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Sample records for absolute metabolite concentrations

  1. Absolute determination of local tropospheric OH concentrations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Armerding, Wolfgang; Comes, Franz-Josef

    1994-01-01

    Long path absorption (LPA) according to Lambert Beer's law is a method to determine absolute concentrations of trace gases such as tropospheric OH. We have developed a LPA instrument which is based on a rapid tuning of the light source which is a frequency doubled dye laser. The laser is tuned across two or three OH absorption features around 308 nm with a scanning speed of 0.07 cm(exp -1)/microsecond and a repetition rate of 1.3 kHz. This high scanning speed greatly reduces the fluctuation of the light intensity caused by the atmosphere. To obtain the required high sensitivity the laser output power is additionally made constant and stabilized by an electro-optical modulator. The present sensitivity is of the order of a few times 10(exp 5) OH per cm(exp 3) for an acquisition time of a minute and an absorption path length of only 1200 meters so that a folding of the optical path in a multireflection cell was possible leading to a lateral dimension of the cell of a few meters. This allows local measurements to be made. Tropospheric measurements have been carried out in 1991 resulting in the determination of OH diurnal variation at specific days in late summer. Comparison with model calculations have been made. Interferences are mainly due to SO2 absorption. The problem of OH self generation in the multireflection cell is of minor extent. This could be shown by using different experimental methods. The minimum-maximum signal to noise ratio is about 8 x 10(exp -4) for a single scan. Due to the small size of the absorption cell the realization of an open air laboratory is possible in which by use of an additional UV light source or by additional fluxes of trace gases the chemistry can be changed under controlled conditions allowing kinetic studies of tropospheric photochemistry to be made in open air.

  2. Familial resemblance for serum metabolite concentrations.

    PubMed

    Draisma, Harmen H M; Beekman, Marian; Pool, René; van Ommen, Gert-Jan B; Adamski, Jerzy; Prehn, Cornelia; Vaarhorst, Anika A M; de Craen, Anton J M; Willemsen, Gonneke; Slagboom, P Eline; Boomsma, Dorret I

    2013-10-01

    Metabolomics is the comprehensive study of metabolites, which are the substrates, intermediate, and end products of cellular metabolism. The heritability of the concentrations of circulating metabolites bears relevance for evaluating their suitability as biomarkers for disease. We report aspects of familial resemblance for the concentrations in human serum of more than 100 metabolites, measured using a targeted metabolomics platform. Age- and sex-corrected monozygotic twin correlations, midparent-offspring regression coefficients, and spouse correlations in subjects from two independent cohorts (Netherlands Twin Register and Leiden Longevity Study) were estimated for each metabolite. In the Netherlands Twin Register subjects, who were largely fasting, we found significant monozygotic twin correlations for 121 out of 123 metabolites. Heritability was confirmed by midparent-offspring regression. For most detected metabolites, the correlations between spouses were considerably lower than those between twins, indicating a contribution of genetic effects to familial resemblance. Remarkably high heritability was observed for free carnitine (monozygotic twin correlation 0.66), for the amino acids serine (monozygotic twin correlation 0.77) and threonine (monozygotic twin correlation 0.64), and for phosphatidylcholine acyl-alkyl C40:3 (monozygotic twin correlation 0.77). For octenoylcarnitine, a consistent point estimate of approximately 0.50 was found for the spouse correlations in the two cohorts as well as for the monozygotic twin correlation, suggesting that familiality for this metabolite is explained by shared environment. We conclude that for the majority of metabolites targeted by the used metabolomics platform, the familial resemblance of serum concentrations is largely genetic. Our results contribute to the knowledge of the heritability of fasting serum metabolite concentrations, which is relevant for biomarker research. PMID:23985338

  3. Absolute Quantification of Human Liver Phosphorus-Containing Metabolites In Vivo Using an Inhomogeneous Spoiling Magnetic Field Gradient

    PubMed Central

    Bashir, Adil; Gropler, Robert; Ackerman, Joseph

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Absolute concentrations of high-energy phosphorus (31P) metabolites in liver provide more important insight into physiologic status of liver disease compared to resonance integral ratios. A simple method for measuring absolute concentrations of 31P metabolites in human liver is described. The approach uses surface spoiling inhomogeneous magnetic field gradient to select signal from liver tissue. The technique avoids issues caused by respiratory motion, chemical shift dispersion associated with linear magnetic field gradients, and increased tissue heat deposition due to radiofrequency absorption, especially at high field strength. Methods A method to localize signal from liver was demonstrated using superficial and highly non-uniform magnetic field gradients, which eliminate signal(s) from surface tissue(s) located between the liver and RF coil. A double standard method was implemented to determine absolute 31P metabolite concentrations in vivo. 8 healthy individuals were examined in a 3 T MR scanner. Results Concentrations of metabolites measured in eight healthy individuals are: γ-adenosine triphosphate (ATP) = 2.44 ± 0.21 (mean ± sd) mmol/l of wet tissue volume, α-ATP = 3.2 ± 0.63 mmol/l, β-ATP = 2.98 ± 0.45 mmol/l, inorganic phosphates (Pi) = 1.87 ± 0.25 mmol/l, phosphodiesters (PDE) = 10.62 ± 2.20 mmol/l and phosphomonoesters (PME) = 2.12 ± 0.51 mmol/l. All are in good agreement with literature values. Conclusions The technique offers robust and fast means to localize signal from liver tissue, allows absolute metabolite concentration determination, and avoids problems associated with constant field gradient (linear field variation) localization methods. PMID:26633549

  4. Absolute concentration measurements inside a jet plume using video digitization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vauquelin, O.

    An experimental system based on digitized video image analysis is used to measure the local value of the concentration inside a plume. Experiments are carried out in a wind-tunnel for a smoke-seeded turbulent jet plume illuminated with a laser beam. Each test is filmed, subsequently video images are digitized and analysed in order to determine the smoke absolute concentration corresponding to each pixel gray level. This non-intrusive measurement technique is first calibrated and different laws connecting gray level to concentration are established. As a first application, concentration measurements are made inside a turbulent jet plume and compared with measurements conducted using a classic gas analysis method. We finally present and discuss the possibilities offered for the measurements of absolute concentration fluctuations.

  5. Maternal and Infant Urinary Phthalate Metabolite Concentrations: Are They Related?

    PubMed Central

    Sathyanarayana, S; Calafat, Antonia Maria; Liu, Fan; Swan, Shanna Helen

    2008-01-01

    Background Phthalates are synthetic chemicals that are ubiquitous in our society and may have adverse health effects in humans. Detectable concentrations of phthalate metabolites have been found in adults and children, but no studies have examined the relationship between maternal and infant phthalate metabolite concentrations. Objective We investigated the relationship between maternal and infant urinary phthalate metabolite concentrations. Methods We measured nine phthalate metabolites in urine samples from 210 mother/infant pairs collected on the same study visit day (1999–2005) and obtained demographic history from questionnaires. Using multivariate linear regression analyses, we examined the degree to which maternal urine phthalate metabolite concentration predicted infant phthalate metabolite concentration. All analyses were adjusted for infant age, creatinine concentration, and race. Results Correlation coefficients between phthalate metabolite concentrations in the urine of mothers and their infants were generally low but increased with decreasing age of infant. In multivariate analyses, mother’s phthalate metabolite concentrations were significantly associated with infants’ concentrations for six phthalate metabolites: monobenzyl phthalate, monoethyl phthalate, monoisobutyl phthalate, and three metabolites of di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate: mono(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate, mono(2-ethyl-5-hydroxy-hexyl) phthalate and mono(2-ethyl-5-oxo-hexyl) phthalate (p-values for all coefficients <0.05). Discussion Mother’s urine phthalate metabolite concentration is significantly associated with infant urine phthalate metabolite concentration for six phthalate metabolites. It is plausible that shared exposures to phthalates in the immediate surrounding environment accounted for these relationships, but other unidentified sources may also contribute to infants’ phthalate exposures. This study indicates the importance of further identifying infant phthalate exposures

  6. Absolute Quantification of Matrix Metabolites Reveals the Dynamics of Mitochondrial Metabolism.

    PubMed

    Chen, Walter W; Freinkman, Elizaveta; Wang, Tim; Birsoy, Kıvanç; Sabatini, David M

    2016-08-25

    Mitochondria house metabolic pathways that impact most aspects of cellular physiology. While metabolite profiling by mass spectrometry is widely applied at the whole-cell level, it is not routinely possible to measure the concentrations of small molecules in mammalian organelles. We describe a method for the rapid and specific isolation of mitochondria and use it in tandem with a database of predicted mitochondrial metabolites ("MITObolome") to measure the matrix concentrations of more than 100 metabolites across various states of respiratory chain (RC) function. Disruption of the RC reveals extensive compartmentalization of mitochondrial metabolism and signatures unique to the inhibition of each RC complex. Pyruvate enables the proliferation of RC-deficient cells but has surprisingly limited effects on matrix contents. Interestingly, despite failing to restore matrix NADH/NAD balance, pyruvate does increase aspartate, likely through the exchange of matrix glutamate for cytosolic aspartate. We demonstrate the value of mitochondrial metabolite profiling and describe a strategy applicable to other organelles. PMID:27565352

  7. Non-invasive quantification of brain glycogen absolute concentration

    PubMed Central

    van Heeswijk, Ruud B.; Xin, Lijing; Laus, Sabrina; Frenkel, Hanne; Lei, Hongxia; Gruetter, Rolf

    2009-01-01

    The only currently available method to measure brain glycogen in vivo is 13C NMR spectroscopy. Incorporation of 13C-labeled glucose (Glc) is necessary to allow glycogen measurement, but might be affected by turnover changes. Our aim was to measure glycogen absolute concentration in the rat brain by eliminating label turnover as variable. The approach is based on establishing an increased, constant 13C isotopic enrichment (IE). 13C-Glc infusion is then performed at the IE of brain glycogen. As glycogen IE cannot be assessed in vivo, we validated that it can be inferred from that of N-acetyl-aspartate IE in vivo: After [1-13C]-Glc ingestion, glycogen IE was 2.2 ± 0.1 fold that of N-acetyl-aspartate (n = 11, R2 = 0.77). After subsequent Glc infusion, glycogen IE equaled brain Glc IE (n = 6, paired t-test, p = 0.37), implying isotopic steady-state achievement and complete turnover of the glycogen molecule. Glycogen concentration measured in vivo by 13C NMR (mean ± SD: 5.8 ± 0.7 μmol/g) was in excellent agreement with that in vitro (6.4 ± 0.6 μmol/g, n = 5). When insulin was administered, the stability of glycogen concentration was analogous to previous biochemical measurements implying that glycogen turnover is activated by insulin. We conclude that the entire glycogen molecule is turned over and that insulin activates glycogen turnover. PMID:19013831

  8. Localized phosphorus spectroscopy in vivo: Quantitation of metabolite concentrations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wylezinska-Arridge, Marzena Malgorzata

    This project was dedicated to the investigation of the factors that may affect absolute quantitation in localized 31P MRS and if possible to the improvement of the accuracy of both localization and quantification. Three aspects have been looked at: 1) the acquisition /localization technique used; 2) the strategy used for conversion of signal amplitude/peak areas into concentrations; and 3) methods for MRS signal processing and analysis. With respect to the first aspect, image selected in vivo spectroscopy (ISIS) and point resolved spectroscopy (PRESS), were considered. Aspects of ISIS localization, including relaxation effects during inversion and excitation adiabatic pulses, and uniformity of spin excitation across the "in vivo" 31P spectral range, were investigated using simulation. In order to reduce the chemical shift displacement error in ISIS, a new adiabatic pulse for spin inversion, has been designed and experimentally verified. For PRESS, the performance of the selective 90[degrees] and 180[degrees] pulses was investigated experimentally and using simulations. The consequences of nonideal flip angles on T1 measurements based on two PRESS experiments were analyzed. Effects of amplitude and phase modulation of the ATP signal during the PRESS sequence were analyzed using product-operator formalism for an AMX system. A tissue substitute material, with known metabolite concentrations and simulating the 31P spectrum obtained from neonatal brain, has been developed for testing quantitation accuracy. The manufacture, physical properties and chemical stability of a material has been presented. The following calibration protocols have been experimentally verified: use of water as an internal concentration reference (ICR), and use of a standard phantom as an external concentration reference (ECR). A modified ECR protocol using the tissue substitute material as a reference, has been suggested to deal with problems related to off-resonance effects. This protocol has

  9. Urinary concentrations of PAH and VOC metabolites in marijuana users

    PubMed Central

    Wei, Binnian; Alwis, K. Udeni; Li, Zheng; Wang, Lanqing; Valentin-Blasini, Liza; Sosnoff, Connie S.; Xia, Yang; Conway, Kevin P.; Blount, Benjamin C.

    2016-01-01

    Background Marijuana is seeing increased therapeutic use, and is the world’s third most-popular recreational drug following alcohol and tobacco. This widening use poses increased exposure to potentially toxic combustion by-products from marijuana smoke and the potential for public health concerns. Objectives To compare urinary metabolites of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and volatile organic compounds (VOCs) among self-reported recent marijuana users and nonusers, while accounting for tobacco smoke exposure. Methods Measurements of PAH and VOC metabolites in urine samples were combined with questionnaire data collected from participants in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys (NHANES) from 2005 to 2012 in order to categorize participants (≥18 years) into exclusive recent marijuana users and nonusers. Adjusted geometric means (GMs) of urinary concentrations were computed for these groups using multiple regression analyses to adjust for potential confounders. Results Adjusted GMs of many individual monohydroxy PAHs (OH-PAHs) were significantly higher in recent marijuana users than in nonusers (p < 0.05). Urinary thiocyanate (p < 0.001) and urinary concentrations of many VOC metabolites, including metabolites of acrylonitrile (p < 0.001) and acrylamide (p < 0.001), were significantly higher in recent marijuana users than in nonusers. Conclusions We found elevated levels of biomarkers for potentially harmful chemicals among self-identified, recent marijuana users compared with nonusers. These findings suggest that further studies are needed to evaluate the potential health risks to humans from the exposure to these agents when smoking marijuana. PMID:26690539

  10. Behavior of Multiclass Pesticide Residue Concentrations during the Transformation from Rose Petals to Rose Absolute.

    PubMed

    Tascone, Oriane; Fillâtre, Yoann; Roy, Céline; Meierhenrich, Uwe J

    2015-05-27

    This study investigates the concentrations of 54 multiclass pesticides during the transformation processes from rose petal to concrete and absolute using roses spiked with pesticides as a model. The concentrations of the pesticides were followed during the process of transforming the spiked rose flowers from an organic field into concrete and then into absolute. The rose flowers, the concrete, and the absolute, as well as their transformation intermediates, were analyzed for pesticide content using gas chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry. We observed that all the pesticides were extracted and concentrated in the absolute, with the exception of three molecules: fenthion, fenamiphos, and phorate. Typical pesticides were found to be concentrated by a factor of 100-300 from the rose flowers to the rose absolute. The observed effect of pesticide enrichment was also studied in roses and their extracts from four classically phytosanitary treated fields. Seventeen pesticides were detected in at least one of the extracts. Like the case for the spiked samples in our model, the pesticides present in the rose flowers from Turkey were concentrated in the absolute. Two pesticides, methidathion and chlorpyrifos, were quantified in the rose flowers at approximately 0.01 and 0.01-0.05 mg kg(-1), respectively, depending on the treated field. The concentrations determined for the corresponding rose absolutes were 4.7 mg kg(-1) for methidathion and 0.65-27.25 mg kg(-1) for chlorpyrifos.

  11. Behavior of Multiclass Pesticide Residue Concentrations during the Transformation from Rose Petals to Rose Absolute.

    PubMed

    Tascone, Oriane; Fillâtre, Yoann; Roy, Céline; Meierhenrich, Uwe J

    2015-05-27

    This study investigates the concentrations of 54 multiclass pesticides during the transformation processes from rose petal to concrete and absolute using roses spiked with pesticides as a model. The concentrations of the pesticides were followed during the process of transforming the spiked rose flowers from an organic field into concrete and then into absolute. The rose flowers, the concrete, and the absolute, as well as their transformation intermediates, were analyzed for pesticide content using gas chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry. We observed that all the pesticides were extracted and concentrated in the absolute, with the exception of three molecules: fenthion, fenamiphos, and phorate. Typical pesticides were found to be concentrated by a factor of 100-300 from the rose flowers to the rose absolute. The observed effect of pesticide enrichment was also studied in roses and their extracts from four classically phytosanitary treated fields. Seventeen pesticides were detected in at least one of the extracts. Like the case for the spiked samples in our model, the pesticides present in the rose flowers from Turkey were concentrated in the absolute. Two pesticides, methidathion and chlorpyrifos, were quantified in the rose flowers at approximately 0.01 and 0.01-0.05 mg kg(-1), respectively, depending on the treated field. The concentrations determined for the corresponding rose absolutes were 4.7 mg kg(-1) for methidathion and 0.65-27.25 mg kg(-1) for chlorpyrifos. PMID:25942486

  12. Urinary phthalate metabolite concentrations and blood glucose levels during pregnancy

    PubMed Central

    Robledo, Candace A.; Peck, Jennifer D.; Stoner, Julie; Calafat, Antonia M.; Carabin, Hélène; Cowan, Linda; Goodman, Jean R.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose To examine associations between phthalate metabolite urinary concentrations during early pregnancy and blood glucose levels obtained at the time of screening for gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM). Methods Upon initiation of prenatal care, women with a mean gestational age of 12.8 weeks were recruited for a study of environmental chemical exposures (n = 110) and provided a spot urinary specimen. Blood glucose concentrations (mg/dl) were obtained from the electronic medical record for those patients who did not experience a pregnancy loss and did not transfer care to another facility prior to glucose screening (n = 72). Urinary concentrations of nine phthalate metabolites and creatinine were measured at the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Associations between tertiles of phthalate metabolites concentrations and blood glucose levels were estimated using linear regression. Results Compared to pregnant women in the lowest concentration tertile, women with the highest urinary concentrations (≥3rd tertile) of mono-iso-butyl phthalate (tertile: ≥15.3 μg/l, β = −18.3, 95% CI: −35.4, −1.2) and monobenzyl phthalate (tertile: ≥30.3 μg/l, β = −17.3, 95% CI: −34.1, −0.4) had lower blood glucose levels at the time of GDM screening after adjustment for urinary creatinine and demographic covariates. Conclusion Because maternal glucose levels increase during pregnancy to provide adequate nutrition for fetal growth and development, these findings may have implications for fetal health. However, given the limitations of our study, findings should be interpreted cautiously. PMID:25726127

  13. CSF concentration gradients of monoamine metabolites in patients with hydrocephalus.

    PubMed Central

    Malm, J; Kristensen, B; Ekstedt, J; Wester, P

    1994-01-01

    Concentration gradients of homovanillic acid (HVA), 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid (5-HIAA), and 3-methoxy-4-hydroxyphenylglycol (MHPG), were assessed in 762 successive CSF fractions (2 ml lumbar CSF) from 15 patients with the adult hydrocephalus syndrome (AHS) and 11 patients with hydrocephalus of other causes (mixed group). A mean volume of 49.6 (SD 11.8) ml CSF was removed in the AHS group and 56.4 (10.2) ml in the mixed group. The CSF was collected with a specially designed carousel fraction collector and the corresponding CSF dynamics were continuously registered by a constant pressure CSF infusion method. Pronounced gradients in CSF HVA and CSF 5-HIAA were seen in both patient groups in the first 25 ml of CSF removed. The concentration curves levelled off, despite the removal of larger amounts of CSF and stabilised at about twice the initial concentrations. This phenomenon has not been described before. Concentrations of HVA and 5-HIAA in the first CSF fraction correlated strongly with concentrations in fractions up to about 40 ml. A positive correlation between the first fraction of CSF HVA and CSF 5-HIAA concentrations and CSF outflow conductance was found in the AHS group. There was no gradient in MHPG. It is suggested that the rostrocaudal gradients in CSF HVA and 5-HIAA may be explained by a downward flow of CSF along the spinal cord with absorption of metabolites occurring during passage. Mixing of CSF from different CSF compartments, extraventricular production sites of CSF, clearance of metabolites to venous blood or extracellular fluid, and CSF outflow conductance are probably important determinants of the plateau phase in patients with hydrocephalus. It is concluded that lumbar CSF does not exclusively reflect the concentrations of HVA, 5-HIAA, or MHPG in the ventricles. It should be noted that these results obtained in patients with hydrocephalus may not be applicable to other groups of patients or normal subjects. PMID:7522267

  14. Characterisation of the Metabolites of 1,8-Cineole Transferred into Human Milk: Concentrations and Ratio of Enantiomers

    PubMed Central

    Kirsch, Frauke; Buettner, Andrea

    2013-01-01

    1,8-Cineole is a widely distributed odorant that also shows physiological effects, but whose human metabolism has hitherto not been extensively investigated. The aim of the present study was, thus, to characterise the metabolites of 1,8-cineole, identified previously in human milk, after the oral intake of 100 mg of this substance. Special emphasis was placed on the enantiomeric composition of the metabolites since these data may provide important insights into potential biotransformation pathways, as well as potential biological activities of these substances, for example on the breastfed child. The volatile fraction of the human milk samples was therefore isolated via Solvent Assisted Flavour Evaporation (SAFE) and subjected to gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The absolute concentrations of each metabolite were determined by matrix calibration with an internal standard, and the ratios of enantiomers were analysed on chiral capillaries. The concentrations varied over a broad range, from traces in the upper ng/kg region up to 40 µg/kg milk, with the exception of the main metabolite α2-hydroxy-1,8-cineole that showed concentrations of 100–250 µg/kg. Also, large inter- and intra-individual variations were recorded for the enantiomers, with nearly enantiomerically pure α2-hydroxy- and 3-oxo-1,8-cineole, while all other metabolites showed ratios of ~30:70 to 80:20. PMID:24957890

  15. Brain metabolite concentrations across cortical regions in healthy adults

    PubMed Central

    Bracken, Bethany K.; Jensen, J. Eric; Prescot, Andrew P.; Cohen, Bruce M.; Renshaw, Perry F.; Öngür, Dost

    2010-01-01

    Magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) can provide in vivo information about metabolite levels across multiple brain regions. This study used MRS to examine concentrations of N-acetylaspartate (NAA), a marker of neuronal integrity and function, and choline (Cho) which is related to the amount of cell membrane per unit volume, in anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) and parieto-occipital cortex (POC) in healthy individuals. Data were drawn from two experiments which examined glutamatergic and GABAergic signaling in schizophrenia and bipolar disorder. After controlling for gray matter percentages, NAA/Creatine (Cr) was 18% higher in POC than in ACC (p<0.001); Cho/Cr was 46% lower in POC than in ACC (p<0.001). There was an effect of study (p<0.001 for both metabolites), but no region by study interaction (NAA p=0.101, Cho p=0.850). Since NAA is localized to the intracellular space, these data suggest that ACC neuronal compartment is reduced as compared with POC, or that there is a lower concentration of NAA per cell in the ACC than POC, or both. Since elevated Cho suggests more cell membrane per unit volume, reduced NAA in ACC appears to be coupled with increases in overall cell membrane compartment. These findings are consistent with a number of previous studies using proton MRS which found increasing NAA and decreasing Cho moving caudally, and with post mortem anatomical studies which found neurons in more widely spaced bundles in ACC when compared to parietal and occipital cortices. MRS may be a useful tool for studying physical properties of the living human brain. PMID:21081116

  16. In situ measurement of leaf chlorophyll concentration: analysis of the optical/absolute relationship.

    PubMed

    Parry, Christopher; Blonquist, J Mark; Bugbee, Bruce

    2014-11-01

    In situ optical meters are widely used to estimate leaf chlorophyll concentration, but non-uniform chlorophyll distribution causes optical measurements to vary widely among species for the same chlorophyll concentration. Over 30 studies have sought to quantify the in situ/in vitro (optical/absolute) relationship, but neither chlorophyll extraction nor measurement techniques for in vitro analysis have been consistent among studies. Here we: (1) review standard procedures for measurement of chlorophyll; (2) estimate the error associated with non-standard procedures; and (3) implement the most accurate methods to provide equations for conversion of optical to absolute chlorophyll for 22 species grown in multiple environments. Tests of five Minolta (model SPAD-502) and 25 Opti-Sciences (model CCM-200) meters, manufactured from 1992 to 2013, indicate that differences among replicate models are less than 5%. We thus developed equations for converting between units from these meter types. There was no significant effect of environment on the optical/absolute chlorophyll relationship. We derive the theoretical relationship between optical transmission ratios and absolute chlorophyll concentration and show how non-uniform distribution among species causes a variable, non-linear response. These results link in situ optical measurements with in vitro chlorophyll concentration and provide insight to strategies for radiation capture among diverse species.

  17. Absolute Quantitation of Water and Metabolites in the Human Brain. I. Compartments and Water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ernst, T.; Kreis, R.; Ross, B. D.

    A method is presented to determine the compartmentation of a localized region in the human brain in terms of CSF, tissue water, and an NMR-invisible rest, using a PRESS or STEAM sequence. Discrimination between CSF and tissue water is based on differences in their T2 relaxation times. The NMR-invisible compartment is assessed using an external standard. The composition of three regions in the human brain is determined. The CSF content of specific regions can be used to quantify cortical atrophy. The method provides a means for measuring the water content of brain tissue in vivo with a precision of 1.5%. After appropriate corrections, the results are in close agreement with biochemical values. The method has major applications in localized quantitative spectroscopy. The compartmentation model can be used to correct for the CSF content of the selected volume and to properly define and interconvert all major concentration units.

  18. Method for determining the absolute number concentration of nanoparticles from electrospray sources.

    PubMed

    Li, Mingdong; Guha, Suvajyoti; Zangmeister, Rebecca; Tarlov, Michael J; Zachariah, Michael R

    2011-12-20

    We have developed a simple, fast, and accurate method to measure the absolute number concentration of nanoparticles in solution. The method combines electrospray differential mobility analysis (ES-DMA) with a statistical analysis of droplet-induced oligomer formation. A key feature of the method is that it allows determination of the absolute number concentration of particles by knowing only the droplet size generated from a particular ES source, thereby eliminating the need for sample-specific calibration standards or detailed analysis of transport losses. The approach was validated by comparing the total number concentration of monodispersed Au nanoparticles determined by ES-DMA with UV/vis measurements. We also show that this approach is valid for protein molecules by quantifying the absolute number concentration of Rituxan monoclonal antibody in solution. The methodology is applicable for quantification of any electrospray process coupled to an analytical tool that can distinguish monomers from higher order oligomers. The only requirement is that the droplet size distribution be evaluated. For users only interested in implementation of the theory, we provide a section that summarizes the relevant formulas. This method eliminates the need for sample-specific calibration standards or detailed analysis of transport losses.

  19. Biological evaluation and determination of the absolute configuration of chloromonilicin, a strong antimicrobial metabolite isolated from Alternaria sonchi.

    PubMed

    Cimmino, Alessio; Pescitelli, Gennaro; Berestetskiy, Alexander; Dalinova, Anna; Krivorotov, Denis; Tuzi, Angela; Evidente, Antonio

    2016-01-01

    Chloromonilicin was isolated for the first time from Alternaria sonchi, a mycoherbicide proposed for the control of the noxious weed Sonchus arvensis. The already known alternethanoxins A and B and the three recently isolated phytotoxic polycyclic ethanones named alternethanoxins C-E were also isolated from the same source. Chloromonilicin was identified by spectroscopic data (essentially one-dimensional NMR, 2-dimensional NMR and high-resolution ESI-MS) and its structure was confirmed by single X-ray analysis, which also allowed the assignment of the absolute configuration. This latter was independently confirmed by electronic CD calculations. When chloromonilicin was tested for its antimicrobial activity, it was active at concentrations 0.5-1 μg per disc against four bacterial species and a yeast fungus. The compound inhibited conidial germination of four plant pathogens at concentration of 1-10 μg ml(-1). No phytotoxic activity of this antibiotic by leaf-disc puncture bioassay was detected.

  20. Absolute tracer dye concentration using airborne laser-induced water Raman backscatter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoge, F. E.; Swift, R. N.

    1981-01-01

    The use of simultaneous airborne-laser-induced dye fluorescence and water Raman backscatter to measure the absolute concentration of an ocean-dispersed tracer dye is discussed. Theoretical considerations of the calculation of dye concentration by the numerical comparison of airborne laser-induced fluorescence spectra with laboratory spectra for known dye concentrations using the 3400/cm OH-stretch water Raman scatter as a calibration signal are presented which show that minimum errors are obtained and no data concerning water mass transmission properties are required when the laser wavelength is chosen to yield a Raman signal near the dye emission band. Results of field experiments conducted with an airborne conical scan lidar over a site in New York Bight into which rhodamine dye had been injected in a study of oil spill dispersion are then indicated which resulted in a contour map of dye concentrations, with a minimum detectable dye concentration of approximately 2 ppb by weight.

  1. Microfabricated Collector-Generator Electrode Sensor for Measuring Absolute pH and Oxygen Concentrations.

    PubMed

    Dengler, Adam K; Wightman, R Mark; McCarty, Gregory S

    2015-10-20

    Fast-scan cyclic voltammetry (FSCV) has attracted attention for studying in vivo neurotransmission due to its subsecond temporal resolution, selectivity, and sensitivity. Traditional FSCV measurements use background subtraction to isolate changes in the local electrochemical environment, providing detailed information on fluctuations in the concentration of electroactive species. This background subtraction removes information about constant or slowly changing concentrations. However, determination of background concentrations is still important for understanding functioning brain tissue. For example, neural activity is known to consume oxygen and produce carbon dioxide which affects local levels of oxygen and pH. Here, we present a microfabricated microelectrode array which uses FSCV to detect the absolute levels of oxygen and pH in vitro. The sensor is a collector-generator electrode array with carbon microelectrodes spaced 5 μm apart. In this work, a periodic potential step is applied at the generator producing transient local changes in the electrochemical environment. The collector electrode continuously performs FSCV enabling these induced changes in concentration to be recorded with the sensitivity and selectivity of FSCV. A negative potential step applied at the generator produces a transient local pH shift at the collector. The generator-induced pH signal is detected using FSCV at the collector and correlated to absolute solution pH by postcalibration of the anodic peak position. In addition, in oxygenated solutions a negative potential step at the generator produces hydrogen peroxide by reducing oxygen. Hydrogen peroxide is detected with FSCV at the collector electrode, and the magnitude of the oxidative peak is proportional to absolute oxygen concentrations. Oxygen interference on the pH signal is minimal and can be accounted for with a postcalibration.

  2. Frontal Metabolite Concentration Deficits in Opiate Dependence Relate to Substance Use, Cognition, and Self-Regulation

    PubMed Central

    Murray, Donna E; Durazzo, Timothy C; Schmidt, Thomas P; Abé, Christoph; Guydish, Joseph; Meyerhoff, Dieter J

    2016-01-01

    Objective Proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (1H MRS) in opiate dependence showed abnormalities in neuronal viability and glutamate concentration in the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC). Metabolite levels in dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) or orbitofrontal cortex (OFC) and their neuropsychological correlates have not been investigated in opiate dependence. Methods Single-volume proton MRS at 4 Tesla and neuropsychological testing were conducted in 21 opiate-dependent individuals (OD) on buprenorphine maintenance therapy. Results were compared to 28 controls (CON) and 35 alcohol-dependent individuals (ALC), commonly investigated treatment-seekers providing context for OD evaluation. Metabolite concentrations were measured from ACC, DLPFC, OFC and parieto-occipital cortical (POC) regions. Results Compared to CON, OD had lower concentrations of N-acetylaspartate (NAA), glutamate (Glu), creatine +phosphocreatine (Cr) and myo-Inositol (mI) in the DLPFC and lower NAA, Cr, and mI in the ACC. OD, ALC, and CON were equivalent on metabolite levels in the POC and γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) concentration did not differ between groups in any region. In OD, prefrontal metabolite deficits in ACC Glu as well as DLPFC NAA and choline containing metabolites (Cho) correlated with poorer working memory, executive and visuospatial functioning; metabolite deficits in DLPFC Glu and ACC GABA and Cr correlated with substance use measures. In the OFC of OD, Glu and choline-containing metabolites were elevated and lower Cr concentration related to higher nonplanning impulsivity. Compared to 3 week abstinent ALC, OD had significant DLPFC metabolite deficits. Conclusion The anterior frontal metabolite profile of OD differed significantly from that of CON and ALC. The frontal lobe metabolite abnormalities in OD and their neuropsychological correlates may play a role in treatment outcome and could be explored as specific targets for improved OD treatment. PMID:27695638

  3. Frontal Metabolite Concentration Deficits in Opiate Dependence Relate to Substance Use, Cognition, and Self-Regulation

    PubMed Central

    Murray, Donna E; Durazzo, Timothy C; Schmidt, Thomas P; Abé, Christoph; Guydish, Joseph; Meyerhoff, Dieter J

    2016-01-01

    Objective Proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (1H MRS) in opiate dependence showed abnormalities in neuronal viability and glutamate concentration in the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC). Metabolite levels in dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) or orbitofrontal cortex (OFC) and their neuropsychological correlates have not been investigated in opiate dependence. Methods Single-volume proton MRS at 4 Tesla and neuropsychological testing were conducted in 21 opiate-dependent individuals (OD) on buprenorphine maintenance therapy. Results were compared to 28 controls (CON) and 35 alcohol-dependent individuals (ALC), commonly investigated treatment-seekers providing context for OD evaluation. Metabolite concentrations were measured from ACC, DLPFC, OFC and parieto-occipital cortical (POC) regions. Results Compared to CON, OD had lower concentrations of N-acetylaspartate (NAA), glutamate (Glu), creatine +phosphocreatine (Cr) and myo-Inositol (mI) in the DLPFC and lower NAA, Cr, and mI in the ACC. OD, ALC, and CON were equivalent on metabolite levels in the POC and γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) concentration did not differ between groups in any region. In OD, prefrontal metabolite deficits in ACC Glu as well as DLPFC NAA and choline containing metabolites (Cho) correlated with poorer working memory, executive and visuospatial functioning; metabolite deficits in DLPFC Glu and ACC GABA and Cr correlated with substance use measures. In the OFC of OD, Glu and choline-containing metabolites were elevated and lower Cr concentration related to higher nonplanning impulsivity. Compared to 3 week abstinent ALC, OD had significant DLPFC metabolite deficits. Conclusion The anterior frontal metabolite profile of OD differed significantly from that of CON and ALC. The frontal lobe metabolite abnormalities in OD and their neuropsychological correlates may play a role in treatment outcome and could be explored as specific targets for improved OD treatment.

  4. Using Absolute Humidity and Radiochemical Analyses of Water Vapor Samples to Correct Underestimated Atmospheric Tritium Concentrations

    SciTech Connect

    Eberhart, C.F.

    1999-06-01

    Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) emits a wide variety of radioactive air contaminants. An extensive ambient air monitoring network, known as AIRNET, is operated on-site and in surrounding communities to estimate radioactive doses to the public. As part of this monitoring network, water vapor is sampled continuously at more than 50 sites. These water vapor samples are collected every two weeks by absorbing the water vapor in the sampled air with silica gel and then radiochemically analyzing the water for tritium. The data have consistently indicated that LANL emissions cause a small, but measurable impact on local concentrations of tritium. In early 1998, while trying to independently verify the presumed 100% water vapor collection efficiency, the author found that this efficiency was normally lower and reached a minimum of 10 to 20% in the middle of summer. This inefficient collection was discovered by comparing absolute humidity (g/m{sup 3}) calculated from relative humidity and temperature to the amount of water vapor collected by the silica gel per cubic meter of air sampled. Subsequent experiments confirmed that the elevated temperature inside the louvered housing was high enough to reduce the capacity of the silica gel by more than half. In addition, their experiments also demonstrated that, even under optimal conditions, there is not enough silica gel present in the sampling canister to absorb all of the moisture during the higher humidity periods. However, there is a solution to this problem. Ambient tritium concentrations have been recalculated by using the absolute humidity values and the tritium analyses. These recalculated tritium concentrations were two to three times higher than previously reported. Future tritium concentrations will also be determined in the same manner. Finally, the water vapor collection process will be changed by relocating the sampling canister outside the housing to increase collection efficiency and, therefore

  5. Novel rapid liquid chromatography tandem masspectrometry method for vemurafenib and metabolites in human plasma, including metabolite concentrations at steady state.

    PubMed

    Vikingsson, Svante; Strömqvist, Malin; Svedberg, Anna; Hansson, Johan; Höiom, Veronica; Gréen, Henrik

    2016-08-01

    A novel, rapid and sensitive liquid chromatography tandem-mass spectrometry method for quantification of vemurafenib in human plasma, that also for the first time allows for metabolite semi-quantification, was developed and validated to support clinical trials and therapeutic drug monitoring. Vemurafenib was analysed by precipitation with methanol followed by a 1.9 min isocratic liquid chromatography tandem masspectrometry analysis using an Acquity BEH C18 column with methanol and formic acid using isotope labelled internal standards. Analytes were detected in multireaction monitoring mode on a Xevo TQ. Semi-quantification of vemurafenib metabolites was performed using the same analytical system and sample preparation with gradient elution. The vemurafenib method was successfully validated in the range 0.5-100 μg/mL according to international guidelines. The metabolite method was partially validated owing to the lack of commercially available reference materials. For the first time concentration levels at steady state for melanoma patients treated with vemurafenib is presented. The low abundance of vemurafenib metabolites suggests that they lack clinical significance. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  6. Contribution of network connectivity in determining the relationship between gene expression and metabolite concentration changes.

    PubMed

    Zelezniak, Aleksej; Sheridan, Steven; Patil, Kiran Raosaheb

    2014-04-01

    One of the primary mechanisms through which a cell exerts control over its metabolic state is by modulating expression levels of its enzyme-coding genes. However, the changes at the level of enzyme expression allow only indirect control over metabolite levels, for two main reasons. First, at the level of individual reactions, metabolite levels are non-linearly dependent on enzyme abundances as per the reaction kinetics mechanisms. Secondly, specific metabolite pools are tightly interlinked with the rest of the metabolic network through their production and consumption reactions. While the role of reaction kinetics in metabolite concentration control is well studied at the level of individual reactions, the contribution of network connectivity has remained relatively unclear. Here we report a modeling framework that integrates both reaction kinetics and network connectivity constraints for describing the interplay between metabolite concentrations and mRNA levels. We used this framework to investigate correlations between the gene expression and the metabolite concentration changes in Saccharomyces cerevisiae during its metabolic cycle, as well as in response to three fundamentally different biological perturbations, namely gene knockout, nutrient shock and nutrient change. While the kinetic constraints applied at the level of individual reactions were found to be poor descriptors of the mRNA-metabolite relationship, their use in the context of the network enabled us to correlate changes in the expression of enzyme-coding genes to the alterations in metabolite levels. Our results highlight the key contribution of metabolic network connectivity in mediating cellular control over metabolite levels, and have implications towards bridging the gap between genotype and metabolic phenotype.

  7. Vinyl flooring in the home is associated with children's airborne butylbenzyl phthalate and urinary metabolite concentrations.

    PubMed

    Just, Allan C; Miller, Rachel L; Perzanowski, Matthew S; Rundle, Andrew G; Chen, Qixuan; Jung, Kyung Hwa; Hoepner, Lori; Camann, David E; Calafat, Antonia M; Perera, Frederica P; Whyatt, Robin M

    2015-01-01

    Prior studies have shown that vinyl flooring as well as the vinyl-softening plasticizers butylbenzyl phthalate (BBzP) and di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) are associated with asthma and airway inflammation. Although DEHP exposure is primarily dietary, whether home vinyl flooring contributes to indoor air and urinary metabolite concentrations for these two phthalates is unclear. Exposures to BBzP and DEHP were examined in a prospective birth cohort of New York City children (n=239) using: (i) visual observation of potential phthalate containing flooring, (ii) a 2-week home indoor air sample, and (iii) concurrent urinary metabolites in a subset (n=193). The category "vinyl or linoleum" flooring was observed in 135 (56%) of monitored rooms; these rooms had statistically significantly higher indoor air geometric mean concentrations of BBzP (23.9 ng/m(3)) than rooms with wood or carpet flooring (10.6 ng/m(3)). Children from homes with "vinyl or linoleum" flooring also had significantly higher urinary BBzP metabolite concentrations than other children. Indoor air BBzP and urinary metabolite concentrations were correlated positively (Spearman's rho 0.40). By contrast, indoor air DEHP was not associated with flooring type nor with its urinary metabolite concentrations. Vinyl flooring in the home may be an important source of children's exposure to BBzP via indoor air. PMID:25690585

  8. Vinyl flooring in the home is associated with children's airborne butylbenzyl phthalate and urinary metabolite concentrations.

    PubMed

    Just, Allan C; Miller, Rachel L; Perzanowski, Matthew S; Rundle, Andrew G; Chen, Qixuan; Jung, Kyung Hwa; Hoepner, Lori; Camann, David E; Calafat, Antonia M; Perera, Frederica P; Whyatt, Robin M

    2015-01-01

    Prior studies have shown that vinyl flooring as well as the vinyl-softening plasticizers butylbenzyl phthalate (BBzP) and di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) are associated with asthma and airway inflammation. Although DEHP exposure is primarily dietary, whether home vinyl flooring contributes to indoor air and urinary metabolite concentrations for these two phthalates is unclear. Exposures to BBzP and DEHP were examined in a prospective birth cohort of New York City children (n=239) using: (i) visual observation of potential phthalate containing flooring, (ii) a 2-week home indoor air sample, and (iii) concurrent urinary metabolites in a subset (n=193). The category "vinyl or linoleum" flooring was observed in 135 (56%) of monitored rooms; these rooms had statistically significantly higher indoor air geometric mean concentrations of BBzP (23.9 ng/m(3)) than rooms with wood or carpet flooring (10.6 ng/m(3)). Children from homes with "vinyl or linoleum" flooring also had significantly higher urinary BBzP metabolite concentrations than other children. Indoor air BBzP and urinary metabolite concentrations were correlated positively (Spearman's rho 0.40). By contrast, indoor air DEHP was not associated with flooring type nor with its urinary metabolite concentrations. Vinyl flooring in the home may be an important source of children's exposure to BBzP via indoor air.

  9. Variability and Predictors of Urinary Concentrations of Phthalate Metabolites during Early Childhood

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    The variability and predictors of urinary concentrations of phthalate metabolites in preschool-aged children have not been thoroughly examined. Additionally, the impact of temporal changes in the use and restriction of phthalates in children’s products has not been assessed. Our objective was to identify demographic, behavioral, and temporal predictors of urinary phthalate metabolite concentrations in young children. Between 2004 and 2011, we collected up to five urine samples from each of 296 children participating in a prospective birth cohort during annual study visits at ages 1–5 years. We used linear mixed models to calculate intraclass correlation coefficients (ICCs), a measure of within-individual reproducibility, and identify demographic predictors of urinary phthalate metabolites. We used multivariable linear regression to examine cross-sectional relationships between food packaging or personal care product use and phthalate metabolites measured at age 5 years. Across annual measurements, monoethyl phthalate exhibited the least variation (ICC = 0.38), while di-2-ethylhexyl phthalate (ΣDEHP) metabolites exhibited the most variation (ICC = 0.09). Concentrations changed with age, suggesting age-related changes in phthalate exposure and perhaps metabolism. Our findings suggest that fast food consumption may be a source of butylbenzyl phthalate and di-isononyl phthalate (DiNP) exposure, and some personal care products may be sources of diethyl phthalate exposure. Concentrations of ΣDEHP metabolites decreased over the study period; however, concentrations of DiNP metabolites increased. This finding suggests that manufacturer practices and regulations, like the Consumer Product Safety Improvement Act of 2008, may decrease DEHP exposure, but additional work characterizing the nature and toxicity of replacements is critically needed. PMID:24977926

  10. Variability and predictors of urinary concentrations of phthalate metabolites during early childhood.

    PubMed

    Watkins, Deborah J; Eliot, Melissa; Sathyanarayana, Sheela; Calafat, Antonia M; Yolton, Kimberly; Lanphear, Bruce P; Braun, Joseph M

    2014-01-01

    The variability and predictors of urinary concentrations of phthalate metabolites in preschool-aged children have not been thoroughly examined. Additionally, the impact of temporal changes in the use and restriction of phthalates in children's products has not been assessed. Our objective was to identify demographic, behavioral, and temporal predictors of urinary phthalate metabolite concentrations in young children. Between 2004 and 2011, we collected up to five urine samples from each of 296 children participating in a prospective birth cohort during annual study visits at ages 1-5 years. We used linear mixed models to calculate intraclass correlation coefficients (ICCs), a measure of within-individual reproducibility, and identify demographic predictors of urinary phthalate metabolites. We used multivariable linear regression to examine cross-sectional relationships between food packaging or personal care product use and phthalate metabolites measured at age 5 years. Across annual measurements, monoethyl phthalate exhibited the least variation (ICC = 0.38), while di-2-ethylhexyl phthalate (ΣDEHP) metabolites exhibited the most variation (ICC = 0.09). Concentrations changed with age, suggesting age-related changes in phthalate exposure and perhaps metabolism. Our findings suggest that fast food consumption may be a source of butylbenzyl phthalate and di-isononyl phthalate (DiNP) exposure, and some personal care products may be sources of diethyl phthalate exposure. Concentrations of ΣDEHP metabolites decreased over the study period; however, concentrations of DiNP metabolites increased. This finding suggests that manufacturer practices and regulations, like the Consumer Product Safety Improvement Act of 2008, may decrease DEHP exposure, but additional work characterizing the nature and toxicity of replacements is critically needed. PMID:24977926

  11. Absolute quantitation of phosphorus metabolites in the cerebral cortex of the newborn human infant and in the forearm muscles of young adults using a double-tuned surface coil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cady, Ernest B.

    The application of a double-tuned surface coil with strong coupling for both 31P and 1H to the in vivo measurement of metabolite concentrations by NMR spectroscopy is demonstrated. It is shown that sample loading, although important for a coil tuned to a single frequency, does not necessarily have a significant effect on absolute quantitation results if the coil is strongly coupled to the sample for both nuclei. For the coil used in the present study, the spectrometer calibration coefficient is almost independent of loading and the 1H and 31P flip angles at the coil center produced by fixed length pulses could be arranged to be nearly equal over a range of loading conditions. In seven normal infants, of gestational plus postnatal age 35 to 37 weeks, the cerebral cortex nucleotide triphosphate concentration was 3.7 ± 0.6 m M/liter wet (mean ± SD). Metabolite concentrations were low in the cerebral cortex of a severely birth asphyxiated infant. The adenosine triphosphate concentration in the resting, fresh forearm muscles of six young adults was 6.3 ± 0.8 m M/liter wet.

  12. Phthalate metabolites in urine of Chinese young adults: Concentration, profile, exposure and cumulative risk assessment.

    PubMed

    Gao, Chong-Jing; Liu, Li-Yan; Ma, Wan-Li; Ren, Nan-Qi; Guo, Ying; Zhu, Ning-Zheng; Jiang, Ling; Li, Yi-Fan; Kannan, Kurunthachalam

    2016-02-01

    Phthalates are widely used in consumer products. People are frequently exposed to phthalates due to their applications in daily life. In this study, 14 phthalate metabolites were analyzed in 108 urine samples collected from Chinese young adults using high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. The total concentrations of 14 phthalate metabolites ranged from 71.3 to 2670 ng/mL, with the geometric mean concentration of 306 ng/mL. mBP and miBP were the two most abundant compounds, accounting for 48% of the total concentrations. Principal component analysis suggested two major sources of phthalates: one dominated by the DEHP metabolites and one by the group of mCPP, mBP and miBP metabolites. The estimated daily intakes of DMP, DEP, DBP, DiBP and DEHP were 1.68, 2.14, 4.12, 3.52 and 1.26-2.98 μg/kg-bw/day, respectively. In a sensitivity analysis, urinary concentration and body weight were the most influential variables for human exposure estimation. Furthermore, cumulative risk for hazard quotient (HQ) and hazard index (HI) were evaluated. Nearly half of Chinese young adults had high HI values exceeding the safe threshold. This is the first study on the occurrence and human exposure to urinary phthalate metabolites with Chinese young adults.

  13. Parent and Metabolite Opioid Drug Concentrations in Unintentional Deaths Involving Opioid and Benzodiazepine Combinations.

    PubMed

    Fields, Marcia D; Abate, Marie A; Hu, Lan; Long, D Leann; Blommel, Matthew L; Haikal, Nabila A; Kraner, James C

    2015-07-01

    Effects of benzodiazepines on postmortem opioid parent and parent/metabolite blood concentration ratios were determined for fentanyl-, hydrocodone-, methadone-, or oxycodone-related accidental deaths. These opioids are partially metabolized by the CYP3A4 enzyme system, which is also affected by diazepam and alprazolam. Opioid/metabolite combinations examined were as follows: fentanyl/norfentanyl, hydrocodone/dihydrocodeine, methadone/EDDP, and oxycodone/oxymorphone. Parent opioid concentrations were analyzed for 877 deaths. Parent/metabolite concentration ratios were analyzed for 349 deaths, excluding cases with co-intoxicants present known to interfere with opioid elimination. Alprazolam in combination with diazepam significantly decreased median hydrocodone concentrations by 48% (p = 0.01) compared to hydrocodone alone. The methadone parent/metabolite concentration ratio was reduced by 35% in the presence of diazepam compared to methadone alone (p = 0.03). Benzodiazepines did not statistically significantly affect fentanyl or oxycodone concentrations. Possible factors affecting opioid concentrations and possible toxicity development, including any differential effects on specific opioids, should continue to be explored.

  14. Parent and Metabolite Opioid Drug Concentrations in Unintentional Deaths Involving Opioid and Benzodiazepine Combinations.

    PubMed

    Fields, Marcia D; Abate, Marie A; Hu, Lan; Long, D Leann; Blommel, Matthew L; Haikal, Nabila A; Kraner, James C

    2015-07-01

    Effects of benzodiazepines on postmortem opioid parent and parent/metabolite blood concentration ratios were determined for fentanyl-, hydrocodone-, methadone-, or oxycodone-related accidental deaths. These opioids are partially metabolized by the CYP3A4 enzyme system, which is also affected by diazepam and alprazolam. Opioid/metabolite combinations examined were as follows: fentanyl/norfentanyl, hydrocodone/dihydrocodeine, methadone/EDDP, and oxycodone/oxymorphone. Parent opioid concentrations were analyzed for 877 deaths. Parent/metabolite concentration ratios were analyzed for 349 deaths, excluding cases with co-intoxicants present known to interfere with opioid elimination. Alprazolam in combination with diazepam significantly decreased median hydrocodone concentrations by 48% (p = 0.01) compared to hydrocodone alone. The methadone parent/metabolite concentration ratio was reduced by 35% in the presence of diazepam compared to methadone alone (p = 0.03). Benzodiazepines did not statistically significantly affect fentanyl or oxycodone concentrations. Possible factors affecting opioid concentrations and possible toxicity development, including any differential effects on specific opioids, should continue to be explored. PMID:26223761

  15. Choline intake and genetic polymorphisms influence choline metabolite concentrations in human breast milk and plasma123

    PubMed Central

    Fischer, Leslie M; da Costa, Kerry Ann; Galanko, Joseph; Sha, Wei; Stephenson, Brigitte; Vick, Julie; Zeisel, Steven H

    2010-01-01

    Background: Choline is essential for infant nutrition, and breast milk is a rich source of this nutrient. Common single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) change dietary requirements for choline intake. Objective: The aim of this study was to determine whether total choline intake and/or SNPs influence concentrations of choline and its metabolites in human breast milk and plasma. Design: We gave a total of 103 pregnant women supplemental choline or a placebo from 18 wk gestation to 45 d postpartum and genotyped the women for 370 common SNPs. At 45 d postpartum, we measured choline metabolite concentrations in breast milk and plasma and assessed the dietary intake of choline by using a 3-d food record. Results: On average, lactating women in our study ate two-thirds of the recommended intake for choline (Adequate Intake = 550 mg choline/d). Dietary choline intake (no supplement) correlated with breast-milk phosphatidylcholine and plasma choline concentrations. A supplement further increased breast-milk choline, betaine, and phosphocholine concentrations and increased plasma choline and betaine concentrations. We identified 5 SNPs in MTHFR that altered the slope of the intake–metabolite concentration relations, and we identified 2 SNPs in PEMT that shifted these curves upward. Individuals who shared sets of common SNPs were outliers in plots of intake–metabolite concentration curves; we suggest that these SNPs should be further investigated to determine how they alter choline metabolism. Conclusion: Total intake of choline and genotype can influence the concentrations of choline and its metabolites in the breast milk and blood of lactating women and thereby affect the amount of choline available to the developing infant. This study was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT00678925. PMID:20534746

  16. Age Related Changes in Metabolite Concentrations in the Normal Spinal Cord

    PubMed Central

    Abdel-Aziz, Khaled; Solanky, Bhavana S.; Yiannakas, Marios C.; Altmann, Daniel R.; Wheeler-Kingshott, Claudia A. M.; Thompson, Alan J.; Ciccarelli, Olga

    2014-01-01

    Magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) studies have previously described metabolite changes associated with aging of the healthy brain and provided insights into normal brain aging that can assist us in differentiating age-related changes from those associated with neurological disease. The present study investigates whether age-related changes in metabolite concentrations occur in the healthy cervical spinal cord. 25 healthy volunteers, aged 23–65 years, underwent conventional imaging and single-voxel MRS of the upper cervical cord using an optimised point resolved spectroscopy sequence on a 3T Achieva system. Metabolite concentrations normalised to unsuppressed water were quantified using LCModel and associations between age and spinal cord metabolite concentrations were examined using multiple regressions. A linear decline in total N-Acetyl-aspartate concentration (0.049 mmol/L lower per additional year of age, p = 0.010) and Glutamate-Glutamine concentration (0.054 mmol/L lower per additional year of age, p = 0.002) was seen within our sample age range, starting in the early twenties. The findings suggest that neuroaxonal loss and/or metabolic neuronal dysfunction, and decline in glutamate-glutamine neurotransmitter pool progress with aging. PMID:25310093

  17. Urinary Concentrations of Bisphenol A and Phthalate Metabolites Measured during Pregnancy and Risk of Preeclampsia

    PubMed Central

    Cantonwine, David E.; Meeker, John D.; Ferguson, Kelly K.; Mukherjee, Bhramar; Hauser, Russ; McElrath, Thomas F.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Preeclampsia represents a major cause of maternal mortality and morbidity worldwide. Although it is known that the placenta plays a central role in development of preeclampsia, investigation into the contribution of environmental toxicants to the risk of preeclampsia has been sparse. Objectives: In the present study we examined the relationship between longitudinally measured urinary BPA and phthalate metabolite concentrations during gestation and preeclampsia. Methods: A nested case–control study of preterm birth was performed in 2011 from women enrolled in a prospective birth cohort study at Brigham and Women’s Hospital in Boston. There were 50 cases of preeclampsia as part of this study. Urine samples were analyzed for concentrations of BPA and nine phthalate metabolites several times during pregnancy. Adjusted Cox proportional hazard models were used to calculate hazard ratios of preeclampsia in association with an interquartile range increase in BPA and phthalate concentrations and were weighted to reflect results generalizable to the base population. Results: Adjusted hazard ratios indicated that an interquartile range increase of urinary concentrations of BPA (1.53; 95% CI: 1.04, 2.25) and MEP (monoethyl phthalate) (1.72; 95% CI: 1.28, 2.30) at 10 weeks gestation was associated with onset of preeclampsia, whereas significantly elevated hazard ratios were found across gestation for all DEHP [di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate] metabolites. These relationships differed based on infant sex. Conclusions: Urinary concentrations of BPA and several phthalate metabolites were significantly associated with increased risk of preeclampsia. If validated, these results indicate an environmental contribution of endocrine-disrupting chemicals to preeclampsia and suggest a modifiable means to reduce the mortality and morbidity associated with this condition. Citation: Cantonwine DE, Meeker JD, Ferguson KK, Mukherjee B, Hauser R, McElrath TF. 2016. Urinary

  18. Concentrations of phthalates and DINCH metabolites in pooled urine from Queensland, Australia.

    PubMed

    Gomez Ramos, M J; Heffernan, A L; Toms, L M L; Calafat, A M; Ye, X; Hobson, P; Broomhall, S; Mueller, J F

    2016-03-01

    Dialkyl phthalate esters (phthalates) are ubiquitous chemicals used extensively as plasticizers, solvents and adhesives in a range of industrial and consumer products. 1,2-Cyclohexane dicarboxylic acid, diisononyl ester (DINCH) is a phthalate alternative introduced due to a more favourable toxicological profile, but exposure is largely uncharacterised. The aim of this study was to provide the first assessment of exposure to phthalates and DINCH in the general Australian population. De-identified urine specimens stratified by age and sex were obtained from a community-based pathology laboratory and pooled (n=24 pools of 100). Concentrations of free and total species were measured using online solid phase extraction isotope dilution high performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry. Concentrations ranged from 2.4 to 71.9ng/mL for metabolites of di(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate, and from <0.5 to 775ng/mL for all other metabolites. Our data suggest that phthalate metabolites concentrations in Australia were at least two times higher than in the United States and Germany; and may be related to legislative differences among countries. DINCH metabolite concentrations were comparatively low and consistent with the limited data available. Ongoing biomonitoring among the general Australian population may help assess temporal trends in exposure and assess the effectiveness of actions aimed at reducing exposures. PMID:26760715

  19. Krebs cycle metabolon formation: metabolite concentration gradient enhanced compartmentation of sequential enzymes.

    PubMed

    Wu, Fei; Pelster, Lindsey N; Minteer, Shelley D

    2015-01-25

    Dynamics of metabolon formation in mitochondria was probed by studying diffusional motion of two sequential Krebs cycle enzymes in a microfluidic channel. Enhanced directional co-diffusion of both enzymes against a substrate concentration gradient was observed in the presence of intermediate generation. This reveals a metabolite directed compartmentation of metabolic pathways.

  20. Concentrations of phthalates and DINCH metabolites in pooled urine from Queensland, Australia.

    PubMed

    Gomez Ramos, M J; Heffernan, A L; Toms, L M L; Calafat, A M; Ye, X; Hobson, P; Broomhall, S; Mueller, J F

    2016-03-01

    Dialkyl phthalate esters (phthalates) are ubiquitous chemicals used extensively as plasticizers, solvents and adhesives in a range of industrial and consumer products. 1,2-Cyclohexane dicarboxylic acid, diisononyl ester (DINCH) is a phthalate alternative introduced due to a more favourable toxicological profile, but exposure is largely uncharacterised. The aim of this study was to provide the first assessment of exposure to phthalates and DINCH in the general Australian population. De-identified urine specimens stratified by age and sex were obtained from a community-based pathology laboratory and pooled (n=24 pools of 100). Concentrations of free and total species were measured using online solid phase extraction isotope dilution high performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry. Concentrations ranged from 2.4 to 71.9ng/mL for metabolites of di(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate, and from <0.5 to 775ng/mL for all other metabolites. Our data suggest that phthalate metabolites concentrations in Australia were at least two times higher than in the United States and Germany; and may be related to legislative differences among countries. DINCH metabolite concentrations were comparatively low and consistent with the limited data available. Ongoing biomonitoring among the general Australian population may help assess temporal trends in exposure and assess the effectiveness of actions aimed at reducing exposures.

  1. Absolute nutrient concentration measurements in cell culture media: (1)H q-NMR spectra and data to compare the efficiency of pH-controlled protein precipitation versus CPMG or post-processing filtering approaches.

    PubMed

    Goldoni, Luca; Beringhelli, Tiziana; Rocchia, Walter; Realini, Natalia; Piomelli, Daniele

    2016-09-01

    The NMR spectra and data reported in this article refer to the research article titled "A simple and accurate protocol for absolute polar metabolite quantification in cell cultures using q-NMR" [1]. We provide the (1)H q-NMR spectra of cell culture media (DMEM) after removal of serum proteins, which show the different efficiency of various precipitating solvents, the solvent/DMEM ratios, and pH of the solution. We compare the data of the absolute nutrient concentrations, measured by PULCON external standard method, before and after precipitation of serum proteins and those obtained using CPMG (Carr-Purcell-Meiboom-Gill) sequence or applying post-processing filtering algorithms to remove, from the (1)H q-NMR spectra, the proteins signal contribution. For each of these approaches, the percent error in the absolute value of every measurement for all the nutrients is also plotted as accuracy assessment. PMID:27331118

  2. Comparison of DDT and its metabolites concentrations in cow milk from agricultural and industrial areas.

    PubMed

    Kuba, Jarosław; Tomza-Marciniak, Agnieszka; Pilarczyk, Bogumiła; Tarasewicz, Natalia; Pilarczyk, Renata; Ligocki, Marek

    2015-01-01

    The risk of pesticidal intoxication in humans is severe, especially because of the strongly negative impact on human health. The consequences of the exposure to these substances may include cancerogenesis or endocrine abnormalities resulting for example in decreased fertility. Therefore, the aim of our study was to evaluate the content of dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT) and its metabolites in cow milk from two regions of Poland, varying by level of industrialization. Samples were collected from agricultural (n = 25) and industrial (n = 25) areas, and the concentrations of DDT and its metabolites were evaluated by gas chromatography. Residues of DDT were detected in all the milk samples tested, mostly in the samples from the agricultural area, where a total DDT median concentration reached 0.336 μg L(-1). In the milk samples from the industrial area, the median concentration was lower, at 0.131 μg L(-1). 4,4'-DDT was the main metabolite, constituting 83% of total DDT metabolites. Although none of the samples exceeded the level above which they should be considered dangerous, the results showed that the problem of DDT had not diminished and so should be constantly monitored.

  3. Concentration of endogenous estrogens and estrogen metabolites in the NCI-60 human tumor cell lines

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Endogenous estrogens and estrogen metabolites play an important role in the pathogenesis and development of human breast, endometrial, and ovarian cancers. Increasing evidence also supports their involvement in the development of certain lung, colon and prostate cancers. Methods In this study we systemically surveyed endogenous estrogen and estrogen metabolite levels in each of the NCI-60 human tumor cell lines, which include human breast, central nerve system, colon, ovarian, prostate, kidney and non-small cell lung cancers, as well as melanomas and leukemia. The absolute abundances of these metabolites were measured using a liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry method that has been previously utilized for biological fluids such as serum and urine. Results Endogenous estrogens and estrogen metabolites were found in all NCI-60 human tumor cell lines and some were substantially elevated and exceeded the levels found in well known estrogen-dependent and estrogen receptor-positive tumor cells such as MCF-7 and T-47D. While estrogens were expected to be present at high levels in cell lines representing the female reproductive system (that is, breast and ovarian), other cell lines, such as leukemia and colon, also contained very high levels of these steroid hormones. The leukemia cell line RMPI-8226 contained the highest levels of estrone (182.06 pg/106 cells) and 17β-estradiol (753.45 pg/106 cells). In comparison, the ovarian cancer cell line with the highest levels of these estrogens contained only 19.79 and 139.32 pg/106 cells of estrone and 17β-estradiol, respectively. The highest levels of estrone and 17β-estradiol in breast cancer cell lines were only 8.45 and 87.37 pg/106 cells in BT-549 and T-47D cells, respectively. Conclusions The data provided evidence for the presence of significant amounts of endogenous estrogens and estrogen metabolites in cell lines not commonly associated with these steroid hormones. This broad discovery of

  4. Chemically Polymerized Polypyrrole for On-Chip Concentration of Volatile Breath Metabolites

    PubMed Central

    Strand, Nicholas; Bhushan, Abhinav; Schivo, Michael; Kenyon, Nicholas J.; Davis, Cristina E.

    2009-01-01

    A wide range of metabolites are measured in the gas phase of exhaled human breath, and some of these biomarkers are frequently observed to be up- or down-regulated in certain disease states. Portable breath analysis systems have the potential for a wide range of applications in health diagnostics. However, this is currently limited by the lack of concentration mechanisms to enhance trace metabolites found in the breath to levels that can be adequately recorded using miniaturized gas-phase sensors. In this study we have created chip-based polymeric pre-concentration devices capable of absorbing and desorbing breath volatiles for subsequent chemical analysis. These devices appear to concentrate chemicals from both environmental air samples as well as directly from exhaled human breath, and these devices may have applications in lab-on-a-chip-based environmental and health monitoring systems. PMID:20161533

  5. Urinary concentrations of metabolites of pyrethroid insecticides in textile workers, Eastern China.

    PubMed

    Lu, Dasheng; Wang, Dongli; Feng, Chao; Jin, Yu'e; Zhou, Zhijun; Wu, Chunhua; Lin, Yuanjie; Wang, Guoquan

    2013-10-01

    Pyrethroid insecticides have been applied in the production of cotton, wool and textile. In order to examine whether textile workers are exposed to pyrethroid insecticides, we recruited 50 textile workers in two textile plants in Eastern China. Their urine samples were collected for the measurement of pyrethroid metabolites: cis- and trans-isomers of 2,2-dichlorovinyl-2,2-dimethylcyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid (cis-Cl2CA and trans-Cl2CA) and 3-phenoxybenzoic acid (3-PBA). Our results showed that textile workers were exposed to high levels of pyrethroid insecticides. cis-Cl2CA and 3-PBA were dominant metabolites with concentrations of 0.17-261μg/L, while concentrations of trans-Cl2CA were in the range of 0.26-11μg/L. Levels of three metabolites were in a descending order: cis-Cl2CA, 3-PBA, and trans-Cl2CA. Levels of the metabolites were associated with ages and job responsibilities of textile workers. Sewing workers, cutting workers, machine operators, reorganizers, and older workers were more likely in contact with pyrethroid insecticides in the textile production. trans- to cis-Cl2CA ratios might indicate that exposure of textile workers was via dermal absorption and inhalation.

  6. In situ TDLAS measurement of absolute acetylene concentration profiles in a non-premixed laminar counter-flow flame

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wagner, S.; Klein, M.; Kathrotia, T.; Riedel, U.; Kissel, T.; Dreizler, A.; Ebert, V.

    2012-06-01

    Acetylene (C2H2), as an important precursor for chemiluminescence species, is a key to understand, simulate and model the chemiluminescence and the related reaction paths. Hence we developed a high resolution spectrometer based on direct Tunable Diode Laser Absorption Spectroscopy (TDLAS) allowing the first quantitative, calibration-free and spatially resolved in situ C2H2 measurement in an atmospheric non-premixed counter-flow flame supported on a Tsuji burner. A fiber-coupled distributed feedback diode laser near 1535 nm was used to measure several absolute C2H2 concentration profiles (peak concentrations up to 9700 ppm) in a laminar non-premixed CH4/air flame ( T up to 1950 K) supported on a modified Tsuji counter-flow burner with N2 purge slots to minimize end flames. We achieve a fractional optical resolution of up to 5×10-5 OD (1 σ) in the flame, resulting in temperature-dependent acetylene detection limits for the P17e line at 6513 cm-1 of up to 2.1 ppmṡm. Absolute C2H2 concentration profiles were obtained by translating the burner through the laser beam using a DC motor with 100 μm step widths. Intercomparisons of the experimental C2H2 profiles with simulations using our new hydrocarbon oxidation mechanisms show excellent agreement in position, shape and in the absolute C2H2 values.

  7. Urinary phthalate metabolite concentrations among men with inflammatory bowel disease on mesalamine therapy

    PubMed Central

    Hait, Elizabeth J; Calafat, Antonia M.; Hauser, Russ

    2014-01-01

    Background Phthalates, a family of compounds used in a variety of consumer products, are reproductive and developmental toxicants in experimental animals. One of these phthalates, dibutyl phthalate (DBP), is an inactive ingredient in the coating of Asacol. Aim To determine if men with inflammatory bowel disease taking Asacol have higher urinary concentrations of monobutyl phthalate (MBP), a metabolite of DBP, compared to the general population in the United States. Methods Five patients at the Massachusetts General Hospital Crohn’s and Colitis Center, taking at least 800 mg of Asacol three times a day, provided one spot urine sample. Urinary MBP and other phthalate metabolite concentrations were measured by using online solid phase extraction coupled with isotope dilution high-performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry. Results In four of the five men, the urinary concentrations of MBP (9888 ng/mL, 12,308 ng/mL, 10,124 ng/mL, and 41,590 ng/mL) and of a minor DBP metabolite, mono(3-carboxypropyl) phthalate (MCPP, 116.4 ng/mL, 163.4 ng/mL 72.6 ng/mL, 5604 ng/mL) were orders of magnitude higher than the background concentrations among the US general population. One subject missed his morning Asacol dose and had urinary MBP concentrations (17.5 ng/mL) similar to background levels. Conclusion We confirmed that men with inflammatory bowel disease taking Asacol have urinary concentrations of MBP and MCPP much higher than background levels. PMID:25392847

  8. Maternal buprenorphine dose, placenta buprenorphine, and metabolite concentrations and neonatal outcomes.

    PubMed

    Concheiro, Marta; Jones, Hendreé E; Johnson, Rolley E; Choo, Robin; Shakleya, Diaa M; Huestis, Marilyn A

    2010-04-01

    Buprenorphine is approved as pharmacotherapy for opioid dependence in nonpregnant patients in multiple countries and is currently under investigation for pregnant women in the United States and Europe. This research evaluates the disposition of buprenorphine, opiates, cocaine, and metabolites in five term placentas from a US cohort. Placenta and matched meconium concentrations were compared, and relationships among maternal buprenorphine dose, placenta concentrations, and neonatal outcomes after controlled administration during gestation were investigated. Buprenorphine and/or metabolites were detected in all placenta specimens and were uniformly distributed across this tissue (coefficient of variation less than 27.5%, four locations), except for buprenorphine in three placentas. In two of these, buprenorphine was not detected in some locations and in the third placenta was totally absent. Median (range) concentrations were 1.6 ng/g buprenorphine (not detected to 3.2), 14.9 ng/g norbuprenorphine (6.2-24.2), 3 ng/g buprenorphine-glucuronide (1.3-5.0), and 14.7 ng/g norbuprenorphine-glucuronide (11.4-25.8). Placenta is a potential alternative matrix for detecting in utero buprenorphine exposure, but at lower concentrations (15- to 70-fold) than in meconium. Statistically significant correlations were observed for mean maternal daily dose from enrollment to delivery and placenta buprenorphine-glucuronide concentration and for norbuprenorphine-glucuronide concentrations and time to neonatal abstinence syndrome onset and duration, for norbuprenorphine/norbuprenorphine-glucuronide ratio and maximum neonatal abstinence syndrome score, and newborn length. Analysis of buprenorphine and metabolites in this alternative matrix, an abundant waste product available at the time of delivery, may be valuable for prediction of neonatal outcomes for clinicians treating newborns of buprenorphine-exposed women. PMID:20216119

  9. Urinary phthalate metabolite concentrations among pregnant women in Northern Puerto Rico: Distribution, temporal variability, and predictors

    PubMed Central

    Cantonwine, David E.; Cordero, José F.; Rivera-González, Luis O.; Del Toro, Liza V. Anzalota; Ferguson, Kelly K.; Mukherjee, Bhramar; Calafat, Antonia M.; Crespo, Noe; Jiménez-Vélez, Braulio; Padilla, Ingrid Y.; Alshawabkeh, Akram N.; Meeker, John D.

    2013-01-01

    Background Phthalate contamination exists in the North coast karst aquifer system in Puerto Rico. In light of potential health impacts associated with phthalate exposure, targeted action for elimination of exposure sources may be warranted, especially for sensitive populations such as pregnant women. However, information on exposure to phthalates from a variety of sources in Puerto Rico is lacking. The objective of this study was to determine concentrations and predictors of urinary phthalate biomarkers measured at multiple times during pregnancy among women living in the Northern karst area of Puerto Rico. Methods We recruited 139 pregnant women in Northern Puerto Rico and collected urine samples and questionnaire data at three separate visits (18±2 weeks, 22±2 weeks, and 26±2 weeks of gestation). Urine samples were analyzed for eleven phthalate metabolites: mono-2-ethylhexyl phthalate (MEHP), mono-2-ethyl-5-hydroxyhexyl phthalate, mono-2-ethyl-5-oxohexyl phthalate, mono-2-ethyl-5-carboxypentyl phthalate, mono-ethyl phthalate (MEP), mono-n-butyl phthalate, mono-benzyl phthalate, mono-isobutyl phthalate, mono-3-carboxypropyl phthalate (MCPP), mono carboxyisononyl phthalate (MCNP), and mono carboxyisooctyl phthalate (MCOP). Results Detectable concentrations of phthalate metabolites among pregnant women living in Puerto Rico was prevalent, and metabolite concentrations tended to be higher than or similar to those measured in women of reproductive age from the general US population. Intraclass correlation coefficients ranged from very weak (MCNP; 0.05) to moderate (MEP; 0.44) reproducibility among all phthalate metabolites. We observed significant or suggestive positive associations between urinary phthalate metabolites concentrations and water usage/storage habits (MEP, MCNP, MCOP), use of personal care products (MEP), and consumption of certain food items (MCPP, MCNP, and MCOP). Conclusions To our knowledge this is the first study to report concentrations

  10. Arsenic Species in Chicken Breast: Temporal Variations of Metabolites, Elimination Kinetics, and Residual Concentrations

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Qingqing; Peng, Hanyong; Lu, Xiufen; Zuidhof, Martin J.; Li, Xing-Fang; Le, X. Chris

    2016-01-01

    Background: Chicken meat has the highest per capita consumption among all meat types in North America. The practice of feeding 3-nitro-4-hydroxyphenylarsonic acid (Roxarsone, Rox) to chickens lasted for more than 60 years. However, the fate of Rox and arsenic metabolites remaining in chicken are poorly understood. Objectives: We aimed to determine the elimination of Rox and metabolites from chickens and quantify the remaining arsenic species in chicken meat, providing necessary information for meaningful exposure assessment. Methods: We have conducted a 35-day feeding experiment involving 1,600 chickens, of which half were control and the other half were fed a Rox-supplemented diet for the first 28 days and then a Rox-free diet for the final 7 days. We quantified the concentrations of individual arsenic species in the breast meat of 229 chickens. Results: Rox, arsenobetaine, arsenite, monomethylarsonic acid, dimethylarsinic acid, and a new arsenic metabolite, were detected in breast meat from chickens fed Rox. The concentrations of arsenic species, except arsenobetaine, were significantly higher in the Rox-fed than in the control chickens. The half-lives of elimination of these arsenic species were 0.4–1 day. Seven days after termination of Rox feeding, the concentrations of arsenite (3.1 μg/kg), Rox (0.4 μg/kg), and a new arsenic metabolite (0.8 μg/kg) were significantly higher in the Rox-fed chickens than in the control. Conclusion: Feeding of Rox to chickens increased the concentrations of five arsenic species in breast meat. Although most arsenic species were excreted rapidly when the feeding of Rox stopped, arsenic species remaining in the Rox-fed chickens were higher than the background levels. Citation: Liu Q, Peng H, Lu X, Zuidhof MJ, Li XF, Le XC. 2016. Arsenic species in chicken breast: temporal variations of metabolites, elimination kinetics, and residual concentrations. Environ Health Perspect 124:1174–1181; http://dx.doi.org/10.1289/ehp

  11. Selecting reference concentrations for fish biliary PAH metabolites for stream ecological exposure assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Lin, E.L.C.; Cormier, S.M.; Subramanian, B.; Williams, D.; Wulfeck, K.; Detmer, S.; Lowry, M.E.

    1995-12-31

    Reference concentrations for two types of biliary PAH metabolites were empirically determined for two species of fish. Bile from white sucker and common carp were collected from streams in Ohio having poor to excellent condition based on a modified index of biotic integrity (MIBI). PAH were measured using fixed wavelength fluorescence with excitation/emission pairs at 290/335 nm for naphthalene-type (NAPH) and 380/430 nm for benzo[a]pyrene-type (B[a]P) metabolites. Exposures to PAH were estimated for petroleum sources with NAPH and from combustion sources with B[a]P. Three criteria were used to select reference concentrations. Site criteria were: an MIBI score of at least 30, relatively low median values of biliary PAH concentration, and low statistical variation. The median reference values selected were 0.5 {micro}g B[a]P/mg protein and 50 pg NAPH/mg protein for white sucker and 0.5 {micro}g B[a]P/mg protein and 90 {micro}g NAPH/mg protein for common carp. Of the 28 sites sampled with white sucker in 1993, 68% exceeded the reference value for NAPH and 32% for B[a]P. Of the 22 sites sampled with carp, 68% exceeded the value for NAPH and 41% for B[a]P. Likewise, more sites with MIBI scores between 30 and 60 exceeded the NAPH reference than the B[a]P reference concentration.

  12. Ketamine Metabolites Enantioselectively Decrease Intracellular D-Serine Concentrations in PC-12 Cells

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Nagendra S.; Rutkowska, Ewelina; Plazinska, Anita; Khadeer, Mohammed; Moaddel, Ruin; Jozwiak, Krzysztof; Bernier, Michel; Wainer, Irving W.

    2016-01-01

    D-Serine is an endogenous NMDA receptor co-agonist that activates synaptic NMDA receptors modulating neuronal networks in the cerebral cortex and plays a key role in long-term potentiation of synaptic transmission. D-serine is associated with NMDA receptor neurotoxicity and neurodegeneration and elevated D-serine concentrations have been associated with Alzheimer’s and Parkinsons’ diseases and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. Previous studies have demonstrated that the ketamine metabolites (rac)-dehydronorketamine and (2S,6S)-hydroxynorketamine decrease intracellular D-serine concentrations in a concentration dependent manner in PC-12 cells. In the current study, PC-12 cells were incubated with a series of ketamine metabolites and the IC50 values associated with attenuated intracellular D-serine concentrations were determined. The results demonstrate that structural and stereochemical features of the studied compounds contribute to the magnitude of the inhibitory effect with (2S,6S)-hydroxynorketamine and (2R,6R)-hydroxynorketamine displaying the most potent inhibition with IC50 values of 0.18 ± 0.04 nM and 0.68 ± 0.09 nM. The data was utilized to construct a preliminary 3D-QSAR/pharmacophore model for use in the design of new and more efficient modulators of D-serine. PMID:27096720

  13. Noninvasive imaging of absolute PpIX concentration distribution in nonmelanoma skin tumors at pre-PDT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sunar, Ulas; Rohrbach, Daniel; Morgan, Janet; Zeitouni, Natalie

    2013-03-01

    Photodynamic Therapy (PDT) has proven to be an effective treatment option for nonmelanoma skin cancers. The ability to quantify the concentration of drug in the treated area is crucial for effective treatment planning as well as predicting outcomes. We utilized spatial frequency domain imaging for quantifying the accurate concentration of protoporphyrin IX (PpIX) in phantoms and in vivo. We correct fluorescence against the effects of native tissue absorption and scattering parameters. First we quantified the absorption and scattering of the tissue non-invasively. Then, we corrected raw fluorescence signal by compensating for optical properties to get the absolute drug concentration. After phantom experiments, we used basal cell carcinoma (BCC) model in Gli mice to determine optical properties and drug concentration in vivo at pre-PDT.

  14. Cocaine and metabolite concentrations in DBS and venous blood after controlled intravenous cocaine administration

    PubMed Central

    Ellefsen, Kayla N; da Costa, Jose Luiz; Concheiro, Marta; Anizan, Sebastien; Barnes, Allan J; Pirard, Sandrine; Gorelick, David A; Huestis, Marilyn A

    2015-01-01

    Background: DBS are an increasingly common clinical matrix. Methods & results: Sensitive and specific methods for DBS and venous blood cocaine and metabolite detection by LC–HRMS and 2D GC–MS, respectively, were validated to examine correlation between concentrations following controlled intravenous cocaine administration. Linear ranges from 1 to 200 µg/l were achieved, with acceptable bias and imprecision. Authentic matched specimens’ (392 DBS, 97 venous blood) cocaine and benzoylecgonine concentrations were qualitatively similar, but DBS had much greater variability (21.4–105.9 %CV) and were lower than in blood. Conclusion: DBS offer advantages for monitoring cocaine intake; however, differences between capillary and venous blood and DBS concentration variability must be addressed. PMID:26327184

  15. Tamoxifen metabolite concentrations, CYP2D6 genotype, and breast cancer outcomes.

    PubMed

    Madlensky, L; Natarajan, L; Tchu, S; Pu, M; Mortimer, J; Flatt, S W; Nikoloff, D M; Hillman, G; Fontecha, M R; Lawrence, H J; Parker, B A; Wu, A H B; Pierce, J P

    2011-05-01

    We explored whether breast cancer outcomes are associated with endoxifen and other metabolites of tamoxifen and examined potential correlates of endoxifen concentration levels in serum including cytochrome P450 2D6 (CYP2D6) metabolizer phenotype and body mass index (BMI). Concentration levels of tamoxifen, endoxifen, 4-hydroxytamoxifen (4OH-tamoxifen), and N-desmethyltamoxifen (ND-tamoxifen) were measured from samples taken from 1,370 patients with estrogen receptor (ER)-positive breast cancer who were participating in the Women's Healthy Eating and Living (WHEL) Study. We tested these concentration levels for possible associations with breast cancer outcomes and found that breast cancer outcomes were not associated with the concentration levels of tamoxifen, 4-hydroxytamoxifen, and ND-tamoxifen. For endoxifen, a threshold was identified, with women in the upper four quintiles of endoxifen concentration appearing to have a 26% lower recurrence rate than women in the bottom quintile (hazard ratio (HR) = 0.74; 95% confidence interval (CI), (0.55-1.00)). The predictors of this higher-risk bottom quintile were poor/intermediate metabolizer genotype, higher BMI, and lower tamoxifen concentrations as compared with the mean for the cohort as a whole. This study suggests that there is a minimal concentration threshold above which endoxifen is effective against the recurrence of breast cancer and that ~80% of tamoxifen takers attain this threshold. PMID:21430657

  16. Faecal corticosterone metabolite concentrations are not a good predictor of habitat suitability for common gartersnakes

    PubMed Central

    Halliday, William D.; Gilmour, Kathleen M.; Blouin-Demers, Gabriel

    2015-01-01

    Measuring habitat suitability is important in conservation and in wildlife management. Measuring the abundance or presence–absence of a species in various habitats is not sufficient to measure habitat suitability because these metrics can be poor predictors of population success. Therefore, having some measure of population success is essential in assessing habitat suitability, but estimating population success is difficult. Identifying suitable proxies for population success could thus be beneficial. We examined whether faecal corticosterone metabolite (fCM) concentrations could be used as a proxy for habitat suitability in common gartersnakes (Thamnophis sirtalis). We conducted a validation study and confirmed that fCM concentrations indeed reflect circulating corticosterone concentrations. We estimated abundance, reproductive output and growth rate of gartersnakes in field and in forest habitat and we also measured fCM concentrations of gartersnakes from these same habitats. Common gartersnakes were more abundant and had higher reproductive outputs and higher growth rates in field habitat than in forest habitat, but fCM concentrations did not differ between the same two habitats. Our results suggest either that fCM concentrations are not a useful metric of habitat suitability in common gartersnakes or that the difference in suitability between the two habitats was too small to induce changes in fCM concentrations. Incorporating fitness metrics in estimates of habitat suitability is important, but these metrics of fitness have to be sensitive enough to vary between habitats. PMID:27293731

  17. Lincomycin at Subinhibitory Concentrations Potentiates Secondary Metabolite Production by Streptomyces spp.

    PubMed Central

    Imai, Yu; Sato, Seizo; Tanaka, Yukinori; Ochi, Kozo

    2015-01-01

    Antibiotics have either bactericidal or bacteriostatic activity. However, they also induce considerable gene expression in bacteria when used at subinhibitory concentrations (below the MIC). We found that lincomycin, which inhibits protein synthesis by binding to the ribosomes of Gram-positive bacteria, was effective for inducing the expression of genes involved in secondary metabolism in Streptomyces strains when added to medium at subinhibitory concentrations. In Streptomyces coelicolor A3(2), lincomycin at 1/10 of its MIC markedly increased the expression of the pathway-specific regulatory gene actII-ORF4 in the blue-pigmented antibiotic actinorhodin (ACT) biosynthetic gene cluster, which resulted in ACT overproduction. Intriguingly, S. lividans 1326 grown in the presence of lincomycin at a subinhibitory concentration (1/12 or 1/3 of its MIC) produced abundant antibacterial compounds that were not detected in cells grown in lincomycin-free medium. Bioassay and mass spectrometry analysis revealed that some antibacterial compounds were novel congeners of calcium-dependent antibiotics. Our results indicate that lincomycin at subinhibitory concentrations potentiates the production of secondary metabolites in Streptomyces strains and suggest that activating these strains by utilizing the dose-response effects of lincomycin could be used to effectively induce the production of cryptic secondary metabolites. In addition to these findings, we also report that lincomycin used at concentrations for markedly increased ACT production resulted in alteration of the cytoplasmic protein (FoF1 ATP synthase α and β subunits, etc.) profile and increased intracellular ATP levels. A fundamental mechanism for these unique phenomena is also discussed. PMID:25819962

  18. Nitric Oxide Metabolite Concentration in Cerebrospinal Fluid: Useful as a Prognostic Marker?

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Saurabh; Singh, Rakesh; Verma, Ashish; Bansal, Hemant

    2016-01-01

    Study Design Prospective study. Purpose To establish the significance of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) nitric oxide metabolite (NOx) concentration in acute spinal cord injury (SCI) patients to assess the neurological severity and prognosis. Overview of Literature Quantitative analysis of specific biomarkers in CSF will assess neurological severity more accurately and permit the formulation of a more precise management plan. Methods Forty SCI patients represented the cases and 20 lower limb injury patients were the controls. NOx concentration in CSF was measured at week 1, 2, and 4 by Griess method. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI, T2-weighted) done in each case to measure cord edema and neurological severity was assessed using the Frankel classification. Results CSF NOx concentration peaked at week 2 and declined to normal by week 4. The concentration remained normal in controls. Mean NOx concentration was directly proportional to the severity of acute SCI as correlated with cord edema seen in MRI and neurological severity assessed. Conclusions CSF NOx concentration can be considered a specific quantitative biomarker in acute stage of SCI to predict the severity and prognosis of SCI patients. PMID:27790309

  19. Selecting reference concentrations for fish biliary PAH metabolites for stream ecological exposure assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Lin, E.L.C.; Cormier, S.M.; Subramanian, B.; Williams, D.; Wulfeck, K.; Detmer, S.; Lowry, M.E.

    1995-12-31

    Reference concentrations for two types of biliary polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) metabolites were empirically determined for two species of fish. Bile from white sucker and common carp were collected from streams in Ohio having poor to excellent conditions based on a modified index of biotic integrity (mIBI). PAH were measured using fixed wavelength fluorescence with excitation/emission pairs at 290/335 nm for naphthalene-type (NAPH) and 380/430 nm for benzo[a]pyrene-type (B[a]P) metabolites. Exposures to PAH`s were estimated for petroleum sources with NAPH and from combustion sources with B[a]P. Three criteria were used to select reference concentrations. Site criteria were: an mIBI score of at least 30; relatively low median values of biliary PAH concentration; and low statistical variation. The median reference values selected were 0.5 {micro}g B[a]P/mg protein and 50 {micro}g NAPH/mg protein for white suckers and 0.5 {micro}g B[a]P/mg protein and 90 {micro}g NAPH/mg protein for common carp. Of the 28 sites sampled with white sucker in 1993, 68% exceeded the reference value for NAPH and 32% for B[a]P. Of the 22 sites sampled with carp, 68% exceeded the value for NAPH and 41% for B[a]P. Likewise, more sites with mIBI scores between 30 and 60 exceeded the NAPH reference than the B[a]P reference concentration.

  20. Metabolite to parent drug concentration ratios in hair for the differentiation of tramadol intake from external contamination and passive exposure.

    PubMed

    Madry, Milena M; Rust, Kristina Y; Guglielmello, Rosetta; Baumgartner, Markus R; Kraemer, Thomas

    2012-11-30

    Tramadol was found in a man's hair sample during an abstinence test necessary to regain his driving license. The suspect denied having taken tramadol claiming external contamination as the reason for the positive result, as he was working in a tramadol production company. Nevertheless, low concentrations of both major metabolites, N-desmethyltramadol (NDMT) and O-desmethyltramadol (ODMT), were found in hair (180 and 6 pg/mg hair, respectively). To assess this case, tramadol concentrations and metabolite to parent drug concentration ratios were determined in hair samples of 75 patients taking tramadol and of eight employees working in the production and laboratory site of the same company. Additionally, wash water used for decontaminating hair was analyzed for both groups, patients and employees. Analysis of hair sample extracts was performed by LC-MS/MS using multiple reaction monitoring (MRM), information dependent acquisition (IDA) and enhanced product ion scan (EPI). High variations of metabolite to parent drug concentration ratios in hair samples of patients were observed. Differences in NDMT and ODMT to tramadol concentration ratios were found when comparing the cohort of patients to employees. The suspect could be included in the cohort of employees considering the ODMT to tramadol concentration ratio in hair and tramadol concentration ratio in wash water versus hair. Metabolite to parent drug concentration ratios of hair samples may represent a helpful tool for the differentiation of tramadol intake versus external contamination. Ratios of tramadol concentrations in wash water versus the subjects' hair may provide additional information for case assessments.

  1. Reliability of concentrations of organophosphate pesticide metabolites in serial urine specimens from pregnancy in the Generation R Study.

    PubMed

    Spaan, Suzanne; Pronk, Anjoeka; Koch, Holger M; Jusko, Todd A; Jaddoe, Vincent W V; Shaw, Pamela A; Tiemeier, Henning M; Hofman, Albert; Pierik, Frank H; Longnecker, Matthew P

    2015-05-01

    The widespread use of organophosphate (OP) pesticides has resulted in ubiquitous exposure in humans, primarily through their diet. Exposure to OP pesticides may have adverse health effects, including neurobehavioral deficits in children. The optimal design of new studies requires data on the reliability of urinary measures of exposure. In the present study, urinary concentrations of six dialkyl phosphate (DAP) metabolites, the main urinary metabolites of OP pesticides, were determined in 120 pregnant women participating in the Generation R Study in Rotterdam. Intra-class correlation coefficients (ICCs) across serial urine specimens taken at <18, 18-25, and >25 weeks of pregnancy were determined to assess reliability. Geometric mean total DAP metabolite concentrations were 229 (GSD 2.2), 240 (GSD 2.1), and 224 (GSD 2.2) nmol/g creatinine across the three periods of gestation. Metabolite concentrations from the serial urine specimens in general correlated moderately. The ICCs for the six DAP metabolites ranged from 0.14 to 0.38 (0.30 for total DAPs), indicating weak to moderate reliability. Although the DAP metabolite levels observed in this study are slightly higher and slightly more correlated than in previous studies, the low to moderate reliability indicates a high degree of within-person variability, which presents challenges for designing well-powered epidemiological studies. PMID:25515376

  2. Tamoxifen Metabolite Concentrations, CYP2D6 Genotype and Breast Cancer Outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Madlensky, Lisa; Natarajan, Loki; Tchu, Simone; Pu, Minya; Mortimer, Joanne; Flatt, Shirley W.; Nikoloff, D. Michele; Hillman, Grantland; Fontecha, Marcel R.; Lawrence, H. Jeffrey; Parker, Barbara A.; Wu, Alan H.B.; Pierce, John P.

    2011-01-01

    We explored whether breast cancer outcomes are associated with endoxifen and other metabolites of tamoxifen, and to examine potential correlates of endoxifen concentrations including CYP2D6 metabolizer phenotype and body mass index (BMI). Tamoxifen, endoxifen, 4-hydroxytamoxifen and N-desmethyltamoxifen concentrations were measured from 1370 estrogen receptor positive breast cancer patients participating in the Women’s Healthy Eating and Living (WHEL) Study, and tested for associations with breast cancer outcomes. Breast cancer outcomes were not associated with tamoxifen, 4-hydroxytamoxifen or N-desmethyltamoxifen concentrations. For endoxifen, a threshold was identified suggesting that women in the upper four quintiles of endoxifen had a 26% lower recurrence rate than women in the bottom quintile. (HR=0.74; 95% CI, [0.55, 1.00]). Predictors of membership in this higher risk bottom quintile were poor/intermediate metabolizer genotype, higher BMI, and low tamoxifen concentrations. This study suggests a minimal threshold at which endoxifen is effective against breast cancer recurrence, which 80% of tamoxifen-takers achieve. PMID:21430657

  3. Free and total urinary phthalate metabolite concentrations among pregnant women from the Healthy Baby Cohort (HBC), China.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Yingshuang; Wan, Yanjian; Li, Yuanyuan; Zhang, Bin; Zhou, Aifen; Cai, Zongwei; Qian, Zhengmin; Zhang, Chuncao; Huo, Wenqian; Huang, Kai; Hu, Jie; Cheng, Lu; Chang, Huailong; Huang, Zheng; Xu, Bing; Xia, Wei; Xu, Shunqing

    2016-03-01

    Total urinary phthalate metabolites (the free plus glucuronidated forms) have been frequently measured in the general population. However, data are limited on the free forms which may be more bioactive, especially for sensitive population such as pregnant women. Here the data gap was addressed by measuring concentrations of free and total forms of six phthalate metabolites in 293 urine samples from pregnant women at delivery, who were randomly selected from the prospective Healthy Baby Cohort (HBC), China. We observed detectable concentrations of the total amount of phthalate metabolites in all urine samples. The geometric mean (GM) urinary concentrations of free and total mono-butyl phthalate (MBP) (5.20, 54.49ng/mL) were the highest, followed by mono-(2-ethyl-5-carboxypentyl) phthalate (MECPP) (4.52, 7.27ng/mL). For most of phthalate metabolites, urinary concentrations were significantly higher in women who were nulliparous. Significantly higher concentrations of mono-ethyl phthalate (MEP) and mono-(2-ethyl-5-oxohexyl) phthalate (MEOHP) were found in women who had higher educational level. To our knowledge, this is the first study to report the free and total forms of phthalate metabolites among pregnant women in China. The results suggest that exposure characteristics may be related to parity and education.

  4. Vinyl flooring in the home is associated with children’s airborne butylbenzyl phthalate and urinary metabolite concentrations

    PubMed Central

    Just, Allan C.; Miller, Rachel L.; Perzanowski, Matthew S.; Rundle, Andrew G.; Chen, Qixuan; Jung, Kyung Hwa; Hoepner, Lori; Camann, David E.; Calafat, Antonia M.; Perera, Frederica P.; Whyatt, Robin M.

    2015-01-01

    Prior studies have shown that vinyl flooring, as well as the vinyl-softening plasticizers butylbenzyl phthalate (BBzP) and di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP), are associated with asthma and airway inflammation. While DEHP exposure is primarily dietary, whether home vinyl flooring contributes to indoor air and urinary metabolite concentrations for these two phthalates is unclear. Exposures to BBzP and DEHP were examined in a prospective birth cohort of New York City children (n=239) using: (1) visual observation of potential phthalate containing flooring, (2) a two-week home indoor air sample, and (3) concurrent urinary metabolites in a subset (n=193). The category “vinyl or linoleum” flooring was observed in 135 (56%) of monitored rooms; these rooms had statistically significantly higher indoor air geometric mean concentrations of BBzP (23.9 ng/m3) than rooms with wood or carpet flooring (10.6 ng/m3). Children from homes with “vinyl or linoleum” flooring also had significantly higher urinary BBzP metabolite concentrations than other children. Indoor air BBzP and urinary metabolite concentrations were correlated positively (Spearman’s rho 0.40). By contrast, indoor air DEHP was not associated with flooring type nor with its urinary metabolite concentrations. Vinyl flooring in the home may be an important source of children’s exposure to BBzP via indoor air. PMID:25690585

  5. Reduction of variance in measurements of average metabolite concentration in anatomically-defined brain regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Larsen, Ryan J.; Newman, Michael; Nikolaidis, Aki

    2016-11-01

    Multiple methods have been proposed for using Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy Imaging (MRSI) to measure representative metabolite concentrations of anatomically-defined brain regions. Generally these methods require spectral analysis, quantitation of the signal, and reconciliation with anatomical brain regions. However, to simplify processing pipelines, it is practical to only include those corrections that significantly improve data quality. Of particular importance for cross-sectional studies is knowledge about how much each correction lowers the inter-subject variance of the measurement, thereby increasing statistical power. Here we use a data set of 72 subjects to calculate the reduction in inter-subject variance produced by several corrections that are commonly used to process MRSI data. Our results demonstrate that significant reductions of variance can be achieved by performing water scaling, accounting for tissue type, and integrating MRSI data over anatomical regions rather than simply assigning MRSI voxels with anatomical region labels.

  6. Determining the Absolute Concentration of Nanoparticles without Calibration Factor by Visualizing the Dynamic Processes of Interfacial Adsorption.

    PubMed

    Wo, Xiang; Li, Zhimin; Jiang, Yingyan; Li, Minghe; Su, Yu-Wen; Wang, Wei; Tao, Nongjian

    2016-02-16

    Previous approaches of determining the molar concentration of nanoparticles often relied on the calibration factors extracted from standard samples or required prior knowledge regarding the geometry, optical, or chemical properties. In the present work, we proposed an absolute quantification method that determined the molar concentration of nano-objects without any calibration factor or prior knowledge. It was realized by monitoring the dynamic adsorption processes of individual nanoparticles with a high-speed surface plasmon resonance microscopy. In this case, diffusing nano-objects stochastically collided onto an adsorption interface and stayed there ("hit-n-stay" scenario), resulting in a semi-infinite diffusion system. The dynamic processes were analyzed with a theoretical model consisting of Fick's laws of diffusion and random-walk assumption. The quantification of molar concentration was achieved on the basis of an analytical expression, which involved only physical constants and experimental parameters. By using spherical polystyrene nanoparticles as a model, the present approach provided a molar concentration with excellent accuracy. PMID:26781326

  7. Gender, Season and Management Affect Fecal Glucocorticoid Metabolite Concentrations in Captive Goral (Naemorhedus griseus) in Thailand

    PubMed Central

    Khonmee, Jaruwan; Brown, Janine L.; Rojanasthien, Suvichai; Aunsusin, Anurut; Thumasanukul, Dissakul; Kongphoemphun, Adisorn; Siriaroonrat, Boripat; Tipkantha, Wanlaya; Punyapornwithaya, Veerasak; Thitaram, Chatchote

    2014-01-01

    Chinese goral (Naemorhedus griseus) are a threatened species in Thailand and the focus of captive breeding for possible reintroduction. However, little is known of their biology or what factors in the captive environment affect welfare. Our objective was to determine the impact of gender, season, and management on goral adrenal activity. We hypothesized that differences in fecal glucocorticoid concentrations would be related to animal density. Fecal samples were collected 3 days/week for 1 year from 63 individuals (n = 32 males, 31 females) at two facilities that house the majority of goral in Thailand: Omkoi Wildlife Sanctuary (Omkoi), an off-exhibit breeding center that houses goral in individual pens (16 pens; n = 8 males, 8 females) and in small family groups (8 pens; n = 8 males, 8 females); and the Chiang Mai Night Safari (NS), a zoo that maintains 31 goral (n = 17 males, 14 females) in one large pen. Glucocorticoid metabolite concentrations were higher in male than female goral at Omkoi throughout the year, and there was a seasonal effect on adrenal activity (p<0.05). Goral at Omkoi and NS were used to test the effect of animal density on fecal glucocorticoid excretion of goral housed in similar-sized enclosures. Overall, the highest levels were found at NS (n = 31 adults/pen; 27 m2 per animal) compared to Omkoi (n = 2 adults/pen; 400 m2 per animal) (p<0.05). Overall findings support our hypothesis that animal density and aspects of the captive environment impact adrenal steroid activity in captive goral. In addition, gender and season also had significant effects on glucocorticoid metabolite production. Potential stressors pertaining to the welfare of this species were identified, which will guide future efforts to improve management and create self-sustaining and healthy populations of this threatened species. PMID:24637886

  8. Gender, season and management affect fecal glucocorticoid metabolite concentrations in captive goral (Naemorhedus griseus) in Thailand.

    PubMed

    Khonmee, Jaruwan; Brown, Janine L; Rojanasthien, Suvichai; Aunsusin, Anurut; Thumasanukul, Dissakul; Kongphoemphun, Adisorn; Siriaroonrat, Boripat; Tipkantha, Wanlaya; Punyapornwithaya, Veerasak; Thitaram, Chatchote

    2014-01-01

    Chinese goral (Naemorhedus griseus) are a threatened species in Thailand and the focus of captive breeding for possible reintroduction. However, little is known of their biology or what factors in the captive environment affect welfare. Our objective was to determine the impact of gender, season, and management on goral adrenal activity. We hypothesized that differences in fecal glucocorticoid concentrations would be related to animal density. Fecal samples were collected 3 days/week for 1 year from 63 individuals (n = 32 males, 31 females) at two facilities that house the majority of goral in Thailand: Omkoi Wildlife Sanctuary (Omkoi), an off-exhibit breeding center that houses goral in individual pens (16 pens; n = 8 males, 8 females) and in small family groups (8 pens; n = 8 males, 8 females); and the Chiang Mai Night Safari (NS), a zoo that maintains 31 goral (n = 17 males, 14 females) in one large pen. Glucocorticoid metabolite concentrations were higher in male than female goral at Omkoi throughout the year, and there was a seasonal effect on adrenal activity (p<0.05). Goral at Omkoi and NS were used to test the effect of animal density on fecal glucocorticoid excretion of goral housed in similar-sized enclosures. Overall, the highest levels were found at NS (n = 31 adults/pen; 27 m2 per animal) compared to Omkoi (n = 2 adults/pen; 400 m2 per animal) (p<0.05). Overall findings support our hypothesis that animal density and aspects of the captive environment impact adrenal steroid activity in captive goral. In addition, gender and season also had significant effects on glucocorticoid metabolite production. Potential stressors pertaining to the welfare of this species were identified, which will guide future efforts to improve management and create self-sustaining and healthy populations of this threatened species. PMID:24637886

  9. Parent and Metabolite Opioid Drug Concentrations in Unintentional Deaths Involving Opioid and Benzodiazepine Combinations*†‡

    PubMed Central

    Fields, Marcia D.; Abate, Marie A.; Hu, Lan; Long, D. Leann; Blommel, Matthew L.; Haikal, Nabila A.; Kraner, James C.

    2016-01-01

    Effects of benzodiazepines on postmortem opioid parent and parent/metabolite blood concentration ratios were determined for fentanyl-, hydrocodone-, methadone-, or oxycodone-related accidental deaths. These opioids are partially metabolized by the CYP3A4 enzyme system, which is also affected by diazepam and alprazolam. Opioid/metabolite combinations examined were as follows: fentanyl/norfentanyl, hydrocodone/dihydrocodeine, methadone/EDDP, and oxycodone/oxymorphone. Parent opioid concentrations were analyzed for 877 deaths. Parent/metabolite concentration ratios were analyzed for 349 deaths, excluding cases with co-intoxicants present known to interfere with opioid elimination. Alprazolam in combination with diazepam significantly decreased median hydrocodone concentrations by 48% (p = 0.01) compared to hydrocodone alone. The methadone parent/metabolite concentration ratio was reduced by 35% in the presence of diazepam compared to methadone alone (p = 0.03). Benzodiazepines did not statistically significantly affect fentanyl or oxycodone concentrations. Possible factors affecting opioid concentrations and possible toxicity development, including any differential effects on specific opioids, should continue to be explored. PMID:26223761

  10. Aging effect on plasma metabolites and hormones concentrations in riding horses

    PubMed Central

    Kawasumi, K.; Yamamoto, M.; Koide, M.; Okada, Y.; Mori, N.; Yamamoto, I.; Arai, T.

    2015-01-01

    Age effects on plasma metabolites, hormone concentrations, and enzyme activities related to energy metabolism were investigated in 20 riding horses. Animals were divided into two groups: Young (3-8 years) and aged (11-18 years). They were clinically healthy, and not obese. Plasma adiponectin (ADN) concentrations in aged horses were significantly lower than those in young horses (mean±SE, 6.5±1.3 µg mL-1 vs, 10.9±1.7 µg mL-1, Mann-Whitney U test, respectively; P=0.0233). Plasma non-esterified fatty acid levels and Insulin and malondialdehyde concentrations in aged group tended to increase compared to those in young group although there were not significant differences statistically. In aged group, malate dehydrogenase/lactate dehydrogenase (M/L) ratio, which is considered an energy metabolic indicator, did not change significantly compared to that in young group. Present data suggest that aging may negatively affect nutrition metabolism, but not induce remarkable changes in M/L ratio in riding horses. PMID:26623382

  11. Easy Absolute Values? Absolutely

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, Sharon E.; Mittag, Kathleen Cage

    2015-01-01

    The authors teach a problem-solving course for preservice middle-grades education majors that includes concepts dealing with absolute-value computations, equations, and inequalities. Many of these students like mathematics and plan to teach it, so they are adept at symbolic manipulations. Getting them to think differently about a concept that they…

  12. Follicular fluid and urinary concentrations of phthalate metabolites among infertile women and associations with in vitro fertilization parameters.

    PubMed

    Du, Yao-Yao; Fang, Yue-Li; Wang, Yi-Xin; Zeng, Qiang; Guo, Na; Zhao, Hua; Li, Yu-Feng

    2016-06-01

    Evidence from toxicological studies has demonstrated that phthalates can lead to reduced fertility through effects on folliculogenesis, oocyte maturation and embryonic development, but human data are limited. Concentrations of eight phthalate metabolites in 110 follicular fluid (FF) and urine samples collected from 112 women attending an infertility clinic in Wuhan, China were quantified, and correlations between paired matrices were explored. Associations between metabolite concentrations and in vitro fertilization (IVF) parameters were evaluated with multivariable models. Six metabolites were detected in >72.73% of the FF samples. MEHP and MBP were the dominant metabolites with a median level of 2.80 and 2.05ng/mL, respectively. Significant correlations between the two matrices, urine and FF, were found for MEP (rs=0.44), and MBP (rs=0.22). FF and urinary metabolite concentrations were not associated with any IVF parameters. However, given the prevalence of phthalates exposure, further work is needed to elucidate the potential hazard on female reproduction. PMID:27067915

  13. In vivo MRS and MRSI: Performance analysis, measurement considerations and evaluation of metabolite concentration images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vikhoff-Baaz, Barbro

    2000-10-01

    The doctoral thesis concerns development, evaluation and performance of quality assessment methods for volume- selection methods in 31P and 1H MR spectroscopy (MRS). It also contains different aspects of the measurement procedure for 1H MR spectroscopic imaging (MRSI) with application on the human brain, image reconstruction of the MRSI images and evaluation methods for lateralization of temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE). Two complementary two-compartment phantoms and evaluation methods for quality assessment of 31P MRS in small-bore MR systems were presented. The first phantom consisted of an inner cube inside a sphere phantom where measurements with and without volume selection where compared for various VOI sizes. The multi-centre showed that the evaluated parameters provide useful information of the performance of volume-selective MRS at the MR system. The second phantom consisted of two compartments divided by a very thin wall and was found useful for measurements of the appearance and position of the VOI profile in specific gradient directions. The second part concerned 1H MRS and MRSI of whole-body MR systems. Different factors that may degrade or complicate the measurement procedure like for MRSI were evaluated, e.g. the volume selection performance, contamination, susceptibility and motion. Two interpolation methods for reconstruction of MRSI images were compared. Measurements and computer simulations showed that Fourier interpolation correctly visualizes the information inherent in the data set, while the results were dependent on the position of the object relative the original matrix using Cubic spline interpolation. Application of spatial filtering may improve the image representation of the data. Finally, 1H MRSI was performed on healthy volunteers and patients with temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE). Metabolite concentration images were used for lateralization of TLE, where the signal intensity in the two hemispheres were compared. Visual analysis of the

  14. Personal care product use and urinary phthalate metabolite and paraben concentrations during pregnancy among women from a fertility clinic.

    PubMed

    Braun, Joe M; Just, Allan C; Williams, Paige L; Smith, Kristen W; Calafat, Antonia M; Hauser, Russ

    2014-01-01

    Parabens and phthalates are potential endocrine disruptors frequently used in personal care/beauty products, and the developing fetus may be sensitive to these chemicals. We measured urinary butyl-paraben (BP), methyl-paraben, propyl-paraben, mono-n-butyl phthalate (MBP), and monoethyl phthalate (MEP) concentrations up to three times in 177 pregnant women from a fertility clinic in Boston, MA. Using linear mixed models, we examined the relationship between self-reported personal care product use in the previous 24 h and urinary paraben and phthalate metabolite concentrations. Lotion, cosmetic, and cologne/perfume use were associated with the greatest increases in the molar sum of phthalate metabolite and paraben concentrations, although the magnitude of individual biomarker increases varied by product used. For example, women who used lotion had BP concentrations 111% higher (95% confidence interval (CI): 41%, 216%) than non-users, whereas their MBP concentrations were only 28% higher (CI: 2%, 62%). Women using cologne/perfume had MEP concentrations 167% (CI: 98%, 261%) higher than non-users, but BP concentrations were similar. We observed a monotonic dose-response relationship between the total number of products used and urinary paraben and phthalate metabolite concentrations. These results suggest that questionnaire data may be useful for assessing exposure to a mixture of chemicals from personal care products during pregnancy.

  15. Personal care product use and urinary phthalate metabolite and paraben concentrations during pregnancy among women from a fertility clinic.

    PubMed

    Braun, Joe M; Just, Allan C; Williams, Paige L; Smith, Kristen W; Calafat, Antonia M; Hauser, Russ

    2014-01-01

    Parabens and phthalates are potential endocrine disruptors frequently used in personal care/beauty products, and the developing fetus may be sensitive to these chemicals. We measured urinary butyl-paraben (BP), methyl-paraben, propyl-paraben, mono-n-butyl phthalate (MBP), and monoethyl phthalate (MEP) concentrations up to three times in 177 pregnant women from a fertility clinic in Boston, MA. Using linear mixed models, we examined the relationship between self-reported personal care product use in the previous 24 h and urinary paraben and phthalate metabolite concentrations. Lotion, cosmetic, and cologne/perfume use were associated with the greatest increases in the molar sum of phthalate metabolite and paraben concentrations, although the magnitude of individual biomarker increases varied by product used. For example, women who used lotion had BP concentrations 111% higher (95% confidence interval (CI): 41%, 216%) than non-users, whereas their MBP concentrations were only 28% higher (CI: 2%, 62%). Women using cologne/perfume had MEP concentrations 167% (CI: 98%, 261%) higher than non-users, but BP concentrations were similar. We observed a monotonic dose-response relationship between the total number of products used and urinary paraben and phthalate metabolite concentrations. These results suggest that questionnaire data may be useful for assessing exposure to a mixture of chemicals from personal care products during pregnancy. PMID:24149971

  16. Personal care product use and urinary phthalate metabolite and paraben concentrations during pregnancy among women from a fertility clinic

    PubMed Central

    Braun, Joe M.; Just, Allan C.; Williams, Paige L.; Smith, Kristen W.; Calafat, Antonia M.; Hauser, Russ

    2014-01-01

    Parabens and phthalates are potential endocrine disruptors frequently used in personal care/beauty products, and the developing fetus may be sensitive to these chemicals. We measured urinary butyl-paraben (BP), methyl-paraben (MP), propyl-paraben (PP), mono-n-butyl phthalate (MBP), and monoethyl phthalate (MEP) concentrations up to three times in 177 pregnant women from a fertility clinic in Boston MA. Using linear mixed models, we examined the relationship between self-reported personal care product use in the previous 24 hours and urinary paraben and phthalate metabolite concentrations. Lotion, cosmetic, and cologne/perfume use were associated with the greatest increases in the molar sum of phthalate metabolite and paraben concentrations, although the magnitude of individual biomarker increases varied by product used. For example, women who used lotion had BP concentrations 111% higher (95% confidence interval [CI]:41%, 216%) than non-users, while their MBP concentrations were only 28% higher (CI:2%, 62%). Women using/cologne/perfume had MEP concentrations 167% (CI:98%, 261%) higher than non-users, but BP concentrations were similar. We observed a monotonic dose-response relationship between the total number of products used and urinary paraben and phthalate metabolite concentrations. These results suggest that questionnaire data may be useful for assessing exposure to a mixture of chemicals from personal care products during pregnancy. PMID:24149971

  17. Effects of supplemental feeding and aggregation on fecal glucocorticoid metabolite concentrations in elk

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Forristal, Victoria E.; Creel, Scott; Taper, Mark L.; Scurlock, Brandon M.; Cross, Paul C.

    2012-01-01

    Habitat modifications and supplemental feeding artificially aggregate some wildlife populations, with potential impacts upon contact and parasite transmission rates. Less well recognized, however, is how increased aggregation may affect wildlife physiology. Crowding has been shown to induce stress responses, and increased glucocorticoid (GC) concentrations can reduce immune function and increase disease susceptibility. We investigated the effects of supplemental feeding and the aggregation that it induces on behavior and fecal glucocorticoid metabolite concentrations (fGCM) in elk (Cervus elaphus) using observational and experimental approaches. We first compared fGCM levels of elk on supplemental feedgrounds to neighboring elk populations wintering in native habitats using data from 2003 to 2008. We then experimentally manipulated the distribution of supplemental food on feedgrounds to investigate whether more widely distributed food would result in lower rates of aggression and stress hormone levels. Contrary to some expectations that fed elk may be less stressed than unfed elk during the winter, we found that elk on feedgrounds had fecal GC levels at least 31% higher than non-feedground populations. Within feedgrounds, fGCM levels were strongly correlated with local measures of elk density (r2 = 0.81). Dispersing feed more broadly, however, did not have a detectable effect on fGCM levels or aggression rates. Our results suggest that increases in aggregation associated with winter feedgrounds affects elk physiology, and the resulting increases in fGCM levels are not likely to be mitigated by management efforts that distribute the feed more widely. Additional research is needed to assess whether these increases in fGCMs directly alter parasite transmission and disease dynamics.

  18. Changes in the fecal concentrations of cortisol and androgen metabolites in captive male jaguars (Panthera onca) in response to stress.

    PubMed

    Morato, R G; Bueno, M G; Malmheister, P; Verreschi, I T N; Barnabe, R C

    2004-12-01

    In the present study we determined the efficacy of the measurement of fecal cortisol and androgen metabolite concentrations to monitor adrenal and testicular activity in the jaguar (Panthera onca). Three captive male jaguars were chemically restrained and electroejaculated once or twice within a period of two months. Fecal samples were collected daily for 5 days before and 5 days after the procedure and stored at -20 degrees C until extraction. Variations in the concentrations of cortisol and androgen metabolites before and after the procedure were determined by solid phase cortisol and testosterone radioimmunoassay and feces dry weight was determined by drying at 37 degrees C for 24 h under vacuum. On four occasions, fecal cortisol metabolite levels were elevated above baseline (307.8 +/- 17.5 ng/g dry feces) in the first fecal sample collected after the procedure (100 to 350% above baseline). On one occasion, we did not detect any variation. Mean (+/- SEM) fecal androgen concentration did not change after chemical restraint and electroejaculation (before: 131.1 +/- 26.7, after: 213.7 +/- 43.6 ng/g dry feces). These data show that determination of fecal cortisol and androgen metabolites can be very useful for a noninvasive assessment of animal well-being and as a complement to behavioral, physiological, and pathological studies. It can also be useful for the study of the relationship between adrenal activity and reproductive performance in the jaguar.

  19. Changes in the fecal concentrations of cortisol and androgen metabolites in captive male jaguars (Panthera onca) in response to stress.

    PubMed

    Morato, R G; Bueno, M G; Malmheister, P; Verreschi, I T N; Barnabe, R C

    2004-12-01

    In the present study we determined the efficacy of the measurement of fecal cortisol and androgen metabolite concentrations to monitor adrenal and testicular activity in the jaguar (Panthera onca). Three captive male jaguars were chemically restrained and electroejaculated once or twice within a period of two months. Fecal samples were collected daily for 5 days before and 5 days after the procedure and stored at -20 degrees C until extraction. Variations in the concentrations of cortisol and androgen metabolites before and after the procedure were determined by solid phase cortisol and testosterone radioimmunoassay and feces dry weight was determined by drying at 37 degrees C for 24 h under vacuum. On four occasions, fecal cortisol metabolite levels were elevated above baseline (307.8 +/- 17.5 ng/g dry feces) in the first fecal sample collected after the procedure (100 to 350% above baseline). On one occasion, we did not detect any variation. Mean (+/- SEM) fecal androgen concentration did not change after chemical restraint and electroejaculation (before: 131.1 +/- 26.7, after: 213.7 +/- 43.6 ng/g dry feces). These data show that determination of fecal cortisol and androgen metabolites can be very useful for a noninvasive assessment of animal well-being and as a complement to behavioral, physiological, and pathological studies. It can also be useful for the study of the relationship between adrenal activity and reproductive performance in the jaguar. PMID:15558198

  20. Software-assisted serum metabolite quantification using NMR.

    PubMed

    Jung, Young-Sang; Hyeon, Jin-Seong; Hwang, Geum-Sook

    2016-08-31

    The goal of metabolomics is to analyze a whole metabolome under a given set of conditions, and accurate and reliable quantitation of metabolites is crucial. Absolute concentration is more valuable than relative concentration; however, the most commonly used method in NMR-based serum metabolic profiling, bin-based and full data point peak quantification, provides relative concentration levels of metabolites and are not reliable when metabolite peaks overlap in a spectrum. In this study, we present the software-assisted serum metabolite quantification (SASMeQ) method, which allows us to identify and quantify metabolites in NMR spectra using Chenomx software. This software uses the ERETIC2 utility from TopSpin to add a digitally synthesized peak to a spectrum. The SASMeQ method will advance NMR-based serum metabolic profiling by providing an accurate and reliable method for absolute quantification that is superior to bin-based quantification. PMID:27506360

  1. Predictors of urinary bisphenol A and phthalate metabolite concentrations in Mexican children.

    PubMed

    Lewis, Ryan C; Meeker, John D; Peterson, Karen E; Lee, Joyce M; Pace, Gerry G; Cantoral, Alejandra; Téllez-Rojo, Martha Maria

    2013-11-01

    Exposure to endocrine disrupting chemicals such as bisphenol A (BPA) and phthalates is prevalent among children and adolescents, but little is known regarding important sources of exposure at these sensitive life stages. In this study, we measured urinary concentrations of BPA and nine phthalate metabolites in 108 Mexican children aged 8-13 years. Associations of age, time of day, and questionnaire items on external environment, water use, and food container use with specific gravity-corrected urinary concentrations were assessed, as were questionnaire items concerning the use of 17 personal care products in the past 48-h. As a secondary aim, third trimester urinary concentrations were measured in 99 mothers of these children, and the relationship between specific gravity-corrected urinary concentrations at these two time points was explored. After adjusting for potential confounding by other personal care product use in the past 48-h, there were statistically significant (p<0.05) positive associations in boys for cologne/perfume use and monoethyl phthalate (MEP), mono(3-carboxypropyl) phthalate (MCPP), mono(2-ethyl-5-hydroxyhexyl) phthalate (MEHHP), and mono(2-ethyl-5-oxohexyl) phthalate (MEOHP), and in girls for colored cosmetics use and mono-n-butyl phthalate (MBP), mono(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (MEHP), MEHHP, MEOHP, and mono(2-ethyl-5-carboxypentyl) phthalate (MECPP), conditioner use and MEP, deodorant use and MEP, and other hair products use and MBP. There was a statistically significant positive trend for the number of personal care products used in the past 48-h and log-MEP in girls. However, there were no statistically significant associations between the analytes and the other questionnaire items and there were no strong correlations between the analytes measured during the third trimester and at 8-13 years of age. We demonstrated that personal care product use is associated with exposure to multiple phthalates in children. Due to rapid development

  2. Predictors of Urinary Bisphenol A and Phthalate Metabolite Concentrations in Mexican Children

    PubMed Central

    Lewis, Ryan C.; Meeker, John D.; Peterson, Karen E.; Lee, Joyce M.; Pace, Gerry G.; Cantoral, Alejandra; Téllez-Rojo, Martha Maria

    2013-01-01

    Exposure to endocrine disrupting chemicals such as bisphenol A (BPA) and phthalates is prevalent among children and adolescents, but little is known regarding important sources of exposure at these sensitive life stages. In this study, we measured urinary concentrations of BPA and nine phthalate metabolites in 108 Mexican children aged 8–13 years. Associations of age, time of day, and questionnaire items on external environment, water use, and food container use with specific gravity-corrected urinary concentrations were assessed, as were questionnaire items concerning the use of 17 personal care products in the past 48-hr. As a secondary aim, third trimester urinary concentrations were measured in 99 mothers of these children, and the relationship between specific gravity-corrected urinary concentrations at these two time points was explored. After adjusting for potential confounding by other personal care product use in the past 48-hr, there were statistically significant (p <0.05) positive associations in boys for cologne/perfume use and monoethyl phthalate (MEP), mono(3-carboxypropyl) phthalate (MCPP), mono(2-ethyl-5-hydroxyhexyl) phthalate (MEHHP), and mono(2-ethyl-5-oxohexyl) phthalate (MEOHP), and in girls for colored cosmetics use and mono-n-butyl phthalate (MBP), mono(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (MEHP), MEHHP, MEOHP, and mono(2-ethyl-5-carboxypentyl) phthalate (MECPP), conditioner use and MEP, deodorant use and MEP, and other hair products use and MBP. There was a statistically significant positive trend for the number of personal care products used in the past 48-hr and log-MEP in girls. However, there were no statistically significant associations between the analytes and the other questionnaire items and there were no strong correlations between the analytes measured during the third trimester and at 8–13 years of age. We demonstrated that personal care product use is associated with exposure to multiple phthalates in children. Due to rapid development

  3. Urinary Phthalate Metabolite Concentrations and Diabetes among Women in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 2001–2008

    PubMed Central

    Stahlhut, Richard; Meeker, John D.; Powell, Sheena-Gail; Hauser, Russ; Huang, Tianyi; Rich-Edwards, Janet

    2012-01-01

    Background: Previous studies have shown that women have higher urinary concentrations of several phthalate metabolites than do men, possibly because of a higher use of personal care products. Few studies have evaluated the association between phthalate metabolites, diabetes, and diabetes-related risk factors among women. Objective: We explored the association between urinary phthalate metabolite concentrations and diabetes among women who participated in a cross-sectional study. Methods: We used urinary concentrations of phthalate metabolites, analyzed by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, and self-reported diabetes of 2,350 women between 20 and 79 years of age who participated in the NHANES (2001–2008). We used multiple logistic regression to estimate odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) and adjusted for urinary creatinine, sociodemographic characteristics, dietary factors, and body size. A secondary analysis was conducted for women who did not have diabetes to evaluate the association between phthalate metabolite concentrations and fasting blood glucose (FBG), homeostasis model assessment–estimated insulin resistance, and glycosylated hemoglobin A1c. Results: After adjusting for potential confounders, women with higher levels of mono-n-butyl phthalate (MnBP), mono-isobutyl phthalate (MiBP), monobenzyl phthalate (MBzP), mono-(3-carboxypropyl) phthalate (MCPP), and three di-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate metabolites (ΣDEHP) had an increased odds of diabetes compared with women with the lowest levels of these phthalates. Women in the highest quartile for MBzP and MiBP had almost twice the odds of diabetes [OR = 1.96 (95% CI: 1.11, 3.47) and OR = 1.95 (95% CI: 0.99, 3.85), respectively] compared with women in the lowest quartile. Nonmonotonic, positive associations were found for MnBP and ΣDEHP, whereas MCPP appeared to have a threshold effect. Certain phthalate metabolites were positively associated with FBG and insulin resistance

  4. Serum and urine concentrations of flunitrazepam and metabolites, after a single oral dose, by immunoassay and GC-MS.

    PubMed

    Snyder, H; Schwenzer, K S; Pearlman, R; McNally, A J; Tsilimidos, M; Salamone, S J; Brenneisen, R; ElSohly, M A; Feng, S

    2001-01-01

    A clinical study was conducted to assess the ability of commercially available immunoassays to detect flunitrazepam (FNP) in plasma and urine samples and to compare the results with those obtained by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The clinical study consisted of four individuals (two male and two female) who had taken a single 2-mg dose of FNP. Serum was collected over a 48-h period and urine was collected over a 72-h period. The serum and urine samples were analyzed by the COBAS INTEGRA Serum Benzodiazepines assay (SBENZ), the TDx serum and urine Benzodiazepines assay, and GC-MS. The GC-MS procedure was developed for analysis of FNP and metabolites in plasma and urine using an acid hydrolysis step resulting in the formation of specific benzophenones corresponding to FNP and its metabolites. The relative sensitivities of the assays for the detection of FNP and metabolites in serum and urine were GC-MS > SBENZ > TDx. The immunoassay results for serum samples showed peak concentrations of FNP metabolites at 8 h after FNP ingestion for three individuals and at about 1 h for the fourth individual. The GC-MS, SBENZ, and TDx urine immunoassays detected drug above the stated limit of detection (LOD) in 44, 41, and 35 serial FNP urine samples, respectively. FNP metabolites were detected in urine samples with all three assays for up to 72 h after a 2-mg dose. The improved detection rate with the SBENZ assay as compared to the TDx assay is likely explained by its higher cross-reactivity with the major metabolite, 7-amino-flunitrazepam (7-amino-FNP), and its lower LOD.

  5. Absolute measurement of cerebral optical coefficients, hemoglobin concentration and oxygen saturation in old and young adults with near-infrared spectroscopy

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We present near-infrared spectroscopy measurement of absolute cerebral hemoglobin concentration and saturation in a large sample of 36 healthy elderly (mean age, 85 ± 6 years) and 19 young adults (mean age, 28 ± 4 years). Non-invasive measurements were obtained on the forehead using a commercially a...

  6. Urinary Phthalate Metabolite Concentrations and Reproductive Outcomes among Women Undergoing in Vitro Fertilization: Results from the EARTH Study

    PubMed Central

    Hauser, Russ; Gaskins, Audrey J.; Souter, Irene; Smith, Kristen W.; Dodge, Laura E.; Ehrlich, Shelley; Meeker, John D.; Calafat, Antonia M.; Williams, Paige L.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Evidence from both animal and human studies suggests that exposure to phthalates may be associated with adverse female reproductive outcomes. Objective: We evaluated the associations between urinary concentrations of phthalate metabolites and outcomes of assisted reproductive technologies (ART). Methods: This analysis included 256 women enrolled in the Environment and Reproductive Health (EARTH) prospective cohort study (2004–2012) who provided one to two urine samples per cycle before oocyte retrieval. We measured 11 urinary phthalate metabolites [mono(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (MEHP), mono(2-ethyl-5-hydroxyhexyl) phthalate (MEHHP), mono(2-ethyl-5-oxohexyl) phthalate (MEOHP), mono(2-ethyl-5-carboxypentyl) phthalate (MECPP), mono-isobutyl phthalate (MiBP), mono-n-butyl phthalate (MBP), monobenzyl phthalate (MBzP), monoethyl phthalate (MEP), monocarboxyisooctyl phthalate (MCOP), monocarboxyisononyl phthalate (MCNP), and mono(3-carboxypropyl) phthalate (MCPP)]. We used generalized linear mixed models to evaluate the association of urinary phthalate metabolites with in vitro fertilization (IVF) outcomes, accounting for multiple IVF cycles per woman. Results: In multivariate models, women in the highest as compared with lowest quartile of MEHP, MEHHP, MEOHP, MECPP, ΣDEHP (MEHP + MEHHP + MEOHP + MECPP), and MCNP had lower oocyte yield. Similarly, the number of mature (MII) oocytes retrieved was lower in the highest versus lowest quartile for these same phthalate metabolites. The adjusted differences (95% CI) in proportion of cycles resulting in clinical pregnancy and live birth between women in the fourth versus first quartile of ΣDEHP were –0.19 (–0.29, –0.08) and –0.19 (–0.28, –0.08), respectively, and there was also a lower proportion of cycles resulting in clinical pregnancy and live birth for individual DEHP metabolites. Conclusions: Urinary concentrations of DEHP metabolites were inversely associated with oocyte yield, clinical pregnancy

  7. Concentrations of hormones and metabolites in cerebrospinal fluid and plasma of dairy cows during the periparturient period.

    PubMed

    Laeger, T; Sauerwein, H; Tuchscherer, A; Bellmann, O; Metges, C C; Kuhla, B

    2013-05-01

    During early lactation, high-yielding dairy cows often show insufficient feed intake (FI) and, as a consequence, they enter into a negative energy balance associated with an altered pattern of plasma metabolites and hormones. These act as short- and long-term hunger or satiety signals in the brain and play an important role in the control of FI. Metabolites and hormones also occur in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), which surrounds the hypothalamus and brainstem, 2 major centers of FI regulation. The CSF hormone and metabolite concentrations are mainly under control of the blood-brain barrier. Consequently, CSF hormone and metabolite concentrations differ from those in blood. However, the contribution of putative orexigenic and anorexigenic CSF signals possibly leading to insufficient FI of high-yielding dairy cows during early lactation has not been studied so far. Therefore, the aim of this study was to elucidate associations existing between both plasma and CSF hormones and metabolites during the periparturient period. Ten multiparous German Holstein dairy cows were fed ad libitum and samples of CSF from the spinal cord and blood from the jugular vein were withdrawn before morning feeding on d -20, -10, +1, +10, +20, and +40 relative to calving. Feed intake started to decrease from d 5 before calving and increased thereafter. Glucose, β-hydroxybutyrate (BHBA), cholesterol, nonesterified fatty acids, urea (all enzymatic), lactate (colorimetric), amino acids (HPLC), osmolality (osmometer), ghrelin (RIA), leptin (ELISA), and resistin (Western immunoblot) were measured in both CSF and plasma, whereas free fatty acids (gas chromatography-mass spectrometry) and volatile fatty acids (gas chromatography-flame-ionization detector) were determined in plasma only. Whereas leptin concentrations decreased after calving in both plasma and CSF, ghrelin concentrations were not altered, and abundances of total resistin and its hexamers decreased only in plasma. Although plasma

  8. Effect of repeated administration of antidepressant drugs on the serum and brain concentration of testosterone and its metabolites.

    PubMed

    Przegaliński, E; Warchoł-Kania, A; Budziszewska, B; Jaworska, L

    1987-01-01

    A repeated oral treatment (twice daily, for 21 consecutive days) with 10 mg/kg of antidepressants imipramine, amitriptyline, citalopram, mianserin affects the level of testosterone and its metabolites (5 alpha-dihydrotestosterone and estradiol-17 beta) in the serum and brain structures (cerebral cortex, hypothalamus). Citalopram and mianserin increased significantly the serum testosterone concentration, while imipramine and amitriptyline reduced the concentration of 5 alpha-dihydrotestosterone. In the cerebral cortex a reduction in 5 alpha-dihydrotestosterone after imipramine, and in the hypothalamus a decrease in testosterone level after amitriptyline were observed. None of the investigated drugs influenced estradiol-17 beta concentration in the serum or in the brain. PMID:3503989

  9. Concentration of metabolites from low-density planktonic communities for environmental metabolomics using nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Everroad, R Craig; Yoshida, Seiji; Tsuboi, Yuuri; Date, Yasuhiro; Kikuchi, Jun; Moriya, Shigeharu

    2012-01-01

    Environmental metabolomics is an emerging field that is promoting new understanding in how organisms respond to and interact with the environment and each other at the biochemical level. Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy is one of several technologies, including gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS), with considerable promise for such studies. Advantages of NMR are that it is suitable for untargeted analyses, provides structural information and spectra can be queried in quantitative and statistical manners against recently available databases of individual metabolite spectra. In addition, NMR spectral data can be combined with data from other omics levels (e.g. transcriptomics, genomics) to provide a more comprehensive understanding of the physiological responses of taxa to each other and the environment. However, NMR is less sensitive than other metabolomic techniques, making it difficult to apply to natural microbial systems where sample populations can be low-density and metabolite concentrations low compared to metabolites from well-defined and readily extractable sources such as whole tissues, biofluids or cell-cultures. Consequently, the few direct environmental metabolomic studies of microbes performed to date have been limited to culture-based or easily defined high-density ecosystems such as host-symbiont systems, constructed co-cultures or manipulations of the gut environment where stable isotope labeling can be additionally used to enhance NMR signals. Methods that facilitate the concentration and collection of environmental metabolites at concentrations suitable for NMR are lacking. Since recent attention has been given to the environmental metabolomics of organisms within the aquatic environment, where much of the energy and material flow is mediated by the planktonic community, we have developed a method for the concentration and extraction of whole-community metabolites from planktonic microbial systems by filtration. Commercially

  10. Postmortem Brain and Blood Reference Concentrations of Alprazolam, Bromazepam, Chlordiazepoxide, Diazepam, and their Metabolites and a Review of the Literature.

    PubMed

    Skov, Louise; Holm, Karen Marie Dollerup; Johansen, Sys Stybe; Linnet, Kristian

    2016-09-01

    To interpret postmortem toxicology results, reference concentrations for non-toxic and toxic levels are needed. Usually, measurements are performed in blood, but because of postmortem redistribution phenomena this may not be optimal. Rather, measurement in the target organ of psychoactive drugs, the brain, might be considered. Here we present reference concentrations of femoral blood and brain tissue of selected benzodiazepines (BZDs). Using LC-MS/MS, we quantified alprazolam, bromazepam, chlordiazepoxide, diazepam, and the metabolites desmethyldiazepam, oxazepam and temazepam in postmortem femoral blood and brain tissue in 104 cases. BZDs were judged to be unrelated to the cause of death in 88 cases and contributing to death in 16 cases. No cases were found with cause of death solely attributed to BZD poisoning. All BZDs investigated tended to have higher concentrations in brain than in blood with median brain-blood ratios ranging from 1.1 to 2.3. A positive correlation between brain and blood concentrations was found with R(2) values from 0.51 to 0.95. Our reported femoral blood concentrations concur with literature values, but sparse information on brain concentration was available. Drug-metabolite ratios were similar in brain and blood for most compounds. Duplicate measurements of brain samples showed that the pre-analytical variation in brain (5.9%) was relatively low, supporting the notion that brain tissue is a suitable postmortem specimen. The reported concentrations in both brain and blood can be used as reference values when evaluating postmortem cases. PMID:27416838

  11. Method for determining molar concentrations of metabolites in complex solutions from two-dimensional 1H-13C NMR spectra.

    PubMed

    Lewis, Ian A; Schommer, Seth C; Hodis, Brendan; Robb, Kate A; Tonelli, Marco; Westler, William M; Sussman, Michael R; Markley, John L

    2007-12-15

    One-dimensional (1D) (1)H nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy is used extensively for high-throughput analysis of metabolites in biological fluids and tissue extracts. Typically, such spectra are treated as multivariate statistical objects rather than as collections of quantifiable metabolites. We report here a two-dimensional (2D) (1)H-(13)C NMR strategy (fast metabolite quantification, FMQ, by NMR) for identifying and quantifying the approximately 40 most abundant metabolites in biological samples. To validate this technique, we prepared mixtures of synthetic compounds and extracts from Arabidopsis thaliana, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, and Medicago sativa. We show that accurate (technical error 2.7%) molar concentrations can be determined in 12 min using our quantitative 2D (1)H-(13)C NMR strategy. In contrast, traditional 1D (1)H NMR analysis resulted in 16.2% technical error under nearly ideal conditions. We propose FMQ by NMR as a practical alternative to 1D (1)H NMR for metabolomics studies in which 50-mg (extract dry weight) samples can be obtained. PMID:17985927

  12. Method for determining molar concentrations of metabolites in complex solutions from two-dimensional 1H-13C NMR spectra.

    PubMed

    Lewis, Ian A; Schommer, Seth C; Hodis, Brendan; Robb, Kate A; Tonelli, Marco; Westler, William M; Sussman, Michael R; Markley, John L

    2007-12-15

    One-dimensional (1D) (1)H nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy is used extensively for high-throughput analysis of metabolites in biological fluids and tissue extracts. Typically, such spectra are treated as multivariate statistical objects rather than as collections of quantifiable metabolites. We report here a two-dimensional (2D) (1)H-(13)C NMR strategy (fast metabolite quantification, FMQ, by NMR) for identifying and quantifying the approximately 40 most abundant metabolites in biological samples. To validate this technique, we prepared mixtures of synthetic compounds and extracts from Arabidopsis thaliana, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, and Medicago sativa. We show that accurate (technical error 2.7%) molar concentrations can be determined in 12 min using our quantitative 2D (1)H-(13)C NMR strategy. In contrast, traditional 1D (1)H NMR analysis resulted in 16.2% technical error under nearly ideal conditions. We propose FMQ by NMR as a practical alternative to 1D (1)H NMR for metabolomics studies in which 50-mg (extract dry weight) samples can be obtained.

  13. Influence of increased dissolved oxygen concentration on the formation of secondary metabolites by manumycin-producing Streptomyces parvulus.

    PubMed

    Kaiser, D; Onken, U; Sattler, I; Zeeck, A

    1994-05-01

    The influence of increased dissolved O2 concentrations (DOC) on cell growth and production of the secondary metabolite manumycin by a strain of Streptomyces parvulus (Tü 64) was investigated in a stirred tank fermentor. DOC is given as the O2 partial pressure (po2) in the gas phase in an equilibrium state with the liquid phase. Growth of S. parvulus was not influenced up to DOC equivalent to po2 = 1260 mbar. At po2 = 2205 mbar the maximum biomass concentration was lowered by 40%. Production of manumycin was markedly influenced by DOC and reached the maximal concentration at po2 = 315 mbar. At increased DOC three new metabolites were observed. Two of them, 64p-A and 64p-B, were identified as carboxamides, which represent the branched side chain of the manumycin molecule and a derivative with a shorter chain length. The third metabolite, 64p-C, was a manumycin derivative containing an aromatic ring system. Feeding of glycerol during the production phase increased the total yield and showed a similar effect of DOC. Since DOC has significant regulation effects on product formation and selectivity, it should be used as a major parameter in development strategies of aerobic microbial processes.

  14. Urinary metabolite concentrations of phthalate metabolites in Central Italy healthy volunteers determined by a validated HPLC/MS/MS analytical method.

    PubMed

    Tranfo, Giovanna; Papaleo, Bruno; Caporossi, Lidia; Capanna, Silvia; De Rosa, Mariangela; Pigini, Daniela; Corsetti, Federica; Paci, Enrico

    2013-07-01

    The main objective of this study was to determine the average concentrations for the metabolites of the four more common phthalates, industrial chemicals widely used in commercial products and potential endocrine disruptors, in the urine of a control population living in Central Italy. The study population consisted of 157 healthy subjects, not occupationally exposed to phthalates (74 males and 83 females). Urinary levels of the analytes were determined by liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) with isotopic dilution. The reference values (geometric mean) for males and females were estimated for each metabolite:. Females: for MEP was 72.94μg/g creatinine (CI 95% 3.63-149.51), for MEHP was 3.37μg/g creatinine (CI 95% 1.85-4.89), for MEHHP was 12.74μg/g creatinine (CI 95% 9.45-22.19), for MnBP was 20.26μg/g creatinine (CI 95% 8.17-28.43) and for MBzP was 14.74 (CI 95% 2.94-17.68). Males: for MEP was 56.35μg/g creatinine (CI 95% 2.32-110.39), for MEHP was 2.80μg/g creatinine (CI 95% 1.08-4.52), for MEHHP was 10.77μg/g creatinine (CI 95% 6.18-16.95), for MnBP was 17.59μg/g creatinine (CI 95% 5.72-29.45) and for MBzP was 16.44 (CI 95% 7.90-29.45). To obtain reference values for these chemicals is without doubt an important topic for evaluate the exposure of population and their possible health effects. Information from different geographical areas are important to understand the real different background concentrations.

  15. Effects of Forage:Concentrate Ratio on Growth Performance, Ruminal Fermentation and Blood Metabolites in Housing-feeding Yaks

    PubMed Central

    Chen, G. J.; Song, S. D.; Wang, B. X.; Zhang, Z. F.; Peng, Z. L.; Guo, C. H.; Zhong, J. C.; Wang, Y.

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the effect of forage: concentrate ratio (F:C) on growth performance, ruminal fermentation and blood metabolites of housing-feeding yaks. Thirty-two Maiwa male yaks (initial body weight = 207.99±3.31 kg) were randomly assigned to four dietary treatments (8 yaks per treatment). Experimental diets were: A, B, C, D which contained 70:30, 60:40, 50:50 and 40:60 F:C ratios, respectively. Dry matter intake and average daily gain in yaks fed the C and D diets were greater (p<0.05) than yaks fed the A and B diets. No differences were found in ruminal NH3-N, total volatile fatty acids, acetate, butyrate, valerate, and isovalerate concentrations. The propionate concentration was increased (p<0.05) in the C and D groups compared with the A and B diets. In contrast, the acetate to propionate ratio was decreased and was lowest (p<0.05) in the C group relative to the A and B diets, but was similar with the D group. For blood metabolites, no differences were found in serum concentrations of urea-N, albumin, triglyceride, cholesterol, low density lipoprotein, alanine aminotransferase, and aspartate aminotransferase (p>0.05) among treatments. Treatment C had a higher concentration of total protein and high density lipoprotein (p<0.05) than A and B groups. In addition, there was a trend that the globulin concentration of A group was lower than other treatments (p = 0.079). Results from this study suggest that increasing the level of concentrate from 30% to 50% exerted a positive effect on growth performance, rumen fermentation and blood metabolites in yaks. PMID:26580441

  16. Concentrations of atomoxetine and its metabolites in plasma and oral fluid from paediatric patients with attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder.

    PubMed

    Papaseit, Esther; Marchei, Emilia; Farré, Magí; Garcia-Algar, Oscar; Pacifici, Roberta; Pichini, Simona

    2013-06-01

    Atomoxetine (ATX) is a non-stimulant drug approved for the treatment of children and adolescents with attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). We aimed to study the excretion profile of ATX and its principal metabolites 4-hydroxyatomoxetine (4-OH-ATX) and N-desmethylatomoxetine (desmethyl-ATX) in oral fluid and plasma of ADHD paediatric subjects, after administration of different dosage regimens. Oral fluid and plasma samples were obtained from one child and five adolescents treated with different ATX doses (18-60 mg/day). ATX and its metabolites were measured in oral fluid and plasma by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS). Apparent pharmacokinetic parameters of ATX in oral fluid and plasma were estimated for each subject. All analytes under investigation were detected in plasma samples with concentrations from 0.6 to 1065.7 ng/ml for ATX, 0.7 to 17.1 ng/ml for 4-OH-ATX and 0.7 to 126.2 ng/ml for desmethyl-ATX. Only ATX and 4-OH-ATX were detected in oral fluid samples with concentrations from 0.5 to 36.0 ng/ml and 0.5 to 4.7 ng/ml, respectively. ATX concentrations in oral fluid were between one and two orders of magnitude lower than those in plasma. 4-OH-ATX was found in oral fluid at a peak concentration approximately one-fourth those in plasma with a mean tmax of 2.3 in plasma and 3.0 h in oral fluid. The correlations between ATX and 4-OH-ATX concentrations in the two biological fluids indicate that oral fluid concentrations of this drug and its principal metabolite may be a predictor of plasma concentrations, even if values are too low and variable to be considered an alternative to plasma.

  17. Determinants of Arsenic Metabolism: Blood Arsenic Metabolites, Plasma Folate, Cobalamin, and Homocysteine Concentrations in Maternal–Newborn Pairs

    PubMed Central

    Hall, Marni; Gamble, Mary; Slavkovich, Vesna; Liu, Xinhua; Levy, Diane; Cheng, Zhongqi; van Geen, Alexander; Yunus, Mahammad; Rahman, Mahfuzar; Pilsner, J. Richard; Graziano, Joseph

    2007-01-01

    Background In Bangladesh, tens of millions of people have been consuming waterborne arsenic for decades. The extent to which As is transported to the fetus during pregnancy has not been well characterized. Objectives We therefore conducted a study of 101 pregnant women who gave birth in Matlab, Bangladesh. Methods Maternal and cord blood pairs were collected and concentrations of total As were analyzed for 101 pairs, and As metabolites for 30 pairs. Maternal urinary As metabolites and plasma folate, cobalamin, and homocysteine levels in maternal cord pairs were also measured. Household tube well–water As concentrations exceeded the World Health Organization guideline of 10 μg/L in 38% of the cases. Results We observed strong associations between maternal and cord blood concentrations of total As (r = 0.93, p < 0.0001). Maternal and cord blood arsenic metabolites (n = 30) were also strongly correlated: in dimethylarsinate (DMA) (r = 0.94, p < 0.0001), monomethylarsonate (r = 0.80, p < 0.0001), arsenite (As+3) (r = 0.80, p < 0.0001), and arsenate (As+5) (r = 0.89, p < 0.0001). Maternal homocysteine was a strong predictor of %DMA in maternal urine, maternal blood, and cord blood (β = −6.2, p < 0.02; β = −10.9, p < 0.04; and β = −13.7, p < 0.04, respectively). Maternal folate was inversely associated with maternal blood As5+ (β = 0.56, p < 0.05), and maternal cobalamin was inversely associated with cord blood As5+ (β = −1.2, p < 0.01). Conclusions We conclude that exposure to all metabolites of inorganic As occurs in the prenatal period. PMID:17938743

  18. Effects of formulation concentration on intravenous pharmacokinetics, chirality and in vitro solubility of oxfendazole and its metabolites in sheep.

    PubMed

    Sánchez Bruni, S F; Jones, D G; Small, J; McKellar, Q A

    2005-10-01

    This study compared pharmacokinetic (PK) profiles in sheep dosed intravenously with three different concentrations of oxfendazole (OFZ). An in vitro plasma OFZ solubility study provided additional information on plasma saturation. For the PK study, 18 adult, parasite-free, female Suffolk cross sheep, allocated into three groups (n = 6), were treated intravenously, at a dose rate of 5 mg/kg bodyweight, with aqueous formulations containing at 4, 8 or 16% OFZ. Plasma drug concentrations were measured, for up to 72 h post-treatment, by a validated high performance liquid chromatography method with UV detection. OFZ and fenbendazole sulphone (FBZSO2) were the main metabolites detected in all three experimental groups. In animals given the 4% formulation, OFZ depleted according to a biexponential concentration vs. time curve. In contrast, those given 8 or 16% preparations produced atypical curves fitted by monoexponential equations. No statistically significant differences in area under concentration-time curves (AUC) were observed, but concentration-dependent differences in distribution and mean residence time (MRT) were evident. Compared with 4% OFZ, animals treated with 8 and 16% formulations had slower half-lives of metabolite formation, and lower AUC's, suggesting that OFZ sulphonation may have been modified. In vitro there was evidence of plasma saturation associated with 8 and 16% OFZ preparations. It is concluded that differences in PK profiles were related to OFZ solubility and/or tissue drug precipitation.

  19. The concentration of plasma metabolites varies throughout reproduction and affects offspring number in wild brown trout (Salmo trutta).

    PubMed

    Gauthey, Zoé; Freychet, Marine; Manicki, Aurélie; Herman, Alexandre; Lepais, Olivier; Panserat, Stéphane; Elosegi, Arturo; Tentelier, Cédric; Labonne, Jacques

    2015-06-01

    In wild populations, measuring energy invested in the reproduction and disentangling investment in gametes versus investment in reproductive behavior (such as intrasexual competition or intersexual preference) remain challenging. In this study, we investigated the energy expenditure in brown trout reproductive behavior by using two proxies: variation in weight and variation of plasma metabolites involved in energy production, over the course of reproductive season in a semi natural experimental river. We estimated overall reproductive success using genetic assignment at the end of the reproductive season. Results show that triglycerides and free fatty acid concentrations vary negatively during reproduction, while amino-acids and glucose concentrations remain stable. Decrease in triglyceride and free fatty acid concentrations during reproduction is not related to initial concentration levels or to weight variation. Both metabolite concentration variations and weight variations are correlated to the number of offspring produced, which could indicate that gametic and behavioral reproductive investments substantially contribute to reproductive success in wild brown trout. This study opens a path to further investigate variations in reproductive investment in wild populations.

  20. Blood vitamin D(3) metabolite concentrations of adult female bearded dragons (Pogona vitticeps) remain stable after ceasing UVb exposure.

    PubMed

    Oonincx, D G A B; van de Wal, M D; Bosch, G; Stumpel, J B G; Heijboer, A C; van Leeuwen, J P T M; Hendriks, W H; Kik, M

    2013-07-01

    Vitamin D deficiency can lead to several health problems collectively called metabolic bone disease (MBD). One commonly kept reptile species prone to develop MBD if managed incorrectly is the bearded dragon (Pogona vitticeps). This study aimed to determine the extent to which adult female bearded dragons fed a diet low in vitamin D can use stored vitamin D and its metabolites to maintain plasma 25(OH)D(3) and 1,25(OH)(2)D(3) concentrations after discontinuing UVb exposure. Blood samples of healthy adult female bearded dragons, exposed to UVb radiation for over 6 months were collected (day 0) after which UVb exposure was discontinued for 83 days and blood was collected. Blood plasma was analysed for concentrations of total Ca, total P, ionized Ca, uric acid, 25(OH)D(3) and 1,25(OH)(2)D(3). There was no significant change in plasma 25(OH)D(3) and 1,25(OH)(2)D(3) concentrations during the study. While total Ca and P in whole blood was found to significantly decrease over time (P < 0.0088 and 0.0016, respectively), values were within the reference range. Plasma ionized Ca tended (P = 0.0525) to decrease during the study. Adult female bearded dragons, previously exposed to UVb, are able to maintain blood vitamin D metabolite concentrations when UVb exposure is discontinued for a period of up to 83 days. PMID:23648288

  1. Blood vitamin D(3) metabolite concentrations of adult female bearded dragons (Pogona vitticeps) remain stable after ceasing UVb exposure.

    PubMed

    Oonincx, D G A B; van de Wal, M D; Bosch, G; Stumpel, J B G; Heijboer, A C; van Leeuwen, J P T M; Hendriks, W H; Kik, M

    2013-07-01

    Vitamin D deficiency can lead to several health problems collectively called metabolic bone disease (MBD). One commonly kept reptile species prone to develop MBD if managed incorrectly is the bearded dragon (Pogona vitticeps). This study aimed to determine the extent to which adult female bearded dragons fed a diet low in vitamin D can use stored vitamin D and its metabolites to maintain plasma 25(OH)D(3) and 1,25(OH)(2)D(3) concentrations after discontinuing UVb exposure. Blood samples of healthy adult female bearded dragons, exposed to UVb radiation for over 6 months were collected (day 0) after which UVb exposure was discontinued for 83 days and blood was collected. Blood plasma was analysed for concentrations of total Ca, total P, ionized Ca, uric acid, 25(OH)D(3) and 1,25(OH)(2)D(3). There was no significant change in plasma 25(OH)D(3) and 1,25(OH)(2)D(3) concentrations during the study. While total Ca and P in whole blood was found to significantly decrease over time (P < 0.0088 and 0.0016, respectively), values were within the reference range. Plasma ionized Ca tended (P = 0.0525) to decrease during the study. Adult female bearded dragons, previously exposed to UVb, are able to maintain blood vitamin D metabolite concentrations when UVb exposure is discontinued for a period of up to 83 days.

  2. No effect of the anticholinergic drugs trihexyphenidyl and biperiden on the plasma concentrations of bromperidol and its reduced metabolite.

    PubMed

    Otani, K; Ishida, M; Yasui, N; Kondo, T; Mihara, K; Suzuki, A; Kaneko, S; Inoue, Y; Shibata, M; Ikeda, K

    1997-04-01

    Effects of the anticholinergic drugs trihexyphenidyl and biperiden on plasma concentrations of bromperidol and its reduced metabolite were studied. Subjects comprised 20 schizophrenic inpatients taking bromperidol, 6-18 mg/ day for 1-9 weeks. Patients were randomly allocated to one of two treatment sequences: trihexyphenidyl-biperiden (n = 12) or biperiden-trihexyphenidyl (n = 8). Each sequence consisted of two 2-week phases, with no washout period between the two phases. The daily dose of trihexyphenidyl was 8 mg and that of biperiden 6 mg. Plasma concentrations of bromperidol and reduced bromperidol were measured using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). There was no significant difference in plasma bromperidol or reduced bromperidol concentrations among baseline, trihexyphenidyl and biperiden phases: 7.3 +/- 3.7 versus 7.2 +/- 4.1 versus 7.0 +/- 4.3 ng/ml and 2.0 +/- 2.1 versus 2.2 +/- 2.1 versus 1.9 +/- 2.0 ng/ml, respectively. The present study thus suggests that neither trihexyphenidyl nor biperiden affects plasma concentrations of bromperidol and its reduced metabolite.

  3. Temporal changes in plasma concentrations of hormones and metabolites in pasture-fed dairy cows during extended lactation.

    PubMed

    Marett, L C; Auldist, M J; Grainger, C; Wales, W J; Blache, D; Macmillan, K L; Leury, B J

    2011-10-01

    This experiment measured variations in plasma concentrations of metabolic hormones and metabolites in cows undergoing extended lactations of up to 670 d at 2 planes of nutrition. Thirty-seven Holstein-Friesian cows that calved in late winter were selected for varying milk yield and then managed for a lactation of 670 d by delaying breeding until approximately 450 d in milk (DIM). Cows grazed fresh pasture supplemented with pasture silage or hay and crushed wheat or triticale grain. Dietary intake was reduced by approximately 1.8 kg (dry matter) grain/cow per day for 19 of the cows from 300 DIM until the end of lactation to assess the effect of restricted energy intake on the persistency of milk production. Samples of blood were collected monthly from each cow to measure plasma concentrations of selected hormones and metabolites. Dietary restriction beyond 300 DIM reduced yields of milk, protein, and fat, but did not alter the proportion of cows reaching the 670-d lactation target. Dietary restriction had no effect on cow BW or plasma concentrations of any hormones or metabolites. Overall, blood plasma concentrations of insulin-like growth factor-I, leptin, and glucose were elevated from 301 to 600 DIM compared with 0 to 300 DIM, whereas concentrations of growth hormone and nonesterified fatty acids were lower after 300 DIM. Plasma concentrations of insulin and prolactin were unaffected by stage of lactation, but prolactin concentrations increased during summer. These changes were consistent with a decrease in milk yield and an increase in the partitioning of nutrients to body tissue gain, primarily adipose tissue, throughout the later stages of the extended lactation. Cows that continued milking beyond 600 DIM had increased plasma concentrations of growth hormone and decreased concentrations of glucose and leptin compared with cows that milked <600 DIM. These differences, coupled with reduced body weight gain, indicated an increased priority for nutrient

  4. Improved method for measuring absolute O2(a1Δg) concentration by O2(a1Δg-->X3Σg-) IR radiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deng, Liezheng; Shi, Wenbo; Yang, Heping; Sha, Guohe; Zhang, Cunhao

    2004-11-01

    We describe an improved technique for measuring the absolute O2(a1Δ) concentration via the quantitative determination of IR radiation from O2(a1Δg→X3Σg-) transition. An exact geometrical optical model was first established, in which the influence of reflection and refraction on the radiation characteristics of a luminous volume source was given full consideration, making possible the accurate calculation of the coupling efficiency between the volume source and a receiving area. Then, an IR radiation receiving apparatus (IRRRA) was constructed and its responsivity (mV/W) to the power of IR radiation calibrated by a tungsten standard lamp. An optical detection system was, in turn, built according to the optical model with fine alignment between the IRRRA and an optical cell. We then demonstrate the procedure to obtain the absolute concentration of O2(a1Δ) flowing through the optical cell from a jet singlet oxygen generator from the signal of the IRRRA, the optical cell volume, and the coupling efficiency between the cell and the IRRRA. Moreover, to verify the accuracy of this method, the absolute O2(a1Δ) concentration was compared to that measured by an established isothermal calorimetry method. Based on the comparison of the O2(a1Δ) concentrations determined by the two methods, the Einstein A-coefficient was estimated as (2.70±0.84)×10-4 s-1, which agrees with Badger's value of 2.58×10-4, Špalek's of 2.24×10-4, Newman's of 2.19×10-4, and Miller's of 2.3×10-4 within the uncertainty of the experimental techniques. The method advanced in this article is worthwhile for the measurement of absolute O2(a1Δ) concentration in a chemical oxygen iodine laser or a singlet oxygen generator. It can also provide a general technique for the measurement of absolute concentrations of long-lifetime luminous species other than O2(a1Δ).

  5. Microbial successions and metabolite changes during fermentation of salted shrimp (saeu-jeot) with different salt concentrations.

    PubMed

    Lee, Se Hee; Jung, Ji Young; Jeon, Che Ok

    2014-01-01

    To investigate the effects of salt concentration on saeu-jeot (salted shrimp) fermentation, four sets of saeu-jeot samples with 20%, 24%, 28%, and 32% salt concentrations were prepared, and the pH, bacterial and archaeal abundances, bacterial communities, and metabolites were monitored during the entire fermentation period. Quantitative PCR showed that Bacteria were much more abundant than Archaea in all saeu-jeot samples, suggesting that bacterial populations play more important roles than archaeal populations even in highly salted samples. Community analysis indicated that Vibrio, Photobacterium, Psychrobacter, Pseudoalteromonas, and Enterovibrio were identified as the initially dominant genera, and the bacterial successions were significantly different depending on the salt concentration. During the early fermentation period, Salinivibrio predominated in the 20% salted samples, whereas Staphylococcus, Halomonas, and Salimicrobium predominated in the 24% salted samples; eventually, Halanaerobium predominated in the 20% and 24% salted samples. The initially dominant genera gradually decreased as the fermentation progressed in the 28% and 32% salted samples, and eventually Salimicrobium became predominant in the 28% salted samples. However, the initially dominant genera still remained until the end of fermentation in the 32% salted samples. Metabolite analysis showed that the amino acid profile and the initial glycerol increase were similar in all saeu-jeot samples regardless of the salt concentration. After 30-80 days of fermentation, the levels of acetate, butyrate, and methylamines in the 20% and 24% salted samples increased with the growth of Halanaerobium, even though the amino acid concentrations steadily increased until approximately 80-107 days of fermentation. This study suggests that a range of 24-28% salt concentration in saeu-jeot fermentation is appropriate for the production of safe and tasty saeu-jeot.

  6. Microbial Successions and Metabolite Changes during Fermentation of Salted Shrimp (Saeu-Jeot) with Different Salt Concentrations

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Se Hee; Jung, Ji Young; Jeon, Che Ok

    2014-01-01

    To investigate the effects of salt concentration on saeu-jeot (salted shrimp) fermentation, four sets of saeu-jeot samples with 20%, 24%, 28%, and 32% salt concentrations were prepared, and the pH, bacterial and archaeal abundances, bacterial communities, and metabolites were monitored during the entire fermentation period. Quantitative PCR showed that Bacteria were much more abundant than Archaea in all saeu-jeot samples, suggesting that bacterial populations play more important roles than archaeal populations even in highly salted samples. Community analysis indicated that Vibrio, Photobacterium, Psychrobacter, Pseudoalteromonas, and Enterovibrio were identified as the initially dominant genera, and the bacterial successions were significantly different depending on the salt concentration. During the early fermentation period, Salinivibrio predominated in the 20% salted samples, whereas Staphylococcus, Halomonas, and Salimicrobium predominated in the 24% salted samples; eventually, Halanaerobium predominated in the 20% and 24% salted samples. The initially dominant genera gradually decreased as the fermentation progressed in the 28% and 32% salted samples, and eventually Salimicrobium became predominant in the 28% salted samples. However, the initially dominant genera still remained until the end of fermentation in the 32% salted samples. Metabolite analysis showed that the amino acid profile and the initial glycerol increase were similar in all saeu-jeot samples regardless of the salt concentration. After 30–80 days of fermentation, the levels of acetate, butyrate, and methylamines in the 20% and 24% salted samples increased with the growth of Halanaerobium, even though the amino acid concentrations steadily increased until approximately 80–107 days of fermentation. This study suggests that a range of 24–28% salt concentration in saeu-jeot fermentation is appropriate for the production of safe and tasty saeu-jeot. PMID:24587230

  7. Effects of natural environmental conditions on faecal glucocorticoid metabolite concentrations in jaguars (Panthera onca) in Belize.

    PubMed

    Mesa-Cruz, J Bernardo; Brown, Janine L; Kelly, Marcella J

    2014-01-01

    In situ studies that rely on non-invasive faecal hormone monitoring are subject to problems due to potential changes in hormone concentrations in samples exposed to field conditions. In this study, we conducted an environmental validation for measurement of faecal glucocorticoid metabolites (FGMs) in jaguars (Panthera onca). We collected fresh faeces (e.g. no older than 8 h) from jaguars (six males and four females), housed at the Belize Zoo, and exposed them randomly to two environmental conditions: shade and sun. A control (first sub-sample) was immediately frozen, after which sub-samples were frozen daily over a 5 day period in both the dry and wet seasons. We quantified FGMs using a cortisol enzyme immunoassay (EIA) and a corticosterone radioimmunoassay (RIA), both capable of identifying relevant metabolites. Results indicated that FGMs assessed with the cortisol EIA were stable for 5 days during the dry season but for <1 day during the wet season, while FGMs assessed with the corticosterone RIA were stable for 5 days during both the dry and wet seasons. Exposure of jaguar faeces to sun or shade had no effect on FGM concentrations, despite significant differences in weather parameters. Analysis of faecal morphology proved unreliable in identifying faecal age. We conclude that the corticosterone RIA is suitable for assessing FGMs in free-ranging Belizean jaguars by surveying the same transects every 3-4 days in both seasons. The cortisol EIA can be used during the dry season, but there are possible shifts in metabolite immunoactivity in wet conditions. Assessment of adrenal activity in jaguars ranging areas of varying human disturbance is a timely application of this methodology in Belize.

  8. Effects of natural environmental conditions on faecal glucocorticoid metabolite concentrations in jaguars (Panthera onca) in Belize.

    PubMed

    Mesa-Cruz, J Bernardo; Brown, Janine L; Kelly, Marcella J

    2014-01-01

    In situ studies that rely on non-invasive faecal hormone monitoring are subject to problems due to potential changes in hormone concentrations in samples exposed to field conditions. In this study, we conducted an environmental validation for measurement of faecal glucocorticoid metabolites (FGMs) in jaguars (Panthera onca). We collected fresh faeces (e.g. no older than 8 h) from jaguars (six males and four females), housed at the Belize Zoo, and exposed them randomly to two environmental conditions: shade and sun. A control (first sub-sample) was immediately frozen, after which sub-samples were frozen daily over a 5 day period in both the dry and wet seasons. We quantified FGMs using a cortisol enzyme immunoassay (EIA) and a corticosterone radioimmunoassay (RIA), both capable of identifying relevant metabolites. Results indicated that FGMs assessed with the cortisol EIA were stable for 5 days during the dry season but for <1 day during the wet season, while FGMs assessed with the corticosterone RIA were stable for 5 days during both the dry and wet seasons. Exposure of jaguar faeces to sun or shade had no effect on FGM concentrations, despite significant differences in weather parameters. Analysis of faecal morphology proved unreliable in identifying faecal age. We conclude that the corticosterone RIA is suitable for assessing FGMs in free-ranging Belizean jaguars by surveying the same transects every 3-4 days in both seasons. The cortisol EIA can be used during the dry season, but there are possible shifts in metabolite immunoactivity in wet conditions. Assessment of adrenal activity in jaguars ranging areas of varying human disturbance is a timely application of this methodology in Belize. PMID:27293660

  9. Effects of natural environmental conditions on faecal glucocorticoid metabolite concentrations in jaguars (Panthera onca) in Belize

    PubMed Central

    Mesa-Cruz, J. Bernardo; Brown, Janine L.; Kelly, Marcella J.

    2014-01-01

    In situ studies that rely on non-invasive faecal hormone monitoring are subject to problems due to potential changes in hormone concentrations in samples exposed to field conditions. In this study, we conducted an environmental validation for measurement of faecal glucocorticoid metabolites (FGMs) in jaguars (Panthera onca). We collected fresh faeces (e.g. no older than 8 h) from jaguars (six males and four females), housed at the Belize Zoo, and exposed them randomly to two environmental conditions: shade and sun. A control (first sub-sample) was immediately frozen, after which sub-samples were frozen daily over a 5 day period in both the dry and wet seasons. We quantified FGMs using a cortisol enzyme immunoassay (EIA) and a corticosterone radioimmunoassay (RIA), both capable of identifying relevant metabolites. Results indicated that FGMs assessed with the cortisol EIA were stable for 5 days during the dry season but for <1 day during the wet season, while FGMs assessed with the corticosterone RIA were stable for 5 days during both the dry and wet seasons. Exposure of jaguar faeces to sun or shade had no effect on FGM concentrations, despite significant differences in weather parameters. Analysis of faecal morphology proved unreliable in identifying faecal age. We conclude that the corticosterone RIA is suitable for assessing FGMs in free-ranging Belizean jaguars by surveying the same transects every 3–4 days in both seasons. The cortisol EIA can be used during the dry season, but there are possible shifts in metabolite immunoactivity in wet conditions. Assessment of adrenal activity in jaguars ranging areas of varying human disturbance is a timely application of this methodology in Belize. PMID:27293660

  10. Absolute concentrations of highly vibrationally excited OH(υ = 9 + 8) in the mesopause region derived from the TIMED/SABER instrument

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mast, Jeffrey; Mlynczak, Martin G.; Hunt, Linda A.; Marshall, B. Thomas; Mertens, Christoper J.; Russell, James M.; Thompson, R. Earl; Gordley, Larry L.

    2013-02-01

    Abstract <span class="hlt">Absolute</span> <span class="hlt">concentrations</span> (cm-3) of highly vibrationally excited hydroxyl (OH) are derived from measurements of the volume emission rate of the υ = 9 + 8 states of the OH radical made by the SABER instrument on the TIMED satellite. SABER has exceptionally sensitive measurement precision that corresponds to an ability to detect changes in volume emission rate on the order of ~5 excited OH molecules per cm3. Peak zonal annual mean <span class="hlt">concentrations</span> observed by SABER exceed 1000 cm-3 at night and 225 cm-3 during the day. Measurements since 2002 show an apparent altitude-dependent variation of the night OH(υ = 9 + 8) <span class="hlt">concentrations</span> with the 11 year solar cycle, with <span class="hlt">concentrations</span> decreasing below ~ 95 km from 2002 to 2008. These observations provide a global database for evaluating photochemical model computations of OH abundance, reaction kinetics, and rates and mechanisms responsible for maintaining vibrationally excited OH in the mesopause region.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012JBO....17h1406H','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012JBO....17h1406H"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Absolute</span> measurement of cerebral optical coefficients, hemoglobin <span class="hlt">concentration</span> and oxygen saturation in old and young adults with near-infrared spectroscopy</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Hallacoglu, Bertan; Sassaroli, Angelo; Wysocki, Michael; Guerrero-Berroa, Elizabeth; Schnaider Beeri, Michal; Haroutunian, Vahram; Shaul, Merav; Rosenberg, Irwin H.; Troen, Aron M.; Fantini, Sergio</p> <p>2012-08-01</p> <p>We present near-infrared spectroscopy measurement of <span class="hlt">absolute</span> cerebral hemoglobin <span class="hlt">concentration</span> and saturation in a large sample of 36 healthy elderly (mean age, 85±6 years) and 19 young adults (mean age, 28±4 years). Non-invasive measurements were obtained on the forehead using a commercially available multi-distance frequency-domain system and analyzed using a diffusion theory model for a semi-infinite, homogeneous medium with semi-infinite boundary conditions. Our study included repeat measurements, taken five months apart, on 16 elderly volunteers that demonstrate intra-subject reproducibility of the <span class="hlt">absolute</span> measurements with cross-correlation coefficients of 0.9 for absorption coefficient (μa), oxy-hemoglobin <span class="hlt">concentration</span> ([HbO2]), and total hemoglobin <span class="hlt">concentration</span> ([HbT]), 0.7 for deoxy-hemoglobin <span class="hlt">concentration</span> ([Hb]), 0.8 for hemoglobin oxygen saturation (StO2), and 0.7 for reduced scattering coefficient (). We found significant differences between the two age groups. Compared to young subjects, elderly subjects had lower cerebral [HbO2], [Hb], [HbT], and StO2 by 10±4 μM, 4±3 μM, 14±5 μM, and 6%±5%, respectively. Our results demonstrate the reliability and robustness of multi-distance near-infrared spectroscopy measurements based on a homogeneous model in the human forehead on a large sample of human subjects. <span class="hlt">Absolute</span>, non-invasive optical measurements on the brain, such as those presented here, can significantly advance the development of NIRS technology as a tool for monitoring resting/basal cerebral perfusion, hemodynamics, oxygenation, and metabolism.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/8266934','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/8266934"><span id="translatedtitle">Skin contamination, airborne <span class="hlt">concentrations</span>, and urinary <span class="hlt">metabolite</span> excretion of propoxur during harvesting of flowers in greenhouses.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Brouwer, R; van Maarleveld, K; Ravensberg, L; Meuling, W; de Kort, W; van Hemmen, J J</p> <p>1993-11-01</p> <p>In eight greenhouses used for carnation culture, workers engaged in harvesting (n = 16), were monitored for dermal and respiratory exposure and urinary excretion of propoxur. Dermal exposure of hands and forearms was estimated from dislodgable foliar residue, using a transfer factor (a measure of transfer of pesticides from leaves to the skin) and the total number of working hours. Total estimated dermal and respiratory exposure during harvesting ranged from 0.2 to 46 mg and from 3 to 278 micrograms, respectively. To study the relationship between external and internal exposure to propoxur, respiratory and dermal exposure levels were compared with the total amount of 2-isopropoxyphenol (IPP), the major <span class="hlt">metabolite</span> of propoxur, excreted in urine in 24 hr. The Pearson correlation coefficient between dermal exposure and the total amount of excreted IPP was 0.95. A correlation coefficient of 0.84 was found between respiratory exposure and the amount of IPP excreted. The latter association was probably caused by the covariation of respiratory and dermal exposure levels (r = 0.85). Assuming negligible oral absorption, calculations indicated that dermal exposure could account for > 80% of the amount of excreted IPP. On the basis of the amount of IPP excreted, there was no reason to suspect increased health risks for workers from exposure to propoxur during harvesting.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27206901','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27206901"><span id="translatedtitle">Neurotransmitter and their <span class="hlt">metabolite</span> <span class="hlt">concentrations</span> in different areas of the HPRT knockout mouse brain.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Tschirner, Sarah K; Gutzki, Frank; Schneider, Erich H; Seifert, Roland; Kaever, Volkhard</p> <p>2016-06-15</p> <p>Lesch-Nyhan syndrome (LNS) is characterized by uric acid overproduction and severe neurobehavioral symptoms, such as recurrent self-mutilative behavior. To learn more about the pathophysiology of the disease, we quantified neurotransmitters and their <span class="hlt">metabolites</span> in the cerebral hemisphere, cerebellum and the medulla oblongata of HPRT knockout mice, an animal model for LNS, in comparison to the corresponding wild-type. Our analyses included l-glutamate, 4-aminobutanoic acid (GABA), acetylcholine, serotonin, 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid (5-HIAA), norepinephrine, l-normetanephrine, epinephrine and l-metanephrine and were conducted via high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) coupled to tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS). Among these neurotransmitter systems, we did not find any abnormalities in the HPRT knockout mouse brains. On one side, this might indicate that HPRT deficiency most severely affects dopamine signaling, while brain functioning based on other neurotransmitters is more or less spared. On the other hand, our findings may reflect a compensating mechanism for impaired purine salvage that protects the brain in HPRT-deficient mice but not in LNS patients. PMID:27206901</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/5414989','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/5414989"><span id="translatedtitle">Biological monitoring of dichloropropene: Air <span class="hlt">concentrations</span>, urinary <span class="hlt">metabolite</span>, and renal enzyme excretion</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Osterloh, J.D.; Wang, R.; Schneider, F.; Maddy, K. )</p> <p>1989-07-01</p> <p>Fifteen applicators of dichloropropene (DCP) were studied for personal air exposure to DCP, excretion of the <span class="hlt">metabolite</span> of DCP (3CNAC), and excretion of the renal tubular enzyme, N-acetyl glucosaminidase (NAG). Each was studied for four 6-8 h consecutive intervals following baseline determinations of 3CNAC and NAG excretion. In accord with pilot data, 24-h urinary excretion of 3CNAC (mg) correlated well with exposure product for DCP (min exposed.mg/m{sup 3}), r = 0.854, p less than .001. A more precise correlation of the air exposure product with urinary excretion of 3CNAC was discerned by using the morning urine after the previous day of exposure (micrograms/mg of creatinine), r = 0.914, p less than .001. Four workers had clinically elevated activity of NAG (greater than 4 mU/mg creatinine) in any of their urine collections after baseline. Nine workers showed greater than 25% increases in NAG excretion when compared to baseline. Dichloropropene air exposure products of greater than 700 mg.min/m{sup 3} or excretion of greater than 1.5 mg 3CNAC/d distinguished abnormally high daily excretion of NAG. These data demonstrate a firm positive relationship between air exposure and internal exposure, and a possible subclinical nephrotoxic effect in DCP workers.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26654800','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26654800"><span id="translatedtitle">Changes in the <span class="hlt">Concentrations</span> of Corticoid <span class="hlt">Metabolites</span>--The Effect of Stress, Diet and Analytical Method.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Dušková, Michaela; Sosvorová, Lucie; Vítků, Jana; Jandíková, Hana; Rácz, Beáta; Chlupáčová, Tereza; De Cordeiro, Jose; Stárka, Luboslav</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>A precisely measured corticoid level is important for decision-making in daily clinical practice. These levels can be influenced in the pre-analytical phase, when the effect of stress, timing, and diet can be important. The aim of this study was to elucidate optimal conditions for blood sampling as well as the choice of analytical methods, which they will be used in measuring of corticoids. By studying ten women, we focused on the influences of the stress of cannulation and a large lunchtime meal on cortisol, cortisone, aldosterone and corticosterone levels. We further compared results of cortisol measurements from RIA and LC-MS/MS. Stress from cannulation caused increase of cortisol, cortisone and corticosterone already, when the cannula was being inserted. This indicates that this increase is stimulated by fear of the blood withdrawing rather, than just by the needle insertion itself. The effect of stress on corticosterone disappeared after an hour, while effect on other corticoids was still apparent. Concerning the lunchtime meal, we found an increase in all measured corticoids between 11 and 12 o'clock. After the food, there were marked decreases in cortisone and aldosterone, while declining levels of cortisol and corticosterone had rather plateaus. We compared cortisol in 90 plasma samples measured by a commercial RIA kit and the LC-MS/MS method. Results from both methods showed a strong correlation (r=0.85). When measuring corticoid <span class="hlt">metabolites</span>, the chosen analytical method, eliminating stress factors, and precisely timed blood sampling considering the daily rhythm and food intake are critical.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26654800','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26654800"><span id="translatedtitle">Changes in the <span class="hlt">Concentrations</span> of Corticoid <span class="hlt">Metabolites</span>--The Effect of Stress, Diet and Analytical Method.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Dušková, Michaela; Sosvorová, Lucie; Vítků, Jana; Jandíková, Hana; Rácz, Beáta; Chlupáčová, Tereza; De Cordeiro, Jose; Stárka, Luboslav</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>A precisely measured corticoid level is important for decision-making in daily clinical practice. These levels can be influenced in the pre-analytical phase, when the effect of stress, timing, and diet can be important. The aim of this study was to elucidate optimal conditions for blood sampling as well as the choice of analytical methods, which they will be used in measuring of corticoids. By studying ten women, we focused on the influences of the stress of cannulation and a large lunchtime meal on cortisol, cortisone, aldosterone and corticosterone levels. We further compared results of cortisol measurements from RIA and LC-MS/MS. Stress from cannulation caused increase of cortisol, cortisone and corticosterone already, when the cannula was being inserted. This indicates that this increase is stimulated by fear of the blood withdrawing rather, than just by the needle insertion itself. The effect of stress on corticosterone disappeared after an hour, while effect on other corticoids was still apparent. Concerning the lunchtime meal, we found an increase in all measured corticoids between 11 and 12 o'clock. After the food, there were marked decreases in cortisone and aldosterone, while declining levels of cortisol and corticosterone had rather plateaus. We compared cortisol in 90 plasma samples measured by a commercial RIA kit and the LC-MS/MS method. Results from both methods showed a strong correlation (r=0.85). When measuring corticoid <span class="hlt">metabolites</span>, the chosen analytical method, eliminating stress factors, and precisely timed blood sampling considering the daily rhythm and food intake are critical. PMID:26654800</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24257195','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24257195"><span id="translatedtitle">Assessment of pregnancy status of Asian elephants (Elephas maximus) by measurement of progestagen and glucocorticoid and their <span class="hlt">metabolite</span> <span class="hlt">concentrations</span> in serum and feces, using enzyme immunoassay (EIA).</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Kajaysri, Jatuporn; Nokkaew, Weerapun</p> <p>2014-03-01</p> <p>The study was to find patterns of progestagen (progesterone and its <span class="hlt">metabolite</span>) and glucocorticoid and their <span class="hlt">metabolite</span> <span class="hlt">concentrations</span> in serum and feces of pregnant Asian elephants (Elephas maximus). The 5 female Asian domestic elephants were naturally mated until pregnancy. After that, blood and feces samples were collected monthly during pregnancy for progestagen, glucocorticoid and their <span class="hlt">metabolites</span> analysis by enzyme immunoassay (EIA). The results showed the serum progestagen <span class="hlt">concentration</span> during gestation was 2.11 ± 0.60 to 18.44 ± 2.28 ng/ml. Overall, serum progestagen <span class="hlt">concentration</span> rose from the 1st month to reach peak in the 11th month, after which it declined to its lowest level in the 22nd month of pregnancy. Fecal progestagen <span class="hlt">concentration</span> varied from 1.18 ± 0.54 to 3.35 ± 0.45 µg/g during pregnancy. In general, fecal progestagen <span class="hlt">concentration</span> increased from the 1st month to its highest level in the 12th month. After this, it declined reaching its lowest point in the 22nd month of pregnancy. Glucocorticoid hormones and their <span class="hlt">metabolite</span> <span class="hlt">concentrations</span> both in serum and feces fluctuated from low to medium throughout almost the entire pregnancy period and then rapidly increased around the last week before calving. Our study suggests that this profile of progestagen and glucocorticoid hormones and their <span class="hlt">metabolite</span> <span class="hlt">concentration</span> levels in serum and feces can be used to assess the pregnancy status of Asian elephants. If serum and fecal progestagen <span class="hlt">concentrations</span> were found in very low levels and glucocorticoid and their <span class="hlt">metabolite</span> <span class="hlt">concentrations</span> were found in very high levels, it was indicated that the cow elephant would calve within 7 days.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24257195','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24257195"><span id="translatedtitle">Assessment of pregnancy status of Asian elephants (Elephas maximus) by measurement of progestagen and glucocorticoid and their <span class="hlt">metabolite</span> <span class="hlt">concentrations</span> in serum and feces, using enzyme immunoassay (EIA).</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Kajaysri, Jatuporn; Nokkaew, Weerapun</p> <p>2014-03-01</p> <p>The study was to find patterns of progestagen (progesterone and its <span class="hlt">metabolite</span>) and glucocorticoid and their <span class="hlt">metabolite</span> <span class="hlt">concentrations</span> in serum and feces of pregnant Asian elephants (Elephas maximus). The 5 female Asian domestic elephants were naturally mated until pregnancy. After that, blood and feces samples were collected monthly during pregnancy for progestagen, glucocorticoid and their <span class="hlt">metabolites</span> analysis by enzyme immunoassay (EIA). The results showed the serum progestagen <span class="hlt">concentration</span> during gestation was 2.11 ± 0.60 to 18.44 ± 2.28 ng/ml. Overall, serum progestagen <span class="hlt">concentration</span> rose from the 1st month to reach peak in the 11th month, after which it declined to its lowest level in the 22nd month of pregnancy. Fecal progestagen <span class="hlt">concentration</span> varied from 1.18 ± 0.54 to 3.35 ± 0.45 µg/g during pregnancy. In general, fecal progestagen <span class="hlt">concentration</span> increased from the 1st month to its highest level in the 12th month. After this, it declined reaching its lowest point in the 22nd month of pregnancy. Glucocorticoid hormones and their <span class="hlt">metabolite</span> <span class="hlt">concentrations</span> both in serum and feces fluctuated from low to medium throughout almost the entire pregnancy period and then rapidly increased around the last week before calving. Our study suggests that this profile of progestagen and glucocorticoid hormones and their <span class="hlt">metabolite</span> <span class="hlt">concentration</span> levels in serum and feces can be used to assess the pregnancy status of Asian elephants. If serum and fecal progestagen <span class="hlt">concentrations</span> were found in very low levels and glucocorticoid and their <span class="hlt">metabolite</span> <span class="hlt">concentrations</span> were found in very high levels, it was indicated that the cow elephant would calve within 7 days. PMID:24257195</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26879996','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26879996"><span id="translatedtitle">Phimosis in male dromedary camels: Clinical findings and changes in the hemogram, nitric oxide <span class="hlt">metabolites</span>, and testosterone <span class="hlt">concentrations</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Ali, Ahmed; Derar, Derar; Al-Sobyil, Fahd A; Zeitoun, Moustafa M; Hassanein, Khaled M A; Al-Howas, Abdella</p> <p>2016-06-01</p> <p>The objectives of this study were to elucidate the clinical findings in male dromedary camels with phimosis (PHI, n = 43) and to investigate the association of this syndrome with the hemogram, nitric oxide <span class="hlt">metabolites</span> (NOMs), and testosterone <span class="hlt">concentrations</span>. History and signalment were obtained, and a breeding soundness examination was performed. The penis was exteriorized after administration of a pudendal nerve block. Abnormal masses obtained from the prepuce and penis were prepared for histopathology. Blood samples for hemogram assessment were taken from the diseased animals and from 10 healthy control males. Total nitrates/nitrites were determined in sera using the Griess assay. Testosterone was estimated in sera using ELISA. Phimosis associated with detectable pathologic lesions, mainly including ulcerative posthitis and lacerated glans penis, was present in 34 (79.1%) of the 43 cases (PHI-P), whereas the remaining nine (20.9%) of the 43 cases had no noticeable lesions (PHI-N). The PHI-P group showed higher leukocyte counts (P = 0.001), especially neutrophils (P = 0.0001), and greater NOM <span class="hlt">concentrations</span> (P = 0.002) than the PHI-N and control groups. However, testosterone <span class="hlt">concentrations</span> did not differ among groups. In conclusion, PHI in the male dromedary camels was mainly associated with ulcerative posthitis and laceration of the glans penis. The presence of pathologic lesions in cases with PHI was associated with leukocytosis, neutrophilia, and high NOM <span class="hlt">concentrations</span>. PMID:26879996</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014SPIE.9268E..0VC','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014SPIE.9268E..0VC"><span id="translatedtitle">Mapping the microvascular and the associated <span class="hlt">absolute</span> values of oxy-hemoglobin <span class="hlt">concentration</span> through turbid media via local off-set diffuse optical imaging</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Chen, Chen; Klämpfl, Florian; Stelzle, Florian; Schmidt, Michael</p> <p>2014-11-01</p> <p>An imging resolution of micron-scale has not yet been discovered by diffuse optical imaging (DOI), while a superficial response was eliminated. In this work, we report on a new approach of DOI with a local off-set alignment to subvert the common boundary conditions of the modified Beer-Lambert Law (MBLL). It can resolve a superficial target in micron scale under a turbid media. To validate both major breakthroughs, this system was used to recover a subsurface microvascular mimicking structure under an skin equivalent phantom. This microvascular was included with oxy-hemoglobin solution in variant <span class="hlt">concentrations</span> to distiguish the <span class="hlt">absolute</span> values of CtRHb and CtHbO2 . Experimental results confirmed the feasibility of recovering the target vascular of 50 µm in diameter, and graded the values of the <span class="hlt">concentrations</span> of oxy-hemoglobin from 10 g/L to 50 g/L <span class="hlt">absolutely</span>. Ultimately, this approach could evolve into a non-invasive imaging system to map the microvascular pattern and the associated oximetry under a human skin in-vivo.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_4");'>4</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_5");'>5</a></li> <li class="active"><span>6</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_7");'>7</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_8");'>8</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_6 --> <div id="page_7" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_5");'>5</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_6");'>6</a></li> <li class="active"><span>7</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_8");'>8</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_9");'>9</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="121"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012ApPhB.108..393M','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012ApPhB.108..393M"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Absolute</span> OH <span class="hlt">concentration</span> profiles measurements in high pressure counterflow flames by coupling LIF, PLIF, and absorption techniques</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Matynia, A.; Idir, M.; Molet, J.; Roche, C.; de Persis, S.; Pillier, L.</p> <p>2012-08-01</p> <p>A high-pressure combustion chamber enclosing counterflow burners was set-up at ICARE-CNRS laboratory. It allows the stabilization of flat twin premixed flames at atmospheric and high pressure. In this study, lean and stoichiometric methane/air counterflow premixed flames were studied at various pressures (0.1 MPa to 0.7 MPa). Relative OH <span class="hlt">concentration</span> profiles were measured by Laser Induced Fluorescence. Great care was attached to the determination of the fluorescence signal by taking into account the line broadening and deexcitation by quenching which both arise at high pressure. Subsequently, OH profiles were calibrated in <span class="hlt">concentration</span> by laser absorption technique associated with planar laser induced fluorescence. Results are successfully compared with literature. The good quality of the results attests of the experimental set-up ability to allow the study of flame structure at high pressure.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26676242','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26676242"><span id="translatedtitle">Intake and digestibility, rumen fermentation, and <span class="hlt">concentrations</span> of <span class="hlt">metabolites</span> in steers fed with peanut cake.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>de Oliveira, Paulo Andrade; Oliveira, Ronaldo Lopes; Jaeger, Soraya Maria Palma Luz; de Paula Leite, Meiby Carneiro; Bagaldo, Adriana Regina; Bezerra, Leilson Rocha; Correia, Braulio Rocha; de Santana Filho, Nivaldo Barreto</p> <p>2016-02-01</p> <p>This study evaluated peanut cake as a replacement for soybean meal in the diet of steers. We used five castrated Holstein × Zebu steers, fistulated, with average live weight 550 kg, in a 5 × 5 Latin square design. The diets were composed of Tifton hay and ground corn with peanut cake (0, 25, 50, 75, and 100 %) as a replacement for soybean meal in the <span class="hlt">concentrate</span>. Intake (kg/day) of dry matter, neutral detergent fiber, and crude protein were not affected by peanut cake, but ether extract intake increased linearly with the level of peanut cake in the diet. The digestibility of dry matter showed a quadratic effect, with a calculated maximum regression level of 56 % at 37 % replacement. There was no effect of the level of peanut cake on metabolizable energy intake and net energy, ammonia nitrogen, rumen pH, plasma urea, and glucose <span class="hlt">concentrations</span>. We recommend replacing soybean meal in the <span class="hlt">concentrate</span> with up to 40 % peanut cake.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25563163','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25563163"><span id="translatedtitle">Primary risk assessment of dimethyldithiocarbamate, a dithiocarbamate fungicide <span class="hlt">metabolite</span>, based on their probabilistic <span class="hlt">concentrations</span> in a coastal environment.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Hano, Takeshi; Ito, Katsutoshi; Mochida, Kazuhiko; Ohkubo, Nobuyuki; Kono, Kumiko; Onduka, Toshimitsu; Ito, Mana; Ichihashi, Hideki; Fujii, Kazunori; Tanaka, Hiroyuki</p> <p>2015-07-01</p> <p>The primary ecological risk of dimethyldithiocarbamate (DMDC), a dithiocarbamate fungicide (DTC) <span class="hlt">metabolite</span>, was evaluated based on their probabilistic environmental <span class="hlt">concentration</span> distributions (ECDs) in the coastal environment, Hiroshima Bay, Japan. And their behavior and temporal trends was further considered. This is the first report of the identification of DMDC from environmental seawater and sediment samples. DMDC <span class="hlt">concentrations</span> in bottom seawater were substantially higher than those in surface seawater, which are associated with the leachability from sediments in bottom seawaters, and with photodegradation in surface seawaters. Furthermore, seasonal risks are dominated by higher <span class="hlt">concentrations</span> from April to June, indicating temporal variation in the risk to exposed species. Hierarchical Bayesian analysis offered DMDC ECD medians and range (5th to 95th percentiles) of 0.85 ng L(-1) (0.029, 22), 12 ng L(-1) (3.2, 48) and 110 ng kg dry(-1) (9.5, 1200) in surface seawater, bottom seawater and sediment, respectively. Considering that DMDC and DTCs have similar toxicological potential to aquatic organisms, the occurrence of the compound in water is likely to be of biological relevance. In summary, this work provides the first demonstration that the ecological risk of DMDC and its derived DTCs in Hiroshima Bay is relatively high, and that DTCs should be a high priority for future research on marine contamination, especially in bottom seawaters.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12805641','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12805641"><span id="translatedtitle">Prolonged ethanol ingestion enhances benzene myelotoxicity and lowers urinary <span class="hlt">concentrations</span> of benzene <span class="hlt">metabolite</span> levels in CD-1 male mice.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Marrubini, Giorgio; Castoldi, Anna F; Coccini, Teresa; Manzo, Luigi</p> <p>2003-09-01</p> <p>Benzene toxicity is attributed to its metabolism, which is primarily mediated by the ethanol-inducible cytochrome P450 2E1 isoform (CYP2E1). The present study investigated the myelotoxicity and urinary <span class="hlt">concentrations</span> of major benzene <span class="hlt">metabolites</span> in adult CD-1 male mice treated with low levels of benzene vapors, ethanol, or a combination of the two. Groups of ethanol-treated (5% in a Lieber-DeCarli liquid diet, 3 weeks) or pair-fed control mice were exposed to 10 ppm benzene, 6 h per day, 5 days per week for 2 weeks, starting from the second week of ethanol administration. On the last day of treatment, the number of early and late erythroid progenitors (BFU-E and CFU-E) was reduced by 55%, while the number of granulocyte/macrophage progenitors (CFU-GM) was reduced by 36% in benzene-treated mice. Ethanol lowered the CFU-E, BFU-E, and CFU-GM colony formation by 33, 28, and 12%, respectively. In animals coexposed to benzene and ethanol, the CFU-E colony counts were decreased by 70%, the BFU-E by 80%, and the CFU-GM by 45%. Phenol (Ph), hydroquinone (HQ), catechol (Cat), and trans,trans-muconic acid (MA) were measured by HPLC-UV in urine samples collected weekly during the last 6-h benzene/air exposure session. In benzene-exposed mice urinary <span class="hlt">metabolite</span> levels peaked at the end of the first week of treatment (microg/kg body weight (bw): Ph: 4931 +/- 1055; Cat: 109 +/- 17; HQ: 784 +/- 137; MA: 534 +/- 92) and significantly decreased at the end of the second week (microg/kg bw: Ph: 3909 +/- 984; Cat: 82 +/- 24; HQ: 337 +/- 72; MA: 235 +/- 55). In mice given benzene and ethanol, the urinary levels of Ph, Cat, HQ, and MA were significantly lower than those measured in the group given benzene alone. The urinary levels of Ph and Cat showed a decreasing trend, again, from the first to the second week of benzene exposure. These data indicate that chronic ethanol ingestion exacerbates benzene myelotoxicity and, in addition, reduces the urinary excretion of benzene <span class="hlt">metabolites</span> in</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25875132','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25875132"><span id="translatedtitle">Patients with type 2 diabetes exhibit cognitive impairment with changes of <span class="hlt">metabolite</span> <span class="hlt">concentration</span> in the left hippocampus.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Wang, Yue; Xu, Xiao-Yun; Feng, Chun-Hua; Li, Yuan-Ling; Ge, Xia; Zong, Gen-Lin; Wang, Yi-Bin; Feng, Bo; Zhang, Peng</p> <p>2015-08-01</p> <p>Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is associated with cognitive dysfunction. Previous studies have reported the relationship between cerebral <span class="hlt">metabolite</span> changes and glucose levels. However, the specific aspects of cognition that are affected by metabolic changes in T2DM- related cognitive impairment remain undetermined. In this study, 188 T2DM patients and 266 controls were recruited. Proton magnetic resonance spectra with a single voxel stimulated echo acquisition mode (STEAM) were acquired from the left hippocampus and the frontal lobe. Presence of T2DM negatively affected the scores of Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE), sub-tests (i.e., attention and language) of MMSE, Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA) according to the Beijing version, and sub-tests (i.e., visuospatial/executive reasoning, attention, and language) of MoCA, rather than the Wechsler Memory Scale - Revised in China (WMS-RC), and all memory sub-tests contained with the MMSE and MoCA frameworks. T2DM positively affected creatine and myoinositol peak areas from the left hippocampus, rather than <span class="hlt">metabolites</span> in the left frontal lobe. Negative correlations were shown between the left hippocampal myoinositol levels and language scores, and between the left hippocampal creatine levels and visuospatial/executive scores in T2DM. These findings suggest that T2DM may be an independent risk factor for cognitive impairment. Further, the cognitive domains of visuospatial /executive reasoning, attention and language may be predominantly impaired in the early phases of T2DM-related cognitive impairment. In addition, left hippocampal myoinositol and creatine <span class="hlt">concentrations</span> were associated with cognitive impairment in patients with T2DM.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22337286','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22337286"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Concentrations</span> of the urinary pyrethroid <span class="hlt">metabolite</span> 3-phenoxybenzoic acid in farm worker families in the MICASA study</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Trunnelle, Kelly J.; Bennett, Deborah H.; Ahn, Ki Chang; Schenker, Marc B.; Tancredi, Daniel J.; Gee, Shirley J.; Stoecklin-Marois, Maria T.; Hammock, Bruce D.</p> <p>2014-05-01</p> <p>Indoor pesticide exposure is a growing concern, particularly from pyrethroids, a commonly used class of pesticides. Pyrethroid <span class="hlt">concentrations</span> may be especially high in homes of immigrant farm worker families who often live in close proximity to agricultural fields, and are faced with poor housing conditions, causing higher pest infestation and more pesticide use. We investigate exposure of farm worker families to pyrethroids in a study of mothers and children living in Mendota, CA within the population-based Mexican Immigration to California: Agricultural Safety and Acculturation (MICASA) Study. We present pyrethroid exposure based on an ELISA analysis of urinary <span class="hlt">metabolite</span> 3-phenoxybenzoic acid (3PBA) levels among 105 women and 103 children. The median urinary 3PBA levels (children=2.56 ug/g creatinine, mothers=1.46 ug/g creatinine) were higher than those reported in population based studies for the United States general population, but similar to or lower than studies with known high levels of pyrethroid exposure. A positive association was evident between poor housing conditions and the urinary <span class="hlt">metabolite</span> levels, showing that poor housing conditions are a contributing factor to the higher levels of 3PBA seen in the urine of these farm worker families. Further research is warranted to fully investigate sources of exposure. - Highlights: • We investigate exposure of farm worker families to pyrethroids. • We present pyrethroid exposure based on an ELISA analysis of urinary 3PBA levels. • 3PBA levels were higher than those reported for the U.S. general population. • Poor housing conditions may be associated with pyrethroid exposure.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26454510','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26454510"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Concentration</span>-dependent effects of resveratrol and <span class="hlt">metabolites</span> on the redox status of human erythrocytes in single-dose studies.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Pignitter, Marc; Schueller, Katharina; Burkon, Alexander; Knorr, Verena; Esefelder, Laura; Doberer, Daniel; Wolzt, Michael; Somoza, Veronika</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>Dietary trans-resveratrol (RES) is rapidly metabolized into sulfated and glucuronated conjugates in humans. This study focused on the in vitro determination of the antioxidant capacity of RES and its main physiological <span class="hlt">metabolites</span> and on its relevance in vivo. In vitro, RES, RES-3-O-sulfate (R3S) and 3-O-glucuronide (R3G) showed antioxidant activities at a <span class="hlt">concentration</span> of 1mM when compared to Trolox using an assay in which the antioxidant inhibits iron-induced linoleic acid oxidation: 0.87±0.08mM Trolox equivalents (TE) for RES, 0.52±0.01mM TE for R3S and 0.36±0.02mM TE for R3G. At a <span class="hlt">concentration</span> of 1μM, compounds promoted linoleic acid peroxidation (RES -0.30±0.09mM TE, R3S -0.48±0.05mM TE and R3G -0.57±0.07mM TE). To elucidate whether these effects were reflected in vivo, total antioxidant capacity, reactive oxygen species (ROS), conjugated fatty acid dienes (CD), superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) activities were determined in human plasma and erythrocytes over 24h, after oral intake of either 0.05g RES as piceid or 5g RES. Oral administration of RES did not show an impact on total antioxidant capacity, ROS or CD. However, enzymatic activities of ROS scavenging SOD and CAT were significantly lower after high-dose compared to low-dose administration of RES (P<.03 and P<.01). In conclusion, in healthy subjects, neither 0.05g nor 5g RES changed blood oxidative state, although our in vitro data point to a prooxidative activity of low <span class="hlt">concentrations</span> of RES and its <span class="hlt">metabolites</span>, which could be important in vivo for individuals with compromised antioxidant defense capacity. PMID:26454510</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26454510','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26454510"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Concentration</span>-dependent effects of resveratrol and <span class="hlt">metabolites</span> on the redox status of human erythrocytes in single-dose studies.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Pignitter, Marc; Schueller, Katharina; Burkon, Alexander; Knorr, Verena; Esefelder, Laura; Doberer, Daniel; Wolzt, Michael; Somoza, Veronika</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>Dietary trans-resveratrol (RES) is rapidly metabolized into sulfated and glucuronated conjugates in humans. This study focused on the in vitro determination of the antioxidant capacity of RES and its main physiological <span class="hlt">metabolites</span> and on its relevance in vivo. In vitro, RES, RES-3-O-sulfate (R3S) and 3-O-glucuronide (R3G) showed antioxidant activities at a <span class="hlt">concentration</span> of 1mM when compared to Trolox using an assay in which the antioxidant inhibits iron-induced linoleic acid oxidation: 0.87±0.08mM Trolox equivalents (TE) for RES, 0.52±0.01mM TE for R3S and 0.36±0.02mM TE for R3G. At a <span class="hlt">concentration</span> of 1μM, compounds promoted linoleic acid peroxidation (RES -0.30±0.09mM TE, R3S -0.48±0.05mM TE and R3G -0.57±0.07mM TE). To elucidate whether these effects were reflected in vivo, total antioxidant capacity, reactive oxygen species (ROS), conjugated fatty acid dienes (CD), superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) activities were determined in human plasma and erythrocytes over 24h, after oral intake of either 0.05g RES as piceid or 5g RES. Oral administration of RES did not show an impact on total antioxidant capacity, ROS or CD. However, enzymatic activities of ROS scavenging SOD and CAT were significantly lower after high-dose compared to low-dose administration of RES (P<.03 and P<.01). In conclusion, in healthy subjects, neither 0.05g nor 5g RES changed blood oxidative state, although our in vitro data point to a prooxidative activity of low <span class="hlt">concentrations</span> of RES and its <span class="hlt">metabolites</span>, which could be important in vivo for individuals with compromised antioxidant defense capacity.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24696444','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24696444"><span id="translatedtitle">Relationships between <span class="hlt">metabolite</span> and IGF1 <span class="hlt">concentrations</span> with fertility and production outcomes following left abomasal displacement.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Lyons, N A; Cooke, J S; Wilson, S; van Winden, S C; Gordon, P J; Wathes, D C</p> <p>2014-06-28</p> <p>Left displacement of the abomasum (LDA) is an important periparturient disorder of dairy cows. This study evaluated differences in metabolic parameters between case-control pairs of cows (n=67) from 24 farms, and related these to outcomes in fertility and production. Cows with an assisted delivery were ×3 more likely to develop LDA, and affected cows tended to have had a longer dry period. At recruitment, cows with LDA tended to be in lower body condition accompanied by significantly higher circulating <span class="hlt">concentrations</span> of β-hydroxybutyrate (BHB), non-esterified fatty acid (NEFA) and glucose and lower IGF1. Overall culling rate for all cows in the subsequent lactation was 22.5 per cent. Cows with LDA were not at increased odds of being culled but they produced, on average, 2272 l less milk and tended to have longer intervals to conception. Considering all cows irrespective of LDA status, the mean IGF1 level at recruitment was the only measured parameter associated with subsequent risk of culling (culled 11.7 ng/ml, not culled 23.5 ng/ml; P=0.005). Our findings support previous work indicating that poor insulin sensitivity through an uncoupling of the somatotrophic axis may be an important factor associated with LDA. Improved nutritional management of dry cows should reduce the incidence of both LDA and culling. PMID:24696444</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/1617961','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/1617961"><span id="translatedtitle">Serum hormone and <span class="hlt">metabolite</span> <span class="hlt">concentrations</span> in fasted young bulls and steers.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Ward, J R; Henricks, D M; Jenkins, T C; Bridges, W C</p> <p>1992-04-01</p> <p>The effect of dietary energy restriction on serum insulin, insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I), growth hormone, (GH), cortisol, plasma urea nitrogen (PUN) and nonesterified fatty acid (NEFA) <span class="hlt">concentrations</span> was examined. Angus bulls and steers (10 mo) were allotted to two groups of 12 animals and assigned a treatment order. In a switchback design, animals in order 1 were fed a high grain diet, then fasted, while order 2 animals were fasted, and then fed. Animals were allowed 60 hr to acclimate between treatments. Serum and plasma were obtained at 20 min intervals and 60 min, respectively, for 6 hr after feeding and for the last 6 hr of a 30 hr fast. Serum was assayed for insulin, IGF-I, GH, and cortisol (total and free). Plasma was assayed for PUN and NEFA. Mean insulin (ng/ml) differed between fed (.95 +/- .08) and fasted (.26 +/- .08) animals (P less than 01). Both mean total and free cortisol (ng/ml) were lower in fed (11.48 +/- .99) (1.06 +/- .12) than in fasted (17.10 +/- .93) (1.62 +/- .12) animals, respectively (P less than .01). Animals in order 1 differed in mean IGF-I (ng/ml) between fed (199.0 +/- 8.0) and fasted (116.5 +/- 7.2) treatments (P less than .01). Mean IGF-I for animals in order 2 was 146.7 +/- 7.2 in fed and 213.9 +/- 7.2 in fasted animals (P less than .01). Mean GH did not differ between treatments. Mean PUN and NEFA were higher in fasted than in fed animals (P less than .01). Except for % free cortisol (P less than .05), the hormones did not differ between bulls and steers.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27074313','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27074313"><span id="translatedtitle">Effect of digestible methionine + cystine <span class="hlt">concentration</span> on performance, egg quality and blood <span class="hlt">metabolites</span> in laying hens.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Akbari Moghaddam Kakhki, R; Golian, A; Zarghi, H</p> <p>2016-06-01</p> <p>The estimation of sulphur amino acid requirement is a vital key to providing appropriate nutrition in poultry. The estimation of amino acid requirement depends on what production parameter is taken into consideration for optimisation. A complete randomised block design was performed with 5 treatments and 6 replicates of 8 Hy-line layers (W-36) each from 32 to 44 weeks of age. The blocks were made to have a replicate of each treatment. The dietary treatments were consisted of 5 <span class="hlt">concentrations</span> of digestible sulphur amino acid (DSAA) at 5.1, 5.6, 6.1, 6.6 and 7.1 (g/kg). Egg production, egg mass, egg weight and feed conversion ratio (FCR) were significantly affected by an increase in DSAA intake. However, feed intake, egg component yield, Haugh unit, specific gravity, eggshell thickness, egg protein and dry matter (DM) were not altered by DSAA intake. A significant increment in plasma high-density lipoprotein was concomitant with a reduction in low-density lipoprotein when DSAA intake was increased. However, triglyceride, cholesterol, uric acid and total protein in plasma were not affected by DSAA intake. The DSAA requirements estimated by the linear broken-line model to optimise egg production, egg mass, egg weight and FCR were 678, 673, 641 and 656 mg/bird.d in the whole experimental period, respectively. The DSAA requirement estimated by the quadratic broken-line model to optimise egg production, egg mass, egg weight and FCR were 4.71%, 7.87%, 8.73% and 7.62% higher than those estimated by linear broken-line fit model in the whole experimental period, respectively. PMID:27074313</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27074313','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27074313"><span id="translatedtitle">Effect of digestible methionine + cystine <span class="hlt">concentration</span> on performance, egg quality and blood <span class="hlt">metabolites</span> in laying hens.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Akbari Moghaddam Kakhki, R; Golian, A; Zarghi, H</p> <p>2016-06-01</p> <p>The estimation of sulphur amino acid requirement is a vital key to providing appropriate nutrition in poultry. The estimation of amino acid requirement depends on what production parameter is taken into consideration for optimisation. A complete randomised block design was performed with 5 treatments and 6 replicates of 8 Hy-line layers (W-36) each from 32 to 44 weeks of age. The blocks were made to have a replicate of each treatment. The dietary treatments were consisted of 5 <span class="hlt">concentrations</span> of digestible sulphur amino acid (DSAA) at 5.1, 5.6, 6.1, 6.6 and 7.1 (g/kg). Egg production, egg mass, egg weight and feed conversion ratio (FCR) were significantly affected by an increase in DSAA intake. However, feed intake, egg component yield, Haugh unit, specific gravity, eggshell thickness, egg protein and dry matter (DM) were not altered by DSAA intake. A significant increment in plasma high-density lipoprotein was concomitant with a reduction in low-density lipoprotein when DSAA intake was increased. However, triglyceride, cholesterol, uric acid and total protein in plasma were not affected by DSAA intake. The DSAA requirements estimated by the linear broken-line model to optimise egg production, egg mass, egg weight and FCR were 678, 673, 641 and 656 mg/bird.d in the whole experimental period, respectively. The DSAA requirement estimated by the quadratic broken-line model to optimise egg production, egg mass, egg weight and FCR were 4.71%, 7.87%, 8.73% and 7.62% higher than those estimated by linear broken-line fit model in the whole experimental period, respectively.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24101030','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24101030"><span id="translatedtitle">The mixture of "ecstasy" and its <span class="hlt">metabolites</span> is toxic to human SH-SY5Y differentiated cells at in vivo relevant <span class="hlt">concentrations</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Barbosa, Daniel José; Capela, João Paulo; Silva, Renata; Vilas-Boas, Vânia; Ferreira, Luísa Maria; Branco, Paula Sério; Fernandes, Eduarda; Bastos, Maria de Lourdes; Carvalho, Félix</p> <p>2014-02-01</p> <p>The neurotoxicity of "ecstasy" (3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine, MDMA) is thought to involve hepatic metabolism, though its real contribution is not completely understood. Most in vitro neurotoxicity studies concern isolated exposures of MDMA or its <span class="hlt">metabolites</span>, at high <span class="hlt">concentrations</span>, not considering their mixture, as expected in vivo. Therefore, our postulate is that combined deleterious effects of MDMA and its <span class="hlt">metabolites</span>, at low micromolar <span class="hlt">concentrations</span> that may be attained into the brain, may elicit neurotoxicity. Using human SH-SY5Y differentiated cells as dopaminergic neuronal model, we studied the neurotoxicity of MDMA and its MDMA <span class="hlt">metabolites</span> α-methyldopamine and N-methyl-α-methyldopamine and their correspondent glutathione and N-acetylcysteine monoconjugates, under isolated exposure and as a mixture, at normothermic or hyperthermic conditions. The results showed that the mixture of MDMA and its <span class="hlt">metabolites</span> was toxic to SH-SY5Y differentiated cells, an effect potentiated by hyperthermia and prevented by N-acetylcysteine. As a mixture, MDMA and its <span class="hlt">metabolites</span> presented a different toxicity profile, compared to each compound alone, even at equimolar <span class="hlt">concentrations</span>. Caspase 3 activation, increased reactive oxygen species production, and intracellular Ca(2+) raises were implicated in the toxic effect. The mixture increased intracellular glutathione levels by increasing its de novo synthesis. In conclusion, this study demonstrated, for the first time, that the mixture of MDMA and its <span class="hlt">metabolites</span>, at low micromolar <span class="hlt">concentrations</span>, which represents a more realistic approach of the in vivo scenario, elicited toxicity to human SH-SY5Y differentiated cells, thus constituting a new insight into the context of MDMA-related neurotoxicity.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3154030','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3154030"><span id="translatedtitle">Pharmacokinetics of Cocaine and <span class="hlt">Metabolites</span> in Human Oral Fluid and Correlation with Plasma <span class="hlt">Concentrations</span> following Controlled Administration</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Scheidweiler, Karl B.; Kolbrich Spargo, Erin A.; Kelly, Tamsin L.; Cone, Edward J.; Barnes, Allan J.; Huestis, Marilyn A.</p> <p>2011-01-01</p> <p>Oral fluid is an attractive alternative matrix for drug testing, with a non-invasive and directly observed collection, but there are few controlled cocaine administration studies to guide interpretation. Materials and Methods While residing on a closed research unit for up to 10 weeks under constant medical supervision, 19 participants were administered 75 mg/70 kg subcutaneous cocaine and 14 received 150mg/70 kg. The disposition of cocaine, benzoylecgonine (BE) and ecgonine methyl ester (EME) into oral fluid was determined by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry for 0.08–48h after administration. Results In oral fluid collected by citric acid candy stimulated expectoration, cocaine first appeared in oral fluid 0.08–0.32h after dosing and was rapidly eliminated with half-lives of 1.1–3.8h. BE and EME were first detected 0.08–1.0h after dosing, with longer half-lives of 3.4–13.8 (BE) and 2.4–15.5h (EME) (p<0.05). Oral fluid and plasma <span class="hlt">concentrations</span> were significantly correlated for cocaine, BE and EME (p<0.0001). There were no significant differences (p>0.05) in first and last detection times with the 8 μg/L cutoff proposed by the Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration or the 10 μg/L cutoff from the European initiative, Driving Under the Influence of Drugs, Alcohol and Medicines. <span class="hlt">Metabolite</span>:cocaine ratios increased after cocaine administration, potentially helpful for interpreting time of last use. Comparison of oral fluid collection via citric acid candy stimulated expectoration, citric acid treated Salivette® and neutral cotton Salivette® devices did not reveal significant differences between devices for areas under the curve for cocaine, BE or EME (p>0.05). Discussion and Conclusion These results provide additional evidence for interpreting cocaine and <span class="hlt">metabolite</span> <span class="hlt">concentrations</span> in oral fluid and oral fluid’s usefulness as an alternative matrix for drug testing. PMID:20814350</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21451508','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21451508"><span id="translatedtitle">Activity levels of tamoxifen <span class="hlt">metabolites</span> at the estrogen receptor and the impact of genetic polymorphisms of phase I and II enzymes on their <span class="hlt">concentration</span> levels in plasma.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Mürdter, T E; Schroth, W; Bacchus-Gerybadze, L; Winter, S; Heinkele, G; Simon, W; Fasching, P A; Fehm, T; Eichelbaum, M; Schwab, M; Brauch, H</p> <p>2011-05-01</p> <p>The therapeutic effect of tamoxifen depends on active <span class="hlt">metabolites</span>, e.g., cytochrome P450 2D6 (CYP2D6) mediated formation of endoxifen. To test for additional relationships, 236 breast cancer patients were genotyped for CYP2D6, CYP2C9, CYP2B6, CYP2C19, CYP3A5, UGT1A4, UGT2B7, and UGT2B15; also, plasma <span class="hlt">concentrations</span> of tamoxifen and 22 of its <span class="hlt">metabolites</span>, including the (E)-, (Z)-, 3-, and 4'-hydroxymetabolites as well as their glucuronides, were quantified using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (MS). The activity levels of the <span class="hlt">metabolites</span> were measured using an estrogen response element reporter assay; the strongest estrogen receptor inhibition was found for (Z)-endoxifen and (Z)-4-hydroxytamoxifen (inhibitory <span class="hlt">concentration</span> 50 (IC50) 3 and 7 nmol/l, respectively). CYP2D6 genotypes explained 39 and 9% of the variability of steady-state <span class="hlt">concentrations</span> of (Z)-endoxifen and (Z)-4-hydroxytamoxifen, respectively. Among the poor metabolizers, 93% had (Z)-endoxifen levels below IC90 values, underscoring the role of CYP2D6 deficiency in compromised tamoxifen bioactivation. For other enzymes tested, carriers of reduced-function CYP2C9 (*2, *3) alleles had lower plasma <span class="hlt">concentrations</span> of active <span class="hlt">metabolites</span> (P < 0.004), pointing to the role of additional pathways.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26366946','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26366946"><span id="translatedtitle">Soy isoflavone metabolism in cats compared with other species: urinary <span class="hlt">metabolite</span> <span class="hlt">concentrations</span> and glucuronidation by liver microsomes.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Redmon, Joanna M; Shrestha, Binu; Cerundolo, Rosario; Court, Michael H</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>1. Soybean is a common source of protein in many pet foods. Slow glucuronidation of soy-derived isoflavones in cats has been hypothesized to result in accumulation with adverse health consequences. Here, we evaluated species' differences in soy isoflavone glucuronidation using urine samples from cats and dogs fed a soy-based diet and liver microsomes from cats compared with microsomes from 12 other species. 2. Significant <span class="hlt">concentrations</span> of conjugated (but not unconjugated) genistein, daidzein and glycitein, and the gut microbiome <span class="hlt">metabolites</span>, dihydrogenistein and dihydrodaidzein, were found in cat and dog urine samples. Substantial amounts of conjugated equol were also found in cat urine but not in dog urine. 3. β-Glucuronidase treatment showed that all these compounds were significantly glucuronidated in dog urine while only daidzein (11%) and glycitein (37%) showed any glucuronidation in cat urine suggesting that alternate metabolic pathways including sulfation predominate in cats. 4. Glucuronidation rates of genistein, daidzein and equol by cat livers were consistently ranked within the lowest 3 out of 13 species' livers evaluated. Ferret and mongoose livers were also ranked in the lowest four species. 5. Our results demonstrate that glucuronidation is a minor pathway for soy isoflavone metabolism in cats compared with most other species.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26366946','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26366946"><span id="translatedtitle">Soy isoflavone metabolism in cats compared with other species: urinary <span class="hlt">metabolite</span> <span class="hlt">concentrations</span> and glucuronidation by liver microsomes.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Redmon, Joanna M; Shrestha, Binu; Cerundolo, Rosario; Court, Michael H</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>1. Soybean is a common source of protein in many pet foods. Slow glucuronidation of soy-derived isoflavones in cats has been hypothesized to result in accumulation with adverse health consequences. Here, we evaluated species' differences in soy isoflavone glucuronidation using urine samples from cats and dogs fed a soy-based diet and liver microsomes from cats compared with microsomes from 12 other species. 2. Significant <span class="hlt">concentrations</span> of conjugated (but not unconjugated) genistein, daidzein and glycitein, and the gut microbiome <span class="hlt">metabolites</span>, dihydrogenistein and dihydrodaidzein, were found in cat and dog urine samples. Substantial amounts of conjugated equol were also found in cat urine but not in dog urine. 3. β-Glucuronidase treatment showed that all these compounds were significantly glucuronidated in dog urine while only daidzein (11%) and glycitein (37%) showed any glucuronidation in cat urine suggesting that alternate metabolic pathways including sulfation predominate in cats. 4. Glucuronidation rates of genistein, daidzein and equol by cat livers were consistently ranked within the lowest 3 out of 13 species' livers evaluated. Ferret and mongoose livers were also ranked in the lowest four species. 5. Our results demonstrate that glucuronidation is a minor pathway for soy isoflavone metabolism in cats compared with most other species. PMID:26366946</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=5063415','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=5063415"><span id="translatedtitle">Regional Differences in the <span class="hlt">Concentrations</span> of <span class="hlt">Metabolites</span> in the Brain of Healthy Children: A Proton Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy (1HMRS) Study</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Cichocka, Monika; Kozub, Justyna; Karcz, Paulina; Urbanik, Andrzej</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>Summary Background The aim of this 1HMRS study was to identify any potential regional differences in the metabolic spectrum in the brains of healthy children. Material/Methods Forty-nine healthy children aged 6–15 years (mean 11.6 years) were examined, including 21 girls and 28 boys. A 1.5T MR system (xi Signa HD 1.5T General Electric) was used in patient examinations. The VOI (Volume of Interest) was defined in 7 locations: the frontal lobe in the right and left hemispheres, the basal ganglia in the right and left hemispheres, hippocampus in the right and left hemispheres and cerebellum. SAGE 7.0 software was used for the analysis of data obtained from the 1HMRS study. Differences in the <span class="hlt">concentrations</span> of <span class="hlt">metabolites</span> in various regions of the brain in children were verified using the t-test for independent samples. Results There were significant differences in <span class="hlt">concentration</span> levels between various brain regions for all the examined <span class="hlt">metabolites</span>. NAA was the <span class="hlt">metabolite</span> characterized by the greatest regional variation with significant differences being observed between all locations. Only in the case of Lip/Cr and the ratio of the Lip <span class="hlt">concentration</span> to the sum of the <span class="hlt">concentrations</span> of all the <span class="hlt">metabolites</span> no significant differences could be observed. Concluisons The results of the study show that a child’s brain is inhomogeneous. The results underline the need of the regional differences in the <span class="hlt">concentrations</span> of <span class="hlt">metabolites</span> being taken into account when comparing the results of 1HMRS studies in children. PMID:27781072</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016APS..MAR.G1327P','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016APS..MAR.G1327P"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Absolute</span> Summ</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Phillips, Alfred, Jr.</p> <p></p> <p>Summ means the entirety of the multiverse. It seems clear, from the inflation theories of A. Guth and others, that the creation of many universes is plausible. We argue that <span class="hlt">Absolute</span> cosmological ideas, not unlike those of I. Newton, may be consistent with dynamic multiverse creations. As suggested in W. Heisenberg's uncertainty principle, and with the Anthropic Principle defended by S. Hawking, et al., human consciousness, buttressed by findings of neuroscience, may have to be considered in our models. Predictability, as A. Einstein realized with Invariants and General Relativity, may be required for new ideas to be part of physics. We present here a two postulate model geared to an <span class="hlt">Absolute</span> Summ. The seedbed of this work is part of Akhnaton's philosophy (see S. Freud, Moses and Monotheism). Most important, however, is that the structure of human consciousness, manifest in Kenya's Rift Valley 200,000 years ago as Homo sapiens, who were the culmination of the six million year co-creation process of Hominins and Nature in Africa, allows us to do the physics that we do. .</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015ChPhB..24k4204Y','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015ChPhB..24k4204Y"><span id="translatedtitle">Quantitative measurements of one-dimensional OH <span class="hlt">absolute</span> <span class="hlt">concentration</span> profiles in a methane/air flat flame by bi-directional laser-induced fluorescence</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Yu, Xin; Yang, Zhen; Peng, Jiang-Bo; Zhang, Lei; Ma, Yu-Fei; Yang, Chao-Bo; Li, Xiao-Hui; Sun, Rui</p> <p>2015-11-01</p> <p>The one-dimensional (1D) spatial distributions of OH <span class="hlt">absolute</span> <span class="hlt">concentration</span> in methane/air laminar premixed flat flame under different equivalence ratios at atmospheric pressure are investigated by using bi-directional laser-induced fluorescence (LIF) detection scheme combined with the direct absorption spectroscopy. The effective peak absorption cross section and the average temperature at a height of 2 mm above the burner are obtained by exciting absorption on the Q1(8) rotational line in the A2Σ+ (ʋ‧ = 0) ← X2Π (ʋ″ = 0) at 309.240 nm. The measured values are 1.86×10-15 cm2 and 1719 K, respectively. Spatial filtering and frequency filtering methods of reducing noise are used to deal with the experimental data, and the smoothing effects are also compared using the two methods. The spatial distribution regularities of OH <span class="hlt">concentration</span> are obtained with the equivalence ratios ranging from 0.8 to 1.3. The spatial resolution of the measured result is 84 μm. Finally, a comparison is made between the experimental result of this paper and other relevant study results. Project supported by the National Key Scientific Instrument and Equipment Development Projects of China (Grant No. 2012YQ040164), the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 61275127 and 91441130), the China Postdoctoral Science Foundation (Grant No. 2014M560262), and the Postdoctoral Fellowship in Heilongjiang Province, China (Grant No. LBH-Z14074).</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_5");'>5</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_6");'>6</a></li> <li class="active"><span>7</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_8");'>8</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_9");'>9</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_7 --> <div id="page_8" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_6");'>6</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_7");'>7</a></li> <li class="active"><span>8</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_9");'>9</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_10");'>10</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="141"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70104621','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70104621"><span id="translatedtitle">Corticosterone <span class="hlt">metabolite</span> <span class="hlt">concentrations</span> in greater sage-grouse are positively associated with the presence of cattle grazing</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Jankowski, M.D.; Russell, R.E.; Franson, J. Christian; Dusek, R.J.; Hines, M.K.; Gregg, M.; Hofmeister, Erik K.</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>The sagebrush biome in the western United States is home to the imperiled greater sage-grouse (Centrocercus urophasianus) and encompasses rangelands used for cattle production. Cattle grazing activities have been implicated in the range-wide decline of the sage-grouse, but no studies have investigated the relationship between the physiological condition of sage-grouse and the presence of grazing cattle. We sampled 329 sage-grouse across four sites (two grazed and two ungrazed) encompassing 13 600 km2 during the spring and late summer–early autumn of 2005 to evaluate whether demographic factors, breeding status, plasma protein levels, and residence in a cattle-grazed habitat were associated with the stress hormone corticosterone. Corticosterone was measured in feces as immunoreactive corticosterone <span class="hlt">metabolites</span> (ICM). Males captured during the lekking season exhibited higher ICM levels than all others. Prenesting female sage-grouse captured in a grazed site had higher ICM levels than those in ungrazed sites and prenesting female plasma protein levels were negatively correlated with ICM <span class="hlt">concentrations</span>. With the use of a small-scale spatial model, we identified a positive correlation between cattle pat count and sage-grouse ICM levels. Our model indicated that ICM levels increased by 2.60 ng · g−1 dry feces for every increase in the number of cow pats found in the vicinity. Management practices will benefit from future research regarding the consistency and mechanism(s) responsible for this association and, importantly, how ICM levels and demographic rates are related in this species of conservation concern.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10610688','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10610688"><span id="translatedtitle">Under proper control, oxidation of proteins with known chemical structure provides an accurate and <span class="hlt">absolute</span> method for the determination of their molar <span class="hlt">concentration</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Guermant, C; Azarkan, M; Smolders, N; Baeyens-Volant, D; Nijs, M; Paul, C; Brygier, J; Vincentelli, J; Looze, Y</p> <p>2000-01-01</p> <p>Oxidation at 120 degrees C of inorganic and organic (including amino acids, di- and tripeptides) model compounds by K(2)Cr(2)O(7) in the presence of H(2)SO(4) (mass fraction: 0.572), Ag(2)SO(4) (catalyst), and HgSO(4) results in the quantitative conversion of their C-atoms into CO(2) within 24 h or less. Under these stressed, well-defined conditions, the S-atoms present in cysteine and cystine residues are oxidized into SO(3) while, interestingly, the oxidation states of all the other (including the N-) atoms normally present in a protein do remain quite unchanged. When the chemical structure of a given protein is available, the total number of electrons the protein is able to transfer to K(2)Cr(2)O(7) and thereof, the total number of moles of Cr(3+) ions which the protein is able to generate upon oxidation can be accurately calculated. In such cases, unknown protein molar <span class="hlt">concentrations</span> can thus be determined through straightforward spectrophotometric measurements of Cr(3+) <span class="hlt">concentrations</span>. The values of molar absorption coefficients for several well-characterized proteins have been redetermined on this basis and observed to be in excellent agreement with the most precise values reported in the literature, which fully assesses the validity of the method. When applied to highly purified proteins of known chemical structure (more generally of known atomic composition), this method is <span class="hlt">absolute</span> and accurate (+/-1%). Furthermore, it is well adapted to series measurements since available commercial kits for chemical oxygen demand (COD) measurements can readily be adapted to work under the experimental conditions recommended here for the protein assay. PMID:10610688</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25468706','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25468706"><span id="translatedtitle">Effect of prepartal and postpartal dietary fat level on performance and plasma <span class="hlt">concentration</span> of <span class="hlt">metabolites</span> in transition dairy cows.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Karimian, M; Khorvash, M; Forouzmand, M A; Alikhani, M; Rahmani, H R; Ghaffari, M H; Petit, H V</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>The objective of this study was to determine the effects of 2 levels of dietary fat (low and high) offered during the prepartal and postpartal periods on dry matter intake (DMI), plasma <span class="hlt">concentration</span> of <span class="hlt">metabolites</span>, and milk yield and composition. Twenty-four Holstein dry cows were assigned on d 21 relative to expected parturition date to 1 of 4 treatments in a 2×2 factorial arrangement of 2 levels of fat fed during the prepartal period and 2 levels of fat fed during the postpartal period: prepartal low fat and postpartal low fat (LF-LF), prepartal low fat and postpartal high fat (LF-HF), prepartal high fat and postpartal low fat (HF-LF), or prepartal high fat and postpartal high fat (HF-HF). Prepartal and postpartal LF diets contained no fat supplement. Prepartal HF diets contained 1.60% calcium salts of soybean oil. The proportion of calcium salts of soybean oil was increased to 1.70% of DM for the first 21 d of lactation and to 2.27% of DM from d 21 to 56 of lactation in the HF diet. Diets were fed for ad libitum intake from d 21 before calving until d 56 of gestation. Prepartal DMI was lower for cows fed the HF diet compared with those fed the LF diet (12.6 vs. 16.2kg/d). Postpartum, cows fed the HF-HF and HF-LF diets had, respectively, the lowest and highest DMI, although no significant differences existed between HF-LF and LF-LF. Net energy intake was higher for cows fed the postpartal HF diets compared with those fed the LF diets. Prepartal fat level had no effect on net energy intake. Cows offered the prepartal HF diet had higher milk yield when offered the postpartal LF diet compared with those offered the postpartal HF diet and no effect of the postpartal fat level was detected when cows were fed the prepartal LF diet. Milk composition was similar among treatments. Plasma cholesterol <span class="hlt">concentration</span> postpartum was higher for cows fed the prepartal LF diet than for those fed the prepartal HF diet (5.16 vs. 3.74mmol/L) and postpartal fat level had no effect</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26404723','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26404723"><span id="translatedtitle">(31)P-MRS of healthy human brain: ATP synthesis, <span class="hlt">metabolite</span> <span class="hlt">concentrations</span>, pH, and T1 relaxation times.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Ren, Jimin; Sherry, A Dean; Malloy, Craig R</p> <p>2015-11-01</p> <p>The conventional method for measuring brain ATP synthesis is (31)P saturation transfer (ST), a technique typically dependent on prolonged pre-saturation with γ-ATP. In this study, ATP synthesis rate in resting human brain is evaluated using EBIT (exchange kinetics by band inversion transfer), a technique based on slow recovery of γ-ATP magnetization in the absence of B1 field following co-inversion of PCr and ATP resonances with a short adiabatic pulse. The unidirectional rate constant for the Pi → γ-ATP reaction is 0.21 ± 0.04 s(-1) and the ATP synthesis rate is 9.9 ± 2.1 mmol min(-1)  kg(-1) in human brain (n = 12 subjects), consistent with the results by ST. Therefore, EBIT could be a useful alternative to ST in studying brain energy metabolism in normal physiology and under pathological conditions. In addition to ATP synthesis, all detectable (31)P signals are analyzed to determine the brain <span class="hlt">concentration</span> of phosphorus <span class="hlt">metabolites</span>, including UDPG at around 10 ppm, a previously reported resonance in liver tissues and now confirmed in human brain. Inversion recovery measurements indicate that UDPG, like its diphosphate analogue NAD, has apparent T1 shorter than that of monophosphates (Pi, PMEs, and PDEs) but longer than that of triphosphate ATP, highlighting the significance of the (31)P-(31)P dipolar mechanism in T1 relaxation of polyphosphates. Another interesting finding is the observation of approximately 40% shorter T1 for intracellular Pi relative to extracellular Pi, attributed to the modulation by the intracellular phosphoryl exchange reaction Pi ↔ γ-ATP. The sufficiently separated intra- and extracellular Pi signals also permit the distinction of pH between intra- and extracellular environments (pH 7.0 versus pH 7.4). In summary, quantitative (31)P MRS in combination with ATP synthesis, pH, and T1 relaxation measurements may offer a promising tool to detect biochemical alterations at early stages of brain dysfunctions and diseases</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27482670','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27482670"><span id="translatedtitle">Effect of heat stress on the serum <span class="hlt">concentrations</span> of free amino acids and some of their <span class="hlt">metabolites</span> in growing pigs.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Morales, A; Cota, S E M; Ibarra, N O; Arce, N; Htoo, J K; Cervantes, M</p> <p>2016-07-01</p> <p>Exposure to heat stress (HS) may affect the intestinal epithelia of pigs, resulting in impaired digestive and absorptive capacity. The serum <span class="hlt">concentration</span> (SC) of free AA in pigs can be used as indicators of their availability. This study was conducted with 12 crossbred (Landrace × Hampshire × Duroc) pigs (29.0 ± 2.8 kg initial BW) distributed into 2 groups to analyze the SC of free AA and some AA <span class="hlt">metabolites</span> in pigs exposed to HS conditions. The treatments were pigs housed under natural HS conditions in a room with no ambient temperature control (23.6 to 37.6°C, HS) and pigs housed at thermoneutral conditions (24 ± 2°C), feed restricted to a level similar to that of their HS counterparts. All pigs received a wheat-soybean meal diet. Blood samples were collected at both the absorptive (2.5 h after a meal) and postabsorptive (10.0 h after a meal) phase. At the absorptive phase, the SC of free Arg, Leu, Lys, Phe, Thr, and Trp were lower ( < 0.05) and the SC of His, Val, Ala, Pro, Ser, and Tyr tended to be lower ( < 0.10) in HS pigs. At the postabsorptive phase, the SC of free Arg, His, Met, Asn, Gln, and Tyr were higher ( < 0.05) but the SC of Ala was lower ( < 0.01) and the SC of Pro tended to be lower ( < 0.10) in HS pigs. The absorptive SC of carnosine, ornithine (Orn), and Tau were lower ( < 0.05) and of citrulline (Cit), cystathionine, and urea tended to be lower ( < 0.10) in HS pigs. The postabsorptive SC of 3-methyl-His, homo-Cys, OH-Lys, and OH-Pro increased ( = 0.05) and of Cit tended to increase ( = 0.10) but that of carnosine and sarcosine ( < 0.05) decreased in HS pigs. The results of this study show a marked and differential effect of HS on the SC of AA. These data indicate that HS negatively affects the digestive and absorptive capacity of pigs and that the metabolism of some AA is modified in pigs to counteract the negative effects of the HS. PMID:27482670</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26404723','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26404723"><span id="translatedtitle">(31)P-MRS of healthy human brain: ATP synthesis, <span class="hlt">metabolite</span> <span class="hlt">concentrations</span>, pH, and T1 relaxation times.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Ren, Jimin; Sherry, A Dean; Malloy, Craig R</p> <p>2015-11-01</p> <p>The conventional method for measuring brain ATP synthesis is (31)P saturation transfer (ST), a technique typically dependent on prolonged pre-saturation with γ-ATP. In this study, ATP synthesis rate in resting human brain is evaluated using EBIT (exchange kinetics by band inversion transfer), a technique based on slow recovery of γ-ATP magnetization in the absence of B1 field following co-inversion of PCr and ATP resonances with a short adiabatic pulse. The unidirectional rate constant for the Pi → γ-ATP reaction is 0.21 ± 0.04 s(-1) and the ATP synthesis rate is 9.9 ± 2.1 mmol min(-1)  kg(-1) in human brain (n = 12 subjects), consistent with the results by ST. Therefore, EBIT could be a useful alternative to ST in studying brain energy metabolism in normal physiology and under pathological conditions. In addition to ATP synthesis, all detectable (31)P signals are analyzed to determine the brain <span class="hlt">concentration</span> of phosphorus <span class="hlt">metabolites</span>, including UDPG at around 10 ppm, a previously reported resonance in liver tissues and now confirmed in human brain. Inversion recovery measurements indicate that UDPG, like its diphosphate analogue NAD, has apparent T1 shorter than that of monophosphates (Pi, PMEs, and PDEs) but longer than that of triphosphate ATP, highlighting the significance of the (31)P-(31)P dipolar mechanism in T1 relaxation of polyphosphates. Another interesting finding is the observation of approximately 40% shorter T1 for intracellular Pi relative to extracellular Pi, attributed to the modulation by the intracellular phosphoryl exchange reaction Pi ↔ γ-ATP. The sufficiently separated intra- and extracellular Pi signals also permit the distinction of pH between intra- and extracellular environments (pH 7.0 versus pH 7.4). In summary, quantitative (31)P MRS in combination with ATP synthesis, pH, and T1 relaxation measurements may offer a promising tool to detect biochemical alterations at early stages of brain dysfunctions and diseases.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3002195','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3002195"><span id="translatedtitle">Variability over 1 Week in the Urinary <span class="hlt">Concentrations</span> of <span class="hlt">Metabolites</span> of Diethyl Phthalate and Di(2-Ethylhexyl) Phthalate among Eight Adults: An Observational Study</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Preau, James L.; Wong, Lee-Yang; Silva, Manori J.; Needham, Larry L.; Calafat, Antonia M.</p> <p>2010-01-01</p> <p>Background Phthalates are metabolized and eliminated in urine within hours after exposure. Several reports suggest that <span class="hlt">concentrations</span> of phthalate <span class="hlt">metabolites</span> in a spot urine sample can provide a reliable estimation of exposure to phthalates for up to several months. Objectives We examined inter- and intraperson and inter- and intraday variability in the <span class="hlt">concentrations</span> of monoethyl phthalate (MEP), the major <span class="hlt">metabolite</span> of diethyl phthalate, commonly used in personal care products, and mono(2-ethyl-5-hydroxyhexyl) phthalate (MEHHP), a <span class="hlt">metabolite</span> of di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP), a polyvinyl chloride plasticizer of which diet is the principal exposure source, among eight adults who collected all urine voids (average, 7.6 samples/person/day) for 1 week. Methods We analyzed the urine samples using online solid-phase extraction coupled to isotope dilution–high-performance liquid chromatography–tandem mass spectrometry. Results Regardless of the type of void (spot, first morning, 24-hr collection), for MEP, interperson variability in <span class="hlt">concentrations</span> accounted for > 75% of the total variance. By contrast, for MEHHP, within-person variability was the main contributor (69–83%) of the total variance. Furthermore, we observed considerable intraday variability in the <span class="hlt">concentrations</span> of spot samples for MEHHP (51%) and MEP (21%). Conclusions MEP and MEHHP urinary <span class="hlt">concentrations</span> varied considerably during 1 week, but the main contributors to the total variance differed (interday variability, MEHHP; interperson variability, MEP) regardless of the sampling strategy (spot, first morning, 24-hr collection). The nature of the exposure (diet vs. other lifestyle factors) and timing of urine sampling to evaluate exposure to phthalates should be considered. For DEHP and phthalates to which people are mostly exposed through diet, collecting 24-hr voids for only 1 day may not be advantageous compared with multiple spot collections. When collecting multiple spot urine samples</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4050512','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4050512"><span id="translatedtitle">Association of Urinary <span class="hlt">Concentrations</span> of Bisphenol A and Phthalate <span class="hlt">Metabolites</span> with Risk of Type 2 Diabetes: A Prospective Investigation in the Nurses’ Health Study (NHS) and NHSII Cohorts</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Cornelis, Marilyn C.; Townsend, Mary K.; Tobias, Deirdre K.; Eliassen, A. Heather; Franke, Adrian A.; Hauser, Russ; Hu, Frank B.</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>Background: Prospective evidence regarding associations for exposures to bisphenol A (BPA) and phthalates with type 2 diabetes (T2D) is lacking. Objective: We prospectively examined urinary <span class="hlt">concentrations</span> of BPA and phthalate <span class="hlt">metabolites</span> with T2D risk. Methods: We measured BPA and eight major phthalate <span class="hlt">metabolites</span> among 971 incident T2D case–control pairs from the Nurses’ Health Study (NHS) (mean age, 65.6 years) and NHSII (mean age, 45.6 years). Results: In the NHSII, BPA levels were not associated with incident T2D in multivariate-adjusted analysis until body mass index was adjusted: odds ratio (OR) comparing extreme BPA quartiles increased from 1.40 (95% CI: 0.91, 2.15) to 2.08 (95% CI: 1.17, 3.69; ptrend = 0.02) with such an adjustment. In contrast, BPA <span class="hlt">concentrations</span> were not associated with T2D in the NHS (OR = 0.81; 95% CI: 0.48, 1.38; ptrend = 0.45). Likewise, urinary <span class="hlt">concentrations</span> of total phthalate <span class="hlt">metabolites</span> were associated with T2D in the NHSII (OR comparing extreme quartiles = 2.14; 95% CI: 1.19, 3.85; ptrend = 0.02), but not in the NHS (OR = 0.87; 95% CI: 0.49, 1.53; ptrend = 0.29). Summed <span class="hlt">metabolites</span> of butyl phthalates or di-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalates were significantly associated with T2D only in the NHSII; ORs comparing extreme quartiles were 3.16 (95% CI: 1.68, 5.95; ptrend = 0.0002) and 1.91 (95% CI: 1.04, 3.49; ptrend = 0.20), respectively. Conclusions: These results suggest that BPA and phthalate exposures may be associated with the risk of T2D among middle-aged, but not older, women. The divergent findings between the two cohorts might be explained by menopausal status or simply by chance. Clearly, these results need to be interpreted with caution and should be replicated in future studies, ideally with multiple urine samples collected prospectively to improve the measurement of these exposures with short half-lives. Citation: Sun Q, Cornelis MC, Townsend MK, Tobias DK, Eliassen AH, Franke AA, Hauser R, Hu FB. 2014. Association of</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22824226','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22824226"><span id="translatedtitle">Single oral doses of (±) 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine ('Ecstasy') produce lasting serotonergic deficits in non-human primates: relationship to plasma drug and <span class="hlt">metabolite</span> <span class="hlt">concentrations</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Mueller, Melanie; Yuan, Jie; McCann, Una D; Hatzidimitriou, George; Ricaurte, George A</p> <p>2013-05-01</p> <p>Repeated doses of the popular recreational drug methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA, 'Ecstasy') are known to produce neurotoxic effects on brain serotonin (5-HT) neurons but it is widely believed that typical single oral doses of MDMA are free of neurotoxic risk. Experimental and therapeutic trials with MDMA in humans are underway. The mechanisms by which MDMA produces neurotoxic effects are not understood but drug <span class="hlt">metabolites</span> have been implicated. The aim of the present study was to assess the neurotoxic potential of a range of clinically relevant single oral doses of MDMA in a non-human primate species that metabolizes MDMA in a manner similar to humans, the squirrel monkey. A secondary objective was to explore the relationship between plasma MDMA and <span class="hlt">metabolite</span> <span class="hlt">concentrations</span> and lasting serotonergic deficits. Single oral doses of MDMA produced lasting dose-related serotonergic neurochemical deficits in the brains of squirrel monkeys. Notably, even the lowest dose of MDMA tested (5.7 mg/kg, estimated to be equivalent to 1.6 mg/kg in humans) produced significant effects in some brain regions. Plasma levels of MDMA engendered by neurotoxic doses of MDMA were on the order of those found in humans. Serotonergic neurochemical markers were inversely correlated with plasma <span class="hlt">concentrations</span> of MDMA, but not with those of its major <span class="hlt">metabolites</span>, 3,4-dihydroxymethamphetamine and 4-hydroxy-3-methoxymethamphetamine. These results suggest that single oral doses of MDMA in the range of those used by humans pose a neurotoxic risk and implicate the parent compound (MDMA), rather than one of its <span class="hlt">metabolites</span>, in MDMA-induced 5-HT neural injury.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20044249','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20044249"><span id="translatedtitle">Growth of Pseudomonas sp. TX1 on a wide range of octylphenol polyethoxylate <span class="hlt">concentrations</span> and the formation of dicarboxylated <span class="hlt">metabolites</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Lin, Yi-Wen; Guo, Gia-Luen; Hsieh, Hsiao-Cheng; Huang, Shir-Ly</p> <p>2010-04-01</p> <p>Pseudomonas sp. TX1, is able to use octylphenol polyethoxylates (OPEO(n), or Triton X-100; average n = 9.5) as a sole carbon source. It can grow on 0.05-20% of OPEO(n) with a specific growth rate of 0.34-0.44 h(-1). High-performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometer analysis of OPEO(n) degraded <span class="hlt">metabolites</span> revealed that strain TX1 was able to shorten the ethoxylate chain and produce octylphenol (OP). Furthermore, formation of the short carboxylate <span class="hlt">metabolites</span>, such as carboxyoctylphenol polyethoxylates (COPEO(n), n = 2, 3) and carboxyoctylphenol polyethoxycarboxylates (COPEC(n), n = 2, 3) began at the log stage, while octylphenol polyethoxycarboxylates (OPEC(n), n = 1-3) was formed at the stationary phase. All the short-ethoxylated <span class="hlt">metabolites</span>, OPEO(n), OPEC(n), COPEO(n), and COPEC(n), accumulated when the cells were in the stationary phase. This study is the first to demonstrate the formation of COPEO(n) and COPEC(n) from OPEO(n) by an aerobic bacterium. PMID:20044249</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26492539','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26492539"><span id="translatedtitle">Simulation of Human Plasma <span class="hlt">Concentrations</span> of Thalidomide and Primary 5-Hydroxylated <span class="hlt">Metabolites</span> Explored with Pharmacokinetic Data in Humanized TK-NOG Mice.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Nishiyama, Sayako; Suemizu, Hiroshi; Shibata, Norio; Guengerich, F Peter; Yamazaki, Hiroshi</p> <p>2015-11-16</p> <p>Plasma <span class="hlt">concentrations</span> of thalidomide and primary 5-hydroxylated <span class="hlt">metabolites</span> including 5,6-dihydroxythalidomide and glutathione (GSH) conjugate(s) were investigated in chimeric mice with highly "humanized" liver cells harboring cytochrome P450 3A5*1. Following oral administration of thalidomide (100 mg/kg), plasma <span class="hlt">concentrations</span> of GSH conjugate(s) of 5-hydroxythalidomide were higher in humanized mice than in controls. Simulation of human plasma <span class="hlt">concentrations</span> of thalidomide were achieved with a simplified physiologically based pharmacokinetic model in accordance with reported thalidomide <span class="hlt">concentrations</span>. The results indicate that the pharmacokinetics in humans of GSH conjugate and/or catechol primary 5-hydroxylated thalidomide contributing in vivo activation can be estimated for the first time. PMID:26492539</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26492539','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26492539"><span id="translatedtitle">Simulation of Human Plasma <span class="hlt">Concentrations</span> of Thalidomide and Primary 5-Hydroxylated <span class="hlt">Metabolites</span> Explored with Pharmacokinetic Data in Humanized TK-NOG Mice.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Nishiyama, Sayako; Suemizu, Hiroshi; Shibata, Norio; Guengerich, F Peter; Yamazaki, Hiroshi</p> <p>2015-11-16</p> <p>Plasma <span class="hlt">concentrations</span> of thalidomide and primary 5-hydroxylated <span class="hlt">metabolites</span> including 5,6-dihydroxythalidomide and glutathione (GSH) conjugate(s) were investigated in chimeric mice with highly "humanized" liver cells harboring cytochrome P450 3A5*1. Following oral administration of thalidomide (100 mg/kg), plasma <span class="hlt">concentrations</span> of GSH conjugate(s) of 5-hydroxythalidomide were higher in humanized mice than in controls. Simulation of human plasma <span class="hlt">concentrations</span> of thalidomide were achieved with a simplified physiologically based pharmacokinetic model in accordance with reported thalidomide <span class="hlt">concentrations</span>. The results indicate that the pharmacokinetics in humans of GSH conjugate and/or catechol primary 5-hydroxylated thalidomide contributing in vivo activation can be estimated for the first time.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=5045718','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=5045718"><span id="translatedtitle">Higher maternal serum <span class="hlt">concentrations</span> of nicotinamide and related <span class="hlt">metabolites</span> in late pregnancy are associated with a lower risk of offspring atopic eczema at age 12 months</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>El-Heis, S; Crozier, SR; Robinson, SM; Harvey, NC; Cooper, C; Inskip, HM; Godfrey, KM</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>Background Evidence that atopic eczema partly originates in utero is increasing, with some studies linking the risk of developing the condition with aspects of maternal diet during pregnancy. Nicotinamide, a naturally occurring nutrient that is maintained through the dietary intakes of vitamin B3 and tryptophan has been used in the treatment of some skin conditions including atopic eczema. Objective To examine the relation of maternal serum <span class="hlt">concentrations</span> of nicotinamide and related tryptophan <span class="hlt">metabolites</span> to the risk of atopic eczema in the offspring. Methods Within the UK Southampton Women Survey, infantile atopic eczema at ages 6 and 12 months was ascertained (modified UK Working Party Criteria for the Definition of Atopic Dermatitis). Maternal serum levels of kynurenine, kynurenic acid, anthranilic acid, tryptophan, nicotinamide and N1-methylnicotinamide were measured in late pregnancy by mass spectrometry, n=497 and related to the odds ratio of infantile atopic eczema. Results Maternal nicotinamide and related <span class="hlt">metabolite</span> <span class="hlt">concentrations</span> were not associated with offspring atopic eczema at age 6 months. Higher <span class="hlt">concentrations</span> of nicotinamide and anthranilic acid were, however, associated with a lower risk of eczema at age 12 months (odds ratios 0.69, 95% CI 0.53-0.91 /SD change, p=0.007 and 0.63, 0.48-0.83, p=0.001, respectively). The associations were robust to adjustment for potentially confounding variables. Conclusion and clinical relevance This is the first study linking maternal serum <span class="hlt">concentrations</span> of nicotinamide and related <span class="hlt">metabolites</span> to the risk of atopic eczema in the offspring. The findings point to potentially modifiable maternal influences on this complex and highly prevalent condition. PMID:27517618</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4786975','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4786975"><span id="translatedtitle">Urinary <span class="hlt">Concentrations</span> of Phthalate <span class="hlt">Metabolites</span> and Bisphenol A and Associations with Follicular-Phase Length, Luteal-Phase Length, Fecundability, and Early Pregnancy Loss</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Jukic, Anne Marie; Calafat, Antonia M.; McConnaughey, D. Robert; Longnecker, Matthew P.; Hoppin, Jane A.; Weinberg, Clarice R.; Wilcox, Allen J.; Baird, Donna D.; Calafat, Antonia M.; McConnaughey, D. Robert; Longnecker, Matthew P.; Hoppin, Jane A.; Weinberg, Clarice R.; Wilcox, Allen J.; Baird, Donna D.</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>Background Certain phthalates and bisphenol A (BPA) show reproductive effects in animal studies and potentially affect human ovulation, conception, and pregnancy loss. Objectives We investigated these chemicals in relation to follicular- and luteal-phase lengths, time to pregnancy, and early pregnancy loss (within 6 weeks of the last menstrual period) among women attempting pregnancy. Methods Women discontinuing contraception provided daily first-morning urine specimens and recorded days with vaginal bleeding for up to 6 months. Specimens had previously been analyzed for estrogen and progesterone <span class="hlt">metabolites</span> and human chorionic gonadotropin. A total of 221 participants contributed 706 menstrual cycles. We measured 11 phthalate <span class="hlt">metabolites</span> and BPA in pooled urine from three specimens spaced throughout each menstrual cycle. We analyzed associations between chemical <span class="hlt">concentrations</span> and outcomes using linear mixed models for follicular- and luteal-phase lengths, discrete-time fecundability models for time to pregnancy, and logistic regression for early pregnancy loss. Results Higher <span class="hlt">concentrations</span> of monocarboxyoctyl phthalate (MCOP) were associated with shorter luteal phase [2nd tertile vs. 1st tertile: –0.5 days (95% CI: –0.9, –0.1), 3rd vs. 1st: –0.4 days (95% CI: –0.8, 0.01), p = 0.04]. BPA was also associated with shorter luteal phase [2nd vs. 1st: –0.8 days (95% CI: –1.2, –0.4), 3rd vs. 1st: –0.4 days (95% CI: –0.8, 0.02), p = 0.001]. Conclusions BPA and MCOP (or its precursors) were associated with shorter luteal phase. Menstrual cycle–specific estimates of urinary BPA and phthalate <span class="hlt">metabolites</span> were not associated with detrimental alterations in follicular-phase length, time to pregnancy, or early pregnancy loss, and in fact, DEHP [di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate] <span class="hlt">metabolites</span> {MEOHP [mono(2-ethyl-5-oxohexyl) phthalate] and ΣDEHP} were associated with reduced early loss. These findings should be confirmed in future human studies. Citation Jukic</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4632760','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4632760"><span id="translatedtitle">Adding Sarcosine to Antipsychotic Treatment in Patients with Stable Schizophrenia Changes the <span class="hlt">Concentrations</span> of Neuronal and Glial <span class="hlt">Metabolites</span> in the Left Dorsolateral Prefrontal Cortex</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Strzelecki, Dominik; Podgórski, Michał; Kałużyńska, Olga; Stefańczyk, Ludomir; Kotlicka-Antczak, Magdalena; Gmitrowicz, Agnieszka; Grzelak, Piotr</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>The glutamatergic system is a key point in pathogenesis of schizophrenia. Sarcosine (N-methylglycine) is an exogenous amino acid that acts as a glycine transporter inhibitor. It modulates glutamatergic transmission by increasing glycine <span class="hlt">concentration</span> around NMDA (N-methyl-d-aspartate) receptors. In patients with schizophrenia, the function of the glutamatergic system in the prefrontal cortex is impaired, which may promote negative and cognitive symptoms. Proton nuclear magnetic resonance (1H-NMR) spectroscopy is a non-invasive imaging method enabling the evaluation of brain <span class="hlt">metabolite</span> <span class="hlt">concentration</span>, which can be applied to assess pharmacologically induced changes. The aim of the study was to evaluate the influence of a six-month course of sarcosine therapy on the <span class="hlt">concentration</span> of <span class="hlt">metabolites</span> (NAA, N-acetylaspartate; Glx, complex of glutamate, glutamine and γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA); mI, myo-inositol; Cr, creatine; Cho, choline) in the left dorso-lateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) in patients with stable schizophrenia. Fifty patients with schizophrenia, treated with constant antipsychotics doses, in stable clinical condition were randomly assigned to administration of sarcosine (25 patients) or placebo (25 patients) for six months. <span class="hlt">Metabolite</span> <span class="hlt">concentrations</span> in DLPFC were assessed with 1.5 Tesla 1H-NMR spectroscopy. Clinical symptoms were evaluated with the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS). The first spectroscopy revealed no differences in <span class="hlt">metabolite</span> <span class="hlt">concentrations</span> between groups. After six months, NAA/Cho, mI/Cr and mI/Cho ratios in the left DLPFC were significantly higher in the sarcosine than the placebo group. In the sarcosine group, NAA/Cr, NAA/Cho, mI/Cr, mI/Cho ratios also significantly increased compared to baseline values. In the placebo group, only the NAA/Cr ratio increased. The addition of sarcosine to antipsychotic therapy for six months increased markers of neurons viability (NAA) and neurogilal activity (mI) with simultaneous improvement</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4792727','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4792727"><span id="translatedtitle">Detection of normal aging effects on human brain <span class="hlt">metabolite</span> <span class="hlt">concentrations</span> and microstructure with whole brain MR spectroscopic imaging and quantitative MR imaging</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Eylers, Vanessa V.; Maudsley, Andrew A.; Bronzlik, Paul; Dellani, Paulo R.; Lanfermann, Heinrich; Ding, Xiao-Qi</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>Background and purpose Whole brain 1H-MR spectroscopic imaging (wbMRSI) was used in combination with quantitative MRI (qMRI) to study the effects of normal aging on healthy human brain <span class="hlt">metabolites</span> and microstructure. Materials and Methods Sixty healthy volunteers aged 21 to 70 years were studied. Brain maps of the <span class="hlt">metabolites</span> NAA, Cr, and Cho, and the tissue irreversible and reversible transverse relaxation times, T2 and T2′, were derived from the datasets. The relative <span class="hlt">metabolite</span> <span class="hlt">concentrations</span> [NAA], [tCr] and [Cho] as well as the values of relaxation times were measured with ROIs placed within frontal and parietal WM, centrum semiovale (CSO), splenium of the corpus callosum (SCC), hand motor area (HK), occipital GM, putamen, thalamus, pons ventral/dorsal (BSv/BSd), cerebellar white matter (CbWM) and posterior lobe (CbGM). Linear regression analysis and Pearson’s correlation tests were used to analyze the data. Results Aging resulted in decreased [NAA] in occipital GM, putamen, SCC, and BSv, and decreased [tCr] in BSd and putamen. [Cho] did not change significantly in selected brain regions. T2 increased in CbWM and decreased in SCC with aging, while the T2′ decreased in the occipital GM, HK, putamen, and increased in the SCC. Correlations were found between [NAA] and T2′ in occipital GM and putamen and between [tCr] and T2′ in the putamen. Conclusion The effects of normal aging on brain <span class="hlt">metabolites</span> and microstructure are regional dependent. Correlations between both processes are evident in the gray matter. The obtained data could be used as references for future studies on patients. PMID:26564440</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24889379','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24889379"><span id="translatedtitle">Measurement of C-reactive protein and prostaglandin F2α <span class="hlt">metabolite</span> <span class="hlt">concentrations</span> in differentiation of canine pyometra and cystic endometrial hyperplasia/mucometra.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Enginler, S O; Ateş, A; Diren Sığırcı, B; Sontaş, B H; Sönmez, K; Karaçam, E; Ekici, H; Evkuran Dal, G; Gürel, A</p> <p>2014-08-01</p> <p>Canine pyometra is a dioestrus period disease in which systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS) is a common outcome due to the response of the body to the bacterial infection. The purpose of this study was i) to differentiate canine pyometra and cystic endometrial hyperplasia (CEH)/mucometra by measuring serum C-reactive protein (CRP) and prostaglandin F2α <span class="hlt">metabolite</span> (PGFM) <span class="hlt">concentrations</span> in blood and ii) to compare serum <span class="hlt">concentrations</span> of CRP and PGFM in bitches with a pathological uterus (pyometra or CEH/mucometra) to <span class="hlt">concentrations</span> in bitches with a healthy uterus. Mean CRP <span class="hlt">concentrations</span> were found significantly higher (p < 0.001) in dogs with pyometra compared to those with CEH/mucometra or healthy uterus. However, no statistical difference could be detected between the groups for mean PGFM <span class="hlt">concentrations</span>. Mean white blood cell count (WBC), alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and total protein <span class="hlt">concentrations</span> were found significantly higher (p < 0.001) in dogs with pyometra. Escherichia coli was the most frequently isolated microorganism from dogs with pyometra (64.3%). Edwardsiella spp. was detected in a single case of pyometra for the first time. In conclusion, our results demonstrate that serum CRP <span class="hlt">concentrations</span> were increased in dogs with pyometra and thus we conclude that serum CRP <span class="hlt">concentration</span> but not PGFM might be useful as a marker to differentiate a case of CEH/mucometra from pyometra in female dogs. To the authors' knowledge, this is the first report in which Edwardsiella spp. has been isolated in the canine uterus. PMID:24889379</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014cosp...40E3053S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014cosp...40E3053S"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Concentrations</span> of Monoamines and Their <span class="hlt">Metabolites</span> in Blood Plasma and Some Brain Structures of Mice, Participated in a Space Flight on the Aircraft BION-M1</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Shtemberg, Andrey; Kudrin, Vladimir</p> <p></p> <p>The purpose of this work was to study the possible disturbances of monoamines <span class="hlt">concentration</span> and their <span class="hlt">metabolites</span> in some structures of mouse brain and blood plasma caused by the influence of space flight. The forty eight C57BL/6 mice were divided into the following groups : basal control - animals , which together with a group of space flight arrived at Baykonur and then were returned to Moscow; the first space flight group - animals who spent 30 days in space, BION-M1 - board and decapitated 12 hours after the landing; animal house control to the first space flight group; second space flight group - animals who spent 30 days in space, aboard the BION-M1, and then recovered at ground conditions for 7 days; animal house control to the second space flight group; space flight imitation group - spent 30 days on board at ground model of BION-M1; animal house control to the imitation group. In all animals <span class="hlt">concentration</span> of HA, DA, 5 -HT and their <span class="hlt">metabolites</span> DOPAC, HVA, 3 -MT, 5 - HIAA in plasma and in the prefrontal cortex, hypothalamus, striatum and hippocampus were studied. In the blood plasma of first space flight group the <span class="hlt">concentrations</span> of DOPAC were significantly higher compared to animal house control. The most significant changes were observed in the second space flight group, in those animals which recovered after the flight. There was a significant increase in the <span class="hlt">concentration</span> of HA and A in blood plasma relative to the basal control and increased <span class="hlt">concentration</span> of HA and the DOPAC/DA ratio relative to the first space flight group. No significant changes were observed in the hippocampus. In the first space flight group there was observed an increase in <span class="hlt">concentration</span> of HA and DOPAC in the hypothalamus relative to controls. Seven days after rest <span class="hlt">concentrations</span> of monoamines and their <span class="hlt">metabolites</span> were significantly enhanced relative to the control and the first space flight groups. In physiology and pharmacology there is a process called as withdrawal effect</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25049871','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25049871"><span id="translatedtitle">The effects of thyme and cinnamon essential oils on performance, rumen fermentation and blood <span class="hlt">metabolites</span> in holstein calves consuming high <span class="hlt">concentrate</span> diet.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Vakili, A R; Khorrami, B; Mesgaran, M Danesh; Parand, E</p> <p>2013-07-01</p> <p>Essential oils have been shown to favorably effect in vitro ruminal fermentation, but there are few in vivo studies that have examined animal responses. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of thyme (THY) and cinnamon (CIN) essential oils on feed intake, growth performance, ruminal fermentation and blood <span class="hlt">metabolites</span> in feedlot calves fed high-<span class="hlt">concentrate</span> diets. Twelve growing Holstein calves (213±17 kg initial BW) were used in a completely randomized design and received their respective dietary treatments for 45 d. Treatments were: 1-control (no additive), 2-THY (5 g/d/calf) and 3-CIN (5 g/d/calf). Calves were fed ad libitum diets consisting of 15% forage and 85% <span class="hlt">concentrate</span>, and adapted to the finishing diet by gradually increasing the <span class="hlt">concentrate</span> ratio with feeding a series of transition diets 5 wk before the experiment started. Supplementation of THY or CIN did not affect DMI and ADG, and feed efficiency was similar between treatment groups. There were no effects of additives on ruminal pH and rumen <span class="hlt">concentrations</span> of ammonia nitrogen and total VFA; whereas molar proportion of acetate and ratio of acetate to propionate decreased, and the molar proportion of propionate increased with THY and CIN supplementation. Rumen molar <span class="hlt">concentration</span> of butyrate was significantly increased by adding CIN compared to control; but no change was observed with THY compared with control group. No effects of THY, or CIN were observed on valerate, isobutyrate or isovalerate proportions. Plasma <span class="hlt">concentrations</span> of glucose, cholesterol, triglyceride, urea-N, β-hydroxybutyrate, alanine aminotransferase and aspartate aminotransferase were not changed by feeding THY or CIN. Results from this study suggest that supplementing a feedlot finishing diet with THY or CIN essential oil might be useful as ruminal fermentation modifiers in beef production systems, but has minor impacts on blood <span class="hlt">metabolites</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/21344911','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/21344911"><span id="translatedtitle">Dietary administration of sodium arsenite to rats: Relations between dose and urinary <span class="hlt">concentrations</span> of methylated and thio-<span class="hlt">metabolites</span> and effects on the rat urinary bladder epithelium</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Suzuki, Shugo; Arnold, Lora L.; Pennington, Karen L.; Chen, Baowei; Naranmandura, Hua; Le, X. Chris; Cohen, Samuel M.</p> <p>2010-04-15</p> <p>Based on epidemiological data, chronic exposure to high levels of inorganic arsenic in drinking water is carcinogenic to humans, inducing skin, urinary bladder and lung tumors. In vivo, inorganic arsenic is metabolized to organic methylated arsenicals including the highly toxic dimethylarsinous acid (DMA{sup III}) and monomethylarsonous acid (MMA{sup III}). Short-term treatment of rats with 100 mug/g trivalent arsenic (As{sup III}) as sodium arsenite in the diet or in drinking water induced cytotoxicity and necrosis of the urothelial superficial layer, with increased cell proliferation and hyperplasia. The objectives of this study were to determine if these arsenic-induced urothelial effects are dose responsive, the dose of arsenic at which urothelial effects are not detected, and the urinary <span class="hlt">concentrations</span> of the arsenical <span class="hlt">metabolites</span>. We treated female F344 rats for 5 weeks with sodium arsenite at dietary doses of 0, 1, 10, 25, 50, and 100 ppm. Cytotoxicity, cell proliferation and hyperplasia of urothelial superficial cells were increased in a dose-responsive manner, with maximum effects found at 50 ppm As{sup III}. There were no effects at 1 ppm As{sup III}. The main urinary arsenical in As{sup III}-treated rats was the organic arsenical dimethylarsinic acid (DMA{sup V}). The thio-<span class="hlt">metabolites</span> dimethylmonothioarsinic acid (DMMTA{sup V}) and monomethylmonothioarsinic acid (MMMTA{sup V}) were also found in the urine of As{sup III}-treated rats. The LC{sub 50} <span class="hlt">concentrations</span> of DMMTA{sup V} for rat and human urothelial cells in vitro were similar to trivalent oxygen-containing arsenicals. These data suggest that dietary As{sup III}-induced urothelial cytotoxicity and proliferation are dose responsive, and the urothelial effects have a threshold corresponding to the urinary excretion of measurable reactive <span class="hlt">metabolites</span>.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_6");'>6</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_7");'>7</a></li> <li class="active"><span>8</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_9");'>9</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_10");'>10</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_8 --> <div id="page_9" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_7");'>7</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_8");'>8</a></li> <li class="active"><span>9</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_10");'>10</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_11");'>11</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="161"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19212761','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19212761"><span id="translatedtitle">The benzene <span class="hlt">metabolite</span> para-benzoquinone is genotoxic in human, phorbol-12-acetate-13-myristate induced, peripheral blood mononuclear cells at low <span class="hlt">concentrations</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Westphal, Götz Alexander; Bünger, Jürgen; Lichey, Nadine; Taeger, Dirk; Mönnich, Angelika; Hallier, Ernst</p> <p>2009-07-01</p> <p>Benzene is one of the most prominent occupational and environmental pollutants. The substance is a proven human carcinogen that induces hematologic malignancies in humans, probably at even low doses. Yet knowledge of the mechanisms leading to benzene-induced carcinogenesis is still incomplete. Benzene itself is not genotoxic. The generation of carcinogenic <span class="hlt">metabolites</span> involves the production of oxidized intermediates such as catechol, hydroquinone and para-benzoquinone (p-BQ) in the liver. Further activation to the ultimate carcinogenic intermediates is most probably catalyzed by myeloperoxidase (MPO). Yet the products of the MPO pathway have not been identified. If an oxidized benzene <span class="hlt">metabolite</span> such as p-BQ was actually the precursor for the ultimate carcinogenic benzene <span class="hlt">metabolite</span> and further activation proceeds via MPO mediated reactions, it should be possible to activate p-BQ to a genotoxic compound in vitro. We tested this hypothesis with phorbol-12-acetate-13-myristate (PMA) activated peripheral blood cells exposed to p-BQ, using the cytokinesis-block micronucleus test. Addition of 20-28 ng/ml PMA caused a significant increase of micronuclei at low and non-cytotoxic p-BQ <span class="hlt">concentrations</span> between 0.04 and 0.2 microg/ml (0.37-1.85 microM). Thus with PMA or p-BQ alone no reproducible elevation of micronuclei was seen up to toxic <span class="hlt">concentrations</span>. PMA and p-BQ induce micronuclei when administered jointly. Our results add further support to the hypothesis that MPO is a key enzyme in the activation of benzene. PMID:19212761</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4879580','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4879580"><span id="translatedtitle">Vitamin D expenditure is not altered in pregnancy and lactation despite changes in vitamin D <span class="hlt">metabolite</span> <span class="hlt">concentrations</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Jones, Kerry S; Assar, Shima; Prentice, Ann; Schoenmakers, Inez</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>Pregnancy and lactation are associated with changes in vitamin D and calcium metabolism but the impact of these changes on vitamin D expenditure is unknown. We measured plasma 25(OH)D3 half-life with a stable-isotope tracer and investigated relationships with vitamin D <span class="hlt">metabolites</span> in pregnant, lactating and ‘non-pregnant, non-lactating’ (NPNL) women. Vitamin D <span class="hlt">metabolites</span>, vitamin D binding protein (DBP), PTH and 25(OH)D3 half-life were measured in third-trimester pregnant women (n22) and repeated during lactation 12 weeks post-partum (n14) and twice in NPNL women (n23 and n10, respectively) in rural Gambia where calcium intakes are low with little seasonality in UVB-exposure. 25(OH)D3 half-life was not significantly different between groups (mean(SD): 20.6(6.8), 22.6(7.7), 18.0(4.7) and 17.7(9.5) days in pregnant, lactating and NPNL women, respectively). Plasma 25(OH)D3, 1,25(OH)2D, and DBP were higher in pregnancy, and calculated free-25(OH)D3 and PTH were lower (P < 0.05). In lactation, 25(OH)D3 and 24,25(OH)2D3 were lower compared to pregnant (P < 0.001, P = 0.02) and NPNL women (P = 0.04, P = 0.07). Significant associations were observed between half-life and 25(OH)D3 (+ve) in pregnancy, and in all groups between 25(OH)D3 and free-25(OH)D3 (+ve) and PTH and 25(OH)D3 (−ve) (P < 0.0001). These data suggest that adaptive changes in pregnancy and lactation occur that prevent pronounced changes in vitamin D expenditure. PMID:27222109</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21973035','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21973035"><span id="translatedtitle">Characterization of <span class="hlt">metabolite</span> quantitative trait loci and metabolic networks that control glucosinolate <span class="hlt">concentration</span> in the seeds and leaves of Brassica napus.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Feng, Ji; Long, Yan; Shi, Lei; Shi, Jiaqin; Barker, Guy; Meng, Jinling</p> <p>2012-01-01</p> <p>• Glucosinolates are a major class of secondary <span class="hlt">metabolites</span> found in the Brassicaceae, whose degradation products are proving to be increasingly important for human health and in crop protection. • The genetic and metabolic basis of glucosinolate accumulation was dissected through analysis of total glucosinolate <span class="hlt">concentration</span> and its individual components in both leaves and seeds of a doubled-haploid (DH) mapping population of oilseed rape/canola (Brassica napus). • The quantitative trait loci (QTL) that had an effect on glucosinolate <span class="hlt">concentration</span> in either or both of the organs were integrated, resulting in 105 <span class="hlt">metabolite</span> QTL (mQTL). Pairwise correlations between individual glucosinolates and prior knowledge of the metabolic pathways involved in the biosynthesis of different glucosinolates allowed us to predict the function of genes underlying the mQTL. Moreover, this information allowed us to construct an advanced metabolic network and associated epistatic interactions responsible for the glucosinolate composition in both leaves and seeds of B. napus. • A number of previously unknown potential regulatory relationships involved in glucosinolate synthesis were identified and this study illustrates how genetic variation can affect a biochemical pathway.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3430680','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3430680"><span id="translatedtitle">A Yeast <span class="hlt">Metabolite</span> Extraction Protocol Optimised for Time-Series Analyses</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Sasidharan, Kalesh; Soga, Tomoyoshi; Tomita, Masaru; Murray, Douglas B.</p> <p>2012-01-01</p> <p>There is an increasing call for the <span class="hlt">absolute</span> quantification of time-resolved <span class="hlt">metabolite</span> data. However, a number of technical issues exist, such as <span class="hlt">metabolites</span> being modified/degraded either chemically or enzymatically during the extraction process. Additionally, capillary electrophoresis mass spectrometry (CE-MS) is incompatible with high salt <span class="hlt">concentrations</span> often used in extraction protocols. In microbial systems, <span class="hlt">metabolite</span> yield is influenced by the extraction protocol used and the cell disruption rate. Here we present a method that rapidly quenches metabolism using dry-ice ethanol bath and methanol N-ethylmaleimide solution (thus stabilising thiols), disrupts cells efficiently using bead-beating and avoids artefacts created by live-cell pelleting. Rapid sample processing minimised <span class="hlt">metabolite</span> leaching. Cell weight, number and size distribution was used to calculate <span class="hlt">metabolites</span> to an attomol/cell level. We apply this method to samples obtained from the respiratory oscillation that occurs when yeast are grown continuously. PMID:22952947</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=stallings&id=EJ1000865','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=stallings&id=EJ1000865"><span id="translatedtitle">Teaching <span class="hlt">Absolute</span> Value Meaningfully</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Wade, Angela</p> <p>2012-01-01</p> <p>What is the meaning of <span class="hlt">absolute</span> value? And why do teachers teach students how to solve <span class="hlt">absolute</span> value equations? <span class="hlt">Absolute</span> value is a concept introduced in first-year algebra and then reinforced in later courses. Various authors have suggested instructional methods for teaching <span class="hlt">absolute</span> value to high school students (Wei 2005; Stallings-Roberts…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3609604','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3609604"><span id="translatedtitle">DHFR 19-bp Deletion and SHMT C1420T Polymorphisms and <span class="hlt">Metabolite</span> <span class="hlt">Concentrations</span> of the Folate Pathway in Individuals with Down Syndrome</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Mendes, Cristiani Cortez; Raimundo, Aline Maria Zanchetta de Aquino; Oliveira, Luciana Dutra; Zampieri, Bruna Lancia; Marucci, Gustavo Henrique; Biselli, Joice Matos; Goloni-Bertollo, Eny Maria; Eberlin, Marcos Nogueira; Haddad, Renato; Riccio, Maria Francesca; Vannucchi, Hélio; Carvalho, Valdemir Melechco</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>Background: Down syndrome (DS) results from the presence and expression of three copies of the genes located on chromosome 21. Studies have shown that, in addition to overexpression of the Cystathionine β-synthase (CBS) gene, polymorphisms in genes involved in folate/homocysteine (Hcy) metabolism may also influence the <span class="hlt">concentrations</span> of <span class="hlt">metabolites</span> of this pathway. Aim: Investigate the association between Dihydrofolate reductase (DHFR) 19-base pair (bp) deletion and Serine hydroxymethyltransferase (SHMT) C1420T polymorphisms and serum folate and plasma Hcy and methylmalonic acid (MMA) <span class="hlt">concentrations</span> in 85 individuals with DS. Methods: Molecular analysis of the DHFR 19-bp deletion and SHMT C1420T polymorphisms was performed by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) by difference in the size of fragments and real-time PCR allelic discrimination, respectively. Serum folate was quantified by chemiluminescence and plasma Hcy and MMA by liquid chromatography–tandem mass spectrometry. Results: Individuals with DHFR DD/SHMT TT genotypes presented increased folate <span class="hlt">concentrations</span> (p=0.004) and the DHFR II/SHMT TT genotypes were associated with increased MMA <span class="hlt">concentrations</span> (p=0.008). In addition, the MMA <span class="hlt">concentrations</span> were negatively associated with age (p=0.04). Conclusion: There is an association between DHFR DD/SHMT TT and DHFR II/SHMT TT combined genotypes and folate and MMA <span class="hlt">concentrations</span> in individuals with DS. PMID:23421317</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24595818','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24595818"><span id="translatedtitle">The mixture of "ecstasy" and its <span class="hlt">metabolites</span> impairs mitochondrial fusion/fission equilibrium and trafficking in hippocampal neurons, at in vivo relevant <span class="hlt">concentrations</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Barbosa, Daniel José; Serrat, Romàn; Mirra, Serena; Quevedo, Martí; de Barreda, Elena Goméz; Àvila, Jesús; Ferreira, Luísa Maria; Branco, Paula Sério; Fernandes, Eduarda; Lourdes Bastos, Maria de; Capela, João Paulo; Soriano, Eduardo; Carvalho, Félix</p> <p>2014-06-01</p> <p>3,4-Methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA; "ecstasy") is a potentially neurotoxic recreational drug of abuse. Though the mechanisms involved are still not completely understood, formation of reactive <span class="hlt">metabolites</span> and mitochondrial dysfunction contribute to MDMA-related neurotoxicity. Neuronal mitochondrial trafficking, and their targeting to synapses, is essential for proper neuronal function and survival, rendering neurons particularly vulnerable to mitochondrial dysfunction. Indeed, MDMA-associated disruption of Ca(2+) homeostasis and ATP depletion have been described in neurons, thus suggesting possible MDMA interference on mitochondrial dynamics. In this study, we performed real-time functional experiments of mitochondrial trafficking to explore the role of in situ mitochondrial dysfunction in MDMA's neurotoxic actions. We show that the mixture of MDMA and six of its major in vivo <span class="hlt">metabolites</span>, each compound at 10μM, impaired mitochondrial trafficking and increased the fragmentation of axonal mitochondria in cultured hippocampal neurons. Furthermore, the overexpression of mitofusin 2 (Mfn2) or dynamin-related protein 1 (Drp1) K38A constructs almost completely rescued the trafficking deficits caused by this mixture. Finally, in hippocampal neurons overexpressing a Mfn2 mutant, Mfn2 R94Q, with impaired fusion and transport properties, it was confirmed that a dysregulation of mitochondrial fission/fusion events greatly contributed to the reported trafficking phenotype. In conclusion, our study demonstrated, for the first time, that the mixture of MDMA and its <span class="hlt">metabolites</span>, at <span class="hlt">concentrations</span> relevant to the in vivo scenario, impaired mitochondrial trafficking and increased mitochondrial fragmentation in hippocampal neurons, thus providing a new insight in the context of "ecstasy"-induced neuronal injury.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/8735450','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/8735450"><span id="translatedtitle">Effects of Hemerocallis flava on motor activity and the <span class="hlt">concentration</span> of central monoamines and its <span class="hlt">metabolites</span> in rats.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Hsieh, M T; Ho, Y F; Peng, W H; Wu, C R; Chen, C F</p> <p>1996-06-01</p> <p>In this study, we used behavioral and biochemical methods to investigate the effects of Hemerocallis flava (Liliaceae) (abbreviated as HF) on motor activity and the <span class="hlt">concentration</span> of monoamines in rats. The water fraction of the resuspended HF extract was most active in reducing the motility in rats. The water fraction of the HF extract enhanced the reduction of locomotor activity produced by alpha-methyl-p-tyrosine and 5-hydroxytryptophan, but it reduced the increase of locomotor activity produced by L-dopa plus benserazide and p-chlorophenylalanine. Furthermore, the water fraction of the HF extract significantly decreased the <span class="hlt">concentration</span> of norepinepherine in the cortex and the <span class="hlt">concentration</span> of dopamine and serotonin in the brain stem. It also increased the <span class="hlt">concentration</span> of vanilylmandelic acid in the cortex, homovanillic acid and 5-hydroxyindole-acetic acid in the brain stem. These results suggest that the reduction of locomotor activity produced by the water fraction of HF extract may be related to the decrease in the <span class="hlt">concentration</span> of norepinepherine in the cortex and the <span class="hlt">concentration</span> of dopamine and serotonin in brain stem. PMID:8735450</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2898848','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2898848"><span id="translatedtitle">Urinary <span class="hlt">Concentrations</span> of <span class="hlt">Metabolites</span> of Pyrethroid Insecticides in the General U.S. Population: National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 1999–2002</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Barr, Dana Boyd; Olsson, Anders O.; Wong, Lee-Yang; Udunka, Simeon; Baker, Samuel E.; Whitehead, Ralph D.; Magsumbol, Melina S.; Williams, Bryan L.; Needham, Larry L.</p> <p>2010-01-01</p> <p>Background Pyrethroid insecticides are the most commonly used residential insecticides in the United States. Objectives Our objective was to assess human exposure via biomonitoring to pyrethroid insecticides in a representative sample of the general U.S. population ≥ 6 years of age. Methods By using isotope-dilution high-performance liquid chromatography/electrospray chemical ionization/tandem mass spectrometry, we measured five urinary <span class="hlt">metabolites</span> of pyrethroid insecticides in 5,046 samples collected as a part of the 1999–2002 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES). Univariate, multivariate, and Pearson correlation analyses were performed using SUDAAN and SAS software, incorporating the appropriate sample weights into the analyses. Multivariate analyses included age, sex, race/ethnicity, creatinine, fasting status, and urine collection time as covariates. Results We detected 3-phenoxybenzoic acid (3PBA), a <span class="hlt">metabolite</span> common to many pyrethroid insecticides, in more than 70% of the samples. The least-squares geometric mean (LSGM) <span class="hlt">concentration</span> (corrected for covariates) of 3PBA and the frequency of detection increased from 1999–2000 (0.292 ng/mL) to 2001–2002 (0.318 ng/mL) but not significantly. Non-Hispanic blacks had significantly higher LSGM 3PBA <span class="hlt">concentrations</span> than did non-Hispanic whites and Mexican Americans in the 2001–2002 survey period and in the combined 4-year survey periods but not in the 1999–2000 survey period. Children had significantly higher LSGM <span class="hlt">concentrations</span> of 3PBA than did adolescents in both NHANES periods and than adults in NHANES 1999–2000. Cis- and trans-(2,2-dichlorovinyl)-2,2-dimethylcyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid were highly correlated with each other and with 3PBA, suggesting that urinary 3PBA was derived primarily from exposure to permethrin, cypermethrin, or their degradates. Conclusions Pyrethroid insecticide exposure in the U.S. population is widespread, and the presence of its <span class="hlt">metabolites</span> in the</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://pubs.usgs.gov/of/2012/1248/of2012-1248.pdf','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="https://pubs.usgs.gov/of/2012/1248/of2012-1248.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">Comparison of <span class="hlt">concentrations</span> and profiles of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon <span class="hlt">metabolites</span> in bile of fishes from offshore oil platforms and natural reefs along the California coast</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Gale, Robert W.; Tanner, Michael J.; Love, Milton S.; Nishimoto, Mary M.; Schroeder, Donna M.</p> <p>2012-01-01</p> <p>To determine the environmental consequences of decommissioning offshore oil platforms on local and regional fish populations, contaminant loads in reproducing adults were investigated at seven platform sites and adjacent, natural sites. Specimens of three species (Pacific sanddab, Citharichthys sordidus; kelp rockfish, Sebastes atrovirens; and kelp bass, Paralabrax clathratus) residing at platforms and representing the regional background within the Santa Barbara Channel and within the San Pedro Basin were collected. Some of the most important contaminant classes related to oil operations are polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) because of their potential toxicity and carcinogenicity. However, acute exposure cannot be related directly to PAH tissue <span class="hlt">concentrations</span> because of rapid metabolism of the parent chemicals in fish; therefore, PAH <span class="hlt">metabolites</span> in bile were measured, targeting free hydroxylated PAHs (OH-PAHs) liberated by enzymatic hydrolysis of the bound PAH glucuronides and sulfates. An ion-pairing method was developed for confirmatory analysis that targeted PAH glucuronides and sulfates. <span class="hlt">Concentrations</span> of hydroxylated PAHs in all samples (76 fish from platforms and 64 fish from natural sites) were low, ranging from less than the limits of detection (5 to 120 nanograms per milliliter bile; 0.03 to 42 nanograms per milligram protein) to a maximum of 320 nanograms per milliliter bile (32 nanograms per milligram protein). A previously proposed dosimeter of PAH exposure in fish, 1-hydroxypyrene, was not detected at any platform site. Low <span class="hlt">concentrations</span> of 1-hydroxypyrene were detected in 3 of 12 kelp rockfish collected from a natural reef site off Santa Barbara. The most prevalent OH-PAH, 2-hydroxyfluorene, was detected at low <span class="hlt">concentrations</span> in seven fish of various species; of these, four were from two of the seven platform sites. The greatest <span class="hlt">concentrations</span> of 2-hydroxyfluorene were found in three fish of various species from Platform Holly and were only</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ars.usda.gov/research/publications/publication/?seqNo115=326591','TEKTRAN'); return false;" href="http://www.ars.usda.gov/research/publications/publication/?seqNo115=326591"><span id="translatedtitle">Effect of light intensity and wavelength on <span class="hlt">concentration</span> of plant secondary <span class="hlt">metabolites</span> in the leaves of Flourensia cernua</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ars.usda.gov/services/TekTran.htm">Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>Flourensia cernua (tarbush) is a shrub that has encroached into grasslands in many areas of the northern Chihuahuan Desert and contains high levels of carbon-based secondary compounds. <span class="hlt">Concentrations</span> of secondary compounds are affected by numerous biotic and abiotic influences, including amount and ...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003649.htm','NIH-MEDLINEPLUS'); return false;" href="https://medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003649.htm"><span id="translatedtitle">Eosinophil count - <span class="hlt">absolute</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://medlineplus.gov/">MedlinePlus</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>Eosinophils; <span class="hlt">Absolute</span> eosinophil count ... the white blood cell count to give the <span class="hlt">absolute</span> eosinophil count. ... than 500 cells per microliter (cells/mcL). Normal value ranges may vary slightly among different laboratories. Talk ...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/7816517','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/7816517"><span id="translatedtitle">Changes of liver <span class="hlt">metabolite</span> <span class="hlt">concentrations</span> in adults with disorders of fructose metabolism after intravenous fructose by 31P magnetic resonance spectroscopy.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Boesiger, P; Buchli, R; Meier, D; Steinmann, B; Gitzelmann, R</p> <p>1994-10-01</p> <p>A novel 31P magnetic resonance spectroscopy procedure allows the estimation of <span class="hlt">absolute</span> <span class="hlt">concentrations</span> of certain phosphorus-containing compounds in liver. We have validated this approach by measuring ATP, phosphomonesters, and inorganic phosphate (Pi) during fasting and after an i.v. fructose bolus in healthy adults and in three adults with disorders of fructose metabolism and by comparing results with known metabolic <span class="hlt">concentrations</span> measured chemically. During fasting, the ATP <span class="hlt">concentration</span> averaged 2.7 +/- 0.3 (SD, n = 9) mmol/L, which, after due correction for other nucleoside triphosphates, was 2.1 mmol/L and corresponded well with known <span class="hlt">concentrations</span>. Fructose-1-phosphate (F-1-P) could not be measured during fasting; its <span class="hlt">concentration</span> after fructose was calculated from the difference of the phosphomonester signals before (2.9 +/- 0.2 mmol/L) and after fructose. Pi was 1.4 +/- 0.3 mmol/L and represented the one fourth of Pi visible in magnetic resonance spectra. In the three healthy controls after fructose (200 mg/kg, 20% solution, 2.5 min), the fructokinase-mediated increase of F-1-P was rapid, reaching 4.9 mmol/L within 3 min, whereas the uncorrected ATP decreased from 2.7 to 1.8 mmol/L and the Pi from 1.4 to 0.3 mmol/L. The subsequent decrease of F-1-P, mediated by fructaldolase, was accompanied by an overshooting rise of Pi to 2.7 mmol/L. In the patient with essential fructosuria, the <span class="hlt">concentrations</span> of F-1-P, ATP, and Pi remained unchanged, confirming that fructokinase was indeed inactive. In the patient with hereditary fructose intolerance, initial metabolic changes were the same as in the controls, but baseline <span class="hlt">concentrations</span> were not yet reestablished after 7 h, indicating weak fructaldolase activity.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21458030','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21458030"><span id="translatedtitle">Analysis and environmental <span class="hlt">concentrations</span> of the herbicide dichlobenil and its main <span class="hlt">metabolite</span> 2,6-dichlorobenzamide (BAM): a review.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Björklund, Erland; Anskjær, Gitte Gotholdt; Hansen, Martin; Styrishave, Bjarne; Halling-Sørensen, Bent</p> <p>2011-05-15</p> <p>Dichlobenil is an herbicide which has been applied in many countries for weed control in non-agricultural areas such as railroads, car parks and private gardens. In the aquatic environment it has been used for control of floating aquatic weeds. Dichlobenil is relatively persistent in the environment, and primarily bound to solid matrices. Of great concern is its main degradation product 2,6-dichlorobenzamide which is water soluble and therefore transported downward in aquifers, contaminating groundwater resources. It is often found in <span class="hlt">concentrations</span> exceeding 0.1 μg/L, which is the maximum allowed <span class="hlt">concentration</span> of pesticides in groundwater set by the European Commission. In many countries, the usage of dichlobenil and the problems associated with groundwater contamination by 2,6-dichlorobenzamide have resulted in intensive research and monitoring of these compounds. This review gives the first overview of analytical strategies available for determining dichlobenil and 2,6-dichlorobenzamide in environmental matrices. It also summarizes studies presenting measured environmental <span class="hlt">concentrations</span> of dichlobenil and 2,6-dichlorobenzamide identified in the literature during the past two decades. Thereby a preliminary picture of the distribution of dichlobenil and 2,6-dichlorobenzamide in the environment can be outlined for the first time.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22415704','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22415704"><span id="translatedtitle">Accurate and <span class="hlt">absolute</span> diffusion measurements of Rhodamine 6G in low-<span class="hlt">concentration</span> aqueous solutions by the PGSE-WATERGATE sequence</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Majer, G.; Zick, K.</p> <p>2015-04-28</p> <p>A pulsed field gradient spin-echo nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) sequence with solvent suppression (PGSE-WATERGATE) was applied to accurately measure the diffusion coefficients of Rhodamine 6G (Rh6G) in low-<span class="hlt">concentration</span> aqueous solutions. Three samples with Rh6G <span class="hlt">concentrations</span> of C{sub Rh6G} = 1, 4.5, and 25 μM were investigated. The precise determination of the diffusion coefficients in this low-<span class="hlt">concentration</span> range was made possible by using a cryogenically cooled NMR probe and by the effective solvent suppression of the PGSE-WATERGATE sequence. The present results bridge the gap between diffusion data measured by fluorescence correlation spectroscopy in the single molecule limit and diffusivities obtained by pulsed field gradient NMR (PFG-NMR) without solvent suppression at higher <span class="hlt">concentrations</span>. To further extend the <span class="hlt">concentration</span> range, the diffusion coefficient of Rh6G was also measured on a sample with C{sub Rh6G} = 410 μM by PFG-NMR. The overall <span class="hlt">concentration</span> dependence of the Rh6G diffusion at 25 °C is discussed in terms of dimerization of the Rh6G molecules. The <span class="hlt">concentration</span>-dependent monomer/dimer proportion is deduced from the diffusion data.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26340554','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26340554"><span id="translatedtitle">Environmental <span class="hlt">concentrations</span> of the cocaine <span class="hlt">metabolite</span> benzoylecgonine induced sublethal toxicity in the development of plants but not in a zebrafish embryo-larval model.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>García-Cambero, J P; García-Cortés, H; Valcárcel, Y; Catalá, M</p> <p>2015-12-30</p> <p>Several studies have found cocaine and its main active <span class="hlt">metabolite</span> benzoylecgonine (BE) in the aquatic environment and drinking water, derived from its consumption by humans as well as the inability of water treatment processes to eliminate it. A few studies have already investigated the ecotoxicology of BE to aquatic invertebrates, but none has still addressed the effects of BE on aquatic vertebrates or vascular plants. The goal of this publication is to provide information on the toxicity of environmental <span class="hlt">concentrations</span> of BE during animal and vascular plant development, in order to contribute to a better understanding of the potential risk of this substance for the environment. BE induced alterations in mitochondrial activity and DNA levels of fern spores at environmental <span class="hlt">concentrations</span> (1 ng L(-1)), which could disrupt gametophyte germination. However, BE at <span class="hlt">concentrations</span> ranging from 1 ng L(-1) to 1 mg L(-1) did not disturb morphogenesis, hatching, heartbeat rate or larval motility in a zebrafish embryo-larval model. Adverse effects on ferns agree with the allelophathic role described for alkaloids and their unspecific interference with plant germination. Therefore, the anthropogenic dispersion of alkaloid allelochemicals may pose a risk for biodiversity and irrigated food production that should be further investigated. PMID:26340554</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26340554','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26340554"><span id="translatedtitle">Environmental <span class="hlt">concentrations</span> of the cocaine <span class="hlt">metabolite</span> benzoylecgonine induced sublethal toxicity in the development of plants but not in a zebrafish embryo-larval model.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>García-Cambero, J P; García-Cortés, H; Valcárcel, Y; Catalá, M</p> <p>2015-12-30</p> <p>Several studies have found cocaine and its main active <span class="hlt">metabolite</span> benzoylecgonine (BE) in the aquatic environment and drinking water, derived from its consumption by humans as well as the inability of water treatment processes to eliminate it. A few studies have already investigated the ecotoxicology of BE to aquatic invertebrates, but none has still addressed the effects of BE on aquatic vertebrates or vascular plants. The goal of this publication is to provide information on the toxicity of environmental <span class="hlt">concentrations</span> of BE during animal and vascular plant development, in order to contribute to a better understanding of the potential risk of this substance for the environment. BE induced alterations in mitochondrial activity and DNA levels of fern spores at environmental <span class="hlt">concentrations</span> (1 ng L(-1)), which could disrupt gametophyte germination. However, BE at <span class="hlt">concentrations</span> ranging from 1 ng L(-1) to 1 mg L(-1) did not disturb morphogenesis, hatching, heartbeat rate or larval motility in a zebrafish embryo-larval model. Adverse effects on ferns agree with the allelophathic role described for alkaloids and their unspecific interference with plant germination. Therefore, the anthropogenic dispersion of alkaloid allelochemicals may pose a risk for biodiversity and irrigated food production that should be further investigated.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12514284','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12514284"><span id="translatedtitle">Serum <span class="hlt">concentrations</span> of lipids, vitamin d <span class="hlt">metabolites</span>, retinol, retinyl esters, tocopherols and selected carotenoids in twelve captive wild felid species at four zoos.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Crissey, Susan D; Ange, Kimberly D; Jacobsen, Krista L; Slifka, Kerri A; Bowen, Phyllis E; Stacewicz-Sapuntzakis, Maria; Langman, Craig B; Sadler, William; Kahn, Stephen; Ward, Ann</p> <p>2003-01-01</p> <p>Serum <span class="hlt">concentrations</span> of several nutrients were measured in 12 captive wild felid species including caracal (Felis caracal), cheetah (Acinonyx jubatus), cougar (Felis concolor), fishing cat (Felis viverrinus), leopard (Panthera pardus), lion (Panthera leo), ocelot (Felis pardalis), pallas cat (Felis manul), sand cat (Felis margarita), serval (Felis serval), snow leopard (Panthera uncia) and tiger (Panthera tigris). Diet information was collected for these animals from each participating zoo (Brookfield Zoo, Fort Worth Zoo, Lincoln Park Zoological Gardens and North Carolina Zoological Park). The nutritional composition of the diets at each institution met the probable dietary requirements for each species except for the pallas cat. Blood samples were collected from each animal (n = 69) and analyzed for lipids (total cholesterol, triacylglycerides, HDL cholesterol and LDL cholesterol), vitamin D <span class="hlt">metabolites</span> [25-hydroxycholecalciferol (25(OH)D) and 1,25-dihydroxycholecalciferol (1,25(OH)(2)D)], vitamin A (retinol, retinyl stearate and retinyl palmitate), vitamin E (alpha- and gamma-tocopherol) and selected carotenoids. Species differences were found for all except triacylglycerides and 1,25(OH)(2)D. Genus differences were found for retinol, retinyl palmitate, retinyl stearate, gamma-tocopherol and beta-carotene. Circulating nutrient <span class="hlt">concentrations</span> for many of the species in this study have not been reported previously and most have not been compared with the animals' dietary intakes. The large number of animals analyzed provides a substantial base for comparing the serum nutrient <span class="hlt">concentrations</span> of healthy animals, for both wild and captive exotic species.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12514284','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12514284"><span id="translatedtitle">Serum <span class="hlt">concentrations</span> of lipids, vitamin d <span class="hlt">metabolites</span>, retinol, retinyl esters, tocopherols and selected carotenoids in twelve captive wild felid species at four zoos.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Crissey, Susan D; Ange, Kimberly D; Jacobsen, Krista L; Slifka, Kerri A; Bowen, Phyllis E; Stacewicz-Sapuntzakis, Maria; Langman, Craig B; Sadler, William; Kahn, Stephen; Ward, Ann</p> <p>2003-01-01</p> <p>Serum <span class="hlt">concentrations</span> of several nutrients were measured in 12 captive wild felid species including caracal (Felis caracal), cheetah (Acinonyx jubatus), cougar (Felis concolor), fishing cat (Felis viverrinus), leopard (Panthera pardus), lion (Panthera leo), ocelot (Felis pardalis), pallas cat (Felis manul), sand cat (Felis margarita), serval (Felis serval), snow leopard (Panthera uncia) and tiger (Panthera tigris). Diet information was collected for these animals from each participating zoo (Brookfield Zoo, Fort Worth Zoo, Lincoln Park Zoological Gardens and North Carolina Zoological Park). The nutritional composition of the diets at each institution met the probable dietary requirements for each species except for the pallas cat. Blood samples were collected from each animal (n = 69) and analyzed for lipids (total cholesterol, triacylglycerides, HDL cholesterol and LDL cholesterol), vitamin D <span class="hlt">metabolites</span> [25-hydroxycholecalciferol (25(OH)D) and 1,25-dihydroxycholecalciferol (1,25(OH)(2)D)], vitamin A (retinol, retinyl stearate and retinyl palmitate), vitamin E (alpha- and gamma-tocopherol) and selected carotenoids. Species differences were found for all except triacylglycerides and 1,25(OH)(2)D. Genus differences were found for retinol, retinyl palmitate, retinyl stearate, gamma-tocopherol and beta-carotene. Circulating nutrient <span class="hlt">concentrations</span> for many of the species in this study have not been reported previously and most have not been compared with the animals' dietary intakes. The large number of animals analyzed provides a substantial base for comparing the serum nutrient <span class="hlt">concentrations</span> of healthy animals, for both wild and captive exotic species. PMID:12514284</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21257050','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21257050"><span id="translatedtitle">Effect of precalving and postcalving dietary energy level on performance and blood <span class="hlt">metabolite</span> <span class="hlt">concentrations</span> of dairy cows throughout lactation.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Law, R A; Young, F J; Patterson, D C; Kilpatrick, D J; Wylie, A R G; Ingvarsten, K L; Hameleers, A; McCoy, M A; Mayne, C S; Ferris, C</p> <p>2011-02-01</p> <p>The effects of the level of energy intake (high E and low E) offered before and after calving on body condition score at calving, production performance, and energy status in the first 250 d of lactation were evaluated in a 2 × 2 factorial design experiment involving 80 Holstein-Friesian dairy animals (40 primiparous and 40 multiparous). From d 80 until d 21 precalving, primiparous animals were offered either high or low pasture allowances. Thereafter, these animals were housed and had ad libitum access to a high energy density diet (high E) or restricted access [6 kg of dry matter (DM) per d] to a low energy density diet (low E), respectively, until calving. From d 100 until d 42 precalving, multiparous animals were offered either ad libitum or restricted (10 kg of DM/d) access to a late lactation diet, and thereafter, had ad libitum access to a high E diet or restricted access (7 kg of DM complete diet/d) to a low E diet, respectively, until calving. The forage to <span class="hlt">concentrate</span> (F:C) ratios (DM basis) of these high E and low E diets [d 42 (d 21 in primiparous animals) until calving] were 64:36 and 83:17, respectively. Cows offered high E and low E precalving diets were allocated to either a high E or low E postcalving diet [F:C ratio (DM basis) of 30:70 and 70:30, respectively] and remained on these diets until d 250 of lactation. Multiparous animals offered a high E diet precalving had a significantly higher body condition score at calving than those offered the low E diet precalving. This effect was not evident in primiparous animals. Precalving diet had no significant effect on plasma nonesterified fatty acid <span class="hlt">concentrations</span> during the last 3 wk precalving in primi- or multiparous animals. Primiparous animals offered a high E diet precalving had significantly higher postcalving plasma <span class="hlt">concentrations</span> of nonesterified fatty acid, suggesting greater mobilization of body reserves. Primi- and multiparous animals offered a high E diet postcalving had a significantly</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_7");'>7</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_8");'>8</a></li> <li class="active"><span>9</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_10");'>10</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_11");'>11</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_9 --> <div id="page_10" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_8");'>8</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_9");'>9</a></li> <li class="active"><span>10</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_11");'>11</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_12");'>12</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="181"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12115122','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12115122"><span id="translatedtitle">Monitoring of complex industrial bioprocesses for <span class="hlt">metabolite</span> <span class="hlt">concentrations</span> using modern spectroscopies and machine learning: application to gibberellic acid production.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>McGovern, Aoife C; Broadhurst, David; Taylor, Janet; Kaderbhai, Naheed; Winson, Michael K; Small, David A; Rowland, Jem J; Kell, Douglas B; Goodacre, Royston</p> <p>2002-06-01</p> <p>Two rapid vibrational spectroscopic approaches (diffuse reflectance-absorbance Fourier transform infrared [FT-IR] and dispersive Raman spectroscopy), and one mass spectrometric method based on in vacuo Curie-point pyrolysis (PyMS), were investigated in this study. A diverse range of unprocessed, industrial fed-batch fermentation broths containing the fungus Gibberella fujikuroi producing the natural product gibberellic acid, were analyzed directly without a priori chromatographic separation. Partial least squares regression (PLSR) and artificial neural networks (ANNs) were applied to all of the information-rich spectra obtained by each of the methods to obtain quantitative information on the gibberellic acid titer. These estimates were of good precision, and the typical root-mean-square error for predictions of <span class="hlt">concentrations</span> in an independent test set was <10% over a very wide titer range from 0 to 4925 ppm. However, although PLSR and ANNs are very powerful techniques they are often described as "black box" methods because the information they use to construct the calibration model is largely inaccessible. Therefore, a variety of novel evolutionary computation-based methods, including genetic algorithms and genetic programming, were used to produce models that allowed the determination of those input variables that contributed most to the models formed, and to observe that these models were predominantly based on the <span class="hlt">concentration</span> of gibberellic acid itself. This is the first time that these three modern analytical spectroscopies, in combination with advanced chemometric data analysis, have been compared for their ability to analyze a real commercial bioprocess. The results demonstrate unequivocally that all methods provide very rapid and accurate estimates of the progress of industrial fermentations, and indicate that, of the three methods studied, Raman spectroscopy is the ideal bioprocess monitoring method because it can be adapted for on-line analysis.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25437948','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25437948"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Concentrations</span> of phthalate <span class="hlt">metabolites</span> in breast milk in Korea: estimating exposure to phthalates and potential risks among breast-fed infants.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Kim, Sunmi; Lee, Jangwoo; Park, Jeongim; Kim, Hai-Joong; Cho, Geumjoon; Kim, Gun-Ha; Eun, So-Hee; Lee, Jeong Jae; Choi, Gyuyeon; Suh, Eunsook; Choi, Sooran; Kim, Sungjoo; Kim, Young Don; Kim, Sung Koo; Kim, Su Young; Kim, Seunghyo; Eom, Soyong; Moon, Hyo-Bang; Kim, Sungkyoon; Choi, Kyungho</p> <p>2015-03-01</p> <p>Phthalates have been associated with endocrine disruption and developmental effects in many experimental and epidemiological studies. Developing infants are among the most susceptible populations to endocrine disruption. However, limited information is available on phthalate exposure and its associated risks among breast-fed newborn infants. In the present study, breast milk samples were collected from 62 lactating mothers at 1 month post-partum from four cities of Korea in 2012 and were evaluated for six phthalate <span class="hlt">metabolites</span> (mono-isobutyl phthalate (MiBP), mono-n-butyl phthalate (MnBP), mono(2-ethyl-hexyl) phthalate (MEHP), mono-(2-ethyl-5-hydroxyhexyl) phthalate (MEHHP), mono-(2-ethyl-5-oxohexyl) phthalate (MEOHP) and monoethyl phthalate (MEP)). MEP was detected in all breast milk samples, with a median <span class="hlt">concentration</span> of 0.37 μg/L, and MiBP, MnBP and MEHP were detected in 79-89% of samples, with median <span class="hlt">concentrations</span> of 1.10, 1.70, and 2.08 μg/L, respectively. However, MEHHP and MEOHP, the oxidized forms of di-ethyl-hexyl phthalate (DEHP), were detected in only one sample. For exposure assessment, the levels of phthalate diesters were estimated based on the parent:<span class="hlt">metabolite</span> ratios in the breast milk that are reported elsewhere. For risk assessment, the endocrine-related toxicity of the monoester was assumed to be the same as that of its diester form. Median daily intake estimates of phthalates, including both monoester and diester forms, through breast milk consumption ranged between 0.91 and 6.52 μg/kg body weight (bw) for DEHP and between 0.38 and 1.43 μg/kg bw for di-n-butyl phthalate (DnBP). Based on the estimated daily intake, up to 8% of infants exceeded the reference dose of anti-androgenicity (RfD AA) for DEHP, and 6% of infants exceeded the tolerable daily intake (TDI) for DnBP. Breast milk MiBP and MnBP <span class="hlt">concentrations</span> showed significant positive associations with maternal consumption of whipped cream or purified water. Considering vulnerability of</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23217314','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23217314"><span id="translatedtitle">LC-MS/MS for the simultaneous analysis of arachidonic acid and 32 related <span class="hlt">metabolites</span> in human plasma: Basal plasma <span class="hlt">concentrations</span> and aspirin-induced changes of eicosanoids.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Shinde, Dhananjay D; Kim, Kwon-Bok; Oh, Kyung-Suk; Abdalla, Nagi; Liu, Kwang-Hyeon; Bae, Soo Kyung; Shon, Ji-Hong; Kim, Ho-Sook; Kim, Dong-Hyun; Shin, Jae Gook</p> <p>2012-12-12</p> <p>Eicosanoids play an important role in various biological responses and can be used as biomarkers for specific diseases. Therefore, we developed a highly selective, sensitive, and robust liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometric method to measure arachidonic acid and its 32 <span class="hlt">metabolites</span> in human plasma. Sample preparation involved solid phase extraction, which efficiently removed sources of interference present in human plasma. Chromatographic separation was performed using a Luna C(8)-column with 0.5mM ammonium formate buffer and acetonitrile as the mobile phase under gradient conditions. Detection was performed using tandem mass spectrometry equipped with an electrospray ionization interface in negative ion mode. The matrix did not affect the reproducibility and reliability of the assay. All analytes showed good linearity over the investigated <span class="hlt">concentration</span> range (r>0.997). The validated lower limit of quantitation for the analytes ranged from 10 to 400pg/mL. Intra- and inter-day precision (RDS%) over the <span class="hlt">concentration</span> ranges for all eicosanoids were within 16.8%, and accuracy ranged between 88.1 and 108.2%. This assay was suitable for the determination of basal plasma levels of eicosanoids and the evaluation of effect of aspirin on eicosanoid plasma levels in healthy subjects. PMID:23217314</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4581970','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4581970"><span id="translatedtitle">Transient postnatal fluoxetine decreases brain <span class="hlt">concentrations</span> of 20-HETE and 15-epi-LXA4, arachidonic acid <span class="hlt">metabolites</span> in adult mice</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Yuan, Zhi-Xin; Rapoport, Stanley I</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>Background Transient postnatal exposure of rodents to the selective serotonin (5-HT) reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) fluoxetine alters behavior and brain 5-HT neurotransmission during adulthood, and also reduces brain arachidonic (ARA) metabolic consumption and protein level of the ARA metabolizing enzyme, cytochrome P4504A (CYP4A). Hypothesis Brain 20-hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid (20-HETE), converted by CYP4A from ARA, will be reduced in adult mice treated transiently and postnatally with fluoxetine. Methods Male mice pups were injected i.p. daily with fluoxetine (10 mg/kg) or saline during P4-P21. At P90 their brain was high-energy microwaved and analyzed for 20-HETE and six other ARA <span class="hlt">metabolites</span> by enzyme immunoassay. Results Postnatal fluoxetine vs. saline significantly decreased brain <span class="hlt">concentrations</span> of 20-HETE (−70.3%) and 15-epi-lipoxin A4 (−60%) in adult mice, but did not change other eicosanoid <span class="hlt">concentrations</span>. Conclusions Transient postnatal administration of fluoxetine to mice results in reduced brain ARA metabolism involving CYP4A and 20-HETE formation during their adulthood. PMID:26234927</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20163656','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20163656"><span id="translatedtitle">Effects of feeding level of milk replacer on body growth, plasma <span class="hlt">metabolite</span> and insulin <span class="hlt">concentrations</span>, and visceral organ growth of suckling calves.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Kamiya, Mitsuru; Matsuzaki, Masatoshi; Orito, Hideki; Kamiya, Yuko; Nakamura, Yoshi-nori; Tsuneishi, Eisaku</p> <p>2009-12-01</p> <p>The objective was to evaluate effects of feeding level of milk replacer on body growth, plasma <span class="hlt">metabolite</span> and insulin <span class="hlt">concentrations</span>, and allometric growth of visceral organs in suckling calves. Holstein bull calves (n = 8; 3-4 days of age) were fed either a low amount (average 0.63 kgDM/day, LM) or high amount (average 1.15 kgDM/day, HM) of high protein milk replacer until they were slaughtered at 6 weeks of age. Body weight (BW) at 4, 5, and 6 weeks of age, feed intake, average daily gain, and feed efficiency were higher in the HM than LM calves. The HM group had higher plasma glucose at 3 and 4 weeks of age and insulin levels after the age of 4 weeks compared with LM calves whereas no effect was detected on plasma nonesterified fatty acid or urea nitrogen <span class="hlt">concentrations</span>. The HM calves had greater empty body weight (EBW), viscera-free BW and most of the organs dissected than LM calves. Relative weights (% of EBW) of liver, spleen, kidneys, and internal fat were higher, whereas head and large intestine was lower in HM than LM calves. The results suggest that increased milk feeding levels would accelerate the growth of the body and specific organs.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21636451','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21636451"><span id="translatedtitle">Elevated temperatures increase leaf senescence and root secondary <span class="hlt">metabolite</span> <span class="hlt">concentrations</span> in the understory herb Panax quinquefolius (Araliaceae).</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Jochum, Gera M; Mudge, Kenneth W; Thomas, Richard B</p> <p>2007-05-01</p> <p>The response of understory species to elevated temperatures is not well understood but is important because these plants are highly sensitive to their growth conditions. Three-year-old plants of Panax quinquefolius, an understory herb endemic to the eastern deciduous forests of North America, were grown in a greenhouse at 25/20°C (day/night) or 30/25°C for one growing season and analyzed each month. Plants grown at high temperatures had an early onset of leaf senescence and therefore accumulated less carbon. From May to July, P. quinquefolius grown at high temperatures had decreased photosynthesis (52%), stomatal conductance (60%), and root and total biomass (33% and 28%, respectively) compared to plants grown at low temperatures. As P. quinquefolius prepared to overwinter, plants grown at high temperatures had less root biomass (53%) than plants in low temperatures. The amount of storage-root ginsenosides was unaffected by temperature, and differences in storage root size may explain why plants grown at high temperatures had greater <span class="hlt">concentrations</span> of storage root ginsenosides (49%) than plants grown at low temperatures. Panax quinquefolius is clearly sensitive to a 5°C increase in temperature, and therefore other understory species may be negatively impacted by future increases in global temperature.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010AMTD....3.3675S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010AMTD....3.3675S"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Absolute</span> accuracy and sensitivity analysis of OP-FTIR retrievals of CO2, CH4 and CO over <span class="hlt">concentrations</span> representative of ''clean air'' and ''polluted plumes''</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Smith, T. E. L.; Wooster, M. J.; Tattaris, M.; Griffith, D. W. T.</p> <p>2010-08-01</p> <p>When compared to established point-sampling methods, Open-Path Fourier Transform Infrared (OP-FTIR) spectroscopy can provide path-integrated <span class="hlt">concentrations</span> of multiple gases simultaneously, in situ and near-continuously. <span class="hlt">Concentrations</span> can be retrieved from the measured IR spectra using a forward model coupled to a non-linear least squares fitting procedure, without requiring ''background'' spectral measurements unaffected by the gases of interest. However, few studies have investigated the accuracy of such retrievals for CO2, CH4 and CO, particularly across a broad <span class="hlt">concentration</span> range covering ambient to highly polluted air (e.g. from biomass burning or industrial plumes). Here we perform such an assessment using data collected by a field-portable FTIR spectrometer. The FTIR was positioned to view a fixed IR source placed at the other end of an IR-transparent cell filled with the gases of interest, whose target <span class="hlt">concentrations</span> were varied by up to two orders of magnitude. Retrievals made using the forward model are complicated by absorption line pressure broadening, the effects of temperature on absorption band shape and by convolution of the gas absorption lines and the instrument line shape (ILS). Despite this, with optimal forward model parameterisation (i.e. the wavenumber range used in the retrieval, gas temperature, pressure and ILS), <span class="hlt">concentration</span> retrievals for all gases were able to be made to within 5% of the true value. Sensitivity to the aforementioned model inputs was also investigated. CO retrievals were shown to be most sensitive to the ILS (a function of the assumed instrument FOV), which is due to the narrow nature of CO absorption lines and their consequent sensitivity to convolution with the ILS. Conversely, CO2 retrievals were most sensitive to assumed atmospheric parameters, particularly temperature. The analysis suggests that trace gas <span class="hlt">concentration</span> retrieval errors can remain well below 10%, even with the uncertainties in atmospheric pressure</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011AMT.....4...97S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011AMT.....4...97S"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Absolute</span> accuracy and sensitivity analysis of OP-FTIR retrievals of CO2, CH4 and CO over <span class="hlt">concentrations</span> representative of "clean air" and "polluted plumes"</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Smith, T. E. L.; Wooster, M. J.; Tattaris, M.; Griffith, D. W. T.</p> <p>2011-01-01</p> <p>When compared to established point-sampling methods, Open-Path Fourier Transform Infrared (OP-FTIR) spectroscopy can provide path-integrated <span class="hlt">concentrations</span> of multiple gases simultaneously, in situ and near-continuously. The trace gas pathlength amounts can be retrieved from the measured IR spectra using a forward model coupled to a non-linear least squares fitting procedure, without requiring "background" spectral measurements unaffected by the gases of interest. However, few studies have investigated the accuracy of such retrievals for CO2, CH4 and CO, particularly across broad <span class="hlt">concentration</span> ranges covering those characteristic of ambient to highly polluted air (e.g. from biomass burning or industrial plumes). Here we perform such an assessment using data collected by a field-portable FTIR spectrometer. The FTIR was positioned to view a fixed IR source placed at the other end of an IR-transparent cell filled with the gases of interest, whose target <span class="hlt">concentrations</span> were varied by more than two orders of magnitude. Retrievals made using the model are complicated by absorption line pressure broadening, the effects of temperature on absorption band shape, and by convolution of the gas absorption lines and the instrument line shape (ILS). Despite this, with careful model parameterisation (i.e. the optimum wavenumber range, ILS, and assumed gas temperature and pressure for the retrieval), <span class="hlt">concentrations</span> for all target gases were able to be retrieved to within 5%. Sensitivity to the aforementioned model inputs was also investigated. CO retrievals were shown to be most sensitive to the ILS (a function of the assumed instrument field-of-view), which is due to the narrow nature of CO absorption lines and their consequent sensitivity to convolution with the ILS. Conversely, CO2 retrievals were most sensitive to assumed atmospheric parameters, particularly gas temperature. Our findings provide confidence that FTIR-derived trace gas retrievals of CO2, CH4 and CO based on</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26641189','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26641189"><span id="translatedtitle">Dehydrated citrus pulp alters feedlot performance of crossbred heifers during the receiving period and modulates serum <span class="hlt">metabolite</span> <span class="hlt">concentrations</span> before and after an endotoxin challenge.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Cribbs, J T; Bernhard, B C; Young, T R; Jennings, M A; Burdick Sanchez, N C; Carroll, J A; Callaway, T R; Schmidt, T B; Johnson, B J; Rathmann, R J</p> <p>2015-12-01</p> <p>English × Continental heifers ( = 180) were sourced in 2 loads (219.3 ± 16.0 and 221.4 ± 16.4 kg, respectively) from commercial auction barns to study the effects of feeding dehydrated citrus pulp (DCP) on feedlot performance of newly received heifers. A completely randomized block design was used with BW nested within arrival load and blocked by BW into 3 dietary treatments (36 pens, 5 heifers/pen, 12 blocks, 3 pens/block, and 12 pens/treatment). Treatment diets contained 1) 0% DCP (control diet [CON]), 2) 10% DCP, or 3) 20% DCP on a DM basis. Diets containing DCP were exchanged with steam-flaked corn on a 1:1 basis. Cattle were fed a 63, 73, and 83% <span class="hlt">concentrate</span> diet from d 0 to 28, d 28 to 42, and d 42 to 56, respectively. Over the 56-d trial period, as the amount of dietary DCP increased, DMI decreased ( = 0.01), ADG decreased ( < 0.01), and G:F decreased ( = 0.02). From d 0 to 28, there was no difference in the observed minus the predicted NEg of the diet ( = 0.73); from d 28 to 42, there was a linear increase in NEg favoring DCP treatments ( < 0.01); and from d 42 to 56, there was a linear decrease in NEg against the DCP treatments ( < 0.01). At the conclusion of the trial, a subset of heifers ( = 22; 307.89 ± 3.32 kg on d 63) were used to evaluate blood <span class="hlt">metabolite</span> <span class="hlt">concentrations</span> before and after a lipopolysaccharide (LPS) challenge. On d 63, heifers were fitted with jugular catheters and moved into individual stalls. On d 64, heifers were intravenously challenged with LPS (0.5 μg/kg BW), and blood samples were collected every 0.5 h from -2 to 8 h and at 24 h relative to the LPS challenge (0 h). Serum glucose, serum urea nitrogen (SUN), and NEFA <span class="hlt">concentrations</span> were determined. Cattle lost less weight at both 24 and 72 h after the LPS challenge with increasing DCP percentage ( < 0.01). Glucose ( = 0.12) and NEFA ( = 0.13) <span class="hlt">concentrations</span> did not differ before the LPS challenge; however, there was a treatment effect for SUN, with elevated <span class="hlt">concentrations</span> of</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26641189','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26641189"><span id="translatedtitle">Dehydrated citrus pulp alters feedlot performance of crossbred heifers during the receiving period and modulates serum <span class="hlt">metabolite</span> <span class="hlt">concentrations</span> before and after an endotoxin challenge.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Cribbs, J T; Bernhard, B C; Young, T R; Jennings, M A; Burdick Sanchez, N C; Carroll, J A; Callaway, T R; Schmidt, T B; Johnson, B J; Rathmann, R J</p> <p>2015-12-01</p> <p>English × Continental heifers ( = 180) were sourced in 2 loads (219.3 ± 16.0 and 221.4 ± 16.4 kg, respectively) from commercial auction barns to study the effects of feeding dehydrated citrus pulp (DCP) on feedlot performance of newly received heifers. A completely randomized block design was used with BW nested within arrival load and blocked by BW into 3 dietary treatments (36 pens, 5 heifers/pen, 12 blocks, 3 pens/block, and 12 pens/treatment). Treatment diets contained 1) 0% DCP (control diet [CON]), 2) 10% DCP, or 3) 20% DCP on a DM basis. Diets containing DCP were exchanged with steam-flaked corn on a 1:1 basis. Cattle were fed a 63, 73, and 83% <span class="hlt">concentrate</span> diet from d 0 to 28, d 28 to 42, and d 42 to 56, respectively. Over the 56-d trial period, as the amount of dietary DCP increased, DMI decreased ( = 0.01), ADG decreased ( < 0.01), and G:F decreased ( = 0.02). From d 0 to 28, there was no difference in the observed minus the predicted NEg of the diet ( = 0.73); from d 28 to 42, there was a linear increase in NEg favoring DCP treatments ( < 0.01); and from d 42 to 56, there was a linear decrease in NEg against the DCP treatments ( < 0.01). At the conclusion of the trial, a subset of heifers ( = 22; 307.89 ± 3.32 kg on d 63) were used to evaluate blood <span class="hlt">metabolite</span> <span class="hlt">concentrations</span> before and after a lipopolysaccharide (LPS) challenge. On d 63, heifers were fitted with jugular catheters and moved into individual stalls. On d 64, heifers were intravenously challenged with LPS (0.5 μg/kg BW), and blood samples were collected every 0.5 h from -2 to 8 h and at 24 h relative to the LPS challenge (0 h). Serum glucose, serum urea nitrogen (SUN), and NEFA <span class="hlt">concentrations</span> were determined. Cattle lost less weight at both 24 and 72 h after the LPS challenge with increasing DCP percentage ( < 0.01). Glucose ( = 0.12) and NEFA ( = 0.13) <span class="hlt">concentrations</span> did not differ before the LPS challenge; however, there was a treatment effect for SUN, with elevated <span class="hlt">concentrations</span> of</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25060172','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25060172"><span id="translatedtitle">Effects of essential oils, yeast culture and malate on rumen fermentation, blood <span class="hlt">metabolites</span>, growth performance and nutrient digestibility of Baluchi lambs fed high-<span class="hlt">concentrate</span> diets.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Malekkhahi, M; Tahmasbi, A M; Naserian, A A; Danesh Mesgaran, M; Kleen, J L; Parand, A A</p> <p>2015-04-01</p> <p>The experiment was conducted to evaluate the effects of dietary supplementation with a mixture of essential oils (MEO), yeast culture (YC) and malate on performance, nutrient digestion, rumen fermentation and blood <span class="hlt">metabolites</span> of lambs fed high-<span class="hlt">concentrate</span> growing diets. For this purpose, twenty Baluchi lambs (17.3 ± 0.5 kg body weight and 3 months old) were randomly assigned to four dietary treatments in a completely randomized design with five lambs per treatment. The treatment groups were as follows: (i) control: basal diet without any additive, (ii) basal diet plus 400 mg/day MEO (thymol, carvacrol, eugenol, limonene and cinnamaldehyde), (iii) basal diet with 4 g/day YC and (iv) basal diet plus 4 g/day malate. No differences between the dietary treatments were observed in dry matter intake, average daily gain or feed conversion ratio (p > 0.05). Compared with control and malate treatment, lambs fed MEO and YC had an improved crude protein digestibility (p < 0.05). Yeast culture significantly increased (p > 0.05) cell wall digestibility compared to the other treatments. No differences were observed between treatments with respect to nitrogen balance or ruminal pH and ammonia <span class="hlt">concentrations</span> (p > 0.05). No differences were observed between treatments with respect to ruminal total volatile fatty acid <span class="hlt">concentration</span> and molar proportions of acetate, butyrate and valerate. Molar proportion of propionate was higher (p < 0.05) for YC and malate compared to control and MEO. Plasma glucose <span class="hlt">concentration</span> was higher (p < 0.05) in lambs fed YC and malate than in lambs fed the control or the MEO diet. Blood <span class="hlt">concentration</span> of triglycerides significantly decreased when feeding the MEO and YC diets (p < 0.05). It was concluded that YC may be more useful as a feed additive for manipulation of rumen fermentation in lambs fed with high-<span class="hlt">concentrate</span> diets than MEO and malate, because YC enhanced crude protein and cell wall digestibility, ruminal molar proportion</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1042637','DOE-PATENT-XML'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1042637"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Absolute</span> nuclear material assay</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/doepatents">DOEpatents</a></p> <p>Prasad, Manoj K.; Snyderman, Neal J.; Rowland, Mark S.</p> <p>2012-05-15</p> <p>A method of <span class="hlt">absolute</span> nuclear material assay of an unknown source comprising counting neutrons from the unknown source and providing an <span class="hlt">absolute</span> nuclear material assay utilizing a model to optimally compare to the measured count distributions. In one embodiment, the step of providing an <span class="hlt">absolute</span> nuclear material assay comprises utilizing a random sampling of analytically computed fission chain distributions to generate a continuous time-evolving sequence of event-counts by spreading the fission chain distribution in time.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/993087','DOE-PATENT-XML'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/993087"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Absolute</span> nuclear material assay</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/doepatents">DOEpatents</a></p> <p>Prasad, Manoj K.; Snyderman, Neal J.; Rowland, Mark S.</p> <p>2010-07-13</p> <p>A method of <span class="hlt">absolute</span> nuclear material assay of an unknown source comprising counting neutrons from the unknown source and providing an <span class="hlt">absolute</span> nuclear material assay utilizing a model to optimally compare to the measured count distributions. In one embodiment, the step of providing an <span class="hlt">absolute</span> nuclear material assay comprises utilizing a random sampling of analytically computed fission chain distributions to generate a continuous time-evolving sequence of event-counts by spreading the fission chain distribution in time.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27353165','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27353165"><span id="translatedtitle">Pyrazinone protease inhibitor <span class="hlt">metabolites</span> from Photorhabdus luminescens.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Park, Hyun Bong; Crawford, Jason M</p> <p>2016-08-01</p> <p>Photorhabdus luminescens is a bioluminescent entomopathogenic bacterium that undergoes phenotypic variation and lives in mutualistic association with nematodes of the family Heterorhabditidae. The pair infects and kills insects, and during their coordinated lifecycle, the bacteria produce an assortment of specialized <span class="hlt">metabolites</span> to regulate its mutualistic and pathogenic roles. As part of our search for new specialized <span class="hlt">metabolites</span> from the Photorhabdus genus, we examined organic extracts from P. luminescens grown in an amino-acid-rich medium based on the free amino-acid levels found in the circulatory fluid of its common insect prey, the Galleria mellonella larva. Reversed-phase HPLC/UV/MS-guided fractionation of the culture extracts led to the identification of two new pyrazinone <span class="hlt">metabolites</span>, lumizinones A (1) and B (2), together with two N-acetyl dipeptides (3 and 4). The lumizinones were produced only in the phenotypic variant associated with nematode development and insect pathogenesis. Their chemical structures were elucidated by analysis of 1D and 2D NMR and high-resolution ESI-QTOF-MS spectral data. The <span class="hlt">absolute</span> configurations of the amino acids in 3 and 4 were determined by Marfey's analysis. Compounds 1-4 were evaluated for their calpain protease inhibitory activity, and lumizinone A (1) showed inhibition with an IC50 (half-maximal inhibitory <span class="hlt">concentration</span>) value of 3.9 μm. PMID:27353165</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/1703475','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/1703475"><span id="translatedtitle">Acute effects of aspartame on <span class="hlt">concentrations</span> of brain amines and their <span class="hlt">metabolites</span> in selected brain regions of Fischer 344 and Sprague-Dawley rats.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Freeman, G; Sobotka, T; Hattan, D</p> <p>1990-01-01</p> <p>This study is the first in a series to define a rodent model to document the effects of amino acid-modulating compounds on central neurotransmitter function. A time-response curve for a single dose of orally intubated aspartame was determined in male Fischer 344 and Sprague-Dawley rats. Regional brain <span class="hlt">concentrations</span> of norepinephrine (NE), dopamine (DA), serotonin (5-HT) and their <span class="hlt">metabolites</span> were analyzed in the hypothalamus, cerebellum, pons/medulla, hippocampus, striatum, cortex, and midbrain/thalamus at 30, 60, 120, or 240 min after oral aspartame (1000 mg/kg) administration. Without consideration for time and group variables, levels of most compounds were higher in the brain regions of Fischer than Sprague-Dawley rats. Aspartame in Fischer 344 or Sprague-Dawley rats had no significant effect on levels of the catecholamines or indoleamines at any of the time points monitored following its acute administration. From the results of this study, large oral loads of aspartame do not appear to lead to regional alterations in brain biogenic amine levels.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3693659','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3693659"><span id="translatedtitle">Temporal Changes in Plasma <span class="hlt">Concentration</span> of Leptin, IGF-1, Insulin and <span class="hlt">Metabolites</span> Under Extended Fasting and Re-Feeding Conditions in Growing Lambs</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Kiani, Ali</p> <p>2012-01-01</p> <p>Background A fall in plasma <span class="hlt">concentration</span> of energy status related hormones (leptin, insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) and insulin) and body energy expenditure occurs in response to short term fasting. Nevertheless, the relations of the fasting-induced changes in energy related hormones and <span class="hlt">metabolites</span> with fasting energy expenditure (FEE) under extended fasting condition have received little attention so far. Objectives It is not clear how energy status related hormones coordinate to cope with feed deprivation under extended fasting time conditions and how quickly these hormones re-bound to fed-state values in response to re-feeding. Thus the objectives of this study were: 1) to determine the effects of extended fasting on plasma <span class="hlt">concentration</span> of leptin, IGF-1, insulin, glucose, NEFA, 3-β-hydroxybutyrate (BOHB) and urea; and 2) to study the relations of energy status related hormones with FEE and substrate oxidations under extended fasting conditions. Materials and Methods Eighteen six-month-old growing lambs (9 females and 9 males) were fasted for three days. Blood samples were taken one hour before (-1H) and 48 and 72 hours after fasting (48H and 72H) and two hours after re-feeding (+2H) from jugular vein. During the last 22 hours of fasting, gas exchange (CO2 production and O2 consumption) were measured using an open-circuit indirect calorimeter. Respiratory quotient (RQ), FEE and relative proportions of oxidized protein, fat and carbohydrate were calculated. Results Plasma levels of leptin, insulin, IGF-1 and glucose decreased but NEFA and urea levels increased within 48H of fasting. <span class="hlt">Concentration</span> of insulin significantly increased with extended fasting while leptin and IGF-1 levels remained constant. Glucose was the only blood variable that showed a quick re-bound within two hours after re-feeding. Leptin and IGF-1 showed significant positive relations with glucose and BOHB but negative relations with NEFA and Urea. Carbohydrate, fat and proteins</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25682510','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25682510"><span id="translatedtitle">Identification, quantification, spatiotemporal distribution and genetic variation of major latex secondary <span class="hlt">metabolites</span> in the common dandelion (Taraxacum officinale agg.).</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Huber, Meret; Triebwasser-Freese, Daniella; Reichelt, Michael; Heiling, Sven; Paetz, Christian; Chandran, Jima N; Bartram, Stefan; Schneider, Bernd; Gershenzon, Jonathan; Erb, Matthias</p> <p>2015-07-01</p> <p>The secondary <span class="hlt">metabolites</span> in the roots, leaves and flowers of the common dandelion (Taraxacum officinale agg.) have been studied in detail. However, little is known about the specific constituents of the plant's highly specialized laticifer cells. Using a combination of liquid and gas chromatography, mass spectrometry and nuclear magnetic resonance spectrometry, we identified and quantified the major secondary <span class="hlt">metabolites</span> in the latex of different organs across different growth stages in three genotypes, and tested the activity of the <span class="hlt">metabolites</span> against the generalist root herbivore Diabrotica balteata. We found that common dandelion latex is dominated by three classes of secondary <span class="hlt">metabolites</span>: phenolic inositol esters (PIEs), triterpene acetates (TritAc) and the sesquiterpene lactone taraxinic acid β-D-glucopyranosyl ester (TA-G). Purification and <span class="hlt">absolute</span> quantification revealed <span class="hlt">concentrations</span> in the upper mgg(-1) range for all compound classes with up to 6% PIEs, 5% TritAc and 7% TA-G per gram latex fresh weight. Contrary to typical secondary <span class="hlt">metabolite</span> patterns, <span class="hlt">concentrations</span> of all three classes increased with plant age. The highest <span class="hlt">concentrations</span> were measured in the main root. PIE profiles differed both quantitatively and qualitatively between plant genotypes, whereas TritAc and TA-G differed only quantitatively. <span class="hlt">Metabolite</span> <span class="hlt">concentrations</span> were positively correlated within and between the different compound classes, indicating tight biosynthetic co-regulation. Latex <span class="hlt">metabolite</span> extracts strongly repelled D. balteata larvae, suggesting that the latex constituents are biologically active. PMID:25682510</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25682510','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25682510"><span id="translatedtitle">Identification, quantification, spatiotemporal distribution and genetic variation of major latex secondary <span class="hlt">metabolites</span> in the common dandelion (Taraxacum officinale agg.).</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Huber, Meret; Triebwasser-Freese, Daniella; Reichelt, Michael; Heiling, Sven; Paetz, Christian; Chandran, Jima N; Bartram, Stefan; Schneider, Bernd; Gershenzon, Jonathan; Erb, Matthias</p> <p>2015-07-01</p> <p>The secondary <span class="hlt">metabolites</span> in the roots, leaves and flowers of the common dandelion (Taraxacum officinale agg.) have been studied in detail. However, little is known about the specific constituents of the plant's highly specialized laticifer cells. Using a combination of liquid and gas chromatography, mass spectrometry and nuclear magnetic resonance spectrometry, we identified and quantified the major secondary <span class="hlt">metabolites</span> in the latex of different organs across different growth stages in three genotypes, and tested the activity of the <span class="hlt">metabolites</span> against the generalist root herbivore Diabrotica balteata. We found that common dandelion latex is dominated by three classes of secondary <span class="hlt">metabolites</span>: phenolic inositol esters (PIEs), triterpene acetates (TritAc) and the sesquiterpene lactone taraxinic acid β-D-glucopyranosyl ester (TA-G). Purification and <span class="hlt">absolute</span> quantification revealed <span class="hlt">concentrations</span> in the upper mgg(-1) range for all compound classes with up to 6% PIEs, 5% TritAc and 7% TA-G per gram latex fresh weight. Contrary to typical secondary <span class="hlt">metabolite</span> patterns, <span class="hlt">concentrations</span> of all three classes increased with plant age. The highest <span class="hlt">concentrations</span> were measured in the main root. PIE profiles differed both quantitatively and qualitatively between plant genotypes, whereas TritAc and TA-G differed only quantitatively. <span class="hlt">Metabolite</span> <span class="hlt">concentrations</span> were positively correlated within and between the different compound classes, indicating tight biosynthetic co-regulation. Latex <span class="hlt">metabolite</span> extracts strongly repelled D. balteata larvae, suggesting that the latex constituents are biologically active.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19894739','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19894739"><span id="translatedtitle">Harzianic acid, an antifungal and plant growth promoting <span class="hlt">metabolite</span> from Trichoderma harzianum.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Vinale, Francesco; Flematti, Gavin; Sivasithamparam, Krishnapillai; Lorito, Matteo; Marra, Roberta; Skelton, Brian W; Ghisalberti, Emilio L</p> <p>2009-11-01</p> <p>A Trichoderma harzianum strain, isolated from composted hardwood bark in Western Australia, was found to produce a <span class="hlt">metabolite</span> with antifungal and plant growth promoting activity. The structure and <span class="hlt">absolute</span> configuration of the fungal compound, harzianic acid (1), were determined by X-ray diffraction studies. Harzianic acid showed antibiotic activity against Pythium irregulare, Sclerotinia sclerotiorum, and Rhizoctonia solani. A plant growth promotion effect was observed at low <span class="hlt">concentrations</span> of 1.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19707251','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19707251"><span id="translatedtitle">Variability of urinary <span class="hlt">concentrations</span> of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon <span class="hlt">metabolite</span> in general population and comparison of spot, first-morning, and 24-h void sampling.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Li, Zheng; Romanoff, Lovisa C; Lewin, Michael D; Porter, Erin N; Trinidad, Debra A; Needham, Larry L; Patterson, Donald G; Sjödin, Andreas</p> <p>2010-09-01</p> <p>Urinary mono-hydroxy polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (OH-PAHs) are commonly used in biomonitoring to assess exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). Similar to other biologically non-persistent chemicals, OH-PAHs have relatively short biological half-lives (4.4-35 h). Little information is available on their variability in urinary <span class="hlt">concentrations</span> over time in non-occupationally exposed subjects. This study was designed to (i) examine the variability of nine urinary OH-PAH <span class="hlt">metabolite</span> <span class="hlt">concentrations</span> over time and (ii) calculate sample size requirements for future epidemiological studies on the basis of spot urine, first-morning void, and 24-h void sampling. Individual urine samples (n=427) were collected during 1 week from 8 non-occupationally exposed adults. We recorded the time and volume of each urine excretion, dietary details, and driving activities of the participants. Within subjects, the coefficients of variation (CVs) for the wet-weight <span class="hlt">concentration</span> of OH-PAHs in all samples ranged from 45% to 297%; creatinine adjustment reduced the CV to 19-288% (P<0.001; paired t-test). The simulated 24-h void <span class="hlt">concentrations</span> were the least variable measure, with CVs ranging from 13% to 182% for the 9 OH-PAHs. Within-day variability contributed on average 84%, and between-day variability accounted for 16% of the total variance of 1-hydroxypyrene (1-PYR). Intraclass correlation coefficients of 1-PYR levels were 0.55 for spot urine samples, 0.65 [corrected] for first-morning voids, and 0.77 [corrected] for 24-h voids, indicating a high degree of correlation between urine measurements collected from the same subject over time. Sample size calculations were performed to estimate the number of subjects required for detecting differences in the geometric mean at a statistical power of 80% for spot urine, first-morning, and 24-h void sampling. These data will aid in the design of future studies of PAHs and possibly other biologically non-persistent chemicals and in</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_8");'>8</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_9");'>9</a></li> <li class="active"><span>10</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_11");'>11</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_12");'>12</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_10 --> <div id="page_11" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_9");'>9</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_10");'>10</a></li> <li class="active"><span>11</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_12");'>12</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>13</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="201"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23670916','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23670916"><span id="translatedtitle">Mixtures of 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (ecstasy) and its major human <span class="hlt">metabolites</span> act additively to induce significant toxicity to liver cells when combined at low, non-cytotoxic <span class="hlt">concentrations</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>da Silva, Diana Dias; Silva, Elisabete; Carvalho, Félix; Carmo, Helena</p> <p>2014-06-01</p> <p>Hepatic injury after 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA; ecstasy) intoxications is highly unpredictable and does not seem to correlate with either dosage or frequency of use. The mechanisms involved include the drug metabolic bioactivation and the hyperthermic state of the liver triggered by its thermogenic action and exacerbated by the environmental circumstances of abuse at hot and crowded venues. We became interested in understanding the interaction between ecstasy and its <span class="hlt">metabolites</span> generated in vivo as users are always exposed to mixtures of parent drug and <span class="hlt">metabolites</span>. With this purpose, Hep G2 cells were incubated with MDMA and its main human <span class="hlt">metabolites</span> methylenedioxyamphetamine (MDA), α-methyldopamine (α-MeDA) and N-methyl-α-methyldopamine (N-Me-α-MeDA), individually and in mixture (drugs combined in proportion to their individual EC01 ), at normal (37 °C) and hyperthermic (40.5 °C) conditions. After 48 h, viability was assessed by the 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyl tetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay. Extensive <span class="hlt">concentration</span>-response analysis was performed with single drugs and the parameters of the individual non-linear logit fits were used to predict joint effects using the well-founded models of <span class="hlt">concentration</span> addition (CA) and independent action (IA). Experimental testing revealed that mixture effects on cell viability conformed to CA, for both temperature settings. Additionally, substantial combination effects were attained even when each substance was present at <span class="hlt">concentrations</span> that individually produced unnoticeable effects. Hyperthermic incubations dramatically increased the toxicity of the tested drug and <span class="hlt">metabolites</span>, both individually and combined. These outcomes suggest that MDMA metabolism has hazard implications to liver cells even when <span class="hlt">metabolites</span> are found in low <span class="hlt">concentrations</span>, as they contribute additively to the overall toxic effect of MDMA.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23586876','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23586876"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Absolute</span> biological needs.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>McLeod, Stephen</p> <p>2014-07-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Absolute</span> needs (as against instrumental needs) are independent of the ends, goals and purposes of personal agents. Against the view that the only needs are instrumental needs, David Wiggins and Garrett Thomson have defended <span class="hlt">absolute</span> needs on the grounds that the verb 'need' has instrumental and <span class="hlt">absolute</span> senses. While remaining neutral about it, this article does not adopt that approach. Instead, it suggests that there are <span class="hlt">absolute</span> biological needs. The <span class="hlt">absolute</span> nature of these needs is defended by appeal to: their objectivity (as against mind-dependence); the universality of the phenomenon of needing across the plant and animal kingdoms; the impossibility that biological needs depend wholly upon the exercise of the abilities characteristic of personal agency; the contention that the possession of biological needs is prior to the possession of the abilities characteristic of personal agency. Finally, three philosophical usages of 'normative' are distinguished. On two of these, to describe a phenomenon or claim as 'normative' is to describe it as value-dependent. A description of a phenomenon or claim as 'normative' in the third sense does not entail such value-dependency, though it leaves open the possibility that value depends upon the phenomenon or upon the truth of the claim. It is argued that while survival needs (or claims about them) may well be normative in this third sense, they are normative in neither of the first two. Thus, the idea of <span class="hlt">absolute</span> need is not inherently normative in either of the first two senses. PMID:23586876</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23586876','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23586876"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Absolute</span> biological needs.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>McLeod, Stephen</p> <p>2014-07-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Absolute</span> needs (as against instrumental needs) are independent of the ends, goals and purposes of personal agents. Against the view that the only needs are instrumental needs, David Wiggins and Garrett Thomson have defended <span class="hlt">absolute</span> needs on the grounds that the verb 'need' has instrumental and <span class="hlt">absolute</span> senses. While remaining neutral about it, this article does not adopt that approach. Instead, it suggests that there are <span class="hlt">absolute</span> biological needs. The <span class="hlt">absolute</span> nature of these needs is defended by appeal to: their objectivity (as against mind-dependence); the universality of the phenomenon of needing across the plant and animal kingdoms; the impossibility that biological needs depend wholly upon the exercise of the abilities characteristic of personal agency; the contention that the possession of biological needs is prior to the possession of the abilities characteristic of personal agency. Finally, three philosophical usages of 'normative' are distinguished. On two of these, to describe a phenomenon or claim as 'normative' is to describe it as value-dependent. A description of a phenomenon or claim as 'normative' in the third sense does not entail such value-dependency, though it leaves open the possibility that value depends upon the phenomenon or upon the truth of the claim. It is argued that while survival needs (or claims about them) may well be normative in this third sense, they are normative in neither of the first two. Thus, the idea of <span class="hlt">absolute</span> need is not inherently normative in either of the first two senses.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22444813','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22444813"><span id="translatedtitle">Live animal measurements, carcass composition and plasma hormone and <span class="hlt">metabolite</span> <span class="hlt">concentrations</span> in male progeny of sires differing in genetic merit for beef production.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Clarke, A M; Drennan, M J; McGee, M; Kenny, D A; Evans, R D; Berry, D P</p> <p>2009-07-01</p> <p>In genetic improvement programmes for beef cattle, the effect of selecting for a given trait or index on other economically important traits, or their predictors, must be quantified to ensure no deleterious consequential effects go unnoticed. The objective was to compare live animal measurements, carcass composition and plasma hormone and <span class="hlt">metabolite</span> <span class="hlt">concentrations</span> of male progeny of sires selected on an economic index in Ireland. This beef carcass index (BCI) is expressed in euros and based on weaning weight, feed intake, carcass weight and carcass conformation and fat scores. The index is used to aid in the genetic comparison of animals for the expected profitability of their progeny at slaughter. A total of 107 progeny from beef sires of high (n = 11) or low (n = 11) genetic merit for the BCI were compared in either a bull (slaughtered at 16 months of age) or steer (slaughtered at 24 months of age) production system, following purchase after weaning (8 months of age) from commercial beef herds. Data were analysed as a 2 × 2 factorial design (two levels of genetic merit by two production systems). Progeny of high BCI sires had heavier carcasses, greater (P < 0.01) muscularity scores after weaning, greater (P < 0.05) skeletal scores and scanned muscle depth pre-slaughter, higher (P < 0.05) plasma insulin <span class="hlt">concentrations</span> and greater (P < 0.01) animal value (obtained by multiplying carcass weight by carcass value, which was based on the weight of meat in each cut by its commercial value) than progeny of low BCI sires. Regression of progeny performance on sire genetic merit was also undertaken across the entire data set. In steers, the effect of BCI on carcass meat proportion, calculated carcass value (c/kg) and animal value was positive (P < 0.01), while a negative association was observed for scanned fat depth pre-slaughter and carcass fat proportion (P < 0.01), but there was no effect in bulls. The effect of sire expected progeny difference (EPD) for carcass weight</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21876052','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21876052"><span id="translatedtitle">Nelfinavir and its active <span class="hlt">metabolite</span>, hydroxy-t-butylamidenelfinavir (M8), are transferred in small quantities to breast milk and do not reach biologically significant <span class="hlt">concentrations</span> in breast-feeding infants whose mothers are taking nelfinavir.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Weidle, Paul J; Zeh, Clement; Martin, Amy; Lando, Richard; Angira, Frank; Osoga, Joseph; Ogindo, Paul; Girde, Sonali; Minniear, Timothy D; Thomas, Timothy K</p> <p>2011-11-01</p> <p>Antiretroviral drugs cross from maternal plasma to breast milk and from breast milk to the infant in different <span class="hlt">concentrations</span>. We measured <span class="hlt">concentrations</span> of nelfinavir and its active <span class="hlt">metabolite</span> (M8) in maternal plasma and breast milk from women and in dried blood spots collected from their infants at delivery and postnatal weeks 2, 6, 14, and 24 in the Kisumu Breastfeeding Study, Kisumu, Kenya. Nelfinavir-based antiretroviral regimens given to mothers as prevention of mother-to-child HIV transmission (PMTCT) do not expose the breast-feeding infant to biologically significant <span class="hlt">concentrations</span> of nelfinavir or M8.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/20850453','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/20850453"><span id="translatedtitle">Changes in gene expression in human renal proximal tubule cells exposed to low <span class="hlt">concentrations</span> of S-(1,2-dichlorovinyl)-L-cysteine, a <span class="hlt">metabolite</span> of trichloroethylene</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Lock, Edward A. . E-mail: e.lock@ljmu.ac.uk; Barth, Jeremy L.; Argraves, Scott W.; Schnellmann, Rick G.</p> <p>2006-10-15</p> <p>Epidemiology studies suggest that there may be a weak association between high level exposure to trichloroethylene (TCE) and renal tubule cell carcinoma. Laboratory animal studies have shown an increased incidence of renal tubule carcinoma in male rats but not mice. TCE can undergo metabolism via glutathione (GSH) conjugation to form <span class="hlt">metabolites</span> that are known to be nephrotoxic. The GSH conjugate, S-(1,2-dichlorovinyl)glutathione (DCVG), is processed further to the cysteine conjugate, S-(1,2-dichlorovinyl)-L-cysteine (DCVC), which is the penultimate nephrotoxic species. We have cultured human renal tubule cells (HRPTC) in serum-free medium under a variety of different culture conditions and observed growth, respiratory control and glucose transport over a 20 day period in medium containing low glucose. Cell death was time- and <span class="hlt">concentration</span>-dependent, with the EC{sub 5} for DCVG being about 3 {mu}M and for DCVC about 7.5 {mu}M over 10 days. Exposure of HRPTC to sub-cytotoxic doses of DCVC (0.1 {mu}M and 1 {mu}M for 10 days) led to a small number of changes in gene expression, as determined by transcript profiling with Affymetrix human genome chips. Using the criterion of a mean 2-fold change over control for the four samples examined, 3 genes at 0.1 {mu}M DCVC increased, namely, adenosine kinase, zinc finger protein X-linked and an enzyme with lyase activity. At 1 {mu}M DCVC, two genes showed a >2-fold decrease, N-acetyltransferase 8 and complement factor H. At a lower stringency (1.5-fold change), a total of 63 probe sets were altered at 0.1 {mu}M DCVC and 45 at 1 {mu}M DCVC. Genes associated with stress, apoptosis, cell proliferation and repair and DCVC metabolism were altered, as were a small number of genes that did not appear to be associated with the known mode of action of DCVC. Some of these genes may serve as molecular markers of TCE exposure and effects in the human kidney.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/1231575-absolute-path-command','SCIGOV-ESTSC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/1231575-absolute-path-command"><span id="translatedtitle">The <span class="hlt">absolute</span> path command</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href=""></a></p> <p></p> <p>2012-05-11</p> <p>The ap command traveres all symlinks in a given file, directory, or executable name to identify the final <span class="hlt">absolute</span> path. It can print just the final path, each intermediate link along with the symlink chan, and the permissions and ownership of each directory component in the final path. It has functionality similar to "which", except that it shows the final path instead of the first path. It is also similar to "pwd", but it canmore » provide the <span class="hlt">absolute</span> path to a relative directory from the current working directory.« less</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/1231575','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/1231575"><span id="translatedtitle">The <span class="hlt">absolute</span> path command</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Moody, A.</p> <p>2012-05-11</p> <p>The ap command traveres all symlinks in a given file, directory, or executable name to identify the final <span class="hlt">absolute</span> path. It can print just the final path, each intermediate link along with the symlink chan, and the permissions and ownership of each directory component in the final path. It has functionality similar to "which", except that it shows the final path instead of the first path. It is also similar to "pwd", but it can provide the <span class="hlt">absolute</span> path to a relative directory from the current working directory.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3196366','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3196366"><span id="translatedtitle">Tryptophan in Alcoholism Treatment I:  Kynurenine <span class="hlt">Metabolites</span> Inhibit the Rat Liver Mitochondrial Low Km Aldehyde Dehydrogenase Activity, Elevate Blood Acetaldehyde <span class="hlt">Concentration</span> and Induce Aversion to Alcohol</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Badawy, Abdulla A.-B.; Bano, Samina; Steptoe, Alex</p> <p>2011-01-01</p> <p>Aims: The aims were to provide proofs of mechanism and principle by establishing the ability of kynurenine <span class="hlt">metabolites</span> to inhibit the liver mitochondrial low Km aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH) activity after administration and in vivo, and to induce aversion to alcohol. Methods: Kynurenic acid (KA), 3-hydroxykynurenine (3-HK) and 3-hydroxyanthranilic acid (3-HAA) were administered to normal male Wistar rats and ALDH activity was determined both in vitro in liver homogenates and in vivo (by measuring blood acetaldehyde following ethanol administration). Alcohol consumption was studied in an aversion model in rats and in alcohol-preferring C57 mice. Results: ALDH activity was significantly inhibited by all three <span class="hlt">metabolites</span> by doses as small as 1 mg/kg body wt. Blood acetaldehyde accumulation after ethanol administration was strongly elevated by KA and 3-HK and to a lesser extent by 3-HAA. All three <span class="hlt">metabolites</span> induced aversion to alcohol in rats and decreased alcohol preference in mice. Conclusions: The above kynurenine <span class="hlt">metabolites</span> of tryptophan induce aversion to alcohol by inhibiting ALDH activity. An intellectual property covering the use of 3-HK and 3-HAA and derivatives thereof in the treatment of alcoholism by aversion awaits further development. PMID:21896552</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24929184','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24929184"><span id="translatedtitle">Consumption of both low and high (-)-epicatechin apple puree attenuates platelet reactivity and increases plasma <span class="hlt">concentrations</span> of nitric oxide <span class="hlt">metabolites</span>: a randomized controlled trial.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Gasper, Amy; Hollands, Wendy; Casgrain, Amelie; Saha, Shikha; Teucher, Birgit; Dainty, Jack R; Venema, Dini P; Hollman, Peter C; Rein, Maarit J; Nelson, Rebecca; Williamson, Gary; Kroon, Paul A</p> <p>2014-10-01</p> <p>We hypothesised that consumption of flavanol-containing apple puree would modulate platelet activity and increase nitric oxide <span class="hlt">metabolite</span> status, and that high flavanol apple puree would exert a greater effect than low flavanol apple puree. 25 subjects consumed 230 g of apple puree containing 25 and 100mg epicatechin (low and high flavanol apple puree, respectively) and aspirin (75 mg) in random order. Measurements were made at baseline, acutely after treatment (2, 6 and 24 h), and after 14 d of treatment. Low flavanol apple puree significantly attenuated ADP and epinephrine-induced integrin-β3 expression 2 h and 6 h after consumption and ADP and epinephrine-induced P-selectin expression within 2h of consumption. High flavanol apple puree attenuated epinephrine and ADP-induced integrin-β3 expression after 2 and 6h. ADP and epinephrine-induced integrin-β3 expression was significantly attenuated 2, 6 and 24 h after consumption of aspirin, whilst 14 d aspirin consumption attenuated collagen-induced P-selectin expression only. The plasma total nitric oxide <span class="hlt">metabolite</span> conc. was significantly increased 6h after consumption of both low and high flavanol apple purees. In conclusion, consumption of apple purees containing ⩾25 or 100 mg flavanols transiently attenuated ex vivo integrin-β3 and P-selectin expression and increased plasma nitric oxide <span class="hlt">metabolite</span> conc. in healthy subjects, but the effect was not enhanced for the high flavanol apple puree. PMID:24929184</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26204234','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26204234"><span id="translatedtitle">Quantitative profiling of polar primary <span class="hlt">metabolites</span> of two chickpea cultivars with contrasting responses to salinity.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Dias, Daniel Anthony; Hill, Camilla Beate; Jayasinghe, Nirupama Samanmalie; Atieno, Judith; Sutton, Tim; Roessner, Ute</p> <p>2015-09-01</p> <p>This study reports a GC-QqQ-MS method for the quantification of forty-eight primary <span class="hlt">metabolites</span> from four major classes (sugars, sugar acids, sugar phosphates, and organic acids) which can be applied to a number of biological systems. The method was validated in terms of linearity, reproducibility and recovery, using both calibration standards and real samples. Additionally, twenty-eight biogenic amines and amino acids were quantified using an established LC-QqQ-MS method. Both GC-QqQ-MS and LC-QqQ-MS quantitative methods were applied to plant extracts from flower and pod tissue of two chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) cultivars differing in their ability to tolerate salinity, which were grown under control and salt-treated conditions. Statistical analysis was applied to the data sets using the <span class="hlt">absolute</span> <span class="hlt">concentrations</span> of <span class="hlt">metabolites</span> to investigate the differences in <span class="hlt">metabolite</span> profiles between the different cultivars, plant tissues, and treatments. The method is a significant improvement of present methodology for quantitative GC-MS <span class="hlt">metabolite</span> profiling of organic acids and sugars, and provides new insights of chickpea metabolic responses to salinity stress. It is applicable to the analysis of dynamic changes in endogenous <span class="hlt">concentrations</span> of polar primary <span class="hlt">metabolites</span> to study metabolic responses to environmental stresses in complex biological tissues.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16106389','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16106389"><span id="translatedtitle">Antifungal activity of tuberose <span class="hlt">absolute</span> and some of its constituents.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Nidiry, Eugene Sebastian J; Babu, C S Bujji</p> <p>2005-05-01</p> <p>The antifungal activity of the <span class="hlt">absolute</span> of tuberose (Polianthes tuberosa ) and some of its constituents were evaluated against the mycelial growth of Colletotrichum gloeosporioides on potato-dextrose-agar medium. Tuberose <span class="hlt">absolute</span> showed only mild activity at a <span class="hlt">concentration</span> of 500 mg/L. However, three constituents present in the <span class="hlt">absolute</span>, namely geraniol, indole and methyl anthranilate exhibited significant activity showing total inhibition of the mycelial growth at this <span class="hlt">concentration</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4012514','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4012514"><span id="translatedtitle">Volatile <span class="hlt">Metabolites</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Rowan, Daryl D.</p> <p>2011-01-01</p> <p>Volatile organic compounds (volatiles) comprise a chemically diverse class of low molecular weight organic compounds having an appreciable vapor pressure under ambient conditions. Volatiles produced by plants attract pollinators and seed dispersers, and provide defense against pests and pathogens. For insects, volatiles may act as pheromones directing social behavior or as cues for finding hosts or prey. For humans, volatiles are important as flavorants and as possible disease biomarkers. The marine environment is also a major source of halogenated and sulfur-containing volatiles which participate in the global cycling of these elements. While volatile analysis commonly measures a rather restricted set of analytes, the diverse and extreme physical properties of volatiles provide unique analytical challenges. Volatiles constitute only a small proportion of the total number of <span class="hlt">metabolites</span> produced by living organisms, however, because of their roles as signaling molecules (semiochemicals) both within and between organisms, accurately measuring and determining the roles of these compounds is crucial to an integrated understanding of living systems. This review summarizes recent developments in volatile research from a metabolomics perspective with a focus on the role of recent technical innovation in developing new areas of volatile research and expanding the range of ecological interactions which may be mediated by volatile organic <span class="hlt">metabolites</span>. PMID:24957243</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/9990313','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/9990313"><span id="translatedtitle">A control analysis exploration of the role of ATP utilisation in glycolytic-flux control and glycolytic-<span class="hlt">metabolite-concentration</span> regulation.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Thomas, S; Fell, D A</p> <p>1998-12-15</p> <p>A theoretical metabolic-control-analysis approach has been used to study aspects of glycolytic-flux control and carbon-<span class="hlt">metabolite</span> regulation, particularly the role of ATP demand (ATPase), in order to determine what general features of the regulation of energy metabolism would be consistent with good carbon-<span class="hlt">metabolite</span> homeostasis in the face of large changes in carbon flux. On the basis of a semi-quantitative control-analysis model, incorporating estimates of substrate, product and effector actions on the enzymes, the experimentally observed characteristics of glycolytic-flux changes prove to impose constraints on the feasible ranges of these estimates. This leads to the identification of several features of energy metabolism, each of which is necessary but not sufficient to explain the observations; although most of these have been advocated previously (such as AMP activation of phosphofructokinase (PFK), ADP inhibition of ATPase and the role of energy charge or ATP/ADP ratio), our analysis allows their relative importance to be assessed. In the model, the distribution of flux control depends primarily on ADP inhibition of ATPase, and on the activation of PFK by AMP; increase in ADP inhibition of ATPase increases the control on PFK; increase in AMP activation of PFK increases control on ATPase. PFK exerts greater flux control than does ATPase over approximately 50% of the ranges (parameter space) studied, but its control is sufficiently high to achieve sizeable flux increases over less than 20% of the space. Furthermore, control by alteration in PFK activity is shown to result in poor glycolytic <span class="hlt">metabolite</span> homeostasis over the entire parameter space studied. However, over a large proportion of the parameter space, control by activation of ATPase can lead to large flux changes, i.e. high flux control, coupled with excellent glycolytic-<span class="hlt">metabolite</span> homeostasis, similar to that observed in working muscle. As well as altering the relative degrees of flux control invested</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/921934','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/921934"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">ABSOLUTE</span> POLARIMETRY AT RHIC.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>OKADA; BRAVAR, A.; BUNCE, G.; GILL, R.; HUANG, H.; MAKDISI, Y.; NASS, A.; WOOD, J.; ZELENSKI, Z.; ET AL.</p> <p>2007-09-10</p> <p>Precise and <span class="hlt">absolute</span> beam polarization measurements are critical for the RHIC spin physics program. Because all experimental spin-dependent results are normalized by beam polarization, the normalization uncertainty contributes directly to final physics uncertainties. We aimed to perform the beam polarization measurement to an accuracy Of {Delta}P{sub beam}/P{sub beam} < 5%. The <span class="hlt">absolute</span> polarimeter consists of Polarized Atomic Hydrogen Gas Jet Target and left-right pairs of silicon strip detectors and was installed in the RHIC-ring in 2004. This system features proton-proton elastic scattering in the Coulomb nuclear interference (CNI) region. Precise measurements of the analyzing power A{sub N} of this process has allowed us to achieve {Delta}P{sub beam}/P{sub beam} = 4.2% in 2005 for the first long spin-physics run. In this report, we describe the entire set up and performance of the system. The procedure of beam polarization measurement and analysis results from 2004-2005 are described. Physics topics of AN in the CNI region (four-momentum transfer squared 0.001 < -t < 0.032 (GeV/c){sup 2}) are also discussed. We point out the current issues and expected optimum accuracy in 2006 and the future.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2007PMB....52.6781O','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2007PMB....52.6781O"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Absolute</span> quantification of carnosine in human calf muscle by proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Özdemir, Mahir S.; Reyngoudt, Harmen; DeDeene, Yves; Sazak, Hakan S.; Fieremans, Els; Delputte, Steven; D'Asseler, Yves; Derave, Wim; Lemahieu, Ignace; Achten, Eric</p> <p>2007-12-01</p> <p>Carnosine has been shown to be present in the skeletal muscle and in the brain of a variety of animals and humans. Despite the various physiological functions assigned to this <span class="hlt">metabolite</span>, its exact role remains unclear. It has been suggested that carnosine plays a role in buffering in the intracellular physiological pHi range in skeletal muscle as a result of accepting hydrogen ions released in the development of fatigue during intensive exercise. It is thus postulated that the <span class="hlt">concentration</span> of carnosine is an indicator for the extent of the buffering capacity. However, the determination of the <span class="hlt">concentration</span> of this <span class="hlt">metabolite</span> has only been performed by means of muscle biopsy, which is an invasive procedure. In this paper, we utilized proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (1H MRS) in order to perform <span class="hlt">absolute</span> quantification of carnosine in vivo non-invasively. The method was verified by phantom experiments and in vivo measurements in the calf muscles of athletes and untrained volunteers. The measured mean <span class="hlt">concentrations</span> in the soleus and the gastrocnemius muscles were found to be 2.81 ± 0.57/4.8 ± 1.59 mM (mean ± SD) for athletes and 2.58 ± 0.65/3.3 ± 0.32 mM for untrained volunteers, respectively. These values are in agreement with previously reported biopsy-based results. Our results suggest that 1H MRS can provide an alternative method for non-invasively determining carnosine <span class="hlt">concentration</span> in human calf muscle in vivo.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2006RScI...77e4301H','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2006RScI...77e4301H"><span id="translatedtitle">NMR high-resolution magic angle spinning rotor design for quantification of metabolic <span class="hlt">concentrations</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Holly, R.; Damyanovich, A.; Peemoeller, H.</p> <p>2006-05-01</p> <p>A new high-resolution magic angle spinning nuclear magnetic resonance technique is presented to obtain <span class="hlt">absolute</span> <span class="hlt">metabolite</span> <span class="hlt">concentrations</span> of solutions. The magnetic resonance spectrum of the sample under investigation and an internal reference are acquired simultaneously, ensuring both spectra are obtained under the same experimental conditions. The robustness of the technique is demonstrated using a solution of creatine, and it is shown that the technique can obtain solution <span class="hlt">concentrations</span> to within 7% or better.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20040110742','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20040110742"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Absolute</span> Equilibrium Entropy</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Shebalin, John V.</p> <p>1997-01-01</p> <p>The entropy associated with <span class="hlt">absolute</span> equilibrium ensemble theories of ideal, homogeneous, fluid and magneto-fluid turbulence is discussed and the three-dimensional fluid case is examined in detail. A sigma-function is defined, whose minimum value with respect to global parameters is the entropy. A comparison is made between the use of global functions sigma and phase functions H (associated with the development of various H-theorems of ideal turbulence). It is shown that the two approaches are complimentary though conceptually different: H-theorems show that an isolated system tends to equilibrium while sigma-functions allow the demonstration that entropy never decreases when two previously isolated systems are combined. This provides a more complete picture of entropy in the statistical mechanics of ideal fluids.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17457864','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17457864"><span id="translatedtitle">Fast mapping of the T2 relaxation time of cerebral <span class="hlt">metabolites</span> using proton echo-planar spectroscopic imaging (PEPSI).</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Tsai, Shang-Yueh; Posse, Stefan; Lin, Yi-Ru; Ko, Cheng-Wen; Otazo, Ricardo; Chung, Hsiao-Wen; Lin, Fa-Hsuan</p> <p>2007-05-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Metabolite</span> T2 is necessary for accurate quantification of the <span class="hlt">absolute</span> <span class="hlt">concentration</span> of <span class="hlt">metabolites</span> using long-echo-time (TE) acquisition schemes. However, lengthy data acquisition times pose a major challenge to mapping <span class="hlt">metabolite</span> T2. In this study we used proton echo-planar spectroscopic imaging (PEPSI) at 3T to obtain fast T2 maps of three major cerebral <span class="hlt">metabolites</span>: N-acetyl-aspartate (NAA), creatine (Cre), and choline (Cho). We showed that PEPSI spectra matched T2 values obtained using single-voxel spectroscopy (SVS). Data acquisition for 2D <span class="hlt">metabolite</span> maps with a voxel volume of 0.95 ml (32 x 32 image matrix) can be completed in 25 min using five TEs and eight averages. A sufficient spectral signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) for T2 estimation was validated by high Pearson's correlation coefficients between logarithmic MR signals and TEs (R2 = 0.98, 0.97, and 0.95 for NAA, Cre, and Cho, respectively). In agreement with previous studies, we found that the T2 values of NAA, but not Cre and Cho, were significantly different between gray matter (GM) and white matter (WM; P < 0.001). The difference between the T2 estimates of the PEPSI and SVS scans was less than 9%. Consistent spatial distributions of T2 were found in six healthy subjects, and disagreement among subjects was less than 10%. In summary, the PEPSI technique is a robust method to obtain fast mapping of <span class="hlt">metabolite</span> T2.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17457864','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17457864"><span id="translatedtitle">Fast mapping of the T2 relaxation time of cerebral <span class="hlt">metabolites</span> using proton echo-planar spectroscopic imaging (PEPSI).</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Tsai, Shang-Yueh; Posse, Stefan; Lin, Yi-Ru; Ko, Cheng-Wen; Otazo, Ricardo; Chung, Hsiao-Wen; Lin, Fa-Hsuan</p> <p>2007-05-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Metabolite</span> T2 is necessary for accurate quantification of the <span class="hlt">absolute</span> <span class="hlt">concentration</span> of <span class="hlt">metabolites</span> using long-echo-time (TE) acquisition schemes. However, lengthy data acquisition times pose a major challenge to mapping <span class="hlt">metabolite</span> T2. In this study we used proton echo-planar spectroscopic imaging (PEPSI) at 3T to obtain fast T2 maps of three major cerebral <span class="hlt">metabolites</span>: N-acetyl-aspartate (NAA), creatine (Cre), and choline (Cho). We showed that PEPSI spectra matched T2 values obtained using single-voxel spectroscopy (SVS). Data acquisition for 2D <span class="hlt">metabolite</span> maps with a voxel volume of 0.95 ml (32 x 32 image matrix) can be completed in 25 min using five TEs and eight averages. A sufficient spectral signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) for T2 estimation was validated by high Pearson's correlation coefficients between logarithmic MR signals and TEs (R2 = 0.98, 0.97, and 0.95 for NAA, Cre, and Cho, respectively). In agreement with previous studies, we found that the T2 values of NAA, but not Cre and Cho, were significantly different between gray matter (GM) and white matter (WM; P < 0.001). The difference between the T2 estimates of the PEPSI and SVS scans was less than 9%. Consistent spatial distributions of T2 were found in six healthy subjects, and disagreement among subjects was less than 10%. In summary, the PEPSI technique is a robust method to obtain fast mapping of <span class="hlt">metabolite</span> T2. PMID:17457864</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_9");'>9</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_10");'>10</a></li> <li class="active"><span>11</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_12");'>12</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>13</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_11 --> <div id="page_12" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_10");'>10</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_11");'>11</a></li> <li class="active"><span>12</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>13</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");'>14</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="221"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23726631','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23726631"><span id="translatedtitle">Total and free plasma <span class="hlt">concentrations</span> of the active <span class="hlt">metabolite</span> of leflunomide in relation to therapeutic outcome in kidney transplant recipients with BK-virus nephropathy.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Hüttemann, M; Shipkova, M; Klett, C; Hasche, G; Wilhelm, J; Bolley, R; Olbricht, C; Wieland, E</p> <p>2013-05-01</p> <p>Plasma <span class="hlt">concentrations</span> of A771726, the active moiety of leflunomide, have been suggested to be associated with antiviral efficacy and/or an increased risk of toxicity. A771726 is >99% bound to serum albumin, which can be relevant in kidney transplant recipients (KTRs) displaying impaired function, which leads to increased pharmacologically active free drug <span class="hlt">concentrations</span>. This study investigated the relationship of total (t-) and free (f-) A771726 <span class="hlt">concentrations</span> with clinical outcomes. The 20 KTRs displayed a median daily dose and time on leflunomide of 20 mg (range, 10-50) and 16.5 months (range, 2-28), respectively. A median of 6 (range, 1-15) trough <span class="hlt">concentrations</span> were measured in each patient. All patients received steroids and a calcineurin inhibitor (CNI) as well as 4 of them, cidofovir. To evaluate therapeutic efficacy, we monitored viral loads in the urine and blood, serum creatinine, and kidney histology. To detect toxicity, we recorded blood and platelet counts, hematocrit, hemoglobin <span class="hlt">concentrations</span>, liver enzymes (alanine aminotransferase [ALT], and aspartate aminotransferase [AST]), and skin diseases. The median t-A771726 <span class="hlt">concentration</span> was 31.5 mg/L (interindividual range, 11.0-56.4); the median f-A771726 <span class="hlt">concentration</span> and fraction were 55.8 μg/L and 0.19% (interindividual ranges, 27.9-148.4 μg/L and 0.12%-0.50%), respectively. A weak but significant inverse correlation was observed between the free drug fraction and both the glomerular filtration rate estimated by the Modification of Diet in Renal Disease formula (MDRD-GFR) (r = -0.202) and serum albumin (r = -0.358). Higher MDRD-GFRs were associated with greater t-A771726 <span class="hlt">concentrations</span>. There were no significant associations between efficacy parameters and either the t- or f-A771726 <span class="hlt">concentration</span> or between the t-A771726 <span class="hlt">concentration</span> and toxicity parameters. In contrast, the f-A771726 <span class="hlt">concentration</span> was significantly associated with leukopenia. These results indicated that f-A771726 <span class="hlt">concentrations</span></p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/21611867','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/21611867"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Absolute</span> neutrino mass measurements</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Wolf, Joachim</p> <p>2011-10-06</p> <p>The neutrino mass plays an important role in particle physics, astrophysics and cosmology. In recent years the detection of neutrino flavour oscillations proved that neutrinos carry mass. However, oscillation experiments are only sensitive to the mass-squared difference of the mass eigenvalues. In contrast to cosmological observations and neutrino-less double beta decay (0v2{beta}) searches, single {beta}-decay experiments provide a direct, model-independent way to determine the <span class="hlt">absolute</span> neutrino mass by measuring the energy spectrum of decay electrons at the endpoint region with high accuracy.Currently the best kinematic upper limits on the neutrino mass of 2.2eV have been set by two experiments in Mainz and Troitsk, using tritium as beta emitter. The next generation tritium {beta}-experiment KATRIN is currently under construction in Karlsruhe/Germany by an international collaboration. KATRIN intends to improve the sensitivity by one order of magnitude to 0.2eV. The investigation of a second isotope ({sup 137}Rh) is being pursued by the international MARE collaboration using micro-calorimeters to measure the beta spectrum. The technology needed to reach 0.2eV sensitivity is still in the R and D phase. This paper reviews the present status of neutrino-mass measurements with cosmological data, 0v2{beta} decay and single {beta}-decay.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/2757664','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/2757664"><span id="translatedtitle">[<span class="hlt">Absolute</span> bioavailability of a special sustained-release acetylsalicylic acid formulation].</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Lücker, P W; Swoboda, M; Wetzelsberger, N</p> <p>1989-03-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Absolute</span> Bioavailability of a Special Acetylsalicylic Acid Sustained Release Formulation. The <span class="hlt">absolute</span> bioavailability of an acetylsalicylic acid (ASA) sustained release formulation (Contrheuma retard), containing 300 mg ASA as initial dose and 350 mg in a retard formulation, was determined in comparison to a standard ASA solution for intravenous administration in a two-treatment, two-period cross-over trial with 6 healthy male volunteers by comparing the areas under the plasma-fluctuation-time curves of the primary <span class="hlt">metabolite</span>. In addition, it was examined by comparison of the mean times after administration of both formulations, whether the test formulation meets the requirements of a sustained release formulation. The investigations led to the following results: The <span class="hlt">absolute</span> bioavailability of the test formulation was 95%. The statistical comparison of the areas under the <span class="hlt">concentration</span>-time courses allowed no decision (neither for equivalence nor difference). The maximal <span class="hlt">concentration</span> of SA after intravenous administration of the standard formulation was reached after 0.4 h on an average and amounted to 62 micrograms/ml. After oral administration of the test formulation, a mean <span class="hlt">concentration</span> maximum of 28 micrograms/ml was calculated, which had been reached after about 2 h. The differences are statistically significant. The mean time for SA was 6 h after the standard formulation, whereas after administration of the test compound, a mean of 11.5 h was calculated. 24 h following administration, the <span class="hlt">concentration</span> of SA was 1.3 micrograms/ml after intravenous administration of the standard formulation and 5.5 micrograms/ml after administration of the test formulation. These differences, too, are statistically significant. From the comparison of the mean time for SA, a retard factor of 1.9 was calculated. PMID:2757664</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22536187','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22536187"><span id="translatedtitle">Arsenate Impact on the <span class="hlt">Metabolite</span> Profile, Production, and Arsenic Loading of Xylem Sap in Cucumbers (Cucumis sativus L.).</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Uroic, M Kalle; Salaün, Pascal; Raab, Andrea; Feldmann, Jörg</p> <p>2012-01-01</p> <p>Arsenic uptake and translocation studies on xylem sap focus generally on the <span class="hlt">concentration</span> and speciation of arsenic in the xylem. Arsenic impact on the xylem sap <span class="hlt">metabolite</span> profile and its production during short term exposure has not been reported in detail. To investigate this, cucumbers were grown hydroponically and arsenate (As(V)) and DMA were used for plant treatment for 24 h. Total arsenic and arsenic speciation in xylem sap was analyzed including a <span class="hlt">metabolite</span> profiling under As(V) stress. Produced xylem sap was quantified and <span class="hlt">absolute</span> arsenic transported was determined. As(V) exposure had a significant impact on the <span class="hlt">metabolite</span> profile of xylem sap. Four m/z values corresponding to four compounds were up-regulated, one compound down-regulated by As(V) exposure. The compound down-regulated was identified to be isoleucine. Furthermore, As(V) exposure had a significant influence on sap production, leading to a reduction of up to 96% sap production when plants were exposed to 1000 μg kg(-1) As(V). No difference to control plants was observed when plants were exposed to 1000 μg kg(-1) DMA. <span class="hlt">Absolute</span> arsenic amount in xylem sap was the lowest at high As(V) exposure. These results show that As(V) has a significant impact on the production and <span class="hlt">metabolite</span> profile of xylem sap. The physiological importance of isoleucine needs further attention.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3334990','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3334990"><span id="translatedtitle">Arsenate Impact on the <span class="hlt">Metabolite</span> Profile, Production, and Arsenic Loading of Xylem Sap in Cucumbers (Cucumis sativus L.)</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Uroic, M. Kalle; Salaün, Pascal; Raab, Andrea; Feldmann, Jörg</p> <p>2012-01-01</p> <p>Arsenic uptake and translocation studies on xylem sap focus generally on the <span class="hlt">concentration</span> and speciation of arsenic in the xylem. Arsenic impact on the xylem sap <span class="hlt">metabolite</span> profile and its production during short term exposure has not been reported in detail. To investigate this, cucumbers were grown hydroponically and arsenate (AsV) and DMA were used for plant treatment for 24 h. Total arsenic and arsenic speciation in xylem sap was analyzed including a <span class="hlt">metabolite</span> profiling under AsV stress. Produced xylem sap was quantified and <span class="hlt">absolute</span> arsenic transported was determined. AsV exposure had a significant impact on the <span class="hlt">metabolite</span> profile of xylem sap. Four m/z values corresponding to four compounds were up-regulated, one compound down-regulated by AsV exposure. The compound down-regulated was identified to be isoleucine. Furthermore, AsV exposure had a significant influence on sap production, leading to a reduction of up to 96% sap production when plants were exposed to 1000 μg kg−1 AsV. No difference to control plants was observed when plants were exposed to 1000 μg kg−1 DMA. <span class="hlt">Absolute</span> arsenic amount in xylem sap was the lowest at high AsV exposure. These results show that AsV has a significant impact on the production and <span class="hlt">metabolite</span> profile of xylem sap. The physiological importance of isoleucine needs further attention. PMID:22536187</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3624044','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3624044"><span id="translatedtitle">Polysubstance and Alcohol Dependence: Unique Abnormalities of Magnetic Resonance-Derived Brain <span class="hlt">Metabolite</span> Levels</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Abé, Christoph; Mon, Anderson; Durazzo, Timothy C.; Pennington, David L.; Schmidt, Thomas P.; Meyerhoff, Dieter J.</p> <p>2012-01-01</p> <p>BACKGROUND Although comorbid substance misuse is common in alcohol dependence, and polysubstance abusers (PSU) represent the largest group of individuals seeking treatment for drug abuse today, we know little about potential brain abnormalities in this population. Brain magnetic resonance spectroscopy studies of mono-substance use disorders (e.g., alcohol or cocaine) reveal abnormal levels of cortical <span class="hlt">metabolites</span> (reflecting neuronal integrity, cell membrane turnover/synthesis, cellular bioenergetics, gliosis) and altered <span class="hlt">concentrations</span> of glutamate and γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA). The concurrent misuse of several substances may have unique and different effects on brain biology and function compared to any mono-substance misuse. METHODS High field brain magnetic resonance spectroscopy at 4 Tesla and neurocognitive testing were performed at one month of abstinence in 40 alcohol dependent individuals (ALC), 28 alcohol dependent PSU and 16 drug-free controls. <span class="hlt">Absolute</span> <span class="hlt">metabolite</span> <span class="hlt">concentrations</span> were calculated in anterior cingulate (ACC), parieto-occipital (POC) and dorsolateral prefrontal cortices (DLPFC). RESULTS Compared to ALC, PSU demonstrated significant metabolic abnormalities in the DLPFC and strong trends to lower GABA in the ACC. <span class="hlt">Metabolite</span> levels in ALC and light drinking controls were statistically equivalent. Within PSU, lower DLPFC GABA levels related to greater cocaine consumption. Several cortical <span class="hlt">metabolite</span> <span class="hlt">concentrations</span> were associated with cognitive performance. CONCLUSIONS While <span class="hlt">metabolite</span> <span class="hlt">concentrations</span> in ALC at one month of abstinence were largely normal, PSU showed persistent and functionally significant metabolic abnormalities, primarily in the DLPFC. Our results point to specific metabolic deficits as biomarkers in polysubstance misuse and as targets for pharmacological and behavioral PSU-specific treatment. PMID:23122599</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1176532','DOE-PATENT-XML'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1176532"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Absolute</span> cavity pyrgeometer</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/doepatents">DOEpatents</a></p> <p>Reda, Ibrahim</p> <p>2013-10-29</p> <p>Implementations of the present disclosure involve an apparatus and method to measure the long-wave irradiance of the atmosphere or long-wave source. The apparatus may involve a thermopile, a <span class="hlt">concentrator</span> and temperature controller. The incoming long-wave irradiance may be reflected from the <span class="hlt">concentrator</span> to a thermopile receiver located at the bottom of the <span class="hlt">concentrator</span> to receive the reflected long-wave irradiance. In addition, the thermopile may be thermally connected to a temperature controller to control the device temperature. Through use of the apparatus, the long-wave irradiance of the atmosphere may be calculated from several measurements provided by the apparatus. In addition, the apparatus may provide an international standard of pyrgeometers' calibration that is traceable back to the International System of Units (SI) rather than to a blackbody atmospheric simulator.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=serial+AND+position+AND+effect&id=EJ735377','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=serial+AND+position+AND+effect&id=EJ735377"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Absolute</span> Identification by Relative Judgment</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Stewart, Neil; Brown, Gordon D. A.; Chater, Nick</p> <p>2005-01-01</p> <p>In unidimensional <span class="hlt">absolute</span> identification tasks, participants identify stimuli that vary along a single dimension. Performance is surprisingly poor compared with discrimination of the same stimuli. Existing models assume that identification is achieved using long-term representations of <span class="hlt">absolute</span> magnitudes. The authors propose an alternative…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=VALUE+AND+ABSOLUTE&id=EJ765743','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=VALUE+AND+ABSOLUTE&id=EJ765743"><span id="translatedtitle">Be Resolute about <span class="hlt">Absolute</span> Value</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Kidd, Margaret L.</p> <p>2007-01-01</p> <p>This article explores how conceptualization of <span class="hlt">absolute</span> value can start long before it is introduced. The manner in which <span class="hlt">absolute</span> value is introduced to students in middle school has far-reaching consequences for their future mathematical understanding. It begins to lay the foundation for students' understanding of algebra, which can change…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4598109','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4598109"><span id="translatedtitle">Does Long-Term High Fat Diet Always Lead to Smaller Hippocampi Volumes, <span class="hlt">Metabolite</span> <span class="hlt">Concentrations</span>, and Worse Learning and Memory? A Magnetic Resonance and Behavioral Study in Wistar Rats</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Setkowicz, Zuzanna; Gaździńska, Agata; Osoba, Joanna J.; Karwowska, Karolina; Majka, Piotr; Orzeł, Jarosław; Kossowski, Bartosz; Bogorodzki, Piotr; Janeczko, Krzysztof; Wyleżoł, Mariusz; Gazdzinski, Stefan P.</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>Background Obesity is a worldwide epidemic with more than 600 million affected individuals. Human studies have demonstrated some alterations in brains of otherwise healthy obese individuals and elevated risk of neurodegenerative disease of old age; these studies have also pointed to slightly diminished memory and executive functions among healthy obese individuals. Similar findings were obtained in animal models of obesity induced by high fat diet. On the other hand, low carbohydrate high fat diets are currently promoted for losing weight (e.g., Atkin’s style diets). However, the long-term effects of such diets are not known. Additionally, high fat diets leading to (mild) ketonemia were shown to improve brain function in elderly humans and in some animal models. Aim To evaluate the hypothesis that long-term use of a high fat diet was associated with decreases in spatial memory, smaller hippocampi and hippocampi <span class="hlt">metabolite</span> <span class="hlt">concentrations</span> in Wistar rats. Methods Twenty five male Wistar rats were put on high fat diet (HFD; 60% calories from fat, 30% from carbohydrates) on their 55th day of life, while 25 control male rats (CONs) remained on chow. Adequate levels of essential nutrients were provided. Both groups underwent memory tests in 8-arm radial maze at 3rd, 6th, 9th, and 12th month. 1H magnetic resonance spectroscopy was employed to measure <span class="hlt">concentrations</span> of tNAA (marker of neuronal integrity) at one month and one year, whereas MRI was used to evaluate hippocampal volumes. Results Obese rats (OBRs) consumed similar amount of calories as CONs, but less proteins. However, their protein intake was within recommended amounts. Throughout the experiment OBRs had statistically higher <span class="hlt">concentrations</span> of blood ketone bodies than CONs, but still within normal values. At post-mortem assessment, OBRs had 38% larger fat deposits than CONs (p<0.05), as evaluated by volume of epididymis fat, an acknowledged marker of fat deposits in rats. Contrary to our expectations, OBRs had</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26971160','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26971160"><span id="translatedtitle">Effect of dietary sugar <span class="hlt">concentration</span> and sunflower seed supplementation on lactation performance, ruminal fermentation, milk fatty acid profile, and blood <span class="hlt">metabolites</span> of dairy cows.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Razzaghi, A; Valizadeh, R; Naserian, A A; Mesgaran, M Danesh; Carpenter, A J; Ghaffari, M H</p> <p>2016-05-01</p> <p>Previous research has shown that both sunflower seed (SF) and sucrose (SC) supplementation can result in variation in milk fat <span class="hlt">concentration</span> and composition, possibly due to altered fermentation patterns and biohydrogenation of fatty acids in the rumen. The objective of this study was to determine the effects of different sugar <span class="hlt">concentrations</span> with or without SF supplementation on lactation performance, ruminal fermentation, and milk fatty acid profile in lactating dairy cows. Eight multiparous Holstein dairy cows (body weight=620±15kg, 60±10 d in milk, mean ± standard deviation) were randomly assigned to treatments in a replicated 4×4 Latin square design with a 2×2 factorial arrangement of treatments. Each 21-d period consisted of a 14-d diet adaptation period and 7-d collection period. Dairy cows were fed 1 of the following 4 diets: (1) no additional SC without SF supplementation (NSC-SF), (2) no additional SC with SF supplementation (NSC+SF), (3) SC without SF supplementation (SC-SF), and (4) SC with SF supplementation (SC+SF). The diets contained the same amount of forages (corn silage and alfalfa hay). Four isonitrogenous and isoenergetic diets were formulated by replacing corn grain with SC and SF and balanced using change in proportions of canola meal and sugar beet pulp. No interaction was detected between SC and SF supplementation with respect to dry matter intake, milk yield, and composition. A tendency was found for an interaction between inclusion of SC and SF on energy-corrected milk with the highest amount in the SC-SF diet. Ruminal pH and the molar proportion of acetate were affected by SC inclusion, with an increase related to the SC-SF diet. Diets containing SF decreased the <span class="hlt">concentrations</span> of short-chain fatty acids (4:0 to 10:0) and medium-chain fatty acids (12:0 to 16:0) in milk fat. The addition of SC tended to decrease the <span class="hlt">concentration</span> of total trans-18:1. These data provide evidence that exchanging SC for corn at 4% of dietary dry matter</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26971160','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26971160"><span id="translatedtitle">Effect of dietary sugar <span class="hlt">concentration</span> and sunflower seed supplementation on lactation performance, ruminal fermentation, milk fatty acid profile, and blood <span class="hlt">metabolites</span> of dairy cows.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Razzaghi, A; Valizadeh, R; Naserian, A A; Mesgaran, M Danesh; Carpenter, A J; Ghaffari, M H</p> <p>2016-05-01</p> <p>Previous research has shown that both sunflower seed (SF) and sucrose (SC) supplementation can result in variation in milk fat <span class="hlt">concentration</span> and composition, possibly due to altered fermentation patterns and biohydrogenation of fatty acids in the rumen. The objective of this study was to determine the effects of different sugar <span class="hlt">concentrations</span> with or without SF supplementation on lactation performance, ruminal fermentation, and milk fatty acid profile in lactating dairy cows. Eight multiparous Holstein dairy cows (body weight=620±15kg, 60±10 d in milk, mean ± standard deviation) were randomly assigned to treatments in a replicated 4×4 Latin square design with a 2×2 factorial arrangement of treatments. Each 21-d period consisted of a 14-d diet adaptation period and 7-d collection period. Dairy cows were fed 1 of the following 4 diets: (1) no additional SC without SF supplementation (NSC-SF), (2) no additional SC with SF supplementation (NSC+SF), (3) SC without SF supplementation (SC-SF), and (4) SC with SF supplementation (SC+SF). The diets contained the same amount of forages (corn silage and alfalfa hay). Four isonitrogenous and isoenergetic diets were formulated by replacing corn grain with SC and SF and balanced using change in proportions of canola meal and sugar beet pulp. No interaction was detected between SC and SF supplementation with respect to dry matter intake, milk yield, and composition. A tendency was found for an interaction between inclusion of SC and SF on energy-corrected milk with the highest amount in the SC-SF diet. Ruminal pH and the molar proportion of acetate were affected by SC inclusion, with an increase related to the SC-SF diet. Diets containing SF decreased the <span class="hlt">concentrations</span> of short-chain fatty acids (4:0 to 10:0) and medium-chain fatty acids (12:0 to 16:0) in milk fat. The addition of SC tended to decrease the <span class="hlt">concentration</span> of total trans-18:1. These data provide evidence that exchanging SC for corn at 4% of dietary dry matter</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18649000','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18649000"><span id="translatedtitle">The effects of <span class="hlt">concentrate</span> added to pineapple (Ananas comosus Linn. Mer.) waste silage in differing ratios to form complete diets, on digestion, excretion of urinary purine derivatives and blood <span class="hlt">metabolites</span> in growing, male, Thai swamp buffaloes.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Jetana, T; Suthikrai, W; Usawang, S; Vongpipatana, C; Sophon, S; Liang, J B</p> <p>2009-04-01</p> <p>Four, male, growing Thai swamp buffaloes (197 +/- 5.3 kg and all 1 year old) were used to evaluate the effects of <span class="hlt">concentrate</span> added to pineapple waste silage in differing ratios, to form a complete diet, studying in vivo digestion, the rate of passage, microbial protein synthesis and blood <span class="hlt">metabolites</span>. Animals were fed ad libitum with 4 diets, using four combinations of pineapple waste silage (P) and <span class="hlt">concentrate</span> (C), in the proportions (on a dry matter basis) of 0.8:0.2 (P80:C20), 0.6:0.4 (P60:C40), 0.4:0.6 (P40:C60) and 0.2:0.8 (P20:C80). The results showed that the intakes of dry matter (DM), organic matter (OM), nitrogen (N), the N-balance, urinary purine derivatives (PD) excretion, the ratios of allantoin to creatinine (CR), PD to CR, the plasma urea-N (PUN) and insulin increased in the animals, but the intake of neutral detergent fiber (NDF), the coefficient of whole tract, apparent digestibility of NDF, the transit time (TT) and the mean retention time (TMRT) decreased, when the proportion of <span class="hlt">concentrate</span> in the diet increased. This study indicated that the proportion of P40:C60 in the diet produced the best efficiency of urinary PD excretion (mmol) per digestible OM intake (kg DOMI).</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://cfpub.epa.gov/si/si_public_record_report.cfm?dirEntryId=213575&keyword=wps&actType=&TIMSType=+&TIMSSubTypeID=&DEID=&epaNumber=&ntisID=&archiveStatus=Both&ombCat=Any&dateBeginCreated=&dateEndCreated=&dateBeginPublishedPresented=&dateEndPublishedPresented=&dateBeginUpdated=&dateEndUpdated=&dateBeginCompleted=&dateEndCompleted=&personID=&role=Any&journalID=&publisherID=&sortBy=revisionDate&count=50&CFID=80727729&CFTOKEN=34194884','EPA-EIMS'); return false;" href="http://cfpub.epa.gov/si/si_public_record_report.cfm?dirEntryId=213575&keyword=wps&actType=&TIMSType=+&TIMSSubTypeID=&DEID=&epaNumber=&ntisID=&archiveStatus=Both&ombCat=Any&dateBeginCreated=&dateEndCreated=&dateBeginPublishedPresented=&dateEndPublishedPresented=&dateBeginUpdated=&dateEndUpdated=&dateBeginCompleted=&dateEndCompleted=&personID=&role=Any&journalID=&publisherID=&sortBy=revisionDate&count=50&CFID=80727729&CFTOKEN=34194884"><span id="translatedtitle">Improved Strategies and Optimization of Calibration Models for Real-time PCR <span class="hlt">Absolute</span> Quantification</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://oaspub.epa.gov/eims/query.page">EPA Science Inventory</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>Real-time PCR <span class="hlt">absolute</span> quantification applications rely on the use of standard curves to make estimates of DNA target <span class="hlt">concentrations</span> in unknown samples. Traditional <span class="hlt">absolute</span> quantification approaches dictate that a standard curve must accompany each experimental run. However, t...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25491438','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25491438"><span id="translatedtitle">Effect of extruded linseeds alone or in combination with fish oil on intake, milk production, plasma <span class="hlt">metabolite</span> <span class="hlt">concentrations</span> and milk fatty acid composition in lactating goats.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Bernard, L; Leroux, C; Rouel, J; Delavaud, C; Shingfield, K J; Chilliard, Y</p> <p>2015-05-01</p> <p>Based on the potential benefits for long-term human health, there is interest in developing sustainable nutritional strategies for lowering medium-chain saturated fatty acids (FA) and increasing specific unsaturated FA in ruminant milk. Dietary supplements of extruded linseeds (EL), fish oil (FO) or a mixture of EL and FO increase cis-9,trans-11 CLA and long-chain n-3 polyunsaturated FA in bovine milk. Supplements of FO cause milk fat depression in lactating cows, but information for dairy goats is limited. A total of 14 Alpine goats were used in a replicated 3×3 Latin square with 28-days experimental periods to examine the effects of EL alone or in combination with FO on animal performance, milk fat synthesis and milk FA composition. Treatments comprised diets based on natural grassland hay supplemented with no additional oil (control), 530 of EL or 340 g/day of EL and 39 g/day of FO (ELFO). Compared with the control, ELFO tended (P=0.08) to lower milk fat yield, whereas EL increased (P<0.01) milk fat content and yield (15% and 10%, respectively). Relative to EL, ELFO decreased (P<0.01) milk fat content and yield (19% and 17%, respectively). Relative to the control and ELFO, EL decreased (P<0.05) milk 10:0 to 16:0 and odd- and branched-chain FA content and increased 18:0, cis-18:1, trans-13 18:1 (and their corresponding ∆-9 (desaturase products), trans-12,cis-14 CLA, cis-13,trans-15 CLA, cis-12,trans-14 CLA and trans-11,cis-13 CLA and 18:3n-3 <span class="hlt">concentrations</span>. ELFO was more effective for enriching (P<0.05) milk cis-9, trans-11 CLA and trans-11 18:1 <span class="hlt">concentrations</span> (up to 5.4- and 7.1-fold compared with the control) than EL (up to 1.7- and 2.5-fold increases). Furthermore, ELFO resulted in a substantial increase in milk trans-10 18:1 <span class="hlt">concentration</span> (5.4% total FA), with considerable variation between individual animals. Relative to the control and EL, milk fat responses to ELFO were characterized by increases (P<0.05) in milk trans-16:1 (Δ9 to 11), trans-18:1 (Δ6</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25491438','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25491438"><span id="translatedtitle">Effect of extruded linseeds alone or in combination with fish oil on intake, milk production, plasma <span class="hlt">metabolite</span> <span class="hlt">concentrations</span> and milk fatty acid composition in lactating goats.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Bernard, L; Leroux, C; Rouel, J; Delavaud, C; Shingfield, K J; Chilliard, Y</p> <p>2015-05-01</p> <p>Based on the potential benefits for long-term human health, there is interest in developing sustainable nutritional strategies for lowering medium-chain saturated fatty acids (FA) and increasing specific unsaturated FA in ruminant milk. Dietary supplements of extruded linseeds (EL), fish oil (FO) or a mixture of EL and FO increase cis-9,trans-11 CLA and long-chain n-3 polyunsaturated FA in bovine milk. Supplements of FO cause milk fat depression in lactating cows, but information for dairy goats is limited. A total of 14 Alpine goats were used in a replicated 3×3 Latin square with 28-days experimental periods to examine the effects of EL alone or in combination with FO on animal performance, milk fat synthesis and milk FA composition. Treatments comprised diets based on natural grassland hay supplemented with no additional oil (control), 530 of EL or 340 g/day of EL and 39 g/day of FO (ELFO). Compared with the control, ELFO tended (P=0.08) to lower milk fat yield, whereas EL increased (P<0.01) milk fat content and yield (15% and 10%, respectively). Relative to EL, ELFO decreased (P<0.01) milk fat content and yield (19% and 17%, respectively). Relative to the control and ELFO, EL decreased (P<0.05) milk 10:0 to 16:0 and odd- and branched-chain FA content and increased 18:0, cis-18:1, trans-13 18:1 (and their corresponding ∆-9 (desaturase products), trans-12,cis-14 CLA, cis-13,trans-15 CLA, cis-12,trans-14 CLA and trans-11,cis-13 CLA and 18:3n-3 <span class="hlt">concentrations</span>. ELFO was more effective for enriching (P<0.05) milk cis-9, trans-11 CLA and trans-11 18:1 <span class="hlt">concentrations</span> (up to 5.4- and 7.1-fold compared with the control) than EL (up to 1.7- and 2.5-fold increases). Furthermore, ELFO resulted in a substantial increase in milk trans-10 18:1 <span class="hlt">concentration</span> (5.4% total FA), with considerable variation between individual animals. Relative to the control and EL, milk fat responses to ELFO were characterized by increases (P<0.05) in milk trans-16:1 (Δ9 to 11), trans-18:1 (Δ6</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27065142','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27065142"><span id="translatedtitle">Reducing crude protein and rumen degradable protein with a constant <span class="hlt">concentration</span> of rumen undegradable protein in the diet of dairy cows: Production performance, nutrient digestibility, nitrogen efficiency, and blood <span class="hlt">metabolites</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Bahrami-Yekdangi, M; Ghorbani, G R; Khorvash, M; Khan, M A; Ghaffari, M H</p> <p>2016-02-01</p> <p>The goals of ruminant protein nutrition are to provide adequate amounts of RDP for optimal ruminal efficiency and to obtain the desired animal productivity with a minimum amount of dietary CP. The aim of the present study was to examine effects of decreasing dietary protein by decreasing RDP with the optimum <span class="hlt">concentration</span> of RUP on production performance, nutrient digestibility, N retention, rumen fermentation parameters, and blood <span class="hlt">metabolites</span> in high-producing Holstein cows in early lactation. Nine multiparous lactating cows (second parities, averaging 50 ± 12 d in milk and milk yield of 48 ± 5 kg/d) were used in a triplicate 3 × 3 Latin square design with 3 rations: 1) a total mixed ration (TMR) containing 16.4% CP (10.9% RDP based on DM), 2) a TMR containing 15.6% CP (10% RDP), and 3) a TMR containing 14.8% CP (9.3% RDP). The level of RUP was constant at 5.5% DM across the treatments. All diets were calculated to supply a postruminal lysine to methionine ratio of about 3:1. Dry matter intake, milk yield and composition, 4% fat-corrected milk, and energy-corrected milk were not significantly affected by decreasing dietary CP and RDP levels. Cows fed 16.4% CP diets had greater ( < 0.01) CP and RDP intakes, which resulted in a trend toward greater <span class="hlt">concentrations</span> of plasma urea N compared with other treatments. Daily N intake linearly decreased ( < 0.01) with decreasing dietary CP and RDP levels, whereas the intake of RUP and fecal N excretion (g/d) did not change. Apparent digestibility of nutrients, ruminal pH, and NH-N <span class="hlt">concentration</span> were not affected with decreasing dietary CP and RDP levels. Apparent N efficiency increased, and RDP N intake and predicted urine N output decreased with decreased <span class="hlt">concentration</span> of dietary CP and RDP in the diets ( < 0.01). Blood <span class="hlt">metabolites</span> were not affected by treatments. In conclusion, to improve the efficiency of N utilization by early-lactation dairy cows, 9.3% RDP in rations provides adequate protein to optimize milk</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22444042','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22444042"><span id="translatedtitle">Effect of offering dairy cows diets differing in phosphorus <span class="hlt">concentration</span> over four successive lactations: 1. Food intake, milk production, tissue changes and blood <span class="hlt">metabolites</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Ferris, C P; Patterson, D C; McCoy, M A; Kilpatrick, D J</p> <p>2010-04-01</p> <p>The loss of phosphates from dairy farms contributes to the eutrophication of waterways. Whilst reducing the phosphorus (P) content of dairy cow diets has the potential to help reduce phosphate losses, diets containing inadequate dietary P may have a negative effect on cow health and performance. To address this issue, 100 winter-calving Holstein-Friesian dairy cows were offered diets containing either 'high' or 'low' levels of dietary P. The experiment was conducted over a 4-year period, with 80 primiparous cows commencing the study in year 1, while a further 20 primiparous cows commenced the study in year 2. Rations offered during the winter comprised grass silage, maize silage (70 : 30 dry matter (DM) basis, approximately) and <span class="hlt">concentrates</span> (10.0 to 12.0 kg/cow per day). During the summer periods in years 1 and 2, half of the cows grazed both day and night, while the remaining cows grazed by day, and were housed by night and offered grass silage. During years 3 and 4, all cows grazed both day and night during the summer period. <span class="hlt">Concentrate</span> feed levels during the summer periods were 3.0 to 4.0 kg/cow per day. Different dietary P levels were achieved by offering <span class="hlt">concentrates</span> containing either high or low P levels during the winter period (approximately 7.0 or 4.4 g P/kg DM respectively), and during the summer period (approximately 6.8 or 3.6 g P/kg DM, respectively). Total ration P levels averaged 4.9 and 3.6 g P/kg DM for the 'high' and 'low' P winter diets respectively, and 4.2 and 3.6 g P/kg DM for the 'high' and 'low' P summer diets respectively. A total of 95, 70, 50 and 22 cows completed each of lactations 1 to 4 respectively. Dietary P level had no significant effect on food intake, milk output or milk composition (P > 0.05). Plasma P <span class="hlt">concentrations</span> were significantly lower with cows offered the 'low' P diet in each of lactations 1 to 4 (P < 0.05). In each of lactations 3 and 4, cows offered the 'low' P diet tended to have lower condition scores and live</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26519832','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26519832"><span id="translatedtitle">Snapping Turtles (Chelydra serpentina) from Canadian Areas of Concern across the southern Laurentian Great Lakes: Chlorinated and brominated hydrocarbon contaminants and <span class="hlt">metabolites</span> in relation to circulating <span class="hlt">concentrations</span> of thyroxine and vitamin A.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Letcher, Robert J; Lu, Zhe; de Solla, Shane R; Sandau, Courtney D; Fernie, Kimberly J</p> <p>2015-11-01</p> <p>The <span class="hlt">metabolites</span> of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), as well as other halogenated phenolic contaminants (HPCs) have been shown to have endocrine-disrupting properties, and have been reported with increasing frequency in the blood of wildlife, and mainly in mammals and birds. However, little is known about the persistence, accumulation and distribution of these contaminants in long-lived freshwater reptiles. In the present study, in addition to a large suite of chlorinated and brominated contaminants, <span class="hlt">metabolites</span> and HPCs, we assessed and compared hydroxylated (OH) PCBs and OH-PBDEs relative to PCBs and PBDEs, respectively, in the plasma of adult male common snapping turtles (Chelydra serpentina). Blood samples were collected from 62 snapping turtles (2001-2004) at 12 wetland sites between the Detroit River and the St. Lawrence River on the Canadian side of the Laurentian Great Lakes of North America. Turtles were sampled from sites designated as Areas of Concern (AOCs) and from a relatively clean reference site in southern Georgian Bay (Tiny Marsh), Lake Huron. Plasma <span class="hlt">concentrations</span> of Σ46PCB (10-340 ng/g wet weight (ww)) and Σ28OH-PCB (3-83 ng/g ww) were significantly greater (p<0.05) in turtles from the Turkey Creek and Muddy Creek-Wheatley Harbour sites in Lake Erie compared with the reference site turtles. The HPC, pentachlorophenol (PCP), had a mean <span class="hlt">concentration</span> of 9.6±1.1 ng/g ww. Of the 28 OH-CB congeners screened for, 4-OH-CB187 (42±7 ng/g ww) was the most <span class="hlt">concentrated</span> of all HPCs measured. Of the 14 OH-BDE congeners examined, four (4'-OH-BDE17, 3-OH-BDE47, 5-OH-BDE47 and 4'-OH-BDE49) were consistently found in all plasma samples. p,p'-DDE was the most <span class="hlt">concentrated</span> of the 18 organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) examined. The mean <span class="hlt">concentrations</span> of circulating total thyroxine (TT4), dehydroretinol and retinol in the plasma of the male snapping turtles regardless of sampling site were 5.4±0.3, 81±4.7 and 291±13</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26519832','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26519832"><span id="translatedtitle">Snapping Turtles (Chelydra serpentina) from Canadian Areas of Concern across the southern Laurentian Great Lakes: Chlorinated and brominated hydrocarbon contaminants and <span class="hlt">metabolites</span> in relation to circulating <span class="hlt">concentrations</span> of thyroxine and vitamin A.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Letcher, Robert J; Lu, Zhe; de Solla, Shane R; Sandau, Courtney D; Fernie, Kimberly J</p> <p>2015-11-01</p> <p>The <span class="hlt">metabolites</span> of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), as well as other halogenated phenolic contaminants (HPCs) have been shown to have endocrine-disrupting properties, and have been reported with increasing frequency in the blood of wildlife, and mainly in mammals and birds. However, little is known about the persistence, accumulation and distribution of these contaminants in long-lived freshwater reptiles. In the present study, in addition to a large suite of chlorinated and brominated contaminants, <span class="hlt">metabolites</span> and HPCs, we assessed and compared hydroxylated (OH) PCBs and OH-PBDEs relative to PCBs and PBDEs, respectively, in the plasma of adult male common snapping turtles (Chelydra serpentina). Blood samples were collected from 62 snapping turtles (2001-2004) at 12 wetland sites between the Detroit River and the St. Lawrence River on the Canadian side of the Laurentian Great Lakes of North America. Turtles were sampled from sites designated as Areas of Concern (AOCs) and from a relatively clean reference site in southern Georgian Bay (Tiny Marsh), Lake Huron. Plasma <span class="hlt">concentrations</span> of Σ46PCB (10-340 ng/g wet weight (ww)) and Σ28OH-PCB (3-83 ng/g ww) were significantly greater (p<0.05) in turtles from the Turkey Creek and Muddy Creek-Wheatley Harbour sites in Lake Erie compared with the reference site turtles. The HPC, pentachlorophenol (PCP), had a mean <span class="hlt">concentration</span> of 9.6±1.1 ng/g ww. Of the 28 OH-CB congeners screened for, 4-OH-CB187 (42±7 ng/g ww) was the most <span class="hlt">concentrated</span> of all HPCs measured. Of the 14 OH-BDE congeners examined, four (4'-OH-BDE17, 3-OH-BDE47, 5-OH-BDE47 and 4'-OH-BDE49) were consistently found in all plasma samples. p,p'-DDE was the most <span class="hlt">concentrated</span> of the 18 organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) examined. The mean <span class="hlt">concentrations</span> of circulating total thyroxine (TT4), dehydroretinol and retinol in the plasma of the male snapping turtles regardless of sampling site were 5.4±0.3, 81±4.7 and 291±13</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_10");'>10</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_11");'>11</a></li> <li class="active"><span>12</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>13</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");'>14</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_12 --> <div id="page_13" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_11");'>11</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_12");'>12</a></li> <li class="active"><span>13</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");'>14</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");'>15</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="241"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25446885','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25446885"><span id="translatedtitle">Alterations in vitamin D <span class="hlt">metabolite</span>, parathyroid hormone and fibroblast growth factor-23 <span class="hlt">concentrations</span> in sclerostin-deficient mice permit the maintenance of a high bone mass.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Ryan, Zachary C; Craig, Theodore A; McGee-Lawrence, Meghan; Westendorf, Jennifer J; Kumar, Rajiv</p> <p>2015-04-01</p> <p>Humans with mutations of the sclerostin (SOST) gene, and knockout animals in which the Sost gene has been experimentally deleted, exhibit an increase in bone mass. We review the mechanisms by which Sost knockout mice are able to accrete increased amounts of calcium and phosphorus required for the maintenance of a high bone mass. Recently published information from our laboratory, shows that bone mass is increased in Sost-deficient mice through an increase in osteoblast and a decrease in osteoclast activity, which is mediated by activation of β-catenin and an increase in prostacyclin synthesis in osteocytes and osteoblasts. The increases in calcium and phosphorus retention required for enhanced bone mineral accretion are brought about by changes in the vitamin D endocrine system, parathyroid hormone (PTH) and fibroblast growth factor-23 (FGF-23). Thus, in Sost knockout mice, <span class="hlt">concentrations</span> of serum 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D (1,25(OH)2D) are increased and <span class="hlt">concentrations</span> of FGF-23 are decreased thereby allowing a positive calcium and phosphorus balance. Additionally, in the absence of Sost expression, urinary calcium is decreased, either through a direct effect of sclerostin on renal calcium handling, or through its effect on the synthesis of 1,25(OH)2D. Adaptations in vitamin D, PTH and FGF-23 physiology occur in the absence of sclerostin expression and mediate increased calcium and phosphorus retention required for the increase in bone mineralization. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled '17th Vitamin D Workshop'.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17002432','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17002432"><span id="translatedtitle">Changes in glucosinolate <span class="hlt">concentrations</span>, myrosinase activity, and production of <span class="hlt">metabolites</span> of glucosinolates in cabbage (Brassica oleracea Var. capitata) cooked for different durations.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Rungapamestry, Vanessa; Duncan, Alan J; Fuller, Zoë; Ratcliffe, Brian</p> <p>2006-10-01</p> <p>In cabbage, glucosinolates such as sinigrin are hydrolyzed by plant myrosinase to allyl isothiocyanate (AITC), allyl cyanide, and, in the presence of an epithiospecifier protein, 1-cyano-2,3-epithiopropane (CEP). Isothiocyanates have been implicated in the cancer-protective effects of Brassica vegetables. The effect of processing on the hydrolysis of glucosinolates was investigated in cabbage. Cabbage was steamed or microwaved for six time durations over 7 min. Glucosinolate <span class="hlt">concentrations</span> were slightly reduced after microwave cooking (P < 0.001) but were not influenced after steaming (P < 0.05). Myrosinase activity was effectively lost after 2 min of microwave cooking and after 7 min of steaming. Hydrolysis of residual glucosinolates following cooking yielded predominantly CEP at short cooking durations and AITC at longer durations until myrosinase activity was lost. Lightly cooked cabbage produced the highest yield of AITC on hydrolysis in vitro, suggesting that cooking Brassica vegetables for a relatively short duration may be desirable from a health perspective.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20030903','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20030903"><span id="translatedtitle">Milk production, peripartal liver triglyceride <span class="hlt">concentration</span> and plasma <span class="hlt">metabolites</span> of dairy cows fed diets supplemented with calcium soaps or hydrogenated triglycerides of palm oil.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Karcagi, Roland G; Gaál, Tibor; Ribiczey, Piroska; Huszenicza, Gyula; Husvéth, Ferenc</p> <p>2010-05-01</p> <p>The aim of the study was to test the effect of rumen-inert fat supplements of different chemical forms or containing different unsaturated/saturated (U/S) fatty acid contents on milk production, milk composition and liver and blood metabolic variables of high-yielding dairy cows in the peripartal period. Thirty Holstein-Friesian dairy cows were divided into three equal groups and fed a corn silage-based diet, without fat supplementation (control) or supplemented with 11.75 MJ NEl per day of calcium soaps of palm oil fatty acids (CAS; U/S=61/39) or with 11.75 MJ NEl per day of hydrogenated palm oil triglyceride (HTG; U/S=6/94). Each diet was fed from 25+/-2 d prior to the expected calving to 100+/-5 d post partum. Compared with the control, both CAS and HTG supplementation resulted in an increase of the average milk yield. Milk fat content and fat-corrected milk yield were higher in the HTG group but lower in the CAS group than in the control group. In all groups liver triglyceride <span class="hlt">concentrations</span> (TGL) increased from 15 d prepartum to 5 d post partum, and then decreased thereafter. At 5 d TGL was lower in the HTG group than control or CAS cows. No significant differences were detected in TGL among dietary treatments at 15 d prepartum and 25 d post partum. Higher plasma glucose and insulin and lower non-esterified fatty acids and beta-hydroxybutyrate <span class="hlt">concentrations</span> and aspartate aminotransferase activity were measured in the HTG group than in the control or CAS groups at 5 d or 25 d post partum. Our results show that HTG may provide a better energy supply for high-yielding dairy cows in negative energy balance than CAS around calving.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/9437573','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/9437573"><span id="translatedtitle">Effect of exogenous estradiol on plasma <span class="hlt">concentrations</span> of somatotropin, insulin-like growth factor-I, insulin-like growth factor binding protein activity, and <span class="hlt">metabolites</span> in ovariectomized Angus and Brahman cows.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Simpson, R B; Chase, C C; Spicer, L J; Carroll, J A; Hammond, A C; Welsh, T H</p> <p>1997-11-01</p> <p>To determine the effect of breed and estradiol-17 beta on selected hormones and <span class="hlt">metabolites</span>, ovariectomized (> or = 3 mo) Angus (n = 14) and Brahman (n = 12) cows were paired by age and body weight and randomly assigned as either nonimplanted controls (CON) or implanted with estradiol (E2) for 45 d. After Day 7 and through Day 42, plasma <span class="hlt">concentration</span> of somatotropin was greater for E2 than CON cows (treatment x day, P < 0.05). During an intensive blood sampling on Day 36, E2 cows tended (P < 0.10) to have greater somatotropin pulse amplitudes than CON cows, but other parameters of somatotropin release were not affected (P > 0.10) by E2 treatment. The effect of breed was apparent on Day 36 as Brahman cows had greater (P < 0.05) somatotropin pulse amplitude, basal secretion, and mean <span class="hlt">concentration</span> than Angus cows. Overall, plasma <span class="hlt">concentration</span> of IGF-I was greater (P < 0.01) for E2 than CON cows (158.3 vs. 104.2 ng/ml) and was greater for Brahman than Angus cows (164.1 vs. 98.4 ng/ml). However, there was a trend (P < 0.10) for a treatment x breed x day interaction for IGF-I (i.e., the magnitude of increase in IGF-I <span class="hlt">concentration</span> was greater in E2-Angus than E2-Brahman cows). After Day 7 and through Day 42, total plasma IGF binding protein (IGFBP) activity was greater (P < 0.01) for E2 than CON cows. Ligand blotting revealed at least five forms of IGFBP activity, and E2 cows had greater (P < 0.05) binding activity of IGFBP-3 and the 30- and 32-kDa IGFBP than CON cows. Brahman cows had greater (P < 0.05) IGFBP-3 and the 32-kDa IGFBP than Angus cows. After Day 14 and through Day 42, <span class="hlt">concentration</span> of urea nitrogen (PUN) was greater (P < 0.001) for CON than E2 cows (treatment x day, P < 0.001). Brahman had greater (P < 0.01) PUN than Angus cows (16.6 vs. 14.2 mg/dl). Plasma <span class="hlt">concentration</span> of glucose was greater (P < 0.01) for E2 than CON cows (78.9 vs. 76.4 mg/dl) but was not affected (P > 0.10) by breed. In summary, these data suggest that some, but not all, of the</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24697550','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24697550"><span id="translatedtitle">Effect of different <span class="hlt">concentrations</span> of ginger root powder and its essential oil on growth performance, serum <span class="hlt">metabolites</span> and antioxidant status in broiler chicks under heat stress.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Habibi, R; Sadeghi, Gh; Karimi, A</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>1. This study was carried out to evaluate the impact of ginger (Zingiber officinale) feed supplementation on growth performance, antioxidant status, carcass characteristics and blood parameters in broiler chicks under conditions of heat stress (32 ± 2ºC for 8 h per d). 2. A total of 336 d-old male broiler chicks (Cobb-500) were randomly assigned to one of 6 dietary groups representing: basal diet with no supplement as control, basal diet containing 100 mg/kg vitamin E as positive control, basal diets containing either 7.5 or 15 g/kg of ginger root powder, and diets containing 75 or 150 mg/kg of ginger essential oil. 3. The results indicated that at 22 d of age, the group receiving 7.5 g/kg of ginger root powder experienced significantly increased body weight (BW) and body weight gain (BWG) compared to the control group. There were no significant difference among the diet groups regarding BW, BWG, feed intake (FI) or feed conversion ratio (FCR) at 42 and 49 d of age. 4. The inclusion of powder and essential oil of ginger in broiler diets did not affect carcass characteristics and blood parameters of the chickens. However, in the group receiving 150 mg/kg ginger essential oil, the total superoxide dismutase (TSOD) activity in liver increased compared to the control group. Malondialdehyde (MDA) <span class="hlt">concentrations</span> in liver also decreased in the groups receiving ginger powder and essential oil compared to that in the control group. There were no significant difference between experimental groups regarding glutathione peroxidise (Gpx), TSOD and catalase (CAT) enzymes in red blood cells. All dietary groups increased total antioxidant capacity (TAC) and decreased MDA <span class="hlt">concentration</span> in serum compared to the control group. 5. The results of this study suggest that ginger powder and essential oils may be a suitable replacement for synthetic antioxidants in broiler diets. Results also suggest that ginger powder might be better than extracted essential oil for improving</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24697550','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24697550"><span id="translatedtitle">Effect of different <span class="hlt">concentrations</span> of ginger root powder and its essential oil on growth performance, serum <span class="hlt">metabolites</span> and antioxidant status in broiler chicks under heat stress.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Habibi, R; Sadeghi, Gh; Karimi, A</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>1. This study was carried out to evaluate the impact of ginger (Zingiber officinale) feed supplementation on growth performance, antioxidant status, carcass characteristics and blood parameters in broiler chicks under conditions of heat stress (32 ± 2ºC for 8 h per d). 2. A total of 336 d-old male broiler chicks (Cobb-500) were randomly assigned to one of 6 dietary groups representing: basal diet with no supplement as control, basal diet containing 100 mg/kg vitamin E as positive control, basal diets containing either 7.5 or 15 g/kg of ginger root powder, and diets containing 75 or 150 mg/kg of ginger essential oil. 3. The results indicated that at 22 d of age, the group receiving 7.5 g/kg of ginger root powder experienced significantly increased body weight (BW) and body weight gain (BWG) compared to the control group. There were no significant difference among the diet groups regarding BW, BWG, feed intake (FI) or feed conversion ratio (FCR) at 42 and 49 d of age. 4. The inclusion of powder and essential oil of ginger in broiler diets did not affect carcass characteristics and blood parameters of the chickens. However, in the group receiving 150 mg/kg ginger essential oil, the total superoxide dismutase (TSOD) activity in liver increased compared to the control group. Malondialdehyde (MDA) <span class="hlt">concentrations</span> in liver also decreased in the groups receiving ginger powder and essential oil compared to that in the control group. There were no significant difference between experimental groups regarding glutathione peroxidise (Gpx), TSOD and catalase (CAT) enzymes in red blood cells. All dietary groups increased total antioxidant capacity (TAC) and decreased MDA <span class="hlt">concentration</span> in serum compared to the control group. 5. The results of this study suggest that ginger powder and essential oils may be a suitable replacement for synthetic antioxidants in broiler diets. Results also suggest that ginger powder might be better than extracted essential oil for improving</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4852231','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4852231"><span id="translatedtitle">Effect of L- or DL-methionine Supplementation on Nitrogen Retention, Serum Amino Acid <span class="hlt">Concentrations</span> and Blood <span class="hlt">Metabolites</span> Profile in Starter Pigs</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Tian, Q. Y.; Zeng, Z. K.; Zhang, Y. X.; Long, S. F.; Piao, X. S.</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>The objective of the current study was to evaluate the effect of supplementation of either L-methionine (L-Met) or DL-methionine (DL-Met) to diets of starter pigs on nitrogen (N) balance, metabolism, and serum amino acid profile. Eighteen crossbred (Duroc×Landrace×Yorkshire) barrows weighing 15.45±0.88 kg were randomly allotted to 1 of 3 diets with 6 pigs per treatment. The diets included a basal diet (Met-deficient diet) containing 0.24% standardized ileal digestibility Met with all other essential nutrients meeting the pig’s requirements. The other two diets were produced by supplementing the basal diet with 0.12% DL-Met or L-Met. The experiment lasted for 18 days, consisting of a 13-day adaptation period to the diets followed by a 5-day experimental period. Pigs were fed ad libitum and free access to water throughout the experiment. Results showed that the supplementation of either L-Met or DL-Met improved N retention, and serum methionine <span class="hlt">concentration</span>, and decreased N excretion compared with basal diet (p<0.01). The N retention of pigs fed diets supplemented with the same inclusion levels of DL-Met or L-Met were not different (p>0.05). In conclusion, on equimolar basis DL-Met and L-Met are equally bioavailable as Met sources for starter pigs. PMID:26954214</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19720059878&hterms=rights+author&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D80%26Ntt%3Drights%2Bauthor','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19720059878&hterms=rights+author&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D80%26Ntt%3Drights%2Bauthor"><span id="translatedtitle">Singular perturbation of <span class="hlt">absolute</span> stability.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Siljak, D. D.</p> <p>1972-01-01</p> <p>It was previously shown (author, 1969) that the regions of <span class="hlt">absolute</span> stability in the parameter space can be determined when the parameters appear on the right-hand side of the system equations, i.e., the regular case. Here, the effect on <span class="hlt">absolute</span> stability of a small parameter attached to higher derivatives in the equations (the singular case) is studied. The Lur'e-Postnikov class of nonlinear systems is considered.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26331907','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26331907"><span id="translatedtitle">Dependence of negative-mode electrospray ionization response factors on mobile phase composition and molecular structure for newly-authenticated neutral acylsucrose <span class="hlt">metabolites</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Ghosh, Banibrata; Jones, A Daniel</p> <p>2015-10-01</p> <p>Authentic standards of known <span class="hlt">concentrations</span> serve as references for accurate <span class="hlt">absolute</span> quantification of plant <span class="hlt">metabolites</span> using liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry (LC/MS). However, often such standards are not commercially available or not amenable for custom syntheses. Despite the widespread use of electrospray ionization for <span class="hlt">metabolite</span> analyses, the fundamentals needed for reliable prediction of molecular response factors have yet to be explored in detail for analytes that lack ionized functional groups. In order to lay a foundation for quantifying unknown neutral plant <span class="hlt">metabolites</span> in absence of authentic standards, sub-milligram quantities of purified homologous acylsucrose <span class="hlt">metabolites</span> were authenticated by subjecting each to basic hydrolysis and quantifying the sucrose product using stable-isotope dilution ultrahigh performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (UHPLC-MS/MS) with multiple reaction monitoring (MRM). Once authenticated, molar response factors of [M + formate](-) ions for the acylsucrose <span class="hlt">metabolites</span> were determined at different mobile phase compositions ranging from 40%-80% acetonitrile, and demonstrated relationships of response factors with mobile phase composition and <span class="hlt">metabolite</span> structural features including nonpolar surface areas, the length of the longest acyl chain, and the number of hydroxyl groups. This approach was employed to calculate predicted response factors for three authenticated acylsucroses based on mean values for all isomers with a common number of total acyl carbon atoms. <span class="hlt">Absolute</span> UHPLC-MS quantification was performed on these three <span class="hlt">metabolites</span> in an extract from leaves of the wild tomato Solanum habrochaites LA1777, yielding deviations of 26%, 6.7%, and 7.3% from values established using compound-specific response factors. PMID:26331907</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4039355','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4039355"><span id="translatedtitle">Antimicrobial and Antiinsectan Phenolic <span class="hlt">Metabolites</span> of Dalea searlsiae</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p></p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>Continued interest in the chemistry of Dalea spp. led to investigation of Dalea searlsiae, a plant native to areas of the western United States. Methanol extractions of D. searlsiae roots and subsequent chromatographic fractionation afforded the new prenylated and geranylated flavanones malheurans A–D (1–4) and known flavanones (5 and 6). Known rotenoids (7 and 8) and isoflavones (9 and 10) were isolated from aerial portions. Structure determination of pure compounds was accomplished primarily by extensive 1D- and 2D-NMR spectroscopy. The <span class="hlt">absolute</span> configurations of compounds 1–5, 7, and 8 were assigned using electronic circular dichroism spectroscopy. Antimicrobial bioassays revealed significant activity <span class="hlt">concentrated</span> in the plant roots. Compounds 1–6 exhibited MICs of 2–8 μg/mL against Streptococcus mutans, Bacillus cereus, and oxacillin-sensitive and -resistant Staphylococcus aureus. Aerial <span class="hlt">metabolites</span> 7–10 were inactive against these organisms, but the presence of 7 and 8 prompted investigation of the antiinsectan activity of D. searlsiae <span class="hlt">metabolites</span> toward the major crop pest Spodoptera frugiperda (fall armyworm). While compounds 1–10 all caused significant reductions in larval growth rates, associated mortality (33–66%) was highest with flavanone 4 and rotenoids 7 and 8. These findings suggest a differential allocation of antimicrobial and antiinsectan plant resources to root and aerial portions of the plant, respectively. PMID:24761805</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25792186','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25792186"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Absolute</span> quantitation of glycolytic intermediates reveals thermodynamic shifts in Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains lacking PFK1 or ZWF1 genes.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Nishino, Shunsuke; Okahashi, Nobuyuki; Matsuda, Fumio; Shimizu, Hiroshi</p> <p>2015-09-01</p> <p>Internal standard based <span class="hlt">absolute</span> quantitation of glycolytic intermediates was performed to characterize the thermodynamic states of Saccharomyces cerevisiae metabolism. A mixture of (13)C-labeled glycolytic intermediates was prepared via extraction from S. cerevisiae cells cultivated using a synthetic medium containing [U-(13)C] glucose as the sole carbon source. The (13)C-labeled <span class="hlt">metabolite</span> mixture was used as an internal standard for the analysis of S. cerevisiae cultivated in a medium containing natural glucose. The methodology was employed for the <span class="hlt">absolute</span> quantitation of glycolytic intermediates of BY4742, pfk1Δ, and zwf1Δ strains of S. cerevisiae. Fructose-1,6-bisphosphate was the most abundant intermediate in the BY4742 strains in the log phase of growth. Estimation of the Gibbs free energy change (ΔG) from the <span class="hlt">absolute</span> <span class="hlt">concentration</span> revealed that several reactions, such as those catalyzed by ribose-5-phosphate keto-isomerase and phosphoglucose isomerase, were commonly at near-equilibrium in all three strains. A significant shift in thermodynamic state was also observed for the transketolase-transaldolase reaction, for which ΔG was -6.6 ± 0.5 kJ mol(-1) in the BY4742 strain and 5.4 ± 0.3 kJ mol(-1) in the zwf1Δ strain.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/7023362','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/7023362"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Absolute</span> flux scale for radioastronomy</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Ivanov, V.P.; Stankevich, K.S.</p> <p>1986-07-01</p> <p>The authors propose and provide support for a new <span class="hlt">absolute</span> flux scale for radio astronomy, which is not encumbered with the inadequacies of the previous scales. In constructing it the method of relative spectra was used (a powerful tool for choosing reference spectra). A review is given of previous flux scales. The authors compare the AIS scale with the scale they propose. Both scales are based on <span class="hlt">absolute</span> measurements by the ''artificial moon'' method, and they are practically coincident in the range from 0.96 to 6 GHz. At frequencies above 6 GHz, 0.96 GHz, the AIS scale is overestimated because of incorrect extrapolation of the spectra of the primary and secondary standards. The major results which have emerged from this review of <span class="hlt">absolute</span> scales in radio astronomy are summarized.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24043374','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24043374"><span id="translatedtitle">Higher body weight patients on clopidogrel maintenance therapy have lower active <span class="hlt">metabolite</span> <span class="hlt">concentrations</span>, lower levels of platelet inhibition, and higher rates of poor responders than low body weight patients.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Wagner, Henrik; Angiolillo, Dominick J; Ten Berg, Jurrien M; Bergmeijer, Thomas O; Jakubowski, Joseph A; Small, David S; Moser, Brian A; Zhou, Chunmei; Brown, Patricia; James, Stefan; Winters, Kenneth J; Erlinge, David</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>Body weight is a predictor of clopidogrel response. However, no prospective studies have compared pharmacodynamic (PD) and pharmacokinetic (PK) data based on body weight. We compared PD and PK effects of clopidogrel 75 mg in low body weight (LBW, <60 kg) and higher body weight (HBW, ≥60 kg) patients with stable coronary artery disease. LBW (n = 34, 56.4 ± 3.7 kg) and HBW (n = 38, 84.7 ± 14.9 kg) aspirin-treated patients received clopidogrel 75 mg for 10-14 days. The area under the <span class="hlt">concentration</span>-time curve of active <span class="hlt">metabolite</span> (Clop-AM) calculated through the last quantifiable <span class="hlt">concentration</span> up to 4 h postdose, AUC(0-tlast), was calculated by noncompartmental methods. Light transmission aggregometry (LTA) (maximum platelet aggregation and inhibition of platelet aggregation to 20 μM adenosine diphosphate (ADP), and residual platelet aggregation to 5 μM ADP), VerifyNow(®) P2Y12 reaction units (PRU), and vasodilator-associated stimulated phosphoprotein phosphorylation platelet reactivity index (VASP-PRI) were performed. Mean AUC(0-tlast) was lower in HBW than LBW patients: 12.8 versus 17.9 ng h/mL. HBW patients had higher platelet reactivity as measured by LTA (all p ≤ 0.01), PRU (207 ± 68 vs. 152 ± 57, p < 0.001), and VASP-PRI (56 ± 18 vs. 39 ± 17, p < 0.001). More HBW patients exhibited high on-treatment platelet reactivity (HPR) using PRU (35 vs. 9%) and VASP-PRI (65 vs. 27%). Body weight correlated with PRU and VASP-PRI (both p < 0.001), and inversely with log transformed AUC(0-tlast) (p < 0.001). In conclusion, HBW patients had lower levels of Clop-AM, and higher platelet reactivity and rates of HPR than LBW subjects, contributing to their suboptimal response to clopidogrel. PMID:24043374</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26939265','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26939265"><span id="translatedtitle">Quantification of Secondary <span class="hlt">Metabolites</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p></p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>Plants are a rich source of secondary <span class="hlt">metabolites</span> that have medicinal and aromatic properties. Secondary <span class="hlt">metabolites</span> such as alkaloids, iridoids and phenolics generally produced by plants for their defence mechanisms have been implicated in the therapeutic properties of most medicinal plants. Hence, quantification of these <span class="hlt">metabolites</span> will aid to discover new and effective drugs from plant sources and also to scientifically validate the existing traditional practices. Quantification of large group of phytochemicals such as phenolics and flavonoids is quantified in this context.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=Absolutism&pg=3&id=EJ265369','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=Absolutism&pg=3&id=EJ265369"><span id="translatedtitle">Relativistic <span class="hlt">Absolutism</span> in Moral Education.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Vogt, W. Paul</p> <p>1982-01-01</p> <p>Discusses Emile Durkheim's "Moral Education: A Study in the Theory and Application of the Sociology of Education," which holds that morally healthy societies may vary in culture and organization but must possess <span class="hlt">absolute</span> rules of moral behavior. Compares this moral theory with current theory and practice of American educators. (MJL)</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19720027445&hterms=Phosphorus&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D60%26Ntt%3DPhosphorus','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19720027445&hterms=Phosphorus&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D60%26Ntt%3DPhosphorus"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Absolute</span> transition probabilities of phosphorus.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Miller, M. H.; Roig, R. A.; Bengtson, R. D.</p> <p>1971-01-01</p> <p>Use of a gas-driven shock tube to measure the <span class="hlt">absolute</span> strengths of 21 P I lines and 126 P II lines (from 3300 to 6900 A). Accuracy for prominent, isolated neutral and ionic lines is estimated to be 28 to 40% and 18 to 30%, respectively. The data and the corresponding theoretical predictions are examined for conformity with the sum rules.-</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26730489','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26730489"><span id="translatedtitle">Pharmacokinetic study of harmane and its 10 <span class="hlt">metabolites</span> in rat after intravenous and oral administration by UPLC-ESI-MS/MS.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Li, Shuping; Teng, Liang; Liu, Wei; Cheng, Xuemei; Jiang, Bo; Wang, Zhengtao; Wang, Chang-Hong</p> <p>2016-09-01</p> <p>Context The β-carboline alkaloid harmane is widely distributed in common foods, beverages and hallucinogenic plants. Harmane exerts potential in therapies for Alzheimer's and depression diseases. However, little information on its dynamic metabolic profiles and pharmacokinetics in vivo is currently available. Objective This study investigates the dynamic metabolic profiles and pharmacokinetic properties of harmane and its <span class="hlt">metabolites</span> in rats in vivo. Materials and methods A highly selective, sensitive and rapid ultra-performance liquid chromatography combined with electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-ESI-MS/MS) method was developed and well-validated for simultaneous quantitative determination of harmane and its uncertain endogenous <span class="hlt">metabolite</span> harmine, as well as for semiquantitative determination of 10 harmane <span class="hlt">metabolites</span> in rats after intravenous injection and oral administration of harmane at 1.0 and 30.0 mg/kg, respectively. Results The calibration curves of harmane and harmine showed excellent linearity within the <span class="hlt">concentration</span> range of 1-2000 ng/mL with acceptable accuracy, precision, selectivity, recovery, matrix effect and stability. Ten <span class="hlt">metabolites</span>, including harmane but not harmine, were detected and identified after intravenous and oral administration of harmane. The <span class="hlt">absolute</span> bioavailability of harmane following an oral dose was 19.41 ± 3.97%. According to the AUC0-t values of all the <span class="hlt">metabolites</span>, the metabolic levels of phase II <span class="hlt">metabolites</span> were higher than those of phase I <span class="hlt">metabolites</span>, and the sulphation pathways were the dominant metabolic routes for harmane in both routes of administration. Discussion and conclusion The pharmacokinetic properties of harmane and its 10 <span class="hlt">metabolites</span> in rats were determined. Sulphate conjugation was the predominant metabolic process of harmane in rats. PMID:26730489</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22354074','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22354074"><span id="translatedtitle">Cytogenetic status of human lymphocytes after exposure to low <span class="hlt">concentrations</span> of p,p'-DDT, and its <span class="hlt">metabolites</span> (p,p'-DDE, and p,p'-DDD) in vitro.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Gerić, Marko; Ceraj-Cerić, Nikolina; Gajski, Goran; Vasilić, Želimira; Capuder, Željka; Garaj-Vrhovac, Vera</p> <p>2012-06-01</p> <p>Despite that the use of DDT has been restricted for more than 40 years to malaria affected areas, low doses of this pesticide and its <span class="hlt">metabolites</span> DDE and DDD can be found in the environment around the world. Although it has been shown that these pollutants induce cell and DNA damage, the mechanisms of their cytogenotoxic activity remains largely unknown. This study looks into their possible genotoxic effects, at doses that can be found in body fluids, on human lymphocytes using the cytokinesis-block micronucleus assay and the comet assay. After exposure for 1, 6, and 24 h compounds p,p'-DDT (0.1 μg mL(-1)), p,p'-DDE (4.1 μg mL(-1)), and p,p'-DDD (3.9 μg mL(-1)) showed increase in DNA damage. The most significant results were observed at exposure period of 24 h where number of micronucleated cells increased from control 2.5±0.71 to 23.5±3.54, 13.5±0.71, and 16.5±6.36 for DDT, DDE, and DDD, respectively. Similar effect was observed using comet test where the percentage of DNA in comets tail increased from control 1.81±0.16 to 17.24±0.55, 11.21±0.56 and 9.28±0.50 for each compound, respectively. At the same time Fpg-comet assay failed to report induction of oxidative DNA damage of these pollutants. Additionally, the type of cell death was determined using diffusion assay and necrosis dominated. Our findings suggest that even at low <span class="hlt">concentrations</span>, these pesticides could induce cytogenetic damage to human peripheral blood lymphocytes and in that manner have the impact on human health as well. PMID:22354074</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26567921','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26567921"><span id="translatedtitle">Increased plasma serotonin <span class="hlt">metabolite</span> 5-hydroxyindole acetic acid <span class="hlt">concentrations</span> are associated with impaired systolic and late diastolic forward flows during cardiac cycle and elevated resistive index at popliteal artery and renal insufficiency in type 2 diabetic patients with microalbuminuria.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Saito, Jun; Suzuki, Eiji; Tajima, Yoshitaka; Takami, Kazuhisa; Horikawa, Yukio; Takeda, Jun</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>Although lower extremity arterial disease is frequently accompanied by diabetes mellitus, the association of circulating biomarkers with flow components during the cardiac cycle in lower-leg arteries has yet to be fully elucidated. We enrolled 165 type 2 diabetic patients with normal ankle-brachial index (ABI 1.0-1.4), comprising 106 normoalbuminuric and 59 microalbuminuric patients, and 40 age-matched nondiabetic subjects consecutively admitted to our hospital. Serum high sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP) level and plasma von Willebrand factor ristocetin cofactor activity (VWF) and vasoconstrictor serotonin <span class="hlt">metabolite</span> 5-hydroxyindole acetic acid (5-HIAA) <span class="hlt">concentrations</span> were measured. An automatic device was used to measure ABI and brachial-ankle pulse wave velocity (baPWV). Flow components during the cardiac cycle, total flow volume, and resistive index at popliteal artery were evaluated using gated magnetic resonance imaging. Although estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR), early diastolic flow reversal, heart rate, and ABI were similar between the groups, diabetic patients had higher log hsCRP (p<0.001), VWF (p<0.001), 5-HIAA (p=0.002), resistive index (p<0.001) and baPWV (p<0.001) and lower systolic (p=0.026) and late diastolic (p<0.001) forward flows and total flow volume (p<0.001) than nondiabetic subjects. Multivariate analyses demonstrated that 5-HIAA in microalbuminuric patients showed higher associations with systolic and late diastolic forward flows during the cardiac cycle, total flow volume and resistive index at popliteal artery, and eGFR compared to normoalbuminuric patients. In microalbuminuric patients, 5-HIAA was a significant independent determinant among these factors. Thus, increased plasma 5-HIAA levels are involved in the pathogenesis of impaired blood flow in lower extremities and renal insufficiency in diabetic patients with microalbuminuria.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22354074','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22354074"><span id="translatedtitle">Cytogenetic status of human lymphocytes after exposure to low <span class="hlt">concentrations</span> of p,p'-DDT, and its <span class="hlt">metabolites</span> (p,p'-DDE, and p,p'-DDD) in vitro.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Gerić, Marko; Ceraj-Cerić, Nikolina; Gajski, Goran; Vasilić, Želimira; Capuder, Željka; Garaj-Vrhovac, Vera</p> <p>2012-06-01</p> <p>Despite that the use of DDT has been restricted for more than 40 years to malaria affected areas, low doses of this pesticide and its <span class="hlt">metabolites</span> DDE and DDD can be found in the environment around the world. Although it has been shown that these pollutants induce cell and DNA damage, the mechanisms of their cytogenotoxic activity remains largely unknown. This study looks into their possible genotoxic effects, at doses that can be found in body fluids, on human lymphocytes using the cytokinesis-block micronucleus assay and the comet assay. After exposure for 1, 6, and 24 h compounds p,p'-DDT (0.1 μg mL(-1)), p,p'-DDE (4.1 μg mL(-1)), and p,p'-DDD (3.9 μg mL(-1)) showed increase in DNA damage. The most significant results were observed at exposure period of 24 h where number of micronucleated cells increased from control 2.5±0.71 to 23.5±3.54, 13.5±0.71, and 16.5±6.36 for DDT, DDE, and DDD, respectively. Similar effect was observed using comet test where the percentage of DNA in comets tail increased from control 1.81±0.16 to 17.24±0.55, 11.21±0.56 and 9.28±0.50 for each compound, respectively. At the same time Fpg-comet assay failed to report induction of oxidative DNA damage of these pollutants. Additionally, the type of cell death was determined using diffusion assay and necrosis dominated. Our findings suggest that even at low <span class="hlt">concentrations</span>, these pesticides could induce cytogenetic damage to human peripheral blood lymphocytes and in that manner have the impact on human health as well.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_11");'>11</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_12");'>12</a></li> <li class="active"><span>13</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");'>14</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");'>15</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_13 --> <div id="page_14" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_12");'>12</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>13</a></li> <li class="active"><span>14</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");'>15</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="261"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27581485','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27581485"><span id="translatedtitle">Transient <span class="hlt">absolute</span> robustness in stochastic biochemical networks.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Enciso, German A</p> <p>2016-08-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Absolute</span> robustness allows biochemical networks to sustain a consistent steady-state output in the face of protein <span class="hlt">concentration</span> variability from cell to cell. This property is structural and can be determined from the topology of the network alone regardless of rate parameters. An important question regarding these systems is the effect of discrete biochemical noise in the dynamical behaviour. In this paper, a variable freezing technique is developed to show that under mild hypotheses the corresponding stochastic system has a transiently robust behaviour. Specifically, after finite time the distribution of the output approximates a Poisson distribution, centred around the deterministic mean. The approximation becomes increasingly accurate, and it holds for increasingly long finite times, as the total protein <span class="hlt">concentrations</span> grow to infinity. In particular, the stochastic system retains a transient, <span class="hlt">absolutely</span> robust behaviour corresponding to the deterministic case. This result contrasts with the long-term dynamics of the stochastic system, which eventually must undergo an extinction event that eliminates robustness and is completely different from the deterministic dynamics. The transiently robust behaviour may be sufficient to carry out many forms of robust signal transduction and cellular decision-making in cellular organisms. PMID:27581485</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23357430','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23357430"><span id="translatedtitle">NMR identification of endogenous <span class="hlt">metabolites</span> interacting with fatted and non-fatted human serum albumin in blood plasma: Fatty acids influence the HSA-<span class="hlt">metabolite</span> interaction.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Jupin, Marc; Michiels, Paul J; Girard, Frederic C; Spraul, Manfred; Wijmenga, Sybren S</p> <p>2013-03-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Metabolites</span> and their <span class="hlt">concentrations</span> are direct reporters on body biochemistry. Thanks to technical developments metabolic profiling of body fluids, such as blood plasma, by for instance NMR has in the past decade become increasingly accurate enabling successful clinical diagnostics. Human Serum Albumin (HSA) is the main plasma protein (∼60% of all plasma protein) and responsible for the transport of endogenous (e.g. fatty acids) and exogenous <span class="hlt">metabolites</span>, which it achieves thanks to its multiple binding sites and its flexibility. HSA has been extensively studied with regard to its binding of drugs (exogenous <span class="hlt">metabolites</span>), but only to a lesser extent with regard to its binding of endogenous (non-fatty acid) <span class="hlt">metabolites</span>. To obtain correct NMR measured metabolic profiles of blood plasma and/or potentially extract information on HSA and fatty acids content, it is necessary to characterize these endogenous <span class="hlt">metabolite</span>/plasma protein interactions. Here, we investigate these <span class="hlt">metabolite</span>-HSA interactions in blood plasma and blood plasma mimics. The latter contain the roughly twenty <span class="hlt">metabolites</span> routinely detected by NMR (also most abundant) in normal relative <span class="hlt">concentrations</span> with fatted or non-fatted HSA added or not. First, we find that chemical shift changes are small and seen only for a few of the <span class="hlt">metabolites</span>. In contrast, a significant number of the <span class="hlt">metabolites</span> display reduced resonance integrals and reduced free <span class="hlt">concentrations</span> in the presence of HSA or fatted HSA. For slow-exchange (or strong) interactions, NMR resonance integrals report the free <span class="hlt">metabolite</span> <span class="hlt">concentration</span>, while for fast exchange (weak binding) the chemical shift reports on the binding. Hence, these <span class="hlt">metabolites</span> bind strongly to HSA and/or fatted HSA, but to a limited degree because for most <span class="hlt">metabolites</span> their <span class="hlt">concentration</span> is smaller than the HSA <span class="hlt">concentration</span>. Most interestingly, fatty acids decrease the <span class="hlt">metabolite</span>-HSA binding quite significantly for most of the interacting <span class="hlt">metabolites</span>. We further find</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013JMagR.228...81J','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013JMagR.228...81J"><span id="translatedtitle">NMR identification of endogenous <span class="hlt">metabolites</span> interacting with fatted and non-fatted human serum albumin in blood plasma: Fatty acids influence the HSA-<span class="hlt">metabolite</span> interaction</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Jupin, Marc; Michiels, Paul J.; Girard, Frederic C.; Spraul, Manfred; Wijmenga, Sybren S.</p> <p>2013-03-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Metabolites</span> and their <span class="hlt">concentrations</span> are direct reporters on body biochemistry. Thanks to technical developments metabolic profiling of body fluids, such as blood plasma, by for instance NMR has in the past decade become increasingly accurate enabling successful clinical diagnostics. Human Serum Albumin (HSA) is the main plasma protein (˜60% of all plasma protein) and responsible for the transport of endogenous (e.g. fatty acids) and exogenous <span class="hlt">metabolites</span>, which it achieves thanks to its multiple binding sites and its flexibility. HSA has been extensively studied with regard to its binding of drugs (exogenous <span class="hlt">metabolites</span>), but only to a lesser extent with regard to its binding of endogenous (non-fatty acid) <span class="hlt">metabolites</span>. To obtain correct NMR measured metabolic profiles of blood plasma and/or potentially extract information on HSA and fatty acids content, it is necessary to characterize these endogenous <span class="hlt">metabolite</span>/plasma protein interactions. Here, we investigate these <span class="hlt">metabolite</span>-HSA interactions in blood plasma and blood plasma mimics. The latter contain the roughly twenty <span class="hlt">metabolites</span> routinely detected by NMR (also most abundant) in normal relative <span class="hlt">concentrations</span> with fatted or non-fatted HSA added or not. First, we find that chemical shift changes are small and seen only for a few of the <span class="hlt">metabolites</span>. In contrast, a significant number of the <span class="hlt">metabolites</span> display reduced resonance integrals and reduced free <span class="hlt">concentrations</span> in the presence of HSA or fatted HSA. For slow-exchange (or strong) interactions, NMR resonance integrals report the free <span class="hlt">metabolite</span> <span class="hlt">concentration</span>, while for fast exchange (weak binding) the chemical shift reports on the binding. Hence, these <span class="hlt">metabolites</span> bind strongly to HSA and/or fatted HSA, but to a limited degree because for most <span class="hlt">metabolites</span> their <span class="hlt">concentration</span> is smaller than the HSA <span class="hlt">concentration</span>. Most interestingly, fatty acids decrease the <span class="hlt">metabolite</span>-HSA binding quite significantly for most of the interacting <span class="hlt">metabolites</span>. We further find</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2016PhRvA..94a3808D&link_type=ABSTRACT','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2016PhRvA..94a3808D&link_type=ABSTRACT"><span id="translatedtitle">Optomechanics for <span class="hlt">absolute</span> rotation detection</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Davuluri, Sankar</p> <p>2016-07-01</p> <p>In this article, we present an application of optomechanical cavity for the <span class="hlt">absolute</span> rotation detection. The optomechanical cavity is arranged in a Michelson interferometer in such a way that the classical centrifugal force due to rotation changes the length of the optomechanical cavity. The change in the cavity length induces a shift in the frequency of the cavity mode. The phase shift corresponding to the frequency shift in the cavity mode is measured at the interferometer output to estimate the angular velocity of <span class="hlt">absolute</span> rotation. We derived an analytic expression to estimate the minimum detectable rotation rate in our scheme for a given optomechanical cavity. Temperature dependence of the rotation detection sensitivity is studied.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11262641','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11262641"><span id="translatedtitle">Moral <span class="hlt">absolutism</span> and ectopic pregnancy.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Kaczor, C</p> <p>2001-02-01</p> <p>If one accepts a version of <span class="hlt">absolutism</span> that excludes the intentional killing of any innocent human person from conception to natural death, ectopic pregnancy poses vexing difficulties. Given that the embryonic life almost certainly will die anyway, how can one retain one's moral principle and yet adequately respond to a situation that gravely threatens the life of the mother and her future fertility? The four options of treatment most often discussed in the literature are non-intervention, salpingectomy (removal of tube with embryo), salpingostomy (removal of embryo alone), and use of methotrexate (MXT). In this essay, I review these four options and introduce a fifth (the milking technique). In order to assess these options in terms of the <span class="hlt">absolutism</span> mentioned, it will also be necessary to discuss various accounts of the intention/foresight distinction. I conclude that salpingectomy, salpingostomy, and the milking technique are compatible with absolutist presuppositions, but not the use of methotrexate.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11262641','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11262641"><span id="translatedtitle">Moral <span class="hlt">absolutism</span> and ectopic pregnancy.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Kaczor, C</p> <p>2001-02-01</p> <p>If one accepts a version of <span class="hlt">absolutism</span> that excludes the intentional killing of any innocent human person from conception to natural death, ectopic pregnancy poses vexing difficulties. Given that the embryonic life almost certainly will die anyway, how can one retain one's moral principle and yet adequately respond to a situation that gravely threatens the life of the mother and her future fertility? The four options of treatment most often discussed in the literature are non-intervention, salpingectomy (removal of tube with embryo), salpingostomy (removal of embryo alone), and use of methotrexate (MXT). In this essay, I review these four options and introduce a fifth (the milking technique). In order to assess these options in terms of the <span class="hlt">absolutism</span> mentioned, it will also be necessary to discuss various accounts of the intention/foresight distinction. I conclude that salpingectomy, salpingostomy, and the milking technique are compatible with absolutist presuppositions, but not the use of methotrexate. PMID:11262641</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20100014902&hterms=asp&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D50%26Ntt%3Dasp','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20100014902&hterms=asp&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D50%26Ntt%3Dasp"><span id="translatedtitle">The <span class="hlt">Absolute</span> Spectrum Polarimeter (ASP)</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Kogut, A. J.</p> <p>2010-01-01</p> <p>The <span class="hlt">Absolute</span> Spectrum Polarimeter (ASP) is an Explorer-class mission to map the <span class="hlt">absolute</span> intensity and linear polarization of the cosmic microwave background and diffuse astrophysical foregrounds over the full sky from 30 GHz to 5 THz. The principal science goal is the detection and characterization of linear polarization from an inflationary epoch in the early universe, with tensor-to-scalar ratio r much greater than 1O(raised to the power of { -3}) and Compton distortion y < 10 (raised to the power of{-6}). We describe the ASP instrument and mission architecture needed to detect the signature of an inflationary epoch in the early universe using only 4 semiconductor bolometers.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15831074','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15831074"><span id="translatedtitle">Classification images predict <span class="hlt">absolute</span> efficiency.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Murray, Richard F; Bennett, Patrick J; Sekuler, Allison B</p> <p>2005-02-24</p> <p>How well do classification images characterize human observers' strategies in perceptual tasks? We show mathematically that from the classification image of a noisy linear observer, it is possible to recover the observer's <span class="hlt">absolute</span> efficiency. If we could similarly predict human observers' performance from their classification images, this would suggest that the linear model that underlies use of the classification image method is adequate over the small range of stimuli typically encountered in a classification image experiment, and that a classification image captures most important aspects of human observers' performance over this range. In a contrast discrimination task and in a shape discrimination task, we found that observers' <span class="hlt">absolute</span> efficiencies were generally well predicted by their classification images, although consistently slightly (approximately 13%) higher than predicted. We consider whether a number of plausible nonlinearities can account for the slight under prediction, and of these we find that only a form of phase uncertainty can account for the discrepancy.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1175308','DOE-PATENT-XML'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1175308"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Absolute</span> calibration of optical flats</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/doepatents">DOEpatents</a></p> <p>Sommargren, Gary E.</p> <p>2005-04-05</p> <p>The invention uses the phase shifting diffraction interferometer (PSDI) to provide a true point-by-point measurement of <span class="hlt">absolute</span> flatness over the surface of optical flats. Beams exiting the fiber optics in a PSDI have perfect spherical wavefronts. The measurement beam is reflected from the optical flat and passed through an auxiliary optic to then be combined with the reference beam on a CCD. The combined beams include phase errors due to both the optic under test and the auxiliary optic. Standard phase extraction algorithms are used to calculate this combined phase error. The optical flat is then removed from the system and the measurement fiber is moved to recombine the two beams. The newly combined beams include only the phase errors due to the auxiliary optic. When the second phase measurement is subtracted from the first phase measurement, the <span class="hlt">absolute</span> phase error of the optical flat is obtained.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26939265','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26939265"><span id="translatedtitle">Quantification of Secondary <span class="hlt">Metabolites</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p></p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>Plants are a rich source of secondary <span class="hlt">metabolites</span> that have medicinal and aromatic properties. Secondary <span class="hlt">metabolites</span> such as alkaloids, iridoids and phenolics generally produced by plants for their defence mechanisms have been implicated in the therapeutic properties of most medicinal plants. Hence, quantification of these <span class="hlt">metabolites</span> will aid to discover new and effective drugs from plant sources and also to scientifically validate the existing traditional practices. Quantification of large group of phytochemicals such as phenolics and flavonoids is quantified in this context. PMID:26939265</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19790013324','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19790013324"><span id="translatedtitle">The AFGL <span class="hlt">absolute</span> gravity program</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Hammond, J. A.; Iliff, R. L.</p> <p>1978-01-01</p> <p>A brief discussion of the AFGL's (Air Force Geophysics Laboratory) program in <span class="hlt">absolute</span> gravity is presented. Support of outside work and in-house studies relating to gravity instrumentation are discussed. A description of the current transportable system is included and the latest results are presented. These results show good agreement with measurements at the AFGL site by an Italian system. The accuracy obtained by the transportable apparatus is better than 0.1 microns sq sec 10 microgal and agreement with previous measurements is within the combined uncertainties of the measurements.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=1287535','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=1287535"><span id="translatedtitle">Familial Aggregation of <span class="hlt">Absolute</span> Pitch</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Baharloo, Siamak; Service, Susan K.; Risch, Neil; Gitschier, Jane; Freimer, Nelson B.</p> <p>2000-01-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Absolute</span> pitch (AP) is a behavioral trait that is defined as the ability to identify the pitch of tones in the absence of a reference pitch. AP is an ideal phenotype for investigation of gene and environment interactions in the development of complex human behaviors. Individuals who score exceptionally well on formalized auditory tests of pitch perception are designated as “AP-1.” As described in this report, auditory testing of siblings of AP-1 probands and of a control sample indicates that AP-1 aggregates in families. The implications of this finding for the mapping of loci for AP-1 predisposition are discussed. PMID:10924408</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1039205','DOE-PATENT-XML'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1039205"><span id="translatedtitle">Enhanced <span class="hlt">metabolite</span> generation</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/doepatents">DOEpatents</a></p> <p>Chidambaram, Devicharan</p> <p>2012-03-27</p> <p>The present invention relates to the enhanced production of <span class="hlt">metabolites</span> by a process whereby a carbon source is oxidized with a fermentative microbe in a compartment having a portal. An electron acceptor is added to the compartment to assist the microbe in the removal of excess electrons. The electron acceptor accepts electrons from the microbe after oxidation of the carbon source. Other transfers of electrons can take place to enhance the production of the <span class="hlt">metabolite</span>, such as acids, biofuels or brewed beverages.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4185378','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4185378"><span id="translatedtitle">Diversity in ATP <span class="hlt">concentrations</span> in a single bacterial cell population revealed by quantitative single-cell imaging</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Yaginuma, Hideyuki; Kawai, Shinnosuke; Tabata, Kazuhito V.; Tomiyama, Keisuke; Kakizuka, Akira; Komatsuzaki, Tamiki; Noji, Hiroyuki; Imamura, Hiromi</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>Recent advances in quantitative single-cell analysis revealed large diversity in gene expression levels between individual cells, which could affect the physiology and/or fate of each cell. In contrast, for most <span class="hlt">metabolites</span>, the <span class="hlt">concentrations</span> were only measureable as ensemble averages of many cells. In living cells, adenosine triphosphate (ATP) is a critically important <span class="hlt">metabolite</span> that powers many intracellular reactions. Quantitative measurement of the <span class="hlt">absolute</span> ATP <span class="hlt">concentration</span> in individual cells has not been achieved because of the lack of reliable methods. In this study, we developed a new genetically-encoded ratiometric fluorescent ATP indicator “QUEEN”, which is composed of a single circularly-permuted fluorescent protein and a bacterial ATP binding protein. Unlike previous FRET-based indicators, QUEEN was apparently insensitive to bacteria growth rate changes. Importantly, intracellular ATP <span class="hlt">concentrations</span> of numbers of bacterial cells calculated from QUEEN fluorescence were almost equal to those from firefly luciferase assay. Thus, QUEEN is suitable for quantifying the <span class="hlt">absolute</span> ATP <span class="hlt">concentration</span> inside bacteria cells. Finally, we found that, even for a genetically-identical Escherichia coli cell population, <span class="hlt">absolute</span> <span class="hlt">concentrations</span> of intracellular ATP were significantly diverse between individual cells from the same culture, by imaging QUEEN signals from single cells. PMID:25283467</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/1192579','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/1192579"><span id="translatedtitle">Radioimmunoassay of methaqualone and its monohydroxy <span class="hlt">metabolites</span> in urine.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Berman, A R; McGrath, J P; Permisohn, R C; Cella, J A</p> <p>1975-12-01</p> <p>A commercial radioimmunoassay kit was evaluated for efficacy in detecting methaqualone or its <span class="hlt">metabolites</span> in urine of persons receiving this drug. The drug and its unconjugated 3'- and 4'-monohydroxy <span class="hlt">metabolites</span> could be detected equally well. The unconjugated alpha-monohydroxy <span class="hlt">metabolite</span> was about 80% as reactive and the unconjugated 6-monohydroxy <span class="hlt">metabolite</span> reacted only very weakly. Quantitation of the conjugated <span class="hlt">metabolites</span> was less sensitive than of unconjugated. Nineteen urine specimens which reacted positively to radioimmunoassay and which thin-layer chromatography had shown to contain methaqualone and its <span class="hlt">metabolites</span> were also examined by gas-liquid chromatography. Those specimens that reacted strongly to radioimmunoassay contained high <span class="hlt">concentrations</span> of the drug or its <span class="hlt">metabolites</span>. In the specimens examined by gas-liquid chromatography, the apparent <span class="hlt">concentrations</span> of the <span class="hlt">metabolites</span> were generally higher than those of the drug itself. Methaqualone in combination with its unconjugated <span class="hlt">metabolites</span> reacted additively with the radioimmunoassay, resembling the same <span class="hlt">concentration</span> of parent drug alone. Detection limits were between 10-200 mug/liter.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20000000444','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20000000444"><span id="translatedtitle">Micron Accurate <span class="hlt">Absolute</span> Ranging System: Range Extension</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Smalley, Larry L.; Smith, Kely L.</p> <p>1999-01-01</p> <p>The purpose of this research is to investigate Fresnel diffraction as a means of obtaining <span class="hlt">absolute</span> distance measurements with micron or greater accuracy. It is believed that such a system would prove useful to the Next Generation Space Telescope (NGST) as a non-intrusive, non-contact measuring system for use with secondary <span class="hlt">concentrator</span> station-keeping systems. The present research attempts to validate past experiments and develop ways to apply the phenomena of Fresnel diffraction to micron accurate measurement. This report discusses past research on the phenomena, and the basis of the use Fresnel diffraction distance metrology. The apparatus used in the recent investigations, experimental procedures used, preliminary results are discussed in detail. Continued research and equipment requirements on the extension of the effective range of the Fresnel diffraction systems is also described.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2016JCAP...08..060V&link_type=ABSTRACT','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2016JCAP...08..060V&link_type=ABSTRACT"><span id="translatedtitle">Cosmology with negative <span class="hlt">absolute</span> temperatures</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Vieira, J. P. P.; Byrnes, Christian T.; Lewis, Antony</p> <p>2016-08-01</p> <p>Negative <span class="hlt">absolute</span> temperatures (NAT) are an exotic thermodynamical consequence of quantum physics which has been known since the 1950's (having been achieved in the lab on a number of occasions). Recently, the work of Braun et al. [1] has rekindled interest in negative temperatures and hinted at a possibility of using NAT systems in the lab as dark energy analogues. This paper goes one step further, looking into the cosmological consequences of the existence of a NAT component in the Universe. NAT-dominated expanding Universes experience a borderline phantom expansion (w < ‑1) with no Big Rip, and their contracting counterparts are forced to bounce after the energy density becomes sufficiently large. Both scenarios might be used to solve horizon and flatness problems analogously to standard inflation and bouncing cosmologies. We discuss the difficulties in obtaining and ending a NAT-dominated epoch, and possible ways of obtaining density perturbations with an acceptable spectrum.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19730021662','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19730021662"><span id="translatedtitle">Apparatus for <span class="hlt">absolute</span> pressure measurement</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Hecht, R. (Inventor)</p> <p>1969-01-01</p> <p>An <span class="hlt">absolute</span> pressure sensor (e.g., the diaphragm of a capacitance manometer) was subjected to a superimposed potential to effectively reduce the mechanical stiffness of the sensor. This substantially increases the sensitivity of the sensor and is particularly useful in vacuum gauges. An oscillating component of the superimposed potential induced vibrations of the sensor. The phase of these vibrations with respect to that of the oscillating component was monitored, and served to initiate an automatic adjustment of the static component of the superimposed potential, so as to bring the sensor into resonance at the frequency of the oscillating component. This establishes a selected sensitivity for the sensor, since a definite relationship exists between resonant frequency and sensitivity.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016JCAP...08..060V','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016JCAP...08..060V"><span id="translatedtitle">Cosmology with negative <span class="hlt">absolute</span> temperatures</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Vieira, J. P. P.; Byrnes, Christian T.; Lewis, Antony</p> <p>2016-08-01</p> <p>Negative <span class="hlt">absolute</span> temperatures (NAT) are an exotic thermodynamical consequence of quantum physics which has been known since the 1950's (having been achieved in the lab on a number of occasions). Recently, the work of Braun et al. [1] has rekindled interest in negative temperatures and hinted at a possibility of using NAT systems in the lab as dark energy analogues. This paper goes one step further, looking into the cosmological consequences of the existence of a NAT component in the Universe. NAT-dominated expanding Universes experience a borderline phantom expansion (w < -1) with no Big Rip, and their contracting counterparts are forced to bounce after the energy density becomes sufficiently large. Both scenarios might be used to solve horizon and flatness problems analogously to standard inflation and bouncing cosmologies. We discuss the difficulties in obtaining and ending a NAT-dominated epoch, and possible ways of obtaining density perturbations with an acceptable spectrum.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26671545','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26671545"><span id="translatedtitle">Bioactive Secondary <span class="hlt">Metabolites</span> Produced by the Oak Pathogen Diplodia corticola.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Masi, Marco; Maddau, Lucia; Linaldeddu, Benedetto Teodoro; Cimmino, Alessio; D'Amico, Wanda; Scanu, Bruno; Evidente, Marco; Tuzi, Angela; Evidente, Antonio</p> <p>2016-01-13</p> <p>Three new lactones and a new fatty acid ester, named sapinofuranones C and D, diplopyrone B, and diplobifuranylone C, respectively, were isolated from Diplodia corticola, together with sphaeropsidins A and C, diplopyrone, diplobifuranylones A and B, diplofuranone A, and the (S,S)-enantiomer of sapinofuranone B. Sapinofuranones C and D, diplopyrone B, and diplobifuranylone C were characterized as (5S)-5-((1,S-1,6-dihydroxyhexa-2,4-dienyl)-dihydrofuran-2-one, 4,5-dihydroxy-deca-6,8-dienoic acid methyl ester, (5S)-5-hydroxy-6-(penta-1,3-dienyl)-5,6-dihydro-pyran-2-one, and 5'-((1R)-1-hydroxyethyl)-2',5'-dihydro-2H-[2,2']bifuranyl-5-one by spectroscopic and chemical methods, respectively. The relative configuration of sapinofuranone C was assigned by X-ray diffraction analysis, whereas its <span class="hlt">absolute</span> configuration was determined by applying the advanced Mosher's method to its 11-O-p-bromobenzoyl derivative. The same method was used to assign the <span class="hlt">absolute</span> configuration to C-5 of diplopyrone B and to that of the hydroxyethyl of the side chain of diplobifuranylone C, respectively. The <span class="hlt">metabolites</span> isolated were tested at 1 mg/mL on leaves of cork oak, grapevine cv. 'Cannonau', and tomato using the leaf puncture assay. They were also tested on tomato cuttings at 0.2, 0.1, and 0.05 mg/mL. Each compound was tested for zootoxic activity on Artemia salina L. larvae. The efficacy of sapinofuranone C and diplopyrone B on three plant pathogens, namely, Athelia rolfsii, Fusarium avenaceum, and Phytophthora nicotianae was also evaluated. In all phytotoxic assays only diplopyrone B was found to be active. It also showed strong inhibition on the vegetative growth of A. rolfsii and P. nicotianae. All <span class="hlt">metabolites</span> were inactive in the assay performed for the zootoxic activity (A. salina) even at the highest <span class="hlt">concentration</span> used (200 μg/mL). Diplopyrone B showed a promising antioomycete activity for the control of Phytophthora spp. also taking into account the absence of zootoxic activity</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_12");'>12</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>13</a></li> <li class="active"><span>14</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");'>15</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_14 --> <div id="page_15" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>13</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");'>14</a></li> <li class="active"><span>15</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="281"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26671545','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26671545"><span id="translatedtitle">Bioactive Secondary <span class="hlt">Metabolites</span> Produced by the Oak Pathogen Diplodia corticola.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Masi, Marco; Maddau, Lucia; Linaldeddu, Benedetto Teodoro; Cimmino, Alessio; D'Amico, Wanda; Scanu, Bruno; Evidente, Marco; Tuzi, Angela; Evidente, Antonio</p> <p>2016-01-13</p> <p>Three new lactones and a new fatty acid ester, named sapinofuranones C and D, diplopyrone B, and diplobifuranylone C, respectively, were isolated from Diplodia corticola, together with sphaeropsidins A and C, diplopyrone, diplobifuranylones A and B, diplofuranone A, and the (S,S)-enantiomer of sapinofuranone B. Sapinofuranones C and D, diplopyrone B, and diplobifuranylone C were characterized as (5S)-5-((1,S-1,6-dihydroxyhexa-2,4-dienyl)-dihydrofuran-2-one, 4,5-dihydroxy-deca-6,8-dienoic acid methyl ester, (5S)-5-hydroxy-6-(penta-1,3-dienyl)-5,6-dihydro-pyran-2-one, and 5'-((1R)-1-hydroxyethyl)-2',5'-dihydro-2H-[2,2']bifuranyl-5-one by spectroscopic and chemical methods, respectively. The relative configuration of sapinofuranone C was assigned by X-ray diffraction analysis, whereas its <span class="hlt">absolute</span> configuration was determined by applying the advanced Mosher's method to its 11-O-p-bromobenzoyl derivative. The same method was used to assign the <span class="hlt">absolute</span> configuration to C-5 of diplopyrone B and to that of the hydroxyethyl of the side chain of diplobifuranylone C, respectively. The <span class="hlt">metabolites</span> isolated were tested at 1 mg/mL on leaves of cork oak, grapevine cv. 'Cannonau', and tomato using the leaf puncture assay. They were also tested on tomato cuttings at 0.2, 0.1, and 0.05 mg/mL. Each compound was tested for zootoxic activity on Artemia salina L. larvae. The efficacy of sapinofuranone C and diplopyrone B on three plant pathogens, namely, Athelia rolfsii, Fusarium avenaceum, and Phytophthora nicotianae was also evaluated. In all phytotoxic assays only diplopyrone B was found to be active. It also showed strong inhibition on the vegetative growth of A. rolfsii and P. nicotianae. All <span class="hlt">metabolites</span> were inactive in the assay performed for the zootoxic activity (A. salina) even at the highest <span class="hlt">concentration</span> used (200 μg/mL). Diplopyrone B showed a promising antioomycete activity for the control of Phytophthora spp. also taking into account the absence of zootoxic activity.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26624790','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26624790"><span id="translatedtitle">SpinCouple: Development of a Web Tool for Analyzing <span class="hlt">Metabolite</span> Mixtures via Two-Dimensional J-Resolved NMR Database.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Kikuchi, Jun; Tsuboi, Yuuri; Komatsu, Keiko; Gomi, Masahiro; Chikayama, Eisuke; Date, Yasuhiro</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>A new Web-based tool, SpinCouple, which is based on the accumulation of a two-dimensional (2D) (1)H-(1)H J-resolved NMR database from 598 <span class="hlt">metabolite</span> standards, has been developed. The spectra include both J-coupling and (1)H chemical shift information; those are applicable to a wide array of spectral annotation, especially for metabolic mixture samples that are difficult to label through the attachment of (13)C isotopes. In addition, the user-friendly application includes an <span class="hlt">absolute</span>-quantitative analysis tool. Good agreement was obtained between known <span class="hlt">concentrations</span> of 20-<span class="hlt">metabolite</span> mixtures versus the calibration curve-based quantification results obtained from 2D-Jres spectra. We have examined the web tool availability using nine series of biological extracts, obtained from animal gut and waste treatment microbiota, fish, and plant tissues. This web-based tool is publicly available via http://emar.riken.jp/spincpl.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26624790','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26624790"><span id="translatedtitle">SpinCouple: Development of a Web Tool for Analyzing <span class="hlt">Metabolite</span> Mixtures via Two-Dimensional J-Resolved NMR Database.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Kikuchi, Jun; Tsuboi, Yuuri; Komatsu, Keiko; Gomi, Masahiro; Chikayama, Eisuke; Date, Yasuhiro</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>A new Web-based tool, SpinCouple, which is based on the accumulation of a two-dimensional (2D) (1)H-(1)H J-resolved NMR database from 598 <span class="hlt">metabolite</span> standards, has been developed. The spectra include both J-coupling and (1)H chemical shift information; those are applicable to a wide array of spectral annotation, especially for metabolic mixture samples that are difficult to label through the attachment of (13)C isotopes. In addition, the user-friendly application includes an <span class="hlt">absolute</span>-quantitative analysis tool. Good agreement was obtained between known <span class="hlt">concentrations</span> of 20-<span class="hlt">metabolite</span> mixtures versus the calibration curve-based quantification results obtained from 2D-Jres spectra. We have examined the web tool availability using nine series of biological extracts, obtained from animal gut and waste treatment microbiota, fish, and plant tissues. This web-based tool is publicly available via http://emar.riken.jp/spincpl. PMID:26624790</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26142692','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26142692"><span id="translatedtitle">Applications and advances of <span class="hlt">metabolite</span> biosensors for metabolic engineering.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Liu, Di; Evans, Trent; Zhang, Fuzhong</p> <p>2015-09-01</p> <p>Quantification and regulation of pathway <span class="hlt">metabolites</span> is crucial for optimization of microbial production bioprocesses. Genetically encoded biosensors provide the means to couple <span class="hlt">metabolite</span> sensing to several outputs invaluable for metabolic engineering. These include semi-quantification of <span class="hlt">metabolite</span> <span class="hlt">concentrations</span> to screen or select strains with desirable <span class="hlt">metabolite</span> characteristics, and construction of dynamic <span class="hlt">metabolite</span>-regulated pathways to enhance production. Taking inspiration from naturally occurring systems, biosensor functions are based on highly diverse mechanisms including <span class="hlt">metabolite</span> responsive transcription factors, two component systems, cellular stress responses, regulatory RNAs, and protein activities. We review recent developments in biosensors in each of these mechanistic classes, with considerations towards how these sensors are engineered, how new sensing mechanisms have led to improved function, and the advantages and disadvantages of each of these sensing mechanisms in relevant applications. We particularly highlight recent examples directly using biosensors to improve microbial production, and the great potential for biosensors to further inform metabolic engineering practices.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25338521','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25338521"><span id="translatedtitle">Statistical mapping of <span class="hlt">metabolites</span> in the medial wall of the brain: a proton echo planar spectroscopic imaging study.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Niddam, David M; Tsai, Shang-Yueh; Lin, Yi-Ru</p> <p>2015-03-01</p> <p>With magnetic resonance spectroscopic imaging (MRSI), it is possible to simultaneously map distributions of several brain <span class="hlt">metabolites</span> with relatively good spatial resolution in a short time. Although other functional imaging modalities have taken advantage of population-based inferences using spatially extended statistics, this approach remains little utilized for MRSI. In this study, statistical nonparametric mapping (SnPM) was applied to two-dimensional MRSI data from the medial walls of the human brain to assess the effect of normal aging on <span class="hlt">metabolite</span> <span class="hlt">concentrations</span>. The effects of different preprocessing steps on these results were then explored. Short echo time MRSI of left and right medial walls was acquired in conjunction with <span class="hlt">absolute</span> quantification of total choline, total creatine (tCr), glutamate and glutamine, myo-inositol, and N-acetyl-aspartate. Individual images were spatially warped to a common anatomical frame of reference. Age effects were assessed within SnPM as were the effects of voxel subsampling, variance smoothing, and spatial smoothing. The main findings were: (1) regions in the bilateral dorsal anterior cingulate and in the left posterior cingulate exhibited higher tCr <span class="hlt">concentrations</span> with age; (2) voxel subsampling but not spatial smoothing enhanced the cluster-level statistical sensitivity; and (3) variance smoothing was of little benefit in this study. Our study shows that spatially extended statistics can yield information about regional-specific changes in <span class="hlt">metabolite</span> <span class="hlt">concentrations</span> obtained by short echo time MRSI. This opens up the possibility for systematic comparisons of <span class="hlt">metabolites</span> in the medial wall of the brain.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25723511','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25723511"><span id="translatedtitle">Mexiletine <span class="hlt">metabolites</span>: a review.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Catalano, Alessia; Carocci, Alessia; Sinicropi, Maria Stefania</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>Mexiletine belongs to class IB antiarrhythmic drugs and it is still considered a drug of choice for treating myotonias. However some patients do not respond to mexiletine or have significant side effects limiting its use; thus, alternatives to this drug should be envisaged. Mexiletine is extensive metabolized in humans via phase I and phase II reactions. Only a small fraction (about 10%) of the dose of mexiletine administered is recovered without modifications in urine. Although in the past decades Mex <span class="hlt">metabolites</span> were reported to be devoid of biological activity, recent studies seem to deny this assertion. Actually, several hydroxylated <span class="hlt">metabolites</span> showed pharmacological activity similar to that of Mex, thus contributing to its clinical profile. Purpose of this review is to summarize all the studies proposed till now about mexiletine <span class="hlt">metabolites</span>, regarding structureactivity relationship studies as well as synthetic strategies. Biological and analytical studies will be also reported. PMID:25723511</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11502725','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11502725"><span id="translatedtitle">Simultaneous pharmacokinetic modeling of cocaine and its <span class="hlt">metabolites</span>, norcocaine and benzoylecgonine, after intravenous and oral administration in rats.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Sun, L; Lau, C E</p> <p>2001-09-01</p> <p>To accurately assess the mechanism of involvement of the active <span class="hlt">metabolite</span> norcocaine in the effects of oral cocaine, it is essential to determine the rate and extent of the formation of norcocaine. Although this study was designed specifically for this aim, it was also of interest to characterize the <span class="hlt">metabolite</span> kinetics of benzoylecgonine for comparative purpose. We first characterized the pharmacokinetics of cocaine, norcocaine, and benzoylecgonine by the i.v. route of administration; all three drugs decayed biexponentially. These pharmacokinetic estimates were then used for determination of the formation of norcocaine and benzoylecgonine after i.v. and p.o. (20-40 mg/kg) cocaine administration. Although t(1/2alpha), and t(1/2beta) were similar across the three compounds, the values of volume of distribution in the central compartment and clearance for benzoylecgonine were much smaller than those of cocaine and norcocaine. Norcocaine was not detected following i.v. cocaine; however, serum norcocaine <span class="hlt">concentrations</span> were as high as those of oral cocaine. Both routes of cocaine administration produced benzoylecgonine. A pharmacokinetic model for the <span class="hlt">metabolite</span> kinetics was proposed by sequentially adding the models that most adequately described the formation of each <span class="hlt">metabolite</span> to the model of cocaine. For oral cocaine, the <span class="hlt">absolute</span> bioavailability was 3.48%, whereas 6.04 and 2.26% of cocaine were converted to benzoylecgonine and norcocaine, respectively, during first-pass absorption regardless of dose. Furthermore, the majority of norcocaine and 92% of benzoylecgonine were formed during the first-pass absorption, leaving 8% of benzoylecgonine produced in systemic circulation. The profile of norcocaine as a <span class="hlt">metabolite</span> confirmed the involvement of norcocaine in cocaine's behavioral effects.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/5600478','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/5600478"><span id="translatedtitle">TNT <span class="hlt">metabolites</span> in animal tissues</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Shugart, L.R.; Griest, W.H.; Tan, E.; Guzman, C.; Caton, J.E.; Ho, C.-H.; Tomkins, B.A.</p> <p>1991-06-01</p> <p>Analyses for TNT and nine potential <span class="hlt">metabolites</span> (TNT-related compounds) were made in deer, rabbit, and quail tissues (muscle and liver) taken from the Alabama Army Ammunition Plant (AAAP), Childersburg, Alabama. The listed TNT-related compounds are 2,4,6- trinitrotoluene (parent compound); 2,4-diamino-6-nitrotoluene; 2,6-diamino-4-nitrotoluene; 2-amino-4,6-dinitrotoluene; 4-amino-2,6- dinitrotoluene; 2,4,6-trinitrobenzyl alcohol; 2,4,6-trinitrobenzoic acid; 1,3,5-trinitrobenzene; 4-hydroxylamino-2,6-dinitrotoluene; and 2,6,2',6'-tetranitro-4,4'-azoxytoluene. The procedure for extraction of these compounds from animal tissue required homogenization in acetonitrile, and subsequent partitioning into chloroform. Quantitative determination of extracted compounds was obtained by chromatographic separation on a mixed-mode HPLC column in which the phase bonded to the silica surface contained both a C18 (reversed-phase function) and a secondary amine (anion exchange function) incorporated into a single ligand. A ternary mobile phase gradient containing pH 5.1 phosphate buffer, methanol, and acetonitrile was used in separation. An experimental verification of the metabolism of TNT and the detection (or absence) of the selected <span class="hlt">metabolites</span> was performed in mice subacutely dosed with 100 milligrams per kilogram of ({sup 14}C)-TNT. These studies show that the TNT-related compounds of concern do accumulate in muscle and liver tissue of the mouse under the experimental conditions imposed, but at <span class="hlt">concentrations</span> below the 1.2 ppM level. However, products other than TNT and free <span class="hlt">metabolites</span> may be accumulating since some ({sup 14}C) was found to be nonextractable. 13 refs., 5 figs., 6 tabs.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3007289','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3007289"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Absolute</span> configuration of isovouacapenol C</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Fun, Hoong-Kun; Yodsaoue, Orapun; Karalai, Chatchanok; Chantrapromma, Suchada</p> <p>2010-01-01</p> <p>The title compound, C27H34O5 {systematic name: (4aR,5R,6R,6aS,7R,11aS,11bR)-4a,6-dihy­droxy-4,4,7,11b-tetra­methyl-1,2,3,4,4a,5,6,6a,7,11,11a,11b-dodeca­hydro­phenanthro[3,2-b]furan-5-yl benzoate}, is a cassane furan­oditerpene, which was isolated from the roots of Caesalpinia pulcherrima. The three cyclo­hexane rings are trans fused: two of these are in chair conformations with the third in a twisted half-chair conformation, whereas the furan ring is almost planar (r.m.s. deviation = 0.003 Å). An intra­molecular C—H⋯O inter­action generates an S(6) ring. The <span class="hlt">absolute</span> configurations of the stereogenic centres at positions 4a, 5, 6, 6a, 7, 11a and 11b are R, R, R, S, R, S and R, respectively. In the crystal, mol­ecules are linked into infinite chains along [010] by O—H⋯O hydrogen bonds. C⋯O [3.306 (2)–3.347 (2) Å] short contacts and C—H⋯π inter­actions also occur. PMID:21588364</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012Metro..49..706S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012Metro..49..706S"><span id="translatedtitle">Frequency-domain analysis of <span class="hlt">absolute</span> gravimeters</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Svitlov, S.</p> <p>2012-12-01</p> <p>An <span class="hlt">absolute</span> gravimeter is analysed as a linear time-invariant system in the frequency domain. Frequency responses of <span class="hlt">absolute</span> gravimeters are derived analytically based on the propagation of the complex exponential signal through their linear measurement functions. Depending on the model of motion and the number of time-distance coordinates, an <span class="hlt">absolute</span> gravimeter is considered as a second-order (three-level scheme) or third-order (multiple-level scheme) low-pass filter. It is shown that the behaviour of an atom <span class="hlt">absolute</span> gravimeter in the frequency domain corresponds to that of the three-level corner-cube <span class="hlt">absolute</span> gravimeter. Theoretical results are applied for evaluation of random and systematic measurement errors and optimization of an experiment. The developed theory agrees with known results of an <span class="hlt">absolute</span> gravimeter analysis in the time and frequency domains and can be used for measurement uncertainty analyses, building of vibration-isolation systems and synthesis of digital filtering algorithms.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25975187','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25975187"><span id="translatedtitle">Secondary <span class="hlt">metabolites</span> from Ganoderma.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Baby, Sabulal; Johnson, Anil John; Govindan, Balaji</p> <p>2015-06-01</p> <p>Ganoderma is a genus of medicinal mushrooms. This review deals with secondary <span class="hlt">metabolites</span> isolated from Ganoderma and their biological significance. Phytochemical studies over the last 40years led to the isolation of 431 secondary <span class="hlt">metabolites</span> from various Ganoderma species. The major secondary compounds isolated are (a) C30 lanostanes (ganoderic acids), (b) C30 lanostanes (aldehydes, alcohols, esters, glycosides, lactones, ketones), (c) C27 lanostanes (lucidenic acids), (d) C27 lanostanes (alcohols, lactones, esters), (e) C24, C25 lanostanes (f) C30 pentacyclic triterpenes, (g) meroterpenoids, (h) farnesyl hydroquinones (meroterpenoids), (i) C15 sesquiterpenoids, (j) steroids, (k) alkaloids, (l) prenyl hydroquinone (m) benzofurans, (n) benzopyran-4-one derivatives and (o) benzenoid derivatives. Ganoderma lucidum is the species extensively studied for its secondary <span class="hlt">metabolites</span> and biological activities. Ganoderma applanatum, Ganoderma colossum, Ganoderma sinense, Ganoderma cochlear, Ganoderma tsugae, Ganoderma amboinense, Ganoderma orbiforme, Ganoderma resinaceum, Ganoderma hainanense, Ganoderma concinna, Ganoderma pfeifferi, Ganoderma neo-japonicum, Ganoderma tropicum, Ganoderma australe, Ganoderma carnosum, Ganoderma fornicatum, Ganoderma lipsiense (synonym G. applanatum), Ganoderma mastoporum, Ganoderma theaecolum, Ganoderma boninense, Ganoderma capense and Ganoderma annulare are the other Ganoderma species subjected to phytochemical studies. Further phytochemical studies on Ganoderma could lead to the discovery of hitherto unknown biologically active secondary <span class="hlt">metabolites</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26172986','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26172986"><span id="translatedtitle">Improved <span class="hlt">metabolite</span> profile smoothing for flux estimation.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Dromms, Robert A; Styczynski, Mark P</p> <p>2015-09-01</p> <p>As genome-scale metabolic models become more sophisticated and dynamic, one significant challenge in using these models is to effectively integrate increasingly prevalent systems-scale <span class="hlt">metabolite</span> profiling data into them. One common data processing step when integrating <span class="hlt">metabolite</span> data is to smooth experimental time course measurements: the smoothed profiles can be used to estimate <span class="hlt">metabolite</span> accumulation (derivatives), and thus the flux distribution of the metabolic model. However, this smoothing step is susceptible to the (often significant) noise in experimental measurements, limiting the accuracy of downstream model predictions. Here, we present several improvements to current approaches for smoothing <span class="hlt">metabolite</span> time course data using defined functions. First, we use a biologically-inspired mathematical model function taken from transcriptional profiling and clustering literature that captures the dynamics of many biologically relevant transient processes. We demonstrate that it is competitive with, and often superior to, previously described fitting schemas, and may serve as an effective single option for data smoothing in metabolic flux applications. We also implement a resampling-based approach to buffer out sensitivity to specific data sets and allow for more accurate fitting of noisy data. We found that this method, as well as the addition of parameter space constraints, yielded improved estimates of <span class="hlt">concentrations</span> and derivatives (fluxes) in previously described fitting functions. These methods have the potential to improve the accuracy of existing and future dynamic metabolic models by allowing for the more effective integration of <span class="hlt">metabolite</span> profiling data.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ars.usda.gov/research/publications/publication/?seqNo115=325277','TEKTRAN'); return false;" href="http://www.ars.usda.gov/research/publications/publication/?seqNo115=325277"><span id="translatedtitle">Novel correlations between microbial taxa and amino acid <span class="hlt">metabolites</span> in mouse cecal contents</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ars.usda.gov/services/TekTran.htm">Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>Gut microbes share a bi-directional relationship with thousands of <span class="hlt">metabolites</span> in their environment. Many of these microbes and <span class="hlt">metabolites</span> are associated with human diseases including obesity, cancer, and inflammatory diseases. Further understanding of how microbes affect <span class="hlt">metabolite</span> <span class="hlt">concentration</span> i...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22437553','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22437553"><span id="translatedtitle">Alkylresorcinol <span class="hlt">metabolite</span> <span class="hlt">concentrations</span> in spot urine samples correlated with whole grain and cereal fiber intake but showed low to modest reproducibility over one to three years in U.S. women.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Landberg, Rikard; Townsend, Mary K; Neelakantan, Nithya; Sun, Qi; Sampson, Laura; Spiegelman, Donna; van Dam, Rob M</p> <p>2012-05-01</p> <p>Two alkylresorcinol (AR) <span class="hlt">metabolites</span>, 3, 5-dihydroxybenzoic acid (DHBA) and 3-(3,5-dihydroxyphenyl)-1-propanoic acid (DHPPA), in urine have been suggested as biomarkers of whole grain (WG) and cereal fiber intake but the long-term reproducibility and correlation with habitual intake has not been determined. Therefore, we evaluated the long-term reproducibility of AR <span class="hlt">metabolites</span> in spot urine samples and investigated their correlation with habitual WG and cereal fiber intake in U.S. women. AR <span class="hlt">metabolites</span> were analyzed in 104 women participating in the Nurses' Health Study II and WG and fiber intakes were assessed using a FFQ. Long-term reproducibility was assessed by calculating the intra-class correlation coefficients (ICC) using samples taken 1-3 y (mean 1.8 y) apart. The observed Spearman correlation coefficients (r(s)) and r(s) adjusted for within-participant variation in the biomarker were calculated between WG and fiber intake and biomarkers. The long-term reproducibility was poor for DHBA [ICC = 0.17 (95% CI: 0.05, 0.43)] and modest for DHPPA [ICC = 0.31 (95% CI: 0.17, 0.51)]. The correlation between WG intake in 1995 and DHPPA measured 2 y later was 0.37 (P < 0.0001); the adjusted correlation was 0.60 (95% CI: 0.37, 0.76). Cereal fiber and WG intake were similarly correlated to the biomarkers. DHPPA in spot urine samples reflected WG intake despite relatively low intake of food sources of AR. The poor to modest reproducibility may limit the use of single measurements of these biomarkers in cohort studies in the US, where WG intake is relatively low and has changed over time. But DHPPA in repeated samples may be useful for validating WG intake and assessing compliance in WG intervention studies.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15497943','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15497943"><span id="translatedtitle">Isocyanide terpene <span class="hlt">metabolites</span> of Phyllidiella pustulosa, a nudibranch from the South China Sea.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Manzo, Emiliano; Ciavatta, M Letizia; Gavagnin, Margherita; Mollo, Ernesto; Guo, Yue-Wei; Cimino, Guido</p> <p>2004-10-01</p> <p>A series of isocyanides, compounds 4-11, including diterpenes never before found in Phyllidiid nudibranchs, have been isolated from a Chinese population of the nudibranch Phyllidiella pustulosa. Three new sesquiterpenes (8, 10, and 11), with eudesmane, guaiane, and bisabolane skeletons, respectively, have been characterized by spectral methods and chemical comparison with known related molecules. The <span class="hlt">absolute</span> stereochemistry of the major <span class="hlt">metabolite</span>, the isocyanide 8, an enantiomer of the known sponge <span class="hlt">metabolite</span> stylotelline (12), has also been determined. PMID:15497943</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15497943','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15497943"><span id="translatedtitle">Isocyanide terpene <span class="hlt">metabolites</span> of Phyllidiella pustulosa, a nudibranch from the South China Sea.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Manzo, Emiliano; Ciavatta, M Letizia; Gavagnin, Margherita; Mollo, Ernesto; Guo, Yue-Wei; Cimino, Guido</p> <p>2004-10-01</p> <p>A series of isocyanides, compounds 4-11, including diterpenes never before found in Phyllidiid nudibranchs, have been isolated from a Chinese population of the nudibranch Phyllidiella pustulosa. Three new sesquiterpenes (8, 10, and 11), with eudesmane, guaiane, and bisabolane skeletons, respectively, have been characterized by spectral methods and chemical comparison with known related molecules. The <span class="hlt">absolute</span> stereochemistry of the major <span class="hlt">metabolite</span>, the isocyanide 8, an enantiomer of the known sponge <span class="hlt">metabolite</span> stylotelline (12), has also been determined.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/8905087','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/8905087"><span id="translatedtitle">Microalgal <span class="hlt">metabolites</span>: a new perspective.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Shimizu, Y</p> <p>1996-01-01</p> <p>Occurrence of secondary <span class="hlt">metabolites</span> in microalgae (protoctista) is discussed with respect to the phylogenic or taxonomic relationships of organisms. Biosynthetic mechanisms of certain <span class="hlt">metabolites</span> such as paralytic shellfish poisoning toxins and polyether toxins are also discussed, and genetic aspects of the secondary <span class="hlt">metabolite</span> production as well.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/8905087','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/8905087"><span id="translatedtitle">Microalgal <span class="hlt">metabolites</span>: a new perspective.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Shimizu, Y</p> <p>1996-01-01</p> <p>Occurrence of secondary <span class="hlt">metabolites</span> in microalgae (protoctista) is discussed with respect to the phylogenic or taxonomic relationships of organisms. Biosynthetic mechanisms of certain <span class="hlt">metabolites</span> such as paralytic shellfish poisoning toxins and polyether toxins are also discussed, and genetic aspects of the secondary <span class="hlt">metabolite</span> production as well. PMID:8905087</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18595848','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18595848"><span id="translatedtitle">Phytohormones and their <span class="hlt">metabolites</span> during long shoot development in Douglas-fir following cone induction by gibberellin injection.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Kong, Lisheng; Abrams, Suzanne R; Owen, Stacey J; Graham, Hilary; von Aderkas, Patrick</p> <p>2008-09-01</p> <p>Changes in plant hormones and <span class="hlt">metabolites</span> in long-shoot stems of interior Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii var. glauca (Beissn.) Franco) during cone induction by gibberellic acid (GA) treatment were analyzed by high performance liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry in multiple reaction monitoring mode. A mixture of GA(4) and GA(7), including small amounts of GA(3) and GA(1), was stem-injected into each tree in amounts of 0, 4, 40 or 400 mg. One week after injection, <span class="hlt">concentrations</span> of GA(4), GA(7) and GA(3) were elevated in all GA-treated samples. The ratio of GA(4) to GA(7) decreased significantly at Week 3. <span class="hlt">Absolute</span> <span class="hlt">concentrations</span> of all gibberellins declined sharply at Week 3 after GA application. After 5 weeks, GA(1) and GA(4) were below detection limits in all samples, and GA(7) and GA(3) were found only in the samples from trees treated with 40 or 400 mg of GA. Endogenous indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) <span class="hlt">concentrations</span> increased following GA injection, and peaked at Week 2 or Week 3 in the trees treated with 40 or 400 mg GA, respectively. Injection of 400 mg of GA brought about a twofold increase in IAA <span class="hlt">concentration</span> compared with control values. Injection of 40 and 400 mg of GA caused significant increases in stem dry mass in Week 5. Seed orchard data revealed that injection of either 40 or 400 mg GA enhanced female cone formation, whereas male cone formation was enhanced only by 400 mg GA. Slight decreases in <span class="hlt">concentrations</span> of abscisic acid (ABA) and isopentenyl adenosine were observed after GA application. No significant changes were detected in the <span class="hlt">concentrations</span> of ABA <span class="hlt">metabolites</span> except for a slight decrease in the <span class="hlt">concentration</span> of 7'-hydroxy ABA. The <span class="hlt">concentration</span> of ABA declined during the growing season and the <span class="hlt">concentration</span> of ABA glucose ester increased correspondingly.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26667673','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26667673"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Metabolite</span> Damage and <span class="hlt">Metabolite</span> Damage Control in Plants.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Hanson, Andrew D; Henry, Christopher S; Fiehn, Oliver; de Crécy-Lagard, Valérie</p> <p>2016-04-29</p> <p>It is increasingly clear that (a) many <span class="hlt">metabolites</span> undergo spontaneous or enzyme-catalyzed side reactions in vivo, (b) the damaged <span class="hlt">metabolites</span> formed by these reactions can be harmful, and (c) organisms have biochemical systems that limit the buildup of damaged <span class="hlt">metabolites</span>. These damage-control systems either return a damaged molecule to its pristine state (<span class="hlt">metabolite</span> repair) or convert harmful molecules to harmless ones (damage preemption). Because all organisms share a core set of <span class="hlt">metabolites</span> that suffer the same chemical and enzymatic damage reactions, certain damage-control systems are widely conserved across the kingdoms of life. Relatively few damage reactions and damage-control systems are well known. Uncovering new damage reactions and identifying the corresponding damaged <span class="hlt">metabolites</span>, damage-control genes, and enzymes demands a coordinated mix of chemistry, metabolomics, cheminformatics, biochemistry, and comparative genomics. This review illustrates the above points using examples from plants, which are at least as prone to <span class="hlt">metabolite</span> damage as other organisms. PMID:26667673</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>13</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");'>14</a></li> <li class="active"><span>15</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_15 --> <div id="page_16" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");'>14</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");'>15</a></li> <li class="active"><span>16</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="301"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=Happiness&pg=7&id=EJ804151','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=Happiness&pg=7&id=EJ804151"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Absolute</span> Income, Relative Income, and Happiness</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Ball, Richard; Chernova, Kateryna</p> <p>2008-01-01</p> <p>This paper uses data from the World Values Survey to investigate how an individual's self-reported happiness is related to (i) the level of her income in <span class="hlt">absolute</span> terms, and (ii) the level of her income relative to other people in her country. The main findings are that (i) both <span class="hlt">absolute</span> and relative income are positively and significantly…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/EJ853800.pdf','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/EJ853800.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">Investigating <span class="hlt">Absolute</span> Value: A Real World Application</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Kidd, Margaret; Pagni, David</p> <p>2009-01-01</p> <p>Making connections between various representations is important in mathematics. In this article, the authors discuss the numeric, algebraic, and graphical representations of sums of <span class="hlt">absolute</span> values of linear functions. The initial explanations are accessible to all students who have experience graphing and who understand that <span class="hlt">absolute</span> value simply…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=RHS+AND+15&pg=4&id=EJ249107','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=RHS+AND+15&pg=4&id=EJ249107"><span id="translatedtitle">Preschoolers' Success at Coding <span class="hlt">Absolute</span> Size Values.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Russell, James</p> <p>1980-01-01</p> <p>Forty-five 2-year-old and forty-five 3-year-old children coded relative and <span class="hlt">absolute</span> sizes using 1.5-inch, 6-inch, and 18-inch cardboard squares. Results indicate that <span class="hlt">absolute</span> coding is possible for children of this age. (Author/RH)</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=standard+AND+deviation&pg=2&id=EJ1050985','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=standard+AND+deviation&pg=2&id=EJ1050985"><span id="translatedtitle">Introducing the Mean <span class="hlt">Absolute</span> Deviation "Effect" Size</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Gorard, Stephen</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>This paper revisits the use of effect sizes in the analysis of experimental and similar results, and reminds readers of the relative advantages of the mean <span class="hlt">absolute</span> deviation as a measure of variation, as opposed to the more complex standard deviation. The mean <span class="hlt">absolute</span> deviation is easier to use and understand, and more tolerant of extreme…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1261596','DOE-PATENT-XML'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1261596"><span id="translatedtitle">Monolithically integrated <span class="hlt">absolute</span> frequency comb laser system</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/doepatents">DOEpatents</a></p> <p>Wanke, Michael C.</p> <p>2016-07-12</p> <p>Rather than down-convert optical frequencies, a QCL laser system directly generates a THz frequency comb in a compact monolithically integrated chip that can be locked to an <span class="hlt">absolute</span> frequency without the need of a frequency-comb synthesizer. The monolithic, <span class="hlt">absolute</span> frequency comb can provide a THz frequency reference and tool for high-resolution broad band spectroscopy.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4490812','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4490812"><span id="translatedtitle">Estimating the <span class="hlt">absolute</span> wealth of households</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Gerkey, Drew; Hadley, Craig</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>Abstract Objective To estimate the <span class="hlt">absolute</span> wealth of households using data from demographic and health surveys. Methods We developed a new metric, the <span class="hlt">absolute</span> wealth estimate, based on the rank of each surveyed household according to its material assets and the assumed shape of the distribution of wealth among surveyed households. Using data from 156 demographic and health surveys in 66 countries, we calculated <span class="hlt">absolute</span> wealth estimates for households. We validated the method by comparing the proportion of households defined as poor using our estimates with published World Bank poverty headcounts. We also compared the accuracy of <span class="hlt">absolute</span> versus relative wealth estimates for the prediction of anthropometric measures. Findings The median <span class="hlt">absolute</span> wealth estimates of 1 403 186 households were 2056 international dollars per capita (interquartile range: 723–6103). The proportion of poor households based on <span class="hlt">absolute</span> wealth estimates were strongly correlated with World Bank estimates of populations living on less than 2.00 United States dollars per capita per day (R2 = 0.84). <span class="hlt">Absolute</span> wealth estimates were better predictors of anthropometric measures than relative wealth indexes. Conclusion <span class="hlt">Absolute</span> wealth estimates provide new opportunities for comparative research to assess the effects of economic resources on health and human capital, as well as the long-term health consequences of economic change and inequality. PMID:26170506</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20060044287&hterms=metrology&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D40%26Ntt%3Dmetrology','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20060044287&hterms=metrology&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D40%26Ntt%3Dmetrology"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Absolute</span> optical metrology : nanometers to kilometers</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Dubovitsky, Serge; Lay, O. P.; Peters, R. D.; Liebe, C. C.</p> <p>2005-01-01</p> <p>We provide and overview of the developments in the field of high-accuracy <span class="hlt">absolute</span> optical metrology with emphasis on space-based applications. Specific work on the Modulation Sideband Technology for <span class="hlt">Absolute</span> Ranging (MSTAR) sensor is described along with novel applications of the sensor.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26956641','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26956641"><span id="translatedtitle">Mechanistic Modeling to Predict Midazolam <span class="hlt">Metabolite</span> Exposure from In Vitro Data.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Nguyen, Hoa Q; Kimoto, Emi; Callegari, Ernesto; Obach, R Scott</p> <p>2016-05-01</p> <p>Methods to predict the pharmacokinetics of drugs in humans from in vitro data have been established, but corresponding methods to predict exposure to circulating <span class="hlt">metabolites</span> are unproven. The objective of this study was to use in vitro methods combined with static and dynamic physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) models to predict <span class="hlt">metabolite</span> exposures, using midazolam and its major <span class="hlt">metabolites</span> as a test system. Intrinsic clearances (CLint) of formation of individual <span class="hlt">metabolites</span> were determined using human liver microsomes. Metabolic CLintof hydroxymidazolam <span class="hlt">metabolites</span> via oxidation and glucuronidation were also determined. Passive diffusion intrinsic clearances of hydroxymidazolam <span class="hlt">metabolites</span> were determined using sandwich cultured human hepatocytes and the combination of this term along with the metabolic CLint, and liver blood flow was used to estimate the fraction of the <span class="hlt">metabolite</span> that can enter the systemic circulation after formation in the liver. The <span class="hlt">metabolite</span>/parent drug area under the plasma <span class="hlt">concentration</span>-time curve ratio (AUCm/AUCp) was predicted using a static model relating the fraction of midazolam clearance to each <span class="hlt">metabolite</span>, the clearance rates of midazolam and hydroxymidazolam <span class="hlt">metabolites</span>, and the availability of the <span class="hlt">metabolites</span>. Additionally, the human disposition of midazolam <span class="hlt">metabolites</span> was simulated using a SimCYP PBPK model. Both approaches yielded AUCm/AUCpratios that were in agreement with the in vivo ratios. This study shows that in vivo midazolam <span class="hlt">metabolite</span> exposure can be predicted from in vitro data and PBPK modeling. This study emphasized the importance of <span class="hlt">metabolite</span> systemic availability from its tissue of formation, which remains a challenge to quantitative prediction.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19880033615&hterms=VALUE+ABSOLUTE&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D40%26Ntt%3DVALUE%2BABSOLUTE','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19880033615&hterms=VALUE+ABSOLUTE&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D40%26Ntt%3DVALUE%2BABSOLUTE"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Absolute</span> instability of the Gaussian wake profile</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Hultgren, Lennart S.; Aggarwal, Arun K.</p> <p>1987-01-01</p> <p>Linear parallel-flow stability theory has been used to investigate the effect of viscosity on the local <span class="hlt">absolute</span> instability of a family of wake profiles with a Gaussian velocity distribution. The type of local instability, i.e., convective or <span class="hlt">absolute</span>, is determined by the location of a branch-point singularity with zero group velocity of the complex dispersion relation for the instability waves. The effects of viscosity were found to be weak for values of the wake Reynolds number, based on the center-line velocity defect and the wake half-width, larger than about 400. <span class="hlt">Absolute</span> instability occurs only for sufficiently large values of the center-line wake defect. The critical value of this parameter increases with decreasing wake Reynolds number, thereby indicating a shrinking region of <span class="hlt">absolute</span> instability with decreasing wake Reynolds number. If backflow is not allowed, <span class="hlt">absolute</span> instability does not occur for wake Reynolds numbers smaller than about 38.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4375579','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4375579"><span id="translatedtitle">Thiopurine <span class="hlt">metabolites</span> variations during co-treatment with aminosalicylates for inflammatory bowel disease: Effect of N-acetyl transferase polymorphisms</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Stocco, Gabriele; Cuzzoni, Eva; De Iudicibus, Sara; Favretto, Diego; Malusà, Noelia; Martelossi, Stefano; Pozzi, Elena; Lionetti, Paolo; Ventura, Alessandro; Decorti, Giuliana</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>AIM: To evaluate variation of the <span class="hlt">concentration</span> of thiopurine <span class="hlt">metabolites</span> after 5-aminosalicylate (5-ASA) interruption and the role of genetic polymorphisms of N-acetyl transferase (NAT) 1 and 2. METHODS: <span class="hlt">Concentrations</span> of thioguanine nucleotides (TGN) and methymercaptopurine nucleotides (MMPN), <span class="hlt">metabolites</span> of thiopurines, were measured by high performance liquid chromatography in 12 young patients (3 females and 9 males, median age 16 years) with inflammatory bowel disease (6 Crohn’s disease and 6 ulcerative colitis) treated with thiopurines (7 mercaptopurine and 5 azathioprine) and 5-ASA. Blood samples were collected one month before and one month after the interruption of 5-ASA. DNA was extracted and genotyping of NAT1, NAT2, inosine triphosphate pyrophosphatase (ITPA) and thiopurine methyl transferase (TPMT) genes was performed using PCR assays. RESULTS: Median TGN <span class="hlt">concentration</span> before 5-ASA interruption was 270 pmol/8 x 108 erythrocytes (range: 145-750); after the interruption of the aminosalicylate, a 35% reduction in TGN mean <span class="hlt">concentrations</span> (<span class="hlt">absolute</span> mean reduction 109 pmol/8 × 108 erythrocytes) was observed (median 221 pmol/8 × 108 erythrocytes, range: 96-427, P value linear mixed effects model 0.0011). Demographic and clinical covariates were not related to thiopurine <span class="hlt">metabolites</span> <span class="hlt">concentrations</span>. All patients were wild-type for the most relevant ITPA and TPMT variants. For NAT1 genotyping, 7 subjects presented an allele combination corresponding to fast enzymatic activity and 5 to slow activity. NAT1 genotypes corresponding to fast enzymatic activity were associated with reduced TGN <span class="hlt">concentration</span> (P value linear mixed effects model 0.033), putatively because of increased 5-ASA inactivation and consequent reduced inhibition of thiopurine metabolism. The effect of NAT1 status on TGN seems to be persistent even after one month since the interruption of the aminosalicylate. No effect of NAT1 genotypes was shown on MMPN <span class="hlt">concentrations</span>. NAT2 genotyping</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70018102','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70018102"><span id="translatedtitle">Pesticides in ground water: Do atrazine <span class="hlt">metabolites</span> matter?</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Liu, S.; Yen, S.T.; Kolpin, D.W.</p> <p>1996-01-01</p> <p>Atrazine and atrazine-residue (atrazine + two <span class="hlt">metabolites</span> - deethylatrazine and deisopropylatrazine) <span class="hlt">concentrations</span> were examined to determine if consideration of these atrazine <span class="hlt">metabolites</span> substantially adds to our understanding of the distribution of this pesticide in groundwater of the midcontinental United States. The mean of atrazine.residue <span class="hlt">concentrations</span> was 53 percent greater than that of atrazine alone for those observations above the detection limit (> 0.05 μg/l). Furthermore, a censored regression analysis using atrazine-residue <span class="hlt">concentrations</span> revealed significant factors not identified when only atrazine <span class="hlt">concentrations</span> were used. Thus, knowledge of <span class="hlt">concentrations</span> of these atrazine <span class="hlt">metabolites</span> is required to obtain a true estimation of risk of using these aquifers as sources for drinking water, and such knowledge also provides information that ultimately may be important for future management policies designed to reduce atrazine <span class="hlt">concentrations</span> in ground water.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/840055','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/840055"><span id="translatedtitle">Diagnostic Application of <span class="hlt">Absolute</span> Neutron Activation Analysis in Hematology</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Zamboni, C.B.; Oliveira, L.C.; Dalaqua, L. Jr.</p> <p>2004-10-03</p> <p>The <span class="hlt">Absolute</span> Neutron Activation Analysis (ANAA) technique was used to determine element <span class="hlt">concentrations</span> of Cl and Na in blood of healthy group (male and female blood donators), select from Blood Banks at Sao Paulo city, to provide information which can help in diagnosis of patients. This study permitted to perform a discussion about the advantages and limitations of using this nuclear methodology in hematological examinations.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/5534122','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/5534122"><span id="translatedtitle">Simvastatin (SV) <span class="hlt">metabolites</span> in mouse tissues</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Duncan, C.A.; Vickers, S. )</p> <p>1990-02-26</p> <p>SV, a semisynthetic analog of lovastatin, is hydrolyzed in vivo to its hydroxy acid (SVA), a potent inhibitor of HMG CoA reductase (HR). Thus SV lowers plasma cholesterol. SV is a substrate for mixed function oxidases whereas SVA undergoes lactonization and {beta}-oxidation. Male CD-1 mice were dosed orally with a combination of ({sup 14}C)SV and ({sup 3}H)SVA at 25 mg/kg of each, bled and killed at 0.5, 2 and 4 hours. Labeled SV, SVA, 6{prime}exomethylene SV (I), 6{prime}CH{sub 2}OH-SV (II), 6{prime}COOH-SV (III) and a {beta}-oxidized <span class="hlt">metabolite</span> (IV) were assayed in liver, bile, kidneys, testes and plasma by RIDA. Levels of potential and active HR inhibitors in liver were 10 to 40 fold higher than in other tissues. II and III, in which the configuration at 6{prime} is inverted, may be 2 <span class="hlt">metabolites</span> of I. <span class="hlt">Metabolites</span> I-III are inhibitors of HR in their hydroxy acid forms. Qualitatively ({sup 14}C)SV and ({sup 3}H)SVA were metabolized similarly (consistent with their proposed interconversion). However {sup 3}H-SVA, I-III (including hydroxy acid forms) achieved higher <span class="hlt">concentrations</span> than corresponding {sup 14}C compounds (except in gall bladder bile). Major radioactive <span class="hlt">metabolites</span> in liver were II-IV (including hydroxy acid forms). These <span class="hlt">metabolites</span> have also been reported in rat tissues. In bile a large fraction of either label was unidentified polar <span class="hlt">metabolites</span>. The presence of IV indicated that mice (like rats) are not good models for SV metabolism in man.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22200423','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22200423"><span id="translatedtitle">Cellular toxicity of nicotinamide <span class="hlt">metabolites</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Rutkowski, Bolesław; Rutkowski, Przemysław; Słomińska, Ewa; Smolenski, Ryszard T; Swierczyński, Julian</p> <p>2012-01-01</p> <p>There are almost 100 different substances called uremic toxins. Nicotinamide derivatives are known as new family of uremic toxins. These uremic compounds play a role in an increased oxidative stress and disturbances in cellular repair processes by inhibiting poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase activity. New members of this family were discovered and described. Their toxic properties were a subject of recent studies. This study evaluated the <span class="hlt">concentration</span> of 4-pyridone-3-carboxamid-1-β-ribonucleoside-triphosphate (4PYTP) and 4-pyridone-3-carboxamid-1-β-ribonucleoside-monophosphate (4PYMP) in erythrocytes of patients with chronic renal failure. Serum and red blood cells were collected from chronic renal failure patients on conservative treatment, those treated with hemodialysis, and at different times from those who underwent kidney transplantation. Healthy volunteers served as a control group. Nicotinamide <span class="hlt">metabolites</span> were determined using liquid chromatography with mass spectrometry based on originally discovered and described method. Three novel compounds were described: 4-pyridone-3-carboxamid-1-β-ribonucleoside (4PYR), 4PYMP, and 4PYTP. 4PYR <span class="hlt">concentration</span> was elevated in the serum, whereas 4PYMP and 4PYTP <span class="hlt">concentrations</span> were augmented in erythrocytes of dialysis patients. Interestingly, <span class="hlt">concentrations</span> of these compounds were less elevated during the treatment with erythropoietin-stimulating agents (ESAs). After successful kidney transplantation, <span class="hlt">concentrations</span> of 4PYR and 4PYMP normalized according to the graft function, whereas that of 4PYTP was still elevated. During the incubation of erythrocytes in the presence of 4PYR, <span class="hlt">concentration</span> of 4PYMP rose very rapidly while that of 4PYTP increased slowly. Therefore, we hypothesized that 4PYR, as a toxic compound, was actively absorbed by erythrocytes and metabolized to the 4PYMP and 4PYTP, which may interfere with function and life span of these cells. PMID:22200423</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=163025','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=163025"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Absolute</span> bioavailability and metabolic disposition of valaciclovir, the L-valyl ester of acyclovir, following oral administration to humans.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Soul-Lawton, J; Seaber, E; On, N; Wootton, R; Rolan, P; Posner, J</p> <p>1995-01-01</p> <p>Valaciclovir (Valtrex), the L-valyl ester of acyclovir, is undergoing clinical development for the treatment and suppression of herpesviral diseases. The <span class="hlt">absolute</span> bioavailability of acyclovir from valaciclovir and the metabolic disposition of valaciclovir were investigated with healthy volunteers in two separate studies. In a randomized, crossover study, 12 fasting healthy volunteers each received 1,000 mg of oral valaciclovir and a 1-h intravenous infusion of 350 mg of acyclovir. The mean <span class="hlt">absolute</span> bioavailability of acyclovir was 54.2%, a value three to five times that obtained previously with oral acyclovir. A similar estimate of 51.3% was made from urinary recovery of acyclovir. In the second study, four fasting volunteers received a single oral dose of 1,000 mg of [14C]valaciclovir. The majority of plasma radioactivity was accounted for by acyclovir, with very low plasma valaciclovir <span class="hlt">concentrations</span> (mean maximum <span class="hlt">concentration</span> of drug in plasma = 0.19 microM), which were undetectable after 3 h postdose. By 168 h, more than 90% of the administered radioactive dose was recovered, with approximately 45% in urine and 475 in feces. More than 99% of the radioactivity recovered in urine corresponded to acyclovir and its known <span class="hlt">metabolites</span>, 9-(carboxymethoxymethyl)guanine and 8-hydroxy-9- [(2-hydroxyethoxy)methyl]guanine, with valaciclovir accounting for less than 0.5% of the dose. Acyclovir, but no valaciclovir, was detected in fecal samples. These studies show that after oral administration to humans, valaciclovir is rapidly and virtually completely converted to acyclovir to provide a high level of acyclovir bioavailability in comparison with that following oral administration of acyclovir. The plasma acyclovir exposure obtained following oral administration of valaciclovir is similar to that achieved with doses of intravenous acyclovir, which are effective in the treatment and suppression of the less susceptible herpesviral diseases. PMID:8593015</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18958460','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18958460"><span id="translatedtitle">Role of active <span class="hlt">metabolites</span> in the use of opioids.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Coller, Janet K; Christrup, Lona L; Somogyi, Andrew A</p> <p>2009-02-01</p> <p>The opioid class of drugs, a large group, is mainly used for the treatment of acute and chronic persistent pain. All are eliminated from the body via metabolism involving principally CYP3A4 and the highly polymorphic CYP2D6, which markedly affects the drug's function, and by conjugation reactions mainly by UGT2B7. In many cases, the resultant <span class="hlt">metabolites</span> have the same pharmacological activity as the parent opioid; however in many cases, plasma <span class="hlt">metabolite</span> <span class="hlt">concentrations</span> are too low to make a meaningful contribution to the overall clinical effects of the parent drug. These <span class="hlt">metabolites</span> are invariably more water soluble and require renal clearance as an important overall elimination pathway. Such <span class="hlt">metabolites</span> have the potential to accumulate in the elderly and in those with declining renal function with resultant accumulation to a much greater extent than the parent opioid. The best known example is the accumulation of morphine-6-glucuronide from morphine. Some opioids have active <span class="hlt">metabolites</span> but at different target sites. These are norpethidine, a neurotoxic agent, and nordextropropoxyphene, a cardiotoxic agent. Clinicians need to be aware that many opioids have active <span class="hlt">metabolites</span> that will become therapeutically important, for example in cases of altered pathology, drug interactions and genetic polymorphisms of drug-metabolizing enzymes. Thus, dose individualisation and the avoidance of adverse effects of opioids due to the accumulation of active <span class="hlt">metabolites</span> or lack of formation of active <span class="hlt">metabolites</span> are important considerations when opioids are used.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26047788','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26047788"><span id="translatedtitle">Urine <span class="hlt">Metabolite</span> Profiles Predictive of Human Kidney Allograft Status.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Suhre, Karsten; Schwartz, Joseph E; Sharma, Vijay K; Chen, Qiuying; Lee, John R; Muthukumar, Thangamani; Dadhania, Darshana M; Ding, Ruchuang; Ikle, David N; Bridges, Nancy D; Williams, Nikki M; Kastenmüller, Gabi; Karoly, Edward D; Mohney, Robert P; Abecassis, Michael; Friedewald, John; Knechtle, Stuart J; Becker, Yolanda T; Samstein, Benjamin; Shaked, Abraham; Gross, Steven S; Suthanthiran, Manikkam</p> <p>2016-02-01</p> <p>Noninvasive diagnosis and prognostication of acute cellular rejection in the kidney allograft may help realize the full benefits of kidney transplantation. To investigate whether urine <span class="hlt">metabolites</span> predict kidney allograft status, we determined levels of 749 <span class="hlt">metabolites</span> in 1516 urine samples from 241 kidney graft recipients enrolled in the prospective multicenter Clinical Trials in Organ Transplantation-04 study. A <span class="hlt">metabolite</span> signature of the ratio of 3-sialyllactose to xanthosine in biopsy specimen-matched urine supernatants best discriminated acute cellular rejection biopsy specimens from specimens without rejection. For clinical application, we developed a high-throughput mass spectrometry-based assay that enabled <span class="hlt">absolute</span> and rapid quantification of the 3-sialyllactose-to-xanthosine ratio in urine samples. A composite signature of ratios of 3-sialyllactose to xanthosine and quinolinate to X-16397 and our previously reported urinary cell mRNA signature of 18S ribosomal RNA, CD3ε mRNA, and interferon-inducible protein-10 mRNA outperformed the <span class="hlt">metabolite</span> signatures and the mRNA signature. The area under the receiver operating characteristics curve for the composite <span class="hlt">metabolite</span>-mRNA signature was 0.93, and the signature was diagnostic of acute cellular rejection with a specificity of 84% and a sensitivity of 90%. The composite signature, developed using solely biopsy specimen-matched urine samples, predicted future acute cellular rejection when applied to pristine samples taken days to weeks before biopsy. We conclude that <span class="hlt">metabolite</span> profiling of urine offers a noninvasive means of diagnosing and prognosticating acute cellular rejection in the human kidney allograft, and that the combined <span class="hlt">metabolite</span> and mRNA signature is diagnostic and prognostic of acute cellular rejection with very high accuracy.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015EPSC...10..717D','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015EPSC...10..717D"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Absolute</span> magnitudes of trans-neptunian objects</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Duffard, R.; Alvarez-candal, A.; Pinilla-Alonso, N.; Ortiz, J. L.; Morales, N.; Santos-Sanz, P.; Thirouin, A.</p> <p>2015-10-01</p> <p>Accurate measurements of diameters of trans- Neptunian objects are extremely complicated to obtain. Radiomatric techniques applied to thermal measurements can provide good results, but precise <span class="hlt">absolute</span> magnitudes are needed to constrain diameters and albedos. Our objective is to measure accurate <span class="hlt">absolute</span> magnitudes for a sample of trans- Neptunian objects, many of which have been observed, and modelled, by the "TNOs are cool" team, one of Herschel Space Observatory key projects grantes with ~ 400 hours of observing time. We observed 56 objects in filters V and R, if possible. These data, along with data available in the literature, was used to obtain phase curves and to measure <span class="hlt">absolute</span> magnitudes by assuming a linear trend of the phase curves and considering magnitude variability due to rotational light-curve. In total we obtained 234 new magnitudes for the 56 objects, 6 of them with no reported previous measurements. Including the data from the literature we report a total of 109 <span class="hlt">absolute</span> magnitudes.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=organic+AND+carbon&pg=5&id=EJ288694','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=organic+AND+carbon&pg=5&id=EJ288694"><span id="translatedtitle">A New Gimmick for Assigning <span class="hlt">Absolute</span> Configuration.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Ayorinde, F. O.</p> <p>1983-01-01</p> <p>A five-step procedure is provided to help students in making the assignment <span class="hlt">absolute</span> configuration less bothersome. Examples for both single (2-butanol) and multi-chiral carbon (3-chloro-2-butanol) molecules are included. (JN)</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=husserl&pg=3&id=EJ118696','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=husserl&pg=3&id=EJ118696"><span id="translatedtitle">The Simplicity Argument and <span class="hlt">Absolute</span> Morality</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Mijuskovic, Ben</p> <p>1975-01-01</p> <p>In this paper the author has maintained that there is a similarity of thought to be found in the writings of Cudworth, Emerson, and Husserl in his investigation of an <span class="hlt">absolute</span> system of morality. (Author/RK)</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");'>14</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");'>15</a></li> <li class="active"><span>16</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_16 --> <div id="page_17" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");'>15</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li class="active"><span>17</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="321"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/6536882','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/6536882"><span id="translatedtitle">Cerebral metabolic and circulatory effects of 1,1,1-trichloroethane, a neurotoxic industrial solvent. 2. Tissue <span class="hlt">concentrations</span> of labile phosphates, glycolytic <span class="hlt">metabolites</span>, citric acid cycle intermediates, amino acids, and cyclic nucleotides.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Folbergrová, J; Hougaard, K; Westerberg, E; Siesjö, B K</p> <p>1984-01-01</p> <p>In order to obtain information on the mechanisms of neurotoxicity of 1,1,1-trichloroethane, rats maintained artificially ventilated on N2O:O2 (70:30) were exposed to a <span class="hlt">concentration</span> of 1,1,1-trichloroethane of 8000 ppm, 43.7 mg L-1, that induces moderate ataxia in awake, spontaneously breathing animals. After 5 and 60 min of exposure, as well as after a 60-min recovery period following 60 min of exposure, the brain was frozen in situ and cortical tissue was assayed for phosphocreatine (PCr), + ATP, ADP, AMP, glycogen, glucose, pyruvate, lactate, citric acid cycle intermediates, associated amino acids, and cyclic nucleotides; in addition, purine nucleotides, nucleosides, and bases were assayed by HPLC techniques. Exposure of animals to 1,1,1-trichloroethane failed to alter blood glucose, lactate, and pyruvate <span class="hlt">concentrations</span>. However, the solvent induced highly significant increases in tissue lactate and pyruvate <span class="hlt">concentrations</span> that were also reflected in cisternal CSF. Associated with these changes were increases in all citric acid cycle intermediates except succinate, an increase in alanine <span class="hlt">concentration</span>, and a rise in the glutamate/aspartate ratio. After 5 min, a small decrease in glycogen <span class="hlt">concentration</span> also occurred. All these changes were reversed when the exposure was terminated. No changes were observed in tissue <span class="hlt">concentrations</span> of purine nucleotides, nucleosides, and bases except for a small reduction of ATP <span class="hlt">concentration</span> after 60 min of exposure, still noticeable after 60 min of recovery. Apart from a small reduction in cAMP <span class="hlt">concentration</span> after 5 min of exposure, cyclic nucleotide <span class="hlt">concentrations</span> did not change.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18020315','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18020315"><span id="translatedtitle">Confirmation of fenthion <span class="hlt">metabolites</span> in oranges by IT-MS and QqTOF-MS.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Picó, Yolanda; Farré, Marinella; Soler, Carla; Barceló, Damià</p> <p>2007-12-15</p> <p>Identification of degradation products of the organophophorous pesticide fenthion formed in two orange varieties, Valencia Navel and Navel Late, under field conditions has been assessed using liquid chromatography quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry and ion trap mass spectrometry. The structural elucidation of the <span class="hlt">metabolites</span> was accomplished by the accurate mass measurements provided by the quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometer in MS and MS/MS modes. This instrument achieved elemental composition diagnosis for the precursor and product ions with <span class="hlt">absolute</span> mass error of <5 ppm, which unambiguously establishes the identity of the <span class="hlt">metabolites</span> even at low <span class="hlt">concentration</span>. The presence of these compounds was also confirmed by electrospray ionization-ion trap mass spectrometry, performing successive fragmentation steps (MS(n)). Once identified, each molecule was confirmed by comparison with its analytical standard, also used to explore the quantitative capabilities of both mass analyzers. The extraction method was evaluated because it predetermines the <span class="hlt">metabolites</span> that can be found (e.g., according to their polarity). Recoveries ranged from 70% for fenoxon sulfoxide (the most polar) to 101% for fenthion (the most apolar), which also indicates the method's facility to extract other more polar <span class="hlt">metabolites</span> if present. Satisfactory linear range (r > 0.99) of more than 2 orders of magnitude was obtained with both analyzers for standards prepared in methanol and in untreated orange extracts. However, the matrix-matched standards showed suppression of the mass signal due to the matrix effect, especially for fenoxon sulfoxide and sulfone. The limits of quantification ranged from 0.005 to 0.015 mg/kg. The QqTOF-MS provided better quantification limits for fenthion and its sulfoxide and sulfone than the IT-MS. The resulting fenthion degration curves in oranges indicated that it was mainly degraded by sunlight photolysis to its sulfoxide and sulfone. However, hydrolysis</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19831037','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19831037"><span id="translatedtitle">Jasminum flexile flower <span class="hlt">absolute</span> from India--a detailed comparison with three other jasmine <span class="hlt">absolutes</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Braun, Norbert A; Kohlenberg, Birgit; Sim, Sherina; Meier, Manfred; Hammerschmidt, Franz-Josef</p> <p>2009-09-01</p> <p>Jasminum flexile flower <span class="hlt">absolute</span> from the south of India and the corresponding vacuum headspace (VHS) sample of the <span class="hlt">absolute</span> were analyzed using GC and GC-MS. Three other commercially available Indian jasmine <span class="hlt">absolutes</span> from the species: J. sambac, J. officinale subsp. grandiflorum, and J. auriculatum and the respective VHS samples were used for comparison purposes. One hundred and twenty-one compounds were characterized in J. flexile flower <span class="hlt">absolute</span>, with methyl linolate, benzyl salicylate, benzyl benzoate, (2E,6E)-farnesol, and benzyl acetate as the main constituents. A detailed olfactory evaluation was also performed.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26178162','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26178162"><span id="translatedtitle">The Disposition of Oxycodone and <span class="hlt">Metabolite</span> in Human Hair.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Reisfield, Gary M; Jones, Joseph T</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>The disposition of oxycodone (OC) and <span class="hlt">metabolites</span> in hair remains poorly characterized. We present a case involving a pharmacist in an impaired professionals' monitoring program in whom hair testing yielded OC on two occasions. On both occasions, his hair was negative for the oxymorphone (OM) <span class="hlt">metabolite</span> at the cutoff <span class="hlt">concentration</span> of 100 pg/mg. He claimed that, absent the detection of <span class="hlt">metabolite</span>, the OC necessarily represented external contamination. This prompted a review of the laboratory's OC-positive hair results for the quarter April-June 2014. Overall, 466 specimens contained OC, with a mean (median) <span class="hlt">concentration</span> of 2,375 (1,060) pg/mg. Of these OC-positive specimens, only 47 (10%) contained detectable OM. When OC was present at or below the mean (median) <span class="hlt">concentration</span>, only 2.2% (1.3%) of specimens were OM-positive. In the setting of OC administration, the detection of OM in hair is unlikely at a cutoff <span class="hlt">concentration</span> of 100 pg/mg. More consistent demonstration of OC <span class="hlt">metabolite(s</span>) in hair will require the validation of methods to detect OM at lower <span class="hlt">concentrations</span> and/or methods to detect noroxycodone.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15474562','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15474562"><span id="translatedtitle">Hydrophobic <span class="hlt">metabolites</span> of 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D) in cultured coconut tissue.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>López-Villalobos, Arturo; Hornung, Roland; Dodds, Peter F</p> <p>2004-10-01</p> <p>Cultures of inflorescence and plumular tissues of coconut palm (Cocos nucifera L.) were maintained in the presence of the auxin, [14C]2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D), so that its metabolic fate could be studied. Thin layer chromatography of methanol extracts of the plumular tissue showed that four classes of <span class="hlt">metabolites</span>, as well as the unchanged acid, were recovered in the extract. In inflorescence tissue, only the unchanged acid and the most polar class of <span class="hlt">metabolites</span> (<span class="hlt">metabolite</span> I) were recovered. <span class="hlt">Metabolite</span> I was shown to consist mostly of a mixture of sugar conjugates and <span class="hlt">metabolite</span> II (the next most polar) was an unidentified basic <span class="hlt">metabolite</span>. <span class="hlt">Metabolites</span> III and IV were both novel triacylglycerol analogues in which one of the natural fatty acids was replaced with a chain-elongated form of 2,4-D. Reversed-phase thin layer chromatography was used to identify the 2,4-D-derived acids and it was found that <span class="hlt">metabolite</span> III contained the 2,4-dichlorophenoxy-moiety attached to a chain-length of between 2 and 12 carbons, whereas <span class="hlt">metabolite</span> IV contained 12, 14 and 16 carbon chain lengths. In inflorescence tissue, and in plumular tissue at low sucrose or 2,4-D <span class="hlt">concentrations</span> and after short periods in culture, <span class="hlt">metabolite</span> I predominated. The other <span class="hlt">metabolites</span> increased as a percentage when plumular culture was prolonged or when sucrose or 2,4-D <span class="hlt">concentrations</span> were raised. These changes correlated with better development of the explant.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15474562','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15474562"><span id="translatedtitle">Hydrophobic <span class="hlt">metabolites</span> of 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D) in cultured coconut tissue.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>López-Villalobos, Arturo; Hornung, Roland; Dodds, Peter F</p> <p>2004-10-01</p> <p>Cultures of inflorescence and plumular tissues of coconut palm (Cocos nucifera L.) were maintained in the presence of the auxin, [14C]2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D), so that its metabolic fate could be studied. Thin layer chromatography of methanol extracts of the plumular tissue showed that four classes of <span class="hlt">metabolites</span>, as well as the unchanged acid, were recovered in the extract. In inflorescence tissue, only the unchanged acid and the most polar class of <span class="hlt">metabolites</span> (<span class="hlt">metabolite</span> I) were recovered. <span class="hlt">Metabolite</span> I was shown to consist mostly of a mixture of sugar conjugates and <span class="hlt">metabolite</span> II (the next most polar) was an unidentified basic <span class="hlt">metabolite</span>. <span class="hlt">Metabolites</span> III and IV were both novel triacylglycerol analogues in which one of the natural fatty acids was replaced with a chain-elongated form of 2,4-D. Reversed-phase thin layer chromatography was used to identify the 2,4-D-derived acids and it was found that <span class="hlt">metabolite</span> III contained the 2,4-dichlorophenoxy-moiety attached to a chain-length of between 2 and 12 carbons, whereas <span class="hlt">metabolite</span> IV contained 12, 14 and 16 carbon chain lengths. In inflorescence tissue, and in plumular tissue at low sucrose or 2,4-D <span class="hlt">concentrations</span> and after short periods in culture, <span class="hlt">metabolite</span> I predominated. The other <span class="hlt">metabolites</span> increased as a percentage when plumular culture was prolonged or when sucrose or 2,4-D <span class="hlt">concentrations</span> were raised. These changes correlated with better development of the explant. PMID:15474562</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016ufm..conf..509K','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016ufm..conf..509K"><span id="translatedtitle">Universal Cosmic <span class="hlt">Absolute</span> and Modern Science</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Kostro, Ludwik</p> <p></p> <p>The official Sciences, especially all natural sciences, respect in their researches the principle of methodic naturalism i.e. they consider all phenomena as entirely natural and therefore in their scientific explanations they do never adduce or cite supernatural entities and forces. The purpose of this paper is to show that Modern Science has its own self-existent, self-acting, and self-sufficient Natural All-in Being or Omni-Being i.e. the entire Nature as a Whole that justifies the scientific methodic naturalism. Since this Natural All-in Being is one and only It should be considered as the own scientifically justified Natural <span class="hlt">Absolute</span> of Science and should be called, in my opinion, the Universal Cosmic <span class="hlt">Absolute</span> of Modern Science. It will be also shown that the Universal Cosmic <span class="hlt">Absolute</span> is ontologically enormously stratified and is in its ultimate i.e. in its most fundamental stratum trans-reistic and trans-personal. It means that in its basic stratum. It is neither a Thing or a Person although It contains in Itself all things and persons with all other sentient and conscious individuals as well, On the turn of the 20th century the Science has begun to look for a theory of everything, for a final theory, for a master theory. In my opinion the natural Universal Cosmic <span class="hlt">Absolute</span> will constitute in such a theory the radical all penetrating Ultimate Basic Reality and will substitute step by step the traditional supernatural personal <span class="hlt">Absolute</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/15016567','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/15016567"><span id="translatedtitle">Derivation of a human equivalent <span class="hlt">concentration</span> for n-butanol using a physiologically based pharmacokinetic model for n-butyl acetate and <span class="hlt">metabolites</span> n-butanol and n-butyric acid</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Teeguarden, Justin G.; Deisinger, P. J.; Poet, Torka S.; English, J C.; Faber, W D.; Barton, H. A.; Corley, Rick A.; Clewell, III, H. J.</p> <p>2005-05-01</p> <p>The metabolic series (family) approach for risk assessment uses a dosimetry-based analysis to develop toxicity information for a group of metabolically linked compounds using pharmacokinetic (PK) data for each compound and toxicity data for the parent compound. An initial physiologically-based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) model was developed to support the implementation of the metabolic series approach for n-butyl acetate and its subsequent <span class="hlt">metabolites</span>, n-butanol, and n-butyric acid (the butyl series) (Barton et al. 2000). In conjunction with pilot pharmacokinetic studies, the model was used to design the definitive intravenous (i.v.) PK studies. Rats were implanted with dual indwelling cannulae and administered test compounds by i.v. bolus dose, i.v. infusion, or by inhalation in a recirculating closed chamber. Hepatic, vascular and extravascular metabolic constants for metabolism were estimated by fitting the model to the blood time course data from these experiments. The respiratory bioavailability of n-butyl acetate and n-butanol was estimated from closed chamber inhalation studies and measured ventilation rates. The resulting butyl series PBPK model successfully reproduces the blood time course of these compounds following i.v. administration, and inhalation exposure to n-butyl acetate and n-butanol. A fully scaled human version of the model successfully reproduces arterial blood n-butanol kinetics following inhalation exposure to n-butanol. These validated i.v (rat) and inhalation route models (rat, butyl acetate, n-butanol; human, butanol only) can be used to support species and dose-route extrapolations required for risk assessment of butyl series family of compounds. Further, this work demonstrates the usefulness of i.v. kinetic data for parameterization of systemic metabolism and the value of collaboration between experimentalists and kineticists in the development of PBPK models. The product of this effort, validated rat and human PBPK models for the butyl</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11076573','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11076573"><span id="translatedtitle">Isolation and structure of the cytotoxin lyngbyabellin B and <span class="hlt">absolute</span> configuration of lyngbyapeptin A from the marine cyanobacterium Lyngbya majuscula.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Luesch, H; Yoshida, W Y; Moore, R E; Paul, V J</p> <p>2000-10-01</p> <p>An analogue of the potent microfilament-disrupter lyngbyabellin A (1) has been isolated as a minor <span class="hlt">metabolite</span> from the marine cyanobacterium Lyngbya majuscula collected at Apra Harbor, Guam. It possesses slightly weaker cytotoxicity than 1 and has been named lyngbyabellin B (2). Primarily NMR spectroscopy was used to determine its structure. The <span class="hlt">absolute</span> configuration of 2 has been ascertained by chiral HPLC analysis of degradation products and by comparison with lyngbyabellin A (1). The known modified tetrapeptide lyngbyapeptin A (3) has also been found in the same extract, and its <span class="hlt">absolute</span> stereochemistry could be determined for the first time.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015PhRvA..92f2125A','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015PhRvA..92f2125A"><span id="translatedtitle">Quantum theory allows for <span class="hlt">absolute</span> maximal contextuality</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Amaral, Barbara; Cunha, Marcelo Terra; Cabello, Adán</p> <p>2015-12-01</p> <p>Contextuality is a fundamental feature of quantum theory and a necessary resource for quantum computation and communication. It is therefore important to investigate how large contextuality can be in quantum theory. Linear contextuality witnesses can be expressed as a sum S of n probabilities, and the independence number α and the Tsirelson-like number ϑ of the corresponding exclusivity graph are, respectively, the maximum of S for noncontextual theories and for the theory under consideration. A theory allows for <span class="hlt">absolute</span> maximal contextuality if it has scenarios in which ϑ /α approaches n . Here we show that quantum theory allows for <span class="hlt">absolute</span> maximal contextuality despite what is suggested by the examination of the quantum violations of Bell and noncontextuality inequalities considered in the past. Our proof is not constructive and does not single out explicit scenarios. Nevertheless, we identify scenarios in which quantum theory allows for almost-<span class="hlt">absolute</span>-maximal contextuality.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/6063303','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/6063303"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Absolute</span> calibration in vivo measurement systems</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Kruchten, D.A.; Hickman, D.P.</p> <p>1991-02-01</p> <p>Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) is currently investigating a new method for obtaining <span class="hlt">absolute</span> calibration factors for radiation measurement systems used to measure internally deposited radionuclides in vivo. <span class="hlt">Absolute</span> calibration of in vivo measurement systems will eliminate the need to generate a series of human surrogate structures (i.e., phantoms) for calibrating in vivo measurement systems. The <span class="hlt">absolute</span> calibration of in vivo measurement systems utilizes magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to define physiological structure, size, and composition. The MRI image provides a digitized representation of the physiological structure, which allows for any mathematical distribution of radionuclides within the body. Using Monte Carlo transport codes, the emission spectrum from the body is predicted. The in vivo measurement equipment is calibrated using the Monte Carlo code and adjusting for the intrinsic properties of the detection system. The calibration factors are verified using measurements of existing phantoms and previously obtained measurements of human volunteers. 8 refs.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26478959','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26478959"><span id="translatedtitle">Stimulus probability effects in <span class="hlt">absolute</span> identification.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Kent, Christopher; Lamberts, Koen</p> <p>2016-05-01</p> <p>This study investigated the effect of stimulus presentation probability on accuracy and response times in an <span class="hlt">absolute</span> identification task. Three schedules of presentation were used to investigate the interaction between presentation probability and stimulus position within the set. Data from individual participants indicated strong effects of presentation probability on both proportion correct and response times. The effects were moderated by the ubiquitous stimulus position effect. The accuracy and response time data were predicted by an exemplar-based model of perceptual cognition (Kent & Lamberts, 2005). The bow in discriminability was also attenuated when presentation probability for middle items was relatively high, an effect that will constrain future model development. The study provides evidence for item-specific learning in <span class="hlt">absolute</span> identification. Implications for other theories of <span class="hlt">absolute</span> identification are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24117660','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24117660"><span id="translatedtitle">Quantitative standards for <span class="hlt">absolute</span> linguistic universals.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Piantadosi, Steven T; Gibson, Edward</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Absolute</span> linguistic universals are often justified by cross-linguistic analysis: If all observed languages exhibit a property, the property is taken to be a likely universal, perhaps specified in the cognitive or linguistic systems of language learners and users. In many cases, these patterns are then taken to motivate linguistic theory. Here, we show that cross-linguistic analysis will very rarely be able to statistically justify <span class="hlt">absolute</span>, inviolable patterns in language. We formalize two statistical methods--frequentist and Bayesian--and show that in both it is possible to find strict linguistic universals, but that the numbers of independent languages necessary to do so is generally unachievable. This suggests that methods other than typological statistics are necessary to establish <span class="hlt">absolute</span> properties of human language, and thus that many of the purported universals in linguistics have not received sufficient empirical justification.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24322224','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24322224"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Absolute</span> photoacoustic thermometry in deep tissue.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Yao, Junjie; Ke, Haixin; Tai, Stephen; Zhou, Yong; Wang, Lihong V</p> <p>2013-12-15</p> <p>Photoacoustic thermography is a promising tool for temperature measurement in deep tissue. Here we propose an <span class="hlt">absolute</span> temperature measurement method based on the dual temperature dependences of the Grüneisen parameter and the speed of sound in tissue. By taking ratiometric measurements at two adjacent temperatures, we can eliminate the factors that are temperature irrelevant but difficult to correct for in deep tissue. To validate our method, <span class="hlt">absolute</span> temperatures of blood-filled tubes embedded ~9 mm deep in chicken tissue were measured in a biologically relevant range from 28°C to 46°C. The temperature measurement accuracy was ~0.6°C. The results suggest that our method can be potentially used for <span class="hlt">absolute</span> temperature monitoring in deep tissue during thermotherapy.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/371207','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/371207"><span id="translatedtitle">Molecular iodine <span class="hlt">absolute</span> frequencies. Final report</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Sansonetti, C.J.</p> <p>1990-06-25</p> <p>Fifty specified lines of {sup 127}I{sub 2} were studied by Doppler-free frequency modulation spectroscopy. For each line the classification of the molecular transition was determined, hyperfine components were identified, and one well-resolved component was selected for precise determination of its <span class="hlt">absolute</span> frequency. In 3 cases, a nearby alternate line was selected for measurement because no well-resolved component was found for the specified line. <span class="hlt">Absolute</span> frequency determinations were made with an estimated uncertainty of 1.1 MHz by locking a dye laser to the selected hyperfine component and measuring its wave number with a high-precision Fabry-Perot wavemeter. For each line results of the <span class="hlt">absolute</span> measurement, the line classification, and a Doppler-free spectrum are given.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19890000284&hterms=Hilbert&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D30%26Ntt%3DHilbert','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19890000284&hterms=Hilbert&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D30%26Ntt%3DHilbert"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Absolute</span> Stability And Hyperstability In Hilbert Space</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Wen, John Ting-Yung</p> <p>1989-01-01</p> <p>Theorems on stabilities of feedback control systems proved. Paper presents recent developments regarding theorems of <span class="hlt">absolute</span> stability and hyperstability of feedforward-and-feedback control system. Theorems applied in analysis of nonlinear, adaptive, and robust control. Extended to provide sufficient conditions for stability in system including nonlinear feedback subsystem and linear time-invariant (LTI) feedforward subsystem, state space of which is Hilbert space, and input and output spaces having finite numbers of dimensions. (In case of <span class="hlt">absolute</span> stability, feedback subsystem memoryless and possibly time varying. For hyperstability, feedback system dynamical system.)</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25828063','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25828063"><span id="translatedtitle">The "first hit" toward alcohol reinforcement: role of ethanol <span class="hlt">metabolites</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Israel, Yedy; Quintanilla, María Elena; Karahanian, Eduardo; Rivera-Meza, Mario; Herrera-Marschitz, Mario</p> <p>2015-05-01</p> <p>This review analyzes literature that describes the behavioral effects of 2 <span class="hlt">metabolites</span> of ethanol (EtOH): acetaldehyde and salsolinol (a condensation product of acetaldehyde and dopamine) generated in the brain. These <span class="hlt">metabolites</span> are self-administered into specific brain areas by animals, showing strong reinforcing effects. A wealth of evidence shows that EtOH, a drug consumed to attain millimolar <span class="hlt">concentrations</span>, generates brain <span class="hlt">metabolites</span> that are reinforcing at micromolar and nanomolar <span class="hlt">concentrations</span>. Salsolinol administration leads to marked increases in voluntary EtOH intake, an effect inhibited by mu-opioid receptor blockers. In animals that have ingested EtOH chronically, the maintenance of alcohol intake is no longer influenced by EtOH <span class="hlt">metabolites</span>, as intake is taken over by other brain systems. However, after EtOH withdrawal brain acetaldehyde has a major role in promoting binge-like drinking in the condition known as the "alcohol deprivation effect"; a condition seen in animals that have ingested alcohol chronically, are deprived of EtOH for extended periods, and are allowed EtOH re-access. The review also analyzes the behavioral effects of acetate, a <span class="hlt">metabolite</span> that enters the brain and is responsible for motor incoordination at low doses of EtOH. Also discussed are the paradoxical effects of systemic acetaldehyde. Overall, evidence strongly suggests that brain-generated EtOH <span class="hlt">metabolites</span> play a major role in the early ("first-hit") development of alcohol reinforcement and in the generation of relapse-like drinking.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25006784','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25006784"><span id="translatedtitle">A novel fungal <span class="hlt">metabolite</span> with beneficial properties for agricultural applications.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Vinale, Francesco; Manganiello, Gelsomina; Nigro, Marco; Mazzei, Pierluigi; Piccolo, Alessandro; Pascale, Alberto; Ruocco, Michelina; Marra, Roberta; Lombardi, Nadia; Lanzuise, Stefania; Varlese, Rosaria; Cavallo, Pierpaolo; Lorito, Matteo; Woo, Sheridan L</p> <p>2014-07-08</p> <p>Trichoderma are ubiquitous soil fungi that include species widely used as biocontrol agents in agriculture. Many isolates are known to secrete several secondary <span class="hlt">metabolites</span> with different biological activities towards plants and other microbes. Harzianic acid (HA) is a T. harzianum <span class="hlt">metabolite</span> able to promote plant growth and strongly bind iron. In this work, we isolated from the culture filtrate of a T. harzianum strain a new <span class="hlt">metabolite</span>, named isoharzianic acid (iso-HA), a stereoisomer of HA. The structure and <span class="hlt">absolute</span> configuration of this compound has been determined by spectroscopic methods, including UV-Vis, MS, 1D and 2D NMR analyses. In vitro applications of iso-HA inhibited the mycelium radial growth of Sclerotinia sclerotiorum and Rhizoctonia solani. Moreover, iso HA improved the germination of tomato seeds and induced disease resistance. HPLC-DAD experiments showed that the production of HA and iso HA was affected by the presence of plant tissue in the liquid medium. In particular, tomato tissue elicited the production of HA but negatively modulated the biosynthesis of its analogue iso-HA, suggesting that different forms of the same Trichoderma secondary <span class="hlt">metabolite</span> have specific roles in the molecular mechanism regulating the Trichoderma plant interaction.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26749835','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26749835"><span id="translatedtitle">Ruta graveolens Extracts and <span class="hlt">Metabolites</span> against Spodoptera frugiperda.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Ayil-Gutiérrez, Benjamin A; Villegas-Mendoza, Jesús M; Santes-Hernndez, Zuridai; Paz-González, Alma D; Mireles-Martínez, Maribel; Rosas-García, Ninfa M; Rivera, Gildardo</p> <p>2015-11-01</p> <p>The biological activity of Ruta graveolens leaf tissue extracts obtained with different solvents (ethyl acetate, ethanol, and water) and <span class="hlt">metabolites</span> (psoralen, 2- undecanone and rutin) against Spodoptera frugiperda was evaluated. <span class="hlt">Metabolites</span> levels in extracts were quantified by HPLC and GC. Ethyl acetate and ethanol extracts showed 94% and 78% mortality, respectively. Additionally, psoralen <span class="hlt">metabolite</span> showed a high mortality as cypermethrin. <span class="hlt">Metabolite</span> quantification in extracts shows the presence of 2-undecanone (87.9 µmoles mg(-1) DW), psoralen (3.6 µmoles mg(-1) DW) and rutin (0.001 pmoles mg(-1) DW). We suggest that these <span class="hlt">concentrations</span> of 2-undecanone and psoralen in R. graveolens leaf tissue extracts could be responsible for S. frugiperda mortality.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/912864','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/912864"><span id="translatedtitle">Methaqualone <span class="hlt">metabolites</span> in human urine after therapeutic doses.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Kazyak, L; Kelley, J A; Cella, J A; Droege, R E; Hilpert, L R; Permisohn, R C</p> <p>1977-11-01</p> <p>We measured five principal <span class="hlt">metabolites</span> of methaqualone in the urine of seven volunteers after single and multiple doses of the drug. Urine, collected for up to 72 hours after the last dose, was analyzed for methaqualone and its principal <span class="hlt">metabolites</span> by high-resolution capillary-column gas chromatography. The major biotransformation of methaqualone under therapeutic conditions occurred through benzylic and para-hydroxylation of the o-tolyl moiety. Methaqualone itself was present in <span class="hlt">concentrations</span> of no more than 1 mg/liter, if it could be detected at all. The observed physiological effects ant total urinary excretion of <span class="hlt">metabolites</span> reflected the cumulative nature of the parent drug when it was administered in multiple doses. No clear relationship was found between appearance of a specific <span class="hlt">metabolite</span> and time after ingestion of the drug, although higher amounts of 2-methyl-3-(2'-hydroxymethylphenyl)-4(3H)-quinazolinone were noted in those individuals who tolerated the drug less well.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");'>15</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li class="active"><span>17</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_17 --> <div id="page_18" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li class="active"><span>18</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="341"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=1087642','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=1087642"><span id="translatedtitle">Clinical Pharmacokinetics of Alamifovir and Its <span class="hlt">Metabolites</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Chan, Clark; Abu-Raddad, Eyas; Golor, Georg; Watanabe, Hikari; Sasaki, Akira; Yeo, Kwee Poo; Soon, Danny; Sinha, Vikram P.; Flanagan, Shawn D.; He, Minxia M.; Wise, Stephen D.</p> <p>2005-01-01</p> <p>Alamifovir, a purine nucleotide analogue prodrug, and its hydrolyzed derivatives have shown preclincal efficacy activity against wild-type and lamivudine-resistant hepatitis B virus. Two studies were conducted to examine the single- and multiple-dose alamifovir pharmacokinetics after oral administration in healthy males. In study 1, subjects were given single doses (0.2 to 80 mg), with a subset receiving 20 mg in a fed state. Study 2 subjects were dosed with 2.5 to 15 mg twice daily for 15 days. Plasma samples were collected over 72 h in study 1 and over 24 h on days 1 and 15 in study 2. <span class="hlt">Concentrations</span> of alamifovir and its major <span class="hlt">metabolites</span> were determined using liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry methods. The data were analyzed using a noncompartmental technique. Although alamifovir was rapidly absorbed, there was limited systemic exposure due to its rapid hydrolysis and formation of at least three <span class="hlt">metabolites</span>, suggesting that alamifovir acts as a prodrug. The major <span class="hlt">metabolites</span> detected were 602074 and 602076, with 602075 detectable only in higher-dose groups. Maximum 602074 plasma <span class="hlt">concentration</span> was achieved at approximately 0.5 h (Tmax) and declined with a 1- to 2-h terminal half-life (t1/2). Maximum <span class="hlt">concentrations</span> of 602076 (Cmax) averaged 10% of the 602074 Cmax and reached Tmax in 2.5 h with a 4-h t1/2. Food appeared to decrease the extent of absorption of the compound. Multiple dosing resulted in minimal accumulation, and the <span class="hlt">concentrations</span> following multiple doses could be predicted using the single-dose data. Alamifovir was well tolerated and the pharmacokinetics were characterized in these studies. PMID:15855501</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23349033','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23349033"><span id="translatedtitle">Effect of <span class="hlt">concentrate</span> supplementation on feed consumption, nutrient utilization and blood <span class="hlt">metabolite</span> profile in captive spotted deer (Axis axis) fed oat (Avena sativa) and berseem (Trifolium alexandrinum) fodders based diet.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Suresh, C; Das, A; Katole, Shrikant; Saini, Mohini; Swarup, D</p> <p>2013-03-01</p> <p>This experiment was conducted to determine the optimum level of a maize-soybean meal-wheat bran <span class="hlt">concentrate</span> supplement fed to captive spotted deer fed an oat and berseem fodder-based diet. Twelve adult spotted deer [64-76 kg body weight (BW)] were distributed into three groups of four each and were housed individually. A diet consisting of 5 kg of oat fodder and 5.5 kg of berseem fodder was offered to each one of the experimental animals. The animal in group I received no supplementary <span class="hlt">concentrate</span>, whereas, those in groups II and III received 0.5 and 1 kg of supplementary <span class="hlt">concentrate</span>, respectively. A 60 days digestibility trial was conducted with a 5 days collection period on Days 55-59 of the trial. Blood samples were collected from all animals on Day 60 of the experiment. Average daily dry matter intake (DMI) was 1,224, 1,613, and 1,574 g/day in groups I, II, and III, respectively. Dry matter (DM) and organic matter (OM) intake was lowest (P < 0.01) in group I. Intake of P, Cu, and Zn was highest (P < 0.01) in group III, followed by groups II and I. Digestibility of neutral detergent fiber was highest (P < 0.05) in group II. Digestibility of OM and CP was lowest (P < 0.05) in group I. Digestibility of gross energy was highest (P < 0.01) in group III (74.9%), followed by groups II (69.3%) and I (66.2%). Digestible energy (DE) intake (kcal/kg BW(0.75) ) was highest (P < 0.01) in group III (195.4), followed by groups II (180.9) and I (129.8). Initial BW was 72.7, 72.5, and 71.0 kg, whereas, final BW was 71.0, 72.7, and 73.5 kg, in groups I, II and III, respectively. Average daily change in body mass was significantly (P < 0.01) different among the groups. The body mass was lost (-29.2 g/day), maintained (4.1 g/day) and gained (41.6 g/day) in groups I, II, and III, respectively. Blood glucose and cholesterol <span class="hlt">concentration</span> was highest (P < 0.05) in group III, followed by groups II and I. Serum <span class="hlt">concentration</span> of Cu and</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20010125144&hterms=gps+deformation&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D40%26Ntt%3Dgps%2Bdeformation','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20010125144&hterms=gps+deformation&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D40%26Ntt%3Dgps%2Bdeformation"><span id="translatedtitle">Measuring Postglacial Rebound with GPS and <span class="hlt">Absolute</span> Gravity</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Larson, Kristine M.; vanDam, Tonie</p> <p>2000-01-01</p> <p>We compare vertical rates of deformation derived from continuous Global Positioning System (GPS) observations and episodic measurements of <span class="hlt">absolute</span> gravity. We <span class="hlt">concentrate</span> on four sites in a region of North America experiencing postglacial rebound. The rates of uplift from gravity and GPS agree within one standard deviation for all sites. The GPS vertical deformation rates are significantly more precise than the gravity rates, primarily because of the denser temporal spacing provided by continuous GPS tracking. We conclude that continuous GPS observations are more cost efficient and provide more precise estimates of vertical deformation rates than campaign style gravity observations where systematic errors are difficult to quantify.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4447620','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4447620"><span id="translatedtitle">Whole-brain quantitative mapping of <span class="hlt">metabolites</span> using short echo 3D-proton- MRSI</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Lecocq, Angèle; Le Fur, Yann; Maudsley, Andrew A; Le Troter, Arnaud; Sheriff, Sulaiman; Sabati, Mohamad; Donnadieu, Maxime; Confort-Gouny, Sylviane; Cozzone, Patrick J.; Guye, Maxime; Ranjeva, Jean-Philippe</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>Purpose To improve the extent over which whole brain quantitative 3D-MRSI maps can be obtained and be used to explore brain metabolism in a population of healthy volunteers. Materials and Methods Two short TE (20 ms) acquisitions of 3D Echo Planar Spectroscopic Imaging at two orientations, one in the anterior commissure – posterior commissure (AC-PC) plane and the second tilted in the AC-PC +15° plane were obtained at 3T in a group of ten healthy volunteers. B1+, B1−, and B0 correction procedures and normalization of <span class="hlt">metabolite</span> signals with quantitative water proton density measurements were performed. A combination of the two spatially normalized 3D-MRSI, using a weighted mean based on the pixel wise standard deviation metabolic maps of each orientation obtained from the whole group, provided <span class="hlt">metabolite</span> maps for each subject allowing regional metabolic profiles of all parcels of the automated anatomical labeling (AAL) atlas to be obtained. Results The combined <span class="hlt">metabolite</span> maps derived from the two acquisitions reduced the regional inter-subject variance. The numbers of AAL regions showing NAA SD/Mean ratios lower than 30% increased from 17 in the AC-PC orientation and 41 in the AC-PC+15° orientation, to a value of 76 regions out of 116 for the combined NAA maps. Quantitatively, regional differences in <span class="hlt">absolute</span> <span class="hlt">metabolite</span> <span class="hlt">concentrations</span> (mM) over the whole brain were depicted such as in the GM of frontal lobes (cNAA=10.03+1.71, cCho=1.78±0.55, cCr=7.29±1.69; cmIns=5.30±2.67) and in cerebellum (cNAA=5.28±1.77, cCho=1.60±0.41, cCr=6.95±2.15; cmIns=3.60±0.74). Conclusion A double-angulation acquisition enables improved metabolic characterization over a wide volume of the brain. PMID:25431032</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19387403','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19387403"><span id="translatedtitle">Blood <span class="hlt">metabolites</span> during basketball competitions.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Ben Abdelkrim, Nidhal; Castagna, Carlo; El Fazaa, Saloua; Tabka, Zouhaier; El Ati, Jalila</p> <p>2009-05-01</p> <p>This study examined basketball game blood hormonal and <span class="hlt">metabolite</span> responses in 38 (8 guards, 18 forwards, and 12 centers) male national elite-junior players (age, 18.2 +/- 0.5 years; height, 1.89 +/- 0.1 m; body mass, 80.3 +/- 6.7 kg; body fat, 8.2 +/- 5.6%; maximum oxygen uptake Vo2max], 52.8 +/- 2.4 mlxkgxmin). At the moment of the investigation, players had 8 +/- 1.6 years of competitive experience. Blood samples were collected at the beginning, at halftime, and at fulltime of 6 junior competitive games (Tunisian under 19 basketball championship). Game intensity was assessed monitoring heart rates (HR). During the game, players attained 93 +/- 2% of maximal HR. Triglycerides (TG) and free fatty acids (FFA) <span class="hlt">concentrations</span> significantly increased during the game, most markedly so in the second half. Postgame TG and FFA <span class="hlt">concentrations</span> were significantly (p < 0.05 and p < 0.001, respectively) lower for guards (1.48 +/- 0.22 and 0.88 +/- 0.14 mmolxL, respectively) than for centers (1.88 +/- 0.30 and 1.08 +/- 0.09 mmolxL, respectively). Plasma glucose significantly increased at halftime (from 4.05 +/- 1.27 to 5.98 +/- 0.88 mmolxL; p < 0.001) but decreased in the second half. Serum insulin (INS) progressively decreased for all players during the game, whereas serum cortisol increased at the end of the first half (from 333 +/- 129 to 487 +/- 209 nmolxL; p < 0.001) to remain increased throughout the second half.Basketball game demands seem to induce significant metabolic-hormonal changes on players. Higher values of HR and glycemia were observed in the first half, but a more important increase of lipolytic variables was recorded in the second half. Changes in metabolic markers are role-dependent.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26443920','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26443920"><span id="translatedtitle">Structure and <span class="hlt">Absolute</span> Configuration of Jurassic Polyketide-Derived Spiroborate Pigments Obtained from Microgram Quantities.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Wolkenstein, Klaus; Sun, Han; Falk, Heinz; Griesinger, Christian</p> <p>2015-10-28</p> <p>Complete structural elucidation of natural products is often challenging due to structural complexity and limited availability. This is true for present-day secondary <span class="hlt">metabolites</span>, but even more for exceptionally preserved secondary <span class="hlt">metabolites</span> of ancient organisms that potentially provide insights into the evolutionary history of natural products. Here, we report the full structure and <span class="hlt">absolute</span> configuration of the borolithochromes, enigmatic boron-containing pigments from a Jurassic putative red alga, from samples of less than 50 μg using microcryoprobe NMR, circular dichroism spectroscopy, and density functional theory calculations and reveal their polyketide origin. The pigments are identified as spiroborates with two pentacyclic sec-butyl-trihydroxy-methyl-benzo[gh]tetraphen-one ligands and less-substituted derivatives. The configuration of the sec-butyl group is found to be (S). Because the exceptional benzo[gh]tetraphene scaffold is otherwise only observed in the recently discovered polyketide clostrubin from a present-day Clostridium bacterium, the Jurassic borolithochromes now can be unambiguously linked to the modern polyketide, providing evidence that the fossil pigments are almost originally preserved secondary <span class="hlt">metabolites</span> and suggesting that the pigments in fact may have been produced by an ancient bacterium. The borolithochromes differ fundamentally from previously described boronated polyketides and represent the first boronated aromatic polyketides found so far. Our results demonstrate the potential of microcryoprobe NMR in the analysis of previously little-explored secondary <span class="hlt">metabolites</span> from ancient organisms and reveal the evolutionary significance of clostrubin-type polyketides. PMID:26443920</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=cell+AND+size&pg=4&id=EJ753903','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=cell+AND+size&pg=4&id=EJ753903"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Absolute</span> Points for Multiple Assignment Problems</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Adlakha, V.; Kowalski, K.</p> <p>2006-01-01</p> <p>An algorithm is presented to solve multiple assignment problems in which a cost is incurred only when an assignment is made at a given cell. The proposed method recursively searches for single/group <span class="hlt">absolute</span> points to identify cells that must be loaded in any optimal solution. Unlike other methods, the first solution is the optimal solution. The…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/927741','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/927741"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Absolute</span> partial photoionization cross sections of ozone.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Berkowitz, J.; Chemistry</p> <p>2008-04-01</p> <p>Despite the current concerns about ozone, <span class="hlt">absolute</span> partial photoionization cross sections for this molecule in the vacuum ultraviolet (valence) region have been unavailable. By eclectic re-evaluation of old/new data and plausible assumptions, such cross sections have been assembled to fill this void.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=effect&pg=3&id=EJ1099263','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=effect&pg=3&id=EJ1099263"><span id="translatedtitle">Stimulus Probability Effects in <span class="hlt">Absolute</span> Identification</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Kent, Christopher; Lamberts, Koen</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>This study investigated the effect of stimulus presentation probability on accuracy and response times in an <span class="hlt">absolute</span> identification task. Three schedules of presentation were used to investigate the interaction between presentation probability and stimulus position within the set. Data from individual participants indicated strong effects of…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=mathematics+AND+inequalities&pg=5&id=EJ945042','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=mathematics+AND+inequalities&pg=5&id=EJ945042"><span id="translatedtitle">Teaching <span class="hlt">Absolute</span> Value Inequalities to Mature Students</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Sierpinska, Anna; Bobos, Georgeana; Pruncut, Andreea</p> <p>2011-01-01</p> <p>This paper gives an account of a teaching experiment on <span class="hlt">absolute</span> value inequalities, whose aim was to identify characteristics of an approach that would realize the potential of the topic to develop theoretical thinking in students enrolled in prerequisite mathematics courses at a large, urban North American university. The potential is…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=VALUE+AND+ABSOLUTE&pg=2&id=EJ726176','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=VALUE+AND+ABSOLUTE&pg=2&id=EJ726176"><span id="translatedtitle">Solving <span class="hlt">Absolute</span> Value Equations Algebraically and Geometrically</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Shiyuan, Wei</p> <p>2005-01-01</p> <p>The way in which students can improve their comprehension by understanding the geometrical meaning of algebraic equations or solving algebraic equation geometrically is described. Students can experiment with the conditions of the <span class="hlt">absolute</span> value equation presented, for an interesting way to form an overall understanding of the concept.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=limit+AND+articles&pg=2&id=EJ933808','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=limit+AND+articles&pg=2&id=EJ933808"><span id="translatedtitle">Increasing Capacity: Practice Effects in <span class="hlt">Absolute</span> Identification</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Dodds, Pennie; Donkin, Christopher; Brown, Scott D.; Heathcote, Andrew</p> <p>2011-01-01</p> <p>In most of the long history of the study of <span class="hlt">absolute</span> identification--since Miller's (1956) seminal article--a severe limit on performance has been observed, and this limit has resisted improvement even by extensive practice. In a startling result, Rouder, Morey, Cowan, and Pfaltz (2004) found substantially improved performance with practice in the…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1986SPIE..660....2S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1986SPIE..660....2S"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Absolute</span> Radiometric Calibration Of The Thematic Mapper</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Slater, P. N.; Biggar, S. F.; Holm, R. G.; Jackson, R. D.; Mao, Y.; Moran, M. S.; Palmer, J. M.; Yuan, B.</p> <p>1986-11-01</p> <p>The results are presented of five in-flight <span class="hlt">absolute</span> radiometric calibrations, made in the period July 1984 to November 1985, at White Sands, New Mexico, of the solar reflective bands of the Landsat-5 Thematic Mapper (TM) . The 23 bandcalibrations made on the five dates show a ± 2.8% RMS variation from the mean as a percentage of the mean.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=mathematics+AND+education&pg=5&id=EJ1070973','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=mathematics+AND+education&pg=5&id=EJ1070973"><span id="translatedtitle">On Relative and <span class="hlt">Absolute</span> Conviction in Mathematics</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Weber, Keith; Mejia-Ramos, Juan Pablo</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>Conviction is a central construct in mathematics education research on justification and proof. In this paper, we claim that it is important to distinguish between <span class="hlt">absolute</span> conviction and relative conviction. We argue that researchers in mathematics education frequently have not done so and this has lead to researchers making unwarranted claims…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/880001','DOE-PATENT-XML'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/880001"><span id="translatedtitle">Synthesis Of Labeled <span class="hlt">Metabolites</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/doepatents">DOEpatents</a></p> <p>Martinez, Rodolfo A.; Silks, III, Louis A.; Unkefer, Clifford J.; Atcher, Robert</p> <p>2004-03-23</p> <p>The present invention is directed to labeled compounds, for example, isotopically enriched mustard gas <span class="hlt">metabolites</span> including: [1,1',2,2'-.sup.13 C.sub.4 ]ethane, 1,1'-sulfonylbis[2-(methylthio); [1,1',2,2'-.sup.13 C.sub.4 ]ethane, 1-[[2-(methylsulfinyl)ethyl]sulfonyl]-2-(methylthio); [1,1',2,2'-.sup.13 C.sub.4 ]ethane, 1,1'-sulfonylbis[2-(methylsulfinyl)]; and, 2,2'-sulfinylbis([1,2-.sup.13 C.sub.2 ]ethanol of the general formula ##STR1## where Q.sup.1 is selected from the group consisting of sulfide (--S--), sulfone (--S(O)--), sulfoxide (--S(O.sub.2)--) and oxide (--O--), at least one C* is .sup.13 C, X is selected from the group consisting of hydrogen and deuterium, and Z is selected from the group consisting of hydroxide (--OH), and --Q.sup.2 --R where Q.sup.2 is selected from the group consisting of sulfide (--S--), sulfone(--S(O)--), sulfoxide (--S(O.sub.2)--) and oxide (--O--), and R is selected from the group consisting of hydrogen, a C.sub.1 to C.sub.4 lower alkyl, and amino acid moieties, with the proviso that when Z is a hydroxide and Q.sup.1 is a sulfide, then at least one X is deuterium.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21509189','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21509189"><span id="translatedtitle">Rethinking cycad <span class="hlt">metabolite</span> research.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Snyder, Laura R; Marler, Thomas E</p> <p>2011-01-01</p> <p>Cycads are among the most ancient of extant Spermatophytes, and are known for their numerous pharmacologically active compounds. One compound in particular, β-methylamino-L-alanine (BMAA), has been implicated as the cause of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis/Parkinson dementia complex (ALS/PDC) on Guam. Previous studies allege that BMAA is produced exclusively by cyanobacteria, and is transferred to cycads through the symbiotic relationship between these cyanobacteria and the roots of cycads. We recently published data showing that Cycas micronesica seedlings grown without endophytic cyanobacteria do in fact increase in BMAA, invalidating the foundation of the BMAA hypothesis. We use this example to suggest that the frenzy centered on BMAA and other single putative toxins has hindered progress. The long list of cycad-specific compounds may have important roles in signaling or communication, but these possibilities have been neglected during decades of attempts to force single <span class="hlt">metabolites</span> into a supposed anti-herbivory function. We propose that an unbiased, comprehensive approach may be a more appropriate means of proceeding with cycad biochemistry research. PMID:21509189</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21509189','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21509189"><span id="translatedtitle">Rethinking cycad <span class="hlt">metabolite</span> research.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Snyder, Laura R; Marler, Thomas E</p> <p>2011-01-01</p> <p>Cycads are among the most ancient of extant Spermatophytes, and are known for their numerous pharmacologically active compounds. One compound in particular, β-methylamino-L-alanine (BMAA), has been implicated as the cause of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis/Parkinson dementia complex (ALS/PDC) on Guam. Previous studies allege that BMAA is produced exclusively by cyanobacteria, and is transferred to cycads through the symbiotic relationship between these cyanobacteria and the roots of cycads. We recently published data showing that Cycas micronesica seedlings grown without endophytic cyanobacteria do in fact increase in BMAA, invalidating the foundation of the BMAA hypothesis. We use this example to suggest that the frenzy centered on BMAA and other single putative toxins has hindered progress. The long list of cycad-specific compounds may have important roles in signaling or communication, but these possibilities have been neglected during decades of attempts to force single <span class="hlt">metabolites</span> into a supposed anti-herbivory function. We propose that an unbiased, comprehensive approach may be a more appropriate means of proceeding with cycad biochemistry research.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3232806','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3232806"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Absolute</span> Bioavailability of cis-Mirincamycin and trans-Mirincamycin in Healthy Rhesus Monkeys and Ex Vivo Antimalarial Activity against Plasmodium falciparum ▿</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Khemawoot, Phisit; Saunders, David; Rasameesoraj, Maneerat; Melendez, Victor; Imerbsin, Rawiwan; Ohrt, Colin; Fracisco, Susan; Teja-isavadharm, Paktiya</p> <p>2011-01-01</p> <p>The pharmacokinetics, oral bioavailability, and ex vivo antimalarial activity of mirincamycin isomers in a healthy rhesus monkey model were assessed to support lead optimization of novel nonhemolytic drugs for radical cure and causal prophylaxis of malaria. Fourteen male rhesus monkeys were randomized to four groups, which included cis and trans isomers by the oral and intravenous routes, with vehicle-only controls for each dosing route. <span class="hlt">Concentration</span>-time data were collected for 7 days and were analyzed by noncompartmental analysis. cis-Mirincamycin had an <span class="hlt">absolute</span> oral bioavailability of 13.6%, which was slightly higher than that of trans-mirincamycin (11.7%), but this difference was not statistically significant. There was a statistically significant difference between the area under the <span class="hlt">concentration</span>-time curve from zero to 48 h (AUC0–48) of cis-mirincamycin and that of trans-mirincamycin after oral dosing. When cultured in vitro with the W2 clone of Plasmodium falciparum, the 50% inhibitory <span class="hlt">concentrations</span> for cis-mirincamycin, trans-mirincamycin, and dihydroartemisinin were 11,300, 12,300, and 2.30 nM, respectively. However, when dosed primate plasma was cultured ex vivo against the W2 clone, both isomers had much greater relative potencies than their in vitro activities relative to results for dihydroartemisinin, an increase of approximately 100-fold for the cis isomer and 150-fold for the trans isomer. Further, oral ex vivo activity was significantly higher than intravenous activity for both isomers, particularly during the first 90 min following dosing, suggesting the first-pass formation of one or more <span class="hlt">metabolites</span> with blood-stage antimalarial activity. Identification of the metabolic pathways and <span class="hlt">metabolites</span> may help to further delineate the properties of this class of drugs with previously demonstrated liver-stage antimalarial activity. PMID:21947400</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27428989','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27428989"><span id="translatedtitle">Phthalate <span class="hlt">Metabolites</span>, Consumer Habits and Health Effects.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Wallner, Peter; Kundi, Michael; Hohenblum, Philipp; Scharf, Sigrid; Hutter, Hans-Peter</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>Phthalates are multifunctional chemicals used in a wide variety of consumer products. The aim of this study was to investigate whether levels of urinary phthalate <span class="hlt">metabolites</span> in urine samples of Austrian mothers and their children were associated with consumer habits and health indicators. Within an Austrian biomonitoring survey, urine samples from 50 mother-child pairs of five communities (two-stage random stratified sampling) were analysed. The <span class="hlt">concentrations</span> of 14 phthalate <span class="hlt">metabolites</span> were determined, and a questionnaire was administered. Monoethyl phthalate (MEP), mono-n-butyl phthalate (MnBP), mono-isobutyl phthalate (MiBP), monobenzyl phthalate (MBzP), mono-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (MEHP), mono-(2-ethyl-5-hydroxyhexyl) phthalate (5OH-MEHP), mono-(2-ethyl-5-oxohexyl) phthalate (5oxo-MEHP), mono-(5-carboxy-2-ethylpentyl) phthalate (5cx-MEPP), and 3-carboxy-mono-propyl phthalate (3cx-MPP) could be quantified in the majority of samples. Significant correlations were found between the use of hair mousse, hair dye, makeup, chewing gum, polyethylene terephthalate (PET) bottles and the diethyl phthalate (DEP) <span class="hlt">metabolite</span> MEP. With regard to health effects, significant associations of MEP in urine with headache, repeated coughing, diarrhoea, and hormonal problems were observed. MBzP was associated with repeated coughing and MEHP was associated with itching.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4962258','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4962258"><span id="translatedtitle">Phthalate <span class="hlt">Metabolites</span>, Consumer Habits and Health Effects</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Wallner, Peter; Kundi, Michael; Hohenblum, Philipp; Scharf, Sigrid; Hutter, Hans-Peter</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>Phthalates are multifunctional chemicals used in a wide variety of consumer products. The aim of this study was to investigate whether levels of urinary phthalate <span class="hlt">metabolites</span> in urine samples of Austrian mothers and their children were associated with consumer habits and health indicators. Within an Austrian biomonitoring survey, urine samples from 50 mother-child pairs of five communities (two-stage random stratified sampling) were analysed. The <span class="hlt">concentrations</span> of 14 phthalate <span class="hlt">metabolites</span> were determined, and a questionnaire was administered. Monoethyl phthalate (MEP), mono-n-butyl phthalate (MnBP), mono-isobutyl phthalate (MiBP), monobenzyl phthalate (MBzP), mono-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (MEHP), mono-(2-ethyl-5-hydroxyhexyl) phthalate (5OH-MEHP), mono-(2-ethyl-5-oxohexyl) phthalate (5oxo-MEHP), mono-(5-carboxy-2-ethylpentyl) phthalate (5cx-MEPP), and 3-carboxy-mono-propyl phthalate (3cx-MPP) could be quantified in the majority of samples. Significant correlations were found between the use of hair mousse, hair dye, makeup, chewing gum, polyethylene terephthalate (PET) bottles and the diethyl phthalate (DEP) <span class="hlt">metabolite</span> MEP. With regard to health effects, significant associations of MEP in urine with headache, repeated coughing, diarrhoea, and hormonal problems were observed. MBzP was associated with repeated coughing and MEHP was associated with itching. PMID:27428989</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li class="active"><span>18</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_18 --> <div id="page_19" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li class="active"><span>19</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="361"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4727782','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4727782"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Metabolite</span> Profiling of Justicia gendarussa Burm. f. Leaves Using UPLC-UHR-QTOF-MS</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Ningsih, Indah Yulia; Purwanti, Diah Intan; Wongso, Suwidji; Prajogo, Bambang E. W.; Indrayanto, Gunawan</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>An ultra-performance liquid chromatography ultra-high-resolution quadrupole-time-of-flight-mass spectrometry (UPLC-UHR-QTOF-MS) <span class="hlt">metabolite</span> profiling ofxs Justicia gendarussa Burm. f. leaves was performed. PCA and HCA analyses were applied to observe the clustering patterns and inter-sample relationships. It seemed that the <span class="hlt">concentrations</span> of Ca, P, and Cu in the soil could affect the <span class="hlt">metabolite</span> profiles of Justicia gendarussa. Six significant <span class="hlt">metabolites</span> were proposed. PMID:26839833</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26839833','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26839833"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Metabolite</span> Profiling of Justicia gendarussa Burm. f. Leaves Using UPLC-UHR-QTOF-MS.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Ningsih, Indah Yulia; Purwanti, Diah Intan; Wongso, Suwidji; Prajogo, Bambang E W; Indrayanto, Gunawan</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>An ultra-performance liquid chromatography ultra-high-resolution quadrupole-time-of-flight-mass spectrometry (UPLC-UHR-QTOF-MS) <span class="hlt">metabolite</span> profiling ofxs Justicia gendarussa Burm. f. leaves was performed. PCA and HCA analyses were applied to observe the clustering patterns and inter-sample relationships. It seemed that the <span class="hlt">concentrations</span> of Ca, P, and Cu in the soil could affect the <span class="hlt">metabolite</span> profiles of Justicia gendarussa. Six significant <span class="hlt">metabolites</span> were proposed. PMID:26839833</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012AGUFM.S42C..05M','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012AGUFM.S42C..05M"><span id="translatedtitle">Combined Use of <span class="hlt">Absolute</span> and Differential Seismic Arrival Time Data to Improve <span class="hlt">Absolute</span> Event Location</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Myers, S.; Johannesson, G.</p> <p>2012-12-01</p> <p>Arrival time measurements based on waveform cross correlation are becoming more common as advanced signal processing methods are applied to seismic data archives and real-time data streams. Waveform correlation can precisely measure the time difference between the arrival of two phases, and differential time data can be used to constrain relative location of events. <span class="hlt">Absolute</span> locations are needed for many applications, which generally requires the use of <span class="hlt">absolute</span> time data. Current methods for measuring <span class="hlt">absolute</span> time data are approximately two orders of magnitude less precise than differential time measurements. To exploit the strengths of both <span class="hlt">absolute</span> and differential time data, we extend our multiple-event location method Bayesloc, which previously used <span class="hlt">absolute</span> time data only, to include the use of differential time measurements that are based on waveform cross correlation. Fundamentally, Bayesloc is a formulation of the joint probability over all parameters comprising the multiple event location system. The Markov-Chain Monte Carlo method is used to sample from the joint probability distribution given arrival data sets. The differential time component of Bayesloc includes scaling a stochastic estimate of differential time measurement precision based the waveform correlation coefficient for each datum. For a regional-distance synthetic data set with <span class="hlt">absolute</span> and differential time measurement error of 0.25 seconds and 0.01 second, respectively, epicenter location accuracy is improved from and average of 1.05 km when solely <span class="hlt">absolute</span> time data are used to 0.28 km when <span class="hlt">absolute</span> and differential time data are used jointly (73% improvement). The improvement in <span class="hlt">absolute</span> location accuracy is the result of conditionally limiting <span class="hlt">absolute</span> location probability regions based on the precise relative position with respect to neighboring events. Bayesloc estimates of data precision are found to be accurate for the synthetic test, with <span class="hlt">absolute</span> and differential time measurement</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/2859343','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/2859343"><span id="translatedtitle">Effect of different growth hormone-releasing factors on the <span class="hlt">concentrations</span> of growth hormone, insulin and <span class="hlt">metabolites</span> in the plasma of sheep maintained in positive and negative energy balance.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Hart, I C; Chadwick, P M; Coert, A; James, S; Simmonds, A D</p> <p>1985-04-01</p> <p>Three experiments were conducted to compare the ability of different preparations of growth hormone-releasing factor (GRF) to stimulate GH secretion in sheep maintained in positive and negative energy balance. In experiment 1 five sheep were injected (i.v.) with three preparations of human pancreatic GRF (hpGRF-44, hpGRF-40, hpGRF-29-NH2) and one preparation of rat hypothalamic GRF (rhGRF-29-NH2) all at 98.0 pmol/kg, or control vehicle, in a Latin square design when the animals either had free access to food or were fed half their maintenance requirements. Analysis of plasma samples, obtained before and for 150 min after injection, revealed that the reduced food intake resulted in the expected changes in body weight and circulating GH, insulin, glucose, urea and non-esterified fatty acids. The maximum post-injection <span class="hlt">concentrations</span> of GH did not differ between either the two levels of feeding or the four GRF preparations but the mean post-injection <span class="hlt">concentration</span> of GH was significantly higher for all GRF treatments on the restricted ration (P less than 0.001). The mean post-injection response to rhGRF-29-NH2 was less than that obtained with hpGRF-44 for sheep with food available ad libitum (P less than 0.05) and was clearly more persistent for all GRF treatments in animals fed the reduced diet (P less than 0.001). In experiment 2 the same five sheep were injected i.v. with rhGRF-29-NH2 (98.0 pmol/kg) when they had free access to food and after food had been withdrawn for 3 days.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:2859343</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25896711','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25896711"><span id="translatedtitle">Validation and pharmacokinetic application of a high-performance liquid chromatographic technique for determining the <span class="hlt">concentrations</span> of amodiaquine and its <span class="hlt">metabolite</span> in plasma of patients treated with oral fixed-dose amodiaquine-artesunate combination in areas of malaria endemicity.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Adedeji, Olumuyiwa N; Bolaji, Oluseye O; Falade, Catherine O; Osonuga, Odusoga A; Ademowo, Olusegun G</p> <p>2015-09-01</p> <p>Artemisinin-based combination therapies (ACTs) have been adopted by most African countries, including Nigeria, as first-line treatments for uncomplicated falciparum malaria. Fixed-dose combinations of these ACTs, amodiaquine-artesunate (FDC AQAS) and artemether-lumefantrine (AL), were introduced in Nigeria to improve compliance and achieve positive outcomes of malaria treatment. In order to achieve clinical success with AQAS, we developed and validated a simple and sensitive high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) method with UV detection for determination of amodiaquine (AQ) and desethylamodiaquine (DAQ) in plasma using liquid-liquid extraction of the drugs with diethyl ether following protein precipitation with acetonitrile. Chromatographic separation was achieved using an Agilent Zorbax C18 column and a mobile phase consisting of distilled water-methanol (80:20 [vol/vol]) with 2% (vol/vol) triethylamine, pH 2.2, at a flow rate of 1 ml/min. Calibration curves in spiked plasma were linear from 100 to 1,000 ng/ml (r > 0.99) for both AQ and DAQ. The limit of detection was 1 ng (sample size, 20 μl). The intra- and interday coefficients of variation at 150, 300, and 900 ng/ml ranged from 1.3 to 4.8%, and the biases were between 6.4 and 9.5%. The mean extraction recoveries of AQ and DAQ were 80.0% and 68.9%, respectively. The results for the pharmacokinetic parameters of DAQ following oral administration of FDC AQAS (612/200 mg) for 3 days in female and male patients with uncomplicated falciparum malaria showed that the maximum plasma <span class="hlt">concentrations</span> (C max) (740 ± 197 versus 767 ± 185 ng/ml), areas under the plasma <span class="hlt">concentration</span>-time curve (AUC) (185,080 ± 20,813 versus 184,940 ± 16,370 h · ng/ml), and elimination half-life values (T 1/2) (212 ± 1.14 versus 214 ± 0.84 h) were similar (P > 0.05).</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2042065','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2042065"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Metabolite</span> Profiles of Lactic Acid Bacteria in Grass Silage▿</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Broberg, Anders; Jacobsson, Karin; Ström, Katrin; Schnürer, Johan</p> <p>2007-01-01</p> <p>The <span class="hlt">metabolite</span> production of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) on silage was investigated. The aim was to compare the production of antifungal <span class="hlt">metabolites</span> in silage with the production in liquid cultures previously studied in our laboratory. The following <span class="hlt">metabolites</span> were found to be present at elevated <span class="hlt">concentrations</span> in silos inoculated with LAB strains: 3-hydroxydecanoic acid, 2-hydroxy-4-methylpentanoic acid, benzoic acid, catechol, hydrocinnamic acid, salicylic acid, 3-phenyllactic acid, 4-hydroxybenzoic acid, (trans, trans)-3,4-dihydroxycyclohexane-1-carboxylic acid, p-hydrocoumaric acid, vanillic acid, azelaic acid, hydroferulic acid, p-coumaric acid, hydrocaffeic acid, ferulic acid, and caffeic acid. Among these <span class="hlt">metabolites</span>, the antifungal compounds 3-phenyllactic acid and 3-hydroxydecanoic acid were previously isolated in our laboratory from liquid cultures of the same LAB strains by bioassay-guided fractionation. It was concluded that other <span class="hlt">metabolites</span>, e.g., p-hydrocoumaric acid, hydroferulic acid, and p-coumaric acid, were released from the grass by the added LAB strains. The antifungal activities of the identified <span class="hlt">metabolites</span> in 100 mM lactic acid were investigated. The MICs against Pichia anomala, Penicillium roqueforti, and Aspergillus fumigatus were determined, and 3-hydroxydecanoic acid showed the lowest MIC (0.1 mg ml−1 for two of the three test organisms). PMID:17616609</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4059316','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4059316"><span id="translatedtitle">Modulation of antimicrobial <span class="hlt">metabolites</span> production by the fungus Aspergillus parasiticus</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Bracarense, Adriana A.P.; Takahashi, Jacqueline A.</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>Biosynthesis of active secondary <span class="hlt">metabolites</span> by fungi occurs as a specific response to the different growing environments. Changes in this environment alter the chemical and biological profiles leading to <span class="hlt">metabolites</span> diversification and consequently to novel pharmacological applications. In this work, it was studied the influence of three parameters (fermentation length, medium composition and aeration) in the biosyntheses of antimicrobial <span class="hlt">metabolites</span> by the fungus Aspergillus parasiticus in 10 distinct fermentation periods. Metabolism modulation in two culturing media, CYA and YES was evaluated by a 22 full factorial planning (ANOVA) and on a 23 factorial planning, role of aeration, medium composition and carbohydrate <span class="hlt">concentration</span> were also evaluated. In overall, 120 different extracts were prepared, their HPLC profiles were obtained and the antimicrobial activity against A. flavus, C. albicans, E. coli and S. aureus of all extracts was evaluated by microdilution bioassay. Yield of kojic acid, a fine chemical produced by the fungus A. parasiticus was determined in all extracts. Statistical analyses pointed thirteen conditions able to modulate the production of bioactive <span class="hlt">metabolites</span> by A. parasiticus. Effect of carbon source in <span class="hlt">metabolites</span> diversification was significant as shown by the changes in the HPLC profiles of the extracts. Most of the extracts presented inhibition rates higher than that of kojic acid as for the extract obtained after 6 days of fermentation in YES medium under stirring. Kojic acid was not the only <span class="hlt">metabolite</span> responsible for the activity since some highly active extracts showed to possess low amounts of this compound, as determined by HPLC. PMID:24948950</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014PhyA..407...15O','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014PhyA..407...15O"><span id="translatedtitle">An <span class="hlt">absolute</span> measure for a key currency</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Oya, Shunsuke; Aihara, Kazuyuki; Hirata, Yoshito</p> <p></p> <p>It is generally considered that the US dollar and the euro are the key currencies in the world and in Europe, respectively. However, there is no <span class="hlt">absolute</span> general measure for a key currency. Here, we investigate the 24-hour periodicity of foreign exchange markets using a recurrence plot, and define an <span class="hlt">absolute</span> measure for a key currency based on the strength of the periodicity. Moreover, we analyze the time evolution of this measure. The results show that the credibility of the US dollar has not decreased significantly since the Lehman shock, when the Lehman Brothers bankrupted and influenced the economic markets, and has increased even relatively better than that of the euro and that of the Japanese yen.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25423049','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25423049"><span id="translatedtitle">Probing <span class="hlt">absolute</span> spin polarization at the nanoscale.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Eltschka, Matthias; Jäck, Berthold; Assig, Maximilian; Kondrashov, Oleg V; Skvortsov, Mikhail A; Etzkorn, Markus; Ast, Christian R; Kern, Klaus</p> <p>2014-12-10</p> <p>Probing <span class="hlt">absolute</span> values of spin polarization at the nanoscale offers insight into the fundamental mechanisms of spin-dependent transport. Employing the Zeeman splitting in superconducting tips (Meservey-Tedrow-Fulde effect), we introduce a novel spin-polarized scanning tunneling microscopy that combines the probing capability of the <span class="hlt">absolute</span> values of spin polarization with precise control at the atomic scale. We utilize our novel approach to measure the locally resolved spin polarization of magnetic Co nanoislands on Cu(111). We find that the spin polarization is enhanced by 65% when increasing the width of the tunnel barrier by only 2.3 Å due to the different decay of the electron orbitals into vacuum. PMID:25423049</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19750063653&hterms=VALUE+ABSOLUTE&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D80%26Ntt%3DVALUE%2BABSOLUTE','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19750063653&hterms=VALUE+ABSOLUTE&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D80%26Ntt%3DVALUE%2BABSOLUTE"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Absolute</span> radiometry and the solar constant</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Willson, R. C.</p> <p>1974-01-01</p> <p>A series of active cavity radiometers (ACRs) are described which have been developed as standard detectors for the accurate measurement of irradiance in <span class="hlt">absolute</span> units. It is noted that the ACR is an electrical substitution calorimeter, is designed for automatic remote operation in any environment, and can make irradiance measurements in the range from low-level IR fluxes up to 30 solar constants with small <span class="hlt">absolute</span> uncertainty. The instrument operates in a differential mode by chopping the radiant flux to be measured at a slow rate, and irradiance is determined from two electrical power measurements together with the instrumental constant. Results are reported for measurements of the solar constant with two types of ACRs. The more accurate measurement yielded a value of 136.6 plus or minus 0.7 mW/sq cm (1.958 plus or minus 0.010 cal/sq cm per min).</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20120011123','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20120011123"><span id="translatedtitle">From Hubble's NGSL to <span class="hlt">Absolute</span> Fluxes</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Heap, Sara R.; Lindler, Don</p> <p>2012-01-01</p> <p>Hubble's Next Generation Spectral Library (NGSL) consists of R-l000 spectra of 374 stars of assorted temperature, gravity, and metallicity. Each spectrum covers the wavelength range, 0.18-1.00 microns. The library can be viewed and/or downloaded from the website, http://archive.stsci.edu/prepds/stisngsll. Stars in the NGSL are now being used as <span class="hlt">absolute</span> flux standards at ground-based observatories. However, the uncertainty in the <span class="hlt">absolute</span> flux is about 2%, which does not meet the requirements of dark-energy surveys. We are therefore developing an observing procedure that should yield fluxes with uncertainties less than 1 % and will take part in an HST proposal to observe up to 15 stars using this new procedure.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15281420','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15281420"><span id="translatedtitle">Impact of Winko on <span class="hlt">absolute</span> discharges.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Balachandra, Krishna; Swaminath, Sam; Litman, Larry C</p> <p>2004-01-01</p> <p>In Canada, case laws have had a significant impact on the way mentally ill offenders are managed, both in the criminal justice system and in the forensic mental health system. The Supreme Court of Canada's decision with respect to Winko has set a major precedent in the application of the test of significant risk to the safety of the public in making dispositions by the Ontario Review Board and granting <span class="hlt">absolute</span> discharges to the mentally ill offenders in the forensic health system. Our study examines the impact of the Supreme Court of Canada's decision before and after Winko. The results show that the numbers of <span class="hlt">absolute</span> discharges have increased post-Winko, which was statistically significant, but there could be other factors influencing this increase.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19920003670','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19920003670"><span id="translatedtitle">Asteroid <span class="hlt">absolute</span> magnitudes and slope parameters</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Tedesco, Edward F.</p> <p>1991-01-01</p> <p>A new listing of <span class="hlt">absolute</span> magnitudes (H) and slope parameters (G) has been created and published in the Minor Planet Circulars; this same listing will appear in the 1992 Ephemerides of Minor Planets. Unlike previous listings, the values of the current list were derived from fits of data at the V band. All observations were reduced in the same fashion using, where appropriate, a single basis default value of 0.15 for the slope parameter. Distances and phase angles were computed for each observation. The data for 113 asteroids was of sufficiently high quality to permit derivation of their H and G. These improved <span class="hlt">absolute</span> magnitudes and slope parameters will be used to deduce the most reliable bias-corrected asteroid size-frequency distribution yet made.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22340250','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22340250"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Absolute</span>-magnitude distributions of supernovae</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Richardson, Dean; Wright, John; Jenkins III, Robert L.; Maddox, Larry</p> <p>2014-05-01</p> <p>The <span class="hlt">absolute</span>-magnitude distributions of seven supernova (SN) types are presented. The data used here were primarily taken from the Asiago Supernova Catalogue, but were supplemented with additional data. We accounted for both foreground and host-galaxy extinction. A bootstrap method is used to correct the samples for Malmquist bias. Separately, we generate volume-limited samples, restricted to events within 100 Mpc. We find that the superluminous events (M{sub B} < –21) make up only about 0.1% of all SNe in the bias-corrected sample. The subluminous events (M{sub B} > –15) make up about 3%. The normal Ia distribution was the brightest with a mean <span class="hlt">absolute</span> blue magnitude of –19.25. The IIP distribution was the dimmest at –16.75.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22218280','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22218280"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Absolute</span> and relative dosimetry for ELIMED</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Cirrone, G. A. P.; Schillaci, F.; Scuderi, V.; Cuttone, G.; Candiano, G.; Musumarra, A.; Pisciotta, P.; Romano, F.; Carpinelli, M.; Presti, D. Lo; Raffaele, L.; Tramontana, A.; Cirio, R.; Sacchi, R.; Monaco, V.; Marchetto, F.; Giordanengo, S.</p> <p>2013-07-26</p> <p>The definition of detectors, methods and procedures for the <span class="hlt">absolute</span> and relative dosimetry of laser-driven proton beams is a crucial step toward the clinical use of this new kind of beams. Hence, one of the ELIMED task, will be the definition of procedures aiming to obtain an <span class="hlt">absolute</span> dose measure at the end of the transport beamline with an accuracy as close as possible to the one required for clinical applications (i.e. of the order of 5% or less). Relative dosimetry procedures must be established, as well: they are necessary in order to determine and verify the beam dose distributions and to monitor the beam fluence and the energetic spectra during irradiations. Radiochromic films, CR39, Faraday Cup, Secondary Emission Monitor (SEM) and transmission ionization chamber will be considered, designed and studied in order to perform a fully dosimetric characterization of the ELIMED proton beam.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19850050574&hterms=VALUE+ABSOLUTE&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D50%26Ntt%3DVALUE%2BABSOLUTE','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19850050574&hterms=VALUE+ABSOLUTE&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D50%26Ntt%3DVALUE%2BABSOLUTE"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Absolute</span> photoionization cross sections of atomic oxygen</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Samson, J. A. R.; Pareek, P. N.</p> <p>1985-01-01</p> <p>The <span class="hlt">absolute</span> values of photoionization cross sections of atomic oxygen were measured from the ionization threshold to 120 A. An auto-ionizing resonance belonging to the 2S2P4(4P)3P(3Do, 3So) transition was observed at 479.43 A and another line at 389.97 A. The experimental data is in excellent agreement with rigorous close-coupling calculations that include electron correlations in both the initial and final states.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19840024060','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19840024060"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Absolute</span> photoionization cross sections of atomic oxygen</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Samson, J. A. R.; Pareek, P. N.</p> <p>1982-01-01</p> <p>The <span class="hlt">absolute</span> values of photoionization cross sections of atomic oxygen were measured from the ionization threshold to 120 A. An auto-ionizing resonance belonging to the 2S2P4(4P)3P(3Do, 3So) transition was observed at 479.43 A and another line at 389.97 A. The experimental data is in excellent agreement with rigorous close-coupling calculations that include electron correlations in both the initial and final states.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26280315','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26280315"><span id="translatedtitle">Relative errors can cue <span class="hlt">absolute</span> visuomotor mappings.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>van Dam, Loes C J; Ernst, Marc O</p> <p>2015-12-01</p> <p>When repeatedly switching between two visuomotor mappings, e.g. in a reaching or pointing task, adaptation tends to speed up over time. That is, when the error in the feedback corresponds to a mapping switch, fast adaptation occurs. Yet, what is learned, the relative error or the <span class="hlt">absolute</span> mappings? When switching between mappings, errors with a size corresponding to the relative difference between the mappings will occur more often than other large errors. Thus, we could learn to correct more for errors with this familiar size (Error Learning). On the other hand, it has been shown that the human visuomotor system can store several <span class="hlt">absolute</span> visuomotor mappings (Mapping Learning) and can use associated contextual cues to retrieve them. Thus, when contextual information is present, no error feedback is needed to switch between mappings. Using a rapid pointing task, we investigated how these two types of learning may each contribute when repeatedly switching between mappings in the absence of task-irrelevant contextual cues. After training, we examined how participants changed their behaviour when a single error probe indicated either the often-experienced error (Error Learning) or one of the previously experienced <span class="hlt">absolute</span> mappings (Mapping Learning). Results were consistent with Mapping Learning despite the relative nature of the error information in the feedback. This shows that errors in the feedback can have a double role in visuomotor behaviour: they drive the general adaptation process by making corrections possible on subsequent movements, as well as serve as contextual cues that can signal a learned <span class="hlt">absolute</span> mapping. PMID:26280315</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014BCrAO.110...76B','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014BCrAO.110...76B"><span id="translatedtitle">The <span class="hlt">absolute</span> spectrophotometric catalog by Anita Cochran</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Burnashev, V. I.; Burnasheva, B. A.; Ruban, E. V.; Hagen-Torn, E. I.</p> <p>2014-06-01</p> <p>The <span class="hlt">absolute</span> spectrophotometric catalog by Anita Cochran is presented in a machine-readable form. The catalog systematizes observations acquired at the McDonald Observatory in 1977-1978. The data are compared with other sources, in particular, the calculated broadband stellar magnitudes are compared with photometric observations by other authors, to show that the observational data given in the catalog are reliable and suitable for a variety of applications. Observations of variable stars of different types make Cochran's catalog especially valuable.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1997A%26A...319..881G','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1997A%26A...319..881G"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Absolute</span> magnitudes and kinematics of barium stars.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Gomez, A. E.; Luri, X.; Grenier, S.; Prevot, L.; Mennessier, M. O.; Figueras, F.; Torra, J.</p> <p>1997-03-01</p> <p>The <span class="hlt">absolute</span> magnitude of barium stars has been obtained from kinematical data using a new algorithm based on the maximum-likelihood principle. The method allows to separate a sample into groups characterized by different mean <span class="hlt">absolute</span> magnitudes, kinematics and z-scale heights. It also takes into account, simultaneously, the censorship in the sample and the errors on the observables. The method has been applied to a sample of 318 barium stars. Four groups have been detected. Three of them show a kinematical behaviour corresponding to disk population stars. The fourth group contains stars with halo kinematics. The luminosities of the disk population groups spread a large range. The intrinsically brightest one (M_v_=-1.5mag, σ_M_=0.5mag) seems to be an inhomogeneous group containing barium binaries as well as AGB single stars. The most numerous group (about 150 stars) has a mean <span class="hlt">absolute</span> magnitude corresponding to stars in the red giant branch (M_v_=0.9mag, σ_M_=0.8mag). The third group contains barium dwarfs, the obtained mean <span class="hlt">absolute</span> magnitude is characteristic of stars on the main sequence or on the subgiant branch (M_v_=3.3mag, σ_M_=0.5mag). The obtained mean luminosities as well as the kinematical results are compatible with an evolutionary link between barium dwarfs and classical barium giants. The highly luminous group is not linked with these last two groups. More high-resolution spectroscopic data will be necessary in order to better discriminate between barium and non-barium stars.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li class="active"><span>19</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_19 --> <div id="page_20" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li class="active"><span>20</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="381"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20070087','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20070087"><span id="translatedtitle">Chemical composition of French mimosa <span class="hlt">absolute</span> oil.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Perriot, Rodolphe; Breme, Katharina; Meierhenrich, Uwe J; Carenini, Elise; Ferrando, Georges; Baldovini, Nicolas</p> <p>2010-02-10</p> <p>Since decades mimosa (Acacia dealbata) <span class="hlt">absolute</span> oil has been used in the flavor and perfume industry. Today, it finds an application in over 80 perfumes, and its worldwide industrial production is estimated five tons per year. Here we report on the chemical composition of French mimosa <span class="hlt">absolute</span> oil. Straight-chain analogues from C6 to C26 with different functional groups (hydrocarbons, esters, aldehydes, diethyl acetals, alcohols, and ketones) were identified in the volatile fraction. Most of them are long-chain molecules: (Z)-heptadec-8-ene, heptadecane, nonadecane, and palmitic acid are the most abundant, and constituents such as 2-phenethyl alcohol, methyl anisate, and ethyl palmitate are present in smaller amounts. The heavier constituents were mainly triterpenoids such as lupenone and lupeol, which were identified as two of the main components. (Z)-Heptadec-8-ene, lupenone, and lupeol were quantified by GC-MS in SIM mode using external standards and represents 6%, 20%, and 7.8% (w/w) of the <span class="hlt">absolute</span> oil. Moreover, odorant compounds were extracted by SPME and analyzed by GC-sniffing leading to the perception of 57 odorant zones, of which 37 compounds were identified by their odorant description, mass spectrum, retention index, and injection of the reference compound. PMID:20070087</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011SolED...3...43D','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011SolED...3...43D"><span id="translatedtitle">Measurement of <span class="hlt">absolute</span> gravity acceleration in Firenze</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>de Angelis, M.; Greco, F.; Pistorio, A.; Poli, N.; Prevedelli, M.; Saccorotti, G.; Sorrentino, F.; Tino, G. M.</p> <p>2011-01-01</p> <p>This paper reports the results from the accurate measurement of the acceleration of gravity g taken at two separate premises in the Polo Scientifico of the University of Firenze (Italy). In these laboratories, two separate experiments aiming at measuring the Newtonian constant and testing the Newtonian law at short distances are in progress. Both experiments require an independent knowledge on the local value of g. The only available datum, pertaining to the italian zero-order gravity network, was taken more than 20 years ago at a distance of more than 60 km from the study site. Gravity measurements were conducted using an FG5 <span class="hlt">absolute</span> gravimeter, and accompanied by seismic recordings for evaluating the noise condition at the site. The <span class="hlt">absolute</span> accelerations of gravity at the two laboratories are (980 492 160.6 ± 4.0) μGal and (980 492 048.3 ± 3.0) μGal for the European Laboratory for Non-Linear Spectroscopy (LENS) and Dipartimento di Fisica e Astronomia, respectively. Other than for the two referenced experiments, the data here presented will serve as a benchmark for any future study requiring an accurate knowledge of the <span class="hlt">absolute</span> value of the acceleration of gravity in the study region.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2007AGUFM.V41E..01S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2007AGUFM.V41E..01S"><span id="translatedtitle">A Methodology for <span class="hlt">Absolute</span> Isotope Composition Measurement</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Shen, J. J.; Lee, D.; Liang, W.</p> <p>2007-12-01</p> <p>Double spike technique was a well defined method for isotope composition measurement by TIMS of samples which have natural mass fractionation effect, but it is still a problem to define the isotope composition for double spike itself. In this study, we modified the old double spike technique and found that we could use the modified technique to solve the ¡§true¡¨ isotope composition of double spike itself. According the true isotope composition of double spike, we can measure the <span class="hlt">absolute</span> isotope composition if the sample has natural fractionation effect. A new vector analytical method has been developed in order to obtain the true isotopic composition of a 42Ca-48Ca double spike, and this is achieved by using two different sample-spike mixtures combined with the double spike and the natural Ca data. Because the natural sample, the two mixtures, and the spike should all lie on a single mixing line, we are able to constrain the true isotopic composition of our double spike using this new approach. This method not only can be used in Ca system but also in Ti, Cr, Fe, Ni, Zn, Mo, Ba and Pb systems. The <span class="hlt">absolute</span> double spike isotopic ratio is important, which can save a lot of time to check different reference standards. Especially for Pb, radiogenic isotope system, the decay systems embodied in three of four naturally occurring isotopes induce difficult to obtain true isotopic ratios for <span class="hlt">absolute</span> dating.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20070087','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20070087"><span id="translatedtitle">Chemical composition of French mimosa <span class="hlt">absolute</span> oil.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Perriot, Rodolphe; Breme, Katharina; Meierhenrich, Uwe J; Carenini, Elise; Ferrando, Georges; Baldovini, Nicolas</p> <p>2010-02-10</p> <p>Since decades mimosa (Acacia dealbata) <span class="hlt">absolute</span> oil has been used in the flavor and perfume industry. Today, it finds an application in over 80 perfumes, and its worldwide industrial production is estimated five tons per year. Here we report on the chemical composition of French mimosa <span class="hlt">absolute</span> oil. Straight-chain analogues from C6 to C26 with different functional groups (hydrocarbons, esters, aldehydes, diethyl acetals, alcohols, and ketones) were identified in the volatile fraction. Most of them are long-chain molecules: (Z)-heptadec-8-ene, heptadecane, nonadecane, and palmitic acid are the most abundant, and constituents such as 2-phenethyl alcohol, methyl anisate, and ethyl palmitate are present in smaller amounts. The heavier constituents were mainly triterpenoids such as lupenone and lupeol, which were identified as two of the main components. (Z)-Heptadec-8-ene, lupenone, and lupeol were quantified by GC-MS in SIM mode using external standards and represents 6%, 20%, and 7.8% (w/w) of the <span class="hlt">absolute</span> oil. Moreover, odorant compounds were extracted by SPME and analyzed by GC-sniffing leading to the perception of 57 odorant zones, of which 37 compounds were identified by their odorant description, mass spectrum, retention index, and injection of the reference compound.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2003MmSAI..74..884C','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2003MmSAI..74..884C"><span id="translatedtitle">The Carina Project: <span class="hlt">Absolute</span> and Relative Calibrations</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Corsi, C. E.; Bono, G.; Walker, A. R.; Brocato, E.; Buonanno, R.; Caputo, F.; Castellani, M.; Castellani, V.; Dall'Ora, M.; Marconi, M.; Monelli, M.; Nonino, M.; Pulone, L.; Ripepi, V.; Smith, H. A.</p> <p></p> <p>We discuss the reduction strategy adopted to perform the relative and the <span class="hlt">absolute</span> calibration of the Wide Field Imager (WFI) available at the 2.2m ESO/MPI telescope and of the Mosaic Camera (MC) available at the 4m CTIO Blanco telescope. To properly constrain the occurrence of deceptive systematic errors in the relative calibration we observed with each chip the same set of stars. Current photometry seems to suggest that the WFI shows a positional effect when moving from the top to the bottom of individual chips. Preliminary results based on an independent data set collected with the MC suggest that this camera is only marginally affected by the same problem. To perform the <span class="hlt">absolute</span> calibration we observed with each chip the same set of standard stars. The sample covers a wide color range and the accuracy both in the B and in the V-band appears to be of the order of a few hundredths of magnitude. Finally, we briefly outline the observing strategy to improve both relative and <span class="hlt">absolute</span> calibrations of mosaic CCD cameras.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23099502','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23099502"><span id="translatedtitle">Toxicokinetic study and <span class="hlt">absolute</span> oral bioavailability of deoxynivalenol, T-2 toxin and zearalenone in broiler chickens.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Osselaere, Ann; Devreese, Mathias; Goossens, Joline; Vandenbroucke, Virginie; De Baere, Siegrid; De Backer, Patrick; Croubels, Siska</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>Mycotoxins lead to economic losses in animal production. A way to counteract mycotoxicosis is the use of detoxifiers. The European Food Safety Authority stated that the efficacy of detoxifiers should be investigated based on toxicokinetic studies. Little information is available on the <span class="hlt">absolute</span> oral bioavailability and the toxicokinetic parameters of deoxynivalenol, T-2 and zearalenone in broilers. Toxins were administered intravenously and orally in a two-way cross-over design. For deoxynivalenol a bolus of 0.75mg/kg BW was administered, for T-2 toxin 0.02mg/kg BW and for zearalenone 0.3mg/kg BW. Blood was collected at several time points. Plasma levels of the mycotoxins and their <span class="hlt">metabolite(s</span>) were quantified using LC-MS/MS methods and toxicokinetic parameters were analyzed. Deoxynivalenol has a low <span class="hlt">absolute</span> oral bioavailability (19.3%). For zearalenone and T-2 no plasma levels above the limit of quantification were observed after an oral bolus. Volumes of distribution were recorded, i.e. 4.99, 0.14 and 22.26L/kg for deoxynivalenol, T-2 toxin and zearalenone, respectively. Total body clearance was 0.12, 0.03 and 0.48L/minkg for deoxynivalenol, T-2 toxin and zearalenone, respectively. After IV administration, T-2 toxin had the shortest elimination half-life (3.9min), followed by deoxynivalenol (27.9min) and zearalenone (31.8min).</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20452765','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20452765"><span id="translatedtitle">The <span class="hlt">metabolites</span> of mangrove endophytic fungus Zh6-B1 from the South China Sea.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Li, Kai-Kai; Lu, Yong-Jun; Song, Xiao-Hong; She, Zhi-Gang; Wu, Xi-Wei; An, Lin-Kun; Ye, Chuang-Xing; Lin, Yong-Cheng</p> <p>2010-06-01</p> <p>Two new <span class="hlt">metabolites</span>, 3R,5R-Sonnerlactone (1) and 3R,5S-Sonnerlactone (2), were isolated from the mangrove endophytic fungus Zh6-B1 obtained from the South China Sea. Their structures were elucidated by MS and NMR. The <span class="hlt">absolute</span> configuration of compound 1 was determined by single-crystal X-ray analysis using Cu Kalpha radiation. The <span class="hlt">absolute</span> configuration of compound 2 was determined by NOESY analysis and comparing circular dichroism spectroscopy with compound 1. The antiproliferative activity of compound 1 and 2 against the multi-drug resistant human oral floor carcinoma cells (KV) was evaluated.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=Meningitis&pg=2&id=EJ298099','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=Meningitis&pg=2&id=EJ298099"><span id="translatedtitle">Childhood Psychosis and Monoamine <span class="hlt">Metabolites</span> in Spinal Fluid.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Gillberg, Christopher; And Others</p> <p>1983-01-01</p> <p>Analysis of cerebrospinal fluid of 22 psychotic children, 22 normal controls, and Ss with mental retardation, progressive encephalopathy, or meningitis revealed that psychotic Ss had raised levels of homovanillic acid. Thirteen Ss diagnosed as autistic showed isolated inrease of this <span class="hlt">metabolite</span>. Increased <span class="hlt">concentration</span> of mongamines was not…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18503192','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18503192"><span id="translatedtitle">Ascochytatin, a novel bioactive spirodioxynaphthalene <span class="hlt">metabolite</span> produced by the marine-derived fungus, Ascochyta sp. NGB4.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Kanoh, Kaneo; Okada, Ario; Adachi, Kyoko; Imagawa, Hiroshi; Nishizawa, Mugio; Matsuda, Satoru; Shizuri, Yoshikazu; Utsumi, Ryutaro</p> <p>2008-03-01</p> <p>Ascochytatin, a new spirodioxynaphthalene <span class="hlt">metabolite</span> produced by a marine-derived fungus, was found from a screening program focused on the bacterial two-component regulatory system. The structure of ascochytatin was determined by spectroscopic methods, including NMR and MS. The relative stereochemistry was determined by an X-ray crystallographic analysis, and the <span class="hlt">absolute</span> stereochemistry was determined by the modified Mosher's method.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12493190','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12493190"><span id="translatedtitle">Bile <span class="hlt">metabolites</span> of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in European eels Anguilla anguilla from United Kingdom estuaries.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Ruddock, P J; Bird, D J; McEvoy, J; Peters, L D</p> <p>2003-01-01</p> <p>A total of 94 European eels (Anguilla anguilla) were collected from five estuaries in the UK. The deconjugated <span class="hlt">metabolites</span> of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in the bile of the eels were separated using HPLC. Six PAH <span class="hlt">metabolites</span> were identified: 1-hydroxy (1-OH) <span class="hlt">metabolites</span> of phenanthrene, pyrene and chrysene; and the 1-OH, 3-OH and 7,8 dihydrodiol <span class="hlt">metabolites</span> of benzo[a]pyrene (BaP). The mean <span class="hlt">concentration</span> of the six <span class="hlt">metabolites</span> was greatest in eels from the Tyne (49 microM) followed by the Wear (33 microM), Tees (19 microM), Thames (4 microM) and Severn (2 microM) estuaries. Although 1-OH pyrene was always the dominant compound, there were significant differences (P<0.05) between sites and between estuaries for some <span class="hlt">metabolites</span>. Normalising the molar <span class="hlt">concentration</span> of the bile <span class="hlt">metabolites</span> to the bile biliverdin absorbance reduced sample variation. When the <span class="hlt">metabolites</span> identified were each expressed as a percentage of the total detected, the <span class="hlt">metabolite</span> profile was characteristic for each estuary.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26290780','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26290780"><span id="translatedtitle">Comprehensive analyses of genomes, transcriptomes and <span class="hlt">metabolites</span> of neem tree.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Kuravadi, Nagesh A; Yenagi, Vijay; Rangiah, Kannan; Mahesh, H B; Rajamani, Anantharamanan; Shirke, Meghana D; Russiachand, Heikham; Loganathan, Ramya Malarini; Shankara Lingu, Chandana; Siddappa, Shilpa; Ramamurthy, Aishwarya; Sathyanarayana, B N; Gowda, Malali</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>Neem (Azadirachta indica A. Juss) is one of the most versatile tropical evergreen tree species known in India since the Vedic period (1500 BC-600 BC). Neem tree is a rich source of limonoids, having a wide spectrum of activity against insect pests and microbial pathogens. Complex tetranortriterpenoids such as azadirachtin, salanin and nimbin are the major active principles isolated from neem seed. <span class="hlt">Absolutely</span> nothing is known about the biochemical pathways of these <span class="hlt">metabolites</span> in neem tree. To identify genes and pathways in neem, we sequenced neem genomes and transcriptomes using next generation sequencing technologies. Assembly of Illumina and 454 sequencing reads resulted in 267 Mb, which accounts for 70% of estimated size of neem genome. We predicted 44,495 genes in the neem genome, of which 32,278 genes were expressed in neem tissues. Neem genome consists about 32.5% (87 Mb) of repetitive DNA elements. Neem tree is phylogenetically related to citrus, Citrus sinensis. Comparative analysis anchored 62% (161 Mb) of assembled neem genomic contigs onto citrus chromomes. Ultrahigh performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry-selected reaction monitoring (UHPLC-MS/SRM) method was used to quantify azadirachtin, nimbin, and salanin from neem tissues. Weighted Correlation Network Analysis (WCGNA) of expressed genes and <span class="hlt">metabolites</span> resulted in identification of possible candidate genes involved in azadirachtin biosynthesis pathway. This study provides genomic, transcriptomic and quantity of top three neem <span class="hlt">metabolites</span> resource, which will accelerate basic research in neem to understand biochemical pathways.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4540028','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4540028"><span id="translatedtitle">Comprehensive analyses of genomes, transcriptomes and <span class="hlt">metabolites</span> of neem tree</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Rangiah, Kannan; Mahesh, HB; Rajamani, Anantharamanan; Shirke, Meghana D.; Russiachand, Heikham; Loganathan, Ramya Malarini; Shankara Lingu, Chandana; Siddappa, Shilpa; Ramamurthy, Aishwarya; Sathyanarayana, BN</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>Neem (Azadirachta indica A. Juss) is one of the most versatile tropical evergreen tree species known in India since the Vedic period (1500 BC–600 BC). Neem tree is a rich source of limonoids, having a wide spectrum of activity against insect pests and microbial pathogens. Complex tetranortriterpenoids such as azadirachtin, salanin and nimbin are the major active principles isolated from neem seed. <span class="hlt">Absolutely</span> nothing is known about the biochemical pathways of these <span class="hlt">metabolites</span> in neem tree. To identify genes and pathways in neem, we sequenced neem genomes and transcriptomes using next generation sequencing technologies. Assembly of Illumina and 454 sequencing reads resulted in 267 Mb, which accounts for 70% of estimated size of neem genome. We predicted 44,495 genes in the neem genome, of which 32,278 genes were expressed in neem tissues. Neem genome consists about 32.5% (87 Mb) of repetitive DNA elements. Neem tree is phylogenetically related to citrus, Citrus sinensis. Comparative analysis anchored 62% (161 Mb) of assembled neem genomic contigs onto citrus chromomes. Ultrahigh performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry-selected reaction monitoring (UHPLC-MS/SRM) method was used to quantify azadirachtin, nimbin, and salanin from neem tissues. Weighted Correlation Network Analysis (WCGNA) of expressed genes and <span class="hlt">metabolites</span> resulted in identification of possible candidate genes involved in azadirachtin biosynthesis pathway. This study provides genomic, transcriptomic and quantity of top three neem <span class="hlt">metabolites</span> resource, which will accelerate basic research in neem to understand biochemical pathways. PMID:26290780</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26290780','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26290780"><span id="translatedtitle">Comprehensive analyses of genomes, transcriptomes and <span class="hlt">metabolites</span> of neem tree.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Kuravadi, Nagesh A; Yenagi, Vijay; Rangiah, Kannan; Mahesh, H B; Rajamani, Anantharamanan; Shirke, Meghana D; Russiachand, Heikham; Loganathan, Ramya Malarini; Shankara Lingu, Chandana; Siddappa, Shilpa; Ramamurthy, Aishwarya; Sathyanarayana, B N; Gowda, Malali</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>Neem (Azadirachta indica A. Juss) is one of the most versatile tropical evergreen tree species known in India since the Vedic period (1500 BC-600 BC). Neem tree is a rich source of limonoids, having a wide spectrum of activity against insect pests and microbial pathogens. Complex tetranortriterpenoids such as azadirachtin, salanin and nimbin are the major active principles isolated from neem seed. <span class="hlt">Absolutely</span> nothing is known about the biochemical pathways of these <span class="hlt">metabolites</span> in neem tree. To identify genes and pathways in neem, we sequenced neem genomes and transcriptomes using next generation sequencing technologies. Assembly of Illumina and 454 sequencing reads resulted in 267 Mb, which accounts for 70% of estimated size of neem genome. We predicted 44,495 genes in the neem genome, of which 32,278 genes were expressed in neem tissues. Neem genome consists about 32.5% (87 Mb) of repetitive DNA elements. Neem tree is phylogenetically related to citrus, Citrus sinensis. Comparative analysis anchored 62% (161 Mb) of assembled neem genomic contigs onto citrus chromomes. Ultrahigh performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry-selected reaction monitoring (UHPLC-MS/SRM) method was used to quantify azadirachtin, nimbin, and salanin from neem tissues. Weighted Correlation Network Analysis (WCGNA) of expressed genes and <span class="hlt">metabolites</span> resulted in identification of possible candidate genes involved in azadirachtin biosynthesis pathway. This study provides genomic, transcriptomic and quantity of top three neem <span class="hlt">metabolites</span> resource, which will accelerate basic research in neem to understand biochemical pathways. PMID:26290780</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/5551676','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/5551676"><span id="translatedtitle">Toxicological significance of dihydrodiol <span class="hlt">metabolites</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Hsia, M.T.</p> <p>1982-01-01</p> <p>Dihydrodiols are often found as the major organic-extractable <span class="hlt">metabolites</span> of various olefinic or aromatic xenobiotics in many biological samples. Studies on the chemistry of dihydrodiol <span class="hlt">metabolites</span> have provided insight into the pharmacokinetic behavior and the mode of action of the parent compound. The toxicology of dihydrodiol is more complex than what can be deduced solely on the basis of diminished bioavailability of the epoxide precursor, and the increased hydrophilicity associated with the dihydrodiol moiety. Dihydrodiols can be intrinsically toxic and may even represent metabolically activated species. Some of the dihydrodiol <span class="hlt">metabolites</span> may still retain sufficient lipophilic character to serve again as substrates for microsomal oxygenases. Because of the tremendous chemical and biological diversity that existed among the various dihydrodiols, more mechanistic studies are needed to examine the toxicological properties of these compounds. It may be premature to conclude dihydrodiol formation as purely a detoxification route for xenobioties.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20070032798&hterms=radiometric+calibration&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D20%26Ntt%3Dradiometric%2Bcalibration','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20070032798&hterms=radiometric+calibration&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D20%26Ntt%3Dradiometric%2Bcalibration"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Absolute</span> Radiometric Calibration of EUNIS-06</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Thomas, R. J.; Rabin, D. M.; Kent, B. J.; Paustian, W.</p> <p>2007-01-01</p> <p>The Extreme-Ultraviolet Normal-Incidence Spectrometer (EUNIS) is a soundingrocket payload that obtains imaged high-resolution spectra of individual solar features, providing information about the Sun's corona and upper transition region. Shortly after its successful initial flight last year, a complete end-to-end calibration was carried out to determine the instrument's <span class="hlt">absolute</span> radiometric response over its Longwave bandpass of 300 - 370A. The measurements were done at the Rutherford-Appleton Laboratory (RAL) in England, using the same vacuum facility and EUV radiation source used in the pre-flight calibrations of both SOHO/CDS and Hinode/EIS, as well as in three post-flight calibrations of our SERTS sounding rocket payload, the precursor to EUNIS. The unique radiation source provided by the Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt (PTB) had been calibrated to an <span class="hlt">absolute</span> accuracy of 7% (l-sigma) at 12 wavelengths covering our bandpass directly against the Berlin electron storage ring BESSY, which is itself a primary radiometric source standard. Scans of the EUNIS aperture were made to determine the instrument's <span class="hlt">absolute</span> spectral sensitivity to +- 25%, considering all sources of error, and demonstrate that EUNIS-06 was the most sensitive solar E W spectrometer yet flown. The results will be matched against prior calibrations which relied on combining measurements of individual optical components, and on comparisons with theoretically predicted 'insensitive' line ratios. Coordinated observations were made during the EUNIS-06 flight by SOHO/CDS and EIT that will allow re-calibrations of those instruments as well. In addition, future EUNIS flights will provide similar calibration updates for TRACE, Hinode/EIS, and STEREO/SECCHI/EUVI.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015SPIE.9570E..1DS','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015SPIE.9570E..1DS"><span id="translatedtitle">Clock time is <span class="hlt">absolute</span> and universal</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Shen, Xinhang</p> <p>2015-09-01</p> <p>A critical error is found in the Special Theory of Relativity (STR): mixing up the concepts of the STR abstract time of a reference frame and the displayed time of a physical clock, which leads to use the properties of the abstract time to predict time dilation on physical clocks and all other physical processes. Actually, a clock can never directly measure the abstract time, but can only record the result of a physical process during a period of the abstract time such as the number of cycles of oscillation which is the multiplication of the abstract time and the frequency of oscillation. After Lorentz Transformation, the abstract time of a reference frame expands by a factor gamma, but the frequency of a clock decreases by the same factor gamma, and the resulting multiplication i.e. the displayed time of a moving clock remains unchanged. That is, the displayed time of any physical clock is an invariant of Lorentz Transformation. The Lorentz invariance of the displayed times of clocks can further prove within the framework of STR our earth based standard physical time is <span class="hlt">absolute</span>, universal and independent of inertial reference frames as confirmed by both the physical fact of the universal synchronization of clocks on the GPS satellites and clocks on the earth, and the theoretical existence of the <span class="hlt">absolute</span> and universal Galilean time in STR which has proved that time dilation and space contraction are pure illusions of STR. The existence of the <span class="hlt">absolute</span> and universal time in STR has directly denied that the reference frame dependent abstract time of STR is the physical time, and therefore, STR is wrong and all its predictions can never happen in the physical world.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20140005478&hterms=fingerprint&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D30%26Ntt%3Dfingerprint','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20140005478&hterms=fingerprint&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D30%26Ntt%3Dfingerprint"><span id="translatedtitle">Achieving Climate Change <span class="hlt">Absolute</span> Accuracy in Orbit</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Wielicki, Bruce A.; Young, D. F.; Mlynczak, M. G.; Thome, K. J; Leroy, S.; Corliss, J.; Anderson, J. G.; Ao, C. O.; Bantges, R.; Best, F.; Bowman, K.; Brindley, H.; Butler, J. J.; Collins, W.; Dykema, J. A.; Doelling, D. R.; Feldman, D. R.; Fox, N.; Huang, X.; Holz, R.; Huang, Y.; Jennings, D.; Jin, Z.; Johnson, D. G.; Jucks, K.; Kato, S.; Kratz, D. P.; Liu, X.; Lukashin, C.; Mannucci, A. J.; Phojanamongkolkij, N.; Roithmayr, C. M.; Sandford, S.; Taylor, P. C.; Xiong, X.</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>The Climate <span class="hlt">Absolute</span> Radiance and Refractivity Observatory (CLARREO) mission will provide a calibration laboratory in orbit for the purpose of accurately measuring and attributing climate change. CLARREO measurements establish new climate change benchmarks with high <span class="hlt">absolute</span> radiometric accuracy and high statistical confidence across a wide range of essential climate variables. CLARREO's inherently high <span class="hlt">absolute</span> accuracy will be verified and traceable on orbit to Système Internationale (SI) units. The benchmarks established by CLARREO will be critical for assessing changes in the Earth system and climate model predictive capabilities for decades into the future as society works to meet the challenge of optimizing strategies for mitigating and adapting to climate change. The CLARREO benchmarks are derived from measurements of the Earth's thermal infrared spectrum (5-50 micron), the spectrum of solar radiation reflected by the Earth and its atmosphere (320-2300 nm), and radio occultation refractivity from which accurate temperature profiles are derived. The mission has the ability to provide new spectral fingerprints of climate change, as well as to provide the first orbiting radiometer with accuracy sufficient to serve as the reference transfer standard for other space sensors, in essence serving as a "NIST [National Institute of Standards and Technology] in orbit." CLARREO will greatly improve the accuracy and relevance of a wide range of space-borne instruments for decadal climate change. Finally, CLARREO has developed new metrics and methods for determining the accuracy requirements of climate observations for a wide range of climate variables and uncertainty sources. These methods should be useful for improving our understanding of observing requirements for most climate change observations.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/15020268','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/15020268"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Absolute</span> calibration of the Auger fluorescence detectors</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Bauleo, P.; Brack, J.; Garrard, L.; Harton, J.; Knapik, R.; Meyhandan, R.; Rovero, A.C.; Tamashiro, A.; Warner, D.</p> <p>2005-07-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Absolute</span> calibration of the Pierre Auger Observatory fluorescence detectors uses a light source at the telescope aperture. The technique accounts for the combined effects of all detector components in a single measurement. The calibrated 2.5 m diameter light source fills the aperture, providing uniform illumination to each pixel. The known flux from the light source and the response of the acquisition system give the required calibration for each pixel. In the lab, light source uniformity is studied using CCD images and the intensity is measured relative to NIST-calibrated photodiodes. Overall uncertainties are presently 12%, and are dominated by systematics.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2005PNAS..10218926W&link_type=ABSTRACT','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2005PNAS..10218926W&link_type=ABSTRACT"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Absolute</span> rate theories of epigenetic stability</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Walczak, Aleksandra M.; Onuchic, José N.; Wolynes, Peter G.</p> <p>2005-12-01</p> <p>Spontaneous switching events in most characterized genetic switches are rare, resulting in extremely stable epigenetic properties. We show how simple arguments lead to theories of the rate of such events much like the <span class="hlt">absolute</span> rate theory of chemical reactions corrected by a transmission factor. Both the probability of the rare cellular states that allow epigenetic escape and the transmission factor depend on the rates of DNA binding and unbinding events and on the rates of protein synthesis and degradation. Different mechanisms of escape from the stable attractors occur in the nonadiabatic, weakly adiabatic, and strictly adiabatic regimes, characterized by the relative values of those input rates. rate theory | stochastic gene expression | gene switches</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011AGUFMGC21C..07F','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011AGUFMGC21C..07F"><span id="translatedtitle">Characterization of the DARA solar <span class="hlt">absolute</span> radiometer</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Finsterle, W.; Suter, M.; Fehlmann, A.; Kopp, G.</p> <p>2011-12-01</p> <p>The Davos <span class="hlt">Absolute</span> Radiometer (DARA) prototype is an Electrical Substitution Radiometer (ESR) which has been developed as a successor of the PMO6 type on future space missions and ground based TSI measurements. The DARA implements an improved thermal design of the cavity detector and heat sink assembly to minimize air-vacuum differences and to maximize thermal symmetry of measuring and compensating cavity. The DARA also employs an inverted viewing geometry to reduce internal stray light. We will report on the characterization and calibration experiments which were carried out at PMOD/WRC and LASP (TRF).</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li class="active"><span>20</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_20 --> <div id="page_21" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li class="active"><span>21</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");'>23</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="401"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2009acse.book..955S&link_type=ABSTRACT','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2009acse.book..955S&link_type=ABSTRACT"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Absolute</span> Priority for a Vehicle in VANET</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Shirani, Rostam; Hendessi, Faramarz; Montazeri, Mohammad Ali; Sheikh Zefreh, Mohammad</p> <p></p> <p>In today's world, traffic jams waste hundreds of hours of our life. This causes many researchers try to resolve the problem with the idea of Intelligent Transportation System. For some applications like a travelling ambulance, it is important to reduce delay even for a second. In this paper, we propose a completely infrastructure-less approach for finding shortest path and controlling traffic light to provide <span class="hlt">absolute</span> priority for an emergency vehicle. We use the idea of vehicular ad-hoc networking to reduce the imposed travelling time. Then, we simulate our proposed protocol and compare it with a centrally controlled traffic light system.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70010730','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70010730"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Absolute</span> method of measuring magnetic susceptibility</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Thorpe, A.; Senftle, F.E.</p> <p>1959-01-01</p> <p>An <span class="hlt">absolute</span> method of standardization and measurement of the magnetic susceptibility of small samples is presented which can be applied to most techniques based on the Faraday method. The fact that the susceptibility is a function of the area under the curve of sample displacement versus distance of the magnet from the sample, offers a simple method of measuring the susceptibility without recourse to a standard sample. Typical results on a few substances are compared with reported values, and an error of less than 2% can be achieved. ?? 1959 The American Institute of Physics.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/975437','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/975437"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Absolute</span> photoionization cross-section of the methyl radical.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Taatjes, C. A.; Osborn, D. L.; Selby, T.; Meloni, G.; Fan, H.; Pratt, S. T.; Chemical Sciences and Engineering Division; SNL</p> <p>2008-01-01</p> <p>The <span class="hlt">absolute</span> photoionization cross-section of the methyl radical has been measured using two completely independent methods. The CH{sub 3} photoionization cross-section was determined relative to that of acetone and methyl vinyl ketone at photon energies of 10.2 and 11.0 eV by using a pulsed laser-photolysis/time-resolved synchrotron photoionization mass spectrometry method. The time-resolved depletion of the acetone or methyl vinyl ketone precursor and the production of methyl radicals following 193 nm photolysis are monitored simultaneously by using time-resolved synchrotron photoionization mass spectrometry. Comparison of the initial methyl signal with the decrease in precursor signal, in combination with previously measured <span class="hlt">absolute</span> photoionization cross-sections of the precursors, yields the <span class="hlt">absolute</span> photoionization cross-section of the methyl radical; {sigma}{sub CH}(10.2 eV) = (5.7 {+-} 0.9) x 10{sup -18} cm{sup 2} and {sigma}{sub CH{sub 3}}(11.0 eV) = (6.0 {+-} 2.0) x 10{sup -18} cm{sup 2}. The photoionization cross-section for vinyl radical determined by photolysis of methyl vinyl ketone is in good agreement with previous measurements. The methyl radical photoionization cross-section was also independently measured relative to that of the iodine atom by comparison of ionization signals from CH{sub 3} and I fragments following 266 nm photolysis of methyl iodide in a molecular-beam ion-imaging apparatus. These measurements gave a cross-section of (5.4 {+-} 2.0) x 10{sup -18} cm{sup 2} at 10.460 eV, (5.5 {+-} 2.0) x 10{sup -18} cm{sup 2} at 10.466 eV, and (4.9 {+-} 2.0) x 10{sup -18} cm{sup 2} at 10.471 eV. The measurements allow relative photoionization efficiency spectra of methyl radical to be placed on an <span class="hlt">absolute</span> scale and will facilitate quantitative measurements of methyl <span class="hlt">concentrations</span> by photoionization mass spectrometry.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011JTePh..56.1807E','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011JTePh..56.1807E"><span id="translatedtitle">Monitoring of propofol and its <span class="hlt">metabolite</span> during total intravenous anesthesia</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Elizarov, A. Yu.; Ershov, T. D.; Levshankov, A. I.</p> <p>2011-12-01</p> <p>Intravenous hypnotic propofol and its <span class="hlt">metabolite</span> are detected in real time during total intravenous anesthesia by an electron ionization mass spectrometer. The mass spectrometer is connected directly to the breathing circuit of an apparatus for inhalational anesthesia. Ratios between the propofol <span class="hlt">concentrations</span> in expired air and blood serum are measured. It is concluded that real-time noninvasive monitoring of the propofol <span class="hlt">concentration</span> in blood using electron ionization mass spectrometry is feasible.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4715255','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4715255"><span id="translatedtitle">Characterization of Urinary Phthalate <span class="hlt">Metabolites</span> Among Custodians</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Cavallari, Jennifer M.; Simcox, Nancy J.; Wakai, Sara; Lu, Chensheng; Garza, Jennifer L.; Cherniack, Martin</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>Phthalates, a ubiquitous class of chemicals found in consumer, personal care, and cleaning products, have been linked to adverse health effects. Our goal was to characterize urinary phthalate <span class="hlt">metabolite</span> <span class="hlt">concentrations</span> and to identify work and nonwork sources among custodians using traditional cleaning chemicals and ‘green’ or environmentally preferable products (EPP). Sixty-eight custodians provided four urine samples on a workday (first void, before shift, end of shift, and before bedtime) and trained observers recorded cleaning tasks and types of products used (traditional, EPP, or disinfectant) hourly over the work shifts. Questionnaires were used to assess personal care product use. Four different phthalate <span class="hlt">metabolites</span> [monoethyl phthalate (MEP), monomethyl phthalate (MMP), mono (2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (MEHP), and monobenzyl phthalate (MBzP)] were quantified using liquid chromatography mass spectrometry. Geometric means (GM) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CI) were calculated for creatinine-adjusted urinary phthalate <span class="hlt">concentrations</span>. Mixed effects univariate and multivariate modeling, using a random intercept for each individual, was performed to identify predictors of phthalate <span class="hlt">metabolites</span> including demographics, workplace factors, and personal care product use. Creatinine-adjusted urinary <span class="hlt">concentrations</span> [GM (95% CI)] of MEP, MMP, MEHP, and MBzP were 107 (91.0–126), 2.69 (2.18–3.30), 6.93 (6.00–7.99), 8.79 (7.84–9.86) µg g−1, respectively. An increasing trend in phthalate <span class="hlt">concentrations</span> from before to after shift was not observed. Creatinine-adjusted urinary MEP was significantly associated with frequency of traditional cleaning chemical intensity in the multivariate model after adjusting for potential confounding by demographics, workplace factors, and personal care product use. While numerous demographics, workplace factors, and personal care products were statistically significant univariate predictors of MMP, MEHP, and MBzP, few</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27335650','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27335650"><span id="translatedtitle">Methodological considerations for measuring glucocorticoid <span class="hlt">metabolites</span> in feathers.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Berk, Sara A; McGettrick, Julie R; Hansen, Warren K; Breuner, Creagh W</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>In recent years, researchers have begun to use corticosteroid <span class="hlt">metabolites</span> in feathers (fCORT) as a metric of stress physiology in birds. However, there remain substantial questions about how to measure fCORT most accurately. Notably, small samples contain artificially high amounts of fCORT per millimetre of feather (the small sample artefact). Furthermore, it appears that fCORT is correlated with circulating plasma corticosterone only when levels are artificially elevated by the use of corticosterone implants. Here, we used several approaches to address current methodological issues with the measurement of fCORT. First, we verified that the small sample artefact exists across species and feather types. Second, we attempted to correct for this effect by increasing the amount of methanol relative to the amount of feather during extraction. We consistently detected more fCORT per millimetre or per milligram of feather in small samples than in large samples even when we adjusted methanol:feather <span class="hlt">concentrations</span>. We also used high-performance liquid chromatography to identify hormone <span class="hlt">metabolites</span> present in feathers and measured the reactivity of these <span class="hlt">metabolites</span> against the most commonly used antibody for measuring fCORT. We verified that our antibody is mainly identifying corticosterone (CORT) in feathers, but other <span class="hlt">metabolites</span> have significant cross-reactivity. Lastly, we measured faecal glucocorticoid <span class="hlt">metabolites</span> in house sparrows and correlated these measurements with corticosteroid <span class="hlt">metabolites</span> deposited in concurrently grown feathers; we found no correlation between faecal glucocorticoid <span class="hlt">metabolites</span> and fCORT. We suggest that researchers should be cautious in their interpretation of fCORT in wild birds and should seek alternative validation methods to examine species-specific relationships between environmental challenges and fCORT.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27335650','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27335650"><span id="translatedtitle">Methodological considerations for measuring glucocorticoid <span class="hlt">metabolites</span> in feathers.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Berk, Sara A; McGettrick, Julie R; Hansen, Warren K; Breuner, Creagh W</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>In recent years, researchers have begun to use corticosteroid <span class="hlt">metabolites</span> in feathers (fCORT) as a metric of stress physiology in birds. However, there remain substantial questions about how to measure fCORT most accurately. Notably, small samples contain artificially high amounts of fCORT per millimetre of feather (the small sample artefact). Furthermore, it appears that fCORT is correlated with circulating plasma corticosterone only when levels are artificially elevated by the use of corticosterone implants. Here, we used several approaches to address current methodological issues with the measurement of fCORT. First, we verified that the small sample artefact exists across species and feather types. Second, we attempted to correct for this effect by increasing the amount of methanol relative to the amount of feather during extraction. We consistently detected more fCORT per millimetre or per milligram of feather in small samples than in large samples even when we adjusted methanol:feather <span class="hlt">concentrations</span>. We also used high-performance liquid chromatography to identify hormone <span class="hlt">metabolites</span> present in feathers and measured the reactivity of these <span class="hlt">metabolites</span> against the most commonly used antibody for measuring fCORT. We verified that our antibody is mainly identifying corticosterone (CORT) in feathers, but other <span class="hlt">metabolites</span> have significant cross-reactivity. Lastly, we measured faecal glucocorticoid <span class="hlt">metabolites</span> in house sparrows and correlated these measurements with corticosteroid <span class="hlt">metabolites</span> deposited in concurrently grown feathers; we found no correlation between faecal glucocorticoid <span class="hlt">metabolites</span> and fCORT. We suggest that researchers should be cautious in their interpretation of fCORT in wild birds and should seek alternative validation methods to examine species-specific relationships between environmental challenges and fCORT. PMID:27335650</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4913509','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4913509"><span id="translatedtitle">Methodological considerations for measuring glucocorticoid <span class="hlt">metabolites</span> in feathers</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Berk, Sara A.; McGettrick, Julie R.; Hansen, Warren K.; Breuner, Creagh W.</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>In recent years, researchers have begun to use corticosteroid <span class="hlt">metabolites</span> in feathers (fCORT) as a metric of stress physiology in birds. However, there remain substantial questions about how to measure fCORT most accurately. Notably, small samples contain artificially high amounts of fCORT per millimetre of feather (the small sample artefact). Furthermore, it appears that fCORT is correlated with circulating plasma corticosterone only when levels are artificially elevated by the use of corticosterone implants. Here, we used several approaches to address current methodological issues with the measurement of fCORT. First, we verified that the small sample artefact exists across species and feather types. Second, we attempted to correct for this effect by increasing the amount of methanol relative to the amount of feather during extraction. We consistently detected more fCORT per millimetre or per milligram of feather in small samples than in large samples even when we adjusted methanol:feather <span class="hlt">concentrations</span>. We also used high-performance liquid chromatography to identify hormone <span class="hlt">metabolites</span> present in feathers and measured the reactivity of these <span class="hlt">metabolites</span> against the most commonly used antibody for measuring fCORT. We verified that our antibody is mainly identifying corticosterone (CORT) in feathers, but other <span class="hlt">metabolites</span> have significant cross-reactivity. Lastly, we measured faecal glucocorticoid <span class="hlt">metabolites</span> in house sparrows and correlated these measurements with corticosteroid <span class="hlt">metabolites</span> deposited in concurrently grown feathers; we found no correlation between faecal glucocorticoid <span class="hlt">metabolites</span> and fCORT. We suggest that researchers should be cautious in their interpretation of fCORT in wild birds and should seek alternative validation methods to examine species-specific relationships between environmental challenges and fCORT. PMID:27335650</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015SPIE.9639E..06L','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015SPIE.9639E..06L"><span id="translatedtitle">Sentinel-2/MSI <span class="hlt">absolute</span> calibration: first results</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Lonjou, V.; Lachérade, S.; Fougnie, B.; Gamet, P.; Marcq, S.; Raynaud, J.-L.; Tremas, T.</p> <p>2015-10-01</p> <p>Sentinel-2 is an optical imaging mission devoted to the operational monitoring of land and coastal areas. It is developed in partnership between the European Commission and the European Space Agency. The Sentinel-2 mission is based on a satellites constellation deployed in polar sun-synchronous orbit. It will offer a unique combination of global coverage with a wide field of view (290km), a high revisit (5 days with two satellites), a high resolution (10m, 20m and 60m) and multi-spectral imagery (13 spectral bands in visible and shortwave infra-red domains). CNES is involved in the instrument commissioning in collaboration with ESA. This paper reviews all the techniques that will be used to insure an <span class="hlt">absolute</span> calibration of the 13 spectral bands better than 5% (target 3%), and will present the first results if available. First, the nominal calibration technique, based on an on-board sun diffuser, is detailed. Then, we show how vicarious calibration methods based on acquisitions over natural targets (oceans, deserts, and Antarctica during winter) will be used to check and improve the accuracy of the <span class="hlt">absolute</span> calibration coefficients. Finally, the verification scheme, exploiting photometer in-situ measurements over Lacrau plain, is described. A synthesis, including spectral coherence, inter-methods agreement and temporal evolution, will conclude the paper.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014SPIE.9206E..0ER','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014SPIE.9206E..0ER"><span id="translatedtitle">Experimental results for <span class="hlt">absolute</span> cylindrical wavefront testing</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Reardon, Patrick J.; Alatawi, Ayshah</p> <p>2014-09-01</p> <p>Applications for Cylindrical and near-cylindrical surfaces are ever-increasing. However, fabrication of high quality cylindrical surfaces is limited by the difficulty of accurate and affordable metrology. <span class="hlt">Absolute</span> testing of such surfaces represents a challenge to the optical testing community as cylindrical reference wavefronts are difficult to produce. In this paper, preliminary results for a new method of <span class="hlt">absolute</span> testing of cylindrical wavefronts are presented. The method is based on the merging of the random ball test method with the fiber optic reference test. The random ball test assumes a large number of interferograms of a good quality sphere with errors that are statistically distributed such that the average of the errors goes to zero. The fiber optic reference test utilizes a specially processed optical fiber to provide a clean high quality reference wave from an incident line focus from the cylindrical wave under test. By taking measurements at different rotation and translations of the fiber, an analogous procedure can be employed to determine the quality of the converging cylindrical wavefront with high accuracy. This paper presents and discusses the results of recent tests of this method using a null optic formed by a COTS cylindrical lens and a free-form polished corrector element.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2016APS..APRB16007K&link_type=ABSTRACT','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2016APS..APRB16007K&link_type=ABSTRACT"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Absolute</span> Electron Extraction Efficiency of Liquid Xenon</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Kamdin, Katayun; Mizrachi, Eli; Morad, James; Sorensen, Peter</p> <p>2016-03-01</p> <p>Dual phase liquid/gas xenon time projection chambers (TPCs) currently set the world's most sensitive limits on weakly interacting massive particles (WIMPs), a favored dark matter candidate. These detectors rely on extracting electrons from liquid xenon into gaseous xenon, where they produce proportional scintillation. The proportional scintillation from the extracted electrons serves to internally amplify the WIMP signal; even a single extracted electron is detectable. Credible dark matter searches can proceed with electron extraction efficiency (EEE) lower than 100%. However, electrons systematically left at the liquid/gas boundary are a concern. Possible effects include spontaneous single or multi-electron proportional scintillation signals in the gas, or charging of the liquid/gas interface or detector materials. Understanding EEE is consequently a serious concern for this class of rare event search detectors. Previous EEE measurements have mostly been relative, not <span class="hlt">absolute</span>, assuming efficiency plateaus at 100%. I will present an <span class="hlt">absolute</span> EEE measurement with a small liquid/gas xenon TPC test bed located at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24969531','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24969531"><span id="translatedtitle">Why to compare <span class="hlt">absolute</span> numbers of mitochondria.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Schmitt, Sabine; Schulz, Sabine; Schropp, Eva-Maria; Eberhagen, Carola; Simmons, Alisha; Beisker, Wolfgang; Aichler, Michaela; Zischka, Hans</p> <p>2014-11-01</p> <p>Prompted by pronounced structural differences between rat liver and rat hepatocellular carcinoma mitochondria, we suspected these mitochondrial populations to differ massively in their molecular composition. Aiming to reveal these mitochondrial differences, we came across the issue on how to normalize such comparisons and decided to focus on the <span class="hlt">absolute</span> number of mitochondria. To this end, fluorescently stained mitochondria were quantified by flow cytometry. For rat liver mitochondria, this approach resulted in mitochondrial protein contents comparable to earlier reports using alternative methods. We determined similar protein contents for rat liver, heart and kidney mitochondria. In contrast, however, lower protein contents were determined for rat brain mitochondria and for mitochondria from the rat hepatocellular carcinoma cell line McA 7777. This result challenges mitochondrial comparisons that rely on equal protein amounts as a typical normalization method. Exemplarily, we therefore compared the activity and susceptibility toward inhibition of complex II of rat liver and hepatocellular carcinoma mitochondria and obtained significant discrepancies by either normalizing to protein amount or to <span class="hlt">absolute</span> mitochondrial number. Importantly, the latter normalization, in contrast to the former, demonstrated a lower complex II activity and higher susceptibility toward inhibition in hepatocellular carcinoma mitochondria compared to liver mitochondria. These findings demonstrate that solely normalizing to protein amount may obscure essential molecular differences between mitochondrial populations.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1996AAS...188.0803D','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1996AAS...188.0803D"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Absolute</span> Proper Motions of Southern Globular Clusters</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Dinescu, D. I.; Girard, T. M.; van Altena, W. F.</p> <p>1996-05-01</p> <p>Our program involves the determination of <span class="hlt">absolute</span> proper motions with respect to galaxies for a sample of globular clusters situated in the southern sky. The plates cover a 6(deg) x 6(deg) area and are taken with the 51-cm double astrograph at Cesco Observatory in El Leoncito, Argentina. We have developed special methods to deal with the modelling error of the plate transformation and we correct for magnitude equation using the cluster stars. This careful astrometric treatment leads to accuracies of from 0.5 to 1.0 mas/yr for the <span class="hlt">absolute</span> proper motion of each cluster, depending primarily on the number of measurable cluster stars which in turn is related to the cluster's distance. Space velocities are then derived which, in association with metallicities, provide key information for the formation scenario of the Galaxy, i.e. accretion and/or dissipational collapse. Here we present results for NGC 1851, NGC 6752, NGC 6584, NGC 6362 and NGC 288.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23350305','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23350305"><span id="translatedtitle">Relational versus <span class="hlt">absolute</span> representation in categorization.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Edwards, Darren J; Pothos, Emmanuel M; Perlman, Amotz</p> <p>2012-01-01</p> <p>This study explores relational-like and <span class="hlt">absolute</span>-like representations in categorization. Although there is much evidence that categorization processes can involve information about both the particular physical properties of studied instances and abstract (relational) properties, there has been little work on the factors that lead to one kind of representation as opposed to the other. We tested 370 participants in 6 experiments, in which participants had to classify new items into predefined artificial categories. In 4 experiments, we observed a predominantly relational-like mode of classification, and in 2 experiments we observed a shift toward an <span class="hlt">absolute</span>-like mode of classification. These results suggest 3 factors that promote a relational-like mode of classification: fewer items per group, more training groups, and the presence of a time delay. Overall, we propose that less information about the distributional properties of a category or weaker memory traces for the category exemplars (induced, e.g., by having smaller categories or a time delay) can encourage relational-like categorization.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26363876','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26363876"><span id="translatedtitle">Secondary <span class="hlt">metabolites</span> from Aspergillus fumigatus, an endophytic fungus from the liverwort Heteroscyphus tener (Steph.) Schiffn.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Xie, Fei; Li, Xiao-Bin; Zhou, Jin-Chuan; Xu, Qing-Qing; Wang, Xiao-Ning; Yuan, Hui-Qing; Lou, Hong-Xiang</p> <p>2015-09-01</p> <p>Three new <span class="hlt">metabolites</span>, asperfumigatin (1), isochaetominine (10), and 8'-O-methylasterric acid (21), together with nineteen known compounds, were obtained from the culture of Aspergillus fumigatus, an endophytic fungus from the Chinese liverwort Heteroscyphus tener (Steph.) Schiffn. Their structures were established by extensive analysis of the spectroscopic data. The <span class="hlt">absolute</span> configurations of 1 and 10 were determined by analysis of their respective CD spectra. Cytotoxicity of these isolates against four human cancer cell lines was also determined. PMID:26363876</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27214103','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27214103"><span id="translatedtitle">Online, <span class="hlt">Absolute</span> Quantitation of Propranolol from Spatially Distinct 20- and 40-μm Dissections of Brain, Liver, and Kidney Thin Tissue Sections by Laser Microdissection-Liquid Vortex Capture-Mass Spectrometry.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Cahill, John F; Kertesz, Vilmos; Weiskittel, Taylor M; Vavrek, Marissa; Freddo, Carol; Van Berkel, Gary J</p> <p>2016-06-01</p> <p>Spatial resolved quantitation of chemical species in thin tissue sections by mass spectrometric methods has been constrained by the need for matrix-matched standards or other arduous calibration protocols and procedures to mitigate matrix effects (e.g., spatially varying ionization suppression). Reported here is the use of laser "cut and drop" sampling with a laser microdissection-liquid vortex capture electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry (LMD-LVC/ESI-MS/MS) system for online and <span class="hlt">absolute</span> quantitation of propranolol in mouse brain, kidney, and liver thin tissue sections of mice administered with the drug at a 7.5 mg/kg dose, intravenously. In this procedure either 20 μm × 20 μm or 40 μm × 40 μm tissue microdissections were cut and dropped into the flowing solvent of the capture probe. During transport to the ESI source drug related material was completely extracted from the tissue into the solvent, which contained a known <span class="hlt">concentration</span> of propranolol-d7 as an internal standard. This allowed <span class="hlt">absolute</span> quantitation to be achieved with an external calibration curve generated from standards containing the same fixed <span class="hlt">concentration</span> of propranolol-d7 and varied <span class="hlt">concentrations</span> of propranolol. Average propranolol <span class="hlt">concentrations</span> determined with the laser "cut and drop" sampling method closely agreed with <span class="hlt">concentration</span> values obtained from 2.3 mm diameter tissue punches from serial sections that were extracted and quantified by HPLC/ESI-MS/MS measurements. In addition, the relative abundance of hydroxypropranolol glucuronide <span class="hlt">metabolites</span> were recorded and found to be consistent with previous findings. PMID:27214103</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/pages/biblio/1261563-online-absolute-quantitation-propranolol-from-spatially-distinct-dissections-brain-liver-kidney-thin-tissue-sections-laser-microdissection-liquid-vortex-capture-mass-spectrometry','SCIGOV-DOEP'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/pages/biblio/1261563-online-absolute-quantitation-propranolol-from-spatially-distinct-dissections-brain-liver-kidney-thin-tissue-sections-laser-microdissection-liquid-vortex-capture-mass-spectrometry"><span id="translatedtitle">Online, <span class="hlt">absolute</span> quantitation of propranolol from spatially distinct 20-μm and 40-μm dissections of brain, liver, and kidney thin tissue sections by laser microdissection – liquid vortex capture – mass spectrometry</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/pages">DOE PAGES</a></p> <p>Kertesz, Vilmos; Vavrek, Marissa; Freddo, Carol; Van Berkel, Gary J.; Cahill, John F.; Weiskittel, Taylor M.</p> <p>2016-05-23</p> <p>Here, spatial resolved quantitation of chemical species in thin tissue sections by mass spectrometric methods has been constrained by the need for matrix-matched standards or other arduous calibration protocols and procedures to mitigate matrix effects (e.g., spatially varying ionization suppression). Reported here is the use of laser cut and drop sampling with a laser microdissection-liquid vortex capture electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry (LMD-LVC/ESI-MS/MS) system for online and <span class="hlt">absolute</span> quantitation of propranolol in mouse brain, kidney, and liver thin tissue sections of mice administered with the drug at a 7.5 mg/kg dose, intravenously. In this procedure either 20 μm x 20more » μm or 40 μm x 40 μm tissue microdissections were cut and dropped into the flowing solvent of the capture probe. During transport to the ESI source drug related material was completely extracted from the tissue into the solvent, which contained a known <span class="hlt">concentration</span> of propranolol-d7 as an internal standard. This allowed <span class="hlt">absolute</span> quantitation to be achieved with an external calibration curve generated from standards containing the same fixed <span class="hlt">concentration</span> of propranolold-d7 and varied <span class="hlt">concentrations</span> of propranolol. Average propranolol <span class="hlt">concentrations</span> determined with the laser cut and drop sampling method closely agreed with <span class="hlt">concentration</span> values obtained from 2.3 mm diameter tissue punches from serial sections that were extracted and quantified by HPLC/ESI-MS/MS measurements. In addition, the relative abundance of hydroxypropranolol glucuronide <span class="hlt">metabolites</span> were recorded and found to be consistent with previous findings.« less</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21291680','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21291680"><span id="translatedtitle">The role of nicotinic acid <span class="hlt">metabolites</span> in flushing and hepatotoxicity.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Stern, Ralph H</p> <p>2007-07-01</p> <p>Flushing and hepatotoxicity are important adverse effects of nicotinic acid. This article reviews the role of metabolism of nicotinic acid in the production of these side effects. The suggestion that nicotinic acid (NUA) formation produces flushing is traced to a correlation of flushing with NUA C(max) (maximal <span class="hlt">concentration</span>) and the observation that aspirin inhibits NUA formation and flushing. The former does not establish causation and the latter can be explained by inhibition of prostaglandin formation. Recent characterization of the GPR109A receptor that mediates prostaglandin release by Langerhans cells to produce flushing has shown nicotinic acid, not NUA, is responsible. The suggestion that nicotinamide <span class="hlt">metabolites</span> produce hepatotoxicity is not supported by any data. The mechanism of hepatotoxicity is unknown and a toxic <span class="hlt">metabolite</span> of nicotinic acid has not been identified. Different nicotinic acid formulations produce different <span class="hlt">metabolite</span> patterns due to nonlinear pharmacokinetics, but there is no evidence that these differences have any clinical importance. PMID:21291680</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=mathematics+AND+inequalities&pg=7&id=EJ920859','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=mathematics+AND+inequalities&pg=7&id=EJ920859"><span id="translatedtitle">A Conceptual Approach to <span class="hlt">Absolute</span> Value Equations and Inequalities</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Ellis, Mark W.; Bryson, Janet L.</p> <p>2011-01-01</p> <p>The <span class="hlt">absolute</span> value learning objective in high school mathematics requires students to solve far more complex <span class="hlt">absolute</span> value equations and inequalities. When <span class="hlt">absolute</span> value problems become more complex, students often do not have sufficient conceptual understanding to make any sense of what is happening mathematically. The authors suggest that the…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=VALUE+AND+ABSOLUTE&id=EJ819063','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=VALUE+AND+ABSOLUTE&id=EJ819063"><span id="translatedtitle">Using, Seeing, Feeling, and Doing <span class="hlt">Absolute</span> Value for Deeper Understanding</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Ponce, Gregorio A.</p> <p>2008-01-01</p> <p>Using sticky notes and number lines, a hands-on activity is shared that anchors initial student thinking about <span class="hlt">absolute</span> value. The initial point of reference should help students successfully evaluate numeric problems involving <span class="hlt">absolute</span> value. They should also be able to solve <span class="hlt">absolute</span> value equations and inequalities that are typically found in…</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li class="active"><span>21</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");'>23</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_21 --> <div id="page_22" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li class="active"><span>22</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");'>23</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_24");'>24</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="421"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16650093','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16650093"><span id="translatedtitle">Comparison of elicitation potential of chloroatranol and atranol--2 allergens in oak moss <span class="hlt">absolute</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Johansen, Jeanne D; Bernard, Guillaume; Giménez-Arnau, Elena; Lepoittevin, Jean-Pierre; Bruze, Magnus; Andersen, Klaus E</p> <p>2006-04-01</p> <p>Chloroatranol and atranol are degradation products of chloroatranorin and atranorin, respectively, and have recently been identified as important contact allergens in the natural fragrance extract, oak moss <span class="hlt">absolute</span>. Oak moss <span class="hlt">absolute</span> is widely used in perfumery and is the cause of many cases of fragrance allergic contact dermatitis. Chloroatranol elicits reactions at very low levels of exposure. In oak moss <span class="hlt">absolute</span>, chloroatranol and atranol are present together and both may contribute to the allergenicity and eliciting capacity of the natural extract. In this study, 10 eczema patients with known sensitization to chloroatranol and oak moss <span class="hlt">absolute</span> were tested simultaneously to a serial dilution of chloroatranol and atranol in ethanol, in equimolar <span class="hlt">concentrations</span> (0.0034-1072 microM). Dose-response curves were estimated and analysed by logistic regression. The estimated difference in elicitation potency of chloroatranol relative to atranol based on testing with equimolar <span class="hlt">concentrations</span> was 217% (95% confidence interval 116-409%). Both substances elicited reactions at very low levels of exposure. It is concluded that the differences in elicitation capacity between the 2 substances are counterbalanced by exposure being greater to atranol than to chloroatranol and that both substances contribute to the clinical problems seen in oak moss <span class="hlt">absolute</span>-sensitized individuals. PMID:16650093</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19750004014','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19750004014"><span id="translatedtitle">Automated analysis of oxidative <span class="hlt">metabolites</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Furner, R. L. (Inventor)</p> <p>1974-01-01</p> <p>An automated system for the study of drug metabolism is described. The system monitors the oxidative <span class="hlt">metabolites</span> of aromatic amines and of compounds which produce formaldehyde on oxidative dealkylation. It includes color developing compositions suitable for detecting hyroxylated aromatic amines and formaldehyde.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ars.usda.gov/research/publications/publication/?seqNo115=317957','TEKTRAN'); return false;" href="http://www.ars.usda.gov/research/publications/publication/?seqNo115=317957"><span id="translatedtitle">Primary expectations of secondary <span class="hlt">metabolites</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ars.usda.gov/services/TekTran.htm">Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>Plant secondary <span class="hlt">metabolites</span> (e.g., phenolics) are important for human health, in addition to the organoleptic properties they impart to fresh and processed foods. Consumer expectations such as appearance, taste, or texture influence their purchasing decisions. Thorough identification of phenolic com...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26101967','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26101967"><span id="translatedtitle">Pattern Recognition-Based Approach for Identifying <span class="hlt">Metabolites</span> in Nuclear Magnetic Resonance-Based Metabolomics.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Dubey, Abhinav; Rangarajan, Annapoorni; Pal, Debnath; Atreya, Hanudatta S</p> <p>2015-07-21</p> <p>Identification and assignments of <span class="hlt">metabolites</span> is an important step in metabolomics and is necessary for the discovery of new biomarkers. In nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy-based studies, the conventional approach involves a database search, wherein chemical shifts are assigned to specific <span class="hlt">metabolites</span> by use of a tolerance limit. This is inefficient because deviation in chemical shifts associated with pH or temperature variations, as well as missing peaks, impairs a robust comparison with the database. We propose here a novel method based on matching the pattern of peaks rather than <span class="hlt">absolute</span> tolerance thresholds, using a combination of geometric hashing and similarity scoring techniques. Tests with 719 <span class="hlt">metabolites</span> from the Human Metabolome Database (HMDB) show that 100% of the <span class="hlt">metabolites</span> can be assigned correctly when accurate data are available. A high success rate is obtained even in the presence of large chemical shift deviations such as 0.5 ppm in (1)H and 3 ppm in (13)C and missing peaks (up to 50%), compared to nearly no assignments obtained under these conditions with existing methods that employ a direct database search approach. The method was evaluated on experimental data on a mixture of 16 <span class="hlt">metabolites</span> at eight different combinations of pH and temperature conditions. The pattern recognition approach thus helps in identification and assignment of <span class="hlt">metabolites</span> independent of the pH, temperature, and ionic strength used, thereby obviating the need for spectral calibration with internal or external standards.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://cfpub.epa.gov/si/si_public_record_report.cfm?dirEntryId=80662&keyword=dopamine&actType=&TIMSType=+&TIMSSubTypeID=&DEID=&epaNumber=&ntisID=&archiveStatus=Both&ombCat=Any&dateBeginCreated=&dateEndCreated=&dateBeginPublishedPresented=&dateEndPublishedPresented=&dateBeginUpdated=&dateEndUpdated=&dateBeginCompleted=&dateEndCompleted=&personID=&role=Any&journalID=&publisherID=&sortBy=revisionDate&count=50&CFID=65575326&CFTOKEN=23472600','EPA-EIMS'); return false;" href="http://cfpub.epa.gov/si/si_public_record_report.cfm?dirEntryId=80662&keyword=dopamine&actType=&TIMSType=+&TIMSSubTypeID=&DEID=&epaNumber=&ntisID=&archiveStatus=Both&ombCat=Any&dateBeginCreated=&dateEndCreated=&dateBeginPublishedPresented=&dateEndPublishedPresented=&dateBeginUpdated=&dateEndUpdated=&dateBeginCompleted=&dateEndCompleted=&personID=&role=Any&journalID=&publisherID=&sortBy=revisionDate&count=50&CFID=65575326&CFTOKEN=23472600"><span id="translatedtitle">ALTERATION OF CATECHOLAMINES IN PHOECHROMOCYTOMA (PC12) CELLS IN VITRO BY THE <span class="hlt">METABOLITES</span> OF CHLOROTRIAZINE HERBICIDE</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://oaspub.epa.gov/eims/query.page">EPA Science Inventory</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>The effects of four major chlorotriazine <span class="hlt">metabolites</span> on the constitutive synthesis of the catecholamines dopamine (DA) and norepinephrine (NE) were examined using undifferentiated PC12 cells. NE release and intracellular DA and NE <span class="hlt">concentrations</span> were quantified following treatme...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2012-title10-vol1/pdf/CFR-2012-title10-vol1-sec26-163.pdf','CFR2012'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2012-title10-vol1/pdf/CFR-2012-title10-vol1-sec26-163.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">10 CFR 26.163 - Cutoff levels for drugs and drug <span class="hlt">metabolites</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2012&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2012-01-01</p> <p>... Cocaine <span class="hlt">metabolite</span> 2 150 Opiates: Morphine 2000 Codeine 2000 6-acetylmorphine 3 10 Phencyclidine (PCP) 25... benzoylecgonine. 3 Test for 6-AM when the confirmatory test shows a morphine <span class="hlt">concentration</span> exceeding 2,000...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2011-title10-vol1/pdf/CFR-2011-title10-vol1-sec26-163.pdf','CFR2011'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2011-title10-vol1/pdf/CFR-2011-title10-vol1-sec26-163.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">10 CFR 26.163 - Cutoff levels for drugs and drug <span class="hlt">metabolites</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2011&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2011-01-01</p> <p>... Cocaine <span class="hlt">metabolite</span> 2 150 Opiates: Morphine 2000 Codeine 2000 6-acetylmorphine 3 10 Phencyclidine (PCP) 25... benzoylecgonine. 3 Test for 6-AM when the confirmatory test shows a morphine <span class="hlt">concentration</span> exceeding 2,000...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2013-title10-vol1/pdf/CFR-2013-title10-vol1-sec26-163.pdf','CFR2013'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2013-title10-vol1/pdf/CFR-2013-title10-vol1-sec26-163.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">10 CFR 26.163 - Cutoff levels for drugs and drug <span class="hlt">metabolites</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2013&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>... Cocaine <span class="hlt">metabolite</span> 2 150 Opiates: Morphine 2000 Codeine 2000 6-acetylmorphine 3 10 Phencyclidine (PCP) 25... benzoylecgonine. 3 Test for 6-AM when the confirmatory test shows a morphine <span class="hlt">concentration</span> exceeding 2,000...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2010-title10-vol1/pdf/CFR-2010-title10-vol1-sec26-163.pdf','CFR'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2010-title10-vol1/pdf/CFR-2010-title10-vol1-sec26-163.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">10 CFR 26.163 - Cutoff levels for drugs and drug <span class="hlt">metabolites</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2010&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2010-01-01</p> <p>... Cocaine <span class="hlt">metabolite</span> 2 150 Opiates: Morphine 2000 Codeine 2000 6-acetylmorphine 3 10 Phencyclidine (PCP) 25... benzoylecgonine. 3 Test for 6-AM when the confirmatory test shows a morphine <span class="hlt">concentration</span> exceeding 2,000...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2014-title10-vol1/pdf/CFR-2014-title10-vol1-sec26-163.pdf','CFR2014'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2014-title10-vol1/pdf/CFR-2014-title10-vol1-sec26-163.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">10 CFR 26.163 - Cutoff levels for drugs and drug <span class="hlt">metabolites</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2014&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>... Cocaine <span class="hlt">metabolite</span> 2 150 Opiates: Morphine 2000 Codeine 2000 6-acetylmorphine 3 10 Phencyclidine (PCP) 25... benzoylecgonine. 3 Test for 6-AM when the confirmatory test shows a morphine <span class="hlt">concentration</span> exceeding 2,000...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27275838','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27275838"><span id="translatedtitle">Detection of Volatile <span class="hlt">Metabolites</span> of Garlic in Human Breast Milk.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Scheffler, Laura; Sauermann, Yvonne; Zeh, Gina; Hauf, Katharina; Heinlein, Anja; Sharapa, Constanze; Buettner, Andrea</p> <p>2016-06-06</p> <p>The odor of human breast milk after ingestion of raw garlic at food-relevant <span class="hlt">concentrations</span> by breastfeeding mothers was investigated for the first time chemo-analytically using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry/olfactometry (GC-MS/O), as well as sensorially using a trained human sensory panel. Sensory evaluation revealed a clear garlic/cabbage-like odor that appeared in breast milk about 2.5 h after consumption of garlic. GC-MS/O analyses confirmed the occurrence of garlic-derived <span class="hlt">metabolites</span> in breast milk, namely allyl methyl sulfide (AMS), allyl methyl sulfoxide (AMSO) and allyl methyl sulfone (AMSO₂). Of these, only AMS had a garlic-like odor whereas the other two <span class="hlt">metabolites</span> were odorless. This demonstrates that the odor change in human milk is not related to a direct transfer of garlic odorants, as is currently believed, but rather derives from a single <span class="hlt">metabolite</span>. The formation of these <span class="hlt">metabolites</span> is not fully understood, but AMSO and AMSO₂ are most likely formed by the oxidation of AMS in the human body. The excretion rates of these <span class="hlt">metabolites</span> into breast milk were strongly time-dependent with large inter-individual differences.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4931549','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4931549"><span id="translatedtitle">Detection of Volatile <span class="hlt">Metabolites</span> of Garlic in Human Breast Milk</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Scheffler, Laura; Sauermann, Yvonne; Zeh, Gina; Hauf, Katharina; Heinlein, Anja; Sharapa, Constanze; Buettner, Andrea</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>The odor of human breast milk after ingestion of raw garlic at food-relevant <span class="hlt">concentrations</span> by breastfeeding mothers was investigated for the first time chemo-analytically using gas chromatography−mass spectrometry/olfactometry (GC-MS/O), as well as sensorially using a trained human sensory panel. Sensory evaluation revealed a clear garlic/cabbage-like odor that appeared in breast milk about 2.5 h after consumption of garlic. GC-MS/O analyses confirmed the occurrence of garlic-derived <span class="hlt">metabolites</span> in breast milk, namely allyl methyl sulfide (AMS), allyl methyl sulfoxide (AMSO) and allyl methyl sulfone (AMSO2). Of these, only AMS had a garlic-like odor whereas the other two <span class="hlt">metabolites</span> were odorless. This demonstrates that the odor change in human milk is not related to a direct transfer of garlic odorants, as is currently believed, but rather derives from a single <span class="hlt">metabolite</span>. The formation of these <span class="hlt">metabolites</span> is not fully understood, but AMSO and AMSO2 are most likely formed by the oxidation of AMS in the human body. The excretion rates of these <span class="hlt">metabolites</span> into breast milk were strongly time-dependent with large inter-individual differences. PMID:27275838</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27275838','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27275838"><span id="translatedtitle">Detection of Volatile <span class="hlt">Metabolites</span> of Garlic in Human Breast Milk.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Scheffler, Laura; Sauermann, Yvonne; Zeh, Gina; Hauf, Katharina; Heinlein, Anja; Sharapa, Constanze; Buettner, Andrea</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>The odor of human breast milk after ingestion of raw garlic at food-relevant <span class="hlt">concentrations</span> by breastfeeding mothers was investigated for the first time chemo-analytically using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry/olfactometry (GC-MS/O), as well as sensorially using a trained human sensory panel. Sensory evaluation revealed a clear garlic/cabbage-like odor that appeared in breast milk about 2.5 h after consumption of garlic. GC-MS/O analyses confirmed the occurrence of garlic-derived <span class="hlt">metabolites</span> in breast milk, namely allyl methyl sulfide (AMS), allyl methyl sulfoxide (AMSO) and allyl methyl sulfone (AMSO₂). Of these, only AMS had a garlic-like odor whereas the other two <span class="hlt">metabolites</span> were odorless. This demonstrates that the odor change in human milk is not related to a direct transfer of garlic odorants, as is currently believed, but rather derives from a single <span class="hlt">metabolite</span>. The formation of these <span class="hlt">metabolites</span> is not fully understood, but AMSO and AMSO₂ are most likely formed by the oxidation of AMS in the human body. The excretion rates of these <span class="hlt">metabolites</span> into breast milk were strongly time-dependent with large inter-individual differences. PMID:27275838</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25683235','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25683235"><span id="translatedtitle">A modular modulation method for achieving increases in <span class="hlt">metabolite</span> production.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Acerenza, Luis; Monzon, Pablo; Ortega, Fernando</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>Increasing the production of overproducing strains represents a great challenge. Here, we develop a modular modulation method to determine the key steps for genetic manipulation to increase <span class="hlt">metabolite</span> production. The method consists of three steps: (i) modularization of the metabolic network into two modules connected by linking <span class="hlt">metabolites</span>, (ii) change in the activity of the modules using auxiliary rates producing or consuming the linking <span class="hlt">metabolites</span> in appropriate proportions and (iii) determination of the key modules and steps to increase production. The mathematical formulation of the method in matrix form shows that it may be applied to metabolic networks of any structure and size, with reactions showing any kind of rate laws. The results are valid for any type of conservation relationships in the <span class="hlt">metabolite</span> <span class="hlt">concentrations</span> or interactions between modules. The activity of the module may, in principle, be changed by any large factor. The method may be applied recursively or combined with other methods devised to perform fine searches in smaller regions. In practice, it is implemented by integrating to the producer strain heterologous reactions or synthetic pathways producing or consuming the linking <span class="hlt">metabolites</span>. The new procedure may contribute to develop metabolic engineering into a more systematic practice. PMID:25683235</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/6316200','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/6316200"><span id="translatedtitle">Ethanol volatility in fermentation systems. Salt and <span class="hlt">metabolite</span> effects</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Malorella, B.L.; Wilke, C.R.; Blanch, H.W.</p> <p>1984-01-01</p> <p>The effect of dissolved species on the relative volatility of ethanol in fermentation systems is evaluated. New data are presented showing that the enhancement in volatility due to dissolved salts varies with ethanol <span class="hlt">concentration</span> and is largest for the dilute ethanol <span class="hlt">concentrations</span> typical in fermentation broths. Dissolved sugars and <span class="hlt">metabolites</span> also affect relative volatility. The most commonly applied model of volatility enhancement does not incorporate the effect of ethanol <span class="hlt">concentration</span>, and published enhancement factors measured at high salt and ethanol <span class="hlt">concentration</span> are not applicable to the conditions of a fermentation broth. 41 references, 9 figures, 6 tables.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1987PhDT........96H','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1987PhDT........96H"><span id="translatedtitle">The <span class="hlt">Absolute</span> Radiometric Calibration of Space - Sensors.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Holm, Ronald Gene</p> <p>1987-09-01</p> <p>The need for <span class="hlt">absolute</span> radiometric calibration of space-based sensors will continue to increase as new generations of space sensors are developed. A reflectance -based in-flight calibration procedure is used to determine the radiance reaching the entrance pupil of the sensor. This procedure uses ground-based measurements coupled with a radiative transfer code to characterize the effects the atmosphere has on the signal reaching the sensor. The computed radiance is compared to the digital count output of the sensor associated with the image of a test site. This provides an update to the preflight calibration of the system and a check on the on-board internal calibrator. This calibration procedure was used to perform a series of five calibrations of the Landsat-5 Thematic Mapper (TM). For the 12 measurements made in TM bands 1-3, the RMS variation from the mean as a percentage of the mean is (+OR-) 1.9%, and for measurements in the IR, TM bands 4,5, and 7, the value is (+OR-) 3.4%. The RMS variation for all 23 measurements is (+OR-) 2.8%. The <span class="hlt">absolute</span> calibration techniques were put to another test with a series of three calibration of the SPOT-1 High Resolution Visible, (HRV), sensors. The ratio, HRV-2/HRV-1, of <span class="hlt">absolute</span> calibration coefficients compared very well with ratios of histogrammed data obtained when the cameras simultaneously imaged the same ground site. Bands PA, B1 and B3 agreed to within 3%, while band B2 showed a 7% difference. The procedure for performing a satellite calibration was then used to demonstrate how a calibrated satellite sensor can be used to quantitatively evaluate surface reflectance over a wide range of surface features. Predicted reflectance factors were compared to values obtained from aircraft -based radiometer data. This procedure was applied on four dates with two different surface conditions per date. A strong correlation, R('2) = .996, was shown between reflectance values determined from satellite imagery and low-flying aircraft</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=Organizational+AND+Behavior+AND+Human+AND+Performance&pg=5&id=EJ808734','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=Organizational+AND+Behavior+AND+Human+AND+Performance&pg=5&id=EJ808734"><span id="translatedtitle">Use of <span class="hlt">Absolute</span> and Comparative Performance Feedback in <span class="hlt">Absolute</span> and Comparative Judgments and Decisions</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Moore, Don A.; Klein, William M. P.</p> <p>2008-01-01</p> <p>Which matters more--beliefs about <span class="hlt">absolute</span> ability or ability relative to others? This study set out to compare the effects of such beliefs on satisfaction with performance, self-evaluations, and bets on future performance. In Experiment 1, undergraduate participants were told they had answered 20% correct, 80% correct, or were not given their…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013PhDT........85H','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013PhDT........85H"><span id="translatedtitle">Noninvasive <span class="hlt">absolute</span> cerebral oximetry with frequency-domain near-infrared spectroscopy</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Hallacoglu, Bertan</p> <p></p> <p>Near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) measurements of <span class="hlt">absolute</span> <span class="hlt">concentrations</span> of oxy-hemoglobin and deoxy-hemoglobin in the human brain can provide critical information about cerebral physiology in terms of cerebral blood volume, blood flow, oxygen delivery, and metabolic rate of oxygen. We developed several frequency domain NIRS data acquisition and analysis methods aimed at <span class="hlt">absolute</span> measurements of hemoglobin <span class="hlt">concentration</span> and saturation in cerebral tissue of adult human subjects. Extensive experimental investigations were carried out in various homogenous and two-layered tissue-mimicking phantoms, and biological tissues. The advantages and limitations of commonly used homogenous models and inversion strategies were thoroughly investigated. Prior to human subjects, extensive studies were carried out in in vivo animal models. In rabbits, <span class="hlt">absolute</span> hemoglobin oxygen desaturation was shown to depend strongly on surgically induced testicular torsion. Methods developed in this study were then adapted for measurements in the rat brain. <span class="hlt">Absolute</span> values were demonstrated to discern cerebrovascular impairment in a rat model of diet-induced vascular cognitive impairment. These results facilitated the development of clinically useful optical measures of cerebrovascular health. In a large group of human subjects, employing a homogeneous model for <span class="hlt">absolute</span> measurements was shown to be reliable and robust. However, it was also shown to be limited due to the relatively thick extracerebral tissue. The procedure we develop in this work and the thesis thereof performs a nonlinear inversion procedure with six unknown parameters with no other prior knowledge for the retrieval of the optical coefficients and top layer thickness with high accuracy on two-layered media. Our <span class="hlt">absolute</span> measurements of cerebral hemoglobin <span class="hlt">concentration</span> and saturation are based on the discrimination of extracerebral and cerebral tissue layers, and they can enhance the impact of NIRS for cerebral hemodynamics and</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70022761','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70022761"><span id="translatedtitle">Analysis of selected herbicide <span class="hlt">metabolites</span> in surface and ground water of the United States</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Scribner, E.A.; Thurman, E.M.; Zimmerman, L.R.</p> <p>2000-01-01</p> <p>One of the primary goals of the US Geological Survey (USGS) Laboratory in Lawrence, Kansas, is to develop analytical methods for the analysis of herbicide <span class="hlt">metabolites</span> in surface and ground water that are vital to the study of herbicide fate and degradation pathways in the environment. Methods to measure <span class="hlt">metabolite</span> <span class="hlt">concentrations</span> from three major classes of herbicides - triazine, chloroacetanilide and phenyl-urea - have been developed. Methods for triazine <span class="hlt">metabolite</span> detection cover nine compounds: six compounds are detected by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry; one is detected by high-performance liquid chromatography with diode-array detection; and eight are detected by liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry. Two <span class="hlt">metabolites</span> of the chloroacetanilide herbicides - ethane sulfonic acid and oxanilic acid - are detected by high-performance liquid chromatography with diode-array detection and liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry. Alachlor ethane sulfonic acid also has been detected by solid-phase extraction and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Six phenylurea <span class="hlt">metabolites</span> are all detected by liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry; four of the six <span class="hlt">metabolites</span> also are detected by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. Additionally, surveys of herbicides and their <span class="hlt">metabolites</span> in surface water, ground water, lakes, reservoirs, and rainfall have been conducted through the USGS laboratory in Lawrence. These surveys have been useful in determining herbicide and <span class="hlt">metabolite</span> occurrence and temporal distribution and have shown that <span class="hlt">metabolites</span> may be useful in evaluation of non-point-source contamination. Copyright (C) 2000 Elsevier Science B.V.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23890611','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23890611"><span id="translatedtitle">Monitoring of urinary <span class="hlt">metabolites</span> of JWH-018 and JWH-073 in legal cases.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Jang, Moonhee; Yang, Wonkyung; Choi, Hyeyoung; Chang, Hyejin; Lee, Sooyeun; Kim, Eunmi; Chung, Heesun</p> <p>2013-09-10</p> <p>Due to their cannabis-like effects, synthetic cannabinoids have attracted much public attention since 2008. Thus, elucidation of the metabolic pattern and the detection of the intake of these drugs have been of major concern. In order to suggest appropriate urinary biomarkers to prove JWH-018 or JWH-073 intake, we selected the major <span class="hlt">metabolites</span> of JWH-018 and JWH-073, namely (ω)-, (ω-1)-hydroxy, carboxy and 6-hydroxyindole <span class="hlt">metabolites</span>, and validated a method for the quantification of these <span class="hlt">metabolites</span> using solid-phase extraction based on LC-MS/MS analysis. Authentic urine specimens obtained from drug offenders were screened via a synthetic cannabinoid ELISA kit and were analyzed by LC-MS/MS for confirmation. Twenty-one out of a total of 52 samples (40%) were found positive for at least one <span class="hlt">metabolite</span> of JWH-018 or JWH-073. N-pentyl hydroxy <span class="hlt">metabolites</span> of JWH-018 and carboxy <span class="hlt">metabolites</span> of JWH-018 and JWH-073 were detected in all positive samples. However, the rest of the <span class="hlt">metabolites</span> were either not detected or only a small amount of them were found. A considerable variation was observed in the <span class="hlt">concentration</span> ratio of (ω) and (ω-1)-hydroxy <span class="hlt">metabolites</span> of JWH-018. Based on the results, it may have some pitfalls to determine the ingestion of specific synthetic cannabinoids by detecting a few <span class="hlt">metabolites</span>, considering the continuous emergence of structurally related synthetic cannabinoids. Thus, use of synthetic cannabinoids should be proven carefully through comprehensive investigation of analytical results of biological specimens.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li class="active"><span>22</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");'>23</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_24");'>24</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_22 --> <div id="page_23" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li class="active"><span>23</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_24");'>24</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>25</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="441"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23884698','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23884698"><span id="translatedtitle">Determination of AM-2201 <span class="hlt">metabolites</span> in urine and comparison with JWH-018 abuse.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Jang, Moonhee; Yang, Wonkyung; Shin, Ilchung; Choi, Hyeyoung; Chang, Hyejin; Kim, Eunmi</p> <p>2014-03-01</p> <p>With respect to the continuous emergence of new synthetic cannabinoids on the market since 2008, evaluation of the metabolism of these compounds and the development of analytical methods for the detection of these drugs including their respective <span class="hlt">metabolites</span> in biological fluids have become essential. Other than JWH-018 or JWH-073, AM-2201 is one of the frequently identified synthetic cannabinoids in Korea. Recently, in our laboratory, several JWH-018 <span class="hlt">metabolites</span> have been detected in some urine samples obtained from subjects who were arrested for the possession of herbal mixtures containing only AM-2201 or from those who confessed AM-2201 abuse. In the present study, we identified major urinary <span class="hlt">metabolites</span> of AM-2201 and several <span class="hlt">metabolites</span> of JWH-018, i.e., N-5-hydroxylated and carboxylated <span class="hlt">metabolites</span> from rats administered AM-2201 and found that the metabolic profile in rats was similar to those in human subjects in this study. Analytical results of the urine samples from suspects who had a considerable possibility of AM-2201 or JWH-018 intake were also compared to distinguish between AM-2201 and JWH-018 abuse. The presence of 6-indole hydroxylated <span class="hlt">metabolites</span> of each drug and N-4-hydroxy <span class="hlt">metabolite</span> of AM-2201 was found to contribute to the decisive differences in the metabolic patterns of the two drugs. In addition, the <span class="hlt">concentration</span> ratio of the N-(5-hydroxypentyl) <span class="hlt">metabolite</span> to the N-(4-hydroxypentyl) <span class="hlt">metabolite</span> of JWH-018 may be used as a criterion to differentiate between AM-2201 and JWH-018 abuse.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015JPRS..105...30G','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015JPRS..105...30G"><span id="translatedtitle">Understanding Boswellia papyrifera tree secondary <span class="hlt">metabolites</span> through bark spectral analysis</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Girma, Atkilt; Skidmore, Andrew K.; de Bie, C. A. J. M.; Bongers, Frans</p> <p>2015-07-01</p> <p>Decision makers are concerned whether to tap or rest Boswellia Papyrifera trees. Tapping for the production of frankincense is known to deplete carbon reserves from the tree leading to production of less viable seeds, tree carbon starvation and ultimately tree mortality. Decision makers use traditional experience without considering the amount of <span class="hlt">metabolites</span> stored or depleted from the stem-bark of the tree. This research was designed to come up with a non-destructive B. papyrifera tree <span class="hlt">metabolite</span> estimation technique relevant for management using spectroscopy. The <span class="hlt">concentration</span> of biochemicals (<span class="hlt">metabolites</span>) found in the tree bark was estimated through spectral analysis. Initially, a random sample of 33 trees was selected, the spectra of bark measured with an Analytical Spectral Device (ASD) spectrometer. Bark samples were air dried and ground. Then, 10 g of sample was soaked in Petroleum ether to extract crude <span class="hlt">metabolites</span>. Further chemical analysis was conducted to quantify and isolate pure <span class="hlt">metabolite</span> compounds such as incensole acetate and boswellic acid. The crude <span class="hlt">metabolites</span>, which relate to frankincense produce, were compared to plant properties (such as diameter and crown area) and reflectance spectra of the bark. Moreover, the extract was compared to the ASD spectra using partial least square regression technique (PLSR) and continuum removed spectral analysis. The continuum removed spectral analysis were performed, on two wavelength regions (1275-1663 and 1836-2217) identified through PLSR, using absorption features such as band depth, area, position, asymmetry and the width to characterize and find relationship with the bark extracts. The results show that tree properties such as diameter at breast height (DBH) and the crown area of untapped and healthy trees were strongly correlated to the amount of stored crude <span class="hlt">metabolites</span>. In addition, the PLSR technique applied to the first derivative transformation of the reflectance spectrum was found to estimate the</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=1991ITGRS..29..922U&link_type=ABSTRACT','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=1991ITGRS..29..922U&link_type=ABSTRACT"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Absolute</span> radiometric calibration of the CCRS SAR</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Ulander, Lars M. H.; Hawkins, Robert K.; Livingstone, Charles E.; Lukowski, Tom I.</p> <p>1991-11-01</p> <p>Determining the radar scattering coefficients from SAR (synthetic aperture radar) image data requires <span class="hlt">absolute</span> radiometric calibration of the SAR system. The authors describe an internal calibration methodology for the airborne Canada Centre for Remote Sensing (CCRS) SAR system, based on radar theory, a detailed model of the radar system, and measurements of system parameters. The methodology is verified by analyzing external calibration data acquired over a 6-month period in 1988 by the C-band radar using HH polarization. The results indicate that the overall error is +/- 0.8 dB (1-sigma) for incidence angles +/- 20 deg from antenna boresight. The dominant error contributions are due to the antenna radome and uncertainties in the elevation angle relative to the antenna boresight.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19720024184','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19720024184"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Absolute</span> calibration of ultraviolet filter photometry</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Bless, R. C.; Fairchild, T.; Code, A. D.</p> <p>1972-01-01</p> <p>The essential features of the calibration procedure can be divided into three parts. First, the shape of the bandpass of each photometer was determined by measuring the transmissions of the individual optical components and also by measuring the response of the photometer as a whole. Secondly, each photometer was placed in the essentially-collimated synchrotron radiation bundle maintained at a constant intensity level, and the output signal was determined from about 100 points on the objective. Finally, two or three points on the objective were illuminated by synchrotron radiation at several different intensity levels covering the dynamic range of the photometers. The output signals were placed on an <span class="hlt">absolute</span> basis by the electron counting technique described earlier.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22055716','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22055716"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Absolute</span> measurements of fast neutrons using yttrium</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Roshan, M. V.; Springham, S. V.; Rawat, R. S.; Lee, P.; Krishnan, M.</p> <p>2010-08-15</p> <p>Yttrium is presented as an <span class="hlt">absolute</span> neutron detector for pulsed neutron sources. It has high sensitivity for detecting fast neutrons. Yttrium has the property of generating a monoenergetic secondary radiation in the form of a 909 keV gamma-ray caused by inelastic neutron interaction. It was calibrated numerically using MCNPX and does not need periodic recalibration. The total yttrium efficiency for detecting 2.45 MeV neutrons was determined to be f{sub n}{approx}4.1x10{sup -4} with an uncertainty of about 0.27%. The yttrium detector was employed in the NX2 plasma focus experiments and showed the neutron yield of the order of 10{sup 8} neutrons per discharge.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016ChJOL..34.1383Y','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016ChJOL..34.1383Y"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Absolute</span> geostrophic currents in global tropical oceans</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Yang, Lina; Yuan, Dongliang</p> <p>2016-11-01</p> <p>A set of <span class="hlt">absolute</span> geostrophic current (AGC) data for the period January 2004 to December 2012 are calculated using the P-vector method based on monthly gridded Argo profiles in the world tropical oceans. The AGCs agree well with altimeter geostrophic currents, Ocean Surface Current Analysis-Real time currents, and moored current-meter measurements at 10-m depth, based on which the classical Sverdrup circulation theory is evaluated. Calculations have shown that errors of wind stress calculation, AGC transport, and depth ranges of vertical integration cannot explain non-Sverdrup transport, which is mainly in the subtropical western ocean basins and equatorial currents near the Equator in each ocean basin (except the North Indian Ocean, where the circulation is dominated by monsoons). The identified non-Sverdrup transport is thereby robust and attributed to the joint effect of baroclinicity and relief of the bottom (JEBAR) and mesoscale eddy nonlinearity.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/910204','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/910204"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Absolute</span> Measurement of Electron Cloud Density</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Covo, M K; Molvik, A W; Cohen, R H; Friedman, A; Seidl, P A; Logan, G; Bieniosek, F; Baca, D; Vay, J; Orlando, E; Vujic, J L</p> <p>2007-06-21</p> <p>Beam interaction with background gas and walls produces ubiquitous clouds of stray electrons that frequently limit the performance of particle accelerator and storage rings. Counterintuitively we obtained the electron cloud accumulation by measuring the expelled ions that are originated from the beam-background gas interaction, rather than by measuring electrons that reach the walls. The kinetic ion energy measured with a retarding field analyzer (RFA) maps the depressed beam space-charge potential and provides the dynamic electron cloud density. Clearing electrode current measurements give the static electron cloud background that complements and corroborates with the RFA measurements, providing an <span class="hlt">absolute</span> measurement of electron cloud density during a 5 {micro}s duration beam pulse in a drift region of the magnetic transport section of the High-Current Experiment (HCX) at LBNL.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1985ssor.proc..309B','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1985ssor.proc..309B"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Absolute</span> calibration of remote sensing instruments</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Biggar, S. F.; Bruegge, C. J.; Capron, B. A.; Castle, K. R.; Dinguirard, M. C.; Holm, R. G.; Lingg, L. J.; Mao, Y.; Palmer, J. M.; Phillips, A. L.</p> <p>1985-12-01</p> <p>Source-based and detector-based methods for the <span class="hlt">absolute</span> radiometric calibration of a broadband field radiometer are described. Using such a radiometer, calibrated by both methods, the calibration of the integrating sphere used in the preflight calibration of the Thematic Mapper was redetermined. The results are presented. The in-flight calibration of space remote sensing instruments is discussed. A method which uses the results of ground-based reflectance and atmospheric measurements as input to a radiative transfer code to predict the radiance at the instrument is described. A calibrated, helicopter-mounted radiometer is used to determine the radiance levels at intermediate altitudes to check the code predictions. Results of such measurements for the calibration of the Thematic Mapper on Landsat 5 and an analysis that shows the value of such measurements are described.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19870061379&hterms=radiometric+calibration+landsat&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D30%26Ntt%3Dradiometric%2Bcalibration%2Blandsat%2B5','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19870061379&hterms=radiometric+calibration+landsat&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D30%26Ntt%3Dradiometric%2Bcalibration%2Blandsat%2B5"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Absolute</span> radiometric calibration of the Thematic Mapper</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Slater, P. N.; Biggar, S. F.; Holm, R. G.; Jackson, R. D.; Mao, Y.</p> <p>1986-01-01</p> <p>Calibration data for the solar reflective bands of the Landsat-5 TM obtained from five in-flight <span class="hlt">absolute</span> radiometric calibrations from July 1984-November 1985 at White Sands, New Mexico are presented and analyzed. Ground reflectance and atmospheric data were utilized to predict the spectral radiance at the entrance pupil of the TM and the average number of digital counts in each TM band. The calibration of each of the TM solar reflective bands was calculated in terms of average digital counts/unit spectral radiance for each band. It is observed that for the 12 reflectance-based measurements the rms variation from the means as a percentage of the mean is + or - 1.9 percent; for the 11 measurements in the IR bands, it is + or - 3.4 percent; and the rms variation for all 23 measurements is + or - 2.8 percent.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012AGUFMGP51B..07L','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012AGUFMGP51B..07L"><span id="translatedtitle">Swarm's <span class="hlt">Absolute</span> Scalar Magnetometer metrological performances</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Leger, J.; Fratter, I.; Bertrand, F.; Jager, T.; Morales, S.</p> <p>2012-12-01</p> <p>The <span class="hlt">Absolute</span> Scalar Magnetometer (ASM) has been developed for the ESA Earth Observation Swarm mission, planned for launch in November 2012. As its Overhauser magnetometers forerunners flown on Oersted and Champ satellites, it will deliver high resolution scalar measurements for the in-flight calibration of the Vector Field Magnetometer manufactured by the Danish Technical University. Latest results of the ground tests carried out to fully characterize all parameters that may affect its accuracy, both at instrument and satellite level, will be presented. In addition to its baseline function, the ASM can be operated either at a much higher sampling rate (burst mode at 250 Hz) or in a dual mode where it also delivers vector field measurements as a by-product. The calibration procedure and the relevant vector performances will be discussed.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19820002595','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19820002595"><span id="translatedtitle">MAGSAT: Vector magnetometer <span class="hlt">absolute</span> sensor alignment determination</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Acuna, M. H.</p> <p>1981-01-01</p> <p>A procedure is described for accurately determining the <span class="hlt">absolute</span> alignment of the magnetic axes of a triaxial magnetometer sensor with respect to an external, fixed, reference coordinate system. The method does not require that the magnetic field vector orientation, as generated by a triaxial calibration coil system, be known to better than a few degrees from its true position, and minimizes the number of positions through which a sensor assembly must be rotated to obtain a solution. Computer simulations show that accuracies of better than 0.4 seconds of arc can be achieved under typical test conditions associated with existing magnetic test facilities. The basic approach is similar in nature to that presented by McPherron and Snare (1978) except that only three sensor positions are required and the system of equations to be solved is considerably simplified. Applications of the method to the case of the MAGSAT Vector Magnetometer are presented and the problems encountered discussed.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26792818','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26792818"><span id="translatedtitle">Identification of Epoxide-Derived <span class="hlt">Metabolite(s</span>) of Benzbromarone.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Wang, Kai; Wang, Hui; Peng, Ying; Zheng, Jiang</p> <p>2016-04-01</p> <p>Benzbromarone (BBR) is a benzofuran derivative that has been quite useful for the treatment of gout; however, it was withdrawn from European markets in 2003 because of reported serious incidents of drug-induced liver injury. BBR-induced hepatotoxicity has been suggested to be associated with the formation of a quinone intermediate. The present study reported epoxide-derived intermediate(s) of BBR. An N-acetylcysteine (NAC) conjugate derived from epoxide <span class="hlt">metabolite(s</span>) was detected in both microsomal incubations of BBR and urine samples of mice treated with BBR. The NAC conjugate was identified as 6-NAC BBR. Ketoconazole suppressed the bioactivation of BBR to the epoxide intermediate(s), and the CYP3A subfamily was the primary enzyme responsible for the formation of the epoxide(s). The present study provided new information on metabolic activation of BBR. PMID:26792818</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016NatSR...621080M','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016NatSR...621080M"><span id="translatedtitle">Chemotyping the distribution of vitamin D <span class="hlt">metabolites</span> in human serum</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Müller, Miriam J.; Stokes, Caroline S.; Lammert, Frank; Volmer, Dietrich A.</p> <p>2016-02-01</p> <p>Most studies examining the relationships between vitamin D and disease or health focus on the main 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 (25(OH)D3) <span class="hlt">metabolite</span>, thus potentially overlooking contributions and dynamic effects of other vitamin D <span class="hlt">metabolites</span>, the crucial roles of several of which have been previously demonstrated. The ideal assay would determine all relevant high and low-abundant vitamin D species simultaneously. We describe a sensitive quantitative assay for determining the chemotypes of vitamin D <span class="hlt">metabolites</span> from serum after derivatisation and ultra-high performance liquid chromatography-electrospray ionisation-tandem mass spectrometry (UHPLC-ESI-MS/MS). We performed a validation according to the ‘FDA Guidance for Industry Bioanalytical Method Validation’. The proof-of-concept of the method was then demonstrated by following the <span class="hlt">metabolite</span> <span class="hlt">concentrations</span> in patients with chronic liver diseases (CLD) during the course of a vitamin D supplementation study. The new quantitative profiling assay provided highly sensitive, precise and accurate chemotypes of the vitamin D metabolic process rather than the usually determined 25(OH)D3 <span class="hlt">concentrations</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=1127998','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=1127998"><span id="translatedtitle">Benzene toxicokinetics in humans: exposure of bone marrow to <span class="hlt">metabolites</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Watanabe, K H; Bois, F Y; Daisey, J M; Auslander, D M; Spear, R C</p> <p>1994-01-01</p> <p>A three compartment physiologically based toxicokinetic model was fitted to human data on benzene disposition. Two separate groups of model parameter derivations were obtained, depending on which data sets were being fitted. The model was then used to simulate five environmental or occupational exposures. Predicted values of the total bone marrow exposure to benzene and cumulative quantity of <span class="hlt">metabolites</span> produced by the bone marrow were generated for each scenario. The relation between cumulative quantity of <span class="hlt">metabolites</span> produced by the bone marrow and continuous benzene exposure was also investigated in detail for simulated inhalation exposure <span class="hlt">concentrations</span> ranging from 0.0039 ppm to 150 ppm. At the level of environmental exposures, no dose rate effect was found for either model. The occupational exposures led to only slight dose rate effects. A 32 ppm exposure for 15 minutes predicted consistently higher values than a 1 ppm exposure for eight hours for the total exposure of bone marrow to benzene and the cumulative quantity of <span class="hlt">metabolites</span> produced by the bone marrow. The general relation between the cumulative quantity of <span class="hlt">metabolites</span> produced by the bone marrow and the inhalation <span class="hlt">concentration</span> of benzene is not linear. An inflection point exists in some cases leading to a slightly S shaped curve. At environmental levels (0.0039-10 ppm) the curve bends upward, and it saturates at high experimental exposures (greater than 100 ppm). PMID:8044234</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4532835','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4532835"><span id="translatedtitle">Unique <span class="hlt">metabolites</span> protect earthworms against plant polyphenols</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Liebeke, Manuel; Strittmatter, Nicole; Fearn, Sarah; Morgan, A. John; Kille, Peter; Fuchser, Jens; Wallis, David; Palchykov, Vitalii; Robertson, Jeremy; Lahive, Elma; Spurgeon, David J.; McPhail, David; Takáts, Zoltán; Bundy, Jacob G.</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>All higher plants produce polyphenols, for defence against above-ground herbivory. These polyphenols also influence the soil micro- and macro-fauna that break down plant leaf litter. Polyphenols therefore indirectly affect the fluxes of soil nutrients and, ultimately, carbon turnover and ecosystem functioning in soils. It is unknown how earthworms, the major component of animal biomass in many soils, cope with high-polyphenol diets. Here, we show that earthworms possess a class of unique surface-active <span class="hlt">metabolites</span> in their gut, which we term ‘drilodefensins'. These compounds counteract the inhibitory effects of polyphenols on earthworm gut enzymes, and high-polyphenol diets increase drilodefensin <span class="hlt">concentrations</span> in both laboratory and field populations. This shows that drilodefensins protect earthworms from the harmful effects of ingested polyphenols. We have identified the key mechanism for adaptation to a dietary challenge in an animal group that has a major role in organic matter recycling in soils worldwide. PMID:26241769</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26241769','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26241769"><span id="translatedtitle">Unique <span class="hlt">metabolites</span> protect earthworms against plant polyphenols.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Liebeke, Manuel; Strittmatter, Nicole; Fearn, Sarah; Morgan, A John; Kille, Peter; Fuchser, Jens; Wallis, David; Palchykov, Vitalii; Robertson, Jeremy; Lahive, Elma; Spurgeon, David J; McPhail, David; Takáts, Zoltán; Bundy, Jacob G</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>All higher plants produce polyphenols, for defence against above-ground herbivory. These polyphenols also influence the soil micro- and macro-fauna that break down plant leaf litter. Polyphenols therefore indirectly affect the fluxes of soil nutrients and, ultimately, carbon turnover and ecosystem functioning in soils. It is unknown how earthworms, the major component of animal biomass in many soils, cope with high-polyphenol diets. Here, we show that earthworms possess a class of unique surface-active <span class="hlt">metabolites</span> in their gut, which we term 'drilodefensins'. These compounds counteract the inhibitory effects of polyphenols on earthworm gut enzymes, and high-polyphenol diets increase drilodefensin <span class="hlt">concentrations</span> in both laboratory and field populations. This shows that drilodefensins protect earthworms from the harmful effects of ingested polyphenols. We have identified the key mechanism for adaptation to a dietary challenge in an animal group that has a major role in organic matter recycling in soils worldwide. PMID:26241769</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26241769','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26241769"><span id="translatedtitle">Unique <span class="hlt">metabolites</span> protect earthworms against plant polyphenols.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Liebeke, Manuel; Strittmatter, Nicole; Fearn, Sarah; Morgan, A John; Kille, Peter; Fuchser, Jens; Wallis, David; Palchykov, Vitalii; Robertson, Jeremy; Lahive, Elma; Spurgeon, David J; McPhail, David; Takáts, Zoltán; Bundy, Jacob G</p> <p>2015-08-04</p> <p>All higher plants produce polyphenols, for defence against above-ground herbivory. These polyphenols also influence the soil micro- and macro-fauna that break down plant leaf litter. Polyphenols therefore indirectly affect the fluxes of soil nutrients and, ultimately, carbon turnover and ecosystem functioning in soils. It is unknown how earthworms, the major component of animal biomass in many soils, cope with high-polyphenol diets. Here, we show that earthworms possess a class of unique surface-active <span class="hlt">metabolites</span> in their gut, which we term 'drilodefensins'. These compounds counteract the inhibitory effects of polyphenols on earthworm gut enzymes, and high-polyphenol diets increase drilodefensin <span class="hlt">concentrations</span> in both laboratory and field populations. This shows that drilodefensins protect earthworms from the harmful effects of ingested polyphenols. We have identified the key mechanism for adaptation to a dietary challenge in an animal group that has a major role in organic matter recycling in soils worldwide.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26452788','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26452788"><span id="translatedtitle">Simultaneous determination of phenoxyethanol and its major <span class="hlt">metabolite</span>, phenoxyacetic acid, in rat biological matrices by LC-MS/MS with polarity switching: Application to ADME studies.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Kim, Tae Hwan; Kim, Min Gi; Kim, Min Gyu; Shin, Beom Soo; Kim, Kyu-Bong; Lee, Jong Bong; Paik, Soo Heui; Yoo, Sun Dong</p> <p>2015-11-01</p> <p>This study describes the development of a simple LC-ESI-MS/MS method with polarity switching for the simultaneous analysis of phenoxyethanol (PE) and its major <span class="hlt">metabolite</span>, phenoxyacetic acid (PAA), in rat plasma, urine, and 7 different tissues. The assay was validated to demonstrate the linearity, precision, accuracy, LLOQ, recovery, and stability by using the matrix matched QC samples. The assay achieved the LLOQ of 10 and 20 ng/mL of PE and PAA, respectively, for plasma samples and the LLOQ of 20 and 50 ng/mL of PE and PAA, respectively, for urine and tissue samples. This method was successfully applied to the percutaneous absorption, distribution, metabolism, and excretion studies in rats. The <span class="hlt">absolute</span> topical bioavailability of PE was 75.4% and 76.0% for emulsion and lotion, respectively. Conversion of PE to PAA was extensive, with the average AUCPAA-to-AUCPE ratio being 4.4 and 5.3 for emulsion and lotion, respectively. The steady-state tissue-to-plasma PE <span class="hlt">concentration</span> ratio (Kp) was higher than unity for kidney, spleen, heart, brain, and testis and was lower (≤0.6) for lung and liver, while the <span class="hlt">metabolite</span> Kp ratio was higher than unity for kidney, liver, lung, and testis and was lower (≤0.3) for other tissues. Findings of this study may be useful to evaluate the relationship between exposure and toxic potential of PE in risk assessment. PMID:26452788</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26452788','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26452788"><span id="translatedtitle">Simultaneous determination of phenoxyethanol and its major <span class="hlt">metabolite</span>, phenoxyacetic acid, in rat biological matrices by LC-MS/MS with polarity switching: Application to ADME studies.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Kim, Tae Hwan; Kim, Min Gi; Kim, Min Gyu; Shin, Beom Soo; Kim, Kyu-Bong; Lee, Jong Bong; Paik, Soo Heui; Yoo, Sun Dong</p> <p>2015-11-01</p> <p>This study describes the development of a simple LC-ESI-MS/MS method with polarity switching for the simultaneous analysis of phenoxyethanol (PE) and its major <span class="hlt">metabolite</span>, phenoxyacetic acid (PAA), in rat plasma, urine, and 7 different tissues. The assay was validated to demonstrate the linearity, precision, accuracy, LLOQ, recovery, and stability by using the matrix matched QC samples. The assay achieved the LLOQ of 10 and 20 ng/mL of PE and PAA, respectively, for plasma samples and the LLOQ of 20 and 50 ng/mL of PE and PAA, respectively, for urine and tissue samples. This method was successfully applied to the percutaneous absorption, distribution, metabolism, and excretion studies in rats. The <span class="hlt">absolute</span> topical bioavailability of PE was 75.4% and 76.0% for emulsion and lotion, respectively. Conversion of PE to PAA was extensive, with the average AUCPAA-to-AUCPE ratio being 4.4 and 5.3 for emulsion and lotion, respectively. The steady-state tissue-to-plasma PE <span class="hlt">concentration</span> ratio (Kp) was higher than unity for kidney, spleen, heart, brain, and testis and was lower (≤0.6) for lung and liver, while the <span class="hlt">metabolite</span> Kp ratio was higher than unity for kidney, liver, lung, and testis and was lower (≤0.3) for other tissues. Findings of this study may be useful to evaluate the relationship between exposure and toxic potential of PE in risk assessment.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25756661','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25756661"><span id="translatedtitle">Toluene dioxygenase-catalyzed synthesis and reactions of cis-diol <span class="hlt">metabolites</span> derived from 2- and 3-methoxyphenols.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Boyd, Derek R; Sharma, Narain D; Malone, John F; McIntyre, Peter B A; McRoberts, Colin; Floyd, Stewart; Allen, Christopher C R; Gohil, Amit; Coles, Simon J; Horton, Peter N; Stevenson, Paul J</p> <p>2015-04-01</p> <p>Using toluene dioxygenase as biocatalyst, enantiopure cis-dihydrodiol and cis-tetrahydrodiol <span class="hlt">metabolites</span>, isolated as their ketone tautomers, were obtained from meta and ortho methoxyphenols. Although these isomeric phenol substrates are structurally similar, the major bioproducts from each of these biotransformations were found at different oxidation levels. The relatively stable cyclohexenone cis-diol <span class="hlt">metabolite</span> from meta methoxyphenol was isolated, while the corresponding <span class="hlt">metabolite</span> from ortho methoxyphenol was rapidly bioreduced to a cyclohexanone cis-diol. The chemistry of the 3-methoxycyclohexenone cis-diol product was investigated and elimination, aromatization, hydrogenation, regioselective O-exchange, Stork-Danheiser transposition and O-methylation reactions were observed. An offshoot of this technology provided a two-step chemoenzymatic synthesis, from meta methoxyphenol, of a recently reported chiral fungal <span class="hlt">metabolite</span>; this synthesis also established the previously unassigned <span class="hlt">absolute</span> configuration. PMID:25756661</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li class="active"><span>23</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_24");'>24</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>25</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_23 --> <div id="page_24" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");'>23</a></li> <li class="active"><span>24</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>25</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="461"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4436698','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4436698"><span id="translatedtitle">Tear <span class="hlt">metabolite</span> changes in keratoconus</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Karamichos, D; Zieske, JD; Sejersen, H; Sarker-Nag, A; Asara, John M; Hjortdal, J</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>While efforts have been made over the years, the exact cause of keratoconus (KC) remains unknown. The aim of this study was to identify alterations in endogenous <span class="hlt">metabolites</span> in the tears of KC patients compared with age-matched healthy subjects. Three groups were tested: 1) Age-matched controls with no eye disease (N=15), 2) KC – patients wearing Rigid Gas permeable lenses (N=16), and 3) KC – No Correction (N=14). All samples were processed for metabolomics analysis using LC-MS/MS. We identified a total of 296 different <span class="hlt">metabolites</span> of which >40 were significantly regulated between groups. Glycolysis and gluconeogenesis had significant changes, such as 3-phosphoglycerate and 1,3 diphopshateglycerate. As a result the citric acid cycle (TCA) was also affected with notable changes in Isocitrate, aconitate, malate, and acetylphosphate, up regulated in Group 2 and/or 3. Urea cycle was also affected, especially in Group 3 where ornithine and aspartate were up-regulated by at least 3 fold. The oxidation state was also severely affected. Groups 2 and 3 were under severe oxidative stress causing multiple <span class="hlt">metabolites</span> to be regulated when compared to Group 1. Group 2 and 3, both showed significant down regulation in GSH-to-GSSG ratio when compared to Group 1. Another indicator of oxidative stress, the ratio of lactate – pyruvate was also affected with Groups 2 and 3 showing at least a 2-fold up regulation. Overall, our data indicate that levels of <span class="hlt">metabolites</span> related to urea cycle, TCA cycle and oxidative stress are highly altered in KC patients. PMID:25579606</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/875642','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/875642"><span id="translatedtitle">Two <span class="hlt">metabolites</span> from Aspergillus flavipes.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Clark, A M; Hufford, C D; Robertson, L W</p> <p>1977-01-01</p> <p>Two novel fungal <span class="hlt">metabolites</span>, N-benzoyl-L-phenylalaninol (1a) and asperphenamate (2) were isolated from the culture filtrate and mycelium of Aspergillus flavipes ATCC 11013. N-benzoyl-L-phenylalaninol was identified by direct comparison with an authentic sample. The structure of asperphenamate is proposed as (S)-N-benzoyl-phenylalanine-(S)-2-benzamido-3-phenyl propyl ester, based on chemical and spectroscopic evidence. PMID:875642</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1185413','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1185413"><span id="translatedtitle">Liquid microjunction surface sampling of acetaminophen, terfenadine and their <span class="hlt">metabolites</span> in thin tissue sections</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Kertesz, Vilmos; Paranthaman, Nithya; Moench, Paul; Catoire, Alexandre; Flarakos, Jimmy; Van Berkel, Gary J.</p> <p>2014-10-01</p> <p>The aim of this paper was to evaluate the analytical performance of a fully automated droplet-based surface-sampling system for determining the distribution of the drugs acetaminophen and terfenadine, and their <span class="hlt">metabolites</span>, in rat thin tissue sections. The following are the results: The rank order of acetaminophen <span class="hlt">concentration</span> observed in tissues was stomach > small intestine > liver, while the <span class="hlt">concentrations</span> of its glucuronide and sulfate <span class="hlt">metabolites</span> were greatest in the liver and small intestine. Terfenadine was most <span class="hlt">concentrated</span> in the liver and kidney, while its major <span class="hlt">metabolite</span>, fexofenadine, was found in the liver and small intestine. In conclusion, the spatial distributions of both drugs and their respective <span class="hlt">metabolites</span> observed in this work were consistent with previous studies using radiolabeled drugs.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/pages/biblio/1185413-liquid-microjunction-surface-sampling-acetaminophen-terfenadine-metabolites-thin-tissue-sections','SCIGOV-DOEP'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/pages/biblio/1185413-liquid-microjunction-surface-sampling-acetaminophen-terfenadine-metabolites-thin-tissue-sections"><span id="translatedtitle">Liquid microjunction surface sampling of acetaminophen, terfenadine and their <span class="hlt">metabolites</span> in thin tissue sections</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/pages">DOE PAGES</a></p> <p>Kertesz, Vilmos; Paranthaman, Nithya; Moench, Paul; Catoire, Alexandre; Flarakos, Jimmy; Van Berkel, Gary J.</p> <p>2014-10-01</p> <p>The aim of this paper was to evaluate the analytical performance of a fully automated droplet-based surface-sampling system for determining the distribution of the drugs acetaminophen and terfenadine, and their <span class="hlt">metabolites</span>, in rat thin tissue sections. The following are the results: The rank order of acetaminophen <span class="hlt">concentration</span> observed in tissues was stomach > small intestine > liver, while the <span class="hlt">concentrations</span> of its glucuronide and sulfate <span class="hlt">metabolites</span> were greatest in the liver and small intestine. Terfenadine was most <span class="hlt">concentrated</span> in the liver and kidney, while its major <span class="hlt">metabolite</span>, fexofenadine, was found in the liver and small intestine. In conclusion, the spatialmore » distributions of both drugs and their respective <span class="hlt">metabolites</span> observed in this work were consistent with previous studies using radiolabeled drugs.« less</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25655830','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25655830"><span id="translatedtitle">Contribution of <span class="hlt">metabolites</span> to P450 inhibition-based drug-drug interactions: scholarship from the drug metabolism leadership group of the innovation and quality consortium <span class="hlt">metabolite</span> group.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Yu, Hongbin; Balani, Suresh K; Chen, Weichao; Cui, Donghui; He, Ling; Humphreys, W Griffith; Mao, Jialin; Lai, W George; Lee, Anthony J; Lim, Heng-Keang; MacLauchlin, Christopher; Prakash, Chandra; Surapaneni, Sekhar; Tse, Susanna; Upthagrove, Alana; Walsky, Robert L; Wen, Bo; Zeng, Zhaopie</p> <p>2015-04-01</p> <p>Recent European Medicines Agency (final) and US Food and Drug Administration (draft) drug interaction guidances proposed that human circulating <span class="hlt">metabolites</span> should be investigated in vitro for their drug-drug interaction (DDI) potential if present at ≥ 25% of the parent area under the time-<span class="hlt">concentration</span> curve (AUC) (US Food and Drug Administration) or ≥ 25% of the parent and ≥ 10% of the total drug-related AUC (European Medicines Agency). To examine the application of these regulatory recommendations, a group of scientists, representing 18 pharmaceutical companies of the Drug Metabolism Leadership Group of the Innovation and Quality Consortium, conducted a scholarship to assess the risk of contributions by <span class="hlt">metabolites</span> to cytochrome P450 (P450) inhibition-based DDIs. The group assessed the risk of having a <span class="hlt">metabolite</span> as the sole contributor to DDI based on literature data and analysis of the 137 most frequently prescribed drugs, defined structural alerts associated with P450 inhibition/inactivation by <span class="hlt">metabolites</span>, and analyzed current approaches to trigger in vitro DDI studies for <span class="hlt">metabolites</span>. The group concluded that the risk of P450 inhibition caused by a <span class="hlt">metabolite</span> alone is low. Only <span class="hlt">metabolites</span> from 5 of 137 drugs were likely the sole contributor to the in vivo P450 inhibition-based DDIs. Two recommendations were provided when assessing the need to conduct in vitro P450 inhibition studies for <span class="hlt">metabolites</span>: 1) consider structural alerts that suggest P450 inhibition potential, and 2) use multiple approaches (e.g., a <span class="hlt">metabolite</span> cut-off value of 100% of the parent AUC and the R(met) strategy) to predict P450 inhibition-based DDIs caused by <span class="hlt">metabolites</span> in the clinic.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25655830','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25655830"><span id="translatedtitle">Contribution of <span class="hlt">metabolites</span> to P450 inhibition-based drug-drug interactions: scholarship from the drug metabolism leadership group of the innovation and quality consortium <span class="hlt">metabolite</span> group.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Yu, Hongbin; Balani, Suresh K; Chen, Weichao; Cui, Donghui; He, Ling; Humphreys, W Griffith; Mao, Jialin; Lai, W George; Lee, Anthony J; Lim, Heng-Keang; MacLauchlin, Christopher; Prakash, Chandra; Surapaneni, Sekhar; Tse, Susanna; Upthagrove, Alana; Walsky, Robert L; Wen, Bo; Zeng, Zhaopie</p> <p>2015-04-01</p> <p>Recent European Medicines Agency (final) and US Food and Drug Administration (draft) drug interaction guidances proposed that human circulating <span class="hlt">metabolites</span> should be investigated in vitro for their drug-drug interaction (DDI) potential if present at ≥ 25% of the parent area under the time-<span class="hlt">concentration</span> curve (AUC) (US Food and Drug Administration) or ≥ 25% of the parent and ≥ 10% of the total drug-related AUC (European Medicines Agency). To examine the application of these regulatory recommendations, a group of scientists, representing 18 pharmaceutical companies of the Drug Metabolism Leadership Group of the Innovation and Quality Consortium, conducted a scholarship to assess the risk of contributions by <span class="hlt">metabolites</span> to cytochrome P450 (P450) inhibition-based DDIs. The group assessed the risk of having a <span class="hlt">metabolite</span> as the sole contributor to DDI based on literature data and analysis of the 137 most frequently prescribed drugs, defined structural alerts associated with P450 inhibition/inactivation by <span class="hlt">metabolites</span>, and analyzed current approaches to trigger in vitro DDI studies for <span class="hlt">metabolites</span>. The group concluded that the risk of P450 inhibition caused by a <span class="hlt">metabolite</span> alone is low. Only <span class="hlt">metabolites</span> from 5 of 137 drugs were likely the sole contributor to the in vivo P450 inhibition-based DDIs. Two recommendations were provided when assessing the need to conduct in vitro P450 inhibition studies for <span class="hlt">metabolites</span>: 1) consider structural alerts that suggest P450 inhibition potential, and 2) use multiple approaches (e.g., a <span class="hlt">metabolite</span> cut-off value of 100% of the parent AUC and the R(met) strategy) to predict P450 inhibition-based DDIs caused by <span class="hlt">metabolites</span> in the clinic. PMID:25655830</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24660468','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24660468"><span id="translatedtitle">Antiausterity activity of arctigenin enantiomers: importance of (2R,3R)-<span class="hlt">absolute</span> configuration.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Awale, Suresh; Kato, Mamoru; Dibwe, Dya Fita; Li, Feng; Miyoshi, Chika; Esumi, Hiroyasu; Kadota, Shigetoshi; Tezuka, Yasuhiro</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>From a MeOH extract of powdered roots of Wikstroemia indica, six dibenzyl-gamma-butyrolactone-type lignans with (2S,3S)-<span class="hlt">absolute</span> configuration [(+)-arctigenin (1), (+)-matairesinol (2), (+)-trachelogenin (3), (+)-nortrachelogenin (4), (+)-hinokinin (5), and (+)-kusunokinin (6)] were isolated, whereas three dibenzyl-gamma-butyrolactone-type lignans with (2R,3R)-<span class="hlt">absolute</span> configuration [(-)-arctigenin (1*), (-)-matairesinol (2*), (-)-trachelogenin (3*)] were isolated from Trachelospermum asiaticum. The in vitro preferential cytotoxic activity of the nine compounds was evaluated against human pancreatic PANC-1 cancer cells in nutrient-deprived medium (NDM), but none of the six lignans (1-6) with (2S,3S)-<span class="hlt">absolute</span> configuration showed preferential cytotoxicity. On the other hand, three lignans (1*-3*) with (2R,3R)-<span class="hlt">absolute</span> configuration exhibited preferential cytotoxicity in a <span class="hlt">concentration</span>-dependent manner with PC50 values of 0.54, 6.82, and 5.85 microM, respectively. Furthermore, the effect of (-)- and (+)-arctigenin was evaluated against the activation of Akt, which is a key process in the tolerance to nutrition starvation. Interestingly, only (-)-arctigenin (1*) strongly suppressed the activation of Akt. These results indicate that the (2R,3R)-<span class="hlt">absolute</span> configuration of (-)-enantiomers should be required for the preferential cytotoxicity through the inhibition of Akt activation.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24660468','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24660468"><span id="translatedtitle">Antiausterity activity of arctigenin enantiomers: importance of (2R,3R)-<span class="hlt">absolute</span> configuration.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Awale, Suresh; Kato, Mamoru; Dibwe, Dya Fita; Li, Feng; Miyoshi, Chika; Esumi, Hiroyasu; Kadota, Shigetoshi; Tezuka, Yasuhiro</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>From a MeOH extract of powdered roots of Wikstroemia indica, six dibenzyl-gamma-butyrolactone-type lignans with (2S,3S)-<span class="hlt">absolute</span> configuration [(+)-arctigenin (1), (+)-matairesinol (2), (+)-trachelogenin (3), (+)-nortrachelogenin (4), (+)-hinokinin (5), and (+)-kusunokinin (6)] were isolated, whereas three dibenzyl-gamma-butyrolactone-type lignans with (2R,3R)-<span class="hlt">absolute</span> configuration [(-)-arctigenin (1*), (-)-matairesinol (2*), (-)-trachelogenin (3*)] were isolated from Trachelospermum asiaticum. The in vitro preferential cytotoxic activity of the nine compounds was evaluated against human pancreatic PANC-1 cancer cells in nutrient-deprived medium (NDM), but none of the six lignans (1-6) with (2S,3S)-<span class="hlt">absolute</span> configuration showed preferential cytotoxicity. On the other hand, three lignans (1*-3*) with (2R,3R)-<span class="hlt">absolute</span> configuration exhibited preferential cytotoxicity in a <span class="hlt">concentration</span>-dependent manner with PC50 values of 0.54, 6.82, and 5.85 microM, respectively. Furthermore, the effect of (-)- and (+)-arctigenin was evaluated against the activation of Akt, which is a key process in the tolerance to nutrition starvation. Interestingly, only (-)-arctigenin (1*) strongly suppressed the activation of Akt. These results indicate that the (2R,3R)-<span class="hlt">absolute</span> configuration of (-)-enantiomers should be required for the preferential cytotoxicity through the inhibition of Akt activation. PMID:24660468</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23751335','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23751335"><span id="translatedtitle">Widespread occurrence of neuro-active pharmaceuticals and <span class="hlt">metabolites</span> in 24 Minnesota rivers and wastewaters.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Writer, Jeffrey H; Ferrer, Imma; Barber, Larry B; Thurman, E Michael</p> <p>2013-09-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Concentrations</span> of 17 neuro-active pharmaceuticals and their major <span class="hlt">metabolites</span> (bupropion, hydroxy-bupropion, erythro-hydrobupropion, threo-hydrobupropion, carbamazepine, 10,11,-dihydro-10,11,-dihydroxycarbamazepine, 10-hydroxy-carbamazepine, citalopram, N-desmethyl-citalopram, fluoxetine, norfluoxetine, gabapentin, lamotrigine, 2-N-glucuronide-lamotrigine, oxcarbazepine, venlafaxine and O-desmethyl-venlafaxine), were measured in treated wastewater and receiving surface waters from 24 locations across Minnesota, USA. The analysis of upstream and downstream sampling sites indicated that the wastewater treatment plants were the major source of the neuro-active pharmaceuticals and associated <span class="hlt">metabolites</span> in surface waters of Minnesota. <span class="hlt">Concentrations</span> of parent compound and the associated <span class="hlt">metabolite</span> varied substantially between treatment plants (<span class="hlt">concentrations</span>±standard deviation of the parent compound relative to its major <span class="hlt">metabolite</span>) as illustrated by the following examples; bupropion and hydrobupropion 700±1000 ng L(-1), 2100±1700 ng L(-1), carbamazepine and 10-hydroxy-carbamazepine 480±380 ng L(-1), 360±400 ng L(-1), venlafaxine and O-desmethyl-venlafaxine 1400±1300 ng L(-1), 1800±2300 ng L(-1). <span class="hlt">Metabolites</span> of the neuro-active compounds were commonly found at higher or comparable <span class="hlt">concentrations</span> to the parent compounds in wastewater effluent and the receiving surface water. Neuro-active pharmaceuticals and associated <span class="hlt">metabolites</span> were detected only sporadically in samples upstream from the effluent outfall. <span class="hlt">Metabolite</span> to parent ratios were used to evaluate transformation, and we determined that ratios in wastewater were much lower than those reported in urine, indicating that the <span class="hlt">metabolites</span> are relatively more labile than the parent compounds in the treatment plants and in receiving waters. The widespread occurrence of neuro-active pharmaceuticals and <span class="hlt">metabolites</span> in Minnesota effluents and surface waters indicate that this is likely a global environmental issue</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23751335','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23751335"><span id="translatedtitle">Widespread occurrence of neuro-active pharmaceuticals and <span class="hlt">metabolites</span> in 24 Minnesota rivers and wastewaters.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Writer, Jeffrey H; Ferrer, Imma; Barber, Larry B; Thurman, E Michael</p> <p>2013-09-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Concentrations</span> of 17 neuro-active pharmaceuticals and their major <span class="hlt">metabolites</span> (bupropion, hydroxy-bupropion, erythro-hydrobupropion, threo-hydrobupropion, carbamazepine, 10,11,-dihydro-10,11,-dihydroxycarbamazepine, 10-hydroxy-carbamazepine, citalopram, N-desmethyl-citalopram, fluoxetine, norfluoxetine, gabapentin, lamotrigine, 2-N-glucuronide-lamotrigine, oxcarbazepine, venlafaxine and O-desmethyl-venlafaxine), were measured in treated wastewater and receiving surface waters from 24 locations across Minnesota, USA. The analysis of upstream and downstream sampling sites indicated that the wastewater treatment plants were the major source of the neuro-active pharmaceuticals and associated <span class="hlt">metabolites</span> in surface waters of Minnesota. <span class="hlt">Concentrations</span> of parent compound and the associated <span class="hlt">metabolite</span> varied substantially between treatment plants (<span class="hlt">concentrations</span>±standard deviation of the parent compound relative to its major <span class="hlt">metabolite</span>) as illustrated by the following examples; bupropion and hydrobupropion 700±1000 ng L(-1), 2100±1700 ng L(-1), carbamazepine and 10-hydroxy-carbamazepine 480±380 ng L(-1), 360±400 ng L(-1), venlafaxine and O-desmethyl-venlafaxine 1400±1300 ng L(-1), 1800±2300 ng L(-1). <span class="hlt">Metabolites</span> of the neuro-active compounds were commonly found at higher or comparable <span class="hlt">concentrations</span> to the parent compounds in wastewater effluent and the receiving surface water. Neuro-active pharmaceuticals and associated <span class="hlt">metabolites</span> were detected only sporadically in samples upstream from the effluent outfall. <span class="hlt">Metabolite</span> to parent ratios were used to evaluate transformation, and we determined that ratios in wastewater were much lower than those reported in urine, indicating that the <span class="hlt">metabolites</span> are relatively more labile than the parent compounds in the treatment plants and in receiving waters. The widespread occurrence of neuro-active pharmaceuticals and <span class="hlt">metabolites</span> in Minnesota effluents and surface waters indicate that this is likely a global environmental issue</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/9504968','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/9504968"><span id="translatedtitle">In vitro cytotoxicity of BTEX <span class="hlt">metabolites</span> in HeLa cells.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Shen, Y</p> <p>1998-04-01</p> <p>Fuel leakage from underground storage tanks is a major source of groundwater contamination. Although the toxicity of regulated compounds such as benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, and xylene (BTEX) are well recognized, the cytotoxicity of their <span class="hlt">metabolites</span> has not been studied extensively. In this study, Hela cells, propagated at 37 degrees C in an atmosphere of 5% CO2-95% air, served as a target for evaluation of cytotoxicity of BTEX <span class="hlt">metabolites</span> 3-methylcatechol, 4-methylcatechol, 4-hydroxybenzoic acid, and 4-hydroxy-3-methoxybenzoic acid. The cells were exposed to different <span class="hlt">concentrations</span> of the <span class="hlt">metabolites</span>, which subsequently showed inhibition of cell growth and produced dose-related decreases in cell viability and cell protein content. The BTEX <span class="hlt">metabolites</span> affected the levels of the polyamines spermidine, spermine, and putrescine, which are known to be important in cell proliferation. The cytotoxic effects for these BTEX <span class="hlt">metabolites</span> to Hela cells were 3-methylcatechol > 4-methylcatechol > 4-hydroxy-3-methoxybenzoic acid > 4-hydroxybenzoic acid.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2001ESASP.464..355T','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2001ESASP.464..355T"><span id="translatedtitle">On the <span class="hlt">absolute</span> alignment of GONG images</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Toner, C. G.</p> <p>2001-01-01</p> <p>In order to combine data from the six instruments in the GONG network the alignment of all of the images must be known to a fairly high precision (~0°.1 for GONG Classic and ~0°.01 for GONG+). The relative orientation is obtained using the angular cross-correlation method described by (Toner & Harvey, 1998). To obtain the <span class="hlt">absolute</span> orientation the Project periodically records a day of drift scans, where the image of the Sun is allowed to drift across the CCD repeatedly throughout the day. These data are then analyzed to deduce the direction of Terrestrial East-West as a function of hour angle (i.e., time) for that instrument. The transit of Mercury on Nov. 15, 1999, which was recorded by three of the GONG instruments, provided an independent check on the current alignment procedures. Here we present a comparison of the alignment of GONG images as deduced from both drift scans and the Mercury transit for two GONG sites: Tucson (GONG+ camera) and Mauna Loa (GONG Classic camera). The agreement is within ~0°.01 for both cameras, however, the scatter is substantially larger for GONG Classic: ~0°.03 compared to ~0°.01 for GONG+.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20160006426','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20160006426"><span id="translatedtitle">Climate <span class="hlt">Absolute</span> Radiance and Refractivity Observatory (CLARREO)</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Leckey, John P.</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>The Climate <span class="hlt">Absolute</span> Radiance and Refractivity Observatory (CLARREO) is a mission, led and developed by NASA, that will measure a variety of climate variables with an unprecedented accuracy to quantify and attribute climate change. CLARREO consists of three separate instruments: an infrared (IR) spectrometer, a reflected solar (RS) spectrometer, and a radio occultation (RO) instrument. The mission will contain orbiting radiometers with sufficient accuracy, including on orbit verification, to calibrate other space-based instrumentation, increasing their respective accuracy by as much as an order of magnitude. The IR spectrometer is a Fourier Transform spectrometer (FTS) working in the 5 to 50 microns wavelength region with a goal of 0.1 K (k = 3) accuracy. The FTS will achieve this accuracy using phase change cells to verify thermistor accuracy and heated halos to verify blackbody emissivity, both on orbit. The RS spectrometer will measure the reflectance of the atmosphere in the 0.32 to 2.3 microns wavelength region with an accuracy of 0.3% (k = 2). The status of the instrumentation packages and potential mission options will be presented.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19870016762','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19870016762"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Absolute</span> flux measurements for swift atoms</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Fink, M.; Kohl, D. A.; Keto, J. W.; Antoniewicz, P.</p> <p>1987-01-01</p> <p>While a torsion balance in vacuum can easily measure the momentum transfer from a gas beam impinging on a surface attached to the balance, this measurement depends on the accommodation coefficients of the atoms with the surface and the distribution of the recoil. A torsion balance is described for making <span class="hlt">absolute</span> flux measurements independent of recoil effects. The torsion balance is a conventional taut suspension wire design and the Young modulus of the wire determines the relationship between the displacement and the applied torque. A compensating magnetic field is applied to maintain zero displacement and provide critical damping. The unique feature is to couple the impinging gas beam to the torsion balance via a Wood's horn, i.e., a thin wall tube with a gradual 90 deg bend. Just as light is trapped in a Wood's horn by specular reflection from the curved surfaces, the gas beam diffuses through the tube. Instead of trapping the beam, the end of the tube is open so that the atoms exit the tube at 90 deg to their original direction. Therefore, all of the forward momentum of the gas beam is transferred to the torsion balance independent of the angle of reflection from the surfaces inside the tube.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1001683','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1001683"><span id="translatedtitle">Gyrokinetic Statistical <span class="hlt">Absolute</span> Equilibrium and Turbulence</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Jian-Zhou Zhu and Gregory W. Hammett</p> <p>2011-01-10</p> <p>A paradigm based on the <span class="hlt">absolute</span> equilibrium of Galerkin-truncated inviscid systems to aid in understanding turbulence [T.-D. Lee, "On some statistical properties of hydrodynamical and magnetohydrodynamical fields," Q. Appl. Math. 10, 69 (1952)] is taken to study gyrokinetic plasma turbulence: A finite set of Fourier modes of the collisionless gyrokinetic equations are kept and the statistical equilibria are calculated; possible implications for plasma turbulence in various situations are discussed. For the case of two spatial and one velocity dimension, in the calculation with discretization also of velocity v with N grid points (where N + 1 quantities are conserved, corresponding to an energy invariant and N entropy-related invariants), the negative temperature states, corresponding to the condensation of the generalized energy into the lowest modes, are found. This indicates a generic feature of inverse energy cascade. Comparisons are made with some classical results, such as those of Charney-Hasegawa-Mima in the cold-ion limit. There is a universal shape for statistical equilibrium of gyrokinetics in three spatial and two velocity dimensions with just one conserved quantity. Possible physical relevance to turbulence, such as ITG zonal flows, and to a critical balance hypothesis are also discussed.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016MeScT..27k7002R','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016MeScT..27k7002R"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Absolute</span> and relative emissions analysis in practical combustion systems—effect of water vapor condensation</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Richter, J. P.; Mollendorf, J. C.; DesJardin, P. E.</p> <p>2016-11-01</p> <p>Accurate knowledge of the <span class="hlt">absolute</span> combustion gas composition is necessary in the automotive, aircraft, processing, heating and air conditioning industries where emissions reduction is a major concern. Those industries use a variety of sensor technologies. Many of these sensors are used to analyze the gas by pumping a sample through a system of tubes to reach a remote sensor location. An inherent characteristic with this type of sampling strategy is that the mixture state changes as the sample is drawn towards the sensor. Specifically, temperature and humidity changes can be significant, resulting in a very different gas mixture at the sensor interface compared with the in situ location (water vapor dilution effect). Consequently, the gas <span class="hlt">concentrations</span> obtained from remotely sampled gas analyzers can be significantly different than in situ values. In this study, inherent errors associated with sampled combustion gas <span class="hlt">concentration</span> measurements are explored, and a correction methodology is presented to determine the <span class="hlt">absolute</span> gas composition from remotely measured gas species <span class="hlt">concentrations</span>. For in situ (wet) measurements a heated zirconium dioxide (ZrO2) oxygen sensor (Bosch LSU 4.9) is used to measure the <span class="hlt">absolute</span> oxygen <span class="hlt">concentration</span>. This is used to correct the remotely sampled (dry) measurements taken with an electrochemical sensor within the remote analyzer (Testo 330-2LL). In this study, such a correction is experimentally validated for a specified <span class="hlt">concentration</span> of carbon monoxide (5020 ppmv).</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20000064542&hterms=alexander+bruce&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D10%26Ntt%3Dalexander%2Bbruce','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20000064542&hterms=alexander+bruce&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D10%26Ntt%3Dalexander%2Bbruce"><span id="translatedtitle">Issues in <span class="hlt">Absolute</span> Spectral Radiometric Calibration: Intercomparison of Eight Sources</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Goetz, Alexander F. H.; Kindel, Bruce; Pilewskie, Peter</p> <p>1998-01-01</p> <p>The application of atmospheric models to AVIRIS and other spectral imaging data to derive surface reflectance requires that the sensor output be calibrated to <span class="hlt">absolute</span> radiance. Uncertainties in <span class="hlt">absolute</span> calibration are to be expected, and claims of 92% accuracy have been published. Measurements of accurate surface albedos and cloud absorption to be used in radiative balance calculations depend critically on knowing the <span class="hlt">absolute</span> spectral-radiometric response of the sensor. The Earth Observing System project is implementing a rigorous program of <span class="hlt">absolute</span> radiometric calibration for all optical sensors. Since a number of imaging instruments that provide output in terms of <span class="hlt">absolute</span> radiance are calibrated at different sites, it is important to determine the errors that can be expected among calibration sites. Another question exists about the errors in the <span class="hlt">absolute</span> knowledge of the exoatmospheric spectral solar irradiance.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26727649','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26727649"><span id="translatedtitle">Fate of Parabens and Their <span class="hlt">Metabolites</span> in Two Wastewater Treatment Plants in New York State, United States.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Wang, Wei; Kannan, Kurunthachalam</p> <p>2016-02-01</p> <p>Little is known about the occurrence and fate of parabens and their <span class="hlt">metabolites</span> in wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs). In this study, mass loadings, removal efficiencies, and environmental emission of six parabens, four of their <span class="hlt">metabolites</span> (4-hydroxy benzoate, 3,4-dihydroxy benzoate, methyl-protocatechuate, and ethyl-protocatechuate) and benzoic acid were studied based on the <span class="hlt">concentrations</span> determined in wastewater influent, primary effluent, final effluent, suspended particulate matter (SPM), and sludge collected from two WWTPs (denoted as WWTP(A) and WWTP(B)) in the Albany area of New York State. The median respective <span class="hlt">concentrations</span> of sum of parabens (Σparabens = 6 parent compounds) and paraben-<span class="hlt">metabolites</span> (Σ<span class="hlt">metabolites</span> = 4 <span class="hlt">metabolites</span>) were 73.1-158 and 5460-10,000 ng/L in influents, and 1.96-5.57 and 2060-2550 ng/L in final effluents. The <span class="hlt">concentrations</span> of Σ<span class="hlt">metabolites</span> were significantly higher than those of Σparabens in sludge and SPM. The removal efficiencies for parabens (89.6-99.9%) were higher than those for their <span class="hlt">metabolites</span> (25.9-90.6%). The respective mass loadings of parabens and their <span class="hlt">metabolites</span> were 46.3 and 6210 mg/d/1000 people for WWTP(A) and 176 and 63,100 mg/d/1000 people for WWTP(B). The environmental emission of parabens and their <span class="hlt">metabolites</span> through WWTP discharges was 4.85-6.16 and 1270-2050 mg/d/1000 people, respectively.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15282765','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15282765"><span id="translatedtitle">Quantitation of drug <span class="hlt">metabolites</span> in the absence of pure <span class="hlt">metabolite</span> standards by high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with a chemiluminescence nitrogen detector and mass spectrometer.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Deng, Yuzhong; Wu, Jing-Tao; Zhang, Hongwei; Olah, Timothy V</p> <p>2004-01-01</p> <p>Quantitative information on drug <span class="hlt">metabolites</span> with pharmacological or toxicological activities is of great interest during the drug discovery and development process. Because the analyte response with mass spectrometry can change significantly due to small variations in chemical structure, pure standards are required to construct standard curves for quantitation. However, for most programs at the discovery stage, pure <span class="hlt">metabolite</span> standards are not available. In this work, an evaluation was conducted using a chemiluminescent nitrogen detector (CLND) as a calibrator to obtain the response factor ratio on a mass spectrometer generated from a <span class="hlt">metabolite</span> and its parent compound in biological fluids. Using the response factor ratio obtained from the CLND, the <span class="hlt">metabolite</span> could be quantified with the liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry (LC/MS/MS) response obtained from the parent drug's standard curve. For this evaluation, oxazepam and temazepam were chosen as a 'drug/<span class="hlt">metabolite</span>' pair. Temazepam was treated as the methylated <span class="hlt">metabolite</span> of oxazepam. A spiked dog urine sample with a known <span class="hlt">concentration</span> of oxazepam and unknown <span class="hlt">concentration</span> of temazepam was injected onto the HPLC system and detected by both the CLND and MS/MS. Taking advantage of the equimolar response feature of the CLND, a response factor ratio between temazepam and oxazepam on the mass spectrometer was obtained by comparing the peak areas generated on the CLND and the mass spectrometer. From this ratio, temazepam was quantified using the oxazepam standard curve. The difference between the <span class="hlt">concentration</span> of temazepam obtained from the reconstructed standard curve and the