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Sample records for absolute methane-bearing capacity

  1. Increasing Capacity: Practice Effects in Absolute Identification

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dodds, Pennie; Donkin, Christopher; Brown, Scott D.; Heathcote, Andrew

    2011-01-01

    In most of the long history of the study of absolute identification--since Miller's (1956) seminal article--a severe limit on performance has been observed, and this limit has resisted improvement even by extensive practice. In a startling result, Rouder, Morey, Cowan, and Pfaltz (2004) found substantially improved performance with practice in the…

  2. Heat capacity and absolute entropy of iron phosphides

    SciTech Connect

    Dobrokhotova, Z.V.; Zaitsev, A.I.; Litvina, A.D.

    1994-09-01

    There is little or no data on the thermodynamic properties of iron phosphides despite their importance for several areas of science and technology. The information available is of a qualitative character and is based on assessments of the heat capacity and absolute entropy. In the present work, we measured the heat capacity over the temperature range of 113-873 K using a differential scanning calorimeter (DSC) and calculated the absolute entropy.

  3. Procoagulant and platelet-derived microvesicle absolute counts determined by flow cytometry correlates with a measurement of their functional capacity

    PubMed Central

    Ayers, Lisa; Harrison, Paul; Kohler, Malcolm; Ferry, Berne

    2014-01-01

    Background Flow cytometry is the most commonly used technology to measure microvesicles (MVs). Despite reported limitations of this technique, MV levels obtained using conventional flow cytometry have yielded many clinically relevant findings, such as associations with disease severity and ability to predict clinical outcomes. This study aims to determine if MV enumeration by flow cytometry correlates with a measurement of their functional capacity, as this may explain how flow cytometry generates clinically relevant results. Methods One hundred samples from healthy individuals and patients with obstructive sleep apnoea were analysed by conventional flow cytometry (FACSCalibur) and by three functional MV assays: Zymuphen MP-activity in which data were given as phosphatidylserine equivalent, STA® Phospholipid Procoag Assay expressed as clotting time and Endogenous Thrombin Potential (ETP) reflecting in vitro thrombin generation. Correlations were determined by Spearman correlation. Results Absolute counts of lactadherin+ procoagulant MVs generated by flow cytometry weakly correlated with the results obtained from the Zymuphen MP-activity (r=0.5370, p<0.0001); correlated with ETP (r=0.7444, p<0.0001); negatively correlated with STA® Phospholipid Procoag Assay clotting time (−0.7872, p<0.0001), reflecting a positive correlation between clotting activity and flow cytometry. Levels of Annexin V+ procoagulant and platelet-derived MVs were also associated with functional assays. Absolute counts of MVs derived from other cell types were not correlated with the functional results. Conclusions Quantitative results of procoagulant and platelet-derived MVs from conventional flow cytometry are associated with the functional capability of the MVs, as defined by three functional MV assays. Flow cytometry is a valuable technique for the quantification of MVs from different cellular origins; however, a combination of several analytical techniques may give the most comprehensive

  4. The Impact of Strategy Instruction and Timing of Estimates on Low and High Working-Memory Capacity Readers' Absolute Monitoring Accuracy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Linderholm, Tracy; Zhao, Qin

    2008-01-01

    Working-memory capacity, strategy instruction, and timing of estimates were investigated for their effects on absolute monitoring accuracy, which is the difference between estimated and actual reading comprehension test performance. Participants read two expository texts under one of two randomly assigned reading strategy instruction conditions…

  5. Easy Absolute Values? Absolutely

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, Sharon E.; Mittag, Kathleen Cage

    2015-01-01

    The authors teach a problem-solving course for preservice middle-grades education majors that includes concepts dealing with absolute-value computations, equations, and inequalities. Many of these students like mathematics and plan to teach it, so they are adept at symbolic manipulations. Getting them to think differently about a concept that they…

  6. Methane-bearing fluid inclusions as evidence of the collisional nature of high-alumina granites, northern Sikhote-Alin, Russian Far East

    SciTech Connect

    Berdnikov, N.V.; Karsakov, L.P.

    1999-07-01

    The Khungariisk high-alumina S-type granites (northern Sikhote-Alin fold system, Russian Far East) have been formed as a result of anatectic melting during collision of the Anyuy sialic block with the continental margin in the Early Cretaceous. Methane-rich fluid inclusions are characteristic of these granites. The CH{sub 4}-H{sub 2}O fluid composition is explained by the release of water and methane from the sedimentary units residing on the oceanic plate, as it was subducted beneath sialic block. This fluid seeped into the heated and deformed metamorphic rocks of the overlying block and initiated partial fusion of the granites. A comparison of the new data with the results of fluid-inclusion studies of high-alumina collisional granites from the Pamir Mountains and Japan reveals similarities. Thus, methane-bearing fluid is probably one of the general features of this granite type, reflecting its anatectic origin.

  7. Towards Biogeochemical Modeling of Anaerobic Oxidation of Methane: Characterization of Microbial Communities in Methane-bearing North American Continental Margin Sediments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Graw, M. F.; Solomon, E. A.; Chrisler, W.; Krause, S.; Treude, T.; Ruppel, C. D.; Pohlman, J.; Colwell, F. S.

    2015-12-01

    Methane advecting through continental margin sediments may enter the water column and potentially contribute to ocean acidification and increase atmospheric methane concentrations. Anaerobic oxidation of methane (AOM), mediated by syntrophic consortia of anaerobic methanotrophic archaea and sulfate-reducing bacteria (ANME-SRB), consumes nearly all dissolved methane in methane-bearing sediments before it reaches the sediment-water interface. Despite the significant role ANME-SRB play in carbon cycling, our knowledge of these organisms and their surrounding microbial communities is limited. Our objective is to develop a metabolic model of ANME-SRB within methane-bearing sediments and to couple this to a geochemical reaction-transport model for these margins. As a first step towards this goal, we undertook fluorescent microscopic imaging, 16S rRNA gene deep-sequencing, and shotgun metagenomic sequencing of sediments from the US Pacific (Washington) and northern Atlantic margins where ANME-SRB are present. A successful Illumina MiSeq sequencing run yielded 106,257 bacterial and 857,834 archaeal 16S rRNA gene sequences from 12 communities from the Washington Margin using both universal prokaryotic and archaeal-specific primer sets. Fluorescent microscopy confirmed the presence of cells of the ANME-2c lineage in the sequenced communities. Microbial community characterization was coupled with measurements of sediment physical and geochemical properties and, for samples from the US Atlantic margin, 14C-based measurements of AOM rates and 35S-based measurements of sulfate reduction rates. These findings have the potential to increase understanding of ANME-SRB, their surrounding microbial communities, and their role in carbon cycling within continental margins. In addition, they pave the way for future efforts at developing a metabolic model of ANME-SRB and coupling it to geochemical models of the US Washington and Atlantic margins.

  8. Experimentally-determined carbon isotope fractionation in and between methane-bearing melt and fluid to upper mantle temperatures and pressures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mysen, Bjorn

    2016-07-01

    The behavior of melts and fluids is at the core of understanding formation and evolution of the Earth. To advance our understanding of their role, high-pressure/-temperature experiments were employed to determine melt and fluid structure together with carbon isotope partitioning within and between (CH4 +H2O +H2)-saturated aluminosilicate melts and (CH4 +H2O +H2)-fluids. The samples were characterized with vibrational spectroscopy while at temperatures and pressures from 475° to 850 °C and 92 to 1158 MPa, respectively. The solution equilibrium is 2CH4 +Qn = 2 CH3- +H2O +Q n + 1 where the superscript, n, in the Qn-notation describes silicate species where n denotes the number of bridging oxygen. The solution equilibrium affects the carbon isotope fractionation factor between melt and fluid, αmelt/fluid. Moreover, it is significantly temperature-dependent. The αmelt/fluid < 1 with temperatures less than about 1050 °C, and is greater than 1 at higher temperature. Methane-bearing melts can exist in the upper mantle at fO2 ≤fO2 (MW) (Mysen et al., 2011). Reduced (Csbnd H)-species in present-day upper mantle magma, therefore, are likely. During melting and crystallization in this environment, the δ13C of melts increases with temperature at a rate of ∼ 0.6 ‰ /°C. From the simple-system data presented here, at T ≤ 1050°C, melt in equilibrium with a peridotite-(CH4 +H2O +H2)-bearing mantle source will be isotopically lighter than fluid. At higher temperatures, melts will be isotopically heavier. Degassing at T ≤ 1050°C will shift δ13C of degassed magma to more positive values, whereas degassing at T ≥ 1050°C, will reduce the δ13C of the degassed magma.

  9. Absolute Summ

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Phillips, Alfred, Jr.

    Summ means the entirety of the multiverse. It seems clear, from the inflation theories of A. Guth and others, that the creation of many universes is plausible. We argue that Absolute cosmological ideas, not unlike those of I. Newton, may be consistent with dynamic multiverse creations. As suggested in W. Heisenberg's uncertainty principle, and with the Anthropic Principle defended by S. Hawking, et al., human consciousness, buttressed by findings of neuroscience, may have to be considered in our models. Predictability, as A. Einstein realized with Invariants and General Relativity, may be required for new ideas to be part of physics. We present here a two postulate model geared to an Absolute Summ. The seedbed of this work is part of Akhnaton's philosophy (see S. Freud, Moses and Monotheism). Most important, however, is that the structure of human consciousness, manifest in Kenya's Rift Valley 200,000 years ago as Homo sapiens, who were the culmination of the six million year co-creation process of Hominins and Nature in Africa, allows us to do the physics that we do. .

  10. A new method of reconstituting the P-T conditions of fluid circulation in an accretionary prism (Shimanto, Japan) from microthermometry of methane-bearing aqueous inclusions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raimbourg, Hugues; Thiéry, Régis; Vacelet, Maxime; Ramboz, Claire; Cluzel, Nicolas; Le Trong, Emmanuel; Yamaguchi, Asuka; Kimura, Gaku

    2014-01-01

    In paleo-accretionary prisms and the shallow metamorphic domains of orogens, circulating fluids trapped in inclusions are commonly composed of a mixture of salt water and methane, producing two types of fluid inclusions: methane-bearing aqueous and methane-rich gaseous fluid inclusions. In such geological settings, where multiple stages of deformation, veining and fluid influx are prevalent, textural relationships between aqueous and gaseous inclusions are often ambiguous, preventing the microthermometric determination of fluid trapping pressure and temperature conditions. To assess the P-T conditions of deep circulating fluids from the Hyuga unit of the Shimanto paleo-accretionary prism on Kyushu, Japan, we have developed a new computational code, applicable to the H2O-CH4-NaCl system, which allows the characterization of CH4-bearing aqueous inclusions using only the temperatures of their phase transitions estimated by microthermometry: Tmi, the melting temperature of ice; Thyd, the melting temperature of gas hydrate and Th,aq, homogenization temperature. This thermodynamic modeling calculates the bulk density and composition of aqueous inclusions, as well as their P-T isochoric paths in a P-T diagram with an estimated precision of approximatively 10%. We use this computational tool to reconstruct the entrapment P-T conditions of aqueous inclusions in the Hyuga unit, and we show that these aqueous inclusions cannot be cogenetic with methane gaseous inclusions present in the same rocks. As a result, we propose that pulses of a high-pressure, methane-rich fluid transiently percolated through a rock wetted by a lower-pressure aqueous fluid. By coupling microthermometric results with petrological data, we infer that the exhumation of the Hyuga unit from the peak metamorphic conditions was nearly isothermal and ended up under a very hot geothermal gradient. In subduction or collision zones, modeling aqueous fluid inclusions in the ternary H2O-CH4-NaCl system and not

  11. Teaching Absolute Value Meaningfully

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wade, Angela

    2012-01-01

    What is the meaning of absolute value? And why do teachers teach students how to solve absolute value equations? Absolute value is a concept introduced in first-year algebra and then reinforced in later courses. Various authors have suggested instructional methods for teaching absolute value to high school students (Wei 2005; Stallings-Roberts…

  12. Eosinophil count - absolute

    MedlinePlus

    Eosinophils; Absolute eosinophil count ... the white blood cell count to give the absolute eosinophil count. ... than 500 cells per microliter (cells/mcL). Normal value ranges may vary slightly among different laboratories. Talk ...

  13. Absolute nuclear material assay

    DOEpatents

    Prasad, Manoj K.; Snyderman, Neal J.; Rowland, Mark S.

    2012-05-15

    A method of absolute nuclear material assay of an unknown source comprising counting neutrons from the unknown source and providing an absolute nuclear material assay utilizing a model to optimally compare to the measured count distributions. In one embodiment, the step of providing an absolute nuclear material assay comprises utilizing a random sampling of analytically computed fission chain distributions to generate a continuous time-evolving sequence of event-counts by spreading the fission chain distribution in time.

  14. Absolute nuclear material assay

    DOEpatents

    Prasad, Manoj K.; Snyderman, Neal J.; Rowland, Mark S.

    2010-07-13

    A method of absolute nuclear material assay of an unknown source comprising counting neutrons from the unknown source and providing an absolute nuclear material assay utilizing a model to optimally compare to the measured count distributions. In one embodiment, the step of providing an absolute nuclear material assay comprises utilizing a random sampling of analytically computed fission chain distributions to generate a continuous time-evolving sequence of event-counts by spreading the fission chain distribution in time.

  15. Absolute biological needs.

    PubMed

    McLeod, Stephen

    2014-07-01

    Absolute needs (as against instrumental needs) are independent of the ends, goals and purposes of personal agents. Against the view that the only needs are instrumental needs, David Wiggins and Garrett Thomson have defended absolute needs on the grounds that the verb 'need' has instrumental and absolute senses. While remaining neutral about it, this article does not adopt that approach. Instead, it suggests that there are absolute biological needs. The absolute nature of these needs is defended by appeal to: their objectivity (as against mind-dependence); the universality of the phenomenon of needing across the plant and animal kingdoms; the impossibility that biological needs depend wholly upon the exercise of the abilities characteristic of personal agency; the contention that the possession of biological needs is prior to the possession of the abilities characteristic of personal agency. Finally, three philosophical usages of 'normative' are distinguished. On two of these, to describe a phenomenon or claim as 'normative' is to describe it as value-dependent. A description of a phenomenon or claim as 'normative' in the third sense does not entail such value-dependency, though it leaves open the possibility that value depends upon the phenomenon or upon the truth of the claim. It is argued that while survival needs (or claims about them) may well be normative in this third sense, they are normative in neither of the first two. Thus, the idea of absolute need is not inherently normative in either of the first two senses. PMID:23586876

  16. Absolute biological needs.

    PubMed

    McLeod, Stephen

    2014-07-01

    Absolute needs (as against instrumental needs) are independent of the ends, goals and purposes of personal agents. Against the view that the only needs are instrumental needs, David Wiggins and Garrett Thomson have defended absolute needs on the grounds that the verb 'need' has instrumental and absolute senses. While remaining neutral about it, this article does not adopt that approach. Instead, it suggests that there are absolute biological needs. The absolute nature of these needs is defended by appeal to: their objectivity (as against mind-dependence); the universality of the phenomenon of needing across the plant and animal kingdoms; the impossibility that biological needs depend wholly upon the exercise of the abilities characteristic of personal agency; the contention that the possession of biological needs is prior to the possession of the abilities characteristic of personal agency. Finally, three philosophical usages of 'normative' are distinguished. On two of these, to describe a phenomenon or claim as 'normative' is to describe it as value-dependent. A description of a phenomenon or claim as 'normative' in the third sense does not entail such value-dependency, though it leaves open the possibility that value depends upon the phenomenon or upon the truth of the claim. It is argued that while survival needs (or claims about them) may well be normative in this third sense, they are normative in neither of the first two. Thus, the idea of absolute need is not inherently normative in either of the first two senses.

  17. The absolute path command

    2012-05-11

    The ap command traveres all symlinks in a given file, directory, or executable name to identify the final absolute path. It can print just the final path, each intermediate link along with the symlink chan, and the permissions and ownership of each directory component in the final path. It has functionality similar to "which", except that it shows the final path instead of the first path. It is also similar to "pwd", but it canmore » provide the absolute path to a relative directory from the current working directory.« less

  18. The absolute path command

    SciTech Connect

    Moody, A.

    2012-05-11

    The ap command traveres all symlinks in a given file, directory, or executable name to identify the final absolute path. It can print just the final path, each intermediate link along with the symlink chan, and the permissions and ownership of each directory component in the final path. It has functionality similar to "which", except that it shows the final path instead of the first path. It is also similar to "pwd", but it can provide the absolute path to a relative directory from the current working directory.

  19. ABSOLUTE POLARIMETRY AT RHIC.

    SciTech Connect

    OKADA; BRAVAR, A.; BUNCE, G.; GILL, R.; HUANG, H.; MAKDISI, Y.; NASS, A.; WOOD, J.; ZELENSKI, Z.; ET AL.

    2007-09-10

    Precise and absolute beam polarization measurements are critical for the RHIC spin physics program. Because all experimental spin-dependent results are normalized by beam polarization, the normalization uncertainty contributes directly to final physics uncertainties. We aimed to perform the beam polarization measurement to an accuracy Of {Delta}P{sub beam}/P{sub beam} < 5%. The absolute polarimeter consists of Polarized Atomic Hydrogen Gas Jet Target and left-right pairs of silicon strip detectors and was installed in the RHIC-ring in 2004. This system features proton-proton elastic scattering in the Coulomb nuclear interference (CNI) region. Precise measurements of the analyzing power A{sub N} of this process has allowed us to achieve {Delta}P{sub beam}/P{sub beam} = 4.2% in 2005 for the first long spin-physics run. In this report, we describe the entire set up and performance of the system. The procedure of beam polarization measurement and analysis results from 2004-2005 are described. Physics topics of AN in the CNI region (four-momentum transfer squared 0.001 < -t < 0.032 (GeV/c){sup 2}) are also discussed. We point out the current issues and expected optimum accuracy in 2006 and the future.

  20. Absolute Equilibrium Entropy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shebalin, John V.

    1997-01-01

    The entropy associated with absolute equilibrium ensemble theories of ideal, homogeneous, fluid and magneto-fluid turbulence is discussed and the three-dimensional fluid case is examined in detail. A sigma-function is defined, whose minimum value with respect to global parameters is the entropy. A comparison is made between the use of global functions sigma and phase functions H (associated with the development of various H-theorems of ideal turbulence). It is shown that the two approaches are complimentary though conceptually different: H-theorems show that an isolated system tends to equilibrium while sigma-functions allow the demonstration that entropy never decreases when two previously isolated systems are combined. This provides a more complete picture of entropy in the statistical mechanics of ideal fluids.

  1. Absolute neutrino mass measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Wolf, Joachim

    2011-10-06

    The neutrino mass plays an important role in particle physics, astrophysics and cosmology. In recent years the detection of neutrino flavour oscillations proved that neutrinos carry mass. However, oscillation experiments are only sensitive to the mass-squared difference of the mass eigenvalues. In contrast to cosmological observations and neutrino-less double beta decay (0v2{beta}) searches, single {beta}-decay experiments provide a direct, model-independent way to determine the absolute neutrino mass by measuring the energy spectrum of decay electrons at the endpoint region with high accuracy.Currently the best kinematic upper limits on the neutrino mass of 2.2eV have been set by two experiments in Mainz and Troitsk, using tritium as beta emitter. The next generation tritium {beta}-experiment KATRIN is currently under construction in Karlsruhe/Germany by an international collaboration. KATRIN intends to improve the sensitivity by one order of magnitude to 0.2eV. The investigation of a second isotope ({sup 137}Rh) is being pursued by the international MARE collaboration using micro-calorimeters to measure the beta spectrum. The technology needed to reach 0.2eV sensitivity is still in the R and D phase. This paper reviews the present status of neutrino-mass measurements with cosmological data, 0v2{beta} decay and single {beta}-decay.

  2. Absolute Identification by Relative Judgment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stewart, Neil; Brown, Gordon D. A.; Chater, Nick

    2005-01-01

    In unidimensional absolute identification tasks, participants identify stimuli that vary along a single dimension. Performance is surprisingly poor compared with discrimination of the same stimuli. Existing models assume that identification is achieved using long-term representations of absolute magnitudes. The authors propose an alternative…

  3. Be Resolute about Absolute Value

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kidd, Margaret L.

    2007-01-01

    This article explores how conceptualization of absolute value can start long before it is introduced. The manner in which absolute value is introduced to students in middle school has far-reaching consequences for their future mathematical understanding. It begins to lay the foundation for students' understanding of algebra, which can change…

  4. Singular perturbation of absolute stability.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Siljak, D. D.

    1972-01-01

    It was previously shown (author, 1969) that the regions of absolute stability in the parameter space can be determined when the parameters appear on the right-hand side of the system equations, i.e., the regular case. Here, the effect on absolute stability of a small parameter attached to higher derivatives in the equations (the singular case) is studied. The Lur'e-Postnikov class of nonlinear systems is considered.

  5. Absolute flux scale for radioastronomy

    SciTech Connect

    Ivanov, V.P.; Stankevich, K.S.

    1986-07-01

    The authors propose and provide support for a new absolute flux scale for radio astronomy, which is not encumbered with the inadequacies of the previous scales. In constructing it the method of relative spectra was used (a powerful tool for choosing reference spectra). A review is given of previous flux scales. The authors compare the AIS scale with the scale they propose. Both scales are based on absolute measurements by the ''artificial moon'' method, and they are practically coincident in the range from 0.96 to 6 GHz. At frequencies above 6 GHz, 0.96 GHz, the AIS scale is overestimated because of incorrect extrapolation of the spectra of the primary and secondary standards. The major results which have emerged from this review of absolute scales in radio astronomy are summarized.

  6. Relativistic Absolutism in Moral Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vogt, W. Paul

    1982-01-01

    Discusses Emile Durkheim's "Moral Education: A Study in the Theory and Application of the Sociology of Education," which holds that morally healthy societies may vary in culture and organization but must possess absolute rules of moral behavior. Compares this moral theory with current theory and practice of American educators. (MJL)

  7. Absolute transition probabilities of phosphorus.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, M. H.; Roig, R. A.; Bengtson, R. D.

    1971-01-01

    Use of a gas-driven shock tube to measure the absolute strengths of 21 P I lines and 126 P II lines (from 3300 to 6900 A). Accuracy for prominent, isolated neutral and ionic lines is estimated to be 28 to 40% and 18 to 30%, respectively. The data and the corresponding theoretical predictions are examined for conformity with the sum rules.-

  8. Optomechanics for absolute rotation detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davuluri, Sankar

    2016-07-01

    In this article, we present an application of optomechanical cavity for the absolute rotation detection. The optomechanical cavity is arranged in a Michelson interferometer in such a way that the classical centrifugal force due to rotation changes the length of the optomechanical cavity. The change in the cavity length induces a shift in the frequency of the cavity mode. The phase shift corresponding to the frequency shift in the cavity mode is measured at the interferometer output to estimate the angular velocity of absolute rotation. We derived an analytic expression to estimate the minimum detectable rotation rate in our scheme for a given optomechanical cavity. Temperature dependence of the rotation detection sensitivity is studied.

  9. Moral absolutism and ectopic pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Kaczor, C

    2001-02-01

    If one accepts a version of absolutism that excludes the intentional killing of any innocent human person from conception to natural death, ectopic pregnancy poses vexing difficulties. Given that the embryonic life almost certainly will die anyway, how can one retain one's moral principle and yet adequately respond to a situation that gravely threatens the life of the mother and her future fertility? The four options of treatment most often discussed in the literature are non-intervention, salpingectomy (removal of tube with embryo), salpingostomy (removal of embryo alone), and use of methotrexate (MXT). In this essay, I review these four options and introduce a fifth (the milking technique). In order to assess these options in terms of the absolutism mentioned, it will also be necessary to discuss various accounts of the intention/foresight distinction. I conclude that salpingectomy, salpingostomy, and the milking technique are compatible with absolutist presuppositions, but not the use of methotrexate.

  10. Moral absolutism and ectopic pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Kaczor, C

    2001-02-01

    If one accepts a version of absolutism that excludes the intentional killing of any innocent human person from conception to natural death, ectopic pregnancy poses vexing difficulties. Given that the embryonic life almost certainly will die anyway, how can one retain one's moral principle and yet adequately respond to a situation that gravely threatens the life of the mother and her future fertility? The four options of treatment most often discussed in the literature are non-intervention, salpingectomy (removal of tube with embryo), salpingostomy (removal of embryo alone), and use of methotrexate (MXT). In this essay, I review these four options and introduce a fifth (the milking technique). In order to assess these options in terms of the absolutism mentioned, it will also be necessary to discuss various accounts of the intention/foresight distinction. I conclude that salpingectomy, salpingostomy, and the milking technique are compatible with absolutist presuppositions, but not the use of methotrexate. PMID:11262641

  11. The Absolute Spectrum Polarimeter (ASP)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kogut, A. J.

    2010-01-01

    The Absolute Spectrum Polarimeter (ASP) is an Explorer-class mission to map the absolute intensity and linear polarization of the cosmic microwave background and diffuse astrophysical foregrounds over the full sky from 30 GHz to 5 THz. The principal science goal is the detection and characterization of linear polarization from an inflationary epoch in the early universe, with tensor-to-scalar ratio r much greater than 1O(raised to the power of { -3}) and Compton distortion y < 10 (raised to the power of{-6}). We describe the ASP instrument and mission architecture needed to detect the signature of an inflationary epoch in the early universe using only 4 semiconductor bolometers.

  12. Classification images predict absolute efficiency.

    PubMed

    Murray, Richard F; Bennett, Patrick J; Sekuler, Allison B

    2005-02-24

    How well do classification images characterize human observers' strategies in perceptual tasks? We show mathematically that from the classification image of a noisy linear observer, it is possible to recover the observer's absolute efficiency. If we could similarly predict human observers' performance from their classification images, this would suggest that the linear model that underlies use of the classification image method is adequate over the small range of stimuli typically encountered in a classification image experiment, and that a classification image captures most important aspects of human observers' performance over this range. In a contrast discrimination task and in a shape discrimination task, we found that observers' absolute efficiencies were generally well predicted by their classification images, although consistently slightly (approximately 13%) higher than predicted. We consider whether a number of plausible nonlinearities can account for the slight under prediction, and of these we find that only a form of phase uncertainty can account for the discrepancy.

  13. Absolute calibration of optical flats

    DOEpatents

    Sommargren, Gary E.

    2005-04-05

    The invention uses the phase shifting diffraction interferometer (PSDI) to provide a true point-by-point measurement of absolute flatness over the surface of optical flats. Beams exiting the fiber optics in a PSDI have perfect spherical wavefronts. The measurement beam is reflected from the optical flat and passed through an auxiliary optic to then be combined with the reference beam on a CCD. The combined beams include phase errors due to both the optic under test and the auxiliary optic. Standard phase extraction algorithms are used to calculate this combined phase error. The optical flat is then removed from the system and the measurement fiber is moved to recombine the two beams. The newly combined beams include only the phase errors due to the auxiliary optic. When the second phase measurement is subtracted from the first phase measurement, the absolute phase error of the optical flat is obtained.

  14. Method for estimating absolute lung volumes at constant inflation pressure.

    PubMed

    Hills, B A; Barrow, R E

    1979-10-01

    A method has been devised for measuring functional residual capacity in the intact killed animal or absolute lung volumes in any excised lung preparation without changing the inflation pressure. This is achieved by titrating the absolute pressure of a chamber in which the preparation is compressed until a known volume of air has entered the lungs. This technique was used to estimate the volumes of five intact rabbit lungs and five rigid containers of known dimensions by means of Boyle's law. Results were found to agree to within +/- 1% with values determined by alternative methods. In the discussion the advantage of determining absolute lung volumes at almost any stage in a study of lung mechanics without the determination itself changing inflation pressure and, hence, lung volume is emphasized. PMID:511699

  15. The AFGL absolute gravity program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hammond, J. A.; Iliff, R. L.

    1978-01-01

    A brief discussion of the AFGL's (Air Force Geophysics Laboratory) program in absolute gravity is presented. Support of outside work and in-house studies relating to gravity instrumentation are discussed. A description of the current transportable system is included and the latest results are presented. These results show good agreement with measurements at the AFGL site by an Italian system. The accuracy obtained by the transportable apparatus is better than 0.1 microns sq sec 10 microgal and agreement with previous measurements is within the combined uncertainties of the measurements.

  16. Familial Aggregation of Absolute Pitch

    PubMed Central

    Baharloo, Siamak; Service, Susan K.; Risch, Neil; Gitschier, Jane; Freimer, Nelson B.

    2000-01-01

    Absolute pitch (AP) is a behavioral trait that is defined as the ability to identify the pitch of tones in the absence of a reference pitch. AP is an ideal phenotype for investigation of gene and environment interactions in the development of complex human behaviors. Individuals who score exceptionally well on formalized auditory tests of pitch perception are designated as “AP-1.” As described in this report, auditory testing of siblings of AP-1 probands and of a control sample indicates that AP-1 aggregates in families. The implications of this finding for the mapping of loci for AP-1 predisposition are discussed. PMID:10924408

  17. Cosmology with negative absolute temperatures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vieira, J. P. P.; Byrnes, Christian T.; Lewis, Antony

    2016-08-01

    Negative absolute temperatures (NAT) are an exotic thermodynamical consequence of quantum physics which has been known since the 1950's (having been achieved in the lab on a number of occasions). Recently, the work of Braun et al. [1] has rekindled interest in negative temperatures and hinted at a possibility of using NAT systems in the lab as dark energy analogues. This paper goes one step further, looking into the cosmological consequences of the existence of a NAT component in the Universe. NAT-dominated expanding Universes experience a borderline phantom expansion (w < ‑1) with no Big Rip, and their contracting counterparts are forced to bounce after the energy density becomes sufficiently large. Both scenarios might be used to solve horizon and flatness problems analogously to standard inflation and bouncing cosmologies. We discuss the difficulties in obtaining and ending a NAT-dominated epoch, and possible ways of obtaining density perturbations with an acceptable spectrum.

  18. Apparatus for absolute pressure measurement

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hecht, R. (Inventor)

    1969-01-01

    An absolute pressure sensor (e.g., the diaphragm of a capacitance manometer) was subjected to a superimposed potential to effectively reduce the mechanical stiffness of the sensor. This substantially increases the sensitivity of the sensor and is particularly useful in vacuum gauges. An oscillating component of the superimposed potential induced vibrations of the sensor. The phase of these vibrations with respect to that of the oscillating component was monitored, and served to initiate an automatic adjustment of the static component of the superimposed potential, so as to bring the sensor into resonance at the frequency of the oscillating component. This establishes a selected sensitivity for the sensor, since a definite relationship exists between resonant frequency and sensitivity.

  19. Cosmology with negative absolute temperatures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vieira, J. P. P.; Byrnes, Christian T.; Lewis, Antony

    2016-08-01

    Negative absolute temperatures (NAT) are an exotic thermodynamical consequence of quantum physics which has been known since the 1950's (having been achieved in the lab on a number of occasions). Recently, the work of Braun et al. [1] has rekindled interest in negative temperatures and hinted at a possibility of using NAT systems in the lab as dark energy analogues. This paper goes one step further, looking into the cosmological consequences of the existence of a NAT component in the Universe. NAT-dominated expanding Universes experience a borderline phantom expansion (w < -1) with no Big Rip, and their contracting counterparts are forced to bounce after the energy density becomes sufficiently large. Both scenarios might be used to solve horizon and flatness problems analogously to standard inflation and bouncing cosmologies. We discuss the difficulties in obtaining and ending a NAT-dominated epoch, and possible ways of obtaining density perturbations with an acceptable spectrum.

  20. Absolute configuration of isovouacapenol C

    PubMed Central

    Fun, Hoong-Kun; Yodsaoue, Orapun; Karalai, Chatchanok; Chantrapromma, Suchada

    2010-01-01

    The title compound, C27H34O5 {systematic name: (4aR,5R,6R,6aS,7R,11aS,11bR)-4a,6-dihy­droxy-4,4,7,11b-tetra­methyl-1,2,3,4,4a,5,6,6a,7,11,11a,11b-dodeca­hydro­phenanthro[3,2-b]furan-5-yl benzoate}, is a cassane furan­oditerpene, which was isolated from the roots of Caesalpinia pulcherrima. The three cyclo­hexane rings are trans fused: two of these are in chair conformations with the third in a twisted half-chair conformation, whereas the furan ring is almost planar (r.m.s. deviation = 0.003 Å). An intra­molecular C—H⋯O inter­action generates an S(6) ring. The absolute configurations of the stereogenic centres at positions 4a, 5, 6, 6a, 7, 11a and 11b are R, R, R, S, R, S and R, respectively. In the crystal, mol­ecules are linked into infinite chains along [010] by O—H⋯O hydrogen bonds. C⋯O [3.306 (2)–3.347 (2) Å] short contacts and C—H⋯π inter­actions also occur. PMID:21588364

  1. Frequency-domain analysis of absolute gravimeters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Svitlov, S.

    2012-12-01

    An absolute gravimeter is analysed as a linear time-invariant system in the frequency domain. Frequency responses of absolute gravimeters are derived analytically based on the propagation of the complex exponential signal through their linear measurement functions. Depending on the model of motion and the number of time-distance coordinates, an absolute gravimeter is considered as a second-order (three-level scheme) or third-order (multiple-level scheme) low-pass filter. It is shown that the behaviour of an atom absolute gravimeter in the frequency domain corresponds to that of the three-level corner-cube absolute gravimeter. Theoretical results are applied for evaluation of random and systematic measurement errors and optimization of an experiment. The developed theory agrees with known results of an absolute gravimeter analysis in the time and frequency domains and can be used for measurement uncertainty analyses, building of vibration-isolation systems and synthesis of digital filtering algorithms.

  2. Absolute Income, Relative Income, and Happiness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ball, Richard; Chernova, Kateryna

    2008-01-01

    This paper uses data from the World Values Survey to investigate how an individual's self-reported happiness is related to (i) the level of her income in absolute terms, and (ii) the level of her income relative to other people in her country. The main findings are that (i) both absolute and relative income are positively and significantly…

  3. Investigating Absolute Value: A Real World Application

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kidd, Margaret; Pagni, David

    2009-01-01

    Making connections between various representations is important in mathematics. In this article, the authors discuss the numeric, algebraic, and graphical representations of sums of absolute values of linear functions. The initial explanations are accessible to all students who have experience graphing and who understand that absolute value simply…

  4. Preschoolers' Success at Coding Absolute Size Values.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Russell, James

    1980-01-01

    Forty-five 2-year-old and forty-five 3-year-old children coded relative and absolute sizes using 1.5-inch, 6-inch, and 18-inch cardboard squares. Results indicate that absolute coding is possible for children of this age. (Author/RH)

  5. Introducing the Mean Absolute Deviation "Effect" Size

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gorard, Stephen

    2015-01-01

    This paper revisits the use of effect sizes in the analysis of experimental and similar results, and reminds readers of the relative advantages of the mean absolute deviation as a measure of variation, as opposed to the more complex standard deviation. The mean absolute deviation is easier to use and understand, and more tolerant of extreme…

  6. Monolithically integrated absolute frequency comb laser system

    DOEpatents

    Wanke, Michael C.

    2016-07-12

    Rather than down-convert optical frequencies, a QCL laser system directly generates a THz frequency comb in a compact monolithically integrated chip that can be locked to an absolute frequency without the need of a frequency-comb synthesizer. The monolithic, absolute frequency comb can provide a THz frequency reference and tool for high-resolution broad band spectroscopy.

  7. Estimating the absolute wealth of households

    PubMed Central

    Gerkey, Drew; Hadley, Craig

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Objective To estimate the absolute wealth of households using data from demographic and health surveys. Methods We developed a new metric, the absolute wealth estimate, based on the rank of each surveyed household according to its material assets and the assumed shape of the distribution of wealth among surveyed households. Using data from 156 demographic and health surveys in 66 countries, we calculated absolute wealth estimates for households. We validated the method by comparing the proportion of households defined as poor using our estimates with published World Bank poverty headcounts. We also compared the accuracy of absolute versus relative wealth estimates for the prediction of anthropometric measures. Findings The median absolute wealth estimates of 1 403 186 households were 2056 international dollars per capita (interquartile range: 723–6103). The proportion of poor households based on absolute wealth estimates were strongly correlated with World Bank estimates of populations living on less than 2.00 United States dollars per capita per day (R2 = 0.84). Absolute wealth estimates were better predictors of anthropometric measures than relative wealth indexes. Conclusion Absolute wealth estimates provide new opportunities for comparative research to assess the effects of economic resources on health and human capital, as well as the long-term health consequences of economic change and inequality. PMID:26170506

  8. Absolute optical metrology : nanometers to kilometers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dubovitsky, Serge; Lay, O. P.; Peters, R. D.; Liebe, C. C.

    2005-01-01

    We provide and overview of the developments in the field of high-accuracy absolute optical metrology with emphasis on space-based applications. Specific work on the Modulation Sideband Technology for Absolute Ranging (MSTAR) sensor is described along with novel applications of the sensor.

  9. Absolute instability of the Gaussian wake profile

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hultgren, Lennart S.; Aggarwal, Arun K.

    1987-01-01

    Linear parallel-flow stability theory has been used to investigate the effect of viscosity on the local absolute instability of a family of wake profiles with a Gaussian velocity distribution. The type of local instability, i.e., convective or absolute, is determined by the location of a branch-point singularity with zero group velocity of the complex dispersion relation for the instability waves. The effects of viscosity were found to be weak for values of the wake Reynolds number, based on the center-line velocity defect and the wake half-width, larger than about 400. Absolute instability occurs only for sufficiently large values of the center-line wake defect. The critical value of this parameter increases with decreasing wake Reynolds number, thereby indicating a shrinking region of absolute instability with decreasing wake Reynolds number. If backflow is not allowed, absolute instability does not occur for wake Reynolds numbers smaller than about 38.

  10. Absolute magnitudes of trans-neptunian objects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duffard, R.; Alvarez-candal, A.; Pinilla-Alonso, N.; Ortiz, J. L.; Morales, N.; Santos-Sanz, P.; Thirouin, A.

    2015-10-01

    Accurate measurements of diameters of trans- Neptunian objects are extremely complicated to obtain. Radiomatric techniques applied to thermal measurements can provide good results, but precise absolute magnitudes are needed to constrain diameters and albedos. Our objective is to measure accurate absolute magnitudes for a sample of trans- Neptunian objects, many of which have been observed, and modelled, by the "TNOs are cool" team, one of Herschel Space Observatory key projects grantes with ~ 400 hours of observing time. We observed 56 objects in filters V and R, if possible. These data, along with data available in the literature, was used to obtain phase curves and to measure absolute magnitudes by assuming a linear trend of the phase curves and considering magnitude variability due to rotational light-curve. In total we obtained 234 new magnitudes for the 56 objects, 6 of them with no reported previous measurements. Including the data from the literature we report a total of 109 absolute magnitudes.

  11. A New Gimmick for Assigning Absolute Configuration.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ayorinde, F. O.

    1983-01-01

    A five-step procedure is provided to help students in making the assignment absolute configuration less bothersome. Examples for both single (2-butanol) and multi-chiral carbon (3-chloro-2-butanol) molecules are included. (JN)

  12. The Simplicity Argument and Absolute Morality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mijuskovic, Ben

    1975-01-01

    In this paper the author has maintained that there is a similarity of thought to be found in the writings of Cudworth, Emerson, and Husserl in his investigation of an absolute system of morality. (Author/RK)

  13. Jasminum flexile flower absolute from India--a detailed comparison with three other jasmine absolutes.

    PubMed

    Braun, Norbert A; Kohlenberg, Birgit; Sim, Sherina; Meier, Manfred; Hammerschmidt, Franz-Josef

    2009-09-01

    Jasminum flexile flower absolute from the south of India and the corresponding vacuum headspace (VHS) sample of the absolute were analyzed using GC and GC-MS. Three other commercially available Indian jasmine absolutes from the species: J. sambac, J. officinale subsp. grandiflorum, and J. auriculatum and the respective VHS samples were used for comparison purposes. One hundred and twenty-one compounds were characterized in J. flexile flower absolute, with methyl linolate, benzyl salicylate, benzyl benzoate, (2E,6E)-farnesol, and benzyl acetate as the main constituents. A detailed olfactory evaluation was also performed.

  14. [Assessment of legal capacity and testamentary capacity].

    PubMed

    Dreßing, H; Foerster, K; Leygraf, J; Schneider, F

    2014-11-01

    The assessment of legal capacity and testamentary capacity require thorough knowledge of the legal framework and the relevant case law. This paper explains the concept of the legal capacity to contract and the concept of testamentary capacity with respect to German civil law. The relevance of major mental disorders for the assessment of legal capacity and testamentary capacity is discussed.

  15. Universal Cosmic Absolute and Modern Science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kostro, Ludwik

    The official Sciences, especially all natural sciences, respect in their researches the principle of methodic naturalism i.e. they consider all phenomena as entirely natural and therefore in their scientific explanations they do never adduce or cite supernatural entities and forces. The purpose of this paper is to show that Modern Science has its own self-existent, self-acting, and self-sufficient Natural All-in Being or Omni-Being i.e. the entire Nature as a Whole that justifies the scientific methodic naturalism. Since this Natural All-in Being is one and only It should be considered as the own scientifically justified Natural Absolute of Science and should be called, in my opinion, the Universal Cosmic Absolute of Modern Science. It will be also shown that the Universal Cosmic Absolute is ontologically enormously stratified and is in its ultimate i.e. in its most fundamental stratum trans-reistic and trans-personal. It means that in its basic stratum. It is neither a Thing or a Person although It contains in Itself all things and persons with all other sentient and conscious individuals as well, On the turn of the 20th century the Science has begun to look for a theory of everything, for a final theory, for a master theory. In my opinion the natural Universal Cosmic Absolute will constitute in such a theory the radical all penetrating Ultimate Basic Reality and will substitute step by step the traditional supernatural personal Absolute.

  16. Quantum theory allows for absolute maximal contextuality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amaral, Barbara; Cunha, Marcelo Terra; Cabello, Adán

    2015-12-01

    Contextuality is a fundamental feature of quantum theory and a necessary resource for quantum computation and communication. It is therefore important to investigate how large contextuality can be in quantum theory. Linear contextuality witnesses can be expressed as a sum S of n probabilities, and the independence number α and the Tsirelson-like number ϑ of the corresponding exclusivity graph are, respectively, the maximum of S for noncontextual theories and for the theory under consideration. A theory allows for absolute maximal contextuality if it has scenarios in which ϑ /α approaches n . Here we show that quantum theory allows for absolute maximal contextuality despite what is suggested by the examination of the quantum violations of Bell and noncontextuality inequalities considered in the past. Our proof is not constructive and does not single out explicit scenarios. Nevertheless, we identify scenarios in which quantum theory allows for almost-absolute-maximal contextuality.

  17. Absolute calibration in vivo measurement systems

    SciTech Connect

    Kruchten, D.A.; Hickman, D.P.

    1991-02-01

    Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) is currently investigating a new method for obtaining absolute calibration factors for radiation measurement systems used to measure internally deposited radionuclides in vivo. Absolute calibration of in vivo measurement systems will eliminate the need to generate a series of human surrogate structures (i.e., phantoms) for calibrating in vivo measurement systems. The absolute calibration of in vivo measurement systems utilizes magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to define physiological structure, size, and composition. The MRI image provides a digitized representation of the physiological structure, which allows for any mathematical distribution of radionuclides within the body. Using Monte Carlo transport codes, the emission spectrum from the body is predicted. The in vivo measurement equipment is calibrated using the Monte Carlo code and adjusting for the intrinsic properties of the detection system. The calibration factors are verified using measurements of existing phantoms and previously obtained measurements of human volunteers. 8 refs.

  18. Stimulus probability effects in absolute identification.

    PubMed

    Kent, Christopher; Lamberts, Koen

    2016-05-01

    This study investigated the effect of stimulus presentation probability on accuracy and response times in an absolute identification task. Three schedules of presentation were used to investigate the interaction between presentation probability and stimulus position within the set. Data from individual participants indicated strong effects of presentation probability on both proportion correct and response times. The effects were moderated by the ubiquitous stimulus position effect. The accuracy and response time data were predicted by an exemplar-based model of perceptual cognition (Kent & Lamberts, 2005). The bow in discriminability was also attenuated when presentation probability for middle items was relatively high, an effect that will constrain future model development. The study provides evidence for item-specific learning in absolute identification. Implications for other theories of absolute identification are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record

  19. Quantitative standards for absolute linguistic universals.

    PubMed

    Piantadosi, Steven T; Gibson, Edward

    2014-01-01

    Absolute linguistic universals are often justified by cross-linguistic analysis: If all observed languages exhibit a property, the property is taken to be a likely universal, perhaps specified in the cognitive or linguistic systems of language learners and users. In many cases, these patterns are then taken to motivate linguistic theory. Here, we show that cross-linguistic analysis will very rarely be able to statistically justify absolute, inviolable patterns in language. We formalize two statistical methods--frequentist and Bayesian--and show that in both it is possible to find strict linguistic universals, but that the numbers of independent languages necessary to do so is generally unachievable. This suggests that methods other than typological statistics are necessary to establish absolute properties of human language, and thus that many of the purported universals in linguistics have not received sufficient empirical justification.

  20. Absolute photoacoustic thermometry in deep tissue.

    PubMed

    Yao, Junjie; Ke, Haixin; Tai, Stephen; Zhou, Yong; Wang, Lihong V

    2013-12-15

    Photoacoustic thermography is a promising tool for temperature measurement in deep tissue. Here we propose an absolute temperature measurement method based on the dual temperature dependences of the Grüneisen parameter and the speed of sound in tissue. By taking ratiometric measurements at two adjacent temperatures, we can eliminate the factors that are temperature irrelevant but difficult to correct for in deep tissue. To validate our method, absolute temperatures of blood-filled tubes embedded ~9 mm deep in chicken tissue were measured in a biologically relevant range from 28°C to 46°C. The temperature measurement accuracy was ~0.6°C. The results suggest that our method can be potentially used for absolute temperature monitoring in deep tissue during thermotherapy.

  1. Molecular iodine absolute frequencies. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Sansonetti, C.J.

    1990-06-25

    Fifty specified lines of {sup 127}I{sub 2} were studied by Doppler-free frequency modulation spectroscopy. For each line the classification of the molecular transition was determined, hyperfine components were identified, and one well-resolved component was selected for precise determination of its absolute frequency. In 3 cases, a nearby alternate line was selected for measurement because no well-resolved component was found for the specified line. Absolute frequency determinations were made with an estimated uncertainty of 1.1 MHz by locking a dye laser to the selected hyperfine component and measuring its wave number with a high-precision Fabry-Perot wavemeter. For each line results of the absolute measurement, the line classification, and a Doppler-free spectrum are given.

  2. Absolute Stability And Hyperstability In Hilbert Space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wen, John Ting-Yung

    1989-01-01

    Theorems on stabilities of feedback control systems proved. Paper presents recent developments regarding theorems of absolute stability and hyperstability of feedforward-and-feedback control system. Theorems applied in analysis of nonlinear, adaptive, and robust control. Extended to provide sufficient conditions for stability in system including nonlinear feedback subsystem and linear time-invariant (LTI) feedforward subsystem, state space of which is Hilbert space, and input and output spaces having finite numbers of dimensions. (In case of absolute stability, feedback subsystem memoryless and possibly time varying. For hyperstability, feedback system dynamical system.)

  3. Comparison of elicitation potential of chloroatranol and atranol--2 allergens in oak moss absolute.

    PubMed

    Johansen, Jeanne D; Bernard, Guillaume; Giménez-Arnau, Elena; Lepoittevin, Jean-Pierre; Bruze, Magnus; Andersen, Klaus E

    2006-04-01

    Chloroatranol and atranol are degradation products of chloroatranorin and atranorin, respectively, and have recently been identified as important contact allergens in the natural fragrance extract, oak moss absolute. Oak moss absolute is widely used in perfumery and is the cause of many cases of fragrance allergic contact dermatitis. Chloroatranol elicits reactions at very low levels of exposure. In oak moss absolute, chloroatranol and atranol are present together and both may contribute to the allergenicity and eliciting capacity of the natural extract. In this study, 10 eczema patients with known sensitization to chloroatranol and oak moss absolute were tested simultaneously to a serial dilution of chloroatranol and atranol in ethanol, in equimolar concentrations (0.0034-1072 microM). Dose-response curves were estimated and analysed by logistic regression. The estimated difference in elicitation potency of chloroatranol relative to atranol based on testing with equimolar concentrations was 217% (95% confidence interval 116-409%). Both substances elicited reactions at very low levels of exposure. It is concluded that the differences in elicitation capacity between the 2 substances are counterbalanced by exposure being greater to atranol than to chloroatranol and that both substances contribute to the clinical problems seen in oak moss absolute-sensitized individuals. PMID:16650093

  4. Absolute Points for Multiple Assignment Problems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adlakha, V.; Kowalski, K.

    2006-01-01

    An algorithm is presented to solve multiple assignment problems in which a cost is incurred only when an assignment is made at a given cell. The proposed method recursively searches for single/group absolute points to identify cells that must be loaded in any optimal solution. Unlike other methods, the first solution is the optimal solution. The…

  5. Absolute partial photoionization cross sections of ozone.

    SciTech Connect

    Berkowitz, J.; Chemistry

    2008-04-01

    Despite the current concerns about ozone, absolute partial photoionization cross sections for this molecule in the vacuum ultraviolet (valence) region have been unavailable. By eclectic re-evaluation of old/new data and plausible assumptions, such cross sections have been assembled to fill this void.

  6. Stimulus Probability Effects in Absolute Identification

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kent, Christopher; Lamberts, Koen

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated the effect of stimulus presentation probability on accuracy and response times in an absolute identification task. Three schedules of presentation were used to investigate the interaction between presentation probability and stimulus position within the set. Data from individual participants indicated strong effects of…

  7. Teaching Absolute Value Inequalities to Mature Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sierpinska, Anna; Bobos, Georgeana; Pruncut, Andreea

    2011-01-01

    This paper gives an account of a teaching experiment on absolute value inequalities, whose aim was to identify characteristics of an approach that would realize the potential of the topic to develop theoretical thinking in students enrolled in prerequisite mathematics courses at a large, urban North American university. The potential is…

  8. Solving Absolute Value Equations Algebraically and Geometrically

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shiyuan, Wei

    2005-01-01

    The way in which students can improve their comprehension by understanding the geometrical meaning of algebraic equations or solving algebraic equation geometrically is described. Students can experiment with the conditions of the absolute value equation presented, for an interesting way to form an overall understanding of the concept.

  9. Absolute Radiometric Calibration Of The Thematic Mapper

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Slater, P. N.; Biggar, S. F.; Holm, R. G.; Jackson, R. D.; Mao, Y.; Moran, M. S.; Palmer, J. M.; Yuan, B.

    1986-11-01

    The results are presented of five in-flight absolute radiometric calibrations, made in the period July 1984 to November 1985, at White Sands, New Mexico, of the solar reflective bands of the Landsat-5 Thematic Mapper (TM) . The 23 bandcalibrations made on the five dates show a ± 2.8% RMS variation from the mean as a percentage of the mean.

  10. On Relative and Absolute Conviction in Mathematics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weber, Keith; Mejia-Ramos, Juan Pablo

    2015-01-01

    Conviction is a central construct in mathematics education research on justification and proof. In this paper, we claim that it is important to distinguish between absolute conviction and relative conviction. We argue that researchers in mathematics education frequently have not done so and this has lead to researchers making unwarranted claims…

  11. Combined Use of Absolute and Differential Seismic Arrival Time Data to Improve Absolute Event Location

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Myers, S.; Johannesson, G.

    2012-12-01

    Arrival time measurements based on waveform cross correlation are becoming more common as advanced signal processing methods are applied to seismic data archives and real-time data streams. Waveform correlation can precisely measure the time difference between the arrival of two phases, and differential time data can be used to constrain relative location of events. Absolute locations are needed for many applications, which generally requires the use of absolute time data. Current methods for measuring absolute time data are approximately two orders of magnitude less precise than differential time measurements. To exploit the strengths of both absolute and differential time data, we extend our multiple-event location method Bayesloc, which previously used absolute time data only, to include the use of differential time measurements that are based on waveform cross correlation. Fundamentally, Bayesloc is a formulation of the joint probability over all parameters comprising the multiple event location system. The Markov-Chain Monte Carlo method is used to sample from the joint probability distribution given arrival data sets. The differential time component of Bayesloc includes scaling a stochastic estimate of differential time measurement precision based the waveform correlation coefficient for each datum. For a regional-distance synthetic data set with absolute and differential time measurement error of 0.25 seconds and 0.01 second, respectively, epicenter location accuracy is improved from and average of 1.05 km when solely absolute time data are used to 0.28 km when absolute and differential time data are used jointly (73% improvement). The improvement in absolute location accuracy is the result of conditionally limiting absolute location probability regions based on the precise relative position with respect to neighboring events. Bayesloc estimates of data precision are found to be accurate for the synthetic test, with absolute and differential time measurement

  12. An absolute measure for a key currency

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oya, Shunsuke; Aihara, Kazuyuki; Hirata, Yoshito

    It is generally considered that the US dollar and the euro are the key currencies in the world and in Europe, respectively. However, there is no absolute general measure for a key currency. Here, we investigate the 24-hour periodicity of foreign exchange markets using a recurrence plot, and define an absolute measure for a key currency based on the strength of the periodicity. Moreover, we analyze the time evolution of this measure. The results show that the credibility of the US dollar has not decreased significantly since the Lehman shock, when the Lehman Brothers bankrupted and influenced the economic markets, and has increased even relatively better than that of the euro and that of the Japanese yen.

  13. Probing absolute spin polarization at the nanoscale.

    PubMed

    Eltschka, Matthias; Jäck, Berthold; Assig, Maximilian; Kondrashov, Oleg V; Skvortsov, Mikhail A; Etzkorn, Markus; Ast, Christian R; Kern, Klaus

    2014-12-10

    Probing absolute values of spin polarization at the nanoscale offers insight into the fundamental mechanisms of spin-dependent transport. Employing the Zeeman splitting in superconducting tips (Meservey-Tedrow-Fulde effect), we introduce a novel spin-polarized scanning tunneling microscopy that combines the probing capability of the absolute values of spin polarization with precise control at the atomic scale. We utilize our novel approach to measure the locally resolved spin polarization of magnetic Co nanoislands on Cu(111). We find that the spin polarization is enhanced by 65% when increasing the width of the tunnel barrier by only 2.3 Å due to the different decay of the electron orbitals into vacuum. PMID:25423049

  14. Absolute radiometry and the solar constant

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Willson, R. C.

    1974-01-01

    A series of active cavity radiometers (ACRs) are described which have been developed as standard detectors for the accurate measurement of irradiance in absolute units. It is noted that the ACR is an electrical substitution calorimeter, is designed for automatic remote operation in any environment, and can make irradiance measurements in the range from low-level IR fluxes up to 30 solar constants with small absolute uncertainty. The instrument operates in a differential mode by chopping the radiant flux to be measured at a slow rate, and irradiance is determined from two electrical power measurements together with the instrumental constant. Results are reported for measurements of the solar constant with two types of ACRs. The more accurate measurement yielded a value of 136.6 plus or minus 0.7 mW/sq cm (1.958 plus or minus 0.010 cal/sq cm per min).

  15. From Hubble's NGSL to Absolute Fluxes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heap, Sara R.; Lindler, Don

    2012-01-01

    Hubble's Next Generation Spectral Library (NGSL) consists of R-l000 spectra of 374 stars of assorted temperature, gravity, and metallicity. Each spectrum covers the wavelength range, 0.18-1.00 microns. The library can be viewed and/or downloaded from the website, http://archive.stsci.edu/prepds/stisngsll. Stars in the NGSL are now being used as absolute flux standards at ground-based observatories. However, the uncertainty in the absolute flux is about 2%, which does not meet the requirements of dark-energy surveys. We are therefore developing an observing procedure that should yield fluxes with uncertainties less than 1 % and will take part in an HST proposal to observe up to 15 stars using this new procedure.

  16. Impact of Winko on absolute discharges.

    PubMed

    Balachandra, Krishna; Swaminath, Sam; Litman, Larry C

    2004-01-01

    In Canada, case laws have had a significant impact on the way mentally ill offenders are managed, both in the criminal justice system and in the forensic mental health system. The Supreme Court of Canada's decision with respect to Winko has set a major precedent in the application of the test of significant risk to the safety of the public in making dispositions by the Ontario Review Board and granting absolute discharges to the mentally ill offenders in the forensic health system. Our study examines the impact of the Supreme Court of Canada's decision before and after Winko. The results show that the numbers of absolute discharges have increased post-Winko, which was statistically significant, but there could be other factors influencing this increase.

  17. Asteroid absolute magnitudes and slope parameters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tedesco, Edward F.

    1991-01-01

    A new listing of absolute magnitudes (H) and slope parameters (G) has been created and published in the Minor Planet Circulars; this same listing will appear in the 1992 Ephemerides of Minor Planets. Unlike previous listings, the values of the current list were derived from fits of data at the V band. All observations were reduced in the same fashion using, where appropriate, a single basis default value of 0.15 for the slope parameter. Distances and phase angles were computed for each observation. The data for 113 asteroids was of sufficiently high quality to permit derivation of their H and G. These improved absolute magnitudes and slope parameters will be used to deduce the most reliable bias-corrected asteroid size-frequency distribution yet made.

  18. Absolute-magnitude distributions of supernovae

    SciTech Connect

    Richardson, Dean; Wright, John; Jenkins III, Robert L.; Maddox, Larry

    2014-05-01

    The absolute-magnitude distributions of seven supernova (SN) types are presented. The data used here were primarily taken from the Asiago Supernova Catalogue, but were supplemented with additional data. We accounted for both foreground and host-galaxy extinction. A bootstrap method is used to correct the samples for Malmquist bias. Separately, we generate volume-limited samples, restricted to events within 100 Mpc. We find that the superluminous events (M{sub B} < –21) make up only about 0.1% of all SNe in the bias-corrected sample. The subluminous events (M{sub B} > –15) make up about 3%. The normal Ia distribution was the brightest with a mean absolute blue magnitude of –19.25. The IIP distribution was the dimmest at –16.75.

  19. Absolute and relative dosimetry for ELIMED

    SciTech Connect

    Cirrone, G. A. P.; Schillaci, F.; Scuderi, V.; Cuttone, G.; Candiano, G.; Musumarra, A.; Pisciotta, P.; Romano, F.; Carpinelli, M.; Presti, D. Lo; Raffaele, L.; Tramontana, A.; Cirio, R.; Sacchi, R.; Monaco, V.; Marchetto, F.; Giordanengo, S.

    2013-07-26

    The definition of detectors, methods and procedures for the absolute and relative dosimetry of laser-driven proton beams is a crucial step toward the clinical use of this new kind of beams. Hence, one of the ELIMED task, will be the definition of procedures aiming to obtain an absolute dose measure at the end of the transport beamline with an accuracy as close as possible to the one required for clinical applications (i.e. of the order of 5% or less). Relative dosimetry procedures must be established, as well: they are necessary in order to determine and verify the beam dose distributions and to monitor the beam fluence and the energetic spectra during irradiations. Radiochromic films, CR39, Faraday Cup, Secondary Emission Monitor (SEM) and transmission ionization chamber will be considered, designed and studied in order to perform a fully dosimetric characterization of the ELIMED proton beam.

  20. Absolute photoionization cross sections of atomic oxygen

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Samson, J. A. R.; Pareek, P. N.

    1985-01-01

    The absolute values of photoionization cross sections of atomic oxygen were measured from the ionization threshold to 120 A. An auto-ionizing resonance belonging to the 2S2P4(4P)3P(3Do, 3So) transition was observed at 479.43 A and another line at 389.97 A. The experimental data is in excellent agreement with rigorous close-coupling calculations that include electron correlations in both the initial and final states.

  1. Absolute photoionization cross sections of atomic oxygen

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Samson, J. A. R.; Pareek, P. N.

    1982-01-01

    The absolute values of photoionization cross sections of atomic oxygen were measured from the ionization threshold to 120 A. An auto-ionizing resonance belonging to the 2S2P4(4P)3P(3Do, 3So) transition was observed at 479.43 A and another line at 389.97 A. The experimental data is in excellent agreement with rigorous close-coupling calculations that include electron correlations in both the initial and final states.

  2. Relative errors can cue absolute visuomotor mappings.

    PubMed

    van Dam, Loes C J; Ernst, Marc O

    2015-12-01

    When repeatedly switching between two visuomotor mappings, e.g. in a reaching or pointing task, adaptation tends to speed up over time. That is, when the error in the feedback corresponds to a mapping switch, fast adaptation occurs. Yet, what is learned, the relative error or the absolute mappings? When switching between mappings, errors with a size corresponding to the relative difference between the mappings will occur more often than other large errors. Thus, we could learn to correct more for errors with this familiar size (Error Learning). On the other hand, it has been shown that the human visuomotor system can store several absolute visuomotor mappings (Mapping Learning) and can use associated contextual cues to retrieve them. Thus, when contextual information is present, no error feedback is needed to switch between mappings. Using a rapid pointing task, we investigated how these two types of learning may each contribute when repeatedly switching between mappings in the absence of task-irrelevant contextual cues. After training, we examined how participants changed their behaviour when a single error probe indicated either the often-experienced error (Error Learning) or one of the previously experienced absolute mappings (Mapping Learning). Results were consistent with Mapping Learning despite the relative nature of the error information in the feedback. This shows that errors in the feedback can have a double role in visuomotor behaviour: they drive the general adaptation process by making corrections possible on subsequent movements, as well as serve as contextual cues that can signal a learned absolute mapping. PMID:26280315

  3. The absolute spectrophotometric catalog by Anita Cochran

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burnashev, V. I.; Burnasheva, B. A.; Ruban, E. V.; Hagen-Torn, E. I.

    2014-06-01

    The absolute spectrophotometric catalog by Anita Cochran is presented in a machine-readable form. The catalog systematizes observations acquired at the McDonald Observatory in 1977-1978. The data are compared with other sources, in particular, the calculated broadband stellar magnitudes are compared with photometric observations by other authors, to show that the observational data given in the catalog are reliable and suitable for a variety of applications. Observations of variable stars of different types make Cochran's catalog especially valuable.

  4. Absolute magnitudes and kinematics of barium stars.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gomez, A. E.; Luri, X.; Grenier, S.; Prevot, L.; Mennessier, M. O.; Figueras, F.; Torra, J.

    1997-03-01

    The absolute magnitude of barium stars has been obtained from kinematical data using a new algorithm based on the maximum-likelihood principle. The method allows to separate a sample into groups characterized by different mean absolute magnitudes, kinematics and z-scale heights. It also takes into account, simultaneously, the censorship in the sample and the errors on the observables. The method has been applied to a sample of 318 barium stars. Four groups have been detected. Three of them show a kinematical behaviour corresponding to disk population stars. The fourth group contains stars with halo kinematics. The luminosities of the disk population groups spread a large range. The intrinsically brightest one (M_v_=-1.5mag, σ_M_=0.5mag) seems to be an inhomogeneous group containing barium binaries as well as AGB single stars. The most numerous group (about 150 stars) has a mean absolute magnitude corresponding to stars in the red giant branch (M_v_=0.9mag, σ_M_=0.8mag). The third group contains barium dwarfs, the obtained mean absolute magnitude is characteristic of stars on the main sequence or on the subgiant branch (M_v_=3.3mag, σ_M_=0.5mag). The obtained mean luminosities as well as the kinematical results are compatible with an evolutionary link between barium dwarfs and classical barium giants. The highly luminous group is not linked with these last two groups. More high-resolution spectroscopic data will be necessary in order to better discriminate between barium and non-barium stars.

  5. Chemical composition of French mimosa absolute oil.

    PubMed

    Perriot, Rodolphe; Breme, Katharina; Meierhenrich, Uwe J; Carenini, Elise; Ferrando, Georges; Baldovini, Nicolas

    2010-02-10

    Since decades mimosa (Acacia dealbata) absolute oil has been used in the flavor and perfume industry. Today, it finds an application in over 80 perfumes, and its worldwide industrial production is estimated five tons per year. Here we report on the chemical composition of French mimosa absolute oil. Straight-chain analogues from C6 to C26 with different functional groups (hydrocarbons, esters, aldehydes, diethyl acetals, alcohols, and ketones) were identified in the volatile fraction. Most of them are long-chain molecules: (Z)-heptadec-8-ene, heptadecane, nonadecane, and palmitic acid are the most abundant, and constituents such as 2-phenethyl alcohol, methyl anisate, and ethyl palmitate are present in smaller amounts. The heavier constituents were mainly triterpenoids such as lupenone and lupeol, which were identified as two of the main components. (Z)-Heptadec-8-ene, lupenone, and lupeol were quantified by GC-MS in SIM mode using external standards and represents 6%, 20%, and 7.8% (w/w) of the absolute oil. Moreover, odorant compounds were extracted by SPME and analyzed by GC-sniffing leading to the perception of 57 odorant zones, of which 37 compounds were identified by their odorant description, mass spectrum, retention index, and injection of the reference compound. PMID:20070087

  6. Measurement of absolute gravity acceleration in Firenze

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Angelis, M.; Greco, F.; Pistorio, A.; Poli, N.; Prevedelli, M.; Saccorotti, G.; Sorrentino, F.; Tino, G. M.

    2011-01-01

    This paper reports the results from the accurate measurement of the acceleration of gravity g taken at two separate premises in the Polo Scientifico of the University of Firenze (Italy). In these laboratories, two separate experiments aiming at measuring the Newtonian constant and testing the Newtonian law at short distances are in progress. Both experiments require an independent knowledge on the local value of g. The only available datum, pertaining to the italian zero-order gravity network, was taken more than 20 years ago at a distance of more than 60 km from the study site. Gravity measurements were conducted using an FG5 absolute gravimeter, and accompanied by seismic recordings for evaluating the noise condition at the site. The absolute accelerations of gravity at the two laboratories are (980 492 160.6 ± 4.0) μGal and (980 492 048.3 ± 3.0) μGal for the European Laboratory for Non-Linear Spectroscopy (LENS) and Dipartimento di Fisica e Astronomia, respectively. Other than for the two referenced experiments, the data here presented will serve as a benchmark for any future study requiring an accurate knowledge of the absolute value of the acceleration of gravity in the study region.

  7. A Methodology for Absolute Isotope Composition Measurement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shen, J. J.; Lee, D.; Liang, W.

    2007-12-01

    Double spike technique was a well defined method for isotope composition measurement by TIMS of samples which have natural mass fractionation effect, but it is still a problem to define the isotope composition for double spike itself. In this study, we modified the old double spike technique and found that we could use the modified technique to solve the ¡§true¡¨ isotope composition of double spike itself. According the true isotope composition of double spike, we can measure the absolute isotope composition if the sample has natural fractionation effect. A new vector analytical method has been developed in order to obtain the true isotopic composition of a 42Ca-48Ca double spike, and this is achieved by using two different sample-spike mixtures combined with the double spike and the natural Ca data. Because the natural sample, the two mixtures, and the spike should all lie on a single mixing line, we are able to constrain the true isotopic composition of our double spike using this new approach. This method not only can be used in Ca system but also in Ti, Cr, Fe, Ni, Zn, Mo, Ba and Pb systems. The absolute double spike isotopic ratio is important, which can save a lot of time to check different reference standards. Especially for Pb, radiogenic isotope system, the decay systems embodied in three of four naturally occurring isotopes induce difficult to obtain true isotopic ratios for absolute dating.

  8. Chemical composition of French mimosa absolute oil.

    PubMed

    Perriot, Rodolphe; Breme, Katharina; Meierhenrich, Uwe J; Carenini, Elise; Ferrando, Georges; Baldovini, Nicolas

    2010-02-10

    Since decades mimosa (Acacia dealbata) absolute oil has been used in the flavor and perfume industry. Today, it finds an application in over 80 perfumes, and its worldwide industrial production is estimated five tons per year. Here we report on the chemical composition of French mimosa absolute oil. Straight-chain analogues from C6 to C26 with different functional groups (hydrocarbons, esters, aldehydes, diethyl acetals, alcohols, and ketones) were identified in the volatile fraction. Most of them are long-chain molecules: (Z)-heptadec-8-ene, heptadecane, nonadecane, and palmitic acid are the most abundant, and constituents such as 2-phenethyl alcohol, methyl anisate, and ethyl palmitate are present in smaller amounts. The heavier constituents were mainly triterpenoids such as lupenone and lupeol, which were identified as two of the main components. (Z)-Heptadec-8-ene, lupenone, and lupeol were quantified by GC-MS in SIM mode using external standards and represents 6%, 20%, and 7.8% (w/w) of the absolute oil. Moreover, odorant compounds were extracted by SPME and analyzed by GC-sniffing leading to the perception of 57 odorant zones, of which 37 compounds were identified by their odorant description, mass spectrum, retention index, and injection of the reference compound.

  9. The Carina Project: Absolute and Relative Calibrations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Corsi, C. E.; Bono, G.; Walker, A. R.; Brocato, E.; Buonanno, R.; Caputo, F.; Castellani, M.; Castellani, V.; Dall'Ora, M.; Marconi, M.; Monelli, M.; Nonino, M.; Pulone, L.; Ripepi, V.; Smith, H. A.

    We discuss the reduction strategy adopted to perform the relative and the absolute calibration of the Wide Field Imager (WFI) available at the 2.2m ESO/MPI telescope and of the Mosaic Camera (MC) available at the 4m CTIO Blanco telescope. To properly constrain the occurrence of deceptive systematic errors in the relative calibration we observed with each chip the same set of stars. Current photometry seems to suggest that the WFI shows a positional effect when moving from the top to the bottom of individual chips. Preliminary results based on an independent data set collected with the MC suggest that this camera is only marginally affected by the same problem. To perform the absolute calibration we observed with each chip the same set of standard stars. The sample covers a wide color range and the accuracy both in the B and in the V-band appears to be of the order of a few hundredths of magnitude. Finally, we briefly outline the observing strategy to improve both relative and absolute calibrations of mosaic CCD cameras.

  10. Absolute Radiometric Calibration of EUNIS-06

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thomas, R. J.; Rabin, D. M.; Kent, B. J.; Paustian, W.

    2007-01-01

    The Extreme-Ultraviolet Normal-Incidence Spectrometer (EUNIS) is a soundingrocket payload that obtains imaged high-resolution spectra of individual solar features, providing information about the Sun's corona and upper transition region. Shortly after its successful initial flight last year, a complete end-to-end calibration was carried out to determine the instrument's absolute radiometric response over its Longwave bandpass of 300 - 370A. The measurements were done at the Rutherford-Appleton Laboratory (RAL) in England, using the same vacuum facility and EUV radiation source used in the pre-flight calibrations of both SOHO/CDS and Hinode/EIS, as well as in three post-flight calibrations of our SERTS sounding rocket payload, the precursor to EUNIS. The unique radiation source provided by the Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt (PTB) had been calibrated to an absolute accuracy of 7% (l-sigma) at 12 wavelengths covering our bandpass directly against the Berlin electron storage ring BESSY, which is itself a primary radiometric source standard. Scans of the EUNIS aperture were made to determine the instrument's absolute spectral sensitivity to +- 25%, considering all sources of error, and demonstrate that EUNIS-06 was the most sensitive solar E W spectrometer yet flown. The results will be matched against prior calibrations which relied on combining measurements of individual optical components, and on comparisons with theoretically predicted 'insensitive' line ratios. Coordinated observations were made during the EUNIS-06 flight by SOHO/CDS and EIT that will allow re-calibrations of those instruments as well. In addition, future EUNIS flights will provide similar calibration updates for TRACE, Hinode/EIS, and STEREO/SECCHI/EUVI.

  11. Clock time is absolute and universal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shen, Xinhang

    2015-09-01

    A critical error is found in the Special Theory of Relativity (STR): mixing up the concepts of the STR abstract time of a reference frame and the displayed time of a physical clock, which leads to use the properties of the abstract time to predict time dilation on physical clocks and all other physical processes. Actually, a clock can never directly measure the abstract time, but can only record the result of a physical process during a period of the abstract time such as the number of cycles of oscillation which is the multiplication of the abstract time and the frequency of oscillation. After Lorentz Transformation, the abstract time of a reference frame expands by a factor gamma, but the frequency of a clock decreases by the same factor gamma, and the resulting multiplication i.e. the displayed time of a moving clock remains unchanged. That is, the displayed time of any physical clock is an invariant of Lorentz Transformation. The Lorentz invariance of the displayed times of clocks can further prove within the framework of STR our earth based standard physical time is absolute, universal and independent of inertial reference frames as confirmed by both the physical fact of the universal synchronization of clocks on the GPS satellites and clocks on the earth, and the theoretical existence of the absolute and universal Galilean time in STR which has proved that time dilation and space contraction are pure illusions of STR. The existence of the absolute and universal time in STR has directly denied that the reference frame dependent abstract time of STR is the physical time, and therefore, STR is wrong and all its predictions can never happen in the physical world.

  12. Achieving Climate Change Absolute Accuracy in Orbit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wielicki, Bruce A.; Young, D. F.; Mlynczak, M. G.; Thome, K. J; Leroy, S.; Corliss, J.; Anderson, J. G.; Ao, C. O.; Bantges, R.; Best, F.; Bowman, K.; Brindley, H.; Butler, J. J.; Collins, W.; Dykema, J. A.; Doelling, D. R.; Feldman, D. R.; Fox, N.; Huang, X.; Holz, R.; Huang, Y.; Jennings, D.; Jin, Z.; Johnson, D. G.; Jucks, K.; Kato, S.; Kratz, D. P.; Liu, X.; Lukashin, C.; Mannucci, A. J.; Phojanamongkolkij, N.; Roithmayr, C. M.; Sandford, S.; Taylor, P. C.; Xiong, X.

    2013-01-01

    The Climate Absolute Radiance and Refractivity Observatory (CLARREO) mission will provide a calibration laboratory in orbit for the purpose of accurately measuring and attributing climate change. CLARREO measurements establish new climate change benchmarks with high absolute radiometric accuracy and high statistical confidence across a wide range of essential climate variables. CLARREO's inherently high absolute accuracy will be verified and traceable on orbit to Système Internationale (SI) units. The benchmarks established by CLARREO will be critical for assessing changes in the Earth system and climate model predictive capabilities for decades into the future as society works to meet the challenge of optimizing strategies for mitigating and adapting to climate change. The CLARREO benchmarks are derived from measurements of the Earth's thermal infrared spectrum (5-50 micron), the spectrum of solar radiation reflected by the Earth and its atmosphere (320-2300 nm), and radio occultation refractivity from which accurate temperature profiles are derived. The mission has the ability to provide new spectral fingerprints of climate change, as well as to provide the first orbiting radiometer with accuracy sufficient to serve as the reference transfer standard for other space sensors, in essence serving as a "NIST [National Institute of Standards and Technology] in orbit." CLARREO will greatly improve the accuracy and relevance of a wide range of space-borne instruments for decadal climate change. Finally, CLARREO has developed new metrics and methods for determining the accuracy requirements of climate observations for a wide range of climate variables and uncertainty sources. These methods should be useful for improving our understanding of observing requirements for most climate change observations.

  13. Absolute calibration of the Auger fluorescence detectors

    SciTech Connect

    Bauleo, P.; Brack, J.; Garrard, L.; Harton, J.; Knapik, R.; Meyhandan, R.; Rovero, A.C.; Tamashiro, A.; Warner, D.

    2005-07-01

    Absolute calibration of the Pierre Auger Observatory fluorescence detectors uses a light source at the telescope aperture. The technique accounts for the combined effects of all detector components in a single measurement. The calibrated 2.5 m diameter light source fills the aperture, providing uniform illumination to each pixel. The known flux from the light source and the response of the acquisition system give the required calibration for each pixel. In the lab, light source uniformity is studied using CCD images and the intensity is measured relative to NIST-calibrated photodiodes. Overall uncertainties are presently 12%, and are dominated by systematics.

  14. Absolute rate theories of epigenetic stability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walczak, Aleksandra M.; Onuchic, José N.; Wolynes, Peter G.

    2005-12-01

    Spontaneous switching events in most characterized genetic switches are rare, resulting in extremely stable epigenetic properties. We show how simple arguments lead to theories of the rate of such events much like the absolute rate theory of chemical reactions corrected by a transmission factor. Both the probability of the rare cellular states that allow epigenetic escape and the transmission factor depend on the rates of DNA binding and unbinding events and on the rates of protein synthesis and degradation. Different mechanisms of escape from the stable attractors occur in the nonadiabatic, weakly adiabatic, and strictly adiabatic regimes, characterized by the relative values of those input rates. rate theory | stochastic gene expression | gene switches

  15. Characterization of the DARA solar absolute radiometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Finsterle, W.; Suter, M.; Fehlmann, A.; Kopp, G.

    2011-12-01

    The Davos Absolute Radiometer (DARA) prototype is an Electrical Substitution Radiometer (ESR) which has been developed as a successor of the PMO6 type on future space missions and ground based TSI measurements. The DARA implements an improved thermal design of the cavity detector and heat sink assembly to minimize air-vacuum differences and to maximize thermal symmetry of measuring and compensating cavity. The DARA also employs an inverted viewing geometry to reduce internal stray light. We will report on the characterization and calibration experiments which were carried out at PMOD/WRC and LASP (TRF).

  16. Absolute Priority for a Vehicle in VANET

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shirani, Rostam; Hendessi, Faramarz; Montazeri, Mohammad Ali; Sheikh Zefreh, Mohammad

    In today's world, traffic jams waste hundreds of hours of our life. This causes many researchers try to resolve the problem with the idea of Intelligent Transportation System. For some applications like a travelling ambulance, it is important to reduce delay even for a second. In this paper, we propose a completely infrastructure-less approach for finding shortest path and controlling traffic light to provide absolute priority for an emergency vehicle. We use the idea of vehicular ad-hoc networking to reduce the imposed travelling time. Then, we simulate our proposed protocol and compare it with a centrally controlled traffic light system.

  17. Absolute method of measuring magnetic susceptibility

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Thorpe, A.; Senftle, F.E.

    1959-01-01

    An absolute method of standardization and measurement of the magnetic susceptibility of small samples is presented which can be applied to most techniques based on the Faraday method. The fact that the susceptibility is a function of the area under the curve of sample displacement versus distance of the magnet from the sample, offers a simple method of measuring the susceptibility without recourse to a standard sample. Typical results on a few substances are compared with reported values, and an error of less than 2% can be achieved. ?? 1959 The American Institute of Physics.

  18. Absolute specific heat measurements of a microgram Pb crystal using ac nanocalorimetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tagliati, S.; Rydh, A.

    2012-12-01

    Heat capacity measurements using the ac steady state method are often considered difficult to provide absolute accuracy. By adjusting the working frequency to maintain a constant phase and using the phase information to obtain the heat capacity, we have found that it is possible to achieve good absolute accuracy. Here we present a thermodynamic study of a ~ 2.6 μg Pb superconducting crystal to demonstrate the newly opened capabilities. The sample is measured using a differential membrane-based calorimeter. The custom-made calorimetric cell is a pile of thin film Ti heater, insulation layer and Ge1-xAux thermometer fabricated in the center of two Si3N4 membranes. It has a background heat capacity < 100 nJ/K at 300 K, decreasing to 9 pJ/K at 1 K. The sample is characterized at temperatures down to 0.5 K. The zero field transition at Tc = 7.21 K has a width asymp 20 mK and displays no upturn in C. From the heat capacity jump at Tc and the extrapolated Sommerfeld term we find ΔC/γTc = 2.68. The latent heat curve obtained from the zero field heat capacity measurement, and the deviations of the thermodynamic critical field from the empirical expression Hc = Hc (0) [1 - (T/Tc)2] are discussed. Both analyses give results in good agreement with literature.

  19. Swarm Absolute Scalar Magnetometers first in-orbit results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fratter, Isabelle; Léger, Jean-Michel; Bertrand, François; Jager, Thomas; Hulot, Gauthier; Brocco, Laura; Vigneron, Pierre

    2016-04-01

    The ESA Swarm mission will provide the best ever survey of the Earth's magnetic field and its temporal evolution. This will be achieved by a constellation of three identical satellites, launched together on the 22nd of November 2013. In order to observe the magnetic field thoroughly, each satellite carries two magnetometers: a Vector Field Magnetometer (VFM) coupled with a star tracker camera, to measure the direction of the magnetic field in space, and an Absolute Scalar Magnetometer (ASM), to measure its intensity. The ASM is the French contribution to the Swarm mission. This new generation instrument was designed by CEA-Leti and developed in close partnership with CNES, with scientific support from IPGP. Its operating principle is based on the atomic spectroscopy of the helium 4 metastable state. It makes use of the Zeeman's effect to transduce the magnetic field into a frequency, the signal being amplified by optical pumping. The primary role of the ASM is to provide absolute measurements of the magnetic field's strength at 1 Hz, for the in-flight calibration of the VFM. As the Swarm magnetic reference, the ASM scalar performance is crucial for the mission's success. Thanks to its innovative design, the ASM offers the best precision, resolution and absolute accuracy ever attained in space, with similar performance all along the orbit. In addition, thanks to an original architecture, the ASM implements on an experimental basis a capacity for providing simultaneously vector measurements at 1 Hz. This new feature makes it the first instrument capable of delivering both scalar and vector measurements simultaneously at the same point. Swarm offers a unique opportunity to validate the ASM vector data in orbit by comparison with the VFM's. Furthermore, the ASM can provide scalar data at a much higher sampling rate, when run in "burst" mode at 250 Hz, with a 100 Hz measurement bandwidth. An analysis of the spectral content of the magnetic field above 1 Hz becomes thus

  20. Sentinel-2/MSI absolute calibration: first results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lonjou, V.; Lachérade, S.; Fougnie, B.; Gamet, P.; Marcq, S.; Raynaud, J.-L.; Tremas, T.

    2015-10-01

    Sentinel-2 is an optical imaging mission devoted to the operational monitoring of land and coastal areas. It is developed in partnership between the European Commission and the European Space Agency. The Sentinel-2 mission is based on a satellites constellation deployed in polar sun-synchronous orbit. It will offer a unique combination of global coverage with a wide field of view (290km), a high revisit (5 days with two satellites), a high resolution (10m, 20m and 60m) and multi-spectral imagery (13 spectral bands in visible and shortwave infra-red domains). CNES is involved in the instrument commissioning in collaboration with ESA. This paper reviews all the techniques that will be used to insure an absolute calibration of the 13 spectral bands better than 5% (target 3%), and will present the first results if available. First, the nominal calibration technique, based on an on-board sun diffuser, is detailed. Then, we show how vicarious calibration methods based on acquisitions over natural targets (oceans, deserts, and Antarctica during winter) will be used to check and improve the accuracy of the absolute calibration coefficients. Finally, the verification scheme, exploiting photometer in-situ measurements over Lacrau plain, is described. A synthesis, including spectral coherence, inter-methods agreement and temporal evolution, will conclude the paper.

  1. Experimental results for absolute cylindrical wavefront testing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reardon, Patrick J.; Alatawi, Ayshah

    2014-09-01

    Applications for Cylindrical and near-cylindrical surfaces are ever-increasing. However, fabrication of high quality cylindrical surfaces is limited by the difficulty of accurate and affordable metrology. Absolute testing of such surfaces represents a challenge to the optical testing community as cylindrical reference wavefronts are difficult to produce. In this paper, preliminary results for a new method of absolute testing of cylindrical wavefronts are presented. The method is based on the merging of the random ball test method with the fiber optic reference test. The random ball test assumes a large number of interferograms of a good quality sphere with errors that are statistically distributed such that the average of the errors goes to zero. The fiber optic reference test utilizes a specially processed optical fiber to provide a clean high quality reference wave from an incident line focus from the cylindrical wave under test. By taking measurements at different rotation and translations of the fiber, an analogous procedure can be employed to determine the quality of the converging cylindrical wavefront with high accuracy. This paper presents and discusses the results of recent tests of this method using a null optic formed by a COTS cylindrical lens and a free-form polished corrector element.

  2. Absolute Electron Extraction Efficiency of Liquid Xenon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kamdin, Katayun; Mizrachi, Eli; Morad, James; Sorensen, Peter

    2016-03-01

    Dual phase liquid/gas xenon time projection chambers (TPCs) currently set the world's most sensitive limits on weakly interacting massive particles (WIMPs), a favored dark matter candidate. These detectors rely on extracting electrons from liquid xenon into gaseous xenon, where they produce proportional scintillation. The proportional scintillation from the extracted electrons serves to internally amplify the WIMP signal; even a single extracted electron is detectable. Credible dark matter searches can proceed with electron extraction efficiency (EEE) lower than 100%. However, electrons systematically left at the liquid/gas boundary are a concern. Possible effects include spontaneous single or multi-electron proportional scintillation signals in the gas, or charging of the liquid/gas interface or detector materials. Understanding EEE is consequently a serious concern for this class of rare event search detectors. Previous EEE measurements have mostly been relative, not absolute, assuming efficiency plateaus at 100%. I will present an absolute EEE measurement with a small liquid/gas xenon TPC test bed located at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory.

  3. Why to compare absolute numbers of mitochondria.

    PubMed

    Schmitt, Sabine; Schulz, Sabine; Schropp, Eva-Maria; Eberhagen, Carola; Simmons, Alisha; Beisker, Wolfgang; Aichler, Michaela; Zischka, Hans

    2014-11-01

    Prompted by pronounced structural differences between rat liver and rat hepatocellular carcinoma mitochondria, we suspected these mitochondrial populations to differ massively in their molecular composition. Aiming to reveal these mitochondrial differences, we came across the issue on how to normalize such comparisons and decided to focus on the absolute number of mitochondria. To this end, fluorescently stained mitochondria were quantified by flow cytometry. For rat liver mitochondria, this approach resulted in mitochondrial protein contents comparable to earlier reports using alternative methods. We determined similar protein contents for rat liver, heart and kidney mitochondria. In contrast, however, lower protein contents were determined for rat brain mitochondria and for mitochondria from the rat hepatocellular carcinoma cell line McA 7777. This result challenges mitochondrial comparisons that rely on equal protein amounts as a typical normalization method. Exemplarily, we therefore compared the activity and susceptibility toward inhibition of complex II of rat liver and hepatocellular carcinoma mitochondria and obtained significant discrepancies by either normalizing to protein amount or to absolute mitochondrial number. Importantly, the latter normalization, in contrast to the former, demonstrated a lower complex II activity and higher susceptibility toward inhibition in hepatocellular carcinoma mitochondria compared to liver mitochondria. These findings demonstrate that solely normalizing to protein amount may obscure essential molecular differences between mitochondrial populations.

  4. Absolute Proper Motions of Southern Globular Clusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dinescu, D. I.; Girard, T. M.; van Altena, W. F.

    1996-05-01

    Our program involves the determination of absolute proper motions with respect to galaxies for a sample of globular clusters situated in the southern sky. The plates cover a 6(deg) x 6(deg) area and are taken with the 51-cm double astrograph at Cesco Observatory in El Leoncito, Argentina. We have developed special methods to deal with the modelling error of the plate transformation and we correct for magnitude equation using the cluster stars. This careful astrometric treatment leads to accuracies of from 0.5 to 1.0 mas/yr for the absolute proper motion of each cluster, depending primarily on the number of measurable cluster stars which in turn is related to the cluster's distance. Space velocities are then derived which, in association with metallicities, provide key information for the formation scenario of the Galaxy, i.e. accretion and/or dissipational collapse. Here we present results for NGC 1851, NGC 6752, NGC 6584, NGC 6362 and NGC 288.

  5. Relational versus absolute representation in categorization.

    PubMed

    Edwards, Darren J; Pothos, Emmanuel M; Perlman, Amotz

    2012-01-01

    This study explores relational-like and absolute-like representations in categorization. Although there is much evidence that categorization processes can involve information about both the particular physical properties of studied instances and abstract (relational) properties, there has been little work on the factors that lead to one kind of representation as opposed to the other. We tested 370 participants in 6 experiments, in which participants had to classify new items into predefined artificial categories. In 4 experiments, we observed a predominantly relational-like mode of classification, and in 2 experiments we observed a shift toward an absolute-like mode of classification. These results suggest 3 factors that promote a relational-like mode of classification: fewer items per group, more training groups, and the presence of a time delay. Overall, we propose that less information about the distributional properties of a category or weaker memory traces for the category exemplars (induced, e.g., by having smaller categories or a time delay) can encourage relational-like categorization.

  6. Transient absolute robustness in stochastic biochemical networks.

    PubMed

    Enciso, German A

    2016-08-01

    Absolute robustness allows biochemical networks to sustain a consistent steady-state output in the face of protein concentration variability from cell to cell. This property is structural and can be determined from the topology of the network alone regardless of rate parameters. An important question regarding these systems is the effect of discrete biochemical noise in the dynamical behaviour. In this paper, a variable freezing technique is developed to show that under mild hypotheses the corresponding stochastic system has a transiently robust behaviour. Specifically, after finite time the distribution of the output approximates a Poisson distribution, centred around the deterministic mean. The approximation becomes increasingly accurate, and it holds for increasingly long finite times, as the total protein concentrations grow to infinity. In particular, the stochastic system retains a transient, absolutely robust behaviour corresponding to the deterministic case. This result contrasts with the long-term dynamics of the stochastic system, which eventually must undergo an extinction event that eliminates robustness and is completely different from the deterministic dynamics. The transiently robust behaviour may be sufficient to carry out many forms of robust signal transduction and cellular decision-making in cellular organisms. PMID:27581485

  7. A Conceptual Approach to Absolute Value Equations and Inequalities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ellis, Mark W.; Bryson, Janet L.

    2011-01-01

    The absolute value learning objective in high school mathematics requires students to solve far more complex absolute value equations and inequalities. When absolute value problems become more complex, students often do not have sufficient conceptual understanding to make any sense of what is happening mathematically. The authors suggest that the…

  8. Using, Seeing, Feeling, and Doing Absolute Value for Deeper Understanding

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ponce, Gregorio A.

    2008-01-01

    Using sticky notes and number lines, a hands-on activity is shared that anchors initial student thinking about absolute value. The initial point of reference should help students successfully evaluate numeric problems involving absolute value. They should also be able to solve absolute value equations and inequalities that are typically found in…

  9. The Absolute Radiometric Calibration of Space - Sensors.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holm, Ronald Gene

    1987-09-01

    The need for absolute radiometric calibration of space-based sensors will continue to increase as new generations of space sensors are developed. A reflectance -based in-flight calibration procedure is used to determine the radiance reaching the entrance pupil of the sensor. This procedure uses ground-based measurements coupled with a radiative transfer code to characterize the effects the atmosphere has on the signal reaching the sensor. The computed radiance is compared to the digital count output of the sensor associated with the image of a test site. This provides an update to the preflight calibration of the system and a check on the on-board internal calibrator. This calibration procedure was used to perform a series of five calibrations of the Landsat-5 Thematic Mapper (TM). For the 12 measurements made in TM bands 1-3, the RMS variation from the mean as a percentage of the mean is (+OR-) 1.9%, and for measurements in the IR, TM bands 4,5, and 7, the value is (+OR-) 3.4%. The RMS variation for all 23 measurements is (+OR-) 2.8%. The absolute calibration techniques were put to another test with a series of three calibration of the SPOT-1 High Resolution Visible, (HRV), sensors. The ratio, HRV-2/HRV-1, of absolute calibration coefficients compared very well with ratios of histogrammed data obtained when the cameras simultaneously imaged the same ground site. Bands PA, B1 and B3 agreed to within 3%, while band B2 showed a 7% difference. The procedure for performing a satellite calibration was then used to demonstrate how a calibrated satellite sensor can be used to quantitatively evaluate surface reflectance over a wide range of surface features. Predicted reflectance factors were compared to values obtained from aircraft -based radiometer data. This procedure was applied on four dates with two different surface conditions per date. A strong correlation, R('2) = .996, was shown between reflectance values determined from satellite imagery and low-flying aircraft

  10. Use of Absolute and Comparative Performance Feedback in Absolute and Comparative Judgments and Decisions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moore, Don A.; Klein, William M. P.

    2008-01-01

    Which matters more--beliefs about absolute ability or ability relative to others? This study set out to compare the effects of such beliefs on satisfaction with performance, self-evaluations, and bets on future performance. In Experiment 1, undergraduate participants were told they had answered 20% correct, 80% correct, or were not given their…

  11. Absolute radiometric calibration of the CCRS SAR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ulander, Lars M. H.; Hawkins, Robert K.; Livingstone, Charles E.; Lukowski, Tom I.

    1991-11-01

    Determining the radar scattering coefficients from SAR (synthetic aperture radar) image data requires absolute radiometric calibration of the SAR system. The authors describe an internal calibration methodology for the airborne Canada Centre for Remote Sensing (CCRS) SAR system, based on radar theory, a detailed model of the radar system, and measurements of system parameters. The methodology is verified by analyzing external calibration data acquired over a 6-month period in 1988 by the C-band radar using HH polarization. The results indicate that the overall error is +/- 0.8 dB (1-sigma) for incidence angles +/- 20 deg from antenna boresight. The dominant error contributions are due to the antenna radome and uncertainties in the elevation angle relative to the antenna boresight.

  12. Absolute calibration of ultraviolet filter photometry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bless, R. C.; Fairchild, T.; Code, A. D.

    1972-01-01

    The essential features of the calibration procedure can be divided into three parts. First, the shape of the bandpass of each photometer was determined by measuring the transmissions of the individual optical components and also by measuring the response of the photometer as a whole. Secondly, each photometer was placed in the essentially-collimated synchrotron radiation bundle maintained at a constant intensity level, and the output signal was determined from about 100 points on the objective. Finally, two or three points on the objective were illuminated by synchrotron radiation at several different intensity levels covering the dynamic range of the photometers. The output signals were placed on an absolute basis by the electron counting technique described earlier.

  13. Absolute measurements of fast neutrons using yttrium

    SciTech Connect

    Roshan, M. V.; Springham, S. V.; Rawat, R. S.; Lee, P.; Krishnan, M.

    2010-08-15

    Yttrium is presented as an absolute neutron detector for pulsed neutron sources. It has high sensitivity for detecting fast neutrons. Yttrium has the property of generating a monoenergetic secondary radiation in the form of a 909 keV gamma-ray caused by inelastic neutron interaction. It was calibrated numerically using MCNPX and does not need periodic recalibration. The total yttrium efficiency for detecting 2.45 MeV neutrons was determined to be f{sub n}{approx}4.1x10{sup -4} with an uncertainty of about 0.27%. The yttrium detector was employed in the NX2 plasma focus experiments and showed the neutron yield of the order of 10{sup 8} neutrons per discharge.

  14. Absolute geostrophic currents in global tropical oceans

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Lina; Yuan, Dongliang

    2016-11-01

    A set of absolute geostrophic current (AGC) data for the period January 2004 to December 2012 are calculated using the P-vector method based on monthly gridded Argo profiles in the world tropical oceans. The AGCs agree well with altimeter geostrophic currents, Ocean Surface Current Analysis-Real time currents, and moored current-meter measurements at 10-m depth, based on which the classical Sverdrup circulation theory is evaluated. Calculations have shown that errors of wind stress calculation, AGC transport, and depth ranges of vertical integration cannot explain non-Sverdrup transport, which is mainly in the subtropical western ocean basins and equatorial currents near the Equator in each ocean basin (except the North Indian Ocean, where the circulation is dominated by monsoons). The identified non-Sverdrup transport is thereby robust and attributed to the joint effect of baroclinicity and relief of the bottom (JEBAR) and mesoscale eddy nonlinearity.

  15. Absolute Measurement of Electron Cloud Density

    SciTech Connect

    Covo, M K; Molvik, A W; Cohen, R H; Friedman, A; Seidl, P A; Logan, G; Bieniosek, F; Baca, D; Vay, J; Orlando, E; Vujic, J L

    2007-06-21

    Beam interaction with background gas and walls produces ubiquitous clouds of stray electrons that frequently limit the performance of particle accelerator and storage rings. Counterintuitively we obtained the electron cloud accumulation by measuring the expelled ions that are originated from the beam-background gas interaction, rather than by measuring electrons that reach the walls. The kinetic ion energy measured with a retarding field analyzer (RFA) maps the depressed beam space-charge potential and provides the dynamic electron cloud density. Clearing electrode current measurements give the static electron cloud background that complements and corroborates with the RFA measurements, providing an absolute measurement of electron cloud density during a 5 {micro}s duration beam pulse in a drift region of the magnetic transport section of the High-Current Experiment (HCX) at LBNL.

  16. Micron Accurate Absolute Ranging System: Range Extension

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smalley, Larry L.; Smith, Kely L.

    1999-01-01

    The purpose of this research is to investigate Fresnel diffraction as a means of obtaining absolute distance measurements with micron or greater accuracy. It is believed that such a system would prove useful to the Next Generation Space Telescope (NGST) as a non-intrusive, non-contact measuring system for use with secondary concentrator station-keeping systems. The present research attempts to validate past experiments and develop ways to apply the phenomena of Fresnel diffraction to micron accurate measurement. This report discusses past research on the phenomena, and the basis of the use Fresnel diffraction distance metrology. The apparatus used in the recent investigations, experimental procedures used, preliminary results are discussed in detail. Continued research and equipment requirements on the extension of the effective range of the Fresnel diffraction systems is also described.

  17. Absolute calibration of remote sensing instruments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Biggar, S. F.; Bruegge, C. J.; Capron, B. A.; Castle, K. R.; Dinguirard, M. C.; Holm, R. G.; Lingg, L. J.; Mao, Y.; Palmer, J. M.; Phillips, A. L.

    1985-12-01

    Source-based and detector-based methods for the absolute radiometric calibration of a broadband field radiometer are described. Using such a radiometer, calibrated by both methods, the calibration of the integrating sphere used in the preflight calibration of the Thematic Mapper was redetermined. The results are presented. The in-flight calibration of space remote sensing instruments is discussed. A method which uses the results of ground-based reflectance and atmospheric measurements as input to a radiative transfer code to predict the radiance at the instrument is described. A calibrated, helicopter-mounted radiometer is used to determine the radiance levels at intermediate altitudes to check the code predictions. Results of such measurements for the calibration of the Thematic Mapper on Landsat 5 and an analysis that shows the value of such measurements are described.

  18. Absolute radiometric calibration of the Thematic Mapper

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Slater, P. N.; Biggar, S. F.; Holm, R. G.; Jackson, R. D.; Mao, Y.

    1986-01-01

    Calibration data for the solar reflective bands of the Landsat-5 TM obtained from five in-flight absolute radiometric calibrations from July 1984-November 1985 at White Sands, New Mexico are presented and analyzed. Ground reflectance and atmospheric data were utilized to predict the spectral radiance at the entrance pupil of the TM and the average number of digital counts in each TM band. The calibration of each of the TM solar reflective bands was calculated in terms of average digital counts/unit spectral radiance for each band. It is observed that for the 12 reflectance-based measurements the rms variation from the means as a percentage of the mean is + or - 1.9 percent; for the 11 measurements in the IR bands, it is + or - 3.4 percent; and the rms variation for all 23 measurements is + or - 2.8 percent.

  19. Swarm's Absolute Scalar Magnetometer metrological performances

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leger, J.; Fratter, I.; Bertrand, F.; Jager, T.; Morales, S.

    2012-12-01

    The Absolute Scalar Magnetometer (ASM) has been developed for the ESA Earth Observation Swarm mission, planned for launch in November 2012. As its Overhauser magnetometers forerunners flown on Oersted and Champ satellites, it will deliver high resolution scalar measurements for the in-flight calibration of the Vector Field Magnetometer manufactured by the Danish Technical University. Latest results of the ground tests carried out to fully characterize all parameters that may affect its accuracy, both at instrument and satellite level, will be presented. In addition to its baseline function, the ASM can be operated either at a much higher sampling rate (burst mode at 250 Hz) or in a dual mode where it also delivers vector field measurements as a by-product. The calibration procedure and the relevant vector performances will be discussed.

  20. MAGSAT: Vector magnetometer absolute sensor alignment determination

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Acuna, M. H.

    1981-01-01

    A procedure is described for accurately determining the absolute alignment of the magnetic axes of a triaxial magnetometer sensor with respect to an external, fixed, reference coordinate system. The method does not require that the magnetic field vector orientation, as generated by a triaxial calibration coil system, be known to better than a few degrees from its true position, and minimizes the number of positions through which a sensor assembly must be rotated to obtain a solution. Computer simulations show that accuracies of better than 0.4 seconds of arc can be achieved under typical test conditions associated with existing magnetic test facilities. The basic approach is similar in nature to that presented by McPherron and Snare (1978) except that only three sensor positions are required and the system of equations to be solved is considerably simplified. Applications of the method to the case of the MAGSAT Vector Magnetometer are presented and the problems encountered discussed.

  1. On the absolute alignment of GONG images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Toner, C. G.

    2001-01-01

    In order to combine data from the six instruments in the GONG network the alignment of all of the images must be known to a fairly high precision (~0°.1 for GONG Classic and ~0°.01 for GONG+). The relative orientation is obtained using the angular cross-correlation method described by (Toner & Harvey, 1998). To obtain the absolute orientation the Project periodically records a day of drift scans, where the image of the Sun is allowed to drift across the CCD repeatedly throughout the day. These data are then analyzed to deduce the direction of Terrestrial East-West as a function of hour angle (i.e., time) for that instrument. The transit of Mercury on Nov. 15, 1999, which was recorded by three of the GONG instruments, provided an independent check on the current alignment procedures. Here we present a comparison of the alignment of GONG images as deduced from both drift scans and the Mercury transit for two GONG sites: Tucson (GONG+ camera) and Mauna Loa (GONG Classic camera). The agreement is within ~0°.01 for both cameras, however, the scatter is substantially larger for GONG Classic: ~0°.03 compared to ~0°.01 for GONG+.

  2. Climate Absolute Radiance and Refractivity Observatory (CLARREO)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leckey, John P.

    2015-01-01

    The Climate Absolute Radiance and Refractivity Observatory (CLARREO) is a mission, led and developed by NASA, that will measure a variety of climate variables with an unprecedented accuracy to quantify and attribute climate change. CLARREO consists of three separate instruments: an infrared (IR) spectrometer, a reflected solar (RS) spectrometer, and a radio occultation (RO) instrument. The mission will contain orbiting radiometers with sufficient accuracy, including on orbit verification, to calibrate other space-based instrumentation, increasing their respective accuracy by as much as an order of magnitude. The IR spectrometer is a Fourier Transform spectrometer (FTS) working in the 5 to 50 microns wavelength region with a goal of 0.1 K (k = 3) accuracy. The FTS will achieve this accuracy using phase change cells to verify thermistor accuracy and heated halos to verify blackbody emissivity, both on orbit. The RS spectrometer will measure the reflectance of the atmosphere in the 0.32 to 2.3 microns wavelength region with an accuracy of 0.3% (k = 2). The status of the instrumentation packages and potential mission options will be presented.

  3. Absolute flux measurements for swift atoms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fink, M.; Kohl, D. A.; Keto, J. W.; Antoniewicz, P.

    1987-01-01

    While a torsion balance in vacuum can easily measure the momentum transfer from a gas beam impinging on a surface attached to the balance, this measurement depends on the accommodation coefficients of the atoms with the surface and the distribution of the recoil. A torsion balance is described for making absolute flux measurements independent of recoil effects. The torsion balance is a conventional taut suspension wire design and the Young modulus of the wire determines the relationship between the displacement and the applied torque. A compensating magnetic field is applied to maintain zero displacement and provide critical damping. The unique feature is to couple the impinging gas beam to the torsion balance via a Wood's horn, i.e., a thin wall tube with a gradual 90 deg bend. Just as light is trapped in a Wood's horn by specular reflection from the curved surfaces, the gas beam diffuses through the tube. Instead of trapping the beam, the end of the tube is open so that the atoms exit the tube at 90 deg to their original direction. Therefore, all of the forward momentum of the gas beam is transferred to the torsion balance independent of the angle of reflection from the surfaces inside the tube.

  4. Gyrokinetic Statistical Absolute Equilibrium and Turbulence

    SciTech Connect

    Jian-Zhou Zhu and Gregory W. Hammett

    2011-01-10

    A paradigm based on the absolute equilibrium of Galerkin-truncated inviscid systems to aid in understanding turbulence [T.-D. Lee, "On some statistical properties of hydrodynamical and magnetohydrodynamical fields," Q. Appl. Math. 10, 69 (1952)] is taken to study gyrokinetic plasma turbulence: A finite set of Fourier modes of the collisionless gyrokinetic equations are kept and the statistical equilibria are calculated; possible implications for plasma turbulence in various situations are discussed. For the case of two spatial and one velocity dimension, in the calculation with discretization also of velocity v with N grid points (where N + 1 quantities are conserved, corresponding to an energy invariant and N entropy-related invariants), the negative temperature states, corresponding to the condensation of the generalized energy into the lowest modes, are found. This indicates a generic feature of inverse energy cascade. Comparisons are made with some classical results, such as those of Charney-Hasegawa-Mima in the cold-ion limit. There is a universal shape for statistical equilibrium of gyrokinetics in three spatial and two velocity dimensions with just one conserved quantity. Possible physical relevance to turbulence, such as ITG zonal flows, and to a critical balance hypothesis are also discussed.

  5. Issues in Absolute Spectral Radiometric Calibration: Intercomparison of Eight Sources

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goetz, Alexander F. H.; Kindel, Bruce; Pilewskie, Peter

    1998-01-01

    The application of atmospheric models to AVIRIS and other spectral imaging data to derive surface reflectance requires that the sensor output be calibrated to absolute radiance. Uncertainties in absolute calibration are to be expected, and claims of 92% accuracy have been published. Measurements of accurate surface albedos and cloud absorption to be used in radiative balance calculations depend critically on knowing the absolute spectral-radiometric response of the sensor. The Earth Observing System project is implementing a rigorous program of absolute radiometric calibration for all optical sensors. Since a number of imaging instruments that provide output in terms of absolute radiance are calibrated at different sites, it is important to determine the errors that can be expected among calibration sites. Another question exists about the errors in the absolute knowledge of the exoatmospheric spectral solar irradiance.

  6. Absolute nuclear material assay using count distribution (LAMBDA) space

    SciTech Connect

    Prasad, Mano K.; Snyderman, Neal J.; Rowland, Mark S.

    2015-12-01

    A method of absolute nuclear material assay of an unknown source comprising counting neutrons from the unknown source and providing an absolute nuclear material assay utilizing a model to optimally compare to the measured count distributions. In one embodiment, the step of providing an absolute nuclear material assay comprises utilizing a random sampling of analytically computed fission chain distributions to generate a continuous time-evolving sequence of event-counts by spreading the fission chain distribution in time.

  7. Absolute nuclear material assay using count distribution (LAMBDA) space

    DOEpatents

    Prasad, Manoj K.; Snyderman, Neal J.; Rowland, Mark S.

    2012-06-05

    A method of absolute nuclear material assay of an unknown source comprising counting neutrons from the unknown source and providing an absolute nuclear material assay utilizing a model to optimally compare to the measured count distributions. In one embodiment, the step of providing an absolute nuclear material assay comprises utilizing a random sampling of analytically computed fission chain distributions to generate a continuous time-evolving sequence of event-counts by spreading the fission chain distribution in time.

  8. Antifungal activity of tuberose absolute and some of its constituents.

    PubMed

    Nidiry, Eugene Sebastian J; Babu, C S Bujji

    2005-05-01

    The antifungal activity of the absolute of tuberose (Polianthes tuberosa ) and some of its constituents were evaluated against the mycelial growth of Colletotrichum gloeosporioides on potato-dextrose-agar medium. Tuberose absolute showed only mild activity at a concentration of 500 mg/L. However, three constituents present in the absolute, namely geraniol, indole and methyl anthranilate exhibited significant activity showing total inhibition of the mycelial growth at this concentration.

  9. The absolute disparity anomaly and the mechanism of relative disparities.

    PubMed

    Chopin, Adrien; Levi, Dennis; Knill, David; Bavelier, Daphne

    2016-06-01

    There has been a long-standing debate about the mechanisms underlying the perception of stereoscopic depth and the computation of the relative disparities that it relies on. Relative disparities between visual objects could be computed in two ways: (a) using the difference in the object's absolute disparities (Hypothesis 1) or (b) using relative disparities based on the differences in the monocular separations between objects (Hypothesis 2). To differentiate between these hypotheses, we measured stereoscopic discrimination thresholds for lines with different absolute and relative disparities. Participants were asked to judge the depth of two lines presented at the same distance from the fixation plane (absolute disparity) or the depth between two lines presented at different distances (relative disparity). We used a single stimulus method involving a unique memory component for both conditions, and no extraneous references were available. We also measured vergence noise using Nonius lines. Stereo thresholds were substantially worse for absolute disparities than for relative disparities, and the difference could not be explained by vergence noise. We attribute this difference to an absence of conscious readout of absolute disparities, termed the absolute disparity anomaly. We further show that the pattern of correlations between vergence noise and absolute and relative disparity acuities can be explained jointly by the existence of the absolute disparity anomaly and by the assumption that relative disparity information is computed from absolute disparities (Hypothesis 1).

  10. The absolute disparity anomaly and the mechanism of relative disparities

    PubMed Central

    Chopin, Adrien; Levi, Dennis; Knill, David; Bavelier, Daphne

    2016-01-01

    There has been a long-standing debate about the mechanisms underlying the perception of stereoscopic depth and the computation of the relative disparities that it relies on. Relative disparities between visual objects could be computed in two ways: (a) using the difference in the object's absolute disparities (Hypothesis 1) or (b) using relative disparities based on the differences in the monocular separations between objects (Hypothesis 2). To differentiate between these hypotheses, we measured stereoscopic discrimination thresholds for lines with different absolute and relative disparities. Participants were asked to judge the depth of two lines presented at the same distance from the fixation plane (absolute disparity) or the depth between two lines presented at different distances (relative disparity). We used a single stimulus method involving a unique memory component for both conditions, and no extraneous references were available. We also measured vergence noise using Nonius lines. Stereo thresholds were substantially worse for absolute disparities than for relative disparities, and the difference could not be explained by vergence noise. We attribute this difference to an absence of conscious readout of absolute disparities, termed the absolute disparity anomaly. We further show that the pattern of correlations between vergence noise and absolute and relative disparity acuities can be explained jointly by the existence of the absolute disparity anomaly and by the assumption that relative disparity information is computed from absolute disparities (Hypothesis 1). PMID:27248566

  11. Absolute Plate Velocities from Seismic Anisotropy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kreemer, Corné; Zheng, Lin; Gordon, Richard

    2015-04-01

    The orientation of seismic anisotropy inferred beneath plate interiors may provide a means to estimate the motions of the plate relative to the sub-asthenospheric mantle. Here we analyze two global sets of shear-wave splitting data, that of Kreemer [2009] and an updated and expanded data set, to estimate plate motions and to better understand the dispersion of the data, correlations in the errors, and their relation to plate speed. We also explore the effect of using geologically current plate velocities (i.e., the MORVEL set of angular velocities [DeMets et al. 2010]) compared with geodetically current plate velocities (i.e., the GSRM v1.2 angular velocities [Kreemer et al. 2014]). We demonstrate that the errors in plate motion azimuths inferred from shear-wave splitting beneath any one tectonic plate are correlated with the errors of other azimuths from the same plate. To account for these correlations, we adopt a two-tier analysis: First, find the pole of rotation and confidence limits for each plate individually. Second, solve for the best fit to these poles while constraining relative plate angular velocities to consistency with the MORVEL relative plate angular velocities. The SKS-MORVEL absolute plate angular velocities (based on the Kreemer [2009] data set) are determined from the poles from eight plates weighted proportionally to the root-mean-square velocity of each plate. SKS-MORVEL indicates that eight plates (Amur, Antarctica, Caribbean, Eurasia, Lwandle, Somalia, Sundaland, and Yangtze) have angular velocities that differ insignificantly from zero. The net rotation of the lithosphere is 0.25±0.11° Ma-1 (95% confidence limits) right-handed about 57.1°S, 68.6°E. The within-plate dispersion of seismic anisotropy for oceanic lithosphere (σ=19.2° ) differs insignificantly from that for continental lithosphere (σ=21.6° ). The between-plate dispersion, however, is significantly smaller for oceanic lithosphere (σ=7.4° ) than for continental

  12. Evaluation of the Absolute Regional Temperature Potential

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shindell, D. T.

    2012-01-01

    The Absolute Regional Temperature Potential (ARTP) is one of the few climate metrics that provides estimates of impacts at a sub-global scale. The ARTP presented here gives the time-dependent temperature response in four latitude bands (90-28degS, 28degS-28degN, 28-60degN and 60-90degN) as a function of emissions based on the forcing in those bands caused by the emissions. It is based on a large set of simulations performed with a single atmosphere-ocean climate model to derive regional forcing/response relationships. Here I evaluate the robustness of those relationships using the forcing/response portion of the ARTP to estimate regional temperature responses to the historic aerosol forcing in three independent climate models. These ARTP results are in good accord with the actual responses in those models. Nearly all ARTP estimates fall within +/-20%of the actual responses, though there are some exceptions for 90-28degS and the Arctic, and in the latter the ARTP may vary with forcing agent. However, for the tropics and the Northern Hemisphere mid-latitudes in particular, the +/-20% range appears to be roughly consistent with the 95% confidence interval. Land areas within these two bands respond 39-45% and 9-39% more than the latitude band as a whole. The ARTP, presented here in a slightly revised form, thus appears to provide a relatively robust estimate for the responses of large-scale latitude bands and land areas within those bands to inhomogeneous radiative forcing and thus potentially to emissions as well. Hence this metric could allow rapid evaluation of the effects of emissions policies at a finer scale than global metrics without requiring use of a full climate model.

  13. Absolute Radiometric Calibration of KOMPSAT-3A

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahn, H. Y.; Shin, D. Y.; Kim, J. S.; Seo, D. C.; Choi, C. U.

    2016-06-01

    This paper presents a vicarious radiometric calibration of the Korea Multi-Purpose Satellite-3A (KOMPSAT-3A) performed by the Korea Aerospace Research Institute (KARI) and the Pukyong National University Remote Sensing Group (PKNU RSG) in 2015.The primary stages of this study are summarized as follows: (1) A field campaign to determine radiometric calibrated target fields was undertaken in Mongolia and South Korea. Surface reflectance data obtained in the campaign were input to a radiative transfer code that predicted at-sensor radiance. Through this process, equations and parameters were derived for the KOMPSAT-3A sensor to enable the conversion of calibrated DN to physical units, such as at-sensor radiance or TOA reflectance. (2) To validate the absolute calibration coefficients for the KOMPSAT-3A sensor, we performed a radiometric validation with a comparison of KOMPSAT-3A and Landsat-8 TOA reflectance using one of the six PICS (Libya 4). Correlations between top-of-atmosphere (TOA) radiances and the spectral band responses of the KOMPSAT-3A sensors at the Zuunmod, Mongolia and Goheung, South Korea sites were significant for multispectral bands. The average difference in TOA reflectance between KOMPSAT-3A and Landsat-8 image over the Libya 4, Libya site in the red-green-blue (RGB) region was under 3%, whereas in the NIR band, the TOA reflectance of KOMPSAT-3A was lower than the that of Landsat-8 due to the difference in the band passes of two sensors. The KOMPSAT-3Aensor includes a band pass near 940 nm that can be strongly absorbed by water vapor and therefore displayed low reflectance. Toovercome this, we need to undertake a detailed analysis using rescale methods, such as the spectral bandwidth adjustment factor.

  14. Orion Absolute Navigation System Progress and Challenge

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holt, Greg N.; D'Souza, Christopher

    2012-01-01

    The absolute navigation design of NASA's Orion vehicle is described. It has undergone several iterations and modifications since its inception, and continues as a work-in-progress. This paper seeks to benchmark the current state of the design and some of the rationale and analysis behind it. There are specific challenges to address when preparing a timely and effective design for the Exploration Flight Test (EFT-1), while still looking ahead and providing software extensibility for future exploration missions. The primary onboard measurements in a Near-Earth or Mid-Earth environment consist of GPS pseudo-range and delta-range, but for future explorations missions the use of star-tracker and optical navigation sources need to be considered. Discussions are presented for state size and composition, processing techniques, and consider states. A presentation is given for the processing technique using the computationally stable and robust UDU formulation with an Agee-Turner Rank-One update. This allows for computational savings when dealing with many parameters which are modeled as slowly varying Gauss-Markov processes. Preliminary analysis shows up to a 50% reduction in computation versus a more traditional formulation. Several state elements are discussed and evaluated, including position, velocity, attitude, clock bias/drift, and GPS measurement biases in addition to bias, scale factor, misalignment, and non-orthogonalities of the accelerometers and gyroscopes. Another consideration is the initialization of the EKF in various scenarios. Scenarios such as single-event upset, ground command, and cold start are discussed as are strategies for whole and partial state updates as well as covariance considerations. Strategies are given for dealing with latent measurements and high-rate propagation using multi-rate architecture. The details of the rate groups and the data ow between the elements is discussed and evaluated.

  15. Absolute determination of local tropospheric OH concentrations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Armerding, Wolfgang; Comes, Franz-Josef

    1994-01-01

    Long path absorption (LPA) according to Lambert Beer's law is a method to determine absolute concentrations of trace gases such as tropospheric OH. We have developed a LPA instrument which is based on a rapid tuning of the light source which is a frequency doubled dye laser. The laser is tuned across two or three OH absorption features around 308 nm with a scanning speed of 0.07 cm(exp -1)/microsecond and a repetition rate of 1.3 kHz. This high scanning speed greatly reduces the fluctuation of the light intensity caused by the atmosphere. To obtain the required high sensitivity the laser output power is additionally made constant and stabilized by an electro-optical modulator. The present sensitivity is of the order of a few times 10(exp 5) OH per cm(exp 3) for an acquisition time of a minute and an absorption path length of only 1200 meters so that a folding of the optical path in a multireflection cell was possible leading to a lateral dimension of the cell of a few meters. This allows local measurements to be made. Tropospheric measurements have been carried out in 1991 resulting in the determination of OH diurnal variation at specific days in late summer. Comparison with model calculations have been made. Interferences are mainly due to SO2 absorption. The problem of OH self generation in the multireflection cell is of minor extent. This could be shown by using different experimental methods. The minimum-maximum signal to noise ratio is about 8 x 10(exp -4) for a single scan. Due to the small size of the absorption cell the realization of an open air laboratory is possible in which by use of an additional UV light source or by additional fluxes of trace gases the chemistry can be changed under controlled conditions allowing kinetic studies of tropospheric photochemistry to be made in open air.

  16. Mid-infrared absolute spectral responsivity scale based on an absolute cryogenic radiometer and an optical parametric oscillator laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Kun; Shi, Xueshun; Chen, Haidong; Liu, Yulong; Liu, Changming; Chen, Kunfeng; Li, Ligong; Gan, Haiyong; Ma, Chong

    2016-06-01

    We are reporting on a laser-based absolute spectral responsivity scale in the mid-infrared spectral range. By using a mid-infrared tunable optical parametric oscillator as the laser source, the absolute responsivity scale has been established by calibrating thin-film thermopile detectors against an absolute cryogenic radiometer. The thin-film thermopile detectors can be then used as transfer standard detectors. The extended uncertainty of the absolute spectral responsivity measurement has been analyzed to be 0.58%–0.68% (k  =  2).

  17. Mid-infrared absolute spectral responsivity scale based on an absolute cryogenic radiometer and an optical parametric oscillator laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Kun; Shi, Xueshun; Chen, Haidong; Liu, Yulong; Liu, Changming; Chen, Kunfeng; Li, Ligong; Gan, Haiyong; Ma, Chong

    2016-06-01

    We are reporting on a laser-based absolute spectral responsivity scale in the mid-infrared spectral range. By using a mid-infrared tunable optical parametric oscillator as the laser source, the absolute responsivity scale has been established by calibrating thin-film thermopile detectors against an absolute cryogenic radiometer. The thin-film thermopile detectors can be then used as transfer standard detectors. The extended uncertainty of the absolute spectral responsivity measurement has been analyzed to be 0.58%-0.68% (k  =  2).

  18. Development of a graphite probe calorimeter for absolute clinical dosimetry.

    PubMed

    Renaud, James; Marchington, David; Seuntjens, Jan; Sarfehnia, Arman

    2013-02-01

    The aim of this work is to present the numerical design optimization, construction, and experimental proof of concept of a graphite probe calorimeter (GPC) conceived for dose measurement in the clinical environment (U.S. provisional patent 61∕652,540). A finite element method (FEM) based numerical heat transfer study was conducted using a commercial software package to explore the feasibility of the GPC and to optimize the shape, dimensions, and materials used in its design. A functioning prototype was constructed inhouse and used to perform dose to water measurements under a 6 MV photon beam at 400 and 1000 MU∕min, in a thermally insulated water phantom. Heat loss correction factors were determined using FEM analysis while the radiation field perturbation and the graphite to water absorbed dose conversion factors were calculated using Monte Carlo simulations. The difference in the average measured dose to water for the 400 and 1000 MU∕min runs using the TG-51 protocol and the GPC was 0.2% and 1.2%, respectively. Heat loss correction factors ranged from 1.001 to 1.002, while the product of the perturbation and dose conversion factors was calculated to be 1.130. The combined relative uncertainty was estimated to be 1.4%, with the largest contributors being the specific heat capacity of the graphite (type B, 0.8%) and the reproducibility, defined as the standard deviation of the mean measured dose (type A, 0.6%). By establishing the feasibility of using the GPC as a practical clinical absolute photon dosimeter, this work lays the foundation for further device enhancements, including the development of an isothermal mode of operation and an overall miniaturization, making it potentially suitable for use in small and composite radiation fields. It is anticipated that, through the incorporation of isothermal stabilization provided by temperature controllers, a subpercent overall uncertainty will be achieved.

  19. Development of a graphite probe calorimeter for absolute clinical dosimetry

    SciTech Connect

    Renaud, James; Seuntjens, Jan; Sarfehnia, Arman; Marchington, David

    2013-02-15

    The aim of this work is to present the numerical design optimization, construction, and experimental proof of concept of a graphite probe calorimeter (GPC) conceived for dose measurement in the clinical environment (U.S. provisional patent 61/652,540). A finite element method (FEM) based numerical heat transfer study was conducted using a commercial software package to explore the feasibility of the GPC and to optimize the shape, dimensions, and materials used in its design. A functioning prototype was constructed inhouse and used to perform dose to water measurements under a 6 MV photon beam at 400 and 1000 MU/min, in a thermally insulated water phantom. Heat loss correction factors were determined using FEM analysis while the radiation field perturbation and the graphite to water absorbed dose conversion factors were calculated using Monte Carlo simulations. The difference in the average measured dose to water for the 400 and 1000 MU/min runs using the TG-51 protocol and the GPC was 0.2% and 1.2%, respectively. Heat loss correction factors ranged from 1.001 to 1.002, while the product of the perturbation and dose conversion factors was calculated to be 1.130. The combined relative uncertainty was estimated to be 1.4%, with the largest contributors being the specific heat capacity of the graphite (type B, 0.8%) and the reproducibility, defined as the standard deviation of the mean measured dose (type A, 0.6%). By establishing the feasibility of using the GPC as a practical clinical absolute photon dosimeter, this work lays the foundation for further device enhancements, including the development of an isothermal mode of operation and an overall miniaturization, making it potentially suitable for use in small and composite radiation fields. It is anticipated that, through the incorporation of isothermal stabilization provided by temperature controllers, a subpercent overall uncertainty will be achieved.

  20. Novalis' Poetic Uncertainty: A "Bildung" with the Absolute

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mika, Carl

    2016-01-01

    Novalis, the Early German Romantic poet and philosopher, had at the core of his work a mysterious depiction of the "absolute." The absolute is Novalis' name for a substance that defies precise knowledge yet calls for a tentative and sensitive speculation. How one asserts a truth, represents an object, and sets about encountering things…

  1. Absolute Pitch in Infant Auditory Learning: Evidence for Developmental Reorganization.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saffran, Jenny R.; Griepentrog, Gregory J.

    2001-01-01

    Two experiments examined 8-month-olds' use of absolute and relative pitch cues in a tone-sequence statistical learning task. Results suggest that, given unsegmented stimuli that do not conform to rules of musical composition, infants are more likely to track patterns of absolute pitches than of relative pitches. A third experiment found that adult…

  2. Supplementary and Enrichment Series: Absolute Value. Teachers' Commentary. SP-25.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bridgess, M. Philbrick, Ed.

    This is one in a series of manuals for teachers using SMSG high school supplementary materials. The pamphlet includes commentaries on the sections of the student's booklet, answers to the exercises, and sample test questions. Topics covered include addition and multiplication in terms of absolute value, graphs of absolute value in the Cartesian…

  3. Supplementary and Enrichment Series: Absolute Value. SP-24.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bridgess, M. Philbrick, Ed.

    This is one in a series of SMSG supplementary and enrichment pamphlets for high school students. This series is designed to make material for the study of topics of special interest to students readily accessible in classroom quantity. Topics covered include absolute value, addition and multiplication in terms of absolute value, graphs of absolute…

  4. Absolute dimensions of unevolved O type close binaries

    SciTech Connect

    Doom, C.; de Loore, C.

    1984-03-15

    A method is presented to derive the absolute dimensions of early-type detached binaries by combining the observed parameters with results of evolutionary computations. The method is used to obtain the absolute dimensions of nine close binaries. We find that most systems have an initial masss ratio near 1.

  5. Absolute Humidity and the Seasonality of Influenza (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shaman, J. L.; Pitzer, V.; Viboud, C.; Grenfell, B.; Goldstein, E.; Lipsitch, M.

    2010-12-01

    Much of the observed wintertime increase of mortality in temperate regions is attributed to seasonal influenza. A recent re-analysis of laboratory experiments indicates that absolute humidity strongly modulates the airborne survival and transmission of the influenza virus. Here we show that the onset of increased wintertime influenza-related mortality in the United States is associated with anomalously low absolute humidity levels during the prior weeks. We then use an epidemiological model, in which observed absolute humidity conditions temper influenza transmission rates, to successfully simulate the seasonal cycle of observed influenza-related mortality. The model results indicate that direct modulation of influenza transmissibility by absolute humidity alone is sufficient to produce this observed seasonality. These findings provide epidemiological support for the hypothesis that absolute humidity drives seasonal variations of influenza transmission in temperate regions. In addition, we show that variations of the basic and effective reproductive numbers for influenza, caused by seasonal changes in absolute humidity, are consistent with the general timing of pandemic influenza outbreaks observed for 2009 A/H1N1 in temperate regions. Indeed, absolute humidity conditions correctly identify the region of the United States vulnerable to a third, wintertime wave of pandemic influenza. These findings suggest that the timing of pandemic influenza outbreaks is controlled by a combination of absolute humidity conditions, levels of susceptibility and changes in population mixing and contact rates.

  6. Determination of Absolute Zero Using a Computer-Based Laboratory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Amrani, D.

    2007-01-01

    We present a simple computer-based laboratory experiment for evaluating absolute zero in degrees Celsius, which can be performed in college and undergraduate physical sciences laboratory courses. With a computer, absolute zero apparatus can help demonstrators or students to observe the relationship between temperature and pressure and use…

  7. Absolute radiometric calibration of advanced remote sensing systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Slater, P. N.

    1982-01-01

    The distinction between the uses of relative and absolute spectroradiometric calibration of remote sensing systems is discussed. The advantages of detector-based absolute calibration are described, and the categories of relative and absolute system calibrations are listed. The limitations and problems associated with three common methods used for the absolute calibration of remote sensing systems are addressed. Two methods are proposed for the in-flight absolute calibration of advanced multispectral linear array systems. One makes use of a sun-illuminated panel in front of the sensor, the radiance of which is monitored by a spectrally flat pyroelectric radiometer. The other uses a large, uniform, high-radiance reference ground surface. The ground and atmospheric measurements required as input to a radiative transfer program to predict the radiance level at the entrance pupil of the orbital sensor are discussed, and the ground instrumentation is described.

  8. The buffering capacity of lithospheric mantle: implications for diamond formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luth, Robert W.; Stachel, Thomas

    2014-11-01

    Current models for the formation of natural diamond involve either oxidation of a methane-bearing fluid by reaction with oxidized mantle, or reduction of a carbonate-bearing fluid (or melt) by reaction with reduced mantle. Implicit in both models is the ability of the mantle with which the fluid equilibrates to act as an oxidizing or reducing agent, or more simply, to act as a source or sink of O2. If only redox reactions involving iron are operating, the ability of mantle peridotite to fulfill this role in diamond formation may not be sufficient for either model to be viable. Using the recent experimental recalibration of olivine-orthopyroxene-garnet oxybarometers of Stagno et al. (2013), we re-evaluated the global database of ~200 garnet peridotite samples for which the requisite Fe3+/Fe2+ data for garnet exist. Relative to the previous calibration of Gudmundsson and Wood (1995), the new calibration yields somewhat more oxidized values of Δlog fO2 (FMQ), with the divergence increasing from <0.5 units of log fO2 at ~3 GPa to as much as 1.5 units at 5-6.5 GPa. Globally, there is a range of ~4 log units fO2 for samples from the diamond stability field at any given pressure. Most samples are sufficiently reduced such that diamond, rather than carbonate, would be stable, and CHO fluids at these conditions would be H2O-rich (>60 mol%), with CH4 being the next most abundant species. To ascertain the capacity for mantle peridotite to act as a source or sink of O2, we developed a new model to calculate the fO2 for a peridotite at a given P, T, and Fe3+/Fe2+. The results from this model predict 50 ppm or less O2 is required to shift a depleted mantle peridotite the observed four log units of fO2. Coupled with the observed distribution of samples at values of fO2 intermediate between the most reduced (metal-saturated) and most oxidized (carbonate-saturated) possible values for diamond stability, these results demonstrate that peridotites are very poor sinks or sources of O

  9. Mini-implants and miniplates generate sub-absolute and absolute anchorage

    PubMed Central

    Consolaro, Alberto

    2014-01-01

    The functional demand imposed on bone promotes changes in the spatial properties of osteocytes as well as in their extensions uniformly distributed throughout the mineralized surface. Once spatial deformation is established, osteocytes create the need for structural adaptations that result in bone formation and resorption that happen to meet the functional demands. The endosteum and the periosteum are the effectors responsible for stimulating adaptive osteocytes in the inner and outer surfaces.Changes in shape, volume and position of the jaws as a result of skeletal correction of the maxilla and mandible require anchorage to allow bone remodeling to redefine morphology, esthetics and function as a result of spatial deformation conducted by orthodontic appliances. Examining the degree of changes in shape, volume and structural relationship of areas where mini-implants and miniplates are placed allows us to classify mini-implants as devices of subabsolute anchorage and miniplates as devices of absolute anchorage. PMID:25162561

  10. An All Fiber White Light Interferometric Absolute Temperature Measurement System

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Jeonggon Harrison

    2008-01-01

    Recently the author of this article proposed a new signal processing algorithm for an all fiber white light interferometer. In this article, an all fiber white light interferometric absolute temperature measurement system is presented using the previously proposed signal processing algorithm. Stability and absolute temperature measurement were demonstrated. These two tests demonstrated the feasibility of absolute temperature measurement with an accuracy of 0.015 fringe and 0.0005 fringe, respectively. A hysteresis test from 373K to 873K was also presented. Finally, robustness of the sensor system towards laser diode temperature drift, AFMZI temperature drift and PZT non-linearity was demonstrated.

  11. Measurement of Disintegration Rates and Absolute {gamma}-ray Intensities

    SciTech Connect

    DeVries, Daniel J.; Griffin, Henry C.

    2006-03-13

    The majority of practical radioactive materials decay by modes that include {gamma}-ray emission. For questions of 'how much' or 'how pure', one must know the absolute intensities of the major radiations. We are using liquid scintillation counting (LSC) to measurements of disintegration rates, coupled with {gamma}-ray spectroscopy to measure absolute {gamma}-ray emission probabilities. Described is a study of the 227Th chain yielding absolute {gamma}-ray intensities with {approx}0.5% accuracy and information on LSC efficiencies.

  12. Absolute Antenna Calibration at the US National Geodetic Survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mader, G. L.; Bilich, A. L.

    2012-12-01

    Geodetic GNSS applications routinely demand millimeter precision and extremely high levels of accuracy. To achieve these accuracies, measurement and instrument biases at the centimeter to millimeter level must be understood. One of these biases is the antenna phase center, the apparent point of signal reception for a GNSS antenna. It has been well established that phase center patterns differ between antenna models and manufacturers; additional research suggests that the addition of a radome or the choice of antenna mount can significantly alter those a priori phase center patterns. For the more demanding GNSS positioning applications and especially in cases of mixed-antenna networks, it is all the more important to know antenna phase center variations as a function of both elevation and azimuth in the antenna reference frame and incorporate these models into analysis software. Determination of antenna phase center behavior is known as "antenna calibration". Since 1994, NGS has computed relative antenna calibrations for more than 350 antennas. In recent years, the geodetic community has moved to absolute calibrations - the IGS adopted absolute antenna phase center calibrations in 2006 for use in their orbit and clock products, and NGS's CORS group began using absolute antenna calibration upon the release of the new CORS coordinates in IGS08 epoch 2005.00 and NAD 83(2011,MA11,PA11) epoch 2010.00. Although NGS relative calibrations can be and have been converted to absolute, it is considered best practice to independently measure phase center characteristics in an absolute sense. Consequently, NGS has developed and operates an absolute calibration system. These absolute antenna calibrations accommodate the demand for greater accuracy and for 2-dimensional (elevation and azimuth) parameterization. NGS will continue to provide calibration values via the NGS web site www.ngs.noaa.gov/ANTCAL, and will publish calibrations in the ANTEX format as well as the legacy ANTINFO

  13. Absolute pitch in infant auditory learning: evidence for developmental reorganization.

    PubMed

    Saffran, J R; Griepentrog, G J

    2001-01-01

    To what extent do infants represent the absolute pitches of complex auditory stimuli? Two experiments with 8-month-old infants examined the use of absolute and relative pitch cues in a tone-sequence statistical learning task. The results suggest that, given unsegmented stimuli that do not conform to the rules of musical composition, infants are more likely to track patterns of absolute pitches than of relative pitches. A 3rd experiment tested adults with or without musical training on the same statistical learning tasks used in the infant experiments. Unlike the infants, adult listeners relied primarily on relative pitch cues. These results suggest a shift from an initial focus on absolute pitch to the eventual dominance of relative pitch, which, it is argued, is more useful for both music and speech processing.

  14. Absolute calibration of sniffer probes on Wendelstein 7-X

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moseev, D.; Laqua, H. P.; Marsen, S.; Stange, T.; Braune, H.; Erckmann, V.; Gellert, F.; Oosterbeek, J. W.

    2016-08-01

    Here we report the first measurements of the power levels of stray radiation in the vacuum vessel of Wendelstein 7-X using absolutely calibrated sniffer probes. The absolute calibration is achieved by using calibrated sources of stray radiation and the implicit measurement of the quality factor of the Wendelstein 7-X empty vacuum vessel. Normalized absolute calibration coefficients agree with the cross-calibration coefficients that are obtained by the direct measurements, indicating that the measured absolute calibration coefficients and stray radiation levels in the vessel are valid. Close to the launcher, the stray radiation in the empty vessel reaches power levels up to 340 kW/m2 per MW injected beam power. Furthest away from the launcher, i.e., half a toroidal turn, still 90 kW/m2 per MW injected beam power is measured.

  15. Temporal Dynamics of Microbial Rhodopsin Fluorescence Reports Absolute Membrane Voltage

    PubMed Central

    Hou, Jennifer H.; Venkatachalam, Veena; Cohen, Adam E.

    2014-01-01

    Plasma membrane voltage is a fundamentally important property of a living cell; its value is tightly coupled to membrane transport, the dynamics of transmembrane proteins, and to intercellular communication. Accurate measurement of the membrane voltage could elucidate subtle changes in cellular physiology, but existing genetically encoded fluorescent voltage reporters are better at reporting relative changes than absolute numbers. We developed an Archaerhodopsin-based fluorescent voltage sensor whose time-domain response to a stepwise change in illumination encodes the absolute membrane voltage. We validated this sensor in human embryonic kidney cells. Measurements were robust to variation in imaging parameters and in gene expression levels, and reported voltage with an absolute accuracy of 10 mV. With further improvements in membrane trafficking and signal amplitude, time-domain encoding of absolute voltage could be applied to investigate many important and previously intractable bioelectric phenomena. PMID:24507604

  16. Absolute Value Boundedness, Operator Decomposition, and Stochastic Media and Equations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Adomian, G.; Miao, C. C.

    1973-01-01

    The research accomplished during this period is reported. Published abstracts and technical reports are listed. Articles presented include: boundedness of absolute values of generalized Fourier coefficients, propagation in stochastic media, and stationary conditions for stochastic differential equations.

  17. Absolute calibration of sniffer probes on Wendelstein 7-X.

    PubMed

    Moseev, D; Laqua, H P; Marsen, S; Stange, T; Braune, H; Erckmann, V; Gellert, F; Oosterbeek, J W

    2016-08-01

    Here we report the first measurements of the power levels of stray radiation in the vacuum vessel of Wendelstein 7-X using absolutely calibrated sniffer probes. The absolute calibration is achieved by using calibrated sources of stray radiation and the implicit measurement of the quality factor of the Wendelstein 7-X empty vacuum vessel. Normalized absolute calibration coefficients agree with the cross-calibration coefficients that are obtained by the direct measurements, indicating that the measured absolute calibration coefficients and stray radiation levels in the vessel are valid. Close to the launcher, the stray radiation in the empty vessel reaches power levels up to 340 kW/m(2) per MW injected beam power. Furthest away from the launcher, i.e., half a toroidal turn, still 90 kW/m(2) per MW injected beam power is measured. PMID:27587121

  18. Preparation of an oakmoss absolute with reduced allergenic potential.

    PubMed

    Ehret, C; Maupetit, P; Petrzilka, M; Klecak, G

    1992-06-01

    Synopsis Oakmoss absolute, an extract of the lichen Evernia prunastri, is known to cause allergenic skin reactions due to the presence of certain aromatic aldehydes such as atranorin, chloratranorin, ethyl hematommate and ethyl chlorohematommate. In this paper it is shown that treatment of Oakmoss absolute with amino acids such as lysine and/or leucine, lowers considerably the content of these allergenic constituents including atranol and chloratranol. The resulting Oakmoss absolute, which exhibits an excellent olfactive quality, was tested extensively in comparative studies on guinea pigs and on man. The results of the Guinea Pig Maximization Test (GPMT) and Human Repeated Insult Patch Test (HRIPT) indicate that, in comparison with the commercial test sample, the allergenicity of this new quality of Oakmoss absolute was considerably reduced, and consequently better skin tolerance of this fragrance for man was achieved. PMID:19272096

  19. Absolute Free Energies for Biomolecules in Implicit or Explicit Solvent

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berryman, Joshua T.; Schilling, Tanja

    Methods for absolute free energy calculation by alchemical transformation of a quantitative model to an analytically tractable one are discussed. These absolute free energy methods are placed in the context of other methods, and an attempt is made to describe the best practice for such calculations given the current state of the art. Calculations of the equilibria between the four free energy basins of the dialanine molecule and the two right- and left-twisted basins of DNA are discussed as examples.

  20. Global absolut gravity reference system as replacement of IGSN 71

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilmes, Herbert; Wziontek, Hartmut; Falk, Reinhard

    2015-04-01

    The determination of precise gravity field parameters is of great importance in a period in which earth sciences are achieving the necessary accuracy to monitor and document global change processes. This is the reason why experts from geodesy and metrology joined in a successful cooperation to make absolute gravity observations traceable to SI quantities, to improve the metrological kilogram definition and to monitor mass movements and smallest height changes for geodetic and geophysical applications. The international gravity datum is still defined by the International Gravity Standardization Net adopted in 1971 (IGSN 71). The network is based upon pendulum and spring gravimeter observations taken in the 1950s and 60s supported by the early free fall absolute gravimeters. Its gravity values agreed in every case to better than 0.1 mGal. Today, more than 100 absolute gravimeters are in use worldwide. The series of repeated international comparisons confirms the traceability of absolute gravity measurements to SI quantities and confirm the degree of equivalence of the gravimeters in the order of a few µGal. For applications in geosciences where e.g. gravity changes over time need to be analyzed, the temporal stability of an absolute gravimeter is most important. Therefore, the proposition is made to replace the IGSN 71 by an up-to-date gravity reference system which is based upon repeated absolute gravimeter comparisons and a global network of well controlled gravity reference stations.

  1. Heat Capacity Analysis Report

    SciTech Connect

    A. Findikakis

    2004-11-01

    The purpose of this report is to provide heat capacity values for the host and surrounding rock layers for the waste repository at Yucca Mountain. The heat capacity representations provided by this analysis are used in unsaturated zone (UZ) flow, transport, and coupled processes numerical modeling activities, and in thermal analyses as part of the design of the repository to support the license application. Among the reports that use the heat capacity values estimated in this report are the ''Multiscale Thermohydrologic Model'' report, the ''Drift Degradation Analysis'' report, the ''Ventilation Model and Analysis Report, the Igneous Intrusion Impacts on Waste Packages and Waste Forms'' report, the ''Dike/Drift Interactions report, the Drift-Scale Coupled Processes (DST and TH Seepage) Models'' report, and the ''In-Drift Natural Convection and Condensation'' report. The specific objective of this study is to determine the rock-grain and rock-mass heat capacities for the geologic stratigraphy identified in the ''Mineralogic Model (MM3.0) Report'' (BSC 2004 [DIRS 170031], Table 1-1). This report provides estimates of the heat capacity for all stratigraphic layers except the Paleozoic, for which the mineralogic abundance data required to estimate the heat capacity are not available. The temperature range of interest in this analysis is 25 C to 325 C. This interval is broken into three separate temperature sub-intervals: 25 C to 95 C, 95 C to 114 C, and 114 C to 325 C, which correspond to the preboiling, trans-boiling, and postboiling regimes. Heat capacity is defined as the amount of energy required to raise the temperature of a unit mass of material by one degree (Nimick and Connolly 1991 [DIRS 100690], p. 5). The rock-grain heat capacity is defined as the heat capacity of the rock solids (minerals), and does not include the effect of water that exists in the rock pores. By comparison, the rock-mass heat capacity considers the heat capacity of both solids and pore

  2. Method to obtain absolute impurity density profiles combining charge exchange and beam emission spectroscopy without absolute intensity calibrationa)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kappatou, A.; Jaspers, R. J. E.; Delabie, E.; Marchuk, O.; Biel, W.; Jakobs, M. A.

    2012-10-01

    Investigation of impurity transport properties in tokamak plasmas is essential and a diagnostic that can provide information on the impurity content is required. Combining charge exchange recombination spectroscopy (CXRS) and beam emission spectroscopy (BES), absolute radial profiles of impurity densities can be obtained from the CXRS and BES intensities, electron density and CXRS and BES emission rates, without requiring any absolute calibration of the spectra. The technique is demonstrated here with absolute impurity density radial profiles obtained in TEXTOR plasmas, using a high efficiency charge exchange spectrometer with high etendue, that measures the CXRS and BES spectra along the same lines-of-sight, offering an additional advantage for the determination of absolute impurity densities.

  3. Nonequilibrium heat capacity.

    PubMed

    Mandal, Dibyendu

    2013-12-01

    Development of steady state thermodynamics and statistical mechanics depends crucially on our ability to extend the notions of equilibrium thermodynamics to nonequilibrium steady states (NESS). The present paper considers the extension of heat capacity. A modified definition is proposed which continues to maintain the same relation to steady state Shannon entropy as in equilibrium, thus providing a thermodynamically consistent treatment of NESS heat capacity.

  4. Liquid heat capacity lasers

    DOEpatents

    Comaskey, Brian J.; Scheibner, Karl F.; Ault, Earl R.

    2007-05-01

    The heat capacity laser concept is extended to systems in which the heat capacity lasing media is a liquid. The laser active liquid is circulated from a reservoir (where the bulk of the media and hence waste heat resides) through a channel so configured for both optical pumping of the media for gain and for light amplification from the resulting gain.

  5. Problems of Excess Capacity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Douglas, G.

    1972-01-01

    The problems of excess capacity in the airline industry are discussed with focus on the following topics: load factors; fair rate of return on investment; service-quality rivalry among airlines; pricing (fare) policies; aircraft production; and the impacts of excess capacity on operating costs. Also included is a discussion of the interrelationships among these topics.

  6. Who needs capacity?

    PubMed

    Buchanan, Alec

    2015-01-01

    The UK Law Commission's Discussion Paper, Criminal Liability: Insanity and Automatism, recommends introducing the concept of capacity to the insanity defence. The concept of capacity has an established role in those parts of the law that concern the validity of the decisions that people make, for instance in composing a will or entering into a contract. Making mental capacity a criterion for criminal responsibility in a mentally disordered defendant, however, is potentially problematic. First, the term capacity already has several different meanings in the literature on the jurisprudence of mental abnormality. Second, using the concept of capacity in the way that the Law Commission proposes poses difficulties that relate to the provision of testimony by expert witnesses.

  7. Who needs capacity?

    PubMed

    Buchanan, Alec

    2015-01-01

    The UK Law Commission's Discussion Paper, Criminal Liability: Insanity and Automatism, recommends introducing the concept of capacity to the insanity defence. The concept of capacity has an established role in those parts of the law that concern the validity of the decisions that people make, for instance in composing a will or entering into a contract. Making mental capacity a criterion for criminal responsibility in a mentally disordered defendant, however, is potentially problematic. First, the term capacity already has several different meanings in the literature on the jurisprudence of mental abnormality. Second, using the concept of capacity in the way that the Law Commission proposes poses difficulties that relate to the provision of testimony by expert witnesses. PMID:25939285

  8. Absolute irradiance of the Moon for on-orbit calibration

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stone, T.C.; Kieffer, H.H.; ,

    2002-01-01

    The recognized need for on-orbit calibration of remote sensing imaging instruments drives the ROLO project effort to characterize the Moon for use as an absolute radiance source. For over 5 years the ground-based ROLO telescopes have acquired spatially-resolved lunar images in 23 VNIR (Moon diameter ???500 pixels) and 9 SWIR (???250 pixels) passbands at phase angles within ??90 degrees. A numerical model for lunar irradiance has been developed which fits hundreds of ROLO images in each band, corrected for atmospheric extinction and calibrated to absolute radiance, then integrated to irradiance. The band-coupled extinction algorithm uses absorption spectra of several gases and aerosols derived from MODTRAN to fit time-dependent component abundances to nightly observations of standard stars. The absolute radiance scale is based upon independent telescopic measurements of the star Vega. The fitting process yields uncertainties in lunar relative irradiance over small ranges of phase angle and the full range of lunar libration well under 0.5%. A larger source of uncertainty enters in the absolute solar spectral irradiance, especially in the SWIR, where solar models disagree by up to 6%. Results of ROLO model direct comparisons to spacecraft observations demonstrate the ability of the technique to track sensor responsivity drifts to sub-percent precision. Intercomparisons among instruments provide key insights into both calibration issues and the absolute scale for lunar irradiance.

  9. Absolute neutrophil values in malignant patients on cytotoxic chemotherapy.

    PubMed

    Madu, A J; Ibegbulam, O G; Ocheni, S; Madu, K A; Aguwa, E N

    2011-01-01

    A total of eighty patients with various malignancies seen between September 2008 and April 2009 at the University of Nigeria Teaching Hospital (UNTH) Ituku Ozalla, Enugu, Nigeria, had their absolute neutrophil counts, done at Days 0 and 12 of the first cycle of their various chemotherapeutic regimens. They were adult patients who had been diagnosed of various malignancies, consisting of Breast cancer 36 (45%), Non-Hodgkin's lymphoma 8 (10%), Hodgkin's lymphoma 13 (16.25%), Colorectal carcinoma 6 (7.5%), Multiple myeloma 7 (8.75%), Cervical carcinoma 1 (1.25%) and other malignancies 9 (11.25%), Manual counting of absolute neutrophil count was done using Turks solution and improved Neubauer counting chamber and Galen 2000 Olympus microscope. The socio demographic data of the patients were assessed from a questionnaire. There were 27 males (33.75%) and 53 females (66.25%). Their ages ranged from 18 - 80 years with a median of 45 years. The mean absolute neutrophil count of the respondents pre-and post chemotherapy was 3.7 +/- 2.1 x 10(9)/L and 2.5 +/- 1.6 x 10(9)/L respectively. There were significant differences in both the absolute neutrophil count (p=0.00) compared to the pre-chemotherapy values. Chemotherapeutic combinations containing cyclophosphamide and Adriamycin were observed to cause significant reduction in absolute neutrophil.

  10. The Application of Optimisation Methods to Constrain Absolute Plate Motions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tetley, M. G.; Williams, S.; Hardy, S.; Müller, D.

    2015-12-01

    Plate tectonic reconstructions are an excellent tool for understanding the configuration and behaviour of continents through time on both global and regional scales, and are relatively well understood back to ~200 Ma. However, many of these models represent only relative motions between continents, providing little information of absolute tectonic motions and their relationship with the deep Earth. Significant issues exist in solving this problem, including how to combine constraints from multiple, diverse data into a unified model of absolute plate motions; and how to address uncertainties both in the available data, and in the assumptions involved in this process (e.g. hotspot motion, true polar wander). In deep time (pre-Pangea breakup), plate reconstructions rely more heavily on paleomagnetism, but these data often imply plate velocities much larger than those observed since the breakup of the supercontinent Pangea where plate velocities are constrained by the seafloor spreading record. Here we present two complementary techniques to address these issues, applying parallelized numerical methods to quantitatively investigate absolute plate motions through time. Firstly, we develop a data-fit optimized global absolute reference frame constrained by kinematic reconstruction data, hotspot-trail observations, and trench migration statistics. Secondly we calculate optimized paleomagnetic data-derived apparent polar wander paths (APWPs) for both the Phanerozoic and Precambrian. Paths are generated from raw pole data with optimal spatial and temporal pole configurations calculated using all known uncertainties and quality criteria to produce velocity-optimized absolute motion paths through deep time.

  11. System and method for calibrating a rotary absolute position sensor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davis, Donald R. (Inventor); Permenter, Frank Noble (Inventor); Radford, Nicolaus A (Inventor)

    2012-01-01

    A system includes a rotary device, a rotary absolute position (RAP) sensor generating encoded pairs of voltage signals describing positional data of the rotary device, a host machine, and an algorithm. The algorithm calculates calibration parameters usable to determine an absolute position of the rotary device using the encoded pairs, and is adapted for linearly-mapping an ellipse defined by the encoded pairs to thereby calculate the calibration parameters. A method of calibrating the RAP sensor includes measuring the rotary position as encoded pairs of voltage signals, linearly-mapping an ellipse defined by the encoded pairs to thereby calculate the calibration parameters, and calculating an absolute position of the rotary device using the calibration parameters. The calibration parameters include a positive definite matrix (A) and a center point (q) of the ellipse. The voltage signals may include an encoded sine and cosine of a rotary angle of the rotary device.

  12. Method and apparatus for two-dimensional absolute optical encoding

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leviton, Douglas B. (Inventor)

    2004-01-01

    This invention presents a two-dimensional absolute optical encoder and a method for determining position of an object in accordance with information from the encoder. The encoder of the present invention comprises a scale having a pattern being predetermined to indicate an absolute location on the scale, means for illuminating the scale, means for forming an image of the pattern; and detector means for outputting signals derived from the portion of the image of the pattern which lies within a field of view of the detector means, the field of view defining an image reference coordinate system, and analyzing means, receiving the signals from the detector means, for determining the absolute location of the object. There are two types of scale patterns presented in this invention: grid type and starfield type.

  13. Refinery Capacity Report

    EIA Publications

    2016-01-01

    Data series include fuel, electricity, and steam purchased for consumption at the refinery; refinery receipts of crude oil by method of transportation; and current and projected atmospheric crude oil distillation, downstream charge, and production capacities. Respondents are operators of all operating and idle petroleum refineries (including new refineries under construction) and refineries shut down during the previous year, located in the 50 states, the District of Columbia, Puerto Rico, the Virgin Islands, Guam, and other U.S. possessions. The Refinery Capacity Report does not contain working and shell storage capacity data. This data is now being collected twice a year as of March 31 and September 30 on the Form EIA-810, "Monthly Refinery Report", and is now released as a separate report Working and Net Available Shell Storage Capacity.

  14. Knudsen heat capacity

    SciTech Connect

    Babac, Gulru; Reese, Jason M.

    2014-05-15

    We present a “Knudsen heat capacity” as a more appropriate and useful fluid property in micro/nanoscale gas systems than the constant pressure heat capacity. At these scales, different fluid processes come to the fore that are not normally observed at the macroscale. For thermodynamic analyses that include these Knudsen processes, using the Knudsen heat capacity can be more effective and physical. We calculate this heat capacity theoretically for non-ideal monatomic and diatomic gases, in particular, helium, nitrogen, and hydrogen. The quantum modification for para and ortho hydrogen is also considered. We numerically model the Knudsen heat capacity using molecular dynamics simulations for the considered gases, and compare these results with the theoretical ones.

  15. Neural Sensitivity to Absolute and Relative Anticipated Reward in Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Vaidya, Jatin G.; Knutson, Brian; O'Leary, Daniel S.; Block, Robert I.; Magnotta, Vincent

    2013-01-01

    Adolescence is associated with a dramatic increase in risky and impulsive behaviors that have been attributed to developmental differences in neural processing of rewards. In the present study, we sought to identify age differences in anticipation of absolute and relative rewards. To do so, we modified a commonly used monetary incentive delay (MID) task in order to examine brain activity to relative anticipated reward value (neural sensitivity to the value of a reward as a function of other available rewards). This design also made it possible to examine developmental differences in brain activation to absolute anticipated reward magnitude (the degree to which neural activity increases with increasing reward magnitude). While undergoing fMRI, 18 adolescents and 18 adult participants were presented with cues associated with different reward magnitudes. After the cue, participants responded to a target to win money on that trial. Presentation of cues was blocked such that two reward cues associated with $.20, $1.00, or $5.00 were in play on a given block. Thus, the relative value of the $1.00 reward varied depending on whether it was paired with a smaller or larger reward. Reflecting age differences in neural responses to relative anticipated reward (i.e., reference dependent processing), adults, but not adolescents, demonstrated greater activity to a $1 reward when it was the larger of the two available rewards. Adults also demonstrated a more linear increase in ventral striatal activity as a function of increasing absolute reward magnitude compared to adolescents. Additionally, reduced ventral striatal sensitivity to absolute anticipated reward (i.e., the difference in activity to medium versus small rewards) correlated with higher levels of trait Impulsivity. Thus, ventral striatal activity in anticipation of absolute and relative rewards develops with age. Absolute reward processing is also linked to individual differences in Impulsivity. PMID:23544046

  16. Neural sensitivity to absolute and relative anticipated reward in adolescents.

    PubMed

    Vaidya, Jatin G; Knutson, Brian; O'Leary, Daniel S; Block, Robert I; Magnotta, Vincent

    2013-01-01

    Adolescence is associated with a dramatic increase in risky and impulsive behaviors that have been attributed to developmental differences in neural processing of rewards. In the present study, we sought to identify age differences in anticipation of absolute and relative rewards. To do so, we modified a commonly used monetary incentive delay (MID) task in order to examine brain activity to relative anticipated reward value (neural sensitivity to the value of a reward as a function of other available rewards). This design also made it possible to examine developmental differences in brain activation to absolute anticipated reward magnitude (the degree to which neural activity increases with increasing reward magnitude). While undergoing fMRI, 18 adolescents and 18 adult participants were presented with cues associated with different reward magnitudes. After the cue, participants responded to a target to win money on that trial. Presentation of cues was blocked such that two reward cues associated with $.20, $1.00, or $5.00 were in play on a given block. Thus, the relative value of the $1.00 reward varied depending on whether it was paired with a smaller or larger reward. Reflecting age differences in neural responses to relative anticipated reward (i.e., reference dependent processing), adults, but not adolescents, demonstrated greater activity to a $1 reward when it was the larger of the two available rewards. Adults also demonstrated a more linear increase in ventral striatal activity as a function of increasing absolute reward magnitude compared to adolescents. Additionally, reduced ventral striatal sensitivity to absolute anticipated reward (i.e., the difference in activity to medium versus small rewards) correlated with higher levels of trait Impulsivity. Thus, ventral striatal activity in anticipation of absolute and relative rewards develops with age. Absolute reward processing is also linked to individual differences in Impulsivity. PMID:23544046

  17. Panama Canal capacity analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Bronzini, M.S.

    1995-04-27

    Predicting the transit capacities of the various Panama Canal alternatives required analyzing data on present Canal operations, adapting and extending an existing computer simulation model, performing simulation runs for each of the alternatives, and using the simulation model outputs to develop capacity estimates. These activities are summarized in this paper. A more complete account may be found in the project final report (TAMS 1993). Some of the material in this paper also appeared in a previously published paper (Rosselli, Bronzini, and Weekly 1994).

  18. Non-Invasive Method of Determining Absolute Intracranial Pressure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yost, William T. (Inventor); Cantrell, John H., Jr. (Inventor); Hargens, Alan E. (Inventor)

    2004-01-01

    A method is presented for determining absolute intracranial pressure (ICP) in a patient. Skull expansion is monitored while changes in ICP are induced. The patient's blood pressure is measured when skull expansion is approximately zero. The measured blood pressure is indicative of a reference ICP value. Subsequently, the method causes a known change in ICP and measured the change in skull expansion associated therewith. The absolute ICP is a function of the reference ICP value, the known change in ICP and its associated change in skull expansion; and a measured change in skull expansion.

  19. Absolutely maximally entangled states, combinatorial designs, and multiunitary matrices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goyeneche, Dardo; Alsina, Daniel; Latorre, José I.; Riera, Arnau; Życzkowski, Karol

    2015-09-01

    Absolutely maximally entangled (AME) states are those multipartite quantum states that carry absolute maximum entanglement in all possible bipartitions. AME states are known to play a relevant role in multipartite teleportation, in quantum secret sharing, and they provide the basis novel tensor networks related to holography. We present alternative constructions of AME states and show their link with combinatorial designs. We also analyze a key property of AME states, namely, their relation to tensors, which can be understood as unitary transformations in all of their bipartitions. We call this property multiunitarity.

  20. In-flight absolute radiometric calibration of the thematic mapper

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Castle, K. R.; Holm, R. G.; Kastner, C. J.; Palmer, J. M.; Slater, P. N.; Dinguirard, M.; Ezra, C. E.; Jackson, R. D.; Savage, R. K.

    1983-01-01

    The TM multispectral scanner system was calibrated in an absolute manner before launch. To determine the temporal changes of the absolute radiometric calibration of the entire system, spectroradiometric measurements of the ground and the atmosphere were made simultaneously with TM collections over White Sands, New Mexico. By entering the measured values in an atmospheric radiative transfer program, the radiance levels of the in four of the spectral bands of the TM were determined. Tables show values for the reflectance of snow at White Sands measured by a modular 8 channel radiometer, and values for exoatmospheric irradiance within the TM passbands, calculated for the Earth-Sun distance using a solar radiometer.

  1. Absolute photon-flux measurements in the vacuum ultraviolet

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Samson, J. A. R.; Haddad, G. N.

    1974-01-01

    Absolute photon-flux measurements in the vacuum ultraviolet have extended to short wavelengths by use of rare-gas ionization chambers. The technique involves the measurement of the ion current as a function of the gas pressure in the ion chamber. The true value of the ion current, and hence the absolute photon flux, is obtained by extrapolating the ion current to zero gas pressure. Examples are given at 162 and 266 A. The short-wavelength limit is determined only by the sensitivity of the current-measuring apparatus and by present knowledge of the photoionization processes that occur in the rate gases.

  2. Measurements of the reactor neutron power in absolute units

    SciTech Connect

    Lebedev, G. V.

    2015-12-15

    The neutron power of the reactor of the Yenisei space nuclear power plant is measured in absolute units using the modernized method of correlation analysis during the ground-based tests of the Yenisei prototypes. Results of the experiments are given. The desired result is obtained in a series of experiments carried out at the stage of the plant preparation for tests. The acceptability of experimental data is confirmed by the results of measuring the reactor neutron power in absolute units at the nominal level by the thermal balance during the life cycle tests of the ground prototypes.

  3. Absolute Stability Analysis of a Phase Plane Controlled Spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jang, Jiann-Woei; Plummer, Michael; Bedrossian, Nazareth; Hall, Charles; Jackson, Mark; Spanos, Pol

    2010-01-01

    Many aerospace attitude control systems utilize phase plane control schemes that include nonlinear elements such as dead zone and ideal relay. To evaluate phase plane control robustness, stability margin prediction methods must be developed. Absolute stability is extended to predict stability margins and to define an abort condition. A constrained optimization approach is also used to design flex filters for roll control. The design goal is to optimize vehicle tracking performance while maintaining adequate stability margins. Absolute stability is shown to provide satisfactory stability constraints for the optimization.

  4. From Hubble's Next Generation Spectral Library (NGSL) to Absolute Fluxes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heap, S. R.; Lindler, D.

    2016-05-01

    Hubble's Next Generation Spectral Library (NGSL) consists of R˜1000 spectra of 374 stars of assorted temperature, gravity, and metallicity. Each spectrum covers the wavelength range, 0.18-1.03 μ. The library can be viewed and/or downloaded from the website, http://archive.stsci.edu/prepds/stisngsl/. Stars in the NGSL are now being used as absolute flux standards at ground-based observatories. However, the uncertainty in the absolute flux is about 2%, which does not meet the requirements of dark-energy surveys. We have therefore developed an observing procedure, data-reduction procedure, and correction algorithms that should yield fluxes with uncertainties less than 1%.

  5. A general relativistic model for free-fall absolute gravimeters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tan, Yu-Jie; Shao, Cheng-Gang; Li, Jia; Hu, Zhong-Kun

    2016-04-01

    Although the relativistic manifestations of gravitational fields in gravimetry were first studied 40 years ago, the relativistic effects combined with free-fall absolute gravimeters have rarely been considered. In light of this, we present a general relativistic model for free-fall absolute gravimeters in a local-Fermi coordinates system, where we focus on effects related to the measuring devices: relativistic transverse Doppler effects, gravitational redshift effects and Earth’s rotation effects. Based on this model, a general relativistic expression of the measured gravity acceleration is obtained.

  6. STS-9 Shuttle grow - Ram angle effect and absolute intensities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Swenson, G. R.; Mende, S. B.; Clifton, K. S.

    1986-01-01

    Visible imagery from Space Shuttle mission STS-9 (Spacelab 1) has been analyzed for the ram angle effect and the absolute intensity of glow. The data are compared with earlier measurements and the anomalous high intensities at large ram angles are confirmed. Absolute intensities of the ram glow on the shuttle tile, at 6563 A, are observed to be about 20 times more intense than those measured on the AE-E spacecraft. Implications of these observations for an existing theory of glow involving NO2 are presented.

  7. Discovery of New Methane-bearing Hyperalkaline Springs in the Serpentinized Dun Mountain Ophiolite, New Zealand

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pawson, J. F.; Oze, C.; Etiope, G.; Horton, T. W.

    2014-12-01

    The production of H2 and CH4 following serpentinization is considered a fundamental process for the origin/sustenance of microbial life, with several implications in astrobiology and petroleum geology. In recent years an increasing number of gas seeps or springs, with dominantly abiotic CH4, have been discovered in land-based serpentinized peridotites worldwide. We report the discovery of a new site in the Dun Mountain Ophiolite (DMO), New Zealand. This is the second gas-bearing peridotite discovered so far in NZ, after Poison Bay which was documented in the 1990s. The DMO area is characterized by active and present-day low temperature serpentinization driven by meteoric water, a common process in ophiolites. A localised area of hyperalkaline (pH >11.6) and reduced (-243.4 mV) waters contain relatively high concentrations of dissolved calcium (43.2 ppm) aiding in carbonate precipitation. Directly above these waters flux measurements by closed chamber methods reveal CH4 emission rates exceeding 2800 mg m-2day-1. The δ13C values of CH4 suggest the presence of a dominant abiotic gas component (e.g. -32.7 ‰ VPDB). Additionally, an unusual clear to black gel is released from less alkaline springs elsewhere in the DMO. The origin and nature of this gel-like material is currently unknown.

  8. Mathematical Model for Absolute Magnetic Measuring Systems in Industrial Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fügenschuh, Armin; Fügenschuh, Marzena; Ludszuweit, Marina; Mojsic, Aleksandar; Sokół, Joanna

    2015-09-01

    Scales for measuring systems are either based on incremental or absolute measuring methods. Incremental scales need to initialize a measurement cycle at a reference point. From there, the position is computed by counting increments of a periodic graduation. Absolute methods do not need reference points, since the position can be read directly from the scale. The positions on the complete scales are encoded using two incremental tracks with different graduation. We present a new method for absolute measuring using only one track for position encoding up to micrometre range. Instead of the common perpendicular magnetic areas, we use a pattern of trapezoidal magnetic areas, to store more complex information. For positioning, we use the magnetic field where every position is characterized by a set of values measured by a hall sensor array. We implement a method for reconstruction of absolute positions from the set of unique measured values. We compare two patterns with respect to uniqueness, accuracy, stability and robustness of positioning. We discuss how stability and robustness are influenced by different errors during the measurement in real applications and how those errors can be compensated.

  9. Absolute Value Inequalities: High School Students' Solutions and Misconceptions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Almog, Nava; Ilany, Bat-Sheva

    2012-01-01

    Inequalities are one of the foundational subjects in high school math curricula, but there is a lack of academic research into how students learn certain types of inequalities. This article fills part of the research gap by presenting the findings of a study that examined high school students' methods of approaching absolute value inequalities,…

  10. Individual Differences in Absolute and Relative Metacomprehension Accuracy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maki, Ruth H.; Shields, Micheal; Wheeler, Amanda Easton; Zacchilli, Tammy Lowery

    2005-01-01

    The authors investigated absolute and relative metacomprehension accuracy as a function of verbal ability in college students. Students read hard texts, revised texts, or a mixed set of texts. They then predicted their performance, took a multiple-choice test on the texts, and made posttest judgments about their performance. With hard texts,…

  11. Ion chambers simplify absolute intensity measurements in the vacuum ultraviolet

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sampson, J. A. R.

    1966-01-01

    Single or double ion chamber technique measures absolute radiation intensities in the extreme vacuum ultraviolet region of the spectrum. The ion chambers use rare gases as the ion carrier. Photon absorbed by the gas creates one ion pair so a measure of these is a measure of the number of incident photons.

  12. Lyman alpha SMM/UVSP absolute calibration and geocoronal correction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fontenla, Juan M.; Reichmann, Edwin J.

    1987-01-01

    Lyman alpha observations from the Ultraviolet Spectrometer Polarimeter (UVSP) instrument of the Solar Maximum Mission (SMM) spacecraft were analyzed and provide instrumental calibration details. Specific values of the instrument quantum efficiency, Lyman alpha absolute intensity, and correction for geocoronal absorption are presented.

  13. An improved generalized Newton method for absolute value equations.

    PubMed

    Feng, Jingmei; Liu, Sanyang

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we suggest and analyze an improved generalized Newton method for solving the NP-hard absolute value equations [Formula: see text] when the singular values of A exceed 1. We show that the global and local quadratic convergence of the proposed method. Numerical experiments show the efficiency of the method and the high accuracy of calculation. PMID:27462490

  14. Absolute configurations of zingiberenols isolated from ginger (Zingiber officinale) rhizomes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The sesquiterpene alcohol zingiberenol, or 1,10-bisaboladien-3-ol, was isolated some time ago from ginger, Zingiber officinale, rhizomes, but its absolute configuration had not been determined. With three chiral centers present in the molecule, zingiberenol can exist in eight stereoisomeric forms. ...

  15. Series that Converge Absolutely but Don't Converge

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kantrowitz, Robert; Schramm, Michael

    2012-01-01

    If a series of real numbers converges absolutely, then it converges. The usual proof requires completeness in the form of the Cauchy criterion. Failing completeness, the result is false. We provide examples of rational series that illustrate this point. The Cantor set appears in connection with one of the examples.

  16. Absolute calibration in the 1750 - 3350 A region

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Strongylis, G. J.; Bohlin, R. C.

    1977-01-01

    The absolute flux measurements in the rocket ultraviolet made by Bohlin, Frimout, and Lillie (BFL) are revised using a more correct treatment of the air extinction that enters the air calibration of their instrument. The absorption by molecular oxygen and ozone, Rayleigh scattering, and extinction by aerosols is tabulated for general use in ultraviolet calibrations performed in air. The revised absolute flux of eta UMa and final fluxes for alpha Lyr and zeta Oph are presented in the 1750-3350 A region. The absolute flux of the star eta UMa is compared to four other independent determinations in the 1200-3400 A region and a maximum difference of 35% is found near 1500 A between the OAO-2 and Apollo 17 fluxes. The rocket measurements of BFL, the ANS and TD-1 satellite data, and the Apollo 17 data are compared to the ultraviolet fluxes from the OAO-2, demonstrating a photometric reproducibility of about + or - 3 percent. Therefore, all four sets of spectrophotometry can be reduced to a common absolute scale.

  17. Europe's Other Poverty Measures: Absolute Thresholds Underlying Social Assistance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bavier, Richard

    2009-01-01

    The first thing many learn about international poverty measurement is that European nations apply a "relative" poverty threshold and that they also do a better job of reducing poverty. Unlike the European model, the "absolute" U.S. poverty threshold does not increase in real value when the nation's standard of living rises, even though it is…

  18. Analysis of standard reference materials by absolute INAA

    SciTech Connect

    Heft, R.E.; Koszykowski, R.F.

    1981-07-01

    Three standard reference materials, flyash, soil, and ASI 4340 steel, were analyzed by a method of absolute instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA). Two different light water pool-type reactors were used to produce equivalent analytical results even though the epithermal to thermal flux ratio in one reactor was higher than that in the other by a factor of two.

  19. Absolute calibration of Landsat instruments using the moon.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kieffer, H.H.; Wildey, R.L.

    1985-01-01

    A lunar observation by Landsat could provide improved radiometric and geometric calibration of both the Thematic Mapper and the Multispectral Scanner in terms of absolute radiometry, determination of the modulation transfer function, and sensitivity to scattered light. A pitch of the spacecraft would be required. -Authors

  20. Urey: to measure the absolute age of Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Randolph, J. E.; Plescia, J.; Bar-Cohen, Y.; Bartlett, P.; Bickler, D.; Carlson, R.; Carr, G.; Fong, M.; Gronroos, H.; Guske, P. J.; Herring, M.; Javadi, H.; Johnson, D. W.; Larson, T.; Malaviarachchi, K.; Sherrit, S.; Stride, S.; Trebi-Ollennu, A.; Warwick, R.

    2003-01-01

    UREY, a proposed NASA Mars Scout mission will, for the first time, measure the absolute age of an identified igneous rock formation on Mars. By extension to relatively older and younger rock formations dated by remote sensing, these results will enable a new and better understanding of Martian geologic history.

  1. Is There a Rule of Absolute Neutralization in Nupe?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Krohn, Robert

    1975-01-01

    A previously prosed rule of absolute neutralization (merging underlying low vowels) is eliminated in an alternative analysis including instead a rule that "breaks" the feature matrix of certain low vowels and redistributes the features of each vowel as a sequence of vowel-like transition plus (a). (Author/RM)

  2. Absolute Radiometer for Reproducing the Solar Irradiance Unit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sapritskii, V. I.; Pavlovich, M. N.

    1989-01-01

    A high-precision absolute radiometer with a thermally stabilized cavity as receiving element has been designed for use in solar irradiance measurements. The State Special Standard of the Solar Irradiance Unit has been built on the basis of the developed absolute radiometer. The Standard also includes the sun tracking system and the system for automatic thermal stabilization and information processing, comprising a built-in microcalculator which calculates the irradiance according to the input program. During metrological certification of the Standard, main error sources have been analysed and the non-excluded systematic and accidental errors of the irradiance-unit realization have been determined. The total error of the Standard does not exceed 0.3%. Beginning in 1984 the Standard has been taking part in a comparison with the Å 212 pyrheliometer and other Soviet and foreign standards. In 1986 it took part in the international comparison of absolute radiometers and standard pyrheliometers of socialist countries. The results of the comparisons proved the high metrological quality of this Standard based on an absolute radiometer.

  3. Relative versus Absolute Stimulus Control in the Temporal Bisection Task

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Carvalho, Marilia Pinhiero; Machado, Armando

    2012-01-01

    When subjects learn to associate two sample durations with two comparison keys, do they learn to associate the keys with the short and long samples (relational hypothesis), or with the specific sample durations (absolute hypothesis)? We exposed 16 pigeons to an ABA design in which phases A and B corresponded to tasks using samples of 1 s and 4 s,…

  4. Multifrequency continuous wave terahertz spectroscopy for absolute thickness determination

    SciTech Connect

    Scheller, Maik; Baaske, Kai; Koch, Martin

    2010-04-12

    We present a tunable multifrequency continuous wave terahertz spectrometer based on two laser diodes, photoconductive antennas, and a coherent detection scheme. The system is employed to determine the absolute thickness of samples utilizing a proposed synthetic difference frequency method to circumvent the 2pi uncertainty known from conventional photomixing systems while preserving a high spatial resolution.

  5. Absolute Interrogative Intonation Patterns in Buenos Aires Spanish

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Su Ar

    2010-01-01

    In Spanish, each uttered phrase, depending on its use, has one of a variety of intonation patterns. For example, a phrase such as "Maria viene manana" "Mary is coming tomorrow" can be used as a declarative or as an absolute interrogative (a yes/no question) depending on the intonation pattern that a speaker produces. Patterns of usage also…

  6. On the absolute thermodynamics of water from computer simulations: A comparison of first-principles molecular dynamics, reactive and empirical force fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pascal, Tod A.; Schärf, Daniel; Jung, Yousung; Kühne, Thomas D.

    2012-12-01

    We present the absolute enthalpy, entropy, heat capacity, and free energy of liquid water at ambient conditions calculated by the two-phase thermodynamic method applied to ab initio, reactive and classical molecular dynamics simulations. We find that the absolute entropy and heat capacity of liquid water from ab initio molecular dynamics (AIMD) is underestimated, but falls within the range of the flexible empirical as well as the reactive force fields. The origin of the low absolute entropy of liquid water from AIMD simulations is due to an underestimation of the translational entropy by 20% and the rotational entropy by 40% compared to the TIP3P classical water model, consistent with previous studies that reports low diffusivity and increased ordering of liquid water from AIMD simulations. Classical MD simulations with rigid water models tend to be in better agreement with experiment (in particular TIP3P yielding the best agreement), although the TIP4P-ice water model, the only empirical force field that reproduces the experimental melting temperature, has the lowest entropy, perhaps expectedly. This reiterates the limitations of existing empirical water models in simultaneously capturing the thermodynamics of solid and liquid phases. We find that the quantum corrections to heat capacity of water can be as large as 60%. Although certain water models are computed to yield good absolute free energies of water compared to experiments, they are often due to the fortuitous enthalpy-entropy cancellation, but not necessarily due to the correct descriptions of enthalpy and entropy separately.

  7. Uncertainty in adaptive capacity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adger, W. Neil; Vincent, Katharine

    2005-03-01

    The capacity to adapt is a critical element of the process of adaptation: it is the vector of resources that represent the asset base from which adaptation actions can be made. Adaptive capacity can in theory be identified and measured at various scales, from the individual to the nation. The assessment of uncertainty within such measures comes from the contested knowledge domain and theories surrounding the nature of the determinants of adaptive capacity and the human action of adaptation. While generic adaptive capacity at the national level, for example, is often postulated as being dependent on health, governance and political rights, and literacy, and economic well-being, the determinants of these variables at national levels are not widely understood. We outline the nature of this uncertainty for the major elements of adaptive capacity and illustrate these issues with the example of a social vulnerability index for countries in Africa. To cite this article: W.N. Adger, K. Vincent, C. R. Geoscience 337 (2005).

  8. Absolute V-R colors of trans-Neptunian objects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alvarez-Candal, Alvaro; Ayala-Loera, Carmen; Ortiz, Jose-Luis; Duffard, Rene; Estela, Fernandez-Valenzuela; Santos-Sanz, Pablo

    2016-10-01

    The absolute magnitude of a minor body is the apparent magnitude that the body would have if observed from the Sun at a distance of 1AU. Absolute magnitudes are measured using phase curves, showing the change of the magnitude, normalized to unit helio and geo-centric distance, vs. phase angle. The absolute magnitude is then the Y-intercept of the curve. Absolute magnitudes are related to the total reflecting surface of the body and thus bring information of its size, coupled with the reflecting properties.Since 2011 our team has been collecting data from several telescopes spread in Europe and South America. We complemented our data with those available in the literature in order to construct phase curves of trans-Neptunian objects with at least three points. In a first release (Alvarez-Candal et al. 2016, A&A, 586, A155) we showed results for 110 trans-Neptunian objects using V magnitudes only, assuming an overall linear trend and taking into consideration rotational effects, for objects with known light-curves.In this contribution we show results for more than 130 objects, about 100 of them with phase curves in two filters: V and R. We compute absolute magnitudes and phase coefficients in both filters, when available. The average values are HV = 6.39 ± 2.37, βV = (0.09 ± 0.32) mag per degree, HR = 5.38 ± 2.30, and βR = (0.08 ± 0.42) mag per degree.

  9. Absolute Gravity Datum in the Age of Cold Atom Gravimeters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Childers, V. A.; Eckl, M. C.

    2014-12-01

    The international gravity datum is defined today by the International Gravity Standardization Net of 1971 (IGSN-71). The data supporting this network was measured in the 1950s and 60s using pendulum and spring-based gravimeter ties (plus some new ballistic absolute meters) to replace the prior protocol of referencing all gravity values to the earlier Potsdam value. Since this time, gravimeter technology has advanced significantly with the development and refinement of the FG-5 (the current standard of the industry) and again with the soon-to-be-available cold atom interferometric absolute gravimeters. This latest development is anticipated to provide improvement in the range of two orders of magnitude as compared to the measurement accuracy of technology utilized to develop ISGN-71. In this presentation, we will explore how the IGSN-71 might best be "modernized" given today's requirements and available instruments and resources. The National Geodetic Survey (NGS), along with other relevant US Government agencies, is concerned about establishing gravity control to establish and maintain high order geodetic networks as part of the nation's essential infrastructure. The need to modernize the nation's geodetic infrastructure was highlighted in "Precise Geodetic Infrastructure, National Requirements for a Shared Resource" National Academy of Science, 2010. The NGS mission, as dictated by Congress, is to establish and maintain the National Spatial Reference System, which includes gravity measurements. Absolute gravimeters measure the total gravity field directly and do not involve ties to other measurements. Periodic "intercomparisons" of multiple absolute gravimeters at reference gravity sites are used to constrain the behavior of the instruments to ensure that each would yield reasonably similar measurements of the same location (i.e. yield a sufficiently consistent datum when measured in disparate locales). New atomic interferometric gravimeters promise a significant

  10. GNSS Absolute Antenna Calibration at the National Geodetic Survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mader, G. L.; Bilich, A. L.; Geoghegan, C.

    2011-12-01

    Geodetic GNSS applications routinely demand millimeter precision and extremely high levels of accuracy. To achieve these accuracies, measurement and instrument biases at the centimeter to millimeter level must be understood. One of these biases is the antenna phase center, the apparent point of signal reception for a GNSS antenna. It has been well established that phase center patterns differ between antenna models and manufacturers; additional research suggests that the addition of a radome or the choice of antenna mount can significantly alter those a priori phase center patterns. For the more demanding GNSS positioning applications and especially in cases of mixed-antenna networks, it is all the more important to know antenna phase center variations as a function of both elevation and azimuth in the antenna reference frame and incorporate these models into analysis software. To help meet the needs of the high-precision GNSS community, the National Geodetic Survey (NGS) now operates an absolute antenna calibration facility. Located in Corbin, Virginia, this facility uses field measurements and actual GNSS satellite signals to quantitatively determine the carrier phase advance/delay introduced by the antenna element. The NGS facility was built to serve traditional NGS constituents such as the surveying and geodesy communities, however calibration services are open and available to all GNSS users as the calibration schedule permits. All phase center patterns computed by this facility will be publicly available and disseminated in both the ANTEX and NGS formats. We describe the NGS calibration facility, and discuss the observation models and strategy currently used to generate NGS absolute calibrations. We demonstrate that NGS absolute phase center variation (PCV) patterns are consistent with published values determined by other absolute antenna calibration facilities, and compare absolute calibrations to the traditional NGS relative calibrations.

  11. Dual capacity reciprocating compressor

    DOEpatents

    Wolfe, R.W.

    1984-10-30

    A multi-cylinder compressor particularly useful in connection with northern climate heat pumps and in which different capacities are available in accordance with reversing motor rotation is provided with an eccentric cam on a crank pin under a fraction of the connecting rods, and arranged for rotation upon the crank pin between opposite positions 180[degree] apart so that with cam rotation on the crank pin such that the crank throw is at its normal maximum value all pistons pump at full capacity, and with rotation of the crank shaft in the opposite direction the cam moves to a circumferential position on the crank pin such that the overall crank throw is zero. Pistons whose connecting rods ride on a crank pin without a cam pump their normal rate with either crank rotational direction. Thus a small clearance volume is provided for any piston that moves when in either capacity mode of operation. 6 figs.

  12. Dual capacity reciprocating compressor

    DOEpatents

    Wolfe, Robert W.

    1984-01-01

    A multi-cylinder compressor 10 particularly useful in connection with northern climate heat pumps and in which different capacities are available in accordance with reversing motor 16 rotation is provided with an eccentric cam 38 on a crank pin 34 under a fraction of the connecting rods, and arranged for rotation upon the crank pin between opposite positions 180.degree. apart so that with cam rotation on the crank pin such that the crank throw is at its normal maximum value all pistons pump at full capacity, and with rotation of the crank shaft in the opposite direction the cam moves to a circumferential position on the crank pin such that the overall crank throw is zero. Pistons 24 whose connecting rods 30 ride on a crank pin 36 without a cam pump their normal rate with either crank rotational direction. Thus a small clearance volume is provided for any piston that moves when in either capacity mode of operation.

  13. Geothermal Plant Capacity Factors

    SciTech Connect

    Greg Mines; Jay Nathwani; Christopher Richard; Hillary Hanson; Rachel Wood

    2015-01-01

    The capacity factors recently provided by the Energy Information Administration (EIA) indicated this plant performance metric had declined for geothermal power plants since 2008. Though capacity factor is a term commonly used by geothermal stakeholders to express the ability of a plant to produce power, it is a term frequently misunderstood and in some instances incorrectly used. In this paper we discuss how this capacity factor is defined and utilized by the EIA, including discussion on the information that the EIA requests from operations in their 923 and 860 forms that are submitted both monthly and annually by geothermal operators. A discussion is also provided regarding the entities utilizing the information in the EIA reports, and how those entities can misinterpret the data being supplied by the operators. The intent of the paper is to inform the facility operators as the importance of the accuracy of the data that they provide, and the implications of not providing the correct information.

  14. Capacity Maximizing Constellations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barsoum, Maged; Jones, Christopher

    2010-01-01

    Some non-traditional signal constellations have been proposed for transmission of data over the Additive White Gaussian Noise (AWGN) channel using such channel-capacity-approaching codes as low-density parity-check (LDPC) or turbo codes. Computational simulations have shown performance gains of more than 1 dB over traditional constellations. These gains could be translated to bandwidth- efficient communications, variously, over longer distances, using less power, or using smaller antennas. The proposed constellations have been used in a bit-interleaved coded modulation system employing state-ofthe-art LDPC codes. In computational simulations, these constellations were shown to afford performance gains over traditional constellations as predicted by the gap between the parallel decoding capacity of the constellations and the Gaussian capacity

  15. Proteomics: capacity versus utility.

    PubMed

    Harry, J L; Wilkins, M R; Herbert, B R; Packer, N H; Gooley, A A; Williams, K L

    2000-04-01

    Until recently scientists studied genes or proteins one at a time. With improvements in technology, new tools have become available to study the complex interactions that occur in biological systems. Global studies are required to do this, and these will involve genomic and proteomic approaches. High-throughput methods are necessary in each case because the number of genes and proteins in even the simplest of organisms are immense. In the developmental phase of genomics, the emphasis was on the generation and assembly of large amounts of nucleic acid sequence data. Proteomics is currently in a phase of technological development and establishment, and demonstrating the capacity for high throughput is a major challenge. However, funding bodies (both in the public and private sector) are increasingly focused on the usefulness of this capacity. Here we review the current state of proteome research in terms of capacity and utility.

  16. The Moral Capacity Profile

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilks, Duffy; Ratheal, Juli D'Ann

    2011-01-01

    Effective counseling practice continues to be inevitably linked to underlying theories of behavioral causality. In this article, the authors present the Moral Capacity Profile of an individual from the perspective of the Amoral, Moral, Quasi-Moral/Quasi-Immoral, and Immoral Model of Behavior, a model that uniquely expands counseling's theoretical…

  17. Flood Bypass Capacity Optimization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Siclari, A.; Hui, R.; Lund, J. R.

    2015-12-01

    Large river flows can damage adjacent flood-prone areas, by exceeding river channel and levee capacities. Particularly large floods are difficult to contain in leveed river banks alone. Flood bypasses often can efficiently reduce flood risks, where excess river flow is diverted over a weir to bypasses, that incur much less damage and cost. Additional benefits of bypasses include ecosystem protection, agriculture, groundwater recharge and recreation. Constructing or expanding an existing bypass costs in land purchase easements, and levee setbacks. Accounting for such benefits and costs, this study develops a simple mathematical model for optimizing flood bypass capacity using benefit-cost and risk analysis. Application to the Yolo Bypass, an existing bypass along the Sacramento River in California, estimates optimal capacity that economically reduces flood damage and increases various benefits, especially for agriculture. Land availability is likely to limit bypass expansion. Compensation for landowners could relax such limitations. Other economic values could affect the optimal results, which are shown by sensitivity analysis on major parameters. By including land geography into the model, location of promising capacity expansions can be identified.

  18. Absolute Configurations of Zingiberenols Isolated from Ginger (Zingiber officinale) Rhizomes.

    PubMed

    Khrimian, Ashot; Shirali, Shyam; Guzman, Filadelfo

    2015-12-24

    Two stereoisomeric zingiberenols in ginger were identified as (3R,6R,7S)-1,10-bisaboladien-3-ol (2) and (3S,6R,7S)-1,10-bisaboladien-3-ol (5). Absolute configurations were assigned by utilizing 1,10-bisaboladien-3-ol stereoisomers and two gas-chromatography columns: a 25 m Hydrodex-β-6TBDM and 60 m DB-5MS. The C-6 and C-7 absolute configurations in both zingiberenols match those of zingiberene present abundantly in ginger rhizomes. Interestingly, zingiberenol 2 has recently been identified as a male-produced sex pheromone of the rice stink bug, Oebalus poecilus, thus indicating that ginger plants may be a potential source of the sex pheromone of this bug.

  19. In-flight Absolute Radiometric Calibration of the Thematic Mapper

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Castle, K. R.; Holm, R. G.; Kastner, C. J.; Palmer, J. M.; Slater, P. N.; Dinguirard, M.; Ezra, C. E.; Jackson, D.; Savage, R. K.

    1984-01-01

    The Thematic Mapper (TM) multispectral scanner system was placed into Earth orbit on July 16, 1982, as part of NASA's LANDSAT 4 payload. To determine temporal changes of the absolute radiometric calibration of the entire system in flight, spectroradiometric measurements of the ground and the atmosphere are made simultaneously with TM image acquisitions over the White Sands, New Mexico area. By entering the measured values into an atmospheric radiative transfer program, the radiance levels at the entrance pupil of the TM in four of the TM spectral bands are determined. These levels are compared to the output digital counts from the detectors that sampled the radiometrically measured ground area, thus providing an absolute radiometric calibration of the entire TM system utilizing those detectors. By reference to an adjacent, larger uniform area, the calibration is extended to all 16 detectors in each of the three bands.

  20. Absolute measurement of the extreme UV solar flux

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carlson, R. W.; Ogawa, H. S.; Judge, D. L.; Phillips, E.

    1984-01-01

    A windowless rare-gas ionization chamber has been developed to measure the absolute value of the solar extreme UV flux in the 50-575-A region. Successful results were obtained on a solar-pointing sounding rocket. The ionization chamber, operated in total absorption, is an inherently stable absolute detector of ionizing UV radiation and was designed to be independent of effects from secondary ionization and gas effusion. The net error of the measurement is + or - 7.3 percent, which is primarily due to residual outgassing in the instrument, other errors such as multiple ionization, photoelectron collection, and extrapolation to the zero atmospheric optical depth being small in comparison. For the day of the flight, Aug. 10, 1982, the solar irradiance (50-575 A), normalized to unit solar distance, was found to be 5.71 + or - 0.42 x 10 to the 10th photons per sq cm sec.

  1. In-flight absolute radiometric calibration of the thematic mapper

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Castle, K. R.; Holm, R. G.; Kastner, C. J.; Palmer, J. M.; Slater, P. N.; Dinguirard, M.; Ezra, C. E.; Jackson, R. D.; Savage, R. K.

    1984-01-01

    In order to determine temporal changes of the absolute radiometric calibration of the entire TM system in flight spectroradiometric measurements of the ground and the atmosphere were made simultaneously with TM image collections over the White Sands, New Mexico area. By entering the measured values in an atmospheric radiative transfer program, the radiance levels in four of the spectral bands of the TM were determined, band 1:0.45 to 0.52 micrometers, band 2:0.53 to 0.61 micrometers band 3:0.62 to 0.70 micrometers and 4:0.78 to 0.91 micrometers. These levels were compared to the output digital counts from the detectors that sampled the radiometrically measured ground area, thus providing an absolute radiometric calibration of the entire TM system utilizing those detectors.

  2. In-flight absolute radiometric calibration of the Thematic Mapper

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Castle, K. R.; Holm, R. G.; Kastner, C. J.; Palmer, J. M.; Slater, P. N.; Dinguirard, M.; Ezra, C. E.; Jackson, R. D.; Savage, R. K.

    1984-01-01

    In order to determine temporal changes of the absolute radiometric calibration of the entire TM system in flight spectroradiometric measurements of the ground and the atmosphere were made simultaneously with TM image collections over the White Sands, NM area. By entering the measured values in an atmospheric radiative transfer program, the radiance levels in four of the spectral bands of the TM were determined, band 1: 0.45 to 0.52 micrometers, band 2: 0.53 to 0.61 micrometers, band 3: 0.62 to 0.70 micrometers, and 4: 0.78 to 0.91 micrometers. These levels were compared to the output digital counts from the detectors that sampled the radiometrically measured ground area, thus providing an absolute radiometric calibration of the entire TM system utilizing those detectors. Previously announced in STAR as N84-15633

  3. Absolute concentration measurements inside a jet plume using video digitization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vauquelin, O.

    An experimental system based on digitized video image analysis is used to measure the local value of the concentration inside a plume. Experiments are carried out in a wind-tunnel for a smoke-seeded turbulent jet plume illuminated with a laser beam. Each test is filmed, subsequently video images are digitized and analysed in order to determine the smoke absolute concentration corresponding to each pixel gray level. This non-intrusive measurement technique is first calibrated and different laws connecting gray level to concentration are established. As a first application, concentration measurements are made inside a turbulent jet plume and compared with measurements conducted using a classic gas analysis method. We finally present and discuss the possibilities offered for the measurements of absolute concentration fluctuations.

  4. Absolute limit on rotation of gravitationally bound stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Glendenning, N. K.

    1994-03-01

    The authors seek an absolute limit on the rotational period for a neutron star as a function of its mass, based on the minimal constraints imposed by Einstein's theory of relativity, Le Chatelier's principle, causality, and a low-density equation of state, uncertainties which can be evaluated as to their effect on the result. This establishes a limiting curve in the mass-period plane below which no pulsar that is a neutron star can lie. For example, the minimum possible Kepler period, which is an absolute limit on rotation below which mass-shedding would occur, is 0.33 ms for a M = 1.442 solar mass neutron star (the mass of PSR1913+16). If the limit were found to be broken by any pulsar, it would signal that the confined hadronic phase of ordinary nucleons and nuclei is only metastable.

  5. Absolute limit on rotation of gravitationally bound stars

    SciTech Connect

    Glendenning, N.K.

    1994-03-01

    The authors seek an absolute limit on the rotational period for a neutron star as a function of its mass, based on the minimal constraints imposed by Einstein`s theory of relativity, Le Chatelier`s principle, causality and a low-density equation of state, uncertainties which can be evaluated as to their effect on the result. This establishes a limiting curve in the mass-period plane below which no pulsar that is a neutron star can lie. For example, the minimum possible Kepler period, which is an absolute limit on rotation below which mass-shedding would occur, is 0.33 ms for a M = 1.442 M{circle_dot} neutron star (the mass of PSR1913+16). If the limit were found to be broken by any pulsar, it would signal that the confined hadronic phase of ordinary nucleons and nuclei is only metastable, an extraordinary conclusion.

  6. Henry More and the development of absolute time.

    PubMed

    Thomas, Emily

    2015-12-01

    This paper explores the nature, development and influence of the first English account of absolute time, put forward in the mid-seventeenth century by the 'Cambridge Platonist' Henry More. Against claims in the literature that More does not have an account of time, this paper sets out More's evolving account and shows that it reveals the lasting influence of Plotinus. Further, this paper argues that More developed his views on time in response to his adoption of Descartes' vortex cosmology and cosmogony, providing new evidence of More's wider project to absorb Cartesian natural philosophy into his Platonic metaphysics. Finally, this paper argues that More should be added to the list of sources that later English thinkers - including Newton and Samuel Clarke - drew on in constructing their absolute accounts of time. PMID:26568082

  7. Precision goniometer equipped with a 22-bit absolute rotary encoder.

    PubMed

    Xiaowei, Z; Ando, M; Jidong, W

    1998-05-01

    The calibration of a compact precision goniometer equipped with a 22-bit absolute rotary encoder is presented. The goniometer is a modified Huber 410 goniometer: the diffraction angles can be coarsely generated by a stepping-motor-driven worm gear and precisely interpolated by a piezoactuator-driven tangent arm. The angular accuracy of the precision rotary stage was evaluated with an autocollimator. It was shown that the deviation from circularity of the rolling bearing utilized in the precision rotary stage restricts the angular positioning accuracy of the goniometer, and results in an angular accuracy ten times larger than the angular resolution of 0.01 arcsec. The 22-bit encoder was calibrated by an incremental rotary encoder. It became evident that the accuracy of the absolute encoder is approximately 18 bit due to systematic errors.

  8. Determination of absolute internal conversion coefficients using the SAGE spectrometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sorri, J.; Greenlees, P. T.; Papadakis, P.; Konki, J.; Cox, D. M.; Auranen, K.; Partanen, J.; Sandzelius, M.; Pakarinen, J.; Rahkila, P.; Uusitalo, J.; Herzberg, R.-D.; Smallcombe, J.; Davies, P. J.; Barton, C. J.; Jenkins, D. G.

    2016-03-01

    A non-reference based method to determine internal conversion coefficients using the SAGE spectrometer is carried out for transitions in the nuclei of 154Sm, 152Sm and 166Yb. The Normalised-Peak-to-Gamma method is in general an efficient tool to extract internal conversion coefficients. However, in many cases the required well-known reference transitions are not available. The data analysis steps required to determine absolute internal conversion coefficients with the SAGE spectrometer are presented. In addition, several background suppression methods are introduced and an example of how ancillary detectors can be used to select specific reaction products is given. The results obtained for ground-state band E2 transitions show that the absolute internal conversion coefficients can be extracted using the methods described with a reasonable accuracy. In some cases of less intense transitions only an upper limit for the internal conversion coefficient could be given.

  9. Flow rate calibration for absolute cell counting rationale and design.

    PubMed

    Walker, Clare; Barnett, David

    2006-05-01

    There is a need for absolute leukocyte enumeration in the clinical setting, and accurate, reliable (and affordable) technology to determine absolute leukocyte counts has been developed. Such technology includes single platform and dual platform approaches. Derivations of these counts commonly incorporate the addition of a known number of latex microsphere beads to a blood sample, although it has been suggested that the addition of beads to a sample may only be required to act as an internal quality control procedure for assessing the pipetting error. This unit provides the technical details for undertaking flow rate calibration that obviates the need to add reference beads to each sample. It is envisaged that this report will provide the basis for subsequent clinical evaluations of this novel approach. PMID:18770842

  10. Enumeration of absolute cell counts using immunophenotypic techniques.

    PubMed

    Mandy, F; Brando, B

    2001-05-01

    Absolute counting of cells or cell subsets has a number of significant clinical applications: monitoring the disease status of HIV-infected patients, enumerating residual white blood cells in leukoreduced blood products, and assessing immunodeficiency in a variety of situations. The single-platform method (flow cytometry alone) has emerged as the method of choice for absolute cell enumeration. This technology counts only the cells of interest in a precisely determined blood volume. Exact cell identification is accomplished by a logical electronic gating algorithm capable of identifying lineage-specific immunofluorescent markers. Exclusion of unwanted cells is automatic. This extensive and detailed unit presents protocols for both volumetric and flow-rate determination of residual white blood cells and of leukocyte subsets. PMID:18770719

  11. Proposal for an absolute, atomic definition of mass

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wignall, J. W. G.

    1991-11-01

    It is proposed that the mass of a particle be defined absolutely as its de Broglie frequency, measured as the mean de Broglie wavelength of the particle when it has a mean speed (v) and Lorentz factor (gamma); the masses of systems too large to have a measurable de Broglie wavelength mean are then to be derived by specifying the usual inertial and additive properties of mass. This definition avoids the use of an arbitrary macroscopic standard such as the prototype kilogram, and, if present theory is correct, does not even require the choice of a specific particle as a mass standard. Suggestions are made as to how this absolute mass can be realized and measured at the macroscopic level and, finally, some comments are made on the effect of the new definition on the form of the equations of physics.

  12. Simultaneously improving the sensitivity and absolute accuracy of CPT magnetometer.

    PubMed

    Liang, Shang-Qing; Yang, Guo-Qing; Xu, Yun-Fei; Lin, Qiang; Liu, Zhi-Heng; Chen, Zheng-Xiang

    2014-03-24

    A new method to improve the sensitivity and absolute accuracy simultaneously for coherent population trapping (CPT) magnetometer based on the differential detection method is presented. Two modulated optical beams with orthogonal circular polarizations are applied, in one of which two magnetic resonances are excited simultaneously by modulating a 3.4GHz microwave with Larmor frequency. When a microwave frequency shift is introduced, the difference in the power transmitted through the cell in each beam shows a low noise resonance. The sensitivity of 2pT/Hz @ 10Hz is achieved. Meanwhile, the absolute accuracy of ± 0.5nT within the magnetic field ranging from 20000nT to 100000nT is realized.

  13. Absolute phase effects on CPMG-type pulse sequences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mandal, Soumyajit; Oh, Sangwon; Hürlimann, Martin D.

    2015-12-01

    We describe and analyze the effects of transients within radio-frequency (RF) pulses on multiple-pulse NMR measurements such as the well-known Carr-Purcell-Meiboom-Gill (CPMG) sequence. These transients are functions of the absolute RF phases at the beginning and end of the pulse, and are thus affected by the timing of the pulse sequence with respect to the period of the RF waveform. Changes in transients between refocusing pulses in CPMG-type sequences can result in signal decay, persistent oscillations, changes in echo shape, and other effects. We have explored such effects by performing experiments in two different low-frequency NMR systems. The first uses a conventional tuned-and-matched probe circuit, while the second uses an ultra-broadband un-tuned or non-resonant probe circuit. We show that there are distinct differences between the absolute phase effects in these two systems, and present simple models that explain these differences.

  14. Absolute magnitude calibration using trigonometric parallax - Incomplete, spectroscopic samples

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ratnatunga, Kavan U.; Casertano, Stefano

    1991-01-01

    A new numerical algorithm is used to calibrate the absolute magnitude of spectroscopically selected stars from their observed trigonometric parallax. This procedure, based on maximum-likelihood estimation, can retrieve unbiased estimates of the intrinsic absolute magnitude and its dispersion even from incomplete samples suffering from selection biases in apparent magnitude and color. It can also make full use of low accuracy and negative parallaxes and incorporate censorship on reported parallax values. Accurate error estimates are derived for each of the fitted parameters. The algorithm allows an a posteriori check of whether the fitted model gives a good representation of the observations. The procedure is described in general and applied to both real and simulated data.

  15. Recovery of absolute threshold with UVA-induced retinal damage

    SciTech Connect

    Henton, W.W.; Sykes, S.M.

    1984-06-01

    A within-trial psychophysical procedure tracked the initial loss and subsequent recovery of visual thresholds in albino rats exposed to ultraviolet light at 350 nanometers and 0.4 milliwatts per square centimeter. Absolute thresholds increased up to 5 log units immediately following the 15 hour ultraviolet exposure, with a daily recovery of 1-2 log to asymptotic thresholds over a 7-day post-exposure period. The corresponding retinal damage on Day 1 included extensive vesiculation of the photoreceptor outer segments, vacuolation of the inner segments, and pyknosis of cell nuclei. The total number of photoreceptor nuclei and outer segments was unchanged relative to control eyes through post-exposure Day 3. Both nuclei and outer segment counts then consistently decreased 15-20 percent between Days 3-7. The two-stage loss of photoreceptors but daily recovery of absolute thresholds again suggests a significant dissociation of retinal structure and psychophysical function in light-induced ocular pathology.

  16. Diagnostic Application of Absolute Neutron Activation Analysis in Hematology

    SciTech Connect

    Zamboni, C.B.; Oliveira, L.C.; Dalaqua, L. Jr.

    2004-10-03

    The Absolute Neutron Activation Analysis (ANAA) technique was used to determine element concentrations of Cl and Na in blood of healthy group (male and female blood donators), select from Blood Banks at Sao Paulo city, to provide information which can help in diagnosis of patients. This study permitted to perform a discussion about the advantages and limitations of using this nuclear methodology in hematological examinations.

  17. Absolute Helicity Induction in Three-Dimensional Homochiral Frameworks

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Jian; Bu, Xianhui

    2009-01-01

    Three Co(II) isomers assembled from d-, or l-, or dl-camphorate together with achiral isonicotinate exhibit a clear relationship between chirality and helicity even though chiral molecules are not in the backbone of the helix: the absolute sense of helix made of achiral components is controlled by chains of metal and enantiopure chiral ligands running perpendicular to helix in two enantiomeric forms. PMID:19099070

  18. Absolute configuration of hydroxycitric acid produced by microorganisms.

    PubMed

    Hida, Hiroyuki; Yamada, Takashi; Yamada, Yasuhiro

    2006-08-01

    Optical resolution for (2S,3R) and (2R,3S)-hydroxycitric acid (HCA) enantiomers was developed using chiral column chromatography. HCA from Bacillus megaterium G45C and Streptomyces sp. U121, newly isolated in our previous study, was analyzed to determine the absolute configuration. These results indicate that both strains generate optically pure (2S,3R)-hibiscus type HCA enantiomer. PMID:16926511

  19. On the Absolute Continuity of the Blackwell Measure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bárány, Balázs; Kolossváry, István

    2015-04-01

    In 1957, Blackwell expressed the entropy of hidden Markov chains using a measure which can be characterised as an invariant measure for an iterated function system with place-dependent weights. This measure, called the Blackwell measure, plays a central role in understanding the entropy rate and other important characteristics of fundamental models in information theory. We show that for a suitable set of parameter values the Blackwell measure is absolutely continuous for almost every parameter in the case of binary symmetric channels.

  20. Absolute Bunch Length Measurements by Incoherent Radiation Fluctuation Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Sannibale, F.; Stupakov, G.V.; Zolotorev, M.S.; Filippetto, D.; Jagerhofer, L.; /Vienna, Tech. U.

    2009-12-09

    By analyzing the pulse to pulse intensity fluctuations of the radiation emitted by a charge particle in the incoherent part of the spectrum, it is possible to extract information about the spatial distribution of the beam. At the Advanced Light Source (ALS) of the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, we have developed and successfully tested a simple scheme based on this principle that allows for the absolute measurement of the rms bunch length. A description of the method and the experimental results are presented.

  1. Absolute bunch length measurements by incoherent radiation fluctuation analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Sannibale, Fernando; Stupakov, Gennady; Zolotorev, Max; Filippetto, Daniele; Jagerhofer, Lukas

    2008-09-29

    By analyzing the pulse to pulse intensity fluctuations of the radiation emitted by a charge particle in the incoherent part of the spectrum, it is possible to extract information about the spatial distribution of the beam. At the Advanced Light Source (ALS) of the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, we have developed and successfully tested a simple scheme based on this principle that allows for the absolute measurement of the rms bunch length. A description of the method and the experimental results are presented.

  2. Successful treatment of pyogenic granuloma with injection of absolute ethanol.

    PubMed

    Ichimiya, Makoto; Yoshikawa, Yoshiaki; Hamamoto, Yoshiaki; Muto, Masahiko

    2004-04-01

    Pyogenic granuloma (PG) is a small, almost always solitary, sessile or pedunculated, raspberry-like vegetation of exuberant granulation tissue. Conservative treatment by techniques such as cryosurgery, laser surgery, and electrodesiccation are usually adequate, whereas excisional treatment can often result in noticeable scars. We attempted a different approach using an injection of absolute ethanol in five patients with recurrence due to inadequate cryosurgery. This therapy is less invasive than surgical excision and appears to be an alternative therapy for PG.

  3. Engine performance and the determination of absolute ceiling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Diehl, Walter S

    1924-01-01

    This report contains a brief study of the variation of engine power with temperature and pressure. The variation of propeller efficiency in standard atmosphere is obtained from the general efficiency curve which is developed in NACA report no. 168. The variation of both power available and power required are then determined and curves plotted, so that the absolute ceiling may be read directly from any known sea-level value of the ratio of power available to power required.

  4. Absolute GNSS Antenna Calibration at the National Geodetic Survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mader, G.; Bilich, A.; Geoghegan, C.

    2012-04-01

    Geodetic GNSS applications routinely demand millimeter precision and extremely high levels of accuracy. To achieve these accuracies, measurement and instrument biases at the centimeter to millimeter level must be understood. One of these biases is the antenna phase center, the apparent point of signal reception for a GNSS antenna. It has been well established that phase center patterns differ between antenna models and manufacturers; additional research suggests that the addition of a radome or the choice of antenna mount can significantly alter those a priori phase center patterns. For the more demanding GNSS positioning applications and especially in cases of mixed-antenna networks, it is all the more important to know antenna phase center variations as a function of both elevation and azimuth in the antenna reference frame and incorporate these models into analysis software. To help meet the needs of the high-precision GNSS community, the National Geodetic Survey (NGS) now operates an absolute antenna calibration facility. Located in Corbin, Virginia, this facility uses field measurements and actual GNSS satellite signals to quantitatively determine the carrier phase advance/delay introduced by the antenna element. The NGS facility was built to serve traditional NGS constituents such as the surveying and geodesy communities, however calibration services are open and available to all GNSS users as the calibration schedule permits. All phase center patterns computed by this facility will be publicly available and disseminated in both the ANTEX and NGS formats. We describe the NGS calibration facility, and discuss the observation models and strategy currently used to generate NGS absolute calibrations. We demonstrate that NGS absolute phase center variation (PCV) patterns are consistent with published values determined by other absolute antenna calibration facilities, and outline future planned refinements to the system.

  5. Electroweak absolute, meta-, and thermal stability in neutrino mass models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lindner, Manfred; Patel, Hiren H.; Radovčić, Branimir

    2016-04-01

    We analyze the stability of the electroweak vacuum in neutrino mass models containing right-handed neutrinos or fermionic isotriplets. In addition to considering absolute stability, we place limits on the Yukawa couplings of new fermions based on metastability and thermal stability in the early Universe. Our results reveal that the upper limits on the neutrino Yukawa couplings can change significantly when the top quark mass is allowed to vary within the experimental range of uncertainty in its determination.

  6. Absolute calibration and beam background of the Squid Polarimeter

    SciTech Connect

    Blaskiewicz, M.M.; Cameron, P.R.; Shea, T.J.

    1996-12-31

    The problem of beam background in Squid Polarimetry is not without residual benefits. The authors may deliberately generate beam background by gently kicking the beam at the spin tune frequency. This signal may be used to accomplish a simple and accurate absolute calibration of the polarimeter. The authors present details of beam background calculations and their application to polarimeter calibration, and suggest a simple proof-of-principle accelerator experiment.

  7. Absolute intensity of radiation emitted by uranium plasmas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jalufka, N. W.; Lee, J. H.; Mcfarland, D. R.

    1975-01-01

    The absolute intensity of radiation emitted by fissioning and nonfissioning uranium plasmas in the spectral range from 350 nm to 1000 nm was measured. The plasma was produced in a plasma-focus apparatus and the plasma properties are simular to those anticipated for plasma-core nuclear reactors. The results are expected to contribute to the establishment of design criteria for the development of plasma-core reactors.

  8. On the Absolutely Continuous Spectrum of Stark Operators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perelman, Galina

    The stability of the absolutely continuous spectrum of the one-dimensional Stark operator under perturbations of the potential is discussed. The focus is on proving this stability under minimal assumptions on smoothness of the perturbation. A general criterion is presented together with some applications. These include the case of periodic perturbations where we show that any perturbation vL1()∩H-1/2() preserves the a.c. spectrum.

  9. Bio-Inspired Stretchable Absolute Pressure Sensor Network.

    PubMed

    Guo, Yue; Li, Yu-Hung; Guo, Zhiqiang; Kim, Kyunglok; Chang, Fu-Kuo; Wang, Shan X

    2016-01-02

    A bio-inspired absolute pressure sensor network has been developed. Absolute pressure sensors, distributed on multiple silicon islands, are connected as a network by stretchable polyimide wires. This sensor network, made on a 4'' wafer, has 77 nodes and can be mounted on various curved surfaces to cover an area up to 0.64 m × 0.64 m, which is 100 times larger than its original size. Due to Micro Electro-Mechanical system (MEMS) surface micromachining technology, ultrathin sensing nodes can be realized with thicknesses of less than 100 µm. Additionally, good linearity and high sensitivity (~14 mV/V/bar) have been achieved. Since the MEMS sensor process has also been well integrated with a flexible polymer substrate process, the entire sensor network can be fabricated in a time-efficient and cost-effective manner. Moreover, an accurate pressure contour can be obtained from the sensor network. Therefore, this absolute pressure sensor network holds significant promise for smart vehicle applications, especially for unmanned aerial vehicles.

  10. Bio-Inspired Stretchable Absolute Pressure Sensor Network

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Yue; Li, Yu-Hung; Guo, Zhiqiang; Kim, Kyunglok; Chang, Fu-Kuo; Wang, Shan X.

    2016-01-01

    A bio-inspired absolute pressure sensor network has been developed. Absolute pressure sensors, distributed on multiple silicon islands, are connected as a network by stretchable polyimide wires. This sensor network, made on a 4’’ wafer, has 77 nodes and can be mounted on various curved surfaces to cover an area up to 0.64 m × 0.64 m, which is 100 times larger than its original size. Due to Micro Electro-Mechanical system (MEMS) surface micromachining technology, ultrathin sensing nodes can be realized with thicknesses of less than 100 µm. Additionally, good linearity and high sensitivity (~14 mV/V/bar) have been achieved. Since the MEMS sensor process has also been well integrated with a flexible polymer substrate process, the entire sensor network can be fabricated in a time-efficient and cost-effective manner. Moreover, an accurate pressure contour can be obtained from the sensor network. Therefore, this absolute pressure sensor network holds significant promise for smart vehicle applications, especially for unmanned aerial vehicles. PMID:26729134

  11. Overspecification of color, pattern, and size: salience, absoluteness, and consistency

    PubMed Central

    Tarenskeen, Sammie; Broersma, Mirjam; Geurts, Bart

    2015-01-01

    The rates of overspecification of color, pattern, and size are compared, to investigate how salience and absoluteness contribute to the production of overspecification. Color and pattern are absolute and salient attributes, whereas size is relative and less salient. Additionally, a tendency toward consistent responses is assessed. Using a within-participants design, we find similar rates of color and pattern overspecification, which are both higher than the rate of size overspecification. Using a between-participants design, however, we find similar rates of pattern and size overspecification, which are both lower than the rate of color overspecification. This indicates that although many speakers are more likely to include color than pattern (probably because color is more salient), they may also treat pattern like color due to a tendency toward consistency. We find no increase in size overspecification when the salience of size is increased, suggesting that speakers are more likely to include absolute than relative attributes. However, we do find an increase in size overspecification when mentioning the attributes is triggered, which again shows that speakers tend to refer in a consistent manner, and that there are circumstances in which even size overspecification is frequently produced. PMID:26594190

  12. Absolute measurements of nonlinear absorption near LIDT at 193 nm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blaschke, Holger; Ristau, Detlev; Welsch, Eberhard; Apel, Oliver

    2001-04-01

    Previous investigations indicate that oxide coatings exhibit non-linear absorption phenomena below 200 nm. Hereby, absorption data of Al2O3 thin film coatings has been determined absolutely by laser calorimetry (LCA) at 193 nm in the low fluence regime. As an alternative, on the basis of the pulsed surface thermal lens technique (STL), photothermal measurements allow to determine the absorption relatively at fluence levels both in the subdamage fluence range far from the damage onset and close to the LIDT. By combining the two measurement techniques, the absolute determination of linear as well as multiphoton absorption can be achieved also in the vicinity of the laser damage fluences. This is of crucial interest because the initiation of damage onset can be observed immediately. Absolute absorption data of Al2O3 coatings at different laser fluences stating of some mJoule/cm2 will be presented for the wavelength 193 nm. Thus, the correlation between the increase of absorption and the onset of breakdown can be illustrated impressively. The evaluation and discussion of the experimental results are focused on the degree of non-linearity of the investigated absorption behavior of oxide single layers initiating the optical breakdown of UV oxide coatings.

  13. Bio-Inspired Stretchable Absolute Pressure Sensor Network.

    PubMed

    Guo, Yue; Li, Yu-Hung; Guo, Zhiqiang; Kim, Kyunglok; Chang, Fu-Kuo; Wang, Shan X

    2016-01-01

    A bio-inspired absolute pressure sensor network has been developed. Absolute pressure sensors, distributed on multiple silicon islands, are connected as a network by stretchable polyimide wires. This sensor network, made on a 4'' wafer, has 77 nodes and can be mounted on various curved surfaces to cover an area up to 0.64 m × 0.64 m, which is 100 times larger than its original size. Due to Micro Electro-Mechanical system (MEMS) surface micromachining technology, ultrathin sensing nodes can be realized with thicknesses of less than 100 µm. Additionally, good linearity and high sensitivity (~14 mV/V/bar) have been achieved. Since the MEMS sensor process has also been well integrated with a flexible polymer substrate process, the entire sensor network can be fabricated in a time-efficient and cost-effective manner. Moreover, an accurate pressure contour can be obtained from the sensor network. Therefore, this absolute pressure sensor network holds significant promise for smart vehicle applications, especially for unmanned aerial vehicles. PMID:26729134

  14. Absolute surface reconstruction by slope metrology and photogrammetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dong, Yue

    Developing the manufacture of aspheric and freeform optical elements requires an advanced metrology method which is capable of inspecting these elements with arbitrary freeform surfaces. In this dissertation, a new surface measurement scheme is investigated for such a purpose, which is to measure the absolute surface shape of an object under test through its surface slope information obtained by photogrammetric measurement. A laser beam propagating toward the object reflects on its surface while the vectors of the incident and reflected beams are evaluated from the four spots they leave on the two parallel transparent windows in front of the object. The spots' spatial coordinates are determined by photogrammetry. With the knowledge of the incident and reflected beam vectors, the local slope information of the object surface is obtained through vector calculus and finally yields the absolute object surface profile by a reconstruction algorithm. An experimental setup is designed and the proposed measuring principle is experimentally demonstrated by measuring the absolute surface shape of a spherical mirror. The measurement uncertainty is analyzed, and efforts for improvement are made accordingly. In particular, structured windows are designed and fabricated to generate uniform scattering spots left by the transmitted laser beams. Calibration of the fringe reflection instrument, another typical surface slope measurement method, is also reported in the dissertation. Finally, a method for uncertainty analysis of a photogrammetry measurement system by optical simulation is investigated.

  15. An Absolute Measurement of Resonance-Resolved Electron Impact Excitation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reisenfeld, Daniel Brett

    1998-11-01

    An experiment to measure electron-impact excitation (EIE) of multiply-charged ions is described. An absolute measurement has been carried out of the cross section for EIE of Si2+(3s2/ 1S/to3s3p/ 1P) from energies below threshold to 11 eV above. A beams modulation technique with inclined electron and ion beams was used. Radiation at 120.7 nm from the excited ions was detected using an absolutely calibrated optical system. The analysis of the experimental data requires a determination of the population fraction of the Si2+ (3s3p/ 3Po) metastable state in the incident ion beam, which was measured to be 0.210 ± 0.018. The data have been corrected for contributions to the signal from radiative decay following excitation from the metastable state to 3s3p1P and 3p2/ 3P, and excitation of the ground state to levels above 3s3p/ 1P. The experimental 0.56 ± 0.08 eV energy spread has allowed us to resolve complex resonance structure throughout the studied energy range. At the reported ±14% uncertainty level (90% confidence limit), the measured structure and absolute scale of the cross section are in good agreement with 12-state close-coupling R-matrix calculations.

  16. Son preference in Indian families: absolute versus relative wealth effects.

    PubMed

    Gaudin, Sylvestre

    2011-02-01

    The desire for male children is prevalent in India, where son preference has been shown to affect fertility behavior and intrahousehold allocation of resources. Economic theory predicts less gender discrimination in wealthier households, but demographers and sociologists have argued that wealth can exacerbate bias in the Indian context. I argue that these apparently conflicting theories can be reconciled and simultaneously tested if one considers that they are based on two different notions of wealth: one related to resource constraints (absolute wealth), and the other to notions of local status (relative wealth). Using cross-sectional data from the 1998-1999 and 2005-2006 National Family and Health Surveys, I construct measures of absolute and relative wealth by using principal components analysis. A series of statistical models of son preference is estimated by using multilevel methods. Results consistently show that higher absolute wealth is strongly associated with lower son preference, and the effect is 20%-40% stronger when the household's community-specific wealth score is included in the regression. Coefficients on relative wealth are positive and significant although lower in magnitude. Results are robust to using different samples, alternative groupings of households in local areas, different estimation methods, and alternative dependent variables.

  17. Absolute photoionization cross-section of the propargyl radical

    SciTech Connect

    Savee, John D.; Welz, Oliver; Taatjes, Craig A.; Osborn, David L.; Soorkia, Satchin; Selby, Talitha M.

    2012-04-07

    Using synchrotron-generated vacuum-ultraviolet radiation and multiplexed time-resolved photoionization mass spectrometry we have measured the absolute photoionization cross-section for the propargyl (C{sub 3}H{sub 3}) radical, {sigma}{sub propargyl}{sup ion}(E), relative to the known absolute cross-section of the methyl (CH{sub 3}) radical. We generated a stoichiometric 1:1 ratio of C{sub 3}H{sub 3} : CH{sub 3} from 193 nm photolysis of two different C{sub 4}H{sub 6} isomers (1-butyne and 1,3-butadiene). Photolysis of 1-butyne yielded values of {sigma}{sub propargyl}{sup ion}(10.213 eV)=(26.1{+-}4.2) Mb and {sigma}{sub propargyl}{sup ion}(10.413 eV)=(23.4{+-}3.2) Mb, whereas photolysis of 1,3-butadiene yielded values of {sigma}{sub propargyl}{sup ion}(10.213 eV)=(23.6{+-}3.6) Mb and {sigma}{sub propargyl}{sup ion}(10.413 eV)=(25.1{+-}3.5) Mb. These measurements place our relative photoionization cross-section spectrum for propargyl on an absolute scale between 8.6 and 10.5 eV. The cross-section derived from our results is approximately a factor of three larger than previous determinations.

  18. Measurement of Absolute Carbon Isotope Ratios: Mechanisms and Implications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vogel, J. S.; Giacomo, J. A.; Dueker, S. R.

    2012-12-01

    An accelerator mass spectrometer (AMS) produced absolute isotope ratio measurements for 14C/13C as tested against >500 samples of NIST SRM-4990-C (OxII 14C standard) to an accuracy of 2.2±0.6‰ over a period of one year with measurements made to 1% counting statistics. The spectrometer is not maximized for 13C/12C, but measured ∂13C to 0.4±0.1‰ accuracy, with known methods for improvement. An AMS produces elemental anions from a sputter ion source and includes a charge-changing collision in a gas cell to isolate the rare 14C from the common isotopes and molecular isobars. Both these physical processes have been modeled to determine the parameters providing such absolute measures. Neutral resonant ionization in a cesium plasma produces mass-independent ionization, while velocity dependent charge-state distributions in gas collisions produce relative ion beam intensities that are linear in mass at specific collision energies. The mechanisms are not specific to carbon isotopes, but stand alone absolute IRMS (AIR-MS) instruments have not yet been made. Aside from the obvious applications in metrology, AIR-MS is particularly valuable in coupled separatory MS because no internal or external standards are required. Sample definition processes can be compared, even if no exact standard reference sample exists. Isotope dilution measurements do not require standards matching the dilution end-points and can be made over an extended, even extrapolated, range.

  19. Heat Capacity Mapping Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nilsson, C. S.; Andrews, J. C.; Scully-Power, P.; Ball, S.; Speechley, G.; Latham, A. R. (Principal Investigator)

    1980-01-01

    The Tasman Front was delineated by airborne expendable bathythermograph survey; and an Heat Capacity Mapping Mission (HCMM) IR image on the same day shows the same principal features as determined from ground-truth. It is clear that digital enhancement of HCMM images is necessary to map ocean surface temperatures and when done, the Tasman Front and other oceanographic features can be mapped by this method, even through considerable scattered cloud cover.

  20. Community Capacity Building:

    PubMed Central

    Goytia, Crispin N.; Todaro-Rivera, Lea; Brenner, Barbara; Shepard, Peggy; Piedras, Veronica; Horowitz, Carol

    2013-01-01

    Background: Successful community–academic research partnerships require building the capacity of both community-based organizations (CBOs) and academics to conduct collaborative research of mutual interest and benefit. Yet, information about the needs and goals of research-interested CBOs is lacking. Our partnership aimed to conduct a community research needs assessment and to use results to develop future capacity-building programs for CBOs. Methods: Based on our review of the literature, informal interviews with research-interested CBOs and community-engaged research groups locally and nationally, we developed a needs assessment survey. Key domains of this survey included history and experience with research collaboration, interest in specific research topics, and preference for learning format and structure. We trained community health workers (CHWs) to recruit senior leaders from CBOs in New York City (NYC) and encourage them to complete an on-line survey. Results: Fully 54% (33/61) of CBOs completed the needs assessment. Most (69%) reported involvement with research or evaluation in the last 2 years and 33% had some funding for research. Although 75% had collaborated with academic institutions in the past, 58% did not rate this experience well. The four areas respondents prioritized for skills building were program evaluation, developing needs assessments, building surveys, and understanding statistical analyses. They were less interested in learning to build collaborations with academics. Conclusions: A formal needs assessment of research training and educational needs of CBOs revealed that most had experience, albeit negative, with academic collaborations. CBO leaders wanted to build skills to conduct and analyze assessments and program evaluations. Our community–academic partnership is using these findings to develop a research capacity-building course. Other partnerships should consider conducting such assessments to transform the capacity of CBOs to

  1. CSTI High Capacity Power

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Winter, Jerry M.

    1989-01-01

    The SP-100 program was established in 1983 by DOD, DOE, and NASA as a joint program to develop the technology necessary for space nuclear power systems for military and civil application. During FY-86 and 87, the NASA SP-100 Advanced Technology Program was devised to maintain the momentum of promising technology advancement efforts started during Phase 1 of SP-100 and to strengthen, in key areas, the chances for successful development and growth capability of space nuclear reactor power systems for future space applications. In FY-88, the Advanced Technology Program was incorporated into NASA's new Civil Space Technology Initiative (CSTI). The CSTI Program was established to provide the foundation for technology development in automation and robotics, information, propulsion, and power. The CSTI High Capacity Power Program builds on the technology efforts of the SP-100 program, incorporates the previous NASA SP-100 Advanced Technology project, and provides a bridge to NASA Project Pathfinder. The elements of CSTI High Capacity Power development include Conversion Systems, Thermal Management, Power Management, System Diagnostics, and Environmental Interactions. Technology advancement in all areas, including materials, is required to assure the high reliability and 7 to 10 year lifetime demanded for future space nuclear power systems. The overall program will develop and demonstrate the technology base required to provide a wide range of modular power systems as well as allowing mission independence from solar and orbital attitude requirements. Several recent advancements in CSTI High Capacity power development will be discussed.

  2. CSTI high capacity power

    SciTech Connect

    Winter, J.M.

    1994-09-01

    The SP-100 program was established in 1983 by DOD, DOE, and NASA as a joint program to develop the technology necessary for space nuclear power systems for military and civil application. During FY86 and 87, the NASA SP-100 Advanced Technology Program was devised to maintain the momentum of promising technology advancement efforts started during Phase I of SP-100 and to strengthen, in key areas, the chances for successful development and growth capability of space nuclear reactor power systems for future space applications. In FY88, the Advanced Technology Program was incorporated into NASA`s new Civil Space Technology Initiative (CSTI). The CSTI Program was established to provide the foundation for technology development in automation and robotics, information, propulsion, and power. The CSTI High Capacity Power Program builds on the technology efforts of the SP-100 program, incorporates the previous NASA SP-100 Advanced Technology project, and provides a bridge to NASA Project Pathfinder. The elements of CSTI High Capacity Power development include Conversion Systems, Thermal Management, Power Management, System Diagnostics, and Environmental Interactions. Technology advancement in all areas, including materials, is required to assure the high reliability and 7 to 10 year lifetime demanded for future space nuclear power systems. The overall program will develop and demonstrate the technology base required to provide a wide range of modular power systems as well as allowing mission independence from solar and orbital attitude requirements. Several recent advancements in CSTI High Capacity power development will be discussed.

  3. The new Absolute Quantum Gravimeter (AQG): first results and perspectives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bonvalot, Sylvain; Le Moigne, Nicolas; Merlet, Sebastien; Desruelle, Bruno; Lautier-Gaud, Jean; Menoret, Vincent; Vermeulen, Pierre

    2016-04-01

    Cold atom gravimetry represents one of the most innovative evolution in gravity instrumentation since the last 20 years. The concept of measuring the gravitational acceleration by dropping atoms and the development of the first instrumental devices during this last decade quickly revealed the promising perspectives of this new generation of gravity meters enabling accurate and absolute measurements of the Earth's gravity field for a wide range of applications (geophysics, geodesy, metrology, etc.). The Absolute Quantum Gravimeter (AQG) gravity meter, developed by MUQUANS (Talence, France - http://www.muquans.com/) with the support of RESIF, the French Seismologic and Geodetic Network (http://www.resif.fr/) belongs to this new generation of instruments. It also represents the first commercial device based on the utilization of advanced matter-wave interferometry techniques, which allow to characterize precisely the vertical acceleration experienced by a cloud of cold atoms. Recently, the first operational unit (AQG01) has been achieved as a compact transportable gravimeter with the aim of satisfying absolute gravity measurements in laboratory conditions under the following specifications: measurements the μGal level at a few Hz cycling frequency, sensitivity of 50μGal/√Hz, immunity to ground vibrations, easy and quickness of operation, automated continuous data acquisition for several months, etc. In order to evaluate the current performances of the AQG01, several experiments are carried out in collaboration between RESIF user's teams and the MUQUANS manufacturer on different reference gravity sites and laboratories in France. These measurements performed in indoor conditions including simultaneous observations with classical reference gravity instruments (corner-cube absolute gravity meters, relative superconducting meters) as well with the Cold Atom Gravity meter (CAG) developed by LNE-SYRTE, lead to a first objective characterization of the performances of

  4. Quantum reading capacity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pirandola, Stefano; Lupo, Cosmo; Giovannetti, Vittorio; Mancini, Stefano; Braunstein, Samuel L.

    2011-11-01

    The readout of a classical memory can be modelled as a problem of quantum channel discrimination, where a decoder retrieves information by distinguishing the different quantum channels encoded in each cell of the memory (Pirandola 2011 Phys. Rev. Lett. 106 090504). In the case of optical memories, such as CDs and DVDs, this discrimination involves lossy bosonic channels and can be remarkably boosted by the use of nonclassical light (quantum reading). Here we generalize these concepts by extending the model of memory from single-cell to multi-cell encoding. In general, information is stored in a block of cells by using a channel-codeword, i.e. a sequence of channels chosen according to a classical code. Correspondingly, the readout of data is realized by a process of ‘parallel’ channel discrimination, where the entire block of cells is probed simultaneously and decoded via an optimal collective measurement. In the limit of a large block we define the quantum reading capacity of the memory, quantifying the maximum number of readable bits per cell. This notion of capacity is nontrivial when we suitably constrain the physical resources of the decoder. For optical memories (encoding bosonic channels), such a constraint is energetic and corresponds to fixing the mean total number of photons per cell. In this case, we are able to prove a separation between the quantum reading capacity and the maximum information rate achievable by classical transmitters, i.e. arbitrary classical mixtures of coherent states. In fact, we can easily construct nonclassical transmitters that are able to outperform any classical transmitter, thus showing that the advantages of quantum reading persist in the optimal multi-cell scenario.

  5. Absolute versus relative ascertainment of pedophilia in men.

    PubMed

    Blanchard, Ray; Kuban, Michael E; Blak, Thomas; Cantor, James M; Klassen, Philip E; Dickey, Robert

    2009-12-01

    There are at least two different criteria for assessing pedophilia in men: absolute ascertainment (their sexual interest in children is intense) and relative ascertainment (their sexual interest in children is greater than their interest in adults). The American Psychiatric Association's Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 3rd edition (DSM-III) used relative ascertainment in its diagnostic criteria for pedophilia; this was abandoned and replaced by absolute ascertainment in the DSM-III-R and all subsequent editions. The present study was conducted to demonstrate the continuing need for relative ascertainment, particularly in the laboratory assessment of pedophilia. A total of 402 heterosexual men were selected from a database of patients referred to a specialty clinic. These had undergone phallometric testing, a psychophysiological procedure in which their penile blood volume was monitored while they were presented with a standardized set of laboratory stimuli depicting male and female children, pubescents, and adults.The 130 men selected for the Teleiophilic Profile group responded substantially to prepubescent girls but even more to adult women; the 272 men selected for the Pedophilic Profile group responded weakly to prepubescent girls but even less to adult women. In terms of absolute magnitude, every patient in the Pedophilic Profile group had a lesser penile response to prepubescent girls than every patient in the Teleiophilic Profile group. Nevertheless, the Pedophilic Profile group had a significantly greater number of known sexual offenses against prepubescent girls, indicating that they contained a higher proportion of true pedophiles. These results dramatically demonstrate the utility-or perhaps necessity-of relative ascertainment in the laboratory assessment of erotic age-preference.

  6. Morphology and Absolute Magnitudes of the SDSS DR7 QSOs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coelho, B.; Andrei, A. H.; Antón, S.

    2014-10-01

    The ESA mission Gaia will furnish a complete census of the Milky Way, delivering astrometrics, dynamics, and astrophysics information for 1 billion stars. Operating in all-sky repeated survey mode, Gaia will also provide measurements of extra-galactic objects. Among the later there will be at least 500,000 QSOs that will be used to build the reference frame upon which the several independent observations will be combined and interpreted. Not all the QSOs are equally suited to fulfill this role of fundamental, fiducial grid-points. Brightness, morphology, and variability define the astrometric error budget for each object. We made use of 3 morphological parameters based on the PSF sharpness, circularity and gaussianity, which enable us to distinguish the "real point-like" QSOs. These parameters are being explored on the spectroscopically certified QSOs of the SDSS DR7, to compare the performance against other morphology classification schemes, as well as to derive properties of the host galaxy. We present a new method, based on the Gaia quasar database, to derive absolute magnitudes, on the SDSS filters domain. The method can be extrapolated all over the optical window, including the Gaia filters. We discuss colors derived from SDSS apparent magnitudes and colors based on absolute magnitudes that we obtained tanking into account corrections for dust extinction, either intergalactic or from the QSO host, and for the Lyman α forest. In the future we want to further discuss properties of the host galaxies, comparing for e.g. the obtained morphological classification with the color, the apparent and absolute magnitudes, and the redshift distributions.

  7. Deformation modes in the finite element absolute nodal coordinate formulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sugiyama, Hiroyuki; Gerstmayr, Johannes; Shabana, Ahmed A.

    2006-12-01

    The objective of this study is to provide interpretation of the deformation modes in the finite element absolute nodal coordinate formulation using several strain definitions. In this finite element formulation, the nodal coordinates consist of absolute position coordinates and gradients that can be used to define a unique rotation and deformation fields within the element as well as at the nodal points. The results obtained in this study clearly show cross-section deformation modes eliminated when the number of the finite element nodal coordinates is systematically and consistently reduced. Using the procedure discussed in this paper one can obtain a reduced order dynamic model, eliminate position vector gradients that introduce high frequencies to the solution of some problems, achieve the continuity of the remaining gradients at the nodal points, and obtain a formulation that automatically satisfies the principle of work and energy. Furthermore, the resulting dynamic model, unlike large rotation finite element formulations, leads to a unique rotation field, and as a consequence, the obtained formulation does not suffer from the problem of coordinate redundancy that characterizes existing large deformation finite element formulations. In order to accurately define strain components that can have easy physical interpretation, a material coordinate system is introduced to define the material element rotation and deformation. Using the material coordinate system, the Timoshenko-Reissner and Euler -Bernoulli beam models can be systematically obtained as special cases of the absolute nodal coordinate formulation beam models. While a constraint approach is used in this study to eliminate the cross-section deformation modes, it is important to point out as mentioned in this paper that lower-order finite elements, some of which already presented in previous investigations, can be efficiently used in thin and stiff structure applications.

  8. Absolute quantification of cell-bound DNA aptamers during SELEX.

    PubMed

    Avci-Adali, Meltem; Wilhelm, Nadja; Perle, Nadja; Stoll, Heidi; Schlensak, Christian; Wendel, Hans P

    2013-04-01

    In the fields of diagnosis, imaging, regenerative medicine, and drug targeting, aptamers are promising nucleic acid ligands for specific recognition and binding of whole living cells. These aptamers are selected by a combinatorial chemistry technique called cell-SELEX (Systematic Evolution of Ligands by EXponential enrichment). During this iterative procedure of in vitro selection and enzymatic amplification, the enrichment of cell binding aptamers is generally monitored by flow cytometry. This method needs the use of fluorophore-labeled oligonucleotides for detection and allows only the relative evaluation of the aptamer binding compared with the control. Here, we describe the development and validation of a new quantitative real time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) method for the absolute determination of cell bound aptamers during cell-SELEX. The method is based on SYBR Green I real-time PCR technology and uses an aptamer standard curve to determine the accurate aptamer amount on cells after the incubations. Lysates of cells with bound aptamers were used to identify the absolute amount of aptamers on cells. This method is highly sensitive and allows the detection of very small quantities of aptamers in cell lysate samples. The lower detection limit is 20 fg. The established qPCR method can be used as an additional monitoring tool during cell-SELEX to determine the enrichment of cell binding aptamers on cells, whereby the absolute quantity is determined. Furthermore, the contamination of the amplified aptamer pool with by-products can be prevented by prior determination of bound aptamer amount on cells. PMID:23405949

  9. ICP-MS for multiplex absolute determinations of proteins.

    PubMed

    Sanz-Medel, Alfredo

    2010-11-01

    In the last few years MS-based proteomics has been turning quantitative because only the quantity of existing proteins or changes of their abundance in a studied sample reflect the actual status and the extent of possible changes in a given biological system. So far, however, only relative quantifications are common place. Recently, the ideal analytical features of ICP-MS that allow robust, accurate and precise absolute determinations of heteroelements (present in proteins and their peptides) have opened the door to its use, as a complementary ion source of MALDI- and/or ESI-(MS), in achieving the "absolute" quantification of a protein. Unfortunately, so far such "heteroatom-tagged proteomics" applications deal with only single-heteroatom measurements. Thus, the outstanding capability of ICP-MS for multi-element (-isotope) simultaneous determinations is somewhat wasted. On the other hand, multiplexed determinations of proteins (e.g. in common or new multiplexed formats) today constitute a pressing need in medical science (e.g. to determine accurately many biomarkers at a time). This is a clear trend in analytical science where ICP-MS could eventually play an important role. Therefore, reported approaches to multiplex protein determinations using ICP-MS, with liquid sample nebulisation and with laser direct sampling from a solid, are discussed here. Apart from such multiplex bioassays for absolute protein determinations, efforts to simultaneously quantitate enzyme activities are also discussed. It appears that the time is ripe to combine the multi-isotopic character of ICP-MS with well-known multi-analyte separation techniques (e.g. HPLC or multiplex immunoassays) to tackle the challenge of analysing abundances and activities of several proteins and enzymes, respectively, in a single assay. Many attractive opportunities for creative work and interdisciplinary developments for analytical atomic spectroscopists seem to lie ahead related to multiplexed quantitative

  10. Absolute Memory for Tempo in Musicians and Non-Musicians

    PubMed Central

    Brandimonte, Maria A.; Bruno, Nicola

    2016-01-01

    The ability to remember tempo (the perceived frequency of musical pulse) without external references may be defined, by analogy with the notion of absolute pitch, as absolute tempo (AT). Anecdotal reports and sparse empirical evidence suggest that at least some individuals possess AT. However, to our knowledge, no systematic assessments of AT have been performed using laboratory tasks comparable to those assessing absolute pitch. In the present study, we operationalize AT as the ability to identify and reproduce tempo in the absence of rhythmic or melodic frames of reference and assess these abilities in musically trained and untrained participants. We asked 15 musicians and 15 non-musicians to listen to a seven-step `tempo scale’ of metronome beats, each associated to a numerical label, and then to perform two memory tasks. In the first task, participants heard one of the tempi and attempted to report the correct label (identification task), in the second, they saw one label and attempted to tap the correct tempo (production task). A musical and visual excerpt was presented between successive trials as a distractor to prevent participants from using previous tempi as anchors. Thus, participants needed to encode tempo information with the corresponding label, store the information, and recall it to give the response. We found that more than half were able to perform above chance in at least one of the tasks, and that musical training differentiated between participants in identification, but not in production. These results suggest that AT is relatively wide-spread, relatively independent of musical training in tempo production, but further refined by training in tempo identification. We propose that at least in production, the underlying motor representations are related to tactus, a basic internal rhythmic period that may provide a body-based reference for encoding tempo. PMID:27760198

  11. Absolute versus relative ascertainment of pedophilia in men.

    PubMed

    Blanchard, Ray; Kuban, Michael E; Blak, Thomas; Cantor, James M; Klassen, Philip E; Dickey, Robert

    2009-12-01

    There are at least two different criteria for assessing pedophilia in men: absolute ascertainment (their sexual interest in children is intense) and relative ascertainment (their sexual interest in children is greater than their interest in adults). The American Psychiatric Association's Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 3rd edition (DSM-III) used relative ascertainment in its diagnostic criteria for pedophilia; this was abandoned and replaced by absolute ascertainment in the DSM-III-R and all subsequent editions. The present study was conducted to demonstrate the continuing need for relative ascertainment, particularly in the laboratory assessment of pedophilia. A total of 402 heterosexual men were selected from a database of patients referred to a specialty clinic. These had undergone phallometric testing, a psychophysiological procedure in which their penile blood volume was monitored while they were presented with a standardized set of laboratory stimuli depicting male and female children, pubescents, and adults.The 130 men selected for the Teleiophilic Profile group responded substantially to prepubescent girls but even more to adult women; the 272 men selected for the Pedophilic Profile group responded weakly to prepubescent girls but even less to adult women. In terms of absolute magnitude, every patient in the Pedophilic Profile group had a lesser penile response to prepubescent girls than every patient in the Teleiophilic Profile group. Nevertheless, the Pedophilic Profile group had a significantly greater number of known sexual offenses against prepubescent girls, indicating that they contained a higher proportion of true pedophiles. These results dramatically demonstrate the utility-or perhaps necessity-of relative ascertainment in the laboratory assessment of erotic age-preference. PMID:19901237

  12. Lens transmission measurement for an absolute radiation thermometer

    SciTech Connect

    Hao, X.; Yuan, Z.; Lu, X.

    2013-09-11

    The lens transmission for the National Institute of Metrology of China absolute radiation thermometer is measured by a hybrid method. The results of the lens transmission measurements are 99.002% and 86.792% for filter radiometers with center wavelengths 633 nm and 900 nm, respectively. These results, after correcting for diffraction factors and the size-of-source effect when the lens is incorporated within the radiometer, can be used for measurement of thermodynamic temperature. The expanded uncertainty of the lens transmission measurement system has been evaluated. It is 1.3×10{sup −3} at 633 nm and 900 nm, respectively.

  13. Precision Absolute Beam Current Measurement of Low Power Electron Beam

    SciTech Connect

    Ali, M. M.; Bevins, M. E.; Degtiarenko, P.; Freyberger, A.; Krafft, G. A.

    2012-11-01

    Precise measurements of low power CW electron beam current for the Jefferson Lab Nuclear Physics program have been performed using a Tungsten calorimeter. This paper describes the rationale for the choice of the calorimeter technique, as well as the design and calibration of the device. The calorimeter is in use presently to provide a 1% absolute current measurement of CW electron beam with 50 to 500 nA of average beam current and 1-3 GeV beam energy. Results from these recent measurements will also be presented.

  14. Method of differential-phase/absolute-amplitude QAM

    DOEpatents

    Dimsdle, Jeffrey William

    2007-07-03

    A method of quadrature amplitude modulation involving encoding phase differentially and amplitude absolutely, allowing for a high data rate and spectral efficiency in data transmission and other communication applications, and allowing for amplitude scaling to facilitate data recovery; amplitude scale tracking to track-out rapid and severe scale variations and facilitate successful demodulation and data retrieval; 2.sup.N power carrier recovery; incoherent demodulation where coherent carrier recovery is not possible or practical due to signal degradation; coherent demodulation; multipath equalization to equalize frequency dependent multipath; and demodulation filtering.

  15. Method of differential-phase/absolute-amplitude QAM

    DOEpatents

    Dimsdle, Jeffrey William

    2008-10-21

    A method of quadrature amplitude modulation involving encoding phase differentially and amplitude absolutely, allowing for a high data rate and spectral efficiency in data transmission and other communication applications, and allowing for amplitude scaling to facilitate data recovery; amplitude scale tracking to track-out rapid and severe scale variations and facilitate successful demodulation and data retrieval; 2.sup.N power carrier recovery; incoherent demodulation where coherent carrier recovery is not possible or practical due to signal degradation; coherent demodulation; multipath equalization to equalize frequency dependent multipath; and demodulation filtering.

  16. Method of differential-phase/absolute-amplitude QAM

    DOEpatents

    Dimsdle, Jeffrey William

    2007-07-17

    A method of quadrature amplitude modulation involving encoding phase differentially and amplitude absolutely, allowing for a high data rate and spectral efficiency in data transmission and other communication applications, and allowing for amplitude scaling to facilitate data recovery; amplitude scale tracking to track-out rapid and severe scale variations and facilitate successful demodulation and data retrieval; 2.sup.N power carrier recovery; incoherent demodulation where coherent carrier recovery is not possible or practical due to signal degradation; coherent demodulation; multipath equalization to equalize frequency dependent multipath; and demodulation filtering.

  17. Method of differential-phase/absolute-amplitude QAM

    DOEpatents

    Dimsdle, Jeffrey William

    2007-10-02

    A method of quadrature amplitude modulation involving encoding phase differentially and amplitude absolutely, allowing for a high data rate and spectral efficiency in data transmission and other communication applications, and allowing for amplitude scaling to facilitate data recovery; amplitude scale tracking to track-out rapid and severe scale variations and facilitate successful demodulation and data retrieval; 2.sup.N power carrier recovery; incoherent demodulation where coherent carrier recovery is not possible or practical due to signal degradation; coherent demodulation; multipath equalization to equalize frequency dependent multipath; and demodulation filtering.

  18. Method of differential-phase/absolute-amplitude QAM

    DOEpatents

    Dimsdle, Jeffrey William

    2009-09-01

    A method of quadrature amplitude modulation involving encoding phase differentially and amplitude absolutely, allowing for a high data rate and spectral efficiency in data transmission and other communication applications, and allowing for amplitude scaling to facilitate data recovery; amplitude scale tracking to track-out rapid and severe scale variations and facilitate successful demodulation and data retrieval; 2.sup.N power carrier recovery; incoherent demodulation where coherent carrier recovery is not possible or practical due to signal degradation; coherent demodulation; multipath equalization to equalize frequency dependent multipath; and demodulation filtering.

  19. Absolute photoionization cross-section of the methyl radical.

    SciTech Connect

    Taatjes, C. A.; Osborn, D. L.; Selby, T.; Meloni, G.; Fan, H.; Pratt, S. T.; Chemical Sciences and Engineering Division; SNL

    2008-01-01

    The absolute photoionization cross-section of the methyl radical has been measured using two completely independent methods. The CH{sub 3} photoionization cross-section was determined relative to that of acetone and methyl vinyl ketone at photon energies of 10.2 and 11.0 eV by using a pulsed laser-photolysis/time-resolved synchrotron photoionization mass spectrometry method. The time-resolved depletion of the acetone or methyl vinyl ketone precursor and the production of methyl radicals following 193 nm photolysis are monitored simultaneously by using time-resolved synchrotron photoionization mass spectrometry. Comparison of the initial methyl signal with the decrease in precursor signal, in combination with previously measured absolute photoionization cross-sections of the precursors, yields the absolute photoionization cross-section of the methyl radical; {sigma}{sub CH}(10.2 eV) = (5.7 {+-} 0.9) x 10{sup -18} cm{sup 2} and {sigma}{sub CH{sub 3}}(11.0 eV) = (6.0 {+-} 2.0) x 10{sup -18} cm{sup 2}. The photoionization cross-section for vinyl radical determined by photolysis of methyl vinyl ketone is in good agreement with previous measurements. The methyl radical photoionization cross-section was also independently measured relative to that of the iodine atom by comparison of ionization signals from CH{sub 3} and I fragments following 266 nm photolysis of methyl iodide in a molecular-beam ion-imaging apparatus. These measurements gave a cross-section of (5.4 {+-} 2.0) x 10{sup -18} cm{sup 2} at 10.460 eV, (5.5 {+-} 2.0) x 10{sup -18} cm{sup 2} at 10.466 eV, and (4.9 {+-} 2.0) x 10{sup -18} cm{sup 2} at 10.471 eV. The measurements allow relative photoionization efficiency spectra of methyl radical to be placed on an absolute scale and will facilitate quantitative measurements of methyl concentrations by photoionization mass spectrometry.

  20. Prelaunch absolute radiometric calibration of LANDSAT-4 protoflight Thematic Mapper

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barker, J. L.; Ball, D. L.; Leung, K. C.; Walker, J. A.

    1984-01-01

    Results are summarized and analyzed from several prelaunch tests with a 122 cm integrating sphere used as part of the absolute radiometric calibration experiments for the protoflight TM sensor carried on the LANDSAT-4 satellite. The calibration procedure is presented and the radiometric sensitivity of the TM is assessed. The internal calibrator and dynamic range after calibration are considered. Tables show dynamic range after ground processing, spectral radiance to digital number and digital number to spectral radiance values for TM bands 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 7 and for channel 4 of band 6.

  1. Measuring Postglacial Rebound with GPS and Absolute Gravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Larson, Kristine M.; vanDam, Tonie

    2000-01-01

    We compare vertical rates of deformation derived from continuous Global Positioning System (GPS) observations and episodic measurements of absolute gravity. We concentrate on four sites in a region of North America experiencing postglacial rebound. The rates of uplift from gravity and GPS agree within one standard deviation for all sites. The GPS vertical deformation rates are significantly more precise than the gravity rates, primarily because of the denser temporal spacing provided by continuous GPS tracking. We conclude that continuous GPS observations are more cost efficient and provide more precise estimates of vertical deformation rates than campaign style gravity observations where systematic errors are difficult to quantify.

  2. On the convective-absolute nature of river bedform instabilities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vesipa, Riccardo; Camporeale, Carlo; Ridolfi, Luca; Chomaz, Jean Marc

    2014-12-01

    River dunes and antidunes are induced by the morphological instability of stream-sediment boundary. Such bedforms raise a number of subtle theoretical questions and are crucial for many engineering and environmental problems. Despite their importance, the absolute/convective nature of the instability has never been addressed. The present work fills this gap as we demonstrate, by the cusp map method, that dune instability is convective for all values of the physical control parameters, while the antidune instability exhibits both behaviors. These theoretical predictions explain some previous experimental and numerical observations and are important to correctly plan flume experiments, numerical simulations, paleo-hydraulic reconstructions, and river works.

  3. Absolute dating of dedolomitization by means of paleomagnetic techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elmore, R. Douglas; Dunn, William; Peck, Craig

    1985-08-01

    Paleomagnetic analysis, in conjunction with petrographic studies, is an approach whereby absolute dates can be placed on diagenetic events. Hematite is associated with dedolomite in the Lower Ordovician Kindblade Formation in south-central Oklahoma and is interpreted as a by-product of the dedolomitization of ferroan dolomite. Paleomagnetic results date the time of dedolomitization as Late Pennsylvanian-Early Permian. Dedolomitization was probably caused by oxidizing fluids with high calcium contents that migrated through the Kindblade Formation following uplift of the Arbuckle Mountains.

  4. Electromagnetic hydrophone with tomographic system for absolute velocity field mapping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grasland-Mongrain, Pol; Mari, Jean-Martial; Gilles, Bruno; Chapelon, Jean-Yves; Lafon, Cyril

    2012-06-01

    The velocity and pressure of an ultrasonic wave can be measured by an electromagnetic hydrophone made of a thin wire and a magnet. The ultrasonic wave vibrates the wire inside a magnetic field, inducing an electrical current. Previous articles reported poor spatial resolution of comparable hydrophones along the axis of the wire. In this study, submillimetric spatial resolution has been achieved by using a tomographic method. Moreover, a physical model is presented for obtaining absolute measurements. A pressure differential of 8% has been found between piezoelectric and electromagnetic hydrophone measurements. These characteristics show this technique as an alternative to standard hydrophones.

  5. Strategy for the absolute neutron emission measurement on ITER.

    PubMed

    Sasao, M; Bertalot, L; Ishikawa, M; Popovichev, S

    2010-10-01

    Accuracy of 10% is demanded to the absolute fusion measurement on ITER. To achieve this accuracy, a functional combination of several types of neutron measurement subsystem, cross calibration among them, and in situ calibration are needed. Neutron transport calculation shows the suitable calibration source is a DT/DD neutron generator of source strength higher than 10(10) n/s (neutron/second) for DT and 10(8) n/s for DD. It will take eight weeks at the minimum with this source to calibrate flux monitors, profile monitors, and the activation system.

  6. Strategy for the absolute neutron emission measurement on ITER

    SciTech Connect

    Sasao, M.; Bertalot, L.; Ishikawa, M.; Popovichev, S.

    2010-10-15

    Accuracy of 10% is demanded to the absolute fusion measurement on ITER. To achieve this accuracy, a functional combination of several types of neutron measurement subsystem, cross calibration among them, and in situ calibration are needed. Neutron transport calculation shows the suitable calibration source is a DT/DD neutron generator of source strength higher than 10{sup 10} n/s (neutron/second) for DT and 10{sup 8} n/s for DD. It will take eight weeks at the minimum with this source to calibrate flux monitors, profile monitors, and the activation system.

  7. (+)- and (-)-mutisianthol: first total synthesis, absolute configuration, and antitumor activity.

    PubMed

    Bianco, Graziela G; Ferraz, Helena M C; Costa, Arinice M; Costa-Lotufo, Letícia V; Pessoa, Cláudia; de Moraes, Manoel O; Schrems, Marcus G; Pfaltz, Andreas; Silva, Luiz F

    2009-03-20

    The first synthesis of the natural product (+)-mutisianthol was accomplished in 11 steps and in 21% overall yield from 2-methylanisole. The synthesis of its enantiomer was also performed in a similar overall yield. The absolute configuration of the sesquiterpene (+)-mutisianthol was assigned as (1S,3R). Key steps in the route are the asymmetric hydrogenation of a nonfunctionalized olefin using chiral iridium catalysts and the ring contraction of 1,2-dihydronaphthalenes using thallium(III) or iodine(III). The target molecules show moderate activity against the human tumor cell lines SF-295, HCT-8, and MDA-MB-435.

  8. Using Absolute Humidity and Radiochemical Analyses of Water Vapor Samples to Correct Underestimated Atmospheric Tritium Concentrations

    SciTech Connect

    Eberhart, C.F.

    1999-06-01

    Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) emits a wide variety of radioactive air contaminants. An extensive ambient air monitoring network, known as AIRNET, is operated on-site and in surrounding communities to estimate radioactive doses to the public. As part of this monitoring network, water vapor is sampled continuously at more than 50 sites. These water vapor samples are collected every two weeks by absorbing the water vapor in the sampled air with silica gel and then radiochemically analyzing the water for tritium. The data have consistently indicated that LANL emissions cause a small, but measurable impact on local concentrations of tritium. In early 1998, while trying to independently verify the presumed 100% water vapor collection efficiency, the author found that this efficiency was normally lower and reached a minimum of 10 to 20% in the middle of summer. This inefficient collection was discovered by comparing absolute humidity (g/m{sup 3}) calculated from relative humidity and temperature to the amount of water vapor collected by the silica gel per cubic meter of air sampled. Subsequent experiments confirmed that the elevated temperature inside the louvered housing was high enough to reduce the capacity of the silica gel by more than half. In addition, their experiments also demonstrated that, even under optimal conditions, there is not enough silica gel present in the sampling canister to absorb all of the moisture during the higher humidity periods. However, there is a solution to this problem. Ambient tritium concentrations have been recalculated by using the absolute humidity values and the tritium analyses. These recalculated tritium concentrations were two to three times higher than previously reported. Future tritium concentrations will also be determined in the same manner. Finally, the water vapor collection process will be changed by relocating the sampling canister outside the housing to increase collection efficiency and, therefore

  9. Heat Capacity in Proteins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prabhu, Ninad V.; Sharp, Kim A.

    2005-05-01

    Heat capacity (Cp) is one of several major thermodynamic quantities commonly measured in proteins. With more than half a dozen definitions, it is the hardest of these quantities to understand in physical terms, but the richest in insight. There are many ramifications of observed Cp changes: The sign distinguishes apolar from polar solvation. It imparts a temperature (T) dependence to entropy and enthalpy that may change their signs and which of them dominate. Protein unfolding usually has a positive ΔCp, producing a maximum in stability and sometimes cold denaturation. There are two heat capacity contributions, from hydration and protein-protein interactions; which dominates in folding and binding is an open question. Theoretical work to date has dealt mostly with the hydration term and can account, at least semiquantitatively, for the major Cp-related features: the positive and negative Cp of hydration for apolar and polar groups, respectively; the convergence of apolar group hydration entropy at T ≈ 112°C; the decrease in apolar hydration Cp with increasing T; and the T-maximum in protein stability and cold denaturation.

  10. Early hominin auditory capacities.

    PubMed

    Quam, Rolf; Martínez, Ignacio; Rosa, Manuel; Bonmatí, Alejandro; Lorenzo, Carlos; de Ruiter, Darryl J; Moggi-Cecchi, Jacopo; Conde Valverde, Mercedes; Jarabo, Pilar; Menter, Colin G; Thackeray, J Francis; Arsuaga, Juan Luis

    2015-09-01

    Studies of sensory capacities in past life forms have offered new insights into their adaptations and lifeways. Audition is particularly amenable to study in fossils because it is strongly related to physical properties that can be approached through their skeletal structures. We have studied the anatomy of the outer and middle ear in the early hominin taxa Australopithecus africanus and Paranthropus robustus and estimated their auditory capacities. Compared with chimpanzees, the early hominin taxa are derived toward modern humans in their slightly shorter and wider external auditory canal, smaller tympanic membrane, and lower malleus/incus lever ratio, but they remain primitive in the small size of their stapes footplate. Compared with chimpanzees, both early hominin taxa show a heightened sensitivity to frequencies between 1.5 and 3.5 kHz and an occupied band of maximum sensitivity that is shifted toward slightly higher frequencies. The results have implications for sensory ecology and communication, and suggest that the early hominin auditory pattern may have facilitated an increased emphasis on short-range vocal communication in open habitats. PMID:26601261

  11. Working memory's workload capacity.

    PubMed

    Heathcote, Andrew; Coleman, James R; Eidels, Ami; Watson, Jason M; Houpt, Joseph; Strayer, David L

    2015-10-01

    We examined the role of dual-task interference in working memory using a novel dual two-back task that requires a redundant-target response (i.e., a response that neither the auditory nor the visual stimulus occurred two back versus a response that one or both occurred two back) on every trial. Comparisons with performance on single two-back trials (i.e., with only auditory or only visual stimuli) showed that dual-task demands reduced both speed and accuracy. Our task design enabled a novel application of Townsend and Nozawa's (Journal of Mathematical Psychology 39: 321-359, 1995) workload capacity measure, which revealed that the decrement in dual two-back performance was mediated by the sharing of a limited amount of processing capacity. Relative to most other single and dual n-back tasks, performance measures for our task were more reliable, due to the use of a small stimulus set that induced a high and constant level of proactive interference. For a version of our dual two-back task that minimized response bias, accuracy was also more strongly correlated with complex span than has been found for most other single and dual n-back tasks.

  12. Early hominin auditory capacities

    PubMed Central

    Quam, Rolf; Martínez, Ignacio; Rosa, Manuel; Bonmatí, Alejandro; Lorenzo, Carlos; de Ruiter, Darryl J.; Moggi-Cecchi, Jacopo; Conde Valverde, Mercedes; Jarabo, Pilar; Menter, Colin G.; Thackeray, J. Francis; Arsuaga, Juan Luis

    2015-01-01

    Studies of sensory capacities in past life forms have offered new insights into their adaptations and lifeways. Audition is particularly amenable to study in fossils because it is strongly related to physical properties that can be approached through their skeletal structures. We have studied the anatomy of the outer and middle ear in the early hominin taxa Australopithecus africanus and Paranthropus robustus and estimated their auditory capacities. Compared with chimpanzees, the early hominin taxa are derived toward modern humans in their slightly shorter and wider external auditory canal, smaller tympanic membrane, and lower malleus/incus lever ratio, but they remain primitive in the small size of their stapes footplate. Compared with chimpanzees, both early hominin taxa show a heightened sensitivity to frequencies between 1.5 and 3.5 kHz and an occupied band of maximum sensitivity that is shifted toward slightly higher frequencies. The results have implications for sensory ecology and communication, and suggest that the early hominin auditory pattern may have facilitated an increased emphasis on short-range vocal communication in open habitats. PMID:26601261

  13. Early hominin auditory capacities.

    PubMed

    Quam, Rolf; Martínez, Ignacio; Rosa, Manuel; Bonmatí, Alejandro; Lorenzo, Carlos; de Ruiter, Darryl J; Moggi-Cecchi, Jacopo; Conde Valverde, Mercedes; Jarabo, Pilar; Menter, Colin G; Thackeray, J Francis; Arsuaga, Juan Luis

    2015-09-01

    Studies of sensory capacities in past life forms have offered new insights into their adaptations and lifeways. Audition is particularly amenable to study in fossils because it is strongly related to physical properties that can be approached through their skeletal structures. We have studied the anatomy of the outer and middle ear in the early hominin taxa Australopithecus africanus and Paranthropus robustus and estimated their auditory capacities. Compared with chimpanzees, the early hominin taxa are derived toward modern humans in their slightly shorter and wider external auditory canal, smaller tympanic membrane, and lower malleus/incus lever ratio, but they remain primitive in the small size of their stapes footplate. Compared with chimpanzees, both early hominin taxa show a heightened sensitivity to frequencies between 1.5 and 3.5 kHz and an occupied band of maximum sensitivity that is shifted toward slightly higher frequencies. The results have implications for sensory ecology and communication, and suggest that the early hominin auditory pattern may have facilitated an increased emphasis on short-range vocal communication in open habitats.

  14. High capacity 30 K remote helium cooling loop

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trollier, T.; Tanchon, J.; Icart, Y.; Ravex, A.

    2014-01-01

    Absolut System has built several 50 K remote helium cooling loops used as high capacity and very low vibration cooling source into large wavelength IR detectors electro-optical characterization test benches. MgB2 based superconducting electro-technical equipment's under development require also distributed high cooling power in the 20-30 K temperature range. Absolut System has designed, manufactured and tested a high capacity 30 K remote helium cooling loop. The equipment consists of a CRYOMECH AL325 type cooler, a CP830 type compressor package used as room temperature circulator and an intermediate LN2 bath cooling used between two recuperator heat exchangers (300 K-77 K and 77 K-20 K). A cooling capacity of 30 W @ 20 K or 80 W @ 30 K has been demonstrated on the application heat exchanger, with a 4-meter remote distance ensured by a specifically designed gas circulation flexible line. The design and the performance will be reported in this paper.

  15. Laser interferometry method for absolute measurement of the acceleration of gravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hudson, O. K.

    1971-01-01

    Gravimeter permits more accurate and precise absolute measurement of g without reference to Potsdam values as absolute standards. Device is basically Michelson laser beam interferometer in which one arm is mass fitted with corner cube reflector.

  16. Improved Strategies and Optimization of Calibration Models for Real-time PCR Absolute Quantification

    EPA Science Inventory

    Real-time PCR absolute quantification applications rely on the use of standard curves to make estimates of DNA target concentrations in unknown samples. Traditional absolute quantification approaches dictate that a standard curve must accompany each experimental run. However, t...

  17. Metal Stable Isotope Tagging: Renaissance of Radioimmunoassay for Multiplex and Absolute Quantification of Biomolecules.

    PubMed

    Liu, Rui; Zhang, Shixi; Wei, Chao; Xing, Zhi; Zhang, Sichun; Zhang, Xinrong

    2016-05-17

    The unambiguous quantification of biomolecules is of great significance in fundamental biological research as well as practical clinical diagnosis. Due to the lack of a detectable moiety, the direct and highly sensitive quantification of biomolecules is often a "mission impossible". Consequently, tagging strategies to introduce detectable moieties for labeling target biomolecules were invented, which had a long and significant impact on studies of biomolecules in the past decades. For instance, immunoassays have been developed with radioisotope tagging by Yalow and Berson in the late 1950s. The later languishment of this technology can be almost exclusively ascribed to the use of radioactive isotopes, which led to the development of nonradioactive tagging strategy-based assays such as enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, fluorescent immunoassay, and chemiluminescent and electrochemiluminescent immunoassay. Despite great success, these strategies suffered from drawbacks such as limited spectral window capacity for multiplex detection and inability to provide absolute quantification of biomolecules. After recalling the sequences of tagging strategies, an apparent question is why not use stable isotopes from the start? A reasonable explanation is the lack of reliable means for accurate and precise quantification of stable isotopes at that time. The situation has changed greatly at present, since several atomic mass spectrometric measures for metal stable isotopes have been developed. Among the newly developed techniques, inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry is an ideal technique to determine metal stable isotope-tagged biomolecules, for its high sensitivity, wide dynamic linear range, and more importantly multiplex and absolute quantification ability. Since the first published report by our group, metal stable isotope tagging has become a revolutionary technique and gained great success in biomolecule quantification. An exciting research highlight in this area

  18. Metal Stable Isotope Tagging: Renaissance of Radioimmunoassay for Multiplex and Absolute Quantification of Biomolecules.

    PubMed

    Liu, Rui; Zhang, Shixi; Wei, Chao; Xing, Zhi; Zhang, Sichun; Zhang, Xinrong

    2016-05-17

    The unambiguous quantification of biomolecules is of great significance in fundamental biological research as well as practical clinical diagnosis. Due to the lack of a detectable moiety, the direct and highly sensitive quantification of biomolecules is often a "mission impossible". Consequently, tagging strategies to introduce detectable moieties for labeling target biomolecules were invented, which had a long and significant impact on studies of biomolecules in the past decades. For instance, immunoassays have been developed with radioisotope tagging by Yalow and Berson in the late 1950s. The later languishment of this technology can be almost exclusively ascribed to the use of radioactive isotopes, which led to the development of nonradioactive tagging strategy-based assays such as enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, fluorescent immunoassay, and chemiluminescent and electrochemiluminescent immunoassay. Despite great success, these strategies suffered from drawbacks such as limited spectral window capacity for multiplex detection and inability to provide absolute quantification of biomolecules. After recalling the sequences of tagging strategies, an apparent question is why not use stable isotopes from the start? A reasonable explanation is the lack of reliable means for accurate and precise quantification of stable isotopes at that time. The situation has changed greatly at present, since several atomic mass spectrometric measures for metal stable isotopes have been developed. Among the newly developed techniques, inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry is an ideal technique to determine metal stable isotope-tagged biomolecules, for its high sensitivity, wide dynamic linear range, and more importantly multiplex and absolute quantification ability. Since the first published report by our group, metal stable isotope tagging has become a revolutionary technique and gained great success in biomolecule quantification. An exciting research highlight in this area

  19. Absolute x-ray dosimetry on a synchrotron medical beam line with a graphite calorimeter

    SciTech Connect

    Harty, P. D. Ramanathan, G.; Butler, D. J.; Johnston, P. N.; Lye, J. E.; Hall, C. J.; Stevenson, A. W.

    2014-05-15

    Purpose: The absolute dose rate of the Imaging and Medical Beamline (IMBL) on the Australian Synchrotron was measured with a graphite calorimeter. The calorimetry results were compared to measurements from the existing free-air chamber, to provide a robust determination of the absolute dose in the synchrotron beam and provide confidence in the first implementation of a graphite calorimeter on a synchrotron medical beam line. Methods: The graphite calorimeter has a core which rises in temperature when irradiated by the beam. A collimated x-ray beam from the synchrotron with well-defined edges was used to partially irradiate the core. Two filtration sets were used, one corresponding to an average beam energy of about 80 keV, with dose rate about 50 Gy/s, and the second filtration set corresponding to average beam energy of 90 keV, with dose rate about 20 Gy/s. The temperature rise from this beam was measured by a calibrated thermistor embedded in the core which was then converted to absorbed dose to graphite by multiplying the rise in temperature by the specific heat capacity for graphite and the ratio of cross-sectional areas of the core and beam. Conversion of the measured absorbed dose to graphite to absorbed dose to water was achieved using Monte Carlo calculations with the EGSnrc code. The air kerma measurements from the free-air chamber were converted to absorbed dose to water using the AAPM TG-61 protocol. Results: Absolute measurements of the IMBL dose rate were made using the graphite calorimeter and compared to measurements with the free-air chamber. The measurements were at three different depths in graphite and two different filtrations. The calorimetry measurements at depths in graphite show agreement within 1% with free-air chamber measurements, when converted to absorbed dose to water. The calorimetry at the surface and free-air chamber results show agreement of order 3% when converted to absorbed dose to water. The combined standard uncertainty is 3

  20. Pleiades Absolute Calibration : Inflight Calibration Sites and Methodology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lachérade, S.; Fourest, S.; Gamet, P.; Lebègue, L.

    2012-07-01

    In-flight calibration of space sensors once in orbit is a decisive step to be able to fulfil the mission objectives. This article presents the methods of the in-flight absolute calibration processed during the commissioning phase. Four In-flight calibration methods are used: absolute calibration, cross-calibration with reference sensors such as PARASOL or MERIS, multi-temporal monitoring and inter-bands calibration. These algorithms are based on acquisitions over natural targets such as African deserts, Antarctic sites, La Crau (Automatic calibration station) and Oceans (Calibration over molecular scattering) or also new extra-terrestrial sites such as the Moon and selected stars. After an overview of the instrument and a description of the calibration sites, it is pointed out how each method is able to address one or several aspects of the calibration. We focus on how these methods complete each other in their operational use, and how they help building a coherent set of information that addresses all aspects of in-orbit calibration. Finally, we present the perspectives that the high level of agility of PLEIADES offers for the improvement of its calibration and a better characterization of the calibration sites.

  1. Enabling Dark Energy and Beyond Science with Precise Absolute Photometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deustua, Susana E.; Hines, D. C.; Bohlin, R.; Gordon, K. D.

    2014-01-01

    We have obtain WFC3/IR observations of 15 carefully selected stars with the immediate objective of establishing their Absolute Physical Flux (ABF), and an ultimate goal of achieving the sub-1% absolute photometric accuracies required by Dark Energy science with JWST and other facilities. Even with the best data available, the current determination of ABFs is plagued by the reliance on the Vega photometric system, which is known to be problematic primarily due to the fact that Vega is a pole-on rapid rotator with an infrared excess from its circumstellar disk! which makes it difficult to model. Vega is also far too bright for large aperture telescopes. In an effort to remedy these difficulties, teams from the National Institute of Standards (NIST), the University of New Mexico, Johns Hopkins University and STScI have begun to develop a catalog of stars that have spectral energy distributions that are tied directly to NIST (diode) standards with very precisely determined physical characteristics. A key element in this pursuit has been the efforts at STScI to measure the spectra of many of these objects with STIS. We discuss our program to extend this effort into the near-IR which is crucial to reliably extend the SEDs to longer wavelengths, including the mid IR.

  2. Absolute phase effects on CPMG-type pulse sequences.

    PubMed

    Mandal, Soumyajit; Oh, Sangwon; Hürlimann, Martin D

    2015-12-01

    We describe and analyze the effects of transients within radio-frequency (RF) pulses on multiple-pulse NMR measurements such as the well-known Carr-Purcell-Meiboom-Gill (CPMG) sequence. These transients are functions of the absolute RF phases at the beginning and end of the pulse, and are thus affected by the timing of the pulse sequence with respect to the period of the RF waveform. Changes in transients between refocusing pulses in CPMG-type sequences can result in signal decay, persistent oscillations, changes in echo shape, and other effects. We have explored such effects by performing experiments in two different low-frequency NMR systems. The first uses a conventional tuned-and-matched probe circuit, while the second uses an ultra-broadband un-tuned or non-resonant probe circuit. We show that there are distinct differences between the absolute phase effects in these two systems, and present simple models that explain these differences. PMID:26575106

  3. Low cost varying synthetic wavelength technique for absolute distance measurement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Le Floch, S.; Salvadé, Y.

    2010-04-01

    A new low-cost superheterodyne configuration, without acousto-optic modulator, is applied to the two-wavelength interferometry for absolute distance measurement. The principle relies on a synchronized frequency sweep of two optical signals, but with different frequency excursions. The frequency difference between the two optical waves is highly accurate. This is realized by injecting a frequency modulated laser signal in an intensity modulator that is biased at halfwave voltage and driven by a digitally swept radio-frequency signal between 13 and 15 GHz. This latter is a continuous up and down ramp. The two synchronized optical signals emerging from the modulator produce in a Michelson interferometer a distance dependent superheterodyne signal, with a variable synthetic wavelength of about 10 mm. The superheterodyne frequency depends linearly on distance and on the radio-frequency excursion. The integration time for a distance measurement point corresponds to the duration of single sweep (i.e. one millisecond in our case). Absolute distance measurements from 1 to 15 meters yield an accuracy of +/-50 μm, showing the validity of the technique.

  4. Absolute Measurements of Radiation Damage in Nanometer Thick Films

    PubMed Central

    Alizadeh, Elahe; Sanche, Léon

    2013-01-01

    We address the problem of absolute measurements of radiation damage in films of nanometer thicknesses. Thin films of DNA (~ 2–160nm) are deposited onto glass substrates and irradiated with varying doses of 1.5 keV X-rays under dry N2 at atmospheric pressure and room temperature. For each different thickness, the damage is assessed by measuring the loss of the supercoiled configuration as a function of incident photon fluence. From the exposure curves, the G-values are deduced, assuming that X-ray photons interacting with DNA, deposit all of their energy in the film. The results show that the G-value (i.e., damage per unit of deposited energy) increases with film thickness and reaches a plateau at 30±5 nm. This thickness dependence provides a correction factor to estimate the actual G-value for films with thicknesses below 30nm thickness. Thus, the absolute values of damage can be compared with that of films of any thickness under different experimental conditions. PMID:22562941

  5. Communication: The absolute shielding scales of oxygen and sulfur revisited

    SciTech Connect

    Komorovsky, Stanislav; Repisky, Michal; Malkin, Elena; Ruud, Kenneth; Gauss, Jürgen

    2015-03-07

    We present an updated semi-experimental absolute shielding scale for the {sup 17}O and {sup 33}S nuclei. These new shielding scales are based on accurate rotational microwave data for the spin–rotation constants of H{sub 2}{sup 17}O [Puzzarini et al., J. Chem. Phys. 131, 234304 (2009)], C{sup 17}O [Cazzoli et al., Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys. 4, 3575 (2002)], and H{sub 2}{sup 33}S [Helgaker et al., J. Chem. Phys. 139, 244308 (2013)] corrected both for vibrational and temperature effects estimated at the CCSD(T) level of theory as well as for the relativistic corrections to the relation between the spin–rotation constant and the absolute shielding constant. Our best estimate for the oxygen shielding constants of H{sub 2}{sup 17}O is 328.4(3) ppm and for C{sup 17}O −59.05(59) ppm. The relativistic correction for the sulfur shielding of H{sub 2}{sup 33}S amounts to 3.3%, and the new sulfur shielding constant for this molecule is 742.9(4.6) ppm.

  6. Absolute Temperature Monitoring Using RF Radiometry in the MRI Scanner.

    PubMed

    El-Sharkawy, Abdel-Monem M; Sotiriadis, Paul P; Bottomley, Paul A; Atalar, Ergin

    2006-11-01

    Temperature detection using microwave radiometry has proven value for noninvasively measuring the absolute temperature of tissues inside the body. However, current clinical radiometers operate in the gigahertz range, which limits their depth of penetration. We have designed and built a noninvasive radiometer which operates at radio frequencies (64 MHz) with ∼100-kHz bandwidth, using an external RF loop coil as a thermal detector. The core of the radiometer is an accurate impedance measurement and automatic matching circuit of 0.05 Ω accuracy to compensate for any load variations. The radiometer permits temperature measurements with accuracy of ±0.1°K, over a tested physiological range of 28° C-40° C in saline phantoms whose electric properties match those of tissue. Because 1.5 T magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scanners also operate at 64 MHz, we demonstrate the feasibility of integrating our radiometer with an MRI scanner to monitor RF power deposition and temperature dosimetry, obtaining coarse, spatially resolved, absolute thermal maps in the physiological range. We conclude that RF radiometry offers promise as a direct, noninvasive method of monitoring tissue heating during MRI studies and thereby providing an independent means of verifying patient-safe operation. Other potential applications include titration of hyper- and hypo-therapies. PMID:18026562

  7. Use of intensity quotients and differences in absolute structure refinement.

    PubMed

    Parsons, Simon; Flack, Howard D; Wagner, Trixie

    2013-06-01

    Several methods for absolute structure refinement were tested using single-crystal X-ray diffraction data collected using Cu Kα radiation for 23 crystals with no element heavier than oxygen: conventional refinement using an inversion twin model, estimation using intensity quotients in SHELXL2012, estimation using Bayesian methods in PLATON, estimation using restraints consisting of numerical intensity differences in CRYSTALS and estimation using differences and quotients in TOPAS-Academic where both quantities were coded in terms of other structural parameters and implemented as restraints. The conventional refinement approach yielded accurate values of the Flack parameter, but with standard uncertainties ranging from 0.15 to 0.77. The other methods also yielded accurate values of the Flack parameter, but with much higher precision. Absolute structure was established in all cases, even for a hydrocarbon. The procedures in which restraints are coded explicitly in terms of other structural parameters enable the Flack parameter to correlate with these other parameters, so that it is determined along with those parameters during refinement. PMID:23719469

  8. Absolute analytical prediction of photonic crystal guided mode resonance wavelengths

    SciTech Connect

    Hermannsson, Pétur Gordon; Vannahme, Christoph; Smith, Cameron L. C.; Kristensen, Anders

    2014-08-18

    A class of photonic crystal resonant reflectors known as guided mode resonant filters are optical structures that are widely used in the field of refractive index sensing, particularly in biosensing. For the purposes of understanding and design, their behavior has traditionally been modeled numerically with methods such as rigorous coupled wave analysis. Here it is demonstrated how the absolute resonance wavelengths of such structures can be predicted by analytically modeling them as slab waveguides in which the propagation constant is determined by a phase matching condition. The model is experimentally verified to be capable of predicting the absolute resonance wavelengths to an accuracy of within 0.75 nm, as well as resonance wavelength shifts due to changes in cladding index within an accuracy of 0.45 nm across the visible wavelength regime in the case where material dispersion is taken into account. Furthermore, it is demonstrated that the model is valid beyond the limit of low grating modulation, for periodically discontinuous waveguide layers, high refractive index contrasts, and highly dispersive media.

  9. Simulation of absolute amplitudes of ultrasound signals using equivalent circuits.

    PubMed

    Johansson, Jonny; Martinsson, Pär-Erik; Delsing, Jerker

    2007-10-01

    Equivalent circuits for piezoelectric devices and ultrasonic transmission media can be used to cosimulate electronics and ultrasound parts in simulators originally intended for electronics. To achieve efficient system-level optimization, it is important to simulate correct, absolute amplitude of the ultrasound signal in the system, as this determines the requirements on the electronics regarding dynamic range, circuit noise, and power consumption. This paper presents methods to achieve correct, absolute amplitude of an ultrasound signal in a simulation of a pulse-echo system using equivalent circuits. This is achieved by taking into consideration loss due to diffraction and the effect of the cable that connects the electronics and the piezoelectric transducer. The conductive loss in the transmission line that models the propagation media of the ultrasound pulse is used to model the loss due to diffraction. Results show that the simulated amplitude of the echo follows measured values well in both near and far fields, with an offset of about 10%. The use of a coaxial cable introduces inductance and capacitance that affect the amplitude of a received echo. Amplitude variations of 60% were observed when the cable length was varied between 0.07 m and 2.3 m, with simulations predicting similar variations. The high precision in the achieved results show that electronic design and system optimization can rely on system simulations alone. This will simplify the development of integrated electronics aimed at ultrasound systems. PMID:18019234

  10. Molecular structure and absolute configuration of the diterpene lactone, praelolide.

    PubMed

    Dai, J B; Wan, Z L; Rao, Z H; Liang, D C; Fang, Z; Luo, Y K; Long, K H

    1985-11-01

    Praelolide is a new compound which was isolated out from the gorgonian, Menella praelonga (Ridley), collected from the South Sea of China at Zhanjiang, Guangdong. The molecular formula is C28H35O12Cl. The research result by X-ray diffraction method on the crystal structure is presented. The compound is orthorhombic with space group P2(1)2(1)2, cell dimensions a = 16.936, b = 16.709, c = 10.333 A, and Z = 4. The structure has been solved by direct method and refined to R = 0.055 for 2257 unique observable reflexions by least-squares. The molecule is composed of the major conformational isomer in which the three main rings (a six-membered ring, an eight-membered ring, a six-membered ring) take separately the form of chair-chairboat-chair, a five-membered actone ring, a C1 substitution, 4 acetate groups, and a three-membered epoxide ring. The absolute configuration of the molecule has also been determined by statistics (R factor ratio R = 1.012) and Bijvoet pairs observation. For 30 pairs of the greatest anomalous contributions the residuals are R'(+) = 0.057 for the first enantiomorph and R'(-) = 0.005 for the second one, so the latter should unambiguously correspond to the absolute configuration of the molecule.

  11. A Special Application of Absolute Value Techniques in Authentic Problem Solving

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stupel, Moshe

    2013-01-01

    There are at least five different equivalent definitions of the absolute value concept. In instances where the task is an equation or inequality with only one or two absolute value expressions, it is a worthy educational experience for learners to solve the task using each one of the definitions. On the other hand, if more than two absolute value…

  12. Constraint on Absolute Accuracy of Metacomprehension Assessments: The Anchoring and Adjustment Model vs. the Standards Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kwon, Heekyung

    2011-01-01

    The objective of this study is to provide a systematic account of three typical phenomena surrounding absolute accuracy of metacomprehension assessments: (1) the absolute accuracy of predictions is typically quite low; (2) there exist individual differences in absolute accuracy of predictions as a function of reading skill; and (3) postdictions…

  13. North American fertilizer capacity data

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-01-01

    This listing of producers and their fertilizer production capacities was compiled in January 1991 with the cooperation of the US and Canadian fertilizer industry. Capacity is only an indicator of supply. Nameplate capacity differs from planned production levels or actual production because plants often operate above or below design capacity. Unless reported otherwise, plant capacities are based on 340 days per year of operation. No adjustment is made for partial year operation. Numerical data for the production of ammonia, ammonium nitrate, nitrogen solutions, urea, phosphate rock, phosphoric acid and ammonium phosphates is included.

  14. Regional absolute conductivity reconstruction using projected current density in MREIT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sajib, Saurav Z. K.; Kim, Hyung Joong; In Kwon, Oh; Woo, Eung Je

    2012-09-01

    Magnetic resonance electrical impedance tomography (MREIT) is a non-invasive technique for imaging the internal conductivity distribution in tissue within an MRI scanner, utilizing the magnetic flux density, which is introduced when a current is injected into the tissue from external electrodes. This magnetic flux alters the MRI signal, so that appropriate reconstruction can provide a map of the additional z-component of the magnetic field (Bz) as well as the internal current density distribution that created it. To extract the internal electrical properties of the subject, including the conductivity and/or the current density distribution, MREIT techniques use the relationship between the external injection current and the z-component of the magnetic flux density B = (Bx, By, Bz). The tissue studied typically contains defective regions, regions with a low MRI signal and/or low MRI signal-to-noise-ratio, due to the low density of nuclear magnetic resonance spins, short T2 or T*2 relaxation times, as well as regions with very low electrical conductivity, through which very little current traverses. These defective regions provide noisy Bz data, which can severely degrade the overall reconstructed conductivity distribution. Injecting two independent currents through surface electrodes, this paper proposes a new direct method to reconstruct a regional absolute isotropic conductivity distribution in a region of interest (ROI) while avoiding the defective regions. First, the proposed method reconstructs the contrast of conductivity using the transversal J-substitution algorithm, which blocks the propagation of severe accumulated noise from the defective region to the ROI. Second, the proposed method reconstructs the regional projected current density using the relationships between the internal current density, which stems from a current injection on the surface, and the measured Bz data. Combining the contrast conductivity distribution in the entire imaging slice and

  15. Landsat-7 ETM+ radiometric stability and absolute calibration

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Markham, B.L.; Barker, J.L.; Barsi, J.A.; Kaita, E.; Thome, K.J.; Helder, D.L.; Palluconi, Frank Don; Schott, J.R.; Scaramuzza, P.; ,

    2002-01-01

    Launched in April 1999, the Landsat-7 ETM+ instrument is in its fourth year of operation. The quality of the acquired calibrated imagery continues to be high, especially with respect to its three most important radiometric performance parameters: reflective band instrument stability to better than ??1%, reflective band absolute calibration to better than ??5%, and thermal band absolute calibration to better than ??0.6 K. The ETM+ instrument has been the most stable of any of the Landsat instruments, in both the reflective and thermal channels. To date, the best on-board calibration source for the reflective bands has been the Full Aperture Solar Calibrator, which has indicated changes of at most -1.8% to -2.0% (95% C.I.) change per year in the ETM+ gain (band 4). However, this change is believed to be caused by changes in the solar diffuser panel, as opposed to a change in the instrument's gain. This belief is based partially on ground observations, which bound the changes in gain in band 4 at -0.7% to +1.5%. Also, ETM+ stability is indicated by the monitoring of desert targets. These image-based results for four Saharan and Arabian sites, for a collection of 35 scenes over the three years since launch, bound the gain change at -0.7% to +0.5% in band 4. Thermal calibration from ground observations revealed an offset error of +0.31 W/m 2 sr um soon after launch. This offset was corrected within the U. S. ground processing system at EROS Data Center on 21-Dec-00, and since then, the band 6 on-board calibration has indicated changes of at most +0.02% to +0.04% (95% C.I.) per year. The latest ground observations have detected no remaining offset error with an RMS error of ??0.6 K. The stability and absolute calibration of the Landsat-7 ETM+ sensor make it an ideal candidate to be used as a reference source for radiometric cross-calibrating to other land remote sensing satellite systems.

  16. Landsat-7 ETM+ radiometric stability and absolute calibration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Markham, Brian L.; Barker, John L.; Barsi, Julia A.; Kaita, Ed; Thome, Kurtis J.; Helder, Dennis L.; Palluconi, Frank D.; Schott, John R.; Scaramuzza, Pat

    2003-04-01

    Launched in April 1999, the Landsat-7 ETM+ instrument is in its fourth year of operation. The quality of the acquired calibrated imagery continues to be high, especially with respect to its three most important radiometric performance parameters: reflective band instrument stability to better than +/-1%, reflective band absolute calibration to better than +/-5%, and thermal band absolute calibration to better than +/- 0.6 K. The ETM+ instrument has been the most stable of any of the Landsat instruments, in both the reflective and thermal channels. To date, the best on-board calibration source for the reflective bands has been the Full Aperture Solar Calibrator, which has indicated changes of at most -1.8% to -2.0% (95% C.I.) change per year in the ETM+ gain (band 4). However, this change is believed to be caused by changes in the solar diffuser panel, as opposed to a change in the instrument's gain. This belief is based partially on ground observations, which bound the changes in gain in band 4 at -0.7% to +1.5%. Also, ETM+ stability is indicated by the monitoring of desert targets. These image-based results for four Saharan and Arabian sites, for a collection of 35 scenes over the three years since launch, bound the gain change at -0.7% to +0.5% in band 4. Thermal calibration from ground observations revealed an offset error of +0.31 W/m2 sr um soon after launch. This offset was corrected within the U. S. ground processing system at EROS Data Center on 21-Dec-00, and since then, the band 6 on-board calibration has indicated changes of at most +0.02% to +0.04% (95% C.I.) per year. The latest ground observations have detected no remaining offset error with an RMS error of +/- 0.6 K. The stability and absolute calibration of the Landsat-7 ETM+ sensor make it an ideal candidate to be used as a reference source for radiometric cross-calibrating to other land remote sensing satellite systems.

  17. Reductions in labour capacity from heat stress under climate warming

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dunne, John P.; Stouffer, Ronald J.; John, Jasmin G.

    2013-06-01

    A fundamental aspect of greenhouse-gas-induced warming is a global-scale increase in absolute humidity. Under continued warming, this response has been shown to pose increasingly severe limitations on human activity in tropical and mid-latitudes during peak months of heat stress. One heat-stress metric with broad occupational health applications is wet-bulb globe temperature. We combine wet-bulb globe temperatures from global climate historical reanalysis and Earth System Model (ESM2M) projections with industrial and military guidelines for an acclimated individual's occupational capacity to safely perform sustained labour under environmental heat stress (labour capacity)--here defined as a global population-weighted metric temporally fixed at the 2010 distribution. We estimate that environmental heat stress has reduced labour capacity to 90% in peak months over the past few decades. ESM2M projects labour capacity reduction to 80% in peak months by 2050. Under the highest scenario considered (Representative Concentration Pathway 8.5), ESM2M projects labour capacity reduction to less than 40% by 2200 in peak months, with most tropical and mid-latitudes experiencing extreme climatological heat stress. Uncertainties and caveats associated with these projections include climate sensitivity, climate warming patterns, CO2 emissions, future population distributions, and technological and societal change.

  18. Biochip Image Grid Normalization Absolute Signal Fluorescence Measurement Using

    SciTech Connect

    Alferov, Oleg

    2001-04-17

    This software was developed to measure absolute fluorescent intensities of gel pads on a microchip in units defined by a standard fluorescent slide. It can accomodate varying measurement conditions (e.g. exposure time, sensitivity of detector, resolution of detector, etc.) as well as fluorescent microscopes with non-uniform sensitivity across their field of view allowing the user to compare measurements done on different detectors with varying exposure times, sensitivities, and resolutions. The software is designed both to operate Roper Scientific, Inc. cameras and to use image files produced by the program supplied with that equipment for its calculations. the intensity of the gel pad signal is computed so as to reduce background influence.

  19. Upgrade of absolute extreme ultraviolet diagnostic on J-TEXT

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, X. L.; Cheng, Z. F. Hou, S. Y.; Zhuang, G.; Luo, J.

    2014-11-15

    The absolute extreme ultraviolet (AXUV) diagnostic system is used for radiation observation on J-TEXT tokamak [J. Zhang, G. Zhuang, Z. J. Wang, Y. H. Ding, X. Q. Zhang, and Y. J. Tang, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 81, 073509 (2010)]. The upgrade of the AXUV system is aimed to improve the spatial resolution and provide a three-dimensional image on J-TEXT. The new system consists of 12 AXUV arrays (4 AXUV16ELG arrays, 8 AXUV20ELG arrays). The spatial resolution in the cross-section is 21 mm for the AXUV16ELG arrays and 17 mm for the AXUV20ELG arrays. The pre-amplifier is also upgraded for a higher signal to noise ratio. By upgrading the AXUV imaging system, a more accurate observation on the radiation information is obtained.

  20. Choice deferral can arise from absolute evaluations or relative comparisons.

    PubMed

    White, Chris M; Hoffrage, Ulrich; Reisen, Nils

    2015-06-01

    When choosing among several options, people may defer choice for either of 2 reasons: because none of the options is good enough or because there is uncertainty regarding which is the best. These reasons form the basis of the 2-stage, 2-threshold (2S2T) framework, which posits that a different kind of processing corresponds to these 2 reasons for choice deferral: absolute evaluations and relative comparisons, respectively. Three experiments are reported in which each type of processing was triggered in different conditions either via different payoff structures or different degrees of attribute knowledge. The effects of the 3 main independent variables (the size of the choice set, the utility of the best option, and the number of competitive options) differed depending on the payoff structure or attribute knowledge conditions in ways predicted by the 2S2T framework. Implications for consumer decision making, marketing, and eyewitness identification are discussed. PMID:25938974

  1. An absolute scale for measuring the utility of money

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thomas, P. J.

    2010-07-01

    Measurement of the utility of money is essential in the insurance industry, for prioritising public spending schemes and for the evaluation of decisions on protection systems in high-hazard industries. Up to this time, however, there has been no universally agreed measure for the utility of money, with many utility functions being in common use. In this paper, we shall derive a single family of utility functions, which have risk-aversion as the only free parameter. The fact that they return a utility of zero at their low, reference datum, either the utility of no money or of one unit of money, irrespective of the value of risk-aversion used, qualifies them to be regarded as absolute scales for the utility of money. Evidence of validation for the concept will be offered based on inferential measurements of risk-aversion, using diverse measurement data.

  2. Absolute positioning using DORIS tracking of the SPOT-2 satellite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Watkins, M. M.; Ries, J. C.; Davis, G. W.

    1992-01-01

    The ability of the French DORIS system operating on the SPOT-2 satellite to provide absolute site positioning at the 20-30-centimeter level using 80 d of data is demonstrated. The accuracy of the vertical component is comparable to that of the horizontal components, indicating that residual troposphere error is not a limiting factor. The translation parameters indicate that the DORIS network realizes a geocentric frame to about 50 nm in each component. The considerable amount of data provided by the nearly global, all-weather DORIS network allowed this complex parameterization required to reduce the unmodeled forces acting on the low-earth satellite. Site velocities with accuracies better than 10 mm/yr should certainly be possible using the multiyear span of the SPOT series and Topex/Poseidon missions.

  3. The neurocognitive components of pitch processing: insights from absolute pitch.

    PubMed

    Wilson, Sarah J; Lusher, Dean; Wan, Catherine Y; Dudgeon, Paul; Reutens, David C

    2009-03-01

    The natural variability of pitch naming ability in the population (known as absolute pitch or AP) provides an ideal method for investigating individual differences in pitch processing and auditory knowledge formation and representation. We have demonstrated the involvement of different cognitive processes in AP ability that reflects varying skill expertise in the presence of similar early age of onset of music tuition. These processes were related to different regions of brain activity, including those involved in pitch working memory (right prefrontal cortex) and the long-term representation of pitch (superior temporal gyrus). They reflected expertise through the use of context dependent pitch cues and the level of automaticity of pitch naming. They impart functional significance to structural asymmetry differences in the planum temporale of musicians and establish a neurobiological basis for an AP template. More generally, they indicate variability of knowledge representation in the presence of environmental fostering of early cognitive development that translates to differences in cognitive ability. PMID:18663250

  4. A three-axis SQUID-based absolute vector magnetometer

    SciTech Connect

    Schönau, T.; Schmelz, M.; Stolz, R.; Anders, S.; Linzen, S.; Meyer, H.-G.; Zakosarenko, V.; Meyer, M.

    2015-10-15

    We report on the development of a three-axis absolute vector magnetometer suited for mobile operation in the Earth’s magnetic field. It is based on low critical temperature dc superconducting quantum interference devices (LTS dc SQUIDs) with sub-micrometer sized cross-type Josephson junctions and exhibits a white noise level of about 10 fT/Hz{sup 1/2}. The width of superconducting strip lines is restricted to less than 6 μm in order to avoid flux trapping during cool-down in magnetically unshielded environment. The long-term stability of the flux-to-voltage transfer coefficients of the SQUID electronics is investigated in detail and a method is presented to significantly increase their reproducibility. We further demonstrate the long-term operation of the setup in a magnetic field varying by about 200 μT amplitude without the need for recalibration.

  5. Lunar eclipse photometry: absolute luminance measurements and modeling.

    PubMed

    Hernitschek, Nina; Schmidt, Elmar; Vollmer, Michael

    2008-12-01

    The Moon's time-dependent luminance was determined during the 9 February 1990 and 3 March 2007 total lunar eclipses by using calibrated, industry standard photometers. After the results were corrected to unit air mass and to standard distances for both Moon and Sun, an absolute calibration was accomplished by using the Sun's known luminance and a pre-eclipse lunar albedo of approximately 13.5%. The measured minimum level of brightness in the total phase of both eclipses was relatively high, namely -3.32 m(vis) and -1.7 m(vis), which hints at the absence of pronounced stratospheric aerosol. The light curves were modeled in such a way as to let the Moon move through an artificial Earth shadow composed of a multitude of disk and ring zones, containing a relative luminance data set from an atmospheric radiative transfer calculation. PMID:19037352

  6. Absolute and geometric parameters of contact binary V1918 Cyg

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gürol, B.

    2016-08-01

    We present the results of our investigation on the geometrical and physical parameters of the W UMa type binary system V1918 Cyg from analyzed CCD (BVR) light curves and radial velocity data. We used the photometric data published by Yang et al. (2013) and spectroscopic data obtained in 2012 at TUBITAK National Observatory (TUG). The light and radial velocity observations were analyzed simultaneously by using the Wilson-Devinney (2015 revision) code to obtain absolute and geometrical parameters of the system. It is confirmed that the system is an A-type W UMa as indicated by Yang et al. (2013). Combining our spectroscopic data with the photometric solution we derived masses and radii of the eclipsing system as M1 = 1.302M⊙ , M2 = 0.362M⊙ , R1 = 1.362R⊙ and R2 = 0.762R⊙ . Finally, we discuss the evolutionary status of the system.

  7. Lunar eclipse photometry: absolute luminance measurements and modeling.

    PubMed

    Hernitschek, Nina; Schmidt, Elmar; Vollmer, Michael

    2008-12-01

    The Moon's time-dependent luminance was determined during the 9 February 1990 and 3 March 2007 total lunar eclipses by using calibrated, industry standard photometers. After the results were corrected to unit air mass and to standard distances for both Moon and Sun, an absolute calibration was accomplished by using the Sun's known luminance and a pre-eclipse lunar albedo of approximately 13.5%. The measured minimum level of brightness in the total phase of both eclipses was relatively high, namely -3.32 m(vis) and -1.7 m(vis), which hints at the absence of pronounced stratospheric aerosol. The light curves were modeled in such a way as to let the Moon move through an artificial Earth shadow composed of a multitude of disk and ring zones, containing a relative luminance data set from an atmospheric radiative transfer calculation.

  8. Valproate reopens critical-period learning of absolute pitch

    PubMed Central

    Gervain, Judit; Vines, Bradley W.; Chen, Lawrence M.; Seo, Rubo J.; Hensch, Takao K.; Werker, Janet F.; Young, Allan H.

    2013-01-01

    Absolute pitch, the ability to identify or produce the pitch of a sound without a reference point, has a critical period, i.e., it can only be acquired early in life. However, research has shown that histone-deacetylase inhibitors (HDAC inhibitors) enable adult mice to establish perceptual preferences that are otherwise impossible to acquire after youth. In humans, we found that adult men who took valproate (VPA) (a HDAC inhibitor) learned to identify pitch significantly better than those taking placebo—evidence that VPA facilitated critical-period learning in the adult human brain. Importantly, this result was not due to a general change in cognitive function, but rather a specific effect on a sensory task associated with a critical-period. PMID:24348349

  9. Absolute and geometric parameters of contact binary BO Arietis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gürol, B.; Gürsoytrak, S. H.; Bradstreet, D. H.

    2015-08-01

    We present the results of our investigation on the geometrical and physical parameters of the W UMa type binary system BO Ari from analyzed CCD (BVRI) light curves and radial velocity data. The photometric data were obtained in 2009 and 2010 at Ankara University Observatory (AUO) and the spectroscopic observations were made in 2007 and 2010 at TUBITAK National Observatory (TUG). These light and radial velocity observations were analyzed simultaneously by using the Wilson-Devinney (2013 revision) code to obtain absolute and geometrical parameters. The system was determined to be an A-type W UMa system. Combining our photometric solution with the spectroscopic data we derived masses and radii of the eclipsing system to be M1 = 0.995M⊙,M2 = 0.189M⊙,R1 = 1.090R⊙ and R2 = 0.515R⊙ . Finally, we discuss the evolutionary status of the system.

  10. Absolute stress measurements at the rangely anticline, Northwestern Colorado

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    de la Cruz, R. V.; Raleigh, C.B.

    1972-01-01

    Five different methods of measuring absolute state of stress in rocks in situ were used at sites near Rangely, Colorado, and the results compared. For near-surface measurements, overcoring of the borehole-deformation gage is the most convenient and rapid means of obtaining reliable values for the magnitude and direction of the state of stress in rocks in situ. The magnitudes and directions of the principal stresses are compared to the geologic features of the different areas of measurement. The in situ stresses are consistent in orientation with the stress direction inferred from the earthquake focal-plane solutions and existing joint patterns but inconsistent with stress directions likely to have produced the Rangely anticline. ?? 1972.

  11. Absolute calibration of a laser system for atmospheric probing.

    PubMed

    Hall, F F; Ageno, H Y

    1970-08-01

    In order to obtain quantitative data on the backscatter function from laser irradiance backscattered from the atmosphere, the ratio of power transmitted to power received must be accurately known. No absolute measurements of power, optical system transmittance, detector quantum efficiency, or electronic gain are necessarily required. The technique of measuring the power ratio by irradiating a smoked or painted target of known diffuse reflectance at a fixed range is used to calibrate a complete lidar system. The relative area of the output power pulse is monitored by a fast response photodiode, and the relative area of the returned pulse is also recorded after passing through a filter of known high optical density. It is essential to control the temperatures of the laser rod and receiver interference prefilter to ensure proper spectral matching. Field experience gained using this technique is described, and examples of calibration measurements and backscatter functions for smog and cirrus clouds are presented.

  12. THE ABSOLUTE CALIBRATION OF THE EUV IMAGING SPECTROMETER ON HINODE

    SciTech Connect

    Warren, Harry P.; Ugarte-Urra, Ignacio; Landi, Enrico

    2014-07-01

    We investigate the absolute calibration of the EUV Imaging Spectrometer (EIS) on Hinode by comparing EIS full-disk mosaics with irradiance observations from the EUV Variability Experiment on the Solar Dynamics Observatory. We also use extended observations of the quiet corona above the limb combined with a simple differential emission measure model to establish new effective area curves that incorporate information from the most recent atomic physics calculations. We find that changes to the EIS instrument sensitivity are a complex function of both time and wavelength. We find that the sensitivity is decaying exponentially with time and that the decay constants vary with wavelength. The EIS short wavelength channel shows significantly longer decay times than the long wavelength channel.

  13. Absolute parameters of stars in semidetached eclipsing binary systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Budding, E.

    1985-06-01

    A number of questions concerning the absolute parameters of stars in semidetached binary systems are addressed. Consideration is given to: similarities between Algol-type binaries and unevolved detached binaries with respect to the mass-luminosity law; and the single-line classical Algol candidates with known mass functions and photometric solutions for mass ratio. It is shown that the validity of the mass luminosity-law cannot be verified for individual Algol-type binaries though it does hold well on average; and (2), the existence of a definite class of sd-binaries not containing a proportion of significantly undersize types is apparent. The conclusions are found to be in general agreement with the observations of Hall and Neff (1979).

  14. Absolute properties of the triple star HP Aurigae

    SciTech Connect

    Lacy, Claud H. Sandberg; Burks, Charles L.; Torres, Guillermo; Wolf, Marek E-mail: clburks@email.uark.edu E-mail: wolf@cesnet.cz

    2014-01-01

    New photometric, spectroscopic, and eclipse timing observations of the eclipsing binary star HP Aur allow for very accurate orbital determinations, even in the presence of a third body and transient starspot activity. The eclipsing binary masses are determined to an accuracy of ±0.4% and the radii to ±0.6%. The masses are 0.9543 ± 0.0041 and 0.8094 ± 0.0036 solar masses, and the radii are 1.0278 ± 0.0042 and 0.7758 ± 0.0034 solar radii, respectively. The orbital period in the outer orbit is accurately determined for the first time: 4.332 ± 0.011 yr. A comparison with current theories of stellar evolution shows that the components' absolute properties can be well-matched by the current models at an age of about 7 billion years.

  15. ABSOLUTE PROPERTIES OF THE TRIPLE STAR CF TAURI

    SciTech Connect

    Lacy, Claud H. Sandberg; Torres, Guillermo; Claret, Antonio E-mail: gtorres@cfa.harvard.edu

    2012-12-01

    CF Tau is now known to be an eclipsing triple star with relatively deep total and annular eclipses. New light and radial velocity curves as well as new times of minima were obtained and used for further modeling of the system. Very accurate (better than 0.9%) masses and radii of the eclipsing pair are determined from analysis of the two new light curves, the radial velocity curve, and the times of minimum light. The mass and luminosity of the distant third component is accurately determined as well. Theoretical models of the detached, evolved eclipsing pair match the observed absolute properties of the stars at an age of about 4.3 Gyr and [Fe/H] = -0.14.

  16. ABSOLUTE PROPERTIES OF THE ECLIPSING BINARY STAR HY VIRGINIS

    SciTech Connect

    Sandberg Lacy, Claud H.; Fekel, Francis C. E-mail: fekel@evans.tsuniv.edu

    2011-12-15

    HY Vir is found to be a double-lined F0m+F5 binary star with relatively shallow (0.3 mag) partial eclipses. Previous studies of the system are improved with 7509 differential photometric observations from the URSA WebScope and 8862 from the NFO WebScope, and 68 high-resolution spectroscopic observations from the Tennessee State University 2 m automatic spectroscopic telescope, and the 1 m coude-feed spectrometer at Kitt Peak National Observatory. Very accurate (better than 0.5%) masses and radii are determined from analysis of the new light curves and radial velocity curves. Theoretical models match the absolute properties of the stars at an age of about 1.35 Gy.

  17. ABSOLUTE PROPERTIES OF THE ECLIPSING BINARY STAR V335 SERPENTIS

    SciTech Connect

    Lacy, Claud H. Sandberg; Fekel, Francis C.; Claret, Antonio E-mail: fekel@evans.tsuniv.edu

    2012-08-15

    V335 Ser is now known to be an eccentric double-lined A1+A3 binary star with fairly deep (0.5 mag) partial eclipses. Previous studies of the system are improved with 7456 differential photometric observations from the URSA WebScope and 5666 from the NFO WebScope, and 67 high-resolution spectroscopic observations from the Tennessee State University 2 m automatic spectroscopic telescope. From dates of minima, the apsidal period is about 880 years. Accurate (better than 2%) masses and radii are determined from analysis of the two new light curves and the radial velocity curve. Theoretical models match the absolute properties of the stars at an age of about 380 Myr, though the age agreement for the two components is poor. Tidal theory correctly confirms that the orbit should still be eccentric, but we find that standard tidal theory is unable to match the observed asynchronous rotation rates of the components' surface layers.

  18. Active radiometric calorimeter for absolute calibration of radioactive sources

    SciTech Connect

    Stump, K.E.; DeWerd, L.A.; Rudman, D.A.; Schima, S.A.

    2005-03-01

    This report describes the design and initial noise floor measurements of a radiometric calorimeter designed to measure therapeutic medical radioactive sources. The instrument demonstrates a noise floor of approximately 2 nW. This low noise floor is achieved by using high temperature superconducting (HTS) transition edge sensor (TES) thermometers in a temperature-control feedback loop. This feedback loop will be used to provide absolute source calibrations based upon the electrical substitution method. Other unique features of the calorimeter are (a) its ability to change sources for calibration without disrupting the vacuum of the instrument, and (b) the ability to measure the emitted power of a source in addition to the total contained source power.

  19. Landsat-5 TM reflective-band absolute radiometric calibration

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Chander, G.; Helder, D.L.; Markham, B.L.; Dewald, J.D.; Kaita, E.; Thome, K.J.; Micijevic, E.; Ruggles, T.A.

    2004-01-01

    The Landsat-5 Thematic Mapper (TM) sensor provides the longest running continuous dataset of moderate spatial resolution remote sensing imagery, dating back to its launch in March 1984. Historically, the radiometric calibration procedure for this imagery used the instrument's response to the Internal Calibrator (IC) on a scene-by-scene basis to determine the gain and offset of each detector. Due to observed degradations in the IC, a new procedure was implemented for U.S.-processed data in May 2003. This new calibration procedure is based on a lifetime radiometric calibration model for the instrument's reflective bands (1-5 and 7) and is derived, in part, from the IC response without the related degradation effects and is tied to the cross calibration with the Landsat-7 Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus. Reflective-band absolute radiometric accuracy of the instrument tends to be on the order of 7% to 10%, based on a variety of calibration methods.

  20. Absolute properties of the eclipsing binary star IM Persei

    SciTech Connect

    Lacy, Claud H. Sandberg; Torres, Guillermo; Fekel, Francis C.; Muterspaugh, Matthew W.; Southworth, John E-mail: gtorres@cfa.harvard.edu E-mail: matthew1@coe.tsuniv.edu

    2015-01-01

    IM Per is a detached A7 eccentric eclipsing binary star. We have obtained extensive measurements of the light curve (28,225 differential magnitude observations) and radial velocity curve (81 spectroscopic observations) which allow us to fit orbits and determine the absolute properties of the components very accurately: masses of 1.7831 ± 0.0094 and 1.7741 ± 0.0097 solar masses, and radii of 2.409 ± 0.018 and 2.366 ± 0.017 solar radii. The orbital period is 2.25422694(15) days and the eccentricity is 0.0473(26). A faint third component was detected in the analysis of the light curves, and also directly observed in the spectra. The observed rate of apsidal motion is consistent with theory (U = 151.4 ± 8.4 year). We determine a distance to the system of 566 ± 46 pc.

  1. Orion Exploration Flight Test-1 (EFT-1) Absolute Navigation Performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zanetti, Renato

    2015-01-01

    The Orion vehicle, being design to take men back to the Moon and beyond, successfully completed its first flight test, EFT-1 (Exploration Flight Test-1), on December 5th, 2014. The main objective of the test was to demonstrate the capability of re-enter into the Earth's atmosphere and safely splash-down into the pacific ocean. This un-crewed mission completes two orbits around Earth, the second of which is highly elliptical with an apogee of approximately 5908 km, higher than any vehicle designed for humans has been since the Apollo program. The trajectory was designed in order to test a high-energy re-entry similar to those crews will undergo during lunar missions. The mission overview is shown in Figure 1. The objective of this paper is to document the performance of the absolute navigation system during EFT-1 and to present its design.

  2. Absolute photoionization cross sections of the ions Ca+ Ni+

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hansen, J. E.; Kjeldsen, H.; Folkmann, F.; Martins, M.; West, J. B.

    2007-01-01

    Absolute measurements of the photoionization cross sections of the singly charged ions in the sequence Ca to Ni are presented, focussing on the 3p → 3d resonance region. Major differences are found in both spectral structure and cross section as the 3d shell is filled progressively. The behaviour of the total oscillator strength is studied as well as its relation to the collapse of the 3d orbital. The 3p53d 1P term is found to have an influence on the spectra even when further 3d electrons are added and this dependence combined with the effect of Hund's rule leads to a considerable simplification in the structure of the absorption spectra before the half-filled 3d shell, while from the half-filled 3d shell Hund's rule is the main simplifying effect.

  3. Absolute and geometric parameters of contact binary GW Cnc

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gürol, B.; Gökay, G.; Saral, G.; Gürsoytrak, S. H.; Cerit, S.; Terzioğlu, Z.

    2016-07-01

    We present the results of our investigation on the geometrical and physical parameters of the W UMa type binary system GW Cnc. We analyzed the photometric data obtained in 2010 and 2011 at Ankara University Observatory (AUO) and the spectroscopic data obtained in 2010 at TUBITAK National Observatory (TUG) by using the Wilson-Devinney (2013 revision) code to obtain the absolute and geometrical parameters. We derived masses and radii of the eclipsing system to be M1 = 0.257M⊙ , M2 = 0.971M⊙ , R1 = 0.526R⊙ and R2 = 0.961R⊙ with an orbital inclination i(∘) = 83.38 ± 0.25 and we determined the GW Cnc system to be a W-type W UMa over-contact binary with a mass ratio of q = 3.773 ± 0.007 .

  4. Conductance and Absolutely Continuous Spectrum of 1D Samples

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bruneau, L.; Jakšić, V.; Last, Y.; Pillet, C.-A.

    2016-06-01

    We characterize the absolutely continuous spectrum of the one-dimensional Schrödinger operators {h = -Δ + v} acting on {ℓ^2(mathbb{Z}_+)} in terms of the limiting behaviour of the Landauer-Büttiker and Thouless conductances of the associated finite samples. The finite sample is defined by restricting h to a finite interval {[1, L] \\cap mathbb{Z}_+} and the conductance refers to the charge current across the sample in the open quantum system obtained by attaching independent electronic reservoirs to the sample ends. Our main result is that the conductances associated to an energy interval {I} are non-vanishing in the limit {L to infty} iff {sp_ac(h) \\cap I neq emptyset}. We also discuss the relationship between this result and the Schrödinger Conjecture (Avila, J Am Math Soc 28:579-616, 2015; Bruneau et al., Commun Math Phys 319:501-513, 2013).

  5. Absolute stellar photometry on moderate-resolution FPA images

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stone, T.C.

    2009-01-01

    An extensive database of star (and Moon) images has been collected by the ground-based RObotic Lunar Observatory (ROLO) as part of the US Geological Survey program for lunar calibration. The stellar data are used to derive nightly atmospheric corrections for the observations from extinction measurements, and absolute calibration of the ROLO sensors is based on observations of Vega and published reference flux and spectrum data. The ROLO telescopes were designed for imaging the Moon at moderate resolution, thus imposing some limitations for the stellar photometry. Attaining accurate stellar photometry with the ROLO image data has required development of specialized processing techniques. A key consideration is consistency in discriminating the star core signal from the off-axis point spread function. The analysis and processing methods applied to the ROLO stellar image database are described. ?? 2009 BIPM and IOP Publishing Ltd.

  6. The preference of visualization in teaching and learning absolute value

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cihan Konyalioğlu, Alper; Aksu, Zeki; Özge Şenel, Esma

    2012-07-01

    Visualization is mostly despised although it complements and - sometimes - guides the analytical process. This study mainly investigates teachers' preferences concerning the use of the visualization method and determines the extent to which they encourage their students to make use of it within the problem-solving process. This study was conducted for the ninth-grade students and their mathematics teacher in a social science intensive public school in the city of Erzurum, Turkey. Utilizing case study as the preferred method, data were collected through observations, interviews and student evaluations. This study revealed that visualization has a positive effect at the preliminary phases of teaching the absolute value concept but generates a lack of stimulation during problem solving in further phases of the instruction. This could be explained as a result of current examination system which requires a habituation of the analytical process in solving mathematical questions.

  7. A three-axis SQUID-based absolute vector magnetometer.

    PubMed

    Schönau, T; Zakosarenko, V; Schmelz, M; Stolz, R; Anders, S; Linzen, S; Meyer, M; Meyer, H-G

    2015-10-01

    We report on the development of a three-axis absolute vector magnetometer suited for mobile operation in the Earth's magnetic field. It is based on low critical temperature dc superconducting quantum interference devices (LTS dc SQUIDs) with sub-micrometer sized cross-type Josephson junctions and exhibits a white noise level of about 10 fT/Hz(1/2). The width of superconducting strip lines is restricted to less than 6 μm in order to avoid flux trapping during cool-down in magnetically unshielded environment. The long-term stability of the flux-to-voltage transfer coefficients of the SQUID electronics is investigated in detail and a method is presented to significantly increase their reproducibility. We further demonstrate the long-term operation of the setup in a magnetic field varying by about 200 μT amplitude without the need for recalibration.

  8. Full field imaging based instantaneous hyperspectral absolute refractive index measurement

    SciTech Connect

    Baba, Justin S; Boudreaux, Philip R

    2012-01-01

    Multispectral refractometers typically measure refractive index (RI) at discrete monochromatic wavelengths via a serial process. We report on the demonstration of a white light full field imaging based refractometer capable of instantaneous multispectral measurement of absolute RI of clear liquid/gel samples across the entire visible light spectrum. The broad optical bandwidth refractometer is capable of hyperspectral measurement of RI in the range 1.30 1.70 between 400nm 700nm with a maximum error of 0.0036 units (0.24% of actual) at 414nm for a = 1.50 sample. We present system design and calibration method details as well as results from a system validation sample.

  9. First derivative versus absolute spectral reflectance of citrus varieties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blazquez, Carlos H.; Nigg, H. N.; Hedley, Lou E.; Ramos, L. E.; Sorrell, R. W.; Simpson, S. E.

    1996-06-01

    Spectral reflectance measurements from 400 to 800 nm were taken from immature and mature leaves of grapefruit ('McCarty' and 'Rio Red'), 'Minneola' tangelo, 'Satsuma' mandarin, 'Dancy' tangerine, 'Nagami' oval kumquat, and 'Valencia' sweet orange, at the Florida Citrus Arboretum, Division of Plant Industry, Winter Haven, Florida. Immature and mature leaves of 'Minneola' tangelo had greater percent reflectance in the 400 to 800 nm range than the other varieties and leaf ages measured. The slope of the citrus spectral curves in the 800 nm range was not as sharp as conventional spectrometers, but had a much higher reflectance value than those obtained with a DK-2 spectrometer. Statistical analyses of absolute spectral data yielded significant differences between mature and immature leaves and between varieties. First derivative data analyses did not yield significant differences between varieties.

  10. Absolute Radiation Measurements in Earth and Mars Entry Conditions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cruden, Brett A.

    2014-01-01

    This paper reports on the measurement of radiative heating for shock heated flows which simulate conditions for Mars and Earth entries. Radiation measurements are made in NASA Ames' Electric Arc Shock Tube at velocities from 3-15 km/s in mixtures of N2/O2 and CO2/N2/Ar. The technique and limitations of the measurement are summarized in some detail. The absolute measurements will be discussed in regards to spectral features, radiative magnitude and spatiotemporal trends. Via analysis of spectra it is possible to extract properties such as electron density, and rotational, vibrational and electronic temperatures. Relaxation behind the shock is analyzed to determine how these properties relax to equilibrium and are used to validate and refine kinetic models. It is found that, for some conditions, some of these values diverge from non-equilibrium indicating a lack of similarity between the shock tube and free flight conditions. Possible reasons for this are discussed.

  11. Biochip Image Grid Normalization Absolute Signal Fluorescence Measurement Using

    2001-04-17

    This software was developed to measure absolute fluorescent intensities of gel pads on a microchip in units defined by a standard fluorescent slide. It can accomodate varying measurement conditions (e.g. exposure time, sensitivity of detector, resolution of detector, etc.) as well as fluorescent microscopes with non-uniform sensitivity across their field of view allowing the user to compare measurements done on different detectors with varying exposure times, sensitivities, and resolutions. The software is designed both tomore » operate Roper Scientific, Inc. cameras and to use image files produced by the program supplied with that equipment for its calculations. the intensity of the gel pad signal is computed so as to reduce background influence.« less

  12. Absolute and relative choreographies in rigid body dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borisov, A. V.; Kilin, A. A.; Mamaev, I. S.

    2008-06-01

    For the classical problem of motion of a rigid body about a fixed point with zero area integral, we present a family of solutions that are periodic in the absolute space. Such solutions are known as choreographies. The family includes the well-known Delone solutions (for the Kovalevskaya case), some particular solutions for the Goryachev-Chaplygin case, and the Steklov solution. The “genealogy” of solutions of the family naturally appearing from the energy continuation and their connection with the Staude rotations are considered. It is shown that if the integral of areas is zero, the solutions are periodic with respect to a coordinate frame that rotates uniformly about the vertical (relative choreographies).

  13. Developing a Capacity to Engage in Critical Reflection: Students' "Ways of Knowing" within an Undergraduate Business and Accounting Programme

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lucas, Ursula; Tan, Phaik Leng

    2013-01-01

    The development of a capacity to engage in critical reflection is central to higher education. However, students vary in this capacity and its development requires students to move from an absolute towards a contextual way of knowing. Using 32 semi-structured interviews, this study identifies the ways of knowing of 17 business and accounting…

  14. Updated Absolute Flux Calibration of the COS FUV Modes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Massa, D.; Ely, J.; Osten, R.; Penton, S.; Aloisi, A.; Bostroem, A.; Roman-Duval, J.; Proffitt, C.

    2014-03-01

    We present newly derived point source absolute flux calibrations for the COS FUV modes at both the original and second lifetime positions. The analysis includes observa- tions through the Primary Science Aperture (PSA) of the standard stars WD0308-565, GD71, WD1057+729 and WD0947+857 obtained as part of two calibration programs. Data were were obtained for all of the gratings at all of the original CENWAVE settings at both the original and second lifetime positions and for the G130M CENWAVE = 1222 at the second lifetime position. Data were also obtained with the FUVB segment for the G130M CENWAVE = 1055 and 1096 setting at the second lifetime position. We also present the derivation of L-flats that were used in processing the data and show that the internal consistency of the primary standards is 1%. The accuracy of the absolute flux calibrations over the UV are estimated to be 1-2% for the medium resolution gratings, and 2-3% over most of the wavelength range of the G140L grating, although the uncertainty can be as large as 5% or more at some G140L wavelengths. We note that these errors are all relative to the optical flux near the V band and small additional errors may be present due to inaccuracies in the V band calibration. In addition, these error estimates are for the time at which the flux calibration data were obtained; the accuracy of the flux calibration at other times can be affected by errors in the time dependent sensitivity (TDS) correction.

  15. Cylindrical Taylor states conserving total absolute magnetic helicity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Low, B. C.; Fang, F.

    2014-09-01

    The Taylor state of a three-dimensional (3D) magnetic field in an upright cylindrical domain V is derived from first principles as an extremum of the total magnetic energy subject to a conserved, total absolute helicity Habs. This new helicity [Low, Phys. Plasmas 18, 052901 (2011)] is distinct from the well known classical total helicity and relative total helicity in common use to describe wholly-contained and anchored fields, respectively. A given field B, tangential along the cylindrical side of V, may be represented as a unique linear superposition of two flux systems, an axially extended system along V and a strictly transverse system carrying information on field-circulation. This specialized Chandrasekhar-Kendall representation defines Habs and permits a neat formulation of the boundary-value problem (BVP) for the Taylor state as a constant-α force-free field, treating 3D wholly-contained and anchored fields on the same conceptual basis. In this formulation, the governing equation is a scalar integro-partial differential equation (PDE). A family of series solutions for an anchored field is presented as an illustration of this class of BVPs. Past treatments of the constant-α field in 3D cylindrical geometry are based on a scalar Helmholtz PDE as the governing equation, with issues of inconsistency in the published field solutions discussed over time in the journal literature. The constant-α force-free equation reduces to a scalar Helmholtz PDE only as special cases of the 3D integro-PDE derived here. In contrast, the constant-α force-free equation and the scalar Helmholtz PDE are absolutely equivalent in the spherical domain as discussed in Appendix. This theoretical study is motivated by the investigation of the Sun's corona but the results are also relevant to laboratory plasmas.

  16. Measurement of absolute T cell receptor rearrangement diversity.

    PubMed

    Baum, Paul D; Young, Jennifer J; McCune, Joseph M

    2011-05-31

    T cell receptor (TCR) diversity is critical for adaptive immunity. Existing methods for measuring such diversity are qualitative, expensive, and/or of uncertain accuracy. Here, we describe a method and associated reagents for estimating the absolute number of unique TCR Vβ rearrangements present in a given number of cells or volume of blood. Compared to next generation sequencing, this method is rapid, reproducible, and affordable. Diversity of a sample is calculated based on three independent measurements of one Vβ-Jβ family of TCR rearrangements at a time. The percentage of receptors using the given Vβ gene is determined by flow cytometric analysis of T cells stained with anti-Vβ family antibodies. The percentage of receptors using the Vβ gene in combination with the chosen Jβ gene is determined by quantitative PCR. Finally, the absolute clonal diversity of the Vβ-Jβ family is determined with the AmpliCot method of DNA hybridization kinetics, by interpolation relative to PCR standards of known sequence diversity. These three component measurements are reproducible and linear. Using titrations of known numbers of input cells, we show that the TCR diversity estimates obtained by this approach approximate expected values within a two-fold error, have a coefficient of variation of 20%, and yield similar results when different Vβ-Jβ pairs are chosen. The ability to obtain accurate measurements of the total number of different TCR gene rearrangements in a cell sample should be useful for basic studies of the adaptive immune system as well as in clinical studies of conditions such as HIV disease, transplantation, aging, and congenital immunodeficiencies. PMID:21385585

  17. Absolute doubly differential bremsstrahlung cross sections from rare gas atoms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Portillo, Salvador

    The absolute doubly differential bremsstrahlung cross section has been measured for 28 and 50 keV electrons incident on the rare gases Xe, Kr, Ar and Ne. The cross sections are differential with respect to energy and photon emission. A SiLi solid state detector measured data at 90° with respect to the beam line. A thorough analysis of the experimental systematic error yielded a high degree of confidence in the experimental data. The absolute bremsstrahlung doubly differential cross sections provided for a rigorous test of the normal bremsstrahlung theory, tabulated by Kissel, Quarles and Pratt1 (KQP) and of the SA theory2 that includes the contribution from polarization bremsstrahlung. To test the theories a comparison of the overall magnitude of the cross section as well as comparison of the photon energy dependence was carried out. The KQP theoretical values underestimated the magnitude of the cross section for all targets and for both energies. The SA values were in excellent agreement with the 28 keV data. For the 50keV data the fit was also very good. However, there were energy regions where there was a small discrepancy between the theory and the data. This suggests that the Polarization Bremsstrahlung (PB) mechanism does contribute to the overall spectrum and is detectable in this parameter space. 1Kissel, L., Quarles, C. A., Pratt, R. H., Atom. Data Nucl. Data Tables 28, 381 (1983). 2Avdonina N. B., Pratt, R. H., J. Phys. B: At. Mol. Opt. Phys. 32 4261 (1999).

  18. The usable capacity of porous materials for hydrogen storage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schlichtenmayer, Maurice; Hirscher, Michael

    2016-04-01

    A large number of different porous materials has been investigated for their hydrogen uptake over a wide pressure range and at different temperature. From the absolute adsorption isotherms, the enthalpy of adsorption is evaluated for a wide range of surface coverage. The usable capacity, defined as the amount of hydrogen released between a maximum tank pressure and a minimum back pressure for a fuel cell, is analyzed for isothermal operation. The usable capacity as a function of temperature shows a maximum which defines the optimum operating temperature. This optimum operating temperature is higher for materials possessing a higher enthalpy of adsorption. However, the fraction of the hydrogen stored overall that can be released at the optimum operating temperature is higher for materials with a lower enthalpy of adsorption than for the ones with higher enthalpy.

  19. Capacity to stand trial: pitfalls of legal interpretation.

    PubMed

    Greenberg, D M

    1994-03-01

    Legally, the concept of fitness to stand trial is fixed and absolute. Psychiatrists view fitness as a homeostatic functional capacity. The Ontario Court of Appeal recently set a precedent (Queen versus Taylor) for a standard of fitness to stand trial by interpreting the criteria for unfitness as defined in terms of Section 2 of the Criminal Code. They held that only a factual understanding of these criteria is required by the courts. A person suffering from acute psychotic symptoms with delusions which relate to the subject matter of the trial, who act contrary to their best interests and who are disruptive in their behaviour to the orderly flow of the trial may still fulfill the criteria for fitness to stand trial. The writer illustrates some important implications of this decision and suggests recommendations to current legal interpretations of a clinical capacity.

  20. A new way of measuring apoptosis by absolute quantitation of inter-nucleosomally fragmented genomic DNA

    PubMed Central

    Hooker, David J.; Mobarok, Masqura; Anderson, Jenny L.; Rajasuriar, Reena; Gray, Lachlan R.; Ellett, Anne M.; Lewin, Sharon R.; Gorry, Paul R.; Cherry, Catherine L.

    2012-01-01

    Several critical events of apoptosis occur in the cell nucleus, including inter-nucleosomal DNA fragmentation (apoptotic DNA) and eventual chromatin condensation. The generation of apoptotic DNA has become a biochemical hallmark of apoptosis because it is a late ‘point of no return’ step in both the extrinsic (cell-death receptor) and intrinsic (mitochondrial) apoptotic pathways. Despite investigators observing apoptotic DNA and understanding its decisive role as a marker of apoptosis for over 20 years, measuring it has proved elusive. We have integrated ligation-mediated PCR and qPCR to design a new way of measuring apoptosis, termed ApoqPCR, which generates an absolute value for the amount (picogram) of apoptotic DNA per cell population. ApoqPCR’s advances over current methods include a 1000-fold linear dynamic range yet sensitivity to distinguish subtle low-level changes, measurement with a 3- to 4-log improvement in sample economy, and capacity for archival or longitudinal studies combined with high-throughput capability. We demonstrate ApoqPCR’s utility in both in vitro and in vivo contexts. Considering the fundamental role apoptosis has in vertebrate and invertebrate health, growth and disease, the reliable measurement of apoptotic nucleic acid by ApoqPCR will be of value in cell biology studies in basic and applied science. PMID:22544708

  1. Absolute quantification of carnosine in human calf muscle by proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Özdemir, Mahir S.; Reyngoudt, Harmen; DeDeene, Yves; Sazak, Hakan S.; Fieremans, Els; Delputte, Steven; D'Asseler, Yves; Derave, Wim; Lemahieu, Ignace; Achten, Eric

    2007-12-01

    Carnosine has been shown to be present in the skeletal muscle and in the brain of a variety of animals and humans. Despite the various physiological functions assigned to this metabolite, its exact role remains unclear. It has been suggested that carnosine plays a role in buffering in the intracellular physiological pHi range in skeletal muscle as a result of accepting hydrogen ions released in the development of fatigue during intensive exercise. It is thus postulated that the concentration of carnosine is an indicator for the extent of the buffering capacity. However, the determination of the concentration of this metabolite has only been performed by means of muscle biopsy, which is an invasive procedure. In this paper, we utilized proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (1H MRS) in order to perform absolute quantification of carnosine in vivo non-invasively. The method was verified by phantom experiments and in vivo measurements in the calf muscles of athletes and untrained volunteers. The measured mean concentrations in the soleus and the gastrocnemius muscles were found to be 2.81 ± 0.57/4.8 ± 1.59 mM (mean ± SD) for athletes and 2.58 ± 0.65/3.3 ± 0.32 mM for untrained volunteers, respectively. These values are in agreement with previously reported biopsy-based results. Our results suggest that 1H MRS can provide an alternative method for non-invasively determining carnosine concentration in human calf muscle in vivo.

  2. Perioperative functional residual capacity.

    PubMed

    Wahba, R W

    1991-04-01

    The literature dealing with the magnitude, mechanism and effects of reduced FRC in the perioperative period is reviewed. During general anaesthesia FRC is reduced by approximately 20%. The reduction is greater in the obese and in patients with COPD. The most likely mechanism is the loss of inspiratory muscle tone of the muscles acting on the rib cage. Gas trapping is an additional mechanism. Lung compliance decreases and airways resistance increases, in large part, due to decreased FRC. The larynx is displaced anteriorly and elongated, making laryngoscopy and intubation more difficult. The change in FRC creates or increases intrapulmonary shunt and areas of low ventilation to perfusion. This is due to the occurrence of compression atelectasis, and to regional changes in mechanics and airway closure which tend to reduce ventilation to dependent lung zones which are still well perfused. Abdominal and thoracic operations tend to increase shunting further. Large tidal volume but not PEEP will improve oxygenation, although both increase FRC. Both FRC and vital capacity are reduced following abdominal and thoracic surgery in a predictable pattern. The mechanism is the combined effect of incisional pain and reflex dysfunction of the diaphragm. Additional effects of thoracic surgery include pleural effusion, cooling of the phrenic nerve and mediastinal widening. Postoperative hypoxaemia is a function of reduced FRC and airway closure. There is no real difference among the various methods of active lung expansion in terms of the speed of restoration of lung function, or in preventing postoperative atelectasis/pneumonia. Epidural analgesia does not influence the rate of recovery of lung function, nor does it prevent atelectasis/pneumonia. PMID:2036700

  3. Field tests for evaluating the aerobic work capacity of firefighters.

    PubMed

    Lindberg, Ann-Sofie; Oksa, Juha; Gavhed, Désirée; Malm, Christer

    2013-01-01

    Working as a firefighter is physically strenuous, and a high level of physical fitness increases a firefighter's ability to cope with the physical stress of their profession. Direct measurements of aerobic capacity, however, are often complicated, time consuming, and expensive. The first aim of the present study was to evaluate the correlations between direct (laboratory) and indirect (field) aerobic capacity tests with common and physically demanding firefighting tasks. The second aim was to give recommendations as to which field tests may be the most useful for evaluating firefighters' aerobic work capacity. A total of 38 subjects (26 men and 12 women) were included. Two aerobic capacity tests, six field tests, and seven firefighting tasks were performed. Lactate threshold and onset of blood lactate accumulation were found to be correlated to the performance of one work task (r(s) = -0.65 and -0.63, p<0.01, respectively). Absolute (mL · min(-1)) and relative (mL · kg(-1) · min(-1)) maximal aerobic capacity was correlated to all but one of the work tasks (r(s) = -0.79 to 0.55 and -0.74 to 0.47, p<0.01, respectively). Aerobic capacity is important for firefighters' work performance, and we have concluded that the time to row 500 m, the time to run 3000 m relative to body weight (s · kg(-1)), and the percent of maximal heart rate achieved during treadmill walking are the most valid field tests for evaluating a firefighter's aerobic work capacity. PMID:23844153

  4. CHP Installed Capacity Optimizer Software

    2004-11-30

    The CHP Installed Capacity Optimizer is a Microsoft Excel spreadsheet application that determines the most economic amount of capacity of distributed generation and thermal utilization equipment (e.g., absorption chillers) to install for any user-defined set of load and cost data. Installing the optimum amount of capacity is critical to the life-cycle economic viability of a distributed generation/cooling heat and power (CHP) application. Using advanced optimization algorithms, the software accesses the loads, utility tariffs, equipment costs,more » etc., and provides to the user the most economic amount of system capacity to install.« less

  5. Adaptive capacity and its assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Engle, Nathan L.

    2011-04-20

    This paper reviews the concept of adaptive capacity and various approaches to assessing it, particularly with respect to climate variability and change. I find that adaptive capacity is a relatively under-researched topic within the sustainability science and global change communities, particularly since it is uniquely positioned to improve linkages between vulnerability and resilience research. I identify opportunities for advancing the measurement and characterization of adaptive capacity by combining insights from both vulnerability and resilience frameworks, and I suggest several assessment approaches for possible future development that draw from both frameworks and focus on analyzing the governance, institutions, and management that have helped foster adaptive capacity in light of recent climatic events.

  6. The Capacity to Build Organizational Capacity in Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    King, M. Bruce; Bouchard, Kate

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: Reformers, policymakers, and researchers have given considerable attention to organizational capacity in schools, especially in those schools that perpetuate or exacerbate achievement gaps among diverse student groups and reproduce social inequalities. There is an emerging consensus about key dimensions of school capacity and how they can…

  7. Relationships, autonomy and legal capacity: Mental capacity and support paradigms.

    PubMed

    Series, Lucy

    2015-01-01

    Within law and legal scholarship there are different models of legal personality and legal capacity. The most well known of these emphasises individual rationality, and is distilled into the medico-legal concept of 'mental capacity'. In connection with the UN Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities (CRPD) a new approach to legal personality is being developed, emphasising relationships of support and recognition of universal legal capacity. Recent scholarship on both 'mental capacity' and CRPD approaches to legal capacity has drawn from feminist writings on relational autonomy. In this paper, I use this scholarship on relational autonomy to explore the differences between these approaches to legal capacity. I argue that the approach connected with the CRPD offers a refreshing take on the importance of relationships of support in exercising legal capacity. However, despite their pronounced differences, especially in relation to the legitimacy of coercion, there are remarkable similarities in the underlying challenges for each approach: the extent to which others can 'know' our authentic and autonomous selves, and the inextricable relationships of power that all forms of legal capacity are embedded within. PMID:25982964

  8. Absolute calorimetric calibration of low energy brachytherapy sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stump, Kurt E.

    In the past decade there has been a dramatic increase in the use of permanent radioactive source implants in the treatment of prostate cancer. A small radioactive source encapsulated in a titanium shell is used in this type of treatment. The radioisotopes used are generally 125I or 103Pd. Both of these isotopes have relatively short half-lives, 59.4 days and 16.99 days, respectively, and have low-energy emissions and a low dose rate. These factors make these sources well suited for this application, but the calibration of these sources poses significant metrological challenges. The current standard calibration technique involves the measurement of ionization in air to determine the source air-kerma strength. While this has proved to be an improvement over previous techniques, the method has been shown to be metrologically impure and may not be the ideal means of calbrating these sources. Calorimetric methods have long been viewed to be the most fundamental means of determining source strength for a radiation source. This is because calorimetry provides a direct measurement of source energy. However, due to the low energy and low power of the sources described above, current calorimetric methods are inadequate. This thesis presents work oriented toward developing novel methods to provide direct and absolute measurements of source power for low-energy low dose rate brachytherapy sources. The method is the first use of an actively temperature-controlled radiation absorber using the electrical substitution method to determine total contained source power of these sources. The instrument described operates at cryogenic temperatures. The method employed provides a direct measurement of source power. The work presented here is focused upon building a metrological foundation upon which to establish power-based calibrations of clinical-strength sources. To that end instrument performance has been assessed for these source strengths. The intent is to establish the limits of

  9. On the Error Sources in Absolute Individual Antenna Calibrations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aerts, Wim; Baire, Quentin; Bilich, Andria; Bruyninx, Carine; Legrand, Juliette

    2013-04-01

    field) multi path errors, both during calibration and later on at the station, absolute sub-millimeter positioning with GPS is not (yet) possible. References [1] G. Wübbena, M. Schmitz, G. Boettcher, C. Schumann, "Absolute GNSS Antenna Calibration with a Robot: Repeatability of Phase Variations, Calibration of GLONASS and Determination of Carrier-to-Noise Pattern", International GNSS Service: Analysis Center workshop, 8-12 May 2006, Darmstadt, Germany. [2] P. Zeimetz, H. Kuhlmann, "On the Accuracy of Absolute GNSS Antenna Calibration and the Conception of a New Anechoic Chamber", FIG Working Week 2008, 14-19 June 2008, Stockholm, Sweden. [3] P. Zeimetz, H. Kuhlmann, L. Wanninger, V. Frevert, S. Schön and K. Strauch, "Ringversuch 2009", 7th GNSS-Antennen-Workshop, 19-20 March 2009, Dresden, Germany.

  10. Correlation of total antioxidant capacity with reactive oxygen species (ROS) consumption measured by oxidative conversion.

    PubMed

    Çekiç, Sema Demirci; Çetinkaya, Aydan; Avan, Aslı Neslihan; Apak, Reşat

    2013-06-01

    Although both antioxidant capacity and oxidative conversion (hazard) are important in food and bioanalytical chemistry, there is considerable confusion in the literature between the results of these two types of assays. After the generation of ROS in the medium via Fe(III)-H₂O₂ reaction, attenuation of total oxidative conversion (TOC; as measured by thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances (TBARS) and N,N-dimethyl-p-phenylenediamine (DMPD) assays) was tested for possible correlation with the total antioxidant capacity (TAC; as measured by cupric reducing antioxidant capacity (CUPRAC) and trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (ABTS/TEAC) assays) of the introduced antioxidant sample. The inverse relationship between oxidative conversion and antioxidant capacity was processed to establish a curvilinear relationship between the absolute values of TAC increments and TOC decrements as a function of added antioxidant concentration. This simple relationship may form a bridge between the two diverse disciplines of medical biochemistry and food analytical chemistry mainly using TOC and TAC results, respectively.

  11. Absolute Thermal SST Measurements over the Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Good, W. S.; Warden, R.; Kaptchen, P. F.; Finch, T.; Emery, W. J.

    2010-12-01

    Climate monitoring and natural disaster rapid assessment require baseline measurements that can be tracked over time to distinguish anthropogenic versus natural changes to the Earth system. Disasters like the Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill require constant monitoring to assess the potential environmental and economic impacts. Absolute calibration and validation of Earth-observing sensors is needed to allow for comparison of temporally separated data sets and provide accurate information to policy makers. The Ball Experimental Sea Surface Temperature (BESST) radiometer was designed and built by Ball Aerospace to provide a well calibrated measure of sea surface temperature (SST) from an unmanned aerial system (UAS). Currently, emissive skin SST observed by satellite infrared radiometers is validated by shipborne instruments that are expensive to deploy and can only take a few data samples along the ship track to overlap within a single satellite pixel. Implementation on a UAS will allow BESST to map the full footprint of a satellite pixel and perform averaging to remove any local variability due to the difference in footprint size of the instruments. It also enables the capability to study this sub-pixel variability to determine if smaller scale effects need to be accounted for in models to improve forecasting of ocean events. In addition to satellite sensor validation, BESST can distinguish meter scale variations in SST which could be used to remotely monitor and assess thermal pollution in rivers and coastal areas as well as study diurnal and seasonal changes to bodies of water that impact the ocean ecosystem. BESST was recently deployed on a conventional Twin Otter airplane for measurements over the Gulf of Mexico to access the thermal properties of the ocean surface being affected by the oil spill. Results of these measurements will be presented along with ancillary sensor data used to eliminate false signals including UV and Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR

  12. THE ABSOLUTE MAGNITUDE OF RRc VARIABLES FROM STATISTICAL PARALLAX

    SciTech Connect

    Kollmeier, Juna A.; Burns, Christopher R.; Thompson, Ian B.; Preston, George W.; Crane, Jeffrey D.; Madore, Barry F.; Morrell, Nidia; Prieto, José L.; Shectman, Stephen; Simon, Joshua D.; Villanueva, Edward; Szczygieł, Dorota M.; Gould, Andrew; Sneden, Christopher; Dong, Subo

    2013-09-20

    We present the first definitive measurement of the absolute magnitude of RR Lyrae c-type variable stars (RRc) determined purely from statistical parallax. We use a sample of 242 RRc variables selected from the All Sky Automated Survey for which high-quality light curves, photometry, and proper motions are available. We obtain high-resolution echelle spectra for these objects to determine radial velocities and abundances as part of the Carnegie RR Lyrae Survey. We find that M{sub V,RRc} = 0.59 ± 0.10 at a mean metallicity of [Fe/H] = –1.59. This is to be compared with previous estimates for RRab stars (M{sub V,RRab} = 0.76 ± 0.12) and the only direct measurement of an RRc absolute magnitude (RZ Cephei, M{sub V,RRc} = 0.27 ± 0.17). We find the bulk velocity of the halo relative to the Sun to be (W{sub π}, W{sub θ}, W{sub z} ) = (12.0, –209.9, 3.0) km s{sup –1} in the radial, rotational, and vertical directions with dispersions (σ{sub W{sub π}},σ{sub W{sub θ}},σ{sub W{sub z}}) = (150.4, 106.1, 96.0) km s{sup -1}. For the disk, we find (W{sub π}, W{sub θ}, W{sub z} ) = (13.0, –42.0, –27.3) km s{sup –1} relative to the Sun with dispersions (σ{sub W{sub π}},σ{sub W{sub θ}},σ{sub W{sub z}}) = (67.7,59.2,54.9) km s{sup -1}. Finally, as a byproduct of our statistical framework, we are able to demonstrate that UCAC2 proper-motion errors are significantly overestimated as verified by UCAC4.

  13. The Absolute Calibration of the HiRes Detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matthews, J. N.; Thomas, S. B.; HiRes Collaboration

    2003-07-01

    The HiRes experiment studies ultra high energy cosmic rays using the air fluorescence technique. The experiment uses large mirrors that collect the fluorescence light and fo cus it onto arrays of photomultiplier tubes (PMTs). The PMTs measure the intensity and time of arrival of the collected light. Our primary system for in situ calibration of the PMTs uses a high stability (<1%) portable light source. This source is transferred from the lab to the field where it is employed as a standard candle to calibrate the 64 detectors (>16,000 PMTs). To determine the absolute response it is necessary to understand the absolute light output of this source. We have measured the source irradiance using a hybrid photo dio de system, two NIST calibrated photo-dio des, and by observing the photo electron statistics of the PMTs. 2. Introduction The goal of the High Resolution Fly's Eye (HiRes) project is to study cosmic rays at the highest energies. An ultra high energy cosmic ray entering the earth's atmosphere collides with atmospheric nuclei triggering the development of an Extensive Air Shower (EAS). The EAS emits fluorescence light as it develops. HiRes uses the air fluorescence signal to measure properties of the primary cosmic ray particle. The fundamental detector elements in HiRes are photomultiplier tubes (PMTs). The light from an EAS is collected by large mirrors and fo cused into cameras each consisting of 256 PMTs [1]. Routine monitoring and calibration of the PMTs and associated electronics are crucial to the proper interpretation of the data. The primary system for in situ calibration of the PMTs involves the use of a high stability portable xenon flash lamp. The Roving Xenon Flasher (RXF) offers several advantages. The pulse-to-pulse variation in intensity is very small ˜0.3% and the stability over a night is better than 2%. The emission spectrum of the RXF is sufficiently broad to allow calibration over a wide range of wavelengths. It is also readily transported

  14. Absolute configuration of a chiral CHD group via neutron diffraction: confirmation of the absolute stereochemistry of the enzymatic formation of malic acid

    SciTech Connect

    Bau, R.; Brewer, I.; Chiang, M.Y.; Fujita, S.; Hoffman, J.; Watkins, M.I.; Koetzle, T.F.

    1983-09-30

    Neutron diffraction has been used to monitor the absolute stereochemistry of an enzymatic reaction. (-)(2S)malic-3-d acid was prepared by the action of fumarase on fumaric acid in D/sub 2/O. After a large number of cations were screened, it was found that (+)(R)..cap alpha..-phenylethylamine forms the large crystals necessary for a neutron diffraction analysis. The subsequent structure determination showed that (+)(R)..cap alpha..-phenylethylammonium (-)(2S)malate-3-d has an absolute configuration of R at the CHD site. This result confirms the absolute stereochemistry of fumarate-to-malate transformation as catalyzed by the enzyme fumarase.

  15. Development of new free-fall absolute gravimeters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rothleitner, Ch; Svitlov, S.; Mérimèche, H.; Hu, H.; Wang, L. J.

    2009-06-01

    The design and first results of two free-fall absolute gravimeters are reported: a stationary gravimeter is designed and can be used as a reference system and a portable gravimeter is aimed at field measurements. The determination of the acceleration due to gravity is done interferometrically in both instruments. The whole fringe signal is digitized by a high-speed analogue-to-digital converter, which is locked to a rubidium frequency standard. This fringe recording and processing is novel as compared with commercial free-fall gravimeters, which use an electronic zero-crossing discrimination. Advantages such as the application of a zero-phase-shifting digital filter to the digitized data are depicted. The portable gravimeter's mechanics deviate from the conventional type. Springs are used to accelerate and decelerate the carriage supporting the falling object. A detailed uncertainty budget is given for both gravimeters. The combined standard uncertainty for the portable and for the stationary gravimeter is estimated at 38.8 µGal and 16.6 µGal, respectively. The corresponding statistical uncertainties are 1.6 µGal (over one day of measurement) and 0.6 µGal (over one month of measurement). The different designs and dimensions of the new free-fall gravimeters can help to reveal unknown or so far underestimated systematic effects. The assessments of the uncertainties due to seismic noise and shock vibrations, and electronic phase shifts give validity to this assumption.

  16. Numerical aspects of searching convective/absolute instability transition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suslov, Sergey A.

    2006-02-01

    An overview of various numerical techniques used to determine the spatio-temporal character of instabilities in fluid flows is given. The advantageous features of various previously known individual techniques are discussed and a practical procedure combining them is suggested for a specific task of determining the complete boundary between linearly convectively and absolutely unstable regimes in a multi-parameter space in problems with a fully numerical dispersion relation. Special attention is paid to aspects of automatization of computations as this is a crucial condition for their efficiency. The suggested procedure is successfully used and is shown to provide a high degree of automatism in the physical example of non-Boussinesq mixed convection in a vertical channel. This example comprises most of the major numerical difficulties found in various spatio-temporal instability studies of two-dimensional fluid flows which previously could not be handled without frequent human intervention and visual inspection of intermediate results. This paper focuses on the general numerical aspects of the computations leaving the detailed discussion of the obtained physical results for a separate publication.

  17. Primacy and frequency effects in absolute judgments of visual velocity.

    PubMed

    Sokolov, A; Pavlova, M; Ehrenstein, W H

    2000-07-01

    In absolute judgment tasks, identical stimuli are rated higher (or lower) when presented in a series of more frequent small (or large) stimuli. Using visual stimuli differing in velocity, we show that this conventional frequency effect is largely modulated by the primacy effect--that is, by the stimuli occurring on the early trials of a run. In Experiment 1, a frequency-like primacy effect was obtained with equal-frequent velocities. Identical velocities were rated faster when mainly slow rather than fast ones occurred on initial trials. In Experiment 2, we contrasted the frequency effect and the primacy effect: In runs with frequent slow velocities, mainly fast ones occurred earlier, whereas in runs with infrequent slow velocities, mainly slow ones did so. Lack of differences of ratings in the two conditions suggests that the two effects canceled each other. In Experiment 3, when mainly frequent velocities occurred earlier, the conventional frequency effect was obtained. We conclude that the conventional frequency effect represents a combination of the primacy effect and the pure frequency effect.

  18. Absolute paleointensity from Hawaiian lavas younger than 35 ka

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Valet, J.-P.; Tric, E.; Herrero-Bervera, E.; Meynadier, L.; Lockwood, J.P.

    1998-01-01

    Paleointensity studies have been conducted in air and in argon atmosphere on nine lava flows with radiocarbon ages distributed between 3.3 and 28.2 ka from the Mauna Loa volcano in the big island of Hawaii. Determinations of paleointensity obtained at eight sites depict the same overall pattern as the previous results for the same period in Hawaii, although the overall average field intensity appears to be lower. Since the present results were determined at higher temperatures than in the previous studies, this discrepancy raises questions regarding the selection of low versus high-temperature segments that are usually made for absolute paleointensity. The virtual dipole moments are similar to those displayed by the worldwide data set obtained from dated lava flows. When averaged within finite time intervals, the worldwide values match nicely the variations of the Sint-200 synthetic record of relative paleointensity and confirm the overall decrease of the dipole field intensity during most of this period. The convergence between the existing records at Hawaii and the rest of the world does not favour the presence of persistent strong non-dipole components beneath Hawaii for this period.

  19. Absolute position total internal reflection microscopy with an optical tweezer

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Lulu; Woolf, Alexander; Rodriguez, Alejandro W.; Capasso, Federico

    2014-01-01

    A noninvasive, in situ calibration method for total internal reflection microscopy (TIRM) based on optical tweezing is presented, which greatly expands the capabilities of this technique. We show that by making only simple modifications to the basic TIRM sensing setup and procedure, a probe particle’s absolute position relative to a dielectric interface may be known with better than 10 nm precision out to a distance greater than 1 μm from the surface. This represents an approximate 10× improvement in error and 3× improvement in measurement range over conventional TIRM methods. The technique’s advantage is in the direct measurement of the probe particle’s scattering intensity vs. height profile in situ, rather than relying on assumptions, inexact system analogs, or detailed knowledge of system parameters for calibration. To demonstrate the improved versatility of the TIRM method in terms of tunability, precision, and range, we show our results for the hindered near-wall diffusion coefficient for a spherical dielectric particle. PMID:25512542

  20. An absolute interval scale of order for point patterns

    PubMed Central

    Protonotarios, Emmanouil D.; Baum, Buzz; Johnston, Alan; Hunter, Ginger L.; Griffin, Lewis D.

    2014-01-01

    Human observers readily make judgements about the degree of order in planar arrangements of points (point patterns). Here, based on pairwise ranking of 20 point patterns by degree of order, we have been able to show that judgements of order are highly consistent across individuals and the dimension of order has an interval scale structure spanning roughly 10 just-notable-differences (jnd) between disorder and order. We describe a geometric algorithm that estimates order to an accuracy of half a jnd by quantifying the variability of the size and shape of spaces between points. The algorithm is 70% more accurate than the best available measures. By anchoring the output of the algorithm so that Poisson point processes score on average 0, perfect lattices score 10 and unit steps correspond closely to jnds, we construct an absolute interval scale of order. We demonstrate its utility in biology by using this scale to quantify order during the development of the pattern of bristles on the dorsal thorax of the fruit fly. PMID:25079866

  1. Precision absolute value amplifier for a precision voltmeter

    DOEpatents

    Hearn, William E.; Rondeau, Donald J.

    1985-01-01

    Bipolar inputs are afforded by the plus inputs of first and second differential input amplifiers. A first gain determining resister is connected between the minus inputs of the differential amplifiers. First and second diodes are connected between the respective minus inputs and the respective outputs of the differential amplifiers. First and second FETs have their gates connected to the outputs of the amplifiers, while their respective source and drain circuits are connected between the respective minus inputs and an output lead extending to a load resister. The output current through the load resister is proportional to the absolute value of the input voltage difference between the bipolar input terminals. A third differential amplifier has its plus input terminal connected to the load resister. A second gain determining resister is connected between the minus input of the third differential amplifier and a voltage source. A third FET has its gate connected to the output of the third amplifier. The source and drain circuit of the third transistor is connected between the minus input of the third amplifier and a voltage-frequency converter, constituting an output device. A polarity detector is also provided, comprising a pair of transistors having their inputs connected to the outputs of the first and second differential amplifiers. The outputs of the polarity detector are connected to gates which switch the output of the voltage-frequency converter between up and down counting outputs.

  2. Precision absolute-value amplifier for a precision voltmeter

    DOEpatents

    Hearn, W.E.; Rondeau, D.J.

    1982-10-19

    Bipolar inputs are afforded by the plus inputs of first and second differential input amplifiers. A first gain determining resistor is connected between the minus inputs of the differential amplifiers. First and second diodes are connected between the respective minus inputs and the respective outputs of the differential amplifiers. First and second FETs have their gates connected to the outputs of the amplifiers, while their respective source and drain circuits are connected between the respective minus inputs and an output lead extending to a load resistor. The output current through the load resistor is proportional to the absolute value of the input voltage difference between the bipolar input terminals. A third differential amplifier has its plus input terminal connected to the load resistor. A second gain determining resistor is connected between the minus input of the third differential amplifier and a voltage source. A third FET has its gate connected to the output of the third amplifier. The source and drain circuit of the third transistor is connected between the minus input of the third amplifier and a voltage-frequency converter, constituting an output device. A polarity detector is also provided, comprising a pair of transistors having their inputs connected to the outputs of the first and second differential amplifiers. The outputs of the polarity detector are connected to gates which switch the output of the voltage-frequency converter between up and down counting outputs.

  3. A high-precision mechanical absolute-rotation sensor.

    PubMed

    Venkateswara, Krishna; Hagedorn, Charles A; Turner, Matthew D; Arp, Trevor; Gundlach, Jens H

    2014-01-01

    We have developed a mechanical absolute-rotation sensor capable of resolving ground rotation angle of less than 1 nrad/√Hz above 30 mHz and 0.2 nrad/√Hz above 100 mHz about a single horizontal axis. The device consists of a meter-scale beam balance, suspended by a pair of flexures, with a resonance frequency of 10.8 mHz. The center of mass is located 3 μm above the pivot, giving an excellent horizontal displacement rejection of better than 3 × 10(-5) rad/m. The angle of the beam is read out optically using a high-sensitivity autocollimator. We have also built a tiltmeter with better than 1 nrad/√Hz sensitivity above 30 mHz. Co-located measurements using the two instruments allowed us to distinguish between background rotation signal at low frequencies and intrinsic instrument noise. The rotation sensor is useful for rotational seismology and for rejecting background rotation signal from seismometers in experiments demanding high levels of seismic isolation, such as Advanced Laser Interferometer Gravitational-wave Observatory. PMID:24517804

  4. Scanning micro-resonator direct-comb absolute spectroscopy

    PubMed Central

    Gambetta, Alessio; Cassinerio, Marco; Gatti, Davide; Laporta, Paolo; Galzerano, Gianluca

    2016-01-01

    Direct optical Frequency Comb Spectroscopy (DFCS) is proving to be a fundamental tool in many areas of science and technology thanks to its unique performance in terms of ultra-broadband, high-speed detection and frequency accuracy, allowing for high-fidelity mapping of atomic and molecular energy structure. Here we present a novel DFCS approach based on a scanning Fabry-Pérot micro-cavity resonator (SMART) providing a simple, compact and accurate method to resolve the mode structure of an optical frequency comb. The SMART approach, while drastically reducing system complexity, allows for a straightforward absolute calibration of the optical-frequency axis with an ultimate resolution limited by the micro-resonator resonance linewidth and can be used in any spectral region from UV to THz. We present an application to high-precision spectroscopy of acetylene at 1.54 μm, demonstrating performances comparable or even better than current state-of-the-art DFCS systems in terms of sensitivity, optical bandwidth and frequency-resolution. PMID:27752132

  5. Absolute and relative diffusion in a turbulent compressibile system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cressman, J. R.; Goldburg, W. I.

    2002-11-01

    Floating Particles that move on the surface of a tank of water driven into turbulent motion, move in a plane. Calling the coordinates of this plane x and y, with z=0 at the surface, the velocity of the floating particles obeys the equation partialx u_x(x,y,0,t) +partial_yu_y(x,y,0,t)= - partial_zu_z(x,y,0,t), assuring that their motion is compressible. From PIV measurements made at the surface, one can deduce the absolute and the relative motion of the floaters (Richardson diffusion). The relative diffusion measurements are compared with the Richardson result, t^3 and with computer simulations of Eckhardt and Schumacher [1]. The dimensionless compressibility l C is roughly 0.5 for the floaters, which is large enough to raise questions about the validity of the Kolmogorov paradigm, according to which energy is passed from large to small spatial scales [2]. References 1. G. Falkovich et al., Rev. Mod. Phys. 73 913 (2001). 2. J. Schumacher and B. Eckhardt, Phys. Rev. E 66, 017303 (2002).

  6. Dichotomy and perceptual distortions in absolute pitch ability.

    PubMed

    Athos, E Alexandra; Levinson, Barbara; Kistler, Amy; Zemansky, Jason; Bostrom, Alan; Freimer, Nelson; Gitschier, Jane

    2007-09-11

    Absolute pitch (AP) is the rare ability to identify the pitch of a tone without the aid of a reference tone. Understanding both the nature and genesis of AP can provide insights into neuroplasticity in the auditory system. We explored factors that may influence the accuracy of pitch perception in AP subjects both during the development of the trait and in later age. We used a Web-based survey and a pitch-labeling test to collect perceptual data from 2,213 individuals, 981 (44%) of whom proved to have extraordinary pitch-naming ability. The bimodal distribution in pitch-naming ability signifies AP as a distinct perceptual trait, with possible implications for its genetic basis. The wealth of these data has allowed us to uncover unsuspected note-naming irregularities suggestive of a "perceptual magnet" centered at the note "A." In addition, we document a gradual decline in pitch-naming accuracy with age, characterized by a perceptual shift in the "sharp" direction. These findings speak both to the process of acquisition of AP and to its stability.

  7. Dichotomy and perceptual distortions in absolute pitch ability

    PubMed Central

    Athos, E. Alexandra; Levinson, Barbara; Kistler, Amy; Zemansky, Jason; Bostrom, Alan; Freimer, Nelson; Gitschier, Jane

    2007-01-01

    Absolute pitch (AP) is the rare ability to identify the pitch of a tone without the aid of a reference tone. Understanding both the nature and genesis of AP can provide insights into neuroplasticity in the auditory system. We explored factors that may influence the accuracy of pitch perception in AP subjects both during the development of the trait and in later age. We used a Web-based survey and a pitch-labeling test to collect perceptual data from 2,213 individuals, 981 (44%) of whom proved to have extraordinary pitch-naming ability. The bimodal distribution in pitch-naming ability signifies AP as a distinct perceptual trait, with possible implications for its genetic basis. The wealth of these data has allowed us to uncover unsuspected note-naming irregularities suggestive of a “perceptual magnet” centered at the note “A.” In addition, we document a gradual decline in pitch-naming accuracy with age, characterized by a perceptual shift in the “sharp” direction. These findings speak both to the process of acquisition of AP and to its stability. PMID:17724340

  8. Voyager absolute far-ultraviolet spectrophotometry of hot stars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holberg, J. B.; Forrester, W. T.; Shemansky, D. E.; Barry, D. C.

    1982-01-01

    Voyager observations in the 912-1200 A spectral region are used to indirectly intercompare absolute stellar spectrophotometry from previous experiments. Measurements of hot stars obtained by the Voyager 1 and 2 ultraviolet spectrometers show considerably higher 912-1200 A continuum fluxes than the recent observations of Brune et al. (1979) and Carruthers et al. (1981). The intercomparisons show all observations in basic agreement near 1200 A. The Carruthers et al. flux measurements are preferred down to 1050 A at which point the Voyager and Brune et al. values are respectively 60% higher and 60% lower. Below 1050 A the diasgreement among the observations becomes very large and the fluxes predicted by model atmospheres have been adopted. The pure hydrogen line-blanketed model atmosphere calculations of Wesemael et al. 1980) in comparison with Voyager observations of HZ 43 are used to adjust the Voyager calibration below 1050 A. This adjusted Voyager calibration, which is in good agreement with current model atmosphere fluxes for both early-type stars and DA white dwarfs, will be used for Voyager astronomical observations.

  9. Absolute measures of the completeness of the fossil record

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Foote, M.; Sepkoski, J. J. Jr; Sepkoski JJ, J. r. (Principal Investigator)

    1999-01-01

    Measuring the completeness of the fossil record is essential to understanding evolution over long timescales, particularly when comparing evolutionary patterns among biological groups with different preservational properties. Completeness measures have been presented for various groups based on gaps in the stratigraphic ranges of fossil taxa and on hypothetical lineages implied by estimated evolutionary trees. Here we present and compare quantitative, widely applicable absolute measures of completeness at two taxonomic levels for a broader sample of higher taxa of marine animals than has previously been available. We provide an estimate of the probability of genus preservation per stratigraphic interval, and determine the proportion of living families with some fossil record. The two completeness measures use very different data and calculations. The probability of genus preservation depends almost entirely on the Palaeozoic and Mesozoic records, whereas the proportion of living families with a fossil record is influenced largely by Cenozoic data. These measurements are nonetheless highly correlated, with outliers quite explicable, and we find that completeness is rather high for many animal groups.

  10. Gray- and white-matter anatomy of absolute pitch possessors.

    PubMed

    Dohn, Anders; Garza-Villarreal, Eduardo A; Chakravarty, M Mallar; Hansen, Mads; Lerch, Jason P; Vuust, Peter

    2015-05-01

    Absolute pitch (AP), the ability to identify a musical pitch without a reference, has been examined behaviorally in numerous studies for more than a century, yet only a few studies have examined the neuroanatomical correlates of AP. Here, we used MRI and diffusion tensor imaging to investigate structural differences in brains of musicians with and without AP, by means of whole-brain vertex-wise cortical thickness (CT) analysis and tract-based spatial statistics (TBSS) analysis. APs displayed increased CT in a number of areas including the bilateral superior temporal gyrus (STG), the left inferior frontal gyrus, and the right supramarginal gyrus. Furthermore, we found higher fractional anisotropy in APs within the path of the inferior fronto-occipital fasciculus, the uncinate fasciculus, and the inferior longitudinal fasciculus. The findings in gray matter support previous studies indicating an increased left lateralized posterior STG in APs, yet they differ from previous findings of thinner cortex for a number of areas in APs. Finally, we found a relation between the white-matter results and the CT in the right parahippocampal gyrus. In this study, we present novel findings in AP research that may have implications for the understanding of the neuroanatomical underpinnings of AP ability.

  11. Monochromator-Based Absolute Calibration of a Standard Radiation Thermometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mantilla, J. M.; Hernanz, M. L.; Campos, J.; Martín, M. J.; Pons, A.; del Campo, D.

    2014-04-01

    Centro Español de Metrología (CEM) is disseminating the International Temperature Scale (ITS-90), at high temperatures, by using the fixed points of Ag and Cu and a standard radiation thermometer. However, the future mise-en-pratique for the definition of the kelvin ( MeP-K) will include the dissemination of the kelvin by primary methods and by indirect approximations capable of exceptionally low uncertainties or increased reliability. Primary radiometry is, at present, able to achieve uncertainties competitive with the ITS-90 above the silver point with one of the possible techniques the calibration for radiance responsivity of an imaging radiometer (radiance method). In order to carry out this calibration, IO-CSIC (Spanish Designated Institute for luminous intensity and luminous flux) has collaborated with CEM, allowing traceability to its cryogenic radiometer. A monochromator integrating sphere-based spectral comparator facility has been used to calibrate one of the CEM standard radiation thermometers. The absolute calibrated standard radiation thermometer has been used to determine the temperatures of the fixed points of Cu, Co-C, Pt-C, and Re-C. The results obtained are 1357.80 K, 1597.10 K, 2011.66 K, and 2747.64 K, respectively, with uncertainties ranging from 0.4 K to 1.1 K.

  12. A nonmusical paradigm for identifying absolute pitch possessors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ross, David A.; Olson, Ingrid R.; Marks, Lawrence E.; Gore, John C.

    2004-09-01

    The ability to identify and reproduce sounds of specific frequencies is remarkable and uncommon. The etiology and defining characteristics of this skill, absolute pitch (AP), have been very controversial. One theory suggests that AP requires a specific type of early musical training and that the ability to encode and remember tones depends on these learned musical associations. An alternate theory argues that AP may be strongly dependent on hereditary factors and relatively independent of musical experience. To date, it has been difficult to test these hypotheses because all previous paradigms for identifying AP have required subjects to employ knowledge of musical nomenclature. As such, these tests are insensitive to the possibility of discovering AP in either nonmusicians or musicians of non-Western training. Based on previous literature in pitch memory, a paradigm is presented that is intended to distinguish between AP possessors and nonpossessors independent of the subjects' musical experience. The efficacy of this method is then tested with 20 classically defined AP possessors and 22 nonpossessors. Data from these groups strongly support the validity of the paradigm. The use of a nonmusical paradigm to identify AP may facilitate research into many aspects of this phenomenon.

  13. Using absolute gravimeter data to determine vertical gravity gradients

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Robertson, D.S.

    2001-01-01

    The position versus time data from a free-fall absolute gravimeter can be used to estimate the vertical gravity gradient in addition to the gravity value itself. Hipkin has reported success in estimating the vertical gradient value using a data set of unusually good quality. This paper explores techniques that may be applicable to a broader class of data that may be contaminated with "system response" errors of larger magnitude than were evident in the data used by Hipkin. This system response function is usually modelled as a sum of exponentially decaying sinusoidal components. The technique employed here involves combining the x0, v0 and g parameters from all the drops made during a site occupation into a single least-squares solution, and including the value of the vertical gradient and the coefficients of system response function in the same solution. The resulting non-linear equations must be solved iteratively and convergence presents some difficulties. Sparse matrix techniques are used to make the least-squares problem computationally tractable.

  14. Surface Characterization of pNIPAM Under Varying Absolute Humidity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chhabra, Arnav; Kanapuram, Ravitej; Leva, Harrison; Trejo, Juan; Kim, Tae Jin; Hidrovo, Carlos

    2012-11-01

    Poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) has become ubiquitously known as a ``smart'' polymer, showing many promising applications in tissue engineering and drug delivery systems. These applications are particularly reliant on its trenchant, thermally induced hydrophilic-hydrophobic transition that occurs at the lower critical solution temperature (LCST). This feature imparts the pNIPAM programmable adsorption and release capabilities, thus eliminating the need for additional enzymes when removing cells from pNIPAM coated surfaces and leaving the extracellular matrix proteins of the cells largely untouched. The dependence of the LCST on molecular weight, solvent systems, and various salts has been studied extensively. However, what has not been explored is the effect of humidity on the characteristic properties of the polymer, specifically the LCST and the magnitude of the hydrophilic-hydrophobic transition. We studied the surface energy variation of pNIPAM as a function of humidity by altering the absolute humidity and keeping the ambient temperature constant. Our experiments were conducted inside a cuboidal environmental chamber with control over the temperature and humidity inside the chamber. A controlled needle was employed to dispense size-regulated droplets. Throughout this process, a CCD camera was used to image the droplet and the static contact angle was determined using image processing techniques. The behavior of pNIPAM as a function of humidity is presented and discussed.

  15. Alignment and absolute wavelength calibration of imaging Bragg spectrometers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bertschinger, G.; Marchuk, O.; Barnsley, R.

    2016-11-01

    In the present and the next generation of fusion devices, imaging Bragg spectrometers are key diagnostics to measure plasma parameters in the hot core, especially ion temperature and plasma rotation. The latter quantities are routinely obtained using the Doppler-width and -shift of the emitted spectral lines, respectively. Line shift measurements require absolute accuracies Δλ/λ of about 10 ppm, where λ-is the observed wavelength. For ITER and the present fusion devices, spectral lines of He-and H-like argon, iron, and krypton as well as Ne-like tungsten are foreseen for the measurements. For these lines, Kα lines can be found, some in higher order, which fit into the narrow energy window of the spectrometers. For arbitrary wavelength settings, Kα lines are also used to measure the miscut of the spherical crystals; afterwards the spectrometers can be set according to the geometrical imaging properties using coordinate measurement machines. For the spectrometers measuring Lyα lines of H-like ions, fluorescence targets can provide in situ localized calibration lines on the spectra. The fluorescence targets are used best in transmission and are excited by the thermal x-ray radiation of the plasma. An analytic theory of fluorescence is worked out.

  16. A high-precision mechanical absolute-rotation sensor.

    PubMed

    Venkateswara, Krishna; Hagedorn, Charles A; Turner, Matthew D; Arp, Trevor; Gundlach, Jens H

    2014-01-01

    We have developed a mechanical absolute-rotation sensor capable of resolving ground rotation angle of less than 1 nrad/√Hz above 30 mHz and 0.2 nrad/√Hz above 100 mHz about a single horizontal axis. The device consists of a meter-scale beam balance, suspended by a pair of flexures, with a resonance frequency of 10.8 mHz. The center of mass is located 3 μm above the pivot, giving an excellent horizontal displacement rejection of better than 3 × 10(-5) rad/m. The angle of the beam is read out optically using a high-sensitivity autocollimator. We have also built a tiltmeter with better than 1 nrad/√Hz sensitivity above 30 mHz. Co-located measurements using the two instruments allowed us to distinguish between background rotation signal at low frequencies and intrinsic instrument noise. The rotation sensor is useful for rotational seismology and for rejecting background rotation signal from seismometers in experiments demanding high levels of seismic isolation, such as Advanced Laser Interferometer Gravitational-wave Observatory.

  17. A high-precision mechanical absolute-rotation sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Venkateswara, Krishna; Hagedorn, Charles A.; Turner, Matthew D.; Arp, Trevor; Gundlach, Jens H.

    2014-01-01

    We have developed a mechanical absolute-rotation sensor capable of resolving ground rotation angle of less than 1 nrad/sqrt{Hz} above 30 mHz and 0.2 nrad/sqrt{Hz} above 100 mHz about a single horizontal axis. The device consists of a meter-scale beam balance, suspended by a pair of flexures, with a resonance frequency of 10.8 mHz. The center of mass is located 3 μm above the pivot, giving an excellent horizontal displacement rejection of better than 3 × 10-5 rad/m. The angle of the beam is read out optically using a high-sensitivity autocollimator. We have also built a tiltmeter with better than 1 nrad/sqrt{Hz} sensitivity above 30 mHz. Co-located measurements using the two instruments allowed us to distinguish between background rotation signal at low frequencies and intrinsic instrument noise. The rotation sensor is useful for rotational seismology and for rejecting background rotation signal from seismometers in experiments demanding high levels of seismic isolation, such as Advanced Laser Interferometer Gravitational-wave Observatory.

  18. Weighted Wilcoxon-type Smoothly Clipped Absolute Deviation Method

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Lan; Li, Runze

    2009-01-01

    Summary Shrinkage-type variable selection procedures have recently seen increasing applications in biomedical research. However, their performance can be adversely influenced by outliers in either the response or the covariate space. This paper proposes a weighted Wilcoxon-type smoothly clipped absolute deviation (WW-SCAD) method, which deals with robust variable selection and robust estimation simultaneously. The new procedure can be conveniently implemented with the statistical software R. We establish that the WW-SCAD correctly identifies the set of zero coefficients with probability approaching one and estimates the nonzero coefficients with the rate n−1/2. Moreover, with appropriately chosen weights the WW-SCAD is robust with respect to outliers in both the x and y directions. The important special case with constant weights yields an oracle-type estimator with high efficiency at the presence of heavier-tailed random errors. The robustness of the WW-SCAD is partly justified by its asymptotic performance under local shrinking contamination. We propose a BIC-type tuning parameter selector for the WW-SCAD. The performance of the WW-SCAD is demonstrated via simulations and by an application to a study that investigates the effects of personal characteristics and dietary factors on plasma beta-carotene level. PMID:18647294

  19. ABSOLUTE PROPERTIES OF THE ECLIPSING BINARY STAR BF DRACONIS

    SciTech Connect

    Sandberg Lacy, Claud H.; Torres, Guillermo; Fekel, Francis C.; Sabby, Jeffrey A.; Claret, Antonio E-mail: gtorres@cfa.harvard.edu E-mail: jsabby@siue.edu

    2012-06-15

    BF Dra is now known to be an eccentric double-lined F6+F6 binary star with relatively deep (0.7 mag) partial eclipses. Previous studies of the system are improved with 7494 differential photometric observations from the URSA WebScope and 9700 from the NFO WebScope, 106 high-resolution spectroscopic observations from the Tennessee State University 2 m automatic spectroscopic telescope and the 1 m coude-feed spectrometer at Kitt Peak National Observatory, and 31 accurate radial velocities from the CfA. Very accurate (better than 0.6%) masses and radii are determined from analysis of the two new light curves and four radial velocity curves. Theoretical models match the absolute properties of the stars at an age of about 2.72 Gyr and [Fe/H] = -0.17, and tidal theory correctly confirms that the orbit should still be eccentric. Our observations of BF Dra constrain the convective core overshooting parameter to be larger than about 0.13 H{sub p}. We find, however, that standard tidal theory is unable to match the observed slow rotation rates of the components' surface layers.

  20. The absolute radiometric calibration of space-based sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holm, Ronald Gene

    A reflectance based inflight calibration procedure is used to determine the radiance reaching the entrance pupil of a sensor. This procedure uses ground based measurements coupled with a radiative transfer code to characterize the effects the atmosphere has on the signal reaching the sensor. The computed radiance is compared to the digital count output of the sensor associated with the image of a test site. This provides an update to the preflight calibration of the system and a check on the on-board internal calibrator. This calibration procedure was used to perform a series of 5 calibrations of the LANDSAT-5 Thematic Mapper. The absolute calibration techniques were put to another test with a series of 3 calibration of the SPOT-1 High Resolution Visible sensors. The procedure for performing a satellite calibration was then used to demonstrate how a calibrated satellite sensor can be used to quantitatively evaluate surface reflectance over a wide range of surface features. Predicted reflectance factors were compared to values obtained from aircraft based radiometer data. A strong correlation was shown between reflectance values determined from satellite imagery and low flying aircraft data.

  1. Absolute pitch exhibits phenotypic and genetic overlap with synesthesia.

    PubMed

    Gregersen, Peter K; Kowalsky, Elena; Lee, Annette; Baron-Cohen, Simon; Fisher, Simon E; Asher, Julian E; Ballard, David; Freudenberg, Jan; Li, Wentian

    2013-05-15

    Absolute pitch (AP) and synesthesia are two uncommon cognitive traits that reflect increased neuronal connectivity and have been anecdotally reported to occur together in an individual. Here we systematically evaluate the occurrence of synesthesia in a population of 768 subjects with documented AP. Out of these 768 subjects, 151 (20.1%) reported synesthesia, most commonly with color. These self-reports of synesthesia were validated in a subset of 21 study subjects, using an established methodology. We further carried out combined linkage analysis of 53 multiplex families with AP and 36 multiplex families with synesthesia. We observed a peak NPL LOD = 4.68 on chromosome 6q, as well as evidence of linkage on chromosome 2, using a dominant model. These data establish the close phenotypic and genetic relationship between AP and synesthesia. The chromosome 6 linkage region contains 73 genes; several leading candidate genes involved in neurodevelopment were investigated by exon resequencing. However, further studies will be required to definitively establish the identity of the causative gene(s) in the region.

  2. Absolute calibration for complex-geometry biomedical diffuse optical spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mastanduno, Michael A.; Jiang, Shudong; El-Ghussein, Fadi; diFlorio-Alexander, Roberta; Pogue, Brian W.; Paulsen, Keith D.

    2013-03-01

    We have presented methodology to calibrate data in NIRS/MRI imaging versus an absolute reference phantom and results in both phantoms and healthy volunteers. This method directly calibrates data to a diffusion-based model, takes advantage of patient specific geometry from MRI prior information, and generates an initial guess without the need for a large data set. This method of calibration allows for more accurate quantification of total hemoglobin, oxygen saturation, water content, scattering, and lipid concentration as compared with other, slope-based methods. We found the main source of error in the method to be derived from incorrect assignment of reference phantom optical properties rather than initial guess in reconstruction. We also present examples of phantom and breast images from a combined frequency domain and continuous wave MRI-coupled NIRS system. We were able to recover phantom data within 10% of expected contrast and within 10% of the actual value using this method and compare these results with slope-based calibration methods. Finally, we were able to use this technique to calibrate and reconstruct images from healthy volunteers. Representative images are shown and discussion is provided for comparison with existing literature. These methods work towards fully combining the synergistic attributes of MRI and NIRS for in-vivo imaging of breast cancer. Complete software and hardware integration in dual modality instruments is especially important due to the complexity of the technology and success will contribute to complex anatomical and molecular prognostic information that can be readily obtained in clinical use.

  3. Method and apparatus for making absolute range measurements

    DOEpatents

    Allison, S.W.; Cates, M.R.; Key, W.S.; Sanders, A.J.; Earl, D.D.

    1999-06-22

    This invention relates to a method and apparatus for making absolute distance or ranging measurements using Fresnel diffraction. The invention employs a source of electromagnetic radiation having a known wavelength or wavelength distribution, which sends a beam of electromagnetic radiation through an object which causes it to be split (hereinafter referred to as a beam splitter''), and then to a target. The beam is reflected from the target onto a screen containing an aperture spaced a known distance from the beam splitter. The aperture is sized so as to produce a Fresnel diffraction pattern. A portion of the beam travels through the aperture to a detector, spaced a known distance from the screen. The detector detects the central intensity of the beam. The distance from the object which causes the beam to be split to the target can then be calculated based upon the known wavelength, aperture radius, beam intensity, and distance from the detector to the screen. Several apparatus embodiments are disclosed for practicing the method embodiments of the present invention. 9 figs.

  4. Method and apparatus for making absolute range measurements

    DOEpatents

    Allison, Stephen W.; Cates, Michael R.; Key, William S.; Sanders, Alvin J.; Earl, Dennis D.

    1999-01-01

    This invention relates to a method and apparatus for making absolute distance or ranging measurements using Fresnel diffraction. The invention employs a source of electromagnetic radiation having a known wavelength or wavelength distribution, which sends a beam of electromagnetic radiation through an object which causes it to be split (hereinafter referred to as a "beamsplitter"), and then to a target. The beam is reflected from the target onto a screen containing an aperture spaced a known distance from the beamsplitter. The aperture is sized so as to produce a Fresnel diffraction pattern. A portion of the beam travels through the aperture to a detector, spaced a known distance from the screen. The detector detects the central intensity of the beam. The distance from the object which causes the beam to be split to the target can then be calculated based upon the known wavelength, aperture radius, beam intensity, and distance from the detector to the screen. Several apparatus embodiments are disclosed for practicing the method embodiments of the present invention.

  5. Absolute phase image reconstruction: a stochastic nonlinear filtering approach.

    PubMed

    Leitão, J N; Figueiredo, M A

    1998-01-01

    This paper formulates and proposes solutions to the problem of estimating/reconstructing the absolute (not simply modulo-2pi) phase of a complex random field from noisy observations of its real and imaginary parts. This problem is representative of a class of important imaging techniques such as interferometric synthetic aperture radar, optical interferometry, magnetic resonance imaging, and diffraction tomography. We follow a Bayesian approach; then, not only a probabilistic model of the observation mechanism, but also prior knowledge concerning the (phase) image to be reconstructed, are needed. We take as prior a nonsymmetrical half plane autoregressive (NSHP AR) Gauss-Markov random field (GMRF). Based on a reduced order state-space formulation of the (linear) NSHP AR model and on the (nonlinear) observation mechanism, a recursive stochastic nonlinear filter is derived, The corresponding estimates are compared with those obtained by the extended Kalman-Bucy filter, a classical linearizing approach to the same problem. A set of examples illustrate the effectiveness of the proposed approach. PMID:18276299

  6. An Absolute Phase Space for the Physicality of Matter

    SciTech Connect

    Valentine, John S.

    2010-12-22

    We define an abstract and absolute phase space (''APS'') for sub-quantum intrinsic wave states, in three axes, each mapping directly to a duality having fundamental ontological basis. Many aspects of quantum physics emerge from the interaction algebra and a model deduced from principles of 'unique solvability' and 'identifiable entity', and we reconstruct previously abstract fundamental principles and phenomena from these new foundations. The physical model defines bosons as virtual continuous waves pairs in the APS, and fermions as real self-quantizing snapshots of those waves when simple conditions are met. The abstraction and physical model define a template for the constitution of all fermions, a template for all the standard fundamental bosons and their local interactions, in a common framework and compactified phase space for all forms of real matter and virtual vacuum energy, and a distinct algebra for observables and unobservables. To illustrate our scheme's potential, we provide examples of slit experiment variations (where the model finds theoretical basis for interference only occurring between two final sources), QCD (where we may model most attributes known to QCD, and a new view on entanglement), and we suggest approaches for other varied applications. We believe this is a viable candidate for further exploration as a foundational proposition for physics.

  7. Absolute measures of the completeness of the fossil record.

    PubMed

    Foote, M; Sepkoski, J J

    1999-04-01

    Measuring the completeness of the fossil record is essential to understanding evolution over long timescales, particularly when comparing evolutionary patterns among biological groups with different preservational properties. Completeness measures have been presented for various groups based on gaps in the stratigraphic ranges of fossil taxa and on hypothetical lineages implied by estimated evolutionary trees. Here we present and compare quantitative, widely applicable absolute measures of completeness at two taxonomic levels for a broader sample of higher taxa of marine animals than has previously been available. We provide an estimate of the probability of genus preservation per stratigraphic interval, and determine the proportion of living families with some fossil record. The two completeness measures use very different data and calculations. The probability of genus preservation depends almost entirely on the Palaeozoic and Mesozoic records, whereas the proportion of living families with a fossil record is influenced largely by Cenozoic data. These measurements are nonetheless highly correlated, with outliers quite explicable, and we find that completeness is rather high for many animal groups.

  8. A unique asymmetrical stroop effect in absolute pitch possessors.

    PubMed

    Akiva-Kabiri, Lilach; Henik, Avishai

    2012-01-01

    The Stroop task has been employed to study automaticity or failures of selective attention for many years. The effect is known to be asymmetrical, with words affecting color naming but not vice versa. In the current work two auditory-visual Stroop-like tasks were devised in order to study the automaticity of pitch processing in both absolute pitch (AP) possessors and musically trained controls without AP (nAP). In the tone naming task, participants were asked to name the auditory tone while ignoring a visual note name. In the note naming task, participants were asked to read a note name while ignoring the auditory tone. The nAP group showed a significant congruency effect only in the tone naming task, whereas AP possessors showed the reverse pattern, with a significant congruency effect only in the note reading task. Thus, AP possessors were unable to ignore the auditory tone when asked to read the note, but were unaffected by the verbal note name when asked to label the auditory tone. The results suggest that pitch identification in participants endowed with AP ability is automatic and impossible to suppress.

  9. An Absolute Phase Space for the Physicality of Matter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Valentine, John S.

    2010-12-01

    We define an abstract and absolute phase space ("APS") for sub-quantum intrinsic wave states, in three axes, each mapping directly to a duality having fundamental ontological basis. Many aspects of quantum physics emerge from the interaction algebra and a model deduced from principles of `unique solvability' and `identifiable entity', and we reconstruct previously abstract fundamental principles and phenomena from these new foundations. The physical model defines bosons as virtual continuous waves pairs in the APS, and fermions as real self-quantizing snapshots of those waves when simple conditions are met. The abstraction and physical model define a template for the constitution of all fermions, a template for all the standard fundamental bosons and their local interactions, in a common framework and compactified phase space for all forms of real matter and virtual vacuum energy, and a distinct algebra for observables and unobservables. To illustrate our scheme's potential, we provide examples of slit experiment variations (where the model finds theoretical basis for interference only occurring between two final sources), QCD (where we may model most attributes known to QCD, and a new view on entanglement), and we suggest approaches for other varied applications. We believe this is a viable candidate for further exploration as a foundational proposition for physics.

  10. Rate Change Graph Technology: Absolute Value Point Methodology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Strickland, Ken; Duvernois, Michael

    2011-10-01

    Absolute Value Point Methodology (AVPM) is a new theoretical tool for science research centered on Rate Change Graph Technology (RCGT). The modeling techniques of AVPM surpass conventional methods by extending the geometrical rules of mathematics. Exact geometrical structures of matter and energy become clearer revealing new ways to compile advanced data. RCGT mechanics is realized from geometrical intersections that are the result of plotting changing value vs. changing geometry. RCGT methods ignore size and value to perform an objective analysis in geometry. Value and size are then re-introduced back into the analytical system for a clear and concise solution. Available AVPM applications reveal that a massive amount of data from the Big Bang to vast super-clusters is untouched by human thought. Once scientists learn to design tools from RCGT Mechanics, new and formidable approaches to experimentation and theory may lead to new discoveries. In the creation of AVPM, it has become apparent there is a particle-world that exists between strings and our familiar universe. These unrealized particles in their own nature exhibit inflation like properties and may be the progenitor of the implements of our universe. Thus space, time, energy, motion, space-time and gravity are born from its existence and decay. This announcement will be the beginning of many new ideas from the study of RCGT mechanics.

  11. Cosmic backgrounds of relic gravitons and their absolute normalization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giovannini, Massimo

    2014-11-01

    Provided the consistency relations are not violated, the recent BICEP2 observations pin down the absolute normalization, the spectral slope and the maximal frequency of the cosmic graviton background produced during inflation. The properly normalized spectra are hereby computed from the lowest frequencies (of the order of the present Hubble rate) up to the highest frequency range in the GHz region. Deviations from the conventional paradigm cannot be excluded and are examined by allowing for different physical possibilities including, in particular, a running of the tensor spectral index, an explicit breaking of the consistency relations and a spike in the high-frequency tail of the spectrum coming either from a post-inflationary phase dominated by a stiff fluid or from the contribution of waterfall fields in a hybrid inflationary context. The direct determinations of the tensor to scalar ratio at low frequencies, if confirmed by the forthcoming observations, will also affect and constrain the high-frequency uncertainties. The limits on the cosmic graviton backgrounds coming from wide-band interferometers (such as LIGO/Virgo, LISA and BBO/DECIGO) together with a more accurate scrutiny of the tensor B-mode polarization at low frequencies will set direct bounds on the post-inflationary evolution and on other unconventional completions of the standard lore.

  12. Measuring Capacities for Community Resilience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sherrieb, Kathleen; Norris, Fran H.; Galea, Sandro

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to measure the sets of adaptive capacities for Economic Development and Social Capital in the Norris et al. (2008) community resilience model with publicly accessible population indicators. Our approach involved five steps. First, we conducted a literature review on measurements of the capacities. Second, we created…

  13. Heat capacity, configurational heat capacity and fragility of hydrous magmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Di Genova, D.; Romano, C.; Giordano, D.; Alletti, M.

    2014-10-01

    The glassy and liquid heat capacities of four series of dry and hydrous natural glasses and magma as a function of temperature and water content (up to 19.9 mol%) were investigated using differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). The analyzed compositions are basalt, latite, trachyte and pantellerite. The results of this study indicate that the measured heat capacity of glasses (Cpg) is a linear function of composition and is well reproduced by the empirical model of Richet (1987). For the investigated glasses, the partial molar heat capacity of water can be considered as independent of composition, in agreement with Bouhifd et al. (2006). For hydrous liquids, the heat capacity (Cpliq) decreases nonlinearly with increasing water content. Previously published models, combined with the partial molar heat capacity of water from the literature, are not able to reproduce our experimental data in a satisfactory way. We estimated the partial molar heat capacity of water (CpH2O) in hydrous magma over a broad compositional range. The proposed value is 41 ± 3 J mol-1 K-1. Water strongly affects the configurational heat capacity at the glass transition temperature [Cpconf (Tg)]. An increases of Cpconf (Tg) with water content was measured for the polymerized liquids (trachyte and pantellerite), while the opposite behavior was observed for the most depolymerized liquids (basalt and latite). Structural and rheological implications of this behavior are discussed in light of the presented results.

  14. North American fertilizer capacity data

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-02-01

    This listing of fertilizer producers and their production capacities was compiled in February 1993 with the cooperation of the US and Canadian fertilizer industry. TVA does not guarantee the completeness or accuracy of the information. Capacity is only an indicator of supply. Nameplate capacity differs from planned production levels or actual production because plants often operate above or below design capacity. Unless reported otherwise, plant capacities are based on 340 days per year of operation. No adjustment is made for partial year operation. Information is given on the following types of fertilizers: ammonia, ammonium nitrate, nitrogen solutions, urea, ammonium sulfate, phosphate rock, wet-process phosphoric acid, ammonium phosphates, concentrated superphosphates, potash, nitric acid, superphosphoric acid, upgraded phosphoric acids, normal superphosphate, elemental phosphorus, potassium sulfate, and sulfate of potash/magnesia.

  15. Heat capacity of molten halides.

    PubMed

    Redkin, Alexander A; Zaikov, Yurii P; Korzun, Iraida V; Reznitskikh, Olga G; Yaroslavtseva, Tatiana V; Kumkov, Sergey I

    2015-01-15

    The heat capacities of molten salts are very important for their practical use. Experimental investigation of this property is challenging because of the high temperatures involved and the corrosive nature of these materials. It is preferable to combine experimental investigations with empirical relationships, which allows for the evaluation of the heat capacity of molten salt mixtures. The isobaric molar heat capacities of all molten alkali and alkaline-earth halides were found to be constant for each group of salts. The value depends on the number of atoms in the salt, and the molar heat capacity per atom is constant for all molten halide salts with the exception of the lithium halides. The molar heat capacities of molten halides do not change when the anions are changed.

  16. Heat capacity of molten halides.

    PubMed

    Redkin, Alexander A; Zaikov, Yurii P; Korzun, Iraida V; Reznitskikh, Olga G; Yaroslavtseva, Tatiana V; Kumkov, Sergey I

    2015-01-15

    The heat capacities of molten salts are very important for their practical use. Experimental investigation of this property is challenging because of the high temperatures involved and the corrosive nature of these materials. It is preferable to combine experimental investigations with empirical relationships, which allows for the evaluation of the heat capacity of molten salt mixtures. The isobaric molar heat capacities of all molten alkali and alkaline-earth halides were found to be constant for each group of salts. The value depends on the number of atoms in the salt, and the molar heat capacity per atom is constant for all molten halide salts with the exception of the lithium halides. The molar heat capacities of molten halides do not change when the anions are changed. PMID:25530462

  17. Extension of the absolute flux density scale to 22.285 GHz. [radio astronomy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Janssen, M. A.; Golden, L. M.; Welch, W. J.

    1974-01-01

    Extending the absolute flux density scale at microwave wavelengths, the absolute flux densities at 22.285 GHz of several standard sources were determined using the absolute calibrations of the 6.1 meter antenna of the Hat Creek Observatory. Interpolation formulas for each nonthermal standard source have been derived by combining these data with those determined at lower frequencies. The suitability of employing the standard sources for calibrating other antennas is discussed.

  18. Preliminary OARE absolute acceleration measurements on STS-50

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blanchard, Robert C.; Nicholson, John Y.; Ritter, James

    1993-01-01

    On-orbit Orbital Acceleration Research Experiment (OARE) data on STS-50 was examined in detail during a 2-day time period. Absolute acceleration levels were derived at the OARE location, the orbiter center-of-gravity, and at the STS-50 spacelab Crystal Growth Facility. The tri-axial OARE raw acceleration measurements (i.e., telemetered data) during the interval were filtered using a sliding trimmed mean filter in order to remove large acceleration spikes (e.g., thrusters) and reduce the noise. Twelve OARE measured biases in each acceleration channel during the 2-day interval were analyzed and applied to the filtered data. Similarly, the in situ measured x-axis scale factors in the sensor's most sensitive range were also analyzed and applied to the data. Due to equipment problem(s) on this flight, both y- and z- axis sensitive range scale factors were determined in a separate process (using the OARE maneuver data) and subsequently applied to the data. All known significant low-frequency corrections at the OARE location (i.e., both vertical and horizontal gravity-gradient, and rotational effects) were removed from the filtered data in order to produce the acceleration components at the orbiter's center-of-gravity, which are the aerodynamic signals along each body axes. Results indicate that there is a force of unknown origin being applied to the Orbiter in addition to the aerodynamic forces. The OARE instrument and all known gravitational and electromagnetic forces were reexamined, but none produce the observed effect. Thus, it is tentatively concluded that the Orbiter is creating the environment observed.

  19. Characterizing flow in oil reservoir rock using SPH: absolute permeability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holmes, David W.; Williams, John R.; Tilke, Peter; Leonardi, Christopher R.

    2016-04-01

    In this paper, a three-dimensional smooth particle hydrodynamics (SPH) simulator for modeling grain scale fluid flow in porous rock is presented. The versatility of the SPH method has driven its use in increasingly complex areas of flow analysis, including flows related to permeable rock for both groundwater and petroleum reservoir research. While previous approaches to such problems using SPH have involved the use of idealized pore geometries (cylinder/sphere packs etc), in this paper we detail the characterization of flow in models with geometries taken from 3D X-ray microtomographic imaging of actual porous rock; specifically 25.12 % porosity dolomite. This particular rock type has been well characterized experimentally and described in the literature, thus providing a practical `real world' means of verification of SPH that will be key to its acceptance by industry as a viable alternative to traditional reservoir modeling tools. The true advantages of SPH are realized when adding the complexity of multiple fluid phases, however, the accuracy of SPH for single phase flow is, as yet, under developed in the literature and will be the primary focus of this paper. Flow in reservoir rock will typically occur in the range of low Reynolds numbers, making the enforcement of no-slip boundary conditions an important factor in simulation. To this end, we detail the development of a new, robust, and numerically efficient method for implementing no-slip boundary conditions in SPH that can handle the degree of complexity of boundary surfaces, characteristic of an actual permeable rock sample. A study of the effect of particle density is carried out and simulation results for absolute permeability are presented and compared to those from experimentation showing good agreement and validating the method for such applications.

  20. Uranium isotopic composition and absolute ages of Allende chondrules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brennecka, G. A.; Budde, G.; Kleine, T.

    2015-11-01

    A handful of events, such as the condensation of refractory inclusions and the formation of chondrules, represent important stages in the formation and evolution of the early solar system and thus are critical to understanding its development. Compared to the refractory inclusions, chondrules appear to have a protracted period of formation that spans millions of years. As such, understanding chondrule formation requires a catalog of reliable ages, free from as many assumptions as possible. The Pb-Pb chronometer has this potential; however, because common individual chondrules have extremely low uranium contents, obtaining U-corrected Pb-Pb ages of individual chondrules is unrealistic in the vast majority of cases at this time. Thus, in order to obtain the most accurate 238U/235U ratio possible for chondrules, we separated and pooled thousands of individual chondrules from the Allende meteorite. In this work, we demonstrate that no discernible differences exist in the 238U/235U compositions between chondrule groups when separated by size and magnetic susceptibility, suggesting that no systematic U-isotope variation exists between groups of chondrules. Consequently, chondrules are likely to have a common 238U/235U ratio for any given meteorite. A weighted average of the six groups of chondrule separates from Allende results in a 238U/235U ratio of 137.786 ± 0.004 (±0.016 including propagated uncertainty on the U standard [Richter et al. 2010]). Although it is still possible that individual chondrules have significant U isotope variation within a given meteorite, this value represents our best estimate of the 238U/235U ratio for Allende chondrules and should be used for absolute dating of these objects, unless such chondrules can be measured individually.

  1. a Portable Apparatus for Absolute Measurements of the Earth's Gravity.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zumberge, Mark Andrew

    We have developed a new, portable apparatus for making absolute measurements of the acceleration due to the earth's gravity. We use the method of interferometrically determining the acceleration of a freely falling corner -cube prism. The falling object is surrounded by a chamber which is driven vertically inside a fixed vacuum chamber. This falling chamber is servoed to track the falling corner -cube to shield it from drag due to background gas. In addition, the drag-free falling chamber removes the need for a magnetic release, shields the falling object from electrostatic forces, and provides a means of both gently arresting the falling object and quickly returning it to its start position, to allow rapid acquisition of data. A synthesized long period isolation device reduces the noise due to seismic oscillations. A new type of Zeeman laser is used as the light source in the interferometer, and is compared with the wavelength of an iodine stabilized laser. The times of occurrence of 45 interference fringes are measured to within 0.2 nsec over a 20 cm drop and are fit to a quadratic by an on-line minicomputer. 150 drops can be made in ten minutes resulting in a value of g having a precision of 3 to 6 parts in 10('9). Systematic errors have been determined to be less than 5 parts in 10('9) through extensive tests. Three months of gravity data have been obtained with a reproducibility ranging from 5 to 10 parts in 10('9). The apparatus has been designed to be easily portable. Field measurements are planned for the immediate future. An accuracy of 6 parts in 10('9) corresponds to a height sensitivity of 2 cm. Vertical motions in the earth's crust and tectonic density changes that may precede earthquakes are to be investigated using this apparatus.

  2. Absolute Pitch: Effects of Timbre on Note-Naming Ability

    PubMed Central

    Vanzella, Patrícia; Schellenberg, E. Glenn

    2010-01-01

    Background Absolute pitch (AP) is the ability to identify or produce isolated musical tones. It is evident primarily among individuals who started music lessons in early childhood. Because AP requires memory for specific pitches as well as learned associations with verbal labels (i.e., note names), it represents a unique opportunity to study interactions in memory between linguistic and nonlinguistic information. One untested hypothesis is that the pitch of voices may be difficult for AP possessors to identify. A musician's first instrument may also affect performance and extend the sensitive period for acquiring accurate AP. Methods/Principal Findings A large sample of AP possessors was recruited on-line. Participants were required to identity test tones presented in four different timbres: piano, pure tone, natural (sung) voice, and synthesized voice. Note-naming accuracy was better for non-vocal (piano and pure tones) than for vocal (natural and synthesized voices) test tones. This difference could not be attributed solely to vibrato (pitch variation), which was more pronounced in the natural voice than in the synthesized voice. Although starting music lessons by age 7 was associated with enhanced note-naming accuracy, equivalent abilities were evident among listeners who started music lessons on piano at a later age. Conclusions/Significance Because the human voice is inextricably linked to language and meaning, it may be processed automatically by voice-specific mechanisms that interfere with note naming among AP possessors. Lessons on piano or other fixed-pitch instruments appear to enhance AP abilities and to extend the sensitive period for exposure to music in order to develop accurate AP. PMID:21085598

  3. Absolute Timing of the Crab Pulsar with RXTE

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rots, Arnold H.; Jahoda, Keith; Lyne, Andrew G.

    2004-01-01

    We have monitored the phase of the main X-ray pulse of the Crab pulsar with the Rossi X-ray Timing Explorer (RXTE) for almost eight years, since the start of the mission in January 1996. The absolute time of RXTE's clock is sufficiently accurate to allow this phase to be compared directly with the radio profile. Our monitoring observations of the pulsar took place bi-weekly (during the periods when it was at least 30 degrees from the Sun) and we correlated the data with radio timing ephemerides derived from observations made at Jodrell Bank. We have determined the phase of the X-ray main pulse for each observation with a typical error in the individual data points of 50 microseconds. The total ensemble is consistent with a phase that is constant over the monitoring period, with the X-ray pulse leading the radio pulse by 0.01025 plus or minus 0.00120 period in phase, or 344 plus or minus 40 microseconds in time. The error estimate is dominated by a systematic error of 40 microseconds, most likely constant, arising from uncertainties in the instrumental calibration of the radio data. The statistical error is 0.00015 period, or 5 microseconds. The separation of the main pulse and interpulse appears to be unchanging at time scales of a year or less, with an average value of 0.4001 plus or minus 0.0002 period. There is no apparent variation in these values with energy over the 2-30 keV range. The lag between the radio and X-ray pulses ma be constant in phase (i.e., rotational in nature) or constant in time (i.e., due to a pathlength difference). We are not (yet) able to distinguish between these two interpretations.

  4. Non-invasive quantification of brain glycogen absolute concentration

    PubMed Central

    van Heeswijk, Ruud B.; Xin, Lijing; Laus, Sabrina; Frenkel, Hanne; Lei, Hongxia; Gruetter, Rolf

    2009-01-01

    The only currently available method to measure brain glycogen in vivo is 13C NMR spectroscopy. Incorporation of 13C-labeled glucose (Glc) is necessary to allow glycogen measurement, but might be affected by turnover changes. Our aim was to measure glycogen absolute concentration in the rat brain by eliminating label turnover as variable. The approach is based on establishing an increased, constant 13C isotopic enrichment (IE). 13C-Glc infusion is then performed at the IE of brain glycogen. As glycogen IE cannot be assessed in vivo, we validated that it can be inferred from that of N-acetyl-aspartate IE in vivo: After [1-13C]-Glc ingestion, glycogen IE was 2.2 ± 0.1 fold that of N-acetyl-aspartate (n = 11, R2 = 0.77). After subsequent Glc infusion, glycogen IE equaled brain Glc IE (n = 6, paired t-test, p = 0.37), implying isotopic steady-state achievement and complete turnover of the glycogen molecule. Glycogen concentration measured in vivo by 13C NMR (mean ± SD: 5.8 ± 0.7 μmol/g) was in excellent agreement with that in vitro (6.4 ± 0.6 μmol/g, n = 5). When insulin was administered, the stability of glycogen concentration was analogous to previous biochemical measurements implying that glycogen turnover is activated by insulin. We conclude that the entire glycogen molecule is turned over and that insulin activates glycogen turnover. PMID:19013831

  5. [Asthma and scuba diving Absolute contraindication? in all asthma patients?].

    PubMed

    Coëtmeur, D; Briens, E; Dassonville, J; Vergne, M

    2001-09-01

    Physical and psychological fitness are required for scuba diving, leading to medical contraindications in certain subjects. Asthma, a condition exhibiting increasing prevalence in the general population is currently considered an absolute contraindication for scuba diving by the French Federation for Submarine Sports and Education (FFESSM). There is however no documented evidence demonstrating a higher risk in asthmatic divers. Our English-speaking colleagues have suggested that certain asthmatic subjects could participate in scuba diving sports under certain conditions without any higher risk compared with non-asthmatic divers. We recall here the impact of diving on respiratory function and potential consequences in asthmatic subjects, proposing that the formal contraindication against scuba diving should be maintained for asthmatic patients who experience frequent symptoms (step 2 or more of the International Consensus Report on Diagnosis and Treatment of Asthma) and/or have a baseline obstructive syndrome. It would appear reasonable to discuss the contraindication concerning patients with rare acute episodes and who have a perfectly normal respiratory function. The question of bronchodilator inhalation prior to diving may be a question to debate. However, such a proposal cannot be considered to be valid unless well-conducted studies of the clinical manifestations are available (frequency and severity of the acute episodes, triggering factors) for the diver candidate. Because of the highly restrictive nature of the contraindication notification and the absence of arguments backing up the decision, the question should be put to competent authorities (sports federations, learned societies) in order to ascertain the pathophysiological mechanisms involved and collect reliable epidemiological data before proposing a consensus discussion. This process may lead to the delivery of scuba diving authorizations for selected asthmatic subjects without a higher risk than non

  6. Embedded north-seeker for automatic absolute magnetic DI measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gonsette, Alexandre; Rasson, Jean

    2014-05-01

    In magnetic observatory Earth magnetic field is recorded with a resolution of 0.1nT for 1min sampling (new standards impose 1pT for 1s sampling). The method universally adopted for measuring it is a combination of three instruments. Vectorial magnetometer (variometer) records variations of the three components around a reference value or a baseline. A proton or an overhauser magnetometer is an absolute instrument able to measure the modulus of the field and used to determine the F component baseline of the variometer. The declination and inclination baselines require a manual procedure to be computed. An operator manipulates a non-magnetic theodolite (also called a DIFlux) to measure the D and I angles in different configurations with a resolution of a few arcsec. The AutoDIF is a non-magnetic automatic DIFlux using the same protocol as the manual procedure. The declination defined according to the true north is determined by means of a target pointing system. Even if the technique is fast and accurate, it becomes problematic in case of unmanned deployment. In particular the area between the target and the DIFlux is out of control. Snow storm, fog, vegetation or condensation on windows are examples of perturbation preventing for finding the target. It is obvious in case of (future) seafloor observatories. A FOG based north-seeker has been implemented and mounted on the AutoDIF. The first results using a low cost gyro don't meet the Intermagnet specifications yet but are however hopeful. A 0.1° standard deviation has been reached and statistically reduced to 0.01° after less than two days in laboratory. The magnetic disturbance of the sensor is taken into account and compensated by the measurement protocol.

  7. Absolute homogeneity test of Kelantan catchment precipitation series

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ros, Faizah Che; Tosaka, Hiroyuki; Sasaki, Kenji; Sidek, Lariyah Mohd; Basri, Hidayah

    2015-05-01

    Along the Kelantan River in north east of Malaysia Peninsular, there are several areas often damaged by flood during north-east monsoon season every year. It is vital to predict the expected behavior of precipitation and river runoff for reducing flood damages of the area under rapid urbanization and future planning. Nevertheless, the accuracy and reliability of any hydrological and climate studies vary based on the quality of the data used. The factors causing variations on these data are the method of gauging and data collection, stations environment, station relocation and the reliability of the measurement tool affect the homogenous precipitation records. Hence in this study, homogeneity of long precipitation data series is checked via the absolute homogeneity test consisting of four methods namely Pettitt test, standard normal homogeneity test (SNHT), Buishand range test and Von Neumann ratio test. For homogeneity test, the annual rainfall amount from the daily precipitation records at stations located in Kelantan operated by Department of Irrigation and Drainage Malaysia were considered in this study. The missing values were completed using the correlation and regression and inverse distance method. The data network consists of 103 precipitation gauging stations where 31 points are inactive, 6 gauging stations had missing precipitation values more than five years in a row and 16 stations have records less than twenty years. So total of 50 stations gauging stations were evaluated in this analysis. With the application of the mentioned methods and further graphical analysis, inhomogeneity was detected at 4 stations and 46 stations are found to be homogeneous.

  8. Extraordinary floods in early Chinese history and their absolute dates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pang, Kevin D.

    1987-12-01

    The earliest extraordinary floods recorded in Chinese historical texts occurred shortly before the beginning of Xia, the first hereditary dynasty in China. Yu, the founder of Xia, is credited with having successfully controlled these floods. Three different methods have been applied here to absolutely date these events, using royal genealogies, and records of an ancient solar eclipse and a planetary conjunction. The genealogies of the predynastic Shang lords and dynastic Shang and Zhou kings, which have been confirmed by archeological data, have been used to calibrate the parallel but not yet confirmed Xia royal genealogy. Using 30 years as an average time interval between two generations and backtracking from known endpoints the beginning of the Xia dynasty was determined to be not earlier than 20th century B.C. Dating of a recorded solar eclipse placed the 5th year of the 4th Xia king at 1876 B.C. Textual records of the 1953 B.C. five-planet conjunction have been found, and the event was shown to have occurred in the lifetime of King Yu. The evidence taken together suggests that the Xia dynasty began in the middle of the 20th century B.C., and the extraordinary floods during the reigns of the sage kings Yao and Shun occurred shortly before that, i.e., in the first half of the 20th century B.C. Radiocarbon dates from the Erlitou and Gaocheng cultures, generally believed to be Xia cultures, are consistent with the results reported here. In view of this analysis and recent archeological discoveries the traditional dates for the beginning of Xia and the earliest-recorded extraordinary floods require drastic revision.

  9. Time-resolved Absolute Velocity Quantification with Projections

    PubMed Central

    Langham, Michael C.; Jain, Varsha; Magland, Jeremy F.; Wehrli, Felix W.

    2010-01-01

    Quantitative information on time-resolved blood velocity along the femoral/popliteal artery can provide clinical information on peripheral arterial disease and complement MR angiography since not all stenoses are hemodynamically significant. The key disadvantages of the most widely used approach to time-resolve pulsatile blood flow by cardiac-gated velocity-encoded gradient-echo imaging are gating errors and long acquisition time. Here we demonstrate a rapid non-triggered method that quantifies absolute velocity on the basis of phase difference between successive velocity-encoded projections after selectively removing the background static tissue signal via a reference image. The tissue signal from the reference image’s center k-space line is isolated by masking out the vessels in the image domain. The performance of the technique, in terms of reproducibility and agreement with results obtained with conventional phase contrast (PC)-MRI was evaluated at 3T field strength with a variable-flow rate phantom and in vivo of the triphasic velocity waveforms at several segments along the femoral and popliteal arteries. Additionally, time-resolved flow velocity was quantified in five healthy subjects and compared against gated PC-MRI results. To illustrate clinical feasibility the proposed method was shown to be able to identify hemodynamic abnormalities and impaired reactivity in a diseased femoral artery. For both phantom and in vivo studies, velocity measurements were within 1.5 cm/s and the coefficient of variation was less than 5% in an in vivo reproducibility study. In five healthy subjects, the average differences in mean peak velocities and their temporal locations were within 1 cm/s and 10 ms compared to gated PC-MRI. In conclusion, the proposed method provides temporally-resolved arterial velocity with a temporal resolution of 20 ms with minimal post-processing. PMID:20677235

  10. Strong thermal leptogenesis and the absolute neutrino mass scale

    SciTech Connect

    Bari, Pasquale Di; King, Sophie E.; Fiorentin, Michele Re E-mail: sk1806@soton.ac.uk

    2014-03-01

    We show that successful strong thermal leptogenesis, where the final asymmetry is independent of the initial conditions and in particular a large pre-existing asymmetry is efficiently washed-out, favours values of the lightest neutrino mass m{sub 1}∼>10 meV for normal ordering (NO) and m{sub 1}∼>3 meV for inverted ordering (IO) for models with orthogonal matrix entries respecting |Ω{sub ij}{sup 2}|∼<2. We show analytically why lower values of m{sub 1} require a higher level of fine tuning in the seesaw formula and/or in the flavoured decay parameters (in the electronic for NO, in the muonic for IO). We also show how this constraint exists thanks to the measured values of the neutrino mixing angles and could be tightened by a future determination of the Dirac phase. Our analysis also allows us to place a more stringent constraint for a specific model or class of models, such as SO(10)-inspired models, and shows that some models cannot realise strong thermal leptogenesis for any value of m{sub 1}. A scatter plot analysis fully supports the analytical results. We also briefly discuss the interplay with absolute neutrino mass scale experiments concluding that they will be able in the coming years to either corner strong thermal leptogenesis or find positive signals pointing to a non-vanishing m{sub 1}. Since the constraint is much stronger for NO than for IO, it is very important that new data from planned neutrino oscillation experiments will be able to solve the ambiguity.

  11. Crystal structure, conformation, and absolute configuration of kanamycin A.

    PubMed

    Puius, Yoram A; Stievater, Todd H; Srikrishnan, Thamarapu

    2006-12-11

    Kanamycin, an antibiotic complex produced by Streptomyces kanamycetius isolated from Japanese soil, was described by Okami and Umezawa as early as 1957 and consists of three components: Kanamycin A (the major component), B, and C. The disulfate salt of kanamycin A [4-O-(6-amino-6-deoxy-alpha-d-glucopyranosyl)-6-O-(3-amino-3-deoxy-alpha-d-glucopyranosyl)-2-deoxystreptamine] is a broad-spectrum antibiotic that is used to treat gonorrhea, salmonella, tuberculosis, and many other diseases. Crystals of kanamycin A monosulfate monohydrate obtained from water are triclinic, space group P1, with a=7.2294(14), b=12.4922(15), c=7.1168(9), alpha=94.74(1), beta=89.16(1), gamma=91.59(1), V=640.2(2)A(3), micro(CuKalpha)=18.4cm(-1), FW 600.6, D(calc)=1.558g/cm(3), CAD-4 diffractometric data (2693 reflections, 25543sigma(I)), structure by shelx-86 and refined by full-matrix least squares to a final R value of 0.038. The wrong conformer had an R value of 0.043. Both of the d-glucose moieties are attached to the deoxystreptamine by alpha linkages. This absolute configuration agrees with the earlier determination by both chemical and X-ray methods with photographic data. The (phi,psi) values for the glycosidic linkages are 101.6 degrees , -121.1 degrees , 106.3 degrees , and -140.4 degrees , respectively. Kanamycin interacts with the ribosomal S12 protein to stabilize the codon-anticodon binding between mRNA and the aminoacyl tRNA and inhibits the elongation of peptide chains through a series of reactions resulting in the prevention of ribosomes from moving along mRNA.

  12. Absolute polycythemia in a bald eagle (Haliaeetus leucocephalus).

    PubMed

    Fernandes, Andreia F; Fenton, Heather; Martinson, Shannon; Desmarchelier, Marion; Ferrell, Shannon T

    2014-12-01

    An approximately 6-mo-old female bald eagle (Haliaeetus leucocephalus) was presented for an inability to fly and bilateral drooped wings. Pectoral muscle atrophy with a moderate polycythemia was present. Over the course of 3 wk, there were no improvements in flight capacity, although the bird gained substantial weight. Further investigation revealed a prominent cyanosis that was responsive to oxygen therapy, a chronic respiratory acidosis with hypoxia, a cardiac murmur, and a persistent polycythemia. No obvious antemortem etiology for the clinical findings was discovered on computerized tomography, angiography, or echocardiography. The bird was euthanatized as a result of the poor prognosis. Necropsy and histopathology revealed no significant cardiovascular or pulmonary pathology. No myopathy was evident on electron microscopy of formalin-fixed tissues. Based on these diagnostics, a neuromuscular disorder is suspected as the cause for the blood gas abnormalities, with a resulting polycythemia from the hypoxia.

  13. Absolute polycythemia in a bald eagle (Haliaeetus leucocephalus).

    PubMed

    Fernandes, Andreia F; Fenton, Heather; Martinson, Shannon; Desmarchelier, Marion; Ferrell, Shannon T

    2014-12-01

    An approximately 6-mo-old female bald eagle (Haliaeetus leucocephalus) was presented for an inability to fly and bilateral drooped wings. Pectoral muscle atrophy with a moderate polycythemia was present. Over the course of 3 wk, there were no improvements in flight capacity, although the bird gained substantial weight. Further investigation revealed a prominent cyanosis that was responsive to oxygen therapy, a chronic respiratory acidosis with hypoxia, a cardiac murmur, and a persistent polycythemia. No obvious antemortem etiology for the clinical findings was discovered on computerized tomography, angiography, or echocardiography. The bird was euthanatized as a result of the poor prognosis. Necropsy and histopathology revealed no significant cardiovascular or pulmonary pathology. No myopathy was evident on electron microscopy of formalin-fixed tissues. Based on these diagnostics, a neuromuscular disorder is suspected as the cause for the blood gas abnormalities, with a resulting polycythemia from the hypoxia. PMID:25632692

  14. Specificity is rarely absolute in coral-algal symbiosis: implications for coral response to climate change.

    PubMed

    Silverstein, Rachel N; Correa, Adrienne M S; Baker, Andrew C

    2012-07-01

    Some reef-building corals have been shown to respond to environmental change by shifting the composition of their algal symbiont (genus Symbiodinium) communities. These shifts have been proposed as a potential mechanism by which corals might survive climate stressors, such as increased temperatures. Conventional molecular methods suggest this adaptive capacity may not be widespread because few (∼25%) coral species have been found to associate with multiple Symbiodinium clades. However, these methods can fail to detect low abundance symbionts (typically less than 10-20% of the total algal symbiont community). To determine whether additional Symbiodinium clades are present, but are not detected using conventional techniques, we applied a high-resolution, real-time PCR assay to survey Symbiodinium (in clades A-D) from 39 species of phylogenetically and geographically diverse scleractinian corals. This survey included 26 coral species thought to be restricted to hosting a single Symbiodinium clade ('symbiotic specialists'). We detected at least two Symbiodinium clades (C and D) in at least one sample of all 39 coral species tested; all four Symbiodinium clades were detected in over half (54%) of the 26 symbiotic specialist coral species. Furthermore, on average, 68 per cent of all sampled colonies within a given coral species hosted two or more symbiont clades. We conclude that the ability to associate with multiple symbiont clades is common in scleractinian (stony) corals, and that, in coral-algal symbiosis, 'specificity' and 'flexibility' are relative terms: specificity is rarely absolute. The potential for reef corals to adapt or acclimatize to environmental change via symbiont community shifts may therefore be more phylogenetically widespread than has previously been assumed.

  15. Specificity is rarely absolute in coral–algal symbiosis: implications for coral response to climate change

    PubMed Central

    Silverstein, Rachel N.; Correa, Adrienne M. S.; Baker, Andrew C.

    2012-01-01

    Some reef-building corals have been shown to respond to environmental change by shifting the composition of their algal symbiont (genus Symbiodinium) communities. These shifts have been proposed as a potential mechanism by which corals might survive climate stressors, such as increased temperatures. Conventional molecular methods suggest this adaptive capacity may not be widespread because few (∼25%) coral species have been found to associate with multiple Symbiodinium clades. However, these methods can fail to detect low abundance symbionts (typically less than 10–20% of the total algal symbiont community). To determine whether additional Symbiodinium clades are present, but are not detected using conventional techniques, we applied a high-resolution, real-time PCR assay to survey Symbiodinium (in clades A–D) from 39 species of phylogenetically and geographically diverse scleractinian corals. This survey included 26 coral species thought to be restricted to hosting a single Symbiodinium clade (‘symbiotic specialists’). We detected at least two Symbiodinium clades (C and D) in at least one sample of all 39 coral species tested; all four Symbiodinium clades were detected in over half (54%) of the 26 symbiotic specialist coral species. Furthermore, on average, 68 per cent of all sampled colonies within a given coral species hosted two or more symbiont clades. We conclude that the ability to associate with multiple symbiont clades is common in scleractinian (stony) corals, and that, in coral–algal symbiosis, ‘specificity’ and ‘flexibility’ are relative terms: specificity is rarely absolute. The potential for reef corals to adapt or acclimatize to environmental change via symbiont community shifts may therefore be more phylogenetically widespread than has previously been assumed. PMID:22367985

  16. Absolute Humidity Influences the Seasonal Persistence and Infectivity of Human Norovirus.

    PubMed

    Colas de la Noue, Alexandre; Estienney, Marie; Aho, Serge; Perrier-Cornet, Jean-Marie; de Rougemont, Alexis; Pothier, Pierre; Gervais, Patrick; Belliot, Gaël

    2014-12-01

    Norovirus (NoV) is one of the main causative agents of acute gastroenteritis worldwide. In temperate climates, outbreaks peak during the winter season. The mechanism by which climatic factors influence the occurrence of NoV outbreaks is unknown. We hypothesized that humidity is linked to NoV seasonality. Human NoV is not cultivatable, so we used cultivatable murine norovirus (MNV) as a surrogate to study its persistence when exposed to various levels of relative humidity (RH) from low (10% RH) to saturated (100% RH) conditions at 9 and 25°C. In addition, we conducted similar experiments with virus-like particles (VLPs) from the predominant GII-4 norovirus and studied changes in binding patterns to A, B, and O group carbohydrates that might reflect capsid alterations. The responses of MNV and VLP to humidity were somewhat similar, with 10 and 100% RH exhibiting a strong conserving effect for both models, whereas 50% RH was detrimental for MNV infectivity and VLP binding capacity. The data analysis suggested that absolute humidity (AH) rather than RH is the critical factor for keeping NoV infectious, with an AH below 0.007 kg water/kg air being favorable to NoV survival. Retrospective surveys of the meteorological data in Paris for the last 14 years showed that AH average values have almost always been below 0.007 kg water/kg air during the winter (i.e., 0.0046 ± 0.0014 kg water/kg air), and this finding supports the fact that low AH provides an ideal condition for NoV persistence and transmission during cold months.

  17. Absolute Humidity Influences the Seasonal Persistence and Infectivity of Human Norovirus

    PubMed Central

    Colas de la Noue, Alexandre; Estienney, Marie; Aho, Serge; Perrier-Cornet, Jean-Marie; de Rougemont, Alexis; Pothier, Pierre

    2014-01-01

    Norovirus (NoV) is one of the main causative agents of acute gastroenteritis worldwide. In temperate climates, outbreaks peak during the winter season. The mechanism by which climatic factors influence the occurrence of NoV outbreaks is unknown. We hypothesized that humidity is linked to NoV seasonality. Human NoV is not cultivatable, so we used cultivatable murine norovirus (MNV) as a surrogate to study its persistence when exposed to various levels of relative humidity (RH) from low (10% RH) to saturated (100% RH) conditions at 9 and 25°C. In addition, we conducted similar experiments with virus-like particles (VLPs) from the predominant GII-4 norovirus and studied changes in binding patterns to A, B, and O group carbohydrates that might reflect capsid alterations. The responses of MNV and VLP to humidity were somewhat similar, with 10 and 100% RH exhibiting a strong conserving effect for both models, whereas 50% RH was detrimental for MNV infectivity and VLP binding capacity. The data analysis suggested that absolute humidity (AH) rather than RH is the critical factor for keeping NoV infectious, with an AH below 0.007 kg water/kg air being favorable to NoV survival. Retrospective surveys of the meteorological data in Paris for the last 14 years showed that AH average values have almost always been below 0.007 kg water/kg air during the winter (i.e., 0.0046 ± 0.0014 kg water/kg air), and this finding supports the fact that low AH provides an ideal condition for NoV persistence and transmission during cold months. PMID:25217015

  18. Maximizing the optical network capacity.

    PubMed

    Bayvel, Polina; Maher, Robert; Xu, Tianhua; Liga, Gabriele; Shevchenko, Nikita A; Lavery, Domaniç; Alvarado, Alex; Killey, Robert I

    2016-03-01

    Most of the digital data transmitted are carried by optical fibres, forming the great part of the national and international communication infrastructure. The information-carrying capacity of these networks has increased vastly over the past decades through the introduction of wavelength division multiplexing, advanced modulation formats, digital signal processing and improved optical fibre and amplifier technology. These developments sparked the communication revolution and the growth of the Internet, and have created an illusion of infinite capacity being available. But as the volume of data continues to increase, is there a limit to the capacity of an optical fibre communication channel? The optical fibre channel is nonlinear, and the intensity-dependent Kerr nonlinearity limit has been suggested as a fundamental limit to optical fibre capacity. Current research is focused on whether this is the case, and on linear and nonlinear techniques, both optical and electronic, to understand, unlock and maximize the capacity of optical communications in the nonlinear regime. This paper describes some of them and discusses future prospects for success in the quest for capacity.

  19. Maximizing the optical network capacity

    PubMed Central

    Bayvel, Polina; Maher, Robert; Liga, Gabriele; Shevchenko, Nikita A.; Lavery, Domaniç; Killey, Robert I.

    2016-01-01

    Most of the digital data transmitted are carried by optical fibres, forming the great part of the national and international communication infrastructure. The information-carrying capacity of these networks has increased vastly over the past decades through the introduction of wavelength division multiplexing, advanced modulation formats, digital signal processing and improved optical fibre and amplifier technology. These developments sparked the communication revolution and the growth of the Internet, and have created an illusion of infinite capacity being available. But as the volume of data continues to increase, is there a limit to the capacity of an optical fibre communication channel? The optical fibre channel is nonlinear, and the intensity-dependent Kerr nonlinearity limit has been suggested as a fundamental limit to optical fibre capacity. Current research is focused on whether this is the case, and on linear and nonlinear techniques, both optical and electronic, to understand, unlock and maximize the capacity of optical communications in the nonlinear regime. This paper describes some of them and discusses future prospects for success in the quest for capacity. PMID:26809572

  20. Maximizing the optical network capacity.

    PubMed

    Bayvel, Polina; Maher, Robert; Xu, Tianhua; Liga, Gabriele; Shevchenko, Nikita A; Lavery, Domaniç; Alvarado, Alex; Killey, Robert I

    2016-03-01

    Most of the digital data transmitted are carried by optical fibres, forming the great part of the national and international communication infrastructure. The information-carrying capacity of these networks has increased vastly over the past decades through the introduction of wavelength division multiplexing, advanced modulation formats, digital signal processing and improved optical fibre and amplifier technology. These developments sparked the communication revolution and the growth of the Internet, and have created an illusion of infinite capacity being available. But as the volume of data continues to increase, is there a limit to the capacity of an optical fibre communication channel? The optical fibre channel is nonlinear, and the intensity-dependent Kerr nonlinearity limit has been suggested as a fundamental limit to optical fibre capacity. Current research is focused on whether this is the case, and on linear and nonlinear techniques, both optical and electronic, to understand, unlock and maximize the capacity of optical communications in the nonlinear regime. This paper describes some of them and discusses future prospects for success in the quest for capacity. PMID:26809572

  1. Capacity Value of Wind Power

    SciTech Connect

    Keane, Andrew; Milligan, Michael; Dent, Chris; Hasche, Bernhard; DAnnunzio, Claudine; Dragoon, Ken; Holttinen, Hannele; Samaan, Nader A.; Soder, Lennart; O'Malley, Mark J.

    2011-05-04

    Power systems are planned such that they have adequate generation capacity to meet the load, according to a defined reliability target. The increase in the penetration of wind generation in recent years has led to a number of challenges for the planning and operation of power systems. A key metric for system adequacy is the capacity value of generation. The capacity value of a generator is the contribution that a given generator makes to overall system adequacy. The variable and stochastic nature of wind sets it apart from conventional energy sources. As a result, the modeling of wind generation in the same manner as conventional generation for capacity value calculations is inappropriate. In this paper a preferred method for calculation of the capacity value of wind is described and a discussion of the pertinent issues surrounding it is given. Approximate methods for the calculation are also described with their limitations highlighted. The outcome of recent wind capacity value analyses in Europe and North America are highlighted with a description of open research questions also given.

  2. PHASES: A Project to Perform Absolute Spectrophotometry from Space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    del Burgo, C.; Vather, D.; Allende Prieto, C.; Murphy, N.

    2013-04-01

    This paper presents the current status of the opto-mechanical design of PHASES (Planet Hunting and AsteroSeismology Explorer Spectrophotometer), which is a project to develop a space-borne telescope to obtain absolute flux calibrated spectra of bright stars. The science payload is intended to be housed in a micro-satellite launched into a low-earth Sun-synchronous orbit with an inclination to the equator of 98.7° and a local time ascending node LTAN of 6:00 AM. PHASES will be able to measure micromagnitude photometric variations due to stellar oscillations/activity and planet/moon transits. It consists of a 20 cm aperture modified Baker telescope feeding two detectors: the tracking detector provides the fine telescope guidance system with a required pointing stability of 0.2″, and the science detector performs spectrophotometry in the wavelength range 370-960 nm with a resolving power between 200 and 900. The spectrograph is designed to provide 1% RMS flux calibrated spectra with signal-to-noise ratios > 100 for stars with V < 10 in short integration times. Our strategy to calibrate the system using A type stars is explained. From comparison with model atmospheres it would be possible to determine the stellar angular diameters with an uncertainty of approximately 0.5%. In the case of a star hosting a transiting planet it would be possible to derive its light curve, and then the planet to stellar radius ratio. Bright stars have high precision Hipparcos parallaxes and the expected level of accuracy for their fluxes will be propagated to the stellar radii, and more significantly to the planetary radii. The scientific drivers for PHASES give rise to some design challenges, which are particularly related to the opto-mechanics for extreme environmental conditions. The optical design has been developed with the primary goal of avoiding stray light reaching the science detector. Three different proposals for the opto-mechanical design are under investigation.

  3. Absolute Magnitudes of Pan-STARRS PS1 Asteroids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Veres, Peter; Jedicke, R.; Fitzsimmons, A.; Denneau, L.; Wainscoat, R.; Bolin, B.; PS1SC Collaboration

    2013-10-01

    Absolute magnitude (H) of an asteroid is a fundamental parameter describing the size and the apparent brightness of the body. Because of its surface shape, properties and changing illumination, the brightness changes with the geometry and is described by the phase function governed by the slope parameter (G). Although many years have been spent on detailed observations of individual asteroids to provide H and G, vast majority of minor planets have H based on assumed G and due to the input photometry from multiple sources the errors of these values are unknown. We compute H of ~ 180 000 and G of few thousands asteroids observed with the Pan-STARRS PS1 telescope in well defined photometric systems. The mean photometric error is 0.04 mag. Because on average there are only 7 detections per asteroid in our sample, we employed a Monte Carlo (MC) technique to generate clones simulating all possible rotation periods, amplitudes and colors of detected asteroids. Known asteroid colors were taken from the SDSS database. We used debiased spin and amplitude distributions dependent on size, spectral class distributions of asteroids dependent on semi-major axis and starting values of G from previous works. H and G (G12 respectively) were derived by phase functions by Bowell et al. (1989) and Muinonen et al. (2010). We confirmed that there is a positive systematic offset between H based on PS1 asteroids and Minor Planet Center database up to -0.3 mag peaking at 14. Similar offset was first mentioned in the analysis of SDSS asteroids and was believed to be solved by weighting and normalizing magnitudes by observatory codes. MC shows that there is only a negligible difference between Bowell's and Muinonen's solution of H. However, Muinonen's phase function provides smaller errors on H. We also derived G and G12 for thousands of asteroids. For known spectral classes, slope parameters agree with the previous work in general, however, the standard deviation of G in our sample is twice

  4. The absolute magnitude distribution of Kuiper Belt objects

    SciTech Connect

    Fraser, Wesley C.; Brown, Michael E.; Morbidelli, Alessandro; Parker, Alex; Batygin, Konstantin

    2014-02-20

    Here we measure the absolute magnitude distributions (H-distribution) of the dynamically excited and quiescent (hot and cold) Kuiper Belt objects (KBOs), and test if they share the same H-distribution as the Jupiter Trojans. From a compilation of all useable ecliptic surveys, we find that the KBO H-distributions are well described by broken power laws. The cold population has a bright-end slope, α{sub 1}=1.5{sub −0.2}{sup +0.4}, and break magnitude, H{sub B}=6.9{sub −0.2}{sup +0.1} (r'-band). The hot population has a shallower bright-end slope of, α{sub 1}=0.87{sub −0.2}{sup +0.07}, and break magnitude H{sub B}=7.7{sub −0.5}{sup +1.0}. Both populations share similar faint-end slopes of α{sub 2} ∼ 0.2. We estimate the masses of the hot and cold populations are ∼0.01 and ∼3 × 10{sup –4} M {sub ⊕}. The broken power-law fit to the Trojan H-distribution has α{sub 1} = 1.0 ± 0.2, α{sub 2} = 0.36 ± 0.01, and H {sub B} = 8.3. The Kolmogorov-Smirnov test reveals that the probability that the Trojans and cold KBOs share the same parent H-distribution is less than 1 in 1000. When the bimodal albedo distribution of the hot objects is accounted for, there is no evidence that the H-distributions of the Trojans and hot KBOs differ. Our findings are in agreement with the predictions of the Nice model in terms of both mass and H-distribution of the hot and Trojan populations. Wide-field survey data suggest that the brightest few hot objects, with H{sub r{sup ′}}≲3, do not fall on the steep power-law slope of fainter hot objects. Under the standard hierarchical model of planetesimal formation, it is difficult to account for the similar break diameters of the hot and cold populations given the low mass of the cold belt.

  5. Age Dependent Absolute Plate and Plume Motion Modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heaton, D. E.; Koppers, A. A. P.

    2015-12-01

    Current absolute plate motion (APM) models from 80 - 0 Ma are constrained by the location of mantle plume related hotspot seamounts, in particular those of the Hawaiian-Emperor and Louisville seamount trails. Originally the 'fixed' hotspot hypothesis was developed to explain past plate motion based on linear age progressive intra-plate volcanism. However, now that 'moving' hotspots are accepted, it is becoming clear that APM models need to be corrected for individual plume motion vectors. For older seamount trails that were active between roughly 50 and 80 Ma the APM models that use 'fixed' hotspots overestimate the measured age progression in those trails, while APM models corrected for 'moving' hotspots underestimate those age progressions. These mismatches are due to both a lack of reliable ages in the older portions of both the Hawaii and Louisville seamount trails and insufficient APM modeling constraints from other seamount trails in the Pacific Basin. Seamounts are difficult to sample and analyze because many are hydrothermally altered and have low potassium concentrations. New 40Ar/39Ar Age results from International Ocean Drilling Project (IODP) Expedition 330 Sites U1372 (n=18), U1375 (n=3), U1376 (n=15) and U1377 (n=7) aid in constraining the oldest end of the Louisville Seamount trail. A significant observation in this study is that the age range recovered in the drill cores match the range of ages that were acquired on dredging cruises at the same seamounts (e.g. Koppers et al., 2011). This is important for determining the inception age of a seamount. The sections recovered from IODP EXP 330 are in-situ volcanoclastic breccia and lava flows. Comparing the seismic interpretations of Louisville guyots (Contreras-Reyes et al., 2010), Holes U1372, U1373 and U1374 penetrated the extrusive and volcanoclastic sections of the seamount. The ages obtained are consistent over stratigraphic intervals >100-450 m thick, providing evidence that these seamounts

  6. Assessing Epistemic Sophistication by Considering Domain-Specific Absolute and Multiplicistic Beliefs Separately

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peter, Johannes; Rosman, Tom; Mayer, Anne-Kathrin; Leichner, Nikolas; Krampen, Günter

    2016-01-01

    Background: Particularly in higher education, not only a view of science as a means of finding absolute truths (absolutism), but also a view of science as generally tentative (multiplicism) can be unsophisticated and obstructive for learning. Most quantitative epistemic belief inventories neglect this and understand epistemic sophistication as…

  7. Changing the Tune: The Structure of the Input Affects Infants' Use of Absolute and Relative Pitch

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saffran, Jenny R.; Reeck, Karelyn; Niebuhr, Aimee; Wilson, Diana

    2005-01-01

    Sequences of notes contain several different types of pitch cues, including both absolute and relative pitch information. What factors determine which of these cues are used when learning about tone sequences? Previous research suggests that infants tend to preferentially process absolute pitch patterns in continuous tone sequences, while other…

  8. An Integrated Model of Choices and Response Times in Absolute Identification

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Scott D.; Marley, A. A. J.; Donkin, Christopher; Heathcote, Andrew

    2008-01-01

    Recent theoretical developments in the field of absolute identification have stressed differences between relative and absolute processes, that is, whether stimulus magnitudes are judged relative to a shorter term context provided by recently presented stimuli or a longer term context provided by the entire set of stimuli. The authors developed a…

  9. Articulated Multimedia Physics, Lesson 14, Gases, The Gas Laws, and Absolute Temperature.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New York Inst. of Tech., Old Westbury.

    As the fourteenth lesson of the Articulated Multimedia Physics Course, instructional materials are presented in this study guide with relation to gases, gas laws, and absolute temperature. The topics are concerned with the kinetic theory of gases, thermometric scales, Charles' law, ideal gases, Boyle's law, absolute zero, and gas pressures. The…

  10. Confidence-Accuracy Calibration in Absolute and Relative Face Recognition Judgments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weber, Nathan; Brewer, Neil

    2004-01-01

    Confidence-accuracy (CA) calibration was examined for absolute and relative face recognition judgments as well as for recognition judgments from groups of stimuli presented simultaneously or sequentially (i.e., simultaneous or sequential mini-lineups). When the effect of difficulty was controlled, absolute and relative judgments produced…

  11. The Relation between the Absolute Level of Parenting and Differential Parental Treatment with Adolescent Siblings' Adjustment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tamrouti-Makkink, Ilse D.; Dubas, Judith Semon; Gerris, Jan R. M.; van Aken, Marcel A. G.

    2004-01-01

    Background: The present study extends existing studies on the role of differential parental treatment in explaining individual differences in adolescent problem behaviors above the absolute level of parenting and clarifies the function of gender of the child, birth rank and gender constellation of the sibling dyads. Method: The absolute level of…

  12. Beam Elements with Trapezoidal Cross Section Deformation Modes Based on the Absolute Nodal Coordinate Formulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matikainen, Marko K.; Dmitrochenko, Oleg; Mikkola, Aki

    2010-09-01

    In this study, higher order beam elements are developed based on the absolute nodal coordinate formulation. The absolute nodal coordinate formulation is a finite element procedure that was recently proposed for flexible multibody applications. Many different elements based on the absolute nodal coordinate formulation are introduced, but still the beam elements are not able to describe the trapezoidal cross section mode. This leads to the locking phenomena, and therefore, the beam elements based on the absolute nodal coordinate formulation with three dimensional elasticity converge to an inexact solution. In order to avoid the locking phenomena, the trapezoidal cross section deformation mode is included in the beam elements based on the absolute nodal coordinate with additional degrees of freedom. The proper description for the trapezoidal cross section deformation is important for the continuum beam elements based on three-dimensional elasticity where the material model is often based on general continuum mechanics.

  13. Absolute Humidity and the Seasonal Onset of Influenza in the Continental United States

    PubMed Central

    Shaman, Jeffrey; Pitzer, Virginia E.; Viboud, Cécile; Grenfell, Bryan T.; Lipsitch, Marc

    2010-01-01

    Much of the observed wintertime increase of mortality in temperate regions is attributed to seasonal influenza. A recent reanalysis of laboratory experiments indicates that absolute humidity strongly modulates the airborne survival and transmission of the influenza virus. Here, we extend these findings to the human population level, showing that the onset of increased wintertime influenza-related mortality in the United States is associated with anomalously low absolute humidity levels during the prior weeks. We then use an epidemiological model, in which observed absolute humidity conditions temper influenza transmission rates, to successfully simulate the seasonal cycle of observed influenza-related mortality. The model results indicate that direct modulation of influenza transmissibility by absolute humidity alone is sufficient to produce this observed seasonality. These findings provide epidemiological support for the hypothesis that absolute humidity drives seasonal variations of influenza transmission in temperate regions. PMID:20186267

  14. Potential Skin Regeneration Activity and Chemical Composition of Absolute from Pueraria thunbergiana Flower.

    PubMed

    Kim, Do-Yoon; Won, Kyung-Jong; Hwang, Dae-Il; Yoon, Seok Won; Lee, Su Jin; Park, Joo-Hoon; Yoon, Myeong Sik; Kim, Bokyung; Lee, Hwan Myung

    2015-11-01

    The flower of Pueraria thunbergiana BENTH (PTBF) contains isoflavonoids and essential oil components. It has many biological and pharmacological activities, including anti-diabetes, anti-oxidant, and weight loss. However, its effect on skin regeneration remains unknown. In the present study, we isolated the absolute from PTBF through solvent extraction and determined the role of the absolute on skin regeneration-associated responses in human epidermal-keratinocytes (HaCats). The PTBF absolute, which contained 10 compounds, stimulated migration and proliferation and increased the phosphorylation of serine/threonine-specific protein kinase and extracellular signal-regulated kinasel/2 in HaCats. It induced type I and IV collagen synthesis in HaCats. In addition, treatment with PTBF absolute resulted in increased sprout outgrowth in HaCats. These findings suggest that PTBF absolute may participate in skin regeneration, probably through promotion of migration, proliferation, and collagen synthesis. PMID:26749850

  15. The Mental Capacity Act 2005: mental capacity and mental illness.

    PubMed

    Dimond, Bridgit

    In this series of articles on the Mental Capacity Act 2005 (MCA) the author now turns to the interrelation between mental capacity and mental disorder and between the Mental Health Act 1983 (MHA) (as amended by the Mental Health Act 2007 [MHA, 2007]) and the Bournewood safeguards. The article explains how the MCA and the MHA are designed to cover distinct situations: the one mental capacity; the other mental disorder and the different definitions are considered. The article also looks at the different principles which apply and the different powers available under each Act. The different forms of protection under each Act are contrasted. Because of criticism of the UK by the European Court of Human Rights in the Bournewood case, amendments have been made by the MHA 2007 to the MCA to provide protection for those incapable of making decisions who suffer from mental disorder and whose best interests require a loss of liberty.

  16. Individual differences in working memory capacity and workload capacity

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Ju-Chi; Chang, Ting-Yun; Yang, Cheng-Ta

    2014-01-01

    We investigated the relationship between working memory capacity (WMC) and workload capacity (WLC). Each participant performed an operation span (OSPAN) task to measure his/her WMC and three redundant-target detection tasks to measure his/her WLC. WLC was computed non-parametrically (Experiments 1 and 2) and parametrically (Experiment 2). Both levels of analyses showed that participants high in WMC had larger WLC than those low in WMC only when redundant information came from visual and auditory modalities, suggesting that high-WMC participants had superior processing capacity in dealing with redundant visual and auditory information. This difference was eliminated when multiple processes required processing for only a single working memory subsystem in a color-shape detection task and a double-dot detection task. These results highlighted the role of executive control in integrating and binding information from the two working memory subsystems for perceptual decision making. PMID:25566143

  17. On the absolute calibration of SO2 cameras

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lübcke, P.; Bobrowski, N.; Illing, S.; Kern, C.; Alvarez Nieves, J. M.; Vogel, L.; Zielcke, J.; Delgado Granados, H.; Platt, U.

    2012-09-01

    Sulphur dioxide emission flux measurements are an important tool for volcanic monitoring and eruption risk assessment. The SO2 camera technique remotely measures volcanic emissions by analysing the ultraviolet absorption of SO2 in a narrow spectral window between 305 nm and 320 nm using solar radiation scattered in the atmosphere. The SO2 absorption is selectively detected by mounting band-pass interference filters in front of a two-dimensional, UV-sensitive CCD detector. While this approach is simple and delivers valuable insights into the two-dimensional SO2 distribution, absolute calibration has proven to be difficult. An accurate calibration of the SO2 camera (i.e., conversion from optical density to SO2 column density, CD) is crucial to obtain correct SO2 CDs and flux measurements that are comparable to other measurement techniques and can be used for volcanological applications. The most common approach for calibrating SO2 camera measurements is based on inserting quartz cells (cuvettes) containing known amounts of SO2 into the light path. It has been found, however, that reflections from the windows of the calibration cell can considerably affect the signal measured by the camera. Another possibility for calibration relies on performing simultaneous measurements in a small area of the camera's field-of-view (FOV) by a narrow-field-of-view Differential Optical Absorption Spectroscopy (NFOV-DOAS) system. This procedure combines the very good spatial and temporal resolution of the SO2 camera technique with the more accurate column densities obtainable from DOAS measurements. This work investigates the uncertainty of results gained through the two commonly used, but quite different calibration methods (DOAS and calibration cells). Measurements with three different instruments, an SO2 camera, a NFOV-DOAS system and an Imaging DOAS (IDOAS), are presented. We compare the calibration-cell approach with the calibration from the NFOV-DOAS system. The respective

  18. Recommended volumetric capacity definitions and protocols for accurate, standardized and unambiguous metrics for hydrogen storage materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parilla, Philip A.; Gross, Karl; Hurst, Katherine; Gennett, Thomas

    2016-03-01

    The ultimate goal of the hydrogen economy is the development of hydrogen storage systems that meet or exceed the US DOE's goals for onboard storage in hydrogen-powered vehicles. In order to develop new materials to meet these goals, it is extremely critical to accurately, uniformly and precisely measure materials' properties relevant to the specific goals. Without this assurance, such measurements are not reliable and, therefore, do not provide a benefit toward the work at hand. In particular, capacity measurements for hydrogen storage materials must be based on valid and accurate results to ensure proper identification of promising materials for further development. Volumetric capacity determinations are becoming increasingly important for identifying promising materials, yet there exists controversy on how such determinations are made and whether such determinations are valid due to differing methodologies to count the hydrogen content. These issues are discussed herein, and we show mathematically that capacity determinations can be made rigorously and unambiguously if the constituent volumes are well defined and measurable in practice. It is widely accepted that this occurs for excess capacity determinations and we show here that this can happen for the total capacity determination. Because the adsorption volume is undefined, the absolute capacity determination remains imprecise. Furthermore, we show that there is a direct relationship between determining the respective capacities and the calibration constants used for the manometric and gravimetric techniques. Several suggested volumetric capacity figure-of-merits are defined, discussed and reporting requirements recommended. Finally, an example is provided to illustrate these protocols and concepts.

  19. Capacity sharing of water reservoirs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dudley, Norman J.; Musgrave, Warren F.

    1988-05-01

    The concept of a water use property right is developed which does not apply to water volumes as such but to a share of the capacity (not contents) of river storage reservoirs and their inflows. The shareholders can withdraw water from their share over time in accordance with their preferences for stability of water deliveries. The reservoir authority does not manage reservoir releases but keeps record of individual shareholder's withdrawals and net inflows to monitor the quantity of water in each shareholder's capacity share. A surplus of total reservoir contents over the sum of the contents of the individual shareholder's capacity shares will accrue over time. Two different criteria for its periodic distribution among shareholders are compared. A previous paper Dudley (this issue(b)) noted a loss of short-run economic efficiency as reservoir and farm management decision making become separated. This is largely overcome by capacity sharing which allows each user to integrate the management of their portion of the reservoir and their farming operations. The nonattenuated nature of the capacity sharing water rights also promotes long-run economic efficiency.

  20. Behavior of Multiclass Pesticide Residue Concentrations during the Transformation from Rose Petals to Rose Absolute.

    PubMed

    Tascone, Oriane; Fillâtre, Yoann; Roy, Céline; Meierhenrich, Uwe J

    2015-05-27

    This study investigates the concentrations of 54 multiclass pesticides during the transformation processes from rose petal to concrete and absolute using roses spiked with pesticides as a model. The concentrations of the pesticides were followed during the process of transforming the spiked rose flowers from an organic field into concrete and then into absolute. The rose flowers, the concrete, and the absolute, as well as their transformation intermediates, were analyzed for pesticide content using gas chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry. We observed that all the pesticides were extracted and concentrated in the absolute, with the exception of three molecules: fenthion, fenamiphos, and phorate. Typical pesticides were found to be concentrated by a factor of 100-300 from the rose flowers to the rose absolute. The observed effect of pesticide enrichment was also studied in roses and their extracts from four classically phytosanitary treated fields. Seventeen pesticides were detected in at least one of the extracts. Like the case for the spiked samples in our model, the pesticides present in the rose flowers from Turkey were concentrated in the absolute. Two pesticides, methidathion and chlorpyrifos, were quantified in the rose flowers at approximately 0.01 and 0.01-0.05 mg kg(-1), respectively, depending on the treated field. The concentrations determined for the corresponding rose absolutes were 4.7 mg kg(-1) for methidathion and 0.65-27.25 mg kg(-1) for chlorpyrifos.

  1. Behavior of Multiclass Pesticide Residue Concentrations during the Transformation from Rose Petals to Rose Absolute.

    PubMed

    Tascone, Oriane; Fillâtre, Yoann; Roy, Céline; Meierhenrich, Uwe J

    2015-05-27

    This study investigates the concentrations of 54 multiclass pesticides during the transformation processes from rose petal to concrete and absolute using roses spiked with pesticides as a model. The concentrations of the pesticides were followed during the process of transforming the spiked rose flowers from an organic field into concrete and then into absolute. The rose flowers, the concrete, and the absolute, as well as their transformation intermediates, were analyzed for pesticide content using gas chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry. We observed that all the pesticides were extracted and concentrated in the absolute, with the exception of three molecules: fenthion, fenamiphos, and phorate. Typical pesticides were found to be concentrated by a factor of 100-300 from the rose flowers to the rose absolute. The observed effect of pesticide enrichment was also studied in roses and their extracts from four classically phytosanitary treated fields. Seventeen pesticides were detected in at least one of the extracts. Like the case for the spiked samples in our model, the pesticides present in the rose flowers from Turkey were concentrated in the absolute. Two pesticides, methidathion and chlorpyrifos, were quantified in the rose flowers at approximately 0.01 and 0.01-0.05 mg kg(-1), respectively, depending on the treated field. The concentrations determined for the corresponding rose absolutes were 4.7 mg kg(-1) for methidathion and 0.65-27.25 mg kg(-1) for chlorpyrifos. PMID:25942486

  2. High capacity heavy media processing

    SciTech Connect

    Chedgy, D.G.; Yu, S.; Addison, F.; Stanley, F.

    1996-12-31

    Pittston Coal Company recognized the potential economic benefit of improving process efficiency with increased capacity at it`s U.K. No. 1 Coal Preparation Plant. Accordingly, extensive research, both domestically and internationally, was conducted to select the appropriate technologies to achieve the desired circuit in the most cost effective manner while, at the same time, sacrificing neither structural integrity nor process performance. Large diameter heavy media cyclone technology was combined with highly efficient banana type screens and improved high intensity magnetic separators to create a coordinated process circuit that provided high efficiency at very high capacities in an economically attractive package.

  3. Free Energy and Heat Capacity

    SciTech Connect

    Kurata, Masaki; Devanathan, Ramaswami

    2015-10-13

    Free energy and heat capacity of actinide elements and compounds are important properties for the evaluation of the safety and reliable performance of nuclear fuel. They are essential inputs for models that describe complex phenomena that govern the behaviour of actinide compounds during nuclear fuel fabrication and irradiation. This chapter introduces various experimental methods to measure free energy and heat capacity to serve as inputs for models and to validate computer simulations. This is followed by a discussion of computer simulation of these properties, and recent simulations of thermophysical properties of nuclear fuel are briefly reviewed.

  4. Buffer Capacity: An Undergraduate Laboratory Experiment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Russo, Steven O.; Hanania, George I. H.

    1987-01-01

    Describes a quantitative experiment designed to demonstrate buffer action and the measurement of buffer capacity. Discusses how to make acetate buffers, determine their buffer capacity, plot the capacity/pH curve, and interpret the data obtained. (TW)

  5. Reconnaissance shallow seismic investigation of depth-to-bedrock and possible methane-bearing coalbeds, Galena, Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stephenson, William J.; Williams, Robert A.; Odum, Jack K.; Worley, David M.; Barker, Charles E.; Clark, Arthur C.; Clough, James G.

    2002-01-01

    A reconnaissance shallow seismic reflection/refraction investigation in and around the city of Galena, Alaska suggests that Tertiary and/or Cretaceous bedrock, and possible coalbeds within the Cretaceous, is at least as deep as 550 feet in the immediate vicinity of town. Rock could be deeper than 1000 feet under alternate interpretations. Reflections recorded in these data are believed to be from the sediment/bedrock interface. Analysis of these reflections and associated refractions indicates that this interface, interpreted at most of the six profile locations, has a high seismic velocity, possibly indicating non-sedimentary rock (e.g. volcanic or igneous).

  6. Short-Term Forecasting of Loads and Wind Power for Latvian Power System: Accuracy and Capacity of the Developed Tools

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Radziukynas, V.; Klementavičius, A.

    2016-04-01

    The paper analyses the performance results of the recently developed short-term forecasting suit for the Latvian power system. The system load and wind power are forecasted using ANN and ARIMA models, respectively, and the forecasting accuracy is evaluated in terms of errors, mean absolute errors and mean absolute percentage errors. The investigation of influence of additional input variables on load forecasting errors is performed. The interplay of hourly loads and wind power forecasting errors is also evaluated for the Latvian power system with historical loads (the year 2011) and planned wind power capacities (the year 2023).

  7. Pixel-wise absolute phase unwrapping using geometric constraints of structured light system.

    PubMed

    An, Yatong; Hyun, Jae-Sang; Zhang, Song

    2016-08-01

    This paper presents a method to unwrap phase pixel by pixel by solely using geometric constraints of the structured light system without requiring additional image acquisition or another camera. Specifically, an artificial absolute phase map, Φmin, at a given virtual depth plane z = zmin, is created from geometric constraints of the calibrated structured light system; the wrapped phase is pixel-by-pixel unwrapped by referring to Φmin. Since Φmin is defined in the projector space, the unwrapped phase obtained from this method is absolute for each pixel. Experimental results demonstrate the success of this proposed novel absolute phase unwrapping method. PMID:27505808

  8. Absolute value equations - what can we learn from their graphical representation?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stupel, Moshe; Ben-Chaim, David

    2014-08-01

    Understanding graphical representations of algebraic equations, particularly graphical representations of absolute value equations, significantly improves students' mathematical comprehension and ignites within them an appreciation of the beauty and aesthetics of mathematics. In this paper, we focus on absolute value equations of linear and quadratic expressions, by examining various cases, presenting different methods of solving them by graphical representation, exhibiting the advantage of using dynamic software such as GeoGebra in solving them, and illustrating some examples of interesting graphical solutions. We recommend that teachers take advantage of the rapid development in technology to help learners tangibly visualize the solutions of absolute value equations before proceeding to the analytical solutions.

  9. Methods to calibrate the absolute receive sensitivity of single-element, focused transducers.

    PubMed

    Rich, Kyle T; Mast, T Douglas

    2015-09-01

    Absolute pressure measurements of acoustic emissions by single-element, focused passive cavitation detectors would be facilitated by improved wideband receive calibration techniques. Here, calibration methods were developed to characterize the absolute, frequency-dependent receive sensitivity of a spherically focused, single-element transducer using pulse-echo and pitch-catch techniques. Validation of these calibration methods on a focused receiver were made by generating a pulse from a small diameter source at the focus of the transducer and comparing the absolute pressure measured by a calibrated hydrophone to that of the focused transducer using the receive sensitivities determined here. PMID:26428812

  10. Methods to calibrate the absolute receive sensitivity of single-element, focused transducers

    PubMed Central

    Rich, Kyle T.; Mast, T. Douglas

    2015-01-01

    Absolute pressure measurements of acoustic emissions by single-element, focused passive cavitation detectors would be facilitated by improved wideband receive calibration techniques. Here, calibration methods were developed to characterize the absolute, frequency-dependent receive sensitivity of a spherically focused, single-element transducer using pulse-echo and pitch-catch techniques. Validation of these calibration methods on a focused receiver were made by generating a pulse from a small diameter source at the focus of the transducer and comparing the absolute pressure measured by a calibrated hydrophone to that of the focused transducer using the receive sensitivities determined here. PMID:26428812

  11. The speed of light perturbation in absolute gravimeters from the viewpoint of ‘relativistic geometry’

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shao, Cheng-Gang; Tan, Yu-Jie; Li, Jia; Hu, Zhong-Kun

    2015-04-01

    In the past few years, the perturbation due to the finite speed of light was among the most inconsistent in corner-cube absolute gravimeters. For the relativistic treatment of the perturbation based on Lorentz transformation, the relation between Doppler shift in special relativity and time delay in classical domain is easily misunderstood, leading to spurious conclusions. To avoid these issues, we apply a ‘relativistic geometrical method’ based on the motion of photons to calculate the frequency shift in corner-cube absolute gravimeters, where the misunderstood relation has been corrected. Additionally, we find that the modern corner-cube absolute gravimeters cannot sense effects of the special relativity.

  12. Accurate determination of absolute carrier-envelope phase dependence using photo-ionization.

    PubMed

    Sayler, A M; Arbeiter, M; Fasold, S; Adolph, D; Möller, M; Hoff, D; Rathje, T; Fetić, B; Milošević, D B; Fennel, T; Paulus, G G

    2015-07-01

    The carrier-envelope phase (CEP) dependence of few-cycle above-threshold ionization (ATI) of Xe is calibrated for use as a reference measurement for determining and controlling the absolute CEP in other interactions. This is achieved by referencing the CEP-dependent ATI measurements of Xe to measurements of atomic H, which are in turn referenced to ab initio calculations for atomic H. This allows for the accurate determination of the absolute CEP dependence of Xe ATI, which enables relatively easy determination of the offset between the relative CEP measured and/or controlled by typical devices and the absolute CEP in the interaction. PMID:26125386

  13. Absolute thickness metrology with submicrometer accuracy using a low-coherence distance measuring interferometer.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Yang; Schmidt, Greg; Moore, Duncan T; Ellis, Jonathan D

    2015-09-01

    Absolute physical thickness across the sample aperture is critical in determining the index of a refraction profile from the optical path length profile for gradient index (GRIN) materials, which have a designed inhomogeneous refractive index. Motivated by this application, instrumentation was established to measure the absolute thickness of samples with nominally plane-parallel surfaces up to 50 mm thick. The current system is capable of measuring absolute thickness with 120 nm (1σ) repeatability and submicrometer expanded measurement uncertainty. Beside GRIN materials, this method is also capable of measuring other inhomogeneous and opaque materials. PMID:26368894

  14. Absolute calibration of space-resolving soft X-ray spectrograph for plasma diagnostics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoshikawa, M.; Okamoto, Y.; Kawamori, E.; Watanabe, Y.; Watabe, C.; Yamaguchi, N.; Tamano, T.

    2001-07-01

    A grazing incidence flat-field soft X-ray (20-350 Å) spectrograph was constructed and applied for impurity diagnostics in the GAMMA 10 fusion plasma. The spectrograph consisted of a limited height entrance slit, an aberration-corrected concave grating, a microchannel-plate intensified detector and an instant camera/a high speed solid state camera. An absolute calibration experiment for the SX spectrograph was performed at the Photon Factory in the High Energy Accelerator Research Organization with monitoring the incident synchrotron beam intensity by using an absolutely calibrated XUV silicon photodiode. From the results of absolute calibration of the spectrograph, the radiation loss from the plasma was obtained.

  15. Correction of NIM-3A absolute gravimeter for self-attraction effect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Chunjian; Xu, Jin-yi; Feng, Jin-yang; SU, Duo-wu; Wu, Shu-qing

    2015-02-01

    The mass of free-fall absolute gravimeter can produce vertical gravitational attraction to the free-falling test body during the measurement of acceleration due to gravity. The vertical gravitational attraction can cause an artificial deviation to the measured value of gravitational acceleration. This paper describes the operating principle of a free-fall absolute gravimeter and the method used to determine the reference height of a gravimeter. It also describes the physical structure of NIM-3A absolute gravimeter lately developed by National Institute of Metrology (China), and studies the correction of gravimeter for Self-attraction effect.

  16. Capacity Issue Looms for Vouchers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zehr, Mary Ann

    2011-01-01

    State-level momentum in support of vouchers and tax credits that help students go to private schools highlights what has been a largely theoretical issue: private school capacity to support voucher-financed enrollment. Academics say the national supply of seats in secular and religious private schools is sufficient to meet short-term demand from…

  17. AccessSTEM: Building Capacity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DO-IT, 2009

    2009-01-01

    A series of activities were undertaken to understand the underrepresentation of people with disabilities in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) careers and increase their participation in these fields. "AccessSTEM" collaborated with key stakeholders to conduct a "Capacity-Building Institute" ("CBI") in April 2009; share…

  18. Leadership Matters: Building Leadership Capacity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barkley, Steve; Bottoms, Gene; Feagin, Caro H.; Clark, Susan

    This guide is designed to offer strategies for building leadership capacity in schools and to assist school administrators in finding new ways to encourage and support teachers and students in their efforts to succeed. The guide answers four questions: (1) What do leaders do to create curriculum and instruction that push all students to higher…

  19. North American fertilizer capacity data

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-12-01

    This listing of producers and their fertilizer production capacities was compiled in October 1991 with the cooperation of the US and Canadian fertilizer industries. Yearly production and forecasts are given for 1987 through 1997. Fertilizers reported on include: ammonium sulfate, nitric acid, wet-process superphosphoric acid, normal superphosphate, elemental phosphorus, potassium sulfate, and sulfate of potash/magnesia.

  20. North American fertilizer capacity data

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-12-01

    This listing of producers and their fertilizer production capacities was compiled in October 1991 with the cooperation of the US and Canadian fertilizer industry. Fertilizers production is reported or forecasted for the years 1987 through 1997. The fertilizers reported on are: ammonia, ammonium nitrate, nitrogen solutions, urea, phosphate rock, wet-process phosphoric acid, ammonium phosphates, concentrated superphosphates, and potash.

  1. Correction due to the finite speed of light in absolute gravimeters Correction due to the finite speed of light in absolute gravimeters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nagornyi, V. D.; Zanimonskiy, Y. M.; Zanimonskiy, Y. Y.

    2011-06-01

    Equations (45) and (47) in our paper [1] in this issue have incorrect sign and should read \\tilde T_i=T_i+{b\\mp S_i\\over c},\\cr\\tilde T_i=T_i\\mp {S_i\\over c}. The error traces back to our formula (3), inherited from the paper [2]. According to the technical documentation [3, 4], the formula (3) is implemented by several commercially available instruments. An incorrect sign would cause a bias of about 20 µGal not known for these instruments, which probably indicates that the documentation incorrectly reflects the implemented measurement equation. Our attention to the error was drawn by the paper [5], also in this issue, where the sign is mentioned correctly. References [1] Nagornyi V D, Zanimonskiy Y M and Zanimonskiy Y Y 2011 Correction due to the finite speed of light in absolute gravimeters Metrologia 48 101-13 [2] Niebauer T M, Sasagawa G S, Faller J E, Hilt R and Klopping F 1995 A new generation of absolute gravimeters Metrologia 32 159-80 [3] Micro-g LaCoste, Inc. 2006 FG5 Absolute Gravimeter Users Manual [4] Micro-g LaCoste, Inc. 2007 g7 Users Manual [5] Niebauer T M, Billson R, Ellis B, Mason B, van Westrum D and Klopping F 2011 Simultaneous gravity and gradient measurements from a recoil-compensated absolute gravimeter Metrologia 48 154-63

  2. Absolute flatness testing of skip-flat interferometry by matrix analysis in polar coordinates.

    PubMed

    Han, Zhi-Gang; Yin, Lu; Chen, Lei; Zhu, Ri-Hong

    2016-03-20

    A new method utilizing matrix analysis in polar coordinates has been presented for absolute testing of skip-flat interferometry. The retrieval of the absolute profile mainly includes three steps: (1) transform the wavefront maps of the two cavity measurements into data in polar coordinates; (2) retrieve the profile of the reflective flat in polar coordinates by matrix analysis; and (3) transform the profile of the reflective flat back into data in Cartesian coordinates and retrieve the profile of the sample. Simulation of synthetic surface data has been provided, showing the capability of the approach to achieve an accuracy of the order of 0.01 nm RMS. The absolute profile can be retrieved by a set of closed mathematical formulas without polynomial fitting of wavefront maps or the iterative evaluation of an error function, making the new method more efficient for absolute testing.

  3. Absolute far-ultraviolet spectrophotometry of hot subluminous stars from Voyager

    SciTech Connect

    Holberg, J.B.; Ali, B.; Carone, T.E.; Polidan, R.S. NASA, Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD )

    1991-07-01

    Observations, obtained with the Voyager ultraviolet spectrometers, are presented of absolute fluxes for two well-known hot subluminous stars: BD + 28 deg 4211, an sdO, and G191 - B2B, a hot DA white dwarf. Complete absolute energy distributions for these two stars, from the Lyman limit at 912 A to 1 micron, are given. For BD + 28 deg 4211, a single power law closely represents the entire observed energy distribution. For G191 - B2B, a pure hydrogen model atmosphere provides an excellent match to the entire absolute energy distribution. Voyager absolute fluxes are discussed in relation to those reported from various sounding rocket experiments, including a recent rocket observation of BD + 28 deg 4211. 43 refs.

  4. Determination of the Absolute Stereochemistry of Secondary Alcohols: An Advanced Organic Chemistry Experiment for Undergraduate Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bandaranayake, Wickramasinghe M.

    1980-01-01

    Describes experiments which can be completed in five four-hour laboratory sessions, including two synthesis (alpha-phenylbutyric and alpha-phenylbutyric acid anhydride) and determining the absolute stereochemistry of secondary alcohols using the synthetic products. (JN)

  5. Absolute and convective instability of cylindrical Couette flow with axial and radial flows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martinand, Denis; Serre, Eric; Lueptow, Richard M.

    2009-10-01

    Imposing axial flow in the annulus and/or radial flow through the cylindrical walls in a Taylor-Couette system alters the stability of the flow. Theoretical methods and numerical simulations were used to determine the impact of imposed axial and radial flows, homogeneous in the axial direction, on the first transition of Taylor-Couette flow in the framework of convective and absolute instabilities. At low axial Reynolds numbers the convective instability is axisymmetric, but convective helical modes with an increasing number of helices having a helicity opposite that of the base flow dominate as the axial flow increases. The number of helices and the critical Taylor number are affected only slightly by the radial flow. The flow becomes absolutely unstable at higher Taylor numbers. Absolutely unstable axisymmetric modes occur for inward radial flows, while helical absolute instability modes having a helicity identical to that of the base flow occur at high enough axial Reynolds numbers for outward radial flow.

  6. On determining absolute entropy without quantum theory or the third law of thermodynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steane, Andrew M.

    2016-04-01

    We employ classical thermodynamics to gain information about absolute entropy, without recourse to statistical methods, quantum mechanics or the third law of thermodynamics. The Gibbs–Duhem equation yields various simple methods to determine the absolute entropy of a fluid. We also study the entropy of an ideal gas and the ionization of a plasma in thermal equilibrium. A single measurement of the degree of ionization can be used to determine an unknown constant in the entropy equation, and thus determine the absolute entropy of a gas. It follows from all these examples that the value of entropy at absolute zero temperature does not need to be assigned by postulate, but can be deduced empirically.

  7. MSTAR: an absolute metrology sensor with sub-micron accuracy for space-based applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Peters, Robert D.; Lay, Oliver P.; Dubovitsky, Serge; Burger, Johan P.; Jeganathan, Muthu

    2004-01-01

    The MSTAR sensor is a new system for measuring absolute distance, capable of resolving the integer cycle ambiguity of standard interferometers, and making it possible to measure distance with subnanometer accuracy.

  8. The Interaction of Spatial Visualization and General Reasoning Abilities with Instructional Treatment on Absolute Value Equations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eastman, Phillip M.; Salhab, Mohammed

    1978-01-01

    One group of elementary education majors received an algebraic instructional treatment of a unit on linear absolute value equations while another received a geometric treatment. The hypothesis of an aptitude-by-treatment interaction was statistically confirmed. (MN)

  9. 34 CFR 648.33 - What priorities and absolute preferences does the Secretary establish?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... area of national need and gives absolute preference to one or more of the general disciplines and sub-disciplines listed as priorities in the appendix to this part or the resulting interdisciplines. (b)...

  10. Absolute far-ultraviolet spectrophotometry of hot subluminous stars from Voyager

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holberg, J. B.; Ali, B.; Carone, T. E.; Polidan, R. S.

    1991-01-01

    Observations, obtained with the Voyager ultraviolet spectrometers, are presented of absolute fluxes for two well-known hot subluminous stars: BD + 28 deg 4211, an sdO, and G191 - B2B, a hot DA white dwarf. Complete absolute energy distributions for these two stars, from the Lyman limit at 912 A to 1 micron, are given. For BD + 28 deg 4211, a single power law closely represents the entire observed energy distribution. For G191 - B2B, a pure hydrogen model atmosphere provides an excellent match to the entire absolute energy distribution. Voyager absolute fluxes are discussed in relation to those reported from various sounding rocket experiments, including a recent rocket observation of BD + 28 deg 4211.

  11. Absolute stereostructures of chaetomugilins G and H produced by a marine-fish-derived Chaetomium species.

    PubMed

    Yamada, Takeshi; Yasuhide, Muroga; Shigeta, Hirohumi; Numata, Atsushi; Tanaka, Reiko

    2009-07-01

    Chaetomugilins G and H were isolated from a strain of Chaetomium globosum that was originally isolated from the marine fish, Mugil cephalus, and their absolute stereostructures were elucidated on the basis of spectroscopic analyses, including 1D and 2D NMR techniques, and chemical transformation. In addition, the absolute configuration of chaetoviridin C was established by derivatization from chaetomugilin A. These compounds exhibited a growth inhibitory activity against cultured P388, HL-60, L1210 and KB cells.

  12. Crystallization of an achiral cyclohexanone ethylene ketal in enantiomorphs and determination of the absolute structure.

    PubMed

    Graus, Sara; Tejedor, Rosa M; Uriel, Santiago; Serrano, José Luis; Alkorta, Ibon; Elguero, José

    2010-06-16

    The achiral 4-methoxy-4-(p-methoxyphenyl)-cyclohexanone ethylene ketal (1) resolves spontaneously. The crystal structure is solved in chiral spatial group P2(1). Because compound 1 is composed of only light atoms (C, H, O) it is not possible to determine its absolute structure configuration. An efficient procedure for the absolute structure configuration determination of flexible molecules containing only light atoms is proposed, based on the combination of X-ray diffraction, solid-state VCD, and DFT calculations.

  13. Remarks on entanglement assisted classical capacity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fan, Heng

    2003-06-01

    The property of the optimal signal ensembles of entanglement assisted channel capacity is studied. A relationship between entanglement assisted channel capacity and one-shot capacity of unassisted channel is obtained. The data processing inequalities, convexity and additivity of the entanglement assisted channel capacity are reformulated by simple methods.

  14. Determining Capacity within Systemic Educational Reform.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Century, Jeanne Rose

    The idea of "capacity" is particularly important in the reform of educational systems because the system can be both the initiator and the subject of change. In fact, the requirement for capacity is present at all levels of the system in systemic reform. In educational change, four types of capacity are generally considered: (1) human capacity;…

  15. High capacity carbon dioxide sorbent

    DOEpatents

    Dietz, Steven Dean; Alptekin, Gokhan; Jayaraman, Ambalavanan

    2015-09-01

    The present invention provides a sorbent for the removal of carbon dioxide from gas streams, comprising: a CO.sub.2 capacity of at least 9 weight percent when measured at 22.degree. C. and 1 atmosphere; an H.sub.2O capacity of at most 15 weight percent when measured at 25.degree. C. and 1 atmosphere; and an isosteric heat of adsorption of from 5 to 8.5 kilocalories per mole of CO.sub.2. The invention also provides a carbon sorbent in a powder, a granular or a pellet form for the removal of carbon dioxide from gas streams, comprising: a carbon content of at least 90 weight percent; a nitrogen content of at least 1 weight percent; an oxygen content of at most 3 weight percent; a BET surface area from 50 to 2600 m.sup.2/g; and a DFT micropore volume from 0.04 to 0.8 cc/g.

  16. Cardiac Regenerative Capacity and Mechanisms

    PubMed Central

    Kikuchi, Kazu; Poss, Kenneth D.

    2013-01-01

    The heart holds the monumental yet monotonous task of maintaining circulation. Although cardiac function is critical to other organs and to life itself, mammals are not equipped with significant natural capacity to replace heart muscle that has been lost by injury. This deficiency plays a role in leaving millions worldwide each year vulnerable to heart failure. By contrast, certain other vertebrate species like zebrafish are strikingly good at heart regeneration. A cellular and molecular understanding of endogenous regenerative mechanisms, combined with advances in methodology to transplant cells, together project a future in which cardiac muscle regeneration can be therapeutically stimulated in injured human hearts. This review will focus on what has been discovered recently about cardiac regenerative capacity and how natural mechanisms of heart regeneration in model systems are stimulated and maintained. PMID:23057748

  17. High capacity immobilized amine sorbents

    DOEpatents

    Gray, McMahan L.; Champagne, Kenneth J.; Soong, Yee; Filburn, Thomas

    2007-10-30

    A method is provided for making low-cost CO.sub.2 sorbents that can be used in large-scale gas-solid processes. The improved method entails treating an amine to increase the number of secondary amine groups and impregnating the amine in a porous solid support. The method increases the CO.sub.2 capture capacity and decreases the cost of utilizing an amine-enriched solid sorbent in CO.sub.2 capture systems.

  18. Development of Cognitive Mapping Capacities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mohr, Donald; And Others

    The development of children's capacity to induce spatial relations between locations in a space was investigated in this study. The sample consisted of 60 children, 20 in each of three age groups: 3-4, 5-6, and 7-8 years of age. The children were trained to move one hand from a home base to each of three target positions. The positions were…

  19. Health reform requires policy capacity

    PubMed Central

    Forest, Pierre-Gerlier; Denis, Jean-Louis; Brown, Lawrence D.; Helms, David

    2015-01-01

    Among the many reasons that may limit the adoption of promising reform ideas, policy capacity is the least recognized. The concept itself is not widely understood. Although policy capacity is concerned with the gathering of information and the formulation of options for public action in the initial phases of policy consultation and development, it also touches on all stages of the policy process, from the strategic identification of a problem to the actual development of the policy, its formal adoption, its implementation, and even further, its evaluation and continuation or modification. Expertise in the form of policy advice is already widely available in and to public administrations, to well-established professional organizations like medical societies and, of course, to large private-sector organizations with commercial or financial interests in the health sector. We need more health actors to join the fray and move from their traditional position of advocacy to a fuller commitment to the development of policy capacity, with all that it entails in terms of leadership and social responsibility. PMID:25905476

  20. Heat capacity of coal chars

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, W.Y.

    1982-01-01

    The selected starting materials were, a North Dakota lignite, an Illinois No. 6 bituminous and a Virginia coking coal. The carbon content of these coals ranged from 59 to 75 wt% (mineral matter included). Half of each of the received coal sample was demineralized using a standard procedure. Chars were prepared from the received and demineralized pulverized coals by pyrolysis. Heating rate of 5/sup 0/C/minute was employed for the pyrolysis under dry nitrogen gas atmosphere. The pyrolysis temperatures were 700, 900 and 1100/sup 0/C for periods of 0.1, 1 and 24. The char samples were characterized by chemical composition analysis, x-ray diffraction and porosimetry. Heat capacity data were collected over 75 to 300/sup 0/K temperature range using an adiabatic calorimeter. The heat capacity of these samples increases, with increasing temperature and moisture content, and its behavior and order of magnitude are similar to that of carbon when compared on a moisture free basis. Due to the uncertainties of the chemical forms of the mineral matter and the water phase below room temperature, all the heat capacity data are analyzed on a dry mineral matter free basis.