be included to improve accuracy. In the highest accurate model, a new term known as Spin-orbit due to spin, SO-S (in this mechanism the spin-Zeeman Hamiltonian replaces the orbital-Zeeman Hamiltonian), is included. We show the results of the application of those models to halogen containing linear molecules. PMID:27506822

  13. Toward an absolute NMR shielding scale using the spin-rotation tensor within a relativistic framework.

    PubMed

    Aucar, I Agustín; Gomez, Sergio S; Giribet, Claudia G; Aucar, Gustavo A

    2016-08-24

    One of the most influential articles showing the best way to get the absolute values of NMR magnetic shieldings, σ (non-measurables) from both accurate measurements and theoretical calculations, was published a long time ago by Flygare. His model was shown to break down when heavy atoms are involved. This fact motivated the development of new theories of nuclear spin-rotation (SR) tensors, which consider electronic relativistic effects. One was published recently by some of us. In this article we take another step further and propose three different models that generalize Flygare's model. All of them are written using four-component relativistic expressions, though the two-component relativistic SO-S term also appears in one. The first clues for these developments were built from the relationship among σ and the SR tensors within the two-component relativistic LRESC model. Besides, we had to introduce a few other well defined assumptions: (i) relativistic corrections must be included in a way to best reproduce the relationship among the (e-e) term (called "paramagnetic" within the non-relativistic domain) of σ and its equivalent part of the SR tensor, (ii) as happens in Flygare's rule, the shielding of free atoms shall be included to improve accuracy. In the highest accurate model, a new term known as Spin-orbit due to spin, SO-S (in this mechanism the spin-Zeeman Hamiltonian replaces the orbital-Zeeman Hamiltonian), is included. We show the results of the application of those models to halogen containing linear molecules.

  14. The Dynamics of Scaling: A Memory-Based Anchor Model of Category Rating and Absolute Identification

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Petrov, Alexander A.; Anderson, John R.

    2005-01-01

    A memory-based scaling model--ANCHOR--is proposed and tested. The perceived magnitude of the target stimulus is compared with a set of anchors in memory. Anchor selection is probabilistic and sensitive to similarity, base-level strength, and recency. The winning anchor provides a reference point near the target and thereby converts the global…

  15. Isotope pattern deconvolution for peptide mass spectrometry by non-negative least squares/least absolute deviation template matching

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The robust identification of isotope patterns originating from peptides being analyzed through mass spectrometry (MS) is often significantly hampered by noise artifacts and the interference of overlapping patterns arising e.g. from post-translational modifications. As the classification of the recorded data points into either ‘noise’ or ‘signal’ lies at the very root of essentially every proteomic application, the quality of the automated processing of mass spectra can significantly influence the way the data might be interpreted within a given biological context. Results We propose non-negative least squares/non-negative least absolute deviation regression to fit a raw spectrum by templates imitating isotope patterns. In a carefully designed validation scheme, we show that the method exhibits excellent performance in pattern picking. It is demonstrated that the method is able to disentangle complicated overlaps of patterns. Conclusions We find that regularization is not necessary to prevent overfitting and that thresholding is an effective and user-friendly way to perform feature selection. The proposed method avoids problems inherent in regularization-based approaches, comes with a set of well-interpretable parameters whose default configuration is shown to generalize well without the need for fine-tuning, and is applicable to spectra of different platforms. The R package IPPD implements the method and is available from the Bioconductor platform (http://bioconductor.fhcrc.org/help/bioc-views/devel/bioc/html/IPPD.html). PMID:23137144

  16. Precision and accuracy in the quantitative analysis of biological samples by accelerator mass spectrometry: application in microdose absolute bioavailability studies.

    PubMed

    Gao, Lan; Li, Jing; Kasserra, Claudia; Song, Qi; Arjomand, Ali; Hesk, David; Chowdhury, Swapan K

    2011-07-15

    Determination of the pharmacokinetics and absolute bioavailability of an experimental compound, SCH 900518, following a 89.7 nCi (100 μg) intravenous (iv) dose of (14)C-SCH 900518 2 h post 200 mg oral administration of nonradiolabeled SCH 900518 to six healthy male subjects has been described. The plasma concentration of SCH 900518 was measured using a validated LC-MS/MS system, and accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) was used for quantitative plasma (14)C-SCH 900518 concentration determination. Calibration standards and quality controls were included for every batch of sample analysis by AMS to ensure acceptable quality of the assay. Plasma (14)C-SCH 900518 concentrations were derived from the regression function established from the calibration standards, rather than directly from isotopic ratios from AMS measurement. The precision and accuracy of quality controls and calibration standards met the requirements of bioanalytical guidance (U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Food and Drug Administration, Center for Drug Evaluation and Research, Center for Veterinary Medicine. Guidance for Industry: Bioanalytical Method Validation (ucm070107), May 2001. http://www.fda.gov/downloads/Drugs/GuidanceCompilanceRegulatoryInformation/Guidances/ucm070107.pdf ). The AMS measurement had a linear response range from 0.0159 to 9.07 dpm/mL for plasma (14)C-SCH 900158 concentrations. The CV and accuracy were 3.4-8.5% and 94-108% (82-119% for the lower limit of quantitation (LLOQ)), respectively, with a correlation coefficient of 0.9998. The absolute bioavailability was calculated from the dose-normalized area under the curve of iv and oral doses after the plasma concentrations were plotted vs the sampling time post oral dose. The mean absolute bioavailability of SCH 900518 was 40.8% (range 16.8-60.6%). The typical accuracy and standard deviation in AMS quantitative analysis of drugs from human plasma samples have been reported for the first time, and the impact of these

  17. Energy Decomposition Analysis Based on Absolutely Localized Molecular Orbitals for Large-Scale Density Functional Theory Calculations in Drug Design.

    PubMed

    Phipps, M J S; Fox, T; Tautermann, C S; Skylaris, C-K

    2016-07-12

    We report the development and implementation of an energy decomposition analysis (EDA) scheme in the ONETEP linear-scaling electronic structure package. Our approach is hybrid as it combines the localized molecular orbital EDA (Su, P.; Li, H. J. Chem. Phys., 2009, 131, 014102) and the absolutely localized molecular orbital EDA (Khaliullin, R. Z.; et al. J. Phys. Chem. A, 2007, 111, 8753-8765) to partition the intermolecular interaction energy into chemically distinct components (electrostatic, exchange, correlation, Pauli repulsion, polarization, and charge transfer). Limitations shared in EDA approaches such as the issue of basis set dependence in polarization and charge transfer are discussed, and a remedy to this problem is proposed that exploits the strictly localized property of the ONETEP orbitals. Our method is validated on a range of complexes with interactions relevant to drug design. We demonstrate the capabilities for large-scale calculations with our approach on complexes of thrombin with an inhibitor comprised of up to 4975 atoms. Given the capability of ONETEP for large-scale calculations, such as on entire proteins, we expect that our EDA scheme can be applied in a large range of biomolecular problems, especially in the context of drug design.

  18. Length scales in alloy dissolution and measurement of absolute interfacial free energy.

    PubMed

    Rugolo, J; Erlebacher, J; Sieradzki, K

    2006-12-01

    De-alloying is the selective dissolution of one or more of the elemental components of an alloy. In binary alloys that exhibit complete solid solubility, de-alloying of the less noble component results in the formation of nanoporous metals, a materials class that has attracted attention for applications such as catalysis, sensing and actuation. In addition, the occurrence of de-alloying in metallic alloy systems under stress is known to result in stress-corrosion cracking, a key failure mechanism in fossil fuel and nuclear plants, ageing aircraft, and also an important concern in the design of nuclear-waste storage containers. Central to the design of corrosion-resistant alloys is the identification of a composition-dependent electrochemical critical potential, Vcrit, above which the current rises dramatically with potential, signalling the onset of bulk de-alloying. Below Vcrit, the surface is passivated by the accumulation of up to several monolayers of the more noble component. The current understanding of the processes that control Vcrit is incomplete. Here, we report on de-alloying results of Ag/Au superlattices that clarify the role of pre-existing length scales in alloy dissolution. Our data motivated us to re-analyse existing data on critical potentials of Ag-Au alloys and develop a simple unifying picture that accounts for the compositional dependence of solid-solution alloy critical potentials.

  19. Absolute dominance of hydrogenotrophic methanogens in full-scale anaerobic sewage sludge digesters.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jaai; Kim, Woong; Lee, Changsoo

    2013-11-01

    Anaerobic digestion (AD) is gaining increasing attention due to the ability to covert organic pollutants into energy-rich biogas and, accordingly, growing interest is paid to the microbial ecology of AD systems. Despite extensive efforts, AD microbial ecology is still limitedly understood, especially due to the lack of quantitative information on the structures and dynamics of AD microbial communities. Such knowledge gap is particularly pronounced in sewage sludge AD processes although treating sewage sludge is among the major practical applications of AD. Therefore, we examined the microbial communities in three full-scale sewage sludge digesters using qualitative and quantitative molecular techniques in combination: denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) and real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Eight out of eleven bacterial sequences retrieved from the DGGE analysis were not affiliated to any known species while all eleven archaeal sequences were assigned to known methanogen species. Quantitative real-time PCR analysis revealed that, based on the 16S rRNA gene abundance, the hydrogenotrophic order Methanomicrobiales is the most dominant methanogen group (> 94% of the total methanogen population) in all digesters. This corresponds well to the prevailing occurrence of the DGGE bands related to Methanolinea and Methanospirillum, both belonging to the order Methanomicrobiales, in all sludge samples. It is therefore suggested that hydrogenotrophic methanogens, especially Methanomicrobiales strains, are likely the major players responsible for biogas production in the digesters studied. Our observation is contrary to the conventional understanding that aceticlastic methanogens generally dominate methanogen communities in stable AD environments, suggesting the need for further studies on the dominance relationship in various AD systems.

  20. Absolute quantification of γH2AX using liquid chromatography-triple quadrupole tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Matsuda, Shun; Ikura, Tsuyoshi; Matsuda, Tomonari

    2015-07-01

    Ser139-phosphorylated histone H2AX (γH2AX) is a useful biomarker of DNA double strand breaks. γH2AX has been conventionally detected by immunology-based methods using anti-γH2AX antibody, but quantitative analysis is difficult to perform with such methods. Here, we describe an absolute quantification method using liquid chromatography-triple quadrupole tandem mass spectrometry that is applicable to peptides derived from γH2AX (ATQA(pS)QEY) and unphosphorylated H2AX (ATQASQEY). Our method was successfully applied to histones extracted from human cervix adenocarcinoma HeLa S3 cells. The estimated number of molecules of γH2AX (ATQA(pS)QEY) per vehicle-treated HeLa S3 cell was 9.4 × 10(4) and increased to 6.2 × 10(5) molecules/cell after exposure to the DNA-damaging agent camptothecin (10 μM) for 1 h. The estimated total amount of H2AX (ATQA(pS)QEY + ATQASQEY) was 3.3-3.6 × 10(6) molecules/cell. Due to its broad adaptability and throughput performance, we believe that our method is a powerful tool for mechanistic studies of the DNA-damage response as well as for genotoxicity testing, cancer drug screening, clinical studies, and other fields.

  1. Local and global strategies for optimal selective mass scaling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tkachuk, Anton; Bischoff, Manfred

    2014-06-01

    The problem of optimal selective mass scaling for linearized elasto-dynamics is discussed. Optimal selective mass scaling should provide solutions for dynamical problems that are close to the ones obtained with a lumped mass matrix, but at much smaller computational costs. It should be equally applicable to all structurally relevant load cases. The three main optimality criteria, namely eigenmode preservation, small number of non-zero entries and good conditioning of the mass matrix are explicitly formulated in the article. An example of optimal mass scaling which relies on redistribution of mass on a global system level is constructed. Alternative local mass scaling strategies are proposed and compared with existing methods using one modal and two transient numerical examples.

  2. Planck-scale physics and neutrino masses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akhmedov, Evgenii Kh.; Berezhiani, Zurab G.; Senjanovic, Goran

    1992-11-01

    We discuss gravitationally induced masses and mass splittings of Majorana, Zeldovich-Konopinski-Mahmoud, and Dirac neutrinos. Among other implications, these effects can provide a solution of the solar neutrino puzzle. In particular, we show how this may work in the 17 keV neutrino picture.

  3. DAQ Software Contributions, Absolute Scale Energy Calibration and Background Evaluation for the NOvA Experiment at Fermilab

    SciTech Connect

    Flumerfelt, Eric Lewis

    2015-08-01

    The NOvA (NuMI Off-axis ve [nu_e] Appearance) Experiment is a long-baseline accelerator neutrino experiment currently in its second year of operations. NOvA uses the Neutrinos from the Main Injector (NuMI) beam at Fermilab, and there are two main off-axis detectors: a Near Detector at Fermilab and a Far Detector 810 km away at Ash River, MN. The work reported herein is in support of the NOvA Experiment, through contributions to the development of data acquisition software, providing an accurate, absolute-scale energy calibration for electromagnetic showers in NOvA detector elements, crucial to the primary electron neutrino search, and through an initial evaluation of the cosmic background rate in the NOvA Far Detector, which is situated on the surface without significant overburden. Additional support work for the NOvA Experiment is also detailed, including DAQ Server Administration duties and a study of NOvA’s sensitivity to neutrino oscillations into a “sterile” state.

  4. Absolute pitch among students at the Shanghai Conservatory of Music: a large-scale direct-test study.

    PubMed

    Deutsch, Diana; Li, Xiaonuo; Shen, Jing

    2013-11-01

    This paper reports a large-scale direct-test study of absolute pitch (AP) in students at the Shanghai Conservatory of Music. Overall note-naming scores were very high, with high scores correlating positively with early onset of musical training. Students who had begun training at age ≤5 yr scored 83% correct not allowing for semitone errors and 90% correct allowing for semitone errors. Performance levels were higher for white key pitches than for black key pitches. This effect was greater for orchestral performers than for pianists, indicating that it cannot be attributed to early training on the piano. Rather, accuracy in identifying notes of different names (C, C#, D, etc.) correlated with their frequency of occurrence in a large sample of music taken from the Western tonal repertoire. There was also an effect of pitch range, so that performance on tones in the two-octave range beginning on Middle C was higher than on tones in the octave below Middle C. In addition, semitone errors tended to be on the sharp side. The evidence also ran counter to the hypothesis, previously advanced by others, that the note A plays a special role in pitch identification judgments.

  5. Scales of mass generation for quarks, leptons, and majorana neutrinos.

    PubMed

    Dicus, Duane A; He, Hong-Jian

    2005-06-10

    We study 2-->n inelastic fermion-(anti)fermion scattering into multiple longitudinal weak gauge bosons and derive universal upper bounds on the scales of fermion mass generation by imposing unitarity of the S matrix. We place new upper limits on the scales of fermion mass generation, independent of the electroweak symmetry breaking scale. Strikingly, we find that the strongest 2-->n limits fall in a narrow range, 3-170 TeV (with n=2-24), depending on the observed fermion masses.

  6. Local supersymmetry and the problem of the mass scales

    SciTech Connect

    Nilles, H.P.

    1983-02-01

    Spontaneously broken supergravity might help us to understand the puzzle of the mass scales in grand unified models. We describe the general mechanism and point out the remaining problems. Some new results on local supercolor are presented.

  7. Small Scale Mass Flow Plug Calibration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sasson, Jonathan

    2015-01-01

    A simple control volume model has been developed to calculate the discharge coefficient through a mass flow plug (MFP) and validated with a calibration experiment. The maximum error of the model in the operating region of the MFP is 0.54%. The model uses the MFP geometry and operating pressure and temperature to couple continuity, momentum, energy, an equation of state, and wall shear. Effects of boundary layer growth and the reduction in cross-sectional flow area are calculated using an in- integral method. A CFD calibration is shown to be of lower accuracy with a maximum error of 1.35%, and slower by a factor of 100. Effects of total pressure distortion are taken into account in the experiment. Distortion creates a loss in flow rate and can be characterized by two different distortion descriptors.

  8. The scaling of eye size with body mass in birds

    PubMed Central

    Brooke, M. de L.; Hanley, S.; Laughlin, S. B.

    1999-01-01

    We developed a simple method that uses skulls to estimate the diameter, and hence the mass, of birds' eyes. Allometric analysis demonstrated that, within five orders (parrots, pigeons, petrels, raptors and owls) and across 104 families of flying birds, eye mass is proportional to (body mass)0.68 over a range of body masses (6 g to 11.3 kg). As expected from their habits and visual ecology, raptors and owls have enlarged eyes, with masses 1.4 and 2.2 times greater than average birds of the same weight. Taking existing relationships for flight speed on body mass, we find that resolution increases close to (flight speed)1.333. Consequently, large birds resolve objects at a longer time to contact than small birds. Eye radius and skull size co-vary in strict proportion, suggesting common physiological, aerodynamic and mechanical constraints. Because eye mass scales close to brain mass, metabolic rate and information processing could also be limiting, but the precise factors determining the scaling of eye to body have not been identified.

  9. Targeted absolute quantification of intact proteins by reversed phase liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry, charge reduced electrospray, and condensation particle counting.

    PubMed

    Adou, Kouame; Johnston, Murray V; Dykins, John L

    2012-08-21

    A novel approach involving the use of reversed phase liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (RPLC-MS), charge reduced electrospray (CRES), and condensation particle counting (CPC) for the absolute quantification of intact proteins in liquid solutions is introduced. Under analysis conditions optimized for the quantification of select proteins within their predetermined linear ranges, a set of at least five protein standards with molecular weights (MW) spanning the dynamic ranges of both a quadrupole time-of-flight (QTOF) MS and a suitably selected RPLC column is used to generate a calibration curve of CPC detection efficiency (DE) as a function of the square root of MW. Next, the sample of interest is analyzed, and from the MS-generated MW data, the DE of each target protein is determined from the calibration curve. On the basis of MW, DE, and number concentration (molecules/unit volume), absolute quantification is achieved for each protein of interest. Application of this approach to the absolute quantification of cytochrome C (as target compound) in a commercial protein mixture is demonstrated with a deviation of 8%, a coefficient of variation (CV) of 5%, and a quantification limit of 432 fmol. For nontarget components of the mixture (ribonuclease A, holotransferrin, and apomyoglobin), the percent deviation from the stated concentrations and the CV varied from 0.20 to 23 and from 4.1 to 18, respectively. Performance of the method was further assessed by analyzing a laboratory quality control mixture comprising 0.33 μM of cytochrome C. The calculated value was 0.34 (CV: 5.1%). Universal in essence, the new technique holds strong promise for the absolute quantification of select proteins in liquid samples under conditions of good peak resolution and stable baseline.

  10. Absolute measurement of subnanometer scale vibration of cochlear partition of an excised guinea pig cochlea using spectral-domain phase-sensitive optical coherence tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Subhash, Hrebesh M.; Choudhury, Niloy; Jacques, Steven L.; Wang, Ruikang K.; Chen, Fangyi; Zha, Dingjun; Nuttall, Alfred L.

    2012-01-01

    Direct measurement of absolute vibration parameters from different locations within the mammalian organ of Corti is crucial for understanding the hearing mechanics such as how sound propagates through the cochlea and how sound stimulates the vibration of various structures of the cochlea, namely, basilar membrane (BM), recticular lamina, outer hair cells and tectorial membrane (TM). In this study we demonstrate the feasibility a modified phase-sensitive spectral domain optical coherence tomography system to provide subnanometer scale vibration information from multiple angles within the imaging beam. The system has the potential to provide depth resolved absolute vibration measurement of tissue microstructures from each of the delay-encoded vibration images with a noise floor of ~0.3nm at 200Hz.

  11. Astrometric-Spectroscopic Determination of the Absolute Masses of the HgMn Binary Star φ Herculis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Torres, Guillermo

    2007-06-01

    The mercury-manganese star φ Her is a well-known spectroscopic binary that has been the subject of a recent study by Zavala and coworkers in which they resolved the companion using long-baseline interferometry. The total mass of the binary is now fairly well established, but the combination of spectroscopy with astrometry has not resulted in individual masses consistent with the spectral types of the components. The motion of the center of light of φ Her was clearly detected by the Hipparcos satellite. Here we make use of the Hipparcos intermediate data (``abscissa residuals'') and show that by combining them in an optimal fashion with the interferometry the individual masses can be obtained reliably using only astrometry. We reexamine and then incorporate existing radial velocity measurements into the orbital solution, obtaining improved masses of 3.05+/-0.24 and 1.614+/-0.066 Msolar that are consistent with the theoretical mass-luminosity relation from recent stellar evolution models. These mass determinations provide important information for the understanding of the nature of this peculiar class of stars.

  12. Geoelectrical Measurement of Multi-Scale Mass Transfer Parameters

    SciTech Connect

    Day-Lewis, Frederick David; Singha, Kamini; Johnson, Timothy C.; Haggerty, Roy; Binley, Andrew; Lane, John W.

    2014-11-25

    Mass transfer affects contaminant transport and is thought to control the efficiency of aquifer remediation at a number of sites within the Department of Energy (DOE) complex. An improved understanding of mass transfer is critical to meeting the enormous scientific and engineering challenges currently facing DOE. Informed design of site remedies and long-term stewardship of radionuclide-contaminated sites will require new cost-effective laboratory and field techniques to measure the parameters controlling mass transfer spatially and across a range of scales. In this project, we sought to capitalize on the geophysical signatures of mass transfer. Previous numerical modeling and pilot-scale field experiments suggested that mass transfer produces a geoelectrical signature—a hysteretic relation between sampled (mobile-domain) fluid conductivity and bulk (mobile + immobile) conductivity—over a range of scales relevant to aquifer remediation. In this work, we investigated the geoelectrical signature of mass transfer during tracer transport in a series of controlled experiments to determine the operation of controlling parameters, and also investigated the use of complex-resistivity (CR) as a means of quantifying mass transfer parameters in situ without tracer experiments. In an add-on component to our grant, we additionally considered nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) to help parse mobile from immobile porosities. Including the NMR component, our revised study objectives were to: 1. Develop and demonstrate geophysical approaches to measure mass-transfer parameters spatially and over a range of scales, including the combination of electrical resistivity monitoring, tracer tests, complex resistivity, nuclear magnetic resonance, and materials characterization; and 2. Provide mass-transfer estimates for improved understanding of contaminant fate and transport at DOE sites, such as uranium transport at the Hanford 300 Area. To achieve our objectives, we implemented a 3

  13. Use of an intravenous microdose of 14C-labeled drug and accelerator mass spectrometry to measure absolute oral bioavailability in dogs; cross-comparison of assay methods by accelerator mass spectrometry and liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Miyaji, Yoshihiro; Ishizuka, Tomoko; Kawai, Kenji; Hamabe, Yoshimi; Miyaoka, Teiji; Oh-hara, Toshinari; Ikeda, Toshihiko; Kurihara, Atsushi

    2009-01-01

    A technique utilizing simultaneous intravenous microdosing of (14)C-labeled drug with oral dosing of non-labeled drug for measurement of absolute bioavailability was evaluated using R-142086 in male dogs. Plasma concentrations of R-142086 were measured by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) and those of (14)C-R-142086 were measured by accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS). The absence of metabolites in the plasma and urine was confirmed by a single radioactive peak of the parent compound in the chromatogram after intravenous microdosing of (14)C-R-142086 (1.5 microg/kg). Although plasma concentrations of R-142086 determined by LC-MS/MS were approximately 20% higher than those of (14)C-R-142086 as determined by AMS, there was excellent correlation (r=0.994) between both concentrations after intravenous dosing of (14)C-R-142086 (0.3 mg/kg). The oral bioavailability of R-142086 at 1 mg/kg obtained by simultaneous intravenous microdosing of (14)C-R-142086 was 16.1%, this being slightly higher than the value (12.5%) obtained by separate intravenous dosing of R-142086 (0.3 mg/kg). In conclusion, on utilizing simultaneous intravenous microdosing of (14)C-labeled drug in conjunction with AMS analysis, absolute bioavailability could be approximately measured in dogs, but without total accuracy. Bioavailability in humans may possibly be approximately measured at an earlier stage and at a lower cost. PMID:19430168

  14. Using GPS and Absolute Gravity Observations to Separate the Effects of Present-day and Pleistocene Ice-mass Changes in South East Greenland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Dam, T. M.; Francis, O.; Wahr, J. M.; Khan, S. A.; Bevis, M. G.; van den Broeke, M.

    2015-12-01

    Precise estimates of the present-day rates and accelerations of ice-mass loss from the polar ice-sheets are important for predicting potential changes in sea level. Current predictions of 21st century sea level change are limited by, among other things, their ability to precisely capture the effects of global warming on the Greenland ice sheet (GrIS). One method for constraining the mass loss on the GrIS is to make measurements of vertical crustal uplift rates from bedrock around the edge of the ice sheet. Using only GPS observations of crustal displacement, it is impossible to separate the uplift driven by present day mass changes from that due to ice mass changes in the past, e.g. the extensive retreat of the ice sheets since the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM) or even ice sheet changes during the Little Ice Age. By making measurements of both gravity and surface motion at a bedrock site, the viscoelastic effects could be removed from the observations and we would be able to constrain present day ice mass changes. In this presentation we discuss the results of an experiment to collect surface displacement and absolute gravity observations from southeast Greenland to separate the elastic and viscoelastic signals. We find that the glacial isostatic adjustment signal in this region is positive, contrary to the negative signal predicted by all existing viscosity and ice history models.

  15. Implicit Priors in Galaxy Cluster Mass and Scaling Relation Determinations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mantz, A.; Allen, S. W.

    2011-01-01

    Deriving the total masses of galaxy clusters from observations of the intracluster medium (ICM) generally requires some prior information, in addition to the assumptions of hydrostatic equilibrium and spherical symmetry. Often, this information takes the form of particular parametrized functions used to describe the cluster gas density and temperature profiles. In this paper, we investigate the implicit priors on hydrostatic masses that result from this fully parametric approach, and the implications of such priors for scaling relations formed from those masses. We show that the application of such fully parametric models of the ICM naturally imposes a prior on the slopes of the derived scaling relations, favoring the self-similar model, and argue that this prior may be influential in practice. In contrast, this bias does not exist for techniques which adopt an explicit prior on the form of the mass profile but describe the ICM non-parametrically. Constraints on the slope of the cluster mass-temperature relation in the literature show a separation based the approach employed, with the results from fully parametric ICM modeling clustering nearer the self-similar value. Given that a primary goal of scaling relation analyses is to test the self-similar model, the application of methods subject to strong, implicit priors should be avoided. Alternative methods and best practices are discussed.

  16. The need for an intermediate mass scale in GUTs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shafi, Q.

    1983-01-01

    The minimal SU(5) grand unified field theory (GUT) model fails to resolve the strong charge parity (CP) problem, suffers from the cosmological monopole problem, sheds no light on the nature of the 'dark' mass in the universe, and predicts an unacceptably low value for the baryon asymmetry. All these problems can be overcome in suitable grand unified axion models with an intermediate mass scale of about 10 to the 11th power to 10 to the 12th power GeV. An example based on the gauge group SO(10) is presented. Among other things, it predicts that the axions comprise the 'dark' mass in the universe, and that there exists a galactic monopole flux of 10 to the -8th power to 10 to the -7th power/sq cm/yr. Other topics that are briefly discussed include proton decay, family symmetry, neutrino masses and the gauge hierarchy problem.

  17. Absolute Summ

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Phillips, Alfred, Jr.

    Summ means the entirety of the multiverse. It seems clear, from the inflation theories of A. Guth and others, that the creation of many universes is plausible. We argue that Absolute cosmological ideas, not unlike those of I. Newton, may be consistent with dynamic multiverse creations. As suggested in W. Heisenberg's uncertainty principle, and with the Anthropic Principle defended by S. Hawking, et al., human consciousness, buttressed by findings of neuroscience, may have to be considered in our models. Predictability, as A. Einstein realized with Invariants and General Relativity, may be required for new ideas to be part of physics. We present here a two postulate model geared to an Absolute Summ. The seedbed of this work is part of Akhnaton's philosophy (see S. Freud, Moses and Monotheism). Most important, however, is that the structure of human consciousness, manifest in Kenya's Rift Valley 200,000 years ago as Homo sapiens, who were the culmination of the six million year co-creation process of Hominins and Nature in Africa, allows us to do the physics that we do. .

  18. Towards determination of absolute molar mass of cellulose polymer by size exclusion chromatography with mulitple angle laser light scattering detection.

    PubMed

    Pawcenis, Dominika; Thomas, Jacob L; Łojewski, Tomasz; Milczarek, Jakub M; Łojewska, Joanna

    2015-08-28

    The study focuses on determination of a set of crucial parameters for molar mass calculation of cellulose from the results of size exclusion chromatography coupled with multiple angle laser light scattering (MALLS) and differential refractive index (DRI) detectors. In the present work, cellulose has been derivatised to obtain cellulose tricarbanilate (CTC) soluble in tetrahydrofuran (THF). The parameters of Rayleigh scattering in the MALLS detector: refractive index increment (dn/dc) and second virial coefficient (A2) of CTC in THF were determined for laser wavelength 658nm. In order to avoid errors resulting from cellulose derivatisation by-products present in the CTC solution, the so called "on-line" method of measuring dn/dc and A2 was applied. Based on the A2 determination, its influence on cellulose molar mass calculations and cellulose molecular dimensions were critically assessed. The latter includes evaluation of artificially aged cellulose towards conceivable branching by conformation plot analysis.

  19. Towards determination of absolute molar mass of cellulose polymer by size exclusion chromatography with mulitple angle laser light scattering detection.

    PubMed

    Pawcenis, Dominika; Thomas, Jacob L; Łojewski, Tomasz; Milczarek, Jakub M; Łojewska, Joanna

    2015-08-28

    The study focuses on determination of a set of crucial parameters for molar mass calculation of cellulose from the results of size exclusion chromatography coupled with multiple angle laser light scattering (MALLS) and differential refractive index (DRI) detectors. In the present work, cellulose has been derivatised to obtain cellulose tricarbanilate (CTC) soluble in tetrahydrofuran (THF). The parameters of Rayleigh scattering in the MALLS detector: refractive index increment (dn/dc) and second virial coefficient (A2) of CTC in THF were determined for laser wavelength 658nm. In order to avoid errors resulting from cellulose derivatisation by-products present in the CTC solution, the so called "on-line" method of measuring dn/dc and A2 was applied. Based on the A2 determination, its influence on cellulose molar mass calculations and cellulose molecular dimensions were critically assessed. The latter includes evaluation of artificially aged cellulose towards conceivable branching by conformation plot analysis. PMID:26210115

  20. Geoelectrical Measurement of Multi-Scale Mass Transfer Parameters

    SciTech Connect

    Day-Lewis, Frederick; Singha, Kamini; Haggerty, Roy; Johnson, Tim; Binley, Andrew; Lane, John

    2014-01-16

    Mass transfer affects contaminant transport and is thought to control the efficiency of aquifer remediation at a number of sites within the Department of Energy (DOE) complex. An improved understanding of mass transfer is critical to meeting the enormous scientific and engineering challenges currently facing DOE. Informed design of site remedies and long-term stewardship of radionuclide-contaminated sites will require new cost-effective laboratory and field techniques to measure the parameters controlling mass transfer spatially and across a range of scales. In this project, we sought to capitalize on the geophysical signatures of mass transfer. Previous numerical modeling and pilot-scale field experiments suggested that mass transfer produces a geoelectrical signature—a hysteretic relation between sampled (mobile-domain) fluid conductivity and bulk (mobile + immobile) conductivity—over a range of scales relevant to aquifer remediation. In this work, we investigated the geoelectrical signature of mass transfer during tracer transport in a series of controlled experiments to determine the operation of controlling parameters, and also investigated the use of complex-resistivity (CR) as a means of quantifying mass transfer parameters in situ without tracer experiments. In an add-on component to our grant, we additionally considered nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) to help parse mobile from immobile porosities. Including the NMR component, our revised study objectives were to: 1. Develop and demonstrate geophysical approaches to measure mass-transfer parameters spatially and over a range of scales, including the combination of electrical resistivity monitoring, tracer tests, complex resistivity, nuclear magnetic resonance, and materials characterization; and 2. Provide mass-transfer estimates for improved understanding of contaminant fate and transport at DOE sites, such as uranium transport at the Hanford 300 Area. To achieve our objectives, we implemented a 3

  1. Accretion driven outflows across the black hole mass scale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    King, Ashley L.

    2016-04-01

    Pumping highly relativistic particles and radiation into their environment, accreting black holes co-evolve with their surroundings through their powerful outflows. These outflows are divided into highly collimated, relativistic jets and wide-angle winds, and are primarily associated with a particular accretion states. Understanding just how these outflows couple to the accretion flow will enable us to assess the amount of energy and feedback that is injected into the vicinity of a black hole. During this talk, I will discuss our studies of both stellar-mass and supermassive black hole outlfows, and how the similarities of these flows across the mass scale may point to common driving mechanisms.

  2. Measurement of the absolute branching fractions B→Dπ, D*π, D**π with a missing mass method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aubert, B.; Bona, M.; Boutigny, D.; Couderc, F.; Karyotakis, Y.; Lees, J. P.; Poireau, V.; Tisserand, V.; Zghiche, A.; Grauges, E.; Palano, A.; Chen, J. C.; Qi, N. D.; Rong, G.; Wang, P.; Zhu, Y. S.; Eigen, G.; Ofte, I.; Stugu, B.; Abrams, G. S.; Battaglia, M.; Brown, D. N.; Button-Shafer, J.; Cahn, R. N.; Charles, E.; Gill, M. S.; Groysman, Y.; Jacobsen, R. G.; Kadyk, J. A.; Kerth, L. T.; Kolomensky, Yu. G.; Kukartsev, G.; Lynch, G.; Mir, L. M.; Orimoto, T. J.; Pripstein, M.; Roe, N. A.; Ronan, M. T.; Wenzel, W. A.; Sanchez, P. Del Amo; Barrett, M.; Ford, K. E.; Harrison, T. J.; Hart, A. J.; Hawkes, C. M.; Watson, A. T.; Held, T.; Koch, H.; Lewandowski, B.; Pelizaeus, M.; Peters, K.; Schroeder, T.; Steinke, M.; Boyd, J. T.; Burke, J. P.; Cottingham, W. N.; Walker, D.; Asgeirsson, D. J.; Cuhadar-Donszelmann, T.; Fulsom, B. G.; Hearty, C.; Knecht, N. S.; Mattison, T. S.; McKenna, J. A.; Khan, A.; Kyberd, P.; Saleem, M.; Sherwood, D. J.; Teodorescu, L.; Blinov, V. E.; Bukin, A. D.; Druzhinin, V. P.; Golubev, V. B.; Onuchin, A. P.; Serednyakov, S. I.; Skovpen, Yu. I.; Solodov, E. P.; Todyshev, K. Yu; Bondioli, M.; Bruinsma, M.; Chao, M.; Curry, S.; Eschrich, I.; Kirkby, D.; Lankford, A. J.; Lund, P.; Mandelkern, M.; Mommsen, R. K.; Roethel, W.; Stoker, D. P.; Abachi, S.; Buchanan, C.; Foulkes, S. D.; Gary, J. W.; Long, O.; Shen, B. C.; Wang, K.; Zhang, L.; Hadavand, H. K.; Hill, E. J.; Paar, H. P.; Rahatlou, S.; Sharma, V.; Berryhill, J. W.; Campagnari, C.; Cunha, A.; Dahmes, B.; Hong, T. M.; Kovalskyi, D.; Richman, J. D.; Beck, T. W.; Eisner, A. M.; Flacco, C. J.; Heusch, C. A.; Kroseberg, J.; Lockman, W. S.; Nesom, G.; Schalk, T.; Schumm, B. A.; Seiden, A.; Spradlin, P.; Williams, D. C.; Wilson, M. G.; Albert, J.; Chen, E.; Dvoretskii, A.; Fang, F.; Hitlin, D. G.; Narsky, I.; Piatenko, T.; Porter, F. C.; Ryd, A.; Mancinelli, G.; Meadows, B. T.; Mishra, K.; Sokoloff, M. D.; Blanc, F.; Bloom, P. C.; Chen, S.; Ford, W. T.; Hirschauer, J. F.; Kreisel, A.; Nagel, M.; Nauenberg, U.; Olivas, A.; Ruddick, W. O.; Smith, J. G.; Ulmer, K. A.; Wagner, S. R.; Zhang, J.; Chen, A.; Eckhart, E. A.; Soffer, A.; Toki, W. H.; Wilson, R. J.; Winklmeier, F.; Zeng, Q.; Altenburg, D. D.; Feltresi, E.; Hauke, A.; Jasper, H.; Merkel, J.; Petzold, A.; Spaan, B.; Brandt, T.; Klose, V.; Lacker, H. M.; Mader, W. F.; Nogowski, R.; Schubert, J.; Schubert, K. R.; Schwierz, R.; Sundermann, J. E.; Volk, A.; Bernard, D.; Bonneaud, G. R.; Latour, E.; Thiebaux, Ch.; Verderi, M.; Clark, P. J.; Gradl, W.; Muheim, F.; Playfer, S.; Robertson, A. I.; Xie, Y.; Andreotti, M.; Bettoni, D.; Bozzi, C.; Calabrese, R.; Cibinetto, G.; Luppi, E.; Negrini, M.; Petrella, A.; Piemontese, L.; Prencipe, E.; Anulli, F.; Baldini-Ferroli, R.; Calcaterra, A.; de Sangro, R.; Finocchiaro, G.; Pacetti, S.; Patteri, P.; Peruzzi, I. M.; Piccolo, M.; Rama, M.; Zallo, A.; Buzzo, A.; Contri, R.; Vetere, M. Lo; Macri, M. M.; Monge, M. R.; Passaggio, S.; Patrignani, C.; Robutti, E.; Santroni, A.; Tosi, S.; Brandenburg, G.; Chaisanguanthum, K. S.; Morii, M.; Wu, J.; Dubitzky, R. S.; Marks, J.; Schenk, S.; Uwer, U.; Bard, D. J.; Bhimji, W.; Bowerman, D. A.; Dauncey, P. D.; Egede, U.; Flack, R. L.; Nash, J. A.; Nikolich, M. B.; Vazquez, W. Panduro; Behera, P. K.; Chai, X.; Charles, M. J.; Mallik, U.; Meyer, N. T.; Ziegler, V.; Cochran, J.; Crawley, H. B.; Dong, L.; Eyges, V.; Meyer, W. T.; Prell, S.; Rosenberg, E. I.; Rubin, A. E.; Gritsan, A. V.; Denig, A. G.; Fritsch, M.; Schott, G.; Arnaud, N.; Davier, M.; Grosdidier, G.; Höcker, A.; Diberder, F. Le; Lepeltier, V.; Lutz, A. M.; Oyanguren, A.; Pruvot, S.; Rodier, S.; Roudeau, P.; Schune, M. H.; Stocchi, A.; Wang, W. F.; Wormser, G.; Cheng, C. H.; Lange, D. J.; Wright, D. M.; Chavez, C. A.; Forster, I. J.; Fry, J. R.; Gabathuler, E.; Gamet, R.; George, K. A.; Hutchcroft, D. E.; Payne, D. J.; Schofield, K. C.; Touramanis, C.; Bevan, A. J.; Lodovico, F. Di; Menges, W.; Sacco, R.; Cowan, G.; Flaecher, H. U.; Hopkins, D. A.; Jackson, P. S.; McMahon, T. R.; Ricciardi, S.; Salvatore, F.; Wren, A. C.; Brown, D. N.; Davis, C. L.; Allison, J.; Barlow, N. R.; Barlow, R. J.; Chia, Y. M.; Edgar, C. L.; Lafferty, G. D.; Naisbit, M. T.; Williams, J. C.; Yi, J. I.; Chen, C.; Hulsbergen, W. D.; Jawahery, A.; Lae, C. K.; Roberts, D. A.; Simi, G.; Blaylock, G.; Dallapiccola, C.; Hertzbach, S. S.; Li, X.; Moore, T. B.; Saremi, S.; Staengle, H.; Cowan, R.; Sciolla, G.; Sekula, S. J.; Spitznagel, M.; Taylor, F.; Yamamoto, R. K.; Kim, H.; McLachlin, S. E.; Patel, P. M.; Robertson, S. H.; Lazzaro, A.; Lombardo, V.; Palombo, F.; Bauer, J. M.; Cremaldi, L.; Eschenburg, V.; Godang, R.; Kroeger, R.; Sanders, D. A.; Summers, D. J.; Zhao, H. W.; Brunet, S.; Côté, D.; Simard, M.; Taras, P.; Viaud, F. B.; Nicholson, H.; Cavallo, N.; Nardo, G. De; Fabozzi, F.; Gatto, C.; Lista, L.; Monorchio, D.; Paolucci, P.; Piccolo, D.; Sciacca, C.; Baak, M. A.; Raven, G.; Snoek, H. L.; Jessop, C. P.; Losecco, J. M.; Allmendinger, T.; Benelli, G.; Corwin, L. A.; Gan, K. K.; Honscheid, K.; Hufnagel, D.; Jackson, P. D.; Kagan, H.; Kass, R.; Rahimi, A. M.; Regensburger, J. J.; Ter-Antonyan, R.; Wong, Q. K.; Blount, N. L.; Brau, J.; Frey, R.; Igonkina, O.; Kolb, J. A.; Lu, M.; Rahmat, R.; Sinev, N. B.; Strom, D.; Strube, J.; Torrence, E.; Gaz, A.; Margoni, M.; Morandin, M.; Pompili, A.; Posocco, M.; Rotondo, M.; Simonetto, F.; Stroili, R.; Voci, C.; Benayoun, M.; Briand, H.; Chauveau, J.; David, P.; Buono, L. Del; de La Vaissière, Ch.; Hamon, O.; Hartfiel, B. L.; Leruste, Ph.; Malclès, J.; Ocariz, J.; Roos, L.; Therin, G.; Gladney, L.; Biasini, M.; Covarelli, R.; Angelini, C.; Batignani, G.; Bettarini, S.; Bucci, F.; Calderini, G.; Carpinelli, M.; Cenci, R.; Forti, F.; Giorgi, M. A.; Lusiani, A.; Marchiori, G.; Mazur, M. A.; Morganti, M.; Neri, N.; Paoloni, E.; Rizzo, G.; Walsh, J. J.; Haire, M.; Judd, D.; Wagoner, D. E.; Biesiada, J.; Danielson, N.; Elmer, P.; Lau, Y. P.; Lu, C.; Olsen, J.; Smith, A. J. S.; Telnov, A. V.; Bellini, F.; Cavoto, G.; D'Orazio, A.; Del Re, D.; Marco, E. Di; Faccini, R.; Ferrarotto, F.; Ferroni, F.; Gaspero, M.; Gioi, L. Li; Mazzoni, M. A.; Morganti, S.; Piredda, G.; Polci, F.; Tehrani, F. Safai; Voena, C.; Ebert, M.; Schröder, H.; Waldi, R.; Adye, T.; Groot, N. De; Franek, B.; Olaiya, E. O.; Wilson, F. F.; Aleksan, R.; Emery, S.; Gaidot, A.; Ganzhur, S. F.; de Monchenault, G. Hamel; Kozanecki, W.; Legendre, M.; Vasseur, G.; Yèche, Ch.; Zito, M.; Chen, X. R.; Liu, H.; Park, W.; Purohit, M. V.; Wilson, J. R.; Allen, M. T.; Aston, D.; Bartoldus, R.; Bechtle, P.; Berger, N.; Claus, R.; Coleman, J. P.; Convery, M. R.; Cristinziani, M.; Dingfelder, J. C.; Dorfan, J.; Dubois-Felsmann, G. P.; Dujmic, D.; Dunwoodie, W.; Field, R. C.; Glanzman, T.; Gowdy, S. J.; Graham, M. T.; Grenier, P.; Halyo, V.; Hast, C.; Hryn'Ova, T.; Innes, W. R.; Kelsey, M. H.; Kim, P.; Leith, D. W. G. S.; Li, S.; Luitz, S.; Luth, V.; Lynch, H. L.; Macfarlane, D. B.; Marsiske, H.; Messner, R.; Muller, D. R.; O'Grady, C. P.; Ozcan, V. E.; Perazzo, A.; Perl, M.; Pulliam, T.; Ratcliff, B. N.; Roodman, A.; Salnikov, A. A.; Schindler, R. H.; Schwiening, J.; Snyder, A.; Stelzer, J.; Su, D.; Sullivan, M. K.; Suzuki, K.; Swain, S. K.; Thompson, J. M.; Va'Vra, J.; van Bakel, N.; Weaver, M.; Weinstein, A. J. R.; Wisniewski, W. J.; Wittgen, M.; Wright, D. H.; Yarritu, A. K.; Yi, K.; Young, C. C.; Burchat, P. R.; Edwards, A. J.; Majewski, S. A.; Petersen, B. A.; Roat, C.; Wilden, L.; Ahmed, S.; Alam, M. S.; Bula, R.; Ernst, J. A.; Jain, V.; Pan, B.; Saeed, M. A.; Wappler, F. R.; Zain, S. B.; Bugg, W.; Krishnamurthy, M.; Spanier, S. M.; Eckmann, R.; Ritchie, J. L.; Satpathy, A.; Schilling, C. J.; Schwitters, R. F.; Izen, J. M.; Lou, X. C.; Ye, S.; Bianchi, F.; Gallo, F.; Gamba, D.; Bomben, M.; Bosisio, L.; Cartaro, C.; Cossutti, F.; Ricca, G. Della; Dittongo, S.; Lanceri, L.; Vitale, L.; Azzolini, V.; Lopez-March, N.; Martinez-Vidal, F.; Banerjee, Sw.; Bhuyan, B.; Brown, C. M.; Fortin, D.; Hamano, K.; Kowalewski, R.; Nugent, I. M.; Roney, J. M.; Sobie, R. J.; Back, J. J.; Harrison, P. F.; Latham, T. E.; Mohanty, G. B.; Pappagallo, M.; Band, H. R.; Chen, X.; Cheng, B.; Dasu, S.; Datta, M.; Flood, K. T.; Hollar, J. J.; Kutter, P. E.; Mellado, B.; Mihalyi, A.; Pan, Y.; Pierini, M.; Prepost, R.; Wu, S. L.; Yu, Z.; Neal, H.

    2006-12-01

    We present branching fraction measurements of charged and neutral B decays to Dπ-, D*π-, and “D**”π- with a missing mass method, based on a sample of 231×106 Υ(4S)→BB¯ pairs collected by the BABAR detector at the PEP-II e+e- collider. One of the B mesons is fully reconstructed and the other one decays to a reconstructed charged π and a companion charmed meson identified by its recoil mass, inferred by kinematics. Here “D**” refers to the sum of all the nonstrange charm meson states with masses in the range 2.2 2.8GeV/c2. We measure the branching fractions: B(B-→D0π-)=(4.49±0.21±0.23)×10-3, B(B-→D*0π-)=(5.13±0.22±0.28)×10-3, B(B-→“D**0”π-)=(5.50±0.52±1.04)×10-3, B(B¯0→D+π-)=(3.03±0.23±0.23)×10-3, B(B¯0→D*+π-)=(2.99±0.23±0.24)×10-3, B(B¯0→“D**+”π-)=(2.34±0.65±0.88)×10-3, and their ratios.

  3. MODELING MULTI-WAVELENGTH STELLAR ASTROMETRY. III. DETERMINATION OF THE ABSOLUTE MASSES OF EXOPLANETS AND THEIR HOST STARS

    SciTech Connect

    Coughlin, J. L.; Lopez-Morales, Mercedes

    2012-05-10

    Astrometric measurements of stellar systems are becoming significantly more precise and common, with many ground- and space-based instruments and missions approaching 1 {mu}as precision. We examine the multi-wavelength astrometric orbits of exoplanetary systems via both analytical formulae and numerical modeling. Exoplanets have a combination of reflected and thermally emitted light that causes the photocenter of the system to shift increasingly farther away from the host star with increasing wavelength. We find that, if observed at long enough wavelengths, the planet can dominate the astrometric motion of the system, and thus it is possible to directly measure the orbits of both the planet and star, and thus directly determine the physical masses of the star and planet, using multi-wavelength astrometry. In general, this technique works best for, though is certainly not limited to, systems that have large, high-mass stars and large, low-mass planets, which is a unique parameter space not covered by other exoplanet characterization techniques. Exoplanets that happen to transit their host star present unique cases where the physical radii of the planet and star can be directly determined via astrometry alone. Planetary albedos and day-night contrast ratios may also be probed via this technique due to the unique signature they impart on the observed astrometric orbits. We develop a tool to examine the prospects for near-term detection of this effect, and give examples of some exoplanets that appear to be good targets for detection in the K to N infrared observing bands, if the required precision can be achieved.

  4. Spiral Galaxy Mass Models and the Distance Scale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Palunas, P.; Williams, T. B.

    1993-12-01

    We present mass models for a sample of Freeman Type I spiral galaxies taken from the southern sky Fabry-Perot Tully-Fisher survey(Schommer \\etal 1993, Bothun \\etal 1992). We fit two component, bulge and disk, photometric models directly to I- and R-band images. The bulge model is a series expansion of Gaussians (a Gabor expansion): each Gaussian in the series has a common center, ellipticity and position angle. The position angle is fixed to be the same as that of the disk. We have found that a deVaucouleurs law does not give a good fit to the bulges of many disk galaxies. The disk model is an exponential with the same center as the bulge. Small-scale radial structure is included in the disk mass model by azimuthally averaging the residuals of the analytic fit in annuli with the same ellipticity and position angle of the disk. Fitting to the full 2-d images helps constrain the disk-bulge deconvolution by using the information in the different ellipticities well as the different radial profiles of the disk and bulge. The photometric model is fitted to the rotation curve assuming a maximum disk and constant mass-to-light ratios for disk and bulge components. The small scale structure in the photometric models is found to reproduce the structure in the rotation curve in many galaxies. We find approximately 15 percent rms scatter in the I-band mass-to-light ratios, as well as correlations to the detailed properties of the kinematics indicating that mass-to-light ratios may be useful in reducing the scatter in the Tully-Fisher relation. Bothun, G.D., Schommer, R.A., Williams, T.B., Mould J.R., Huchra, J.P. 1992, Ap.J., 388, 253. Schommer, R.A., Bothun, G.D., Williams, T.B., Mould J.R. 1993, A.J., 105, 97.

  5. Pyridoxamine-5-phosphate enzyme-linked immune mass spectrometric assay substrate for linear absolute quantification of alkaline phosphatase to the yoctomole range applied to prostate specific antigen.

    PubMed

    Florentinus-Mefailoski, Angelique; Marshall, John G

    2014-11-01

    There is a need to measure proteins that are present in concentrations below the detection limits of existing colorimetric approaches with enzyme-linked immunoabsorbent assays (ELISA). The powerful enzyme alkaline phosphatase conjugated to the highly specific bacterial protein streptavidin binds to biotinylated macromolecules like proteins, antibodies, or other ligands and receptors with a high affinity. The binding of the biotinylated detection antibody, with resulting amplification of the signal by the catalytic production of reporter molecules, is key to the sensitivity of ELISA. The specificity and amplification of the signal by the enzyme alkaline phosphatase in ELISA together with the sensitivity of liquid chromatography electrospray ionization and mass spectrometry (LC-ESI-MS) to detect femtomole to picomole amounts of reporter molecules results in an ultrasensitive enzyme-linked immune mass spectrometric assay (ELIMSA). The novel ELIMSA substrate pyridoxamine-5-phosphate (PA5P) is cleaved by the enzyme alkaline phosphatase to yield the basic and hydrophilic product pyridoxamine (PA) that elutes rapidly with symmetrical peaks and a flat baseline. Pyridoxamine (PA) and (13)C PA were both observed to show a linear relationship between log ion intensity and quantity from picomole to femtomole amounts by liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization and mass spectrometry. Four independent methods, (i) internal (13)C isotope PA dilution curves, (ii) internal (13)C isotope one-point calibration, (iii) external PA standard curve, and (iv) external (13)C PA standard curve, all agreed within 1 digit in the same order of magnitude on the linear quantification of PA. Hence, a mass spectrometer can be used to robustly detect 526 ymol of the alkaline phosphatase streptavidin probe and accurately quantify zeptomole amounts of PSA against log linear absolute standard by micro electrospray on a simple ion trap.

  6. Two-probe optical encoder for absolute positioning of precision stages by using an improved scale grating.

    PubMed

    Li, Xinghui; Wang, Huanhuan; Ni, Kai; Zhou, Qian; Mao, Xinyu; Zeng, Lijiang; Wang, Xiaohao; Xiao, Xiang

    2016-09-19

    In this paper, a novel optical encoder enabling the simultaneous measurement of displacement and the position of precision stages is presented. The encoder is composed of an improved single-track scale grating and a compact two-probe reading head. In the scale grating, multiple reference codes are physically superimposed onto the incremental grooves, in contrast to conventional designs, where an additional track is necessary. The distribution of the reference codes follows a specific mathematical algorithm. For the reading head, a two-probe structure is designed to identify the discrete reference codes by means of the superimposition of the codes with a stationary mask and to read the continuous incremental grooves by means of a grating interferometry, respectively. A prototype encoder was designed, constructed and evaluated, and experimental results show that the distance code precision achieved is 0.5 μm, while the linearity error of the linear displacement measurement is less than 0.06%. PMID:27661879

  7. Scaling heat and mass flow through porous media during pyrolysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maes, Julien; Muggeridge, Ann H.; Jackson, Matthew D.; Quintard, Michel; Lapene, Alexandre

    2015-03-01

    The modelling of heat and mass flow through porous media in the presence of pyrolysis is complex because various physical and chemical phenomena need to be represented. In addition to the transport of heat by conduction and convection, and the change of properties with varying pressure and temperature, these processes involve transport of mass by convection, evaporation, condensation and pyrolysis chemical reactions. Examples of such processes include pyrolysis of wood, thermal decomposition of polymer composite and in situ upgrading of heavy oil and oil shale. The behaviours of these systems are difficult to predict as relatively small changes in the material composition can significantly change the thermophysical properties. Scaling reduces the number of parameters in the problem statement and quantifies the relative importance of the various dimensional parameters such as permeability, thermal conduction and reaction constants. This paper uses inspectional analysis to determine the minimum number of dimensionless scaling groups that describe the decomposition of a solid porous material into a gas in one dimension. Experimental design is then used to rank these scaling groups in terms of their importance in describing the outcome of two example processes: the thermal decomposition of heat shields formed from polymer composites and the in situ upgrading of heavy oils and oil shales. A sensitivity analysis is used to divide these groups into three sets (primary, secondary and insignificant), thus identifying the combinations of solid and fluid properties that have the most impact on the performance of the different processes.

  8. Large scale electromechanical transistor with application in mass sensing

    SciTech Connect

    Jin, Leisheng; Li, Lijie

    2014-12-07

    Nanomechanical transistor (NMT) has evolved from the single electron transistor, a device that operates by shuttling electrons with a self-excited central conductor. The unfavoured aspects of the NMT are the complexity of the fabrication process and its signal processing unit, which could potentially be overcome by designing much larger devices. This paper reports a new design of large scale electromechanical transistor (LSEMT), still taking advantage of the principle of shuttling electrons. However, because of the large size, nonlinear electrostatic forces induced by the transistor itself are not sufficient to drive the mechanical member into vibration—an external force has to be used. In this paper, a LSEMT device is modelled, and its new application in mass sensing is postulated using two coupled mechanical cantilevers, with one of them being embedded in the transistor. The sensor is capable of detecting added mass using the eigenstate shifts method by reading the change of electrical current from the transistor, which has much higher sensitivity than conventional eigenfrequency shift approach used in classical cantilever based mass sensors. Numerical simulations are conducted to investigate the performance of the mass sensor.

  9. Scoring Large Scale Affinity Purification Mass Spectrometry Datasets with MIST

    PubMed Central

    Verschueren, Erik; Von Dollen, John; Cimermancic, Peter; Gulbahce, Natali; Sali, Andrej; Krogan, Nevan

    2015-01-01

    High-throughput Affinity Purification Mass Spectrometry (AP-MS) experiments can identify a large number of protein interactions but only a fraction of these interactions are biologically relevant. Here, we describe a comprehensive computational strategy to process raw AP-MS data, perform quality controls and prioritize biologically relevant bait-prey pairs in a set of replicated AP-MS experiments with Mass spectrometry interaction STatistics (MiST). The MiST score is a linear combination of prey quantity (abundance), abundance invariability across repeated experiments (reproducibility), and prey uniqueness relative to other baits (specificity); We describe how to run the full MiST analysis pipeline in an R environment and discuss a number of configurable options that allow the lay user to convert any large-scale AP-MS data into an interpretable, biologically relevant protein-protein interaction network. PMID:25754993

  10. Elasticity of MgO to 11 GPa with an independent absolute pressure scale: Implications for pressure calibration

    SciTech Connect

    Li, B.; Woody, K; Kung, J

    2006-01-01

    P and S wave velocities and unit cell parameters (density) of MgO are measured simultaneously up to 11 GPa using combined ultrasonic interferometry and in situ X-ray diffraction techniques. The elastic bulk and shear moduli as well as their pressure derivatives are obtained by fitting the measured velocity and density data to the third-order finite strain equations, yielding K0S = 163.5(11) GPa, K'0S = 4.20(10), G0 = 129.8(6) GPa, and G'0 = 2.42(6), independent of pressure. These properties are subsequently used in a Birch-Murnaghan equation of state to determine the sample pressures at the observed strains. Comparison of the 300K isothermal compression of MgO indicates that current pressure scales from recent studies are in better than 1.5% agreement. We find that pressures derived from secondary pressure standards (NaCl, ruby fluorescence) at 300K are lower than those from current MgO scales by 5-8% ({approx}6% on average) in the entire pressure range of the current experiment. If this is taken into account, discrepancy in previous static compression studies on MgO at 300K can be reconciled, and a better agreement with the present study can be achieved.

  11. On Two-Scale Modelling of Heat and Mass Transfer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vala, J.; Št'astník, S.

    2008-09-01

    Modelling of macroscopic behaviour of materials, consisting of several layers or components, whose microscopic (at least stochastic) analysis is available, as well as (more general) simulation of non-local phenomena, complicated coupled processes, etc., requires both deeper understanding of physical principles and development of mathematical theories and software algorithms. Starting from the (relatively simple) example of phase transformation in substitutional alloys, this paper sketches the general formulation of a nonlinear system of partial differential equations of evolution for the heat and mass transfer (useful in mechanical and civil engineering, etc.), corresponding to conservation principles of thermodynamics, both at the micro- and at the macroscopic level, and suggests an algorithm for scale-bridging, based on the robust finite element techniques. Some existence and convergence questions, namely those based on the construction of sequences of Rothe and on the mathematical theory of two-scale convergence, are discussed together with references to useful generalizations, required by new technologies.

  12. Absolute fragmentation cross sections in atom-molecule collisions: Scaling laws for non-statistical fragmentation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon molecules

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, T.; Gatchell, M.; Stockett, M. H.; Alexander, J. D.; Schmidt, H. T.; Cederquist, H.; Zettergren, H.; Zhang, Y.; Rousseau, P.; Maclot, S.; Delaunay, R.; Adoui, L.; Domaracka, A.; Huber, B. A.

    2014-06-14

    We present scaling laws for absolute cross sections for non-statistical fragmentation in collisions between Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAH/PAH{sup +}) and hydrogen or helium atoms with kinetic energies ranging from 50 eV to 10 keV. Further, we calculate the total fragmentation cross sections (including statistical fragmentation) for 110 eV PAH/PAH{sup +} + He collisions, and show that they compare well with experimental results. We demonstrate that non-statistical fragmentation becomes dominant for large PAHs and that it yields highly reactive fragments forming strong covalent bonds with atoms (H and N) and molecules (C{sub 6}H{sub 5}). Thus nonstatistical fragmentation may be an effective initial step in the formation of, e.g., Polycyclic Aromatic Nitrogen Heterocycles (PANHs). This relates to recent discussions on the evolution of PAHNs in space and the reactivities of defect graphene structures.

  13. Scaling of human body mass with height: the body mass index revisited.

    PubMed

    MacKay, N J

    2010-03-01

    We adapt a biomechanical argument of Rashevsky, which places limits on the stress experienced by a torso supported by the legs, to deduce that body mass m of growing children should scale as the p th power of height h with 7/3 < p < 8/3. Further arguments based on stability and heat loss suggest that p should be close to 8/3. The arguments are extended to suggest that waist circumference w should scale as hq with q near the lower end of 2/3 < or = q < or = 1. Data from Hong Kong and British children are consistent with these hypotheses.

  14. Towards absolute quantification of therapeutic monoclonal antibody in serum by LC-MS/MS using isotope-labeled antibody standard and protein cleavage isotope dilution mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Heudi, Olivier; Barteau, Samuel; Zimmer, Dieter; Schmidt, Joerg; Bill, Kurt; Lehmann, Natalie; Bauer, Christian; Kretz, Olivier

    2008-06-01

    Although LC-MS methods are increasingly used for the absolute quantification of proteins, the lack of appropriate internal standard (IS) hinders the development of rapid and standardized analytical methods for both in vitro and in vivo studies. Here, we have developed a novel method for the absolute quantification of a therapeutic protein, which is monoclonal antibody (mAb). The method combines liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) and protein cleavage isotope dilution mass spectrometry with the isotope-labeled mAb as IS. The latter was identical to the analyzed mAb with the exception that each threonine contains four (13)C atoms and one (15)N atom. Serum samples were spiked with IS prior to the overnight trypsin digestion and subsequent sample cleanup. Sample extracts were analyzed on a C18 ACE column (150 mm x 4.6 mm) using an LC gradient time of 11 min. Endogenous mAb concentrations were determined by calculating the peak height ratio of its signature peptide to the corresponding isotope-labeled peptide. The linear dynamic range was established between 5.00 and 1000 microg/mL mAb with accuracy and precision within +/-15% at all concentrations and below +/-20% at the LLOQ (lower limit of quantification). The overall method recovery in terms of mAb was 14%. The losses due to sample preparation (digestion and purification) were 72% from which about 32% was due to the first step of the method, the sample digestion. This huge loss during sample preparation strongly emphasizes the necessity to employ an IS right from the beginning. Our method was successfully applied to the mAb quantification in marmoset serum study samples, and the precision obtained on duplicate samples was, in most cases, below 20%. The comparison with enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) showed higher exposure in terms of AUC and Cmax with the LC-MS/MS method. Possible reasons for this discrepancy are discussed in this study. The results of this study indicate that our LC

  15. Simultaneous absolute quantification of 11 cytochrome P450 isoforms in human liver microsomes by liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry with in silico target peptide selection.

    PubMed

    Kawakami, Hirotaka; Ohtsuki, Sumio; Kamiie, Junichi; Suzuki, Takashi; Abe, Takaaki; Terasaki, Tetsuya

    2011-01-01

    Cytochrome P450 (CYP) proteins are involved in the biological oxidation and reduction of xenobiotics, affecting the pharmacological efficiency of drugs. This study aimed to establish a method to simultaneously quantify 11 CYP isoforms by multiplexed-multiple reaction monitoring analysis with liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry and in silico peptide selection to clarify CYP isoform expression profiles in human liver tissue. CYP1A2, 2A6, and 2D6 target peptides were identified by shot-gun proteomic analysis, and those of other isoforms were selected by in silico peptide selection criteria. The established quantification method detected target peptides at 10  fmol, and the dynamic range of calibration curves was at least 500-fold. The quantification value of CYP1A2 in Supersomes was not significantly different between the established method and quantitative immunoblot analysis. The absolute protein expression levels of 11 CYP isoforms were determined from one pooled and 10 individual human liver microsomes. In the individual microsomes, CYP2C9 showed the highest protein expression level, and CYP1A2, 2A6, 2C19, and 3A4 protein expression exhibited more than a 20-fold difference among individuals. This highly sensitive and selective quantification method is a useful tool for the analysis of highly homologous CYP isoforms and the contribution made by each CYP isoform to drug metabolism. PMID:20564338

  16. Cluster-continuum quasichemical theory calculation of the lithium ion solvation in water, acetonitrile and dimethyl sulfoxide: an absolute single-ion solvation free energy scale.

    PubMed

    Carvalho, Nathalia F; Pliego, Josefredo R

    2015-10-28

    Absolute single-ion solvation free energy is a very useful property for understanding solution phase chemistry. The real solvation free energy of an ion depends on its interaction with the solvent molecules and on the net potential inside the solute cavity. The tetraphenyl arsonium-tetraphenyl borate (TATB) assumption as well as the cluster-continuum quasichemical theory (CC-QCT) approach for Li(+) solvation allows access to a solvation scale excluding the net potential. We have determined this free energy scale investigating the solvation of the lithium ion in water (H2O), acetonitrile (CH3CN) and dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) solvents via the CC-QCT approach. Our calculations at the MP2 and MP4 levels with basis sets up to the QZVPP+diff quality, and including solvation of the clusters and solvent molecules by the dielectric continuum SMD method, predict the solvation free energy of Li(+) as -116.1, -120.6 and -123.6 kcal mol(-1) in H2O, CH3CN and DMSO solvents, respectively (1 mol L(-1) standard state). These values are compatible with the solvation free energy of the proton of -253.4, -253.2 and -261.1 kcal mol(-1) in H2O, CH3CN and DMSO solvents, respectively. Deviations from the experimental TATB scale are only 1.3 kcal mol(-1) in H2O and 1.8 kcal mol(-1) in DMSO solvents. However, in the case of CH3CN, the deviation reaches a value of 9.2 kcal mol(-1). The present study suggests that the experimental TATB scale is inconsistent for CH3CN. A total of 125 values of the solvation free energy of ions in these three solvents were obtained. These new data should be useful for the development of theoretical solvation models.

  17. Membranes for nanometer-scale mass fast transport

    DOEpatents

    Bakajin, Olgica; Holt, Jason; Noy, Aleksandr; Park, Hyung Gyu

    2011-10-18

    Nanoporous membranes comprising single walled, double walled, and multiwalled carbon nanotubes embedded in a matrix material were fabricated for fluid mechanics and mass transfer studies on the nanometer scale and commercial applications. Average pore size can be 2 nm to 20 nm, or seven nm or less, or two nanometers or less. The membrane can be free of large voids spanning the membrane such that transport of material such as gas or liquid occurs exclusively through the tubes. Fast fluid, vapor, and liquid transport are observed. Versatile micromachining methods can be used for membrane fabrication. A single chip can comprise multiple membranes. These membranes are a robust platform for the study of confined molecular transport, with applications in liquid and gas separations and chemical sensing including desalination, dialysis, and fabric formation.

  18. The Many Scales of Seismogenic Mass Wasting at Stratovolcanoes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allstadt, K.

    2015-12-01

    Stratovolcanoes consist of some of the most unstable terrain in the world, and mass wasting processes are a major contributor to volcanic hazards. These hazards persist even during periods of volcanic quiescence and, unlike volcanic activity, events often occur without warning. Mass movements range in scale from small daily rock and icefall events to extremely rare sector collapses. Many events generate observable seismic waves that are frequently picked up by seismic networks at volcanoes. Seismic waves from surface events are different than those from earthquakes and are not nearly as well-characterized or understood. Traditional seismologic methods (e.g., location, magnitude) can rarely be applied, and therefore surface events are not often included in earthquake catalogs. For this reason, many investigations of seismogenic surface processes are limited to case studies of individual events and/or single event types. In order to improve our understanding of typical characteristics of different types of events, we have compiled a catalog of over 30 significant historical events (1997-present), mainly from North American stratovolcanoes, that were well-recorded seismically and also have complementary data. Event types range widely from outburst floods and debris flows/lahars to rock avalanches, rock falls, and dome collapses. We summarize the general seismic characteristics of each event type (e.g., frequency content, attenuation, duration, scaling relations, waveform patterns) and discuss the possibilities and limitations of how seismic recordings of surface events can be used to better understand the surface dynamics of volcanoes. Finally, we discuss what might be needed to institute surface event monitoring and/or early warning systems.

  19. Large-scale mass distribution in the Illustris simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haider, M.; Steinhauser, D.; Vogelsberger, M.; Genel, S.; Springel, V.; Torrey, P.; Hernquist, L.

    2016-04-01

    Observations at low redshifts thus far fail to account for all of the baryons expected in the Universe according to cosmological constraints. A large fraction of the baryons presumably resides in a thin and warm-hot medium between the galaxies, where they are difficult to observe due to their low densities and high temperatures. Cosmological simulations of structure formation can be used to verify this picture and provide quantitative predictions for the distribution of mass in different large-scale structure components. Here we study the distribution of baryons and dark matter at different epochs using data from the Illustris simulation. We identify regions of different dark matter density with the primary constituents of large-scale structure, allowing us to measure mass and volume of haloes, filaments and voids. At redshift zero, we find that 49 per cent of the dark matter and 23 per cent of the baryons are within haloes more massive than the resolution limit of 2 × 108 M⊙. The filaments of the cosmic web host a further 45 per cent of the dark matter and 46 per cent of the baryons. The remaining 31 per cent of the baryons reside in voids. The majority of these baryons have been transported there through active galactic nuclei feedback. We note that the feedback model of Illustris is too strong for heavy haloes, therefore it is likely that we are overestimating this amount. Categorizing the baryons according to their density and temperature, we find that 17.8 per cent of them are in a condensed state, 21.6 per cent are present as cold, diffuse gas, and 53.9 per cent are found in the state of a warm-hot intergalactic medium.

  20. Direct geoelectrical evidence of mass transfer at the laboratory scale

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Swanson, Ryan D.; Singha, Kamini; Day-Lewis, Frederick D.; Binley, Andrew; Keating, Kristina; Haggerty, Roy

    2012-01-01

    Previous field-scale experimental data and numerical modeling suggest that the dual-domain mass transfer (DDMT) of electrolytic tracers has an observable geoelectrical signature. Here we present controlled laboratory experiments confirming the electrical signature of DDMT and demonstrate the use of time-lapse electrical measurements in conjunction with concentration measurements to estimate the parameters controlling DDMT, i.e., the mobile and immobile porosity and rate at which solute exchanges between mobile and immobile domains. We conducted column tracer tests on unconsolidated quartz sand and a material with a high secondary porosity: the zeolite clinoptilolite. During NaCl tracer tests we collected nearly colocated bulk direct-current electrical conductivity (σb) and fluid conductivity (σf) measurements. Our results for the zeolite show (1) extensive tailing and (2) a hysteretic relation between σf and σb, thus providing evidence of mass transfer not observed within the quartz sand. To identify best-fit parameters and evaluate parameter sensitivity, we performed over 2700 simulations of σf, varying the immobile and mobile domain and mass transfer rate. We emphasized the fit to late-time tailing by minimizing the Box-Cox power transformed root-mean square error between the observed and simulated σf. Low-field proton nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) measurements provide an independent quantification of the volumes of the mobile and immobile domains. The best-fit parameters based on σf match the NMR measurements of the immobile and mobile domain porosities and provide the first direct electrical evidence for DDMT. Our results underscore the potential of using electrical measurements for DDMT parameter inference.

  1. THE (BLACK HOLE)-BULGE MASS SCALING RELATION AT LOW MASSES

    SciTech Connect

    Graham, Alister W.; Scott, Nicholas

    2015-01-01

    Several recent papers have reported on the occurrence of active galactic nuclei (AGNs) containing undermassive black holes relative to a linear scaling relation between black hole mass (M {sub bh}) and host spheroid stellar mass (M {sub sph,} {sub *}). However, dramatic revisions to the M {sub bh}-M {sub sph,} {sub *} and M {sub bh}-L {sub sph} relations, based on samples containing predominantly inactive galaxies, have recently identified a new steeper relation at M {sub bh} ≲ (2-10) × 10{sup 8} M {sub ☉}, roughly corresponding to M {sub sph,} {sub *} ≲ (0.3-1) × 10{sup 11} M {sub ☉}. We show that this steeper, quadratic-like M {sub bh}-M {sub sph,} {sub *} relation defined by the Sérsic galaxies, i.e., galaxies without partially depleted cores, roughly tracks the apparent offset of the AGN having 10{sup 5} ≲ M {sub bh}/M {sub ☉} ≲ 0.5 × 10{sup 8}. That is, these AGNs are not randomly offset with low black hole masses, but also follow a steeper (nonlinear) relation. As noted by Busch et al., confirmation or rejection of a possible AGN offset from the steeper M {sub bh}-M {sub sph,} {sub *} relation defined by the Sérsic galaxies will benefit from improved stellar mass-to-light ratios for the spheroids hosting these AGNs. Several implications for formation theories are noted. Furthermore, reasons for possible under- and overmassive black holes, the potential existence of intermediate mass black holes (<10{sup 5} M {sub ☉}), and the new steep (black hole)-(nuclear star cluster) relation, M{sub bh}∝M{sub nc}{sup 2.7±0.7}, are also discussed.

  2. Micro-scale mass-transfer variations during electrodeposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sutija, D. P.

    1991-08-01

    Results of two studies on micro-scale mass-transfer enhancement are reported. First, profiled cross-sections of striated zinc surfaces deposited in laminar channel flow were analyzed with fast-fourier transforms (FFT) to determine preferred striation wavelengths. Striation frequency increases with current density until a minimum separation between striae of 150 microns is reached. Beyond this point, independent of substrate used, striae meld together and form a relatively smooth, nodular deposit. Substrates equipped with artificial micron-sized protrusions result in significantly different macro-morphology in zinc deposits. Micro-patterned electrodes (MPE) with hemispherical protrusions 5 microns in diameter yield thin zinc striae at current densities that ordinarily produce random nodular deposits. MPEs with artificial hemi-cylinders, 2.5 microns in height and spaced 250 microns apart, form striae with a period which matches the spacing of micron-sized ridges. Second, a novel, corrosion-resistant micromosaic electrode was fabricated on a silicon wafer. Measurements of mass-transport enhancement to a vertical micromosaic electrode caused by parallel bubble streams rising inside of the diffusion boundary-layer demonstrated the presence of two co-temporal enhancement mechanisms: surface-renewal increases the limiting current within five bubble diameters of the rising column, while bubble-induced laminar flows cause weaker enhancement over a much broader swath. The enhancement caused by bubble curtains is predicted accurately by linear superposition of single-column enhancements. Two columns of smaller H2 bubbles generated at the same volumetric rate as a single column of larger bubbles cause higher peak and far-field enhancements.

  3. Micro-scale mass-transfer variations during electrodeposition

    SciTech Connect

    Sutija, D.P.

    1991-08-01

    Results of two studies on micro-scale mass-transfer enhancement are reported: (1) Profiled cross-sections of striated zinc surfaces deposited in laminar channel flow were analyzed with fast-fourier transforms (FFT) to determine preferred striation wavelengths. Striation frequency increases with current density until a minimum separation between striae of 150 {mu}m is reached. Beyond this point, independent of substrate used, striae meld together and form a relatively smooth, nodular deposit. Substrates equipped with artificial micron-sized protrusions result in significantly different macro-morphology in zinc deposits. Micro-patterned electrodes (MPE) with hemispherical protrusions 5 {mu}m in diameter yield thin zinc striae at current densities that ordinarily produce random nodular deposits. MPEs with artificial hemi-cylinders, 2.5 {mu}m in height and spaced 250 {mu}m apart, form striae with a period which matches the spacing of micron-sized ridges. (2) A novel, corrosion-resistant micromosaic electrode was fabricated on a silicon wafer. Measurements of mass-transport enhancement to a vertical micromosaic electrode caused by parallel bubble streams rising inside of the diffusion boundary-layer demonstrated the presence of two co-temporal enhancement mechanisms: surface-renewal increases the limiting current within five bubble diameters of the rising column, while bubble-induced laminar flows cause weaker enhancement over a much broader swath. The enhancement caused by bubble curtains is predicted accurately by linear superposition of single-column enhancements. Two columns of smaller H{sub 2} bubbles generated at the same volumetric rate as a single column of larger bubbles cause higher peak and far-field enhancements. 168 refs., 96 figs., 6 tabs.

  4. Small angle neutron scattering on an absolute intensity scale and the internal surface of diatom frustules from three species of differing morphologies.

    PubMed

    Garvey, C J; Strobl, M; Percot, A; Saroun, J; Haug, J; Vyverman, W; Chepurnov, V A; Ferris, J M

    2013-05-01

    The internal nanostructure of the diatoms Cyclotella meneghiniana, Seminavis robusta and Achnanthes subsessilis was investigated using small angle neutron scattering (SANS) to examine thin biosilica samples, consisting of isotropic (powder) from their isolated cell walls. The interpretation of SANS data was assisted by several other measurements. The N2 adsorption, interpreted within the Branuer-Emmet-Teller isotherm, yielded the specific surface area of the material. Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) and Raman spectroscopy indicates that the isolated material is amorphous silica with small amounts of organic cell wall materials acting as a filling material between the silica particles. A two-phase (air and amorphous silica) model was used to interpret small angle neutron scattering data. After correction for instrumental resolution, the measurements on two SANS instruments covered an extended range of scattering vectors 0.0011 nm(-1) < q < 5.6 nm(-1), giving an almost continuous SANS curve over a range of scattering vectors, q, on an absolute scale of intensity for each sample. Each of the samples gave a characteristic scattering curve where log (intensity) versus log (q) has a -4 dependence, with other features superimposed. In the high-q regime, departure from this behaviour was observed at a length-scales equivalent to the proposed unitary silica particle. The limiting Porod scattering law was used to determine the specific area per unit of volume of each sample illuminated by the neutron beam. The Porod behaviour, and divergence from this behaviour, is discussed in terms of various structural features and the proposed mechanisms for the bio-assembly of unitary silica particles in frustules.

  5. Stable mass hierarchies and dark matter from hidden sectors in the scale-invariant standard model

    SciTech Connect

    Foot, Robert; Kobakhidze, Archil; Volkas, Raymond R.

    2010-08-01

    Scale invariance may be a classical symmetry which is broken radiatively. This provides a simple way to stabilize the scale of electroweak symmetry breaking against radiative corrections. But for such a theory to be fully realistic, it must actually incorporate a hierarchy of scales, including the Planck and the neutrino mass scales in addition to the electroweak scale. The dark matter sector and the physics responsible for baryogenesis may or may not require new scales, depending on the scenario. We develop a generic way of using hidden sectors to construct a technically-natural hierarchy of scales in the framework of classically scale-invariant theories. We then apply the method to generate the Planck mass and to solve the neutrino mass and dark matter problems through what may be termed the ''scale-invariant standard model.'' The model is perturbatively renormalizable for energy scales up to the Planck mass.

  6. Teaching Absolute Value Meaningfully

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wade, Angela

    2012-01-01

    What is the meaning of absolute value? And why do teachers teach students how to solve absolute value equations? Absolute value is a concept introduced in first-year algebra and then reinforced in later courses. Various authors have suggested instructional methods for teaching absolute value to high school students (Wei 2005; Stallings-Roberts…

  7. Absolute Quantitation of Met Using Mass Spectrometry for Clinical Application: Assay Precision, Stability, and Correlation with MET Gene Amplification in FFPE Tumor Tissue

    PubMed Central

    Catenacci, Daniel V. T.; Liao, Wei-Li; Thyparambil, Sheeno; Henderson, Les; Xu, Peng; Zhao, Lei; Rambo, Brittany; Hart, John; Xiao, Shu-Yuan; Bengali, Kathleen; Uzzell, Jamar; Darfler, Marlene; Krizman, David B.; Cecchi, Fabiola; Bottaro, Donald P.; Karrison, Theodore; Veenstra, Timothy D.; Hembrough, Todd; Burrows, Jon

    2014-01-01

    Background Overexpression of Met tyrosine kinase receptor is associated with poor prognosis. Overexpression, and particularly MET amplification, are predictive of response to Met-specific therapy in preclinical models. Immunohistochemistry (IHC) of formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded (FFPE) tissues is currently used to select for ‘high Met’ expressing tumors for Met inhibitor trials. IHC suffers from antibody non-specificity, lack of quantitative resolution, and, when quantifying multiple proteins, inefficient use of scarce tissue. Methods After describing the development of the Liquid-Tissue-Selected Reaction Monitoring-mass spectrometry (LT-SRM-MS) Met assay, we evaluated the expression level of Met in 130 FFPE gastroesophageal cancer (GEC) tissues. We assessed the correlation of SRM Met expression to IHC and mean MET gene copy number (GCN)/nucleus or MET/CEP7 ratio by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH). Results Proteomic mapping of recombinant Met identified 418TEFTTALQR426 as the optimal SRM peptide. Limits of detection (LOD) and quantitation (LOQ) for this peptide were 150 and 200 amol/µg tumor protein, respectively. The assay demonstrated excellent precision and temporal stability of measurements in serial sections analyzed one year apart. Expression levels of 130 GEC tissues ranged (<150 amol/µg to 4669.5 amol/µg. High correlation was observed between SRM Met expression and both MET GCN and MET/CEP7 ratio as determined by FISH (n = 30; R2 = 0.898). IHC did not correlate well with SRM (n = 44; R2 = 0.537) nor FISH GCN (n = 31; R2 = 0.509). A Met SRM level of ≥1500 amol/µg was 100% sensitive (95% CI 0.69–1) and 100% specific (95% CI 0.92–1) for MET amplification. Conclusions The Met SRM assay measured the absolute Met levels in clinical tissues with high precision. Compared to IHC, SRM provided a quantitative and linear measurement of Met expression, reliably distinguishing between non-amplified and amplified MET

  8. Mass transport and element mobilisation during large-scale metasomatism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Putnis, C. V.; Austrheim, H.; Jamtveit, B.; Engvik, A. K.; Putnis, A.

    2009-04-01

    Replacement textures commonly occur in relation to fluid-driven large scale metasomatism and metamorphism and these processes are often related to mineralisation. For example, the albitisation of gabbroic rocks in the Bamble District, southern Norway is associated with ore deposits. Similar albitised rocks are also characteristic of the Curnamona Province, Australia, which includes large areas of mineralisation such as the Pb, Zn, Ag of the Broken Hill deposits as well as Cu, Au and U deposits. The main question addressed here is the mechanism of mass transport and hence element mobilisation. An indication of the former presence of fluids within a rock can be seen in mineral textures, such as porosity, replacement rims, replacement induced fracturing and crystallographic continuity across sharp compositional boundaries. Such textural observations from natural rocks as well as experimental products show that during mineral-fluid interaction, the crystallographic relations between parent and product phases control the nucleation of the product, and hence a coupling between dissolution and reprecipitation. If the rate of nucleation and growth of the product equals the dissolution rate, a pseudomorphic replacement takes place. The degree of epitaxy (or lattice misfit) at the interface, the relative solubility of parent and product phases and the molar volume changes control the microstructure of the product phase. The key observation is that these factors control the generation of porosity as well as reaction induced fracturing ahead of the main reaction interface. Porosity is generated whenever the amount of parent dissolved is greater than the amount of product reprecipitated, irrespective of the molar volume changes of the solid reactants and products. This porosity is occupied by the fluid phase during the reaction, and provides a mechanism of mass transport and fluid movement between reaction interface and the surrounding phases. The reaction-induced fracturing

  9. Scaling relationships between leaf mass and total plant mass across Chinese forests.

    PubMed

    Xu, Shanshan; Li, Yan; Wang, Genxuan

    2014-01-01

    Biomass partitioning is important for illustrating terrestrial ecosystem carbon flux. West, Brown and Enquist (WBE) model predicts that an optimal 3/4 allometric scaling of leaf mass and total biomass of individual plants will be applied in diverse communities. However, amount of scientific evidence suggests an involvement of some biological and environmental factors in interpreting the variation of scaling exponent observed in empirical studies. In this paper, biomass information of 1175 forested communities in China was collected and categorized into groups in terms of leaf form and function, as well as their locations to test whether the allocation pattern was conserved or variable with internal and/or environmental variations. Model Type II regression protocol was adopted to perform all the regressions. The results empirically showed that the slopes varied significantly across diverse forested biomes, between conifer and broadleaved forests, and between evergreen and deciduous forests. Based on the results, leaf form and function and their relations to environments play a significant role in the modification of the WBE model to explore more accurate laws in nature.

  10. Large Scale Chemical Cross-linking Mass Spectrometry Perspectives.

    PubMed

    Zybailov, Boris L; Glazko, Galina V; Jaiswal, Mihir; Raney, Kevin D

    2013-02-01

    The spectacular heterogeneity of a complex protein mixture from biological samples becomes even more difficult to tackle when one's attention is shifted towards different protein complex topologies, transient interactions, or localization of PPIs. Meticulous protein-by-protein affinity pull-downs and yeast-two-hybrid screens are the two approaches currently used to decipher proteome-wide interaction networks. Another method is to employ chemical cross-linking, which gives not only identities of interactors, but could also provide information on the sites of interactions and interaction interfaces. Despite significant advances in mass spectrometry instrumentation over the last decade, mapping Protein-Protein Interactions (PPIs) using chemical cross-linking remains time consuming and requires substantial expertise, even in the simplest of systems. While robust methodologies and software exist for the analysis of binary PPIs and also for the single protein structure refinement using cross-linking-derived constraints, undertaking a proteome-wide cross-linking study is highly complex. Difficulties include i) identifying cross-linkers of the right length and selectivity that could capture interactions of interest; ii) enrichment of the cross-linked species; iii) identification and validation of the cross-linked peptides and cross-linked sites. In this review we examine existing literature aimed at the large-scale protein cross-linking and discuss possible paths for improvement. We also discuss short-length cross-linkers of broad specificity such as formaldehyde and diazirine-based photo-cross-linkers. These cross-linkers could potentially capture many types of interactions, without strict requirement for a particular amino-acid to be present at a given protein-protein interface. How these shortlength, broad specificity cross-linkers be applied to proteome-wide studies? We will suggest specific advances in methodology, instrumentation and software that are needed to make

  11. Energy, entropy and mass scaling relations for elliptical galaxies. Towards a physical understanding of their photometric properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Márquez, I.; Lima Neto, G. B.; Capelato, H.; Durret, F.; Lanzoni, B.; Gerbal, D.

    2001-12-01

    In the present paper, we show that elliptical galaxies (Es) obey a scaling relation between potential energy and mass. Since they are relaxed systems in a post violent-relaxation stage, they are quasi-equilibrium gravitational systems and therefore they also have a quasi-constant specific entropy. Assuming that light traces mass, these two laws imply that in the space defined by the three Sérsic law parameters (intensity Sigma0 , scale a and shape nu ), elliptical galaxies are distributed on two intersecting 2-manifolds: the Entropic Surface and the Energy-Mass Surface. Using a sample of 132 galaxies belonging to three nearby clusters, we have verified that ellipticals indeed follow these laws. This also implies that they are distributed along the intersection line (the Energy-Entropy line), thus they constitute a one-parameter family. These two physical laws (separately or combined), allow to find the theoretical origin of several observed photometrical relations, such as the correlation between absolute magnitude and effective surface brightness, and the fact that ellipticals are located on a surface in the [log Reff, -2.5 log Sigma0, log nu ] space. The fact that elliptical galaxies are a one-parameter family has important implications for cosmology and galaxy formation and evolution models. Moreover, the Energy-Entropy line could be used as a distance indicator.

  12. Body mass scaling of projected frontal area in competitive cyclists.

    PubMed

    Heil, D P

    2001-08-01

    The primary purpose of this study was to evaluate the scaling relationship between body mass (mb) and projected frontal area (AP) of competitive male cyclists whilst allowing statistically for the influence of bicycle geometry. A group of 21 cyclists [mean mb 74.4 (SD 7.2) kg, mean height 1.82 (SD 0.06) m, mean age 23.6 (SD 5.1) years] volunteered to have AP determined from photographs at three trunk angles (TA: 5 degrees, 15 degrees, 25 degrees) for each of three seat-tube angles (STA: 70 degrees, 75 degrees, 80 degrees) using a modified cycle ergometer. Using multiple log-linear regression analysis procedures, the following equation was developed: Body AP (meters squared) = 0.00433 x (STA0.172) x (TA0.0965) x (mb0.762) (r2 = 0.73, SEE = 0.017 m2) (n = 183 images total). This equation indicates that after allowing for the independent influence of STA and TA on AP, AP was proportional to mb raised to the +0.762 power (i.e. Ap is directly proportional to 0.762). The 95% confidence interval for this exponent (0.670-0.854) barely included the theoretical two-thirds value but not the +0.55 value for AP or the +0.32 value for submaximal metabolic power (Ws) of outdoor cycling reported in the literature. Further analysis of wind tunnel data reported in the literature suggests that the coefficient of drag (CD) is proportional to mb raised to the -0.45 power. When combined with the present study findings, it is suggested that the drag area (CD x AP), which should be proportional to Ws at submaximal cycling velocities, is proportional to mb to the +0.312 power (i.e. CD x AP is directly proportional to mb-0.45) x (mb+0.762) = mb+0.312), which is consistent with the +0.32 exponent for Ws in the literature.

  13. Eosinophil count - absolute

    MedlinePlus

    Eosinophils; Absolute eosinophil count ... the white blood cell count to give the absolute eosinophil count. ... than 500 cells per microliter (cells/mcL). Normal value ranges may vary slightly among different laboratories. Talk ...

  14. Scale effects and morphological diversification in hindlimb segment mass proportions in neognath birds

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Introduction In spite of considerable work on the linear proportions of limbs in amniotes, it remains unknown whether differences in scale effects between proximal and distal limb segments has the potential to influence locomotor costs in amniote lineages and how changes in the mass proportions of limbs have factored into amniote diversification. To broaden our understanding of how the mass proportions of limbs vary within amniote lineages, I collected data on hindlimb segment masses – thigh, shank, pes, tarsometatarsal segment, and digits – from 38 species of neognath birds, one of the most speciose amniote clades. I scaled each of these traits against measures of body size (body mass) and hindlimb size (hindlimb length) to test for departures from isometry. Additionally, I applied two parameters of trait evolution (Pagel’s λ and δ) to understand patterns of diversification in hindlimb segment mass in neognaths. Results All segment masses are positively allometric with body mass. Segment masses are isometric with hindlimb length. When examining scale effects in the neognath subclade Land Birds, segment masses were again positively allometric with body mass; however, shank, pedal, and tarsometatarsal segment masses were also positively allometric with hindlimb length. Methods of branch length scaling to detect phylogenetic signal (i.e., Pagel’s λ) and increasing or decreasing rates of trait change over time (i.e., Pagel’s δ) suffer from wide confidence intervals, likely due to small sample size and deep divergence times. Conclusions The scaling of segment masses appears to be more strongly related to the scaling of limb bone mass as opposed to length, and the scaling of hindlimb mass distribution is more a function of scale effects in limb posture than proximo-distal differences in the scaling of limb segment mass. Though negative allometry of segment masses appears to be precluded by the need for mechanically sound limbs, the positive allometry of

  15. The independence of mass scales in inverse hierarchy models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Flores, Ricardo A.; Sher, Marc

    1983-10-01

    In inverse hierarchy models, one attempts to ``solve'' the hierarchy problem by generating a large scale X from a theory with only a smaller scale M. Einhorn and Jones have argued, however, that M and X are essentially independent scales, even though the ratio appears to be calculable. We consider a model in which the same phenomenon occurs, and show that it is identical to the more familiar ``near-Coleman-Weinberg'' models. As the latter clearly have two independent scales, one put in by hand and the other generated by dimensional transmutation, we argue that inverse hierarchy models also have two independent scales, thus agreeing with the more detailed analysis of Einhorn and Jones.

  16. Conceptual Design and Demonstration of Space Scale for Measuring Mass in Microgravity Environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Youn-Kyu; Lee, Joo-Hee; Choi, Gi-Hyuk; Choi, Ik-Hyeon

    2015-12-01

    In this study, a new idea for developing a space scale for measuring mass in a microgravity environment was proposed by using the inertial force properties of an object to measure its mass. The space scale detected the momentum change of the specimen and reference masses by using a load-cell sensor as the force transducer based on Newton's laws of motion. In addition, the space scale calculated the specimen mass by comparing the inertial forces of the specimen and reference masses in the same acceleration field. By using this concept, a space scale with a capacity of 3 kg based on the law of momentum conservation was implemented and demonstrated under microgravity conditions onboard International Space Station (ISS) with an accuracy of ±1 g. By the performance analysis on the space scale, it was verified that an instrument with a compact size could be implemented and be quickly measured with a reasonable accuracy under microgravity conditions.

  17. A common mass scaling for satellite systems of gaseous planets.

    PubMed

    Canup, Robin M; Ward, William R

    2006-06-15

    The Solar System's outer planets that contain hydrogen gas all host systems of multiple moons, which notably each contain a similar fraction of their respective planet's mass (approximately 10(-4)). This mass fraction is two to three orders of magnitude smaller than that of the largest satellites of the solid planets (such as the Earth's Moon), and its common value for gas planets has been puzzling. Here we model satellite growth and loss as a forming giant planet accumulates gas and rock-ice solids from solar orbit. We find that the mass fraction of its satellite system is regulated to approximately 10(-4) by a balance of two competing processes: the supply of inflowing material to the satellites, and satellite loss through orbital decay driven by the gas. We show that the overall properties of the satellite systems of Jupiter, Saturn and Uranus arise naturally, and suggest that similar processes could limit the largest moons of extrasolar Jupiter-mass planets to Moon-to-Mars size. PMID:16778883

  18. Systematic Uncertainties in the Spectroscopic Measurements of Neutron-star Masses and Radii from Thermonuclear X-Ray Bursts. III. Absolute Flux Calibration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Güver, Tolga; Özel, Feryal; Marshall, Herman; Psaltis, Dimitrios; Guainazzi, Matteo; Díaz-Trigo, Maria

    2016-09-01

    Many techniques for measuring neutron star radii rely on absolute flux measurements in the X-rays. As a result, one of the fundamental uncertainties in these spectroscopic measurements arises from the absolute flux calibrations of the detectors being used. Using the stable X-ray burster, GS 1826-238, and its simultaneous observations by Chandra HETG/ACIS-S and RXTE/PCA as well as by XMM-Newton EPIC-pn and RXTE/PCA, we quantify the degree of uncertainty in the flux calibration by assessing the differences between the measured fluxes during bursts. We find that the RXTE/PCA and the Chandra gratings measurements agree with each other within their formal uncertainties, increasing our confidence in these flux measurements. In contrast, XMM-Newton EPIC-pn measures 14.0 ± 0.3% less flux than the RXTE/PCA. This is consistent with the previously reported discrepancy with the flux measurements of EPIC-pn, compared with EPIC MOS1, MOS2, and ACIS-S detectors. We also show that any intrinsic time-dependent systematic uncertainty that may exist in the calibration of the satellites has already been implicity taken into account in the neutron star radius measurements.

  19. Recipe Estimation Using Mass Spectrometer and Large-Scale Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mamun, Al; Nakamoto, Takamichi

    An odor recorder is an instrument capable of determining the qualitative and quantitative composition of the target smell (e.g. apple), so called odor recipe. A variety of smells can be generated by blending multiple odor components; an odor recorder can reproduce smells as well as record them so that the sensor array output pattern of the blended odor can match that of the target odor. Although the range of smell to be recorded has been so far limited, this work enhances that range using mass spectrometry without GC. We previously proposed the algorithm to select appropriate odor components among huge number of candidates. Here we applied this proposed algorithm experimentally for reproducing different eight fruit flavors using odor components selected from our laboratory database, composed of recorded mass patterns of 190 components. The blended and target smells were compared using sensory test (triangle test). Sensory test revealed that the smell blended according to the estimated recipe using our proposed method was almost the same as the target one. Moreover, even if the less contributed components in mass spectra are eliminated from the estimated recipe, the flavor remains almost similar to that of the target one.

  20. Absolute nuclear material assay

    DOEpatents

    Prasad, Manoj K.; Snyderman, Neal J.; Rowland, Mark S.

    2012-05-15

    A method of absolute nuclear material assay of an unknown source comprising counting neutrons from the unknown source and providing an absolute nuclear material assay utilizing a model to optimally compare to the measured count distributions. In one embodiment, the step of providing an absolute nuclear material assay comprises utilizing a random sampling of analytically computed fission chain distributions to generate a continuous time-evolving sequence of event-counts by spreading the fission chain distribution in time.

  1. Absolute nuclear material assay

    DOEpatents

    Prasad, Manoj K.; Snyderman, Neal J.; Rowland, Mark S.

    2010-07-13

    A method of absolute nuclear material assay of an unknown source comprising counting neutrons from the unknown source and providing an absolute nuclear material assay utilizing a model to optimally compare to the measured count distributions. In one embodiment, the step of providing an absolute nuclear material assay comprises utilizing a random sampling of analytically computed fission chain distributions to generate a continuous time-evolving sequence of event-counts by spreading the fission chain distribution in time.

  2. Structure and dating errors in the geologic time scale and periodicity in mass extinctions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stothers, Richard B.

    1989-01-01

    Structure in the geologic time scale reflects a partly paleontological origin. As a result, ages of Cenozoic and Mesozoic stage boundaries exhibit a weak 28-Myr periodicity that is similar to the strong 26-Myr periodicity detected in mass extinctions of marine life by Raup and Sepkoski. Radiometric dating errors in the geologic time scale, to which the mass extinctions are stratigraphically tied, do not necessarily lessen the likelihood of a significant periodicity in mass extinctions, but do spread the acceptable values of the period over the range 25-27 Myr for the Harland et al. time scale or 25-30 Myr for the DNAG time scale. If the Odin time scale is adopted, acceptable periods fall between 24 and 33 Myr, but are not robust against dating errors. Some indirect evidence from independently-dated flood-basalt volcanic horizons tends to favor the Odin time scale.

  3. 40 CFR Appendix I to Subpart A of... - Global Warming Potentials (Mass Basis), Referenced to the Absolute GWP for the Adopted Carbon...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 18 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Global Warming Potentials (Mass Basis..., App. I Appendix I to Subpart A of Part 82—Global Warming Potentials (Mass Basis), Referenced to the... formula Global warming potential (time horizon) 20 years 100 years 500 years CFC-11 CFCl3 5000 4000...

  4. 40 CFR Appendix I to Subpart A of... - Global Warming Potentials (Mass Basis), Referenced to the Absolute GWP for the Adopted Carbon...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 17 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Global Warming Potentials (Mass Basis..., App. I Appendix I to Subpart A of Part 82—Global Warming Potentials (Mass Basis), Referenced to the... formula Global warming potential (time horizon) 20 years 100 years 500 years CFC-11 CFCl3 5000 4000...

  5. 40 CFR Appendix I to Subpart A of... - Global Warming Potentials (Mass Basis), Referenced to the Absolute GWP for the Adopted Carbon...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 18 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Global Warming Potentials (Mass Basis..., App. I Appendix I to Subpart A of Part 82—Global Warming Potentials (Mass Basis), Referenced to the... formula Global warming potential (time horizon) 20 years 100 years 500 years CFC-11 CFCl3 5000 4000...

  6. 40 CFR Appendix I to Subpart A of... - Global Warming Potentials (Mass Basis), Referenced to the Absolute GWP for the Adopted Carbon...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 18 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Global Warming Potentials (Mass Basis..., App. I Appendix I to Subpart A of Part 82—Global Warming Potentials (Mass Basis), Referenced to the... formula Global warming potential (time horizon) 20 years 100 years 500 years CFC-11 CFCl3 5000 4000...

  7. 40 CFR Appendix I to Subpart A of... - Global Warming Potentials (Mass Basis), Referenced to the Absolute GWP for the Adopted Carbon...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 17 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Global Warming Potentials (Mass Basis..., App. I Appendix I to Subpart A of Part 82—Global Warming Potentials (Mass Basis), Referenced to the... formula Global warming potential (time horizon) 20 years 100 years 500 years CFC-11 CFCl3 5000 4000...

  8. Absolute shielding scales for Al, Ga, and In and revised nuclear magnetic dipole moments of {sup 27}Al, {sup 69}Ga, {sup 71}Ga, {sup 113}In, and {sup 115}In nuclei

    SciTech Connect

    Antušek, A. Holka, F.

    2015-08-21

    We present coupled cluster calculations of NMR shielding constants of aluminum, gallium, and indium in water-ion clusters. In addition, relativistic and dynamical corrections and the influence of the second solvation shell are evaluated. The final NMR shielding constants define new absolute shielding scales, 600.0 ± 4.1 ppm, 2044.4 ± 31.4 ppm, and 4507.7 ± 63.7 ppm for aluminum, gallium, and indium, respectively. The nuclear magnetic dipole moments for {sup 27}Al, {sup 69}Ga, {sup 71}Ga, {sup 113}In, and {sup 115}In isotopes are corrected by combining the computed shielding constants with experimental NMR frequencies. The absolute magnitude of the correction increases along the series and for indium isotopes it reaches approximately −8.0 × 10{sup −3} of the nuclear magneton.

  9. Stellar mass to halo mass scaling relation for X-ray-selected low-mass galaxy clusters and groups out to redshift z ≈ 1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chiu, I.; Saro, A.; Mohr, J.; Desai, S.; Bocquet, S.; Capasso, R.; Gangkofner, C.; Gupta, N.; Liu, J.

    2016-05-01

    We present the stellar mass-halo mass scaling relation for 46 X-ray-selected low-mass clusters or groups detected in the XMM-Newton-Blanco Cosmology Survey (XMM-BCS) survey with masses 2 × 1013 M⊙ ≲ M500 ≲ 2.5 × 1014 M⊙ (median mass 8 × 1013 M⊙) at redshift 0.1 ≤ z ≤ 1.02 (median redshift 0.47). The cluster binding masses M500 are inferred from the measured X-ray luminosities LX, while the stellar masses M⋆ of the galaxy populations are estimated using near-infrared (NIR) imaging from the South Pole Telescope Deep Field survey and optical imaging from the BCS survey. With the measured LX and stellar mass M⋆, we determine the best-fitting stellar mass-halo mass relation, accounting for selection effects, measurement uncertainties and the intrinsic scatter in the scaling relation. The resulting mass trend is M_{star }∝ M_{500}^{0.69± 0.15}, the intrinsic (lognormal) scatter is σ _{ln M_{star }|M_{500}}=0.36^{+0.07}_{-0.06}, and there is no significant redshift trend M⋆ ∝ (1 + z)-0.04 ± 0.47, although the uncertainties are still large. We also examine M⋆ within a fixed projected radius of 0.5 Mpc, showing that it provides a cluster binding mass proxy with intrinsic scatter of ≈93 per cent (1σ in M500). We compare our M⋆ = M⋆(M500, z) scaling relation from the XMM-BCS clusters with samples of massive, Sunyaev-Zel'dovich Effect selected clusters (M500 ≈ 6 × 1014 M⊙) and low-mass NIR-selected clusters (M500 ≈ 1014 M⊙) at redshift 0.6 ≲ z ≲ 1.3. After correcting for the known mass measurement systematics in the compared samples, we find that the scaling relation is in good agreement with the high-redshift samples, suggesting that for both groups and clusters the stellar content of the galaxy populations within R500 depends strongly on mass but only weakly on redshift out to z ≈ 1.

  10. Absolute OH and O radical densities in effluent of a He/H2O micro-scaled atmospheric pressure plasma jet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benedikt, J.; Schröder, D.; Schneider, S.; Willems, G.; Pajdarová, A.; Vlček, J.; Schulz-von der Gathen, V.

    2016-08-01

    The effluent of a micro-scaled atmospheric pressure plasma jet (μ-APPJ) operated in helium with admixtures of water vapor (≲ {{10}4} ppm) has been analyzed by means of cavity ring-down laser absorption spectroscopy and molecular beam mass spectrometry to measure hydroxyl (OH) radical densities, and by two-photon absorption laser-induced fluorescence spectroscopy to measure atomic oxygen (O) densities. Additionally, the performance of the bubbler as a source of water vapor in the helium feed gas has been carefully characterized and calibrated. The largest OH and O densities in the effluent of 2× {{10}14}~\\text{c}{{\\text{m}}-3} and 3.2× {{10}13}~\\text{c}{{\\text{m}}-3} , respectively, have been measured at around 6000 ppm. The highest selectivity is reached around 1500 ppm, where the OH density is at  ∼63% of its maximum value and is 14 times larger than the O density. The measured density profiles and distance variations are compared to the results of a 2D axially symmetric fluid model of species transport and reaction kinetics in the plasma effluent. It is shown that the main loss of OH radicals in the effluent is their mutual reaction. In the case of O, reactions with other species than OH also have to be considered to explain the density decay in the effluent. The results presented here provide additional information for understanding the plasma-chemical processes in non-equilibrium atmospheric pressure plasmas. They also open the way to applying μ-APPJ with He/H2O as a selective source of OH radicals.

  11. Parametric scaling from species relative abundances to absolute abundances in the computation of biological diversity: a first proposal using Shannon's entropy.

    PubMed

    Ricotta, Carlo

    2003-01-01

    Traditional diversity measures such as the Shannon entropy are generally computed from the species' relative abundance vector of a given community to the exclusion of species' absolute abundances. In this paper, I first mention some examples where the total information content associated with a given community may be more adequate than Shannon's average information content for a better understanding of ecosystem functioning. Next, I propose a parametric measure of statistical information that contains both Shannon's entropy and total information content as special cases of this more general function.

  12. The Higgs mass and the scale of SUSY breaking in the NMSSM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zarate, Lucila

    2016-07-01

    In this letter we study the Higgs mass in the NMSSM with supersymmetry breaking at high scales M SS. With the Standard Model as the effective low energy theory, the computation of the Higgs mass relies on the matching condition of the quartic coupling λ at M SS. In the MSSM, the latter is fixed to a semi-positive value and, thus, sets an upper bound on the SUSY-breaking scale near M SS ≃ 1010 GeV. In the NMSSM, λ( M SS) receives an additional contribution induced by the singlet which allows for negative values of λ( M SS). In turn, for the measured value of the Higgs mass we find that M SS can take any value up to the GUT scale. Furthermore, the choice of universal soft terms favors SUSY-breaking scales close to the GUT scale.

  13. A new mass scale, implications on black hole evaporation and holography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burikham, Piyabut; Dhanawittayapol, Rujikorn; Wuthicharn, Taum

    2016-06-01

    We consider a new mass scale MT = (ℏ2Λ/G)1/3 constructed from dimensional analysis by using G, ℏ and Λ and discuss its physical interpretation. Based on the Generalized Uncertainty Relation, a black hole with age comparable to the universe would stop radiating when the mass reaches a new mass scale MT‧ = c(ℏ/G2Λ)1/3 at which its temperature corresponds to the mass MT. Black hole remnants could have masses ranging from a Planck mass to a trillion kilograms. Holography persists even when the uncertainty relation is modified to the Minimum Length Uncertainty Relation (MLUR). The remnant black hole entropy is proportional to the surface area of the black hole in unit of the Planck area in arbitrary noncompact dimensions.

  14. Physics at the 100 GeV mass scale: Proceedings

    SciTech Connect

    Brennan, E.C.

    1990-01-01

    This report contains the following papers: heavy quarks--experimental; the theory of heavy flavour production; precision experiments in electroweak interactions; theory of precision electroweak measurements; applications of QCD to hadron-hadron collisions; W{sup +}W{sup {minus}} interactions and the search for the Higgs Boson; electroweak symmetry breaking: Higgs/Whatever; electron-positron storage rings as heavy quark factories; prospects for next-generation e{sup +}e{sup {minus}} linear colliders; current prospects for hadron colliders; hadron colliders beyond the SSC; recent results on weak decays of charmed mesons from the Mark 3 experiment; recent CLEO results on bottom and charm; recent results on B-decays from ARGUE; a review of recent results on the hadron and photoproduction of charm; search for the top quark at UA1; recent results from the UA2 experiment at the CERN {bar p}p collider; selected preliminary results from CDF; new measurement of the phase difference {Phi}{sub 00} {minus} {Phi}{sub {plus minus}} in CP--violating K{sup 0} decays; a recent result on CP violation by E731 at Fermilab; rare kaon decay experiments; CP violation; inverse muon decay, neutrino dimuon production, and a search for neutral heavy leptons at the tevatron; first results from MACRO; a superstring theory underview; recent results from TRISTAN ; measurements of the Z boson resonance parameters at SLC; decays of the Z boson; and theory--weak neutral currents and the Z mass after the SLC.

  15. Body mass scaling of passive oxygen diffusion in endotherms and ectotherms.

    PubMed

    Gillooly, James F; Gomez, Juan Pablo; Mavrodiev, Evgeny V; Rong, Yue; McLamore, Eric S

    2016-05-10

    The area and thickness of respiratory surfaces, and the constraints they impose on passive oxygen diffusion, have been linked to differences in oxygen consumption rates and/or aerobic activity levels in vertebrates. However, it remains unclear how respiratory surfaces and associated diffusion rates vary with body mass across vertebrates, particularly in relation to the body mass scaling of oxygen consumption rates. Here we address these issues by first quantifying the body mass dependence of respiratory surface area and respiratory barrier thickness for a diversity of endotherms (birds and mammals) and ectotherms (fishes, amphibians, and reptiles). Based on these findings, we then use Fick's law to predict the body mass scaling of oxygen diffusion for each group. Finally, we compare the predicted body mass dependence of oxygen diffusion to that of oxygen consumption in endotherms and ectotherms. We find that the slopes and intercepts of the relationships describing the body mass dependence of passive oxygen diffusion in these two groups are statistically indistinguishable from those describing the body mass dependence of oxygen consumption. Thus, the area and thickness of respiratory surfaces combine to match oxygen diffusion capacity to oxygen consumption rates in both air- and water-breathing vertebrates. In particular, the substantially lower oxygen consumption rates of ectotherms of a given body mass relative to those of endotherms correspond to differences in oxygen diffusion capacity. These results provide insights into the long-standing effort to understand the structural attributes of organisms that underlie the body mass scaling of oxygen consumption.

  16. Body mass scaling of passive oxygen diffusion in endotherms and ectotherms.

    PubMed

    Gillooly, James F; Gomez, Juan Pablo; Mavrodiev, Evgeny V; Rong, Yue; McLamore, Eric S

    2016-05-10

    The area and thickness of respiratory surfaces, and the constraints they impose on passive oxygen diffusion, have been linked to differences in oxygen consumption rates and/or aerobic activity levels in vertebrates. However, it remains unclear how respiratory surfaces and associated diffusion rates vary with body mass across vertebrates, particularly in relation to the body mass scaling of oxygen consumption rates. Here we address these issues by first quantifying the body mass dependence of respiratory surface area and respiratory barrier thickness for a diversity of endotherms (birds and mammals) and ectotherms (fishes, amphibians, and reptiles). Based on these findings, we then use Fick's law to predict the body mass scaling of oxygen diffusion for each group. Finally, we compare the predicted body mass dependence of oxygen diffusion to that of oxygen consumption in endotherms and ectotherms. We find that the slopes and intercepts of the relationships describing the body mass dependence of passive oxygen diffusion in these two groups are statistically indistinguishable from those describing the body mass dependence of oxygen consumption. Thus, the area and thickness of respiratory surfaces combine to match oxygen diffusion capacity to oxygen consumption rates in both air- and water-breathing vertebrates. In particular, the substantially lower oxygen consumption rates of ectotherms of a given body mass relative to those of endotherms correspond to differences in oxygen diffusion capacity. These results provide insights into the long-standing effort to understand the structural attributes of organisms that underlie the body mass scaling of oxygen consumption. PMID:27118837

  17. Electroporation : bio-electrochemical mass transfer at the nano scale.

    SciTech Connect

    Davalos, Rafael V.

    2005-01-01

    This article provides a brief review of the field of electroporation and introduces a new microdevice that facilitates studies to test theories, gain understanding, and control this important biomedical technology. Electroporation, a bio-electrochemical process whose fundamentals are not yet understood, is a means of permeating the cell membrane by applying a voltage across the cell and forming nano-scale pores in the membrane. It has become an important field in biotechnology and medicine for the controlled introduction of macromolecules, such as gene constructs and drugs, into various cells. It is viewed as an engineering alternative to biological techniques for the genetic engineering of cells. To study and control electroporation, we have created a low-cost microelectroporation chip that incorporates a live biological cell with an electric circuit. The device revealed an important behavior of cells in electrical fields. They produce measurable electrical information about the electroporation state of the cell that may enable precise control of the process. The device can be used to facilitate fundamental studies of electroporation and can become useful in providing precise control over biotechnological processes.

  18. Scanning of the supersymmetry breaking scale and the gravitino mass in supergravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farakos, Fotis; Kehagias, Alex; Racco, Davide; Riotto, Antonio

    2016-06-01

    We consider the minimal three-form mathcal{N} = 1 supergravity coupled to nilpotent three-form chiral superfields. The supersymmetry breaking is sourced by the three-forms of the chiral multiplets, while the value of the gravitino mass is controlled by the three-form of the supergravity multiplet. The three-forms can nucleate membranes which scan both the supersymmetry breaking scale and the gravitino mass. The peculiar supergravity feature that the cosmological constant is the sum of a posictive contribution from the super-symmetry breaking scale and a negative contribution from the gravitino mass makes the cosmological constant jump. This can lead to a phenomenologically allowed small value of the cosmological constant even though the supersymmetry breaking scale and the gravitino mass are dynamically large.

  19. The dynamical masses, densities, and star formation scaling relations of Lyα galaxies

    SciTech Connect

    Rhoads, James E.; Malhotra, Sangeeta; Richardson, Mark L. A.; McLinden, Emily M.; Finkelstein, Steven L.; Fynbo, Johan P. U.; Tilvi, Vithal S.

    2014-01-01

    We present the first dynamical mass measurements for Lyα galaxies at high redshift, based on velocity dispersion measurements from rest-frame optical emission lines and size measurements from Hubble Space Telescope imaging, for nine galaxies drawn from four surveys. We use these measurements to study Lyα galaxies in the context of galaxy scaling relations. The resulting dynamical masses range from 10{sup 9} to 10{sup 10} M {sub ☉}. We also fit stellar population models to our sample and use them to place the Lyα sample on a stellar mass versus line width relation. The Lyα galaxies generally follow the same scaling relation as star-forming galaxies at lower redshift, although, lower stellar mass fits are also acceptable in ∼1/3 of the Lyα galaxies. Using the dynamical masses as an upper limit on gas mass, we show that Lyα galaxies have unusually active star formation for their gas mass surface density. This behavior is consistent with what is observed in starburst galaxies, despite the typically smaller masses and sizes of the Lyα galaxy population. Finally, we examine the mass densities of these galaxies and show that their future evolution likely requires dissipational ('wet') merging. In short, we find that Lyα galaxies are low-mass cousins of larger starbursts.

  20. Mass inflation in Eddington-inspired Born-Infeld black holes: Analytical scaling solutions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Avelino, P. P.

    2016-05-01

    We study the inner dynamics of accreting Eddington-inspired Born-Infeld black holes using the homogeneous approximation and taking charge as a surrogate for angular momentum. We show that there is a minimum of the accretion rate below which mass inflation does not occur, and we derive an analytical expression for this threshold as a function of the fundamental scale of the theory, the accretion rate, the mass, and the charge of the black hole. Our result explicitly demonstrates that, no matter how close Eddington-inspired Born-Infeld gravity is to general relativity, there is always a minimum accretion rate below which there is no mass inflation. For larger accretion rates, mass inflation takes place inside the black hole as in general relativity until the extremely rapid density variations bring it to an abrupt end. We derive analytical scaling solutions for the value of the energy density and of the Misner-Sharp mass attained at the end of mass inflation as a function of the fundamental scale of the theory, the accretion rate, the mass, and the charge of the black hole, and compare these with the corresponding numerical solutions. We find that, except for unreasonably high accretion rates, our analytical results appear to provide an accurate description of homogeneous mass inflation inside accreting Eddington-inspired Born-Infeld black holes.

  1. Simultaneous estimation of local-scale and flow path-scale dual-domain mass transfer parameters using geoelectrical monitoring

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Briggs, Martin A.; Day-Lewis, Frederick D.; Ong, John B.; Curtis, Gary P.; Lane, Jr., John W.

    2013-01-01

    Anomalous solute transport, modeled as rate-limited mass transfer, has an observable geoelectrical signature that can be exploited to infer the controlling parameters. Previous experiments indicate the combination of time-lapse geoelectrical and fluid conductivity measurements collected during ionic tracer experiments provides valuable insight into the exchange of solute between mobile and immobile porosity. Here, we use geoelectrical measurements to monitor tracer experiments at a former uranium mill tailings site in Naturita, Colorado. We use nonlinear regression to calibrate dual-domain mass transfer solute-transport models to field data. This method differs from previous approaches by calibrating the model simultaneously to observed fluid conductivity and geoelectrical tracer signals using two parameter scales: effective parameters for the flow path upgradient of the monitoring point and the parameters local to the monitoring point. We use regression statistics to rigorously evaluate the information content and sensitivity of fluid conductivity and geophysical data, demonstrating multiple scales of mass transfer parameters can simultaneously be estimated. Our results show, for the first time, field-scale spatial variability of mass transfer parameters (i.e., exchange-rate coefficient, porosity) between local and upgradient effective parameters; hence our approach provides insight into spatial variability and scaling behavior. Additional synthetic modeling is used to evaluate the scope of applicability of our approach, indicating greater range than earlier work using temporal moments and a Lagrangian-based Damköhler number. The introduced Eulerian-based Damköhler is useful for estimating tracer injection duration needed to evaluate mass transfer exchange rates that range over several orders of magnitude.

  2. Absolute biological needs.

    PubMed

    McLeod, Stephen

    2014-07-01

    Absolute needs (as against instrumental needs) are independent of the ends, goals and purposes of personal agents. Against the view that the only needs are instrumental needs, David Wiggins and Garrett Thomson have defended absolute needs on the grounds that the verb 'need' has instrumental and absolute senses. While remaining neutral about it, this article does not adopt that approach. Instead, it suggests that there are absolute biological needs. The absolute nature of these needs is defended by appeal to: their objectivity (as against mind-dependence); the universality of the phenomenon of needing across the plant and animal kingdoms; the impossibility that biological needs depend wholly upon the exercise of the abilities characteristic of personal agency; the contention that the possession of biological needs is prior to the possession of the abilities characteristic of personal agency. Finally, three philosophical usages of 'normative' are distinguished. On two of these, to describe a phenomenon or claim as 'normative' is to describe it as value-dependent. A description of a phenomenon or claim as 'normative' in the third sense does not entail such value-dependency, though it leaves open the possibility that value depends upon the phenomenon or upon the truth of the claim. It is argued that while survival needs (or claims about them) may well be normative in this third sense, they are normative in neither of the first two. Thus, the idea of absolute need is not inherently normative in either of the first two senses. PMID:23586876

  3. Absolute biological needs.

    PubMed

    McLeod, Stephen

    2014-07-01

    Absolute needs (as against instrumental needs) are independent of the ends, goals and purposes of personal agents. Against the view that the only needs are instrumental needs, David Wiggins and Garrett Thomson have defended absolute needs on the grounds that the verb 'need' has instrumental and absolute senses. While remaining neutral about it, this article does not adopt that approach. Instead, it suggests that there are absolute biological needs. The absolute nature of these needs is defended by appeal to: their objectivity (as against mind-dependence); the universality of the phenomenon of needing across the plant and animal kingdoms; the impossibility that biological needs depend wholly upon the exercise of the abilities characteristic of personal agency; the contention that the possession of biological needs is prior to the possession of the abilities characteristic of personal agency. Finally, three philosophical usages of 'normative' are distinguished. On two of these, to describe a phenomenon or claim as 'normative' is to describe it as value-dependent. A description of a phenomenon or claim as 'normative' in the third sense does not entail such value-dependency, though it leaves open the possibility that value depends upon the phenomenon or upon the truth of the claim. It is argued that while survival needs (or claims about them) may well be normative in this third sense, they are normative in neither of the first two. Thus, the idea of absolute need is not inherently normative in either of the first two senses.

  4. Large scale pesticide multiresidue methods in food combining liquid chromatography--time-of-flight mass spectrometry and tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    García-Reyes, Juan F; Hernando, M Dolores; Ferrer, Carmen; Molina-Díaz, Antonio; Fernández-Alba, Amadeo R

    2007-10-01

    Liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) and liquid chromatography time-of-flight mass spectrometry (LC-TOFMS) are powerful and complementary techniques that can independently cover the majority of the challenges related with pesticide residue food control. The sequential combination of both systems benefits from their complementary advantages and assists to increase the performance and to simplify routine large scale pesticide multiresidue methods. The proposed approach consists of three stages: (1) automated pesticide screening by LC-TOFMS; (2) identification by LC-TOFMS accurate mass measurements; and (3) confirmation and quantitation by LC-MS/MS. We have developed a fast comprehensive (identification/confirmation + quantitation) automated screening method for 100 target pesticides in crops. In the first stage, a set of data including m/z accurate mass windows (within 20 mDa width) and retention time is obtained (using a standard solution containing all the targeted pesticides) in order to build the automated screening procedure, which is created automatically by assigning retention time and the m/z mass window for each target pesticide. Samples are then analyzed, and the method enables the screening and preliminary identification of the species first by retention time and m/z mass window, followed by subsequent identification (only if positive results) by LC-TOFMS accurate mass measurements. After that, final confirmation of the positive findings using two MRM transitions and accurate quantitation is performed by LC-MS/MS using a hybrid triple quadrupole linear ion trap (QqLIT) mass spectrometer. In addition, the use of this QqLIT instrument also offers additional advantageous scanning modes (enhanced product ion and MS3 modes) for confirmatory purposes in compounds with poor fragmentation. Examples of applications to real samples show the potential of the proposed approach, including the detection of nonselected "a priori" compounds as a

  5. The warm dark matter halo mass function below the cut-off scale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Angulo, Raul E.; Hahn, Oliver; Abel, Tom

    2013-10-01

    Warm dark matter (WDM) cosmologies are a viable alternative to the cold dark matter (CDM) scenario. Unfortunately, an accurate scrutiny of the WDM predictions with N-body simulations has proven difficult due to numerical artefacts. Here, we report on cosmological simulations that, for the first time, are devoid of those problems, and thus are able to accurately resolve the WDM halo mass function well below the cut-off. We discover a complex picture, with perturbations at different evolutionary stages populating different ranges in the halo mass function. On the smallest mass scales we can resolve, identified objects are typically centres of filaments that are starting to collapse. On intermediate mass scales, objects typically correspond to fluctuations that have collapsed and are in the process of relaxation, whereas the high-mass end is dominated by objects similar to haloes identified in CDM simulations. We then explicitly show how the formation of low-mass haloes is suppressed, which translates into a strong cut-off in the halo mass function. This disfavours some analytic formulations that predict a halo mass function that would extend well below the free streaming mass. We argue for a more detailed exploration of the formation of the smallest structures expected to form in a given cosmology, which, we foresee, will advance our overall understanding of structure formation.

  6. Reformulated 17O correction of mass spectrometric stable isotope measurements in carbon dioxide and a critical appraisal of historic 'absolute' carbon and oxygen isotope ratios

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaiser, Jan

    2008-03-01

    Mass-spectrometric stable isotope measurements of CO 2 use molecular ion currents at mass-to-charge ratios m/ z 44, 45 and 46 to derive the elemental isotope ratios n( 13C)/ n( 12C) and n( 18O)/ n( 16O), abbreviated 13C/ 12C and 18O/ 16O, relative to a reference. The ion currents have to be corrected for the contribution of 17O-bearing isotopologues, the so-called ' 17O correction'. The magnitude of this correction depends on the calibrated isotope ratios of the reference. Isotope ratio calibrations are difficult and are therefore a matter of debate. Here, I provide a comprehensive evaluation of the existing 13C/ 12C ( 13R), 17O/ 16O ( 17R) and 18O/ 16O ( 18R) calibrations of the reference material Vienna Standard Mean Ocean Water (VSMOW) and CO 2 generated from the reference material Vienna Pee Dee Belemnite (VPDB) by reaction with 100% H 3PO 4 at 25 °C (VPDB-CO 2). I find 17R/10-6=382.7-2.1+1.7, 18RVSMOW/10 -6 = 2005.20 ± 0.45, 13R/10-6= 11124 ± 45, 17R/10-6=391.1-2.1+1.7 and 18R/10-6=2088.37±0.90. I also rephrase the calculation scheme for the 17O correction completely in terms of relative isotope ratio differences ( δ values). This reveals that only ratios of isotope ratios (namely, 17R/ 13R and 13R17R/ 18R) are required for the 17O correction. These can be, and have been, measured on conventional stable isotope mass spectrometers. I then show that the remaining error for these ratios of isotope ratios can lead to significant uncertainty in the derived relative 13C/ 12C difference, but not for 18O/ 16O. Even though inter-laboratory differences can be corrected for by a common 'ratio assumption set' and/or normalisation, the ultimate accuracy of the 17O correction is hereby limited. Errors of similar magnitude can be introduced by the assumed mass-dependent relationship between 17O/ 16O and 18O/ 16O isotope ratios. For highest accuracy in the 13C/ 12C ratio, independent triple oxygen isotope measurements are required. Finally, I propose an experiment that

  7. TESTING THE ASTEROSEISMIC MASS SCALE USING METAL-POOR STARS CHARACTERIZED WITH APOGEE AND KEPLER

    SciTech Connect

    Epstein, Courtney R.; Johnson, Jennifer A.; Tayar, Jamie; Pinsonneault, Marc; Elsworth, Yvonne P.; Chaplin, William J.; Shetrone, Matthew; Mosser, Benoît; Hekker, Saskia; Harding, Paul; Silva Aguirre, Víctor; Basu, Sarbani; Beers, Timothy C.; Bizyaev, Dmitry; Bedding, Timothy R.; Frinchaboy, Peter M.; García, Rafael A.; and others

    2014-04-20

    Fundamental stellar properties, such as mass, radius, and age, can be inferred using asteroseismology. Cool stars with convective envelopes have turbulent motions that can stochastically drive and damp pulsations. The properties of the oscillation frequency power spectrum can be tied to mass and radius through solar-scaled asteroseismic relations. Stellar properties derived using these scaling relations need verification over a range of metallicities. Because the age and mass of halo stars are well-constrained by astrophysical priors, they provide an independent, empirical check on asteroseismic mass estimates in the low-metallicity regime. We identify nine metal-poor red giants (including six stars that are kinematically associated with the halo) from a sample observed by both the Kepler space telescope and the Sloan Digital Sky Survey-III APOGEE spectroscopic survey. We compare masses inferred using asteroseismology to those expected for halo and thick-disk stars. Although our sample is small, standard scaling relations, combined with asteroseismic parameters from the APOKASC Catalog, produce masses that are systematically higher (<ΔM > =0.17 ± 0.05 M {sub ☉}) than astrophysical expectations. The magnitude of the mass discrepancy is reduced by known theoretical corrections to the measured large frequency separation scaling relationship. Using alternative methods for measuring asteroseismic parameters induces systematic shifts at the 0.04 M {sub ☉} level. We also compare published asteroseismic analyses with scaling relationship masses to examine the impact of using the frequency of maximum power as a constraint. Upcoming APOKASC observations will provide a larger sample of ∼100 metal-poor stars, important for detailed asteroseismic characterization of Galactic stellar populations.

  8. UPDATED MASS SCALING RELATIONS FOR NUCLEAR STAR CLUSTERS AND A COMPARISON TO SUPERMASSIVE BLACK HOLES

    SciTech Connect

    Scott, Nicholas; Graham, Alister W.

    2013-02-15

    We investigate whether or not nuclear star clusters and supermassive black holes (SMBHs) follow a common set of mass scaling relations with their host galaxy's properties, and hence can be considered to form a single class of central massive object (CMO). We have compiled a large sample of galaxies with measured nuclear star cluster masses and host galaxy properties from the literature and fit log-linear scaling relations. We find that nuclear star cluster mass, M {sub NC}, correlates most tightly with the host galaxy's velocity dispersion: log M {sub NC} = (2.11 {+-} 0.31)log ({sigma}/54) + (6.63 {+-} 0.09), but has a slope dramatically shallower than the relation defined by SMBHs. We find that the nuclear star cluster mass relations involving host galaxy (and spheroid) luminosity and stellar and dynamical mass, intercept with but are in general shallower than the corresponding black hole scaling relations. In particular, M {sub NC}{proportional_to}M {sup 0.55{+-}0.15} {sub Gal,dyn}; the nuclear cluster mass is not a constant fraction of its host galaxy or spheroid mass. We conclude that nuclear stellar clusters and SMBHs do not form a single family of CMOs.

  9. Large muon (g - 2) with TeV-scale SUSY masses for tan β → ∞

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bach, Markus; Park, Jae-hyeon; Stöckinger, Dominik; Stöckinger-Kim, Hyejung

    2015-10-01

    The muon anomalous magnetic moment a μ is investigated in the MSSM for tan β → ∞. This is an attractive example of radiative muon mass generation with completely different qualitative parameter dependence compared to the MSSM with the usual, finite tan β. The observed, positive difference between the experimental and Standard Model values can only be explained if there are mass splittings, such that bino contributions dominate over wino ones. The two most promising cases are characterized either by large Higgsino mass μ or by large left-handed smuon mass m L . The required mass splittings and the resulting a μ SUSY are studied in detail. It is shown that the current discrepancy in a μ can be explained even in cases where all SUSY masses are at the TeV scale. The paper also presents useful analytical formulas, approximations for limiting cases, and benchmark points.

  10. Online, Absolute Quantitation of Propranolol from Spatially Distinct 20- and 40-μm Dissections of Brain, Liver, and Kidney Thin Tissue Sections by Laser Microdissection-Liquid Vortex Capture-Mass Spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Cahill, John F; Kertesz, Vilmos; Weiskittel, Taylor M; Vavrek, Marissa; Freddo, Carol; Van Berkel, Gary J

    2016-06-01

    Spatial resolved quantitation of chemical species in thin tissue sections by mass spectrometric methods has been constrained by the need for matrix-matched standards or other arduous calibration protocols and procedures to mitigate matrix effects (e.g., spatially varying ionization suppression). Reported here is the use of laser "cut and drop" sampling with a laser microdissection-liquid vortex capture electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry (LMD-LVC/ESI-MS/MS) system for online and absolute quantitation of propranolol in mouse brain, kidney, and liver thin tissue sections of mice administered with the drug at a 7.5 mg/kg dose, intravenously. In this procedure either 20 μm × 20 μm or 40 μm × 40 μm tissue microdissections were cut and dropped into the flowing solvent of the capture probe. During transport to the ESI source drug related material was completely extracted from the tissue into the solvent, which contained a known concentration of propranolol-d7 as an internal standard. This allowed absolute quantitation to be achieved with an external calibration curve generated from standards containing the same fixed concentration of propranolol-d7 and varied concentrations of propranolol. Average propranolol concentrations determined with the laser "cut and drop" sampling method closely agreed with concentration values obtained from 2.3 mm diameter tissue punches from serial sections that were extracted and quantified by HPLC/ESI-MS/MS measurements. In addition, the relative abundance of hydroxypropranolol glucuronide metabolites were recorded and found to be consistent with previous findings. PMID:27214103

  11. Online, absolute quantitation of propranolol from spatially distinct 20-μm and 40-μm dissections of brain, liver, and kidney thin tissue sections by laser microdissection – liquid vortex capture – mass spectrometry

    DOE PAGES

    Kertesz, Vilmos; Vavrek, Marissa; Freddo, Carol; Van Berkel, Gary J.; Cahill, John F.; Weiskittel, Taylor M.

    2016-05-23

    Here, spatial resolved quantitation of chemical species in thin tissue sections by mass spectrometric methods has been constrained by the need for matrix-matched standards or other arduous calibration protocols and procedures to mitigate matrix effects (e.g., spatially varying ionization suppression). Reported here is the use of laser cut and drop sampling with a laser microdissection-liquid vortex capture electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry (LMD-LVC/ESI-MS/MS) system for online and absolute quantitation of propranolol in mouse brain, kidney, and liver thin tissue sections of mice administered with the drug at a 7.5 mg/kg dose, intravenously. In this procedure either 20 μm x 20more » μm or 40 μm x 40 μm tissue microdissections were cut and dropped into the flowing solvent of the capture probe. During transport to the ESI source drug related material was completely extracted from the tissue into the solvent, which contained a known concentration of propranolol-d7 as an internal standard. This allowed absolute quantitation to be achieved with an external calibration curve generated from standards containing the same fixed concentration of propranolold-d7 and varied concentrations of propranolol. Average propranolol concentrations determined with the laser cut and drop sampling method closely agreed with concentration values obtained from 2.3 mm diameter tissue punches from serial sections that were extracted and quantified by HPLC/ESI-MS/MS measurements. In addition, the relative abundance of hydroxypropranolol glucuronide metabolites were recorded and found to be consistent with previous findings.« less

  12. On the mass-coupling relation of multi-scale quantum integrable models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bajnok, Zoltán; Balog, János; Ito, Katsushi; Satoh, Yuji; Tóth, Gábor Zsolt

    2016-06-01

    We determine exactly the mass-coupling relation for the simplest multi-scale quantum integrable model, the homogenous sine-Gordon model with two independent mass-scales. We first reformulate its perturbed coset CFT description in terms of the perturbation of a projected product of minimal models. This representation enables us to identify conserved tensor currents on the UV side. These UV operators are then mapped via form factor perturbation theory to operators on the IR side, which are characterized by their form factors. The relation between the UV and IR operators is given in terms of the sought-for mass-coupling relation. By generalizing the Θ sum rule Ward identity we are able to derive differential equations for the mass-coupling relation, which we solve in terms of hypergeometric functions. We check these results against the data obtained by numerically solving the thermodynamic Bethe Ansatz equations, and find a complete agreement.

  13. LHC phenomenology of natural MSSM with non-universal gaugino masses at the unification scale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abe, Hiroyuki; Kawamura, Junichiro; Omura, Yuji

    2015-08-01

    In this letter, we study collider phenomenology in the supersymmetric Standard Model with a certain type of non-universal gaugino masses at the gauge coupling unification scale, motivated by the little hierarchy problem. In this scenario, especially the wino mass is relatively large compared to the gluino mass at the unification scale, and the heavy wino can relax the fine-tuning of the higgsino mass parameter, so-called μ-parameter. Besides, it will enhance the lightest Higgs boson mass due to the relatively large left-right mixing of top squarks through the renormalization group (RG) effect. Then 125 GeV Higgs boson could be accomplished, even if the top squarks are lighter than 1 TeV and the μ parameter is within a few hundreds GeV. The right-handed top squark tends to be lighter than the other sfermions due to the RG runnings, then we focus on the top squark search at the LHC. Since the top squark is almost right-handed and the higgsinos are nearly degenerate, 2 b + E T miss channel is the most sensitive to this scenario. We figure out current and expected experimental bounds on the lightest top squark mass and model parameters at the gauge coupling unification scale.

  14. The absolute path command

    2012-05-11

    The ap command traveres all symlinks in a given file, directory, or executable name to identify the final absolute path. It can print just the final path, each intermediate link along with the symlink chan, and the permissions and ownership of each directory component in the final path. It has functionality similar to "which", except that it shows the final path instead of the first path. It is also similar to "pwd", but it canmore » provide the absolute path to a relative directory from the current working directory.« less

  15. The absolute path command

    SciTech Connect

    Moody, A.

    2012-05-11

    The ap command traveres all symlinks in a given file, directory, or executable name to identify the final absolute path. It can print just the final path, each intermediate link along with the symlink chan, and the permissions and ownership of each directory component in the final path. It has functionality similar to "which", except that it shows the final path instead of the first path. It is also similar to "pwd", but it can provide the absolute path to a relative directory from the current working directory.

  16. Seesaw scale discrete dark matter and two-zero texture Majorana neutrino mass matrices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lamprea, J. M.; Peinado, E.

    2016-09-01

    In this paper we present a scenario where the stability of dark matter and the phenomenology of neutrinos are related by the spontaneous breaking of a non-Abelian flavor symmetry (A4). In this scenario the breaking is done at the seesaw scale, in such a way that what remains of the flavor symmetry is a Z2 symmetry, which stabilizes the dark matter. We have proposed two models based on this idea, for which we have calculated their neutrino mass matrices achieving two-zero texture in both cases. Accordingly, we have updated this two-zero texture phenomenology finding an interesting correlation between the reactor mixing angle and the sum of the light neutrino masses. We also have a correlation between the lightest neutrino mass and the neutrinoless double beta decay effective mass, obtaining a lower bound for the effective mass within the region of the nearly future experimental sensitivities.

  17. Systematic study of the effects of mass and time scaling techniques applied in numerical rock mechanics simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heinze, Thomas; Jansen, Gunnar; Galvan, Boris; Miller, Stephen A.

    2016-08-01

    Numerical modeling is a well established tool in rock mechanics studies investigating a wide range of problems. Implicit methods for solving linear equations have the advantage of being unconditionally stable, while explicit methods, although limited by the time step, are often used because of their limited memory demand, their scalability in parallel computing, and simple implementation of complex boundary conditions. In numerical modeling of explicit elastoplastic dynamics where the time step is limited by the material density, mass scaling techniques can be used to overcome this limit and significantly reduce computation time. While often used, the effect of mass and time scaling and how it may influence the numerical results is rarely-mentioned in publications, and choosing the right scaling technique is typically performed by trial and error. To our knowledge, no systematic studies have addressed how mass scaling might affect the numerical results. In this paper, we present results from an extensive and systematic study of the influence of mass and time scaling on the behavior of a variety of rock-mechanical models. We employ a finite difference scheme to model uniaxial and biaxial compression experiments using different mass and time scaling factors, and with physical models of increasing complexity up to a cohesion-weakening frictional-strengthening model (CWFS). We also introduce a normalized energy ratio to assist analyzing mass scaling effects. We find the tested models to be less sensitive to time scaling than to mass scaling, so mass scaling has higher potential for decreasing computational costs. However, we also demonstrate that mass scaling may lead to quantitatively wrong results, so care must be taken in interpreting stress values when mass scaling is used in complicated rock mechanics simulations. Mass scaling significantly influences the stress-strain response of numerical rocks because mass scaling acts as an artificial hardening agent on rock

  18. Effects of reservoir heterogeneity on scaling of effective mass transfer coefficient for solute transport.

    PubMed

    Leung, Juliana Y; Srinivasan, Sanjay

    2016-09-01

    Modeling transport process at large scale requires proper scale-up of subsurface heterogeneity and an understanding of its interaction with the underlying transport mechanisms. A technique based on volume averaging is applied to quantitatively assess the scaling characteristics of effective mass transfer coefficient in heterogeneous reservoir models. The effective mass transfer coefficient represents the combined contribution from diffusion and dispersion to the transport of non-reactive solute particles within a fluid phase. Although treatment of transport problems with the volume averaging technique has been published in the past, application to geological systems exhibiting realistic spatial variability remains a challenge. Previously, the authors developed a new procedure where results from a fine-scale numerical flow simulation reflecting the full physics of the transport process albeit over a sub-volume of the reservoir are integrated with the volume averaging technique to provide effective description of transport properties. The procedure is extended such that spatial averaging is performed at the local-heterogeneity scale. In this paper, the transport of a passive (non-reactive) solute is simulated on multiple reservoir models exhibiting different patterns of heterogeneities, and the scaling behavior of effective mass transfer coefficient (Keff) is examined and compared. One such set of models exhibit power-law (fractal) characteristics, and the variability of dispersion and Keff with scale is in good agreement with analytical expressions described in the literature. This work offers an insight into the impacts of heterogeneity on the scaling of effective transport parameters. A key finding is that spatial heterogeneity models with similar univariate and bivariate statistics may exhibit different scaling characteristics because of the influence of higher order statistics. More mixing is observed in the channelized models with higher-order continuity. It

  19. Effects of reservoir heterogeneity on scaling of effective mass transfer coefficient for solute transport

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leung, Juliana Y.; Srinivasan, Sanjay

    2016-09-01

    Modeling transport process at large scale requires proper scale-up of subsurface heterogeneity and an understanding of its interaction with the underlying transport mechanisms. A technique based on volume averaging is applied to quantitatively assess the scaling characteristics of effective mass transfer coefficient in heterogeneous reservoir models. The effective mass transfer coefficient represents the combined contribution from diffusion and dispersion to the transport of non-reactive solute particles within a fluid phase. Although treatment of transport problems with the volume averaging technique has been published in the past, application to geological systems exhibiting realistic spatial variability remains a challenge. Previously, the authors developed a new procedure where results from a fine-scale numerical flow simulation reflecting the full physics of the transport process albeit over a sub-volume of the reservoir are integrated with the volume averaging technique to provide effective description of transport properties. The procedure is extended such that spatial averaging is performed at the local-heterogeneity scale. In this paper, the transport of a passive (non-reactive) solute is simulated on multiple reservoir models exhibiting different patterns of heterogeneities, and the scaling behavior of effective mass transfer coefficient (Keff) is examined and compared. One such set of models exhibit power-law (fractal) characteristics, and the variability of dispersion and Keff with scale is in good agreement with analytical expressions described in the literature. This work offers an insight into the impacts of heterogeneity on the scaling of effective transport parameters. A key finding is that spatial heterogeneity models with similar univariate and bivariate statistics may exhibit different scaling characteristics because of the influence of higher order statistics. More mixing is observed in the channelized models with higher-order continuity. It

  20. Effects of reservoir heterogeneity on scaling of effective mass transfer coefficient for solute transport.

    PubMed

    Leung, Juliana Y; Srinivasan, Sanjay

    2016-09-01

    Modeling transport process at large scale requires proper scale-up of subsurface heterogeneity and an understanding of its interaction with the underlying transport mechanisms. A technique based on volume averaging is applied to quantitatively assess the scaling characteristics of effective mass transfer coefficient in heterogeneous reservoir models. The effective mass transfer coefficient represents the combined contribution from diffusion and dispersion to the transport of non-reactive solute particles within a fluid phase. Although treatment of transport problems with the volume averaging technique has been published in the past, application to geological systems exhibiting realistic spatial variability remains a challenge. Previously, the authors developed a new procedure where results from a fine-scale numerical flow simulation reflecting the full physics of the transport process albeit over a sub-volume of the reservoir are integrated with the volume averaging technique to provide effective description of transport properties. The procedure is extended such that spatial averaging is performed at the local-heterogeneity scale. In this paper, the transport of a passive (non-reactive) solute is simulated on multiple reservoir models exhibiting different patterns of heterogeneities, and the scaling behavior of effective mass transfer coefficient (Keff) is examined and compared. One such set of models exhibit power-law (fractal) characteristics, and the variability of dispersion and Keff with scale is in good agreement with analytical expressions described in the literature. This work offers an insight into the impacts of heterogeneity on the scaling of effective transport parameters. A key finding is that spatial heterogeneity models with similar univariate and bivariate statistics may exhibit different scaling characteristics because of the influence of higher order statistics. More mixing is observed in the channelized models with higher-order continuity. It

  1. CFHTLenS: weak lensing calibrated scaling relations for low-mass clusters of galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kettula, K.; Giodini, S.; van Uitert, E.; Hoekstra, H.; Finoguenov, A.; Lerchster, M.; Erben, T.; Heymans, C.; Hildebrandt, H.; Kitching, T. D.; Mahdavi, A.; Mellier, Y.; Miller, L.; Mirkazemi, M.; Van Waerbeke, L.; Coupon, J.; Egami, E.; Fu, L.; Hudson, M. J.; Kneib, J. P.; Kuijken, K.; McCracken, H. J.; Pereira, M. J.; Rowe, B.; Schrabback, T.; Tanaka, M.; Velander, M.

    2015-08-01

    We present weak lensing and X-ray analysis of 12 low-mass clusters from the Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope Lensing Survey and XMM-CFHTLS surveys. We combine these systems with high-mass systems from Canadian Cluster Comparison Project and low-mass systems from Cosmic Evolution Survey to obtain a sample of 70 systems, spanning over two orders of magnitude in mass. We measure core-excised LX-TX, M-LX and M-TX scaling relations and include corrections for observational biases. By providing fully bias-corrected relations, we give the current limitations for LX and TX as cluster mass proxies. We demonstrate that TX benefits from a significantly lower intrinsic scatter at fixed mass than LX. By studying the residuals of the bias-corrected relations, we show for the first time using weak lensing masses that galaxy groups seem more luminous and warmer for their mass than clusters. This implies a steepening of the M-LX and M-TX relations at low masses. We verify the inferred steepening using a different high-mass sample from the literature and show that variance between samples is the dominant effect leading to discrepant scaling relations. We divide our sample into subsamples of merging and relaxed systems, and find that mergers may have enhanced scatter in lensing measurements, most likely due to stronger triaxiality and more substructure. For the LX-TX relation, which is unaffected by lensing measurements, we find the opposite trend in scatter. We also explore the effects of X-ray cross-calibration and find that Chandra calibration leads to flatter LX-TX and M-TX relations than XMM-Newton.

  2. A mass-length scaling law for modeling muscle strength in the lower limb.

    PubMed

    Correa, Tomas A; Pandy, Marcus G

    2011-11-10

    Musculoskeletal computer models are often used to study muscle function in children with and without impaired mobility. Calculations of muscle forces depend in part on the assumed strength of each muscle, represented by the peak isometric force parameter, which is usually based on measurements obtained from cadavers of adult donors. The aim of the present study was twofold: first, to develop a method for scaling lower-limb peak isometric muscle forces in typically-developing children; and second, to determine the effect of this scaling method on model calculations of muscle forces obtained for normal gait. Muscle volumes were determined from magnetic resonance (MR) images obtained from ten children aged from 7 to 13yr. A new mass-length scaling law was developed based on the assumption that muscle volume and body mass are linearly related, which was confirmed by the obtained volume and body mass data. Two musculoskeletal models were developed for each subject: one in which peak isometric muscle forces were estimated using the mass-length scaling law; and another in which these parameters were determined directly from the MR-derived muscle volumes. Musculoskeletal modeling and quantitative gait analysis were then used to calculate lower-limb muscle forces in normal walking. The patterns of muscle forces predicted by the model with scaled peak isometric force values were similar to those predicted by the MR-based model, implying that assessments of muscle function obtained from these two methods are practically equivalent. These results support the use of mass-length scaling in the development of subject-specific musculoskeletal models of children.

  3. Final Report: Geoelectrical Measurement of Multi-Scale Mass Transfer Parameters

    SciTech Connect

    Haggerty, Roy; Day-Lewis, Fred; Singha, Kamini; Johnson, Timothy; Binley, Andrew; Lane, John

    2014-03-20

    Mass transfer affects contaminant transport and is thought to control the efficiency of aquifer remediation at a number of sites within the Department of Energy (DOE) complex. An improved understanding of mass transfer is critical to meeting the enormous scientific and engineering challenges currently facing DOE. Informed design of site remedies and long-term stewardship of radionuclide-contaminated sites will require new cost-effective laboratory and field techniques to measure the parameters controlling mass transfer spatially and across a range of scales. In this project, we sought to capitalize on the geophysical signatures of mass transfer. Previous numerical modeling and pilot-scale field experiments suggested that mass transfer produces a geoelectrical signature—a hysteretic relation between sampled (mobile-domain) fluid conductivity and bulk (mobile + immobile) conductivity—over a range of scales relevant to aquifer remediation. In this work, we investigated the geoelectrical signature of mass transfer during tracer transport in a series of controlled experiments to determine the operation of controlling parameters, and also investigated the use of complex-resistivity (CR) as a means of quantifying mass transfer parameters in situ without tracer experiments. In an add-on component to our grant, we additionally considered nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) to help parse mobile from immobile porosities. Including the NMR component, our revised study objectives were to: 1. Develop and demonstrate geophysical approaches to measure mass-transfer parameters spatially and over a range of scales, including the combination of electrical resistivity monitoring, tracer tests, complex resistivity, nuclear magnetic resonance, and materials characterization; and 2. Provide mass-transfer estimates for improved understanding of contaminant fate and transport at DOE sites, such as uranium transport at the Hanford 300 Area. To achieve our objectives, we implemented a 3

  4. Body mass explains characteristic scales of habitat selection in terrestrial mammals

    PubMed Central

    Fisher, Jason T; Anholt, Brad; Volpe, John P

    2011-01-01

    Niche theory in its various forms is based on those environmental factors that permit species persistence, but less work has focused on defining the extent, or size, of a species’ environment: the area that explains a species’ presence at a point in space. We proposed that this habitat extent is identifiable from a characteristic scale of habitat selection, the spatial scale at which habitat best explains species’ occurrence. We hypothesized that this scale is predicted by body size. We tested this hypothesis on 12 sympatric terrestrial mammal species in the Canadian Rocky Mountains. For each species, habitat models varied across the 20 spatial scales tested. For six species, we found a characteristic scale; this scale was explained by species’ body mass in a quadratic relationship. Habitat measured at large scales best-predicted habitat selection in both large and small species, and small scales predict habitat extent in medium-sized species. The relationship between body size and habitat selection scale implies evolutionary adaptation to landscape heterogeneity as the driver of scale-dependent habitat selection. PMID:22393519

  5. Large-scale multiplex absolute protein quantification of drug-metabolizing enzymes and transporters in human intestine, liver, and kidney microsomes by SWATH-MS: Comparison with MRM/SRM and HR-MRM/PRM.

    PubMed

    Nakamura, Kenji; Hirayama-Kurogi, Mio; Ito, Shingo; Kuno, Takuya; Yoneyama, Toshihiro; Obuchi, Wataru; Terasaki, Tetsuya; Ohtsuki, Sumio

    2016-08-01

    The purpose of the present study was to examine simultaneously the absolute protein amounts of 152 membrane and membrane-associated proteins, including 30 metabolizing enzymes and 107 transporters, in pooled microsomal fractions of human liver, kidney, and intestine by means of SWATH-MS with stable isotope-labeled internal standard peptides, and to compare the results with those obtained by MRM/SRM and high resolution (HR)-MRM/PRM. The protein expression levels of 27 metabolizing enzymes, 54 transporters, and six other membrane proteins were quantitated by SWATH-MS; other targets were below the lower limits of quantitation. Most of the values determined by SWATH-MS differed by less than 50% from those obtained by MRM/SRM or HR-MRM/PRM. Various metabolizing enzymes were expressed in liver microsomes more abundantly than in other microsomes. Ten, 13, and eight transporters listed as important for drugs by International Transporter Consortium were quantified in liver, kidney, and intestinal microsomes, respectively. Our results indicate that SWATH-MS enables large-scale multiplex absolute protein quantification while retaining similar quantitative capability to MRM/SRM or HR-MRM/PRM. SWATH-MS is expected to be useful methodology in the context of drug development for elucidating the molecular mechanisms of drug absorption, metabolism, and excretion in the human body based on protein profile information.

  6. Improved scaling laws for stage inert mass of space propulsion systems. Volume 1: Summary

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1971-01-01

    Summarized is a study which satisfies the need for improved scaling laws for stage inert mass of space propulsion systems. The resulting laws are applicable to current and future vehicle systems and designs for a comprehensive spectrum of anticipated planetary missions.

  7. Characteristic time scales of mixing, mass transfer and biomass growth in a Taylor vortex algal photobioreactor.

    PubMed

    Gao, Xi; Kong, Bo; Vigil, R Dennis

    2015-12-01

    Recently it has been demonstrated that algal biomass yield can be enhanced using fluid flow patterns known as Taylor vortices. It has been suggested that these growth rate improvements can be attributed to improved light delivery as a result of rapid transport of microorganisms between light and dark regions of the reactor. However, Taylor vortices also strongly impact fluid mixing and interphase (gas-liquid) mass transport, and these in turn may also explain improvements in biomass productivity. To identify the growth-limiting factor in a Taylor vortex algal photobioreactor, experiments were performed to determine characteristic time scales for mixing and mass transfer. By comparing these results with the characteristic time scale for biomass growth, it is shown that algal growth rate in Taylor vortex reactors is not limited by fluid mixing or interphase mass transfer, and therefore the observed biomass productivity improvements are likely attributable to improved light utilization efficiency.

  8. An Objective Evaluation of Mass Scaling Techniques Utilizing Computational Human Body Finite Element Models.

    PubMed

    Davis, Matthew L; Scott Gayzik, F

    2016-10-01

    Biofidelity response corridors developed from post-mortem human subjects are commonly used in the design and validation of anthropomorphic test devices and computational human body models (HBMs). Typically, corridors are derived from a diverse pool of biomechanical data and later normalized to a target body habitus. The objective of this study was to use morphed computational HBMs to compare the ability of various scaling techniques to scale response data from a reference to a target anthropometry. HBMs are ideally suited for this type of study since they uphold the assumptions of equal density and modulus that are implicit in scaling method development. In total, six scaling procedures were evaluated, four from the literature (equal-stress equal-velocity, ESEV, and three variations of impulse momentum) and two which are introduced in the paper (ESEV using a ratio of effective masses, ESEV-EffMass, and a kinetic energy approach). In total, 24 simulations were performed, representing both pendulum and full body impacts for three representative HBMs. These simulations were quantitatively compared using the International Organization for Standardization (ISO) ISO-TS18571 standard. Based on these results, ESEV-EffMass achieved the highest overall similarity score (indicating that it is most proficient at scaling a reference response to a target). Additionally, ESEV was found to perform poorly for two degree-of-freedom (DOF) systems. However, the results also indicated that no single technique was clearly the most appropriate for all scenarios.

  9. An Objective Evaluation of Mass Scaling Techniques Utilizing Computational Human Body Finite Element Models.

    PubMed

    Davis, Matthew L; Scott Gayzik, F

    2016-10-01

    Biofidelity response corridors developed from post-mortem human subjects are commonly used in the design and validation of anthropomorphic test devices and computational human body models (HBMs). Typically, corridors are derived from a diverse pool of biomechanical data and later normalized to a target body habitus. The objective of this study was to use morphed computational HBMs to compare the ability of various scaling techniques to scale response data from a reference to a target anthropometry. HBMs are ideally suited for this type of study since they uphold the assumptions of equal density and modulus that are implicit in scaling method development. In total, six scaling procedures were evaluated, four from the literature (equal-stress equal-velocity, ESEV, and three variations of impulse momentum) and two which are introduced in the paper (ESEV using a ratio of effective masses, ESEV-EffMass, and a kinetic energy approach). In total, 24 simulations were performed, representing both pendulum and full body impacts for three representative HBMs. These simulations were quantitatively compared using the International Organization for Standardization (ISO) ISO-TS18571 standard. Based on these results, ESEV-EffMass achieved the highest overall similarity score (indicating that it is most proficient at scaling a reference response to a target). Additionally, ESEV was found to perform poorly for two degree-of-freedom (DOF) systems. However, the results also indicated that no single technique was clearly the most appropriate for all scenarios. PMID:27457051

  10. On the validity of collider-mass scaling for molecular rotational excitation

    SciTech Connect

    Walker, Kyle M.; Yang, B. H.; Stancil, P. C.; Balakrishnan, N.; Forrey, R. C.

    2014-08-01

    Rate coefficients for collisional processes such as rotational and vibrational excitation are essential inputs in many astrophysical models. When rate coefficients are unknown, they are often estimated using known values from other systems. The most common example is to use He-collider rate coefficients to estimate values for other colliders, typically H{sub 2}, using scaling arguments based on the reduced mass of the collision system. This procedure is often justified by the assumption that the inelastic cross section is independent of the collider. Here we explore the validity of this approach focusing on rotational inelastic transitions for collisions of H, para-H{sub 2}, {sup 3}He, and {sup 4}He with CO in its vibrational ground state. We compare rate coefficients obtained via explicit calculations to those deduced by standard reduced-mass scaling. Not surprisingly, inelastic cross sections and rate coefficients are found to depend sensitively on both the reduced mass and the interaction potential energy surface. We demonstrate that standard reduced-mass scaling is not valid on physical and mathematical grounds, and as a consequence, the common approach of multiplying a rate coefficient for a molecule-He collision system by the constant factor of ∼1.4 to estimate the rate coefficient for para-H{sub 2} collisions is deemed unreliable. Furthermore, we test an alternative analytic scaling approach based on the strength of the interaction potential and the reduced mass of the collision systems. Any scaling approach, however, may be problematic when low-energy resonances are present; explicit calculations or measurements of rate coefficients are to be preferred.

  11. Covariance in the thermal SZ-weak lensing mass scaling relation of galaxy clusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shirasaki, Masato; Nagai, Daisuke; Lau, Erwin T.

    2016-08-01

    The thermal Sunyaev-Zel'dovich (tSZ) effect signal is widely recognized as a robust mass proxy of galaxy clusters with small intrinsic scatter. However, recent observational calibration of the tSZ scaling relation using weak lensing (WL) mass exhibits considerably larger scatter than the intrinsic scatter predicted from numerical simulations. This raises a question as to whether we can realize the full statistical power of ongoing and upcoming tSZ-WL observations of galaxy clusters. In this work, we investigate the origin of observed scatter in the tSZ-WL scaling relation, using mock maps of galaxy clusters extracted from cosmological hydrodynamic simulations. We show that the inferred intrinsic scatter from mock tSZ-WL analyses is considerably larger than the intrinsic scatter measured in simulations, and comparable to the scatter in the observed tSZ-WL relation. We show that this enhanced scatter originates from the combination of the projection of correlated structures along the line of sight and the uncertainty in the cluster radius associated with WL mass estimates, causing the amplitude of the scatter to depend on the covariance between tSZ and WL signals. We present a statistical model to recover the unbiased cluster scaling relation and cosmological parameter by taking into account the covariance in the tSZ-WL mass relation from multiwavelength cluster surveys.

  12. The hyperfine structure in the rotational spectra of D2(17)O and HD(17)O: Confirmation of the absolute nuclear magnetic shielding scale for oxygen.

    PubMed

    Puzzarini, Cristina; Cazzoli, Gabriele; Harding, Michael E; Vázquez, Juana; Gauss, Jürgen

    2015-03-28

    Guided by theoretical predictions, the hyperfine structures of the rotational spectra of mono- and bideuterated-water containing (17)O have been experimentally investigated. To reach sub-Doppler resolution, required to resolve the hyperfine structure due to deuterium quadrupole coupling as well as to spin-rotation (SR) and dipolar spin-spin couplings, the Lamb-dip technique has been employed. The experimental investigation and in particular, the spectral analysis have been supported by high-level quantum-chemical computations employing coupled-cluster techniques and, for the first time, a complete experimental determination of the hyperfine parameters involved was possible. The experimentally determined (17)O spin-rotation constants of D2 (17)O and HD(17)O were used to derive the paramagnetic part of the corresponding nuclear magnetic shielding constants. Together with the computed diamagnetic contributions as well as the vibrational and temperature corrections, the latter constants have been employed to confirm the oxygen nuclear magnetic shielding scale, recently established on the basis of spin-rotation data for H2 (17)O [Puzzarini et al., J. Chem. Phys. 131, 234304 (2009)].

  13. Precise determination of the absolute isotopic abundance ratio and the atomic weight of chlorine in three international reference materials by the positive thermal ionization mass spectrometer-Cs2Cl+-graphite method.

    PubMed

    Wei, Hai-Zhen; Jiang, Shao-Yong; Xiao, Ying-Kai; Wang, Jun; Lu, Hai; Wu, Bin; Wu, He-Pin; Li, Qing; Luo, Chong-Guang

    2012-12-01

    Because the variation in chlorine isotopic abundances of naturally occurring chlorine bearing substances is significant, the IUPAC Inorganic Chemistry Division, Commission on Isotopic Abundances and Atomic Weights (CIAAW-IUPAC) decided that the uncertainty of atomic weight of chlorine (A(r)(Cl)) should be increased so that the implied range was related to terrestrial variability in 1999 (Coplen, T. B. Atomic weights of the elements 1999 (IUPAC Technical Report), Pure Appl. Chem.2001, 73(4), 667-683; and then, it emphasized that the standard atomic weights of ten elements including chlorine were not constants of nature but depend upon the physical, chemical, and nuclear history of the materials in 2009 (Wieser, M. E.; Coplen, T. B. Pure Appl. Chem.2011, 83(2), 359-396). According to the agreement by CIAAW that an atomic weight could be defined for one specified sample of terrestrial origin (Wieser, M. E.; Coplen, T. B. Pure Appl. Chem.2011, 83(2), 359-396), the absolute isotope ratios and atomic weight of chlorine in standard reference materials (NIST 975, NIST 975a, ISL 354) were accurately determined using the high-precision positive thermal ionization mass spectrometer (PTIMS)-Cs(2)Cl(+)-graphite method. After eliminating the weighing error caused from evaporation by designing a special weighing container and accurately determining the chlorine contents in two highly enriched Na(37)Cl and Na(35)Cl salts by the current constant coulometric titration, one series of gravimetric synthetic mixtures prepared from two highly enriched Na(37)Cl and Na(35)Cl salts was used to calibrate two thermal ionization mass spectrometers in two individual laboratories. The correction factors (i.e., K(37/35) = R(37/35meas)/R(37/35calc)) were obtained from five cycles of iterative calculations on the basis of calculated and determined R((37)Cl/(35)Cl) values in gravimetric synthetic mixtures. The absolute R((37)Cl/(35)Cl) ratios for NIST SRM 975, NIST 975a, and ISL 354 by the precise

  14. The top-down mechanism for body-mass-abundance scaling.

    PubMed

    Rossberg, A G; Ishii, R; Amemiya, T; Itoh, K

    2008-02-01

    Scaling relationships between mean body masses and abundances of species in multitrophic communities continue to be a subject of intense research and debate. The top-down mechanism explored in this paper explains the frequently observed inverse linear relationship between body mass and abundance (i.e., constant biomass) in terms of a balancing of resource biomasses by behaviorally and evolutionarily adapting foragers, and the evolutionary response of resources to this foraging pressure. The mechanism is tested using an allometric, multitrophic community model with a complex food web structure. It is a statistical model describing the evolutionary and population dynamics of tens to hundreds of species in a uniform way. Particularities of the model are the detailed representation of the evolution and interaction of trophic traits to reproduce topological food web patterns, prey switching behavior modeled after experimental observations, and the evolutionary adaptation of attack rates. Model structure and design are discussed. For model states comparable to natural communities, we find that (1) the body-mass abundance scaling does not depend on the allometric scaling exponent of physiological rates in the form expected from the energetic equivalence rule or other bottom-up theories; (2) the scaling exponent of abundance as a function of body mass is approximately -1, independent of the allometric exponent for physiological rates assumed; (3) removal of top-down control destroys this pattern, and energetic equivalence is recovered. We conclude that the top-down mechanism is active in the model, and that it is a viable alternative to bottom-up mechanisms for controlling body-mass-abundance relations in natural communities.

  15. In-situ determination of field-scale NAPL mass transfer coefficients: Performance, simulation and analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mobile, Michael; Widdowson, Mark; Stewart, Lloyd; Nyman, Jennifer; Deeb, Rula; Kavanaugh, Michael; Mercer, James; Gallagher, Daniel

    2016-04-01

    Better estimates of non-aqueous phase liquid (NAPL) mass, its persistence into the future, and the potential impact of source reduction are critical needs for determining the optimal path to clean up sites impacted by NAPLs. One impediment to constraining time estimates of source depletion is the uncertainty in the rate of mass transfer between NAPLs and groundwater. In this study, an innovative field test is demonstrated for the purpose of quantifying field-scale NAPL mass transfer coefficients (klN) within a source zone of a fuel-contaminated site. Initial evaluation of the test concept using a numerical model revealed that the aqueous phase concentration response to the injection of clean groundwater within a source zone was a function of NAPL mass transfer. Under rate limited conditions, NAPL dissolution together with the injection flow rate and the radial distance to monitoring points directly controlled time of travel. Concentration responses observed in the field test were consistent with the hypothetical model results allowing field-scale NAPL mass transfer coefficients to be quantified. Site models for groundwater flow and solute transport were systematically calibrated and utilized for data analysis. Results show klN for benzene varied from 0.022 to 0.60 d- 1. Variability in results was attributed to a highly heterogeneous horizon consisting of layered media of varying physical properties.

  16. In-situ determination of field-scale NAPL mass transfer coefficients: Performance, simulation and analysis.

    PubMed

    Mobile, Michael; Widdowson, Mark; Stewart, Lloyd; Nyman, Jennifer; Deeb, Rula; Kavanaugh, Michael; Mercer, James; Gallagher, Daniel

    2016-04-01

    Better estimates of non-aqueous phase liquid (NAPL) mass, its persistence into the future, and the potential impact of source reduction are critical needs for determining the optimal path to clean up sites impacted by NAPLs. One impediment to constraining time estimates of source depletion is the uncertainty in the rate of mass transfer between NAPLs and groundwater. In this study, an innovative field test is demonstrated for the purpose of quantifying field-scale NAPL mass transfer coefficients (kl(N)) within a source zone of a fuel-contaminated site. Initial evaluation of the test concept using a numerical model revealed that the aqueous phase concentration response to the injection of clean groundwater within a source zone was a function of NAPL mass transfer. Under rate limited conditions, NAPL dissolution together with the injection flow rate and the radial distance to monitoring points directly controlled time of travel. Concentration responses observed in the field test were consistent with the hypothetical model results allowing field-scale NAPL mass transfer coefficients to be quantified. Site models for groundwater flow and solute transport were systematically calibrated and utilized for data analysis. Results show kl(N) for benzene varied from 0.022 to 0.60d(-1). Variability in results was attributed to a highly heterogeneous horizon consisting of layered media of varying physical properties.

  17. TESTING A SCALE-INDEPENDENT METHOD TO MEASURE THE MASS OF BLACK HOLES

    SciTech Connect

    Gliozzi, M.; Titarchuk, L.; Satyapal, S.; Price, D.; Jang, I.

    2011-07-01

    Estimating the black hole mass at the center of galaxies is a fundamental step not only for understanding the physics of accretion, but also for the cosmological evolution of galaxies. Recently, a new method, based solely on X-ray data, was successfully applied to determine the black hole mass in Galactic systems. Since X-rays are thought to be produced via Comptonization process both in stellar and supermassive black holes, in principle, the same method may be applied to estimate the mass in supermassive black holes. In this work we test this hypothesis by performing a systematic analysis of a sample of active galactic nuclei, whose black hole mass has been already determined via reverberation mapping and which possess high-quality XMM-Newton archival data. The good agreement obtained between the black hole masses derived with this novel scaling technique and the reverberation mapping values suggests that this method is robust and works equally well on stellar and supermassive black holes, making it a truly scale-independent technique for black hole determination.

  18. Nano-Scale Secondary Ion Mass Spectrometry - A new analytical tool in biogeochemistry and soil ecology

    SciTech Connect

    Herrmann, A M; Ritz, K; Nunan, N; Clode, P L; Pett-Ridge, J; Kilburn, M R; Murphy, D V; O'Donnell, A G; Stockdale, E A

    2006-10-18

    Soils are structurally heterogeneous across a wide range of spatio-temporal scales. Consequently, external environmental conditions do not have a uniform effect throughout the soil, resulting in a large diversity of micro-habitats. It has been suggested that soil function can be studied without explicit consideration of such fine detail, but recent research has indicated that the micro-scale distribution of organisms may be of importance for a mechanistic understanding of many soil functions. Due to a lack of techniques with adequate sensitivity for data collection at appropriate scales, the question 'How important are various soil processes acting at different scales for ecological function?' is challenging to answer. The nano-scale secondary ion mass spectrometer (NanoSIMS) represents the latest generation of ion microprobes which link high-resolution microscopy with isotopic analysis. The main advantage of NanoSIMS over other secondary ion mass spectrometers is the ability to operate at high mass resolution, whilst maintaining both excellent signal transmission and spatial resolution ({approx}50 nm). NanoSIMS has been used previously in studies focusing on presolar materials from meteorites, in material science, biology, geology and mineralogy. Recently, the potential of NanoSIMS as a new tool in the study of biophysical interfaces in soils has been demonstrated. This paper describes the principles of NanoSIMS and discusses the potential of this tool to contribute to the field of biogeochemistry and soil ecology. Practical considerations (sample size and preparation, simultaneous collection of isotopes, mass resolution, isobaric interference and quantification of the isotopes of interest) are discussed. Adequate sample preparation avoiding biases in the interpretation of NanoSIMS data due to artifacts and identification of regions-of interest are of most concerns in using NanoSIMS as a new tool in biogeochemistry and soil ecology. Finally, we review the areas of

  19. The intraspecific scaling of metabolic rate with body mass in fishes depends on lifestyle and temperature.

    PubMed

    Killen, Shaun S; Atkinson, David; Glazier, Douglas S

    2010-02-01

    Metabolic energy fuels all biological processes, and therefore theories that explain the scaling of metabolic rate with body mass potentially have great predictive power in ecology. A new model, that could improve this predictive power, postulates that the metabolic scaling exponent (b) varies between 2/3 and 1, and is inversely related to the elevation of the intraspecific scaling relationship (metabolic level, L), which in turn varies systematically among species in response to various ecological factors. We test these predictions by examining the effects of lifestyle, swimming mode and temperature on intraspecific scaling of resting metabolic rate among 89 species of teleost fish. As predicted, b decreased as L increased with temperature, and with shifts in lifestyle from bathyal and benthic to benthopelagic to pelagic. This effect of lifestyle on b may be related to varying amounts of energetically expensive tissues associated with different capacities for swimming during predator-prey interactions.

  20. Proton hexality from an anomalous flavor U(1) and neutrino masses: Linking to the string scale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dreiner, Herbi K.; Luhn, Christoph; Murayama, Hitoshi; Thormeier, Marc

    2008-05-01

    We devise minimalistic gauged U(1 Froggatt-Nielsen models which at low-energy give rise to the recently suggested discrete gauge Z-symmetry, proton hexality, thus stabilizing the proton. Assuming three generations of right-handed neutrinos, with the proper choice of X-charges, we obtain viable neutrino masses. Furthermore, we find scenarios such that no X-charged hidden sector superfields are needed, which from a bottom-up perspective allows the calculation of g, g and G's Kač-Moody levels. The only mass scale apart from M is m.

  1. The generalized scaling relations for X-ray galaxy clusters: the most powerful mass proxy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ettori, S.

    2013-10-01

    The application to observational data of the generalized scaling relations (gSRs) presented in Ettori et al. 2012 is here discussed. We extend further the formalism of the gSR in the self-similar model for X-ray galaxy clusters, showing that for a generic relation M_tot ∝ L^{α } M_g^{β } T^{γ }, where L, Mg and T are the gas luminosity, mass and temperature, respectively, the values of the slopes lay in the plane 4α + 3β + 2γ = 3. Using published data set, we show that some projections of the gSR are the most efficient relations, holding among observed physical quantities in the X-ray band, to recover the cluster gravitating mass. This conclusion is based on the evidence that they provide the lowest χ2, the lowest total scatter and the lowest intrinsic scatter among the studied scaling laws on both galaxy group and cluster mass scales. By the application of the gSR, the intrinsic scatter is reduced in all the cases down to a relative error on the reconstructed mass below 16 per cent. The best-fitting relations are M_tot ∝ M_g^a T^{1.5-1.5 a}, with a ≈ 0.4, and Mtot ∝ LaT1.5 - 2a, with a ≈ 0.15. As by-product of this study, we provide the estimates of the gravitating mass at Δ = 500 for 120 objects (50 from the Mahdavi et al. sample, 16 from Maughan sample; 31 from Pratt et al. sample; 23 from Sun et al. sample), 114 of which are unique entries. The typical relative error on the mass provided from the gSR only (i.e. not propagating any uncertainty associated with the observed quantities) ranges between 3 and 5 per cent on cluster scale and is about 10 per cent for galaxy groups. With respect to the hydrostatic values used to calibrate the gSR, the masses are recovered with deviations of the order of 10 per cent due to the different mix of relaxed/disturbed objects present in the considered samples. In the extreme case of a gSR calibrated with relaxed systems, the hydrostatic mass in disturbed objects is overestimated by about 20 per cent.

  2. Absolute photoionization cross-section of the propargyl radical

    SciTech Connect

    Savee, John D.; Welz, Oliver; Taatjes, Craig A.; Osborn, David L.; Soorkia, Satchin; Selby, Talitha M.

    2012-04-07

    Using synchrotron-generated vacuum-ultraviolet radiation and multiplexed time-resolved photoionization mass spectrometry we have measured the absolute photoionization cross-section for the propargyl (C{sub 3}H{sub 3}) radical, {sigma}{sub propargyl}{sup ion}(E), relative to the known absolute cross-section of the methyl (CH{sub 3}) radical. We generated a stoichiometric 1:1 ratio of C{sub 3}H{sub 3} : CH{sub 3} from 193 nm photolysis of two different C{sub 4}H{sub 6} isomers (1-butyne and 1,3-butadiene). Photolysis of 1-butyne yielded values of {sigma}{sub propargyl}{sup ion}(10.213 eV)=(26.1{+-}4.2) Mb and {sigma}{sub propargyl}{sup ion}(10.413 eV)=(23.4{+-}3.2) Mb, whereas photolysis of 1,3-butadiene yielded values of {sigma}{sub propargyl}{sup ion}(10.213 eV)=(23.6{+-}3.6) Mb and {sigma}{sub propargyl}{sup ion}(10.413 eV)=(25.1{+-}3.5) Mb. These measurements place our relative photoionization cross-section spectrum for propargyl on an absolute scale between 8.6 and 10.5 eV. The cross-section derived from our results is approximately a factor of three larger than previous determinations.

  3. Mass composition of high-energy cosmic rays and scaling violation in their interactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wdowczyk, J.; Wolfendale, A. W.

    1983-11-01

    Published results of proton-antiproton-collider experiments at energies of about 200 TeV (Kafka et al., 1977; Vernov et al., 1977) and EAS observations (Hara et al., 1981; Danilova et al., 1981) are analyzed in terms of theoretical models of the mass composition of high-energy cosmic rays. The scaling model with an asymptotic condition at about 100 GeV requires a different mass composition at higher energies, but this is not confirmed by the experimental and observational data, which are summarized and presented graphically. Deviation from scaling is shown to increase with increasing energy from 1 to 100 TeV and to continue up to about 10 PeV, but to be less severe above 100 PeV, in general agreement with the changing-interactive-characteristic model of Olejniczak et al. (1977).

  4. Quark and lepton masses at the GUT scale including supersymmetric threshold corrections

    SciTech Connect

    Antusch, S.; Spinrath, M.

    2008-10-01

    We investigate the effect of supersymmetric (SUSY) threshold corrections on the values of the running quark and charged lepton masses at the grand unified theory (GUT) scale within the large tan{beta} regime of the minimal supersymmetric standard model. In addition to the typically dominant SUSY QCD contributions for the quarks, we also include the electroweak contributions for quarks and leptons and show that they can have significant effects. We provide the GUT scale ranges of quark and charged lepton Yukawa couplings as well as of the ratios m{sub {mu}}/m{sub s}, m{sub e}/m{sub d}, y{sub {tau}}/y{sub b} and y{sub t}/y{sub b} for three example ranges of SUSY parameters. We discuss how the enlarged ranges due to threshold effects might open up new possibilities for constructing GUT models of fermion masses and mixings.

  5. SUSY Threshold Effects on Quark and Lepton Masses at the GUT Scale

    SciTech Connect

    Antusch, Stefan

    2008-11-23

    We discuss the impact of supersymmetric (SUSY) threshold corrections on the values of the running quark and charged lepton masses at the GUT scale within the large tan{beta} regime of the MSSM. In addition to the typically dominant SUSY QCD contributions for the quarks, we also include the electroweak contributions for quarks and leptons which can have significant effects. We provide the GUT scale ranges of quark and charged lepton Yukawa couplings as well as of the ratios m{sub {mu}}/m{sub s}, m{sub e}/m{sub d}, y{sub {tau}}/y{sub b} and y{sub t}/y{sub b} for three example ranges of SUSY parameters and discuss how the enlarged ranges due to threshold effects might open up new possibilities for constructing GUT models of fermion masses and mixings. This is a brief summary of the work of Ref. [1].

  6. The effect of primordial mass segregation on the size scale of globular clusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haghi, Hosein; Hoseini-Rad, Seyed Mohammad; Zonoozi, Akram Hasani; Küpper, Andreas H. W.

    2014-11-01

    We use direct N-body calculations to investigate the impact of primordial mass segregation on the size scale and mass-loss rate of star clusters in a galactic tidal field. We run a set of simulations of clusters with varying degrees of primordial mass segregation at various galactocentric radii and show that, in primordially segregated clusters, the early, impulsive mass-loss from stellar evolution of the most massive stars in the innermost regions of the cluster leads to a stronger expansion than for initially non-segregated clusters. Therefore, models in stronger tidal fields dissolve faster due to an enhanced flux of stars over the tidal boundary. Throughout their lifetimes, the segregated clusters are more extended by a factor of about 2, suggesting that (at least) some of the very extended globular clusters in the outer halo of the Milky Way may have been born with primordial mass segregation. We finally derive a relation between star-cluster dissolution time, Tdiss, and galactocentric radius, RG, and show how it depends on the degree of primordial mass segregation.

  7. Scale dependence of rock mass deformability measured by fiber-optic strain gages

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gage, JoAnn R.

    We use fiber-optic strain and temperature sensors to measure in situ strain in rock masses to examine how the mechanical properties of rock vary from the cm3 to m3-scale. We have installed a dense array of Fiber Bragg Grating (FBG) sensors underground on the 1250 m (4100 ft.) level of the Sanford Underground Research Facility (SURF) Lead, SD. We use this sensor array in two loading experiments to determine the modulus of deformation (Em) of the rock mass. We have developed three sensor attachment methods. We use 1 m gage-length OS3600 temperature-compensated FBG strain gages that were installed in two ways: surface-mounted and embedded. Ambient temperature changes in the mine bias strain measurements from the surface-mounted sensors. Because of the temperature effects on the surface-mounted sensors, embedded sensors are preferable for measuring in situ strain in rock masses. In order to measure a more detailed strain and temperature profile within a rock mass, we have developed Fiber-optically Instrumented Rock Strain and Temperature Strips (FROSTS). FROSTS are embedded in the rock mass and have six fiber-optic strain and temperature gages installed along specially designed strips of 304-stainless steel. We have also developed a pretensioning method for the FROSTS so that the FROSTS can measure both shortening and elongation. Our laboratory experiments show that the FROSTS accurately measure strain, are more compliant than the rock mass, and thoroughly couple to the rock mass. We performed two field point-loading tests using 89 kN and 890 kN loads and the fiber-optic strain sensors array to evaluate in situ rock mass deformability and examine how the mechanical properties of rock vary over spatial scales. The in situ modulus of deformation increases with depth into the rock mass. We interpret this increase in stiffness to be a result of the differences in mechanical properties due to the effect of excavation of the underground space. If done properly, in situ

  8. Neutrino Mass Bounds from 0{nu}{beta}{beta} Decays and Large Scale Structures

    SciTech Connect

    Keum, Y.-Y.; Ichiki, K.; Kajino, T.

    2008-05-21

    We investigate the way how the total mass sum of neutrinos can be constrained from the neutrinoless double beta decay and cosmological probes with cosmic microwave background (WMAP 3-year results), large scale structures including 2dFGRS and SDSS data sets. First we discuss, in brief, on the current status of neutrino mass bounds from neutrino beta decays and cosmic constrain within the flat {lambda}CMD model. In addition, we explore the interacting neutrino dark-energy model, where the evolution of neutrino masses is determined by quintessence scalar filed, which is responsable for cosmic acceleration today. Assuming the flatness of the universe, the constraint we can derive from the current observation is {sigma}m{sub {nu}}<0.87 eV at the 95% confidence level, which is consistent with {sigma}m{sub {nu}}<0.68 eV in the flat {lambda}CDM model.

  9. Measurable neutrino mass scale in A{sub 4}xSU(5)

    SciTech Connect

    Antusch, S.; Spinrath, M.; King, Stephen F.

    2011-01-01

    We propose a supersymmetric A{sub 4}xSU(5) model of quasidegenerate neutrinos which predicts the effective neutrino mass m{sub ee} relevant for neutrinoless double beta decay to be proportional to the neutrino mass scale, thereby allowing its determination approximately independently of unknown Majorana phases. Such a natural quasidegeneracy is achieved by using A{sub 4} family symmetry (as an example of a non-Abelian family symmetry with real triplet representations) to enforce a contribution to the neutrino mass matrix proportional to the identity. Tribimaximal neutrino mixing as well as quark CP violation with {alpha}{approx_equal}90 deg. d a leptonic CP phase {delta}{sub MNS{approx_equal}}90 deg. arise from the breaking of the A{sub 4} family symmetry by the vacuum expectation values of four 'flavon' fields pointing in specific postulated directions in flavor space.

  10. A common mass scale for satellite galaxies of the Milky Way.

    PubMed

    Strigari, Louis E; Bullock, James S; Kaplinghat, Manoj; Simon, Joshua D; Geha, Marla; Willman, Beth; Walker, Matthew G

    2008-08-28

    The Milky Way has at least twenty-three known satellite galaxies that shine with luminosities ranging from about a thousand to a billion times that of the Sun. Half of these galaxies were discovered in the past few years in the Sloan Digital Sky Survey, and they are among the least luminous galaxies in the known Universe. A determination of the mass of these galaxies provides a test of galaxy formation at the smallest scales and probes the nature of the dark matter that dominates the mass density of the Universe. Here we use new measurements of the velocities of the stars in these galaxies to show that they are consistent with them having a common mass of about 10(7) within their central 300 parsecs. This result demonstrates that the faintest of the Milky Way satellites are the most dark-matter-dominated galaxies known, and could be a hint of a new scale in galaxy formation or a characteristic scale for the clustering of dark matter.

  11. Scaling of metabolic rate on body mass in small laboratory mammals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pace, N.; Rahlmann, D. F.; Smith, A. H.

    1980-01-01

    The scaling of metabolic heat production rate on body mass is investigated for five species of small laboratory mammal in order to define selection of animals of metabolic rates and size range appropriate for the measurement of changes in the scaling relationship upon exposure to weightlessness in Shuttle/Spacelab experiment. Metabolic rates were measured according to oxygen consumption and carbon dioxide production for individual male and female Swiss-Webster mice, Syrian hamsters, Simonsen albino rats, Hartley guinea pigs and New Zealand white rabbits, which range in mass from 0.05 to 5 kg mature body size, at ages of 1, 2, 3, 5, 8, 12, 18 and 24 months. The metabolic intensity, defined as the heat produced per hour per kg body mass, is found to decrease dramatically with age until the animals are 6 to 8 months old, with little or no sex difference. When plotted on a logarithmic graph, the relation of metabolic rate to total body mass is found to obey a power law of index 0.676, which differs significantly from the classical value of 0.75. When the values for the mice are removed, however, an index of 0.749 is obtained. It is thus proposed that six male animals, 8 months of age, of each of the four remaining species be used to study the effects of gravitational loading on the metabolic energy requirements of terrestrial animals.

  12. Bridged single-walled carbon nanotube-based atomic-scale mass sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ali-Akbari, H. R.; Shaat, M.; Abdelkefi, A.

    2016-08-01

    The potentials of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) as mechanical resonators for atomic-scale mass sensing are presented. To this aim, a nonlocal continuum-based model is proposed to study the dynamic behavior of bridged single-walled carbon nanotube-based mass nanosensors. The carbon nanotube (CNT) is considered as an elastic Euler-Bernoulli beam with von Kármán type geometric nonlinearity. Eringen's nonlocal elastic field theory is utilized to model the interatomic long-range interactions within the structure of the CNT. This developed model accounts for the arbitrary position of the deposited atomic-mass. The natural frequencies and associated mode shapes are determined based on an eigenvalue problem analysis. An atom of xenon (Xe) is first considered as a specific case where the results show that the natural frequencies and mode shapes of the CNT are strongly dependent on the location of the deposited Xe and the nonlocal parameter of the CNT. It is also indicated that the first vibrational mode is the most sensitive when the mass is deposited at the middle of a single-walled carbon nanotube. However, when deposited in other locations, it is demonstrated that the second or third vibrational modes may be more sensitive. To investigate the sensitivity of bridged single-walled CNTs as mass sensors, different noble gases are considered, namely Xe, argon (Ar), and helium (He). It is shown that the sensitivity of the single-walled CNT to the Ar and He gases is much lower than the Xe gas due to the significant decrease in their masses. The derived model and performed analysis are so needed for mass sensing applications and particularly when the detected mass is randomly deposited.

  13. Burgers' equation, Devil's staircases and the mass distribution for large-scale structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vergassola, M.; Dubrulle, B.; Frisch, U.; Noullez, A.

    1994-09-01

    In the simple one-dimensional case, with ordinary Brownian motion as initial condition, numerically supported conjectures by She et al. have led to a proof by Sinai of the following result: there is a Devil's staricase of dimension 1/2 in the Lagranian map for the solution of the Burgers equation in the limit of vanishing viscosity. The main goal of this paper is to give a comprehensive introduction to these recent theoretical develpments and the extend them to initial power-law spectra with a wide range of exponents and to more than one dimension. The necessary geometric and probablistic tools, due mostly to Sinai, are here presented in a detailed but rather elementary way, intended for a readership of general physicists. The extensions of Sinai's theory presented here offer included heuristic elements. Most of the predictions are however tested by accurate numerical experiments in one and two dimensions, using a new 'Fast Legendre Transform' algorithm which exploits a monotonicity property and has very low storage requirements. Predictions of the present theory for the mass function are compared to those of Press and Schechter (1974). Their expression for the mass function is found to agree with the adhesion model at large masses in any dimension. At small masses, there are discrpancies in dimension. At small masses, there are discrpancies in dimensions higher than one. In one dimension the scaling behavior at small masses is correctly given by the Press-Schechter theory. Sinai's theory, recast in the language of gravitational collapse, tells us that the scaling originates not from the condition of collapse of a given region of small size, but from a condition of non-collapse of an extended halo around the region.

  14. Mass action realizations of reaction kinetic system models on various time scales

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hangos, K. M.; Szederkényi, G.

    2011-01-01

    Complex chemical reaction networks often exhibit different dynamic behaviour on different time scales. A combined approach is proposed in this work for determining physically meaningful mass action realizations of complex chemical reaction networks that describe its dynamic behaviour on different time scales. This is achieved by appropriately reducing the detailed overall mass action kinetic scheme using quasi steady state assumptions fit to the particular time scale, and then searching for an optimal realization using mixed integer linear programing. Furthermore, the relationship between the properties (reversibility, deficiency, stability) of the obtained realizations of the same system on different time scales are also investigated and related to the same properties of the detailed overall model. It is shown that the reduced models obtained by quasi steady state assumptions may show exotic nonlinear behaviour, such as oscillations, when the original detailed is globally asymptotically stable. The proposed methods are illustrated by using a simple Michaelis-Menten type reaction kinetic example. The simplified versions of the well known Brusselator model have also been investigated and presented as a case study.

  15. ABSOLUTE POLARIMETRY AT RHIC.

    SciTech Connect

    OKADA; BRAVAR, A.; BUNCE, G.; GILL, R.; HUANG, H.; MAKDISI, Y.; NASS, A.; WOOD, J.; ZELENSKI, Z.; ET AL.

    2007-09-10

    Precise and absolute beam polarization measurements are critical for the RHIC spin physics program. Because all experimental spin-dependent results are normalized by beam polarization, the normalization uncertainty contributes directly to final physics uncertainties. We aimed to perform the beam polarization measurement to an accuracy Of {Delta}P{sub beam}/P{sub beam} < 5%. The absolute polarimeter consists of Polarized Atomic Hydrogen Gas Jet Target and left-right pairs of silicon strip detectors and was installed in the RHIC-ring in 2004. This system features proton-proton elastic scattering in the Coulomb nuclear interference (CNI) region. Precise measurements of the analyzing power A{sub N} of this process has allowed us to achieve {Delta}P{sub beam}/P{sub beam} = 4.2% in 2005 for the first long spin-physics run. In this report, we describe the entire set up and performance of the system. The procedure of beam polarization measurement and analysis results from 2004-2005 are described. Physics topics of AN in the CNI region (four-momentum transfer squared 0.001 < -t < 0.032 (GeV/c){sup 2}) are also discussed. We point out the current issues and expected optimum accuracy in 2006 and the future.

  16. An Empirical Relation between the Large-scale Magnetic Field and the Dynamical Mass in Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tabatabaei, F. S.; Martinsson, T. P. K.; Knapen, J. H.; Beckman, J. E.; Koribalski, B.; Elmegreen, B. G.

    2016-02-01

    The origin and evolution of cosmic magnetic fields as well as the influence of the magnetic fields on the evolution of galaxies are unknown. Though not without challenges, the dynamo theory can explain the large-scale coherent magnetic fields that govern galaxies, but observational evidence for the theory is so far very scarce. Putting together the available data of non-interacting, non-cluster galaxies with known large-scale magnetic fields, we find a tight correlation between the integrated polarized flux density, SPI, and the rotation speed, vrot, of galaxies. This leads to an almost linear correlation between the large-scale magnetic field \\bar{B} and vrot, assuming that the number of cosmic-ray electrons is proportional to the star formation rate, and a super-linear correlation assuming equipartition between magnetic fields and cosmic rays. This correlation cannot be attributed to an active linear α-Ω dynamo, as no correlation holds with global shear or angular speed. It indicates instead a coupling between the large-scale magnetic field and the dynamical mass of the galaxies, \\bar{B}˜ \\{M}{{dyn}}0.25-0.4. Hence, faster rotating and/or more massive galaxies have stronger large-scale magnetic fields. The observed \\bar{B}-{v}{{rot}} correlation shows that the anisotropic turbulent magnetic field dominates \\bar{B} in fast rotating galaxies as the turbulent magnetic field, coupled with gas, is enhanced and ordered due to the strong gas compression and/or local shear in these systems. This study supports a stationary condition for the large-scale magnetic field as long as the dynamical mass of galaxies is constant.

  17. Mass transfer of VOCs in laboratory-scale air sparging tank.

    PubMed

    Chao, Keh-Ping; Ong, Say Kee; Huang, Mei-Chuan

    2008-04-15

    Volatilization of VOCs was investigated using a 55-gal laboratory-scale model in which air sparging experiments were conducted with a vertical air injection well. In addition, X-ray imaging of an air sparging sand box showed air flows were in the form of air bubbles or channels depending on the size of the porous media. Air-water mass transfer was quantified using the air-water mass transfer coefficient which was determined by fitting the experimental data to a two-zone model. The two-zone model is a one-dimensional lumped model that accounts for the effects of air flow type and diffusion of VOCs in the aqueous phase. The experimental air-water mass transfer coefficients, KGa, obtained from this study ranged from 10(-2) to 10(-3)1/min. From a correlation analysis, the air-water mass transfer coefficient was found to be directly proportional to the air flow rate and the mean particle size of soil but inversely proportional to Henry's constant. The correlation results implied that the air-water mass transfer coefficient was strongly affected by the size of porous media and the air flow rates. PMID:17804158

  18. Large-scale ichthyoplankton and water mass distribution along the South Brazil Shelf.

    PubMed

    de Macedo-Soares, Luis Carlos Pinto; Garcia, Carlos Alberto Eiras; Freire, Andrea Santarosa; Muelbert, José Henrique

    2014-01-01

    Ichthyoplankton is an essential component of pelagic ecosystems, and environmental factors play an important role in determining its distribution. We have investigated simultaneous latitudinal and cross-shelf gradients in ichthyoplankton abundance to test the hypothesis that the large-scale distribution of fish larvae in the South Brazil Shelf is associated with water mass composition. Vertical plankton tows were collected between 21°27' and 34°51'S at 107 stations, in austral late spring and early summer seasons. Samples were taken with a conical-cylindrical plankton net from the depth of chlorophyll maxima to the surface in deep stations, or from 10 m from the bottom to the surface in shallow waters. Salinity and temperature were obtained with a CTD/rosette system, which provided seawater for chlorophyll-a and nutrient concentrations. The influence of water mass on larval fish species was studied using Indicator Species Analysis, whereas environmental effects on the distribution of larval fish species were analyzed by Distance-based Redundancy Analysis. Larval fish species were associated with specific water masses: in the north, Sardinella brasiliensis was found in Shelf Water; whereas in the south, Engraulis anchoita inhabited the Plata Plume Water. At the slope, Tropical Water was characterized by the bristlemouth Cyclothone acclinidens. The concurrent analysis showed the importance of both cross-shelf and latitudinal gradients on the large-scale distribution of larval fish species. Our findings reveal that ichthyoplankton composition and large-scale spatial distribution are determined by water mass composition in both latitudinal and cross-shelf gradients. PMID:24614798

  19. Discriminating precursors of common fragments for large-scale metabolite profiling by triple quadrupole mass spectrometry

    PubMed Central

    Nikolskiy, Igor; Siuzdak, Gary; Patti, Gary J.

    2015-01-01

    Motivation: The goal of large-scale metabolite profiling is to compare the relative concentrations of as many metabolites extracted from biological samples as possible. This is typically accomplished by measuring the abundances of thousands of ions with high-resolution and high mass accuracy mass spectrometers. Although the data from these instruments provide a comprehensive fingerprint of each sample, identifying the structures of the thousands of detected ions is still challenging and time intensive. An alternative, less-comprehensive approach is to use triple quadrupole (QqQ) mass spectrometry to analyze predetermined sets of metabolites (typically fewer than several hundred). This is done using authentic standards to develop QqQ experiments that specifically detect only the targeted metabolites, with the advantage that the need for ion identification after profiling is eliminated. Results: Here, we propose a framework to extend the application of QqQ mass spectrometers to large-scale metabolite profiling. We aim to provide a foundation for designing QqQ multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) experiments for each of the 82 696 metabolites in the METLIN metabolite database. First, we identify common fragmentation products from the experimental fragmentation data in METLIN. Then, we model the likelihoods of each precursor structure in METLIN producing each common fragmentation product. With these likelihood estimates, we select ensembles of common fragmentation products that minimize our uncertainty about metabolite identities. We demonstrate encouraging performance and, based on our results, we suggest how our method can be integrated with future work to develop large-scale MRM experiments. Availability and implementation: Our predictions, Supplementary results, and the code for estimating likelihoods and selecting ensembles of fragmentation reactions are made available on the lab website at http://pattilab.wustl.edu/FragPred. Contact: gjpattij

  20. Large-Scale Ichthyoplankton and Water Mass Distribution along the South Brazil Shelf

    PubMed Central

    de Macedo-Soares, Luis Carlos Pinto; Garcia, Carlos Alberto Eiras; Freire, Andrea Santarosa; Muelbert, José Henrique

    2014-01-01

    Ichthyoplankton is an essential component of pelagic ecosystems, and environmental factors play an important role in determining its distribution. We have investigated simultaneous latitudinal and cross-shelf gradients in ichthyoplankton abundance to test the hypothesis that the large-scale distribution of fish larvae in the South Brazil Shelf is associated with water mass composition. Vertical plankton tows were collected between 21°27′ and 34°51′S at 107 stations, in austral late spring and early summer seasons. Samples were taken with a conical-cylindrical plankton net from the depth of chlorophyll maxima to the surface in deep stations, or from 10 m from the bottom to the surface in shallow waters. Salinity and temperature were obtained with a CTD/rosette system, which provided seawater for chlorophyll-a and nutrient concentrations. The influence of water mass on larval fish species was studied using Indicator Species Analysis, whereas environmental effects on the distribution of larval fish species were analyzed by Distance-based Redundancy Analysis. Larval fish species were associated with specific water masses: in the north, Sardinella brasiliensis was found in Shelf Water; whereas in the south, Engraulis anchoita inhabited the Plata Plume Water. At the slope, Tropical Water was characterized by the bristlemouth Cyclothone acclinidens. The concurrent analysis showed the importance of both cross-shelf and latitudinal gradients on the large-scale distribution of larval fish species. Our findings reveal that ichthyoplankton composition and large-scale spatial distribution are determined by water mass composition in both latitudinal and cross-shelf gradients. PMID:24614798

  1. Absolute Equilibrium Entropy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shebalin, John V.

    1997-01-01

    The entropy associated with absolute equilibrium ensemble theories of ideal, homogeneous, fluid and magneto-fluid turbulence is discussed and the three-dimensional fluid case is examined in detail. A sigma-function is defined, whose minimum value with respect to global parameters is the entropy. A comparison is made between the use of global functions sigma and phase functions H (associated with the development of various H-theorems of ideal turbulence). It is shown that the two approaches are complimentary though conceptually different: H-theorems show that an isolated system tends to equilibrium while sigma-functions allow the demonstration that entropy never decreases when two previously isolated systems are combined. This provides a more complete picture of entropy in the statistical mechanics of ideal fluids.

  2. Coronal mass ejections and the evolution of the large-scale corona

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Linker, J. A.; Mikic, Z.

    1995-01-01

    Coronal mass ejections (CMEs) are dynamic, large-scale events in the solar corona that expel plasma and magnetic fields into the solar wind. The structure of the large-scale corona influences CME occurrence; for example, CMEs are most frequently observed to be disruptions of coronal or helmet streamer configurations on the Sun. We have investigated the evolution of the large-scale corona in the presence of differential rotation, using time-dependent magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) simulations in two and three dimensions. An equilibrium coronal configuration is first computed by superimposing a Parker solar wind flow on an initial potential field, the equations are integrated in time until a steady-state is reached. When differential rotation is introduced, we find that the configuration does not reach a steady state; the closed field regions (helmet streamers) disrupt recurrently, ejecting plasmoids into the solar wind. Our results suggest that differential rotation may be one of the mechanisms by which mass ejections are initiated. We will describe the evolution of the polarization brightness (pB) for the resulting configurations, as well as the propagation of the ejected plasmoids in the solar wind, and we will compare the effects of differential rotation with other possible initiation mechanisms, such as the emergence of new magnetic flux.

  3. Scaling of basal metabolic rate with body mass and temperature in mammals.

    PubMed

    Clarke, Andrew; Rothery, Peter; Isaac, Nick J B

    2010-05-01

    1. We present a statistical analysis of the scaling of resting (basal) metabolic rate, BMR, with body mass, B(m) and body temperature, T(b), in mammals. 2. Whilst the majority of the variance in ln BMR is explained by ln B(m), the T(b) term is statistically significant. The best fit model was quadratic, indicating that the scaling of ln BMR with ln B(m) varies with body size; the value of any scaling exponent estimated for a sample of mammals will therefore depend on the size distribution of species in the study. This effect can account for much of the variation in scaling exponents reported in the literature for mammals. 3. In all models, inclusion of T(b) reduced the strength of scaling with ln B(m). The model including T(b) suggests that birds and mammals have a similar underlying thermal dependence of BMR, equivalent to a Q(10) of 2.9 across the range of T(b) values 32-42 degrees C. 4. There was significant heterogeneity in both the mass scaling exponent and mean BMR across mammalian orders, with a tendency for orders dominated by larger taxa to have steeper scaling exponents. This heterogeneity was particularly marked across orders with smaller mean B(m) and the taxonomic composition of the sample will thus also affect the observed scaling exponent. After correcting for the effects of ln B(m) and T(b), Soricomorpha, Didelphimorphia and Artiodactyla had the highest BMR of those orders represented by more than 10 species in the data set. 5. Inclusion of T(b) in the model removed the effect of diet category evident from a model in ln B(m) alone and widely reported in the literature; this was caused by a strong interaction between diet category and T(b) in mammals. 6. Inclusion of mean ambient temperature, T(a), in the model indicated a significant inverse relationship between ln BMR and T(a), complicated by an interaction between T(a) and T(b). All other things being equal, a polar mammal living at -10 degrees C has a body temperature approximately 2.7 degrees C

  4. Scaling of basal metabolic rate with body mass and temperature in mammals.

    PubMed

    Clarke, Andrew; Rothery, Peter; Isaac, Nick J B

    2010-05-01

    1. We present a statistical analysis of the scaling of resting (basal) metabolic rate, BMR, with body mass, B(m) and body temperature, T(b), in mammals. 2. Whilst the majority of the variance in ln BMR is explained by ln B(m), the T(b) term is statistically significant. The best fit model was quadratic, indicating that the scaling of ln BMR with ln B(m) varies with body size; the value of any scaling exponent estimated for a sample of mammals will therefore depend on the size distribution of species in the study. This effect can account for much of the variation in scaling exponents reported in the literature for mammals. 3. In all models, inclusion of T(b) reduced the strength of scaling with ln B(m). The model including T(b) suggests that birds and mammals have a similar underlying thermal dependence of BMR, equivalent to a Q(10) of 2.9 across the range of T(b) values 32-42 degrees C. 4. There was significant heterogeneity in both the mass scaling exponent and mean BMR across mammalian orders, with a tendency for orders dominated by larger taxa to have steeper scaling exponents. This heterogeneity was particularly marked across orders with smaller mean B(m) and the taxonomic composition of the sample will thus also affect the observed scaling exponent. After correcting for the effects of ln B(m) and T(b), Soricomorpha, Didelphimorphia and Artiodactyla had the highest BMR of those orders represented by more than 10 species in the data set. 5. Inclusion of T(b) in the model removed the effect of diet category evident from a model in ln B(m) alone and widely reported in the literature; this was caused by a strong interaction between diet category and T(b) in mammals. 6. Inclusion of mean ambient temperature, T(a), in the model indicated a significant inverse relationship between ln BMR and T(a), complicated by an interaction between T(a) and T(b). All other things being equal, a polar mammal living at -10 degrees C has a body temperature approximately 2.7 degrees C

  5. Reactive Transport in Porous Media: Pore-scale Mass Exchange between Aqueous Phase and Biofilms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hassanizadeh, S.; Qin, C.

    2013-12-01

    In the presence of water and necessary nutrients, biofilms can grow on soil grain surfaces. They occupy void pore spaces blocking water flow. As a result, some hydrodynamic properties of porous media like porosity and permeability will be reduced. This ultimately leads to a condition known as bioclogging. Also, biofilms can degrade certain compounds. So, the features of bioclogging and biodegradation in porous media with biofilms have given rise to a broad range of environmental and engineering applications, such as bioremediation, biobarriers, microbial enhanced oil recovery, and protection of steel corrosion. To date, a number of macroscale and pore-scale models for describing biodegradation in porous media with biofilms are available in the literature. At the macro scale, to simplify numerical implementation, a ';one-equation' model is normally preferred. In this approach, only the solute concentration in aqueous phase is modeled associated with the consumption of solute in biofilms. Because the solute concentration in biofilms is different from that in aqueous phase, an effectiveness factor may be used in Monod kinetics for relating reaction rate within biofilms to the solute concentration in aqueous phase. Notice that this approach has its validity domains like local equilibrium and reaction-rate limited consumption. Another approach to modeling biodegradation is referred to as a ';two-equation' model, in which one needs to simultaneously track the solute concentrations in both aqueous phase and biofilms. In addition, the two concentrations may be related by a first-order kinetic mass exchange model. This first-rate exchange model is normally represented by a constant mas exchange coefficient multiplied by the concentration difference in the two domains. Here, one may question if complex advection-diffusion-reaction processes can be represented just by a constant mass exchange coefficient. In addition, the kinetic model of mass exchange between aqueous phase

  6. Laboratory experiments of fine-scale mixing and mass transport within a coral canopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reidenbach, Matthew A.; Koseff, Jeffrey R.; Monismith, Stephen G.

    2007-07-01

    Laboratory experiments obtained fine scale measurements of turbulent shear stresses and rates of mixing and mass transfer over a nonliving bed of the coral, Porites compressa, the dominant species found in Kaneohe Bay, Hawaii. A reef canopy was placed in a recirculating wave-current flume and flow was generated that simulated the flow characteristics of the reef flat of Kaneohe Bay. Turbulence and velocity structure under both unidirectional and wave-dominated currents were measured using a two-dimensional laser Doppler anemometer. Mass transport measurements were made using a planar laser-induced fluorescence technique in which the scalar transport of Rhodamine 6G dye, fluxed from the surfaces of the coral, was quantified. Results show that the action of surface waves, interacting with the structure of the reef, can increase instantaneous shear and mixing up to six times compared to that of unidirectional currents. Maximum shear and mass transport events coincided with flow separation within the wave-current boundary layer and the ejection of vortices into the flow. Wave action also acted to increase the vertical flux of water from within the coral structure. The combined effects of increased turbulent stress and fluid exchange from the interior of the canopy increased mass flux due to wave action 2.3±0.5 times that measured for comparable unidirectional currents.

  7. On the doublet/triplet splitting and intermediate mass scales in locally supersymmetric SO(10)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pulido, João

    1985-01-01

    In the light of the doublet/triplet splitting, the possibilities for an intermediate mass scale in locally supersymmetric SO(10) are analysed. It is found that the subgroup SU(4)c × SU(2)L × SU(2)R and more generally left-right symmetric models are unlikely to survive as intermediate symmetries since they imply too large values of the weak mixing angle. An alternative model using the subgroup SU(3)c × U(1)L × U(1)R is discussed. Requirements from global SUSY preservation impose an extra constraint and predictions for the grand unification and the intermediate masses are obtained at MX ~ 6 × 1015 GeV and MI ~ 1012 GeV. Address after March 1984: Centro de Fisica da Materia Condensada, Av. Prof. Gama Pinto, 2, 1699 Lisbon Codex, Portugal.

  8. Higgs mass scales and matter-antimatter oscillations in grand unified theories

    SciTech Connect

    Senjanovic, G.

    1982-01-01

    A general discussion of mass scales in grand unified theories is presented, with special emphasis on Higgs scalars which mediate neutron-antineutron (n-anti n) and hydrogen-antihydrogen (H-anti H) oscillations. It is shown that the analogue of survival hypothesis for fermions naturally makes such particles superheavy, thus leading to unobservable lifetimes. If this hypothesis is relaxed, an interesting possibility of potentially observable n-anti n and H-anti H transitions, mutually related arises in the context of SU(5) theory with spontaneously broken B-L symmetry.

  9. Investigation of the Large Scale Evolution and Topology of Coronal Mass Ejections in the Solar Wind

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Riley, Peter

    1999-01-01

    This investigation is concerned with the large-scale evolution and topology of Coronal Mass Ejections (CMEs) in the solar wind. During this reporting period we have analyzed a series of low density intervals in the ACE (Advanced Composition Explorer) plasma data set that bear many similarities to CMEs. We have begun a series of 3D, MHD (Magnetohydrodynamics) coronal models to probe potential causes of these events. We also edited two manuscripts concerning the properties of CMEs in the solar wind. One was re-submitted to the Journal of Geophysical Research.

  10. Lensing convergence and the neutrino mass scale in galaxy redshift surveys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cardona, Wilmar; Durrer, Ruth; Kunz, Martin; Montanari, Francesco

    2016-08-01

    We demonstrate the importance of including the lensing contribution in galaxy clustering analyses with large galaxy redshift surveys. It is well known that radial cross-correlations between different redshift bins of galaxy surveys are dominated by lensing. But we show here that also neglecting lensing in the autocorrelations within one bin severely biases cosmological parameter estimation with redshift surveys. It leads to significant shifts for several cosmological parameters, most notably the scalar spectral index and the neutrino mass scale. Especially the latter parameter is one of the main targets of future galaxy surveys.

  11. Thermoneutral zone and scaling of metabolic rate on body mass in small mammals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pace, N.; Rahlmann, D. F.

    1983-01-01

    A 4-species animal model suitable for experimental study of the effect of change in gravitational loading on the scale relationship between metabolic rate and total body mass is used to study the effect of temperature on metabolic rate in six male animals, 8-10 months of age, of each of the four species in the ambient temperature range 20-36 C. The measurements taken permitted partitioning of total body heat output into sensible heat loss by radiation, conduction and convection, and into latent heat loss by evaporation of water from the body surface. It is shown that the condition of thermoneutrality is important for metabolic scale effect studies, and that the thermoneutral zone for the species considered here is a narrow one.

  12. Laser interferometry method for absolute measurement of the acceleration of gravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hudson, O. K.

    1971-01-01

    Gravimeter permits more accurate and precise absolute measurement of g without reference to Potsdam values as absolute standards. Device is basically Michelson laser beam interferometer in which one arm is mass fitted with corner cube reflector.

  13. Optimization of large-scale pseudotargeted metabolomics method based on liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Luo, Ping; Yin, Peiyuan; Zhang, Weijian; Zhou, Lina; Lu, Xin; Lin, Xiaohui; Xu, Guowang

    2016-03-11

    Liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) is now a main stream technique for large-scale metabolic phenotyping to obtain a better understanding of genomic functions. However, repeatability is still an essential issue for the LC-MS based methods, and convincing strategies for long time analysis are urgently required. Our former reported pseudotargeted method which combines nontargeted and targeted analyses, is proved to be a practical approach with high-quality and information-rich data. In this study, we developed a comprehensive strategy based on the pseudotargeted analysis by integrating blank-wash, pooled quality control (QC) sample, and post-calibration for the large-scale metabolomics study. The performance of strategy was optimized from both pre- and post-acquisition sections including the selection of QC samples, insertion frequency of QC samples, and post-calibration methods. These results imply that the pseudotargeted method is rather stable and suitable for large-scale study of metabolic profiling. As a proof of concept, the proposed strategy was applied to the combination of 3 independent batches within a time span of 5 weeks, and generated about 54% of the features with coefficient of variations (CV) below 15%. Moreover, the stability and maximal capability of a single analytical batch could be extended to at least 282 injections (about 110h) while still providing excellent stability, the CV of 63% metabolic features was less than 15%. Taken together, the improved repeatability of our strategy provides a reliable protocol for large-scale metabolomics studies.

  14. Neutrino Masses and Flavor Oscillations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Yifang; Xing, Zhi-Zhong

    2016-10-01

    This essay is intended to provide a brief description of the peculiar properties of neutrinos within and beyond the standard theory of weak interactions. The focus is on the flavor oscillations of massive neutrinos, from which one has achieved some striking knowledge about their mass spectrum and flavor mixing pattern. The experimental prospects towards probing the absolute neutrino mass scale, possible Majorana nature and CP-violating effects, will also be addressed.

  15. MEASUREMENT OF GALAXY CLUSTER INTEGRATED COMPTONIZATION AND MASS SCALING RELATIONS WITH THE SOUTH POLE TELESCOPE

    SciTech Connect

    Saliwanchik, B. R.; Montroy, T. E.; Aird, K. A.; Bayliss, M.; Benson, B. A.; Bleem, L. E.; Carlstrom, J. E.; Chang, C. L.; Crawford, T. M.; Crites, A. T.; Bocquet, S.; Desai, S.; Brodwin, M.; Cho, H. M.; Clocchiatti, A.; De Haan, T.; Dobbs, M. A.; Dudley, J. P.; Foley, R. J.; Forman, W. R.; and others

    2015-02-01

    We describe a method for measuring the integrated Comptonization (Y {sub SZ}) of clusters of galaxies from measurements of the Sunyaev-Zel'dovich (SZ) effect in multiple frequency bands and use this method to characterize a sample of galaxy clusters detected in the South Pole Telescope (SPT) data. We use a Markov Chain Monte Carlo method to fit a β-model source profile and integrate Y {sub SZ} within an angular aperture on the sky. In simulated observations of an SPT-like survey that include cosmic microwave background anisotropy, point sources, and atmospheric and instrumental noise at typical SPT-SZ survey levels, we show that we can accurately recover β-model parameters for inputted clusters. We measure Y {sub SZ} for simulated semi-analytic clusters and find that Y {sub SZ} is most accurately determined in an angular aperture comparable to the SPT beam size. We demonstrate the utility of this method to measure Y {sub SZ} and to constrain mass scaling relations using X-ray mass estimates for a sample of 18 galaxy clusters from the SPT-SZ survey. Measuring Y {sub SZ} within a 0.'75 radius aperture, we find an intrinsic log-normal scatter of 21% ± 11% in Y {sub SZ} at a fixed mass. Measuring Y {sub SZ} within a 0.3 Mpc projected radius (equivalent to 0.'75 at the survey median redshift z = 0.6), we find a scatter of 26% ± 9%. Prior to this study, the SPT observable found to have the lowest scatter with mass was cluster detection significance. We demonstrate, from both simulations and SPT observed clusters that Y {sub SZ} measured within an aperture comparable to the SPT beam size is equivalent, in terms of scatter with cluster mass, to SPT cluster detection significance.

  16. Absolute photoionization cross-section of the methyl radical.

    SciTech Connect

    Taatjes, C. A.; Osborn, D. L.; Selby, T.; Meloni, G.; Fan, H.; Pratt, S. T.; Chemical Sciences and Engineering Division; SNL

    2008-01-01

    The absolute photoionization cross-section of the methyl radical has been measured using two completely independent methods. The CH{sub 3} photoionization cross-section was determined relative to that of acetone and methyl vinyl ketone at photon energies of 10.2 and 11.0 eV by using a pulsed laser-photolysis/time-resolved synchrotron photoionization mass spectrometry method. The time-resolved depletion of the acetone or methyl vinyl ketone precursor and the production of methyl radicals following 193 nm photolysis are monitored simultaneously by using time-resolved synchrotron photoionization mass spectrometry. Comparison of the initial methyl signal with the decrease in precursor signal, in combination with previously measured absolute photoionization cross-sections of the precursors, yields the absolute photoionization cross-section of the methyl radical; {sigma}{sub CH}(10.2 eV) = (5.7 {+-} 0.9) x 10{sup -18} cm{sup 2} and {sigma}{sub CH{sub 3}}(11.0 eV) = (6.0 {+-} 2.0) x 10{sup -18} cm{sup 2}. The photoionization cross-section for vinyl radical determined by photolysis of methyl vinyl ketone is in good agreement with previous measurements. The methyl radical photoionization cross-section was also independently measured relative to that of the iodine atom by comparison of ionization signals from CH{sub 3} and I fragments following 266 nm photolysis of methyl iodide in a molecular-beam ion-imaging apparatus. These measurements gave a cross-section of (5.4 {+-} 2.0) x 10{sup -18} cm{sup 2} at 10.460 eV, (5.5 {+-} 2.0) x 10{sup -18} cm{sup 2} at 10.466 eV, and (4.9 {+-} 2.0) x 10{sup -18} cm{sup 2} at 10.471 eV. The measurements allow relative photoionization efficiency spectra of methyl radical to be placed on an absolute scale and will facilitate quantitative measurements of methyl concentrations by photoionization mass spectrometry.

  17. Magnetic braking, ambipolar diffusion, cloud cores, and star formation - Natural length scales and protostellar masses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mouschovias, Telemachos Ch.

    1991-05-01

    Magnetic braking is essential for cloud contraction and star formation. Ambipolar diffusion is unavoidable in self-gravitating, magnetic clouds and leads to single-stage (as opposed to hierarchical) fragmentation (or core formation) and protostar formation. Magnetic forces dominate thermal-pressure and centrifugal forces over scales comparable to molecular cloud radii. Magnetic support of molecular clouds and the imperfect collisional coupling between charged and neutral particles introduce a critical magnetic length scale (λM,cr = 0.62υAτff) and an Alfvén length scale ((λA = πυAτni), respectively, in the problem which together with a critical thermal length scale (λT,cr = 1.09Caτff) explain naturally the formation of fragments (or cores) in otherwise quiescent clouds and determine the sizes and masses of these fragments during the subsequent stages of contraction. (The quantity υA is the Alfvén speed, τni the mean neutral-ion collision time, Ca the adiabatic speed of sound, and τff the free4all time scale.) Numerical calculations based on new adaptive-grid techniques follow the formation of fragments by ambipolar diffusion and their subsequent collapse up to an enhancement in central density above its initial equilibrium value by a factor ≃106 with excellent spatial resolution. The results confirm the existence and relevance of the three length scales and extend the analytical understanding of fragmentation and star formation derived from them. The ultimately bimodal opposition to gravity (by magnetic forces in the envelope and by thermal-pressure forces in the core) introduces a break in the slope of the log pn -log r profile. The relation Bc ∞ pkc between the magnetic field strength and the gas density in cloud cores holds with K = 0.4 - 0.5 even in the presence of ambipolar diffusion up to densities ˜109 cm-3 for a wide variety of clouds. The value K ≃ ½ is fairly typical. At the late stages of evolution, for example, at a central density

  18. Characterizing the small scale structures in the earliest stages of low-mass star formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vilhelm Persson, Magnus; van Dishoeck, Ewine; Tobin, John; Harsono, Daniel; Jørgensen, Jes K.

    2015-08-01

    In deeply-embedded low-mass protostars, the density and temperature distribution in the inner few hundred AU’s are poorly constrained. In sources where the envelope is less massive, i.e. the Class I stage, disks with Keplerian rotation have been inferred using C18O lines. However, constraining the various disk characteristics turns out to be difficult even in this case. Continuum and molecular line observations of optically thin tracers at very high sensitivity and resolution are needed to constrain the density, temperature and kinematics. Ultimately the assumed structure affects the determination of molecular abundances.We are attempting to model high-resolution dust continuum radio-interferometric observations of a few deeply-embedded low-mass protostars with a power-law disk model embedded in a spherical envelope.We model the interferometric visibilities taken with either the Plateau de Bure Interferometer or the ALMA telescope, probing scales down to a few tens of AU in some cases. Given the assumptions, the study shows disk sizes in the deeply-embedded phase that could be slightly larger than typical found in the more evolved Class I sources. The fitting also highlights that models for the physical structure of the inner envelope, on 500-2000 AU scales, needs to be improved. With future high sensitivity observations, we could potentially also be able to constrain any vertical density and temperature structure. In this poster I will present the

  19. Combined Use of Absolute and Differential Seismic Arrival Time Data to Improve Absolute Event Location

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Myers, S.; Johannesson, G.

    2012-12-01

    Arrival time measurements based on waveform cross correlation are becoming more common as advanced signal processing methods are applied to seismic data archives and real-time data streams. Waveform correlation can precisely measure the time difference between the arrival of two phases, and differential time data can be used to constrain relative location of events. Absolute locations are needed for many applications, which generally requires the use of absolute time data. Current methods for measuring absolute time data are approximately two orders of magnitude less precise than differential time measurements. To exploit the strengths of both absolute and differential time data, we extend our multiple-event location method Bayesloc, which previously used absolute time data only, to include the use of differential time measurements that are based on waveform cross correlation. Fundamentally, Bayesloc is a formulation of the joint probability over all parameters comprising the multiple event location system. The Markov-Chain Monte Carlo method is used to sample from the joint probability distribution given arrival data sets. The differential time component of Bayesloc includes scaling a stochastic estimate of differential time measurement precision based the waveform correlation coefficient for each datum. For a regional-distance synthetic data set with absolute and differential time measurement error of 0.25 seconds and 0.01 second, respectively, epicenter location accuracy is improved from and average of 1.05 km when solely absolute time data are used to 0.28 km when absolute and differential time data are used jointly (73% improvement). The improvement in absolute location accuracy is the result of conditionally limiting absolute location probability regions based on the precise relative position with respect to neighboring events. Bayesloc estimates of data precision are found to be accurate for the synthetic test, with absolute and differential time measurement

  20. Resonance frequency and mass identification of zeptogram-scale nanosensor based on the nonlocal beam theory.

    PubMed

    Li, Xian-Fang; Tang, Guo-Jin; Shen, Zhi-Bin; Lee, Kang Yong

    2015-01-01

    Free vibration and mass detection of carbon nanotube-based sensors are studied in this paper. Since the mechanical properties of carbon nanotubes possess a size effect, the nonlocal beam model is used to characterize flexural vibration of nanosensors carrying a concentrated nanoparticle, where the size effect is reflected by a nonlocal parameter. For nanocantilever or bridged sensor, frequency equations are derived when a nanoparticle is carried at the free end or the middle, respectively. Exact resonance frequencies are numerically determined for clamped-free, simply-supported, and clamped-clamped resonators. Alternative approximations of fundamental frequency are given in closed form within the relative error less than 0.4%, 0.6%, and 1.4% for cantilever, simply-supported, and bridged sensors, respectively. Mass identification formulae are derived in terms of the frequency shift. Identified masses via the present approach coincide with those using the molecular mechanics approach and reach as low as 10(-24)kg. The obtained results indicate that the nonlocal effect decreases the resonance frequency except for the fundamental frequency of nanocantilever sensor. These results are helpful to the design of micro/nanomechanical zeptogram-scale biosensor.

  1. A graph of dark energy significance on different spatial and mass scales

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Teerikorpi, P.; Heinämäki, P.; Nurmi, P.; Chernin, A. D.; Einasto, M.; Valtonen, M.; Byrd, G.

    2015-05-01

    Context. The current cosmological paradigm sees the formation and evolution of the cosmic large-scale structure as governed by the gravitational attraction of dark matter (DM) and the repulsion of dark energy (DE). Aims: We characterize the relative importance of uniform and constant dark energy, as given by the Λ term in the standard ΛCDM cosmology, in galaxy systems of different scales from groups to superclusters. Methods: An instructive "Λ significance graph" is introduced where the matter-DE density ratio ⟨ ρM ⟩ /ρΛ for different galaxy systems is plotted against the radius R. This presents gravitation- and DE-dominated regions and directly shows the zero velocity radius, the zero-gravity radius, and the Einstein-Straus radius for any fixed value of mass. Results: Example galaxy groups and clusters from the local universe illustrate the use of the Λ significance graph. These are generally located deep in the gravity-dominated region ⟨ ρM ⟩ /ρΛ> 2, and are virialized. Extended clusters and the main bodies of superclusters can reach down near the borderline between gravity-dominated and DE-dominated regions ⟨ ρM ⟩ /ρΛ = 2. The scale-mass relation from the standard two-point correlation function intersects this balance line near the correlation length. Conclusions: The log ⟨ ρM ⟩ /ρΛ vs. log R diagram is a useful and versatile way to characterize the dynamical state of systems of galaxies within the Λ-dominated expanding universe.

  2. Significantly improving stellar mass and radius estimates: a new reference function for the Δν scaling relation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guggenberger, Elisabeth; Hekker, Saskia; Basu, Sarbani; Bellinger, Earl

    2016-08-01

    The scaling relations between global asteroseismic observables and stellar properties are widely used to estimate masses and radii of stars exhibiting solar-like oscillations. Since the mass and radius of the Sun are known independently, the Sun is commonly used as a reference to scale to. However, the validity of the scaling relations depends on the homology between the star under study and the reference star. Solar-like oscillators span a wide range of masses and metallicities, as well as evolutionary phases. Most of these stars are therefore not homologous to the Sun. This leads to errors of up to 10 per cent (5 per cent) in mass (radius) when using the asteroseismic scaling relations with the Sun as the reference. In this paper, we derive a reference function to replace the solar-reference value used in the large-frequency separation scaling relation. Our function is the first that depends on both effective temperature and metallicity, and is applicable from the end of the main sequence to just above the bump on the red giant branch. This reference function improves the estimates of masses and radii determined through scaling relations by a factor of 2, i.e. allows masses and radii to be recovered with an accuracy of 5 per cent and 2 per cent, respectively.

  3. Mass

    SciTech Connect

    Quigg, Chris

    2007-12-05

    In the classical physics we inherited from Isaac Newton, mass does not arise, it simply is. The mass of a classical object is the sum of the masses of its parts. Albert Einstein showed that the mass of a body is a measure of its energy content, inviting us to consider the origins of mass. The protons we accelerate at Fermilab are prime examples of Einsteinian matter: nearly all of their mass arises from stored energy. Missing mass led to the discovery of the noble gases, and a new form of missing mass leads us to the notion of dark matter. Starting with a brief guided tour of the meanings of mass, the colloquium will explore the multiple origins of mass. We will see how far we have come toward understanding mass, and survey the issues that guide our research today.

  4. Effect of enhanced manganese oxidation in the hyporheic zone on basin-scale geochemical mass balance

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Harvey, J.W.; Fuller, C.C.

    1998-01-01

    cumulative effect of hyporheic exchange in Pinal Creek basin was to remove approximately 20% of the dissolved manganese flowing out of the drainage basin. Our results illustrate that the cumulative significance of reactive uptake in the hyporheic zone depends on the balance between chemical reaction rates, hyporheic porewater residence time, and turnover of streamflow through hyporheic flow paths. The similarity between the hyporheic reaction timescale (1??(s) ??? 1.3 hours), and the hyporheic porewater residence timescale (t(s) ??? 8 min) ensured that there was adequate time for the reaction to progress. Furthermore, it was the similarity between the turnover length for stream water flow through hyporheic flow paths (L(s) = stream velocity/storage-zone exchange coefficient ??? 1.3 km) and the length of Pinal Creek (L ??? 7 km), which ensured that all stream water passed through hyporheic flow paths several times. As a means to generalize our findings to other sites where similar types of hydrologic and chemical information are available, we suggest a cumulative significance index for hyporheic reactions, R(s) = ??(s)t(s)L/L(s) (dimensionless); higher values indicate a greater potential for hyporheic reactions to influence geochemical mass balance. Our experience in Pinal Creek basin suggests that values of R(s) > 0.2 characterize systems where hyporheic reactions are likely to influence geochemical mass balance at the drainage-basin scale.

  5. Evidence for a Mass Dependent Step-Change in the Scaling of Efficiency in Terrestrial Locomotion

    PubMed Central

    Nudds, Robert L.; Codd, Jonathan R.; Sellers, William I.

    2009-01-01

    A reanalysis of existing data suggests that the established tenet of increasing efficiency of transport with body size in terrestrial locomotion requires re-evaluation. Here, the statistical model that described the data best indicated a dichotomy between the data for small (<1 kg) and large animals (>1 kg). Within and between these two size groups there was no detectable difference in the scaling exponents (slopes) relating metabolic (Emet) and mechanical costs (Emech, CM) of locomotion to body mass (Mb). Therefore, no scaling of efficiency (Emech, CM/Emet) with Mb was evident within each size group. Small animals, however, appeared to be generally less efficient than larger animals (7% and 26% respectively). Consequently, it is possible that the relationship between efficiency and Mb is not continuous, but, rather, involves a step-change. This step-change in the efficiency of locomotion mirrors previous findings suggesting a postural cause for an apparent size dichotomy in the relationship between Emet and Mb. Currently data for Emech, CM is lacking, but the relationship between efficiency in terrestrial locomotion and Mb is likely to be determined by posture and kinematics rather than body size alone. Hence, scaling of efficiency is likely to be more complex than a simple linear relationship across body sizes. A homogenous study of the mechanical cost of terrestrial locomotion across a broad range of species, body sizes, and importantly locomotor postures is a priority for future research. PMID:19738898

  6. Alignments of Dark Matter Halos with Large-scale Tidal Fields: Mass and Redshift Dependence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Sijie; Wang, Huiyuan; Mo, H. J.; Shi, Jingjing

    2016-07-01

    Large-scale tidal fields estimated directly from the distribution of dark matter halos are used to investigate how halo shapes and spin vectors are aligned with the cosmic web. The major, intermediate, and minor axes of halos are aligned with the corresponding tidal axes, and halo spin axes tend to be parallel with the intermediate axes and perpendicular to the major axes of the tidal field. The strengths of these alignments generally increase with halo mass and redshift, but the dependence is only on the peak height, ν \\equiv {δ }{{c}}/σ ({M}{{h}},z). The scaling relations of the alignment strengths with the value of ν indicate that the alignment strengths remain roughly constant when the structures within which the halos reside are still in a quasi-linear regime, but decreases as nonlinear evolution becomes more important. We also calculate the alignments in projection so that our results can be compared directly with observations. Finally, we investigate the alignments of tidal tensors on large scales, and use the results to understand alignments of halo pairs separated at various distances. Our results suggest that the coherent structure of the tidal field is the underlying reason for the alignments of halos and galaxies seen in numerical simulations and in observations.

  7. ON THE ASSEMBLY OF THE MILKY WAY DWARF SATELLITES AND THEIR COMMON MASS SCALE

    SciTech Connect

    Rashkov, Valery; Madau, Piero; Kuhlen, Michael; Diemand, Juerg

    2012-02-01

    We use a particle tagging technique to dynamically populate the N-body Via Lactea II high-resolution simulation with stars. The method is calibrated using the observed luminosity function of Milky Way (MW) satellites and the concentration of their stellar populations, and self-consistently follows the accretion and disruption of progenitor dwarfs and the buildup of the stellar halo in a cosmological 'live host'. Simple prescriptions for assigning stellar populations to collisionless particles are able to reproduce many properties of the observed MW halo and its surviving dwarf satellites, like velocity dispersions, sizes, brightness profiles, metallicities, and spatial distribution. Our model predicts the existence of approximately 1850 subhalos harboring 'extremely faint' satellites (with mass-to-light ratios >5 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 3}) lying beyond the Sloan Digital Sky Survey detection threshold. Of these, about 20 are 'first galaxies', i.e., satellites that formed a stellar mass above 10 M{sub Sun} before redshift 9. The 10 most luminous satellites (L > 10{sup 6} L{sub Sun }) in the simulation are hosted by subhalos with peak circular velocities today in the range V{sub max} = 10-40 km s{sup -1} that have shed between 80% and 99% of their dark mass after being accreted at redshifts 1.7 < z < 4.6. The satellite maximum circular velocity V{sub max} and stellar line-of-sight velocity dispersion {sigma}{sub los} today follow the relation V{sub max} = 2.2{sigma}{sub los}. We apply a standard mass estimation algorithm based on Jeans modeling of the line-of-sight velocity dispersion profiles to the simulated dwarf spheroidals and test the accuracy of this technique. The inner (within 300 pc) mass-luminosity relation for currently detectable satellites is nearly flat in our model, in qualitative agreement with the 'common mass scale' found in MW dwarfs. We do, however, predict a weak, but significant positive correlation for these objects: M{sub 300}{proportional

  8. Absolute Identification by Relative Judgment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stewart, Neil; Brown, Gordon D. A.; Chater, Nick

    2005-01-01

    In unidimensional absolute identification tasks, participants identify stimuli that vary along a single dimension. Performance is surprisingly poor compared with discrimination of the same stimuli. Existing models assume that identification is achieved using long-term representations of absolute magnitudes. The authors propose an alternative…

  9. Be Resolute about Absolute Value

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kidd, Margaret L.

    2007-01-01

    This article explores how conceptualization of absolute value can start long before it is introduced. The manner in which absolute value is introduced to students in middle school has far-reaching consequences for their future mathematical understanding. It begins to lay the foundation for students' understanding of algebra, which can change…

  10. Neutrino mass, dark matter, and Baryon asymmetry via TeV-scale physics without fine-tuning.

    PubMed

    Aoki, Mayumi; Kanemura, Shinya; Seto, Osamu

    2009-02-01

    We propose an extended version of the standard model, in which neutrino oscillation, dark matter, and the baryon asymmetry of the Universe can be simultaneously explained by the TeV-scale physics without assuming a large hierarchy among the mass scales. Tiny neutrino masses are generated at the three-loop level due to the exact Z2 symmetry, by which the stability of the dark matter candidate is guaranteed. The extra Higgs doublet is required not only for the tiny neutrino masses but also for successful electroweak baryogenesis. The model provides discriminative predictions especially in Higgs phenomenology, so that it is testable at current and future collider experiments.

  11. REGULATION OF BLACK HOLE WINDS AND JETS ACROSS THE MASS SCALE

    SciTech Connect

    King, A. L.; Miller, J. M.; Gueltekin, K.; Raymond, J.; Fabian, A. C.; Cackett, E. M.; Reynolds, C. S.; Allen, S. W.; Proga, D.; Kallman, T. R.

    2013-01-10

    We present a study of the mechanical power generated by both winds and jets across the black hole mass scale. We begin with the study of ionized X-ray winds and present a uniform analysis using Chandra grating spectra. The high-quality grating spectra facilitate the characterization of the outflow velocity, ionization, and column density of the absorbing gas. We find that the kinetic power of the winds, derived from these observed quantities, scales with increasing bolometric luminosity as log (L {sub wind,42}/C{sub v} ) = (1.58 {+-} 0.07)log (L {sub Bol,42}) - (3.19 {+-} 0.19). This suggests that supermassive black holes may be more efficient than stellar-mass black holes in launching winds, per unit filling factor, C{sub v} . If the black hole binary (BHB) and active galactic nucleus (AGN) samples are fit individually, the slopes flatten to {alpha}{sup BHB} = 0.91 {+-} 0.31 and {alpha}{sup AGN} = 0.63 {+-} 0.30 (formally consistent within errors). The broad fit and individual fits both characterize the data fairly well, and the possibility of common slopes may point to common driving mechanisms across the mass scale. For comparison, we examine jet production, estimating jet power based on the energy required to inflate local bubbles. The jet relation is log (L {sub Jet,42}) = (1.18 {+-} 0.24)log (L {sub Bondi,42}) - (0.96 {+-} 0.43). The energetics of the bubble associated with Cygnus X-1 are particularly difficult to determine, and the bubble could be a background supernova remnant. If we exclude Cygnus X-1 from our fits, then the jets follow a relation consistent with the winds, but with a higher intercept, log (L {sub Jet,42}) = (1.34 {+-} 0.50)log (L {sub Bondi,42}) - (0.80 {+-} 0.82). The formal consistency in the wind and jet scaling relations, when assuming that L {sub Bol} and L {sub Bondi} are both proxies for mass accretion rate, suggests that a common launching mechanism may drive both flows; magnetic processes, such as magnetohydrodynamics and

  12. Large Scale Nanoparticle Screening for Small Molecule Analysis in Laser Desorption Ionization Mass Spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Yagnik, Gargey B; Hansen, Rebecca L; Korte, Andrew R; Reichert, Malinda D; Vela, Javier; Lee, Young Jin

    2016-09-20

    Nanoparticles (NPs) have been suggested as efficient matrixes for small molecule profiling and imaging by laser-desorption ionization mass spectrometry (LDI-MS), but so far there has been no systematic study comparing different NPs in the analysis of various classes of small molecules. Here, we present a large scale screening of 13 NPs for the analysis of two dozen small metabolite molecules. Many NPs showed much higher LDI efficiency than organic matrixes in positive mode and some NPs showed comparable efficiencies for selected analytes in negative mode. Our results suggest that a thermally driven desorption process is a key factor for metal oxide NPs, but chemical interactions are also very important, especially for other NPs. The screening results provide a useful guideline for the selection of NPs in the LDI-MS analysis of small molecules. PMID:27573492

  13. Higgs mass from compositeness at a multi-TeV scale

    DOE PAGES

    Cheng, Hsin -Chia; Dobrescu, Bogdan A.; Gu, Jiayin

    2014-08-18

    Within composite Higgs models based on the top seesaw mechanism, we show that the Higgs field can arise as the pseudo Nambu-Goldstone boson of the broken U(3)more » $$_{L}$$ chiral symmetry associated with a vector-like quark and the t-b doublet. As a result, the lightest CP-even neutral state of the composite scalar sector is lighter than the top quark, and can be identified as the newly discovered Higgs boson. As a result, constraints on weak-isospin violation push the chiral symmetry breaking scale above a few TeV, implying that other composite scalars are probably too heavy to be probed at the LHC, but may be within reach at a future hadron collider with center-of-mass energy of about 100 TeV.« less

  14. Dark matter and neutrino masses from a scale-invariant multi-Higgs portal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karam, Alexandros; Tamvakis, Kyriakos

    2015-10-01

    We consider a classically scale invariant version of the Standard Model, extended by an extra dark S U (2 )X gauge group. Apart from the dark gauge bosons and a dark scalar doublet which is coupled to the Standard Model Higgs through a portal coupling, we incorporate right-handed neutrinos and an additional real singlet scalar field. After symmetry breaking à la Coleman-Weinberg, we examine the multi-Higgs sector and impose theoretical and experimental constraints. In addition, by computing the dark matter relic abundance and the spin-independent scattering cross section off a nucleon we determine the viable dark matter mass range in accordance with present limits. The model can be tested in the near future by collider experiments and direct detection searches such as XENON 1T.

  15. Higgs mass from compositeness at a multi-TeV scale

    SciTech Connect

    Cheng, Hsin -Chia; Dobrescu, Bogdan A.; Gu, Jiayin

    2014-08-18

    Within composite Higgs models based on the top seesaw mechanism, we show that the Higgs field can arise as the pseudo Nambu-Goldstone boson of the broken U(3)$_{L}$ chiral symmetry associated with a vector-like quark and the t-b doublet. As a result, the lightest CP-even neutral state of the composite scalar sector is lighter than the top quark, and can be identified as the newly discovered Higgs boson. As a result, constraints on weak-isospin violation push the chiral symmetry breaking scale above a few TeV, implying that other composite scalars are probably too heavy to be probed at the LHC, but may be within reach at a future hadron collider with center-of-mass energy of about 100 TeV.

  16. Large-scale shell-model calculations of nuclei around mass 210

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Teruya, E.; Higashiyama, K.; Yoshinaga, N.

    2016-06-01

    Large-scale shell-model calculations are performed for even-even, odd-mass, and doubly odd nuclei of Pb, Bi, Po, At, Rn, and Fr isotopes in the neutron deficit region (Z ≥82 ,N ≤126 ) assuming 208Pb as a doubly magic core. All the six single-particle orbitals between the magic numbers 82 and 126, namely, 0 h9 /2,1 f7 /2,0 i13 /2,2 p3 /2,1 f5 /2 , and 2 p1 /2 , are considered. For a phenomenological effective two-body interaction, one set of the monopole pairing and quadrupole-quadrupole interactions including the multipole-pairing interactions is adopted for all the nuclei considered. The calculated energies and electromagnetic properties are compared with the experimental data. Furthermore, many isomeric states are analyzed in terms of the shell-model configurations.

  17. Power suppression from disparate mass scales in effective scalar field theories of inflation and quintessence

    SciTech Connect

    Bastero-Gil, Mar; Berera, Arjun; Jackson, Brendan M. E-mail: ab@ph.ed.ac.uk

    2011-07-01

    A scalar potential coupled to other fields of large disparate masses will exhibit power suppression of the quantum loop corrections from these massive fields. Quintessence fields in the dark energy regime and inflaton fields during inflation often have a very large background field value. Thus any other field with its mass dependent on the quintessence/inflaton background field value through a moderate coupling will become very massive during the dark energy/inflation phase and its quantum corrections to the scalar effective potential will be suppressed. This concept is developed in this paper using the decoupling theorem. The problem then reduces to a quantitative question of the size of suppression effects within the parameter space of coupling constants, scalar field background value and renormalization scale. Some numerical examples are presented both for inflation and quintessence, but the approach is general and can be applied to any scalar field effective potential. The consequences to dark energy of the decoupling effect developed here is that the quintessence field need not just be an incredibly weakly interacting field, often included as an add-on to generate dark energy and having no other purpose. Instead, this quintessence field could play a central role in the particle physics dynamics at early times and then the other fields simply decouple from it at late times before the onset of the dark energy phase. For inflation a consequence is coupling of the inflaton to other heavy fields can be much larger.

  18. Reconnection Properties of Large-scale Current Sheets During Coronal Mass Ejection Eruptions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lynch, B. J.; Edmondson, J. K.; Kazachenko, M. D.; Guidoni, S. E.

    2016-07-01

    We present a detailed analysis of the properties of magnetic reconnection at large-scale current sheets (CSs) in a high cadence version of the Lynch & Edmondson 2.5D MHD simulation of sympathetic magnetic breakout eruptions from a pseudostreamer source region. We examine the resistive tearing and break-up of the three main CSs into chains of X- and O-type null points and follow the dynamics of magnetic island growth, their merging, transit, and ejection with the reconnection exhaust. For each CS, we quantify the evolution of the length-to-width aspect ratio (up to ˜100:1), Lundquist number (˜103), and reconnection rate (inflow-to-outflow ratios reaching ˜0.40). We examine the statistical and spectral properties of the fluctuations in the CSs resulting from the plasmoid instability, including the distribution of magnetic island area, mass, and flux content. We show that the temporal evolution of the spectral index of the reconnection-generated magnetic energy density fluctuations appear to reflect global properties of the CS evolution. Our results are in excellent agreement with recent, high-resolution reconnection-in-a-box simulations even though our CSs’ formation, growth, and dynamics are intrinsically coupled to the global evolution of sequential sympathetic coronal mass ejection eruptions.

  19. The large-scale observational signatures of low-mass galaxies during reionization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dixon, Keri L.; Iliev, Ilian T.; Mellema, Garrelt; Ahn, Kyungjin; Shapiro, Paul R.

    2016-03-01

    Observations of the epoch of reionization give us clues about the nature and evolution of the sources of ionizing photons, or early stars and galaxies. We present a new suite of structure formation and radiative transfer (RT) simulations from the PRACE4LOFAR project designed to investigate whether the mechanism of radiative feedback, or the suppression of star formation in ionized regions from UV radiation, can be inferred from these observations. Our source halo mass extends down to 108 M⊙, with sources in the mass range 108-109 M⊙ expected to be particularly susceptible to feedback from ionizing radiation, and we vary the aggressiveness and nature of this suppression. Not only do we have four distinct source models, we also include two box sizes (67 and 349 Mpc), each with two grid resolutions. This suite of simulations allows us to investigate the robustness of our results. All of our simulations are broadly consistent with the observed electron-scattering optical depth of the cosmic microwave background and the neutral fraction and photoionization rate of hydrogen at z ˜ 6. In particular, we investigate the redshifted 21-cm emission in anticipation of upcoming radio interferometer observations. We find that the overall shape of the 21-cm signal and various statistics are robust to the exact nature of source suppression, the box size, and the resolution. There are some promising model discriminators in the non-Gaussianity and small-scale power spectrum of the 21-cm signal.

  20. Analysis of intact proteins on a chromatographic time scale by electron transfer dissociation tandem mass spectrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chi, An; Bai, Dina L.; Geer, Lewis Y.; Shabanowitz, Jeffrey; Hunt, Donald F.

    2007-01-01

    Direct analysis of intact proteins on a chromatographic time scale is demonstrated on a modified linear ion trap mass spectrometer using sequential ion/ion reactions, electron transfer and proton transfer, to dissociate the sample and to convert the resulting peptide fragments to a mixture of singly and doubly charged species. Proteins are converted to gas-phase, multiply charged, positive ions by electrospray ionization and then allowed to react with fluoranthene radical anions. Electron transfer to the multiply charged protein promotes random fragmentation of amide bonds along the protein backbone. Multiply charged fragment ions are then deprotonated in a second ion/ion reaction with even-electron benzoate anions. m/z values for the resulting singly and doubly charged ions are used to read a sequence of 15-40 amino acids at both the N-terminus and the C-terminus of the protein. This information, along with the measured mass of the intact protein, are employed to identify known proteins and to detect the presence of post-translational modifications. In this study, we analyze intact proteins from the Escherchia coli 70S ribosomal protein complex and identify 46 of the 55 known unique components in a single, 90 min, on-line, chromatography experiment. Truncated versions of the above proteins along with several post-translational modifications are also detected.

  1. Statistical model for large-scale peptide identification in databases from tandem mass spectra using SEQUEST.

    PubMed

    López-Ferrer, Daniel; Martínez-Bartolomé, Salvador; Villar, Margarita; Campillos, Mónica; Martín-Maroto, Fernando; Vázquez, Jesús

    2004-12-01

    Recent technological advances have made multidimensional peptide separation techniques coupled with tandem mass spectrometry the method of choice for high-throughput identification of proteins. Due to these advances, the development of software tools for large-scale, fully automated, unambiguous peptide identification is highly necessary. In this work, we have used as a model the nuclear proteome from Jurkat cells and present a processing algorithm that allows accurate predictions of random matching distributions, based on the two SEQUEST scores Xcorr and DeltaCn. Our method permits a very simple and precise calculation of the probabilities associated with individual peptide assignments, as well as of the false discovery rate among the peptides identified in any experiment. A further mathematical analysis demonstrates that the score distributions are highly dependent on database size and precursor mass window and suggests that the probability associated with SEQUEST scores depends on the number of candidate peptide sequences available for the search. Our results highlight the importance of adjusting the filtering criteria to discriminate between correct and incorrect peptide sequences according to the circumstances of each particular experiment.

  2. A scale of greatness and causal classification of mass extinctions: Implications for mechanisms

    PubMed Central

    Şengör, A. M. Celâl; Atayman, Saniye; Özeren, Sinan

    2008-01-01

    A quantitative scale for measuring greatness, G, of mass extinctions is proposed on the basis of rate of biodiversity diminution expressed as the product of the loss of biodiversity, called magnitude (M), and the inverse of time in which that loss occurs, designated as intensity (I). On this scale, the catastrophic Cretaceous–Tertiary (K-T) extinction appears as the greatest since the Ordovician and the only one with a probable extraterrestrial cause. The end-Permian extinction was less great but with a large magnitude (M) and smaller intensity (I); only some of its individual episodes involved some semblance of catastrophe. Other extinctions during the Phanerozoic, with the possible exception of the end-Silurian diversity plunge, were parts of a forced oscillatory phenomenon and seem caused by marine- and land-habitat destruction during continental assemblies that led to elimination of shelves and (after the Devonian) rain forests and enlargement of deserts. Glaciations and orogenies that shortened and thickened the continental crust only exacerbated these effects. During the Mesozoic and Cainozoic, the evolution of life was linearly progressive, interrupted catastrophically only at the K-T boundary. The end-Triassic extinction was more like the Paleozoic extinctions in nature and probably also in its cause. By contrast, the current extinction resembles none of the earlier ones and may end up being the greatest of all. PMID:18779562

  3. Estimation of root zone storage capacity at the catchment scale using improved Mass Curve Technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Jie; Xu, Zongxue; Singh, Vijay P.

    2016-09-01

    The root zone storage capacity (Sr) greatly influences runoff generation, soil water movement, and vegetation growth and is hence an important variable for ecological and hydrological modelling. However, due to the great heterogeneity in soil texture and structure, there seems to be no effective approach to monitor or estimate Sr at the catchment scale presently. To fill the gap, in this study the Mass Curve Technique (MCT) was improved by incorporating a snowmelt module for the estimation of Sr at the catchment scale in different climatic regions. The "range of perturbation" method was also used to generate different scenarios for determining the sensitivity of the improved MCT-derived Sr to its influencing factors after the evaluation of plausibility of Sr derived from the improved MCT. Results can be showed as: (i) Sr estimates of different catchments varied greatly from ∼10 mm to ∼200 mm with the changes of climatic conditions and underlying surface characteristics. (ii) The improved MCT is a simple but powerful tool for the Sr estimation in different climatic regions of China, and incorporation of more catchments into Sr comparisons can further improve our knowledge on the variability of Sr. (iii) Variation of Sr values is an integrated consequence of variations in rainfall, snowmelt water and evapotranspiration. Sr values are most sensitive to variations in evapotranspiration of ecosystems. Besides, Sr values with a longer return period are more stable than those with a shorter return period when affected by fluctuations in its influencing factors.

  4. A scale of greatness and causal classification of mass extinctions: implications for mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Sengör, A M Celâl; Atayman, Saniye; Ozeren, Sinan

    2008-09-16

    A quantitative scale for measuring greatness, G, of mass extinctions is proposed on the basis of rate of biodiversity diminution expressed as the product of the loss of biodiversity, called magnitude (M), and the inverse of time in which that loss occurs, designated as intensity (I). On this scale, the catastrophic Cretaceous-Tertiary (K-T) extinction appears as the greatest since the Ordovician and the only one with a probable extraterrestrial cause. The end-Permian extinction was less great but with a large magnitude (M) and smaller intensity (I); only some of its individual episodes involved some semblance of catastrophe. Other extinctions during the Phanerozoic, with the possible exception of the end-Silurian diversity plunge, were parts of a forced oscillatory phenomenon and seem caused by marine- and land-habitat destruction during continental assemblies that led to elimination of shelves and (after the Devonian) rain forests and enlargement of deserts. Glaciations and orogenies that shortened and thickened the continental crust only exacerbated these effects. During the Mesozoic and Cainozoic, the evolution of life was linearly progressive, interrupted catastrophically only at the K-T boundary. The end-Triassic extinction was more like the Paleozoic extinctions in nature and probably also in its cause. By contrast, the current extinction resembles none of the earlier ones and may end up being the greatest of all. PMID:18779562

  5. X-ray scaling relations of 400d low-mass galaxy clusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zou, Siwei; Ben, Maughan; Vikhlinin, Alexey

    2015-08-01

    This work investigated X-ray scaling relations of 24 galaxy clusters and groups selected from the 400 deg² survey (Burenin et al. 2007), with redshift ranges from 0.02 to 0.15. The significant advance of this work over previous studies is that the sample is complete above a flux limit of 5 × 10^(-13) erg s^(-1) cm^(-2), allowing us to correct our results for selection biases. These 24 clusters are in the low-redshift and low-mass regime. We derived the luminosity-temperature scaling relations of these 24 clusters and compared it with measurements from other samples of groups and clusters. We found that the L-T relation has deviations with respect to the self-similar model which suggests the non-gravitational process effects are important. To determine if this could be due to AGN feedback or the presence of cool-cores, we considered three factors: cuspiness, core flux ratio and X-ray morphology to divide the sample into relaxed-cool-core subsample containing 5 clusters and non-cool-core subsample containing 19 clusters, we found the cool-core factor is not as important as REXCESS data (Pratt et al. 2009) and Maughan's data (Maughan et al. 2012), thus the steepening of L-T relation is likely to come from the AGN feedback.In our analysis, we followed the methods in Mantz et al. (2010) using a Tinker mass-function (Tinker et al. 2008) and the mass-temperature relation from Sun et al.(2009) to model the selection biases in the L-T relation, and found the slope 3.13±0.44 did not change significantly compared with the L-T relation without correction 2.93±0.88, while the normalisation decreased from 1.40±0.24 to 0.39±0.14 as expected due to the Malmquist bias. We also compared the bias-corrected relation with other published works (Eckmiller et al. 2011, Lovisari et al. 2014, Bharadwaj et al. 2014), and found that their bias-corrected L-T slops are flatter than ours but normalisation are slightly larger. As a consistency check, the number of clusters predicted by our

  6. Multi-scale mass movements: example of the Nile deep-sea fan (NDSF)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Loncke, L.; Droz, L.; Bellaiche, G.; Gaullier, V.; Mascle, J.; Migeon, S.

    2003-04-01

    The almost 90 000 km2 NDSF, fed by one of the major river in the world, has been nearly entirely surveyed by swath bathymetry and back-scatter imagery during the last four years. Seismic-reflection and 3-5 kHz profiles, and in some places, high resolution data were collected. Some profiles have been provided by BP-Egypt. Using this set of data, we have conducted a multi-scale regional synthesis which stresses the importance of gravity processes in the edification and evolution of this major deep turbidite system. Gravity processes range from regional gravity-driven spreading and gliding of the Plio-Pleistocene sediments above the Messinian mobile evaporites, to huge collapses of large areas of the upper continental slope as well as very localized levee destabilizations and related avulsion mechanisms. The Eastern - tectonized - area of the NDSF is characterized by lens-shaped transparent bodies, likely indicating debris-flow deposits, settled at crestal graben flanks, themselves generated by reactive diapir rise. Debris flows are probably triggered by local readjustments of salt-related tectonic features destabilizing their sedimentary cover. In contrast, within the poorly deformed Western part of the NDSF, we mainly observe recent slumping and gliding phenomenons, incising the upper slope where salt layers are absent. These slumps and glidings evolved downslope to large debris flows. Some of them exhibit volumes up to 1900 km3 and are covered by recent stacked channel-levees units. Smaller scale debris-flows are inter-fingered within these constructional units and led to numerous channel migrations and avulsions, characterized by typical HARP's seismic facies. Recent sedimentary destabilizations seem to be associated with gas seeping or under-compacted mud ascents: in the Central NDSF, the association between pock-marks (or mounds) and destabilizated masses suggest the existence of gas hydrates. Given the variety of processes (either triggered by tectonics

  7. A lower fragmentation mass scale for clumps in high redshift galaxies: a systematic numerical study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tamburello, Valentina; Mayer, Lucio; Shen, Sijing; Wadsley, James

    2015-08-01

    We perform a systematic study of the effect of sub-grid physics, resolution and structural parameters on the fragmentation of gas-rich galaxy discs into massive star forming clumps due to gravitational instability. We use the state-of-the-art zoom-in cosmological hydrodynamical simulation ARGO (Fiacconi et al. 2015) to set up the initial conditions of our models, and then carry out 26 high resolution controlled simulations of high-z galaxies using the GASOLINE2 code, which includes a modern, numerically robust SPH implementation.We find that when blast-wave feedback is included, the formation of long-lived, gravitationally bound clumps requires disc gas fractions of at least 50% and massive discs, which should have Vmax > 200 km/s at z ˜ 2, more massive than the typical galaxies expected at those redshifts.Less than 50 Myr after formation, clumps have stellar masses in the range 4 × 106 - 5 × 107 M⊙.Formation of clumps with mass exceeding ˜108 M⊙ is a rare occurrence, since it requires mergers between multiple massive clumps, as we verified by tracing back in time the particles belonging to such clumps. Such mergers happen after a few orbital times (˜200-300 Myr), but normally clumps migrate inward and are tidally disrupted on shorter timescales.Clump sizes are in the range 100-500 pc. We argue that giant clumps identified in observations (˜109 M⊙ and 1 kpc in size) might either have a different origin, such as minor mergers and clumpy gas accretion, or their sizes and masses may be overestimated due to resolution issues.Using an analytical model, already developed to explain the fragmentation scale in gravitationally unstable 3D protoplanetary discs, we can predict fairly accurately the characteristic gaseous masses of clumps soon after fragmentation, when standard Toome analysis becomes invalid.Due to their modest size, clumps have little effect on bulge growth as they migrate to the center. In our unstable discs a small bulge can form irrespective of

  8. AS ABOVE, SO BELOW: EXPLOITING MASS SCALING IN BLACK HOLE ACCRETION TO BREAK DEGENERACIES IN SPECTRAL INTERPRETATION

    SciTech Connect

    Markoff, Sera; Silva, Catia V.; Nowak, Michael A.; Gallo, Elena; Plotkin, Richard M.; Hynes, Robert; Wilms, Jörn; Maitra, Dipankar; Drappeau, Samia E-mail: C.V.DeJesusSilva@uva.nl E-mail: egallo@umich.edu E-mail: joern.wilms@sternwarte.uni-erlangen.de E-mail: samia.drappeau@irap.omp.eu

    2015-10-20

    Over the past decade, evidence has mounted that several aspects of black hole (BH) accretion physics proceed in a mass-invariant way. One of the best examples of this scaling is the empirical “fundamental plane of BH accretion” relation linking mass, radio, and X-ray luminosity over eight orders of magnitude in BH mass. The currently favored theoretical interpretation of this relation is that the physics governing power output in weakly accreting BHs depends more on relative accretion rate than on mass. In order to test this theory, we explore whether a mass-invariant approach can simultaneously explain the broadband spectral energy distributions from two BHs at opposite ends of the mass scale but that are at similar Eddington accretion fractions. We find that the same model, with the same value of several fitted physical parameters expressed in mass-scaling units to enforce self-similarity, can provide a good description of two data sets from V404 Cyg and M81*, a stellar and supermassive BH, respectively. Furthermore, only one of several potential emission scenarios for the X-ray band is successful, suggesting it is the dominant process driving the fundamental plane relation at this accretion rate. This approach thus holds promise for breaking current degeneracies in the interpretation of BH high-energy spectra and for constructing better prescriptions of BH accretion for use in various local and cosmological feedback applications.

  9. Moon: Basin-Forming Impacts in Scale, Time, and as Thermal and Mass Input

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Werner, Stephanie C.; Zhu, Meng Hua; Rolf, Tobias; Wünnemann, Kai

    2016-04-01

    A striking feature on the lunar surface is the population of impact basins. These large-scale structures have diameters of several 100 to >2000 km and their signature is clearly visible in present-day observables such as the gravity field. The chronology of lunar basins is essential for understanding the age of the lunar surface and its early evolution. We introduce new basin size-projectile size scaling relationships derived from numerical modelling. We make use of the size relation between diameters of inner ring, Bouguer gravity anomaly, main ring, and the result of the numerical simulations suggesting a size link between Bouguer gravity anomaly and transient crater diameter. Thus, we have a reliable tool set to evaluate the sequence of basin forming events in time, determine the thermal anomaly introduced, ejecta distributions, and the mass delivered to the Moon. We explore how large basin-forming impacts affected the internal evolution of the Moon, which is inevitably linked to the surface, e.g. via volcanism and heat loss. Recently proposed global lunar evolution models can explain various observations on the present-day Moon, but do not, or only partly, consider the thermal input of large basin-forming impacts. Therefore, we couple here the thermochemical evolution of the Moon with its early bombardment. We use the mantle convection code StagYY to model the long-term evolution of the Moon. In order to investigate the role of impact processes, we consider an insulating (low thermal conductivity) ejecta blanket (representing the lunar regolith) with variable thickness and degree of insulation as well as the impact-induced heat anomaly. To determine the ejecta cover we use recent scaling law that links ejecta thickness to the distance to the rim of the source basin. The impact-induced heat anomaly is determined by performing basin formation modeling using the shock physics code iSALE. Our results with a single impact event indicate that the shock-induced impact

  10. Probing absolute spin polarization at the nanoscale.

    PubMed

    Eltschka, Matthias; Jäck, Berthold; Assig, Maximilian; Kondrashov, Oleg V; Skvortsov, Mikhail A; Etzkorn, Markus; Ast, Christian R; Kern, Klaus

    2014-12-10

    Probing absolute values of spin polarization at the nanoscale offers insight into the fundamental mechanisms of spin-dependent transport. Employing the Zeeman splitting in superconducting tips (Meservey-Tedrow-Fulde effect), we introduce a novel spin-polarized scanning tunneling microscopy that combines the probing capability of the absolute values of spin polarization with precise control at the atomic scale. We utilize our novel approach to measure the locally resolved spin polarization of magnetic Co nanoislands on Cu(111). We find that the spin polarization is enhanced by 65% when increasing the width of the tunnel barrier by only 2.3 Å due to the different decay of the electron orbitals into vacuum. PMID:25423049

  11. Singular perturbation of absolute stability.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Siljak, D. D.

    1972-01-01

    It was previously shown (author, 1969) that the regions of absolute stability in the parameter space can be determined when the parameters appear on the right-hand side of the system equations, i.e., the regular case. Here, the effect on absolute stability of a small parameter attached to higher derivatives in the equations (the singular case) is studied. The Lur'e-Postnikov class of nonlinear systems is considered.

  12. Combinatorial approach for large-scale identification of linked peptides from tandem mass spectrometry spectra.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jian; Anania, Veronica G; Knott, Jeff; Rush, John; Lill, Jennie R; Bourne, Philip E; Bandeira, Nuno

    2014-04-01

    The combination of chemical cross-linking and mass spectrometry has recently been shown to constitute a powerful tool for studying protein-protein interactions and elucidating the structure of large protein complexes. However, computational methods for interpreting the complex MS/MS spectra from linked peptides are still in their infancy, making the high-throughput application of this approach largely impractical. Because of the lack of large annotated datasets, most current approaches do not capture the specific fragmentation patterns of linked peptides and therefore are not optimal for the identification of cross-linked peptides. Here we propose a generic approach to address this problem and demonstrate it using disulfide-bridged peptide libraries to (i) efficiently generate large mass spectral reference data for linked peptides at a low cost and (ii) automatically train an algorithm that can efficiently and accurately identify linked peptides from MS/MS spectra. We show that using this approach we were able to identify thousands of MS/MS spectra from disulfide-bridged peptides through comparison with proteome-scale sequence databases and significantly improve the sensitivity of cross-linked peptide identification. This allowed us to identify 60% more direct pairwise interactions between the protein subunits in the 20S proteasome complex than existing tools on cross-linking studies of the proteasome complexes. The basic framework of this approach and the MS/MS reference dataset generated should be valuable resources for the future development of new tools for the identification of linked peptides. PMID:24493012

  13. Convective kinetic energy equation under the mass-flux subgrid-scale parameterization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yano, Jun-Ichi

    2015-03-01

    The present paper originally derives the convective kinetic energy equation under mass-flux subgrid-scale parameterization in a formal manner based on the segmentally-constant approximation (SCA). Though this equation is long since presented by Arakawa and Schubert (1974), a formal derivation is not known in the literature. The derivation of this formulation is of increasing interests in recent years due to the fact that it can explain basic aspects of the convective dynamics such as discharge-recharge and transition from shallow to deep convection. The derivation is presented in two manners: (i) for the case that only the vertical component of the velocity is considered and (ii) the case that both the horizontal and vertical components are considered. The equation reduces to the same form as originally presented by Arakwa and Schubert in both cases, but with the energy dissipation term defined differently. In both cases, nevertheless, the energy "dissipation" (loss) term consists of the three principal contributions: (i) entrainment-detrainment, (ii) outflow from top of convection, and (iii) pressure effects. Additionally, inflow from the bottom of convection contributing to a growth of convection is also formally counted as a part of the dissipation term. The eddy dissipation is also included for a completeness. The order-of-magnitude analysis shows that the convective kinetic energy "dissipation" is dominated by the pressure effects, and it may be approximately described by Rayleigh damping with a constant time scale of the order of 102-103 s. The conclusion is also supported by a supplementary analysis of a cloud-resolving model (CRM) simulation. The Appendix discusses how the loss term ("dissipation") of the convective kinetic energy is qualitatively different from the conventional eddy-dissipation process found in turbulent flows.

  14. Convergence of macroscopic tongue anatomy in ruminants and scaling relationships with body mass or tongue length.

    PubMed

    Meier, Andrea R; Schmuck, Ute; Meloro, Carlo; Clauss, Marcus; Hofmann, Reinhold R

    2016-03-01

    Various morphological measures demonstrate convergent evolution in ruminants with their natural diet, in particular with respect to the browser/grazer dichotomy. Here, we report quantitative macroanatomical measures of the tongue (length and width of specific parts) of 65 ruminant species and relate them to either body mass (BM) or total tongue length, and to the percentage of grass in the natural diet (%grass). Models without and with accounting for the phylogenetic structures of the dataset were used, and models were ranked using Akaike's Information Criterion. Scaling relationships followed geometric principles, that is, length measures scaled with BM to the power of 0.33. Models that used tongue length rather than BM as a body size proxy were consistently ranked better, indicating that using size proxies that are less susceptible to a wider variety of factors (such as BM that fluctuates with body condition) should be attempted whenever possible. The proportion of the freely mobile tongue tip of the total tongue (and hence also the corpus length) was negatively correlated to %grass, in accordance with concepts that the feeding mechanism of browsers requires more mobile tongues. It should be noted that some nonbrowsers, such as cattle, use a peculiar mechanism for grazing that also requires long, mobile tongues, but they appear to be exceptions. A larger corpus width with increasing %grass corresponds to differences in snout shape with broader snouts in grazers. The Torus linguae is longer with increasing %grass, a finding that still warrants functional interpretation. This study shows that tongue measures covary with diet in ruminants. In contrast, the shape of the tongue (straight or "hourglass-shaped" as measured by the ratio of the widest and smallest corpus width) is unrelated to diet and is influenced strongly by phylogeny.

  15. Deployment dynamics of a simplified spinning IKAROS solar sail via absolute coordinate based method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Jiang; Tian, Qiang; Hu, Hai-Yan

    2013-02-01

    The spinning solar sail of large scale has been well developed in recent years. Such a solar sail can be considered as a rigid-flexible multibody system mainly composed of a spinning central rigid hub, a number of flexible thin tethers, sail membranes, and tip masses. A simplified interplanetary kite-craft accelerated by radiation of the Sun (IKAROS) model is established in this study by using the absolute-coordinate-based (ACB) method that combines the natural coordinate formulation (NCF) describing the central rigid hub and the absolute nodal coordinate formulation (ANCF) describing flexible parts. The initial configuration of the system in the second-stage deployment is determined through both dynamic and static analyses. The huge set of stiff equations of system dynamics is solved by using the generalized-alpha method, and thus the deployment dynamics of the system can be well understood.

  16. Body mass scaling of frontal area in competitive cyclists not using aero-handlebars.

    PubMed

    Heil, Daniel P

    2002-10-01

    This study was designed to evaluate the scaling relationship between body mass ( m(b)) and projected frontal area ( A(P)) in competitive male cyclists using traditional drop-style handlebars. A group of 21 male cyclists [mean (SD) m(b) 74.4 (7.2) kg, height 1.82 (0.06) m, age 23.6 (5.1) years] had A(P) determined from photographs taken while seated on their own racing bicycles in four body positions: (1) stem position; (2) brake hoods position; (3) drops position; (4) traditional aero-position. For each position, A(P) for the body of the cyclist (Body A(P)), as well as the cyclist and his bicycle (Total A(P)), were determined. Body A(P) was significantly smaller than Total A(P) in all four positions by a nearly constant bicycle A(P) of 0.117-0.124 m(2). Using multiple log-linear regression analysis procedures, prediction equations were developed for both Body A(P) and Total A(P) (dependent variables) using a cluster of binary-coded variables to indicate body position and m(b) as independent variables ( n=88 observations). The regression analysis revealed that Body A(P) scaled with m(b) to the +0.720 power [95% confidence interval (CI): 0.585-0.855], which did not differ significantly from the +0.762 exponent reported previously for Body A(P) whilst using aero-handlebars. In contrast, Total A(P) scaled with m(b) to the +0.594 power (95% CI: 0.468-0.720) which was significantly lower than +0.762 exponent reported previously. The lower exponent for Total A(P) is explained by the nearly constant contribution of the bicycle A(P) to Total A(P) (mean bicycle A(P)=0.122 m(2)). These data help to explain the determinants of A(P) and aerodynamic drag in competitive male cyclists who use the traditional body postures.

  17. Considerations of anthropometric, tissue volume, and tissue mass scaling for improved patient specificity of skeletal S values.

    PubMed

    Bolch, W E; Patton, R W; Shah, A R; Rajon, D A; Jokisch, D W

    2002-06-01

    It is generally acknowledged that reference man (70 kg in mass and 170 cm in height) does not adequately represent the stature and physical dimensions of many patients undergoing radionuclide therapy, and thus scaling of radionuclide S values is required for patient specificity. For electron and beta sources uniformly distributed within internal organs, the mean dose from self-irradiation is noted to scale inversely with organ mass, provided no escape of electron energy occurs at the organ boundaries. In the skeleton, this same scaling approach is further assumed to be correct for marrow dosimetry; nevertheless, difficulties in quantitative assessments of marrow mass in specific skeletal regions of the patient make this approach difficult to implement clinically. Instead, scaling of marrow dose is achieved using various anthropometric parameters that presumably scale in the same proportion. In this study, recently developed three-dimensional macrostructural transport models of the femoral head and humeral epiphysis in three individuals (51-year male, 82-year female, and 86-year female) are used to test the abilities of different anthropometric parameters (total body mass, body surface area, etc.) to properly scale radionuclide S values from reference man models. The radionuclides considered are 33P, 177Lu, 153Sm, 186Re, 89Sr, 166Ho, 32P, 188Re, and 90Y localized in either the active marrow or endosteal tissues of the bone trabeculae. S value scaling is additionally conducted in which the 51-year male subject is assigned as the reference individual; scaling parameters are then expanded to include tissue volumes and masses for both active marrow and skeletal spongiosa. The study concludes that, while no single anthropometric parameter emerges as a consistent scaler of reference man S values, lean body mass is indicated as an optimal scaler when the reference S values are based on 3D transport techniques. Furthermore, very exact patient-specific scaling of

  18. Chemical composition of French mimosa absolute oil.

    PubMed

    Perriot, Rodolphe; Breme, Katharina; Meierhenrich, Uwe J; Carenini, Elise; Ferrando, Georges; Baldovini, Nicolas

    2010-02-10

    Since decades mimosa (Acacia dealbata) absolute oil has been used in the flavor and perfume industry. Today, it finds an application in over 80 perfumes, and its worldwide industrial production is estimated five tons per year. Here we report on the chemical composition of French mimosa absolute oil. Straight-chain analogues from C6 to C26 with different functional groups (hydrocarbons, esters, aldehydes, diethyl acetals, alcohols, and ketones) were identified in the volatile fraction. Most of them are long-chain molecules: (Z)-heptadec-8-ene, heptadecane, nonadecane, and palmitic acid are the most abundant, and constituents such as 2-phenethyl alcohol, methyl anisate, and ethyl palmitate are present in smaller amounts. The heavier constituents were mainly triterpenoids such as lupenone and lupeol, which were identified as two of the main components. (Z)-Heptadec-8-ene, lupenone, and lupeol were quantified by GC-MS in SIM mode using external standards and represents 6%, 20%, and 7.8% (w/w) of the absolute oil. Moreover, odorant compounds were extracted by SPME and analyzed by GC-sniffing leading to the perception of 57 odorant zones, of which 37 compounds were identified by their odorant description, mass spectrum, retention index, and injection of the reference compound. PMID:20070087

  19. A Methodology for Absolute Isotope Composition Measurement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shen, J. J.; Lee, D.; Liang, W.

    2007-12-01

    Double spike technique was a well defined method for isotope composition measurement by TIMS of samples which have natural mass fractionation effect, but it is still a problem to define the isotope composition for double spike itself. In this study, we modified the old double spike technique and found that we could use the modified technique to solve the ¡§true¡¨ isotope composition of double spike itself. According the true isotope composition of double spike, we can measure the absolute isotope composition if the sample has natural fractionation effect. A new vector analytical method has been developed in order to obtain the true isotopic composition of a 42Ca-48Ca double spike, and this is achieved by using two different sample-spike mixtures combined with the double spike and the natural Ca data. Because the natural sample, the two mixtures, and the spike should all lie on a single mixing line, we are able to constrain the true isotopic composition of our double spike using this new approach. This method not only can be used in Ca system but also in Ti, Cr, Fe, Ni, Zn, Mo, Ba and Pb systems. The absolute double spike isotopic ratio is important, which can save a lot of time to check different reference standards. Especially for Pb, radiogenic isotope system, the decay systems embodied in three of four naturally occurring isotopes induce difficult to obtain true isotopic ratios for absolute dating.

  20. Chemical composition of French mimosa absolute oil.

    PubMed

    Perriot, Rodolphe; Breme, Katharina; Meierhenrich, Uwe J; Carenini, Elise; Ferrando, Georges; Baldovini, Nicolas

    2010-02-10

    Since decades mimosa (Acacia dealbata) absolute oil has been used in the flavor and perfume industry. Today, it finds an application in over 80 perfumes, and its worldwide industrial production is estimated five tons per year. Here we report on the chemical composition of French mimosa absolute oil. Straight-chain analogues from C6 to C26 with different functional groups (hydrocarbons, esters, aldehydes, diethyl acetals, alcohols, and ketones) were identified in the volatile fraction. Most of them are long-chain molecules: (Z)-heptadec-8-ene, heptadecane, nonadecane, and palmitic acid are the most abundant, and constituents such as 2-phenethyl alcohol, methyl anisate, and ethyl palmitate are present in smaller amounts. The heavier constituents were mainly triterpenoids such as lupenone and lupeol, which were identified as two of the main components. (Z)-Heptadec-8-ene, lupenone, and lupeol were quantified by GC-MS in SIM mode using external standards and represents 6%, 20%, and 7.8% (w/w) of the absolute oil. Moreover, odorant compounds were extracted by SPME and analyzed by GC-sniffing leading to the perception of 57 odorant zones, of which 37 compounds were identified by their odorant description, mass spectrum, retention index, and injection of the reference compound.

  1. Evaluation of Large Scale Quantitative Proteomic Assay Development Using Peptide Affinity-based Mass Spectrometry*

    PubMed Central

    Whiteaker, Jeffrey R.; Zhao, Lei; Abbatiello, Susan E.; Burgess, Michael; Kuhn, Eric; Lin, ChenWei; Pope, Matthew E.; Razavi, Morteza; Anderson, N. Leigh; Pearson, Terry W.; Carr, Steven A.; Paulovich, Amanda G.

    2011-01-01

    Stable isotope standards and capture by antipeptide antibodies (SISCAPA) couples affinity enrichment of peptides with stable isotope dilution and detection by multiple reaction monitoring mass spectrometry to provide quantitative measurement of peptides as surrogates for their respective proteins. In this report, we describe a feasibility study to determine the success rate for production of suitable antibodies for SISCAPA assays in order to inform strategies for large-scale assay development. A workflow was designed that included a multiplex immunization strategy in which up to five proteotypic peptides from a single protein target were used to immunize individual rabbits. A total of 403 proteotypic tryptic peptides representing 89 protein targets were used as immunogens. Antipeptide antibody titers were measured by ELISA and 220 antipeptide antibodies representing 89 proteins were chosen for affinity purification. These antibodies were characterized with respect to their performance in SISCAPA-multiple reaction monitoring assays using trypsin-digested human plasma matrix. More than half of the assays generated were capable of detecting the target peptide at concentrations of less than 0.5 fmol/μl in human plasma, corresponding to protein concentrations of less than 100 ng/ml. The strategy of multiplexing five peptide immunogens was successful in generating a working assay for 100% of the targeted proteins in this evaluation study. These results indicate it is feasible for a single laboratory to develop hundreds of assays per year and allow planning for cost-effective generation of SISCAPA assays. PMID:21245105

  2. Mining Large Scale Tandem Mass Spectrometry Data for Protein Modifications Using Spectral Libraries.

    PubMed

    Horlacher, Oliver; Lisacek, Frederique; Müller, Markus

    2016-03-01

    Experimental improvements in post-translational modification (PTM) detection by tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS) has allowed the identification of vast numbers of PTMs. Open modification searches (OMSs) of MS/MS data, which do not require prior knowledge of the modifications present in the sample, further increased the diversity of detected PTMs. Despite much effort, there is still a lack of functional annotation of PTMs. One possibility to narrow the annotation gap is to mine MS/MS data deposited in public repositories and to correlate the PTM presence with biological meta-information attached to the data. Since the data volume can be quite substantial and contain tens of millions of MS/MS spectra, the data mining tools must be able to cope with big data. Here, we present two tools, Liberator and MzMod, which are built using the MzJava class library and the Apache Spark large scale computing framework. Liberator builds large MS/MS spectrum libraries, and MzMod searches them in an OMS mode. We applied these tools to a recently published set of 25 million spectra from 30 human tissues and present tissue specific PTMs. We also compared the results to the ones obtained with the OMS tool MODa and the search engine X!Tandem.

  3. Large-scale mass wasting on the northwest Spitsbergen continental slope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Forwick, Matthias; Sverre Laberg, Jan; Vorren, Tore O.; Hass, H. Christian; Vanneste, Maarten; Mienert, Jürgen

    2013-04-01

    Swath bathymetry and seismic data reveal two slide scars providing evidence for large-scale mass-wasting on the continental slope off northwest Spitsbergen. The largest scar is approx. 35 km long, at least 16 km wide and located between 1300 and 3000 m water depth. The failure is assumed to be of a retrogressive nature, because it affected multiple stratigraphic levels up to at least 200 ms two-way-travel time (approx. 150 m) below the present seafloor. The second largest slope failure affected an area of at least 35 km length, up to 7 km width and 70 ms (approx. 55 m) thickness below 1400 m water depth. It cuts into the south-eastern sidewall of the largest scar between 2700 and 2800 m water depth and deposition of sediment lobes within the largest scar occurred. The bathymetry within this slide scar is relatively smooth compared to the largest scar, but single blocks are visible. These observations suggest a retrogressive configuration of this slide, too. Minor failures along the side walls occur. Both slide scars are filled in with approx. 15 m of acoustically stratified sediments, suggesting that the slope failures occurred almost synchronously. However, the sediment lobes beyond the lower limit of the second largest slide scar suggest that this slide occurred after the largest slide. The slides were most probably triggered by seismic activity leading to failure within contouritic sediments.

  4. An industry-scale mass marking technique for tracing farmed fish escapees.

    PubMed

    Warren-Myers, Fletcher; Dempster, Tim; Fjelldal, Per Gunnar; Hansen, Tom; Swearer, Stephen E

    2015-01-01

    Farmed fish escape and enter the environment with subsequent effects on wild populations. Reducing escapes requires the ability to trace individuals back to the point of escape, so that escape causes can be identified and technical standards improved. Here, we tested if stable isotope otolith fingerprint marks delivered during routine vaccination could be an accurate, feasible and cost effective marking method, suitable for industrial-scale application. We tested seven stable isotopes, (134)Ba, (135)Ba, (136)Ba, (137)Ba, (86)Sr, (87)Sr and (26)Mg, on farmed Atlantic salmon reared in freshwater, in experimental conditions designed to reflect commercial practice. Marking was 100% successful with individual Ba isotopes at concentrations as low as 0.001 µg. g-1 fish and for Sr isotopes at 1 µg. g-1 fish. Our results suggest that 63 unique fingerprint marks can be made at low cost using Ba (0.0002 - 0.02 $US per mark) and Sr (0.46 - 0.82 $US per mark) isotopes. Stable isotope fingerprinting during vaccination is feasible for commercial application if applied at a company level within the world's largest salmon producing nations. Introducing a mass marking scheme would enable tracing of escapees back to point of origin, which could drive greater compliance, better farm design and improved management practices to reduce escapes.

  5. Mass-producible and efficient optical antennas with CMOS-fabricated nanometer-scale gap.

    PubMed

    Seok, Tae Joon; Jamshidi, Arash; Eggleston, Michael; Wu, Ming C

    2013-07-15

    Optical antennas have been widely used for sensitive photodetection, efficient light emission, high resolution imaging, and biochemical sensing because of their ability to capture and focus light energy beyond the diffraction limit. However, widespread application of optical antennas has been limited due to lack of appropriate methods for uniform and large area fabrication of antennas as well as difficulty in achieving an efficient design with small mode volume (gap spacing < 10nm). Here, we present a novel optical antenna design, arch-dipole antenna, with optimal radiation efficiency and small mode volume, 5 nm gap spacing, fabricated by CMOS-compatible deep-UV spacer lithography. We demonstrate strong surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) signal with an enhancement factor exceeding 108 from the arch-dipole antenna array, which is two orders of magnitude stronger than that from the standard dipole antenna array fabricated by e-beam lithography. Since the antenna gap spacing, the critical dimension of the antenna, can be defined by deep-UV lithography, efficient optical antenna arrays with nanometer-scale gap can be mass-produced using current CMOS technology.

  6. An Industry-Scale Mass Marking Technique for Tracing Farmed Fish Escapees

    PubMed Central

    Warren-Myers, Fletcher; Dempster, Tim; Fjelldal, Per Gunnar; Hansen, Tom; Swearer, Stephen E.

    2015-01-01

    Farmed fish escape and enter the environment with subsequent effects on wild populations. Reducing escapes requires the ability to trace individuals back to the point of escape, so that escape causes can be identified and technical standards improved. Here, we tested if stable isotope otolith fingerprint marks delivered during routine vaccination could be an accurate, feasible and cost effective marking method, suitable for industrial-scale application. We tested seven stable isotopes, 134Ba, 135Ba, 136Ba, 137Ba, 86Sr, 87Sr and 26Mg, on farmed Atlantic salmon reared in freshwater, in experimental conditions designed to reflect commercial practice. Marking was 100% successful with individual Ba isotopes at concentrations as low as 0.001 µg. g-1 fish and for Sr isotopes at 1 µg. g-1 fish. Our results suggest that 63 unique fingerprint marks can be made at low cost using Ba (0.0002 – 0.02 $US per mark) and Sr (0.46 – 0.82 $US per mark) isotopes. Stable isotope fingerprinting during vaccination is feasible for commercial application if applied at a company level within the world’s largest salmon producing nations. Introducing a mass marking scheme would enable tracing of escapees back to point of origin, which could drive greater compliance, better farm design and improved management practices to reduce escapes. PMID:25738955

  7. Quantifying in-stream retention of nitrate at catchment scales using a practical mass balance approach.

    PubMed

    Schwientek, Marc; Selle, Benny

    2016-02-01

    As field data on in-stream nitrate retention is scarce at catchment scales, this study aimed at quantifying net retention of nitrate within the entire river network of a fourth-order stream. For this purpose, a practical mass balance approach combined with a Lagrangian sampling scheme was applied and seasonally repeated to estimate daily in-stream net retention of nitrate for a 17.4 km long, agriculturally influenced, segment of the Steinlach River in southwestern Germany. This river segment represents approximately 70% of the length of the main stem and about 32% of the streambed area of the entire river network. Sampling days in spring and summer were biogeochemically more active than in autumn and winter. Results obtained for the main stem of Steinlach River were subsequently extrapolated to the stream network in the catchment. It was demonstrated that, for baseflow conditions in spring and summer, in-stream nitrate retention could sum up to a relevant term of the catchment's nitrogen balance if the entire stream network was considered. PMID:26801154

  8. LARGE-SCALE EXTREME-ULTRAVIOLET DISTURBANCES ASSOCIATED WITH A LIMB CORONAL MASS EJECTION

    SciTech Connect

    Dai, Y.; Auchere, F.; Vial, J.-C.; Tang, Y. H.; Zong, W. G.

    2010-01-10

    We present composite observations of a coronal mass ejection (CME) and the associated large-scale extreme-ultraviolet (EUV) disturbances on 2007 December 31 by the Extreme-ultraviolet Imager (EUVI) and COR1 coronagraph on board the recent Solar Terrestrial Relations Observatory mission. For this limb event, the EUV disturbances exhibit some typical characteristics of EUV Imaging Telescope waves: (1) in the 195 A bandpass, diffuse brightenings are observed propagating oppositely away from the flare site with a velocity of approx260 km s{sup -1}, leaving dimmings behind; (2) when the brightenings encounter the boundary of a polar coronal hole, they stop there to form a stationary front. Multi-temperature analysis of the propagating EUV disturbances favors a heating process over a density enhancement in the disturbance region. Furthermore, the EUVI-COR1 composite display shows unambiguously that the propagation of the diffuse brightenings coincides with a large lateral expansion of the CME, which consequently results in a double-loop-structured CME leading edge. Based on these observational facts, we suggest that the wave-like EUV disturbances are a result of magnetic reconfiguration related to the CME liftoff rather than true waves in the corona. Reconnections between the expanding CME magnetic field lines and surrounding quiet-Sun magnetic loops account for the propagating diffuse brightenings; dimmings appear behind them as a consequence of volume expansion. X-ray and radio data provide us with complementary evidence.

  9. Mining Large Scale Tandem Mass Spectrometry Data for Protein Modifications Using Spectral Libraries.

    PubMed

    Horlacher, Oliver; Lisacek, Frederique; Müller, Markus

    2016-03-01

    Experimental improvements in post-translational modification (PTM) detection by tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS) has allowed the identification of vast numbers of PTMs. Open modification searches (OMSs) of MS/MS data, which do not require prior knowledge of the modifications present in the sample, further increased the diversity of detected PTMs. Despite much effort, there is still a lack of functional annotation of PTMs. One possibility to narrow the annotation gap is to mine MS/MS data deposited in public repositories and to correlate the PTM presence with biological meta-information attached to the data. Since the data volume can be quite substantial and contain tens of millions of MS/MS spectra, the data mining tools must be able to cope with big data. Here, we present two tools, Liberator and MzMod, which are built using the MzJava class library and the Apache Spark large scale computing framework. Liberator builds large MS/MS spectrum libraries, and MzMod searches them in an OMS mode. We applied these tools to a recently published set of 25 million spectra from 30 human tissues and present tissue specific PTMs. We also compared the results to the ones obtained with the OMS tool MODa and the search engine X!Tandem. PMID:26653734

  10. Investigation of the Large Scale Evolution and Topology of Coronal Mass Ejections in the Solar Wind

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Riley, Pete

    2001-01-01

    This investigation is concerned with the large-scale evolution and topology of coronal mass ejections (CMEs) in the solar wind. During the course of this three-year investigation, we have undertaken a number of studies that are discussed in more detail in this report. For example, we conducted an analysis of all CMEs observed by the Ulysses spacecraft during its in-ecliptic phase between 1 and 5 AU. In addition to studying the properties of the ejecta, we also analyzed the shocks that could be unambiguously associated with the fast CMEs. We also analyzed a series of 'density holes' observed in the solar wind that bear many similarities with CMEs. To complement this analysis, we conducted a series of 1-D and 2 1/2-D fluid, MHD, and hybrid simulations to address a number of specific issues related to CME evolution in the solar wind. For example, we used fluid simulations to address the interpretation of negative electron temperature-density relationships often observed within CME/cloud intervals. As part of this investigation, a number of fruitful international collaborations were forged. Finally, the results of this work were presented at nine scientific meetings and communicated in eight scientific, refereed papers.

  11. Mass-producible and efficient optical antennas with CMOS-fabricated nanometer-scale gap.

    PubMed

    Seok, Tae Joon; Jamshidi, Arash; Eggleston, Michael; Wu, Ming C

    2013-07-15

    Optical antennas have been widely used for sensitive photodetection, efficient light emission, high resolution imaging, and biochemical sensing because of their ability to capture and focus light energy beyond the diffraction limit. However, widespread application of optical antennas has been limited due to lack of appropriate methods for uniform and large area fabrication of antennas as well as difficulty in achieving an efficient design with small mode volume (gap spacing < 10nm). Here, we present a novel optical antenna design, arch-dipole antenna, with optimal radiation efficiency and small mode volume, 5 nm gap spacing, fabricated by CMOS-compatible deep-UV spacer lithography. We demonstrate strong surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) signal with an enhancement factor exceeding 108 from the arch-dipole antenna array, which is two orders of magnitude stronger than that from the standard dipole antenna array fabricated by e-beam lithography. Since the antenna gap spacing, the critical dimension of the antenna, can be defined by deep-UV lithography, efficient optical antenna arrays with nanometer-scale gap can be mass-produced using current CMOS technology. PMID:23938507

  12. Quantifying in-stream retention of nitrate at catchment scales using a practical mass balance approach.

    PubMed

    Schwientek, Marc; Selle, Benny

    2016-02-01

    As field data on in-stream nitrate retention is scarce at catchment scales, this study aimed at quantifying net retention of nitrate within the entire river network of a fourth-order stream. For this purpose, a practical mass balance approach combined with a Lagrangian sampling scheme was applied and seasonally repeated to estimate daily in-stream net retention of nitrate for a 17.4 km long, agriculturally influenced, segment of the Steinlach River in southwestern Germany. This river segment represents approximately 70% of the length of the main stem and about 32% of the streambed area of the entire river network. Sampling days in spring and summer were biogeochemically more active than in autumn and winter. Results obtained for the main stem of Steinlach River were subsequently extrapolated to the stream network in the catchment. It was demonstrated that, for baseflow conditions in spring and summer, in-stream nitrate retention could sum up to a relevant term of the catchment's nitrogen balance if the entire stream network was considered.

  13. Pilot scale study on steam explosion and mass balance for higher sugar recovery from rice straw.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Sandeep; Kumar, Ravindra; Gaur, Ruchi; Agrawal, Ruchi; Gupta, Ravi P; Tuli, Deepak K; Das, Biswapriya

    2015-01-01

    Pretreatment of rice straw on pilot scale steam explosion has been attempted to achieve maximum sugar recovery. Three different reaction media viz. water, sulfuric acid and phosphoric acid (0.5%, w/w) were explored for pretreatment by varying operating temperature (160, 180 and 200°C) and reaction time (5 and 10min). Using water and 0.5% SA showed almost similar sugar recovery (∼87%) at 200 and 180°C respectively. However, detailed studies showed that the former caused higher production of oligomeric sugars (13.56g/L) than the later (3.34g/L). Monomeric sugar, followed the reverse trend (7.83 and 11.62g/L respectively). Higher oligomers have a pronounced effect in reducing enzymatic sugar yield as observed in case of water. Mass balance studies for water and SA assisted SE gave total saccharification yield as 81.8% and 77.1% respectively. However, techno-economical viability will have a trade-off between these advantages and disadvantages offered by the pretreatment medium.

  14. Breeding and mass scale rearing of clownfish Amphiprion percula: feeding and rearing in brackishwater

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dhaneesh, Kottila Veettil; Ajith Kumar, Thipramalai Thankappan; Swagat, Ghosh; Balasubramanian, Thangavel

    2012-07-01

    Breeding and mass scale larval rearing of clownfish Amphiprion percula is very limited in brackishwater. We designed an indoor program of A. percula culture in brackishwater with a salinity of 24±1, during which the impacts of feed type, water temperature, and light intensity, on the efficiency of its reproduction, were revealed. The fish were accommodated along with sea anemones in fibre glass tanks to determine the influence of brooder diet on breeding efficiency. Higher reproductive efficiency [number of eggs laid (276 ± 22.3 eggs)] was observed when fish were fed live Acetes sp. rather than clam (204 ± 16.4 eggs), trash fish (155 ± 12 eggs) and formulated feed (110 ± 10 eggs). The spawning rate was increased during September and October (water temperature, 28.74 ± 0.55°C) on average of 2.4 spawning per month; and low spawning rate was in January (water temperature, 24.55 ± 0.45°C) on average of 1 spawning per month. Among three light intensities (100, 500, and 900 lx) set to evaluate larval survival rate, larvae showed the highest survival rate (65.5%) at 900 lx. The breeding method specifically in brackishwater developed in the present study is a new approach, will help the people from the regions of estuary and backwater to enhance their livelihood and it will lead to reduce the exploitation from the wild habitat.

  15. Weak-lensing-inferred scaling relations of galaxy clusters in the RCS2: mass-richness, mass-concentration, mass-bias, and more

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Uitert, Edo; Gilbank, David G.; Hoekstra, Henk; Semboloni, Elisabetta; Gladders, Michael D.; Yee, Howard K. C.

    2016-02-01

    We study a sample of ~104 galaxy clusters in the redshift range 0.2 masses M200 > 5×1013 h70-1 M⊙, discovered in the second Red-sequence Cluster Survey (RCS2). The depth and excellent image quality of the RCS2 enabled us to detect the cluster-mass cross-correlation up to z ~ 0.7. To obtain cluster masses, concentrations, and halo biases, we fit a cluster halo model simultaneously to the lensing signal and to the projected density profile of red-sequence cluster members, because the latter provides tight constraints on the cluster miscentring distribution. We parametrised the mass-richness relation as M200 = A × (N200/ 20)α and find A =(15.0±0.8)×1013 h70-1 M⊙ and α = 0.73 ± 0.07 at low redshift (0.2 < z < 0.35). At intermediate redshift (0.35 < z < 0.55), we find a higher normalisation, which points towards a fractional increase in the richness towards lower redshift caused by the build-up of the red sequence. The miscentring distribution is well constrained. Only ~30% of our BCGs coincide with the peak of the dark matter distribution. The distribution of the remaining BCGs are modelled with a 2D-Gaussian, whose width increases from 0.2 to 0.4 h70-1 Mpc towards higher masses. The ratio of width and r200 is constant with mass and has an average value of 0.44 ± 0.01. The mass-concentration and mass-bias relations agree fairly well with literature results at low redshift, but have a higher normalisation at higher redshifts, possibly because of selection and projection effects. The concentration of the satellite distribution decreases with mass and is correlated to the concentration of the halo.

  16. Geoelectrical Measurement of Multi-Scale Mass Transfer Parameters Final Report to the Subsurface Biogeochemical Research Program

    SciTech Connect

    Day-Lewis, Frederick; Singha, Kamini; Haggerty, Roy; Johnson, Timothy; Binley, Andrew; Lane, John

    2014-03-10

    . In this project, we sought to capitalize on the geophysical signatures of mass transfer. Previous numerical modeling and pilot-scale field experiments suggested that mass transfer produces a geoelectrical signature—a hysteretic relation between sampled (mobile-domain) fluid conductivity and bulk (mobile + immobile) conductivity—over a range of scales relevant to aquifer remediation. In this work, we investigated the geoelectrical signature of mass transfer during tracer transport in a series of controlled experiments to determine the operation of controlling parameters, and also investigated the use of complex-resistivity (CR) as a means of quantifying mass transfer parameters in situ without tracer experiments. In an add-on component to our grant, we additionally considered nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) to help parse mobile from immobile porosities. Our study objectives were to: 1. Develop and demonstrate geophysical approaches to measure mass-transfer parameters spatially and over a range of scales, including the combination of electrical resistivity monitoring, tracer tests, complex resistivity, nuclear magnetic resonance, and materials characterization; and 2. Provide mass-transfer estimates for improved understanding of contaminant fate and transport at DOE sites, such as uranium transport at the Hanford 300 Area. To achieve our objectives, we implemented a 3-part research plan involving (1) development of computer codes and techniques to estimate mass-transfer parameters from time-lapse electrical data; (2) bench-scale experiments on synthetic materials and materials from cores from the Hanford 300 Area; and (3) field demonstration experiments at the DOE’s Hanford 300 Area.

  17. Method and apparatus for two-dimensional absolute optical encoding

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leviton, Douglas B. (Inventor)

    2004-01-01

    This invention presents a two-dimensional absolute optical encoder and a method for determining position of an object in accordance with information from the encoder. The encoder of the present invention comprises a scale having a pattern being predetermined to indicate an absolute location on the scale, means for illuminating the scale, means for forming an image of the pattern; and detector means for outputting signals derived from the portion of the image of the pattern which lies within a field of view of the detector means, the field of view defining an image reference coordinate system, and analyzing means, receiving the signals from the detector means, for determining the absolute location of the object. There are two types of scale patterns presented in this invention: grid type and starfield type.

  18. Dissolution of residual non-aqueous phase liquids in porous media: pore-scale mechanisms and mass transfer rates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sahloul, N. A.; Ioannidis, M. A.; Chatzis, I.

    Experiments designed to elucidate the pore-scale mechanisms of the dissolution of a residual non-aqueous phase liquid (NAPL), trapped in the form of ganglia within a porous medium, are discussed. These experiments were conducted using transparent glass micromodels with controlled pore geometry, so that the evolution of the size and shape of individual NAPL ganglia and, hence, the pore-scale mass transfer rates and mass transfer coefficients could be determined by image analysis. The micromodel design permitted reasonably accurate control of the pore water velocity, so that the mass transfer coefficients could be correlated in terms of a local (pore-scale) Peclet number. A simple mathematical model, incorporating convection and diffusion in a slit geometry was developed and used successfully to predict the observed mass transfer rates. For the case of non-wetting NAPL ganglia, water flow through the corners in the pore walls was seen to control the rate of NAPL dissolution, as recently postulated by Dillard and Blunt [Water Resour. Res. 36 (2000) 439-454]. Break-up of doublet non-wetting phase ganglia into singlet ganglia by snap-off in pore throats was also observed, confirming the interplay between capillarity and mass transfer. Additionally, the effect of wettability on dissolution mass transfer was demonstrated. Under conditions of preferential NAPL wettability, mass transfer from NAPL films covering the solid surfaces was seen to control the dissolution process. Supply of NAPL from the trapped ganglia to these films by capillary flow along pore corners was observed to result in a sequence of pore drainage events that increase the interfacial area for mass transfer. These observations provide new experimental evidence for the role of capillarity, wettability and corner flow on NAPL ganglia dissolution.

  19. Atomic nitrogen: a parameter study of a micro-scale atmospheric pressure plasma jet by means of molecular beam mass spectrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schneider, Simon; Dünnbier, Mario; Hübner, Simon; Reuter, Stephan; Benedikt, Jan

    2014-12-01

    Absolute atomic nitrogen densities (N) in the effluent of a micro-scale atmospheric pressure plasma jet (µ-APPJ) operated in He with small admixtures of molecular nitrogen (N2) are measured by means of molecular beam mass spectrometry. Focusing on changes of the external plasma parameters, the dependency of the atomic nitrogen density on the admixture of molecular nitrogen to the plasma, the variation of applied electrode voltage and the variation of distance between the jet nozzle and the sampling orifice of the mass spectrometer are analysed. When varying the N2 admixture, a maximum density of atomic nitrogen of approximately 1.5  ×  1014 cm-3 (~6 ppm) is reached at about 0.25% N2 admixture. Moreover, the N density increases approximately linearly with the applied voltage. Both results are comparable to atomic oxygen (O) behaviour of the µ-APPJ operated at equal plasma conditions except for admixing molecular O2 instead of nitrogen (Ellerweg et al 2010 New J. Phys. 12 013021). The N density decreases continuously with increasing distance, but the decrease is slower than in the case of O atoms in He/O2 plasma. N atoms with a density of 2.0  ×  1013 cm-3 (~0.8 ppm) are still detected at 40 mm distance from the jet nozzle in controlled He/N2 atmosphere. The simple fluid simulation of N diffusion does not reproduce the measured densities of N. Nevertheless, a simulation taking into account atomic nitrogen reactions with gas impurities are able to reproduce the measured data, indicating that these reactions are an important loss mechanism of N atoms. The presented results are relevant for the future investigation of interactions of reactive nitrogen species with biological substrates.

  20. Pore-scale supercritical CO2 dissolution and mass transfer under imbibition conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, Chun; Zhou, Quanlin; Kneafsey, Timothy J.; Oostrom, Mart; Wietsma, Thomas W.; Yu, Qingchun

    2016-06-01

    In modeling of geological carbon storage, dissolution of supercritical CO2 (scCO2) is often assumed to be instantaneous with equilibrium phase partitioning. In contrast, recent core-scale imbibition experiments have shown a prolonged depletion of residual scCO2 by dissolution, implying a non-equilibrium mechanism. In this study, eight pore-scale scCO2 dissolution experiments in a 2D heterogeneous, sandstone-analog micromodel were conducted at supercritical conditions (9 MPa and 40 °C). The micromodel was first saturated with deionized (DI) water and drained by injecting scCO2 to establish a stable scCO2 saturation. DI water was then injected at constant flow rates after scCO2 drainage was completed. High resolution time-lapse images of scCO2 and water distributions were obtained during imbibition and dissolution, aided by a scCO2-soluble fluorescent dye introduced with scCO2 during drainage. These images were used to estimate scCO2 saturations and scCO2 depletion rates. Experimental results show that (1) a time-independent, varying number of water-flow channels are created during imbibition and later dominant dissolution by the random nature of water flow at the micromodel inlet, and (2) a time-dependent number of water-flow channels are created by coupled imbibition and dissolution following completion of dominant imbibition. The number of water-flow paths, constant or transient in nature, greatly affects the overall depletion rate of scCO2 by dissolution. The average mass fraction of dissolved CO2 (dsCO2) in water effluent varies from 0.38% to 2.72% of CO2 solubility, indicating non-equilibrium scCO2 dissolution in the millimeter-scale pore network. In general, the transient depletion rate decreases as trapped, discontinuous scCO2 bubbles and clusters within water-flow paths dissolve, then remains low with dissolution of large bypassed scCO2 clusters at their interfaces with longitudinal water flow, and finally increases with coupled transverse water flow and

  1. Science 101: Do Balances and Scales Determine an Object's Mass or Its Weight?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robertson, William C.

    2008-01-01

    The typical elementary-school explanation of the difference between mass and weight goes something like the following: Mass is the amount of matter contained in an object. If you travel to the Moon, another planet, or anywhere far away from Earth, your mass doesn't change. Weight is how hard Earth pulls on you. When you travel to the Moon or…

  2. Revisiting the Scaling Relations of Black Hole Masses and Host Galaxy Properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McConnell, Nicholas J.; Ma, Chung-Pei

    2013-02-01

    New kinematic data and modeling efforts in the past few years have substantially expanded and revised dynamical measurements of black hole masses (M •) at the centers of nearby galaxies. Here we compile an updated sample of 72 black holes and their host galaxies, and present revised scaling relations between M • and stellar velocity dispersion (σ), V-band luminosity (L), and bulge stellar mass (M bulge), for different galaxy subsamples. Our best-fitting power-law relations for the full galaxy sample are log10(M •) = 8.32 + 5.64log10(σ/200 km s-1), log10(M •) = 9.23 + 1.11log10(L/1011 L ⊙), and log10(M •) = 8.46 + 1.05log10(M bulge/1011 M ⊙). A log-quadratic fit to the M •-σ relation with an additional term of β2 [log10(σ/200 km s-1)]2 gives β2 = 1.68 ± 1.82 and does not decrease the intrinsic scatter in M •. Including 92 additional upper limits on M • does not change the slope of the M •-σ relation. When the early- and late-type galaxies are fit separately, we obtain similar slopes of 5.20 and 5.06 for the M •-σ relation but significantly different intercepts—M • in early-type galaxies are about two times higher than in late types at a given sigma. Within early-type galaxies, our fits to M •(σ) give M • that is about two times higher in galaxies with central core profiles than those with central power-law profiles. Our M •-L and M •-M bulge relations for early-type galaxies are similar to those from earlier compilations, and core and power-law galaxies yield similar L- and M bulge-based predictions for M •. When the conventional quadrature method is used to determine the intrinsic scatter in M •, our data set shows weak evidence for increased scatter at M bulge < 1011 M ⊙ or LV < 1010.3 L ⊙, while the scatter stays constant for 1011 < M bulge < 1012.3 M ⊙ and 1010.3 < LV < 1011.5 L ⊙. A Bayesian analysis indicates that a larger sample of M • measurements would be needed to detect any statistically

  3. The potential for optical beam shaping of UV laser sources for mass scale quarantine disinfection applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lizotte, Todd

    2010-08-01

    Recent events concerning H1N1 "swine flu", have demonstrated to the world the significant potential of rapid increases in death and illness among all age groups and even among the healthy population [1] when a highly infectious influenza virus is introduced. In terms of mass casualties due to a pandemic, preparedness and response planning must be done. One course of action to prevent a pandemic outbreak or reduce the impact of a bioterrorist event is the use of isolation or quarantine facilities. The first level of isolation or quarantine is within the personal residence of the person exposed or infected. In the case where, the specific virus is extremely contagious and its onset of symptoms is rapid and severe, there will be a need for the deployment and setup of larger self contained quarantine facilities. Such facilities are used to house infectious individuals to minimize the exposure of susceptible individuals to contagious individuals, especially when specialized care or treatment is required and during the viral shedding period (5 to 7 days). These types of facilities require non-shared air conditioning, heating and ventilating systems where 100% of air is vented to the outside through a series of disinfection systems and staged filters. Although chemical disinfection is possible, there is a desire to incorporate intense UV radiation as a means to deactivate and disinfect airborne virus within hospital settings and isolated mass scale quarantine facilities. UV radiation is also being considered for disinfection of contaminated surfaces, such as table tops, walls and floors in hospitals and temporary quarantine facilities. In such applications the use of UV bulb technology can create many problems, for instance bulb technology requires numerous bulbs to treat a large volume of air, generates significant heat, uses significant power and does not produce large fluxes of UV light efficiently. This paper provides several methods of creating quarantine level

  4. Absolute NMR shielding scales and nuclear spin–rotation constants in {sup 175}LuX and {sup 197}AuX (X = {sup 19}F, {sup 35}Cl, {sup 79}Br and {sup 127}I)

    SciTech Connect

    Demissie, Taye B. Komorovsky, Stanislav; Repisky, Michal; Ruud, Kenneth; Jaszuński, Michał

    2015-10-28

    We present nuclear spin–rotation constants, absolute nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) shielding constants, and shielding spans of all the nuclei in {sup 175}LuX and {sup 197}AuX (X = {sup 19}F, {sup 35}Cl, {sup 79}Br, {sup 127}I), calculated using coupled-cluster singles-and-doubles with a perturbative triples (CCSD(T)) correction theory, four-component relativistic density functional theory (relativistic DFT), and non-relativistic DFT. The total nuclear spin–rotation constants determined by adding the relativistic corrections obtained from DFT calculations to the CCSD(T) values are in general in agreement with available experimental data, indicating that the computational approach followed in this study allows us to predict reliable results for the unknown spin–rotation constants in these molecules. The total NMR absolute shielding constants are determined for all the nuclei following the same approach as that applied for the nuclear spin–rotation constants. In most of the molecules, relativistic effects significantly change the computed shielding constants, demonstrating that straightforward application of the non-relativistic formula relating the electronic contribution to the nuclear spin–rotation constants and the paramagnetic contribution to the shielding constants does not yield correct results. We also analyze the origin of the unusually large absolute shielding constant and its relativistic correction of gold in AuF compared to the other gold monohalides.

  5. Absolute NMR shielding scales and nuclear spin-rotation constants in 175LuX and 197AuX (X = 19F, 35Cl, 79Br and 127I)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Demissie, Taye B.; Jaszuński, Michał; Komorovsky, Stanislav; Repisky, Michal; Ruud, Kenneth

    2015-10-01

    We present nuclear spin-rotation constants, absolute nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) shielding constants, and shielding spans of all the nuclei in 175LuX and 197AuX (X = 19F, 35Cl, 79Br, 127I), calculated using coupled-cluster singles-and-doubles with a perturbative triples (CCSD(T)) correction theory, four-component relativistic density functional theory (relativistic DFT), and non-relativistic DFT. The total nuclear spin-rotation constants determined by adding the relativistic corrections obtained from DFT calculations to the CCSD(T) values are in general in agreement with available experimental data, indicating that the computational approach followed in this study allows us to predict reliable results for the unknown spin-rotation constants in these molecules. The total NMR absolute shielding constants are determined for all the nuclei following the same approach as that applied for the nuclear spin-rotation constants. In most of the molecules, relativistic effects significantly change the computed shielding constants, demonstrating that straightforward application of the non-relativistic formula relating the electronic contribution to the nuclear spin-rotation constants and the paramagnetic contribution to the shielding constants does not yield correct results. We also analyze the origin of the unusually large absolute shielding constant and its relativistic correction of gold in AuF compared to the other gold monohalides.

  6. Absolute magnitudes and kinematics of barium stars.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gomez, A. E.; Luri, X.; Grenier, S.; Prevot, L.; Mennessier, M. O.; Figueras, F.; Torra, J.

    1997-03-01

    The absolute magnitude of barium stars has been obtained from kinematical data using a new algorithm based on the maximum-likelihood principle. The method allows to separate a sample into groups characterized by different mean absolute magnitudes, kinematics and z-scale heights. It also takes into account, simultaneously, the censorship in the sample and the errors on the observables. The method has been applied to a sample of 318 barium stars. Four groups have been detected. Three of them show a kinematical behaviour corresponding to disk population stars. The fourth group contains stars with halo kinematics. The luminosities of the disk population groups spread a large range. The intrinsically brightest one (M_v_=-1.5mag, σ_M_=0.5mag) seems to be an inhomogeneous group containing barium binaries as well as AGB single stars. The most numerous group (about 150 stars) has a mean absolute magnitude corresponding to stars in the red giant branch (M_v_=0.9mag, σ_M_=0.8mag). The third group contains barium dwarfs, the obtained mean absolute magnitude is characteristic of stars on the main sequence or on the subgiant branch (M_v_=3.3mag, σ_M_=0.5mag). The obtained mean luminosities as well as the kinematical results are compatible with an evolutionary link between barium dwarfs and classical barium giants. The highly luminous group is not linked with these last two groups. More high-resolution spectroscopic data will be necessary in order to better discriminate between barium and non-barium stars.

  7. LoCuSS: the near-infrared luminosity and weak-lensing mass scaling relation of galaxy clusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mulroy, Sarah L.; Smith, Graham P.; Haines, Chris P.; Marrone, Daniel P.; Okabe, Nobuhiro; Pereira, Maria J.; Egami, Eiichi; Babul, Arif; Finoguenov, Alexis; Martino, Rossella

    2014-10-01

    We present the first scaling relation between weak-lensing galaxy cluster mass, MWL, and near-infrared luminosity, LK. Our results are based on 17 clusters observed with wide-field instruments on Subaru, the United Kingdom Infrared Telescope, the Mayall Telescope, and the MMT. We concentrate on the relation between projected 2D weak-lensing mass and spectroscopically confirmed luminosity within 1 Mpc, modelled as M_WL ∝ LK^b, obtaining a power-law slope of b=0.83^{+0.27}_{-0.24} and an intrinsic scatter of σ _{lnM_WL|LK}=10^{+8}_{-5} per cent. Intrinsic scatter of ˜10 per cent is a consistent feature of our results regardless of how we modify our approach to measuring the relationship between mass and light. For example, deprojecting the mass and measuring both quantities within r500, that is itself obtained from the lensing analysis, yields σ _{lnM_WL|LK}=10^{+7}_{-5} per cent and b=0.97^{+0.17}_{-0.17}. We also find that selecting members based on their (J - K) colours instead of spectroscopic redshifts neither increases the scatter nor modifies the slope. Overall our results indicate that near-infrared luminosity measured on scales comparable with r500 (typically 1 Mpc for our sample) is a low scatter and relatively inexpensive proxy for weak-lensing mass. Near-infrared luminosity may therefore be a useful mass proxy for cluster cosmology experiments.

  8. Higgs mass, superconnections, and the TeV-scale left-right symmetric model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aydemir, Ufuk; Minic, Djordje; Sun, Chen; Takeuchi, Tatsu

    2015-02-01

    We discuss the physical implications of formulating the Standard Model (SM) in terms of the superconnection formalism involving the superalgebra s u (2 /1 ). In particular, we discuss the prediction of the Higgs mass according to the formalism and point out that it is ˜170 GeV , in clear disagreement with experiment. To remedy this problem, we extend the formalism to the superalgebra s u (2 /2 ), which extends the SM to the left-right symmetric model (LRSM) and accommodates a ˜126 GeV Higgs boson. Both the SM in the s u (2 /1 ) case and the LRSM in the s u (2 /2 ) case are argued to emerge at ˜4 TeV from an underlying theory in which the spacetime geometry is modified by the addition of a discrete extra dimension. The formulation of the exterior derivative in this model space suggests a deep connection between the modified geometry, which can be described in the language of noncommutative geometry, and the spontaneous breaking of the gauge symmetries. The implication is that spontaneous symmetry breaking could actually be geometric/quantum gravitational in nature. The nondecoupling phenomenon seen in the Higgs sector can then be reinterpreted in a new light as due to the mixing of low energy (SM) physics and high energy physics associated with quantum gravity, such as string theory. The phenomenology of a TeV scale LRSM is also discussed, and we argue that some exciting discoveries may await us at the LHC, and other near-future experiments.

  9. Relativistic Absolutism in Moral Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vogt, W. Paul

    1982-01-01

    Discusses Emile Durkheim's "Moral Education: A Study in the Theory and Application of the Sociology of Education," which holds that morally healthy societies may vary in culture and organization but must possess absolute rules of moral behavior. Compares this moral theory with current theory and practice of American educators. (MJL)

  10. Absolute transition probabilities of phosphorus.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, M. H.; Roig, R. A.; Bengtson, R. D.

    1971-01-01

    Use of a gas-driven shock tube to measure the absolute strengths of 21 P I lines and 126 P II lines (from 3300 to 6900 A). Accuracy for prominent, isolated neutral and ionic lines is estimated to be 28 to 40% and 18 to 30%, respectively. The data and the corresponding theoretical predictions are examined for conformity with the sum rules.-

  11. Absolute limit on rotation of gravitationally bound stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Glendenning, N. K.

    1994-03-01

    The authors seek an absolute limit on the rotational period for a neutron star as a function of its mass, based on the minimal constraints imposed by Einstein's theory of relativity, Le Chatelier's principle, causality, and a low-density equation of state, uncertainties which can be evaluated as to their effect on the result. This establishes a limiting curve in the mass-period plane below which no pulsar that is a neutron star can lie. For example, the minimum possible Kepler period, which is an absolute limit on rotation below which mass-shedding would occur, is 0.33 ms for a M = 1.442 solar mass neutron star (the mass of PSR1913+16). If the limit were found to be broken by any pulsar, it would signal that the confined hadronic phase of ordinary nucleons and nuclei is only metastable.

  12. Scaling of the photon index vs. mass accretion rate correlation and estimate of black hole mass in M101 ULX-1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Titarchuk, Lev; Seifina, Elena

    2016-01-01

    We report the results of Swift and Chandra observations of an ultraluminous X-ray source, ULX-1 in M101. We show strong observational evidence that M101 ULX-1 undergoes spectral transitions from the low/hard state to the high/soft state during these observations. The spectra of M101 ULX-1 are well fitted by the so-called bulk motion Comptonization (BMC) model for all spectral states. We have established the photon index (Γ) saturation level, Γsat = 2.8 ± 0.1, in the Γ versus mass accretion rate (Ṁ) correlation. This Γ-Ṁ correlation allows us to evaluate black hole (BH) mass in M101 ULX-1 to be MBH ~ (3.2-4.3) × 104 M⊙, assuming the spread in distance to M101 (from 6.4 ± 0.5 Mpc to 7.4 ± 0.6 Mpc). For this BH mass estimate we apply the scaling method, using Galactic BHs XTE J1550-564, H 1743-322 and 4U 1630-472 as reference sources. The Γ vs. Ṁ correlation revealed in M101 ULX-1 is similar to that in a number of Galactic BHs and clearly exhibits the correlation along with the strong Γ saturation at ≈ 2.8. This is robust observational evidence for the presence of a BH in M101 ULX-1. We also find that the seed (disk) photon temperatures are low, on the order of 40-100 eV, which is consistent with high BH mass in M101 ULX-1. Thus, we suggest that the central object in M101 ULX-1 has intermediate BH mass on the order of 104 solar masses.

  13. A weak gravitational lensing recalibration of the scaling relations linking the gas properties of dark haloes to their mass

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Wenting; White, Simon D. M.; Mandelbaum, Rachel; Henriques, Bruno; Anderson, Michael E.; Han, Jiaxin

    2016-03-01

    We use weak gravitational lensing to measure mean mass profiles around locally brightest galaxies (LBGs). These are selected from the Seventh Data Release of the Sloan Digital Sky Survey spectroscopic and photometric catalogues to be brighter than any neighbour projected within 1.0 Mpc and differing in redshift by <1000 km s-1. Most (>83 per cent) are expected to be the central galaxies of their dark matter haloes. Previous stacking analyses have used this LBG sample to measure mean Sunyaev-Zeldovich flux and mean X-ray luminosity as a function of LBG stellar mass. In both cases, a simulation of the formation of the galaxy population was used to estimate effective halo mass for LBGs of given stellar mass, allowing the derivation of scaling relations between the gas properties of haloes and their mass. By comparing results from a variety of simulations to our lensing data, we show that this procedure has significant model dependence reflecting: (i) the failure of any given simulation to reproduce observed galaxy abundances exactly; (ii) a dependence on the cosmology underlying the simulation; and (iii) a dependence on the details of how galaxies populate haloes. We use our lensing results to recalibrate the scaling relations, eliminating most of this model dependence and explicitly accounting both for residual modelling uncertainties and for observational uncertainties in the lensing results. The resulting scaling relations link the mean gas properties of dark haloes to their mass over an unprecedentedly wide range, 1012.5 < M500/M⊙ < 1014.5, and should fairly and robustly represent the full halo population.

  14. Scaling of Convex Hull Volume to Body Mass in Modern Primates, Non-Primate Mammals and Birds

    PubMed Central

    Brassey, Charlotte A.; Sellers, William I.

    2014-01-01

    The volumetric method of ‘convex hulling’ has recently been put forward as a mass prediction technique for fossil vertebrates. Convex hulling involves the calculation of minimum convex hull volumes (volCH) from the complete mounted skeletons of modern museum specimens, which are subsequently regressed against body mass (Mb) to derive predictive equations for extinct species. The convex hulling technique has recently been applied to estimate body mass in giant sauropods and fossil ratites, however the biomechanical signal contained within volCH has remained unclear. Specifically, when volCH scaling departs from isometry in a group of vertebrates, how might this be interpreted? Here we derive predictive equations for primates, non-primate mammals and birds and compare the scaling behaviour of Mb to volCH between groups. We find predictive equations to be characterised by extremely high correlation coefficients (r2 = 0.97–0.99) and low mean percentage prediction error (11–20%). Results suggest non-primate mammals scale body mass to volCH isometrically (b = 0.92, 95%CI = 0.85–1.00, p = 0.08). Birds scale body mass to volCH with negative allometry (b = 0.81, 95%CI = 0.70–0.91, p = 0.011) and apparent density (volCH/Mb) therefore decreases with mass (r2 = 0.36, p<0.05). In contrast, primates scale body mass to volCH with positive allometry (b = 1.07, 95%CI = 1.01–1.12, p = 0.05) and apparent density therefore increases with size (r2 = 0.46, p = 0.025). We interpret such departures from isometry in the context of the ‘missing mass’ of soft tissues that are excluded from the convex hulling process. We conclude that the convex hulling technique can be justifiably applied to the fossil record when a large proportion of the skeleton is preserved. However we emphasise the need for future studies to quantify interspecific variation in the distribution of soft tissues such as muscle, integument and body fat

  15. Taking care of business in a flash: constraining the time-scale for low-mass satellite quenching with ELVIS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fillingham, Sean P.; Cooper, Michael C.; Wheeler, Coral; Garrison-Kimmel, Shea; Boylan-Kolchin, Michael; Bullock, James S.

    2015-12-01

    The vast majority of dwarf satellites orbiting the Milky Way and M31 are quenched, while comparable galaxies in the field are gas rich and star forming. Assuming that this dichotomy is driven by environmental quenching, we use the Exploring the Local Volume in Simulations (ELVIS) suite of N-body simulations to constrain the characteristic time-scale upon which satellites must quench following infall into the virial volumes of their hosts. The high satellite quenched fraction observed in the Local Group demands an extremely short quenching time-scale (˜2 Gyr) for dwarf satellites in the mass range M⋆ ˜ 106-108 M⊙. This quenching time-scale is significantly shorter than that required to explain the quenched fraction of more massive satellites (˜8 Gyr), both in the Local Group and in more massive host haloes, suggesting a dramatic change in the dominant satellite quenching mechanism at M⋆ ≲ 108 M⊙. Combining our work with the results of complementary analyses in the literature, we conclude that the suppression of star formation in massive satellites (M⋆ ˜ 108-1011 M⊙) is broadly consistent with being driven by starvation, such that the satellite quenching time-scale corresponds to the cold gas depletion time. Below a critical stellar mass scale of ˜108 M⊙, however, the required quenching times are much shorter than the expected cold gas depletion times. Instead, quenching must act on a time-scale comparable to the dynamical time of the host halo. We posit that ram-pressure stripping can naturally explain this behaviour, with the critical mass (of M⋆ ˜ 108 M⊙) corresponding to haloes with gravitational restoring forces that are too weak to overcome the drag force encountered when moving through an extended, hot circumgalactic medium.

  16. Determination of Black Hole Mass in Cyg X-1 by Scaling of Spectral Index-QPO Frequency Correlation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shaposhnikov, Nickolai; Titarchuk, Lev

    2007-01-01

    It is well established that timing and spectral properties of Galactic Black Hole (BH) X-ray binaries (XRB) are strongly correlated. In particular, it has been shown that low frequency Quasi-Periodic Oscillation (QPO) nu(sub low) - photon index GAMMA correlation curves have a specific pattern. In a number of the sources studied the shape of the index-low frequency QPO correlations are self-similar with a position offset in the nu(sub low) - GAMMA plane determined by a BH mass M(sub BH). Specifically, Titarchuk & Fiorito (2004) gave strong theoretical and observational arguments that the QPO frequency values in this nu(sub low) - GAMMA correlation should be inversely proportional to M(sub BH). A simple translation of the correlation for a given source along frequency axis leads to the observed correlation for another source. As a result of this translation one can obtain a scaling factor which is simply a BH mass ratio for these particular sources. This property of the correlations offers a fundamentally new method for BH mass determination in XRBs. Here we use the observed QPO-index correlations observed in three BH sources: GRO J1655-40, GRS 1915+105 and Cyg X-1. The BH mass of (6.3 plus or minus 0.5) solar mass in GRO J1655-40 is obtained using optical observations. RXTE observations during the recent 2005 outburst yielded sufficient data to establish the correlation pattern during both rise and decay of the event. We use GRO J1655-40 as a standard reference source to measure the BH mass in Cyg X-1. We also revisit the GRS 1915+105 data as a further test of our scaling method. We obtain the BH mass in Cyg X-1 in the range 7.6-9.9.

  17. Exploring Scale Effect Using Geographically Weighted Regression on Mass Dataset of Urban Robbery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yavuz, Ö.; Tecim, V.

    2013-05-01

    Urban geographers have been studying to explain factors influencing crime on cases limited by their study areas. Researchers have a common opinion that explanatory variables modelling crime on those cases might be irrelevant for another one. None of the researchers tested significance of these variables with changing scales of the study area. Because their data did not allow them to study with different scales. This research examines the scale effect with various data from a wide range of data sources. Geographically Weighted Regression (GWR) method is used to explain that effect, after organizing data by Geographical Information System (GIS) technologies. Explanatory variables deduced for district scale are different from those for grid scale. Hence, the explanatory variables may change not only for different geographical areas but also for different scales of the same area.

  18. Stepping in Elton's footprints: a general scaling model for body masses and trophic levels across ecosystems.

    PubMed

    Riede, Jens O; Brose, Ulrich; Ebenman, Bo; Jacob, Ute; Thompson, Ross; Townsend, Colin R; Jonsson, Tomas

    2011-02-01

    Despite growing awareness of the significance of body-size and predator-prey body-mass ratios for the stability of ecological networks, our understanding of their distribution within ecosystems is incomplete. Here, we study the relationships between predator and prey size, body-mass ratios and predator trophic levels using body-mass estimates of 1313 predators (invertebrates, ectotherm and endotherm vertebrates) from 35 food-webs (marine, stream, lake and terrestrial). Across all ecosystem and predator types, except for streams (which appear to have a different size structure in their predator-prey interactions), we find that (1) geometric mean prey mass increases with predator mass with a power-law exponent greater than unity and (2) predator size increases with trophic level. Consistent with our theoretical derivations, we show that the quantitative nature of these relationships implies systematic decreases in predator-prey body-mass ratios with the trophic level of the predator. Thus, predators are, on an average, more similar in size to their prey at the top of food-webs than that closer to the base. These findings contradict the traditional Eltonian paradigm and have implications for our understanding of body-mass constraints on food-web topology, community dynamics and stability.

  19. Optomechanics for absolute rotation detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davuluri, Sankar

    2016-07-01

    In this article, we present an application of optomechanical cavity for the absolute rotation detection. The optomechanical cavity is arranged in a Michelson interferometer in such a way that the classical centrifugal force due to rotation changes the length of the optomechanical cavity. The change in the cavity length induces a shift in the frequency of the cavity mode. The phase shift corresponding to the frequency shift in the cavity mode is measured at the interferometer output to estimate the angular velocity of absolute rotation. We derived an analytic expression to estimate the minimum detectable rotation rate in our scheme for a given optomechanical cavity. Temperature dependence of the rotation detection sensitivity is studied.

  20. Moral absolutism and ectopic pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Kaczor, C

    2001-02-01

    If one accepts a version of absolutism that excludes the intentional killing of any innocent human person from conception to natural death, ectopic pregnancy poses vexing difficulties. Given that the embryonic life almost certainly will die anyway, how can one retain one's moral principle and yet adequately respond to a situation that gravely threatens the life of the mother and her future fertility? The four options of treatment most often discussed in the literature are non-intervention, salpingectomy (removal of tube with embryo), salpingostomy (removal of embryo alone), and use of methotrexate (MXT). In this essay, I review these four options and introduce a fifth (the milking technique). In order to assess these options in terms of the absolutism mentioned, it will also be necessary to discuss various accounts of the intention/foresight distinction. I conclude that salpingectomy, salpingostomy, and the milking technique are compatible with absolutist presuppositions, but not the use of methotrexate.

  1. Moral absolutism and ectopic pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Kaczor, C

    2001-02-01

    If one accepts a version of absolutism that excludes the intentional killing of any innocent human person from conception to natural death, ectopic pregnancy poses vexing difficulties. Given that the embryonic life almost certainly will die anyway, how can one retain one's moral principle and yet adequately respond to a situation that gravely threatens the life of the mother and her future fertility? The four options of treatment most often discussed in the literature are non-intervention, salpingectomy (removal of tube with embryo), salpingostomy (removal of embryo alone), and use of methotrexate (MXT). In this essay, I review these four options and introduce a fifth (the milking technique). In order to assess these options in terms of the absolutism mentioned, it will also be necessary to discuss various accounts of the intention/foresight distinction. I conclude that salpingectomy, salpingostomy, and the milking technique are compatible with absolutist presuppositions, but not the use of methotrexate. PMID:11262641

  2. The Absolute Spectrum Polarimeter (ASP)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kogut, A. J.

    2010-01-01

    The Absolute Spectrum Polarimeter (ASP) is an Explorer-class mission to map the absolute intensity and linear polarization of the cosmic microwave background and diffuse astrophysical foregrounds over the full sky from 30 GHz to 5 THz. The principal science goal is the detection and characterization of linear polarization from an inflationary epoch in the early universe, with tensor-to-scalar ratio r much greater than 1O(raised to the power of { -3}) and Compton distortion y < 10 (raised to the power of{-6}). We describe the ASP instrument and mission architecture needed to detect the signature of an inflationary epoch in the early universe using only 4 semiconductor bolometers.

  3. Classification images predict absolute efficiency.

    PubMed

    Murray, Richard F; Bennett, Patrick J; Sekuler, Allison B

    2005-02-24

    How well do classification images characterize human observers' strategies in perceptual tasks? We show mathematically that from the classification image of a noisy linear observer, it is possible to recover the observer's absolute efficiency. If we could similarly predict human observers' performance from their classification images, this would suggest that the linear model that underlies use of the classification image method is adequate over the small range of stimuli typically encountered in a classification image experiment, and that a classification image captures most important aspects of human observers' performance over this range. In a contrast discrimination task and in a shape discrimination task, we found that observers' absolute efficiencies were generally well predicted by their classification images, although consistently slightly (approximately 13%) higher than predicted. We consider whether a number of plausible nonlinearities can account for the slight under prediction, and of these we find that only a form of phase uncertainty can account for the discrepancy.

  4. Absolute calibration of optical flats

    DOEpatents

    Sommargren, Gary E.

    2005-04-05

    The invention uses the phase shifting diffraction interferometer (PSDI) to provide a true point-by-point measurement of absolute flatness over the surface of optical flats. Beams exiting the fiber optics in a PSDI have perfect spherical wavefronts. The measurement beam is reflected from the optical flat and passed through an auxiliary optic to then be combined with the reference beam on a CCD. The combined beams include phase errors due to both the optic under test and the auxiliary optic. Standard phase extraction algorithms are used to calculate this combined phase error. The optical flat is then removed from the system and the measurement fiber is moved to recombine the two beams. The newly combined beams include only the phase errors due to the auxiliary optic. When the second phase measurement is subtracted from the first phase measurement, the absolute phase error of the optical flat is obtained.

  5. Improved scaling laws for stage inert mass of space propulsion systems. Volume 2: System modeling and weight data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1971-01-01

    Technical models and analytical approaches used to develop the weight data for vehicle system concepts using advanced technology are reported. Weight data are supplied for the following major system elements: engine, pressurization, propellant containers, structural shells and secondary structure, and environmental protection shields for the meteoroid and thermal design requirements. Scaling laws, improved and a simplified set, are developed from the system weight data. The laws consider the implications of the major design parameters and mission requirements on the stage inert mass.

  6. The dynamics of superclusters - Initial determination of the mass density of the universe at large scales

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ford, H. C.; Ciardullo, R.; Harms, R. J.; Bartko, F.

    1981-01-01

    The radial velocities of cluster members of two rich, large superclusters have been measured in order to probe the supercluster mass densities, and simple evolutionary models have been computed to place limits upon the mass density within each supercluster. These superclusters represent true physical associations of size of about 100 Mpc seen presently at an early stage of evolution. One supercluster is weakly bound, the other probably barely bound, but possibly marginally unbound. Gravity has noticeably slowed the Hubble expansion of both superclusters. Galaxy surface-density counts and the density enhancement of Abell clusters within each supercluster were used to derive the ratio of mass densities of the superclusters to the mean field mass density. The results strongly exclude a closed universe.

  7. Absolute limit on rotation of gravitationally bound stars

    SciTech Connect

    Glendenning, N.K.

    1994-03-01

    The authors seek an absolute limit on the rotational period for a neutron star as a function of its mass, based on the minimal constraints imposed by Einstein`s theory of relativity, Le Chatelier`s principle, causality and a low-density equation of state, uncertainties which can be evaluated as to their effect on the result. This establishes a limiting curve in the mass-period plane below which no pulsar that is a neutron star can lie. For example, the minimum possible Kepler period, which is an absolute limit on rotation below which mass-shedding would occur, is 0.33 ms for a M = 1.442 M{circle_dot} neutron star (the mass of PSR1913+16). If the limit were found to be broken by any pulsar, it would signal that the confined hadronic phase of ordinary nucleons and nuclei is only metastable, an extraordinary conclusion.

  8. Modelling Energy Loss Mechanisms and a Determination of the Electron Energy Scale for the CDF Run II W Mass Measurement

    SciTech Connect

    Riddick, Thomas

    2012-06-15

    The calibration of the calorimeter energy scale is vital to measuring the mass of the W boson at CDF Run II. For the second measurement of the W boson mass at CDF Run II, two independent simulations were developed. This thesis presents a detailed description of the modification and validation of Bremsstrahlung and pair production modelling in one of these simulations, UCL Fast Simulation, comparing to both geant4 and real data where appropriate. The total systematic uncertainty on the measurement of the W boson mass in the W → eve channel from residual inaccuracies in Bremsstrahlung modelling is estimated as 6.2 ±3.2 MeV/c2 and the total systematic uncertainty from residual inaccuracies in pair production modelling is estimated as 2.8± 2.7 MeV=c2. Two independent methods are used to calibrate the calorimeter energy scale in UCL Fast Simulation; the results of these two methods are compared to produce a measurement of the Z boson mass as a cross-check on the accuracy of the simulation.

  9. An experimental scale-model study of seismic response of an underground opening in jointed rock mass

    SciTech Connect

    Kana, D.D.; Fox, D.J.; Hsiung, S.; Chowdhury, A.H.

    1997-02-01

    This report describes an experimental investigation conducted by the Center for Nuclear Waste Regulatory Analyses (CNWRA) to (i) obtain a better understanding of the seismic response of an underground opening in a highly-fractured and jointed rock mass and (ii) generate a data set that can be used to evaluate the capabilities (analytical methods) to calculate such response. This report describes the design and implementation of simulated seismic experiments and results for a 1/15 scale model of a jointed rock mass with a circular tunnel in the middle. The discussion on the design of the scale model includes a description of the associated similitude theory, physical design rationale, model material development, preliminary analytical evaluation, instrumentation design and calibration, and model assembly and pretest procedures. The thrust of this discussion is intended to provide the information necessary to understand the experimental setup and to provide the background necessary to understand the experimental results. The discussion on the experimental procedures and results includes the seismic input test procedures, test runs, and measured excitation and response time histories. The closure of the tunnel due to various levels of seismic activity is presented. A threshold level of seismic input amplitude was required before significant rock mass motion occurred. The experiment, though designed as a two-dimensional representation of a rock mass, behaved in a somewhat three-dimensional manner, which will have an effect on subsequent analytical model comparison.

  10. LoCuSS: THE SUNYAEV-ZEL'DOVICH EFFECT AND WEAK-LENSING MASS SCALING RELATION

    SciTech Connect

    Marrone, Daniel P.; Carlstrom, John E.; Gralla, Megan; Greer, Christopher H.; Hennessy, Ryan; Leitch, Erik M.; Plagge, Thomas; Smith, Graham P.; Okabe, Nobuhiro; Bonamente, Massimiliano; Hasler, Nicole; Culverhouse, Thomas L.; Hawkins, David; Lamb, James W.; Muchovej, Stephen; Joy, Marshall; Martino, Rossella; Mazzotta, Pasquale; Miller, Amber; Mroczkowski, Tony; and others

    2012-08-01

    We present the first weak-lensing-based scaling relation between galaxy cluster mass, M{sub WL}, and integrated Compton parameter Y{sub sph}. Observations of 18 galaxy clusters at z {approx_equal} 0.2 were obtained with the Subaru 8.2 m telescope and the Sunyaev-Zel'dovich Array. The M{sub WL}-Y{sub sph} scaling relations, measured at {Delta} = 500, 1000, and 2500 {rho}{sub c}, are consistent in slope and normalization with previous results derived under the assumption of hydrostatic equilibrium (HSE). We find an intrinsic scatter in M{sub WL} at fixed Y{sub sph} of 20%, larger than both previous measurements of M{sub HSE}-Y{sub sph} scatter as well as the scatter in true mass at fixed Y{sub sph} found in simulations. Moreover, the scatter in our lensing-based scaling relations is morphology dependent, with 30%-40% larger M{sub WL} for undisturbed compared to disturbed clusters at the same Y{sub sph} at r{sub 500}. Further examination suggests that the segregation may be explained by the inability of our spherical lens models to faithfully describe the three-dimensional structure of the clusters, in particular, the structure along the line of sight. We find that the ellipticity of the brightest cluster galaxy, a proxy for halo orientation, correlates well with the offset in mass from the mean scaling relation, which supports this picture. This provides empirical evidence that line-of-sight projection effects are an important systematic uncertainty in lensing-based scaling relations.

  11. Global absolut gravity reference system as replacement of IGSN 71

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilmes, Herbert; Wziontek, Hartmut; Falk, Reinhard

    2015-04-01

    The determination of precise gravity field parameters is of great importance in a period in which earth sciences are achieving the necessary accuracy to monitor and document global change processes. This is the reason why experts from geodesy and metrology joined in a successful cooperation to make absolute gravity observations traceable to SI quantities, to improve the metrological kilogram definition and to monitor mass movements and smallest height changes for geodetic and geophysical applications. The international gravity datum is still defined by the International Gravity Standardization Net adopted in 1971 (IGSN 71). The network is based upon pendulum and spring gravimeter observations taken in the 1950s and 60s supported by the early free fall absolute gravimeters. Its gravity values agreed in every case to better than 0.1 mGal. Today, more than 100 absolute gravimeters are in use worldwide. The series of repeated international comparisons confirms the traceability of absolute gravity measurements to SI quantities and confirm the degree of equivalence of the gravimeters in the order of a few µGal. For applications in geosciences where e.g. gravity changes over time need to be analyzed, the temporal stability of an absolute gravimeter is most important. Therefore, the proposition is made to replace the IGSN 71 by an up-to-date gravity reference system which is based upon repeated absolute gravimeter comparisons and a global network of well controlled gravity reference stations.

  12. Scaled up low-mass star formation in massive star-forming cores in the G333 giant molecular cloud

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wiles, B.; Lo, N.; Redman, M. P.; Cunningham, M. R.; Jones, P. A.; Burton, M. G.; Bronfman, L.

    2016-06-01

    Three bright molecular line sources in G333 have recently been shown to exhibit signatures of infall. We describe a molecular line radiative transfer (RT) modelling process which is required to extract the infall signature from Mopra and Nanten2 data. The observed line profiles differ greatly between individual sources but are reproduced well by variations upon a common unified model where the outflow viewing angle is the most significant difference between the sources. The models and data together suggest that the observed properties of the high-mass star-forming regions such as infall, turbulence and mass are consistent with scaled-up versions of the low-mass case with turbulent velocities that are supersonic and an order of magnitude larger than those found in low-mass star-forming regions. Using detailed RT modelling, we show that the G333 cores are essentially undergoing a scaled-up version of low-mass star formation. This is an extension of earlier work in that the degree of infall and the chemical abundances are constrained by the RT modelling in a way that is not practical with a standard analysis of observational data. We also find high velocity infall and high infall mass rates, possibly suggesting accelerated collapse due to external pressure. Molecular depletion due to freeze-out on to dust grains in central regions of the cores is suggested by low molecular abundances of several species. Strong evidence for a local enhancement of 13C-bearing species towards the outflow cloud cores is discussed, consistent with the presence of shocks caused by the supersonic motions within them.

  13. Detailed comparison of the geodetic and direct glaciological mass balances on an annual time scale at Hintereisferner, Austria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klug, Christoph; Bollmann, Erik; Galos, Stephan; Kaser, Georg; Prinz, Rainer; Rieg, Lorenzo; Sailer, Rudolf

    2016-04-01

    The quantification of glacier mass changes is fundamental for glacier monitoring and provides important information for climate change assessments, hydrological applications and sea-level changes. On Alpine glaciers two methods of measuring glacier mass changes are widely applied: the direct glaciological method and the geodetic method. Over the last decades several studies compared the mass balance estimates obtained by both methods to identify and correct stochastic and systematic errors. In almost all of these studies, the time span for comparison between the two methods is about one decade or longer. On Hintereisferner (HEF; Ötztal Alps, Austria) mass balance measurements were initiated in the glaciological year 1952/53, resulting in a consistent mass balance data set with an estimated accuracy of ±0.2 m w.e. a-1. Furthermore, 11 airborne laser scanning (ALS) campaigns were conducted between 2001 and 2011 at HEF, all consistent in accuracy as well as in precision (± 0.04 to 0.10 m for slopes ≤ 50°). This is a world-wide unique ALS dataset of a glacierized alpine catchment. Flight campaigns were performed close to the end of the hydrological year (30th September). Resulting data provide high quality topographic information to derive glacier mass changes by applying the geodetic method. On sub-decadal time-scales such method comparisons are rare, or reveal unexplainable large discrepancies between both mass balance methods. In this study we estimate stochastic and systematic uncertainties of the ALS data for processing volume changes, and quantify methodological differences, such as density assumptions, unequal measurement dates, crevasses and glacier dynamics. Hence, we present a method to compare direct glaciological and geodetic mass balances on an annual basis. In a first step, we calculate the annual geodetic mass balance of HEF between 2001 and 2011, resulting in a thickness change map of the glacier. In a second step, the snow cover, which has

  14. Comparison of direct and geodetic mass balances on a multi-annual time scale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fischer, A.

    2010-07-01

    Glacier mass balance is measured with the direct or the geodetic method. In this study, the geodetic mass balances of six Austrian glaciers in 19 periods between 1953 and 2006 are compared to the direct mass balances in the same periods. The mean annual geodetic mass balance for all periods is -0.5 m w.e./year. The mean difference between the geodetic and the direct data is -0.7 m w.e., the minimum -7.3 m w.e. and the maximum 5.6 m w.e. The accuracy of geodetic mass balance resulting from the accuracy of the DEMs ranges from 2 m w.e. for photogrammetric data to 0.002 m w.e. for LIDAR data. Basal melt, seasonal snow cover and density changes of the surface layer contribute up to 0.7 m w.e. for the period of 10 years to the difference to the direct method. The characteristics of published data of Griesgletscher, Gulkana Glacier, Lemon Creek glacier, South Cascade, Storbreen, Storglaciären, and Zongo Glacier is similar to these Austrian glaciers. For 26 analyzed periods with an average length of 18 years the mean difference between the geodetic and the direct data is -0.4 m w.e., the minimum -7.2 m w.e. and the maximum 3.6 m w.e. Longer periods between the acquisition of the DEMs do not necessarily result in a higher accuracy of the geodetic mass balance. Specific glaciers show specific trends of the difference between the direct and the geodetic data according to their type and state. In conclusion, geodetic and direct mass balance data are complementary, but differ systematically.

  15. The Canadian Cluster Comparison Project: weak lensing masses and SZ scaling relations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoekstra, Henk; Mahdavi, Andisheh; Babul, Arif; Bildfell, Chris

    2012-12-01

    The Canadian Cluster Comparison Project is a comprehensive multi-wavelength survey targeting 50 massive X-ray selected clusters of galaxies to examine baryonic tracers of cluster mass and to probe the cluster-to-cluster variation in the thermal properties of the hot intra-cluster medium. In this paper we present the weak lensing masses, based on the analysis of deep wide field imaging data obtained using the Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope. The final sample includes two additional clusters that were located in the field-of-view. We take these masses as our reference for the comparison of cluster properties at other wavelengths. In this paper we limit the comparison to published measurements of the Sunyaev-Zel'dovich effect. We find that this signal correlates well with the projected lensing mass, with an intrinsic scatter of 12 ± 5 per cent at ˜r2500, demonstrating it is an excellent proxy for cluster mass. Based on observations from the Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope, which is operated by the National Research Council of Canada, le Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique and the University of Hawaii.

  16. Advances in the Metrology of Absolute Value Assignments to Isotopic Reference Materials: Consequences from the Avogadro Project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vocke, Robert; Rabb, Savelas

    2015-04-01

    All isotope amount ratios (hereafter referred to as isotope ratios) produced and measured on any mass spectrometer are biased. This unfortunate situation results mainly from the physical processes in the source area where ions are produced. Because the ionized atoms in poly-isotopic elements have different masses, such processes are typically mass dependent and lead to what is commonly referred to as mass fractionation (for thermal ionization and electron impact sources) and mass bias (for inductively coupled plasma sources.) This biasing process produces a measured isotope ratio that is either larger or smaller than the "true" ratio in the sample. This has led to the development of numerous fractionation "laws" that seek to correct for these effects, many of which are not based on the physical processes giving rise to the biases. The search for tighter and reproducible precisions has led to two isotope ratio measurement systems that exist side-by-side. One still seeks to measure "absolute" isotope ratios while the other utilizes an artifact based measurement system called a delta-scale. The common element between these two measurement systems is the utilization of isotope reference materials (iRMs). These iRMs are used to validate a fractionation "law" in the former case and function as a scale anchor in the latter. Many value assignments of iRMs are based on "best measurements" by the original groups producing the reference material, a not entirely satisfactory approach. Other iRMs, with absolute isotope ratio values, have been produced by calibrated measurements following the Atomic Weight approach (AW) pioneered by NBS nearly 50 years ago. Unfortunately, the AW is not capable of calibrating the new generation of iRMs to sufficient precision. So how do we get iRMs with isotope ratios of sufficient precision and without bias? Such a focus is not to denigrate the extremely precise delta-scale measurements presently being made on non-traditional and tradition

  17. Constraining the physical structure of the inner few 100 AU scales of deeply embedded low-mass protostars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Persson, M. V.; Harsono, D.; Tobin, J. J.; van Dishoeck, E. F.; Jørgensen, J. K.; Murillo, N.; Lai, S.-P.

    2016-05-01

    Context. The physical structure of deeply embedded low-mass protostars (Class 0) on scales of less than 300 AU is still poorly constrained. While molecular line observations demonstrate the presence of disks with Keplerian rotation toward a handful of sources, others show no hint of rotation. Determining the structure on small scales (a few 100 AU) is crucial for understanding the physical and chemical evolution from cores to disks. Aims: We determine the presence and characteristics of compact, disk-like structures in deeply embedded low-mass protostars. A related goal is investigating how the derived structure affects the determination of gas-phase molecular abundances on hot-core scales. Methods: Two models of the emission, a Gaussian disk intensity distribution and a parametrized power-law disk model, are fitted to subarcsecond resolution interferometric continuum observations of five Class 0 sources, including one source with a confirmed Keplerian disk. Prior to fitting the models to the de-projected real visibilities, the estimated envelope from an independent model and any companion sources are subtracted. For reference, a spherically symmetric single power-law envelope is fitted to the larger scale emission (~1000 AU) and investigated further for one of the sources on smaller scales. Results: The radii of the fitted disk-like structures range from ~90-170 AU, and the derived masses depend on the method. Using the Gaussian disk model results in masses of 54-556 × 10-3 M⊙, and using the power-law disk model gives 9-140 × 10-3 M⊙. While the disk radii agree with previous estimates the masses are different for some of the sources studied. Assuming a typical temperature distribution (r-0.5), the fractional amount of mass in the disk above 100 K varies from 7% to 30%. Conclusions: A thin disk model can approximate the emission and physical structure in the inner few 100 AU scales of the studied deeply embedded low-mass protostars and paves the way for

  18. Computerized breast mass detection using multi-scale Hessian-based analysis for dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI.

    PubMed

    Huang, Yan-Hao; Chang, Yeun-Chung; Huang, Chiun-Sheng; Chen, Jeon-Hor; Chang, Ruey-Feng

    2014-10-01

    This study aimed to investigate a computer-aided system for detecting breast masses using dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging for clinical use. Detection performance of the system was analyzed on 61 biopsy-confirmed lesions (21 benign and 40 malignant lesions) in 34 women. The breast region was determined using the demons deformable algorithm. After the suspicious tissues were identified by kinetic feature (area under the curve) and the fuzzy c-means clustering method, all breast masses were detected based on the rotation-invariant and multi-scale blob characteristics. Subsequently, the masses were further distinguished from other detected non-tumor regions (false positives). Free-response operating characteristics (FROC) curve and detection rate were used to evaluate the detection performance. Using the combined features, including blob, enhancement, morphologic, and texture features with 10-fold cross validation, the mass detection rate was 100 % (61/61) with 15.15 false positives per case and 91.80 % (56/61) with 4.56 false positives per case. In conclusion, the proposed computer-aided detection system can help radiologists reduce inter-observer variability and the cost associated with detection of suspicious lesions from a large number of images. Our results illustrated that breast masses can be efficiently detected and that enhancement and morphologic characteristics were useful for reducing non-tumor regions.

  19. Scales

    MedlinePlus

    Scales are a visible peeling or flaking of outer skin layers. These layers are called the stratum ... Scales may be caused by dry skin, certain inflammatory skin conditions, or infections. Eczema , ringworm , and psoriasis ...

  20. A case-study on the accuracy of mass balances for xenobiotics in full-scale wastewater treatment plants.

    PubMed

    Majewsky, Marius; Farlin, Julien; Bayerle, Michael; Gallé, Tom

    2013-04-01

    Removal efficiencies of micropollutants in wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) are usually evaluated from mass balance calculations using a small number of observations drawn from short sampling campaigns. Since micropollutant loads can vary greatly in both influent and effluent and reactor tanks exhibit specific hydraulic residence times, these short-term approaches are particularly prone to yield erroneous removal values. A detailed investigation of micropollutant transit times at full-scale and on how this affects mass balancing results was still lacking. The present study used hydraulic residence time distributions to scrutinize the match of influent loads to effluent loads of 10 polar micropollutants with different influent dynamics in a full-scale WWTP. Prior hydraulic modeling indicated that a load sampled over one day in the effluent is composed of influent load fractions of five preceding days. Results showed that the error of the mass balance can be reduced with increasing influent sampling duration. The approach presented leads to a more reliable estimation of the removal efficiencies of those micropollutants which can be constantly detected in influents, such as pharmaceuticals, but provides no advantage for pesticides due to their sporadic occurrence. The mismatch between sampled influent and effluent loads was identified as a major error source and an explanation was provided for the occurrence of negative mass balances regularly reported. This study indicates that the accurate determination of global removal values is only feasible in full-scale investigations with sampling durations much longer than 1 day. In any case, the uncertainty of these values needs to be reported when used in removal assessment, model selection or validation. PMID:23474799

  1. Scaling with body mass of mitochondrial respiration from the white muscle of three phylogenetically, morphologically and behaviorally disparate teleost fishes.

    PubMed

    Burpee, Jessica L; Bardsley, Elise L; Dillaman, Richard M; Watanabe, Wade O; Kinsey, Stephen T

    2010-10-01

    White muscle (WM) fibers in many fishes often increase in size from <50 μm in juveniles to >250 μm in adults. This leads to increases in intracellular diffusion distances that may impact the scaling with body mass of muscle metabolism. We have previously found similar negative scaling of aerobic capacity (mitochondrial volume density, V(mt)) and the rate of an aerobic process (post-contractile phosphocreatine recovery) in fish WM. In the present study, we examined the scaling with body mass of oxygen consumption rates of isolated mitochondria (VO(2mt)) from WM in three species from different families that vary in morphology and behavior: an active, pelagic species (bluefish, Pomatomus saltatrix), a relatively inactive demersal species (black sea bass, Centropristis striata), and a sedentary, benthic species (southern flounder, Paralichthys lethostigma). In contrast to our prior studies, the measurement of respiration in isolated mitochondria is not influenced by the diffusion of oxygen or metabolites. V(mt) was measured in WM and in high-density isolates used for VO(2mt) measurements. WM V(mt) was significantly higher in the bluefish than in the other two species and VO(2mt) was independent of body mass when expressed per milligram protein or per milliliter mitochondria. The size-independence of VO(2mt) indicates that differences in WM aerobic function result from variation in V(mt) and not to changes in VO(2mt). This is consistent with our prior work that indicated that while diffusion constraints influence mitochondrial distribution, the negative scaling of aerobic processes like post-contractile PCr recovery can largely be attributed to the body size dependence of V(mt).

  2. The AFGL absolute gravity program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hammond, J. A.; Iliff, R. L.

    1978-01-01

    A brief discussion of the AFGL's (Air Force Geophysics Laboratory) program in absolute gravity is presented. Support of outside work and in-house studies relating to gravity instrumentation are discussed. A description of the current transportable system is included and the latest results are presented. These results show good agreement with measurements at the AFGL site by an Italian system. The accuracy obtained by the transportable apparatus is better than 0.1 microns sq sec 10 microgal and agreement with previous measurements is within the combined uncertainties of the measurements.

  3. Familial Aggregation of Absolute Pitch

    PubMed Central

    Baharloo, Siamak; Service, Susan K.; Risch, Neil; Gitschier, Jane; Freimer, Nelson B.

    2000-01-01

    Absolute pitch (AP) is a behavioral trait that is defined as the ability to identify the pitch of tones in the absence of a reference pitch. AP is an ideal phenotype for investigation of gene and environment interactions in the development of complex human behaviors. Individuals who score exceptionally well on formalized auditory tests of pitch perception are designated as “AP-1.” As described in this report, auditory testing of siblings of AP-1 probands and of a control sample indicates that AP-1 aggregates in families. The implications of this finding for the mapping of loci for AP-1 predisposition are discussed. PMID:10924408

  4. THE SMALL-SCALE PHYSICAL STRUCTURE AND FRAGMENTATION DIFFERENCE OF TWO EMBEDDED INTERMEDIATE-MASS PROTOSTARS IN ORION

    SciTech Connect

    Van Kempen, T. A.; Longmore, S. N.; Johnstone, D.; Pillai, T.; Fuente, A.

    2012-06-01

    Intermediate-mass (IM) protostars, the bridge between the very common solar-like protostars and the more massive, but rarer, O and B stars, can only be studied at high physical spatial resolutions in a handful of clouds. In this paper, we present and analyze the continuum results from an observing campaign at the Submillimeter Array (SMA) targeting two well-studied IM protostars in Orion, NGC 2071 and L1641 S3 MMS 1. The extended SMA (eSMA) probes structure at angular resolutions up to 0.''2, revealing protostellar disks on scales of {approx}200 AU. Continuum flux measurements on these scales indicate that a significant amount of mass, a few tens of M{sub Sun }, is present. Envelope, stellar, and disk masses are derived using compact, extended, and eSMA configurations and compared against spectral energy distribution fitting models. We hypothesize that fragmentation into three components occurred within NGC 2071 at an early time, when the envelopes were less than 10% of their current masses, e.g., <0.5 M{sub Sun }. No fragmentation occurred for L1641 S3 MMS 1. For NGC 2071, evidence is given that the bulk of the envelope material currently around each source was accreted after the initial fragmentation. In addition, about 30% of the total core mass is not yet associated to one of the three sources. A global accretion model is favored and a potential accretion history of NGC 2071 is presented. It is shown that the relatively low level of fragmentation in NGC 2071 was stifled compared to the expected fragmentation from a Jeans argument. Similarly, the lack of fragmentation in L1641 S3 MMS 1 is likely due to similar arguments.

  5. Masses and scaling relations for nuclear star clusters, and their co-existence with central black holes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Georgiev, Iskren Y.; Böker, Torsten; Leigh, Nathan; Lützgendorf, Nora; Neumayer, Nadine

    2016-04-01

    Galactic nuclei typically host either a nuclear star cluster (NSC, prevalent in galaxies with masses ≲1010 M⊙) or a massive black hole (MBH, common in galaxies with masses ≳1012 M⊙). In the intermediate-mass range, some nuclei host both an NSC and an MBH. In this paper, we explore scaling relations between NSC mass (M_NSC) and host-galaxy total stellar mass (M_{star ,gal}) using a large sample of NSCs in late- and early-type galaxies, including a number of NSCs harbouring an MBH. Such scaling relations reflect the underlying physical mechanisms driving the formation and (co)evolution of these central massive objects. We find ˜1.5σ significant differences between NSCs in late- and early-type galaxies in the slopes and offsets of the relations reff,NSC-M_NSC, reff,NSC-M_{star ,gal} and M_NSC-M_{star ,gal}, in the sense that (i) NSCs in late types are more compact at fixed M_NSC and M_{star ,gal}; and (ii) the M_NSC-M_{star ,gal} relation is shallower for NSCs in late types than in early types, similar to the M_BH-M_{star ,bulge} relation. We discuss these results in the context of the (possibly ongoing) evolution of NSCs, depending on host-galaxy type. For NSCs with an MBH, we illustrate the possible influence of an MBH on its host NSC, by considering the ratio between the radius of the MBH sphere of influence and reff,NSC. NSCs harbouring a sufficiently massive black hole are likely to exhibit surface brightness profile deviating from a typical King profile.

  6. Mathematical Model for Absolute Magnetic Measuring Systems in Industrial Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fügenschuh, Armin; Fügenschuh, Marzena; Ludszuweit, Marina; Mojsic, Aleksandar; Sokół, Joanna

    2015-09-01

    Scales for measuring systems are either based on incremental or absolute measuring methods. Incremental scales need to initialize a measurement cycle at a reference point. From there, the position is computed by counting increments of a periodic graduation. Absolute methods do not need reference points, since the position can be read directly from the scale. The positions on the complete scales are encoded using two incremental tracks with different graduation. We present a new method for absolute measuring using only one track for position encoding up to micrometre range. Instead of the common perpendicular magnetic areas, we use a pattern of trapezoidal magnetic areas, to store more complex information. For positioning, we use the magnetic field where every position is characterized by a set of values measured by a hall sensor array. We implement a method for reconstruction of absolute positions from the set of unique measured values. We compare two patterns with respect to uniqueness, accuracy, stability and robustness of positioning. We discuss how stability and robustness are influenced by different errors during the measurement in real applications and how those errors can be compensated.

  7. Fundamental physics and absolute positioning metrology with the MAGIA lunar orbiter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dell'Agnello, Simone; Lops, Caterina; Delle Monache, Giovanni O.; Currie, Douglas G.; Martini, Manuele; Vittori, Roberto; Coradini, Angioletta; Dionisio, Cesare; Garattini, Marco; Boni, Alessandro; Cantone, Claudio; March, Riccardo; Bellettini, Giovanni; Tauraso, Roberto; Maiello, Mauro; Porcelli, Luca; Berardi, Simone; Intaglietta, Nicola

    2011-10-01

    MAGIA is a mission approved by the Italian Space Agency (ASI) for Phase A study. Using a single large-diameter laser retroreflector, a large laser retroreflector array and an atomic clock onboard MAGIA we propose to perform several fundamental physics and absolute positioning metrology experiments: VESPUCCI, an improved test of the gravitational redshift in the Earth-Moon system predicted by General Relativity; MoonLIGHT-P, a precursor test of a second generation Lunar Laser Ranging (LLR) payload for precision gravity and lunar science measurements under development for NASA, ASI and robotic missions of the proposed International Lunar Network (ILN); Selenocenter (the center of mass of the Moon), the determination of the position of the Moon center of mass with respect to the International Terrestrial Reference Frame/System (ITRF/ITRS); this will be compared to the one from Apollo and Lunokhod retroreflectors on the surface; MapRef, the absolute referencing of MAGIA's lunar altimetry, gravity and geochemical maps with respect to the ITRF/ITRS. The absolute positioning of MAGIA will be achieved thanks to: (1) the laboratory characterization of the retroreflector performance at INFN-LNF; (2) the precision tracking by the International Laser Ranging Service (ILRS), which gives two fundamental contributions to the ITRF/ITRS, i.e. the metrological definition of the geocenter (the Earth center of mass) and of the scale of length; (3) the radio science and accelerometer payloads; (4) support by the ASI Space Geodesy Center in Matera, Italy. Future ILN geodetic nodes equipped with MoonLIGHT and the Apollo/Lunokhod retroreflectors will become the first realization of the International Moon Reference Frame (IMRF), the lunar analog of the ITRF.

  8. Large-scale mass transfers related to pressure solution creep-faulting interactions in mudstones: Driving processes and impact of lithification degree

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Richard, J.

    2014-02-01

    Where normal faulting is associated with PSC (Pressure Solution Creep), it generates evolutions in petrophysical properties of mudstones like chalk: decrease in reservoir qualities and transport properties in the deformed zones adjacent to the fault plane and increase (or no change) in reservoir qualities and transport properties in the outermost deformed zones. These modifications result from large-scale mass transfers linked to a transport of solutes through the pore space over distances of several grains within decimeter or larger zones (open systems at the grain scale). In the lithified mudstones, these large-scale mass transfers consist in a mass redistribution from the outermost deformed zones (mass and volume loss) to the deformed zones adjacent to the fault planes (mass gain). In the weakly lithified mudstones, the mass redistribution occurs in an opposite direction. A deeper understanding of these large-scale mass redistributions is essential because the PSC-faulting interactions and the associated petrophysical modifications can be a key topic in several geological applications (oil and gas migration and entrapment in mudstone reservoirs, anthropogenic waste storage, carbon dioxyde geosequestration). The results of two studies about mass transfers and volume changes induced by natural fault systems in “white chalk” allowed to point out that two driving processes control the large-scale mass transfers during PSC-faulting interactions: the advective mass transport related to pore fluid flows and the large-scale diffusive mass transport linked to chemical potential gradients. The present contribution also highlights that the lithification degree of the host material plays a key role in the large-scale mass transfers related to PSC-faulting interactions by controlling (1) the spatial distribution of voids induced by the deformation, (2) the particle displacement on the fault plane and in the adjacent zones and (3) the petrophysical properties of the host

  9. Absolute irradiance of the Moon for on-orbit calibration

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stone, T.C.; Kieffer, H.H.; ,

    2002-01-01

    The recognized need for on-orbit calibration of remote sensing imaging instruments drives the ROLO project effort to characterize the Moon for use as an absolute radiance source. For over 5 years the ground-based ROLO telescopes have acquired spatially-resolved lunar images in 23 VNIR (Moon diameter ???500 pixels) and 9 SWIR (???250 pixels) passbands at phase angles within ??90 degrees. A numerical model for lunar irradiance has been developed which fits hundreds of ROLO images in each band, corrected for atmospheric extinction and calibrated to absolute radiance, then integrated to irradiance. The band-coupled extinction algorithm uses absorption spectra of several gases and aerosols derived from MODTRAN to fit time-dependent component abundances to nightly observations of standard stars. The absolute radiance scale is based upon independent telescopic measurements of the star Vega. The fitting process yields uncertainties in lunar relative irradiance over small ranges of phase angle and the full range of lunar libration well under 0.5%. A larger source of uncertainty enters in the absolute solar spectral irradiance, especially in the SWIR, where solar models disagree by up to 6%. Results of ROLO model direct comparisons to spacecraft observations demonstrate the ability of the technique to track sensor responsivity drifts to sub-percent precision. Intercomparisons among instruments provide key insights into both calibration issues and the absolute scale for lunar irradiance.

  10. Oxygen mass transfer and scale-up studies in baffled roller bioreactors.

    PubMed

    Nikakhtari, H; Song, W; Nemati, M; Hill, G A

    2014-02-01

    Oxygen mass transfer was studied in conventional, bead mill and baffled roller bioreactors. Using central composite rotational design, impacts of size, rotation speed and working volume on the oxygen mass transfer were evaluated. Baffled roller bioreactor outperformed its conventional and bead mill counterparts, with the highest k(L)a obtained in these configurations being 0.58, 0.19, 0.41 min(-1), respectively. Performances of the bead mill and baffled roller bioreactor were only comparable when a high bead loading (40%) was applied. Regardless of configuration increase in rotation speed and decrease in working volume improved the oxygen mass transfer rate. Increase in size led to enhanced mass transfer and higher k(L)a in baffled roller bioreactor (0.49 min(-1) for 2.2 L and 1.31 min(-1) for 55 L bioreactors). Finally, the experimentally determined k(L)a in the baffled roller bioreactors of different sizes fit reasonably well to an empirical correlation describing the k(L)a in terms of dimensionless numbers.

  11. A high-precision mechanical absolute-rotation sensor.

    PubMed

    Venkateswara, Krishna; Hagedorn, Charles A; Turner, Matthew D; Arp, Trevor; Gundlach, Jens H

    2014-01-01

    We have developed a mechanical absolute-rotation sensor capable of resolving ground rotation angle of less than 1 nrad/√Hz above 30 mHz and 0.2 nrad/√Hz above 100 mHz about a single horizontal axis. The device consists of a meter-scale beam balance, suspended by a pair of flexures, with a resonance frequency of 10.8 mHz. The center of mass is located 3 μm above the pivot, giving an excellent horizontal displacement rejection of better than 3 × 10(-5) rad/m. The angle of the beam is read out optically using a high-sensitivity autocollimator. We have also built a tiltmeter with better than 1 nrad/√Hz sensitivity above 30 mHz. Co-located measurements using the two instruments allowed us to distinguish between background rotation signal at low frequencies and intrinsic instrument noise. The rotation sensor is useful for rotational seismology and for rejecting background rotation signal from seismometers in experiments demanding high levels of seismic isolation, such as Advanced Laser Interferometer Gravitational-wave Observatory. PMID:24517804

  12. A high-precision mechanical absolute-rotation sensor.

    PubMed

    Venkateswara, Krishna; Hagedorn, Charles A; Turner, Matthew D; Arp, Trevor; Gundlach, Jens H

    2014-01-01

    We have developed a mechanical absolute-rotation sensor capable of resolving ground rotation angle of less than 1 nrad/√Hz above 30 mHz and 0.2 nrad/√Hz above 100 mHz about a single horizontal axis. The device consists of a meter-scale beam balance, suspended by a pair of flexures, with a resonance frequency of 10.8 mHz. The center of mass is located 3 μm above the pivot, giving an excellent horizontal displacement rejection of better than 3 × 10(-5) rad/m. The angle of the beam is read out optically using a high-sensitivity autocollimator. We have also built a tiltmeter with better than 1 nrad/√Hz sensitivity above 30 mHz. Co-located measurements using the two instruments allowed us to distinguish between background rotation signal at low frequencies and intrinsic instrument noise. The rotation sensor is useful for rotational seismology and for rejecting background rotation signal from seismometers in experiments demanding high levels of seismic isolation, such as Advanced Laser Interferometer Gravitational-wave Observatory.

  13. A high-precision mechanical absolute-rotation sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Venkateswara, Krishna; Hagedorn, Charles A.; Turner, Matthew D.; Arp, Trevor; Gundlach, Jens H.

    2014-01-01

    We have developed a mechanical absolute-rotation sensor capable of resolving ground rotation angle of less than 1 nrad/sqrt{Hz} above 30 mHz and 0.2 nrad/sqrt{Hz} above 100 mHz about a single horizontal axis. The device consists of a meter-scale beam balance, suspended by a pair of flexures, with a resonance frequency of 10.8 mHz. The center of mass is located 3 μm above the pivot, giving an excellent horizontal displacement rejection of better than 3 × 10-5 rad/m. The angle of the beam is read out optically using a high-sensitivity autocollimator. We have also built a tiltmeter with better than 1 nrad/sqrt{Hz} sensitivity above 30 mHz. Co-located measurements using the two instruments allowed us to distinguish between background rotation signal at low frequencies and intrinsic instrument noise. The rotation sensor is useful for rotational seismology and for rejecting background rotation signal from seismometers in experiments demanding high levels of seismic isolation, such as Advanced Laser Interferometer Gravitational-wave Observatory.

  14. First assessment of triclosan, triclocarban and paraben mass loads at a very large regional scale: case of Paris conurbation (France).

    PubMed

    Gasperi, Johnny; Geara, Darine; Lorgeoux, Catherine; Bressy, Adèle; Zedek, Sifax; Rocher, Vincent; El Samrani, Antoine; Chebbo, Ghassan; Moilleron, Régis

    2014-09-15

    The objective of this study was to examine the occurrence of parabens (5 congeners), triclosan (TCS) and triclocarban (TCC) at the scale of the Parisian sewer network and to provide representative knowledge on these compounds in France for a large area. For this purpose and in collaboration with the Parisian public sanitation service (SIAAP) in charge of the collect and treatment of the Parisian wastewater, this study focused on seven main sewer trunks of the Paris conurbation, accounting for 1900,000 m(3) d(-1), i.e., about 8 million inhabitants. Concentrations lying in the 2000-20000 ng l(-1) ranges were found in wastewater, confirming the ubiquity of parabens, TCS and TCC in our environment and household products. Parabens (>97%) and to a lesser extent TCS (68% in median) were mainly associated to the dissolved fraction, as demonstrated by low KD and KOC values. For the first time, this study also evaluated the pollutant mass loads per population equivalent (PE) of parabens, TCS and TCC at the large and representative scale of the Parisian conurbation. Hence, the median mass loads varied from 176 to 3040 μg PE(-1) d(-1) for parabens and from 26 to 762 μg PE(-1) d(-1) for TCS and TCC. Based on these results and according to the assumptions done, the extrapolation of the mass loads at the national scale pointed out an annual mass loads between 51.8 and 100.7 ty(-1) for methyl paraben (MeP) and between 11.2 and 23.5 ty(-1) for TCS. Mass loads per equivalent habitant and national mass loads are both extremely relevant and innovative data. Contrary to other countries, such data are nowadays rather difficult to gain in France and neither enquiry nor database provides access to information on the use and production of these chemicals. Since cosmetic industries are voluntarily and fully engaged in the substitution of parabens, triclosan and triclocarban in personal care product, this study could constitute a "time reference status" which could be used as a basis for

  15. First assessment of triclosan, triclocarban and paraben mass loads at a very large regional scale: case of Paris conurbation (France).

    PubMed

    Gasperi, Johnny; Geara, Darine; Lorgeoux, Catherine; Bressy, Adèle; Zedek, Sifax; Rocher, Vincent; El Samrani, Antoine; Chebbo, Ghassan; Moilleron, Régis

    2014-09-15

    The objective of this study was to examine the occurrence of parabens (5 congeners), triclosan (TCS) and triclocarban (TCC) at the scale of the Parisian sewer network and to provide representative knowledge on these compounds in France for a large area. For this purpose and in collaboration with the Parisian public sanitation service (SIAAP) in charge of the collect and treatment of the Parisian wastewater, this study focused on seven main sewer trunks of the Paris conurbation, accounting for 1900,000 m(3) d(-1), i.e., about 8 million inhabitants. Concentrations lying in the 2000-20000 ng l(-1) ranges were found in wastewater, confirming the ubiquity of parabens, TCS and TCC in our environment and household products. Parabens (>97%) and to a lesser extent TCS (68% in median) were mainly associated to the dissolved fraction, as demonstrated by low KD and KOC values. For the first time, this study also evaluated the pollutant mass loads per population equivalent (PE) of parabens, TCS and TCC at the large and representative scale of the Parisian conurbation. Hence, the median mass loads varied from 176 to 3040 μg PE(-1) d(-1) for parabens and from 26 to 762 μg PE(-1) d(-1) for TCS and TCC. Based on these results and according to the assumptions done, the extrapolation of the mass loads at the national scale pointed out an annual mass loads between 51.8 and 100.7 ty(-1) for methyl paraben (MeP) and between 11.2 and 23.5 ty(-1) for TCS. Mass loads per equivalent habitant and national mass loads are both extremely relevant and innovative data. Contrary to other countries, such data are nowadays rather difficult to gain in France and neither enquiry nor database provides access to information on the use and production of these chemicals. Since cosmetic industries are voluntarily and fully engaged in the substitution of parabens, triclosan and triclocarban in personal care product, this study could constitute a "time reference status" which could be used as a basis for

  16. Scaling relationships between craniofacial sexual dimorphism and body mass dimorphism in primates: implications for the fossil record.

    PubMed

    Plavcan, J Michael

    2003-01-01

    Craniofacial remains (the most abundant identifiable remains in the fossil record) potentially offer important information about body size dimorphism in extinct species. This study evaluates the scaling relationships between body mass dimorphism and different measures of craniofacial dimorphism, evaluating taxonomic differences in the magnitude and scaling of craniofacial dimorphism across higher taxonomic groups. Data on 40 dimensions from 129 primate species and subspecies demonstrate that few dimensions change proportionally with body mass dimorphism. Primates show general patterns of greater facial vs. neurocranial and orbital dimorphism, and greater dimorphism in lengths as opposed to breadths. Within any species, though, different craniofacial dimensions can yield very different reconstructions of size dimorphism. There are significant taxonomic differences in the relationships between size and craniofacial dimorphism among primate groups that can have a significant impact on reconstructions of body mass dimorphism. Hominoids tend to show lower degrees of facial dimorphism proportional to size dimorphism than other primates. This in turn implies that strong craniofacial dimorphism in Australopithecus africanus could imply very strong body size dimorphism, conflicting with the relatively modest size dimorphism inferred from postcrania. Different methods of estimating the magnitude of size dimorphism from craniofacial measurements yield similar results, and yield comparatively low percent prediction errors for a number of dimensions. However, confidence intervals for most estimates are so large as to render most estimates highly tentative.

  17. High-resolution MALDI imaging mass spectrometry allows localization of peptide distributions at cellular length scales in pituitary tissue sections

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Altelaar, A. F. Maarten; Taban, Ioana M.; McDonnell, Liam A.; Verhaert, Peter D. E. M.; de Lange, Robert P. J.; Adan, Roger A. H.; Mooi, Wolter J.; Heeren, Ron M. A.; Piersma, Sander R.

    2007-02-01

    Matrix assisted laser desorption/ionization (MALDI) imaging mass spectrometry (IMS) has been used to determine peptide distributions directly from rat, mouse and human pituitary tissue sections. Since these organs are small (102-103 [mu]m) the spatial resolution of IMS is a key issue in molecular imaging of pituitary tissue sections. Here we show that high-resolution IMS allows localization of neuropeptide distributions within different cell clusters of a single organ of a pituitary tissue section. The sample preparation protocol does not result in analyte redistribution and is therefore applicable to IMS experiments at cellular length scales. The stigmatic imaging mass spectrometer used in this study produces selected-ion-count images with pixel sizes of 500 nm and a resolving power of 4 [mu]m, yielding superior spatial detail compared to images obtained in microprobe imaging experiments. Furthermore, we show that with imaging mass spectrometry a distinction can be made between different mammalian tissue sections based on differences in the amino acid sequence of neuropeptides with the same function. This example demonstrates the power of IMS for label-free molecular imaging at relevant biological length scales.

  18. Contrasting effects of mass-flowering crops on bee pollination of hedge plants at different spatial and temporal scales.

    PubMed

    Kovács-Hostyánszki, Anikó; Haenke, Sebastian; Batáry, Péter; Jauker, Birgit; Báldi, András; Tscharntke, Teja; Holzschuh, Andrea

    2013-12-01

    Landscape-wide mass-flowering of oilseed rape (canola Brassica napus) can considerably affect wild bee communities and pollination success of wild plants. We aimed to assess the impact of oilseed rape on the pollination of wild plants and bee abundance during and after oilseed-rape bloom, including effects on crop-noncrop spillover at landscape and adjacent-field scales. We focused on two shrub species (hawthorn Crataegus spp., dog rose Rosa canina) and adjacent herb flowering in forest edges, connected hedges, and isolated hedges in Lower Saxony, Germany. We selected 35 landscape circles of 1 km radius, differing in the amount of oilseed rape; 18 were adjacent to oilseed rape and 17 to cereal fields, and we quantified bee density via pan traps at all sites. Adjacent oilseed rape positively affected fruit mass and seed number per fruit of simultaneously flowering hawthorn (no effect on dog rose, which flowers after the oilseed rape bloom). At the landscape scale, oilseed rape had a negative effect on bumble bee density in the hedges during flowering due to dilution of pollinators per unit area and the consequently intensified competition between oilseed rape and wild shrubs, but a positive effect after flowering when bees moved to the hedges, which still provided resources. In contrast, positive landscape-scale effects of oilseed rape were found throughout the season in forest edges, suggesting that edges support nesting activity and enhanced food resources. Our results show that oilseed rape effects on bee abundances and pollination success in seminatural habitats depend on the spatial and temporal scale considered and on the habitat type, the wild plant species, and the time of crop flowering. These scale-dependent positive and negative effects should be considered in evaluations of landscape-scale configuration and composition of crops. Food resources provided by mass-flowering crops should be most beneficial for landscape-wide enhancement of wild bee

  19. Contrasting effects of mass-flowering crops on bee pollination of hedge plants at different spatial and temporal scales.

    PubMed

    Kovács-Hostyánszki, Anikó; Haenke, Sebastian; Batáry, Péter; Jauker, Birgit; Báldi, András; Tscharntke, Teja; Holzschuh, Andrea

    2013-12-01

    Landscape-wide mass-flowering of oilseed rape (canola Brassica napus) can considerably affect wild bee communities and pollination success of wild plants. We aimed to assess the impact of oilseed rape on the pollination of wild plants and bee abundance during and after oilseed-rape bloom, including effects on crop-noncrop spillover at landscape and adjacent-field scales. We focused on two shrub species (hawthorn Crataegus spp., dog rose Rosa canina) and adjacent herb flowering in forest edges, connected hedges, and isolated hedges in Lower Saxony, Germany. We selected 35 landscape circles of 1 km radius, differing in the amount of oilseed rape; 18 were adjacent to oilseed rape and 17 to cereal fields, and we quantified bee density via pan traps at all sites. Adjacent oilseed rape positively affected fruit mass and seed number per fruit of simultaneously flowering hawthorn (no effect on dog rose, which flowers after the oilseed rape bloom). At the landscape scale, oilseed rape had a negative effect on bumble bee density in the hedges during flowering due to dilution of pollinators per unit area and the consequently intensified competition between oilseed rape and wild shrubs, but a positive effect after flowering when bees moved to the hedges, which still provided resources. In contrast, positive landscape-scale effects of oilseed rape were found throughout the season in forest edges, suggesting that edges support nesting activity and enhanced food resources. Our results show that oilseed rape effects on bee abundances and pollination success in seminatural habitats depend on the spatial and temporal scale considered and on the habitat type, the wild plant species, and the time of crop flowering. These scale-dependent positive and negative effects should be considered in evaluations of landscape-scale configuration and composition of crops. Food resources provided by mass-flowering crops should be most beneficial for landscape-wide enhancement of wild bee

  20. Scaling of metabolic rate on body mass in small mammals at 2.0 g

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pace, N.; Smith, A. H.

    1983-01-01

    It is postulated that augmentation of gravitational loading should produce a shift in the classic Kleiber mammalian allometric relationship between metabolic rate and total body mass by an increase in both these parameters. Oxygen consumption rate and body mass measurements of 10 male rabbits 8 months of age were obtained initially for 1.0 g, and then over a 9-week period of chronic centrifugation at 2.0 g. Analysis of covariance showed that the positioning constant at 2.0 g is increased by 17 percent from that at 1.0 g at the P less than 0.001 level, and the exponent is increased by 8 percent at the P = 0.008 level. It is concluded that abatement of gravitational loading in spaceflight will result in a lowering of both allometric parameters.

  1. Earth is (mostly) flat: Apportionment of continental mass flux over millennial time scales. A reappraisal (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Willenbring, J.; Codilean, A. T.; Kirchner, J. W.; McElroy, B. J.

    2013-12-01

    Mountainous topography only occupies a small fraction of the Earth's surface (Fig.1) and understanding natural rates of erosion in the more gently sloping terrains, making up around 90% of Earth's continental area, is critical for understanding how such areas have been transformed by human activities. In expansive, flat areas, modest rates of chemical weathering lead to gross denudation rates taking place even in zones of sediment accumulation[1]. We cite previously published denudation estimates from cosmogenic nuclides[2], which measure total mass loss. Such measurements circumvent problems with noise inherent in other short-term measurements, but introduce other issues related to extrapolating outside measured data ranges. These cosmogenic nuclide-derived rates allow us to calculate the apportionment and the sum of mass flux from Earth by extrapolation of a statistically significant correlation between denudation rates and basin slopes to watersheds without denudation rate data. We will present updates to our past results[1] (Fig. 2) using a new topographic dataset, which illustrates the critical impact of grid size on slope. We find that non-mountainous areas contribute a significant proportion of the total fluxes (Fig. 1) though the total fluxes are split almost evenly between the steepest 10% of topography and the rest of the continental land mass. [1] Bouchez, J., et al. 2012. Chemical Geology, v. 332-333, p. 166-184. [2] Willenbring, J.K., et al. 2013, Geology, v. 41, p. 343-346. Figure 1. Global slopes (GMTED 250 m) of the Earth. Legend indicates area these slopes make up and the apportionment of fluxes from those areas. Figure 2. Q-Q plot of the areal contributions of mass fluxes from the Earth's variably sloped continents.

  2. Dark matter fraction of low-mass cluster members probed by galaxy-scale strong lensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parry, W. G.; Grillo, C.; Mercurio, A.; Balestra, I.; Rosati, P.; Christensen, L.; Lombardi, M.; Caminha, G. B.; Nonino, M.; Koekemoer, A. M.; Umetsu, K.

    2016-05-01

    We present a strong lensing system, composed of four multiple images of a source at z = 2.387, created by two lens galaxies, G1 and G2, belonging to the galaxy cluster MACS J1115.9+0129 at z = 0.353. We use observations taken as part of the Cluster Lensing and Supernova survey with Hubble, and its spectroscopic follow-up programme at the Very Large Telescope, to estimate the total mass distributions of the two galaxies and the cluster through strong gravitational lensing models. We find that the total projected mass values within the half-light radii, Re, of the two lens galaxies are MT,G1(mass fractions within Re of 0.11 ± 0.03, for G1, and 0.73 ± 0.32, for G2. The fact that the less massive galaxy, G1, is dark matter-dominated in its inner regions raises the question of whether the dark matter fraction in the core of early-type galaxies depends on their mass. Further investigating strong lensing systems will help us understand the influence that dark matter has on the structure and evolution of the inner regions of galaxies.

  3. A Steeper than Linear Disk Mass–Stellar Mass Scaling Relation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pascucci, I.; Testi, L.; Herczeg, G. J.; Long, F.; Manara, C. F.; Hendler, N.; Mulders, G. D.; Krijt, S.; Ciesla, F.; Henning, Th.; Mohanty, S.; Drabek-Maunder, E.; Apai, D.; Szűcs, L.; Sacco, G.; Olofsson, J.

    2016-11-01

    The disk mass is among the most important input parameter for every planet formation model to determine the number and masses of the planets that can form. We present an ALMA 887 μm survey of the disk population around objects from ∼2 to 0.03 M ⊙ in the nearby ∼2 Myr old Chamaeleon I star-forming region. We detect thermal dust emission from 66 out of 93 disks, spatially resolve 34 of them, and identify two disks with large dust cavities of about 45 au in radius. Assuming isothermal and optically thin emission, we convert the 887 μm flux densities into dust disk masses, hereafter M dust. We find that the {M}{dust}{--}{M}* relation is steeper than linear and of the form M dust ∝ (M *)1.3–1.9, where the range in the power-law index reflects two extremes of the possible relation between the average dust temperature and stellar luminosity. By reanalyzing all millimeter data available for nearby regions in a self-consistent way, we show that the 1–3 Myr old regions of Taurus, Lupus, and Chamaeleon I share the same {M}{dust}{--}{M}* relation, while the 10 Myr old Upper Sco association has a steeper relation. Theoretical models of grain growth, drift, and fragmentation reproduce this trend and suggest that disks are in the fragmentation-limited regime. In this regime millimeter grains will be located closer in around lower-mass stars, a prediction that can be tested with deeper and higher spatial resolution ALMA observations.

  4. Grand unification and low scale implications: D₂ parity for unification and neutrino masses

    SciTech Connect

    Tavartkiladze, Zurab

    2014-01-01

    The Grand Unified SU(5)-SU(5)´ model, augmented with D₂ Parity, is considered. The latter play crucial role for phenomenology. The model has several novel properties and gives interesting phenomenological implications. The charged leptons together with right handed (or sterile) neutrinos emerge es composite states. Within considered scenario, we study the charged fermion and neutrino mass generation. Moreover, we show that the model gives successful gauge coupling unification.

  5. A SCALING RELATION BETWEEN MEGAMASER DISK RADIUS AND BLACK HOLE MASS IN ACTIVE GALACTIC NUCLEI

    SciTech Connect

    Wardle, Mark; Yusef-Zadeh, Farhad E-mail: zadeh@northwestern.edu

    2012-05-10

    Several thin, Keplerian, sub-parsec megamaser disks have been discovered in the nuclei of active galaxies and used to precisely determine the mass of their host black holes. We show that there is an empirical linear correlation between the disk radius and the black hole mass. We demonstrate that such disks are naturally formed by the partial capture of molecular clouds passing through the galactic nucleus and temporarily engulfing the central supermassive black hole. Imperfect cancellation of the angular momenta of the cloud material colliding after passing on opposite sides of the hole leads to the formation of a compact disk. The radial extent of the disk is determined by the efficiency of this process and the Bondi-Hoyle capture radius of the black hole, and naturally produces the empirical linear correlation of the radial extent of the maser distribution with black hole mass. The disk has sufficient column density to allow X-ray irradiation from the central source to generate physical and chemical conditions conducive to the formation of 22 GHz H{sub 2}O masers. For initial cloud column densities {approx}< 10{sup 23.5} cm{sup -2} the disk is non-self-gravitating, consistent with the ordered kinematics of the edge-on megamaser disks; for higher cloud columns the disk would fragment and produce a compact stellar disk similar to that observed around Sgr A* at the galactic center.

  6. An Investigation of the Large Scale Evolution and Topology of Coronal Mass Ejections in the Solar Wind

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Riley, Peter

    2000-01-01

    This investigation is concerned with the large-scale evolution and topology of coronal mass ejections (CMEs) in the solar wind. During this reporting period we have focused on several aspects of CME properties, their identification and their evolution in the solar wind. The work included both analysis of Ulysses and ACE observations as well as fluid and magnetohydrodynamic simulations. In addition, we analyzed a series of "density holes" observed in the solar wind, that bear many similarities with CMEs. Finally, this work was communicated to the scientific community at three meetings and has led to three scientific papers that are in various stages of review.

  7. T /B scaling without quasiparticle mass divergence: YbCo2Ge4

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sakai, Akito; Kitagawa, Kentaro; Matsubayashi, Kazuyuki; Iwatani, Makoto; Gegenwart, Philipp

    2016-07-01

    YbCo2Ge4 is a clean paramagnetic Kondo lattice which displays non-Fermi-liquid behavior. We report a detailed investigation of the specific heat, magnetic Grüneisen parameter (Γmag), and temperature derivative of the magnetization (M ) on a high-quality single crystal at temperatures down to 0.1 K and magnetic fields up to 7 T. Γmag and d M /d T display a divergence upon cooling and obey T /B scaling. Similar behavior has previously been found in several other Yb-based Kondo lattices and related to a zero-field quantum critical point without fine tuning of pressure or composition. However, in the approach of B →0 the electronic heat capacity coefficient of YbCo2Ge4 saturates at low T , excluding ferromagnetic quantum criticality. This indicates that T /B scaling is insufficient to prove a zero-field quantum critical point.

  8. Perturbativity and mass scales in the minimal left-right symmetric model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maiezza, Alessio; Nemevšek, Miha; Nesti, Fabrizio

    2016-08-01

    The scalar sector of the minimal left-right model at TeV scale is revisited in light of the large quartic coupling needed for a heavy flavor-changing scalar. The stability and perturbativity of the effective potential is discussed and merged with constraints from low-energy processes. Thus, the perturbative level of the left-right scale is sharpened. Lower limits on the triplet scalars are also derived: The left-handed triplet is bounded by oblique parameters, while the doubly charged right-handed component is limited by the h →γ γ , Z γ decays. Current constraints disfavor their detection as long as WR is within the reach of the LHC.

  9. Prolonged multiple excitation of large-scale Traveling Atmospheric Disturbances (TADs) by successive and interacting coronal mass ejections

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Jianpeng; Wei, Fengsi; Feng, Xueshang; Forbes, Jeffrey M.; Wang, Yuming; Liu, Huixin; Wan, Weixing; Yang, Zhiliang; Liu, Chaoxu

    2016-03-01

    Successive and interacting coronal mass ejections (CMEs) directed earthward can have significant impacts throughout geospace. While considerable progress has been made in understanding their geomagnetic consequences over the past decade, elucidation of their atmospheric consequences remains a challenge. During 17-19 January 2005, a compound stream formed due to interaction of six successive halo CMEs impacted Earth's magnetosphere. In this paper, we report one atmospheric consequence of this impact, namely, the prolonged multiple excitation of large-scale (>˜1000 km) traveling atmospheric disturbances (TADs). The TADs were effectively excited in auroral regions by sudden injections of energy due to the intermittent southward magnetic fields within the stream. They propagated toward the equator at speeds near 800 m/s and produced long-duration (˜2.5 days) continuous large-scale density disturbances of order up ± 40% in the global thermosphere.

  10. AMiBA: Scaling Relations Between the Integrated Compton-y and X-ray-derived Temperature, Mass, and Luminosity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Chih-Wei Locutus; Wu, Jiun-Huei Proty; Ho, Paul T. P.; Koch, Patrick M.; Liao, Yu-Wei; Lin, Kai-Yang; Liu, Guo-Chin; Molnar, Sandor M.; Nishioka, Hiroaki; Umetsu, Keiichi; Wang, Fu-Cheng; Altamirano, Pablo; Birkinshaw, Mark; Chang, Chia-Hao; Chang, Shu-Hao; Chang, Su-Wei; Chen, Ming-Tang; Chiueh, Tzihong; Han, Chih-Chiang; Huang, Yau-De; Hwang, Yuh-Jing; Jiang, Homin; Kesteven, Michael; Kubo, Derek; Li, Chao-Te; Martin-Cocher, Pierre; Oshiro, Peter; Raffin, Philippe; Wei, Tashun; Wilson, Warwick

    2010-06-01

    We investigate the scaling relations between the X-ray and the thermal Sunyaev-Zel'dovich effect properties of clusters of galaxies, using data taken during 2007 by the Y. T. Lee Array for Microwave Background Anisotropy (AMiBA) at 94 GHz for the six clusters A1689, A1995, A2142, A2163, A2261, and A2390. The scaling relations relate the integrated Compton-y parameter Y 2500 to the X-ray-derived gas temperature T e, total mass M 2500, and bolometric luminosity LX within r 2500. Our results for the power-law index and normalization are both consistent with the self-similar model and other studies in the literature except for the Y 2500-LX relation, for which a physical explanation is given though further investigation may be still needed. Our results not only provide confidence for the AMiBA project but also support our understanding of galaxy clusters.

  11. Hydraulic Performance and Mass Transfer Efficiency of Engineering Scale Centrifugal Contactors

    SciTech Connect

    David Meikrantz; Troy Garn; Nick Mann; Jack Law; Terry Todd

    2007-09-01

    Annular centrifugal contactors (ACCs) are being evaluated for process-scale solvent extraction operations in support of Advanced Fuel Cycle Initiative (AFCI) separations goals. Process-scale annular centrifugal contactors have the potential for high stage efficiency if properly employed and optimized for the application. Hydraulic performance issues related to flow instability and classical flooding are likely unimportant, especially for units with high throughputs. However, annular mixing increases rapidly with increasing rotor diameter while maintaining a fixed g force at the rotor wall. In addition, for engineering/process-scale contactors, elevated rotor speeds and/or throughput rates, can lead to organic phase foaming at the rotor discharge collector area. Foam buildup in the upper rotor head area can aspirate additional vapor from the contactor housing resulting in a complete loss of separation equilibrium. Variable speed drives are thus desirable to optimize and balance the operating parameters to help ensure acceptable performance. Proper venting of larger contactors is required to balance pressures across individual stages and prevent vapor lock due to foam aspiration.

  12. Cosmology with negative absolute temperatures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vieira, J. P. P.; Byrnes, Christian T.; Lewis, Antony

    2016-08-01

    Negative absolute temperatures (NAT) are an exotic thermodynamical consequence of quantum physics which has been known since the 1950's (having been achieved in the lab on a number of occasions). Recently, the work of Braun et al. [1] has rekindled interest in negative temperatures and hinted at a possibility of using NAT systems in the lab as dark energy analogues. This paper goes one step further, looking into the cosmological consequences of the existence of a NAT component in the Universe. NAT-dominated expanding Universes experience a borderline phantom expansion (w < ‑1) with no Big Rip, and their contracting counterparts are forced to bounce after the energy density becomes sufficiently large. Both scenarios might be used to solve horizon and flatness problems analogously to standard inflation and bouncing cosmologies. We discuss the difficulties in obtaining and ending a NAT-dominated epoch, and possible ways of obtaining density perturbations with an acceptable spectrum.

  13. Apparatus for absolute pressure measurement

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hecht, R. (Inventor)

    1969-01-01

    An absolute pressure sensor (e.g., the diaphragm of a capacitance manometer) was subjected to a superimposed potential to effectively reduce the mechanical stiffness of the sensor. This substantially increases the sensitivity of the sensor and is particularly useful in vacuum gauges. An oscillating component of the superimposed potential induced vibrations of the sensor. The phase of these vibrations with respect to that of the oscillating component was monitored, and served to initiate an automatic adjustment of the static component of the superimposed potential, so as to bring the sensor into resonance at the frequency of the oscillating component. This establishes a selected sensitivity for the sensor, since a definite relationship exists between resonant frequency and sensitivity.

  14. Cosmology with negative absolute temperatures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vieira, J. P. P.; Byrnes, Christian T.; Lewis, Antony

    2016-08-01

    Negative absolute temperatures (NAT) are an exotic thermodynamical consequence of quantum physics which has been known since the 1950's (having been achieved in the lab on a number of occasions). Recently, the work of Braun et al. [1] has rekindled interest in negative temperatures and hinted at a possibility of using NAT systems in the lab as dark energy analogues. This paper goes one step further, looking into the cosmological consequences of the existence of a NAT component in the Universe. NAT-dominated expanding Universes experience a borderline phantom expansion (w < -1) with no Big Rip, and their contracting counterparts are forced to bounce after the energy density becomes sufficiently large. Both scenarios might be used to solve horizon and flatness problems analogously to standard inflation and bouncing cosmologies. We discuss the difficulties in obtaining and ending a NAT-dominated epoch, and possible ways of obtaining density perturbations with an acceptable spectrum.

  15. Detection of a large-scale mass redistribution in the terrestrial system since 1998.

    PubMed

    Cox, Christopher M; Chao, Benjamin F

    2002-08-01

    Earth's dynamic oblateness (J2) had been undergoing a decrease, according to space geodetic observations over the past 25 years, until around 1998, when it switched quite suddenly to an increasing trend that has continued to the present. The secular decrease in J2 resulted primarily from the postglacial rebound in the mantle. The present increase, whose geophysical cause(s) are uncertain, thus signifies a large change in global mass distribution with a J2 effect that considerably overshadows that of mantle rebound. PMID:12161652

  16. Clarke Stations and mercurian mass-drivers: energy for large-scale transportation systems

    SciTech Connect

    Jones, E.M.

    1985-01-01

    Three-week voyages across 1 AU could be made in large sailing craft propelled by microwaves generated at power stations operating at 0.1 AU from the sun. The power stations could be built of mercurian materials launched by mass driver to building sites in solar orbit. A Clarke Station 28 km in radius could generate 64 TW of microwaves and support the operation of a 1000-tonne, 1000-passenger vessel. The ability to build near-sun power stations of mercurian materials would not only support high-speed transport but solar system development in general.

  17. Hyphenation of Production-Scale Free-Flow Electrophoresis to Electrospray Ionization Mass Spectrometry Using a Highly Conductive Background Electrolyte.

    PubMed

    Kochmann, Sven; Agostino, Fletcher J; LeBlanc, J C Yves; Krylov, Sergey N

    2016-09-01

    In this technical note, we demonstrate the hyphenation of production-scale free-flow electrophoresis (FFE) and sheathless electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (ESI-MS). In contrast to previous hyphenation approaches, we used a highly conductive background electrolyte (BGE) required for production-scale FFE. We found that this kind of BGE as well as a production-scale setup leads to significant electric interference between FFE and MS. This interference prevents steady-state FFE operation. We examine this interference in detail and discuss possible solutions to this issue. We demonstrate that the straightforward grounding of the transfer line removes the influence of ESI-MS on FFE, but creates a current leak from the ESI interface, which adversely affects the ESI spray. Furthermore, we show that only the electrical disconnection of the ESI probe from the FFE-MS transfer line suppresses this undesirable current. In order to facilitate the electrical disconnection we used a low conductivity, silica-based ESI probe with withdrawn inner capillary. This approach allowed the interference-free hyphenation of production-scale FFE (using a highly conductive BGE) with ESI-MS. PMID:27462727

  18. An Efficient Algorithm for Clustering of Large-Scale Mass Spectrometry Data

    PubMed Central

    Saeed, Fahad; Pisitkun, Trairak; Knepper, Mark A.; Hoffert, Jason D.

    2012-01-01

    High-throughput spectrometers are capable of producing data sets containing thousands of spectra for a single biological sample. These data sets contain a substantial amount of redundancy from peptides that may get selected multiple times in a LC-MS/MS experiment. In this paper, we present an efficient algorithm, CAMS (Clustering Algorithm for Mass Spectra) for clustering mass spectrometry data which increases both the sensitivity and confidence of spectral assignment. CAMS utilizes a novel metric, called F-set, that allows accurate identification of the spectra that are similar. A graph theoretic framework is defined that allows the use of F-set metric efficiently for accurate cluster identifications. The accuracy of the algorithm is tested on real HCD and CID data sets with varying amounts of peptides. Our experiments show that the proposed algorithm is able to cluster spectra with very high accuracy in a reasonable amount of time for large spectral data sets. Thus, the algorithm is able to decrease the computational time by compressing the data sets while increasing the throughput of the data by interpreting low S/N spectra. PMID:23471471

  19. Assessing Regional Scale Fluxes of Mass, Momentum, and Energy with Small Environmental Research Aircraft

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zulueta, Rommel Callejo

    Natural ecosystems are rarely structurally or functionally homogeneous. This is true for the complex coastal regions of Magdalena Bay, Baja California Sur, Mexico, and the Barrow Peninsula on the Arctic Coastal Plain of Alaska. The coastal region of Magdalena Bay is comprised of the Pacific coastal ocean, eutrophic lagoon, mangroves, and desert ecosystems all adjacent and within a few kilometers, while the Barrow Peninsula is a mosaic of small ponds, thaw lakes, different aged vegetated thaw-lake basins ( VDTLBs ) and interstitial tundra which have been dynamically formed by both short- and long-term processes. We used a combination of tower- and small environmental research aircraft (SERA)-based eddy covariance measurements to characterize the spatial and temporal patterns of CO2, latent, and sensible heat fluxes along with MODIS NDVI, and land surface information, to scale the SERA-based CO2 fluxes up to the regional scale. In the first part of this research, the spatial variability in ecosystem fluxes from the Pacific coastal ocean, eutrophic lagoon, mangroves, and desert areas of northern Magdalena Bay were studied. SERA-derived average midday CO2 fluxes from the desert showed a slight uptake of -1.32 mumol CO2 m-2 s-1, the coastal ocean also showed uptake of -3.48 mumol CO2 m-2 s -1, and the lagoon mangroves showed the highest uptake of -8.11 mumol CO2 m-2 s-1. Additional simultaneous measurements of NDVI allowed simple linear modeling of CO2 flux as a function of NDVI for the mangroves of the Magdalena Bay region. In the second part of this research, the spatial variability of ecosystem fluxes across the 1802 km2 Barrow Peninsula region was studied. During typical 2006 summer conditions, the midday hourly CO2 flux over the region was -2.04 x 105 kgCO2 hr-1. The CO2 fluxes among the interstitial tundra, Ancient and Old VDTLBs, as well as between the Medium and Young VDTLBs were not significantly different. Combined, the interstitial tundra and Old and Ancient

  20. Computer-aided mass detection in mammography: False positive reduction via gray-scale invariant ranklet texture features

    SciTech Connect

    Masotti, Matteo; Lanconelli, Nico; Campanini, Renato

    2009-02-15

    In this work, gray-scale invariant ranklet texture features are proposed for false positive reduction (FPR) in computer-aided detection (CAD) of breast masses. Two main considerations are at the basis of this proposal. First, false positive (FP) marks surviving our previous CAD system seem to be characterized by specific texture properties that can be used to discriminate them from masses. Second, our previous CAD system achieves invariance to linear/nonlinear monotonic gray-scale transformations by encoding regions of interest into ranklet images through the ranklet transform, an image transformation similar to the wavelet transform, yet dealing with pixels' ranks rather than with their gray-scale values. Therefore, the new FPR approach proposed herein defines a set of texture features which are calculated directly from the ranklet images corresponding to the regions of interest surviving our previous CAD system, hence, ranklet texture features; then, a support vector machine (SVM) classifier is used for discrimination. As a result of this approach, texture-based information is used to discriminate FP marks surviving our previous CAD system; at the same time, invariance to linear/nonlinear monotonic gray-scale transformations of the new CAD system is guaranteed, as ranklet texture features are calculated from ranklet images that have this property themselves by construction. To emphasize the gray-scale invariance of both the previous and new CAD systems, training and testing are carried out without any in-between parameters' adjustment on mammograms having different gray-scale dynamics; in particular, training is carried out on analog digitized mammograms taken from a publicly available digital database, whereas testing is performed on full-field digital mammograms taken from an in-house database. Free-response receiver operating characteristic (FROC) curve analysis of the two CAD systems demonstrates that the new approach achieves a higher reduction of FP marks

  1. The Application of Optimisation Methods to Constrain Absolute Plate Motions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tetley, M. G.; Williams, S.; Hardy, S.; Müller, D.

    2015-12-01

    Plate tectonic reconstructions are an excellent tool for understanding the configuration and behaviour of continents through time on both global and regional scales, and are relatively well understood back to ~200 Ma. However, many of these models represent only relative motions between continents, providing little information of absolute tectonic motions and their relationship with the deep Earth. Significant issues exist in solving this problem, including how to combine constraints from multiple, diverse data into a unified model of absolute plate motions; and how to address uncertainties both in the available data, and in the assumptions involved in this process (e.g. hotspot motion, true polar wander). In deep time (pre-Pangea breakup), plate reconstructions rely more heavily on paleomagnetism, but these data often imply plate velocities much larger than those observed since the breakup of the supercontinent Pangea where plate velocities are constrained by the seafloor spreading record. Here we present two complementary techniques to address these issues, applying parallelized numerical methods to quantitatively investigate absolute plate motions through time. Firstly, we develop a data-fit optimized global absolute reference frame constrained by kinematic reconstruction data, hotspot-trail observations, and trench migration statistics. Secondly we calculate optimized paleomagnetic data-derived apparent polar wander paths (APWPs) for both the Phanerozoic and Precambrian. Paths are generated from raw pole data with optimal spatial and temporal pole configurations calculated using all known uncertainties and quality criteria to produce velocity-optimized absolute motion paths through deep time.

  2. Multidimensional complexities of filariasis control in an era of large-scale mass drug administration programmes: a can of worms.

    PubMed

    Molyneux, David H; Hopkins, Adrian; Bradley, Mark H; Kelly-Hope, Louise A

    2014-01-01

    The impact of control and elimination programmes by mass drug administration (MDA) targeting onchocerciasis and lymphatic filariasis (LF) in sub-Saharan Africa over the last two decades has resulted in significantly reduced prevalence and intensity of infection, with some areas interrupting transmission. However, given that these infections are often co-endemic and the drugs (either ivermectin alone or combined with albendazole) also impact on soil transmitted helminths (STH), the importance of this, in terms of reaching the global goals has not been assessed. The additional problem posed by Loa loa, where ivermectin cannot be safely administered due to the risk of serious adverse events compounds this situation and has left populations drug naïve and an alternative strategy to eliminate LF is yet to be initiated at scale. Here, we present a series of operational research questions, which must be addressed if the effectiveness of integrated control of filarial and helminth infections is to be understood for the endgame. This is particularly important in the diverse and dynamic epidemiological landscape, which has emerged as a result of the long-term large-scale mass drug administration (or not). There is a need for a more holistic approach to address these questions. Different programmes should examine this increased complexity, given that MDA has multiple impacts, drugs are given over different periods, and programmes have different individual targets. PMID:25128408

  3. Analysis of tandem mass spectra by FTMS for improved large-scale proteomics with superior protein quantification

    PubMed Central

    McAlister, Graeme C.; Phanstiel, Doug; Wenger, Craig D.; Lee, M. Violet; Coon, Joshua J.

    2009-01-01

    Using a newly developed dual-cell quadrupole linear ion trap-orbitrap hybrid mass spectrometer (dcQLT-orbitrap), we demonstrate the utility of collecting high-resolution tandem mass spectral data for large-scale shotgun proteomics. Multiple nanoLC-MS/MS experiments on both an older generation quadrupole linear ion trap-orbitrap hybrid (QLT-orbitrap) and the dcQLT-orbitrap, using both resonant-excitation CAD and beam-type CAD (HCD) were performed. Resulting from various technological advances (e.g., a stacked ring ion guide AP inlet, a dual cell QLT, etc.), the dcQLT-orbitrap exhibited increased duty cycle (~1.5–2×) and sensitivity for both CAD (ion trap detection) and HCD (orbitrap detection) methods. As compared to the older system, the dcQLT-orbitrap produced significantly more unique peptide identification for both methods (~30% improvement for CAD and ~115% improvement for HCD). The sizeable improvement of the HCD method on the dcQLT-orbitrap system, outperforms the current standard method of CAD with ion trap detection for large-scale analysis. Finally, we demonstrate that the increased HCD performance translates to a direct and substantial improvement in protein quantitation precision using isobaric tags. PMID:19938823

  4. Recovery after mass extinction: evolutionary assembly in large-scale biosphere dynamics.

    PubMed Central

    Solé, Ricard V; Montoya, José M; Erwin, Douglas H

    2002-01-01

    Biotic recoveries following mass extinctions are characterized by a process in which whole ecologies are reconstructed from low-diversity systems, often characterized by opportunistic groups. The recovery process provides an unexpected window to ecosystem dynamics. In many aspects, recovery is very similar to ecological succession, but important differences are also apparently linked to the innovative patterns of niche construction observed in the fossil record. In this paper, we analyse the similarities and differences between ecological succession and evolutionary recovery to provide a preliminary ecological theory of recoveries. A simple evolutionary model with three trophic levels is presented, and its properties (closely resembling those observed in the fossil record) are compared with characteristic patterns of ecological response to disturbances in continuous models of three-level ecosystems. PMID:12079530

  5. Micromorphology in unconsolidated landslide sediments - investigating mass movement deposits at a different scale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jaeger, Daniel; Menzies, John

    2015-04-01

    In order to reliably reconstruct a landslide event, its triggers, movements and the main factors of influence, a profound knowledge of the slide masses' inner architecture and their internal processes is of great importance. As van der Meer (1996) states, micromorphology permits a complete examination of particles, matrix and all components contained in unconsolidated sediments, as well as an insight into their internal arrangement. So far, thin sections and micromorphology are mainly used for studying marine, periglacial and glacial sediments (e.g. Maltman 1988; van der Meer 1993, Menzies 2000, van Fliet-Lanoe 2010, van der Meer & Menzies 2011). Comparatively little work has been carried out with a focus on landslides (e.g. Bertran & Texier 1999). Therefore, our work is a first attempt at investigating unconsolidated deposits of landslides in the low mountain areas of southern Germany using micromorphological tools. The objective was to observe sedimentary microstructures in order to gain an understanding of the sediments' internal movement, deformation etc. during a slide event. On the investigated landslides near Ebermannstadt (Franconian Alb), Gailnau (Frankenhöhe region) and Talheim (Swabian Alb) samples were taken from small pits or outcrops (depths between 50 cm - 300 cm below the surface) in the upper, central and lower part (foot) of the slide mass. The thin section analyses revealed several differences between the three environments and within the specific landslides themselves. Most prominently, several structures (e.g. water-escape-structures, flow-noses and rotational structures) indicate a crucial impact of water in all three slide masses. Furthermore, the thin sections showed heterogeneous compositions of different sediment materials and aggregates, presumably transported, mixed together and deformed during the slide movement. In Ebermannstadt and Talheim, several ductile and brittle deformation structures (rotational structures, marbled structures

  6. Micromorphology in unconsolidated landslide sediments - investigating mass movement deposits at a different scale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jaeger, Daniel; Menzies, John

    2015-04-01

    In order to reliably reconstruct a landslide event, its triggers, movements and the main factors of influence, a profound knowledge of the slide masses' inner architecture and their internal processes is of great importance. As van der Meer (1996) states, micromorphology permits a complete examination of particles, matrix and all components contained in unconsolidated sediments, as well as an insight into their internal arrangement. So far, thin sections and micromorphology are mainly used for studying marine, periglacial and glacial sediments (e.g. Maltman 1988; van der Meer 1993, Menzies 2000, van Fliet-Lanoe 2010, van der Meer & Menzies 2011). Comparatively little work has been carried out with a focus on landslides (e.g. Bertran & Texier 1999). Therefore, our work is a first attempt at investigating unconsolidated deposits of landslides in the low mountain areas of southern Germany using micromorphological tools. The objective was to observe sedimentary microstructures in order to gain an understanding of the sediments' internal movement, deformation etc. during a slide event. On the investigated landslides near Ebermannstadt (Franconian Alb), Gailnau (Frankenhöhe region) and Talheim (Swabian Alb) samples were taken from small pits or outcrops (depths between 50 cm - 300 cm below the surface) in the upper, central and lower part (foot) of the slide mass. The thin section analyses revealed several differences between the three environments and within the specific landslides themselves. Most prominently, several structures (e.g. water-escape-structures, flow-noses and rotational structures) indicate a crucial impact of water in all three slide masses. Furthermore, the thin sections showed heterogeneous compositions of different sediment materials and aggregates, presumably transported, mixed together and deformed during the slide movement. In Ebermannstadt and Talheim, several ductile and brittle deformation structures (rotational structures, marbled structures

  7. Body mass of prefledging Emperor Geese Chen canagica: Large-scale effects of interspecific densities and food availability

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lake, B.C.; Schmutz, J.A.; Lindberg, M.S.; Ely, C.R.; Eldridge, W.D.; Broerman, F.J.

    2008-01-01

    We studied body mass of prefledging Emperor Geese Chen canagica at three locations across the Yukon-Kuskokwim Delta, Alaska, during 1990-2004 to investigate whether large-scale variation in body mass was related to interspecific competition for food. From 1990 to 2004, densities of Cackling Geese Branta hutchinsii minima more than doubled and were c. 2-5?? greater than densities of Emperor Geese, which were relatively constant over time. Body mass of prefledging Emperor Geese was strongly related (negatively) to interspecific densities of geese (combined density of Cackling and Emperor Geese) and positively related to measures of food availability (grazing lawn extent and net above-ground primary productivity (NAPP)). Grazing by geese resulted in consumption of ??? 90% of the NAPP that occurred in grazing lawns during the brood-rearing period, suggesting that density-dependent interspecific competition was from exploitation of common food resources. Efforts to increase the population size of Emperor Geese would benefit from considering competitive interactions among goose species and with forage plants. ?? 2008 The Authors.

  8. Nano-scale liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry of 2-aminobenzamide-labeled oligosaccharides at low femtomole sensitivity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wuhrer, Manfred; Koeleman, Carolien A. M.; Hokke, Cornelis H.; Deelder, André M.

    2004-03-01

    Conventional normal-phase high performance liquid chromatography of fluorescently labeled oligosaccharides with or without on-line mass spectrometry is an established tool for the structure characterization of protein and lipid derived glycans. Here we describe the miniaturization of such a system to the nano-scale using a 75 [mu]m internal diameter normal-phase amide column on-line with electrospray ionization ion-trap mass spectrometry. 2-Aminobenzamide-labeled oligosaccharides have a predictable retention on this normal-phase column that can be expressed as glucose units by comparison to the retention of a standard 2-aminobenzamide glucose polymer mixture. Isobaric compounds are separated on the basis of their structural differences, and by on-line electrospray ionization ion-trap mass spectrometry, the sequence of the monosaccharides can be deduced. The major improvement of the on-line nano-LC-MS system in comparison to conventional systems is the gain in sensitivity with detection of low femtomole amounts of glycans. This implies that LC-MS of 2-aminobenzamide-labeled oligosaccharides can now be performed at higher sensitivity than their analysis with fluorescence detection.

  9. A mass-flux cumulus parameterization scheme for large-scale models: description and test with observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Tongwen

    2012-02-01

    A simple mass-flux cumulus parameterization scheme suitable for large-scale atmospheric models is presented. The scheme is based on a bulk-cloud approach and has the following properties: (1) Deep convection is launched at the level of maximum moist static energy above the top of the boundary layer. It is triggered if there is positive convective available potential energy (CAPE) and relative humidity of the air at the lifting level of convection cloud is greater than 75%; (2) Convective updrafts for mass, dry static energy, moisture, cloud liquid water and momentum are parameterized by a one-dimensional entrainment/detrainment bulk-cloud model. The lateral entrainment of the environmental air into the unstable ascending parcel before it rises to the lifting condensation level is considered. The entrainment/detrainment amount for the updraft cloud parcel is separately determined according to the increase/decrease of updraft parcel mass with altitude, and the mass change for the adiabatic ascent cloud parcel with altitude is derived from a total energy conservation equation of the whole adiabatic system in which involves the updraft cloud parcel and the environment; (3) The convective downdraft is assumed saturated and originated from the level of minimum environmental saturated equivalent potential temperature within the updraft cloud; (4) The mass flux at the base of convective cloud is determined by a closure scheme suggested by Zhang (J Geophys Res 107(D14), doi: 10.1029/2001JD001005 , 2002) in which the increase/decrease of CAPE due to changes of the thermodynamic states in the free troposphere resulting from convection approximately balances the decrease/increase resulting from large-scale processes. Evaluation of the proposed convection scheme is performed by using a single column model (SCM) forced by the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Program

  10. Large-Scale Metabolite Analysis of Standards and Human Serum by Laser Desorption Ionization Mass Spectrometry from Silicon Nanopost Arrays.

    PubMed

    Korte, Andrew R; Stopka, Sylwia A; Morris, Nicholas; Razunguzwa, Trust; Vertes, Akos

    2016-09-20

    The unique challenges presented by metabolomics have driven the development of new mass spectrometry (MS)-based techniques for small molecule analysis. We have previously demonstrated silicon nanopost arrays (NAPA) to be an effective substrate for laser desorption ionization (LDI) of small molecules for MS. However, the utility of NAPA-LDI-MS for a wide range of metabolite classes has not been investigated. Here we apply NAPA-LDI-MS to the large-scale acquisition of high-resolution mass spectra and tandem mass spectra from a collection of metabolite standards covering a range of compound classes including amino acids, nucleotides, carbohydrates, xenobiotics, lipids, and other classes. In untargeted analysis of metabolite standard mixtures, detection was achieved for 374 compounds and useful MS/MS spectra were obtained for 287 compounds, without individual optimization of ionization or fragmentation conditions. Metabolite detection was evaluated in the context of 31 metabolic pathways, and NAPA-LDI-MS was found to provide detection for 63% of investigated pathway metabolites. Individual, targeted analysis of the 20 common amino acids provided detection of 100% of the investigated compounds, demonstrating that improved coverage is possible through optimization and targeting of individual analytes or analyte classes. In direct analysis of aqueous and organic extracts from human serum samples, spectral features were assigned to a total of 108 small metabolites and lipids. Glucose and amino acids were quantitated within their physiological concentration ranges. The broad coverage demonstrated by this large-scale screening experiment opens the door for use of NAPA-LDI-MS in numerous metabolite analysis applications.

  11. Articulated Multimedia Physics, Lesson 14, Gases, The Gas Laws, and Absolute Temperature.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New York Inst. of Tech., Old Westbury.

    As the fourteenth lesson of the Articulated Multimedia Physics Course, instructional materials are presented in this study guide with relation to gases, gas laws, and absolute temperature. The topics are concerned with the kinetic theory of gases, thermometric scales, Charles' law, ideal gases, Boyle's law, absolute zero, and gas pressures. The…

  12. Constraints on neutrino masses from the study of the nearby large-scale structure and galaxy cluster counts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Böhringer, Hans; Chon, Gayoung

    2016-07-01

    The high precision measurements of the cosmic microwave background by the Planck survey yielded tight constraints on cosmological parameters and the statistics of the density fluctuations at the time of recombination. This provides the means for a critical study of structure formation in the Universe by comparing the microwave background results with present epoch measurements of the cosmic large-scale structure. It can reveal subtle effects such as how different forms of Dark Matter may modify structure growth. Currently most interesting is the damping effect of structure growth by massive neutrinos. Different observations of low redshift matter density fluctuations provided evidence for a signature of massive neutrinos. Here we discuss the study of the cosmic large-scale structure with a complete sample of nearby, X-ray luminous clusters from our REFLEX cluster survey. From the observed X-ray luminosity function and its reproduction for different cosmological models, we obtain tight constraints on the cosmological parameters describing the matter density, Ωm, and the density fluctuation amplitude, σ8. A comparison of these constraints with the Planck results shows a discrepancy in the framework of a pure ΛCDM model, but the results can be reconciled, if we allow for a neutrino mass in the range of 0.17 eV to 0.7 eV. Also some others, but not all of the observations of the nearby large-scale structure provide evidence or trends for signatures of massive neutrinos. With further improvement in the systematics and future survey projects, these indications will develop into a definitive measurement of neutrino masses.

  13. A Local Baseline of the Black Hole Mass Scaling Relations for Active Galaxies. I. Methodology and Results of Pilot Study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bennert, Vardha Nicola; Auger, Matthew W.; Treu, Tommaso; Woo, Jong-Hak; Malkan, Matthew A.

    2011-01-01

    We present high-quality Keck/LRIS long-slit spectroscopy of a pilot sample of 25 local active galaxies selected from the SDSS (0.02 <=z <= 0.1; M BH>107 M sun) to study the relations between black hole mass (M BH) and host-galaxy properties. We determine stellar kinematics of the host galaxy, deriving stellar-velocity dispersion profiles and rotation curves from three spectral regions (including CaH&K, MgIb triplet, and Ca II triplet). In addition, we perform surface photometry on SDSS images, using a newly developed code for joint multi-band analysis. BH masses are estimated from the width of the Hβ emission line and the host-galaxy free 5100 Å active galactic nucleus (AGN) luminosity. Combining results from spectroscopy and imaging allows us to study four M BH scaling relations: M BH-σ, M BH-L sph, M BH-M sph,sstarf, and M BH-M sph,dyn. We find the following results. First, stellar-velocity dispersions determined from aperture spectra (e.g., SDSS fiber spectra or unresolved data from distant galaxies) can be biased, depending on aperture size, AGN contamination, and host-galaxy morphology. However, such a bias cannot explain the offset seen in the M BH-σ relation at higher redshifts. Second, while the CaT region is the cleanest to determine stellar-velocity dispersions, both the MgIb region, corrected for Fe II emission, and the CaHK region, although often swamped by the AGN power-law continuum and emission lines, can give results accurate to within a few percent. Third, the M BH scaling relations of our pilot sample agree in slope and scatter with those of other local active and inactive galaxies. In the next papers of the series we will quantify the scaling relations, exploiting the full sample of ~100 objects.

  14. Constraints on neutrino masses from the study of the nearby large-scale structure and galaxy cluster counts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Böhringer, Hans; Chon, Gayoung

    2016-07-01

    The high precision measurements of the cosmic microwave background by the Planck survey yielded tight constraints on cosmological parameters and the statistics of the density fluctuations at the time of recombination. This provides the means for a critical study of structure formation in the Universe by comparing the microwave background results with present epoch measurements of the cosmic large-scale structure. It can reveal subtle effects such as how different forms of Dark Matter may modify structure growth. Currently most interesting is the damping effect of structure growth by massive neutrinos. Different observations of low redshift matter density fluctuations provided evidence for a signature of massive neutrinos. Here we discuss the study of the cosmic large-scale structure with a complete sample of nearby, X-ray luminous clusters from our REFLEX cluster survey. From the observed X-ray luminosity function and its reproduction for different cosmological models, we obtain tight constraints on the cosmological parameters describing the matter density, Ωm, and the density fluctuation amplitude, σ8. A comparison of these constraints with the Planck results shows a discrepancy in the framework of a pure ΛCDM model, but the results can be reconciled, if we allow for a neutrino mass in the range of 0.17 eV to 0.7 eV. Also some others, but not all of the observations of the nearby large-scale structure provide evidence or trends for signatures of massive neutrinos. With further improvement in the systematics and future survey projects, these indications will develop into a definitive measurement of neutrino masses.

  15. Structurally controlled 'teleconnection' of large-scale mass wasting (Eastern Alps)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ostermann, Marc; Sanders, Diethard

    2015-04-01

    In the Brenner Pass area (Eastern Alps) , closely ahead of the most northward outlier ('nose') of the Southern-Alpine continental indenter, abundant deep-seated gravitational slope deformations and a cluster of five post-glacial rockslides are present. The indenter of roughly triangular shape formed during Neogene collision of the Southern-Alpine basement with the Eastern-Alpine nappe stack. Compression by the indenter activated a N-S striking, roughly W-E extensional fault northward of the nose of the indenter (Brenner-normal fault; BNF), and lengthened the Eastern-Alpine edifice along a set of major strike-slip faults. These fault zones display high seismicity, and are the preferred locus of catastrophic rapid slope failures (rockslides, rock avalanches) and deep-seated gravitational slope deformations. The seismotectonic stress field, earthquake activity, and structural data all indicate that the South-Alpine indenter still - or again - exerts compression; in consequence, the northward adjacent Eastern Alps are subject mainly to extension and strike-slip. For the rockslides in the Brenner Pass area, and for the deep-seated gravitational slope deformations, the fault zones combined with high seismic activity predispose massive slope failures. Structural data and earthquakes mainly record ~W-E extension within an Eastern Alpine basement block (Oetztal-Stubai basement complex) in the hangingwall of the BNF. In the Northern Calcareous Alps NW of the Oetztal-Stubai basement complex, dextral faults provide defacement scars for large rockfalls and rockslides. Towards the West, these dextral faults merge into a NNW-SSE striking sinistral fault zone that, in turn, displays high seismic activity and is the locus of another rockslide cluster (Fern Pass cluster; Prager et al., 2008). By its kinematics dictated by the South-Alpine indenter, the relatively rigid Oetztal-Stubai basement block relays faulting and associated mass-wasting over a N-S distance of more than 60

  16. Does infection tilt the scales? Disease effects on the mass balance of an invertebrate nutrient recycler.

    PubMed

    Narr, Charlotte F; Frost, Paul C

    2015-12-01

    While parasites are increasingly recognized as important components of ecosystems, we currently know little about how they alter ecosystem nutrient availability via host-mediated nutrient cycling. We examined whether infection alters the flow of nutrients through hosts and whether such effects depend upon host diet quality. To do so, we compared the mass specific nutrient (i.e., nitrogen and phosphorus) release rates, ingestion rates, and elemental composition of uninfected Daphnia to those infected with a bacterial parasite, P. ramosa. N and P release rates were increased by infection when Daphnia were fed P-poor diets, but we found no effect of infection on the nutrient release of individuals fed P-rich diets. Calculations based on the first law of thermodynamics indicated that infection should increase the nutrient release rates of Daphnia by decreasing nutrient accumulation rates in host tissues. Although we found reduced nutrient accumulation rates in infected Daphnia fed all diets, this reduction did not increase the nutrient release rates of Daphnia fed the P-rich diet because infected Daphnia fed this diet ingested nutrients more slowly than uninfected hosts. Our results thus indicate that parasites can significantly alter the nutrient use of animal consumers, which could affect the availability of nutrients in heavily parasitized environments.

  17. Left ventricular mass: allometric scaling, normative values, effect of obesity, and prognostic performance.

    PubMed

    Chirinos, Julio A; Segers, Patrick; De Buyzere, Marc L; Kronmal, Richard A; Raja, Muhammad W; De Bacquer, Dirk; Claessens, Tom; Gillebert, Thierry C; St John-Sutton, Martin; Rietzschel, Ernst R

    2010-07-01

    The need for left ventricular mass (LVM) normalization to body size is well recognized. Currently used allometric exponents to normalize LVM may not account for the confounding effect of sex. Because sex is a strong determinant of body size and LVM, we hypothesized that these are subject to potential bias. We analyzed data from 7528 subjects enrolled in the Asklepios Study (n=2524) and the Multiethnic Study of Atherosclerosis (limited access data set; n=5,004) to assess metric relationships between LVM and body size, generate normative data for indexed LVM, and compare the ability of normalization methods to predict cardiovascular events. The allometric exponent that adequately described the LVM-body height relationship was 1.7 in both studies and significantly different from both the unity and 2.7, whereas the LVM-body surface area relationship was approximately linear. LVM/height(2.7) consistently demonstrated important residual relationships with body height and systematically misclassified subjects regarding the presence of LVH. LVH defined by LVM/height(1.7) was more sensitive than LVM/body surface area to identify obesity-related LVH and was most consistently associated with cardiovascular events and all-cause death. In contrast to current assumptions, LVM/height(2.7) is not an adequate method to normalize LVM for body size. We provide more appropriate normalization methods, normative data by 2D echocardiography and gradient-echo cardiac MRI, and cutoffs for defining LVH, along with prognostic validation data. PMID:20458004

  18. Large-scale collision cross-section profiling on a travelling wave ion mobility mass spectrometer

    PubMed Central

    Lietz, Christopher B.; Yu, Qing; Li, Lingjun

    2014-01-01

    Ion mobility (IM) is a gas-phase electrophoretic method that separates ions according to charge and ion-neutral collision cross-section (CCS). Herein, we attempt to apply a travelling wave (TW) IM polyalanine calibration method to shotgun proteomics and create a large peptide CCS database. Mass spectrometry methods that utilize IM, such as HDMSE, often use high transmission voltages for sensitive analysis. However, polyalanine calibration has only been demonstrated with low voltage transmission used to prevent gas-phase activation. If polyalanine ions change conformation under higher transmission voltages used for HDMSE, the calibration may no longer be valid. Thus, we aimed to characterize the accuracy of calibration and CCS measurement under high transmission voltages on a TW IM instrument using the polyalanine calibration method and found that the additional error was not significant. We also evaluated the potential error introduced by liquid chromatography (LC)-HDMSE analysis, and found it to be insignificant as well, validating the calibration method. Finally, we demonstrated the utility of building a large-population peptide CCS database by investigating the effects of terminal lysine position, via LysC or LysN digestion, on the formation of two structural sub-families formed by triply charged ions. PMID:24845359

  19. Large-Scale Collision Cross-Section Profiling on a Traveling Wave Ion Mobility Mass Spectrometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lietz, Christopher B.; Yu, Qing; Li, Lingjun

    2014-12-01

    Ion mobility (IM) is a gas-phase electrophoretic method that separates ions according to charge and ion-neutral collision cross-section (CCS). Herein, we attempt to apply a traveling wave (TW) IM polyalanine calibration method to shotgun proteomics and create a large peptide CCS database. Mass spectrometry methods that utilize IM, such as HDMSE, often use high transmission voltages for sensitive analysis. However, polyalanine calibration has only been demonstrated with low voltage transmission used to prevent gas-phase activation. If polyalanine ions change conformation under higher transmission voltages used for HDMSE, the calibration may no longer be valid. Thus, we aimed to characterize the accuracy of calibration and CCS measurement under high transmission voltages on a TW IM instrument using the polyalanine calibration method and found that the additional error was not significant. We also evaluated the potential error introduced by liquid chromatography ( LC)-HDMSE analysis, and found it to be insignificant as well, validating the calibration method. Finally, we demonstrated the utility of building a large-population peptide CCS database by investigating the effects of terminal lysine position, via LysC or LysN digestion, on the formation of two structural sub-families formed by triply charged ions.

  20. Does infection tilt the scales? Disease effects on the mass balance of an invertebrate nutrient recycler.

    PubMed

    Narr, Charlotte F; Frost, Paul C

    2015-12-01

    While parasites are increasingly recognized as important components of ecosystems, we currently know little about how they alter ecosystem nutrient availability via host-mediated nutrient cycling. We examined whether infection alters the flow of nutrients through hosts and whether such effects depend upon host diet quality. To do so, we compared the mass specific nutrient (i.e., nitrogen and phosphorus) release rates, ingestion rates, and elemental composition of uninfected Daphnia to those infected with a bacterial parasite, P. ramosa. N and P release rates were increased by infection when Daphnia were fed P-poor diets, but we found no effect of infection on the nutrient release of individuals fed P-rich diets. Calculations based on the first law of thermodynamics indicated that infection should increase the nutrient release rates of Daphnia by decreasing nutrient accumulation rates in host tissues. Although we found reduced nutrient accumulation rates in infected Daphnia fed all diets, this reduction did not increase the nutrient release rates of Daphnia fed the P-rich diet because infected Daphnia fed this diet ingested nutrients more slowly than uninfected hosts. Our results thus indicate that parasites can significantly alter the nutrient use of animal consumers, which could affect the availability of nutrients in heavily parasitized environments. PMID:26298190

  1. Absolute configuration of isovouacapenol C

    PubMed Central

    Fun, Hoong-Kun; Yodsaoue, Orapun; Karalai, Chatchanok; Chantrapromma, Suchada

    2010-01-01

    The title compound, C27H34O5 {systematic name: (4aR,5R,6R,6aS,7R,11aS,11bR)-4a,6-dihy­droxy-4,4,7,11b-tetra­methyl-1,2,3,4,4a,5,6,6a,7,11,11a,11b-dodeca­hydro­phenanthro[3,2-b]furan-5-yl benzoate}, is a cassane furan­oditerpene, which was isolated from the roots of Caesalpinia pulcherrima. The three cyclo­hexane rings are trans fused: two of these are in chair conformations with the third in a twisted half-chair conformation, whereas the furan ring is almost planar (r.m.s. deviation = 0.003 Å). An intra­molecular C—H⋯O inter­action generates an S(6) ring. The absolute configurations of the stereogenic centres at positions 4a, 5, 6, 6a, 7, 11a and 11b are R, R, R, S, R, S and R, respectively. In the crystal, mol­ecules are linked into infinite chains along [010] by O—H⋯O hydrogen bonds. C⋯O [3.306 (2)–3.347 (2) Å] short contacts and C—H⋯π inter­actions also occur. PMID:21588364

  2. Frequency-domain analysis of absolute gravimeters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Svitlov, S.

    2012-12-01

    An absolute gravimeter is analysed as a linear time-invariant system in the frequency domain. Frequency responses of absolute gravimeters are derived analytically based on the propagation of the complex exponential signal through their linear measurement functions. Depending on the model of motion and the number of time-distance coordinates, an absolute gravimeter is considered as a second-order (three-level scheme) or third-order (multiple-level scheme) low-pass filter. It is shown that the behaviour of an atom absolute gravimeter in the frequency domain corresponds to that of the three-level corner-cube absolute gravimeter. Theoretical results are applied for evaluation of random and systematic measurement errors and optimization of an experiment. The developed theory agrees with known results of an absolute gravimeter analysis in the time and frequency domains and can be used for measurement uncertainty analyses, building of vibration-isolation systems and synthesis of digital filtering algorithms.

  3. Method of differential-phase/absolute-amplitude QAM

    DOEpatents

    Dimsdle, Jeffrey William

    2007-07-03

    A method of quadrature amplitude modulation involving encoding phase differentially and amplitude absolutely, allowing for a high data rate and spectral efficiency in data transmission and other communication applications, and allowing for amplitude scaling to facilitate data recovery; amplitude scale tracking to track-out rapid and severe scale variations and facilitate successful demodulation and data retrieval; 2.sup.N power carrier recovery; incoherent demodulation where coherent carrier recovery is not possible or practical due to signal degradation; coherent demodulation; multipath equalization to equalize frequency dependent multipath; and demodulation filtering.

  4. Method of differential-phase/absolute-amplitude QAM

    DOEpatents

    Dimsdle, Jeffrey William

    2008-10-21

    A method of quadrature amplitude modulation involving encoding phase differentially and amplitude absolutely, allowing for a high data rate and spectral efficiency in data transmission and other communication applications, and allowing for amplitude scaling to facilitate data recovery; amplitude scale tracking to track-out rapid and severe scale variations and facilitate successful demodulation and data retrieval; 2.sup.N power carrier recovery; incoherent demodulation where coherent carrier recovery is not possible or practical due to signal degradation; coherent demodulation; multipath equalization to equalize frequency dependent multipath; and demodulation filtering.

  5. Method of differential-phase/absolute-amplitude QAM

    DOEpatents

    Dimsdle, Jeffrey William

    2007-07-17

    A method of quadrature amplitude modulation involving encoding phase differentially and amplitude absolutely, allowing for a high data rate and spectral efficiency in data transmission and other communication applications, and allowing for amplitude scaling to facilitate data recovery; amplitude scale tracking to track-out rapid and severe scale variations and facilitate successful demodulation and data retrieval; 2.sup.N power carrier recovery; incoherent demodulation where coherent carrier recovery is not possible or practical due to signal degradation; coherent demodulation; multipath equalization to equalize frequency dependent multipath; and demodulation filtering.

  6. Method of differential-phase/absolute-amplitude QAM

    DOEpatents

    Dimsdle, Jeffrey William

    2007-10-02

    A method of quadrature amplitude modulation involving encoding phase differentially and amplitude absolutely, allowing for a high data rate and spectral efficiency in data transmission and other communication applications, and allowing for amplitude scaling to facilitate data recovery; amplitude scale tracking to track-out rapid and severe scale variations and facilitate successful demodulation and data retrieval; 2.sup.N power carrier recovery; incoherent demodulation where coherent carrier recovery is not possible or practical due to signal degradation; coherent demodulation; multipath equalization to equalize frequency dependent multipath; and demodulation filtering.

  7. Method of differential-phase/absolute-amplitude QAM

    DOEpatents

    Dimsdle, Jeffrey William

    2009-09-01

    A method of quadrature amplitude modulation involving encoding phase differentially and amplitude absolutely, allowing for a high data rate and spectral efficiency in data transmission and other communication applications, and allowing for amplitude scaling to facilitate data recovery; amplitude scale tracking to track-out rapid and severe scale variations and facilitate successful demodulation and data retrieval; 2.sup.N power carrier recovery; incoherent demodulation where coherent carrier recovery is not possible or practical due to signal degradation; coherent demodulation; multipath equalization to equalize frequency dependent multipath; and demodulation filtering.

  8. Impact of co-digestion on existing salt and nutrient mass balances for a full-scale dairy energy project.

    PubMed

    Camarillo, Mary Kay; Stringfellow, William T; Spier, Chelsea L; Hanlon, Jeremy S; Domen, Jeremy K

    2013-10-15

    Anaerobic digestion of manure and other agricultural waste streams with subsequent energy production can result in more sustainable dairy operations; however, importation of digester feedstocks onto dairy farms alters previously established carbon, nutrient, and salinity mass balances. Salt and nutrient mass balance must be maintained to avoid groundwater contamination and salination. To better understand salt and nutrient contributions of imported methane-producing substrates, a mass balance for a full-scale dairy biomass energy project was developed for solids, carbon, nitrogen, sulfur, phosphorus, chloride, and potassium. Digester feedstocks, consisting of thickened manure flush-water slurry, screened manure solids, sudan grass silage, and feed-waste, were tracked separately in the mass balance. The error in mass balance closure for most elements was less than 5%. Manure contributed 69.2% of influent dry matter while contributing 77.7% of nitrogen, 90.9% of sulfur, and 73.4% of phosphorus. Sudan grass silage contributed high quantities of chloride and potassium, 33.3% and 43.4%, respectively, relative to the dry matter contribution of 22.3%. Five potential off-site co-digestates (egg waste, grape pomace, milk waste, pasta waste, whey wastewater) were evaluated for anaerobic digestion based on salt and nutrient content in addition to bio-methane potential. Egg waste and wine grape pomace appeared the most promising co-digestates due to their high methane potentials relative to bulk volume. Increasing power production from the current rate of 369 kW to the design value of 710 kW would require co-digestion with either 26800 L d(-1) egg waste or 60900 kg d(-1) grape pomace. However, importation of egg waste would more than double nitrogen loading, resulting in an increase of 172% above the baseline while co-digestion with grape pomace would increase potassium by 279%. Careful selection of imported co-digestates and management of digester effluent is required to

  9. Impact of co-digestion on existing salt and nutrient mass balances for a full-scale dairy energy project.

    PubMed

    Camarillo, Mary Kay; Stringfellow, William T; Spier, Chelsea L; Hanlon, Jeremy S; Domen, Jeremy K

    2013-10-15

    Anaerobic digestion of manure and other agricultural waste streams with subsequent energy production can result in more sustainable dairy operations; however, importation of digester feedstocks onto dairy farms alters previously established carbon, nutrient, and salinity mass balances. Salt and nutrient mass balance must be maintained to avoid groundwater contamination and salination. To better understand salt and nutrient contributions of imported methane-producing substrates, a mass balance for a full-scale dairy biomass energy project was developed for solids, carbon, nitrogen, sulfur, phosphorus, chloride, and potassium. Digester feedstocks, consisting of thickened manure flush-water slurry, screened manure solids, sudan grass silage, and feed-waste, were tracked separately in the mass balance. The error in mass balance closure for most elements was less than 5%. Manure contributed 69.2% of influent dry matter while contributing 77.7% of nitrogen, 90.9% of sulfur, and 73.4% of phosphorus. Sudan grass silage contributed high quantities of chloride and potassium, 33.3% and 43.4%, respectively, relative to the dry matter contribution of 22.3%. Five potential off-site co-digestates (egg waste, grape pomace, milk waste, pasta waste, whey wastewater) were evaluated for anaerobic digestion based on salt and nutrient content in addition to bio-methane potential. Egg waste and wine grape pomace appeared the most promising co-digestates due to their high methane potentials relative to bulk volume. Increasing power production from the current rate of 369 kW to the design value of 710 kW would require co-digestion with either 26800 L d(-1) egg waste or 60900 kg d(-1) grape pomace. However, importation of egg waste would more than double nitrogen loading, resulting in an increase of 172% above the baseline while co-digestion with grape pomace would increase potassium by 279%. Careful selection of imported co-digestates and management of digester effluent is required to

  10. Radium mass balance in the Dead Sea - time scale and quantification of circulation in the aquifer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kiro, Y.; Weinstein, Y.; Starinsky, A.; Yechieli, Y.

    2013-12-01

    The Dead Sea hypersaline water and the adjacent groundwater are highly enriched in radium, whose concentration is 2-3 orders of magnitude higher than in the ocean. The combination of carbonate rocks, from which radium is extracted, and the high solubility of radium in hypersaline water contribute these high activities, especially of 226Ra. Being a terminal lake, the Dead Sea concentrates radium mainly the long-lived (t1/2=1600 y) 226Ra isotope, from the surrounding water and groundwater sources. Due to the differences in the isotope half-lives, the shorter-lived isotopes (228Ra, 224Ra and 223Ra) are enriched in the groundwater compared with the lake while 226Ra is enriched both in the lake water (~145 dpm/L) and in the groundwater (up to 500 dpm/L). The 228Ra/226Ra activity ratio in the groundwater on the western shore of the Dead Sea is significantly low (0.03-0.05), representing the high U/Th ratio in the carbonate rocks and sediments around the Dead Sea. However, the high 222Rn activities (up to 60,000 dpm/L) in the groundwater could not be explained by the U content of the carbonate rocks and probably indicate mobility of 226Ra along flow paths where salinity or temperature changes. During Dead Sea water circulation in the aquifer 226Ra is removed from the water by barite precipitation, while 228Ra is added to the water due to recoil from the aquifer sediments. The buildup rate of 228Ra in the circulated Dead Sea water was used for quantifying the circulation rate and the age of the groundwater, while the mass balances of both 228Ra and 226Ra in the lake were used for the quantification of the circulation volume. The rate of Dead Sea water inflow into the aquifer was found to be a few m/y and the annual volume of Dead Sea water circulating in the aquifer is ~320 m3/y. The opposite behavior of 226Ra and 228Ra during the circulation constrains the error on the calculated velocity to be relatively low (ς=×20) and allows the estimation of other sources and sinks

  11. Moonlight Drives Ocean-Scale Mass Vertical Migration of Zooplankton during the Arctic Winter.

    PubMed

    Last, Kim S; Hobbs, Laura; Berge, Jørgen; Brierley, Andrew S; Cottier, Finlo

    2016-01-25

    In extreme high-latitude marine environments that are without solar illumination in winter, light-mediated patterns of biological migration have historically been considered non-existent [1]. However, diel vertical migration (DVM) of zooplankton has been shown to occur even during the darkest part of the polar night, when illumination levels are exceptionally low [2, 3]. This paradox is, as yet, unexplained. Here, we present evidence of an unexpected uniform behavior across the entire Arctic, in fjord, shelf, slope and open sea, where vertical migrations of zooplankton are driven by lunar illumination. A shift from solar-day (24-hr period) to lunar-day (24.8-hr period) vertical migration takes place in winter when the moon rises above the horizon. Further, mass sinking of zooplankton from the surface waters and accumulation at a depth of ∼50 m occurs every 29.5 days in winter, coincident with the periods of full moon. Moonlight may enable predation of zooplankton by carnivorous zooplankters, fish, and birds now known to feed during the polar night [4]. Although primary production is almost nil at this time, lunar vertical migration (LVM) may facilitate monthly pulses of carbon remineralization, as they occur continuously in illuminated mesopelagic systems [5], due to community respiration of carnivorous and detritivorous zooplankton. The extent of LVM during the winter suggests that the behavior is highly conserved and adaptive and therefore needs to be considered as "baseline" zooplankton activity in a changing Arctic ocean [6-9]. VIDEO ABSTRACT. PMID:26774785

  12. Planetesimal Initial Mass Functions and Creation Rates Under Turbulent Concentration Using Scale-Dependent Cascades

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cuzzi, J. N.; Hartlep, T.; Estrada, P.

    2016-01-01

    The initial accretion of primitive bodies from freely-floating nebula particles remains problematic. Traditional growth-by-sticking models in turbulent nebulae encounter a "meter-size barrier" due to both drift and destruction, or even a millimeter-to-centimeter-size "bouncing" barrier. Recent suggestions have been made that some "lucky" particles might be able to outgrow the collision and/or drift barriers, and lead to so-called "streaming instabilities" or SI. However, new full models of growth by sticking in the presence of radial drift show that lucky particles (the largest particles, at the tail of the size distribution, that grow beyond the nominal fragmentation and drift barriers) are far too rare to lead to any collective effects such as streaming or gravitational instabilities. Thus we need to focus on typical radii gamma(sub M) which contain most of the mass. Our models of disks with weak-to-moderate turbulence, which include all the most recent experimental constraints on collisional growth, erosion, bouncing, and fragmentation, as well as radial drift, find that growth stalls quite generally at sizes gamma(sub M) which are too small to settle into layers which are dense enough for any collective effects (streaming or gravitational instabilities) to arise. Even if growth by sticking could somehow breach the nominal barriers (perhaps if the actual sticking or strength is larger than current estimates for pure ice or pure silicate, with specific grain sizes), turbulent nebulae present subsequent formidable obstacles to incremental growth through the 1-10km size range. On the other hand, non-turbulent nebulae alpha is less than 10(Sup -4).

  13. 3D coupled heat and mass transfer processes at the scale of sedimentary basisn

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cacace, M.; Scheck-Wenderoth, M.; Kaiser, B. O.

    2014-12-01

    suggest that hydrogeological windows act as preferential domains of hydraulic interconnectivity between the different aquifers at depth, and enable vigorous heat and mass transport which causes a mixing of warm and saline groundwater with cold and less saline groundwater within both aquifers.

  14. The Impact of In-situ Chemical Oxidation on Contaminant Mass Discharge: Linking Source-Zone and Plume-Scale Characterizations of Remediation Performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brusseau, M. L.; Carroll, K. C.; Baker, J. B.; Allen, T.; DiGuiseppi, W.; Hatton, J.; Morrison, C.; Russo, A. E.; Berkompas, J. L.

    2011-12-01

    A large-scale permanganate-based in-situ chemical oxidation (ISCO) effort has been conducted over the past ten years at a federal Superfund site in Tucson, AZ, for which trichloroethene (TCE) is the primary contaminant of concern. Remediation performance was assessed by examining the impact of treatment on contaminant mass discharge, an approach that has been used for only a very few prior ISCO projects. Contaminant mass discharge tests were conducted before and after permanganate injection to measure the impact at the source-zone scale. The results indicate that ISCO caused a significant reduction in mass discharge (approximately 75%). The standard approach of characterizing discharge at the source-zone scale was supplemented with additional characterization at the plume scale, which was evaluated by examining the change in contaminant mass discharge associated with the pump-and-treat system. The integrated contaminant mass discharge decreased by approximately 70%, consistent with the source-zone-scale measurements. The integrated mass discharge rebounded from 0.1 to 0.2 Kg/d within one year after cessation of permanganate injections, after which it has been stable for several years. Collection of the integrated contaminant mass discharge data throughout the ISCO treatment period provided a high-resolution, real-time analysis of the site-wide impact of ISCO, thereby linking source-zone remediation to impacts on overall risk. The results indicate that ISCO was successful in reducing contaminant mass discharge at this site, which comprises a highly heterogeneous subsurface environment. Analysis of TCE sediment concentration data for core material collected before and after ISCO supports the hypothesis that the remaining mass discharge is associated in part with poorly-accessible contaminant mass residing within lower-permeability zones.

  15. Millimeter Scale.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harvill, Leo M.

    This absolute scale contains nine times, each of which consists of a 100 millimeter vertical line with small division marks every 25 millimeters with the words "high" at the top and "low" at the bottom of the line. Above each of the vertical lines is a word or phrase. For the second grade scale these words are: arithmetic, counting, adding,…

  16. Evaluation of the Absolute Regional Temperature Potential

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shindell, D. T.

    2012-01-01

    The Absolute Regional Temperature Potential (ARTP) is one of the few climate metrics that provides estimates of impacts at a sub-global scale. The ARTP presented here gives the time-dependent temperature response in four latitude bands (90-28degS, 28degS-28degN, 28-60degN and 60-90degN) as a function of emissions based on the forcing in those bands caused by the emissions. It is based on a large set of simulations performed with a single atmosphere-ocean climate model to derive regional forcing/response relationships. Here I evaluate the robustness of those relationships using the forcing/response portion of the ARTP to estimate regional temperature responses to the historic aerosol forcing in three independent climate models. These ARTP results are in good accord with the actual responses in those models. Nearly all ARTP estimates fall within +/-20%of the actual responses, though there are some exceptions for 90-28degS and the Arctic, and in the latter the ARTP may vary with forcing agent. However, for the tropics and the Northern Hemisphere mid-latitudes in particular, the +/-20% range appears to be roughly consistent with the 95% confidence interval. Land areas within these two bands respond 39-45% and 9-39% more than the latitude band as a whole. The ARTP, presented here in a slightly revised form, thus appears to provide a relatively robust estimate for the responses of large-scale latitude bands and land areas within those bands to inhomogeneous radiative forcing and thus potentially to emissions as well. Hence this metric could allow rapid evaluation of the effects of emissions policies at a finer scale than global metrics without requiring use of a full climate model.

  17. Measurement of Absolute Carbon Isotope Ratios: Mechanisms and Implications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vogel, J. S.; Giacomo, J. A.; Dueker, S. R.

    2012-12-01

    An accelerator mass spectrometer (AMS) produced absolute isotope ratio measurements for 14C/13C as tested against >500 samples of NIST SRM-4990-C (OxII 14C standard) to an accuracy of 2.2±0.6‰ over a period of one year with measurements made to 1% counting statistics. The spectrometer is not maximized for 13C/12C, but measured ∂13C to 0.4±0.1‰ accuracy, with known methods for improvement. An AMS produces elemental anions from a sputter ion source and includes a charge-changing collision in a gas cell to isolate the rare 14C from the common isotopes and molecular isobars. Both these physical processes have been modeled to determine the parameters providing such absolute measures. Neutral resonant ionization in a cesium plasma produces mass-independent ionization, while velocity dependent charge-state distributions in gas collisions produce relative ion beam intensities that are linear in mass at specific collision energies. The mechanisms are not specific to carbon isotopes, but stand alone absolute IRMS (AIR-MS) instruments have not yet been made. Aside from the obvious applications in metrology, AIR-MS is particularly valuable in coupled separatory MS because no internal or external standards are required. Sample definition processes can be compared, even if no exact standard reference sample exists. Isotope dilution measurements do not require standards matching the dilution end-points and can be made over an extended, even extrapolated, range.

  18. Scale

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schaffhauser, Dian

    2009-01-01

    The common approach to scaling, according to Christopher Dede, a professor of learning technologies at the Harvard Graduate School of Education, is to jump in and say, "Let's go out and find more money, recruit more participants, hire more people. Let's just keep doing the same thing, bigger and bigger." That, he observes, "tends to fail, and fail…

  19. Large-scale mass spectrometry-based analysis of Euplotes octocarinatus supports the high frequency of +1 programmed ribosomal frameshift.

    PubMed

    Wang, Ruanlin; Zhang, Zhiyun; Du, Jun; Fu, Yuejun; Liang, Aihua

    2016-01-01

    Programmed ribosomal frameshifting (PRF) is commonly used to express many viral and some cellular genes. We conducted a genome-wide investigation of +1 PRF in ciliate Euplotes octocarinatus through genome and transcriptome sequencing and our results demonstrated that approximately 11.4% of genes require +1 PRF to produce complete gene products. While nucleic acid-based evidence for candidate genes with +1 PRF is strong, only very limited information is available at protein levels to date. In this study, E. octocarinatus was subjected to large-scale mass spectrometry-based analysis to verify the high frequency of +1 PRF and 226 +1 PRF gene products were identified. Based on the amino acid sequences of the peptides spanning the frameshift sites, typical frameshift motif AAA-UAR for +1 PRF in Euplotes was identified. Our data in this study provide very useful insight into the understanding of the molecular mechanism of +1 PRF. PMID:27597422

  20. Large-scale freestanding nanometer-thick graphite pellicles for mass production of nanodevices beyond 10 nm.

    PubMed

    Kim, Seul-Gi; Shin, Dong-Wook; Kim, Taesung; Kim, Sooyoung; Lee, Jung Hun; Lee, Chang Gu; Yang, Cheol-Woong; Lee, Sungjoo; Cho, Sang Jin; Jeon, Hwan Chul; Kim, Mun Ja; Kim, Byung-Gook; Yoo, Ji-Beom

    2015-09-21

    Extreme ultraviolet lithography (EUVL) has received much attention in the semiconductor industry as a promising candidate to extend dimensional scaling beyond 10 nm. We present a new pellicle material, nanometer-thick graphite film (NGF), which shows an extreme ultraviolet (EUV) transmission of 92% at a thickness of 18 nm. The maximum temperature induced by laser irradiation (λ = 800 nm) of 9.9 W cm(-2) was 267 °C, due to the high thermal conductivity of the NGF. The freestanding NGF was found to be chemically stable during annealing at 500 °C in a hydrogen environment. A 50 × 50 mm large area freestanding NGF was fabricated using the wet and dry transfer (WaDT) method. The NGF can be used as an EUVL pellicle for the mass production of nanodevices beyond 10 nm. PMID:26159369

  1. Large-scale mass spectrometry-based analysis of Euplotes octocarinatus supports the high frequency of +1 programmed ribosomal frameshift

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Ruanlin; Zhang, Zhiyun; Du, Jun; Fu, Yuejun; Liang, Aihua

    2016-01-01

    Programmed ribosomal frameshifting (PRF) is commonly used to express many viral and some cellular genes. We conducted a genome-wide investigation of +1 PRF in ciliate Euplotes octocarinatus through genome and transcriptome sequencing and our results demonstrated that approximately 11.4% of genes require +1 PRF to produce complete gene products. While nucleic acid-based evidence for candidate genes with +1 PRF is strong, only very limited information is available at protein levels to date. In this study, E. octocarinatus was subjected to large-scale mass spectrometry-based analysis to verify the high frequency of +1 PRF and 226 +1 PRF gene products were identified. Based on the amino acid sequences of the peptides spanning the frameshift sites, typical frameshift motif AAA-UAR for +1 PRF in Euplotes was identified. Our data in this study provide very useful insight into the understanding of the molecular mechanism of +1 PRF. PMID:27597422

  2. Large-scale mass spectrometry-based analysis of Euplotes octocarinatus supports the high frequency of +1 programmed ribosomal frameshift.

    PubMed

    Wang, Ruanlin; Zhang, Zhiyun; Du, Jun; Fu, Yuejun; Liang, Aihua

    2016-01-01

    Programmed ribosomal frameshifting (PRF) is commonly used to express many viral and some cellular genes. We conducted a genome-wide investigation of +1 PRF in ciliate Euplotes octocarinatus through genome and transcriptome sequencing and our results demonstrated that approximately 11.4% of genes require +1 PRF to produce complete gene products. While nucleic acid-based evidence for candidate genes with +1 PRF is strong, only very limited information is available at protein levels to date. In this study, E. octocarinatus was subjected to large-scale mass spectrometry-based analysis to verify the high frequency of +1 PRF and 226 +1 PRF gene products were identified. Based on the amino acid sequences of the peptides spanning the frameshift sites, typical frameshift motif AAA-UAR for +1 PRF in Euplotes was identified. Our data in this study provide very useful insight into the understanding of the molecular mechanism of +1 PRF.

  3. The planning, execution, and evaluation of a mass prophylaxis full-scale exercise in cook county, IL.

    PubMed

    Kilianski, Andy; O'Rourke, Amy T; Carlson, Crystal L; Parikh, Shannon M; Shipman-Amuwo, Frankie

    2014-01-01

    Increasing threats of bioterrorism and the emergence of novel disease agents, including the recent international outbreaks of H7N9 influenza and MERS-CoV, have stressed the importance and highlighted the need for public health preparedness at local, regional, and national levels. To test plans that were developed for mass prophylaxis scenarios, in April 2013 the Cook Country Department of Public Health (CCDPH) and the Triple Community (TripCom) Medical Reserve Corps (MRC) executed a full-scale mass prophylaxis exercise in response to a simulated anthrax bioterrorism attack. The exercise took place over 2 days and included the TripCom Point-of-Dispensing (POD) Management Team, volunteers from the TripCom MRC, and neighboring public health departments and MRCs. Individuals from the community volunteered as actors during the exercise, while local municipal, police, and fire personnel coordinated their responses to create the most realistic simulation possible. The exercise was designed to test the capacity of TripCom and CCDPH to implement plans for organizing municipal staff and volunteers to efficiently distribute prophylaxis to the community. Based on results from POD clinic flow, accuracy of prophylaxis distribution, and observations from evaluators, the exercise was successful in demonstrating areas that were operationally efficient as well as identifying areas that can be improved on. These include improvements to the just-in-time training for POD staff, the health screening and consent forms handed out to patients, the physical setup of the POD, and the command structure and communication for the management of POD operations. This article demonstrates the need for full-scale exercises and identifies gaps in POD planning that can be integrated into future plans, exercises, and emergency response.

  4. The planning, execution, and evaluation of a mass prophylaxis full-scale exercise in cook county, IL.

    PubMed

    Kilianski, Andy; O'Rourke, Amy T; Carlson, Crystal L; Parikh, Shannon M; Shipman-Amuwo, Frankie

    2014-01-01

    Increasing threats of bioterrorism and the emergence of novel disease agents, including the recent international outbreaks of H7N9 influenza and MERS-CoV, have stressed the importance and highlighted the need for public health preparedness at local, regional, and national levels. To test plans that were developed for mass prophylaxis scenarios, in April 2013 the Cook Country Department of Public Health (CCDPH) and the Triple Community (TripCom) Medical Reserve Corps (MRC) executed a full-scale mass prophylaxis exercise in response to a simulated anthrax bioterrorism attack. The exercise took place over 2 days and included the TripCom Point-of-Dispensing (POD) Management Team, volunteers from the TripCom MRC, and neighboring public health departments and MRCs. Individuals from the community volunteered as actors during the exercise, while local municipal, police, and fire personnel coordinated their responses to create the most realistic simulation possible. The exercise was designed to test the capacity of TripCom and CCDPH to implement plans for organizing municipal staff and volunteers to efficiently distribute prophylaxis to the community. Based on results from POD clinic flow, accuracy of prophylaxis distribution, and observations from evaluators, the exercise was successful in demonstrating areas that were operationally efficient as well as identifying areas that can be improved on. These include improvements to the just-in-time training for POD staff, the health screening and consent forms handed out to patients, the physical setup of the POD, and the command structure and communication for the management of POD operations. This article demonstrates the need for full-scale exercises and identifies gaps in POD planning that can be integrated into future plans, exercises, and emergency response. PMID:24697783

  5. The hyperfine structure in the rotational spectra of D{sub 2}{sup 17}O and HD{sup 17}O: Confirmation of the absolute nuclear magnetic shielding scale for oxygen

    SciTech Connect

    Puzzarini, Cristina Cazzoli, Gabriele; Harding, Michael E.; Vázquez, Juana; Gauss, Jürgen

    2015-03-28

    Guided by theoretical predictions, the hyperfine structures of the rotational spectra of mono- and bideuterated-water containing {sup 17}O have been experimentally investigated. To reach sub-Doppler resolution, required to resolve the hyperfine structure due to deuterium quadrupole coupling as well as to spin-rotation (SR) and dipolar spin-spin couplings, the Lamb-dip technique has been employed. The experimental investigation and in particular, the spectral analysis have been supported by high-level quantum-chemical computations employing coupled-cluster techniques and, for the first time, a complete experimental determination of the hyperfine parameters involved was possible. The experimentally determined {sup 17}O spin-rotation constants of D{sub 2}{sup 17}O and HD{sup 17}O were used to derive the paramagnetic part of the corresponding nuclear magnetic shielding constants. Together with the computed diamagnetic contributions as well as the vibrational and temperature corrections, the latter constants have been employed to confirm the oxygen nuclear magnetic shielding scale, recently established on the basis of spin-rotation data for H{sub 2}{sup 17}O [Puzzarini et al., J. Chem. Phys. 131, 234304 (2009)].

  6. Neutrino mass without cosmic variance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    LoVerde, Marilena

    2016-05-01

    Measuring the absolute scale of the neutrino masses is one of the most exciting opportunities available with near-term cosmological data sets. Two quantities that are sensitive to neutrino mass, scale-dependent halo bias b (k ) and the linear growth parameter f (k ) inferred from redshift-space distortions, can be measured without cosmic variance. Unlike the amplitude of the matter power spectrum, which always has a finite error, the error on b (k ) and f (k ) continues to decrease as the number density of tracers increases. This paper presents forecasts for statistics of galaxy and lensing fields that are sensitive to neutrino mass via b (k ) and f (k ). The constraints on neutrino mass from the auto- and cross-power spectra of spectroscopic and photometric galaxy samples are weakened by scale-dependent bias unless a very high density of tracers is available. In the high-density limit, using multiple tracers allows cosmic variance to be beaten, and the forecasted errors on neutrino mass shrink dramatically. In practice, beating the cosmic-variance errors on neutrino mass with b (k ) will be a challenge, but this signal is nevertheless a new probe of neutrino effects on structure formation that is interesting in its own right.

  7. Characterization and mass balance of dioxin from a large-scale municipal solid waste incinerator in China.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Gang; Hai, Jing; Cheng, Jiang

    2012-06-01

    The input and output samples from existing large-scale municipal solid waste incinerator (MSWI) were collected and analyzed for polychlorinated dibenzo-р-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs) in this study, aiming to evaluate PCDD/F characteristic and the corresponding mass balance through the whole system. The grate-type MSWI is equipped with semi-dry scrubber, activated carbon injection, and bag filter as air pollutant control devices (APCDs). Results showed that on the output side, the stack gas, bottom ash and fly ash presented their mean dioxin levels of 0.078 ng I-TEQ/Nm(3), 12.94 ng I-TEQ/kg and 858 ng I-TEQ/kg, respectively, and showed large similarities in congener profiles. Instead, on the input side, the municipal solid waste (MSW) presented a mean dioxin level of 15.56 ng I-TEQ/kg and a remarkable difference in congener profiles compared with those of the output. The dioxin mass balance demonstrated that the annual dioxin input value was around 5.38 g I-TEQ/yr, lower than the total output value (7.62 g I-TEQ/yr), signifying a positive dioxin balance of about 2.25 g I-TEQ/yr. PMID:22386986

  8. Large-scale mass spectrometry imaging investigation of consequences of cortical spreading depression in a transgenic mouse model of migraine.

    PubMed

    Carreira, Ricardo J; Shyti, Reinald; Balluff, Benjamin; Abdelmoula, Walid M; van Heiningen, Sandra H; van Zeijl, Rene J; Dijkstra, Jouke; Ferrari, Michel D; Tolner, Else A; McDonnell, Liam A; van den Maagdenberg, Arn M J M

    2015-06-01

    Cortical spreading depression (CSD) is the electrophysiological correlate of migraine aura. Transgenic mice carrying the R192Q missense mutation in the Cacna1a gene, which in patients causes familial hemiplegic migraine type 1 (FHM1), exhibit increased propensity to CSD. Herein, mass spectrometry imaging (MSI) was applied for the first time to an animal cohort of transgenic and wild type mice to study the biomolecular changes following CSD in the brain. Ninety-six coronal brain sections from 32 mice were analyzed by MALDI-MSI. All MSI datasets were registered to the Allen Brain Atlas reference atlas of the mouse brain so that the molecular signatures of distinct brain regions could be compared. A number of metabolites and peptides showed substantial changes in the brain associated with CSD. Among those, different mass spectral features showed significant (t-test, P < 0.05) changes in the cortex, 146 and 377 Da, and in the thalamus, 1820 and 1834 Da, of the CSD-affected hemisphere of FHM1 R192Q mice. Our findings reveal CSD- and genotype-specific molecular changes in the brain of FHM1 transgenic mice that may further our understanding about the role of CSD in migraine pathophysiology. The results also demonstrate the utility of aligning MSI datasets to a common reference atlas for large-scale MSI investigations.

  9. Monitoring the variations of the oxygen transfer rate in a full scale membrane bioreactor using daily mass balances.

    PubMed

    Racault, Y; Stricker, A-E; Husson, A; Gillot, S

    2011-01-01

    Oxygen transfer in biological wastewater treatment processes with high sludge concentration, such as membrane bioreactor (MBR), is an important issue. The variation of alpha-factor versus mixed liquor suspended solids (MLSS) concentration was investigated in a full scale MBR plant under process conditions, using mass balances. Exhaustive data from the Supervisory Control And Data Acquisition (SCADA) and from additional online sensors (COD, DO, MLSS) were used to calculate the daily oxygen consumption (OC) using a non-steady state mass balance for COD and total N on a 24-h basis. To close the oxygen balance, OC has to match the total oxygen transfer rate (OTRtot) of the system, which is provided by fine bubble (FB) diffusers in the aeration tank and coarse bubbles (CB) in separate membrane tanks. First assessing OTR(CB) then closing the balance OC = OTRtot allowed to calculate OTR(FB) and to fit an exponential relationship between OTR(FB) and MLSS. A comparison of the alpha-factor obtained by this balance method and by direct measurements with the off-gas method on the same plant is presented and discussed. PMID:22049761

  10. Large-Scale Mass Spectrometry Imaging Investigation of Consequences of Cortical Spreading Depression in a Transgenic Mouse Model of Migraine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carreira, Ricardo J.; Shyti, Reinald; Balluff, Benjamin; Abdelmoula, Walid M.; van Heiningen, Sandra H.; van Zeijl, Rene J.; Dijkstra, Jouke; Ferrari, Michel D.; Tolner, Else A.; McDonnell, Liam A.; van den Maagdenberg, Arn M. J. M.

    2015-06-01

    Cortical spreading depression (CSD) is the electrophysiological correlate of migraine aura. Transgenic mice carrying the R192Q missense mutation in the Cacna1a gene, which in patients causes familial hemiplegic migraine type 1 (FHM1), exhibit increased propensity to CSD. Herein, mass spectrometry imaging (MSI) was applied for the first time to an animal cohort of transgenic and wild type mice to study the biomolecular changes following CSD in the brain. Ninety-six coronal brain sections from 32 mice were analyzed by MALDI-MSI. All MSI datasets were registered to the Allen Brain Atlas reference atlas of the mouse brain so that the molecular signatures of distinct brain regions could be compared. A number of metabolites and peptides showed substantial changes in the brain associated with CSD. Among those, different mass spectral features showed significant ( t-test, P < 0.05) changes in the cortex, 146 and 377 Da, and in the thalamus, 1820 and 1834 Da, of the CSD-affected hemisphere of FHM1 R192Q mice. Our findings reveal CSD- and genotype-specific molecular changes in the brain of FHM1 transgenic mice that may further our understanding about the role of CSD in migraine pathophysiology. The results also demonstrate the utility of aligning MSI datasets to a common reference atlas for large-scale MSI investigations.

  11. Psychophysical similarity measure based on multi-dimensional scaling for retrieval of similar images of breast masses on mammograms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nishimura, Kohei; Muramatsu, Chisako; Oiwa, Mikinao; Shiraiwa, Misaki; Endo, Tokiko; Doi, Kunio; Fujita, Hiroshi

    2013-02-01

    For retrieving reference images which may be useful to radiologists in their diagnosis, it is necessary to determine a reliable similarity measure which would agree with radiologists' subjective impression. In this study, we propose a new similarity measure for retrieval of similar images, which may assist radiologists in the distinction between benign and malignant masses on mammograms, and investigated its usefulness. In our previous study, to take into account the subjective impression, the psychophysical similarity measure was determined by use of an artificial neural network (ANN), which was employed to learn the relationship between radiologists' subjective similarity ratings and image features. In this study, we propose a psychophysical similarity measure based on multi-dimensional scaling (MDS) in order to improve the accuracy in retrieval of similar images. Twenty-seven images of masses, 3 each from 9 different pathologic groups, were selected, and the subjective similarity ratings for all possible 351 pairs were determined by 8 expert physicians. MDS was applied using the average subjective ratings, and the relationship between each output axis and image features was modeled by the ANN. The MDS-based psychophysical measures were determined by the distance in the modeled space. With a leave-one-out test method, the conventional psychophysical similarity measure was moderately correlated with subjective similarity ratings (r=0.68), whereas the psychophysical measure based on MDS was highly correlated (r=0.81). The result indicates that a psychophysical similarity measure based on MDS would be useful in the retrieval of similar images.

  12. Cryo-Tracker mass gauging system testing in a large-scale expendable launch vehicle LOX tank simulator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schieb, Daniel J.; Haberbusch, Mark S.; Yeckley, Alexander J.

    2006-05-01

    Sierra Lobo tested its patented Cryo-Tracker(R) probe and Mass Gauging System in a large scale Expendable Launch Vehicle (ELV) liquid oxygen tank simulation for NASA. Typical Liquid Oxygen (LOX) tank operations were simulated at Lockheed Martin's Engineering Propulsion Laboratory in Denver, Colorado. The Cryo-Tracker(R) probe is 33 feet long, the longest built to date. It was mounted in the tank at only two locations, separated by 26 feet. Each test simulated typical Lockheed Martin booster pre-launch tanking operations, including filling the tank with LOX at fill rates typically used at the launch pad, and maintaining the fill level for a period representative of a typical pad hold. The Cryo-Tracker(R) Mass Gauging System was the primary instrument used for monitoring the fill and controlling the topping operations. Each test also simulated a typical flight profile, expelling the LOX at representative pressures and expulsion flow rates. During expulsion, the Cryo-Tracker(R) System served to generate an Engine Cut-Off (ECO) signal. Test objectives were as follows: Cryo-Tracker(R) data will be validated by flight-like propellant instruments currently used in launch vehicles; the probe will survive the harsh environment (which will be documented by a digital video camera) with no loss of signal or structural integrity; the system will successfully measure liquid levels and temperatures under all conditions and calculate propellant mass in real-time; the system will successfully demonstrate its feasibility as a control sensor for LOX filling and topping operations, as well as for engine cut-off. All objectives were met and the test results are presented.

  13. 13C metabolic flux analysis for larger scale cultivation using gas chromatography-combustion-isotope ratio mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Yongbo; Yang, Tae Hoon; Heinzle, Elmar

    2010-07-01

    (13)C-based metabolic flux analysis ((13)CMFA) is limited to smaller scale experiments due to very high costs of labeled substrates. We measured (13)C enrichment in proteinogenic amino acid hydrolyzates using gas chromatography-combustion-isotope ratio mass spectrometry (GC-C-IRMS) from a series of parallel batch cultivations of Corynebacterium glutamicum utilizing mixtures of natural glucose and [1-(13)C] glucose, containing 0%, 0.5%, 1%, 2%, and 10% [1-(13)C] glucose. Decreasing the [1-(13)C] glucose content, kinetic isotope effects played an increasing role but could be corrected. From the corrected (13)C enrichments in vivo fluxes in the central metabolism were determined by numerical optimization. The obtained flux distribution was very similar to those obtained from parallel labeling experiments using conventional high labeling GC-MS method and to published results. The GC-C-IRMS-based method involving low labeling degree of expensive tracer substrate, e.g. 1%, is well suited for larger laboratory and industrial pilot scale fermentations.

  14. More about neutron Majorana mass from exotic instantons: An alternative mechanism in low-scale string theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Addazi, Andrea

    2016-06-01

    We discuss an alternative for baryon-violating six quarks transition in the context of low scale string theory. In particular, with MS = 10-103 TeV, such a transition can be mediated by two color-triplets through a quartic coupling with down-quarks, generated by exotic instantons, in a calculable and controllable way. We show how flavor-changing neutral currents (FCNCs) limits on color-triplet mass are well compatible with n ‑n¯ oscillation ones. If an n ‑n¯ transition was found, this would be an indirect hint for our model. This would strongly motivate searches for direct channels in proton-proton colliders. In fact, our model can be directly tested in an experimentally challenging 100-1000 TeV proton-proton collider, searching for our desired color-triplet states and an evidence for exotic instantons resonances, in addition to stringy Regge resonances, anomalous Z‧-bosons and gauged megaxion. In particular, our scenario can be related to the 750 GeV diphoton hint identifying it with the gauged megaxion dual to the B-field. On the other hand, this scenario is compatible with TeV-ish color triplets visible at large hadron collider (LHC) and with 1-10 TeV string scale, i.e. stringy resonances at LHC.

  15. More about neutron Majorana mass from exotic instantons: An alternative mechanism in low-scale string theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Addazi, Andrea

    2016-06-01

    We discuss an alternative for baryon-violating six quarks transition in the context of low scale string theory. In particular, with MS = 10-103 TeV, such a transition can be mediated by two color-triplets through a quartic coupling with down-quarks, generated by exotic instantons, in a calculable and controllable way. We show how flavor-changing neutral currents (FCNCs) limits on color-triplet mass are well compatible with n -n¯ oscillation ones. If an n -n¯ transition was found, this would be an indirect hint for our model. This would strongly motivate searches for direct channels in proton-proton colliders. In fact, our model can be directly tested in an experimentally challenging 100-1000 TeV proton-proton collider, searching for our desired color-triplet states and an evidence for exotic instantons resonances, in addition to stringy Regge resonances, anomalous Z‧-bosons and gauged megaxion. In particular, our scenario can be related to the 750 GeV diphoton hint identifying it with the gauged megaxion dual to the B-field. On the other hand, this scenario is compatible with TeV-ish color triplets visible at large hadron collider (LHC) and with 1-10 TeV string scale, i.e. stringy resonances at LHC.

  16. Exploiting the multiplexing capabilities of tandem mass tags for high-throughput estimation of cellular protein abundances by mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Ahrné, Erik; Martinez-Segura, Amalia; Syed, Afzal Pasha; Vina-Vilaseca, Arnau; Gruber, Andreas J; Marguerat, Samuel; Schmidt, Alexander

    2015-09-01

    The generation of dynamic models of biological processes critically depends on the determination of precise cellular concentrations of biomolecules. Measurements of system-wide absolute protein levels are particularly valuable information in systems biology. Recently, mass spectrometry based proteomics approaches have been developed to estimate protein concentrations on a proteome-wide scale. However, for very complex proteomes, fractionation steps are required, increasing samples number and instrument analysis time. As a result, the number of full proteomes that can be routinely analyzed is limited. Here we combined absolute quantification strategies with the multiplexing capabilities of isobaric tandem mass tags to determine cellular protein abundances in a high throughput and proteome-wide scale even for highly complex biological systems, such as a whole human cell line. We generated two independent data sets to demonstrate the power of the approach regarding sample throughput, dynamic range, quantitative precision and accuracy as well as proteome coverage in comparison to existing mass spectrometry based strategies.

  17. Absolute Income, Relative Income, and Happiness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ball, Richard; Chernova, Kateryna

    2008-01-01

    This paper uses data from the World Values Survey to investigate how an individual's self-reported happiness is related to (i) the level of her income in absolute terms, and (ii) the level of her income relative to other people in her country. The main findings are that (i) both absolute and relative income are positively and significantly…

  18. Investigating Absolute Value: A Real World Application

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kidd, Margaret; Pagni, David

    2009-01-01

    Making connections between various representations is important in mathematics. In this article, the authors discuss the numeric, algebraic, and graphical representations of sums of absolute values of linear functions. The initial explanations are accessible to all students who have experience graphing and who understand that absolute value simply…

  19. Preschoolers' Success at Coding Absolute Size Values.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Russell, James

    1980-01-01

    Forty-five 2-year-old and forty-five 3-year-old children coded relative and absolute sizes using 1.5-inch, 6-inch, and 18-inch cardboard squares. Results indicate that absolute coding is possible for children of this age. (Author/RH)

  20. Introducing the Mean Absolute Deviation "Effect" Size

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gorard, Stephen

    2015-01-01

    This paper revisits the use of effect sizes in the analysis of experimental and similar results, and reminds readers of the relative advantages of the mean absolute deviation as a measure of variation, as opposed to the more complex standard deviation. The mean absolute deviation is easier to use and understand, and more tolerant of extreme…

  1. Monolithically integrated absolute frequency comb laser system

    DOEpatents

    Wanke, Michael C.

    2016-07-12

    Rather than down-convert optical frequencies, a QCL laser system directly generates a THz frequency comb in a compact monolithically integrated chip that can be locked to an absolute frequency without the need of a frequency-comb synthesizer. The monolithic, absolute frequency comb can provide a THz frequency reference and tool for high-resolution broad band spectroscopy.

  2. Estimating the absolute wealth of households

    PubMed Central

    Gerkey, Drew; Hadley, Craig

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Objective To estimate the absolute wealth of households using data from demographic and health surveys. Methods We developed a new metric, the absolute wealth estimate, based on the rank of each surveyed household according to its material assets and the assumed shape of the distribution of wealth among surveyed households. Using data from 156 demographic and health surveys in 66 countries, we calculated absolute wealth estimates for households. We validated the method by comparing the proportion of households defined as poor using our estimates with published World Bank poverty headcounts. We also compared the accuracy of absolute versus relative wealth estimates for the prediction of anthropometric measures. Findings The median absolute wealth estimates of 1 403 186 households were 2056 international dollars per capita (interquartile range: 723–6103). The proportion of poor households based on absolute wealth estimates were strongly correlated with World Bank estimates of populations living on less than 2.00 United States dollars per capita per day (R2 = 0.84). Absolute wealth estimates were better predictors of anthropometric measures than relative wealth indexes. Conclusion Absolute wealth estimates provide new opportunities for comparative research to assess the effects of economic resources on health and human capital, as well as the long-term health consequences of economic change and inequality. PMID:26170506

  3. Absolute optical metrology : nanometers to kilometers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dubovitsky, Serge; Lay, O. P.; Peters, R. D.; Liebe, C. C.

    2005-01-01

    We provide and overview of the developments in the field of high-accuracy absolute optical metrology with emphasis on space-based applications. Specific work on the Modulation Sideband Technology for Absolute Ranging (MSTAR) sensor is described along with novel applications of the sensor.

  4. Large-scale inhomogeneities in solutions of low molar mass compounds and mixtures of liquids: supramolecular structures or nanobubbles?

    PubMed

    Sedlák, Marián; Rak, Dmytro

    2013-02-28

    In textbooks, undersaturated solutions of low molar mass compounds and mixtures of freely miscible liquids are considered as homogeneous at larger length scales exceeding appreciably dimensions of individual molecules. However, growing experimental evidence reveals that it is not the case. Large-scale structures with sizes on the order of 100 nm are present in solutions and mixtures used in everyday life and research practice, especially in aqueous systems. These mesoscale inhomogeneities are long-lived, and (relatively slow) kinetics of their formation can be monitored upon mixing the components. Nevertheless, the nature of these structures and mechanisms behind their formation are not clear yet. Since it was previously suggested that these can be nanobubbles stabilized by adsorbed solute at the gas/solvent interface, we devote the current study to addressing this question. Static and dynamic light scattering was used to investigate solutions and mixtures prepared at ordinary conditions (equilibrated with air at 1 atm), prepared with degassed solvent, and solutions and mixtures degassed after formation of large structures. The behavior of large structures in strong gravitational centrifugal fields was also investigated. Systems from various categories were chosen for this study: aqueous solutions of an inorganic ionic compound (MgSO4), organic ionic compound (citric acid), uncharged organic compound (urea), and a mixture of water with organic solvent freely miscible with water (tert-butyl alcohol). Obtained results show that these structures are not nanobubbles in all cases. Visualization of large-scale structures via nanoparticle tracking analysis is presented. NTA results confirm conclusions from our previous light scattering work.

  5. Absolute instability of the Gaussian wake profile

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hultgren, Lennart S.; Aggarwal, Arun K.

    1987-01-01

    Linear parallel-flow stability theory has been used to investigate the effect of viscosity on the local absolute instability of a family of wake profiles with a Gaussian velocity distribution. The type of local instability, i.e., convective or absolute, is determined by the location of a branch-point singularity with zero group velocity of the complex dispersion relation for the instability waves. The effects of viscosity were found to be weak for values of the wake Reynolds number, based on the center-line velocity defect and the wake half-width, larger than about 400. Absolute instability occurs only for sufficiently large values of the center-line wake defect. The critical value of this parameter increases with decreasing wake Reynolds number, thereby indicating a shrinking region of absolute instability with decreasing wake Reynolds number. If backflow is not allowed, absolute instability does not occur for wake Reynolds numbers smaller than about 38.

  6. A LOCAL BASELINE OF THE BLACK HOLE MASS SCALING RELATIONS FOR ACTIVE GALAXIES. I. METHODOLOGY AND RESULTS OF PILOT STUDY

    SciTech Connect

    Bennert, Vardha Nicola; Auger, Matthew W.; Treu, Tommaso; Woo, Jong-Hak; Malkan, Matthew A. E-mail: mauger@physics.ucsb.edu E-mail: woo@astro.snu.ac.kr

    2011-01-10

    We present high-quality Keck/LRIS long-slit spectroscopy of a pilot sample of 25 local active galaxies selected from the SDSS (0.02 {<=}z {<=} 0.1; M{sub BH}>10{sup 7} M{sub sun}) to study the relations between black hole mass (M{sub BH}) and host-galaxy properties. We determine stellar kinematics of the host galaxy, deriving stellar-velocity dispersion profiles and rotation curves from three spectral regions (including CaH and K, MgIb triplet, and Ca II triplet). In addition, we perform surface photometry on SDSS images, using a newly developed code for joint multi-band analysis. BH masses are estimated from the width of the H{beta} emission line and the host-galaxy free 5100 A active galactic nucleus (AGN) luminosity. Combining results from spectroscopy and imaging allows us to study four M{sub BH} scaling relations: M{sub BH}-{sigma}, M{sub BH}-L{sub sph}, M{sub BH}-M{sub sph,*}, and M{sub BH}-M{sub sph,dyn}. We find the following results. First, stellar-velocity dispersions determined from aperture spectra (e.g., SDSS fiber spectra or unresolved data from distant galaxies) can be biased, depending on aperture size, AGN contamination, and host-galaxy morphology. However, such a bias cannot explain the offset seen in the M{sub BH}-{sigma} relation at higher redshifts. Second, while the CaT region is the cleanest to determine stellar-velocity dispersions, both the MgIb region, corrected for Fe II emission, and the CaHK region, although often swamped by the AGN power-law continuum and emission lines, can give results accurate to within a few percent. Third, the M{sub BH} scaling relations of our pilot sample agree in slope and scatter with those of other local active and inactive galaxies. In the next papers of the series we will quantify the scaling relations, exploiting the full sample of {approx}100 objects.

  7. Convective and large-scale mass flux profiles over tropical oceans determined from synergistic analysis of a suite of satellite observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Masunaga, Hirohiko; Luo, Zhengzhao Johnny

    2016-07-01

    A new, satellite-based methodology is developed to evaluate convective mass flux and large-scale total mass flux. To derive the convective mass flux, candidate profiles of in-cloud vertical velocity are first constructed with a simple plume model under the constraint of ambient sounding and then narrowed down to the solution that matches satellite-derived cloud top buoyancy. Meanwhile, the large-scale total mass flux is provided separately from satellite soundings by a method developed previously. All satellite snapshots are sorted into a composite time series that delineates the evolution of a vigorous and organized convective system. Principal findings are the following. First, convective mass flux is modulated primarily by convective cloud cover, with the intensity of individual convection being less variable over time. Second, convective mass flux dominates the total mass flux only during the early hours of the convective evolution; as convective system matures, a residual mass flux builds up in the mass flux balance that is reminiscent of stratiform dynamics. The method developed in this study is expected to be of unique utility for future observational diagnosis of tropical convective dynamics and for evaluation of global climate model cumulus parameterizations in a global sense.

  8. Scales

    SciTech Connect

    Murray Gibson

    2007-04-27

    Musical scales involve notes that, sounded simultaneously (chords), sound good together. The result is the left brain meeting the right brain — a Pythagorean interval of overlapping notes. This synergy would suggest less difference between the working of the right brain and the left brain than common wisdom would dictate. The pleasing sound of harmony comes when two notes share a common harmonic, meaning that their frequencies are in simple integer ratios, such as 3/2 (G/C) or 5/4 (E/C).

  9. Scales

    ScienceCinema

    Murray Gibson

    2016-07-12

    Musical scales involve notes that, sounded simultaneously (chords), sound good together. The result is the left brain meeting the right brain — a Pythagorean interval of overlapping notes. This synergy would suggest less difference between the working of the right brain and the left brain than common wisdom would dictate. The pleasing sound of harmony comes when two notes share a common harmonic, meaning that their frequencies are in simple integer ratios, such as 3/2 (G/C) or 5/4 (E/C).

  10. Envelope structure on 700 AU scales and the molecular outflows of low-mass young stellar objects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hogerheijde, M. R.; van Dishoeck, E. F.; Blake, G. A.; van Langevelde, H. J.

    1998-01-01

    Aperture synthesis observations of HCO+ J = 1-0, 13CO 1-0, and C18O 1-0 obtained with the Owens Valley Millimeter Array are used to probe the small-scale (5" approximately 700 AU) structure of the molecular envelopes of a well-defined sample of nine embedded low-mass young stellar objects in Taurus. The interferometer results can be understood in terms of: (1) a core of radius approximately or less than 1000 AU surrounding the central star, possibly flattened and rotating; (2) condensations scattered throughout the envelope that may be left over from the inhomogeneous structure of the original cloud core or that may have grown during collapse; and (3) material within the outflow or along the walls of the outflow cavity. Masses of the central cores are 0.001-0.1 M (solar), and agree well with dust continuum measurements. Averaged over the central 20" (3000 AU) region, an HCO+ abundance of 4 x 10(-8) is inferred, with a spread of a factor of 3 between the different sources. Reanalysis of previously presented single-dish data yields an HCO+ abundance of (5.0 +/- 1.7) x 10(-9), which may indicate an average increase by a factor of a few on the smaller scales sampled by the interferometer. Part of this apparent abundance variation could be explained by contributions from extended cloud emission to the single-dish C18O lines, and uncertainties in the assumed excitation temperatures and opacities. The properties of the molecular envelopes and outflows are further investigated through single-dish observations of 12CO J = 6-5, 4-3, and 3-2, 13CO 6-5 and 3-2, and C18O 3-2 and 2-1, obtained with the James Clerk Maxwell and IRAM 30 m telescopes, along with the Caltech Submillimeter Observatory. Ratios of the mid-J CO lines are used to estimate the excitation temperature, with values of 25-80 K derived for the gas near line centre. The outflow wings show a similar range, although Tex is enhanced by a factor of 2-3 in at least two sources. In contrast to the well-studied L1551

  11. Envelope structure on 700 AU scales and the molecular outflows of low-mass young stellar objects.

    PubMed

    Hogerheijde, M R; van Dishoeck, E F; Blake, G A; van Langevelde, H J

    1998-07-20

    Aperture synthesis observations of HCO+ J = 1-0, 13CO 1-0, and C18O 1-0 obtained with the Owens Valley Millimeter Array are used to probe the small-scale (5" approximately 700 AU) structure of the molecular envelopes of a well-defined sample of nine embedded low-mass young stellar objects in Taurus. The interferometer results can be understood in terms of: (1) a core of radius approximately or less than 1000 AU surrounding the central star, possibly flattened and rotating; (2) condensations scattered throughout the envelope that may be left over from the inhomogeneous structure of the original cloud core or that may have grown during collapse; and (3) material within the outflow or along the walls of the outflow cavity. Masses of the central cores are 0.001-0.1 M (solar), and agree well with dust continuum measurements. Averaged over the central 20" (3000 AU) region, an HCO+ abundance of 4 x 10(-8) is inferred, with a spread of a factor of 3 between the different sources. Reanalysis of previously presented single-dish data yields an HCO+ abundance of (5.0 +/- 1.7) x 10(-9), which may indicate an average increase by a factor of a few on the smaller scales sampled by the interferometer. Part of this apparent abundance variation could be explained by contributions from extended cloud emission to the single-dish C18O lines, and uncertainties in the assumed excitation temperatures and opacities. The properties of the molecular envelopes and outflows are further investigated through single-dish observations of 12CO J = 6-5, 4-3, and 3-2, 13CO 6-5 and 3-2, and C18O 3-2 and 2-1, obtained with the James Clerk Maxwell and IRAM 30 m telescopes, along with the Caltech Submillimeter Observatory. Ratios of the mid-J CO lines are used to estimate the excitation temperature, with values of 25-80 K derived for the gas near line centre. The outflow wings show a similar range, although Tex is enhanced by a factor of 2-3 in at least two sources. In contrast to the well-studied L1551

  12. Absolute calibration in the 1750 - 3350 A region

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Strongylis, G. J.; Bohlin, R. C.

    1977-01-01

    The absolute flux measurements in the rocket ultraviolet made by Bohlin, Frimout, and Lillie (BFL) are revised using a more correct treatment of the air extinction that enters the air calibration of their instrument. The absorption by molecular oxygen and ozone, Rayleigh scattering, and extinction by aerosols is tabulated for general use in ultraviolet calibrations performed in air. The revised absolute flux of eta UMa and final fluxes for alpha Lyr and zeta Oph are presented in the 1750-3350 A region. The absolute flux of the star eta UMa is compared to four other independent determinations in the 1200-3400 A region and a maximum difference of 35% is found near 1500 A between the OAO-2 and Apollo 17 fluxes. The rocket measurements of BFL, the ANS and TD-1 satellite data, and the Apollo 17 data are compared to the ultraviolet fluxes from the OAO-2, demonstrating a photometric reproducibility of about + or - 3 percent. Therefore, all four sets of spectrophotometry can be reduced to a common absolute scale.

  13. Absolute parameters of stars in semidetached eclipsing binary systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Budding, E.

    1985-06-01

    A number of questions concerning the absolute parameters of stars in semidetached binary systems are addressed. Consideration is given to: similarities between Algol-type binaries and unevolved detached binaries with respect to the mass-luminosity law; and the single-line classical Algol candidates with known mass functions and photometric solutions for mass ratio. It is shown that the validity of the mass luminosity-law cannot be verified for individual Algol-type binaries though it does hold well on average; and (2), the existence of a definite class of sd-binaries not containing a proportion of significantly undersize types is apparent. The conclusions are found to be in general agreement with the observations of Hall and Neff (1979).

  14. Large-scale variability of wind erosion mass flux rates at Owens Lake 1. Vertical profiles of horizontal mass fluxes of wind-eroded particles with diameter greater than 50 μm

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gillette, Dale A.; Fryrear, D.W.; Xiao, Jing Bing; Stockton, Paul; Ono, Duane; Helm, Paula J.; Gill, Thomas E; Ley, Trevor

    1997-01-01

    A field experiment at Owens (dry) Lake, California, tested whether and how the relative profiles of airborne horizontal mass fluxes for >50-μm wind-eroded particles changed with friction velocity. The horizontal mass flux at almost all measured heights increased proportionally to the cube of friction velocity above an apparent threshold friction velocity for all sediment tested and increased with height except at one coarse-sand site where the relative horizontal mass flux profile did not change with friction velocity. Size distributions for long-time-averaged horizontal mass flux samples showed a saltation layer from the surface to a height between 30 and 50 cm, above which suspended particles dominate. Measurements from a large dust source area on a line parallel to the wind showed that even though the saltation flux reached equilibrium ∼650 m downwind of the starting point of erosion, weakly suspended particles were still input into the atmosphere 1567 m downwind of the starting point; thus the saltating fraction of the total mass flux decreased after 650 m. The scale length difference and ratio of 70/30 suspended mass flux to saltation mass flux at the farthest down wind sampling site confirm that suspended particles are very important for mass budgets in large source areas and that saltation mass flux can be a variable fraction of total horizontal mass flux for soils with a substantial fraction of <100-μm particles.

  15. Temporal trends in West Antarctic surface mass balance: do large scale modes of climate contribute to observed records?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carpenter, M.; Rupper, S.; Williams, J.; Burgener, L. K.; Koenig, L.; Forster, R. R.; Koutnik, M. R.; Skinner, R.; Miege, C.; Brucker, L.

    2013-12-01

    Western Antarctica has been warming significantly at a rate of 0.17× 0.06 degrees C per decade from 1957 to 2006, with the strongest warming in the winter and spring months. Annual accumulation rates in the central WAIS have been decreasing over the same time period, in spite of rising temperatures. This is somewhat unexpected, as saturation vapor pressure increases with increasing temperature. One possible explanation of this observation could be related to synoptic-scale modes of climate, principally the Southern Annular Mode (SAM) and the El Nino Southern Oscillation (ENSO). These modes of climate are known to modify the track and strength of storms seasonally, but the true extent of the influence of these modes on accumulation in central WAIS is not well known. This is due, in part, to sparse instrumental weather data which makes it difficult to understand the spatial and temporal variability of the central WAIS Surface Mass Balance (SMB). Firn cores provide an excellent temporal SMB record that can fill this data gap, but are spatially limited. The spatial limitation of individual cores can be remedied by creating a network of firn cores over a region, which overcomes small scale variability and provides a regional representation of SMB over the temporal length of the firn core records. The 2011 Satellite Era Accumulation Traverse (SEAT) adds nine new firn cores (20 m deep, spanning 2010-1981) to existing cores within the same region of the central WAIS to improve the spatial network of regional SMB measurements. SMB is reconstructed from the firn cores, and are compared to simulated accumulation from five climate models and reanalyses datasets. The combination of firn cores and simulated records are used to investigate wether SAM and ENSO significantly influence SMB in the central WAIS. The new suite of cores show a statistically significant negative trend in accumulation during the past three decades, which is consistent with results from the previous cores

  16. The ghost component of the mass balances at the Critical Zone scale: the chemical reactivity of immobile water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nsir, K.; Mercury, L.; Azaroual, M.; Coquet, Y.

    2014-12-01

    The critical zone (CZ) is characterized by the duality between mass transport processes such as diffusion and flow of gases, fluids, and solids and localized bio-geochemical interactions especially linked to the "immobile" capillary/adsorbed water. Open questions are towards the role of capillarity onto reactive mechanisms: is there a geochemical signature of capillary water that can change the bio-geochemical balance? The research efforts focused on this issue to develop modeling tools integrating capillary effects at the soil-profile or CZ scale. Water suction gains geochemical significance when ranging from 20 to 200 MPa, meaning high tension and low amount of stretched water with its specific thermophysical properties (Mercury and Tardy, 2001; Mercury et al., 2003; 2004; Pettenati et al., 2008). Therefore, our interest is directed to the dry end of the water retention curve (WRC). The recent model from Silva and Grifoll (2007) proposed a full-range soil-water retention functions, extending the description to the adsorbed films down to the monolayer thickness. At this stage, it becomes possible to evaluate the role of both capillary pockets and adsorbed films at all water content in the geochemical dynamics of non-saturated soils. We developed from that point by fitting the WRC not through a continuous porous network, but through a decomposition into two porous domains (immobile/mobile domains), each with its own potential-water content law. This amounts to treat the WRC according to an intrinsic dual porosity scheme, and make easier to involve chemical effects at each potential-water content couple. A simple test simulation is developed with calcite rock kinetically interacting with immobile and mobile water, themselves connected by diffusive and advective gradients in the limits of the immobile-mobile contact area. The reactive transport simulations are run with HP1 (Jacques and Šimůnek, 2005). The mass balance exporting toward groundwater is calculated with

  17. Parasitism alters three power laws of scaling in a metazoan community: Taylor’s law, density-mass allometry, and variance-mass allometry

    PubMed Central

    Lagrue, Clément; Poulin, Robert; Cohen, Joel E.

    2015-01-01

    How do the lifestyles (free-living unparasitized, free-living parasitized, and parasitic) of animal species affect major ecological power-law relationships? We investigated this question in metazoan communities in lakes of Otago, New Zealand. In 13,752 samples comprising 1,037,058 organisms, we found that species of different lifestyles differed in taxonomic distribution and body mass and were well described by three power laws: a spatial Taylor’s law (the spatial variance in population density was a power-law function of the spatial mean population density); density-mass allometry (the spatial mean population density was a power-law function of mean body mass); and variance-mass allometry (the spatial variance in population density was a power-law function of mean body mass). To our knowledge, this constitutes the first empirical confirmation of variance-mass allometry for any animal community. We found that the parameter values of all three relationships differed for species with different lifestyles in the same communities. Taylor's law and density-mass allometry accurately predicted the form and parameter values of variance-mass allometry. We conclude that species of different lifestyles in these metazoan communities obeyed the same major ecological power-law relationships but did so with parameters specific to each lifestyle, probably reflecting differences among lifestyles in population dynamics and spatial distribution. PMID:25550506

  18. Meso-beta scale numerical simulation studies of terrain-induced jet streak mass and momentum perturbations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lin, Yuh-Lang; Kaplan, Michael L.

    1994-01-01

    An in-depth analysis of observed gravity waves and their relationship to precipitation bands over the Montana mesonetwork during the 11-12 July 1981 CCOPE case study indicated two episodes of coherent waves. While geostrophic adjustment, shearing instability, and terrain were all implicated separately or in combination as possible wave generation mechanisms, the lack of upper-air data within the wave genesis region made it difficult to define the genesis processes from observations alone. The first part of this paper, 3D Numerical Modeling Studies of Terrain-Induced Mass/Momentum Perturbations, employs a mesoscale numerical model to help diagnose the intricate early wave generation mechanisms during the first observed gravity wave episode. The meso-beta scale numerical model is used to study various simulations of the role of multiple geostrophic adjustment processes in focusing a region for gravity wave genesis. The second part of this paper, Linear Theory and Theoretical Modeling, investigates the response of non-resting rotating homogeneous and continuously stratified Boussinesq models of the terrestrial atmosphere to temporally impulsive and uniformly propagating three-dimensional localized zonal momentum sources representative of midlatitude jet streaks. The methods of linear perturbation theory applied to the potential vorticity (PV) and wave field equations are used to study the geostrophic adjustment dynamics. The total zonal and meridional wind perturbations are separated into geostrophic and ageostrophic components in order to define and follow the evolution of both the primary and secondary mesocirculations accompanying midlatitude jetogenesis forced by geostrophic adjustment processes. This problem is addressed to help fill the gap in understanding the dynamics and structure of mesoscale inertia-gravity waves forced by geostrophic adjustment processes in simple two-dimensional quiescent current systems and those produced by mesoscale numerical models

  19. UNIVERSAL SCALING OF THE 3:2 TWIN-PEAK QUASI-PERIODIC OSCILLATION FREQUENCIES WITH BLACK HOLE MASS AND SPIN REVISITED

    SciTech Connect

    Zhou, Xin-Lin; Yuan, Weimin; Pan, Hai-Wu; Liu, Zhu

    2015-01-01

    We discuss further observational support of an idea formulated a decade ago by Abramowicz, Kluźniak, McClintock and Remillard. They demonstrated that the 3:2 pairs of frequencies of the twin-peak black hole (BH) high-frequency quasi-periodic oscillations (QPOs) scale inversely with the BH masses and that the scaling covers the entire range from stellar to supermassive BHs. For this reason, they believed that the QPOs may be used for accurate measurements of masses and spins of BHs.

  20. The Multi-Scale Mass Transfer Processes Controlling Natural Attenuation and Engineered Remediation: An IFC Focused on Hanford’s 300 Area Uranium Plume Quality Assurance Project Plan

    SciTech Connect

    Fix, N. J.

    2008-01-31

    The purpose of the project is to conduct research at an Integrated Field-Scale Research Challenge Site in the Hanford Site 300 Area, CERCLA OU 300-FF-5 (Figure 1), to investigate multi-scale mass transfer processes associated with a subsurface uranium plume impacting both the vadose zone and groundwater. The project will investigate a series of science questions posed for research related to the effect of spatial heterogeneities, the importance of scale, coupled interactions between biogeochemical, hydrologic, and mass transfer processes, and measurements/approaches needed to characterize a mass-transfer dominated system. The research will be conducted by evaluating three (3) different hypotheses focused on multi-scale mass transfer processes in the vadose zone and groundwater, their influence on field-scale U(VI) biogeochemistry and transport, and their implications to natural systems and remediation. The project also includes goals to 1) provide relevant materials and field experimental opportunities for other ERSD researchers and 2) generate a lasting, accessible, and high-quality field experimental database that can be used by the scientific community for testing and validation of new conceptual and numerical models of subsurface reactive transport.

  1. Absolute magnitudes of trans-neptunian objects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duffard, R.; Alvarez-candal, A.; Pinilla-Alonso, N.; Ortiz, J. L.; Morales, N.; Santos-Sanz, P.; Thirouin, A.

    2015-10-01

    Accurate measurements of diameters of trans- Neptunian objects are extremely complicated to obtain. Radiomatric techniques applied to thermal measurements can provide good results, but precise absolute magnitudes are needed to constrain diameters and albedos. Our objective is to measure accurate absolute magnitudes for a sample of trans- Neptunian objects, many of which have been observed, and modelled, by the "TNOs are cool" team, one of Herschel Space Observatory key projects grantes with ~ 400 hours of observing time. We observed 56 objects in filters V and R, if possible. These data, along with data available in the literature, was used to obtain phase curves and to measure absolute magnitudes by assuming a linear trend of the phase curves and considering magnitude variability due to rotational light-curve. In total we obtained 234 new magnitudes for the 56 objects, 6 of them with no reported previous measurements. Including the data from the literature we report a total of 109 absolute magnitudes.

  2. A New Gimmick for Assigning Absolute Configuration.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ayorinde, F. O.

    1983-01-01

    A five-step procedure is provided to help students in making the assignment absolute configuration less bothersome. Examples for both single (2-butanol) and multi-chiral carbon (3-chloro-2-butanol) molecules are included. (JN)

  3. The Simplicity Argument and Absolute Morality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mijuskovic, Ben

    1975-01-01

    In this paper the author has maintained that there is a similarity of thought to be found in the writings of Cudworth, Emerson, and Husserl in his investigation of an absolute system of morality. (Author/RK)

  4. Deconstructing European Poverty Measures: What Relative and Absolute Scales Measure

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burkhauser, Richard V.

    2009-01-01

    Forster and d'Ercole (2009) outline the dominant method of conceptualization and operationalization of European poverty measures that informed the EU in its development of the questionnaire for the European Union--Survey of Income and Living Conditions (EU-SILC). They do so in the context of their explanation of how the Organization for Economic…

  5. Large Scale Non-targeted Metabolomic Profiling of Serum by Ultra Performance Liquid Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry (UPLC-MS)

    PubMed Central

    Broeckling, Corey D.; Heuberger, Adam L.; Prenni, Jessica E.

    2013-01-01

    Non-targeted metabolite profiling by ultra performance liquid chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS) is a powerful technique to investigate metabolism. The approach offers an unbiased and in-depth analysis that can enable the development of diagnostic tests, novel therapies, and further our understanding of disease processes. The inherent chemical diversity of the metabolome creates significant analytical challenges and there is no single experimental approach that can detect all metabolites. Additionally, the biological variation in individual metabolism and the dependence of metabolism on environmental factors necessitates large sample numbers to achieve the appropriate statistical power required for meaningful biological interpretation. To address these challenges, this tutorial outlines an analytical workflow for large scale non-targeted metabolite profiling of serum by UPLC-MS. The procedure includes guidelines for sample organization and preparation, data acquisition, quality control, and metabolite identification and will enable reliable acquisition of data for large experiments and provide a starting point for laboratories new to non-targeted metabolite profiling by UPLC-MS. PMID:23524330

  6. Mass balance for POPs in a real scale fluidized bed combustor co-incinerating automotive shredder residue.

    PubMed

    Van Caneghem, J; Block, C; Vermeulen, I; Van Brecht, A; Van Royen, P; Jaspers, M; Wauters, G; Vandecasteele, C

    2010-09-15

    The European directive 2000/53/EC implies a "reuse and recovery" rate for end-of-life vehicles (ELVs) of 95% to be reached by the year 2015. One of the options to increase the actual average European "reuse and recovery" rate of approximately 78% (EU 15, 2008) is incineration of automotive shredder residue (ASR) with energy-recovery. The mass balance and the congener fingerprints for PCDD/Fs, dioxin-like PCBs, PCBs and PAHs in a real scale fluidized bed combustor (FBC) incinerating 25% ASR with 25% refuse derived fuel (RDF) and 50% waste water treatment sludge (WWT sludge) were investigated. The PCDD/F, dioxin-like PCB, PCB and PAH concentrations in this input waste mix were more than hundred times higher than in the usual waste feed of the incinerator (30% RFD and 70% WWT sludge). In the outputs of the FBC, however, the concentrations of these POP groups were comparable or only slightly higher than in the outputs generated during the incineration of the usual waste feed. The considered POPs in the waste were destroyed efficiently and the formation of new POPs during cooling of the flue gas appeared to a large extent independent of the POP concentrations in the incinerated waste.

  7. The Vimos VLT Deep Survey. Stellar mass segregation and large-scale galaxy environment in the redshift range 0.2 < z < 1.4

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scodeggio, M.; Vergani, D.; Cucciati, O.; Iovino, A.; Franzetti, P.; Garilli, B.; Lamareille, F.; Bolzonella, M.; Pozzetti, L.; Abbas, U.; Marinoni, C.; Contini, T.; Bottini, D.; Le Brun, V.; Le Fèvre, O.; Maccagni, D.; Scaramella, R.; Tresse, L.; Vettolani, G.; Zanichelli, A.; Adami, C.; Arnouts, S.; Bardelli, S.; Cappi, A.; Charlot, S.; Ciliegi, P.; Foucaud, S.; Gavignaud, I.; Guzzo, L.; Ilbert, O.; McCracken, H. J.; Marano, B.; Mazure, A.; Meneux, B.; Merighi, R.; Paltani, S.; Pellò, R.; Pollo, A.; Radovich, M.; Zamorani, G.; Zucca, E.; Bondi, M.; Bongiorno, A.; Brinchmann, J.; de La Torre, S.; de Ravel, L.; Gregorini, L.; Memeo, P.; Perez-Montero, E.; Mellier, Y.; Temporin, S.; Walcher, C. J.

    2009-07-01

    Context: Hierarchical models of galaxy formation predict that the properties of a dark matter halo depend on the large-scale environment surrounding the halo. As a result of this correlation, we expect massive haloes to be present in larger number in overdense regions than in underdense ones. Given that a correlation exists between a galaxy stellar mass and the hosting dark matter halo mass, the segregation in dark matter halo mass should then result in a segregation in the distribution of stellar mass in the galaxy population. Aims: In this work we study the distribution of galaxy stellar mass and rest-frame optical color as a function of the large-scale galaxy distribution using the VLT VIMOS Deep Survey sample, in order to verify the presence of segregation in the properties of the galaxy population. Methods: We use VVDS redshift measurements and multi-band photometric data to derive estimates of the stellar mass, rest-frame optical color, and of the large-scale galaxy density, on a scale of approximately 8 Mpc, for a sample of 5619 galaxies in the redshift range 0.2mass and optical color segregation over the whole redshift interval covered by our sample, such that the median value of the mass distribution is larger and the rest-frame optical color is redder in regions of high galaxy density. The amplitude of the mass segregation changes little with redshift, at least in the high stellar mass regime that we can uniformly sample over the 0.2 < z < 1.4 redshift interval. The color segregation, instead, decreases significantly for z > 0.7. However, when we consider only galaxies in narrow bins of stellar mass, in order to exclude the effects of stellar mass segregation on galaxy properties, we no longer observe any significant color segregation. Based on data obtained with the European Southern Observatory Very Large Telescope, Paranal, Chile, program 070.A-9007(A), and on data obtained at the Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope

  8. Orion Absolute Navigation System Progress and Challenge

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holt, Greg N.; D'Souza, Christopher

    2012-01-01

    The absolute navigation design of NASA's Orion vehicle is described. It has undergone several iterations and modifications since its inception, and continues as a work-in-progress. This paper seeks to benchmark the current state of the design and some of the rationale and analysis behind it. There are specific challenges to address when preparing a timely and effective design for the Exploration Flight Test (EFT-1), while still looking ahead and providing software extensibility for future exploration missions. The primary onboard measurements in a Near-Earth or Mid-Earth environment consist of GPS pseudo-range and delta-range, but for future explorations missions the use of star-tracker and optical navigation sources need to be considered. Discussions are presented for state size and composition, processing techniques, and consider states. A presentation is given for the processing technique using the computationally stable and robust UDU formulation with an Agee-Turner Rank-One update. This allows for computational savings when dealing with many parameters which are modeled as slowly varying Gauss-Markov processes. Preliminary analysis shows up to a 50% reduction in computation versus a more traditional formulation. Several state elements are discussed and evaluated, including position, velocity, attitude, clock bias/drift, and GPS measurement biases in addition to bias, scale factor, misalignment, and non-orthogonalities of the accelerometers and gyroscopes. Another consideration is the initialization of the EKF in various scenarios. Scenarios such as single-event upset, ground command, and cold start are discussed as are strategies for whole and partial state updates as well as covariance considerations. Strategies are given for dealing with latent measurements and high-rate propagation using multi-rate architecture. The details of the rate groups and the data ow between the elements is discussed and evaluated.

  9. Influence of total-body mass on the scaling of S-factors for patient-specific, blood-based red-marrow dosimetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Traino, A. C.; Ferrari, M.; Cremonesi, M.; Stabin, M. G.

    2007-09-01

    To perform patient-specific, blood-based red-marrow dosimetry, dose conversion factors (the S factors in the MIRD formalism) have to be scaled by patients' organ masses. The dose to red marrow includes both self-dose and cross-irradiation contributions. Linear mass scaling for the self-irradiation term only is usually applied as a first approximation, whereas the cross-irradiation term is considered to be mass independent. Recently, the need of a mass scaling correction on both terms, not necessarily linear and dependent on the radionuclide, has been highlighted in the literature. S-factors taking into account different mass adjustments of organs are available in the OLINDA/EXM code. In this paper, a general algorithm able to fit the mass-dependent factors Srm<--tb and Srm<--rm is suggested and included in a more general equation for red-marrow dose calculation. Moreover, parameters to be considered specifically for therapeutic radionuclides such as 131I, 90Y and 177Lu are reported. The red-marrow doses calculated by the traditional and new algorithms are compared for 131I in ablation therapy (14 pts), 177Lu- (13 pts) and 90Y- (11 pts) peptide therapy for neuroendocrine tumours, and 90Y-Zevalin therapy for NHL (21 pts). The range of differences observed is as follows: -36% to -10% for 131I ablation, -22% to 5% for 177Lu-DOTATATE, -9% to 11% for 90Y-DOTATOC and -8% to 6% for 90Y-Zevalin. All differences are mostly due to the activity in the remainder of the body contributing to cross-irradiation. This paper quantifies the influence of mass scaling adjustment on usually applied therapies and shows how to derive the appropriate parameters for other radionuclides and radiopharmaceuticals.

  10. Correction of NIM-3A absolute gravimeter for self-attraction effect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Chunjian; Xu, Jin-yi; Feng, Jin-yang; SU, Duo-wu; Wu, Shu-qing

    2015-02-01

    The mass of free-fall absolute gravimeter can produce vertical gravitational attraction to the free-falling test body during the measurement of acceleration due to gravity. The vertical gravitational attraction can cause an artificial deviation to the measured value of gravitational acceleration. This paper describes the operating principle of a free-fall absolute gravimeter and the method used to determine the reference height of a gravimeter. It also describes the physical structure of NIM-3A absolute gravimeter lately developed by National Institute of Metrology (China), and studies the correction of gravimeter for Self-attraction effect.

  11. Absolute properties of the triple star HP Aurigae

    SciTech Connect

    Lacy, Claud H. Sandberg; Burks, Charles L.; Torres, Guillermo; Wolf, Marek E-mail: clburks@email.uark.edu E-mail: wolf@cesnet.cz

    2014-01-01

    New photometric, spectroscopic, and eclipse timing observations of the eclipsing binary star HP Aur allow for very accurate orbital determinations, even in the presence of a third body and transient starspot activity. The eclipsing binary masses are determined to an accuracy of ±0.4% and the radii to ±0.6%. The masses are 0.9543 ± 0.0041 and 0.8094 ± 0.0036 solar masses, and the radii are 1.0278 ± 0.0042 and 0.7758 ± 0.0034 solar radii, respectively. The orbital period in the outer orbit is accurately determined for the first time: 4.332 ± 0.011 yr. A comparison with current theories of stellar evolution shows that the components' absolute properties can be well-matched by the current models at an age of about 7 billion years.

  12. The Scales of Time, Length, Mass, Energy, and Other Fundamental Physical Quantities in the Atomic World and the Use of Atomic Units in Quantum Mechanical Calculations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Teo, Boon K.; Li, Wai-Kee

    2011-01-01

    This article is divided into two parts. In the first part, the atomic unit (au) system is introduced and the scales of time, space (length), and speed, as well as those of mass and energy, in the atomic world are discussed. In the second part, the utility of atomic units in quantum mechanical and spectroscopic calculations is illustrated with…

  13. WMAPping out neutrino masses

    SciTech Connect

    Pierce, Aaron; Murayama, Hitoshi

    2003-10-28

    Recent data from the Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe (WMAP) place important bounds on the neutrino sector. The precise determination of the baryon number in the universe puts a strong constraint on the number of relativistic species during Big-Bang Nucleosynthesis. WMAP data, when combined with the 2dF Galaxy Redshift Survey (2dFGRS), also directly constrain the absolute mass scale of neutrinos. These results impinge upon a neutrino oscillation interpretation of the result from the Liquid Scintillator Neutrino Detector (LSND).We also note that the Heidelberg-Moscow evidence for neutrinoless double beta decay is only consistent with the WMAP+2dFGRS data for the largest values of the nuclear matrix element.

  14. Estimating Dispersivity, Mass Recovery, and Water Hold Up in Field-Scale Leaching Studies by Use of a Capacity Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Young, D. F.; Carleton, J. N.

    2012-12-01

    The USEPA uses field-scale tests (about 1 ha) to evaluate the leaching potential of pesticides used under realistic agricultural conditions. These tests include a bromide tracer to assess the hydrodynamics of the study site. We analyzed 21 of these bromide leaching studies to determine dispersivity, applied tracer mass recovery, and water retention in the vadose zone. Breakthrough curves were generated for various depths (typically 3 to 4 depths at 1-m intervals) at each of the 21 sites as functions of cumulative infiltration, using measured bromide pore water concentrations. Because the field sites were subjected to natural hydrologic conditions (i.e., evaporation, precipitation, and occasional irrigation), the leaching flow rate at each depth was not directly measurable, so leaching rates were estimated using a capacity model driven by measured daily rainfall, evaporation, and temperature. With the leaching rate thus estimated, the first moment of the bromide breakthrough at each depth was determined. Using the first moment, the effective soil-pore water volume was estimated, which allowed the fitting of a one-dimensional advection-dispersion model and optimization of a dispersion coefficient. Results showed indication of an increase in dispersivity with depth (e.g. dispersivity averaged about 10 cm at the 1-m depth, and around 35 cm at the 4-m depth). Peclet numbers ranged from 4 to 40, but averaged about 10 and varied little with depth. Using this method, apparent recovery of applied bromide varied widely from 8% to 250%, with an average of 60% (standard deviation also 60%) indicating the uncertainty involved in estimating breakthrough curves using field-scale data. Apparent water holdup was consistently greater than the reported field capacity, indicating that measured field capacity may provide low estimates of soil water for use in capacity models. It is important to note that the capacity model concept coupled to the advection dispersion model is the USEPA

  15. Multi-scale characterization of rock mass discontinuities and rock slope geometry using terrestrial remote sensing techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sturzenegger, Matthieu

    Terrestrial remote sensing techniques including both digital photogrammetry and laser scanning, represent useful complements to conventional field mapping and rock mass discontinuity characterization. Several studies have highlighted practical advantages at close-range (< 300 m), including the ability to map inaccessible rock exposures and hazard reduction related to both traffic and rockfall along investigated outcrops. In addition, several authors have demonstrated their potential to provide adequate quantification of discontinuity parameters. Consequently, their incorporation into rock slope stability investigations and design projects has grown substantially over recent years. As these techniques are increasingly applied by geologists and geological engineers, it is important that their use be properly evaluated. Furthermore, guidelines to optimize their application are required in a similar manner to standardization of conventional discontinuity mapping techniques. An important thesis objective is to develop recommendations for optimal applications of terrestrial remote sensing techniques for discontinuity characterization, based on a quantitative evaluation of various registration approaches, sampling bias and extended manual mapping of 3D digital models. It is shown that simple registration networks can provide adequate measurement of discontinuity geometry for engineering purposes. The bias associated with remote sensing mapping is described. The advantages of these techniques over conventional mapping are demonstrated, including reliable discontinuity orientation measurements. Persistence can be precisely quantified instead of approximately estimated, resulting in a new class for extremely persistent discontinuities being suggested. Secondary roughness and curvature can also be considered at larger scales. The techniques are suitable for the definition of discontinuity sets, and the estimation of both trace intensity and block size/shape, if sampling bias

  16. A complete solution classification and unified algorithmic treatment for the one- and two-step asymmetric S-transverse mass event scale statistic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walker, Joel W.

    2014-08-01

    The M T2, or "s-transverse mass", statistic was developed to associate a parent mass scale to a missing transverse energy signature, given that escaping particles are generally expected in pairs, while collider experiments are sensitive to just a single transverse momentum vector sum. This document focuses on the generalized extension of that statistic to asymmetric one- and two-step decay chains, with arbitrary child particle masses and upstream missing transverse momentum. It provides a unified theoretical formulation, complete solution classification, taxonomy of critical points, and technical algorithmic prescription for treatment of the event scale. An implementation of the described algorithm is available for download, and is also a deployable component of the author's selection cut software package AEAC uS (Algorithmic Event Arbiter and C ut Selector). appendices address combinatoric event assembly, algorithm validation, and a complete pseudocode.

  17. Jasminum flexile flower absolute from India--a detailed comparison with three other jasmine absolutes.

    PubMed

    Braun, Norbert A; Kohlenberg, Birgit; Sim, Sherina; Meier, Manfred; Hammerschmidt, Franz-Josef

    2009-09-01

    Jasminum flexile flower absolute from the south of India and the corresponding vacuum headspace (VHS) sample of the absolute were analyzed using GC and GC-MS. Three other commercially available Indian jasmine absolutes from the species: J. sambac, J. officinale subsp. grandiflorum, and J. auriculatum and the respective VHS samples were used for comparison purposes. One hundred and twenty-one compounds were characterized in J. flexile flower absolute, with methyl linolate, benzyl salicylate, benzyl benzoate, (2E,6E)-farnesol, and benzyl acetate as the main constituents. A detailed olfactory evaluation was also performed.

  18. Absolute Plate Velocities from Seismic Anisotropy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kreemer, Corné; Zheng, Lin; Gordon, Richard

    2015-04-01

    lithosphere (σ=14.7° ). Two of the slowest-moving plates, Antarctica (vRMS=4 mm a-1, σ=29° ) and Eurasia (vRMS=3 mm a-1, σ=33° ), have two of the largest within-plate dispersions, which may indicate that a plate must move faster than ˜5 mm a-1 to result in seismic anisotropy useful for estimating plate motion. We will investigate if these relationships still hold with the new expanded data set and with the alternative set of relative plate angular velocities. We have found systematic differences between the SKS orientations and our predicted plate motion azimuths underneath the Arabia plate, which suggests to us either plate-scale mantle flow process not directly associated with that plate's absolute motion or intrinsic lithospheric anisotropy. We will discuss more of such discrepancies underneath other plates using the enlarged data set.

  19. Implications of scaled δ15N fractionation for community predator-prey body mass ratio estimates in size-structured food webs.

    PubMed

    Reum, Jonathan C P; Jennings, Simon; Hunsicker, Mary E

    2015-11-01

    Nitrogen stable isotope ratios (δ(15) N) may be used to estimate community-level relationships between trophic level (TL) and body size in size-structured food webs and hence the mean predator to prey body mass ratio (PPMR). In turn, PPMR is used to estimate mean food chain length, trophic transfer efficiency and rates of change in abundance with body mass (usually reported as slopes of size spectra) and to calibrate and validate food web models. When estimating TL, researchers had assumed that fractionation of δ(15) N (Δδ(15) N) did not change with TL. However, a recent meta-analysis indicated that this assumption was not as well supported by data as the assumption that Δδ(15) N scales negatively with the δ(15) N of prey. We collated existing fish community δ(15) N-body size data for the Northeast Atlantic and tropical Western Arabian Sea with new data from the Northeast Pacific. These data were used to estimate TL-body mass relationships and PPMR under constant and scaled Δδ(15) N assumptions, and to assess how the scaled Δδ(15) N assumption affects our understanding of the structure of these food webs. Adoption of the scaled Δδ(15) N approach markedly reduces the previously reported differences in TL at body mass among fish communities from different regions. With scaled Δδ(15) N, TL-body mass relationships became more positive and PPMR fell. Results implied that realized prey size in these size-structured fish communities are less variable than previously assumed and food chains potentially longer. The adoption of generic PPMR estimates for calibration and validation of size-based fish community models is better supported than hitherto assumed, but predicted slopes of community size spectra are more sensitive to a given change or error in realized PPMR when PPMR is small. PMID:26046788

  20. Implications of scaled δ15N fractionation for community predator-prey body mass ratio estimates in size-structured food webs.

    PubMed

    Reum, Jonathan C P; Jennings, Simon; Hunsicker, Mary E

    2015-11-01

    Nitrogen stable isotope ratios (δ(15) N) may be used to estimate community-level relationships between trophic level (TL) and body size in size-structured food webs and hence the mean predator to prey body mass ratio (PPMR). In turn, PPMR is used to estimate mean food chain length, trophic transfer efficiency and rates of change in abundance with body mass (usually reported as slopes of size spectra) and to calibrate and validate food web models. When estimating TL, researchers had assumed that fractionation of δ(15) N (Δδ(15) N) did not change with TL. However, a recent meta-analysis indicated that this assumption was not as well supported by data as the assumption that Δδ(15) N scales negatively with the δ(15) N of prey. We collated existing fish community δ(15) N-body size data for the Northeast Atlantic and tropical Western Arabian Sea with new data from the Northeast Pacific. These data were used to estimate TL-body mass relationships and PPMR under constant and scaled Δδ(15) N assumptions, and to assess how the scaled Δδ(15) N assumption affects our understanding of the structure of these food webs. Adoption of the scaled Δδ(15) N approach markedly reduces the previously reported differences in TL at body mass among fish communities from different regions. With scaled Δδ(15) N, TL-body mass relationships became more positive and PPMR fell. Results implied that realized prey size in these size-structured fish communities are less variable than previously assumed and food chains potentially longer. The adoption of generic PPMR estimates for calibration and validation of size-based fish community models is better supported than hitherto assumed, but predicted slopes of community size spectra are more sensitive to a given change or error in realized PPMR when PPMR is small.

  1. Mass spectrometry data processing using zero-crossing lines in multi-scale of Gaussian derivative wavelet

    PubMed Central

    Nguyen, Nha; Huang, Heng; Oraintara, Soontorn; Vo, An

    2010-01-01

    Motivation: Peaks are the key information in mass spectrometry (MS) which has been increasingly used to discover diseases-related proteomic patterns. Peak detection is an essential step for MS-based proteomic data analysis. Recently, several peak detection algorithms have been proposed. However, in these algorithms, there are three major deficiencies: (i) because the noise is often removed, the true signal could also be removed; (ii) baseline removal step may get rid of true peaks and create new false peaks; (iii) in peak quantification step, a threshold of signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) is usually used to remove false peaks; however, noise estimations in SNR calculation are often inaccurate in either time or wavelet domain. In this article, we propose new algorithms to solve these problems. First, we use bivariate shrinkage estimator in stationary wavelet domain to avoid removing true peaks in denoising step. Second, without baseline removal, zero-crossing lines in multi-scale of derivative Gaussian wavelets are investigated with mixture of Gaussian to estimate discriminative parameters of peaks. Third, in quantification step, the frequency, SD, height and rank of peaks are used to detect both high and small energy peaks with robustness to noise. Results: We propose a novel Gaussian Derivative Wavelet (GDWavelet) method to more accurately detect true peaks with a lower false discovery rate than existing methods. The proposed GDWavelet method has been performed on the real Surface-Enhanced Laser Desorption/Ionization Time-Of-Flight (SELDI-TOF) spectrum with known polypeptide positions and on two synthetic data with Gaussian and real noise. All experimental results demonstrate that our method outperforms other commonly used methods. The standard receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves are used to evaluate the experimental results. Availability: http://ranger.uta.edu/∼heng/MS/GDWavelet.html or http://www.naaan.org/nhanguyen/archive.htm Contact: heng

  2. Universal Cosmic Absolute and Modern Science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kostro, Ludwik

    The official Sciences, especially all natural sciences, respect in their researches the principle of methodic naturalism i.e. they consider all phenomena as entirely natural and therefore in their scientific explanations they do never adduce or cite supernatural entities and forces. The purpose of this paper is to show that Modern Science has its own self-existent, self-acting, and self-sufficient Natural All-in Being or Omni-Being i.e. the entire Nature as a Whole that justifies the scientific methodic naturalism. Since this Natural All-in Being is one and only It should be considered as the own scientifically justified Natural Absolute of Science and should be called, in my opinion, the Universal Cosmic Absolute of Modern Science. It will be also shown that the Universal Cosmic Absolute is ontologically enormously stratified and is in its ultimate i.e. in its most fundamental stratum trans-reistic and trans-personal. It means that in its basic stratum. It is neither a Thing or a Person although It contains in Itself all things and persons with all other sentient and conscious individuals as well, On the turn of the 20th century the Science has begun to look for a theory of everything, for a final theory, for a master theory. In my opinion the natural Universal Cosmic Absolute will constitute in such a theory the radical all penetrating Ultimate Basic Reality and will substitute step by step the traditional supernatural personal Absolute.

  3. Assessing the Jarman-Bell Principle: Scaling of intake, digestibility, retention time and gut fill with body mass in mammalian herbivores.

    PubMed

    Müller, Dennis W H; Codron, Daryl; Meloro, Carlo; Munn, Adam; Schwarm, Angela; Hummel, Jürgen; Clauss, Marcus

    2013-01-01

    Differences in allometric scaling of physiological characters have the appeal to explain species diversification and niche differentiation along a body mass (BM) gradient - because they lead to different combinations of physiological properties, and thus may facilitate different adaptive strategies. An important argument in physiological ecology is built on the allometries of gut fill (assumed to scale to BM(1.0)) and energy requirements/intake (assumed to scale to BM(0.75)) in mammalian herbivores. From the difference in exponents, it has been postulated that the mean retention time (MRT) of digesta should scale to BM(1.0-0.75)=BM(0.25). This has been used to argue that larger animals have an advantage in digestive efficiency and hence can tolerate lower-quality diets. However, empirical data does not support the BM(0.25) scaling of MRT, and the deduction of MRT scaling implies, according to physical principles, no scaling of digestibility; basing assumptions on digestive efficiency on the thus-derived MRT scaling amounts to circular reasoning. An alternative explanation considers a higher scaling exponent for food intake than for metabolism, allowing larger animals to eat more of a lower quality food without having to increase digestive efficiency; to date, this concept has only been explored in ruminants. Here, using data for 77 species in which intake, digestibility and MRT were measured (allowing the calculation of the dry matter gut contents (DMC)), we show that the unexpected shallow scaling of MRT is common in herbivores and may result from deviations of other scaling exponents from expectations. Notably, DMC have a lower scaling exponent than 1.0, and the 95% confidence intervals of the scaling exponents for intake and DMC generally overlap. Differences in the scaling of wet gut contents and dry matter gut contents confirm a previous finding that the dry matter concentration of gut contents decreases with body mass, possibly compensating for the less

  4. An Absolute Measurement of Resonance-Resolved Electron Impact Excitation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reisenfeld, Daniel Brett

    1998-11-01

    An experiment to measure electron-impact excitation (EIE) of multiply-charged ions is described. An absolute measurement has been carried out of the cross section for EIE of Si2+(3s2/ 1S/to3s3p/ 1P) from energies below threshold to 11 eV above. A beams modulation technique with inclined electron and ion beams was used. Radiation at 120.7 nm from the excited ions was detected using an absolutely calibrated optical system. The analysis of the experimental data requires a determination of the population fraction of the Si2+ (3s3p/ 3Po) metastable state in the incident ion beam, which was measured to be 0.210 ± 0.018. The data have been corrected for contributions to the signal from radiative decay following excitation from the metastable state to 3s3p1P and 3p2/ 3P, and excitation of the ground state to levels above 3s3p/ 1P. The experimental 0.56 ± 0.08 eV energy spread has allowed us to resolve complex resonance structure throughout the studied energy range. At the reported ±14% uncertainty level (90% confidence limit), the measured structure and absolute scale of the cross section are in good agreement with 12-state close-coupling R-matrix calculations.

  5. THE ATACAMA COSMOLOGY TELESCOPE: DYNAMICAL MASSES AND SCALING RELATIONS FOR A SAMPLE OF MASSIVE SUNYAEV-ZEL'DOVICH EFFECT SELECTED GALAXY CLUSTERS {sup ,}

    SciTech Connect

    Sifon, Cristobal; Barrientos, L. Felipe; Gonzalez, Jorge; Infante, Leopoldo; Duenner, Rolando; Menanteau, Felipe; Hughes, John P.; Baker, Andrew J.; Hasselfield, Matthew; Marriage, Tobias A.; Crichton, Devin; Gralla, Megan B.; Addison, Graeme E.; Dunkley, Joanna; Battaglia, Nick; Bond, J. Richard; Hajian, Amir; Das, Sudeep; Devlin, Mark J.; Hilton, Matt; and others

    2013-07-20

    We present the first dynamical mass estimates and scaling relations for a sample of Sunyaev-Zel'dovich effect (SZE) selected galaxy clusters. The sample consists of 16 massive clusters detected with the Atacama Cosmology Telescope (ACT) over a 455 deg{sup 2} area of the southern sky. Deep multi-object spectroscopic observations were taken to secure intermediate-resolution (R {approx} 700-800) spectra and redshifts for Almost-Equal-To 60 member galaxies on average per cluster. The dynamical masses M{sub 200c} of the clusters have been calculated using simulation-based scaling relations between velocity dispersion and mass. The sample has a median redshift z = 0.50 and a median mass M{sub 200c}{approx_equal}12 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 14} h{sub 70}{sup -1} M{sub sun} with a lower limit M{sub 200c}{approx_equal}6 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 14} h{sub 70}{sup -1} M{sub sun}, consistent with the expectations for the ACT southern sky survey. These masses are compared to the ACT SZE properties of the sample, specifically, the match-filtered central SZE amplitude y{sub 0}-tilde, the central Compton parameter y{sub 0}, and the integrated Compton signal Y{sub 200c}, which we use to derive SZE-mass scaling relations. All SZE estimators correlate with dynamical mass with low intrinsic scatter ({approx}< 20%), in agreement with numerical simulations. We explore the effects of various systematic effects on these scaling relations, including the correlation between observables and the influence of dynamically disturbed clusters. Using the three-dimensional information available, we divide the sample into relaxed and disturbed clusters and find that {approx}50% of the clusters are disturbed. There are hints that disturbed systems might bias the scaling relations, but given the current sample sizes, these differences are not significant; further studies including more clusters are required to assess the impact of these clusters on the scaling relations.

  6. Quantum theory allows for absolute maximal contextuality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amaral, Barbara; Cunha, Marcelo Terra; Cabello, Adán

    2015-12-01

    Contextuality is a fundamental feature of quantum theory and a necessary resource for quantum computation and communication. It is therefore important to investigate how large contextuality can be in quantum theory. Linear contextuality witnesses can be expressed as a sum S of n probabilities, and the independence number α and the Tsirelson-like number ϑ of the corresponding exclusivity graph are, respectively, the maximum of S for noncontextual theories and for the theory under consideration. A theory allows for absolute maximal contextuality if it has scenarios in which ϑ /α approaches n . Here we show that quantum theory allows for absolute maximal contextuality despite what is suggested by the examination of the quantum violations of Bell and noncontextuality inequalities considered in the past. Our proof is not constructive and does not single out explicit scenarios. Nevertheless, we identify scenarios in which quantum theory allows for almost-absolute-maximal contextuality.

  7. Absolute calibration in vivo measurement systems

    SciTech Connect

    Kruchten, D.A.; Hickman, D.P.

    1991-02-01

    Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) is currently investigating a new method for obtaining absolute calibration factors for radiation measurement systems used to measure internally deposited radionuclides in vivo. Absolute calibration of in vivo measurement systems will eliminate the need to generate a series of human surrogate structures (i.e., phantoms) for calibrating in vivo measurement systems. The absolute calibration of in vivo measurement systems utilizes magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to define physiological structure, size, and composition. The MRI image provides a digitized representation of the physiological structure, which allows for any mathematical distribution of radionuclides within the body. Using Monte Carlo transport codes, the emission spectrum from the body is predicted. The in vivo measurement equipment is calibrated using the Monte Carlo code and adjusting for the intrinsic properties of the detection system. The calibration factors are verified using measurements of existing phantoms and previously obtained measurements of human volunteers. 8 refs.

  8. Stimulus probability effects in absolute identification.

    PubMed

    Kent, Christopher; Lamberts, Koen

    2016-05-01

    This study investigated the effect of stimulus presentation probability on accuracy and response times in an absolute identification task. Three schedules of presentation were used to investigate the interaction between presentation probability and stimulus position within the set. Data from individual participants indicated strong effects of presentation probability on both proportion correct and response times. The effects were moderated by the ubiquitous stimulus position effect. The accuracy and response time data were predicted by an exemplar-based model of perceptual cognition (Kent & Lamberts, 2005). The bow in discriminability was also attenuated when presentation probability for middle items was relatively high, an effect that will constrain future model development. The study provides evidence for item-specific learning in absolute identification. Implications for other theories of absolute identification are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record

  9. Quantitative standards for absolute linguistic universals.

    PubMed

    Piantadosi, Steven T; Gibson, Edward

    2014-01-01

    Absolute linguistic universals are often justified by cross-linguistic analysis: If all observed languages exhibit a property, the property is taken to be a likely universal, perhaps specified in the cognitive or linguistic systems of language learners and users. In many cases, these patterns are then taken to motivate linguistic theory. Here, we show that cross-linguistic analysis will very rarely be able to statistically justify absolute, inviolable patterns in language. We formalize two statistical methods--frequentist and Bayesian--and show that in both it is possible to find strict linguistic universals, but that the numbers of independent languages necessary to do so is generally unachievable. This suggests that methods other than typological statistics are necessary to establish absolute properties of human language, and thus that many of the purported universals in linguistics have not received sufficient empirical justification.

  10. Absolute photoacoustic thermometry in deep tissue.

    PubMed

    Yao, Junjie; Ke, Haixin; Tai, Stephen; Zhou, Yong; Wang, Lihong V

    2013-12-15

    Photoacoustic thermography is a promising tool for temperature measurement in deep tissue. Here we propose an absolute temperature measurement method based on the dual temperature dependences of the Grüneisen parameter and the speed of sound in tissue. By taking ratiometric measurements at two adjacent temperatures, we can eliminate the factors that are temperature irrelevant but difficult to correct for in deep tissue. To validate our method, absolute temperatures of blood-filled tubes embedded ~9 mm deep in chicken tissue were measured in a biologically relevant range from 28°C to 46°C. The temperature measurement accuracy was ~0.6°C. The results suggest that our method can be potentially used for absolute temperature monitoring in deep tissue during thermotherapy.

  11. Molecular iodine absolute frequencies. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Sansonetti, C.J.

    1990-06-25

    Fifty specified lines of {sup 127}I{sub 2} were studied by Doppler-free frequency modulation spectroscopy. For each line the classification of the molecular transition was determined, hyperfine components were identified, and one well-resolved component was selected for precise determination of its absolute frequency. In 3 cases, a nearby alternate line was selected for measurement because no well-resolved component was found for the specified line. Absolute frequency determinations were made with an estimated uncertainty of 1.1 MHz by locking a dye laser to the selected hyperfine component and measuring its wave number with a high-precision Fabry-Perot wavemeter. For each line results of the absolute measurement, the line classification, and a Doppler-free spectrum are given.

  12. Absolute Stability And Hyperstability In Hilbert Space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wen, John Ting-Yung

    1989-01-01

    Theorems on stabilities of feedback control systems proved. Paper presents recent developments regarding theorems of absolute stability and hyperstability of feedforward-and-feedback control system. Theorems applied in analysis of nonlinear, adaptive, and robust control. Extended to provide sufficient conditions for stability in system including nonlinear feedback subsystem and linear time-invariant (LTI) feedforward subsystem, state space of which is Hilbert space, and input and output spaces having finite numbers of dimensions. (In case of absolute stability, feedback subsystem memoryless and possibly time varying. For hyperstability, feedback system dynamical system.)

  13. A weak lensing mass reconstruction of the large-scale filament feeding the massive galaxy cluster MACS J0717.5+3745

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jauzac, Mathilde; Jullo, Eric; Kneib, Jean-Paul; Ebeling, Harald; Leauthaud, Alexie; Ma, Cheng-Jiun; Limousin, Marceau; Massey, Richard; Richard, Johan

    2012-11-01

    We report the first weak lensing detection of a large-scale filament funnelling matter on to the core of the massive galaxy cluster MACS J0717.5+3745. Our analysis is based on a mosaic of 18 multipassband images obtained with the Advanced Camera for Surveys aboard the Hubble Space Telescope, covering an area of ˜10 × 20 arcmin2. We use a weak lensing pipeline developed for the Cosmic Evolution Survey, modified for the analysis of galaxy clusters, to produce a weak lensing catalogue. A mass map is then computed by applying a weak gravitational lensing multiscale reconstruction technique designed to describe irregular mass distributions such as the one investigated here. We test the resulting mass map by comparing the mass distribution inferred for the cluster core with the one derived from strong lensing constraints and find excellent agreement. Our analysis detects the MACS J0717.5+3745 filament within the 3σ detection contour of the lensing mass reconstruction, and underlines the importance of filaments for theoretical and numerical models of the mass distribution in the cosmic web. We measure the filament's projected length as ˜4.5 h74-1 Mpc, and its mean density as (2.92 ± 0.66) × 108 h74 M⊙ kpc-2. Combined with the redshift distribution of galaxies obtained after an extensive spectroscopic follow-up in the area, we can rule out any projection effect resulting from the chance alignment on the sky of unrelated galaxy group-scale structures. Assuming plausible constraints concerning the structure's geometry based on its galaxy velocity field, we construct a three-dimensional (3D) model of the large-scale filament. Within this framework, we derive the 3D length of the filament to be 18 h74-1 Mpc. The filament's deprojected density in terms of the critical density of the Universe is measured as (206 ± 46) ρcrit, a value that lies at the very high end of the range predicted by numerical simulations. Finally, we study the distribution of stellar mass in the

  14. Heat and mass transfer scale-up issues during freeze-drying, III: control and characterization of dryer differences via operational qualification tests.

    PubMed

    Rambhatla, S; Tchessalov, S; Pikal, Michael J

    2006-01-01

    The objective of this research was to estimate differences in heat and mass transfer between freeze dryers due to inherent design characteristics using data obtained from sublimation tests. This study also aimed to provide guidelines for convenient scale-up of the freeze-drying process. Data obtained from sublimation tests performed on laboratory-scale, pilot, and production freeze dryers were used to evaluate various heat and mass transfer parameters: nonuniformity in shelf surface temperatures, resistance of pipe, refrigeration system, and condenser. Emissivity measurements of relevant surfaces such as the chamber wall and the freeze dryer door were taken to evaluate the impact of atypical radiation heat transfer during scale-up. "Hot" and "cold" spots were identified on the shelf surface of different freeze dryers, and the impact of variation in shelf surface temperatures on the primary drying time and the product temperature during primary drying was studied. Calculations performed using emissivity measurements on different freeze dryers suggest that a front vial in the laboratory lyophilizer received 1.8 times more heat than a front vial in a manufacturing freeze dryer operating at a shelf temperature of -25 degrees C and a chamber pressure of 150 mTorr during primary drying. Therefore, front vials in the laboratory are much more atypical than front vials in manufacturing. Steady-state heat and mass transfer equations were used to study a combination of different scale-up issues pertinent during lyophilization cycles commonly used for the freeze-drying of pharmaceuticals. PMID:16796357

  15. Behavior of Multiclass Pesticide Residue Concentrations during the Transformation from Rose Petals to Rose Absolute.

    PubMed

    Tascone, Oriane; Fillâtre, Yoann; Roy, Céline; Meierhenrich, Uwe J

    2015-05-27

    This study investigates the concentrations of 54 multiclass pesticides during the transformation processes from rose petal to concrete and absolute using roses spiked with pesticides as a model. The concentrations of the pesticides were followed during the process of transforming the spiked rose flowers from an organic field into concrete and then into absolute. The rose flowers, the concrete, and the absolute, as well as their transformation intermediates, were analyzed for pesticide content using gas chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry. We observed that all the pesticides were extracted and concentrated in the absolute, with the exception of three molecules: fenthion, fenamiphos, and phorate. Typical pesticides were found to be concentrated by a factor of 100-300 from the rose flowers to the rose absolute. The observed effect of pesticide enrichment was also studied in roses and their extracts from four classically phytosanitary treated fields. Seventeen pesticides were detected in at least one of the extracts. Like the case for the spiked samples in our model, the pesticides present in the rose flowers from Turkey were concentrated in the absolute. Two pesticides, methidathion and chlorpyrifos, were quantified in the rose flowers at approximately 0.01 and 0.01-0.05 mg kg(-1), respectively, depending on the treated field. The concentrations determined for the corresponding rose absolutes were 4.7 mg kg(-1) for methidathion and 0.65-27.25 mg kg(-1) for chlorpyrifos.

  16. Behavior of Multiclass Pesticide Residue Concentrations during the Transformation from Rose Petals to Rose Absolute.

    PubMed

    Tascone, Oriane; Fillâtre, Yoann; Roy, Céline; Meierhenrich, Uwe J

    2015-05-27

    This study investigates the concentrations of 54 multiclass pesticides during the transformation processes from rose petal to concrete and absolute using roses spiked with pesticides as a model. The concentrations of the pesticides were followed during the process of transforming the spiked rose flowers from an organic field into concrete and then into absolute. The rose flowers, the concrete, and the absolute, as well as their transformation intermediates, were analyzed for pesticide content using gas chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry. We observed that all the pesticides were extracted and concentrated in the absolute, with the exception of three molecules: fenthion, fenamiphos, and phorate. Typical pesticides were found to be concentrated by a factor of 100-300 from the rose flowers to the rose absolute. The observed effect of pesticide enrichment was also studied in roses and their extracts from four classically phytosanitary treated fields. Seventeen pesticides were detected in at least one of the extracts. Like the case for the spiked samples in our model, the pesticides present in the rose flowers from Turkey were concentrated in the absolute. Two pesticides, methidathion and chlorpyrifos, were quantified in the rose flowers at approximately 0.01 and 0.01-0.05 mg kg(-1), respectively, depending on the treated field. The concentrations determined for the corresponding rose absolutes were 4.7 mg kg(-1) for methidathion and 0.65-27.25 mg kg(-1) for chlorpyrifos. PMID:25942486

  17. New insights into low-temperature oxidation of propane from synchrotron photoionization mass spectrometry and multi-scale informatics modeling

    SciTech Connect

    Welz, Oliver; Burke, Michael P.; Antonov, Ivan O.; Goldsmith, C. Franklin; Savee, John David; Osborn, David L.; Taatjes, Craig A.; Klippenstein, Stephen J.; Sheps, Leonid

    2015-04-10

    We studied low-temperature propane oxidation at P = 4 Torr and T = 530, 600, and 670 K by time-resolved multiplexed photoionization mass spectrometry (MPIMS), which probes the reactants, intermediates, and products with isomeric selectivity using tunable synchrotron vacuum UV ionizing radiation. The oxidation is initiated by pulsed laser photolysis of oxalyl chloride, (COCl)2, at 248 nm, which rapidly generates a ~1:1 mixture of 1-propyl (n-propyl) and 2-propyl (i-propyl) radicals via the fast Cl + propane reaction. At all three temperatures, the major stable product species is propene, formed in the propyl + O2 reactions by direct HO2 elimination from both n- and i-propyl peroxy radicals. The experimentally derived propene yields relative to the initial concentration of Cl atoms are (20 ± 4)% at 530 K, (55 ± 11)% at 600 K, and (86 ± 17)% at 670 K at a reaction time of 20 ms. The lower yield of propene at low temperature reflects substantial formation of propyl peroxy radicals, which do not completely decompose on the experimental time scale. In addition, C3H6O isomers methyloxirane, oxetane, acetone, and propanal are detected as minor products. Our measured yields of oxetane and methyloxirane, which are coproducts of OH radicals, suggest a revision of the OH formation pathways in models of low-temperature propane oxidation. The experimental results are modeled and interpreted using a multiscale informatics approach, presented in detail in a separate publication (Burke, M. P.; Goldsmith, C. F.; Klippenstein, S. J.; Welz, O.; Huang H.; Antonov I. O.; Savee J. D.; Osborn D. L.; Zádor, J.; Taatjes, C. A.; Sheps, L. Multiscale Informatics for Low-Temperature Propane Oxidation: Further Complexities in Studies of Complex Reactions. J. Phys. Chem A. 2015, DOI: 10.1021/acs.jpca.5b01003). Additionally, we found that the model predicts the time profiles and yields of the experimentally observed primary products well

  18. New insights into low-temperature oxidation of propane from synchrotron photoionization mass spectrometry and multi-scale informatics modeling

    DOE PAGES

    Welz, Oliver; Burke, Michael P.; Antonov, Ivan O.; Goldsmith, C. Franklin; Savee, John David; Osborn, David L.; Taatjes, Craig A.; Klippenstein, Stephen J.; Sheps, Leonid

    2015-04-10

    We studied low-temperature propane oxidation at P = 4 Torr and T = 530, 600, and 670 K by time-resolved multiplexed photoionization mass spectrometry (MPIMS), which probes the reactants, intermediates, and products with isomeric selectivity using tunable synchrotron vacuum UV ionizing radiation. The oxidation is initiated by pulsed laser photolysis of oxalyl chloride, (COCl)2, at 248 nm, which rapidly generates a ~1:1 mixture of 1-propyl (n-propyl) and 2-propyl (i-propyl) radicals via the fast Cl + propane reaction. At all three temperatures, the major stable product species is propene, formed in the propyl + O2 reactions by direct HO2 elimination frommore » both n- and i-propyl peroxy radicals. The experimentally derived propene yields relative to the initial concentration of Cl atoms are (20 ± 4)% at 530 K, (55 ± 11)% at 600 K, and (86 ± 17)% at 670 K at a reaction time of 20 ms. The lower yield of propene at low temperature reflects substantial formation of propyl peroxy radicals, which do not completely decompose on the experimental time scale. In addition, C3H6O isomers methyloxirane, oxetane, acetone, and propanal are detected as minor products. Our measured yields of oxetane and methyloxirane, which are coproducts of OH radicals, suggest a revision of the OH formation pathways in models of low-temperature propane oxidation. The experimental results are modeled and interpreted using a multiscale informatics approach, presented in detail in a separate publication (Burke, M. P.; Goldsmith, C. F.; Klippenstein, S. J.; Welz, O.; Huang H.; Antonov I. O.; Savee J. D.; Osborn D. L.; Zádor, J.; Taatjes, C. A.; Sheps, L. Multiscale Informatics for Low-Temperature Propane Oxidation: Further Complexities in Studies of Complex Reactions. J. Phys. Chem A. 2015, DOI: 10.1021/acs.jpca.5b01003). Additionally, we found that the model predicts the time profiles and yields of the experimentally observed primary products well, and shows satisfactory agreement for products

  19. Decadal-scale rates of reef erosion following El Niño-related mass coral mortality.

    PubMed

    Roff, George; Zhao, Jian-Xin; Mumby, Peter J

    2015-12-01

    As the frequency and intensity of coral mortality events increase under climate change, understanding how declines in coral cover may affect the bioerosion of reef frameworks is of increasing importance. Here, we explore decadal-scale rates of bioerosion of the framework building coral Orbicella annularis by grazing parrotfish following the 1997/1998 El Niño-related mass mortality event at Long Cay, Belize. Using high-precision U-Th dating and CT scan analysis, we quantified in situ rates of external bioerosion over a 13-year period (1998-2011). Based upon the error-weighted average U-Th age of dead O. annularis skeletons, we estimate the average external bioerosion between 1998 and 2011 as 0.92 ± 0.55 cm depth. Empirical observations of herbivore foraging, and a nonlinear numerical response of parrotfish to an increase in food availability, were used to create a model of external bioerosion at Long Cay. Model estimates of external bioerosion were in close agreement with U-Th estimates (0.85 ± 0.09 cm). The model was then used to quantify how rates of external bioerosion changed across a gradient of coral mort