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Sample records for absolute methane-bearing capacity

  1. Increasing Capacity: Practice Effects in Absolute Identification

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dodds, Pennie; Donkin, Christopher; Brown, Scott D.; Heathcote, Andrew

    2011-01-01

    In most of the long history of the study of absolute identification--since Miller's (1956) seminal article--a severe limit on performance has been observed, and this limit has resisted improvement even by extensive practice. In a startling result, Rouder, Morey, Cowan, and Pfaltz (2004) found substantially improved performance with practice in the…

  2. Heat capacity and absolute entropy of iron phosphides

    SciTech Connect

    Dobrokhotova, Z.V.; Zaitsev, A.I.; Litvina, A.D.

    1994-09-01

    There is little or no data on the thermodynamic properties of iron phosphides despite their importance for several areas of science and technology. The information available is of a qualitative character and is based on assessments of the heat capacity and absolute entropy. In the present work, we measured the heat capacity over the temperature range of 113-873 K using a differential scanning calorimeter (DSC) and calculated the absolute entropy.

  3. Determination of the specific heat capacity of a graphite sample using absolute and differential methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Picard, Susanne; Burns, David T.; Roger, Philippe

    2007-10-01

    An experimental assembly has been constructed to measure the specific heat capacity of macroscopic graphite samples at room temperature. The same batch of graphite constitutes the core of a graphite calorimeter, which is currently being realized to measure the absorbed dose due to ionizing radiation. Two different experimental procedures have been applied. In the first method the specific heat capacity of graphite was measured directly, where its value is corrected for the influence of impurities. The second method, to our knowledge not previously applied to macroscopic samples, is based on a series of differential measurements where no correction for added impurities is needed. By its nature, the second method reduces systematic effects. The specific heat capacity of a particular graphite sample is determined to be 706.9 J K-1 kg-1 with a combined relative standard uncertainty of 9 parts in 104 at 295.15 K. The specific heat capacity of cyanoacrylate has also been determined.

  4. Procoagulant and platelet-derived microvesicle absolute counts determined by flow cytometry correlates with a measurement of their functional capacity

    PubMed Central

    Ayers, Lisa; Harrison, Paul; Kohler, Malcolm; Ferry, Berne

    2014-01-01

    Background Flow cytometry is the most commonly used technology to measure microvesicles (MVs). Despite reported limitations of this technique, MV levels obtained using conventional flow cytometry have yielded many clinically relevant findings, such as associations with disease severity and ability to predict clinical outcomes. This study aims to determine if MV enumeration by flow cytometry correlates with a measurement of their functional capacity, as this may explain how flow cytometry generates clinically relevant results. Methods One hundred samples from healthy individuals and patients with obstructive sleep apnoea were analysed by conventional flow cytometry (FACSCalibur) and by three functional MV assays: Zymuphen MP-activity in which data were given as phosphatidylserine equivalent, STA® Phospholipid Procoag Assay expressed as clotting time and Endogenous Thrombin Potential (ETP) reflecting in vitro thrombin generation. Correlations were determined by Spearman correlation. Results Absolute counts of lactadherin+ procoagulant MVs generated by flow cytometry weakly correlated with the results obtained from the Zymuphen MP-activity (r=0.5370, p<0.0001); correlated with ETP (r=0.7444, p<0.0001); negatively correlated with STA® Phospholipid Procoag Assay clotting time (−0.7872, p<0.0001), reflecting a positive correlation between clotting activity and flow cytometry. Levels of Annexin V+ procoagulant and platelet-derived MVs were also associated with functional assays. Absolute counts of MVs derived from other cell types were not correlated with the functional results. Conclusions Quantitative results of procoagulant and platelet-derived MVs from conventional flow cytometry are associated with the functional capability of the MVs, as defined by three functional MV assays. Flow cytometry is a valuable technique for the quantification of MVs from different cellular origins; however, a combination of several analytical techniques may give the most comprehensive

  5. STATISTICAL COMPARISON OF THE EFFECT OF RELATIVE AND ABSOLUTE HUMIDITY ON FIXED-BED CARBON ADSORPTION CAPACITY

    EPA Science Inventory

    The paper describes statistical methods used to evaluate data for toluene (at several typical operating temperatures and humidity levels) and to determine which measure of humidity (relative or absolute) is more important in determining carbon adsorption efficiency. The water con...

  6. Harnessing immunomagnetic separation and quantum dot-based quantification capacities for the enumeration of absolute levels of biomarker

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Hoyoung; Hwang, Mintai P.; Lee, Jong-Wook; Choi, Jonghoon; Hyi Lee, Kwan

    2013-07-01

    The field of biomarker quantification has experienced a growth parallel to the discovery of new materials. In this paper, we propose an innovative system for the separation and quantification of biomarkers using a simple magnetic bead (MB)-quantum dot (QD) sandwich assay. The basis of the system lies in the interaction between histidine residues on protein G and Ni ions on QDs, and the use of imidazole to selectively detach QDs bound to target biomarkers, in effect enumerating the absolute number of biomarker units. We used C-reactive protein (CRP) as a proof-of-concept and demonstrated a detection sensitivity of 82.5 fmoles in 50 μl of sample volume, a commonly used analytical volume (e.g. ELISA). Although CRP was used as a model to conduct this study, the sensitivity and simplicity of this detachable system make it a viable approach in the quantification of other target analytes.

  7. Easy Absolute Values? Absolutely

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, Sharon E.; Mittag, Kathleen Cage

    2015-01-01

    The authors teach a problem-solving course for preservice middle-grades education majors that includes concepts dealing with absolute-value computations, equations, and inequalities. Many of these students like mathematics and plan to teach it, so they are adept at symbolic manipulations. Getting them to think differently about a concept that they…

  8. Methane-bearing fluid inclusions as evidence of the collisional nature of high-alumina granites, northern Sikhote-Alin, Russian Far East

    SciTech Connect

    Berdnikov, N.V.; Karsakov, L.P.

    1999-07-01

    The Khungariisk high-alumina S-type granites (northern Sikhote-Alin fold system, Russian Far East) have been formed as a result of anatectic melting during collision of the Anyuy sialic block with the continental margin in the Early Cretaceous. Methane-rich fluid inclusions are characteristic of these granites. The CH{sub 4}-H{sub 2}O fluid composition is explained by the release of water and methane from the sedimentary units residing on the oceanic plate, as it was subducted beneath sialic block. This fluid seeped into the heated and deformed metamorphic rocks of the overlying block and initiated partial fusion of the granites. A comparison of the new data with the results of fluid-inclusion studies of high-alumina collisional granites from the Pamir Mountains and Japan reveals similarities. Thus, methane-bearing fluid is probably one of the general features of this granite type, reflecting its anatectic origin.

  9. Towards Biogeochemical Modeling of Anaerobic Oxidation of Methane: Characterization of Microbial Communities in Methane-bearing North American Continental Margin Sediments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Graw, M. F.; Solomon, E. A.; Chrisler, W.; Krause, S.; Treude, T.; Ruppel, C. D.; Pohlman, J.; Colwell, F. S.

    2015-12-01

    Methane advecting through continental margin sediments may enter the water column and potentially contribute to ocean acidification and increase atmospheric methane concentrations. Anaerobic oxidation of methane (AOM), mediated by syntrophic consortia of anaerobic methanotrophic archaea and sulfate-reducing bacteria (ANME-SRB), consumes nearly all dissolved methane in methane-bearing sediments before it reaches the sediment-water interface. Despite the significant role ANME-SRB play in carbon cycling, our knowledge of these organisms and their surrounding microbial communities is limited. Our objective is to develop a metabolic model of ANME-SRB within methane-bearing sediments and to couple this to a geochemical reaction-transport model for these margins. As a first step towards this goal, we undertook fluorescent microscopic imaging, 16S rRNA gene deep-sequencing, and shotgun metagenomic sequencing of sediments from the US Pacific (Washington) and northern Atlantic margins where ANME-SRB are present. A successful Illumina MiSeq sequencing run yielded 106,257 bacterial and 857,834 archaeal 16S rRNA gene sequences from 12 communities from the Washington Margin using both universal prokaryotic and archaeal-specific primer sets. Fluorescent microscopy confirmed the presence of cells of the ANME-2c lineage in the sequenced communities. Microbial community characterization was coupled with measurements of sediment physical and geochemical properties and, for samples from the US Atlantic margin, 14C-based measurements of AOM rates and 35S-based measurements of sulfate reduction rates. These findings have the potential to increase understanding of ANME-SRB, their surrounding microbial communities, and their role in carbon cycling within continental margins. In addition, they pave the way for future efforts at developing a metabolic model of ANME-SRB and coupling it to geochemical models of the US Washington and Atlantic margins.

  10. The discovery and characterization of methane-bearing brown dwarfs and the definition of the T spectral class

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burgasser, Adam Jonathan

    2002-04-01

    I present the discovery of 18 T dwarfs, brown dwarfs exhibiting CH 4 absorption analogous to Gliese 229B, identified in the Two Micron All Sky Survey. Follow-up spectroscopic observations reveal the presence of strong H2O and CH4 bands in these objects, as well as broadened Na I and K I absorption in the red optical; fine lines of K I, Cs I, and Rb I; and FeH absorption at 9896 Å. Three objects are analyzed in detail; the widely-separated companion brown dwarf Gliese 570D, the coolest known brown dwarf with Teff = 810 ± 45 K; the active T dwarf 2MASS 1237+6526, whose unique and steady Hα emission may be the result of Roche-lobe overflow accretion from a closely-separated companion; and 2MASS 0559-1404, the brightest T dwarf currently known, which appears to be overluminous but unresolved in HST images. The variation in spectral features amongst these objects and those identified by the Sloan Digital Sky Survey have been used to derive a near-infrared spectral classification scheme, tied to the observed strengths of H2O and CH4 bands, color ratios, and K-band spectral morphology. The grid of subclasses segregates the currently known population into seven distinct groups, ranging from T1 V to T8 V. I show that the possible presence of CH 4 in the L7 V DENIS 0205-1159AB argues for few subtypes between the latest known L dwarfs and the earliest T dwarfs. One peculiar object, 2MASS 0937+2931, has a highly suppressed K-band peak, likely due to increased H 2 opacity in a high-gravity or low-metallicity atmosphere. Examination of absolute brightness and effective temperature across the L/T transition indicates rapid evolution of spectral features, possibly linked to heterogenous cloud coverage as condensibles rain out of the photosphere. Finally, I have used the T dwarf search samples to constrain the substellar field mass function. Through rigorous analysis of selection biases and Monte Carlo simulations, I show that my results are consistent with a power-law mass

  11. Experimentally-determined carbon isotope fractionation in and between methane-bearing melt and fluid to upper mantle temperatures and pressures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mysen, Bjorn

    2016-07-01

    The behavior of melts and fluids is at the core of understanding formation and evolution of the Earth. To advance our understanding of their role, high-pressure/-temperature experiments were employed to determine melt and fluid structure together with carbon isotope partitioning within and between (CH4 +H2O +H2)-saturated aluminosilicate melts and (CH4 +H2O +H2)-fluids. The samples were characterized with vibrational spectroscopy while at temperatures and pressures from 475° to 850 °C and 92 to 1158 MPa, respectively. The solution equilibrium is 2CH4 +Qn = 2 CH3- +H2O +Q n + 1 where the superscript, n, in the Qn-notation describes silicate species where n denotes the number of bridging oxygen. The solution equilibrium affects the carbon isotope fractionation factor between melt and fluid, αmelt/fluid. Moreover, it is significantly temperature-dependent. The αmelt/fluid < 1 with temperatures less than about 1050 °C, and is greater than 1 at higher temperature. Methane-bearing melts can exist in the upper mantle at fO2 ≤fO2 (MW) (Mysen et al., 2011). Reduced (Csbnd H)-species in present-day upper mantle magma, therefore, are likely. During melting and crystallization in this environment, the δ13C of melts increases with temperature at a rate of ∼ 0.6 ‰ /°C. From the simple-system data presented here, at T ≤ 1050°C, melt in equilibrium with a peridotite-(CH4 +H2O +H2)-bearing mantle source will be isotopically lighter than fluid. At higher temperatures, melts will be isotopically heavier. Degassing at T ≤ 1050°C will shift δ13C of degassed magma to more positive values, whereas degassing at T ≥ 1050°C, will reduce the δ13C of the degassed magma.

  12. Absolute Zero

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Donnelly, Russell J.; Sheibley, D.; Belloni, M.; Stamper-Kurn, D.; Vinen, W. F.

    2006-12-01

    Absolute Zero is a two hour PBS special attempting to bring to the general public some of the advances made in 400 years of thermodynamics. It is based on the book “Absolute Zero and the Conquest of Cold” by Tom Shachtman. Absolute Zero will call long-overdue attention to the remarkable strides that have been made in low-temperature physics, a field that has produced 27 Nobel Prizes. It will explore the ongoing interplay between science and technology through historical examples including refrigerators, ice machines, frozen foods, liquid oxygen and nitrogen as well as much colder fluids such as liquid hydrogen and liquid helium. A website has been established to promote the series: www.absolutezerocampaign.org. It contains information on the series, aimed primarily at students at the middle school level. There is a wealth of material here and we hope interested teachers will draw their student’s attention to this website and its substantial contents, which have been carefully vetted for accuracy.

  13. Absolute Summ

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Phillips, Alfred, Jr.

    Summ means the entirety of the multiverse. It seems clear, from the inflation theories of A. Guth and others, that the creation of many universes is plausible. We argue that Absolute cosmological ideas, not unlike those of I. Newton, may be consistent with dynamic multiverse creations. As suggested in W. Heisenberg's uncertainty principle, and with the Anthropic Principle defended by S. Hawking, et al., human consciousness, buttressed by findings of neuroscience, may have to be considered in our models. Predictability, as A. Einstein realized with Invariants and General Relativity, may be required for new ideas to be part of physics. We present here a two postulate model geared to an Absolute Summ. The seedbed of this work is part of Akhnaton's philosophy (see S. Freud, Moses and Monotheism). Most important, however, is that the structure of human consciousness, manifest in Kenya's Rift Valley 200,000 years ago as Homo sapiens, who were the culmination of the six million year co-creation process of Hominins and Nature in Africa, allows us to do the physics that we do. .

  14. Realization of high capacity transmission in fiber optic communication systems using Absolute Polar Duty Cycle Division Multiplexing (AP-DCDM) technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malekmohammadi, Amin; Mahdiraji, Ghafour Amouzad; Abas, Ahmad Fauzi; Abdullah, Mohamad Khazani; Mokhtar, Makhfudzah; Rasid, Mohd Fadlee A.

    2009-08-01

    An electrical multiplexing technique, namely Absolute Polar Duty Cycle Division Multiplexing (AP-DCDM) is reported for high-speed optical fiber communication systems. It is demonstrated that 40 Gb/s (4 × 10 Gb/s) AP-DCDM system shows a clear advantage over conventional 40 Gb/s RZ-OOK with 50% duty cycle in terms of dispersion tolerance and spectral efficiency. At 40 Gb/s its tolerance to chromatic dispersion (CD) is 124 ps/nm and 194 ps/nm for the worst and the best user, respectively. These values are higher than that of 40 Gb/s RZ-OOK, which is around 100 ps/nm. The spectral efficiency, receiver sensitivity and OSNR for different number of channels are discussed. Comparison against other modulation formats namely duobinary, Non-Return-to-Zero (NRZ)-OOK and RZ-Differential Quadrature Phase-Shift Keying (RZ-DQPSK) at 40 Gb/s are made. It is shown that AP-DCDM has the best receiver sensitivity (-32 dBm) and better CD tolerance (±200 ps/nm) than NRZ-OOK and RZ-DQPSK. In reference to duobinary, AP-DCDM has better receiver sensitivity but worse dispersion tolerance.

  15. Teaching Absolute Value Meaningfully

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wade, Angela

    2012-01-01

    What is the meaning of absolute value? And why do teachers teach students how to solve absolute value equations? Absolute value is a concept introduced in first-year algebra and then reinforced in later courses. Various authors have suggested instructional methods for teaching absolute value to high school students (Wei 2005; Stallings-Roberts…

  16. Eosinophil count - absolute

    MedlinePlus

    Eosinophils; Absolute eosinophil count ... the white blood cell count to give the absolute eosinophil count. ... than 500 cells per microliter (cells/mcL). Normal value ranges may vary slightly among different laboratories. Talk ...

  17. Absolute nuclear material assay

    DOEpatents

    Prasad, Manoj K.; Snyderman, Neal J.; Rowland, Mark S.

    2012-05-15

    A method of absolute nuclear material assay of an unknown source comprising counting neutrons from the unknown source and providing an absolute nuclear material assay utilizing a model to optimally compare to the measured count distributions. In one embodiment, the step of providing an absolute nuclear material assay comprises utilizing a random sampling of analytically computed fission chain distributions to generate a continuous time-evolving sequence of event-counts by spreading the fission chain distribution in time.

  18. Absolute nuclear material assay

    DOEpatents

    Prasad, Manoj K.; Snyderman, Neal J.; Rowland, Mark S.

    2010-07-13

    A method of absolute nuclear material assay of an unknown source comprising counting neutrons from the unknown source and providing an absolute nuclear material assay utilizing a model to optimally compare to the measured count distributions. In one embodiment, the step of providing an absolute nuclear material assay comprises utilizing a random sampling of analytically computed fission chain distributions to generate a continuous time-evolving sequence of event-counts by spreading the fission chain distribution in time.

  19. Absolute biological needs.

    PubMed

    McLeod, Stephen

    2014-07-01

    Absolute needs (as against instrumental needs) are independent of the ends, goals and purposes of personal agents. Against the view that the only needs are instrumental needs, David Wiggins and Garrett Thomson have defended absolute needs on the grounds that the verb 'need' has instrumental and absolute senses. While remaining neutral about it, this article does not adopt that approach. Instead, it suggests that there are absolute biological needs. The absolute nature of these needs is defended by appeal to: their objectivity (as against mind-dependence); the universality of the phenomenon of needing across the plant and animal kingdoms; the impossibility that biological needs depend wholly upon the exercise of the abilities characteristic of personal agency; the contention that the possession of biological needs is prior to the possession of the abilities characteristic of personal agency. Finally, three philosophical usages of 'normative' are distinguished. On two of these, to describe a phenomenon or claim as 'normative' is to describe it as value-dependent. A description of a phenomenon or claim as 'normative' in the third sense does not entail such value-dependency, though it leaves open the possibility that value depends upon the phenomenon or upon the truth of the claim. It is argued that while survival needs (or claims about them) may well be normative in this third sense, they are normative in neither of the first two. Thus, the idea of absolute need is not inherently normative in either of the first two senses. PMID:23586876

  20. The absolute path command

    2012-05-11

    The ap command traveres all symlinks in a given file, directory, or executable name to identify the final absolute path. It can print just the final path, each intermediate link along with the symlink chan, and the permissions and ownership of each directory component in the final path. It has functionality similar to "which", except that it shows the final path instead of the first path. It is also similar to "pwd", but it canmore » provide the absolute path to a relative directory from the current working directory.« less

  1. The absolute path command

    SciTech Connect

    Moody, A.

    2012-05-11

    The ap command traveres all symlinks in a given file, directory, or executable name to identify the final absolute path. It can print just the final path, each intermediate link along with the symlink chan, and the permissions and ownership of each directory component in the final path. It has functionality similar to "which", except that it shows the final path instead of the first path. It is also similar to "pwd", but it can provide the absolute path to a relative directory from the current working directory.

  2. Electronic Absolute Cartesian Autocollimator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leviton, Douglas B.

    2006-01-01

    An electronic absolute Cartesian autocollimator performs the same basic optical function as does a conventional all-optical or a conventional electronic autocollimator but differs in the nature of its optical target and the manner in which the position of the image of the target is measured. The term absolute in the name of this apparatus reflects the nature of the position measurement, which, unlike in a conventional electronic autocollimator, is based absolutely on the position of the image rather than on an assumed proportionality between the position and the levels of processed analog electronic signals. The term Cartesian in the name of this apparatus reflects the nature of its optical target. Figure 1 depicts the electronic functional blocks of an electronic absolute Cartesian autocollimator along with its basic optical layout, which is the same as that of a conventional autocollimator. Referring first to the optical layout and functions only, this or any autocollimator is used to measure the compound angular deviation of a flat datum mirror with respect to the optical axis of the autocollimator itself. The optical components include an illuminated target, a beam splitter, an objective or collimating lens, and a viewer or detector (described in more detail below) at a viewing plane. The target and the viewing planes are focal planes of the lens. Target light reflected by the datum mirror is imaged on the viewing plane at unit magnification by the collimating lens. If the normal to the datum mirror is parallel to the optical axis of the autocollimator, then the target image is centered on the viewing plane. Any angular deviation of the normal from the optical axis manifests itself as a lateral displacement of the target image from the center. The magnitude of the displacement is proportional to the focal length and to the magnitude (assumed to be small) of the angular deviation. The direction of the displacement is perpendicular to the axis about which the

  3. ABSOLUTE POLARIMETRY AT RHIC.

    SciTech Connect

    OKADA; BRAVAR, A.; BUNCE, G.; GILL, R.; HUANG, H.; MAKDISI, Y.; NASS, A.; WOOD, J.; ZELENSKI, Z.; ET AL.

    2007-09-10

    Precise and absolute beam polarization measurements are critical for the RHIC spin physics program. Because all experimental spin-dependent results are normalized by beam polarization, the normalization uncertainty contributes directly to final physics uncertainties. We aimed to perform the beam polarization measurement to an accuracy Of {Delta}P{sub beam}/P{sub beam} < 5%. The absolute polarimeter consists of Polarized Atomic Hydrogen Gas Jet Target and left-right pairs of silicon strip detectors and was installed in the RHIC-ring in 2004. This system features proton-proton elastic scattering in the Coulomb nuclear interference (CNI) region. Precise measurements of the analyzing power A{sub N} of this process has allowed us to achieve {Delta}P{sub beam}/P{sub beam} = 4.2% in 2005 for the first long spin-physics run. In this report, we describe the entire set up and performance of the system. The procedure of beam polarization measurement and analysis results from 2004-2005 are described. Physics topics of AN in the CNI region (four-momentum transfer squared 0.001 < -t < 0.032 (GeV/c){sup 2}) are also discussed. We point out the current issues and expected optimum accuracy in 2006 and the future.

  4. Implants as absolute anchorage.

    PubMed

    Rungcharassaeng, Kitichai; Kan, Joseph Y K; Caruso, Joseph M

    2005-11-01

    Anchorage control is essential for successful orthodontic treatment. Each tooth has its own anchorage potential as well as propensity to move when force is applied. When teeth are used as anchorage, the untoward movements of the anchoring units may result in the prolonged treatment time, and unpredictable or less-than-ideal outcome. To maximize tooth-related anchorage, techniques such as differential torque, placing roots into the cortex of the bone, the use of various intraoral devices and/or extraoral appliances have been implemented. Implants, as they are in direct contact with bone, do not possess a periodontal ligament. As a result, they do not move when orthodontic/orthopedic force is applied, and therefore can be used as "absolute anchorage." This article describes different types of implants that have been used as orthodontic anchorage. Their clinical applications and limitations are also discussed. PMID:16463910

  5. Absolute Equilibrium Entropy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shebalin, John V.

    1997-01-01

    The entropy associated with absolute equilibrium ensemble theories of ideal, homogeneous, fluid and magneto-fluid turbulence is discussed and the three-dimensional fluid case is examined in detail. A sigma-function is defined, whose minimum value with respect to global parameters is the entropy. A comparison is made between the use of global functions sigma and phase functions H (associated with the development of various H-theorems of ideal turbulence). It is shown that the two approaches are complimentary though conceptually different: H-theorems show that an isolated system tends to equilibrium while sigma-functions allow the demonstration that entropy never decreases when two previously isolated systems are combined. This provides a more complete picture of entropy in the statistical mechanics of ideal fluids.

  6. Absolute neutrino mass measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wolf, Joachim

    2011-10-01

    The neutrino mass plays an important role in particle physics, astrophysics and cosmology. In recent years the detection of neutrino flavour oscillations proved that neutrinos carry mass. However, oscillation experiments are only sensitive to the mass-squared difference of the mass eigenvalues. In contrast to cosmological observations and neutrino-less double beta decay (0v2β) searches, single β-decay experiments provide a direct, model-independent way to determine the absolute neutrino mass by measuring the energy spectrum of decay electrons at the endpoint region with high accuracy. Currently the best kinematic upper limits on the neutrino mass of 2.2eV have been set by two experiments in Mainz and Troitsk, using tritium as beta emitter. The next generation tritium β-experiment KATRIN is currently under construction in Karlsruhe/Germany by an international collaboration. KATRIN intends to improve the sensitivity by one order of magnitude to 0.2eV. The investigation of a second isotope (137Rh) is being pursued by the international MARE collaboration using micro-calorimeters to measure the beta spectrum. The technology needed to reach 0.2eV sensitivity is still in the R&D phase. This paper reviews the present status of neutrino-mass measurements with cosmological data, 0v2β decay and single β-decay.

  7. Absolute neutrino mass measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Wolf, Joachim

    2011-10-06

    The neutrino mass plays an important role in particle physics, astrophysics and cosmology. In recent years the detection of neutrino flavour oscillations proved that neutrinos carry mass. However, oscillation experiments are only sensitive to the mass-squared difference of the mass eigenvalues. In contrast to cosmological observations and neutrino-less double beta decay (0v2{beta}) searches, single {beta}-decay experiments provide a direct, model-independent way to determine the absolute neutrino mass by measuring the energy spectrum of decay electrons at the endpoint region with high accuracy.Currently the best kinematic upper limits on the neutrino mass of 2.2eV have been set by two experiments in Mainz and Troitsk, using tritium as beta emitter. The next generation tritium {beta}-experiment KATRIN is currently under construction in Karlsruhe/Germany by an international collaboration. KATRIN intends to improve the sensitivity by one order of magnitude to 0.2eV. The investigation of a second isotope ({sup 137}Rh) is being pursued by the international MARE collaboration using micro-calorimeters to measure the beta spectrum. The technology needed to reach 0.2eV sensitivity is still in the R and D phase. This paper reviews the present status of neutrino-mass measurements with cosmological data, 0v2{beta} decay and single {beta}-decay.

  8. Absolute Identification by Relative Judgment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stewart, Neil; Brown, Gordon D. A.; Chater, Nick

    2005-01-01

    In unidimensional absolute identification tasks, participants identify stimuli that vary along a single dimension. Performance is surprisingly poor compared with discrimination of the same stimuli. Existing models assume that identification is achieved using long-term representations of absolute magnitudes. The authors propose an alternative…

  9. Be Resolute about Absolute Value

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kidd, Margaret L.

    2007-01-01

    This article explores how conceptualization of absolute value can start long before it is introduced. The manner in which absolute value is introduced to students in middle school has far-reaching consequences for their future mathematical understanding. It begins to lay the foundation for students' understanding of algebra, which can change…

  10. Absolute transition probabilities of phosphorus.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, M. H.; Roig, R. A.; Bengtson, R. D.

    1971-01-01

    Use of a gas-driven shock tube to measure the absolute strengths of 21 P I lines and 126 P II lines (from 3300 to 6900 A). Accuracy for prominent, isolated neutral and ionic lines is estimated to be 28 to 40% and 18 to 30%, respectively. The data and the corresponding theoretical predictions are examined for conformity with the sum rules.-

  11. Optomechanics for absolute rotation detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davuluri, Sankar

    2016-07-01

    In this article, we present an application of optomechanical cavity for the absolute rotation detection. The optomechanical cavity is arranged in a Michelson interferometer in such a way that the classical centrifugal force due to rotation changes the length of the optomechanical cavity. The change in the cavity length induces a shift in the frequency of the cavity mode. The phase shift corresponding to the frequency shift in the cavity mode is measured at the interferometer output to estimate the angular velocity of absolute rotation. We derived an analytic expression to estimate the minimum detectable rotation rate in our scheme for a given optomechanical cavity. Temperature dependence of the rotation detection sensitivity is studied.

  12. The Absolute Spectrum Polarimeter (ASP)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kogut, A. J.

    2010-01-01

    The Absolute Spectrum Polarimeter (ASP) is an Explorer-class mission to map the absolute intensity and linear polarization of the cosmic microwave background and diffuse astrophysical foregrounds over the full sky from 30 GHz to 5 THz. The principal science goal is the detection and characterization of linear polarization from an inflationary epoch in the early universe, with tensor-to-scalar ratio r much greater than 1O(raised to the power of { -3}) and Compton distortion y < 10 (raised to the power of{-6}). We describe the ASP instrument and mission architecture needed to detect the signature of an inflationary epoch in the early universe using only 4 semiconductor bolometers.

  13. Absolute calibration of optical flats

    DOEpatents

    Sommargren, Gary E.

    2005-04-05

    The invention uses the phase shifting diffraction interferometer (PSDI) to provide a true point-by-point measurement of absolute flatness over the surface of optical flats. Beams exiting the fiber optics in a PSDI have perfect spherical wavefronts. The measurement beam is reflected from the optical flat and passed through an auxiliary optic to then be combined with the reference beam on a CCD. The combined beams include phase errors due to both the optic under test and the auxiliary optic. Standard phase extraction algorithms are used to calculate this combined phase error. The optical flat is then removed from the system and the measurement fiber is moved to recombine the two beams. The newly combined beams include only the phase errors due to the auxiliary optic. When the second phase measurement is subtracted from the first phase measurement, the absolute phase error of the optical flat is obtained.

  14. The AFGL absolute gravity program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hammond, J. A.; Iliff, R. L.

    1978-01-01

    A brief discussion of the AFGL's (Air Force Geophysics Laboratory) program in absolute gravity is presented. Support of outside work and in-house studies relating to gravity instrumentation are discussed. A description of the current transportable system is included and the latest results are presented. These results show good agreement with measurements at the AFGL site by an Italian system. The accuracy obtained by the transportable apparatus is better than 0.1 microns sq sec 10 microgal and agreement with previous measurements is within the combined uncertainties of the measurements.

  15. Hydraulic and Seismic Properties of Methane-Bearing Coal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kneafsey, T. J.; Gritto, R.; Tomutsa, L.

    2002-12-01

    In the last 10 years, coalbed methane (CBM) has transformed from being a coal mine hazard to a low-risk source of long term dry natural gas. The benefit of this clean burning natural gas as an energy source in conjunction with vast amounts stored in coal basins has led to the development of an industry that produces CBM. Reduction of carbon emissions to the atmosphere through carbon dioxide injection into coal has added another benefit to the production of CMB, as carbon dioxide may be used to desorb methane from coal seams. In order to successfully produce CBM, more information is needed on the migration of methane through fractures and cleats and on the replacement of methane by carbon dioxide in the coal seam. Laboratory experiments are underway to address these questions. Tests on core samples are being performed under in-situ pressure to gain insights on processes occurring in CBM extraction and carbon dioxide sequestration. A variety of techniques are being used including measuring physical properties, electrical resistivity, and saturation and phase location using x-ray computed tomography. Simultaneously measurements of seismic waves are performed including P- and S-wave velocities as well as amplitudes of body waves as a function of methane and carbon dioxide concentration in coal. The results can be used to design an experiment to monitor time-lapse changes and thus the production of gas from a coal seam during methane production.

  16. Cosmology with negative absolute temperatures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vieira, J. P. P.; Byrnes, Christian T.; Lewis, Antony

    2016-08-01

    Negative absolute temperatures (NAT) are an exotic thermodynamical consequence of quantum physics which has been known since the 1950's (having been achieved in the lab on a number of occasions). Recently, the work of Braun et al. [1] has rekindled interest in negative temperatures and hinted at a possibility of using NAT systems in the lab as dark energy analogues. This paper goes one step further, looking into the cosmological consequences of the existence of a NAT component in the Universe. NAT-dominated expanding Universes experience a borderline phantom expansion (w < ‑1) with no Big Rip, and their contracting counterparts are forced to bounce after the energy density becomes sufficiently large. Both scenarios might be used to solve horizon and flatness problems analogously to standard inflation and bouncing cosmologies. We discuss the difficulties in obtaining and ending a NAT-dominated epoch, and possible ways of obtaining density perturbations with an acceptable spectrum.

  17. Improving HST Pointing & Absolute Astrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lallo, Matthew; Nelan, E.; Kimmer, E.; Cox, C.; Casertano, S.

    2007-05-01

    Accurate absolute astrometry is becoming increasingly important in an era of multi-mission archives and virtual observatories. Hubble Space Telescope's (HST's) Guidestar Catalog II (GSC2) has reduced coordinate error to around 0.25 arcsecond, a factor 2 or more compared with GSC1. With this reduced catalog error, special attention must be given to calibrate and maintain the Fine Guidance Sensors (FGSs) and Science Instruments (SIs) alignments in HST to a level well below this in order to ensure that the accuracy of science product's astrometry keywords and target positioning are limited only by the catalog errors. After HST Servicing Mission 4, such calibrations' improvement in "blind" pointing accuracy will allow for more efficient COS acquisitions. Multiple SIs and FGSs each have their own footprints in the spatially shared HST focal plane. It is the small changes over time in primarily the whole-body positions & orientations of these instruments & guiders relative to one another that is addressed by this work. We describe the HST Cycle 15 program CAL/OTA 11021 which, along with future variants of it, determines and maintains positions and orientations of the SIs and FGSs to better than 50 milli- arcseconds and 0.04 to 0.004 degrees of roll, putting errors associated with the alignment sufficiently below GSC2 errors. We present recent alignment results and assess their errors, illustrate trends, and describe where and how the observer sees benefit from these calibrations when using HST.

  18. Absolute oral bioavailability of ciprofloxacin.

    PubMed

    Drusano, G L; Standiford, H C; Plaisance, K; Forrest, A; Leslie, J; Caldwell, J

    1986-09-01

    We evaluated the absolute bioavailability of ciprofloxacin, a new quinoline carboxylic acid, in 12 healthy male volunteers. Doses of 200 mg were given to each of the volunteers in a randomized, crossover manner 1 week apart orally and as a 10-min intravenous infusion. Half-lives (mean +/- standard deviation) for the intravenous and oral administration arms were 4.2 +/- 0.77 and 4.11 +/- 0.74 h, respectively. The serum clearance rate averaged 28.5 +/- 4.7 liters/h per 1.73 m2 for the intravenous administration arm. The renal clearance rate accounted for approximately 60% of the corresponding serum clearance rate and was 16.9 +/- 3.0 liters/h per 1.73 m2 for the intravenous arm and 17.0 +/- 2.86 liters/h per 1.73 m2 for the oral administration arm. Absorption was rapid, with peak concentrations in serum occurring at 0.71 +/- 0.15 h. Bioavailability, defined as the ratio of the area under the curve from 0 h to infinity for the oral to the intravenous dose, was 69 +/- 7%. We conclude that ciprofloxacin is rapidly absorbed and reliably bioavailable in these healthy volunteers. Further studies with ciprofloxacin should be undertaken in target patient populations under actual clinical circumstances. PMID:3777908

  19. Absolute Instability in Coupled-Cavity TWTs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hung, D. M. H.; Rittersdorf, I. M.; Zhang, Peng; Lau, Y. Y.; Simon, D. H.; Gilgenbach, R. M.; Chernin, D.; Antonsen, T. M., Jr.

    2014-10-01

    This paper will present results of our analysis of absolute instability in a coupled-cavity traveling wave tube (TWT). The structure mode at the lower and upper band edges are respectively approximated by a hyperbola in the (omega, k) plane. When the Briggs-Bers criterion is applied, a threshold current for onset of absolute instability is observed at the upper band edge, but not the lower band edge. The nonexistence of absolute instability at the lower band edge is mathematically similar to the nonexistence of absolute instability that we recently demonstrated for a dielectric TWT. The existence of absolute instability at the upper band edge is mathematically similar to the existence of absolute instability in a gyroton traveling wave amplifier. These interesting observations will be discussed, and the practical implications will be explored. This work was supported by AFOSR, ONR, and L-3 Communications Electron Devices.

  20. Absolute negative mobility of interacting Brownian particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ou, Ya-li; Hu, Cai-tian; Wu, Jian-chun; Ai, Bao-quan

    2015-12-01

    Transport of interacting Brownian particles in a periodic potential is investigated in the presence of an ac force and a dc force. From Brownian dynamic simulations, we find that both the interaction between particles and the thermal fluctuations play key roles in the absolute negative mobility (the particle noisily moves backwards against a small constant bias). When no the interaction acts, there is only one region where the absolute negative mobility occurs. In the presence of the interaction, the absolute negative mobility may appear in multiple regions. The weak interaction can be helpful for the absolute negative mobility, while the strong interaction has a destructive impact on it.

  1. Inequalities, Absolute Value, and Logical Connectives.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parish, Charles R.

    1992-01-01

    Presents an approach to the concept of absolute value that alleviates students' problems with the traditional definition and the use of logical connectives in solving related problems. Uses a model that maps numbers from a horizontal number line to a vertical ray originating from the origin. Provides examples solving absolute value equations and…

  2. Absolute optical metrology : nanometers to kilometers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dubovitsky, Serge; Lay, O. P.; Peters, R. D.; Liebe, C. C.

    2005-01-01

    We provide and overview of the developments in the field of high-accuracy absolute optical metrology with emphasis on space-based applications. Specific work on the Modulation Sideband Technology for Absolute Ranging (MSTAR) sensor is described along with novel applications of the sensor.

  3. Monolithically integrated absolute frequency comb laser system

    DOEpatents

    Wanke, Michael C.

    2016-07-12

    Rather than down-convert optical frequencies, a QCL laser system directly generates a THz frequency comb in a compact monolithically integrated chip that can be locked to an absolute frequency without the need of a frequency-comb synthesizer. The monolithic, absolute frequency comb can provide a THz frequency reference and tool for high-resolution broad band spectroscopy.

  4. Introducing the Mean Absolute Deviation "Effect" Size

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gorard, Stephen

    2015-01-01

    This paper revisits the use of effect sizes in the analysis of experimental and similar results, and reminds readers of the relative advantages of the mean absolute deviation as a measure of variation, as opposed to the more complex standard deviation. The mean absolute deviation is easier to use and understand, and more tolerant of extreme…

  5. Investigating Absolute Value: A Real World Application

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kidd, Margaret; Pagni, David

    2009-01-01

    Making connections between various representations is important in mathematics. In this article, the authors discuss the numeric, algebraic, and graphical representations of sums of absolute values of linear functions. The initial explanations are accessible to all students who have experience graphing and who understand that absolute value simply…

  6. Absolute Income, Relative Income, and Happiness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ball, Richard; Chernova, Kateryna

    2008-01-01

    This paper uses data from the World Values Survey to investigate how an individual's self-reported happiness is related to (i) the level of her income in absolute terms, and (ii) the level of her income relative to other people in her country. The main findings are that (i) both absolute and relative income are positively and significantly…

  7. Absolute instability of the Gaussian wake profile

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hultgren, Lennart S.; Aggarwal, Arun K.

    1987-01-01

    Linear parallel-flow stability theory has been used to investigate the effect of viscosity on the local absolute instability of a family of wake profiles with a Gaussian velocity distribution. The type of local instability, i.e., convective or absolute, is determined by the location of a branch-point singularity with zero group velocity of the complex dispersion relation for the instability waves. The effects of viscosity were found to be weak for values of the wake Reynolds number, based on the center-line velocity defect and the wake half-width, larger than about 400. Absolute instability occurs only for sufficiently large values of the center-line wake defect. The critical value of this parameter increases with decreasing wake Reynolds number, thereby indicating a shrinking region of absolute instability with decreasing wake Reynolds number. If backflow is not allowed, absolute instability does not occur for wake Reynolds numbers smaller than about 38.

  8. Absolute optical instruments without spherical symmetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tyc, Tomáš; Dao, H. L.; Danner, Aaron J.

    2015-11-01

    Until now, the known set of absolute optical instruments has been limited to those containing high levels of symmetry. Here, we demonstrate a method of mathematically constructing refractive index profiles that result in asymmetric absolute optical instruments. The method is based on the analogy between geometrical optics and classical mechanics and employs Lagrangians that separate in Cartesian coordinates. In addition, our method can be used to construct the index profiles of most previously known absolute optical instruments, as well as infinitely many different ones.

  9. Absolute magnitudes of trans-neptunian objects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duffard, R.; Alvarez-candal, A.; Pinilla-Alonso, N.; Ortiz, J. L.; Morales, N.; Santos-Sanz, P.; Thirouin, A.

    2015-10-01

    Accurate measurements of diameters of trans- Neptunian objects are extremely complicated to obtain. Radiomatric techniques applied to thermal measurements can provide good results, but precise absolute magnitudes are needed to constrain diameters and albedos. Our objective is to measure accurate absolute magnitudes for a sample of trans- Neptunian objects, many of which have been observed, and modelled, by the "TNOs are cool" team, one of Herschel Space Observatory key projects grantes with ~ 400 hours of observing time. We observed 56 objects in filters V and R, if possible. These data, along with data available in the literature, was used to obtain phase curves and to measure absolute magnitudes by assuming a linear trend of the phase curves and considering magnitude variability due to rotational light-curve. In total we obtained 234 new magnitudes for the 56 objects, 6 of them with no reported previous measurements. Including the data from the literature we report a total of 109 absolute magnitudes.

  10. A New Gimmick for Assigning Absolute Configuration.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ayorinde, F. O.

    1983-01-01

    A five-step procedure is provided to help students in making the assignment absolute configuration less bothersome. Examples for both single (2-butanol) and multi-chiral carbon (3-chloro-2-butanol) molecules are included. (JN)

  11. Karst Water System Investigated by Absolute Gravimetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Quinif, Y.; Meus, P.; van Camp, M.; Kaufmann, O.; van Ruymbeke, M.; Vandiepenbeeck, M.; Camelbeeck, T.

    2006-12-01

    The highly anisotropic and heterogeneous hydrogeological characteristics of karst aquifers are difficult to characterize and present challenges for modeling of storage capacities. Little is known about the surface and groundwater interconnection, about the connection between the porous formations and the draining cave and conduits, and about the variability of groundwater volume within the system. Usually, an aquifer is considered as a black box, where water fluxes are monitored as input and output. However, water inflow and outflow are highly variable and cannot be measured directly. A recent project, begun in 2006 sought to constrain the water budget in a Belgian karst aquifer and to assess the porosity and water dynamics, combining absolute gravity (AG) measurements and piezometric levels around the Rochefort cave. The advantage of gravity measurements is that they integrate all the subsystems in the karst system. This is not the case with traditional geophysical tools like boring or monitoring wells, which are soundings affected by their near environment and its heterogeneity. The investigated cave results from the meander cutoff system of the Lomme River. The main inputs are swallow holes of the river crossing the limestone massif. The river is canalized and the karst system is partly disconnected from the hydraulic system. In February and March 2006, when the river spilled over its dyke and sank into the most important swallow hole, this resulted in dramatic and nearly instantaneous increases in the piezometric levels in the cave, reaching up to 13 meters. Meanwhile, gravity increased by 50 and 90 nms-2 in February and March, respectively. A first conclusion is that during these sudden floods, the pores and fine fissures were poorly connected with the enlarged fractures, cave, and conduits. With a rise of 13 meters in the water level and a 5% porosity, a gravity change of 250 nms-2 should have been expected. This moderate gravity variation suggests either a

  12. Jasminum flexile flower absolute from India--a detailed comparison with three other jasmine absolutes.

    PubMed

    Braun, Norbert A; Kohlenberg, Birgit; Sim, Sherina; Meier, Manfred; Hammerschmidt, Franz-Josef

    2009-09-01

    Jasminum flexile flower absolute from the south of India and the corresponding vacuum headspace (VHS) sample of the absolute were analyzed using GC and GC-MS. Three other commercially available Indian jasmine absolutes from the species: J. sambac, J. officinale subsp. grandiflorum, and J. auriculatum and the respective VHS samples were used for comparison purposes. One hundred and twenty-one compounds were characterized in J. flexile flower absolute, with methyl linolate, benzyl salicylate, benzyl benzoate, (2E,6E)-farnesol, and benzyl acetate as the main constituents. A detailed olfactory evaluation was also performed. PMID:19831037

  13. Universal Cosmic Absolute and Modern Science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kostro, Ludwik

    The official Sciences, especially all natural sciences, respect in their researches the principle of methodic naturalism i.e. they consider all phenomena as entirely natural and therefore in their scientific explanations they do never adduce or cite supernatural entities and forces. The purpose of this paper is to show that Modern Science has its own self-existent, self-acting, and self-sufficient Natural All-in Being or Omni-Being i.e. the entire Nature as a Whole that justifies the scientific methodic naturalism. Since this Natural All-in Being is one and only It should be considered as the own scientifically justified Natural Absolute of Science and should be called, in my opinion, the Universal Cosmic Absolute of Modern Science. It will be also shown that the Universal Cosmic Absolute is ontologically enormously stratified and is in its ultimate i.e. in its most fundamental stratum trans-reistic and trans-personal. It means that in its basic stratum. It is neither a Thing or a Person although It contains in Itself all things and persons with all other sentient and conscious individuals as well, On the turn of the 20th century the Science has begun to look for a theory of everything, for a final theory, for a master theory. In my opinion the natural Universal Cosmic Absolute will constitute in such a theory the radical all penetrating Ultimate Basic Reality and will substitute step by step the traditional supernatural personal Absolute.

  14. Absolute isotopic abundances of TI in meteorites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Niederer, F. R.; Papanastassiou, D. A.; Wasserburg, G. J.

    1985-03-01

    The absolute isotope abundance of Ti has been determined in Ca-Al-rich inclusions from the Allende and Leoville meteorites and in samples of whole meteorites. The absolute Ti isotope abundances differ by a significant mass dependent isotope fractionation transformation from the previously reported abundances, which were normalized for fractionation using 46Ti/48Ti. Therefore, the absolute compositions define distinct nucleosynthetic components from those previously identified or reflect the existence of significant mass dependent isotope fractionation in nature. The authors provide a general formalism for determining the possible isotope compositions of the exotic Ti from the measured composition, for different values of isotope fractionation in nature and for different mixing ratios of the exotic and normal components.

  15. Molecular iodine absolute frequencies. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Sansonetti, C.J.

    1990-06-25

    Fifty specified lines of {sup 127}I{sub 2} were studied by Doppler-free frequency modulation spectroscopy. For each line the classification of the molecular transition was determined, hyperfine components were identified, and one well-resolved component was selected for precise determination of its absolute frequency. In 3 cases, a nearby alternate line was selected for measurement because no well-resolved component was found for the specified line. Absolute frequency determinations were made with an estimated uncertainty of 1.1 MHz by locking a dye laser to the selected hyperfine component and measuring its wave number with a high-precision Fabry-Perot wavemeter. For each line results of the absolute measurement, the line classification, and a Doppler-free spectrum are given.

  16. Stimulus probability effects in absolute identification.

    PubMed

    Kent, Christopher; Lamberts, Koen

    2016-05-01

    This study investigated the effect of stimulus presentation probability on accuracy and response times in an absolute identification task. Three schedules of presentation were used to investigate the interaction between presentation probability and stimulus position within the set. Data from individual participants indicated strong effects of presentation probability on both proportion correct and response times. The effects were moderated by the ubiquitous stimulus position effect. The accuracy and response time data were predicted by an exemplar-based model of perceptual cognition (Kent & Lamberts, 2005). The bow in discriminability was also attenuated when presentation probability for middle items was relatively high, an effect that will constrain future model development. The study provides evidence for item-specific learning in absolute identification. Implications for other theories of absolute identification are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:26478959

  17. Absolute calibration in vivo measurement systems

    SciTech Connect

    Kruchten, D.A.; Hickman, D.P.

    1991-02-01

    Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) is currently investigating a new method for obtaining absolute calibration factors for radiation measurement systems used to measure internally deposited radionuclides in vivo. Absolute calibration of in vivo measurement systems will eliminate the need to generate a series of human surrogate structures (i.e., phantoms) for calibrating in vivo measurement systems. The absolute calibration of in vivo measurement systems utilizes magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to define physiological structure, size, and composition. The MRI image provides a digitized representation of the physiological structure, which allows for any mathematical distribution of radionuclides within the body. Using Monte Carlo transport codes, the emission spectrum from the body is predicted. The in vivo measurement equipment is calibrated using the Monte Carlo code and adjusting for the intrinsic properties of the detection system. The calibration factors are verified using measurements of existing phantoms and previously obtained measurements of human volunteers. 8 refs.

  18. Precise Measurement of the Absolute Fluorescence Yield

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ave, M.; Bohacova, M.; Daumiller, K.; Di Carlo, P.; di Giulio, C.; San Luis, P. Facal; Gonzales, D.; Hojvat, C.; Hörandel, J. R.; Hrabovsky, M.; Iarlori, M.; Keilhauer, B.; Klages, H.; Kleifges, M.; Kuehn, F.; Monasor, M.; Nozka, L.; Palatka, M.; Petrera, S.; Privitera, P.; Ridky, J.; Rizi, V.; D'Orfeuil, B. Rouille; Salamida, F.; Schovanek, P.; Smida, R.; Spinka, H.; Ulrich, A.; Verzi, V.; Williams, C.

    2011-09-01

    We present preliminary results of the absolute yield of fluorescence emission in atmospheric gases. Measurements were performed at the Fermilab Test Beam Facility with a variety of beam particles and gases. Absolute calibration of the fluorescence yield to 5% level was achieved by comparison with two known light sources--the Cherenkov light emitted by the beam particles, and a calibrated nitrogen laser. The uncertainty of the energy scale of current Ultra-High Energy Cosmic Rays experiments will be significantly improved by the AIRFLY measurement.

  19. Absolutely relative or relatively absolute: violations of value invariance in human decision making.

    PubMed

    Teodorescu, Andrei R; Moran, Rani; Usher, Marius

    2016-02-01

    Making decisions based on relative rather than absolute information processing is tied to choice optimality via the accumulation of evidence differences and to canonical neural processing via accumulation of evidence ratios. These theoretical frameworks predict invariance of decision latencies to absolute intensities that maintain differences and ratios, respectively. While information about the absolute values of the choice alternatives is not necessary for choosing the best alternative, it may nevertheless hold valuable information about the context of the decision. To test the sensitivity of human decision making to absolute values, we manipulated the intensities of brightness stimuli pairs while preserving either their differences or their ratios. Although asked to choose the brighter alternative relative to the other, participants responded faster to higher absolute values. Thus, our results provide empirical evidence for human sensitivity to task irrelevant absolute values indicating a hard-wired mechanism that precedes executive control. Computational investigations of several modelling architectures reveal two alternative accounts for this phenomenon, which combine absolute and relative processing. One account involves accumulation of differences with activation dependent processing noise and the other emerges from accumulation of absolute values subject to the temporal dynamics of lateral inhibition. The potential adaptive role of such choice mechanisms is discussed. PMID:26022836

  20. The Relationship Between Age and Information Processing Capacity and Age and Channel Capacity of Adults.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carpenter, William Lester

    This study sought to determine if there is a change in information processing and channel capacity as the human organism grows older, and if this relationship is altered with a change in stimulus complexity and dimensionality of the stimulus presented. With the human organism considered as a communication system, the use of absolute judgments to…

  1. Absolute partial photoionization cross sections of ozone.

    SciTech Connect

    Berkowitz, J.; Chemistry

    2008-04-01

    Despite the current concerns about ozone, absolute partial photoionization cross sections for this molecule in the vacuum ultraviolet (valence) region have been unavailable. By eclectic re-evaluation of old/new data and plausible assumptions, such cross sections have been assembled to fill this void.

  2. Solving Absolute Value Equations Algebraically and Geometrically

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shiyuan, Wei

    2005-01-01

    The way in which students can improve their comprehension by understanding the geometrical meaning of algebraic equations or solving algebraic equation geometrically is described. Students can experiment with the conditions of the absolute value equation presented, for an interesting way to form an overall understanding of the concept.

  3. Teaching Absolute Value Inequalities to Mature Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sierpinska, Anna; Bobos, Georgeana; Pruncut, Andreea

    2011-01-01

    This paper gives an account of a teaching experiment on absolute value inequalities, whose aim was to identify characteristics of an approach that would realize the potential of the topic to develop theoretical thinking in students enrolled in prerequisite mathematics courses at a large, urban North American university. The potential is…

  4. On Relative and Absolute Conviction in Mathematics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weber, Keith; Mejia-Ramos, Juan Pablo

    2015-01-01

    Conviction is a central construct in mathematics education research on justification and proof. In this paper, we claim that it is important to distinguish between absolute conviction and relative conviction. We argue that researchers in mathematics education frequently have not done so and this has lead to researchers making unwarranted claims…

  5. Absolute Points for Multiple Assignment Problems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adlakha, V.; Kowalski, K.

    2006-01-01

    An algorithm is presented to solve multiple assignment problems in which a cost is incurred only when an assignment is made at a given cell. The proposed method recursively searches for single/group absolute points to identify cells that must be loaded in any optimal solution. Unlike other methods, the first solution is the optimal solution. The…

  6. Nonequilibrium equalities in absolutely irreversible processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murashita, Yuto; Funo, Ken; Ueda, Masahito

    2015-03-01

    Nonequilibrium equalities have attracted considerable attention in the context of statistical mechanics and information thermodynamics. Integral nonequilibrium equalities reveal an ensemble property of the entropy production σ as = 1 . Although nonequilibrium equalities apply to rather general nonequilibrium situations, they break down in absolutely irreversible processes, where the forward-path probability vanishes and the entropy production diverges. We identify the mathematical origins of this inapplicability as the singularity of probability measure. As a result, we generalize conventional integral nonequilibrium equalities to absolutely irreversible processes as = 1 -λS , where λS is the probability of the singular part defined based on Lebesgue's decomposition theorem. The acquired equality contains two physical quantities related to irreversibility: σ characterizing ordinary irreversibility and λS describing absolute irreversibility. An inequality derived from the obtained equality demonstrates the absolute irreversibility leads to the fundamental lower bound on the entropy production. We demonstrate the validity of the obtained equality for a simple model.

  7. Stimulus Probability Effects in Absolute Identification

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kent, Christopher; Lamberts, Koen

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated the effect of stimulus presentation probability on accuracy and response times in an absolute identification task. Three schedules of presentation were used to investigate the interaction between presentation probability and stimulus position within the set. Data from individual participants indicated strong effects of…

  8. Precision absolute positional measurement of laser beams.

    PubMed

    Fitzsimons, Ewan D; Bogenstahl, Johanna; Hough, James; Killow, Christian J; Perreur-Lloyd, Michael; Robertson, David I; Ward, Henry

    2013-04-20

    We describe an instrument which, coupled with a suitable coordinate measuring machine, facilitates the absolute measurement within the machine frame of the propagation direction of a millimeter-scale laser beam to an accuracy of around ±4 μm in position and ±20 μrad in angle. PMID:23669658

  9. Combined Use of Absolute and Differential Seismic Arrival Time Data to Improve Absolute Event Location

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Myers, S.; Johannesson, G.

    2012-12-01

    Arrival time measurements based on waveform cross correlation are becoming more common as advanced signal processing methods are applied to seismic data archives and real-time data streams. Waveform correlation can precisely measure the time difference between the arrival of two phases, and differential time data can be used to constrain relative location of events. Absolute locations are needed for many applications, which generally requires the use of absolute time data. Current methods for measuring absolute time data are approximately two orders of magnitude less precise than differential time measurements. To exploit the strengths of both absolute and differential time data, we extend our multiple-event location method Bayesloc, which previously used absolute time data only, to include the use of differential time measurements that are based on waveform cross correlation. Fundamentally, Bayesloc is a formulation of the joint probability over all parameters comprising the multiple event location system. The Markov-Chain Monte Carlo method is used to sample from the joint probability distribution given arrival data sets. The differential time component of Bayesloc includes scaling a stochastic estimate of differential time measurement precision based the waveform correlation coefficient for each datum. For a regional-distance synthetic data set with absolute and differential time measurement error of 0.25 seconds and 0.01 second, respectively, epicenter location accuracy is improved from and average of 1.05 km when solely absolute time data are used to 0.28 km when absolute and differential time data are used jointly (73% improvement). The improvement in absolute location accuracy is the result of conditionally limiting absolute location probability regions based on the precise relative position with respect to neighboring events. Bayesloc estimates of data precision are found to be accurate for the synthetic test, with absolute and differential time measurement

  10. Absolute and relative dosimetry for ELIMED

    SciTech Connect

    Cirrone, G. A. P.; Schillaci, F.; Scuderi, V.; Cuttone, G.; Candiano, G.; Musumarra, A.; Pisciotta, P.; Romano, F.; Carpinelli, M.; Presti, D. Lo; Raffaele, L.; Tramontana, A.; Cirio, R.; Sacchi, R.; Monaco, V.; Marchetto, F.; Giordanengo, S.

    2013-07-26

    The definition of detectors, methods and procedures for the absolute and relative dosimetry of laser-driven proton beams is a crucial step toward the clinical use of this new kind of beams. Hence, one of the ELIMED task, will be the definition of procedures aiming to obtain an absolute dose measure at the end of the transport beamline with an accuracy as close as possible to the one required for clinical applications (i.e. of the order of 5% or less). Relative dosimetry procedures must be established, as well: they are necessary in order to determine and verify the beam dose distributions and to monitor the beam fluence and the energetic spectra during irradiations. Radiochromic films, CR39, Faraday Cup, Secondary Emission Monitor (SEM) and transmission ionization chamber will be considered, designed and studied in order to perform a fully dosimetric characterization of the ELIMED proton beam.

  11. Probing absolute spin polarization at the nanoscale.

    PubMed

    Eltschka, Matthias; Jäck, Berthold; Assig, Maximilian; Kondrashov, Oleg V; Skvortsov, Mikhail A; Etzkorn, Markus; Ast, Christian R; Kern, Klaus

    2014-12-10

    Probing absolute values of spin polarization at the nanoscale offers insight into the fundamental mechanisms of spin-dependent transport. Employing the Zeeman splitting in superconducting tips (Meservey-Tedrow-Fulde effect), we introduce a novel spin-polarized scanning tunneling microscopy that combines the probing capability of the absolute values of spin polarization with precise control at the atomic scale. We utilize our novel approach to measure the locally resolved spin polarization of magnetic Co nanoislands on Cu(111). We find that the spin polarization is enhanced by 65% when increasing the width of the tunnel barrier by only 2.3 Å due to the different decay of the electron orbitals into vacuum. PMID:25423049

  12. Absolute-magnitude distributions of supernovae

    SciTech Connect

    Richardson, Dean; Wright, John; Jenkins III, Robert L.; Maddox, Larry

    2014-05-01

    The absolute-magnitude distributions of seven supernova (SN) types are presented. The data used here were primarily taken from the Asiago Supernova Catalogue, but were supplemented with additional data. We accounted for both foreground and host-galaxy extinction. A bootstrap method is used to correct the samples for Malmquist bias. Separately, we generate volume-limited samples, restricted to events within 100 Mpc. We find that the superluminous events (M{sub B} < –21) make up only about 0.1% of all SNe in the bias-corrected sample. The subluminous events (M{sub B} > –15) make up about 3%. The normal Ia distribution was the brightest with a mean absolute blue magnitude of –19.25. The IIP distribution was the dimmest at –16.75.

  13. Absolute radiometry and the solar constant

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Willson, R. C.

    1974-01-01

    A series of active cavity radiometers (ACRs) are described which have been developed as standard detectors for the accurate measurement of irradiance in absolute units. It is noted that the ACR is an electrical substitution calorimeter, is designed for automatic remote operation in any environment, and can make irradiance measurements in the range from low-level IR fluxes up to 30 solar constants with small absolute uncertainty. The instrument operates in a differential mode by chopping the radiant flux to be measured at a slow rate, and irradiance is determined from two electrical power measurements together with the instrumental constant. Results are reported for measurements of the solar constant with two types of ACRs. The more accurate measurement yielded a value of 136.6 plus or minus 0.7 mW/sq cm (1.958 plus or minus 0.010 cal/sq cm per min).

  14. Asteroid absolute magnitudes and slope parameters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tedesco, Edward F.

    1991-01-01

    A new listing of absolute magnitudes (H) and slope parameters (G) has been created and published in the Minor Planet Circulars; this same listing will appear in the 1992 Ephemerides of Minor Planets. Unlike previous listings, the values of the current list were derived from fits of data at the V band. All observations were reduced in the same fashion using, where appropriate, a single basis default value of 0.15 for the slope parameter. Distances and phase angles were computed for each observation. The data for 113 asteroids was of sufficiently high quality to permit derivation of their H and G. These improved absolute magnitudes and slope parameters will be used to deduce the most reliable bias-corrected asteroid size-frequency distribution yet made.

  15. Absolute calibration of TFTR helium proportional counters

    SciTech Connect

    Strachan, J.D.; Diesso, M.; Jassby, D.; Johnson, L.; McCauley, S.; Munsat, T.; Roquemore, A.L.; Barnes, C.W. |; Loughlin, M. |

    1995-06-01

    The TFTR helium proportional counters are located in the central five (5) channels of the TFTR multichannel neutron collimator. These detectors were absolutely calibrated using a 14 MeV neutron generator positioned at the horizontal midplane of the TFTR vacuum vessel. The neutron generator position was scanned in centimeter steps to determine the collimator aperture width to 14 MeV neutrons and the absolute sensitivity of each channel. Neutron profiles were measured for TFTR plasmas with time resolution between 5 msec and 50 msec depending upon count rates. The He detectors were used to measure the burnup of 1 MeV tritons in deuterium plasmas, the transport of tritium in trace tritium experiments, and the residual tritium levels in plasmas following 50:50 DT experiments.

  16. Absolute enantioselective separation: optical activity ex machina.

    PubMed

    Bielski, Roman; Tencer, Michal

    2005-11-01

    The paper describes methodology of using three independent macroscopic factors affecting molecular orientation to accomplish separation of a racemic mixture without the presence of any other chiral compounds, i. e., absolute enantioselective separation (AES) which is an extension of a concept of applying these factors to absolute asymmetric synthesis. The three factors may be applied simultaneously or, if their effects can be retained, consecutively. The resulting three mutually orthogonal or near orthogonal directors constitute a true chiral influence and their scalar triple product is the measure of the chirality of the system. AES can be executed in a chromatography-like microfluidic process in the presence of an electric field. It may be carried out on a chemically modified flat surface, a monolithic polymer column made of a mesoporous material, each having imparted directional properties. Separation parameters were estimated for these media and possible implications for the natural homochirality are discussed. PMID:16342798

  17. An absolute measure for a key currency

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oya, Shunsuke; Aihara, Kazuyuki; Hirata, Yoshito

    It is generally considered that the US dollar and the euro are the key currencies in the world and in Europe, respectively. However, there is no absolute general measure for a key currency. Here, we investigate the 24-hour periodicity of foreign exchange markets using a recurrence plot, and define an absolute measure for a key currency based on the strength of the periodicity. Moreover, we analyze the time evolution of this measure. The results show that the credibility of the US dollar has not decreased significantly since the Lehman shock, when the Lehman Brothers bankrupted and influenced the economic markets, and has increased even relatively better than that of the euro and that of the Japanese yen.

  18. From Hubble's NGSL to Absolute Fluxes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heap, Sara R.; Lindler, Don

    2012-01-01

    Hubble's Next Generation Spectral Library (NGSL) consists of R-l000 spectra of 374 stars of assorted temperature, gravity, and metallicity. Each spectrum covers the wavelength range, 0.18-1.00 microns. The library can be viewed and/or downloaded from the website, http://archive.stsci.edu/prepds/stisngsll. Stars in the NGSL are now being used as absolute flux standards at ground-based observatories. However, the uncertainty in the absolute flux is about 2%, which does not meet the requirements of dark-energy surveys. We are therefore developing an observing procedure that should yield fluxes with uncertainties less than 1 % and will take part in an HST proposal to observe up to 15 stars using this new procedure.

  19. Metallic Magnetic Calorimeters for Absolute Activity Measurement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Loidl, M.; Leblanc, E.; Rodrigues, M.; Bouchard, J.; Censier, B.; Branger, T.; Lacour, D.

    2008-05-01

    We present a prototype of metallic magnetic calorimeters that we are developing for absolute activity measurements of low energy emitting radionuclides. We give a detailed description of the realization of the prototype, containing an 55Fe source inside the detector absorber. We present the analysis of first data taken with this detector and compare the result of activity measurement with liquid scintillation counting. We also propose some ways for reducing the uncertainty on the activity determination with this new technique.

  20. Absolute photoionization cross sections of atomic oxygen

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Samson, J. A. R.; Pareek, P. N.

    1985-01-01

    The absolute values of photoionization cross sections of atomic oxygen were measured from the ionization threshold to 120 A. An auto-ionizing resonance belonging to the 2S2P4(4P)3P(3Do, 3So) transition was observed at 479.43 A and another line at 389.97 A. The experimental data is in excellent agreement with rigorous close-coupling calculations that include electron correlations in both the initial and final states.

  1. Absolute photoionization cross sections of atomic oxygen

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Samson, J. A. R.; Pareek, P. N.

    1982-01-01

    The absolute values of photoionization cross sections of atomic oxygen were measured from the ionization threshold to 120 A. An auto-ionizing resonance belonging to the 2S2P4(4P)3P(3Do, 3So) transition was observed at 479.43 A and another line at 389.97 A. The experimental data is in excellent agreement with rigorous close-coupling calculations that include electron correlations in both the initial and final states.

  2. Silicon Absolute X-Ray Detectors

    SciTech Connect

    Seely, John F.; Korde, Raj; Sprunck, Jacob; Medjoubi, Kadda; Hustache, Stephanie

    2010-06-23

    The responsivity of silicon photodiodes having no loss in the entrance window, measured using synchrotron radiation in the 1.75 to 60 keV range, was compared to the responsivity calculated using the silicon thickness measured using near-infrared light. The measured and calculated responsivities agree with an average difference of 1.3%. This enables their use as absolute x-ray detectors.

  3. Blood pressure targets and absolute cardiovascular risk.

    PubMed

    Odutayo, Ayodele; Rahimi, Kazem; Hsiao, Allan J; Emdin, Connor A

    2015-08-01

    In the Eighth Joint National Committee guideline on hypertension, the threshold for the initiation of blood pressure-lowering treatment for elderly adults (≥60 years) without chronic kidney disease or diabetes mellitus was raised from 140/90 mm Hg to 150/90 mm Hg. However, the committee was not unanimous in this decision, particularly because a large proportion of adults ≥60 years may be at high cardiovascular risk. On the basis of Eighth Joint National Committee guideline, we sought to determine the absolute 10-year risk of cardiovascular disease among these adults through analyzing the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (2005-2012). The primary outcome measure was the proportion of adults who were at ≥20% predicted absolute cardiovascular risk and above goals for the Seventh Joint National Committee guideline but reclassified as at target under the Eighth Joint National Committee guideline (reclassified). The Framingham General Cardiovascular Disease Risk Score was used. From 2005 to 2012, the surveys included 12 963 adults aged 30 to 74 years with blood pressure measurements, of which 914 were reclassified based on the guideline. Among individuals reclassified as not in need of additional treatment, the proportion of adults 60 to 74 years without chronic kidney disease or diabetes mellitus at ≥20% absolute risk was 44.8%. This corresponds to 0.8 million adults. The proportion at high cardiovascular risk remained sizable among adults who were not receiving blood pressure-lowering treatment. Taken together, a sizable proportion of reclassified adults 60 to 74 years without chronic kidney disease or diabetes mellitus was at ≥20% absolute cardiovascular risk. PMID:26056340

  4. Relative errors can cue absolute visuomotor mappings.

    PubMed

    van Dam, Loes C J; Ernst, Marc O

    2015-12-01

    When repeatedly switching between two visuomotor mappings, e.g. in a reaching or pointing task, adaptation tends to speed up over time. That is, when the error in the feedback corresponds to a mapping switch, fast adaptation occurs. Yet, what is learned, the relative error or the absolute mappings? When switching between mappings, errors with a size corresponding to the relative difference between the mappings will occur more often than other large errors. Thus, we could learn to correct more for errors with this familiar size (Error Learning). On the other hand, it has been shown that the human visuomotor system can store several absolute visuomotor mappings (Mapping Learning) and can use associated contextual cues to retrieve them. Thus, when contextual information is present, no error feedback is needed to switch between mappings. Using a rapid pointing task, we investigated how these two types of learning may each contribute when repeatedly switching between mappings in the absence of task-irrelevant contextual cues. After training, we examined how participants changed their behaviour when a single error probe indicated either the often-experienced error (Error Learning) or one of the previously experienced absolute mappings (Mapping Learning). Results were consistent with Mapping Learning despite the relative nature of the error information in the feedback. This shows that errors in the feedback can have a double role in visuomotor behaviour: they drive the general adaptation process by making corrections possible on subsequent movements, as well as serve as contextual cues that can signal a learned absolute mapping. PMID:26280315

  5. Absolute distance measurements by variable wavelength interferometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bien, F.; Camac, M.; Caulfield, H. J.; Ezekiel, S.

    1981-02-01

    This paper describes a laser interferometer which provides absolute distance measurements using tunable lasers. An active feedback loop system, in which the laser frequency is locked to the optical path length difference of the interferometer, is used to tune the laser wavelengths. If the two wavelengths are very close, electronic frequency counters can be used to measure the beat frequency between the two laser frequencies and thus to determine the optical path difference between the two legs of the interferometer.

  6. Absolute dosimetry for extreme-ultraviolet lithography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berger, Kurt W.; Campiotti, Richard H.

    2000-06-01

    The accurate measurement of an exposure dose reaching the wafer on an extreme ultraviolet (EUV) lithographic system has been a technical challenge directly applicable to the evaluation of candidate EUV resist materials and calculating lithography system throughputs. We have developed a dose monitoring sensor system that can directly measure EUV intensities at the wafer plane of a prototype EUV lithographic system. This sensor system, located on the wafer stage adjacent to the electrostatic chuck used to grip wafers, operates by translating the sensor into the aerial image, typically illuminating an 'open' (unpatterned) area on the reticle. The absolute signal strength can be related to energy density at the wafer, and thus used to determine resist sensitivity, and the signal as a function of position can be used to determine illumination uniformity at the wafer plane. Spectral filtering to enhance the detection of 13.4 nm radiation was incorporated into the sensor. Other critical design parameters include the packaging and amplification technologies required to place this device into the space and vacuum constraints of a EUV lithography environment. We describe two approaches used to determine the absolute calibration of this sensor. The first conventional approach requires separate characterization of each element of the sensor. A second novel approach uses x-ray emission from a mildly radioactive iron source to calibrate the absolute response of the entire sensor system (detector and electronics) in a single measurement.

  7. Capacity Building of MAGDAS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yumoto, K.

    2011-12-01

    Under the framework of the MAGDAS Project of SERC (at Kyushu University), this report will cover the three phases of "Capacity Building": (1) Development of instrument capacity, (2) Development of data analysis capacity, and (3) Development of science capacity. Capacity Building is one of the major goals of IHY and ISWI, as specified by the organizers of IHY and ISWI.

  8. Clock time is absolute and universal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shen, Xinhang

    2015-09-01

    A critical error is found in the Special Theory of Relativity (STR): mixing up the concepts of the STR abstract time of a reference frame and the displayed time of a physical clock, which leads to use the properties of the abstract time to predict time dilation on physical clocks and all other physical processes. Actually, a clock can never directly measure the abstract time, but can only record the result of a physical process during a period of the abstract time such as the number of cycles of oscillation which is the multiplication of the abstract time and the frequency of oscillation. After Lorentz Transformation, the abstract time of a reference frame expands by a factor gamma, but the frequency of a clock decreases by the same factor gamma, and the resulting multiplication i.e. the displayed time of a moving clock remains unchanged. That is, the displayed time of any physical clock is an invariant of Lorentz Transformation. The Lorentz invariance of the displayed times of clocks can further prove within the framework of STR our earth based standard physical time is absolute, universal and independent of inertial reference frames as confirmed by both the physical fact of the universal synchronization of clocks on the GPS satellites and clocks on the earth, and the theoretical existence of the absolute and universal Galilean time in STR which has proved that time dilation and space contraction are pure illusions of STR. The existence of the absolute and universal time in STR has directly denied that the reference frame dependent abstract time of STR is the physical time, and therefore, STR is wrong and all its predictions can never happen in the physical world.

  9. Achieving Climate Change Absolute Accuracy in Orbit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wielicki, Bruce A.; Young, D. F.; Mlynczak, M. G.; Thome, K. J; Leroy, S.; Corliss, J.; Anderson, J. G.; Ao, C. O.; Bantges, R.; Best, F.; Bowman, K.; Brindley, H.; Butler, J. J.; Collins, W.; Dykema, J. A.; Doelling, D. R.; Feldman, D. R.; Fox, N.; Huang, X.; Holz, R.; Huang, Y.; Jennings, D.; Jin, Z.; Johnson, D. G.; Jucks, K.; Kato, S.; Kratz, D. P.; Liu, X.; Lukashin, C.; Mannucci, A. J.; Phojanamongkolkij, N.; Roithmayr, C. M.; Sandford, S.; Taylor, P. C.; Xiong, X.

    2013-01-01

    The Climate Absolute Radiance and Refractivity Observatory (CLARREO) mission will provide a calibration laboratory in orbit for the purpose of accurately measuring and attributing climate change. CLARREO measurements establish new climate change benchmarks with high absolute radiometric accuracy and high statistical confidence across a wide range of essential climate variables. CLARREO's inherently high absolute accuracy will be verified and traceable on orbit to Système Internationale (SI) units. The benchmarks established by CLARREO will be critical for assessing changes in the Earth system and climate model predictive capabilities for decades into the future as society works to meet the challenge of optimizing strategies for mitigating and adapting to climate change. The CLARREO benchmarks are derived from measurements of the Earth's thermal infrared spectrum (5-50 micron), the spectrum of solar radiation reflected by the Earth and its atmosphere (320-2300 nm), and radio occultation refractivity from which accurate temperature profiles are derived. The mission has the ability to provide new spectral fingerprints of climate change, as well as to provide the first orbiting radiometer with accuracy sufficient to serve as the reference transfer standard for other space sensors, in essence serving as a "NIST [National Institute of Standards and Technology] in orbit." CLARREO will greatly improve the accuracy and relevance of a wide range of space-borne instruments for decadal climate change. Finally, CLARREO has developed new metrics and methods for determining the accuracy requirements of climate observations for a wide range of climate variables and uncertainty sources. These methods should be useful for improving our understanding of observing requirements for most climate change observations.

  10. The National Geodetic Survey absolute gravity program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peter, George; Moose, Robert E.; Wessells, Claude W.

    1989-03-01

    The National Geodetic Survey absolute gravity program will utilize the high precision afforded by the JILAG-4 instrument to support geodetic and geophysical research, which involves studies of vertical motions, identification and modeling of other temporal variations, and establishment of reference values. The scientific rationale of these objectives is given, the procedures used to collect gravity and environmental data in the field are defined, and the steps necessary to correct and remove unwanted environmental effects are stated. In addition, site selection criteria, methods of concomitant environmental data collection and relative gravity observations, and schedule and logistics are discussed.

  11. An absolute radius scale for Saturn's rings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nicholson, Philip D.; Cooke, Maren L.; Pelton, Emily

    1990-01-01

    Radio and stellar occultation observations of Saturn's rings made by the Voyager spacecraft are discussed. The data reveal systematic discrepancies of almost 10 km in some parts of the rings, limiting some of the investigations. A revised solution for Saturn's rotation pole has been proposed which removes the discrepancies between the stellar and radio occultation profiles. Corrections to previously published radii vary from -2 to -10 km for the radio occultation, and +5 to -6 km for the stellar occultation. An examination of spiral density waves in the outer A Ring supports that the revised absolute radii are in error by no more than 2 km.

  12. Characterization of the DARA solar absolute radiometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Finsterle, W.; Suter, M.; Fehlmann, A.; Kopp, G.

    2011-12-01

    The Davos Absolute Radiometer (DARA) prototype is an Electrical Substitution Radiometer (ESR) which has been developed as a successor of the PMO6 type on future space missions and ground based TSI measurements. The DARA implements an improved thermal design of the cavity detector and heat sink assembly to minimize air-vacuum differences and to maximize thermal symmetry of measuring and compensating cavity. The DARA also employs an inverted viewing geometry to reduce internal stray light. We will report on the characterization and calibration experiments which were carried out at PMOD/WRC and LASP (TRF).

  13. Absolute calibration of the Auger fluorescence detectors

    SciTech Connect

    Bauleo, P.; Brack, J.; Garrard, L.; Harton, J.; Knapik, R.; Meyhandan, R.; Rovero, A.C.; Tamashiro, A.; Warner, D.

    2005-07-01

    Absolute calibration of the Pierre Auger Observatory fluorescence detectors uses a light source at the telescope aperture. The technique accounts for the combined effects of all detector components in a single measurement. The calibrated 2.5 m diameter light source fills the aperture, providing uniform illumination to each pixel. The known flux from the light source and the response of the acquisition system give the required calibration for each pixel. In the lab, light source uniformity is studied using CCD images and the intensity is measured relative to NIST-calibrated photodiodes. Overall uncertainties are presently 12%, and are dominated by systematics.

  14. Absolute angular positioning in ultrahigh vacuum

    SciTech Connect

    Schief, H.; Marsico, V.; Kern, K.

    1996-05-01

    Commercially available angular resolvers, which are routinely used in machine tools and robotics, are modified and adapted to be used under ultrahigh-vacuum (UHV) conditions. They provide straightforward and reliable measurements of angular positions for any kind of UHV sample manipulators. The corresponding absolute reproducibility is on the order of 0.005{degree}, whereas the relative resolution is better than 0.001{degree}, as demonstrated by high-resolution helium-reflectivity measurements. The mechanical setup and possible applications are discussed. {copyright} {ital 1996 American Institute of Physics.}

  15. Absolute method of measuring magnetic susceptibility

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Thorpe, A.; Senftle, F.E.

    1959-01-01

    An absolute method of standardization and measurement of the magnetic susceptibility of small samples is presented which can be applied to most techniques based on the Faraday method. The fact that the susceptibility is a function of the area under the curve of sample displacement versus distance of the magnet from the sample, offers a simple method of measuring the susceptibility without recourse to a standard sample. Typical results on a few substances are compared with reported values, and an error of less than 2% can be achieved. ?? 1959 The American Institute of Physics.

  16. Absolute Priority for a Vehicle in VANET

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shirani, Rostam; Hendessi, Faramarz; Montazeri, Mohammad Ali; Sheikh Zefreh, Mohammad

    In today's world, traffic jams waste hundreds of hours of our life. This causes many researchers try to resolve the problem with the idea of Intelligent Transportation System. For some applications like a travelling ambulance, it is important to reduce delay even for a second. In this paper, we propose a completely infrastructure-less approach for finding shortest path and controlling traffic light to provide absolute priority for an emergency vehicle. We use the idea of vehicular ad-hoc networking to reduce the imposed travelling time. Then, we simulate our proposed protocol and compare it with a centrally controlled traffic light system.

  17. Swarm Absolute Scalar Magnetometers first in-orbit results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fratter, Isabelle; Léger, Jean-Michel; Bertrand, François; Jager, Thomas; Hulot, Gauthier; Brocco, Laura; Vigneron, Pierre

    2016-04-01

    The ESA Swarm mission will provide the best ever survey of the Earth's magnetic field and its temporal evolution. This will be achieved by a constellation of three identical satellites, launched together on the 22nd of November 2013. In order to observe the magnetic field thoroughly, each satellite carries two magnetometers: a Vector Field Magnetometer (VFM) coupled with a star tracker camera, to measure the direction of the magnetic field in space, and an Absolute Scalar Magnetometer (ASM), to measure its intensity. The ASM is the French contribution to the Swarm mission. This new generation instrument was designed by CEA-Leti and developed in close partnership with CNES, with scientific support from IPGP. Its operating principle is based on the atomic spectroscopy of the helium 4 metastable state. It makes use of the Zeeman's effect to transduce the magnetic field into a frequency, the signal being amplified by optical pumping. The primary role of the ASM is to provide absolute measurements of the magnetic field's strength at 1 Hz, for the in-flight calibration of the VFM. As the Swarm magnetic reference, the ASM scalar performance is crucial for the mission's success. Thanks to its innovative design, the ASM offers the best precision, resolution and absolute accuracy ever attained in space, with similar performance all along the orbit. In addition, thanks to an original architecture, the ASM implements on an experimental basis a capacity for providing simultaneously vector measurements at 1 Hz. This new feature makes it the first instrument capable of delivering both scalar and vector measurements simultaneously at the same point. Swarm offers a unique opportunity to validate the ASM vector data in orbit by comparison with the VFM's. Furthermore, the ASM can provide scalar data at a much higher sampling rate, when run in "burst" mode at 250 Hz, with a 100 Hz measurement bandwidth. An analysis of the spectral content of the magnetic field above 1 Hz becomes thus

  18. Determination of the absolute contours of optical flats

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Primak, W.

    1969-01-01

    Emersons procedure is used to determine true absolute contours of optical flats. Absolute contours of standard flats are determined and a comparison is then made between standard and unknown flats. Contour differences are determined by deviation of Fizeau fringe.

  19. Standardization of the cumulative absolute velocity

    SciTech Connect

    O'Hara, T.F.; Jacobson, J.P. )

    1991-12-01

    EPRI NP-5930, A Criterion for Determining Exceedance of the Operating Basis Earthquake,'' was published in July 1988. As defined in that report, the Operating Basis Earthquake (OBE) is exceeded when both a response spectrum parameter and a second damage parameter, referred to as the Cumulative Absolute Velocity (CAV), are exceeded. In the review process of the above report, it was noted that the calculation of CAV could be confounded by time history records of long duration containing low (nondamaging) acceleration. Therefore, it is necessary to standardize the method of calculating CAV to account for record length. This standardized methodology allows consistent comparisons between future CAV calculations and the adjusted CAV threshold value based upon applying the standardized methodology to the data set presented in EPRI NP-5930. The recommended method to standardize the CAV calculation is to window its calculation on a second-by-second basis for a given time history. If the absolute acceleration exceeds 0.025g at any time during each one second interval, the earthquake records used in EPRI NP-5930 have been reanalyzed and the adjusted threshold of damage for CAV was found to be 0.16g-set.

  20. Absolute rates of hole transfer in DNA.

    PubMed

    Senthilkumar, Kittusamy; Grozema, Ferdinand C; Guerra, Célia Fonseca; Bickelhaupt, F Matthias; Lewis, Frederick D; Berlin, Yuri A; Ratner, Mark A; Siebbeles, Laurens D A

    2005-10-26

    Absolute rates of hole transfer between guanine nucleobases separated by one or two A:T base pairs in stilbenedicarboxamide-linked DNA hairpins were obtained by improved kinetic analysis of experimental data. The charge-transfer rates in four different DNA sequences were calculated using a density-functional-based tight-binding model and a semiclassical superexchange model. Site energies and charge-transfer integrals were calculated directly as the diagonal and off-diagonal matrix elements of the Kohn-Sham Hamiltonian, respectively, for all possible combinations of nucleobases. Taking into account the Coulomb interaction between the negative charge on the stilbenedicarboxamide linker and the hole on the DNA strand as well as effects of base pair twisting, the relative order of the experimental rates for hole transfer in different hairpins could be reproduced by tight-binding calculations. To reproduce quantitatively the absolute values of the measured rate constants, the effect of the reorganization energy was taken into account within the semiclassical superexchange model for charge transfer. The experimental rates could be reproduced with reorganization energies near 1 eV. The quantum chemical data obtained were used to discuss charge carrier mobility and hole-transport equilibria in DNA. PMID:16231945

  1. Transient absolute robustness in stochastic biochemical networks.

    PubMed

    Enciso, German A

    2016-08-01

    Absolute robustness allows biochemical networks to sustain a consistent steady-state output in the face of protein concentration variability from cell to cell. This property is structural and can be determined from the topology of the network alone regardless of rate parameters. An important question regarding these systems is the effect of discrete biochemical noise in the dynamical behaviour. In this paper, a variable freezing technique is developed to show that under mild hypotheses the corresponding stochastic system has a transiently robust behaviour. Specifically, after finite time the distribution of the output approximates a Poisson distribution, centred around the deterministic mean. The approximation becomes increasingly accurate, and it holds for increasingly long finite times, as the total protein concentrations grow to infinity. In particular, the stochastic system retains a transient, absolutely robust behaviour corresponding to the deterministic case. This result contrasts with the long-term dynamics of the stochastic system, which eventually must undergo an extinction event that eliminates robustness and is completely different from the deterministic dynamics. The transiently robust behaviour may be sufficient to carry out many forms of robust signal transduction and cellular decision-making in cellular organisms. PMID:27581485

  2. Absolute Electron Extraction Efficiency of Liquid Xenon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kamdin, Katayun; Mizrachi, Eli; Morad, James; Sorensen, Peter

    2016-03-01

    Dual phase liquid/gas xenon time projection chambers (TPCs) currently set the world's most sensitive limits on weakly interacting massive particles (WIMPs), a favored dark matter candidate. These detectors rely on extracting electrons from liquid xenon into gaseous xenon, where they produce proportional scintillation. The proportional scintillation from the extracted electrons serves to internally amplify the WIMP signal; even a single extracted electron is detectable. Credible dark matter searches can proceed with electron extraction efficiency (EEE) lower than 100%. However, electrons systematically left at the liquid/gas boundary are a concern. Possible effects include spontaneous single or multi-electron proportional scintillation signals in the gas, or charging of the liquid/gas interface or detector materials. Understanding EEE is consequently a serious concern for this class of rare event search detectors. Previous EEE measurements have mostly been relative, not absolute, assuming efficiency plateaus at 100%. I will present an absolute EEE measurement with a small liquid/gas xenon TPC test bed located at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory.

  3. Sentinel-2/MSI absolute calibration: first results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lonjou, V.; Lachérade, S.; Fougnie, B.; Gamet, P.; Marcq, S.; Raynaud, J.-L.; Tremas, T.

    2015-10-01

    Sentinel-2 is an optical imaging mission devoted to the operational monitoring of land and coastal areas. It is developed in partnership between the European Commission and the European Space Agency. The Sentinel-2 mission is based on a satellites constellation deployed in polar sun-synchronous orbit. It will offer a unique combination of global coverage with a wide field of view (290km), a high revisit (5 days with two satellites), a high resolution (10m, 20m and 60m) and multi-spectral imagery (13 spectral bands in visible and shortwave infra-red domains). CNES is involved in the instrument commissioning in collaboration with ESA. This paper reviews all the techniques that will be used to insure an absolute calibration of the 13 spectral bands better than 5% (target 3%), and will present the first results if available. First, the nominal calibration technique, based on an on-board sun diffuser, is detailed. Then, we show how vicarious calibration methods based on acquisitions over natural targets (oceans, deserts, and Antarctica during winter) will be used to check and improve the accuracy of the absolute calibration coefficients. Finally, the verification scheme, exploiting photometer in-situ measurements over Lacrau plain, is described. A synthesis, including spectral coherence, inter-methods agreement and temporal evolution, will conclude the paper.

  4. Absolute Spectrophotometry of 237 Open Cluster Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clampitt, L.; Burstein, D.

    1994-12-01

    We present absolute spectrophotometry of 237 stars in 7 nearby open clusters: Hyades, Pleiades, Alpha Persei, Praesepe, Coma Berenices, IC 4665, and M 39. The observations were taken using the Wampler single-channel scanner (Wampler 1966) on the Crossley 0.9m telescope at Lick Observatory from July 1973 through December 1974. 21 bandpasses spanning the spectral range 3500 Angstroms to 7780 Angstroms were observed for each star, with bandwiths ranging from 32Angstroms to 64 Angstroms. Data are standardized to the Hayes--Latham (1975) system. Our measurements are compared to filter colors on the Johnson BV, Stromgren ubvy, and Geneva U V B_1 B_2 V_1 G systems, as well as to spectrophotometry of a few stars published by Gunn, Stryker & Tinsley and in the Spectrophotometric Standards Catalog (Adelman; as distributed by the NSSDC). Both internal and external comparisons to the filter systems indicate a formal statistical accuracy per bandpass of 0.01 to 0.02 mag, with apparent larger ( ~ 0.03 mag) differences in absolute calibration between this data set and existing spectrophotometry. These data will comprise part of the spectrophotometry that will be used to calibrate the Beijing-Arizona-Taipei-Connecticut Color Survey of the Sky (see separate paper by Burstein et al. at this meeting).

  5. A Conceptual Approach to Absolute Value Equations and Inequalities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ellis, Mark W.; Bryson, Janet L.

    2011-01-01

    The absolute value learning objective in high school mathematics requires students to solve far more complex absolute value equations and inequalities. When absolute value problems become more complex, students often do not have sufficient conceptual understanding to make any sense of what is happening mathematically. The authors suggest that the…

  6. Using, Seeing, Feeling, and Doing Absolute Value for Deeper Understanding

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ponce, Gregorio A.

    2008-01-01

    Using sticky notes and number lines, a hands-on activity is shared that anchors initial student thinking about absolute value. The initial point of reference should help students successfully evaluate numeric problems involving absolute value. They should also be able to solve absolute value equations and inequalities that are typically found in…

  7. 20 CFR 404.1205 - Absolute coverage groups.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Absolute coverage groups. 404.1205 Section... INSURANCE (1950- ) Coverage of Employees of State and Local Governments What Groups of Employees May Be Covered § 404.1205 Absolute coverage groups. (a) General. An absolute coverage group is a...

  8. Heat capacity of alkanolamine aqueous solutions

    SciTech Connect

    Chiu, L.F.; Li, M.H.

    1999-12-01

    Heat capacities of monoethanoloamine, diglycolamine, diethanolamine, di-w propanolamine, triethanolamine, N-methyldiethanolamine, 2-amino-2-methyl-l-propanol, and 2-piperidineethanol aqueous solutions were measured from 30 to 80 C with a differential scanning calorimeter (DSC). The mole fractions of alkanolamines studied are 0.2, 0.4, 0.6, and 0.8. Heat capacities of N-methyldiethanolamine aqueous solutions have been measured to verify the validity of C{sub p} measurements for alkanolamine aqueous solutions. The estimated uncertainty of the measured heat capacities is {plus{underscore}minus}3%, including the effect of up to 5% impurities in a substance. An excess molar heat capacity expression using the Redlich-Kister equation for the composition dependence is used to represent the measured C{sub p} of alkanolamine aqueous solutions. For a total of 374 data points, the calculation results for eight alkanolamine solutions give the overall average absolute deviations of 11.9% and 0.29% for the excess molar heat capacity and the heat capacity, respectively. The heat capacities presented in this study are, in general, of sufficient accuracy for most engineering-design calculations. Solutions of alkanolamines are industrially important mixtures used in the natural gas industry, oil refineries, petroleum chemical plants, and synthetic ammonia plants for the removal of acidic components such as CO{sub 2} and H{sub 2}S from gas streams.

  9. Use of Absolute and Comparative Performance Feedback in Absolute and Comparative Judgments and Decisions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moore, Don A.; Klein, William M. P.

    2008-01-01

    Which matters more--beliefs about absolute ability or ability relative to others? This study set out to compare the effects of such beliefs on satisfaction with performance, self-evaluations, and bets on future performance. In Experiment 1, undergraduate participants were told they had answered 20% correct, 80% correct, or were not given their…

  10. Impact of coal output concentration on methane emission to longwall faces / Wpływ koncentracji wydobycia na wydzielanie metanu do wyrobisk ścianowych

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Szlązak, Nikodem; Kubaczka, Czesław

    2012-10-01

    An increase in concentration of coal output in Polish hard coal mines contributes to a significant increase in absolute methane-bearing capacity in mining areas. Measurements of methane concentration were taken in selected longwall faces in order to estimate the influence of coal output on methane hazard. The measurements were taken from 2006 to 2008 in 8 longwalls in mines with high methane hazard. The parameters for longwalls where measurements were taken are presented in table 1. Average daily output ranged from 1380 to 2320 Mg: however the maximum daily output amounted to 5335 Mg. Absolute methane-bearing capacity ranged from 4.44 to 56.41 m3/min. Longwalls were ventilated with a U and Y system and their ventilation schemes are presented in figure 1. The period of measurements ranged from 29 to 384 days. The results obtained were used to determine the influence of changes in output on methane hazard. For each longwall under research statistical estimation of parameters, such as: ventilation air methane (VAM) emission, amount of methane captured by a drainage system, absolute methane-bearing capacity and an advance of longwall face was conducted. In order to determine the influence of a longwall face advance on methane-bearing capacity the probabilistic model of the distribution of those parameters on the basis of the measurement results was used. In order to determine the dependence between ventilation air methane emission, methane drainage, absolute methane-bearing capacity and longwall advance, the distribution of analysed variables was checked by means of Kolmogorow-Smirnov normality test. The results of this test are presented in table 2. Table 3 presents values for correlation co-efficient r(x,y). When analyzing the results presented in table 3 it must be observed that in case of most longwalls there is a high correlation between ventilation air methane emission, absolute methane-bearing capacity and longwall advance. However, in longwalls N-10 i W-5 the

  11. Absolute calibration of ultraviolet filter photometry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bless, R. C.; Fairchild, T.; Code, A. D.

    1972-01-01

    The essential features of the calibration procedure can be divided into three parts. First, the shape of the bandpass of each photometer was determined by measuring the transmissions of the individual optical components and also by measuring the response of the photometer as a whole. Secondly, each photometer was placed in the essentially-collimated synchrotron radiation bundle maintained at a constant intensity level, and the output signal was determined from about 100 points on the objective. Finally, two or three points on the objective were illuminated by synchrotron radiation at several different intensity levels covering the dynamic range of the photometers. The output signals were placed on an absolute basis by the electron counting technique described earlier.

  12. MAGSAT: Vector magnetometer absolute sensor alignment determination

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Acuna, M. H.

    1981-01-01

    A procedure is described for accurately determining the absolute alignment of the magnetic axes of a triaxial magnetometer sensor with respect to an external, fixed, reference coordinate system. The method does not require that the magnetic field vector orientation, as generated by a triaxial calibration coil system, be known to better than a few degrees from its true position, and minimizes the number of positions through which a sensor assembly must be rotated to obtain a solution. Computer simulations show that accuracies of better than 0.4 seconds of arc can be achieved under typical test conditions associated with existing magnetic test facilities. The basic approach is similar in nature to that presented by McPherron and Snare (1978) except that only three sensor positions are required and the system of equations to be solved is considerably simplified. Applications of the method to the case of the MAGSAT Vector Magnetometer are presented and the problems encountered discussed.

  13. Absolute geostrophic currents in global tropical oceans

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Lina; Yuan, Dongliang

    2016-03-01

    A set of absolute geostrophic current (AGC) data for the period January 2004 to December 2012 are calculated using the P-vector method based on monthly gridded Argo profiles in the world tropical oceans. The AGCs agree well with altimeter geostrophic currents, Ocean Surface Current Analysis-Real time currents, and moored current-meter measurements at 10-m depth, based on which the classical Sverdrup circulation theory is evaluated. Calculations have shown that errors of wind stress calculation, AGC transport, and depth ranges of vertical integration cannot explain non-Sverdrup transport, which is mainly in the subtropical western ocean basins and equatorial currents near the Equator in each ocean basin (except the North Indian Ocean, where the circulation is dominated by monsoons). The identified non-Sverdrup transport is thereby robust and attributed to the joint effect of baroclinicity and relief of the bottom (JEBAR) and mesoscale eddy nonlinearity.

  14. Absolute Measurement of Electron Cloud Density

    SciTech Connect

    Covo, M K; Molvik, A W; Cohen, R H; Friedman, A; Seidl, P A; Logan, G; Bieniosek, F; Baca, D; Vay, J; Orlando, E; Vujic, J L

    2007-06-21

    Beam interaction with background gas and walls produces ubiquitous clouds of stray electrons that frequently limit the performance of particle accelerator and storage rings. Counterintuitively we obtained the electron cloud accumulation by measuring the expelled ions that are originated from the beam-background gas interaction, rather than by measuring electrons that reach the walls. The kinetic ion energy measured with a retarding field analyzer (RFA) maps the depressed beam space-charge potential and provides the dynamic electron cloud density. Clearing electrode current measurements give the static electron cloud background that complements and corroborates with the RFA measurements, providing an absolute measurement of electron cloud density during a 5 {micro}s duration beam pulse in a drift region of the magnetic transport section of the High-Current Experiment (HCX) at LBNL.

  15. Absolute instability of a viscous hollow jet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gañán-Calvo, Alfonso M.

    2007-02-01

    An investigation of the spatiotemporal stability of hollow jets in unbounded coflowing liquids, using a general dispersion relation previously derived, shows them to be absolutely unstable for all physical values of the Reynolds and Weber numbers. The roots of the symmetry breakdown with respect to the liquid jet case, and the validity of asymptotic models are here studied in detail. Asymptotic analyses for low and high Reynolds numbers are provided, showing that old and well-established limiting dispersion relations [J. W. S. Rayleigh, The Theory of Sound (Dover, New York, 1945); S. Chandrasekhar, Hydrodynamic and Hydromagnetic Stability (Dover, New York, 1961)] should be used with caution. In the creeping flow limit, the analysis shows that, if the hollow jet is filled with any finite density and viscosity fluid, a steady jet could be made arbitrarily small (compatible with the continuum hypothesis) if the coflowing liquid moves faster than a critical velocity.

  16. Stitching interferometry: recent results and absolute calibration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bray, Michael

    2004-02-01

    Stitching Interferometry is a method of analysing large optical components using a standard "small" interferometer. This result is obtained by taking multiple overlapping images of the large component, and numerically "stitching" these sub-apertures together. We have already reported the industrial use our Stitching Interferometry systems (Previous SPIE symposia), but experimental results had been lacking because this technique is still new, and users needed to get accustomed to it before producing reliable measurements. We now have more results. We will report user comments and show new, unpublished results. We will discuss sources of error, and show how some of these can be reduced to arbitrarily small values. These will be discussed in some detail. We conclude with a few graphical examples of absolute measurements performed by us.

  17. Swarm's Absolute Scalar Magnetometer metrological performances

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leger, J.; Fratter, I.; Bertrand, F.; Jager, T.; Morales, S.

    2012-12-01

    The Absolute Scalar Magnetometer (ASM) has been developed for the ESA Earth Observation Swarm mission, planned for launch in November 2012. As its Overhauser magnetometers forerunners flown on Oersted and Champ satellites, it will deliver high resolution scalar measurements for the in-flight calibration of the Vector Field Magnetometer manufactured by the Danish Technical University. Latest results of the ground tests carried out to fully characterize all parameters that may affect its accuracy, both at instrument and satellite level, will be presented. In addition to its baseline function, the ASM can be operated either at a much higher sampling rate (burst mode at 250 Hz) or in a dual mode where it also delivers vector field measurements as a by-product. The calibration procedure and the relevant vector performances will be discussed.

  18. Absolute nonlocality via distributed computing without communication

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Czekaj, Ł.; Pawłowski, M.; Vértesi, T.; Grudka, A.; Horodecki, M.; Horodecki, R.

    2015-09-01

    Understanding the role that quantum entanglement plays as a resource in various information processing tasks is one of the crucial goals of quantum information theory. Here we propose an alternative perspective for studying quantum entanglement: distributed computation of functions without communication between nodes. To formalize this approach, we propose identity games. Surprisingly, despite no signaling, we obtain that nonlocal quantum strategies beat classical ones in terms of winning probability for identity games originating from certain bipartite and multipartite functions. Moreover we show that, for a majority of functions, access to general nonsignaling resources boosts success probability two times in comparison to classical ones for a number of large enough outputs. Because there are no constraints on the inputs and no processing of the outputs in the identity games, they detect very strong types of correlations: absolute nonlocality.

  19. Building Leadership Capacity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flanary, Dick

    2009-01-01

    The NASSP "Breaking Ranks" framework lays out multiple strategies for building capacity within a school, beginning with the leaders. To change an organization and increase its capacity to produce greater results, the people within the organization must change and increase their capacity. School change begins with changes in the principal, the…

  20. Gyrokinetic Statistical Absolute Equilibrium and Turbulence

    SciTech Connect

    Jian-Zhou Zhu and Gregory W. Hammett

    2011-01-10

    A paradigm based on the absolute equilibrium of Galerkin-truncated inviscid systems to aid in understanding turbulence [T.-D. Lee, "On some statistical properties of hydrodynamical and magnetohydrodynamical fields," Q. Appl. Math. 10, 69 (1952)] is taken to study gyrokinetic plasma turbulence: A finite set of Fourier modes of the collisionless gyrokinetic equations are kept and the statistical equilibria are calculated; possible implications for plasma turbulence in various situations are discussed. For the case of two spatial and one velocity dimension, in the calculation with discretization also of velocity v with N grid points (where N + 1 quantities are conserved, corresponding to an energy invariant and N entropy-related invariants), the negative temperature states, corresponding to the condensation of the generalized energy into the lowest modes, are found. This indicates a generic feature of inverse energy cascade. Comparisons are made with some classical results, such as those of Charney-Hasegawa-Mima in the cold-ion limit. There is a universal shape for statistical equilibrium of gyrokinetics in three spatial and two velocity dimensions with just one conserved quantity. Possible physical relevance to turbulence, such as ITG zonal flows, and to a critical balance hypothesis are also discussed.

  1. Absolute surface energy for zincblende semiconductors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, S. B.; Wei, Su-Huai

    2003-03-01

    Recent advance in nanosciences requires the determination of surface (or facet) energy of semiconductors, which is often difficult due to the polar nature of some of the most important surfaces such as the (111)A/(111)B surfaces. Several approaches have been developed in the past [1-3] to deal with the problem but an unambiguous division of the polar surface energies is yet to come [2]. Here we show that an accurate division is indeed possible for the zincblende semiconductors and will present the results for GaAs, ZnSe, and CuInSe2 [4], respectively. A general trend emerges, relating the absolute surface energy to the ionicity of the bulk materials. [1] N. Chetty and R. M. Martin, Phys. Rev. B 45, 6074 (1992). [2] N. Moll, et al., Phys. Rev. B 54, 8844 (1996). [3] S. Mankefors, Phys. Rev. B 59, 13151 (1999). [4] S. B. Zhang and S.-H. Wei, Phys. Rev. B 65, 081402 (2002).

  2. Climate Absolute Radiance and Refractivity Observatory (CLARREO)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leckey, John P.

    2015-01-01

    The Climate Absolute Radiance and Refractivity Observatory (CLARREO) is a mission, led and developed by NASA, that will measure a variety of climate variables with an unprecedented accuracy to quantify and attribute climate change. CLARREO consists of three separate instruments: an infrared (IR) spectrometer, a reflected solar (RS) spectrometer, and a radio occultation (RO) instrument. The mission will contain orbiting radiometers with sufficient accuracy, including on orbit verification, to calibrate other space-based instrumentation, increasing their respective accuracy by as much as an order of magnitude. The IR spectrometer is a Fourier Transform spectrometer (FTS) working in the 5 to 50 microns wavelength region with a goal of 0.1 K (k = 3) accuracy. The FTS will achieve this accuracy using phase change cells to verify thermistor accuracy and heated halos to verify blackbody emissivity, both on orbit. The RS spectrometer will measure the reflectance of the atmosphere in the 0.32 to 2.3 microns wavelength region with an accuracy of 0.3% (k = 2). The status of the instrumentation packages and potential mission options will be presented.

  3. Absolute decay width measurements in 16O

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wheldon, C.; Ashwood, N. I.; Barr, M.; Curtis, N.; Freer, M.; Kokalova, Tz; Malcolm, J. D.; Spencer, S. J.; Ziman, V. A.; Faestermann, Th; Krücken, R.; Wirth, H.-F.; Hertenberger, R.; Lutter, R.; Bergmaier, A.

    2012-09-01

    The reaction 126C(63Li, d)168O* at a 6Li bombarding energy of 42 MeV has been used to populate excited states in 16O. The deuteron ejectiles were measured using the high-resolution Munich Q3D spectrograph. A large-acceptance silicon-strip detector array was used to register the recoil and break-up products. This complete kinematic set-up has enabled absolute α-decay widths to be measured with high-resolution in the 13.9 to 15.9 MeV excitation energy regime in 16O; many for the first time. This energy region spans the 14.4 MeV four-α breakup threshold. Monte-Carlo simulations of the detector geometry and break-up processes yield detection efficiencies for the two dominant decay modes of 40% and 37% for the α+12C(g.s.) and a+12C(2+1) break-up channels respectively.

  4. Absolute calibration of forces in optical tweezers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dutra, R. S.; Viana, N. B.; Maia Neto, P. A.; Nussenzveig, H. M.

    2014-07-01

    Optical tweezers are highly versatile laser traps for neutral microparticles, with fundamental applications in physics and in single molecule cell biology. Force measurements are performed by converting the stiffness response to displacement of trapped transparent microspheres, employed as force transducers. Usually, calibration is indirect, by comparison with fluid drag forces. This can lead to discrepancies by sizable factors. Progress achieved in a program aiming at absolute calibration, conducted over the past 15 years, is briefly reviewed. Here we overcome its last major obstacle, a theoretical overestimation of the peak stiffness, within the most employed range for applications, and we perform experimental validation. The discrepancy is traced to the effect of primary aberrations of the optical system, which are now included in the theory. All required experimental parameters are readily accessible. Astigmatism, the dominant effect, is measured by analyzing reflected images of the focused laser spot, adapting frequently employed video microscopy techniques. Combined with interface spherical aberration, it reveals a previously unknown window of instability for trapping. Comparison with experimental data leads to an overall agreement within error bars, with no fitting, for a broad range of microsphere radii, from the Rayleigh regime to the ray optics one, for different polarizations and trapping heights, including all commonly employed parameter domains. Besides signaling full first-principles theoretical understanding of optical tweezers operation, the results may lead to improved instrument design and control over experiments, as well as to an extended domain of applicability, allowing reliable force measurements, in principle, from femtonewtons to nanonewtons.

  5. Absolute spectrophotometry of northern compact planetary nebulae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wright, S. A.; Corradi, R. L. M.; Perinotto, M.

    2005-06-01

    We present medium-dispersion spectra and narrowband images of six northern compact planetary nebulae (PNe): BoBn 1, DdDm 1, IC 5117, M 1-5, M 1-71, and NGC 6833. From broad-slit spectra, total absolute fluxes and equivalent widths were measured for all observable emission lines. High signal-to-noise emission line fluxes of Hα, Hβ, [Oiii], [Nii], and HeI may serve as emission line flux standards for northern hemisphere observers. From narrow-slit spectra, we derive systemic radial velocities. For four PNe, available emission line fluxes were measured with sufficient signal-to-noise to probe the physical properties of their electron densities, temperatures, and chemical abundances. BoBn 1 and DdDm 1, both type IV PNe, have an Hβ flux over three sigma away from previous measurements. We report the first abundance measurements of M 1-71. NGC 6833 measured radial velocity and galactic coordinates suggest that it is associated with the outer arm or possibly the galactic halo, and its low abundance ([O/H]=1.3× 10-4) may be indicative of low metallicity within that region.

  6. Absolute nuclear material assay using count distribution (LAMBDA) space

    DOEpatents

    Prasad, Mano K.; Snyderman, Neal J.; Rowland, Mark S.

    2015-12-01

    A method of absolute nuclear material assay of an unknown source comprising counting neutrons from the unknown source and providing an absolute nuclear material assay utilizing a model to optimally compare to the measured count distributions. In one embodiment, the step of providing an absolute nuclear material assay comprises utilizing a random sampling of analytically computed fission chain distributions to generate a continuous time-evolving sequence of event-counts by spreading the fission chain distribution in time.

  7. Absolute nuclear material assay using count distribution (LAMBDA) space

    DOEpatents

    Prasad, Manoj K.; Snyderman, Neal J.; Rowland, Mark S.

    2012-06-05

    A method of absolute nuclear material assay of an unknown source comprising counting neutrons from the unknown source and providing an absolute nuclear material assay utilizing a model to optimally compare to the measured count distributions. In one embodiment, the step of providing an absolute nuclear material assay comprises utilizing a random sampling of analytically computed fission chain distributions to generate a continuous time-evolving sequence of event-counts by spreading the fission chain distribution in time.

  8. The buffering capacity of lithospheric mantle: implications for diamond formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luth, Robert W.; Stachel, Thomas

    2014-11-01

    Current models for the formation of natural diamond involve either oxidation of a methane-bearing fluid by reaction with oxidized mantle, or reduction of a carbonate-bearing fluid (or melt) by reaction with reduced mantle. Implicit in both models is the ability of the mantle with which the fluid equilibrates to act as an oxidizing or reducing agent, or more simply, to act as a source or sink of O2. If only redox reactions involving iron are operating, the ability of mantle peridotite to fulfill this role in diamond formation may not be sufficient for either model to be viable. Using the recent experimental recalibration of olivine-orthopyroxene-garnet oxybarometers of Stagno et al. (2013), we re-evaluated the global database of ~200 garnet peridotite samples for which the requisite Fe3+/Fe2+ data for garnet exist. Relative to the previous calibration of Gudmundsson and Wood (1995), the new calibration yields somewhat more oxidized values of Δlog fO2 (FMQ), with the divergence increasing from <0.5 units of log fO2 at ~3 GPa to as much as 1.5 units at 5-6.5 GPa. Globally, there is a range of ~4 log units fO2 for samples from the diamond stability field at any given pressure. Most samples are sufficiently reduced such that diamond, rather than carbonate, would be stable, and CHO fluids at these conditions would be H2O-rich (>60 mol%), with CH4 being the next most abundant species. To ascertain the capacity for mantle peridotite to act as a source or sink of O2, we developed a new model to calculate the fO2 for a peridotite at a given P, T, and Fe3+/Fe2+. The results from this model predict 50 ppm or less O2 is required to shift a depleted mantle peridotite the observed four log units of fO2. Coupled with the observed distribution of samples at values of fO2 intermediate between the most reduced (metal-saturated) and most oxidized (carbonate-saturated) possible values for diamond stability, these results demonstrate that peridotites are very poor sinks or sources of O

  9. The absolute disparity anomaly and the mechanism of relative disparities.

    PubMed

    Chopin, Adrien; Levi, Dennis; Knill, David; Bavelier, Daphne

    2016-06-01

    There has been a long-standing debate about the mechanisms underlying the perception of stereoscopic depth and the computation of the relative disparities that it relies on. Relative disparities between visual objects could be computed in two ways: (a) using the difference in the object's absolute disparities (Hypothesis 1) or (b) using relative disparities based on the differences in the monocular separations between objects (Hypothesis 2). To differentiate between these hypotheses, we measured stereoscopic discrimination thresholds for lines with different absolute and relative disparities. Participants were asked to judge the depth of two lines presented at the same distance from the fixation plane (absolute disparity) or the depth between two lines presented at different distances (relative disparity). We used a single stimulus method involving a unique memory component for both conditions, and no extraneous references were available. We also measured vergence noise using Nonius lines. Stereo thresholds were substantially worse for absolute disparities than for relative disparities, and the difference could not be explained by vergence noise. We attribute this difference to an absence of conscious readout of absolute disparities, termed the absolute disparity anomaly. We further show that the pattern of correlations between vergence noise and absolute and relative disparity acuities can be explained jointly by the existence of the absolute disparity anomaly and by the assumption that relative disparity information is computed from absolute disparities (Hypothesis 1). PMID:27248566

  10. The absolute disparity anomaly and the mechanism of relative disparities

    PubMed Central

    Chopin, Adrien; Levi, Dennis; Knill, David; Bavelier, Daphne

    2016-01-01

    There has been a long-standing debate about the mechanisms underlying the perception of stereoscopic depth and the computation of the relative disparities that it relies on. Relative disparities between visual objects could be computed in two ways: (a) using the difference in the object's absolute disparities (Hypothesis 1) or (b) using relative disparities based on the differences in the monocular separations between objects (Hypothesis 2). To differentiate between these hypotheses, we measured stereoscopic discrimination thresholds for lines with different absolute and relative disparities. Participants were asked to judge the depth of two lines presented at the same distance from the fixation plane (absolute disparity) or the depth between two lines presented at different distances (relative disparity). We used a single stimulus method involving a unique memory component for both conditions, and no extraneous references were available. We also measured vergence noise using Nonius lines. Stereo thresholds were substantially worse for absolute disparities than for relative disparities, and the difference could not be explained by vergence noise. We attribute this difference to an absence of conscious readout of absolute disparities, termed the absolute disparity anomaly. We further show that the pattern of correlations between vergence noise and absolute and relative disparity acuities can be explained jointly by the existence of the absolute disparity anomaly and by the assumption that relative disparity information is computed from absolute disparities (Hypothesis 1). PMID:27248566

  11. Orion Absolute Navigation System Progress and Challenge

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holt, Greg N.; D'Souza, Christopher

    2012-01-01

    The absolute navigation design of NASA's Orion vehicle is described. It has undergone several iterations and modifications since its inception, and continues as a work-in-progress. This paper seeks to benchmark the current state of the design and some of the rationale and analysis behind it. There are specific challenges to address when preparing a timely and effective design for the Exploration Flight Test (EFT-1), while still looking ahead and providing software extensibility for future exploration missions. The primary onboard measurements in a Near-Earth or Mid-Earth environment consist of GPS pseudo-range and delta-range, but for future explorations missions the use of star-tracker and optical navigation sources need to be considered. Discussions are presented for state size and composition, processing techniques, and consider states. A presentation is given for the processing technique using the computationally stable and robust UDU formulation with an Agee-Turner Rank-One update. This allows for computational savings when dealing with many parameters which are modeled as slowly varying Gauss-Markov processes. Preliminary analysis shows up to a 50% reduction in computation versus a more traditional formulation. Several state elements are discussed and evaluated, including position, velocity, attitude, clock bias/drift, and GPS measurement biases in addition to bias, scale factor, misalignment, and non-orthogonalities of the accelerometers and gyroscopes. Another consideration is the initialization of the EKF in various scenarios. Scenarios such as single-event upset, ground command, and cold start are discussed as are strategies for whole and partial state updates as well as covariance considerations. Strategies are given for dealing with latent measurements and high-rate propagation using multi-rate architecture. The details of the rate groups and the data ow between the elements is discussed and evaluated.

  12. Evaluation of the Absolute Regional Temperature Potential

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shindell, D. T.

    2012-01-01

    The Absolute Regional Temperature Potential (ARTP) is one of the few climate metrics that provides estimates of impacts at a sub-global scale. The ARTP presented here gives the time-dependent temperature response in four latitude bands (90-28degS, 28degS-28degN, 28-60degN and 60-90degN) as a function of emissions based on the forcing in those bands caused by the emissions. It is based on a large set of simulations performed with a single atmosphere-ocean climate model to derive regional forcing/response relationships. Here I evaluate the robustness of those relationships using the forcing/response portion of the ARTP to estimate regional temperature responses to the historic aerosol forcing in three independent climate models. These ARTP results are in good accord with the actual responses in those models. Nearly all ARTP estimates fall within +/-20%of the actual responses, though there are some exceptions for 90-28degS and the Arctic, and in the latter the ARTP may vary with forcing agent. However, for the tropics and the Northern Hemisphere mid-latitudes in particular, the +/-20% range appears to be roughly consistent with the 95% confidence interval. Land areas within these two bands respond 39-45% and 9-39% more than the latitude band as a whole. The ARTP, presented here in a slightly revised form, thus appears to provide a relatively robust estimate for the responses of large-scale latitude bands and land areas within those bands to inhomogeneous radiative forcing and thus potentially to emissions as well. Hence this metric could allow rapid evaluation of the effects of emissions policies at a finer scale than global metrics without requiring use of a full climate model.

  13. Absolute optical surface measurement with deflectometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Wansong; Sandner, Marc; Gesierich, Achim; Burke, Jan

    Deflectometry utilises the deformation and displacement of a sample pattern after reflection from a test surface to infer the surface slopes. Differentiation of the measurement data leads to a curvature map, which is very useful for surface quality checks with sensitivity down to the nanometre range. Integration of the data allows reconstruction of the absolute surface shape, but the procedure is very error-prone because systematic errors may add up to large shape deviations. In addition, there are infinitely many combinations for slope and object distance that satisfy a given observation. One solution for this ambiguity is to include information on the object's distance. It must be known very accurately. Two laser pointers can be used for positioning the object, and we also show how a confocal chromatic distance sensor can be used to define a reference point on a smooth surface from which the integration can be started. The used integration algorithm works without symmetry constraints and is therefore suitable for free-form surfaces as well. Unlike null testing, deflectometry also determines radius of curvature (ROC) or focal lengths as a direct result of the 3D surface reconstruction. This is shown by the example of a 200 mm diameter telescope mirror, whose ROC measurements by coordinate measurement machine and deflectometry coincide to within 0.27 mm (or a sag error of 1.3μm). By the example of a diamond-turned off-axis parabolic mirror, we demonstrate that the figure measurement uncertainty comes close to a well-calibrated Fizeau interferometer.

  14. Absolute determination of local tropospheric OH concentrations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Armerding, Wolfgang; Comes, Franz-Josef

    1994-01-01

    Long path absorption (LPA) according to Lambert Beer's law is a method to determine absolute concentrations of trace gases such as tropospheric OH. We have developed a LPA instrument which is based on a rapid tuning of the light source which is a frequency doubled dye laser. The laser is tuned across two or three OH absorption features around 308 nm with a scanning speed of 0.07 cm(exp -1)/microsecond and a repetition rate of 1.3 kHz. This high scanning speed greatly reduces the fluctuation of the light intensity caused by the atmosphere. To obtain the required high sensitivity the laser output power is additionally made constant and stabilized by an electro-optical modulator. The present sensitivity is of the order of a few times 10(exp 5) OH per cm(exp 3) for an acquisition time of a minute and an absorption path length of only 1200 meters so that a folding of the optical path in a multireflection cell was possible leading to a lateral dimension of the cell of a few meters. This allows local measurements to be made. Tropospheric measurements have been carried out in 1991 resulting in the determination of OH diurnal variation at specific days in late summer. Comparison with model calculations have been made. Interferences are mainly due to SO2 absorption. The problem of OH self generation in the multireflection cell is of minor extent. This could be shown by using different experimental methods. The minimum-maximum signal to noise ratio is about 8 x 10(exp -4) for a single scan. Due to the small size of the absorption cell the realization of an open air laboratory is possible in which by use of an additional UV light source or by additional fluxes of trace gases the chemistry can be changed under controlled conditions allowing kinetic studies of tropospheric photochemistry to be made in open air.

  15. Absolute Radiometric Calibration of KOMPSAT-3A

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahn, H. Y.; Shin, D. Y.; Kim, J. S.; Seo, D. C.; Choi, C. U.

    2016-06-01

    This paper presents a vicarious radiometric calibration of the Korea Multi-Purpose Satellite-3A (KOMPSAT-3A) performed by the Korea Aerospace Research Institute (KARI) and the Pukyong National University Remote Sensing Group (PKNU RSG) in 2015.The primary stages of this study are summarized as follows: (1) A field campaign to determine radiometric calibrated target fields was undertaken in Mongolia and South Korea. Surface reflectance data obtained in the campaign were input to a radiative transfer code that predicted at-sensor radiance. Through this process, equations and parameters were derived for the KOMPSAT-3A sensor to enable the conversion of calibrated DN to physical units, such as at-sensor radiance or TOA reflectance. (2) To validate the absolute calibration coefficients for the KOMPSAT-3A sensor, we performed a radiometric validation with a comparison of KOMPSAT-3A and Landsat-8 TOA reflectance using one of the six PICS (Libya 4). Correlations between top-of-atmosphere (TOA) radiances and the spectral band responses of the KOMPSAT-3A sensors at the Zuunmod, Mongolia and Goheung, South Korea sites were significant for multispectral bands. The average difference in TOA reflectance between KOMPSAT-3A and Landsat-8 image over the Libya 4, Libya site in the red-green-blue (RGB) region was under 3%, whereas in the NIR band, the TOA reflectance of KOMPSAT-3A was lower than the that of Landsat-8 due to the difference in the band passes of two sensors. The KOMPSAT-3Aensor includes a band pass near 940 nm that can be strongly absorbed by water vapor and therefore displayed low reflectance. Toovercome this, we need to undertake a detailed analysis using rescale methods, such as the spectral bandwidth adjustment factor.

  16. Mid-infrared absolute spectral responsivity scale based on an absolute cryogenic radiometer and an optical parametric oscillator laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Kun; Shi, Xueshun; Chen, Haidong; Liu, Yulong; Liu, Changming; Chen, Kunfeng; Li, Ligong; Gan, Haiyong; Ma, Chong

    2016-06-01

    We are reporting on a laser-based absolute spectral responsivity scale in the mid-infrared spectral range. By using a mid-infrared tunable optical parametric oscillator as the laser source, the absolute responsivity scale has been established by calibrating thin-film thermopile detectors against an absolute cryogenic radiometer. The thin-film thermopile detectors can be then used as transfer standard detectors. The extended uncertainty of the absolute spectral responsivity measurement has been analyzed to be 0.58%–0.68% (k  =  2).

  17. Development of a graphite probe calorimeter for absolute clinical dosimetry

    SciTech Connect

    Renaud, James; Seuntjens, Jan; Sarfehnia, Arman; Marchington, David

    2013-02-15

    The aim of this work is to present the numerical design optimization, construction, and experimental proof of concept of a graphite probe calorimeter (GPC) conceived for dose measurement in the clinical environment (U.S. provisional patent 61/652,540). A finite element method (FEM) based numerical heat transfer study was conducted using a commercial software package to explore the feasibility of the GPC and to optimize the shape, dimensions, and materials used in its design. A functioning prototype was constructed inhouse and used to perform dose to water measurements under a 6 MV photon beam at 400 and 1000 MU/min, in a thermally insulated water phantom. Heat loss correction factors were determined using FEM analysis while the radiation field perturbation and the graphite to water absorbed dose conversion factors were calculated using Monte Carlo simulations. The difference in the average measured dose to water for the 400 and 1000 MU/min runs using the TG-51 protocol and the GPC was 0.2% and 1.2%, respectively. Heat loss correction factors ranged from 1.001 to 1.002, while the product of the perturbation and dose conversion factors was calculated to be 1.130. The combined relative uncertainty was estimated to be 1.4%, with the largest contributors being the specific heat capacity of the graphite (type B, 0.8%) and the reproducibility, defined as the standard deviation of the mean measured dose (type A, 0.6%). By establishing the feasibility of using the GPC as a practical clinical absolute photon dosimeter, this work lays the foundation for further device enhancements, including the development of an isothermal mode of operation and an overall miniaturization, making it potentially suitable for use in small and composite radiation fields. It is anticipated that, through the incorporation of isothermal stabilization provided by temperature controllers, a subpercent overall uncertainty will be achieved.

  18. Study of the absolute bioavailability of citrocard, a new GABA derivative.

    PubMed

    Smirnova, L A; Perfilova, V N; Tyurenkov, I N; Ryabukha, A F; Suchkov, E A; Lebedeva, S A

    2013-08-01

    The main pharmacokinetic parameters attest to short elimination half-life and mean retention time of a single citrocard molecule. The average rate of plasma concentration decrease of the compound determined small area under the pharmacokinetic curve. Steady-state distribution volume was low and only slightly surpassed the volume of extracellular body fluids in rat, which indicated moderate capacity of citrocard to distribution and accumulation in the tissues, which is seen from low systemic clearance (Cl) despite the quick elimination of the compound. Absolute bioavailability was 64%. PMID:24143367

  19. Supplementary and Enrichment Series: Absolute Value. Teachers' Commentary. SP-25.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bridgess, M. Philbrick, Ed.

    This is one in a series of manuals for teachers using SMSG high school supplementary materials. The pamphlet includes commentaries on the sections of the student's booklet, answers to the exercises, and sample test questions. Topics covered include addition and multiplication in terms of absolute value, graphs of absolute value in the Cartesian…

  20. Supplementary and Enrichment Series: Absolute Value. SP-24.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bridgess, M. Philbrick, Ed.

    This is one in a series of SMSG supplementary and enrichment pamphlets for high school students. This series is designed to make material for the study of topics of special interest to students readily accessible in classroom quantity. Topics covered include absolute value, addition and multiplication in terms of absolute value, graphs of absolute…

  1. Novalis' Poetic Uncertainty: A "Bildung" with the Absolute

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mika, Carl

    2016-01-01

    Novalis, the Early German Romantic poet and philosopher, had at the core of his work a mysterious depiction of the "absolute." The absolute is Novalis' name for a substance that defies precise knowledge yet calls for a tentative and sensitive speculation. How one asserts a truth, represents an object, and sets about encountering things…

  2. Absolute Humidity and the Seasonality of Influenza (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shaman, J. L.; Pitzer, V.; Viboud, C.; Grenfell, B.; Goldstein, E.; Lipsitch, M.

    2010-12-01

    Much of the observed wintertime increase of mortality in temperate regions is attributed to seasonal influenza. A recent re-analysis of laboratory experiments indicates that absolute humidity strongly modulates the airborne survival and transmission of the influenza virus. Here we show that the onset of increased wintertime influenza-related mortality in the United States is associated with anomalously low absolute humidity levels during the prior weeks. We then use an epidemiological model, in which observed absolute humidity conditions temper influenza transmission rates, to successfully simulate the seasonal cycle of observed influenza-related mortality. The model results indicate that direct modulation of influenza transmissibility by absolute humidity alone is sufficient to produce this observed seasonality. These findings provide epidemiological support for the hypothesis that absolute humidity drives seasonal variations of influenza transmission in temperate regions. In addition, we show that variations of the basic and effective reproductive numbers for influenza, caused by seasonal changes in absolute humidity, are consistent with the general timing of pandemic influenza outbreaks observed for 2009 A/H1N1 in temperate regions. Indeed, absolute humidity conditions correctly identify the region of the United States vulnerable to a third, wintertime wave of pandemic influenza. These findings suggest that the timing of pandemic influenza outbreaks is controlled by a combination of absolute humidity conditions, levels of susceptibility and changes in population mixing and contact rates.

  3. Absolute radiometric calibration of advanced remote sensing systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Slater, P. N.

    1982-01-01

    The distinction between the uses of relative and absolute spectroradiometric calibration of remote sensing systems is discussed. The advantages of detector-based absolute calibration are described, and the categories of relative and absolute system calibrations are listed. The limitations and problems associated with three common methods used for the absolute calibration of remote sensing systems are addressed. Two methods are proposed for the in-flight absolute calibration of advanced multispectral linear array systems. One makes use of a sun-illuminated panel in front of the sensor, the radiance of which is monitored by a spectrally flat pyroelectric radiometer. The other uses a large, uniform, high-radiance reference ground surface. The ground and atmospheric measurements required as input to a radiative transfer program to predict the radiance level at the entrance pupil of the orbital sensor are discussed, and the ground instrumentation is described.

  4. Testing the quasi-absolute method in photon activation analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Sun, Z. J.; Wells, D.; Starovoitova, V.; Segebade, C.

    2013-04-19

    In photon activation analysis (PAA), relative methods are widely used because of their accuracy and precision. Absolute methods, which are conducted without any assistance from calibration materials, are seldom applied for the difficulty in obtaining photon flux in measurements. This research is an attempt to perform a new absolute approach in PAA - quasi-absolute method - by retrieving photon flux in the sample through Monte Carlo simulation. With simulated photon flux and database of experimental cross sections, it is possible to calculate the concentration of target elements in the sample directly. The QA/QC procedures to solidify the research are discussed in detail. Our results show that the accuracy of the method for certain elements is close to a useful level in practice. Furthermore, the future results from the quasi-absolute method can also serve as a validation technique for experimental data on cross sections. The quasi-absolute method looks promising.

  5. Learning in the temporal bisection task: Relative or absolute?

    PubMed

    de Carvalho, Marilia Pinheiro; Machado, Armando; Tonneau, François

    2016-01-01

    We examined whether temporal learning in a bisection task is absolute or relational. Eight pigeons learned to choose a red key after a t-seconds sample and a green key after a 3t-seconds sample. To determine whether they had learned a relative mapping (short→Red, long→Green) or an absolute mapping (t-seconds→Red, 3t-seconds→Green), the pigeons then learned a series of new discriminations in which either the relative or the absolute mapping was maintained. Results showed that the generalization gradient obtained at the end of a discrimination predicted the pattern of choices made during the first session of a new discrimination. Moreover, most acquisition curves and generalization gradients were consistent with the predictions of the learning-to-time model, a Spencean model that instantiates absolute learning with temporal generalization. In the bisection task, the basis of temporal discrimination seems to be absolute, not relational. PMID:26752233

  6. On Gaussian feedback capacity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dembo, Amir

    1989-01-01

    Pinsker and Ebert (1970) proved that in channels with additive Gaussian noise, feedback at most doubles the capacity. Cover and Pombra (1989) proved that feedback at most adds half a bit per transmission. Following their approach, the author proves that in the limit as signal power approaches either zero (very low SNR) or infinity (very high SNR), feedback does not increase the finite block-length capacity (which for nonstationary Gaussian channels replaces the standard notion of capacity that may not exist). Tighter upper bounds on the capacity are obtained in the process. Specializing these results to stationary channels, the author recovers some of the bounds recently obtained by Ozarow.

  7. Heat Capacity Analysis Report

    SciTech Connect

    A. Findikakis

    2004-11-01

    The purpose of this report is to provide heat capacity values for the host and surrounding rock layers for the waste repository at Yucca Mountain. The heat capacity representations provided by this analysis are used in unsaturated zone (UZ) flow, transport, and coupled processes numerical modeling activities, and in thermal analyses as part of the design of the repository to support the license application. Among the reports that use the heat capacity values estimated in this report are the ''Multiscale Thermohydrologic Model'' report, the ''Drift Degradation Analysis'' report, the ''Ventilation Model and Analysis Report, the Igneous Intrusion Impacts on Waste Packages and Waste Forms'' report, the ''Dike/Drift Interactions report, the Drift-Scale Coupled Processes (DST and TH Seepage) Models'' report, and the ''In-Drift Natural Convection and Condensation'' report. The specific objective of this study is to determine the rock-grain and rock-mass heat capacities for the geologic stratigraphy identified in the ''Mineralogic Model (MM3.0) Report'' (BSC 2004 [DIRS 170031], Table 1-1). This report provides estimates of the heat capacity for all stratigraphic layers except the Paleozoic, for which the mineralogic abundance data required to estimate the heat capacity are not available. The temperature range of interest in this analysis is 25 C to 325 C. This interval is broken into three separate temperature sub-intervals: 25 C to 95 C, 95 C to 114 C, and 114 C to 325 C, which correspond to the preboiling, trans-boiling, and postboiling regimes. Heat capacity is defined as the amount of energy required to raise the temperature of a unit mass of material by one degree (Nimick and Connolly 1991 [DIRS 100690], p. 5). The rock-grain heat capacity is defined as the heat capacity of the rock solids (minerals), and does not include the effect of water that exists in the rock pores. By comparison, the rock-mass heat capacity considers the heat capacity of both solids and pore

  8. Variable capacity gasification burner

    SciTech Connect

    Saxon, D.I.

    1985-03-05

    A variable capacity burner that may be used in gasification processes, the burner being adjustable when operating in its intended operating environment to operate at two different flow capacities, with the adjustable parts being dynamically sealed within a statically sealed structural arrangement to prevent dangerous blow-outs of the reactants to the atmosphere.

  9. Liquid heat capacity lasers

    DOEpatents

    Comaskey, Brian J.; Scheibner, Karl F.; Ault, Earl R.

    2007-05-01

    The heat capacity laser concept is extended to systems in which the heat capacity lasing media is a liquid. The laser active liquid is circulated from a reservoir (where the bulk of the media and hence waste heat resides) through a channel so configured for both optical pumping of the media for gain and for light amplification from the resulting gain.

  10. Problems of Excess Capacity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Douglas, G.

    1972-01-01

    The problems of excess capacity in the airline industry are discussed with focus on the following topics: load factors; fair rate of return on investment; service-quality rivalry among airlines; pricing (fare) policies; aircraft production; and the impacts of excess capacity on operating costs. Also included is a discussion of the interrelationships among these topics.

  11. Who needs capacity?

    PubMed

    Buchanan, Alec

    2015-01-01

    The UK Law Commission's Discussion Paper, Criminal Liability: Insanity and Automatism, recommends introducing the concept of capacity to the insanity defence. The concept of capacity has an established role in those parts of the law that concern the validity of the decisions that people make, for instance in composing a will or entering into a contract. Making mental capacity a criterion for criminal responsibility in a mentally disordered defendant, however, is potentially problematic. First, the term capacity already has several different meanings in the literature on the jurisprudence of mental abnormality. Second, using the concept of capacity in the way that the Law Commission proposes poses difficulties that relate to the provision of testimony by expert witnesses. PMID:25939285

  12. Nanofluid heat capacities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Starace, Anne K.; Gomez, Judith C.; Wang, Jun; Pradhan, Sulolit; Glatzmaier, Greg C.

    2011-12-01

    Significant increases in the heat capacity of heat transfer fluids are needed not only to reduce the costs of liquid heating and cooling processes, but also to bring clean energy producing technologies like concentrating solar power (CSP) to price parity with conventional energy generation. It has been postulated that nanofluids could have higher heat capacities than conventional fluids. In this work, nano- and micron-sized particles were added to five base fluids (poly-α olefin, mineral oil, ethylene glycol, a mixture of water and ethylene glycol, and calcium nitrate tetrahydrate), and the resulting heat capacities were measured and compared with those of the neat base fluids and the weighted average of the heat capacities of the components. The particles used were inert metals and metal oxides that did not undergo any phase transitions over the temperature range studied. In the nanofluids studied here, we found no increase in heat capacity upon the addition of the particles larger than the experimental error.

  13. Mini-implants and miniplates generate sub-absolute and absolute anchorage

    PubMed Central

    Consolaro, Alberto

    2014-01-01

    The functional demand imposed on bone promotes changes in the spatial properties of osteocytes as well as in their extensions uniformly distributed throughout the mineralized surface. Once spatial deformation is established, osteocytes create the need for structural adaptations that result in bone formation and resorption that happen to meet the functional demands. The endosteum and the periosteum are the effectors responsible for stimulating adaptive osteocytes in the inner and outer surfaces.Changes in shape, volume and position of the jaws as a result of skeletal correction of the maxilla and mandible require anchorage to allow bone remodeling to redefine morphology, esthetics and function as a result of spatial deformation conducted by orthodontic appliances. Examining the degree of changes in shape, volume and structural relationship of areas where mini-implants and miniplates are placed allows us to classify mini-implants as devices of subabsolute anchorage and miniplates as devices of absolute anchorage. PMID:25162561

  14. Absolute brightness temperature measurements at 2.1-mm wavelength

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ulich, B. L.

    1974-01-01

    Absolute measurements of the brightness temperatures of the Sun, new Moon, Venus, Mars, Jupiter, Saturn, and Uranus, and of the flux density of DR21 at 2.1-mm wavelength are reported. Relative measurements at 3.5-mm wavelength are also preented which resolve the absolute calibration discrepancy between The University of Texas 16-ft radio telescope and the Aerospace Corporation 15-ft antenna. The use of the bright planets and DR21 as absolute calibration sources at millimeter wavelengths is discussed in the light of recent observations.

  15. Absolute Antenna Calibration at the US National Geodetic Survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mader, G. L.; Bilich, A. L.

    2012-12-01

    Geodetic GNSS applications routinely demand millimeter precision and extremely high levels of accuracy. To achieve these accuracies, measurement and instrument biases at the centimeter to millimeter level must be understood. One of these biases is the antenna phase center, the apparent point of signal reception for a GNSS antenna. It has been well established that phase center patterns differ between antenna models and manufacturers; additional research suggests that the addition of a radome or the choice of antenna mount can significantly alter those a priori phase center patterns. For the more demanding GNSS positioning applications and especially in cases of mixed-antenna networks, it is all the more important to know antenna phase center variations as a function of both elevation and azimuth in the antenna reference frame and incorporate these models into analysis software. Determination of antenna phase center behavior is known as "antenna calibration". Since 1994, NGS has computed relative antenna calibrations for more than 350 antennas. In recent years, the geodetic community has moved to absolute calibrations - the IGS adopted absolute antenna phase center calibrations in 2006 for use in their orbit and clock products, and NGS's CORS group began using absolute antenna calibration upon the release of the new CORS coordinates in IGS08 epoch 2005.00 and NAD 83(2011,MA11,PA11) epoch 2010.00. Although NGS relative calibrations can be and have been converted to absolute, it is considered best practice to independently measure phase center characteristics in an absolute sense. Consequently, NGS has developed and operates an absolute calibration system. These absolute antenna calibrations accommodate the demand for greater accuracy and for 2-dimensional (elevation and azimuth) parameterization. NGS will continue to provide calibration values via the NGS web site www.ngs.noaa.gov/ANTCAL, and will publish calibrations in the ANTEX format as well as the legacy ANTINFO

  16. Direct comparisons between absolute and relative geomagnetic paleointensities: Absolute calibration of a relative paleointensity stack

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mochizuki, N.; Yamamoto, Y.; Hatakeyama, T.; Shibuya, H.

    2013-12-01

    Absolute geomagnetic paleointensities (APIs) have been estimated from igneous rocks, while relative paleomagnetic intensities (RPIs) have been reported from sediment cores. These two datasets have been treated separately, as correlations between APIs and RPIs are difficult on account of age uncertainties. High-resolution RPI stacks have been constructed from globally distributed sediment cores with high sedimentation rates. Previous studies often assumed that the RPI stacks have a linear relationship with geomagnetic axial dipole moments, and calibrated the RPI values to API values. However, the assumption of a linear relationship between APIs and RPIs has not been evaluated. Also, a quantitative calibration method for the RPI is lacking. We present a procedure for directly comparing API and RPI stacks, thus allowing reliable calibrations of RPIs. Direct comparisons between APIs and RPIs were conducted with virtually no associated age errors using both tephrochronologic correlations and RPI minima. Using the stratigraphic positions of tephra layers in oxygen isotope stratigraphic records, we directly compared the RPIs and APIs reported from welded tuffs contemporaneously extruded with the tephra layers. In addition, RPI minima during geomagnetic reversals and excursions were compared with APIs corresponding to the reversals and excursions. The comparison of APIs and RPIs at these exact points allowed a reliable calibration of the RPI values. We applied this direct comparison procedure to the global RPI stack PISO-1500. For six independent calibration points, virtual axial dipole moments (VADMs) from the corresponding APIs and RPIs of the PISO-1500 stack showed a near-linear relationship. On the basis of the linear relationship, RPIs of the stack were successfully calibrated to the VADMs. The direct comparison procedure provides an absolute calibration method that will contribute to the recovery of temporal variations and distributions of geomagnetic axial dipole

  17. Absolute calibration of sniffer probes on Wendelstein 7-X.

    PubMed

    Moseev, D; Laqua, H P; Marsen, S; Stange, T; Braune, H; Erckmann, V; Gellert, F; Oosterbeek, J W

    2016-08-01

    Here we report the first measurements of the power levels of stray radiation in the vacuum vessel of Wendelstein 7-X using absolutely calibrated sniffer probes. The absolute calibration is achieved by using calibrated sources of stray radiation and the implicit measurement of the quality factor of the Wendelstein 7-X empty vacuum vessel. Normalized absolute calibration coefficients agree with the cross-calibration coefficients that are obtained by the direct measurements, indicating that the measured absolute calibration coefficients and stray radiation levels in the vessel are valid. Close to the launcher, the stray radiation in the empty vessel reaches power levels up to 340 kW/m(2) per MW injected beam power. Furthest away from the launcher, i.e., half a toroidal turn, still 90 kW/m(2) per MW injected beam power is measured. PMID:27587121

  18. Absolute Value Boundedness, Operator Decomposition, and Stochastic Media and Equations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Adomian, G.; Miao, C. C.

    1973-01-01

    The research accomplished during this period is reported. Published abstracts and technical reports are listed. Articles presented include: boundedness of absolute values of generalized Fourier coefficients, propagation in stochastic media, and stationary conditions for stochastic differential equations.

  19. The conditions of absolute summability of multiple trigonometric series

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bitimkhan, Samat; Akishev, Gabdolla

    2015-09-01

    In this work necessary and sufficient conditions of absolute summability of multiple trigonometric Fourier series of functions from anisotropic spaces of Lebesque are found in terms of its best approximation, the module of smoothness and the mixed smoothness module.

  20. Absolute calibration of sniffer probes on Wendelstein 7-X

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moseev, D.; Laqua, H. P.; Marsen, S.; Stange, T.; Braune, H.; Erckmann, V.; Gellert, F.; Oosterbeek, J. W.

    2016-08-01

    Here we report the first measurements of the power levels of stray radiation in the vacuum vessel of Wendelstein 7-X using absolutely calibrated sniffer probes. The absolute calibration is achieved by using calibrated sources of stray radiation and the implicit measurement of the quality factor of the Wendelstein 7-X empty vacuum vessel. Normalized absolute calibration coefficients agree with the cross-calibration coefficients that are obtained by the direct measurements, indicating that the measured absolute calibration coefficients and stray radiation levels in the vessel are valid. Close to the launcher, the stray radiation in the empty vessel reaches power levels up to 340 kW/m2 per MW injected beam power. Furthest away from the launcher, i.e., half a toroidal turn, still 90 kW/m2 per MW injected beam power is measured.

  1. Absolute and Convective Instability of a Liquid Jet in Microgravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lin, Sung P.; Vihinen, I.; Honohan, A.; Hudman, Michael D.

    1996-01-01

    The transition from convective to absolute instability is observed in the 2.2 second drop tower of the NASA Lewis Research Center. In convective instability the disturbance grows spatially as it is convected downstream. In absolute instability the disturbance propagates both downstream and upstream, and manifests itself as an expanding sphere. The transition Reynolds numbers are determined for two different Weber numbers by use of Glycerin and a Silicone oil. Preliminary comparisons with theory are made.

  2. Absolute biphoton meter of the quantum efficiency of photomultipliers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ginzburg, V. M.; Keratishvili, N. G.; Korzhenevich, E. L.; Lunev, G. V.; Sapritskii, V. I.

    1992-07-01

    An biphoton absolute meter of photomultiplier quantum efficiency is presented which is based on spontaneous parametric down-conversion. Calculation and experiment results were obtained which made it possible to choose the parameters of the setup that guarantee a linear dependence of wavelength on the Z coordinate (along the axicon axis). Results of a series of absolute measurements of the quantum efficiency of a specific photomultiplier (FEU-136) are presented.

  3. Absolute/convective instability of planar viscoelastic jets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ray, Prasun K.; Zaki, Tamer A.

    2015-01-01

    Spatiotemporal linear stability analysis is used to investigate the onset of local absolute instability in planar viscoelastic jets. The influence of viscoelasticity in dilute polymer solutions is modeled with the FENE-P constitutive equation which requires the specification of a non-dimensional polymer relaxation time (the Weissenberg number, We), the maximum polymer extensibility, L, and the ratio of solvent and solution viscosities, β. A two-parameter family of velocity profiles is used as the base state with the parameter, S, controlling the amount of co- or counter-flow while N-1 sets the thickness of the jet shear layer. We examine how the variation of these fluid and flow parameters affects the minimum value of S at which the flow becomes locally absolutely unstable. Initially setting the Reynolds number to Re = 500, we find that the first varicose jet-column mode dictates the presence of absolute instability, and increasing the Weissenberg number produces important changes in the nature of the instability. The region of absolute instability shifts towards thin shear layers, and the amount of back-flow needed for absolute instability decreases (i.e., the influence of viscoelasticity is destabilizing). Additionally, when We is sufficiently large and N-1 is sufficiently small, single-stream jets become absolutely unstable. Numerical experiments with approximate equations show that both the polymer and solvent contributions to the stress become destabilizing when the scaled shear rate, η = /W e dU¯1/dx 2L ( /d U ¯ 1 d x 2 is the base-state velocity gradient), is sufficiently large. These qualitative trends are largely unchanged when the Reynolds number is reduced; however, the relative importance of the destabilizing stresses increases tangibly. Consequently, absolute instability is substantially enhanced, and single-stream jets become absolutely unstable over a sizable portion of the parameter space.

  4. Refinery Capacity Report

    EIA Publications

    2016-01-01

    Data series include fuel, electricity, and steam purchased for consumption at the refinery; refinery receipts of crude oil by method of transportation; and current and projected atmospheric crude oil distillation, downstream charge, and production capacities. Respondents are operators of all operating and idle petroleum refineries (including new refineries under construction) and refineries shut down during the previous year, located in the 50 states, the District of Columbia, Puerto Rico, the Virgin Islands, Guam, and other U.S. possessions. The Refinery Capacity Report does not contain working and shell storage capacity data. This data is now being collected twice a year as of March 31 and September 30 on the Form EIA-810, "Monthly Refinery Report", and is now released as a separate report Working and Net Available Shell Storage Capacity.

  5. Knudsen heat capacity

    SciTech Connect

    Babac, Gulru; Reese, Jason M.

    2014-05-15

    We present a “Knudsen heat capacity” as a more appropriate and useful fluid property in micro/nanoscale gas systems than the constant pressure heat capacity. At these scales, different fluid processes come to the fore that are not normally observed at the macroscale. For thermodynamic analyses that include these Knudsen processes, using the Knudsen heat capacity can be more effective and physical. We calculate this heat capacity theoretically for non-ideal monatomic and diatomic gases, in particular, helium, nitrogen, and hydrogen. The quantum modification for para and ortho hydrogen is also considered. We numerically model the Knudsen heat capacity using molecular dynamics simulations for the considered gases, and compare these results with the theoretical ones.

  6. Refinery Capacity Report

    EIA Publications

    2015-01-01

    Data series include fuel, electricity, and steam purchased for consumption at the refinery; refinery receipts of crude oil by method of transportation; and current and projected atmospheric crude oil distillation, downstream charge, and production capacities. Respondents are operators of all operating and idle petroleum refineries (including new refineries under construction) and refineries shut down during the previous year, located in the 50 states, the District of Columbia, Puerto Rico, the Virgin Islands, Guam, and other U.S. possessions. The Refinery Capacity Report does not contain working and shell storage capacity data. This data is now being collected twice a year as of March 31 and September 30 on the Form EIA-810, "Monthly Refinery Report", and is now released as a separate report Working and Net Available Shell Storage Capacity.

  7. Global absolut gravity reference system as replacement of IGSN 71

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilmes, Herbert; Wziontek, Hartmut; Falk, Reinhard

    2015-04-01

    The determination of precise gravity field parameters is of great importance in a period in which earth sciences are achieving the necessary accuracy to monitor and document global change processes. This is the reason why experts from geodesy and metrology joined in a successful cooperation to make absolute gravity observations traceable to SI quantities, to improve the metrological kilogram definition and to monitor mass movements and smallest height changes for geodetic and geophysical applications. The international gravity datum is still defined by the International Gravity Standardization Net adopted in 1971 (IGSN 71). The network is based upon pendulum and spring gravimeter observations taken in the 1950s and 60s supported by the early free fall absolute gravimeters. Its gravity values agreed in every case to better than 0.1 mGal. Today, more than 100 absolute gravimeters are in use worldwide. The series of repeated international comparisons confirms the traceability of absolute gravity measurements to SI quantities and confirm the degree of equivalence of the gravimeters in the order of a few µGal. For applications in geosciences where e.g. gravity changes over time need to be analyzed, the temporal stability of an absolute gravimeter is most important. Therefore, the proposition is made to replace the IGSN 71 by an up-to-date gravity reference system which is based upon repeated absolute gravimeter comparisons and a global network of well controlled gravity reference stations.

  8. Revisiting absolute and relative judgments in the WITNESS model.

    PubMed

    Fife, Dustin; Perry, Colton; Gronlund, Scott D

    2014-04-01

    The WITNESS model (Clark in Applied Cognitive Psychology 17:629-654, 2003) provides a theoretical framework with which to investigate the factors that contribute to eyewitness identification decisions. One key factor involves the contributions of absolute versus relative judgments. An absolute contribution is determined by the degree of match between an individual lineup member and memory for the perpetrator; a relative contribution involves the degree to which the best-matching lineup member is a better match to memory than the remaining lineup members. In WITNESS, the proportional contributions of relative versus absolute judgments are governed by the values of the decision weight parameters. We conducted an exploration of the WITNESS model's parameter space to determine the identifiability of these relative/absolute decision weight parameters, and compared the results to a restricted version of the model that does not vary the decision weight parameters. This exploration revealed that the decision weights in WITNESS are difficult to identify: Data often can be fit equally well by setting the decision weights to nearly any value and compensating with a criterion adjustment. Clark, Erickson, and Breneman (Law and Human Behavior 35:364-380, 2011) claimed to demonstrate a theoretical basis for the superiority of lineup decisions that are based on absolute contributions, but the relationship between the decision weights and the criterion weakens this claim. These findings necessitate reconsidering the role of the relative/absolute judgment distinction in eyewitness decision making. PMID:23943556

  9. Forward capacity market CONEfusion

    SciTech Connect

    Wilson, James F.

    2010-11-15

    In ISO New England and PJM it was assumed that sponsors of new capacity projects would offer them into the newly established forward centralized capacity markets at prices based on their levelized net cost of new entry, or ''Net CONE.'' But the FCCMs have not operated in the way their proponents had expected. To clear up the CONEfusion, FCCM designs should be reconsidered to adapt them to the changing circumstances and to be grounded in realistic expectations of market conduct. (author)

  10. Panama Canal capacity analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Bronzini, M.S.

    1995-04-27

    Predicting the transit capacities of the various Panama Canal alternatives required analyzing data on present Canal operations, adapting and extending an existing computer simulation model, performing simulation runs for each of the alternatives, and using the simulation model outputs to develop capacity estimates. These activities are summarized in this paper. A more complete account may be found in the project final report (TAMS 1993). Some of the material in this paper also appeared in a previously published paper (Rosselli, Bronzini, and Weekly 1994).

  11. Uncertainty in adaptive capacity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adger, W. Neil; Vincent, Katharine

    2005-03-01

    The capacity to adapt is a critical element of the process of adaptation: it is the vector of resources that represent the asset base from which adaptation actions can be made. Adaptive capacity can in theory be identified and measured at various scales, from the individual to the nation. The assessment of uncertainty within such measures comes from the contested knowledge domain and theories surrounding the nature of the determinants of adaptive capacity and the human action of adaptation. While generic adaptive capacity at the national level, for example, is often postulated as being dependent on health, governance and political rights, and literacy, and economic well-being, the determinants of these variables at national levels are not widely understood. We outline the nature of this uncertainty for the major elements of adaptive capacity and illustrate these issues with the example of a social vulnerability index for countries in Africa. To cite this article: W.N. Adger, K. Vincent, C. R. Geoscience 337 (2005).

  12. Capacity Maximizing Constellations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barsoum, Maged; Jones, Christopher

    2010-01-01

    Some non-traditional signal constellations have been proposed for transmission of data over the Additive White Gaussian Noise (AWGN) channel using such channel-capacity-approaching codes as low-density parity-check (LDPC) or turbo codes. Computational simulations have shown performance gains of more than 1 dB over traditional constellations. These gains could be translated to bandwidth- efficient communications, variously, over longer distances, using less power, or using smaller antennas. The proposed constellations have been used in a bit-interleaved coded modulation system employing state-ofthe-art LDPC codes. In computational simulations, these constellations were shown to afford performance gains over traditional constellations as predicted by the gap between the parallel decoding capacity of the constellations and the Gaussian capacity

  13. Geothermal Plant Capacity Factors

    SciTech Connect

    Greg Mines; Jay Nathwani; Christopher Richard; Hillary Hanson; Rachel Wood

    2015-01-01

    The capacity factors recently provided by the Energy Information Administration (EIA) indicated this plant performance metric had declined for geothermal power plants since 2008. Though capacity factor is a term commonly used by geothermal stakeholders to express the ability of a plant to produce power, it is a term frequently misunderstood and in some instances incorrectly used. In this paper we discuss how this capacity factor is defined and utilized by the EIA, including discussion on the information that the EIA requests from operations in their 923 and 860 forms that are submitted both monthly and annually by geothermal operators. A discussion is also provided regarding the entities utilizing the information in the EIA reports, and how those entities can misinterpret the data being supplied by the operators. The intent of the paper is to inform the facility operators as the importance of the accuracy of the data that they provide, and the implications of not providing the correct information.

  14. Dual capacity reciprocating compressor

    DOEpatents

    Wolfe, R.W.

    1984-10-30

    A multi-cylinder compressor particularly useful in connection with northern climate heat pumps and in which different capacities are available in accordance with reversing motor rotation is provided with an eccentric cam on a crank pin under a fraction of the connecting rods, and arranged for rotation upon the crank pin between opposite positions 180[degree] apart so that with cam rotation on the crank pin such that the crank throw is at its normal maximum value all pistons pump at full capacity, and with rotation of the crank shaft in the opposite direction the cam moves to a circumferential position on the crank pin such that the overall crank throw is zero. Pistons whose connecting rods ride on a crank pin without a cam pump their normal rate with either crank rotational direction. Thus a small clearance volume is provided for any piston that moves when in either capacity mode of operation. 6 figs.

  15. Dual capacity reciprocating compressor

    DOEpatents

    Wolfe, Robert W.

    1984-01-01

    A multi-cylinder compressor 10 particularly useful in connection with northern climate heat pumps and in which different capacities are available in accordance with reversing motor 16 rotation is provided with an eccentric cam 38 on a crank pin 34 under a fraction of the connecting rods, and arranged for rotation upon the crank pin between opposite positions 180.degree. apart so that with cam rotation on the crank pin such that the crank throw is at its normal maximum value all pistons pump at full capacity, and with rotation of the crank shaft in the opposite direction the cam moves to a circumferential position on the crank pin such that the overall crank throw is zero. Pistons 24 whose connecting rods 30 ride on a crank pin 36 without a cam pump their normal rate with either crank rotational direction. Thus a small clearance volume is provided for any piston that moves when in either capacity mode of operation.

  16. Absolute irradiance of the Moon for on-orbit calibration

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stone, T.C.; Kieffer, H.H.

    2002-01-01

    The recognized need for on-orbit calibration of remote sensing imaging instruments drives the ROLO project effort to characterize the Moon for use as an absolute radiance source. For over 5 years the ground-based ROLO telescopes have acquired spatially-resolved lunar images in 23 VNIR (Moon diameter ???500 pixels) and 9 SWIR (???250 pixels) passbands at phase angles within ??90 degrees. A numerical model for lunar irradiance has been developed which fits hundreds of ROLO images in each band, corrected for atmospheric extinction and calibrated to absolute radiance, then integrated to irradiance. The band-coupled extinction algorithm uses absorption spectra of several gases and aerosols derived from MODTRAN to fit time-dependent component abundances to nightly observations of standard stars. The absolute radiance scale is based upon independent telescopic measurements of the star Vega. The fitting process yields uncertainties in lunar relative irradiance over small ranges of phase angle and the full range of lunar libration well under 0.5%. A larger source of uncertainty enters in the absolute solar spectral irradiance, especially in the SWIR, where solar models disagree by up to 6%. Results of ROLO model direct comparisons to spacecraft observations demonstrate the ability of the technique to track sensor responsivity drifts to sub-percent precision. Intercomparisons among instruments provide key insights into both calibration issues and the absolute scale for lunar irradiance.

  17. Absolute luminosity measurements with the LHCb detector at the LHC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    LHCb Collaboration

    2012-01-01

    Absolute luminosity measurements are of general interest for colliding-beam experiments at storage rings. These measurements are necessary to determine the absolute cross-sections of reaction processes and are valuable to quantify the performance of the accelerator. Using data taken in 2010, LHCb has applied two methods to determine the absolute scale of its luminosity measurements for proton-proton collisions at the LHC with a centre-of-mass energy of 7 TeV. In addition to the classic ``van der Meer scan'' method a novel technique has been developed which makes use of direct imaging of the individual beams using beam-gas and beam-beam interactions. This beam imaging method is made possible by the high resolution of the LHCb vertex detector and the close proximity of the detector to the beams, and allows beam parameters such as positions, angles and widths to be determined. The results of the two methods have comparable precision and are in good agreement. Combining the two methods, an overal precision of 3.5% in the absolute luminosity determination is reached. The techniques used to transport the absolute luminosity calibration to the full 2010 data-taking period are presented.

  18. System and method for calibrating a rotary absolute position sensor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davis, Donald R. (Inventor); Permenter, Frank Noble (Inventor); Radford, Nicolaus A (Inventor)

    2012-01-01

    A system includes a rotary device, a rotary absolute position (RAP) sensor generating encoded pairs of voltage signals describing positional data of the rotary device, a host machine, and an algorithm. The algorithm calculates calibration parameters usable to determine an absolute position of the rotary device using the encoded pairs, and is adapted for linearly-mapping an ellipse defined by the encoded pairs to thereby calculate the calibration parameters. A method of calibrating the RAP sensor includes measuring the rotary position as encoded pairs of voltage signals, linearly-mapping an ellipse defined by the encoded pairs to thereby calculate the calibration parameters, and calculating an absolute position of the rotary device using the calibration parameters. The calibration parameters include a positive definite matrix (A) and a center point (q) of the ellipse. The voltage signals may include an encoded sine and cosine of a rotary angle of the rotary device.

  19. Method and apparatus for two-dimensional absolute optical encoding

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leviton, Douglas B. (Inventor)

    2004-01-01

    This invention presents a two-dimensional absolute optical encoder and a method for determining position of an object in accordance with information from the encoder. The encoder of the present invention comprises a scale having a pattern being predetermined to indicate an absolute location on the scale, means for illuminating the scale, means for forming an image of the pattern; and detector means for outputting signals derived from the portion of the image of the pattern which lies within a field of view of the detector means, the field of view defining an image reference coordinate system, and analyzing means, receiving the signals from the detector means, for determining the absolute location of the object. There are two types of scale patterns presented in this invention: grid type and starfield type.

  20. Absolute and Convective Instability in Fluid-Conveying Flexible Pipes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Langre, E.; Ouvrard, A. E.

    1998-11-01

    The effect of internal plug flow on the lateral stability of fluid conveying flexible pipes is investigated by determining the absolute/convective nature of the instability from the analytically derived linear dispersion relation. The fluid-structure interaction is modeled following the work of Gregory and Paidoussis (1966). The different domains of stability, convective instability, and absolute instability are explicitly derived in parameter space. The effect of flow velocity, mass ratio between the fluid and the structure, stiffness of the elastic foundation and axial tension is considered. Absolute instability prevails over a wide range of parameters. Convective instability only takes place at very high mass ratio, small stiffness and small axial tension. Relation is made with previous work of Brazier-Smith & Scott (1984) and Crighton (1991), considered here as a short wave approximation.

  1. Absolute surface metrology by rotational averaging in oblique incidence interferometry.

    PubMed

    Lin, Weihao; He, Yumei; Song, Li; Luo, Hongxin; Wang, Jie

    2014-06-01

    A modified method for measuring the absolute figure of a large optical flat surface in synchrotron radiation by a small aperture interferometer is presented. The method consists of two procedures: the first step is oblique incidence measurement; the second is multiple rotating measurements. This simple method is described in terms of functions that are symmetric or antisymmetric with respect to reflections at the vertical axis. Absolute deviations of a large flat surface could be obtained when mirror antisymmetric errors are removed by N-position rotational averaging. Formulas are derived for measuring the absolute surface errors of a rectangle flat, and experiments on high-accuracy rectangle flats are performed to verify the method. Finally, uncertainty analysis is carried out in detail. PMID:24922410

  2. Flood Bypass Capacity Optimization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Siclari, A.; Hui, R.; Lund, J. R.

    2015-12-01

    Large river flows can damage adjacent flood-prone areas, by exceeding river channel and levee capacities. Particularly large floods are difficult to contain in leveed river banks alone. Flood bypasses often can efficiently reduce flood risks, where excess river flow is diverted over a weir to bypasses, that incur much less damage and cost. Additional benefits of bypasses include ecosystem protection, agriculture, groundwater recharge and recreation. Constructing or expanding an existing bypass costs in land purchase easements, and levee setbacks. Accounting for such benefits and costs, this study develops a simple mathematical model for optimizing flood bypass capacity using benefit-cost and risk analysis. Application to the Yolo Bypass, an existing bypass along the Sacramento River in California, estimates optimal capacity that economically reduces flood damage and increases various benefits, especially for agriculture. Land availability is likely to limit bypass expansion. Compensation for landowners could relax such limitations. Other economic values could affect the optimal results, which are shown by sensitivity analysis on major parameters. By including land geography into the model, location of promising capacity expansions can be identified.

  3. The Moral Capacity Profile

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilks, Duffy; Ratheal, Juli D'Ann

    2011-01-01

    Effective counseling practice continues to be inevitably linked to underlying theories of behavioral causality. In this article, the authors present the Moral Capacity Profile of an individual from the perspective of the Amoral, Moral, Quasi-Moral/Quasi-Immoral, and Immoral Model of Behavior, a model that uniquely expands counseling's theoretical…

  4. Non-Invasive Method of Determining Absolute Intracranial Pressure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yost, William T. (Inventor); Cantrell, John H., Jr. (Inventor); Hargens, Alan E. (Inventor)

    2004-01-01

    A method is presented for determining absolute intracranial pressure (ICP) in a patient. Skull expansion is monitored while changes in ICP are induced. The patient's blood pressure is measured when skull expansion is approximately zero. The measured blood pressure is indicative of a reference ICP value. Subsequently, the method causes a known change in ICP and measured the change in skull expansion associated therewith. The absolute ICP is a function of the reference ICP value, the known change in ICP and its associated change in skull expansion; and a measured change in skull expansion.

  5. Measurements of the reactor neutron power in absolute units

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lebedev, G. V.

    2015-12-01

    The neutron power of the reactor of the Yenisei space nuclear power plant is measured in absolute units using the modernized method of correlation analysis during the ground-based tests of the Yenisei prototypes. Results of the experiments are given. The desired result is obtained in a series of experiments carried out at the stage of the plant preparation for tests. The acceptability of experimental data is confirmed by the results of measuring the reactor neutron power in absolute units at the nominal level by the thermal balance during the life cycle tests of the ground prototypes.

  6. In-flight absolute radiometric calibration of the thematic mapper

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Castle, K. R.; Holm, R. G.; Kastner, C. J.; Palmer, J. M.; Slater, P. N.; Dinguirard, M.; Ezra, C. E.; Jackson, R. D.; Savage, R. K.

    1983-01-01

    The TM multispectral scanner system was calibrated in an absolute manner before launch. To determine the temporal changes of the absolute radiometric calibration of the entire system, spectroradiometric measurements of the ground and the atmosphere were made simultaneously with TM collections over White Sands, New Mexico. By entering the measured values in an atmospheric radiative transfer program, the radiance levels of the in four of the spectral bands of the TM were determined. Tables show values for the reflectance of snow at White Sands measured by a modular 8 channel radiometer, and values for exoatmospheric irradiance within the TM passbands, calculated for the Earth-Sun distance using a solar radiometer.

  7. Absolute photon-flux measurements in the vacuum ultraviolet

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Samson, J. A. R.; Haddad, G. N.

    1974-01-01

    Absolute photon-flux measurements in the vacuum ultraviolet have extended to short wavelengths by use of rare-gas ionization chambers. The technique involves the measurement of the ion current as a function of the gas pressure in the ion chamber. The true value of the ion current, and hence the absolute photon flux, is obtained by extrapolating the ion current to zero gas pressure. Examples are given at 162 and 266 A. The short-wavelength limit is determined only by the sensitivity of the current-measuring apparatus and by present knowledge of the photoionization processes that occur in the rate gases.

  8. Notes on Van der Meer scan for absolute luminosity measurement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balagura, Vladislav

    2011-10-01

    The absolute luminosity can be measured in an accelerator by sweeping beams transversely across each other in the so-called van der Meer scan. We prove that the method can be applied in the general case of arbitrary beam directions and a separation scan plane. A simple method to develop an image of the beam in its transverse plane from spatial distributions of interaction vertexes is also proposed. From the beam images one can determine their overlap and the absolute luminosity. This provides an alternative way of the luminosity measurement during van der Meer scan.

  9. Measurements of the reactor neutron power in absolute units

    SciTech Connect

    Lebedev, G. V.

    2015-12-15

    The neutron power of the reactor of the Yenisei space nuclear power plant is measured in absolute units using the modernized method of correlation analysis during the ground-based tests of the Yenisei prototypes. Results of the experiments are given. The desired result is obtained in a series of experiments carried out at the stage of the plant preparation for tests. The acceptability of experimental data is confirmed by the results of measuring the reactor neutron power in absolute units at the nominal level by the thermal balance during the life cycle tests of the ground prototypes.

  10. Absolute Stability Analysis of a Phase Plane Controlled Spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jang, Jiann-Woei; Plummer, Michael; Bedrossian, Nazareth; Hall, Charles; Jackson, Mark; Spanos, Pol

    2010-01-01

    Many aerospace attitude control systems utilize phase plane control schemes that include nonlinear elements such as dead zone and ideal relay. To evaluate phase plane control robustness, stability margin prediction methods must be developed. Absolute stability is extended to predict stability margins and to define an abort condition. A constrained optimization approach is also used to design flex filters for roll control. The design goal is to optimize vehicle tracking performance while maintaining adequate stability margins. Absolute stability is shown to provide satisfactory stability constraints for the optimization.

  11. A general relativistic model for free-fall absolute gravimeters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tan, Yu-Jie; Shao, Cheng-Gang; Li, Jia; Hu, Zhong-Kun

    2016-04-01

    Although the relativistic manifestations of gravitational fields in gravimetry were first studied 40 years ago, the relativistic effects combined with free-fall absolute gravimeters have rarely been considered. In light of this, we present a general relativistic model for free-fall absolute gravimeters in a local-Fermi coordinates system, where we focus on effects related to the measuring devices: relativistic transverse Doppler effects, gravitational redshift effects and Earth’s rotation effects. Based on this model, a general relativistic expression of the measured gravity acceleration is obtained.

  12. Absolute determination of inelastic mean-free paths and surface excitation parameters by absolute reflection electron energy loss spectrum analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nagatomi, T.; Goto, K.

    2005-11-01

    An analytical approach was proposed for simultaneously determining an inelastic mean-free path (IMFP) and a surface excitation parameter (SEP) with absolute units by the analysis of an absolute experimental reflection electron energy loss spectrum. The IMFPs and SEPs in Ni were deduced for electrons of 300 to 3000 eV. The obtained IMFPs were in good agreement with those calculated using the TPP-2M equation. The Chen-type empirical formula was proposed for determining the SEP. The results confirmed the applicability of the present approach for determining the IMFP and SEP for medium-energy electrons.

  13. Series that Converge Absolutely but Don't Converge

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kantrowitz, Robert; Schramm, Michael

    2012-01-01

    If a series of real numbers converges absolutely, then it converges. The usual proof requires completeness in the form of the Cauchy criterion. Failing completeness, the result is false. We provide examples of rational series that illustrate this point. The Cantor set appears in connection with one of the examples.

  14. Population-based absolute risk estimation with survey data.

    PubMed

    Kovalchik, Stephanie A; Pfeiffer, Ruth M

    2014-04-01

    Absolute risk is the probability that a cause-specific event occurs in a given time interval in the presence of competing events. We present methods to estimate population-based absolute risk from a complex survey cohort that can accommodate multiple exposure-specific competing risks. The hazard function for each event type consists of an individualized relative risk multiplied by a baseline hazard function, which is modeled nonparametrically or parametrically with a piecewise exponential model. An influence method is used to derive a Taylor-linearized variance estimate for the absolute risk estimates. We introduce novel measures of the cause-specific influences that can guide modeling choices for the competing event components of the model. To illustrate our methodology, we build and validate cause-specific absolute risk models for cardiovascular and cancer deaths using data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Our applications demonstrate the usefulness of survey-based risk prediction models for predicting health outcomes and quantifying the potential impact of disease prevention programs at the population level. PMID:23686614

  15. Invalid phase values removal method for absolute phase recovery.

    PubMed

    Lu, Jin; Mo, Rong; Sun, Huibin; Chang, Zhiyong; Zhao, Xiaxia

    2016-01-10

    A novel approach is presented for more effectively removing invalid phase values in absolute phase recovery. The approach is based on a detailed study involving the types and cases of invalid phase values. Meanwhile, some commonalities of the existing removal algorithms also are thoroughly analyzed. It is well known that rough absolute phase and fringe order maps can very easily be obtained by temporal phase unwrapping techniques. After carefully analyzing the components and fringe order distribution of the rough fringe order map, the proposed method chiefly adopts an entirely new strategy to refine a pure fringe order map. The strategy consists of three parts: (1) the square of an image gradient, (2) subregion areas of the binary image, and (3) image decomposition and composition. In combination with the pure fringe order map and a removal criterion, the invalid phase values can be identified and filtered out from the rough absolute phase map. This new strategy not only gets rid of the limitations of traditional removal methods but also has a two-fold function. The paper also offers different metrics from the experiment to evaluate the quality of the final absolute phase. In contrast with other removal methods, experimental results have verified the feasibility, effectiveness, and superiority of the proposed method. PMID:26835776

  16. Absolute Value Inequalities: High School Students' Solutions and Misconceptions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Almog, Nava; Ilany, Bat-Sheva

    2012-01-01

    Inequalities are one of the foundational subjects in high school math curricula, but there is a lack of academic research into how students learn certain types of inequalities. This article fills part of the research gap by presenting the findings of a study that examined high school students' methods of approaching absolute value inequalities,…

  17. Lyman alpha SMM/UVSP absolute calibration and geocoronal correction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fontenla, Juan M.; Reichmann, Edwin J.

    1987-01-01

    Lyman alpha observations from the Ultraviolet Spectrometer Polarimeter (UVSP) instrument of the Solar Maximum Mission (SMM) spacecraft were analyzed and provide instrumental calibration details. Specific values of the instrument quantum efficiency, Lyman alpha absolute intensity, and correction for geocoronal absorption are presented.

  18. An improved generalized Newton method for absolute value equations.

    PubMed

    Feng, Jingmei; Liu, Sanyang

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we suggest and analyze an improved generalized Newton method for solving the NP-hard absolute value equations [Formula: see text] when the singular values of A exceed 1. We show that the global and local quadratic convergence of the proposed method. Numerical experiments show the efficiency of the method and the high accuracy of calculation. PMID:27462490

  19. Relative versus Absolute Stimulus Control in the Temporal Bisection Task

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Carvalho, Marilia Pinhiero; Machado, Armando

    2012-01-01

    When subjects learn to associate two sample durations with two comparison keys, do they learn to associate the keys with the short and long samples (relational hypothesis), or with the specific sample durations (absolute hypothesis)? We exposed 16 pigeons to an ABA design in which phases A and B corresponded to tasks using samples of 1 s and 4 s,…

  20. Absolute calibration of Landsat instruments using the moon.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kieffer, H.H.; Wildey, R.L.

    1985-01-01

    A lunar observation by Landsat could provide improved radiometric and geometric calibration of both the Thematic Mapper and the Multispectral Scanner in terms of absolute radiometry, determination of the modulation transfer function, and sensitivity to scattered light. A pitch of the spacecraft would be required. -Authors

  1. Absence of absolutely continuous spectrum for random scattering zippers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boumaza, Hakim; Marin, Laurent

    2015-02-01

    A scattering zipper is a system obtained by concatenation of scattering events with equal even number of incoming and outgoing channels. The associated scattering zipper operator is the unitary analog of Jacobi matrices with matrix entries. For infinite identical events and independent and identically distributed random phases, Lyapunov exponents positivity is proved and yields absence of absolutely continuous spectrum by Kotani's theory.

  2. Individual Differences in Absolute and Relative Metacomprehension Accuracy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maki, Ruth H.; Shields, Micheal; Wheeler, Amanda Easton; Zacchilli, Tammy Lowery

    2005-01-01

    The authors investigated absolute and relative metacomprehension accuracy as a function of verbal ability in college students. Students read hard texts, revised texts, or a mixed set of texts. They then predicted their performance, took a multiple-choice test on the texts, and made posttest judgments about their performance. With hard texts,…

  3. Mathematical Model for Absolute Magnetic Measuring Systems in Industrial Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fügenschuh, Armin; Fügenschuh, Marzena; Ludszuweit, Marina; Mojsic, Aleksandar; Sokół, Joanna

    2015-09-01

    Scales for measuring systems are either based on incremental or absolute measuring methods. Incremental scales need to initialize a measurement cycle at a reference point. From there, the position is computed by counting increments of a periodic graduation. Absolute methods do not need reference points, since the position can be read directly from the scale. The positions on the complete scales are encoded using two incremental tracks with different graduation. We present a new method for absolute measuring using only one track for position encoding up to micrometre range. Instead of the common perpendicular magnetic areas, we use a pattern of trapezoidal magnetic areas, to store more complex information. For positioning, we use the magnetic field where every position is characterized by a set of values measured by a hall sensor array. We implement a method for reconstruction of absolute positions from the set of unique measured values. We compare two patterns with respect to uniqueness, accuracy, stability and robustness of positioning. We discuss how stability and robustness are influenced by different errors during the measurement in real applications and how those errors can be compensated.

  4. Absolute Radiometer for Reproducing the Solar Irradiance Unit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sapritskii, V. I.; Pavlovich, M. N.

    1989-01-01

    A high-precision absolute radiometer with a thermally stabilized cavity as receiving element has been designed for use in solar irradiance measurements. The State Special Standard of the Solar Irradiance Unit has been built on the basis of the developed absolute radiometer. The Standard also includes the sun tracking system and the system for automatic thermal stabilization and information processing, comprising a built-in microcalculator which calculates the irradiance according to the input program. During metrological certification of the Standard, main error sources have been analysed and the non-excluded systematic and accidental errors of the irradiance-unit realization have been determined. The total error of the Standard does not exceed 0.3%. Beginning in 1984 the Standard has been taking part in a comparison with the Å 212 pyrheliometer and other Soviet and foreign standards. In 1986 it took part in the international comparison of absolute radiometers and standard pyrheliometers of socialist countries. The results of the comparisons proved the high metrological quality of this Standard based on an absolute radiometer.

  5. Multifrequency continuous wave terahertz spectroscopy for absolute thickness determination

    SciTech Connect

    Scheller, Maik; Baaske, Kai; Koch, Martin

    2010-04-12

    We present a tunable multifrequency continuous wave terahertz spectrometer based on two laser diodes, photoconductive antennas, and a coherent detection scheme. The system is employed to determine the absolute thickness of samples utilizing a proposed synthetic difference frequency method to circumvent the 2pi uncertainty known from conventional photomixing systems while preserving a high spatial resolution.

  6. Ion chambers simplify absolute intensity measurements in the vacuum ultraviolet

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sampson, J. A. R.

    1966-01-01

    Single or double ion chamber technique measures absolute radiation intensities in the extreme vacuum ultraviolet region of the spectrum. The ion chambers use rare gases as the ion carrier. Photon absorbed by the gas creates one ion pair so a measure of these is a measure of the number of incident photons.

  7. Urey: to measure the absolute age of Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Randolph, J. E.; Plescia, J.; Bar-Cohen, Y.; Bartlett, P.; Bickler, D.; Carlson, R.; Carr, G.; Fong, M.; Gronroos, H.; Guske, P. J.; Herring, M.; Javadi, H.; Johnson, D. W.; Larson, T.; Malaviarachchi, K.; Sherrit, S.; Stride, S.; Trebi-Ollennu, A.; Warwick, R.

    2003-01-01

    UREY, a proposed NASA Mars Scout mission will, for the first time, measure the absolute age of an identified igneous rock formation on Mars. By extension to relatively older and younger rock formations dated by remote sensing, these results will enable a new and better understanding of Martian geologic history.

  8. Is There a Rule of Absolute Neutralization in Nupe?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Krohn, Robert

    1975-01-01

    A previously prosed rule of absolute neutralization (merging underlying low vowels) is eliminated in an alternative analysis including instead a rule that "breaks" the feature matrix of certain low vowels and redistributes the features of each vowel as a sequence of vowel-like transition plus (a). (Author/RM)

  9. Assignment of absolute stereochemistry by computation of optical rotation angles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kondru, Rama Krishna

    We have developed simple wire and molecular orbital models to qualitatively and quantitatively understand optical rotation angles of molecules. We reported the first ab initio theoretical approach to determine the absolute stereochemistry of a complex natural product by calculating molar rotation angles, [M]D. We applied this method for an unambiguous assignment of the absolute stereochemistry of the hennoxazole A. A protocol analogous to population analysis was devised to analyze atomic contributions to the rotation angles for oxiranes, orthoesters, and other organic compounds. The molar rotations for an indoline, an indonone, menthol and menthone were calculated using ab inito methods and compared with experimental values. We reported the first prediction of the absolute configuration of a natural product, i.e. an a priori assignment of the relative and absolute stereochemistry of pitiamide A. Furthermore, we described a strategy that may help to establish structure-function relations for rotation angles by visualizing the electric and magnetic-field perturbations to a molecule's molecular orbitals.

  10. Hitting the target: relatively easy, yet absolutely difficult.

    PubMed

    Mapp, Alistair P; Ono, Hiroshi; Khokhotva, Mykola

    2007-01-01

    It is generally agreed that absolute-direction judgments require information about eye position, whereas relative-direction judgments do not. The source of this eye-position information, particularly during monocular viewing, is a matter of debate. It may be either binocular eye position, or the position of the viewing-eye only, that is crucial. Using more ecologically valid stimulus situations than the traditional LED in the dark, we performed two experiments. In experiment 1, observers threw darts at targets that were fixated either monocularly or binocularly. In experiment 2, observers aimed a laser gun at targets while fixating either the rear or the front gunsight monocularly, or the target either monocularly or binocularly. We measured the accuracy and precision of the observers' absolute- and relative-direction judgments. We found that (a) relative-direction judgments were precise and independent of phoria, and (b) monocular absolute-direction judgments were inaccurate, and the magnitude of the inaccuracy was predictable from the magnitude of phoria. These results confirm that relative-direction judgments do not require information about eye position. Moreover, they show that binocular eye-position information is crucial when judging the absolute direction of both monocular and binocular targets. PMID:17972479

  11. Absolute Risk Aversion and the Returns to Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brunello, Giorgio

    2002-01-01

    Uses 1995 Italian household income and wealth survey to measure individual absolute risk aversion of 1,583 married Italian male household heads. Uses this measure as an instrument for attained education in a standard-log earnings equation. Finds that the IV estimate of the marginal return to schooling is much higher than the ordinary least squares…

  12. Improved cavity-type absolute total-radiation radiometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kendall, J. M., Sr.; Plamondon, J. A., Jr.

    1967-01-01

    Conical cavity-type absolute radiometer measures the intensity of radiant energy to an accuracy of one to two percent in a vacuum of ten to the minus fifth torr or lower. There is a uniform response over the ultraviolet, visible, and infrared range, and it requires no calibration or comparison with a radiation standard.

  13. Absolute Interrogative Intonation Patterns in Buenos Aires Spanish

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Su Ar

    2010-01-01

    In Spanish, each uttered phrase, depending on its use, has one of a variety of intonation patterns. For example, a phrase such as "Maria viene manana" "Mary is coming tomorrow" can be used as a declarative or as an absolute interrogative (a yes/no question) depending on the intonation pattern that a speaker produces. Patterns of usage also…

  14. Absolute configurations of zingiberenols isolated from ginger (Zingiber officinale) rhizomes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The sesquiterpene alcohol zingiberenol, or 1,10-bisaboladien-3-ol, was isolated some time ago from ginger, Zingiber officinale, rhizomes, but its absolute configuration had not been determined. With three chiral centers present in the molecule, zingiberenol can exist in eight stereoisomeric forms. ...

  15. Seismic capacity of switchgear

    SciTech Connect

    Bandyopadhyay, K.; Hofmayer, C.; Kassir, M.; Pepper, S.

    1989-01-01

    As part of a component fragility program sponsored by the USNRC, BNL has collected existing information on the seismic capacity of switchgear assemblies from major manufacturers. Existing seismic test data for both low and medium voltage switchgear assemblies have been evaluated and the generic results are presented in this paper. The failure modes are identified and the corresponding generic lower bound capacity levels are established. The test response spectra have been used as a measure of the test vibration input. The results indicate that relays chatter at a very low input level at the base of the switchgear cabinet. This change of state of devices including relays have been observed. Breaker tripping occurs at a higher vibration level. Although the structural failure of internal elements have been noticed, the overall switchgear cabinet structure withstands a high vibration level. 5 refs., 2 figs., 2 tabs.

  16. Enhancing capacity management.

    PubMed

    Rees, Susan; Houlahan, Beth; Lavrenz, Dennise

    2014-03-01

    It is essential for organizations to be able to accept patients requiring care. Capacity planning and management are necessary to ensure an organization has an accepting physician/service, an available bed, and staff to care for the patient and family. This organization implemented strategies including communication plans, staffing guidelines, morning rounds, proactive planning, and an escalation process to reverse the trend of not being able to accept all patients. PMID:24531280

  17. Heat Capacity Mapping Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nilsson, C. S.; Andrews, J. C.; Scully-Power, P.; Ball, S.; Speechley, G.; Latham, A. R. (Principal Investigator)

    1980-01-01

    The Tasman Front was delineated by airborne expendable bathythermograph survey; and an Heat Capacity Mapping Mission (HCMM) IR image on the same day shows the same principal features as determined from ground-truth. It is clear that digital enhancement of HCMM images is necessary to map ocean surface temperatures and when done, the Tasman Front and other oceanographic features can be mapped by this method, even through considerable scattered cloud cover.

  18. Four Years of Absolute Gravity in the Taiwan Orogen (AGTO)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mouyen, Maxime; Masson, Frédéric; Hwang, Cheinway; Cheng, Ching-Chung; Le Moigne, Nicolas; Lee, Chiung-Wu; Kao, Ricky; Hsieh, Nicky

    2010-05-01

    AGTO is a scientific project between Taiwanese and French institutes, which aim is to improve tectonic knowledge of Taiwan primarily using absolute gravity measurements and permanent GPS stations. Both tools are indeed useful to study vertical movements and mass transfers involved in mountain building, a major process in Taiwan located at the convergent margin between Philippine Sea plate and Eurasian plate. This convergence results in two subductions north and south of Taiwan (Ryukyu and Manilla trenches, respectively), while the center is experiencing collision. These processes make Taiwan very active tectonically, as illustrated by numerous large earthquakes and rapid uplift of the Central Range. High slopes of Taiwan mountains and heavy rains brought by typhoons together lead to high landslides and mudflows risks. Practically, absolute gravity measurements have been yearly repeated since 2006 along a transect across south Taiwan, from Penghu to Lutao islands, using FG5 absolute gravimeters. This transect contains ten sites for absolute measurements and has been densified in 2008 by incorporating 45 sites for relative gravity measurements with CG5 gravimeters. The last relative and absolute measurements have been performed in November 2009. Most of the absolute sites have been measured with a good accuracy, about 1 or 2 ?Gal. Only the site located in Tainan University has higher standard deviation, due to the city noise. We note that absolute gravity changes seem to follow a trend in every site. However, straightforward tectonic interpretation of these trends is not valuable as many non-tectonic effects are supposed to change g with time, like groundwater or erosion. Estimating and removing these effects leads to a tectonic gravity signal, which has theoretically two origins : deep mass transfers around the site and vertical movements of the station. The latter can be well constrained by permanent GPS stations located close to the measurement pillar. Deep mass

  19. Four Years of Absolute Gravity in the Taiwan Orogen (AGTO)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mouyen, M.; Masson, F.; Hwang, C.; Cheng, C.; Le Moigne, N.; Lee, C.; Kao, R.; Hsieh, N.

    2009-12-01

    AGTO is a scientific project between Taiwanese and French institutes which aim is to improve tectonic knowledge of Taiwan primarily using absolute gravity measurements and permanent GPS stations. Both tools are indeed useful to study vertical movements and mass transfers involved in mountain building, a major process in Taiwan located at the convergent margin between Philippine Sea plate and Eurasian plate. This convergence results in two subductions north and south of Taiwan (Ryukyu and Manilla trenches, respectively), while the center is experiencing collision. These processes make Taiwan very active tectonically, as illustrated by numerous large earthquakes and rapid uplift of the Central Range. High slopes of Taiwan mountains and heavy rains brought by typhoons together lead to high landslides and mudflows risks. Practically, absolute gravity measurements have been yearly repeated since 2006 along a transect across south Taiwan, from Penghu to Lutao island, using FG5 absolute gravimeters. This transect contains ten sites for absolute measurements and has been densified in 2008 by incorporating 45 sites for relative gravity measurements with CG5 gravimeters. At the end of 2009, the relative gravity network will be densified again in its eastern part, i.e. in the Longitudinal Valley and the Central Range. A fourth set of absolute gravity measurements will also be performed at the same period. Most of the absolute sites have been measured with a good accuracy, about 1 or 2 μGal. Only the site located in Tainan University has higher standard deviation, due to the city noise. The stronger change in gravity reaches -7 μGal a -1 west of the Longitudinal Valley and might be explained by tectonic movement along a fault. A large decrease of -5 μGal a-1 is also measured in Tainan city and could be correlated with uplift of this region, also denoted by InSAR, leveling and GPS. Changes occurring in the Central Range are more difficult to interpret due to the small

  20. CSTI High Capacity Power

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Winter, Jerry M.

    1989-01-01

    The SP-100 program was established in 1983 by DOD, DOE, and NASA as a joint program to develop the technology necessary for space nuclear power systems for military and civil application. During FY-86 and 87, the NASA SP-100 Advanced Technology Program was devised to maintain the momentum of promising technology advancement efforts started during Phase 1 of SP-100 and to strengthen, in key areas, the chances for successful development and growth capability of space nuclear reactor power systems for future space applications. In FY-88, the Advanced Technology Program was incorporated into NASA's new Civil Space Technology Initiative (CSTI). The CSTI Program was established to provide the foundation for technology development in automation and robotics, information, propulsion, and power. The CSTI High Capacity Power Program builds on the technology efforts of the SP-100 program, incorporates the previous NASA SP-100 Advanced Technology project, and provides a bridge to NASA Project Pathfinder. The elements of CSTI High Capacity Power development include Conversion Systems, Thermal Management, Power Management, System Diagnostics, and Environmental Interactions. Technology advancement in all areas, including materials, is required to assure the high reliability and 7 to 10 year lifetime demanded for future space nuclear power systems. The overall program will develop and demonstrate the technology base required to provide a wide range of modular power systems as well as allowing mission independence from solar and orbital attitude requirements. Several recent advancements in CSTI High Capacity power development will be discussed.

  1. CSTI high capacity power

    SciTech Connect

    Winter, J.M.

    1994-09-01

    The SP-100 program was established in 1983 by DOD, DOE, and NASA as a joint program to develop the technology necessary for space nuclear power systems for military and civil application. During FY86 and 87, the NASA SP-100 Advanced Technology Program was devised to maintain the momentum of promising technology advancement efforts started during Phase I of SP-100 and to strengthen, in key areas, the chances for successful development and growth capability of space nuclear reactor power systems for future space applications. In FY88, the Advanced Technology Program was incorporated into NASA`s new Civil Space Technology Initiative (CSTI). The CSTI Program was established to provide the foundation for technology development in automation and robotics, information, propulsion, and power. The CSTI High Capacity Power Program builds on the technology efforts of the SP-100 program, incorporates the previous NASA SP-100 Advanced Technology project, and provides a bridge to NASA Project Pathfinder. The elements of CSTI High Capacity Power development include Conversion Systems, Thermal Management, Power Management, System Diagnostics, and Environmental Interactions. Technology advancement in all areas, including materials, is required to assure the high reliability and 7 to 10 year lifetime demanded for future space nuclear power systems. The overall program will develop and demonstrate the technology base required to provide a wide range of modular power systems as well as allowing mission independence from solar and orbital attitude requirements. Several recent advancements in CSTI High Capacity power development will be discussed.

  2. GNSS Absolute Antenna Calibration at the National Geodetic Survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mader, G. L.; Bilich, A. L.; Geoghegan, C.

    2011-12-01

    Geodetic GNSS applications routinely demand millimeter precision and extremely high levels of accuracy. To achieve these accuracies, measurement and instrument biases at the centimeter to millimeter level must be understood. One of these biases is the antenna phase center, the apparent point of signal reception for a GNSS antenna. It has been well established that phase center patterns differ between antenna models and manufacturers; additional research suggests that the addition of a radome or the choice of antenna mount can significantly alter those a priori phase center patterns. For the more demanding GNSS positioning applications and especially in cases of mixed-antenna networks, it is all the more important to know antenna phase center variations as a function of both elevation and azimuth in the antenna reference frame and incorporate these models into analysis software. To help meet the needs of the high-precision GNSS community, the National Geodetic Survey (NGS) now operates an absolute antenna calibration facility. Located in Corbin, Virginia, this facility uses field measurements and actual GNSS satellite signals to quantitatively determine the carrier phase advance/delay introduced by the antenna element. The NGS facility was built to serve traditional NGS constituents such as the surveying and geodesy communities, however calibration services are open and available to all GNSS users as the calibration schedule permits. All phase center patterns computed by this facility will be publicly available and disseminated in both the ANTEX and NGS formats. We describe the NGS calibration facility, and discuss the observation models and strategy currently used to generate NGS absolute calibrations. We demonstrate that NGS absolute phase center variation (PCV) patterns are consistent with published values determined by other absolute antenna calibration facilities, and compare absolute calibrations to the traditional NGS relative calibrations.

  3. Absolute Gravity Datum in the Age of Cold Atom Gravimeters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Childers, V. A.; Eckl, M. C.

    2014-12-01

    The international gravity datum is defined today by the International Gravity Standardization Net of 1971 (IGSN-71). The data supporting this network was measured in the 1950s and 60s using pendulum and spring-based gravimeter ties (plus some new ballistic absolute meters) to replace the prior protocol of referencing all gravity values to the earlier Potsdam value. Since this time, gravimeter technology has advanced significantly with the development and refinement of the FG-5 (the current standard of the industry) and again with the soon-to-be-available cold atom interferometric absolute gravimeters. This latest development is anticipated to provide improvement in the range of two orders of magnitude as compared to the measurement accuracy of technology utilized to develop ISGN-71. In this presentation, we will explore how the IGSN-71 might best be "modernized" given today's requirements and available instruments and resources. The National Geodetic Survey (NGS), along with other relevant US Government agencies, is concerned about establishing gravity control to establish and maintain high order geodetic networks as part of the nation's essential infrastructure. The need to modernize the nation's geodetic infrastructure was highlighted in "Precise Geodetic Infrastructure, National Requirements for a Shared Resource" National Academy of Science, 2010. The NGS mission, as dictated by Congress, is to establish and maintain the National Spatial Reference System, which includes gravity measurements. Absolute gravimeters measure the total gravity field directly and do not involve ties to other measurements. Periodic "intercomparisons" of multiple absolute gravimeters at reference gravity sites are used to constrain the behavior of the instruments to ensure that each would yield reasonably similar measurements of the same location (i.e. yield a sufficiently consistent datum when measured in disparate locales). New atomic interferometric gravimeters promise a significant

  4. Absolute magnitudes and phase coefficients of trans-Neptunian objects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alvarez-Candal, A.; Pinilla-Alonso, N.; Ortiz, J. L.; Duffard, R.; Morales, N.; Santos-Sanz, P.; Thirouin, A.; Silva, J. S.

    2016-02-01

    Context. Accurate measurements of diameters of trans-Neptunian objects (TNOs) are extremely difficult to obtain. Thermal modeling can provide good results, but accurate absolute magnitudes are needed to constrain the thermal models and derive diameters and geometric albedos. The absolute magnitude, HV, is defined as the magnitude of the object reduced to unit helio- and geocentric distances and a zero solar phase angle and is determined using phase curves. Phase coefficients can also be obtained from phase curves. These are related to surface properties, but only few are known. Aims: Our objective is to measure accurate V-band absolute magnitudes and phase coefficients for a sample of TNOs, many of which have been observed and modeled within the program "TNOs are cool", which is one of the Herschel Space Observatory key projects. Methods: We observed 56 objects using the V and R filters. These data, along with those available in the literature, were used to obtain phase curves and measure V-band absolute magnitudes and phase coefficients by assuming a linear trend of the phase curves and considering a magnitude variability that is due to the rotational light-curve. Results: We obtained 237 new magnitudes for the 56 objects, six of which were without previously reported measurements. Including the data from the literature, we report a total of 110 absolute magnitudes with their respective phase coefficients. The average value of HV is 6.39, bracketed by a minimum of 14.60 and a maximum of -1.12. For the phase coefficients we report a median value of 0.10 mag per degree and a very large dispersion, ranging from -0.88 up to 1.35 mag per degree.

  5. Surface retention capacity calculation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    David, Vaclav; Dostal, Tomas

    2010-05-01

    Flood wave transformation in the floodplain is the phenomenon which is researched within interdisciplinary project NIVA - Water Retention in Floodplains and Possibilities of Retention Capacity Increase. The project focuses on broad range of floodplain ecosystem services and mitigation of flooding is one of them. Despite main influence on flood wave transformation is due to flow retardation, retention in surface depressions within floodplain has been analyzed to get better overview of whole transformation process. Detail digital relief model (DRM) has been used for given purposes to be able to analyze terrain depressions volumes. The model was developed with use of stereophotogrammetric evaluation of airborne images with high resolution of 10 cm. It was essential for purposes of presented analysis not to apply pit removal routines which are often used for generation of DRM for hydrological modelling purposes. First, the methodology of analysis was prepared and tested on artificial surface. This surface was created using random raster generation, filtration and resampling with final resolution of 1000 x 1000 units and height of maximum 10 units above datum. The methodology itself is based on analysis of areas inundated by water at different elevation levels. Volume is than calculated for each depression using extraction of terrain elevations under corresponding water level. The method was then applied on the area of Lužnice River floodplain section to assess retention capacity of real floodplain. The floodplain had to be cut into sections perpendicular to main river orientation for analyses as the method was tested for square shaped area without any significant inclination. Results obtained by mentioned analysis are presented in this paper. Acknowledgement Presented research was accomplished within national project NIVA - Water Retention in Floodplains and Possibilities of Retention Capacity Increase, nr. QH82078. The project is funded by Ministry of Agriculture of

  6. Early hominin auditory capacities.

    PubMed

    Quam, Rolf; Martínez, Ignacio; Rosa, Manuel; Bonmatí, Alejandro; Lorenzo, Carlos; de Ruiter, Darryl J; Moggi-Cecchi, Jacopo; Conde Valverde, Mercedes; Jarabo, Pilar; Menter, Colin G; Thackeray, J Francis; Arsuaga, Juan Luis

    2015-09-01

    Studies of sensory capacities in past life forms have offered new insights into their adaptations and lifeways. Audition is particularly amenable to study in fossils because it is strongly related to physical properties that can be approached through their skeletal structures. We have studied the anatomy of the outer and middle ear in the early hominin taxa Australopithecus africanus and Paranthropus robustus and estimated their auditory capacities. Compared with chimpanzees, the early hominin taxa are derived toward modern humans in their slightly shorter and wider external auditory canal, smaller tympanic membrane, and lower malleus/incus lever ratio, but they remain primitive in the small size of their stapes footplate. Compared with chimpanzees, both early hominin taxa show a heightened sensitivity to frequencies between 1.5 and 3.5 kHz and an occupied band of maximum sensitivity that is shifted toward slightly higher frequencies. The results have implications for sensory ecology and communication, and suggest that the early hominin auditory pattern may have facilitated an increased emphasis on short-range vocal communication in open habitats. PMID:26601261

  7. Albermarle boosts MASC capacity

    SciTech Connect

    D`Amico, E.

    1996-07-17

    Albemarle plans to triple capacity for methylaluminum sesquichloride (MASC) at its Houston complex. The move is in response to growing demand for aluminum alkyl catalyst systems, says Greg Lambeth, product manager/organometallics North America. MASC is the key raw material for trimethylaluminum (TMA), a Ziegler-Natta cocatalyst, and for methylaluminoxane (MAO), a cocatalyst for metallocene polyolefin catalysts. {open_quotes}This is a very competitive area because of the growing importance of metallocenes in polyolefin production,{close_quotes} Lambeth says. Several companies-including Exxon Chemical, Dow Chemical, and Hoechst - have invested in metallocene catalysts this year. Others have announced plans either to convert technology from conventional Ziegler-Natta catalyst systems or to build new facilities for metallocene catalyst production. Albemarle, the largest producer of TMA and other aluminum alkyls, completed a debottlenecking project in Houston earlier this year that increased its capacity 50%. The company also expects to complete a TMA expansion project at its Orangeburg, SC facility soon.

  8. Early hominin auditory capacities

    PubMed Central

    Quam, Rolf; Martínez, Ignacio; Rosa, Manuel; Bonmatí, Alejandro; Lorenzo, Carlos; de Ruiter, Darryl J.; Moggi-Cecchi, Jacopo; Conde Valverde, Mercedes; Jarabo, Pilar; Menter, Colin G.; Thackeray, J. Francis; Arsuaga, Juan Luis

    2015-01-01

    Studies of sensory capacities in past life forms have offered new insights into their adaptations and lifeways. Audition is particularly amenable to study in fossils because it is strongly related to physical properties that can be approached through their skeletal structures. We have studied the anatomy of the outer and middle ear in the early hominin taxa Australopithecus africanus and Paranthropus robustus and estimated their auditory capacities. Compared with chimpanzees, the early hominin taxa are derived toward modern humans in their slightly shorter and wider external auditory canal, smaller tympanic membrane, and lower malleus/incus lever ratio, but they remain primitive in the small size of their stapes footplate. Compared with chimpanzees, both early hominin taxa show a heightened sensitivity to frequencies between 1.5 and 3.5 kHz and an occupied band of maximum sensitivity that is shifted toward slightly higher frequencies. The results have implications for sensory ecology and communication, and suggest that the early hominin auditory pattern may have facilitated an increased emphasis on short-range vocal communication in open habitats. PMID:26601261

  9. Absolute charge calibration of scintillating screens for relativistic electron detection

    SciTech Connect

    Buck, A.; Popp, A.; Schmid, K.; Karsch, S.; Krausz, F.; Zeil, K.; Jochmann, A.; Kraft, S. D.; Sauerbrey, R.; Cowan, T.; Schramm, U.; Hidding, B.; Kudyakov, T.; Sears, C. M. S.; Veisz, L.; Pawelke, J.

    2010-03-15

    We report on new charge calibrations and linearity tests with high-dynamic range for eight different scintillating screens typically used for the detection of relativistic electrons from laser-plasma based acceleration schemes. The absolute charge calibration was done with picosecond electron bunches at the ELBE linear accelerator in Dresden. The lower detection limit in our setup for the most sensitive scintillating screen (KODAK Biomax MS) was 10 fC/mm{sup 2}. The screens showed a linear photon-to-charge dependency over several orders of magnitude. An onset of saturation effects starting around 10-100 pC/mm{sup 2} was found for some of the screens. Additionally, a constant light source was employed as a luminosity reference to simplify the transfer of a one-time absolute calibration to different experimental setups.

  10. Absolute calibration for a broad range single shot electron spectrometer

    SciTech Connect

    Glinec, Y.; Faure, J.; Guemnie-Tafo, A.; Malka, V.; Monard, H.; Larbre, J. P.; De Waele, V.; Marignier, J. L.; Mostafavi, M.

    2006-10-15

    This article gives a detailed description of a single shot electron spectrometer which was used to characterize electron beams produced by laser-plasma interaction. Contrary to conventional electron sources, electron beams from laser-plasma accelerators can produce a broad range of energies. Therefore, diagnosing these electron spectra requires specific attention and experimental development. Here, we provide an absolute calibration of the Lanex Kodak Fine screen on a laser-triggered radio frequency picosecond electron accelerator. The efficiency of scintillating screens irradiated by electron beams has never been investigated so far. This absolute calibration is then compared to charge measurements from an integrating current transformer for quasimonoenergetic electron spectra from laser-plasma interaction.

  11. Absolute charge calibration of scintillating screens for relativistic electron detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buck, A.; Zeil, K.; Popp, A.; Schmid, K.; Jochmann, A.; Kraft, S. D.; Hidding, B.; Kudyakov, T.; Sears, C. M. S.; Veisz, L.; Karsch, S.; Pawelke, J.; Sauerbrey, R.; Cowan, T.; Krausz, F.; Schramm, U.

    2010-03-01

    We report on new charge calibrations and linearity tests with high-dynamic range for eight different scintillating screens typically used for the detection of relativistic electrons from laser-plasma based acceleration schemes. The absolute charge calibration was done with picosecond electron bunches at the ELBE linear accelerator in Dresden. The lower detection limit in our setup for the most sensitive scintillating screen (KODAK Biomax MS) was 10 fC/mm2. The screens showed a linear photon-to-charge dependency over several orders of magnitude. An onset of saturation effects starting around 10-100 pC/mm2 was found for some of the screens. Additionally, a constant light source was employed as a luminosity reference to simplify the transfer of a one-time absolute calibration to different experimental setups.

  12. From Hubble's Next Generation Spectral Library (NGSL) to Absolute Fluxes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heap, S. R.; Lindler, D.

    2016-05-01

    Hubble's Next Generation Spectral Library (NGSL) consists of R˜1000 spectra of 374 stars of assorted temperature, gravity, and metallicity. Each spectrum covers the wavelength range, 0.18–1.03 μ. The library can be viewed and/or downloaded from the website, http://archive.stsci.edu/prepds/stisngsl/. Stars in the NGSL are now being used as absolute flux standards at ground-based observatories. However, the uncertainty in the absolute flux is about 2%, which does not meet the requirements of dark-energy surveys. We have therefore developed an observing procedure, data-reduction procedure, and correction algorithms that should yield fluxes with uncertainties less than 1%.

  13. Determination of absolute internal conversion coefficients using the SAGE spectrometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sorri, J.; Greenlees, P. T.; Papadakis, P.; Konki, J.; Cox, D. M.; Auranen, K.; Partanen, J.; Sandzelius, M.; Pakarinen, J.; Rahkila, P.; Uusitalo, J.; Herzberg, R.-D.; Smallcombe, J.; Davies, P. J.; Barton, C. J.; Jenkins, D. G.

    2016-03-01

    A non-reference based method to determine internal conversion coefficients using the SAGE spectrometer is carried out for transitions in the nuclei of 154Sm, 152Sm and 166Yb. The Normalised-Peak-to-Gamma method is in general an efficient tool to extract internal conversion coefficients. However, in many cases the required well-known reference transitions are not available. The data analysis steps required to determine absolute internal conversion coefficients with the SAGE spectrometer are presented. In addition, several background suppression methods are introduced and an example of how ancillary detectors can be used to select specific reaction products is given. The results obtained for ground-state band E2 transitions show that the absolute internal conversion coefficients can be extracted using the methods described with a reasonable accuracy. In some cases of less intense transitions only an upper limit for the internal conversion coefficient could be given.

  14. Absolute magnitude calibration using trigonometric parallax - Incomplete, spectroscopic samples

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ratnatunga, Kavan U.; Casertano, Stefano

    1991-01-01

    A new numerical algorithm is used to calibrate the absolute magnitude of spectroscopically selected stars from their observed trigonometric parallax. This procedure, based on maximum-likelihood estimation, can retrieve unbiased estimates of the intrinsic absolute magnitude and its dispersion even from incomplete samples suffering from selection biases in apparent magnitude and color. It can also make full use of low accuracy and negative parallaxes and incorporate censorship on reported parallax values. Accurate error estimates are derived for each of the fitted parameters. The algorithm allows an a posteriori check of whether the fitted model gives a good representation of the observations. The procedure is described in general and applied to both real and simulated data.

  15. In-flight Absolute Radiometric Calibration of the Thematic Mapper

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Castle, K. R.; Holm, R. G.; Kastner, C. J.; Palmer, J. M.; Slater, P. N.; Dinguirard, M.; Ezra, C. E.; Jackson, D.; Savage, R. K.

    1984-01-01

    The Thematic Mapper (TM) multispectral scanner system was placed into Earth orbit on July 16, 1982, as part of NASA's LANDSAT 4 payload. To determine temporal changes of the absolute radiometric calibration of the entire system in flight, spectroradiometric measurements of the ground and the atmosphere are made simultaneously with TM image acquisitions over the White Sands, New Mexico area. By entering the measured values into an atmospheric radiative transfer program, the radiance levels at the entrance pupil of the TM in four of the TM spectral bands are determined. These levels are compared to the output digital counts from the detectors that sampled the radiometrically measured ground area, thus providing an absolute radiometric calibration of the entire TM system utilizing those detectors. By reference to an adjacent, larger uniform area, the calibration is extended to all 16 detectors in each of the three bands.

  16. Absolute measurement of the extreme UV solar flux

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carlson, R. W.; Ogawa, H. S.; Judge, D. L.; Phillips, E.

    1984-01-01

    A windowless rare-gas ionization chamber has been developed to measure the absolute value of the solar extreme UV flux in the 50-575-A region. Successful results were obtained on a solar-pointing sounding rocket. The ionization chamber, operated in total absorption, is an inherently stable absolute detector of ionizing UV radiation and was designed to be independent of effects from secondary ionization and gas effusion. The net error of the measurement is + or - 7.3 percent, which is primarily due to residual outgassing in the instrument, other errors such as multiple ionization, photoelectron collection, and extrapolation to the zero atmospheric optical depth being small in comparison. For the day of the flight, Aug. 10, 1982, the solar irradiance (50-575 A), normalized to unit solar distance, was found to be 5.71 + or - 0.42 x 10 to the 10th photons per sq cm sec.

  17. In-flight absolute radiometric calibration of the thematic mapper

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Castle, K. R.; Holm, R. G.; Kastner, C. J.; Palmer, J. M.; Slater, P. N.; Dinguirard, M.; Ezra, C. E.; Jackson, R. D.; Savage, R. K.

    1984-01-01

    In order to determine temporal changes of the absolute radiometric calibration of the entire TM system in flight spectroradiometric measurements of the ground and the atmosphere were made simultaneously with TM image collections over the White Sands, New Mexico area. By entering the measured values in an atmospheric radiative transfer program, the radiance levels in four of the spectral bands of the TM were determined, band 1:0.45 to 0.52 micrometers, band 2:0.53 to 0.61 micrometers band 3:0.62 to 0.70 micrometers and 4:0.78 to 0.91 micrometers. These levels were compared to the output digital counts from the detectors that sampled the radiometrically measured ground area, thus providing an absolute radiometric calibration of the entire TM system utilizing those detectors.

  18. In-flight absolute radiometric calibration of the Thematic Mapper

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Castle, K. R.; Holm, R. G.; Kastner, C. J.; Palmer, J. M.; Slater, P. N.; Dinguirard, M.; Ezra, C. E.; Jackson, R. D.; Savage, R. K.

    1984-01-01

    In order to determine temporal changes of the absolute radiometric calibration of the entire TM system in flight spectroradiometric measurements of the ground and the atmosphere were made simultaneously with TM image collections over the White Sands, NM area. By entering the measured values in an atmospheric radiative transfer program, the radiance levels in four of the spectral bands of the TM were determined, band 1: 0.45 to 0.52 micrometers, band 2: 0.53 to 0.61 micrometers, band 3: 0.62 to 0.70 micrometers, and 4: 0.78 to 0.91 micrometers. These levels were compared to the output digital counts from the detectors that sampled the radiometrically measured ground area, thus providing an absolute radiometric calibration of the entire TM system utilizing those detectors. Previously announced in STAR as N84-15633

  19. Absolute calibration of vacuum ultraviolet spectrograph system for plasma diagnostics

    SciTech Connect

    Yoshikawa, M.; Kubota, Y.; Kobayashi, T.; Saito, M.; Numada, N.; Nakashima, Y.; Cho, T.; Koguchi, H.; Yagi, Y.; Yamaguchi, N.

    2004-10-01

    A space- and time-resolving vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) spectrograph system has been applied to diagnose impurity ions behavior in plasmas produced in the tandem mirror GAMMA 10 and the reversed field pinch TPE-RX. We have carried out ray tracing calculations for obtaining the characteristics of the VUV spectrograph and calibration experiments to measure the absolute sensitivities of the VUV spectrograph system for the wavelength range from 100 to 1100 A. By changing the incident angle, 50.6 deg. -51.4 deg., to the spectrograph whose nominal incident angle is 51 deg., we can change the observing spectral range of the VUV spectrograph. In this article, we show the ray tracing calculation results and absolute sensitivities when the angle of incidence into the VUV spectrograph is changed, and the results of VUV spectroscopic measurement in both GAMMA 10 and TPE-RX plasmas.

  20. Absolute Configurations of Zingiberenols Isolated from Ginger (Zingiber officinale) Rhizomes.

    PubMed

    Khrimian, Ashot; Shirali, Shyam; Guzman, Filadelfo

    2015-12-24

    Two stereoisomeric zingiberenols in ginger were identified as (3R,6R,7S)-1,10-bisaboladien-3-ol (2) and (3S,6R,7S)-1,10-bisaboladien-3-ol (5). Absolute configurations were assigned by utilizing 1,10-bisaboladien-3-ol stereoisomers and two gas-chromatography columns: a 25 m Hydrodex-β-6TBDM and 60 m DB-5MS. The C-6 and C-7 absolute configurations in both zingiberenols match those of zingiberene present abundantly in ginger rhizomes. Interestingly, zingiberenol 2 has recently been identified as a male-produced sex pheromone of the rice stink bug, Oebalus poecilus, thus indicating that ginger plants may be a potential source of the sex pheromone of this bug. PMID:26606508

  1. Absolute limit on rotation of gravitationally bound stars

    SciTech Connect

    Glendenning, N.K.

    1994-03-01

    The authors seek an absolute limit on the rotational period for a neutron star as a function of its mass, based on the minimal constraints imposed by Einstein`s theory of relativity, Le Chatelier`s principle, causality and a low-density equation of state, uncertainties which can be evaluated as to their effect on the result. This establishes a limiting curve in the mass-period plane below which no pulsar that is a neutron star can lie. For example, the minimum possible Kepler period, which is an absolute limit on rotation below which mass-shedding would occur, is 0.33 ms for a M = 1.442 M{circle_dot} neutron star (the mass of PSR1913+16). If the limit were found to be broken by any pulsar, it would signal that the confined hadronic phase of ordinary nucleons and nuclei is only metastable, an extraordinary conclusion.

  2. Validation of GOCE by absolute and relative gravimetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pettersen, B. R.; Sprlak, M.; Lysaker, D. I.; Omang, O. C. D.; Sekowski, M.; Dykowski, P.

    2012-04-01

    Absolute gravimetry has been performed in 2011 by FG5 and A10 instruments in selected sites of the Norwegian first order gravity network. These observations are used as reference values to transform a large number of relative gravity values collected in 1968-1972. The outcome is a database at current epoch in a reference frame defined by the absolute gravity values. This constitutes our test field for validation of GOCE results. In the test fields, validation of GOCE-derived gravity anomalies was performed. The spectral enhancement method was applied to avoid the spectral inconsistency between the terrestrial and the satellite data. For this purpose, contributions of the EGM2008 model and a gravitational effect of a residual terrain model were calculated.

  3. Proposal for an absolute, atomic definition of mass

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wignall, J. W. G.

    1991-11-01

    It is proposed that the mass of a particle be defined absolutely as its de Broglie frequency, measured as the mean de Broglie wavelength of the particle when it has a mean speed (v) and Lorentz factor (gamma); the masses of systems too large to have a measurable de Broglie wavelength mean are then to be derived by specifying the usual inertial and additive properties of mass. This definition avoids the use of an arbitrary macroscopic standard such as the prototype kilogram, and, if present theory is correct, does not even require the choice of a specific particle as a mass standard. Suggestions are made as to how this absolute mass can be realized and measured at the macroscopic level and, finally, some comments are made on the effect of the new definition on the form of the equations of physics.

  4. Absolute phase effects on CPMG-type pulse sequences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mandal, Soumyajit; Oh, Sangwon; Hürlimann, Martin D.

    2015-12-01

    We describe and analyze the effects of transients within radio-frequency (RF) pulses on multiple-pulse NMR measurements such as the well-known Carr-Purcell-Meiboom-Gill (CPMG) sequence. These transients are functions of the absolute RF phases at the beginning and end of the pulse, and are thus affected by the timing of the pulse sequence with respect to the period of the RF waveform. Changes in transients between refocusing pulses in CPMG-type sequences can result in signal decay, persistent oscillations, changes in echo shape, and other effects. We have explored such effects by performing experiments in two different low-frequency NMR systems. The first uses a conventional tuned-and-matched probe circuit, while the second uses an ultra-broadband un-tuned or non-resonant probe circuit. We show that there are distinct differences between the absolute phase effects in these two systems, and present simple models that explain these differences.

  5. Henry More and the development of absolute time.

    PubMed

    Thomas, Emily

    2015-12-01

    This paper explores the nature, development and influence of the first English account of absolute time, put forward in the mid-seventeenth century by the 'Cambridge Platonist' Henry More. Against claims in the literature that More does not have an account of time, this paper sets out More's evolving account and shows that it reveals the lasting influence of Plotinus. Further, this paper argues that More developed his views on time in response to his adoption of Descartes' vortex cosmology and cosmogony, providing new evidence of More's wider project to absorb Cartesian natural philosophy into his Platonic metaphysics. Finally, this paper argues that More should be added to the list of sources that later English thinkers - including Newton and Samuel Clarke - drew on in constructing their absolute accounts of time. PMID:26568082

  6. Improved Absolute Approximation Ratios for Two-Dimensional Packing Problems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harren, Rolf; van Stee, Rob

    We consider the two-dimensional bin packing and strip packing problem, where a list of rectangles has to be packed into a minimal number of rectangular bins or a strip of minimal height, respectively. All packings have to be non-overlapping and orthogonal, i.e., axis-parallel. Our algorithm for strip packing has an absolute approximation ratio of 1.9396 and is the first algorithm to break the approximation ratio of 2 which was established more than a decade ago. Moreover, we present a polynomial time approximation scheme (mathcal{PTAS}) for strip packing where rotations by 90 degrees are permitted and an algorithm for two-dimensional bin packing with an absolute worst-case ratio of 2, which is optimal provided mathcal{P} not= mathcal{NP}.

  7. Flow rate calibration for absolute cell counting rationale and design.

    PubMed

    Walker, Clare; Barnett, David

    2006-05-01

    There is a need for absolute leukocyte enumeration in the clinical setting, and accurate, reliable (and affordable) technology to determine absolute leukocyte counts has been developed. Such technology includes single platform and dual platform approaches. Derivations of these counts commonly incorporate the addition of a known number of latex microsphere beads to a blood sample, although it has been suggested that the addition of beads to a sample may only be required to act as an internal quality control procedure for assessing the pipetting error. This unit provides the technical details for undertaking flow rate calibration that obviates the need to add reference beads to each sample. It is envisaged that this report will provide the basis for subsequent clinical evaluations of this novel approach. PMID:18770842

  8. Enumeration of absolute cell counts using immunophenotypic techniques.

    PubMed

    Mandy, F; Brando, B

    2001-05-01

    Absolute counting of cells or cell subsets has a number of significant clinical applications: monitoring the disease status of HIV-infected patients, enumerating residual white blood cells in leukoreduced blood products, and assessing immunodeficiency in a variety of situations. The single-platform method (flow cytometry alone) has emerged as the method of choice for absolute cell enumeration. This technology counts only the cells of interest in a precisely determined blood volume. Exact cell identification is accomplished by a logical electronic gating algorithm capable of identifying lineage-specific immunofluorescent markers. Exclusion of unwanted cells is automatic. This extensive and detailed unit presents protocols for both volumetric and flow-rate determination of residual white blood cells and of leukocyte subsets. PMID:18770719

  9. Absolute calibration for a broad range single shot electron spectrometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Glinec, Y.; Faure, J.; Guemnie-Tafo, A.; Malka, V.; Monard, H.; Larbre, J. P.; De Waele, V.; Marignier, J. L.; Mostafavi, M.

    2006-10-01

    This article gives a detailed description of a single shot electron spectrometer which was used to characterize electron beams produced by laser-plasma interaction. Contrary to conventional electron sources, electron beams from laser-plasma accelerators can produce a broad range of energies. Therefore, diagnosing these electron spectra requires specific attention and experimental development. Here, we provide an absolute calibration of the Lanex Kodak Fine screen on a laser-triggered radio frequency picosecond electron accelerator. The efficiency of scintillating screens irradiated by electron beams has never been investigated so far. This absolute calibration is then compared to charge measurements from an integrating current transformer for quasimonoenergetic electron spectra from laser-plasma interaction.

  10. Absolute GNSS Antenna Calibration at the National Geodetic Survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mader, G.; Bilich, A.; Geoghegan, C.

    2012-04-01

    Geodetic GNSS applications routinely demand millimeter precision and extremely high levels of accuracy. To achieve these accuracies, measurement and instrument biases at the centimeter to millimeter level must be understood. One of these biases is the antenna phase center, the apparent point of signal reception for a GNSS antenna. It has been well established that phase center patterns differ between antenna models and manufacturers; additional research suggests that the addition of a radome or the choice of antenna mount can significantly alter those a priori phase center patterns. For the more demanding GNSS positioning applications and especially in cases of mixed-antenna networks, it is all the more important to know antenna phase center variations as a function of both elevation and azimuth in the antenna reference frame and incorporate these models into analysis software. To help meet the needs of the high-precision GNSS community, the National Geodetic Survey (NGS) now operates an absolute antenna calibration facility. Located in Corbin, Virginia, this facility uses field measurements and actual GNSS satellite signals to quantitatively determine the carrier phase advance/delay introduced by the antenna element. The NGS facility was built to serve traditional NGS constituents such as the surveying and geodesy communities, however calibration services are open and available to all GNSS users as the calibration schedule permits. All phase center patterns computed by this facility will be publicly available and disseminated in both the ANTEX and NGS formats. We describe the NGS calibration facility, and discuss the observation models and strategy currently used to generate NGS absolute calibrations. We demonstrate that NGS absolute phase center variation (PCV) patterns are consistent with published values determined by other absolute antenna calibration facilities, and outline future planned refinements to the system.

  11. Engine performance and the determination of absolute ceiling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Diehl, Walter S

    1924-01-01

    This report contains a brief study of the variation of engine power with temperature and pressure. The variation of propeller efficiency in standard atmosphere is obtained from the general efficiency curve which is developed in NACA report no. 168. The variation of both power available and power required are then determined and curves plotted, so that the absolute ceiling may be read directly from any known sea-level value of the ratio of power available to power required.

  12. On the Absolute Continuity of the Blackwell Measure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bárány, Balázs; Kolossváry, István

    2015-04-01

    In 1957, Blackwell expressed the entropy of hidden Markov chains using a measure which can be characterised as an invariant measure for an iterated function system with place-dependent weights. This measure, called the Blackwell measure, plays a central role in understanding the entropy rate and other important characteristics of fundamental models in information theory. We show that for a suitable set of parameter values the Blackwell measure is absolutely continuous for almost every parameter in the case of binary symmetric channels.

  13. Electroweak absolute, meta-, and thermal stability in neutrino mass models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lindner, Manfred; Patel, Hiren H.; Radovčić, Branimir

    2016-04-01

    We analyze the stability of the electroweak vacuum in neutrino mass models containing right-handed neutrinos or fermionic isotriplets. In addition to considering absolute stability, we place limits on the Yukawa couplings of new fermions based on metastability and thermal stability in the early Universe. Our results reveal that the upper limits on the neutrino Yukawa couplings can change significantly when the top quark mass is allowed to vary within the experimental range of uncertainty in its determination.

  14. Successful treatment of pyogenic granuloma with injection of absolute ethanol.

    PubMed

    Ichimiya, Makoto; Yoshikawa, Yoshiaki; Hamamoto, Yoshiaki; Muto, Masahiko

    2004-04-01

    Pyogenic granuloma (PG) is a small, almost always solitary, sessile or pedunculated, raspberry-like vegetation of exuberant granulation tissue. Conservative treatment by techniques such as cryosurgery, laser surgery, and electrodesiccation are usually adequate, whereas excisional treatment can often result in noticeable scars. We attempted a different approach using an injection of absolute ethanol in five patients with recurrence due to inadequate cryosurgery. This therapy is less invasive than surgical excision and appears to be an alternative therapy for PG. PMID:15187331

  15. Diagnostic Application of Absolute Neutron Activation Analysis in Hematology

    SciTech Connect

    Zamboni, C.B.; Oliveira, L.C.; Dalaqua, L. Jr.

    2004-10-03

    The Absolute Neutron Activation Analysis (ANAA) technique was used to determine element concentrations of Cl and Na in blood of healthy group (male and female blood donators), select from Blood Banks at Sao Paulo city, to provide information which can help in diagnosis of patients. This study permitted to perform a discussion about the advantages and limitations of using this nuclear methodology in hematological examinations.

  16. Absolute intensity of radiation emitted by uranium plasmas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jalufka, N. W.; Lee, J. H.; Mcfarland, D. R.

    1975-01-01

    The absolute intensity of radiation emitted by fissioning and nonfissioning uranium plasmas in the spectral range from 350 nm to 1000 nm was measured. The plasma was produced in a plasma-focus apparatus and the plasma properties are simular to those anticipated for plasma-core nuclear reactors. The results are expected to contribute to the establishment of design criteria for the development of plasma-core reactors.

  17. THE ABSOLUTE MAGNITUDES OF TYPE Ia SUPERNOVAE IN THE ULTRAVIOLET

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, Peter J.; Roming, Peter W. A.; Ciardullo, Robin; Gronwall, Caryl; Hoversten, Erik A.; Pritchard, Tyler; Milne, Peter; Bufano, Filomena; Mazzali, Paolo; Elias-Rosa, Nancy; Filippenko, Alexei V.; Li Weidong; Foley, Ryan J.; Hicken, Malcolm; Kirshner, Robert P.; Gehrels, Neil; Holland, Stephen T.; Immler, Stefan; Phillips, Mark M.; Still, Martin

    2010-10-01

    We examine the absolute magnitudes and light-curve shapes of 14 nearby (redshift z = 0.004-0.027) Type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia) observed in the ultraviolet (UV) with the Swift Ultraviolet/Optical Telescope. Colors and absolute magnitudes are calculated using both a standard Milky Way extinction law and one for the Large Magellanic Cloud that has been modified by circumstellar scattering. We find very different behavior in the near-UV filters (uvw1{sub rc} covering {approx}2600-3300 A after removing optical light, and u {approx} 3000-4000 A) compared to a mid-UV filter (uvm2 {approx}2000-2400 A). The uvw1{sub rc} - b colors show a scatter of {approx}0.3 mag while uvm2-b scatters by nearly 0.9 mag. Similarly, while the scatter in colors between neighboring filters is small in the optical and somewhat larger in the near-UV, the large scatter in the uvm2 - uvw1 colors implies significantly larger spectral variability below 2600 A. We find that in the near-UV the absolute magnitudes at peak brightness of normal SNe Ia in our sample are correlated with the optical decay rate with a scatter of 0.4 mag, comparable to that found for the optical in our sample. However, in the mid-UV the scatter is larger, {approx}1 mag, possibly indicating differences in metallicity. We find no strong correlation between either the UV light-curve shapes or the UV colors and the UV absolute magnitudes. With larger samples, the UV luminosity might be useful as an additional constraint to help determine distance, extinction, and metallicity in order to improve the utility of SNe Ia as standardized candles.

  18. Absolute partial decay branching-ratios in 16O

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wheldon, C.; Ashwood, N. I.; Barr, M.; Curtis, N.; Freer, M.; Kokalova, Tz; Malcolm, J. D.; Spencer, S. J.; Ziman, V. A.; Faestermann, Th; Krücken, R.; Wirth, H.-F.; Hertenberger, R.; Lutter, R.; Bergmaier, A.

    2013-04-01

    The a-transfer reaction 126C(63Li, d)168O* has been performed at a 6Li bombarding energy of 42 MeV to populate excited states in 13C and 16O. Absolute branching ratios have been unambiguously determined for states in the excitation energy range 13.85 to 15.87 MeV and reduced widths are extracted.

  19. The Electromotive Series and Other Non-Absolute Scales

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peckham, Gavin D.

    1998-01-01

    This article describes an analogy which may be used to illustrate the principles that underlie the establishment of non-absolute scales of measurements that are evaluated relative to a chosen reference point. The analogy is interwoven with the establishment of the electromotive series, but may be extended to other parameters such as the Celsius and Fahrenheit temperature scales, potential energies, formation and reaction enthalpies, etc.

  20. On the Absolutely Continuous Spectrum of Stark Operators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perelman, Galina

    The stability of the absolutely continuous spectrum of the one-dimensional Stark operator under perturbations of the potential is discussed. The focus is on proving this stability under minimal assumptions on smoothness of the perturbation. A general criterion is presented together with some applications. These include the case of periodic perturbations where we show that any perturbation vL1()∩H-1/2() preserves the a.c. spectrum.

  1. Overspecification of color, pattern, and size: salience, absoluteness, and consistency

    PubMed Central

    Tarenskeen, Sammie; Broersma, Mirjam; Geurts, Bart

    2015-01-01

    The rates of overspecification of color, pattern, and size are compared, to investigate how salience and absoluteness contribute to the production of overspecification. Color and pattern are absolute and salient attributes, whereas size is relative and less salient. Additionally, a tendency toward consistent responses is assessed. Using a within-participants design, we find similar rates of color and pattern overspecification, which are both higher than the rate of size overspecification. Using a between-participants design, however, we find similar rates of pattern and size overspecification, which are both lower than the rate of color overspecification. This indicates that although many speakers are more likely to include color than pattern (probably because color is more salient), they may also treat pattern like color due to a tendency toward consistency. We find no increase in size overspecification when the salience of size is increased, suggesting that speakers are more likely to include absolute than relative attributes. However, we do find an increase in size overspecification when mentioning the attributes is triggered, which again shows that speakers tend to refer in a consistent manner, and that there are circumstances in which even size overspecification is frequently produced. PMID:26594190

  2. Measurement of Absolute Carbon Isotope Ratios: Mechanisms and Implications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vogel, J. S.; Giacomo, J. A.; Dueker, S. R.

    2012-12-01

    An accelerator mass spectrometer (AMS) produced absolute isotope ratio measurements for 14C/13C as tested against >500 samples of NIST SRM-4990-C (OxII 14C standard) to an accuracy of 2.2±0.6‰ over a period of one year with measurements made to 1% counting statistics. The spectrometer is not maximized for 13C/12C, but measured ∂13C to 0.4±0.1‰ accuracy, with known methods for improvement. An AMS produces elemental anions from a sputter ion source and includes a charge-changing collision in a gas cell to isolate the rare 14C from the common isotopes and molecular isobars. Both these physical processes have been modeled to determine the parameters providing such absolute measures. Neutral resonant ionization in a cesium plasma produces mass-independent ionization, while velocity dependent charge-state distributions in gas collisions produce relative ion beam intensities that are linear in mass at specific collision energies. The mechanisms are not specific to carbon isotopes, but stand alone absolute IRMS (AIR-MS) instruments have not yet been made. Aside from the obvious applications in metrology, AIR-MS is particularly valuable in coupled separatory MS because no internal or external standards are required. Sample definition processes can be compared, even if no exact standard reference sample exists. Isotope dilution measurements do not require standards matching the dilution end-points and can be made over an extended, even extrapolated, range.

  3. Peripheral absolute threshold spectral sensitivity in retinitis pigmentosa.

    PubMed Central

    Massof, R W; Johnson, M A; Finkelstein, D

    1981-01-01

    Dark-adapted spectral sensitivities were measured in the peripheral retinas of 38 patients diagnosed as having typical retinitis pigmentosa (RP) and in 3 normal volunteers. The patients included those having autosomal dominant and autosomal recessive inheritance patterns. Results were analysed by comparisons with the CIE standard scotopic spectral visibility function and with Judd's modification of the photopic spectral visibility function, with consideration of contributions from changes in spectral transmission of preretinal media. The data show 3 general patterns. One group of patients had absolute threshold spectral sensitivities that were fit by Judd's photopic visibility curve. Absolute threshold spectral sensitivities for a second group of patients were fit by a normal scotopic spectral visibility curve. The third group of patients had absolute threshold spectral sensitivities that were fit by a combination of scotopic and photopic spectral visibility curves. The autosomal dominant and autosomal recessive modes of inheritance were represented in each group of patients. These data indicate that RP patients have normal rod and/or cone spectral sensitivities, and support the subclassification of patients described previously by Massof and Finkelstein. PMID:7459312

  4. Absolute orientations from EBSD measurements - as easy as it seems?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kilian, Rüdiger; Bestmann, Michel; Heilbronner, Renée

    2016-04-01

    In structural geology, some problems can be addressed by inspecting the crystal orientation of grains in a rock. Deriving shear senses, kinematics of flow, information on deformation processes and recrystallization are some examples. Usually, oriented samples are taken in the field and, if inspected in an universal stage, the researcher has full control over the procedure and can make sure that the derived orientation is related to our geographic reference frame - that it is an absolute orientation. Nowadays, usage of electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD) has greatly improved the information in the derived data (fully crystal orientations, mappings, etc…), and the speed of data acquisition. However, this comes to the price of having to rely on the vendor supplied software and machine setup. Recent benchmarks and comparison of reference data revealed that for various EBSD setups around the world, the orientation data defaults to the wrong absolute orientation. The absolute orientation is not correctly derived - it commonly suffer a 180 degree rotation around the normal of the sample surface. In this contribution we will discuss the implications of such erroneous measurements and what kind of interpretations derived by orientation and texture data will be affected.

  5. Determination of absolute structure using Bayesian statistics on Bijvoet differences

    PubMed Central

    Hooft, Rob W. W.; Straver, Leo H.; Spek, Anthony L.

    2008-01-01

    A new probabilistic approach is introduced for the determination of the absolute structure of a compound which is known to be enantiopure based on Bijvoet-pair intensity differences. The new method provides relative probabilities for different models of the chiral composition of the structure. The outcome of this type of analysis can also be cast in the form of a new value, along with associated standard uncertainty, that resembles the value of the well known Flack x parameter. The standard uncertainty we obtain is often about half of the standard uncertainty in the value of the Flack x parameter. The proposed formalism is suited in particular to absolute configuration determination from diffraction data of biologically active (pharmaceutical) compounds where the strongest resonant scattering signal often comes from oxygen. It is shown that a reliable absolute configuration assignment in such cases can be made on the basis of Cu Kα data, and in some cases even with carefully measured Mo Kα data. PMID:19461838

  6. Son preference in Indian families: absolute versus relative wealth effects.

    PubMed

    Gaudin, Sylvestre

    2011-02-01

    The desire for male children is prevalent in India, where son preference has been shown to affect fertility behavior and intrahousehold allocation of resources. Economic theory predicts less gender discrimination in wealthier households, but demographers and sociologists have argued that wealth can exacerbate bias in the Indian context. I argue that these apparently conflicting theories can be reconciled and simultaneously tested if one considers that they are based on two different notions of wealth: one related to resource constraints (absolute wealth), and the other to notions of local status (relative wealth). Using cross-sectional data from the 1998-1999 and 2005-2006 National Family and Health Surveys, I construct measures of absolute and relative wealth by using principal components analysis. A series of statistical models of son preference is estimated by using multilevel methods. Results consistently show that higher absolute wealth is strongly associated with lower son preference, and the effect is 20%-40% stronger when the household's community-specific wealth score is included in the regression. Coefficients on relative wealth are positive and significant although lower in magnitude. Results are robust to using different samples, alternative groupings of households in local areas, different estimation methods, and alternative dependent variables. PMID:21302027

  7. Absolute Performance of AUSGeoid09 in Mountainous Regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sussanna, Vittorio; Janssen, Volker; Gibbings, Peter

    2014-09-01

    The Australian Height Datum (AHD) is the current national vertical datum for Australia, and AUSGeoid09 is the latest quasigeoid model used to compute (normal-orthometric)AHDheights fromGlobalNavigation Satellite System (GNSS) derived ellipsoidal heights. While previous studies have evaluated the AUSGeoid09 model across Australia, such studies have not focused on mountainous regions in particular. This paper investigates the performance of AUSGeoid09 in an absolute sense in the Mid Hunter and Snowy Mountains regions of New South Wales. Absolute (i.e. single point) comparisons were undertaken between AUSGeoid09-derived heights and published AHD heights. The performance of AUSGeoid09 was evaluated relative to its predecessor AUSGeoid98. In both study areas, an overall improvement is evident when applying AUSGeoid09 to compute AHD heights in an absolute sense. In the MidHunter, AUSGeoid09 provided a substantial improvement over its predecessor, clearly demonstrating the benefits of its new geometric component on GNSS-derived AHD height determination. In the Snowy Mountains, moderate improvement over AUSGeoid98 was evident. However, a slope was detected for AUSGeoid09 residuals, and it appears that the geometric component may have overcompensated for sea surface topography in this area. While this appraisal of AUSGeoid09 performance in mountainous regions is encouraging, it has been shown that some discrepancies still remain between AUSGeoid09-derived heights and AHD. Eventually, a new vertical datum will be necessary to ensure homogeneity across Australia.

  8. Neutron activation analysis of certified samples by the absolute method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kadem, F.; Belouadah, N.; Idiri, Z.

    2015-07-01

    The nuclear reactions analysis technique is mainly based on the relative method or the use of activation cross sections. In order to validate nuclear data for the calculated cross section evaluated from systematic studies, we used the neutron activation analysis technique (NAA) to determine the various constituent concentrations of certified samples for animal blood, milk and hay. In this analysis, the absolute method is used. The neutron activation technique involves irradiating the sample and subsequently performing a measurement of the activity of the sample. The fundamental equation of the activation connects several physical parameters including the cross section that is essential for the quantitative determination of the different elements composing the sample without resorting to the use of standard sample. Called the absolute method, it allows a measurement as accurate as the relative method. The results obtained by the absolute method showed that the values are as precise as the relative method requiring the use of standard sample for each element to be quantified.

  9. Absolute length measurement using manually decided stereo correspondence for endoscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sasaki, M.; Koishi, T.; Nakaguchi, T.; Tsumura, N.; Miyake, Y.

    2009-02-01

    In recent years, various kinds of endoscope have been developed and widely used to endoscopic biopsy, endoscopic operation and endoscopy. The size of the inflammatory part is important to determine a method of medical treatment. However, it is not easy to measure absolute size of inflammatory part such as ulcer, cancer and polyp from the endoscopic image. Therefore, it is required measuring the size of those part in endoscopy. In this paper, we propose a new method to measure the absolute length in a straight line between arbitrary two points based on the photogrammetry using endoscope with magnetic tracking sensor which gives camera position and angle. In this method, the stereo-corresponding points between two endoscopic images are determined by the endoscopist without any apparatus of projection and calculation to find the stereo correspondences, then the absolute length can be calculated on the basis of the photogrammetry. The evaluation experiment using a checkerboard showed that the errors of the measurements are less than 2% of the target length when the baseline is sufficiently-long.

  10. Absolute surface reconstruction by slope metrology and photogrammetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dong, Yue

    Developing the manufacture of aspheric and freeform optical elements requires an advanced metrology method which is capable of inspecting these elements with arbitrary freeform surfaces. In this dissertation, a new surface measurement scheme is investigated for such a purpose, which is to measure the absolute surface shape of an object under test through its surface slope information obtained by photogrammetric measurement. A laser beam propagating toward the object reflects on its surface while the vectors of the incident and reflected beams are evaluated from the four spots they leave on the two parallel transparent windows in front of the object. The spots' spatial coordinates are determined by photogrammetry. With the knowledge of the incident and reflected beam vectors, the local slope information of the object surface is obtained through vector calculus and finally yields the absolute object surface profile by a reconstruction algorithm. An experimental setup is designed and the proposed measuring principle is experimentally demonstrated by measuring the absolute surface shape of a spherical mirror. The measurement uncertainty is analyzed, and efforts for improvement are made accordingly. In particular, structured windows are designed and fabricated to generate uniform scattering spots left by the transmitted laser beams. Calibration of the fringe reflection instrument, another typical surface slope measurement method, is also reported in the dissertation. Finally, a method for uncertainty analysis of a photogrammetry measurement system by optical simulation is investigated.

  11. Bio-Inspired Stretchable Absolute Pressure Sensor Network

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Yue; Li, Yu-Hung; Guo, Zhiqiang; Kim, Kyunglok; Chang, Fu-Kuo; Wang, Shan X.

    2016-01-01

    A bio-inspired absolute pressure sensor network has been developed. Absolute pressure sensors, distributed on multiple silicon islands, are connected as a network by stretchable polyimide wires. This sensor network, made on a 4’’ wafer, has 77 nodes and can be mounted on various curved surfaces to cover an area up to 0.64 m × 0.64 m, which is 100 times larger than its original size. Due to Micro Electro-Mechanical system (MEMS) surface micromachining technology, ultrathin sensing nodes can be realized with thicknesses of less than 100 µm. Additionally, good linearity and high sensitivity (~14 mV/V/bar) have been achieved. Since the MEMS sensor process has also been well integrated with a flexible polymer substrate process, the entire sensor network can be fabricated in a time-efficient and cost-effective manner. Moreover, an accurate pressure contour can be obtained from the sensor network. Therefore, this absolute pressure sensor network holds significant promise for smart vehicle applications, especially for unmanned aerial vehicles. PMID:26729134

  12. Bio-Inspired Stretchable Absolute Pressure Sensor Network.

    PubMed

    Guo, Yue; Li, Yu-Hung; Guo, Zhiqiang; Kim, Kyunglok; Chang, Fu-Kuo; Wang, Shan X

    2016-01-01

    A bio-inspired absolute pressure sensor network has been developed. Absolute pressure sensors, distributed on multiple silicon islands, are connected as a network by stretchable polyimide wires. This sensor network, made on a 4'' wafer, has 77 nodes and can be mounted on various curved surfaces to cover an area up to 0.64 m × 0.64 m, which is 100 times larger than its original size. Due to Micro Electro-Mechanical system (MEMS) surface micromachining technology, ultrathin sensing nodes can be realized with thicknesses of less than 100 µm. Additionally, good linearity and high sensitivity (~14 mV/V/bar) have been achieved. Since the MEMS sensor process has also been well integrated with a flexible polymer substrate process, the entire sensor network can be fabricated in a time-efficient and cost-effective manner. Moreover, an accurate pressure contour can be obtained from the sensor network. Therefore, this absolute pressure sensor network holds significant promise for smart vehicle applications, especially for unmanned aerial vehicles. PMID:26729134

  13. Absolute Timing Calibration of the USA Experiment Using Pulsar Observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ray, P. S.; Wood, K. S.; Wolff, M. T.; Lovellette, M. N.; Sheikh, S.; Moon, D.-S.; Eikenberry, S. S.; Roberts, M.; Lyne, A.; Jordon, C.; Bloom, E. D.; Tournear, D.; Saz Parkinson, P.; Reilly, K.

    2003-03-01

    We update the status of the absolute time calibration of the USA Experiment as determined by observations of X-ray emitting rotation-powered pulsars. The brightest such source is the Crab Pulsar and we have obtained observations of the Crab at radio, IR, optical, and X-ray wavelengths. We directly compare arrival time determinations for 2--10 keV X-ray observations made contemporaneously with the PCA on the Rossi X-ray Timing Explorer and the USA Experiment on ARGOS. These two X-ray measurements employ very different means of measuring time and satellite position and thus have different systematic error budgets. The comparison with other wavelengths requires additional steps such as dispersion measure corrections and a precise definition of the ``peak'' of the light curve since the light curve shape varies with observing wavelength. We will describe each of these effects and quantify the magnitude of the systematic error that each may contribute. We will also include time comparison results for other pulsars, such as PSR B1509-58 and PSR B1821-24. Once the absolute time calibrations are well understood, comparing absolute arrival times at multiple energies can provide clues to the magnetospheric structure and emission region geometry. Basic research on X-ray Astronomy at NRL is funded by NRL/ONR.

  14. Absolute photoionization cross-section of the propargyl radical

    SciTech Connect

    Savee, John D.; Welz, Oliver; Taatjes, Craig A.; Osborn, David L.; Soorkia, Satchin; Selby, Talitha M.

    2012-04-07

    Using synchrotron-generated vacuum-ultraviolet radiation and multiplexed time-resolved photoionization mass spectrometry we have measured the absolute photoionization cross-section for the propargyl (C{sub 3}H{sub 3}) radical, {sigma}{sub propargyl}{sup ion}(E), relative to the known absolute cross-section of the methyl (CH{sub 3}) radical. We generated a stoichiometric 1:1 ratio of C{sub 3}H{sub 3} : CH{sub 3} from 193 nm photolysis of two different C{sub 4}H{sub 6} isomers (1-butyne and 1,3-butadiene). Photolysis of 1-butyne yielded values of {sigma}{sub propargyl}{sup ion}(10.213 eV)=(26.1{+-}4.2) Mb and {sigma}{sub propargyl}{sup ion}(10.413 eV)=(23.4{+-}3.2) Mb, whereas photolysis of 1,3-butadiene yielded values of {sigma}{sub propargyl}{sup ion}(10.213 eV)=(23.6{+-}3.6) Mb and {sigma}{sub propargyl}{sup ion}(10.413 eV)=(25.1{+-}3.5) Mb. These measurements place our relative photoionization cross-section spectrum for propargyl on an absolute scale between 8.6 and 10.5 eV. The cross-section derived from our results is approximately a factor of three larger than previous determinations.

  15. High capacity 30 K remote helium cooling loop

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trollier, T.; Tanchon, J.; Icart, Y.; Ravex, A.

    2014-01-01

    Absolut System has built several 50 K remote helium cooling loops used as high capacity and very low vibration cooling source into large wavelength IR detectors electro-optical characterization test benches. MgB2 based superconducting electro-technical equipment's under development require also distributed high cooling power in the 20-30 K temperature range. Absolut System has designed, manufactured and tested a high capacity 30 K remote helium cooling loop. The equipment consists of a CRYOMECH AL325 type cooler, a CP830 type compressor package used as room temperature circulator and an intermediate LN2 bath cooling used between two recuperator heat exchangers (300 K-77 K and 77 K-20 K). A cooling capacity of 30 W @ 20 K or 80 W @ 30 K has been demonstrated on the application heat exchanger, with a 4-meter remote distance ensured by a specifically designed gas circulation flexible line. The design and the performance will be reported in this paper.

  16. The new Absolute Quantum Gravimeter (AQG): first results and perspectives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bonvalot, Sylvain; Le Moigne, Nicolas; Merlet, Sebastien; Desruelle, Bruno; Lautier-Gaud, Jean; Menoret, Vincent; Vermeulen, Pierre

    2016-04-01

    Cold atom gravimetry represents one of the most innovative evolution in gravity instrumentation since the last 20 years. The concept of measuring the gravitational acceleration by dropping atoms and the development of the first instrumental devices during this last decade quickly revealed the promising perspectives of this new generation of gravity meters enabling accurate and absolute measurements of the Earth's gravity field for a wide range of applications (geophysics, geodesy, metrology, etc.). The Absolute Quantum Gravimeter (AQG) gravity meter, developed by MUQUANS (Talence, France - http://www.muquans.com/) with the support of RESIF, the French Seismologic and Geodetic Network (http://www.resif.fr/) belongs to this new generation of instruments. It also represents the first commercial device based on the utilization of advanced matter-wave interferometry techniques, which allow to characterize precisely the vertical acceleration experienced by a cloud of cold atoms. Recently, the first operational unit (AQG01) has been achieved as a compact transportable gravimeter with the aim of satisfying absolute gravity measurements in laboratory conditions under the following specifications: measurements the μGal level at a few Hz cycling frequency, sensitivity of 50μGal/√Hz, immunity to ground vibrations, easy and quickness of operation, automated continuous data acquisition for several months, etc. In order to evaluate the current performances of the AQG01, several experiments are carried out in collaboration between RESIF user's teams and the MUQUANS manufacturer on different reference gravity sites and laboratories in France. These measurements performed in indoor conditions including simultaneous observations with classical reference gravity instruments (corner-cube absolute gravity meters, relative superconducting meters) as well with the Cold Atom Gravity meter (CAG) developed by LNE-SYRTE, lead to a first objective characterization of the performances of

  17. North American fertilizer capacity data

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-01-01

    This listing of producers and their fertilizer production capacities was compiled in January 1991 with the cooperation of the US and Canadian fertilizer industry. Capacity is only an indicator of supply. Nameplate capacity differs from planned production levels or actual production because plants often operate above or below design capacity. Unless reported otherwise, plant capacities are based on 340 days per year of operation. No adjustment is made for partial year operation. Numerical data for the production of ammonia, ammonium nitrate, nitrogen solutions, urea, phosphate rock, phosphoric acid and ammonium phosphates is included.

  18. GNSS Absolute Antenna Calibration at the National Geodetic Survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bilich, A. L.; Mader, G. L.

    2009-12-01

    GNSS applications now routinely demand measurement and instrument biases at the centimeter to millimeter level in order to achieve the high precision and accuracy required for geodetic position solutions. One of these biases is the antenna phase center, the point of signal reception for a GNSS antenna. It has been well established that phase center patterns differ between antenna models and manufacturers; additional research suggests that the addition of a radome or the choice of antenna mount can significantly alter those a priori phase center patterns. As baseline lengths increase, or with antenna mixing, phase center effects on carrier phase data become more pronounced. To meet the needs of the high-precision GNSS community, the National Geodetic Survey (NGS) has constructed an absolute antenna calibration facility which uses field measurements and actual GNSS satellite signals to determine antenna phase center patterns. A pan/tilt motor changes the orientation of the antenna under test; signals are received at a wide range of angles, allowing computation of a robust phase center pattern. Ultimately, this facility will be used to measure antenna phase center variations of commonly-used geodetic GNSS antennas, as well as antennas submitted by users. The phase center patterns will be publicly available and disseminated in both the ANTEX and NGS formats. We provide information on the observation models and strategy currently used to generate NGS absolute calibrations, and propose some future refinements. We discuss the multipath mitigation strategy currently in use, and provide examples of antenna calibrations from the NGS facility. These examples are compared to the NGS relative calibrations as well as absolute calibrations generated by other organizations.

  19. Morphology and Absolute Magnitudes of the SDSS DR7 QSOs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coelho, B.; Andrei, A. H.; Antón, S.

    2014-10-01

    The ESA mission Gaia will furnish a complete census of the Milky Way, delivering astrometrics, dynamics, and astrophysics information for 1 billion stars. Operating in all-sky repeated survey mode, Gaia will also provide measurements of extra-galactic objects. Among the later there will be at least 500,000 QSOs that will be used to build the reference frame upon which the several independent observations will be combined and interpreted. Not all the QSOs are equally suited to fulfill this role of fundamental, fiducial grid-points. Brightness, morphology, and variability define the astrometric error budget for each object. We made use of 3 morphological parameters based on the PSF sharpness, circularity and gaussianity, which enable us to distinguish the "real point-like" QSOs. These parameters are being explored on the spectroscopically certified QSOs of the SDSS DR7, to compare the performance against other morphology classification schemes, as well as to derive properties of the host galaxy. We present a new method, based on the Gaia quasar database, to derive absolute magnitudes, on the SDSS filters domain. The method can be extrapolated all over the optical window, including the Gaia filters. We discuss colors derived from SDSS apparent magnitudes and colors based on absolute magnitudes that we obtained tanking into account corrections for dust extinction, either intergalactic or from the QSO host, and for the Lyman α forest. In the future we want to further discuss properties of the host galaxies, comparing for e.g. the obtained morphological classification with the color, the apparent and absolute magnitudes, and the redshift distributions.

  20. Absolute dose calculations for Monte Carlo simulations of radiotherapy beams.

    PubMed

    Popescu, I A; Shaw, C P; Zavgorodni, S F; Beckham, W A

    2005-07-21

    Monte Carlo (MC) simulations have traditionally been used for single field relative comparisons with experimental data or commercial treatment planning systems (TPS). However, clinical treatment plans commonly involve more than one field. Since the contribution of each field must be accurately quantified, multiple field MC simulations are only possible by employing absolute dosimetry. Therefore, we have developed a rigorous calibration method that allows the incorporation of monitor units (MU) in MC simulations. This absolute dosimetry formalism can be easily implemented by any BEAMnrc/DOSXYZnrc user, and applies to any configuration of open and blocked fields, including intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) plans. Our approach involves the relationship between the dose scored in the monitor ionization chamber of a radiotherapy linear accelerator (linac), the number of initial particles incident on the target, and the field size. We found that for a 10 x 10 cm2 field of a 6 MV photon beam, 1 MU corresponds, in our model, to 8.129 x 10(13) +/- 1.0% electrons incident on the target and a total dose of 20.87 cGy +/- 1.0% in the monitor chambers of the virtual linac. We present an extensive experimental verification of our MC results for open and intensity-modulated fields, including a dynamic 7-field IMRT plan simulated on the CT data sets of a cylindrical phantom and of a Rando anthropomorphic phantom, which were validated by measurements using ionization chambers and thermoluminescent dosimeters (TLD). Our simulation results are in excellent agreement with experiment, with percentage differences of less than 2%, in general, demonstrating the accuracy of our Monte Carlo absolute dose calculations. PMID:16177516

  1. Absolute versus relative ascertainment of pedophilia in men.

    PubMed

    Blanchard, Ray; Kuban, Michael E; Blak, Thomas; Cantor, James M; Klassen, Philip E; Dickey, Robert

    2009-12-01

    There are at least two different criteria for assessing pedophilia in men: absolute ascertainment (their sexual interest in children is intense) and relative ascertainment (their sexual interest in children is greater than their interest in adults). The American Psychiatric Association's Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 3rd edition (DSM-III) used relative ascertainment in its diagnostic criteria for pedophilia; this was abandoned and replaced by absolute ascertainment in the DSM-III-R and all subsequent editions. The present study was conducted to demonstrate the continuing need for relative ascertainment, particularly in the laboratory assessment of pedophilia. A total of 402 heterosexual men were selected from a database of patients referred to a specialty clinic. These had undergone phallometric testing, a psychophysiological procedure in which their penile blood volume was monitored while they were presented with a standardized set of laboratory stimuli depicting male and female children, pubescents, and adults.The 130 men selected for the Teleiophilic Profile group responded substantially to prepubescent girls but even more to adult women; the 272 men selected for the Pedophilic Profile group responded weakly to prepubescent girls but even less to adult women. In terms of absolute magnitude, every patient in the Pedophilic Profile group had a lesser penile response to prepubescent girls than every patient in the Teleiophilic Profile group. Nevertheless, the Pedophilic Profile group had a significantly greater number of known sexual offenses against prepubescent girls, indicating that they contained a higher proportion of true pedophiles. These results dramatically demonstrate the utility-or perhaps necessity-of relative ascertainment in the laboratory assessment of erotic age-preference. PMID:19901237

  2. Absolute dose calculations for Monte Carlo simulations of radiotherapy beams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Popescu, I. A.; Shaw, C. P.; Zavgorodni, S. F.; Beckham, W. A.

    2005-07-01

    Monte Carlo (MC) simulations have traditionally been used for single field relative comparisons with experimental data or commercial treatment planning systems (TPS). However, clinical treatment plans commonly involve more than one field. Since the contribution of each field must be accurately quantified, multiple field MC simulations are only possible by employing absolute dosimetry. Therefore, we have developed a rigorous calibration method that allows the incorporation of monitor units (MU) in MC simulations. This absolute dosimetry formalism can be easily implemented by any BEAMnrc/DOSXYZnrc user, and applies to any configuration of open and blocked fields, including intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) plans. Our approach involves the relationship between the dose scored in the monitor ionization chamber of a radiotherapy linear accelerator (linac), the number of initial particles incident on the target, and the field size. We found that for a 10 × 10 cm2 field of a 6 MV photon beam, 1 MU corresponds, in our model, to 8.129 × 1013 ± 1.0% electrons incident on the target and a total dose of 20.87 cGy ± 1.0% in the monitor chambers of the virtual linac. We present an extensive experimental verification of our MC results for open and intensity-modulated fields, including a dynamic 7-field IMRT plan simulated on the CT data sets of a cylindrical phantom and of a Rando anthropomorphic phantom, which were validated by measurements using ionization chambers and thermoluminescent dosimeters (TLD). Our simulation results are in excellent agreement with experiment, with percentage differences of less than 2%, in general, demonstrating the accuracy of our Monte Carlo absolute dose calculations.

  3. Absolute Efficiency Calibration of a Beta-Gamma Detector

    SciTech Connect

    Cooper, Matthew W.; Ely, James H.; Haas, Derek A.; Hayes, James C.; McIntyre, Justin I.; Lidey, Lance S.; Schrom, Brian T.

    2013-04-10

    Abstract- Identification and quantification of nuclear events such as the Fukushima reactor failure and nuclear explosions rely heavily on the accurate measurement of radioxenon releases. One radioxenon detection method depends on detecting beta-gamma coincident events paired with a stable xenon measurement to determine the concentration of a plume. Like all measurements, the beta-gamma method relies on knowing the detection efficiency for each isotope measured. Several methods are commonly used to characterize the detection efficiency for a beta-gamma detector. The most common method is using a NIST certified sealed source to determine the efficiency. A second method determines the detection efficiencies relative to an already characterized detector. Finally, a potentially more accurate method is to use the expected sample to perform an absolute efficiency calibration; in the case of a beta-gamma detector, this relies on radioxenon gas samples. The complication of the first method is it focuses only on the gamma detectors and does not offer a solution for determining the beta efficiency. The second method listed is not similarly constrained, however it relies on another detector to have a well-known efficiency calibration. The final method using actual radioxenon samples to make an absolute efficiency determination is the most desirable, but until recently it was not possible to produce all four isotopically pure radioxenon. The production, by University of Texas (UT), of isotopically pure radioxenon has allowed the beta-gamma detectors to be calibrated using the absolute efficiency method. The first four radioxenon isotope calibration will be discussed is this paper.

  4. Reductions in labour capacity from heat stress under climate warming

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dunne, John P.; Stouffer, Ronald J.; John, Jasmin G.

    2013-06-01

    A fundamental aspect of greenhouse-gas-induced warming is a global-scale increase in absolute humidity. Under continued warming, this response has been shown to pose increasingly severe limitations on human activity in tropical and mid-latitudes during peak months of heat stress. One heat-stress metric with broad occupational health applications is wet-bulb globe temperature. We combine wet-bulb globe temperatures from global climate historical reanalysis and Earth System Model (ESM2M) projections with industrial and military guidelines for an acclimated individual's occupational capacity to safely perform sustained labour under environmental heat stress (labour capacity)--here defined as a global population-weighted metric temporally fixed at the 2010 distribution. We estimate that environmental heat stress has reduced labour capacity to 90% in peak months over the past few decades. ESM2M projects labour capacity reduction to 80% in peak months by 2050. Under the highest scenario considered (Representative Concentration Pathway 8.5), ESM2M projects labour capacity reduction to less than 40% by 2200 in peak months, with most tropical and mid-latitudes experiencing extreme climatological heat stress. Uncertainties and caveats associated with these projections include climate sensitivity, climate warming patterns, CO2 emissions, future population distributions, and technological and societal change.

  5. High capacity oil burner

    SciTech Connect

    Pedrosa, O.A. Jr.; Couto, N.C.; Fanqueiro, R.C.C.

    1983-11-01

    The present invention relates to a high capacity oil burner comprising a cylindrical atomizer completely surrounded by a protective cylindrical housing having a diameter from 2 to 3 times greater than the diameter of said atomizer; liquid fuels being injected under pressure into said atomizer and accumulating within said atomizer in a chamber for the accumulation of liquid fuels, and compressed air being injected into a chamber for the accumulation of air; cylindrical holes communicating said chamber for the accumulation of liquid fuels with the outside and cylindrical holes communicating said chamber for the accumulation of air with said cylindrical holes communicating the chamber for the accumulation of liquids with the outside so that the injection of compressed air into said liquid fuel discharge holes atomizes said fuel which is expelled to the outside through the end portions of said discharge holes which are circumferentially positioned to be burnt by a pilot flame; said protecting cylindrical housing having at its ends perforated circular rings into which water is injected under pressure to form a protecting fan-like water curtain at the rear end of the housing and a fan-like water curtain at the flame to reduce the formation of soot; the burning efficiency of said burner being superior to 30 barrels of liquid fuel per day/kg of the apparatus.

  6. First mideast capacity planned

    SciTech Connect

    Fattah, H.

    1996-11-06

    Kuwait catalyst Co.`s (KCC) plans to build a hydrodesulfurization (HDS) catalysts plant in Kuwait will mark the startup of the first refining catalysts production in the Persian Gulf region. KCC, owned by a conglomerate of Kuwait companies and governmental agencies, has licensed catalyst manufacturing technology from Japan Energy in a deal estimated at more than 7 billion ($62 million). Plant design will be based on technology from Orient Catalyst, Japan Energy`s catalysts division. Construction is expected to begin in January 1997 for production startup by January 1998. A source close to the deal says the new plant will eventually reach a capacity of 5,000 m.t./year of HDS catalysts to supply most of Kuwait`s estimated 3,500-m.t./year demand, driven primarily by Kuwait National Petroleum refineries. KCC also expects to supply demand from other catalyst consumers in the region. Alumina supply will be acquired on the open market. KCC will take all production from the plant and will be responsible for marketing.

  7. Advanced work capacity testing.

    PubMed

    Bretz, Károly J; Dános, László; Smudla, Szilvia; Pálosi, Adrienn

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study is to describe an accurate work capacity testing which can be used in the industry, as well as in rehabilitation process. The first part of this paper is dealing with the NIOSH lifting equation, which is a tool used by occupational health and safety professionals. The second part of this paper summarizes the features and applications of the "ErgoScope" work simulator. Static and dynamic strength of upper and lower limbs, as well as whole body efforts can be measured. The equipment makes it possible to evaluate pushing, pulling, lifting and carrying activities comprising reaching, bending and stooping movements. In the third part of this paper we demonstrate handgrip force data recorded using the "ErgoScope" work simulator comparing with handgrip force data published in the literature. "ErgoScope" work simulator is capable to measure handgrip and pinch forces, suitable to evaluate fine motor skills, hand and finger dexterity, as well as reaction times. PMID:26294589

  8. On the convective-absolute nature of river bedform instabilities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vesipa, Riccardo; Camporeale, Carlo; Ridolfi, Luca; Chomaz, Jean Marc

    2014-12-01

    River dunes and antidunes are induced by the morphological instability of stream-sediment boundary. Such bedforms raise a number of subtle theoretical questions and are crucial for many engineering and environmental problems. Despite their importance, the absolute/convective nature of the instability has never been addressed. The present work fills this gap as we demonstrate, by the cusp map method, that dune instability is convective for all values of the physical control parameters, while the antidune instability exhibits both behaviors. These theoretical predictions explain some previous experimental and numerical observations and are important to correctly plan flume experiments, numerical simulations, paleo-hydraulic reconstructions, and river works.

  9. Strategy for the absolute neutron emission measurement on ITER

    SciTech Connect

    Sasao, M.; Bertalot, L.; Ishikawa, M.; Popovichev, S.

    2010-10-15

    Accuracy of 10% is demanded to the absolute fusion measurement on ITER. To achieve this accuracy, a functional combination of several types of neutron measurement subsystem, cross calibration among them, and in situ calibration are needed. Neutron transport calculation shows the suitable calibration source is a DT/DD neutron generator of source strength higher than 10{sup 10} n/s (neutron/second) for DT and 10{sup 8} n/s for DD. It will take eight weeks at the minimum with this source to calibrate flux monitors, profile monitors, and the activation system.

  10. Absolute spectrophotometry of Neptune - 3390 to 7800 A

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bergstralh, J. T.; Neff, J. S.

    1983-07-01

    Absolute spectrophotometry of Neptune from 3390 to 7800 Å, with spectral resolution of 10 Å in the interval 3390 - 6055 and 20 Å in the interval 6055 - 7800 Å, is reported. The results are compared with filter photometry (Appleby, 1973; Wamsteker, 1973; Savage et al., 1980) and with synthetic spectra computed on the basis of a parameterization proposed by Podolak and Danielson (1977) for aerosol scattering and absorption. A CH4/H2 ratio is derived for the convectively mixed part of Neptune's atmosphere, and constrains optical properties of hypothetical aerosol layers.

  11. Prelaunch absolute radiometric calibration of LANDSAT-4 protoflight Thematic Mapper

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barker, J. L.; Ball, D. L.; Leung, K. C.; Walker, J. A.

    1984-01-01

    Results are summarized and analyzed from several prelaunch tests with a 122 cm integrating sphere used as part of the absolute radiometric calibration experiments for the protoflight TM sensor carried on the LANDSAT-4 satellite. The calibration procedure is presented and the radiometric sensitivity of the TM is assessed. The internal calibrator and dynamic range after calibration are considered. Tables show dynamic range after ground processing, spectral radiance to digital number and digital number to spectral radiance values for TM bands 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 7 and for channel 4 of band 6.

  12. Method of differential-phase/absolute-amplitude QAM

    DOEpatents

    Dimsdle, Jeffrey William

    2007-07-03

    A method of quadrature amplitude modulation involving encoding phase differentially and amplitude absolutely, allowing for a high data rate and spectral efficiency in data transmission and other communication applications, and allowing for amplitude scaling to facilitate data recovery; amplitude scale tracking to track-out rapid and severe scale variations and facilitate successful demodulation and data retrieval; 2.sup.N power carrier recovery; incoherent demodulation where coherent carrier recovery is not possible or practical due to signal degradation; coherent demodulation; multipath equalization to equalize frequency dependent multipath; and demodulation filtering.

  13. Method of differential-phase/absolute-amplitude QAM

    DOEpatents

    Dimsdle, Jeffrey William

    2008-10-21

    A method of quadrature amplitude modulation involving encoding phase differentially and amplitude absolutely, allowing for a high data rate and spectral efficiency in data transmission and other communication applications, and allowing for amplitude scaling to facilitate data recovery; amplitude scale tracking to track-out rapid and severe scale variations and facilitate successful demodulation and data retrieval; 2.sup.N power carrier recovery; incoherent demodulation where coherent carrier recovery is not possible or practical due to signal degradation; coherent demodulation; multipath equalization to equalize frequency dependent multipath; and demodulation filtering.

  14. Method of differential-phase/absolute-amplitude QAM

    DOEpatents

    Dimsdle, Jeffrey William

    2007-07-17

    A method of quadrature amplitude modulation involving encoding phase differentially and amplitude absolutely, allowing for a high data rate and spectral efficiency in data transmission and other communication applications, and allowing for amplitude scaling to facilitate data recovery; amplitude scale tracking to track-out rapid and severe scale variations and facilitate successful demodulation and data retrieval; 2.sup.N power carrier recovery; incoherent demodulation where coherent carrier recovery is not possible or practical due to signal degradation; coherent demodulation; multipath equalization to equalize frequency dependent multipath; and demodulation filtering.

  15. Method of differential-phase/absolute-amplitude QAM

    DOEpatents

    Dimsdle, Jeffrey William

    2007-10-02

    A method of quadrature amplitude modulation involving encoding phase differentially and amplitude absolutely, allowing for a high data rate and spectral efficiency in data transmission and other communication applications, and allowing for amplitude scaling to facilitate data recovery; amplitude scale tracking to track-out rapid and severe scale variations and facilitate successful demodulation and data retrieval; 2.sup.N power carrier recovery; incoherent demodulation where coherent carrier recovery is not possible or practical due to signal degradation; coherent demodulation; multipath equalization to equalize frequency dependent multipath; and demodulation filtering.

  16. Method of differential-phase/absolute-amplitude QAM

    DOEpatents

    Dimsdle, Jeffrey William

    2009-09-01

    A method of quadrature amplitude modulation involving encoding phase differentially and amplitude absolutely, allowing for a high data rate and spectral efficiency in data transmission and other communication applications, and allowing for amplitude scaling to facilitate data recovery; amplitude scale tracking to track-out rapid and severe scale variations and facilitate successful demodulation and data retrieval; 2.sup.N power carrier recovery; incoherent demodulation where coherent carrier recovery is not possible or practical due to signal degradation; coherent demodulation; multipath equalization to equalize frequency dependent multipath; and demodulation filtering.

  17. Stability of array spectroradiometers and their suitability for absolute calibrations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nevas, Saulius; Teuber, Annette; Sperling, Armin; Lindemann, Matthias

    2012-04-01

    An investigation of the short- and long-term stability of various low-end and high-end array spectroradiometers is presented. Potentially weak points of array spectroradiometers with respect to their suitability for absolute calibrations are pointed out. The influence of ambient conditions on relevant instrumental characteristics and their temporal stability is discussed. It is shown that the temporal stability of some instruments can be significantly affected by high ambient humidity. Most important ambient temperature effects on instrument properties are also discussed.

  18. Absolute photoionization cross-section of the methyl radical.

    SciTech Connect

    Taatjes, C. A.; Osborn, D. L.; Selby, T.; Meloni, G.; Fan, H.; Pratt, S. T.; Chemical Sciences and Engineering Division; SNL

    2008-01-01

    The absolute photoionization cross-section of the methyl radical has been measured using two completely independent methods. The CH{sub 3} photoionization cross-section was determined relative to that of acetone and methyl vinyl ketone at photon energies of 10.2 and 11.0 eV by using a pulsed laser-photolysis/time-resolved synchrotron photoionization mass spectrometry method. The time-resolved depletion of the acetone or methyl vinyl ketone precursor and the production of methyl radicals following 193 nm photolysis are monitored simultaneously by using time-resolved synchrotron photoionization mass spectrometry. Comparison of the initial methyl signal with the decrease in precursor signal, in combination with previously measured absolute photoionization cross-sections of the precursors, yields the absolute photoionization cross-section of the methyl radical; {sigma}{sub CH}(10.2 eV) = (5.7 {+-} 0.9) x 10{sup -18} cm{sup 2} and {sigma}{sub CH{sub 3}}(11.0 eV) = (6.0 {+-} 2.0) x 10{sup -18} cm{sup 2}. The photoionization cross-section for vinyl radical determined by photolysis of methyl vinyl ketone is in good agreement with previous measurements. The methyl radical photoionization cross-section was also independently measured relative to that of the iodine atom by comparison of ionization signals from CH{sub 3} and I fragments following 266 nm photolysis of methyl iodide in a molecular-beam ion-imaging apparatus. These measurements gave a cross-section of (5.4 {+-} 2.0) x 10{sup -18} cm{sup 2} at 10.460 eV, (5.5 {+-} 2.0) x 10{sup -18} cm{sup 2} at 10.466 eV, and (4.9 {+-} 2.0) x 10{sup -18} cm{sup 2} at 10.471 eV. The measurements allow relative photoionization efficiency spectra of methyl radical to be placed on an absolute scale and will facilitate quantitative measurements of methyl concentrations by photoionization mass spectrometry.

  19. Albendazole sulfoxide enantiomers: preparative chiral separation and absolute stereochemistry.

    PubMed

    Lourenço, Tiago C; Batista, João M; Furlan, Maysa; He, Yanan; Nafie, Laurence A; Santana, Cesar C; Cass, Quezia B

    2012-03-23

    The enantiomeric separation of albendazole sulfoxide was carried out by simulated moving bed chromatography with variable zones (VARICOL). An overall recovery of 97% was achieved and enantiomeric ratios of 99.5% for raffinate and 99.0% for extract were attained. A total of 880 mg of (+)-albendazol sulfoxide and 930 mg of its antipode were collected after 55 cycles or 11 h of process, resulting in a mass rate of 2 g/day. Furthermore the absolute configuration of the enantiopure compounds was determined for the first time by vibrational circular dichroism (VCD) with the aid of theoretical calculations as (-)-(S) and (+)-(R)-albendazole sulfoxide. PMID:22341660

  20. Absolute magnetic helicity and the cylindrical magnetic field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Low, B. C.

    2011-05-01

    The different magnetic helicities conserved under conditions of perfect electrical conductivity are expressions of the fundamental property that every evolving fluid surface conserves its net magnetic flux. This basic hydromagnetic point unifies the well known Eulerian helicities with the Lagrangian helicity defined by the conserved fluxes frozen into a prescribed set of disjoint toroidal tubes of fluid flowing as a permanent partition of the entire fluid [B. C. Low, Astrophys. J. 649, 1064 (2006)]. This unifying theory is constructed from first principles, beginning with an analysis of the Eulerian and Lagrangian descriptions of fluids, separating the ideas of fluid and magnetic-flux tubes and removing the complication of the magnetic vector potential's free gauge from the concept of helicity. The analysis prepares for the construction of a conserved Eulerian helicity, without that gauge complication, to describe a 3D anchored flux in an upright cylindrical domain, this helicity called absolute to distinguish it from the well known relative helicity. In a version of the Chandrasekhar-Kendall representation, the evolving field at any instant is a unique superposition of a writhed, untwisted axial flux with a circulating flux of field lines all closed and unlinked within the cylindrical domain. The absolute helicity is then a flux-weighted sum of the writhe of that axial flux and its mutual linkage with the circulating flux. The absolute helicity is also conserved if the frozen-in field and its domain are continuously deformed by changing the separation between the rigid cylinder-ends with no change of cylinder radius. This hitherto intractable cylindrical construction closes a crucial conceptual gap for the fundamentals to be complete at last. The concluding discussion shows the impact of this development on our understanding of helicity, covering (i) the helicities of wholly contained and anchored fields; (ii) the Eulerian and Lagrangian descriptions of field

  1. Testing and evaluation of thermal cameras for absolute temperature measurement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chrzanowski, Krzysztof; Fischer, Joachim; Matyszkiel, Robert

    2000-09-01

    The accuracy of temperature measurement is the most important criterion for the evaluation of thermal cameras used in applications requiring absolute temperature measurement. All the main international metrological organizations currently propose a parameter called uncertainty as a measure of measurement accuracy. We propose a set of parameters for the characterization of thermal measurement cameras. It is shown that if these parameters are known, then it is possible to determine the uncertainty of temperature measurement due to only the internal errors of these cameras. Values of this uncertainty can be used as an objective criterion for comparisons of different thermal measurement cameras.

  2. Precision Absolute Beam Current Measurement of Low Power Electron Beam

    SciTech Connect

    Ali, M. M.; Bevins, M. E.; Degtiarenko, P.; Freyberger, A.; Krafft, G. A.

    2012-11-01

    Precise measurements of low power CW electron beam current for the Jefferson Lab Nuclear Physics program have been performed using a Tungsten calorimeter. This paper describes the rationale for the choice of the calorimeter technique, as well as the design and calibration of the device. The calorimeter is in use presently to provide a 1% absolute current measurement of CW electron beam with 50 to 500 nA of average beam current and 1-3 GeV beam energy. Results from these recent measurements will also be presented.

  3. Spatially resolved absolute spectrophotometry of Saturn - 3390 to 8080 A

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bergstralh, J. T.; Diner, D. J.; Baines, K. H.; Neff, J. S.; Allen, M. A.; Orton, G. S.

    1981-01-01

    A series of spatially resolved absolute spectrophotometric measurements of Saturn was conducted for the expressed purpose of calibrating the data obtained with the Imaging Photopolarimeter (IPP) on Pioneer 11 during its recent encounter with Saturn. All observations reported were made at the Mt. Wilson 1.5-m telescope, using a 1-m Ebert-Fastie scanning spectrometer. Spatial resolution was 1.92 arcsec. Photometric errors are considered, taking into account the fixed error, the variable error, and the composite error. The results are compared with earlier observations, as well as with synthetic spectra derived from preliminary physical models, giving attention to the equatorial region and the South Temperate Zone.

  4. Verification of Absolute Calibration of Quantum Efficiency for LSST CCDs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coles, Rebecca; Chiang, James; Cinabro, David; Gilbertson, Woodrow; Haupt, justine; Kotov, Ivan; Neal, Homer; Nomerotski, Andrei; O'Connor, Paul; Stubbs, Christopher; Takacs, Peter

    2016-01-01

    We describe a system to measure the Quantum Efficiency in the wavelength range of 300nm to 1100nm of 40x40 mm n-channel CCD sensors for the construction of the 3.2 gigapixel LSST focal plane. The technique uses a series of instruments to create a very uniform flux of photons of controllable intensity in the wavelength range of interest across the face of the sensor. This allows the absolute Quantum Efficiency to be measured with an accuracy in the 1% range. This system will be part of a production facility at Brookhaven National Lab for the basic components of the LSST camera.

  5. Lens transmission measurement for an absolute radiation thermometer

    SciTech Connect

    Hao, X.; Yuan, Z.; Lu, X.

    2013-09-11

    The lens transmission for the National Institute of Metrology of China absolute radiation thermometer is measured by a hybrid method. The results of the lens transmission measurements are 99.002% and 86.792% for filter radiometers with center wavelengths 633 nm and 900 nm, respectively. These results, after correcting for diffraction factors and the size-of-source effect when the lens is incorporated within the radiometer, can be used for measurement of thermodynamic temperature. The expanded uncertainty of the lens transmission measurement system has been evaluated. It is 1.3×10{sup −3} at 633 nm and 900 nm, respectively.

  6. Absolute x-ray dosimetry on a synchrotron medical beam line with a graphite calorimeter

    SciTech Connect

    Harty, P. D. Ramanathan, G.; Butler, D. J.; Johnston, P. N.; Lye, J. E.; Hall, C. J.; Stevenson, A. W.

    2014-05-15

    Purpose: The absolute dose rate of the Imaging and Medical Beamline (IMBL) on the Australian Synchrotron was measured with a graphite calorimeter. The calorimetry results were compared to measurements from the existing free-air chamber, to provide a robust determination of the absolute dose in the synchrotron beam and provide confidence in the first implementation of a graphite calorimeter on a synchrotron medical beam line. Methods: The graphite calorimeter has a core which rises in temperature when irradiated by the beam. A collimated x-ray beam from the synchrotron with well-defined edges was used to partially irradiate the core. Two filtration sets were used, one corresponding to an average beam energy of about 80 keV, with dose rate about 50 Gy/s, and the second filtration set corresponding to average beam energy of 90 keV, with dose rate about 20 Gy/s. The temperature rise from this beam was measured by a calibrated thermistor embedded in the core which was then converted to absorbed dose to graphite by multiplying the rise in temperature by the specific heat capacity for graphite and the ratio of cross-sectional areas of the core and beam. Conversion of the measured absorbed dose to graphite to absorbed dose to water was achieved using Monte Carlo calculations with the EGSnrc code. The air kerma measurements from the free-air chamber were converted to absorbed dose to water using the AAPM TG-61 protocol. Results: Absolute measurements of the IMBL dose rate were made using the graphite calorimeter and compared to measurements with the free-air chamber. The measurements were at three different depths in graphite and two different filtrations. The calorimetry measurements at depths in graphite show agreement within 1% with free-air chamber measurements, when converted to absorbed dose to water. The calorimetry at the surface and free-air chamber results show agreement of order 3% when converted to absorbed dose to water. The combined standard uncertainty is 3

  7. Metal Stable Isotope Tagging: Renaissance of Radioimmunoassay for Multiplex and Absolute Quantification of Biomolecules.

    PubMed

    Liu, Rui; Zhang, Shixi; Wei, Chao; Xing, Zhi; Zhang, Sichun; Zhang, Xinrong

    2016-05-17

    The unambiguous quantification of biomolecules is of great significance in fundamental biological research as well as practical clinical diagnosis. Due to the lack of a detectable moiety, the direct and highly sensitive quantification of biomolecules is often a "mission impossible". Consequently, tagging strategies to introduce detectable moieties for labeling target biomolecules were invented, which had a long and significant impact on studies of biomolecules in the past decades. For instance, immunoassays have been developed with radioisotope tagging by Yalow and Berson in the late 1950s. The later languishment of this technology can be almost exclusively ascribed to the use of radioactive isotopes, which led to the development of nonradioactive tagging strategy-based assays such as enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, fluorescent immunoassay, and chemiluminescent and electrochemiluminescent immunoassay. Despite great success, these strategies suffered from drawbacks such as limited spectral window capacity for multiplex detection and inability to provide absolute quantification of biomolecules. After recalling the sequences of tagging strategies, an apparent question is why not use stable isotopes from the start? A reasonable explanation is the lack of reliable means for accurate and precise quantification of stable isotopes at that time. The situation has changed greatly at present, since several atomic mass spectrometric measures for metal stable isotopes have been developed. Among the newly developed techniques, inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry is an ideal technique to determine metal stable isotope-tagged biomolecules, for its high sensitivity, wide dynamic linear range, and more importantly multiplex and absolute quantification ability. Since the first published report by our group, metal stable isotope tagging has become a revolutionary technique and gained great success in biomolecule quantification. An exciting research highlight in this area

  8. Laser interferometry method for absolute measurement of the acceleration of gravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hudson, O. K.

    1971-01-01

    Gravimeter permits more accurate and precise absolute measurement of g without reference to Potsdam values as absolute standards. Device is basically Michelson laser beam interferometer in which one arm is mass fitted with corner cube reflector.

  9. Improved Strategies and Optimization of Calibration Models for Real-time PCR Absolute Quantification

    EPA Science Inventory

    Real-time PCR absolute quantification applications rely on the use of standard curves to make estimates of DNA target concentrations in unknown samples. Traditional absolute quantification approaches dictate that a standard curve must accompany each experimental run. However, t...

  10. Developing a Capacity to Engage in Critical Reflection: Students' "Ways of Knowing" within an Undergraduate Business and Accounting Programme

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lucas, Ursula; Tan, Phaik Leng

    2013-01-01

    The development of a capacity to engage in critical reflection is central to higher education. However, students vary in this capacity and its development requires students to move from an absolute towards a contextual way of knowing. Using 32 semi-structured interviews, this study identifies the ways of knowing of 17 business and accounting…

  11. Bioethics for clinicians: 3. Capacity.

    PubMed Central

    Etchells, E; Sharpe, G; Elliott, C; Singer, P A

    1996-01-01

    In the context of patient consent, "capacity" refers to the patient's ability to understand information relevant to a treatment decision and to appreciate the reasonably foreseeable consequences of a decision or lack of decision. A person may be "capable" with respect to one decision but not with respect to another. Clinicians can usually identify patients who are clearly capable or incapable, but in some cases a clinical capacity assessment is required. Such assessment may consist of cognitive status testing, general impressions of capacity or specific capacity assessment. Specific capacity assessment, in which the clinician evaluates the patient's ability to understand pertinent information and appreciate its implications, is probably the optimal method. When conducting a specific capacity assessment, the clinician must ensure that the disclosure of information is effective and must evaluate the patient's reason for his or her decision. If the assessment suggests that the patient is incapable, further assessment is generally recommended. PMID:8823211

  12. Absolute analytical prediction of photonic crystal guided mode resonance wavelengths

    SciTech Connect

    Hermannsson, Pétur Gordon; Vannahme, Christoph; Smith, Cameron L. C.; Kristensen, Anders

    2014-08-18

    A class of photonic crystal resonant reflectors known as guided mode resonant filters are optical structures that are widely used in the field of refractive index sensing, particularly in biosensing. For the purposes of understanding and design, their behavior has traditionally been modeled numerically with methods such as rigorous coupled wave analysis. Here it is demonstrated how the absolute resonance wavelengths of such structures can be predicted by analytically modeling them as slab waveguides in which the propagation constant is determined by a phase matching condition. The model is experimentally verified to be capable of predicting the absolute resonance wavelengths to an accuracy of within 0.75 nm, as well as resonance wavelength shifts due to changes in cladding index within an accuracy of 0.45 nm across the visible wavelength regime in the case where material dispersion is taken into account. Furthermore, it is demonstrated that the model is valid beyond the limit of low grating modulation, for periodically discontinuous waveguide layers, high refractive index contrasts, and highly dispersive media.

  13. MSTAR: an absolute metrology system with submicrometer accuracy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lay, Oliver P.; Dubovitsky, Serge; Peters, Robert D.; Burger, Johan; Steier, Willian H.; Ahn, Seh-Won; Fetterman, Harrold R.

    2004-10-01

    Laser metrology systems are a key component of stellar interferometers, used to monitor path lengths and dimensions internal to the instrument. Most interferometers use 'relative' metrology, in which the integer number of wavelengths along the path is unknown, and the measurement of length is ambiguous. Changes in the path length can be measured relative to an initial calibration point, but interruption of the metrology beam at any time requires a re-calibration of the system. The MSTAR sensor (Modulation Sideband Technology for Absolute Ranging) is a new system for measuring absolute distance, capable of resolving the integer cycle ambiguity of standard interferometers, and making it possible to measure distance with sub-nanometer accuracy. We describe the design of the system, show results for target distances up to 1 meter, and demonstrate how the system can be scaled to kilometer-scale distances. In recent experiments, we have used white light interferometry to augment the 'truth' measurements and validate the zero-point of the system. MSTAR is a general-purpose tool for conveniently measuring length with much greater accuracy than was previously possible, and has a wide range of possible applications.

  14. Use of intensity quotients and differences in absolute structure refinement

    PubMed Central

    Parsons, Simon; Flack, Howard D.; Wagner, Trixie

    2013-01-01

    Several methods for absolute structure refinement were tested using single-crystal X-ray diffraction data collected using Cu Kα radiation for 23 crystals with no element heavier than oxygen: conventional refinement using an inversion twin model, estimation using intensity quotients in SHELXL2012, estimation using Bayesian methods in PLATON, estimation using restraints consisting of numerical intensity differences in CRYSTALS and estimation using differences and quotients in TOPAS-Academic where both quantities were coded in terms of other structural parameters and implemented as restraints. The conventional refinement approach yielded accurate values of the Flack parameter, but with standard uncertainties ranging from 0.15 to 0.77. The other methods also yielded accurate values of the Flack parameter, but with much higher precision. Absolute structure was established in all cases, even for a hydrocarbon. The procedures in which restraints are coded explicitly in terms of other structural parameters enable the Flack parameter to correlate with these other parameters, so that it is determined along with those parameters during refinement. PMID:23719469

  15. Absolute Temperature Monitoring Using RF Radiometry in the MRI Scanner.

    PubMed

    El-Sharkawy, Abdel-Monem M; Sotiriadis, Paul P; Bottomley, Paul A; Atalar, Ergin

    2006-11-01

    Temperature detection using microwave radiometry has proven value for noninvasively measuring the absolute temperature of tissues inside the body. However, current clinical radiometers operate in the gigahertz range, which limits their depth of penetration. We have designed and built a noninvasive radiometer which operates at radio frequencies (64 MHz) with ∼100-kHz bandwidth, using an external RF loop coil as a thermal detector. The core of the radiometer is an accurate impedance measurement and automatic matching circuit of 0.05 Ω accuracy to compensate for any load variations. The radiometer permits temperature measurements with accuracy of ±0.1°K, over a tested physiological range of 28° C-40° C in saline phantoms whose electric properties match those of tissue. Because 1.5 T magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scanners also operate at 64 MHz, we demonstrate the feasibility of integrating our radiometer with an MRI scanner to monitor RF power deposition and temperature dosimetry, obtaining coarse, spatially resolved, absolute thermal maps in the physiological range. We conclude that RF radiometry offers promise as a direct, noninvasive method of monitoring tissue heating during MRI studies and thereby providing an independent means of verifying patient-safe operation. Other potential applications include titration of hyper- and hypo-therapies. PMID:18026562

  16. Standardization of the cumulative absolute velocity. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    O`Hara, T.F.; Jacobson, J.P.

    1991-12-01

    EPRI NP-5930, ``A Criterion for Determining Exceedance of the Operating Basis Earthquake,`` was published in July 1988. As defined in that report, the Operating Basis Earthquake (OBE) is exceeded when both a response spectrum parameter and a second damage parameter, referred to as the Cumulative Absolute Velocity (CAV), are exceeded. In the review process of the above report, it was noted that the calculation of CAV could be confounded by time history records of long duration containing low (nondamaging) acceleration. Therefore, it is necessary to standardize the method of calculating CAV to account for record length. This standardized methodology allows consistent comparisons between future CAV calculations and the adjusted CAV threshold value based upon applying the standardized methodology to the data set presented in EPRI NP-5930. The recommended method to standardize the CAV calculation is to window its calculation on a second-by-second basis for a given time history. If the absolute acceleration exceeds 0.025g at any time during each one second interval, the earthquake records used in EPRI NP-5930 have been reanalyzed and the adjusted threshold of damage for CAV was found to be 0.16g-set.

  17. Absolute cross section for recoil detection of deuterium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Besenbacher, F.; Stensgaard, I.; Vase, P.

    1986-04-01

    The D( 4He, D) 4He cross section used for recoil detection of deuterium (D) has been calibrated on an absolute scale against the cross section of the D( 3He, α)p nuclear reaction which is often used for D profiling. For 4He energies ranging from 0.8 to ~1.8 MeV. the D( 4He, D) 4He cross section varies only slightly with incident energy and recoil angle θ (for 0° ⩽ 8 ⩽ 35°) and has a value of ~ 500 mb/sr which is significantly higher than the ~ 65 mb/sr c.m.s. cross section of the D( 3He, α)p nuclear reaction. For 4He energies ranging from ~ 1.9 to ~ 2.3 MeV, the D( 4He,D) 4He cross section exhibits a fairly narrow resonance peak (fwhm ~ 70 keV), with a maximum value (for θ = 0°) of ~ 8.5 b/sr, corresponding to a 4He energy of ~ 2130 keV. The large values of the cross section in connection with the described energy dependence makes the use of forward-recoil detection of D attractive for many purposes, e.g., D Jepth profiling (with an extreme gain in sensitivity), absolute concentration or coverage measurements, and lattice-location experiments by transmission channeling.

  18. Use of intensity quotients and differences in absolute structure refinement.

    PubMed

    Parsons, Simon; Flack, Howard D; Wagner, Trixie

    2013-06-01

    Several methods for absolute structure refinement were tested using single-crystal X-ray diffraction data collected using Cu Kα radiation for 23 crystals with no element heavier than oxygen: conventional refinement using an inversion twin model, estimation using intensity quotients in SHELXL2012, estimation using Bayesian methods in PLATON, estimation using restraints consisting of numerical intensity differences in CRYSTALS and estimation using differences and quotients in TOPAS-Academic where both quantities were coded in terms of other structural parameters and implemented as restraints. The conventional refinement approach yielded accurate values of the Flack parameter, but with standard uncertainties ranging from 0.15 to 0.77. The other methods also yielded accurate values of the Flack parameter, but with much higher precision. Absolute structure was established in all cases, even for a hydrocarbon. The procedures in which restraints are coded explicitly in terms of other structural parameters enable the Flack parameter to correlate with these other parameters, so that it is determined along with those parameters during refinement. PMID:23719469

  19. Absolute Measurements of Radiation Damage in Nanometer Thick Films

    PubMed Central

    Alizadeh, Elahe; Sanche, Léon

    2013-01-01

    We address the problem of absolute measurements of radiation damage in films of nanometer thicknesses. Thin films of DNA (~ 2–160nm) are deposited onto glass substrates and irradiated with varying doses of 1.5 keV X-rays under dry N2 at atmospheric pressure and room temperature. For each different thickness, the damage is assessed by measuring the loss of the supercoiled configuration as a function of incident photon fluence. From the exposure curves, the G-values are deduced, assuming that X-ray photons interacting with DNA, deposit all of their energy in the film. The results show that the G-value (i.e., damage per unit of deposited energy) increases with film thickness and reaches a plateau at 30±5 nm. This thickness dependence provides a correction factor to estimate the actual G-value for films with thicknesses below 30nm thickness. Thus, the absolute values of damage can be compared with that of films of any thickness under different experimental conditions. PMID:22562941

  20. Closed-loop step motor control using absolute encoders

    SciTech Connect

    Hicks, J.S.; Wright, M.C.

    1997-08-01

    A multi-axis, step motor control system was developed to accurately position and control the operation of a triple axis spectrometer at the High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR) located at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. Triple axis spectrometers are used in neutron scattering and diffraction experiments and require highly accurate positioning. This motion control system can handle up to 16 axes of motion. Four of these axes are outfitted with 17-bit absolute encoders. These four axes are controlled with a software feedback loop that terminates the move based on real-time position information from the absolute encoders. Because the final position of the actuator is used to stop the motion of the step motors, the moves can be made accurately in spite of the large amount of mechanical backlash from a chain drive between the motors and the spectrometer arms. A modified trapezoidal profile, custom C software, and an industrial PC, were used to achieve a positioning accuracy of 0.00275 degrees of rotation. A form of active position maintenance ensures that the angles are maintained with zero error or drift.

  1. Absolute Quantification of Selected Proteins in the Human Osteoarthritic Secretome

    PubMed Central

    Peffers, Mandy J.; Beynon, Robert J.; Clegg, Peter D.

    2013-01-01

    Osteoarthritis (OA) is characterized by a loss of extracellular matrix which is driven by catabolic cytokines. Proteomic analysis of the OA cartilage secretome enables the global study of secreted proteins. These are an important class of molecules with roles in numerous pathological mechanisms. Although cartilage studies have identified profiles of secreted proteins, quantitative proteomics techniques have been implemented that would enable further biological questions to be addressed. To overcome this limitation, we used the secretome from human OA cartilage explants stimulated with IL-1β and compared proteins released into the media using a label-free LC-MS/MS-based strategy. We employed QconCAT technology to quantify specific proteins using selected reaction monitoring. A total of 252 proteins were identified, nine were differentially expressed by IL-1 β stimulation. Selected protein candidates were quantified in absolute amounts using QconCAT. These findings confirmed a significant reduction in TIMP-1 in the secretome following IL-1β stimulation. Label-free and QconCAT analysis produced equivocal results indicating no effect of cytokine stimulation on aggrecan, cartilage oligomeric matrix protein, fibromodulin, matrix metalloproteinases 1 and 3 or plasminogen release. This study enabled comparative protein profiling and absolute quantification of proteins involved in molecular pathways pertinent to understanding the pathogenesis of OA. PMID:24132152

  2. Stitching interferometry and absolute surface shape metrology: similarities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bray, Michael

    2001-12-01

    Stitching interferometry is a method of analysing large optical components using a standard small interferometer. This result is obtained by taking multiple overlapping images of the large component, and numerically stitching these sub-apertures together by computing a correcting Tip- Tilt-Piston correction for each sub-aperture. All real-life measurement techniques require a calibration phase. By definition, a perfect surface does not exist. Methods abound for the accurate measurement of diameters (viz., the Three Flat Test). However, we need total surface knowledge of the reference surface, because the stitched overlap areas will suffer from the slightest deformation. One must not be induced into thinking that Stitching is the cause of this error: it simply highlights the lack of absolute knowledge of the reference surface, or the lack of adequate thermal control, issues which are often sidetracked... The goal of this paper is to highlight the above-mentioned calibration problems in interferometry in general, and in stitching interferometry in particular, and show how stitching hardware and software can be conveniently used to provide the required absolute surface shape metrology. Some measurement figures will illustrate this article.

  3. Absolute surface energies, fracture toughness, and cracking in nitrides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dreyer, Cyrus E.; Janotti, Anderson; van de Walle, Chris G.

    2014-03-01

    Growth of high quality single crystals and epitaxial layers of GaN is critical for producing high-efficiency optoelectronic and power electronic devices. One of the fundamental material properties that govern growth of single crystals is the absolute surface energy of the crystallographic planes. Knowledge of these energies is required to understand and optimize growth rates of different facets in GaN, and provide fracture toughnesses for brittle fracture. By means of hybrid functional calculations, we have determined absolute surface energies for the non-polar {11-20} a and {10-10} m planes, and approximated values for polar (0001) + c and (000-1) - c planes in wurtzite GaN. For all surfaces, we consider low-energy bare and hydrogenated reconstructions under a variety of conditions relevant to experimental growth techniques. We find that the energies of the m and a planes are similar, and constant over the range of conditions studied. In contrast, the energies of the polar planes are strongly condition dependent. Even so, we find that the + c polar plane is systematically lower in energy than the - c plane. We have used our surface energies to determine brittle fracture toughnesses in AlN and GaN, as well as the critical thickness for cracking of AlGaN on GaN.

  4. Absolute and relative quantification of RNA modifications via biosynthetic isotopomers

    PubMed Central

    Kellner, Stefanie; Ochel, Antonia; Thüring, Kathrin; Spenkuch, Felix; Neumann, Jennifer; Sharma, Sunny; Entian, Karl-Dieter; Schneider, Dirk; Helm, Mark

    2014-01-01

    In the resurging field of RNA modifications, quantification is a bottleneck blocking many exciting avenues. With currently over 150 known nucleoside alterations, detection and quantification methods must encompass multiple modifications for a comprehensive profile. LC–MS/MS approaches offer a perspective for comprehensive parallel quantification of all the various modifications found in total RNA of a given organism. By feeding 13C-glucose as sole carbon source, we have generated a stable isotope-labeled internal standard (SIL-IS) for bacterial RNA, which facilitates relative comparison of all modifications. While conventional SIL-IS approaches require the chemical synthesis of single modifications in weighable quantities, this SIL-IS consists of a nucleoside mixture covering all detectable RNA modifications of Escherichia coli, yet in small and initially unknown quantities. For absolute in addition to relative quantification, those quantities were determined by a combination of external calibration and sample spiking of the biosynthetic SIL-IS. For each nucleoside, we thus obtained a very robust relative response factor, which permits direct conversion of the MS signal to absolute amounts of substance. The application of the validated SIL-IS allowed highly precise quantification with standard deviations <2% during a 12-week period, and a linear dynamic range that was extended by two orders of magnitude. PMID:25129236

  5. Absolute phase effects on CPMG-type pulse sequences.

    PubMed

    Mandal, Soumyajit; Oh, Sangwon; Hürlimann, Martin D

    2015-12-01

    We describe and analyze the effects of transients within radio-frequency (RF) pulses on multiple-pulse NMR measurements such as the well-known Carr-Purcell-Meiboom-Gill (CPMG) sequence. These transients are functions of the absolute RF phases at the beginning and end of the pulse, and are thus affected by the timing of the pulse sequence with respect to the period of the RF waveform. Changes in transients between refocusing pulses in CPMG-type sequences can result in signal decay, persistent oscillations, changes in echo shape, and other effects. We have explored such effects by performing experiments in two different low-frequency NMR systems. The first uses a conventional tuned-and-matched probe circuit, while the second uses an ultra-broadband un-tuned or non-resonant probe circuit. We show that there are distinct differences between the absolute phase effects in these two systems, and present simple models that explain these differences. PMID:26575106

  6. Selected Reaction Monitoring Mass Spectrometry for Absolute Protein Quantification.

    PubMed

    Manes, Nathan P; Mann, Jessica M; Nita-Lazar, Aleksandra

    2015-01-01

    Absolute quantification of target proteins within complex biological samples is critical to a wide range of research and clinical applications. This protocol provides step-by-step instructions for the development and application of quantitative assays using selected reaction monitoring (SRM) mass spectrometry (MS). First, likely quantotypic target peptides are identified based on numerous criteria. This includes identifying proteotypic peptides, avoiding sites of posttranslational modification, and analyzing the uniqueness of the target peptide to the target protein. Next, crude external peptide standards are synthesized and used to develop SRM assays, and the resulting assays are used to perform qualitative analyses of the biological samples. Finally, purified, quantified, heavy isotope labeled internal peptide standards are prepared and used to perform isotope dilution series SRM assays. Analysis of all of the resulting MS data is presented. This protocol was used to accurately assay the absolute abundance of proteins of the chemotaxis signaling pathway within RAW 264.7 cells (a mouse monocyte/macrophage cell line). The quantification of Gi2 (a heterotrimeric G-protein α-subunit) is described in detail. PMID:26325288

  7. Absolute uniqueness of phase retrieval with random illumination

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fannjiang, Albert

    2012-07-01

    Random illumination is proposed to enforce absolute uniqueness and resolve all types of ambiguity, trivial or nontrivial, in phase retrieval. Almost sure irreducibility is proved for any complex-valued object whose support set has rank ⩾ 2. While the new irreducibility result can be viewed as a probabilistic version of the classical result by Bruck, Sodin and Hayes, it provides a novel perspective and an effective method for phase retrieval. In particular, almost sure uniqueness, up to a global phase, is proved for complex-valued objects under general two-point conditions. Under a tight sector constraint absolute uniqueness is proved to hold with probability exponentially close to unity as the object sparsity increases. Under a magnitude constraint with random amplitude illumination, uniqueness modulo global phase is proved to hold with probability exponentially close to unity as object sparsity increases. For general complex-valued objects without any constraint, almost sure uniqueness up to global phase is established with two sets of Fourier magnitude data under two independent illuminations. Numerical experiments suggest that random illumination essentially alleviates most, if not all, numerical problems commonly associated with the standard phasing algorithms.

  8. Communication: The absolute shielding scales of oxygen and sulfur revisited

    SciTech Connect

    Komorovsky, Stanislav; Repisky, Michal; Malkin, Elena; Ruud, Kenneth; Gauss, Jürgen

    2015-03-07

    We present an updated semi-experimental absolute shielding scale for the {sup 17}O and {sup 33}S nuclei. These new shielding scales are based on accurate rotational microwave data for the spin–rotation constants of H{sub 2}{sup 17}O [Puzzarini et al., J. Chem. Phys. 131, 234304 (2009)], C{sup 17}O [Cazzoli et al., Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys. 4, 3575 (2002)], and H{sub 2}{sup 33}S [Helgaker et al., J. Chem. Phys. 139, 244308 (2013)] corrected both for vibrational and temperature effects estimated at the CCSD(T) level of theory as well as for the relativistic corrections to the relation between the spin–rotation constant and the absolute shielding constant. Our best estimate for the oxygen shielding constants of H{sub 2}{sup 17}O is 328.4(3) ppm and for C{sup 17}O −59.05(59) ppm. The relativistic correction for the sulfur shielding of H{sub 2}{sup 33}S amounts to 3.3%, and the new sulfur shielding constant for this molecule is 742.9(4.6) ppm.

  9. Simulation of absolute amplitudes of ultrasound signals using equivalent circuits.

    PubMed

    Johansson, Jonny; Martinsson, Pär-Erik; Delsing, Jerker

    2007-10-01

    Equivalent circuits for piezoelectric devices and ultrasonic transmission media can be used to cosimulate electronics and ultrasound parts in simulators originally intended for electronics. To achieve efficient system-level optimization, it is important to simulate correct, absolute amplitude of the ultrasound signal in the system, as this determines the requirements on the electronics regarding dynamic range, circuit noise, and power consumption. This paper presents methods to achieve correct, absolute amplitude of an ultrasound signal in a simulation of a pulse-echo system using equivalent circuits. This is achieved by taking into consideration loss due to diffraction and the effect of the cable that connects the electronics and the piezoelectric transducer. The conductive loss in the transmission line that models the propagation media of the ultrasound pulse is used to model the loss due to diffraction. Results show that the simulated amplitude of the echo follows measured values well in both near and far fields, with an offset of about 10%. The use of a coaxial cable introduces inductance and capacitance that affect the amplitude of a received echo. Amplitude variations of 60% were observed when the cable length was varied between 0.07 m and 2.3 m, with simulations predicting similar variations. The high precision in the achieved results show that electronic design and system optimization can rely on system simulations alone. This will simplify the development of integrated electronics aimed at ultrasound systems. PMID:18019234

  10. Absolute configuration and antimicrobial activity of acylhomoserine lactones.

    PubMed

    Pomini, Armando M; Marsaioli, Anita J

    2008-06-01

    (S)-N-Heptanoylhomoserine lactone is an uncommon acyl odd-chain natural product employed by many Gram-negative bacteria as a signaling substance in chemical communication mechanisms known as quorum sensing. The absolute configuration determination of the metabolite produced by the phytopathogen Pantoea ananatis Serrano is reported herein. As with all other substances of this class, the lactone moiety possesses S configuration, corroborating the hypothesis that it shares the same biosynthetic pathway as the (S)-N-hexanoylhomoserine lactone and also that some LuxI homologues can accept both hexanoyl- and heptanoyl-ACP as precursors. Evaluation of the antimicrobial activity of enantiomeric acylhomoserine lactones against three Gram-positive bacteria (Bacillus cereus, B. subtilis, and Staphylococcus aureus) revealed important features between absolute configuration and antimicrobial activity. The N-heptanoylhomoserine lactone was considerably less active than the 3-oxo derivatives. Surprisingly, non-natural (R)-N-(3-oxo-octanoyl)homoserine lactone was as active as the S enantiomer against B. cereus, while the synthetic racemic product was less active than either enantiomer. PMID:18465897

  11. The usable capacity of porous materials for hydrogen storage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schlichtenmayer, Maurice; Hirscher, Michael

    2016-04-01

    A large number of different porous materials has been investigated for their hydrogen uptake over a wide pressure range and at different temperature. From the absolute adsorption isotherms, the enthalpy of adsorption is evaluated for a wide range of surface coverage. The usable capacity, defined as the amount of hydrogen released between a maximum tank pressure and a minimum back pressure for a fuel cell, is analyzed for isothermal operation. The usable capacity as a function of temperature shows a maximum which defines the optimum operating temperature. This optimum operating temperature is higher for materials possessing a higher enthalpy of adsorption. However, the fraction of the hydrogen stored overall that can be released at the optimum operating temperature is higher for materials with a lower enthalpy of adsorption than for the ones with higher enthalpy.

  12. A Special Application of Absolute Value Techniques in Authentic Problem Solving

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stupel, Moshe

    2013-01-01

    There are at least five different equivalent definitions of the absolute value concept. In instances where the task is an equation or inequality with only one or two absolute value expressions, it is a worthy educational experience for learners to solve the task using each one of the definitions. On the other hand, if more than two absolute value…

  13. Constraint on Absolute Accuracy of Metacomprehension Assessments: The Anchoring and Adjustment Model vs. the Standards Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kwon, Heekyung

    2011-01-01

    The objective of this study is to provide a systematic account of three typical phenomena surrounding absolute accuracy of metacomprehension assessments: (1) the absolute accuracy of predictions is typically quite low; (2) there exist individual differences in absolute accuracy of predictions as a function of reading skill; and (3) postdictions…

  14. CHP Installed Capacity Optimizer Software

    2004-11-30

    The CHP Installed Capacity Optimizer is a Microsoft Excel spreadsheet application that determines the most economic amount of capacity of distributed generation and thermal utilization equipment (e.g., absorption chillers) to install for any user-defined set of load and cost data. Installing the optimum amount of capacity is critical to the life-cycle economic viability of a distributed generation/cooling heat and power (CHP) application. Using advanced optimization algorithms, the software accesses the loads, utility tariffs, equipment costs,more » etc., and provides to the user the most economic amount of system capacity to install.« less

  15. CHP Installed Capacity Optimizer Software

    SciTech Connect

    2004-11-30

    The CHP Installed Capacity Optimizer is a Microsoft Excel spreadsheet application that determines the most economic amount of capacity of distributed generation and thermal utilization equipment (e.g., absorption chillers) to install for any user-defined set of load and cost data. Installing the optimum amount of capacity is critical to the life-cycle economic viability of a distributed generation/cooling heat and power (CHP) application. Using advanced optimization algorithms, the software accesses the loads, utility tariffs, equipment costs, etc., and provides to the user the most economic amount of system capacity to install.

  16. Adaptive capacity and its assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Engle, Nathan L.

    2011-04-20

    This paper reviews the concept of adaptive capacity and various approaches to assessing it, particularly with respect to climate variability and change. I find that adaptive capacity is a relatively under-researched topic within the sustainability science and global change communities, particularly since it is uniquely positioned to improve linkages between vulnerability and resilience research. I identify opportunities for advancing the measurement and characterization of adaptive capacity by combining insights from both vulnerability and resilience frameworks, and I suggest several assessment approaches for possible future development that draw from both frameworks and focus on analyzing the governance, institutions, and management that have helped foster adaptive capacity in light of recent climatic events.

  17. The Capacity to Build Organizational Capacity in Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    King, M. Bruce; Bouchard, Kate

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: Reformers, policymakers, and researchers have given considerable attention to organizational capacity in schools, especially in those schools that perpetuate or exacerbate achievement gaps among diverse student groups and reproduce social inequalities. There is an emerging consensus about key dimensions of school capacity and how they can…

  18. Field tests for evaluating the aerobic work capacity of firefighters.

    PubMed

    Lindberg, Ann-Sofie; Oksa, Juha; Gavhed, Désirée; Malm, Christer

    2013-01-01

    Working as a firefighter is physically strenuous, and a high level of physical fitness increases a firefighter's ability to cope with the physical stress of their profession. Direct measurements of aerobic capacity, however, are often complicated, time consuming, and expensive. The first aim of the present study was to evaluate the correlations between direct (laboratory) and indirect (field) aerobic capacity tests with common and physically demanding firefighting tasks. The second aim was to give recommendations as to which field tests may be the most useful for evaluating firefighters' aerobic work capacity. A total of 38 subjects (26 men and 12 women) were included. Two aerobic capacity tests, six field tests, and seven firefighting tasks were performed. Lactate threshold and onset of blood lactate accumulation were found to be correlated to the performance of one work task (r(s) = -0.65 and -0.63, p<0.01, respectively). Absolute (mL · min(-1)) and relative (mL · kg(-1) · min(-1)) maximal aerobic capacity was correlated to all but one of the work tasks (r(s) = -0.79 to 0.55 and -0.74 to 0.47, p<0.01, respectively). Aerobic capacity is important for firefighters' work performance, and we have concluded that the time to row 500 m, the time to run 3000 m relative to body weight (s · kg(-1)), and the percent of maximal heart rate achieved during treadmill walking are the most valid field tests for evaluating a firefighter's aerobic work capacity. PMID:23844153

  19. Absolute bioavailability and regional absorption of ticagrelor in healthy volunteers

    PubMed Central

    Teng, Renli; Maya, Juan

    2014-01-01

    Objective Ticagrelor is a direct-acting, reversibly-binding, oral P2Y12 receptor antagonist. It demonstrates predictable, linear pharmacokinetics. Two studies were undertaken to further elucidate the absolute bioavailability of ticagrelor and its regional absorption in the gastrointestinal (GI) tract. Design and methods In two open-label, randomized, cross-over studies, 12 volunteers received a single dose of ticagrelor: oral 90 mg and 15 mg IV (Study 1); or 100 mg oral suspension vs 100 mg immediate release (IR) tablet (Study 2). After the initial cross-over period in Study 2, patients received 100 mg suspension delivered to specific sites in the GI tract using an Enterion capsule. In both studies, plasma concentrations of ticagrelor and AR-C124910XX were measured following administration of each formulation. Results The mean absolute bioavailability of ticagrelor was 36% (95% confidence interval = 30–42%). Metabolite:parent ratios were higher after oral administration, compared with IV administration (maximum plasma concentration [Cmax] = 0.356 and 0.037; area under the plasma concentration-time curves [AUC] = 0.530 and 0.173, respectively). Following oral administration of the 100 mg IR tablet, the AUC and Cmax of ticagrelor were 78% and 58%, respectively, of those following oral administration of the 100 mg suspension. Exposure to ticagrelor decreased the further down the GI tract it was released: mean Cmax for ticagrelor was 91%, 68%, and 13% that for the oral suspension when released in the proximal small bowel, distal small bowel and ascending colon, respectively; mean AUCs were 89%, 73%, and 32%, respectively. Conclusion The mean absolute bioavailability of ticagrelor was 36% and the proportion of ticagrelor absorbed decreased the further down the GI tract it was released: the mean AUC for ticagrelor was 89% (proximal small bowel), 73% (distal small bowel), and 32% (ascending colon) that of the mean AUC for the orally

  20. Landsat-7 ETM+ radiometric stability and absolute calibration

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Markham, B.L.; Barker, J.L.; Barsi, J.A.; Kaita, E.; Thome, K.J.; Helder, D.L.; Palluconi, Frank Don; Schott, J.R.; Scaramuzza, P.

    2002-01-01

    Launched in April 1999, the Landsat-7 ETM+ instrument is in its fourth year of operation. The quality of the acquired calibrated imagery continues to be high, especially with respect to its three most important radiometric performance parameters: reflective band instrument stability to better than ??1%, reflective band absolute calibration to better than ??5%, and thermal band absolute calibration to better than ??0.6 K. The ETM+ instrument has been the most stable of any of the Landsat instruments, in both the reflective and thermal channels. To date, the best on-board calibration source for the reflective bands has been the Full Aperture Solar Calibrator, which has indicated changes of at most -1.8% to -2.0% (95% C.I.) change per year in the ETM+ gain (band 4). However, this change is believed to be caused by changes in the solar diffuser panel, as opposed to a change in the instrument's gain. This belief is based partially on ground observations, which bound the changes in gain in band 4 at -0.7% to +1.5%. Also, ETM+ stability is indicated by the monitoring of desert targets. These image-based results for four Saharan and Arabian sites, for a collection of 35 scenes over the three years since launch, bound the gain change at -0.7% to +0.5% in band 4. Thermal calibration from ground observations revealed an offset error of +0.31 W/m 2 sr um soon after launch. This offset was corrected within the U. S. ground processing system at EROS Data Center on 21-Dec-00, and since then, the band 6 on-board calibration has indicated changes of at most +0.02% to +0.04% (95% C.I.) per year. The latest ground observations have detected no remaining offset error with an RMS error of ??0.6 K. The stability and absolute calibration of the Landsat-7 ETM+ sensor make it an ideal candidate to be used as a reference source for radiometric cross-calibrating to other land remote sensing satellite systems.

  1. Monitoring Groundwater Variations Using a Portable Absolute Gravimeter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fukuda, Yoichi; Nishijima, Jun; Hasegawa, Takashi; Sofyan, Yayan; Taniguchi, Makoto; Abidin, Hasanuddin Z.; Delinom, Robert M.

    2010-05-01

    In urbanized areas, one of the urgent problems is to monitor the groundwater variations especially connected with land subsidence. Although the groundwater variations are usually measured by water level meters, gravity measurements can provide us additional information about the water mass movements which should be beneficial for the analyses of groundwater flow and the managements of water resources as well. Therefore, in order to establish a new technique to monitor the groundwater variations by means of the gravity measurements, we investigated the applicability of a portable type absolute gravimeter (Micro-G LaCoste Inc. A10-017). We will report the results of some test measurements in Japan, and the outline of the surveys in Jakarta, Indonesia. As for the absolute gravity measurements, FG-5 of MGL would be more popular. FG-5 is a high precision absolute gravimeter with a 2ugal-accuracy for laboratory use, while the nominal accuracy of A-10 is 10ugal (measurement precision: ±5ugal). In spite of the disadvantage, A-10 is well suited for the field surveys because it is much smaller than FG-5 and can be operated with 12VDC power. The repeated measurements using A10-017 in Kyushu University show good correlations between the measured gravity values and the groundwater levels in nearby observation wells. In a geothermal plant of Takigami, we also observed the gravity changes associated with the cycle of the geothermal fluid. All these test measurements have proved that the gravimeter can achieve a 10ugal (10nm/s2) or better accuracy in the field surveys. In Jakarta, Indonesia, excess groundwater pumping is going on and it causes land subsidence. To reveal the associated gravity changes, we conducted the first gravity survey in August 2008 and the second survey in July 2009. Mainly due to the instrumental troubles during the 2008 surveys, we have not obtained enough reliable data yet. Nevertheless the result obtained so far suggested the gravity increases in the

  2. Absolute Gravimetry in Fennoscandia - A Contribution to Understanding Postglacial Uplift

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pettersen, B. R.; Timmen, L.; Gitlein, O.; Muller, J.; Denker, H.; Makinen, J.; Bilker, M.; Lysaker, D. I.; Omang, O. C.; Svendsen, J. G.; Wilmes, H.; Falk, R.; Reinhold, A.; Hoppe, W.; Scherneck, H.; Lidberg, M.; Engen, B.; Kristiansen, O.; Engfeldt, A.; Strykowski, G.; Forsberg, R.; Klopping, F.; Sasagawa, G.

    2005-12-01

    The Fennoscandian postglacial uplift has been mapped geometrically using precise levelling, tide gauges, and networks of permanent GPS stations. The results identify major uplift rates at sites located around the northern part of the Gulf of Bothnia. The vertical motions decay in all directions away from this central location. An oval shaped zero uplift isoline tracks the general western and northern coastline of Norway and the Kola peninsula. It returns southwest through Russian Karelia and touches the southern tip of Sweden and northern Denmark. The uplift area (as measured by present day motions) has its major axis in the direction of southwest to northeast and covers a distance of about 2000 km. Absolute gravimetry was made in Finland and Norway in 1976 with a rise-and fall instrument. A decade later the number of gravity stations was expanded by JILAg-5, in Finland from 1988, in Norway from 1991, and in Sweden from 1992. FG5 was introduced in these three countries in 1993 (7 stations) and continued with an extended campaign in 1995 (12 stations). In 2003 a project was initiated by IfE, Hannover to collect observations simultaneously with GRACE on an annual cycle. New instruments were acquired by IfE (FG5-220), FGI (FG5-221), and UMB (FG5-226). New absolute gravity stations were established by the national mapping agencies in Denmark, Norway, and Sweden. The total number of prepared sites in Fennoscandia is now about 30. Most of them are co-located with permanent GPS, for many of which time series of several years are now available. Along the coast there are nearby tide gauge stations, many of which have time series of several decades. We describe the observing network, procedures, auxiliary observations, and discuss results obtained for selected sites. We compare the gravity results from different instruments and discuss the challenges of combining and validating such data products. Examples are shown where temporal gravity change may be compared to

  3. Building Organizational Capacity through Trust

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cosner, Shelby

    2009-01-01

    This article explores the cultivation of collegial trust as a central feature of the capacity-building work of 11 high school principals, nominated for their expertise with capacity building. This qualitative study examined interview data and school documents collected over 18 months. Principals regarded trust as critical and were motivated to…

  4. Measuring Capacities for Community Resilience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sherrieb, Kathleen; Norris, Fran H.; Galea, Sandro

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to measure the sets of adaptive capacities for Economic Development and Social Capital in the Norris et al. (2008) community resilience model with publicly accessible population indicators. Our approach involved five steps. First, we conducted a literature review on measurements of the capacities. Second, we created…

  5. Enrollment Capacity and Technology Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Washington Higher Education Coordinating Board, 2008

    2008-01-01

    The 2007-09 Appropriations Act provided funding to the Higher Education Coordinating Board (HECB) to study the state's capital facility and technology capacity. Specifically, "...state appropriation is provided solely to implement a capital facility and technology capacity study which will compare the 10-year enrollment projections with the…

  6. Heat capacity, configurational heat capacity and fragility of hydrous magmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Di Genova, D.; Romano, C.; Giordano, D.; Alletti, M.

    2014-10-01

    The glassy and liquid heat capacities of four series of dry and hydrous natural glasses and magma as a function of temperature and water content (up to 19.9 mol%) were investigated using differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). The analyzed compositions are basalt, latite, trachyte and pantellerite. The results of this study indicate that the measured heat capacity of glasses (Cpg) is a linear function of composition and is well reproduced by the empirical model of Richet (1987). For the investigated glasses, the partial molar heat capacity of water can be considered as independent of composition, in agreement with Bouhifd et al. (2006). For hydrous liquids, the heat capacity (Cpliq) decreases nonlinearly with increasing water content. Previously published models, combined with the partial molar heat capacity of water from the literature, are not able to reproduce our experimental data in a satisfactory way. We estimated the partial molar heat capacity of water (CpH2O) in hydrous magma over a broad compositional range. The proposed value is 41 ± 3 J mol-1 K-1. Water strongly affects the configurational heat capacity at the glass transition temperature [Cpconf (Tg)]. An increases of Cpconf (Tg) with water content was measured for the polymerized liquids (trachyte and pantellerite), while the opposite behavior was observed for the most depolymerized liquids (basalt and latite). Structural and rheological implications of this behavior are discussed in light of the presented results.

  7. SPRED spectrograph upgrade: high resolution grating and improved absolute calibrations

    SciTech Connect

    Stratton, B.C.; Fonck, R.J.; Ida, K.; Jaehnig, K.P.; Ramsey, A.T.

    1986-05-01

    Two improvements to the SPRED multichannel VUV spectrographs used on the TFTR and PBX tokamaks have been made: (1) A new 2100-g/mm grating covering the 100 to 320 A region with 0.4 A resolution (FWHM) has been added to the existing 450 g/mm grating (100 to 1100 A with 2 A resolution), and (2) the TFTR SPRED has been absolutely calibrated using synchrotron radiation from the NBS SURF II facility, while the PBX system has been calibrated using conventional branching ratios along with line ratios from charge-exchange-recombination-excited lines. The availability of high resolution spectra in the 100 to 320 A range provides improved measurements of metallic ion emissions and, when the instrument views across a neutral beam as in PBX, allows carbon and oxygen densities to be measured via charge exchange recombination spectroscopy.

  8. Method and apparatus for making absolute range measurements

    DOEpatents

    Earl, Dennis D [Knoxville, TN; Allison, Stephen W [Knoxville, TN; Cates, Michael R [Oak Ridge, TN; Sanders, Alvin J [Knoxville, TN

    2002-09-24

    This invention relates to a method and apparatus for making absolute distance or ranging measurements using Fresnel diffraction. The invention employs a source of electromagnetic radiation having a known wavelength or wavelength distribution, which sends a beam of electromagnetic radiation through a screen at least partially opaque at the wavelength. The screen has an aperture sized so as to produce a Fresnel diffraction pattern. A portion of the beam travels through the aperture to a detector spaced some distance from the screen. The detector detects the central intensity of the beam as well as a set of intensities displaced from a center of the aperture. The distance from the source to the target can then be calculated based upon the known wavelength, aperture radius, and beam intensity.

  9. Redetermined structure of oxaline: absolute configuration using Cu Kα radiation

    PubMed Central

    Qu, Peng; Wu, Zhi-Yong; Zhu, Wei-Ming

    2012-01-01

    In the title compound, C24H25N5O4, the stereogenic C atom bonded to three N atoms and one C atom has an S configuration and its directly bonded neighbour has an R configuration. An intra­molecular N—H⋯O hydrogen bond supports the near coplanarity of the two C3N2-five-membered rings [dihedral angle = 5.64 (10)°]. In the crystal, mol­ecules are linked by N—H⋯N hydrogen bonds, forming a C(8) chain propagating in [001]. The chains are connected by C—H⋯O inter­actions, generating a three-dimensional network. The previous study [Nagel et al. (1974 ▶). Chem. Commun. pp. 1021–1022] did not establish the absolute structure and no atomic coordinates were published or deposited. PMID:22719429

  10. Absolute and geometric parameters of contact binary GW Cnc

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gürol, B.; Gökay, G.; Saral, G.; Gürsoytrak, S. H.; Cerit, S.; Terzioğlu, Z.

    2016-07-01

    We present the results of our investigation on the geometrical and physical parameters of the W UMa type binary system GW Cnc. We analyzed the photometric data obtained in 2010 and 2011 at Ankara University Observatory (AUO) and the spectroscopic data obtained in 2010 at TUBITAK National Observatory (TUG) by using the Wilson-Devinney (2013 revision) code to obtain the absolute and geometrical parameters. We derived masses and radii of the eclipsing system to be M1 = 0.257M⊙ , M2 = 0.971M⊙ , R1 = 0.526R⊙ and R2 = 0.961R⊙ with an orbital inclination i(∘) = 83.38 ± 0.25 and we determined the GW Cnc system to be a W-type W UMa over-contact binary with a mass ratio of q = 3.773 ± 0.007 .

  11. The preference of visualization in teaching and learning absolute value

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cihan Konyalioğlu, Alper; Aksu, Zeki; Özge Şenel, Esma

    2012-07-01

    Visualization is mostly despised although it complements and - sometimes - guides the analytical process. This study mainly investigates teachers' preferences concerning the use of the visualization method and determines the extent to which they encourage their students to make use of it within the problem-solving process. This study was conducted for the ninth-grade students and their mathematics teacher in a social science intensive public school in the city of Erzurum, Turkey. Utilizing case study as the preferred method, data were collected through observations, interviews and student evaluations. This study revealed that visualization has a positive effect at the preliminary phases of teaching the absolute value concept but generates a lack of stimulation during problem solving in further phases of the instruction. This could be explained as a result of current examination system which requires a habituation of the analytical process in solving mathematical questions.

  12. Absolute properties of the triple star HP Aurigae

    SciTech Connect

    Lacy, Claud H. Sandberg; Burks, Charles L.; Torres, Guillermo; Wolf, Marek E-mail: clburks@email.uark.edu E-mail: wolf@cesnet.cz

    2014-01-01

    New photometric, spectroscopic, and eclipse timing observations of the eclipsing binary star HP Aur allow for very accurate orbital determinations, even in the presence of a third body and transient starspot activity. The eclipsing binary masses are determined to an accuracy of ±0.4% and the radii to ±0.6%. The masses are 0.9543 ± 0.0041 and 0.8094 ± 0.0036 solar masses, and the radii are 1.0278 ± 0.0042 and 0.7758 ± 0.0034 solar radii, respectively. The orbital period in the outer orbit is accurately determined for the first time: 4.332 ± 0.011 yr. A comparison with current theories of stellar evolution shows that the components' absolute properties can be well-matched by the current models at an age of about 7 billion years.

  13. A three-axis SQUID-based absolute vector magnetometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schönau, T.; Zakosarenko, V.; Schmelz, M.; Stolz, R.; Anders, S.; Linzen, S.; Meyer, M.; Meyer, H.-G.

    2015-10-01

    We report on the development of a three-axis absolute vector magnetometer suited for mobile operation in the Earth's magnetic field. It is based on low critical temperature dc superconducting quantum interference devices (LTS dc SQUIDs) with sub-micrometer sized cross-type Josephson junctions and exhibits a white noise level of about 10 fT/Hz1/2. The width of superconducting strip lines is restricted to less than 6 μm in order to avoid flux trapping during cool-down in magnetically unshielded environment. The long-term stability of the flux-to-voltage transfer coefficients of the SQUID electronics is investigated in detail and a method is presented to significantly increase their reproducibility. We further demonstrate the long-term operation of the setup in a magnetic field varying by about 200 μT amplitude without the need for recalibration.

  14. Orion Exploration Flight Test-1 (EFT-1) Absolute Navigation Performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zanetti, Renato

    2015-01-01

    The Orion vehicle, being design to take men back to the Moon and beyond, successfully completed its first flight test, EFT-1 (Exploration Flight Test-1), on December 5th, 2014. The main objective of the test was to demonstrate the capability of re-enter into the Earth's atmosphere and safely splash-down into the pacific ocean. This un-crewed mission completes two orbits around Earth, the second of which is highly elliptical with an apogee of approximately 5908 km, higher than any vehicle designed for humans has been since the Apollo program. The trajectory was designed in order to test a high-energy re-entry similar to those crews will undergo during lunar missions. The mission overview is shown in Figure 1. The objective of this paper is to document the performance of the absolute navigation system during EFT-1 and to present its design.

  15. The neurocognitive components of pitch processing: insights from absolute pitch.

    PubMed

    Wilson, Sarah J; Lusher, Dean; Wan, Catherine Y; Dudgeon, Paul; Reutens, David C

    2009-03-01

    The natural variability of pitch naming ability in the population (known as absolute pitch or AP) provides an ideal method for investigating individual differences in pitch processing and auditory knowledge formation and representation. We have demonstrated the involvement of different cognitive processes in AP ability that reflects varying skill expertise in the presence of similar early age of onset of music tuition. These processes were related to different regions of brain activity, including those involved in pitch working memory (right prefrontal cortex) and the long-term representation of pitch (superior temporal gyrus). They reflected expertise through the use of context dependent pitch cues and the level of automaticity of pitch naming. They impart functional significance to structural asymmetry differences in the planum temporale of musicians and establish a neurobiological basis for an AP template. More generally, they indicate variability of knowledge representation in the presence of environmental fostering of early cognitive development that translates to differences in cognitive ability. PMID:18663250

  16. Landsat-5 TM reflective-band absolute radiometric calibration

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Chander, G.; Helder, D.L.; Markham, B.L.; Dewald, J.D.; Kaita, E.; Thome, K.J.; Micijevic, E.; Ruggles, T.A.

    2004-01-01

    The Landsat-5 Thematic Mapper (TM) sensor provides the longest running continuous dataset of moderate spatial resolution remote sensing imagery, dating back to its launch in March 1984. Historically, the radiometric calibration procedure for this imagery used the instrument's response to the Internal Calibrator (IC) on a scene-by-scene basis to determine the gain and offset of each detector. Due to observed degradations in the IC, a new procedure was implemented for U.S.-processed data in May 2003. This new calibration procedure is based on a lifetime radiometric calibration model for the instrument's reflective bands (1-5 and 7) and is derived, in part, from the IC response without the related degradation effects and is tied to the cross calibration with the Landsat-7 Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus. Reflective-band absolute radiometric accuracy of the instrument tends to be on the order of 7% to 10%, based on a variety of calibration methods.

  17. Absolute Radiation Measurements in Earth and Mars Entry Conditions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cruden, Brett A.

    2014-01-01

    This paper reports on the measurement of radiative heating for shock heated flows which simulate conditions for Mars and Earth entries. Radiation measurements are made in NASA Ames' Electric Arc Shock Tube at velocities from 3-15 km/s in mixtures of N2/O2 and CO2/N2/Ar. The technique and limitations of the measurement are summarized in some detail. The absolute measurements will be discussed in regards to spectral features, radiative magnitude and spatiotemporal trends. Via analysis of spectra it is possible to extract properties such as electron density, and rotational, vibrational and electronic temperatures. Relaxation behind the shock is analyzed to determine how these properties relax to equilibrium and are used to validate and refine kinetic models. It is found that, for some conditions, some of these values diverge from non-equilibrium indicating a lack of similarity between the shock tube and free flight conditions. Possible reasons for this are discussed.

  18. Upgrade of absolute extreme ultraviolet diagnostic on J-TEXT.

    PubMed

    Zhang, X L; Cheng, Z F; Hou, S Y; Zhuang, G; Luo, J

    2014-11-01

    The absolute extreme ultraviolet (AXUV) diagnostic system is used for radiation observation on J-TEXT tokamak [J. Zhang, G. Zhuang, Z. J. Wang, Y. H. Ding, X. Q. Zhang, and Y. J. Tang, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 81, 073509 (2010)]. The upgrade of the AXUV system is aimed to improve the spatial resolution and provide a three-dimensional image on J-TEXT. The new system consists of 12 AXUV arrays (4 AXUV16ELG arrays, 8 AXUV20ELG arrays). The spatial resolution in the cross-section is 21 mm for the AXUV16ELG arrays and 17 mm for the AXUV20ELG arrays. The pre-amplifier is also upgraded for a higher signal to noise ratio. By upgrading the AXUV imaging system, a more accurate observation on the radiation information is obtained. PMID:25430327

  19. Upgrade of absolute extreme ultraviolet diagnostic on J-TEXT

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, X. L.; Cheng, Z. F. Hou, S. Y.; Zhuang, G.; Luo, J.

    2014-11-15

    The absolute extreme ultraviolet (AXUV) diagnostic system is used for radiation observation on J-TEXT tokamak [J. Zhang, G. Zhuang, Z. J. Wang, Y. H. Ding, X. Q. Zhang, and Y. J. Tang, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 81, 073509 (2010)]. The upgrade of the AXUV system is aimed to improve the spatial resolution and provide a three-dimensional image on J-TEXT. The new system consists of 12 AXUV arrays (4 AXUV16ELG arrays, 8 AXUV20ELG arrays). The spatial resolution in the cross-section is 21 mm for the AXUV16ELG arrays and 17 mm for the AXUV20ELG arrays. The pre-amplifier is also upgraded for a higher signal to noise ratio. By upgrading the AXUV imaging system, a more accurate observation on the radiation information is obtained.

  20. Absolute Te_2 reference for barium ion at 4554 nm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dutta, Tarun; De Munshi, Debashis; Mukherjee, Manas

    2016-06-01

    Precision atomic spectroscopy is presently the work horse in quantum information technology, metrology, trace analysis and even for fundamental tests in physics. Stable lasers are inherent part of precision spectroscopy which in turn requires absolute wavelength markers suitably placed corresponding to the atomic species being probed. Here we present, new lines of tellurium (Te$_2$) which allows locking of external cavity diode laser (ECDL) for precision spectroscopy of singly charged barium ions. In addition, we have developed an ECDL with over 100 GHz mod-hop-free tuning range using commercially available diode from $\\textit{Nichia}$. These two developments allow nearly drift-free operation of a barium ion trap set-up with one single reference cell thereby reducing the complexity of the experiment.

  1. Biochip Image Grid Normalization Absolute Signal Fluorescence Measurement Using

    2001-04-17

    This software was developed to measure absolute fluorescent intensities of gel pads on a microchip in units defined by a standard fluorescent slide. It can accomodate varying measurement conditions (e.g. exposure time, sensitivity of detector, resolution of detector, etc.) as well as fluorescent microscopes with non-uniform sensitivity across their field of view allowing the user to compare measurements done on different detectors with varying exposure times, sensitivities, and resolutions. The software is designed both tomore » operate Roper Scientific, Inc. cameras and to use image files produced by the program supplied with that equipment for its calculations. the intensity of the gel pad signal is computed so as to reduce background influence.« less

  2. Absolute blood velocity measured with a modified fundus camera

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duncan, Donald D.; Lemaillet, Paul; Ibrahim, Mohamed; Nguyen, Quan Dong; Hiller, Matthias; Ramella-Roman, Jessica

    2010-09-01

    We present a new method for the quantitative estimation of blood flow velocity, based on the use of the Radon transform. The specific application is for measurement of blood flow velocity in the retina. Our modified fundus camera uses illumination from a green LED and captures imagery with a high-speed CCD camera. The basic theory is presented, and typical results are shown for an in vitro flow model using blood in a capillary tube. Subsequently, representative results are shown for representative fundus imagery. This approach provides absolute velocity and flow direction along the vessel centerline or any lateral displacement therefrom. We also provide an error analysis allowing estimation of confidence intervals for the estimated velocity.

  3. Active radiometric calorimeter for absolute calibration of radioactive sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stump, K. E.; DeWerd, L. A.; Rudman, D. A.; Schima, S. A.

    2005-03-01

    This report describes the design and initial noise floor measurements of a radiometric calorimeter designed to measure therapeutic medical radioactive sources. The instrument demonstrates a noise floor of approximately 2 nW. This low noise floor is achieved by using high temperature superconducting (HTS) transition edge sensor (TES) thermometers in a temperature-control feedback loop. This feedback loop will be used to provide absolute source calibrations based upon the electrical substitution method. Other unique features of the calorimeter are (a) its ability to change sources for calibration without disrupting the vacuum of the instrument, and (b) the ability to measure the emitted power of a source in addition to the total contained source power.

  4. Absolute falling-ball viscometer: evaluation of measurement uncertainty

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brizard, M.; Megharfi, M.; Verdier, C.

    2005-08-01

    To reduce the uncertainties in measurements obtained by means of capillary viscometers, we developed an absolute falling-ball viscometer. The metrological characterization of this experimental bench is presented for a mineral oil with a viscosity of 30 Pa s by means of two distinct methods described in the GUM (Guide to the Expression of Uncertainty in Measurement). First, the calculation is performed using the law of propagation of uncertainties. Then, because of the increasing use of the techniques of propagation of distributions in metrology, we calculated the measurement uncertainties by a numerical Monte Carlo simulation. Both results were then compared for a confidence interval of 95%. Finally, the viscosity measurements and uncertainties obtained by the falling-ball viscometer were compared against those obtained by a capillary viscometer.

  5. Absolute stellar photometry on moderate-resolution FPA images

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stone, T.C.

    2009-01-01

    An extensive database of star (and Moon) images has been collected by the ground-based RObotic Lunar Observatory (ROLO) as part of the US Geological Survey program for lunar calibration. The stellar data are used to derive nightly atmospheric corrections for the observations from extinction measurements, and absolute calibration of the ROLO sensors is based on observations of Vega and published reference flux and spectrum data. The ROLO telescopes were designed for imaging the Moon at moderate resolution, thus imposing some limitations for the stellar photometry. Attaining accurate stellar photometry with the ROLO image data has required development of specialized processing techniques. A key consideration is consistency in discriminating the star core signal from the off-axis point spread function. The analysis and processing methods applied to the ROLO stellar image database are described. ?? 2009 BIPM and IOP Publishing Ltd.

  6. Sub-nanometer periodic nonlinearity error in absolute distance interferometers.

    PubMed

    Yang, Hongxing; Huang, Kaiqi; Hu, Pengcheng; Zhu, Pengfei; Tan, Jiubin; Fan, Zhigang

    2015-05-01

    Periodic nonlinearity which can result in error in nanometer scale has become a main problem limiting the absolute distance measurement accuracy. In order to eliminate this error, a new integrated interferometer with non-polarizing beam splitter is developed. This leads to disappearing of the frequency and/or polarization mixing. Furthermore, a strict requirement on the laser source polarization is highly reduced. By combining retro-reflector and angel prism, reference and measuring beams can be spatially separated, and therefore, their optical paths are not overlapped. So, the main cause of the periodic nonlinearity error, i.e., the frequency and/or polarization mixing and leakage of beam, is eliminated. Experimental results indicate that the periodic phase error is kept within 0.0018°. PMID:26026510

  7. Conductance and Absolutely Continuous Spectrum of 1D Samples

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bruneau, L.; Jakšić, V.; Last, Y.; Pillet, C.-A.

    2016-06-01

    We characterize the absolutely continuous spectrum of the one-dimensional Schrödinger operators {h = -Δ + v} acting on {ℓ^2(mathbb{Z}_+)} in terms of the limiting behaviour of the Landauer-Büttiker and Thouless conductances of the associated finite samples. The finite sample is defined by restricting h to a finite interval {[1, L] \\cap mathbb{Z}_+} and the conductance refers to the charge current across the sample in the open quantum system obtained by attaching independent electronic reservoirs to the sample ends. Our main result is that the conductances associated to an energy interval {I} are non-vanishing in the limit {L to infty} iff {sp_ac(h) \\cap I neq emptyset}. We also discuss the relationship between this result and the Schrödinger Conjecture (Avila, J Am Math Soc 28:579-616, 2015; Bruneau et al., Commun Math Phys 319:501-513, 2013).

  8. An Alpha-Gamma Counter for Absolute Neutron Flux Measurement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yue, A.; Greene, G.; Dewey, M.; Gilliam, D.; Nico, J.; Laptev, A.

    2012-03-01

    An alpha-gamma counter was used to measure the absolute neutron flux of a monochromatic cold neutron beam to sub-0.1,% precision. Simultaneously, the counter was used to calibrate a thin neutron flux monitor based on neutron absorption on ^6Li to the same precision. This monitor was used in the most precise beam-based measurement of the neutron lifetime, where the limiting systematic effect was the uncertainty in the neutron counting efficiency (0.3,%). The counter uses a thick target of ^10B-enriched boron carbide to completely absorb the beam. The rate of absorbed neutrons is determined by counting 478 keV gamma rays from neutron capture on ^10B with calibrated high-purity germanium detectors. The calibration results and the implications for the neutron lifetime will be discussed.

  9. Dark Energy:. the Absolute Electric Potential of the Universe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiménez, Jose Beltrán; Maroto, Antonio L.

    Is there an absolute cosmic electric potential? The recent discovery of the accelerated expansion of the universe could be indicating that this is certainly the case. In this essay we show that the consistency of the covariant and gauge-invariant theory of electromagnetism is truly questionable when considered on cosmological scales. Out of the four components of the electromagnetic field, Maxwell's theory contains only two physical degrees of freedom. However, in the presence of gravity, one of the "unphysical" states cannot be consistently eliminated, thus becoming real. This third polarization state is completely decoupled from charged matter, but can be excited gravitationally, thus breaking gauge invariance. On large scales the new state can be seen as a homogeneous cosmic electric potential, whose energy density behaves as a cosmological constant.

  10. First derivative versus absolute spectral reflectance of citrus varieties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blazquez, Carlos H.; Nigg, H. N.; Hedley, Lou E.; Ramos, L. E.; Sorrell, R. W.; Simpson, S. E.

    1996-06-01

    Spectral reflectance measurements from 400 to 800 nm were taken from immature and mature leaves of grapefruit ('McCarty' and 'Rio Red'), 'Minneola' tangelo, 'Satsuma' mandarin, 'Dancy' tangerine, 'Nagami' oval kumquat, and 'Valencia' sweet orange, at the Florida Citrus Arboretum, Division of Plant Industry, Winter Haven, Florida. Immature and mature leaves of 'Minneola' tangelo had greater percent reflectance in the 400 to 800 nm range than the other varieties and leaf ages measured. The slope of the citrus spectral curves in the 800 nm range was not as sharp as conventional spectrometers, but had a much higher reflectance value than those obtained with a DK-2 spectrometer. Statistical analyses of absolute spectral data yielded significant differences between mature and immature leaves and between varieties. First derivative data analyses did not yield significant differences between varieties.

  11. An absolute scale for measuring the utility of money

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thomas, P. J.

    2010-07-01

    Measurement of the utility of money is essential in the insurance industry, for prioritising public spending schemes and for the evaluation of decisions on protection systems in high-hazard industries. Up to this time, however, there has been no universally agreed measure for the utility of money, with many utility functions being in common use. In this paper, we shall derive a single family of utility functions, which have risk-aversion as the only free parameter. The fact that they return a utility of zero at their low, reference datum, either the utility of no money or of one unit of money, irrespective of the value of risk-aversion used, qualifies them to be regarded as absolute scales for the utility of money. Evidence of validation for the concept will be offered based on inferential measurements of risk-aversion, using diverse measurement data.

  12. Measured and modelled absolute gravity changes in Greenland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nielsen, J. Emil; Forsberg, Rene; Strykowski, Gabriel

    2014-01-01

    In glaciated areas, the Earth is responding to the ongoing changes of the ice sheets, a response known as glacial isostatic adjustment (GIA). GIA can be investigated through observations of gravity change. For the ongoing assessment of the ice sheets mass balance, where satellite data are used, the study of GIA is important since it acts as an error source. GIA consists of three signals as seen by a gravimeter on the surface of the Earth. These signals are investigated in this study. The ICE-5G ice history and recently developed ice models of present day changes are used to model the gravity change in Greenland. The result is compared with the initial measurements of absolute gravity (AG) change at selected Greenland Network (GNET) sites.

  13. Absolute properties of the eclipsing binary star IM Persei

    SciTech Connect

    Lacy, Claud H. Sandberg; Torres, Guillermo; Fekel, Francis C.; Muterspaugh, Matthew W.; Southworth, John E-mail: gtorres@cfa.harvard.edu E-mail: matthew1@coe.tsuniv.edu

    2015-01-01

    IM Per is a detached A7 eccentric eclipsing binary star. We have obtained extensive measurements of the light curve (28,225 differential magnitude observations) and radial velocity curve (81 spectroscopic observations) which allow us to fit orbits and determine the absolute properties of the components very accurately: masses of 1.7831 ± 0.0094 and 1.7741 ± 0.0097 solar masses, and radii of 2.409 ± 0.018 and 2.366 ± 0.017 solar radii. The orbital period is 2.25422694(15) days and the eccentricity is 0.0473(26). A faint third component was detected in the analysis of the light curves, and also directly observed in the spectra. The observed rate of apsidal motion is consistent with theory (U = 151.4 ± 8.4 year). We determine a distance to the system of 566 ± 46 pc.

  14. Absolute and relative choreographies in rigid body dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borisov, A. V.; Kilin, A. A.; Mamaev, I. S.

    2008-06-01

    For the classical problem of motion of a rigid body about a fixed point with zero area integral, we present a family of solutions that are periodic in the absolute space. Such solutions are known as choreographies. The family includes the well-known Delone solutions (for the Kovalevskaya case), some particular solutions for the Goryachev-Chaplygin case, and the Steklov solution. The “genealogy” of solutions of the family naturally appearing from the energy continuation and their connection with the Staude rotations are considered. It is shown that if the integral of areas is zero, the solutions are periodic with respect to a coordinate frame that rotates uniformly about the vertical (relative choreographies).

  15. The Neurocognitive Components of Pitch Processing: Insights from Absolute Pitch

    PubMed Central

    Lusher, Dean; Wan, Catherine Y.; Dudgeon, Paul; Reutens, David C.

    2009-01-01

    The natural variability of pitch naming ability in the population (known as absolute pitch or AP) provides an ideal method for investigating individual differences in pitch processing and auditory knowledge formation and representation. We have demonstrated the involvement of different cognitive processes in AP ability that reflects varying skill expertise in the presence of similar early age of onset of music tuition. These processes were related to different regions of brain activity, including those involved in pitch working memory (right prefrontal cortex) and the long-term representation of pitch (superior temporal gyrus). They reflected expertise through the use of context dependent pitch cues and the level of automaticity of pitch naming. They impart functional significance to structural asymmetry differences in the planum temporale of musicians and establish a neurobiological basis for an AP template. More generally, they indicate variability of knowledge representation in the presence of environmental fostering of early cognitive development that translates to differences in cognitive ability. PMID:18663250

  16. Absolute negative mobility induced by potential phase modulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dandogbessi, Bruno S.; Kenfack, Anatole

    2015-12-01

    We investigate the transport properties of a particle subjected to a deterministic inertial rocking system, under a constant bias, for which the phase of the symmetric spatial potential used is time modulated. We show that this modulated phase, assisted by a periodic driving force, can lead to the occurrence of the so-called absolute negative mobility (ANM), the phenomenon in which the particle surprisingly moves against the bias. Furthermore, we discover that ANM predominantly originates from chaotic-periodic transitions. While a detailed mechanism of ANM remains unclear, we show that one can manipulate the control parameters, i.e., the amplitude and the frequency of the phase, in order to enforce the motion of the particle in a given direction. Finally, for this experimentally realizable system, we devise a two-parameter current plot which may be a good guide for controlling ANM.

  17. Choice deferral can arise from absolute evaluations or relative comparisons.

    PubMed

    White, Chris M; Hoffrage, Ulrich; Reisen, Nils

    2015-06-01

    When choosing among several options, people may defer choice for either of 2 reasons: because none of the options is good enough or because there is uncertainty regarding which is the best. These reasons form the basis of the 2-stage, 2-threshold (2S2T) framework, which posits that a different kind of processing corresponds to these 2 reasons for choice deferral: absolute evaluations and relative comparisons, respectively. Three experiments are reported in which each type of processing was triggered in different conditions either via different payoff structures or different degrees of attribute knowledge. The effects of the 3 main independent variables (the size of the choice set, the utility of the best option, and the number of competitive options) differed depending on the payoff structure or attribute knowledge conditions in ways predicted by the 2S2T framework. Implications for consumer decision making, marketing, and eyewitness identification are discussed. PMID:25938974

  18. Absolute and geometric parameters of contact binary BO Arietis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gürol, B.; Gürsoytrak, S. H.; Bradstreet, D. H.

    2015-08-01

    We present the results of our investigation on the geometrical and physical parameters of the W UMa type binary system BO Ari from analyzed CCD (BVRI) light curves and radial velocity data. The photometric data were obtained in 2009 and 2010 at Ankara University Observatory (AUO) and the spectroscopic observations were made in 2007 and 2010 at TUBITAK National Observatory (TUG). These light and radial velocity observations were analyzed simultaneously by using the Wilson-Devinney (2013 revision) code to obtain absolute and geometrical parameters. The system was determined to be an A-type W UMa system. Combining our photometric solution with the spectroscopic data we derived masses and radii of the eclipsing system to be M1 = 0.995M⊙,M2 = 0.189M⊙,R1 = 1.090R⊙ and R2 = 0.515R⊙ . Finally, we discuss the evolutionary status of the system.

  19. Absolute stress measurements at the rangely anticline, Northwestern Colorado

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    de la Cruz, R. V.; Raleigh, C.B.

    1972-01-01

    Five different methods of measuring absolute state of stress in rocks in situ were used at sites near Rangely, Colorado, and the results compared. For near-surface measurements, overcoring of the borehole-deformation gage is the most convenient and rapid means of obtaining reliable values for the magnitude and direction of the state of stress in rocks in situ. The magnitudes and directions of the principal stresses are compared to the geologic features of the different areas of measurement. The in situ stresses are consistent in orientation with the stress direction inferred from the earthquake focal-plane solutions and existing joint patterns but inconsistent with stress directions likely to have produced the Rangely anticline. ?? 1972.

  20. Valproate reopens critical-period learning of absolute pitch

    PubMed Central

    Gervain, Judit; Vines, Bradley W.; Chen, Lawrence M.; Seo, Rubo J.; Hensch, Takao K.; Werker, Janet F.; Young, Allan H.

    2013-01-01

    Absolute pitch, the ability to identify or produce the pitch of a sound without a reference point, has a critical period, i.e., it can only be acquired early in life. However, research has shown that histone-deacetylase inhibitors (HDAC inhibitors) enable adult mice to establish perceptual preferences that are otherwise impossible to acquire after youth. In humans, we found that adult men who took valproate (VPA) (a HDAC inhibitor) learned to identify pitch significantly better than those taking placebo—evidence that VPA facilitated critical-period learning in the adult human brain. Importantly, this result was not due to a general change in cognitive function, but rather a specific effect on a sensory task associated with a critical-period. PMID:24348349

  1. Lunar eclipse photometry: absolute luminance measurements and modeling.

    PubMed

    Hernitschek, Nina; Schmidt, Elmar; Vollmer, Michael

    2008-12-01

    The Moon's time-dependent luminance was determined during the 9 February 1990 and 3 March 2007 total lunar eclipses by using calibrated, industry standard photometers. After the results were corrected to unit air mass and to standard distances for both Moon and Sun, an absolute calibration was accomplished by using the Sun's known luminance and a pre-eclipse lunar albedo of approximately 13.5%. The measured minimum level of brightness in the total phase of both eclipses was relatively high, namely -3.32 m(vis) and -1.7 m(vis), which hints at the absence of pronounced stratospheric aerosol. The light curves were modeled in such a way as to let the Moon move through an artificial Earth shadow composed of a multitude of disk and ring zones, containing a relative luminance data set from an atmospheric radiative transfer calculation. PMID:19037352

  2. ABSOLUTE PROPERTIES OF THE ECLIPSING BINARY STAR V335 SERPENTIS

    SciTech Connect

    Lacy, Claud H. Sandberg; Fekel, Francis C.; Claret, Antonio E-mail: fekel@evans.tsuniv.edu

    2012-08-15

    V335 Ser is now known to be an eccentric double-lined A1+A3 binary star with fairly deep (0.5 mag) partial eclipses. Previous studies of the system are improved with 7456 differential photometric observations from the URSA WebScope and 5666 from the NFO WebScope, and 67 high-resolution spectroscopic observations from the Tennessee State University 2 m automatic spectroscopic telescope. From dates of minima, the apsidal period is about 880 years. Accurate (better than 2%) masses and radii are determined from analysis of the two new light curves and the radial velocity curve. Theoretical models match the absolute properties of the stars at an age of about 380 Myr, though the age agreement for the two components is poor. Tidal theory correctly confirms that the orbit should still be eccentric, but we find that standard tidal theory is unable to match the observed asynchronous rotation rates of the components' surface layers.

  3. ABSOLUTE PROPERTIES OF THE ECLIPSING BINARY STAR HY VIRGINIS

    SciTech Connect

    Sandberg Lacy, Claud H.; Fekel, Francis C. E-mail: fekel@evans.tsuniv.edu

    2011-12-15

    HY Vir is found to be a double-lined F0m+F5 binary star with relatively shallow (0.3 mag) partial eclipses. Previous studies of the system are improved with 7509 differential photometric observations from the URSA WebScope and 8862 from the NFO WebScope, and 68 high-resolution spectroscopic observations from the Tennessee State University 2 m automatic spectroscopic telescope, and the 1 m coude-feed spectrometer at Kitt Peak National Observatory. Very accurate (better than 0.5%) masses and radii are determined from analysis of the new light curves and radial velocity curves. Theoretical models match the absolute properties of the stars at an age of about 1.35 Gy.

  4. Absolute and geometric parameters of contact binary V1918 Cyg

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gürol, B.

    2016-08-01

    We present the results of our investigation on the geometrical and physical parameters of the W UMa type binary system V1918 Cyg from analyzed CCD (BVR) light curves and radial velocity data. We used the photometric data published by Yang et al. (2013) and spectroscopic data obtained in 2012 at TUBITAK National Observatory (TUG). The light and radial velocity observations were analyzed simultaneously by using the Wilson-Devinney (2015 revision) code to obtain absolute and geometrical parameters of the system. It is confirmed that the system is an A-type W UMa as indicated by Yang et al. (2013). Combining our spectroscopic data with the photometric solution we derived masses and radii of the eclipsing system as M1 = 1.302M⊙ , M2 = 0.362M⊙ , R1 = 1.362R⊙ and R2 = 0.762R⊙ . Finally, we discuss the evolutionary status of the system.

  5. A three-axis SQUID-based absolute vector magnetometer

    SciTech Connect

    Schönau, T.; Schmelz, M.; Stolz, R.; Anders, S.; Linzen, S.; Meyer, H.-G.; Zakosarenko, V.; Meyer, M.

    2015-10-15

    We report on the development of a three-axis absolute vector magnetometer suited for mobile operation in the Earth’s magnetic field. It is based on low critical temperature dc superconducting quantum interference devices (LTS dc SQUIDs) with sub-micrometer sized cross-type Josephson junctions and exhibits a white noise level of about 10 fT/Hz{sup 1/2}. The width of superconducting strip lines is restricted to less than 6 μm in order to avoid flux trapping during cool-down in magnetically unshielded environment. The long-term stability of the flux-to-voltage transfer coefficients of the SQUID electronics is investigated in detail and a method is presented to significantly increase their reproducibility. We further demonstrate the long-term operation of the setup in a magnetic field varying by about 200 μT amplitude without the need for recalibration.

  6. The absolute frequency of the 87Sr optical clock transition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Campbell, Gretchen K.; Ludlow, Andrew D.; Blatt, Sebastian; Thomsen, Jan W.; Martin, Michael J.; de Miranda, Marcio H. G.; Zelevinsky, Tanya; Boyd, Martin M.; Ye, Jun; Diddams, Scott A.; Heavner, Thomas P.; Parker, Thomas E.; Jefferts, Steven R.

    2008-10-01

    The absolute frequency of the 1S0-3P0 clock transition of 87Sr has been measured to be 429 228 004 229 873.65 (37) Hz using lattice-confined atoms, where the fractional uncertainty of 8.6 × 10-16 represents one of the most accurate measurements of an atomic transition frequency to date. After a detailed study of systematic effects, which reduced the total systematic uncertainty of the Sr lattice clock to 1.5 × 10-16, the clock frequency is measured against a hydrogen maser which is simultaneously calibrated to the US primary frequency standard, the NIST Cs fountain clock, NIST-F1. The comparison is made possible using a femtosecond laser based optical frequency comb to phase coherently connect the optical and microwave spectral regions and by a 3.5 km fibre transfer scheme to compare the remotely located clock signals.

  7. State estimation and absolute image registration for geosynchronous satellites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nankervis, R.; Koch, D. W.; Sielski, H.

    1980-01-01

    Spacecraft state estimation and the absolute registration of Earth images acquired by cameras onboard geosynchronous satellites are described. The basic data type of the procedure consists of line and element numbers of image points called landmarks whose geodetic coordinates, relative to United States Geodetic Survey topographic maps, are known. A conventional least squares process is used to estimate navigational parameters and camera pointing biases from observed minus computed landmark line and element numbers. These estimated parameters along with orbit and attitude dynamic models are used to register images, using an automated grey level correlation technique, inside the span represented by the landmark data. In addition, the dynamic models can be employed to register images outside of the data span in a near real time mode. An important application of this mode is in support of meteorological studies where rapid data reduction is required for the rapid tracking and predicting of dynamic phenomena.

  8. ABSOLUTE PROPERTIES OF THE TRIPLE STAR CF TAURI

    SciTech Connect

    Lacy, Claud H. Sandberg; Torres, Guillermo; Claret, Antonio E-mail: gtorres@cfa.harvard.edu

    2012-12-01

    CF Tau is now known to be an eclipsing triple star with relatively deep total and annular eclipses. New light and radial velocity curves as well as new times of minima were obtained and used for further modeling of the system. Very accurate (better than 0.9%) masses and radii of the eclipsing pair are determined from analysis of the two new light curves, the radial velocity curve, and the times of minimum light. The mass and luminosity of the distant third component is accurately determined as well. Theoretical models of the detached, evolved eclipsing pair match the observed absolute properties of the stars at an age of about 4.3 Gyr and [Fe/H] = -0.14.

  9. Full field imaging based instantaneous hyperspectral absolute refractive index measurement

    SciTech Connect

    Baba, Justin S; Boudreaux, Philip R

    2012-01-01

    Multispectral refractometers typically measure refractive index (RI) at discrete monochromatic wavelengths via a serial process. We report on the demonstration of a white light full field imaging based refractometer capable of instantaneous multispectral measurement of absolute RI of clear liquid/gel samples across the entire visible light spectrum. The broad optical bandwidth refractometer is capable of hyperspectral measurement of RI in the range 1.30 1.70 between 400nm 700nm with a maximum error of 0.0036 units (0.24% of actual) at 414nm for a = 1.50 sample. We present system design and calibration method details as well as results from a system validation sample.

  10. North American fertilizer capacity data

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-02-01

    This listing of fertilizer producers and their production capacities was compiled in February 1993 with the cooperation of the US and Canadian fertilizer industry. TVA does not guarantee the completeness or accuracy of the information. Capacity is only an indicator of supply. Nameplate capacity differs from planned production levels or actual production because plants often operate above or below design capacity. Unless reported otherwise, plant capacities are based on 340 days per year of operation. No adjustment is made for partial year operation. Information is given on the following types of fertilizers: ammonia, ammonium nitrate, nitrogen solutions, urea, ammonium sulfate, phosphate rock, wet-process phosphoric acid, ammonium phosphates, concentrated superphosphates, potash, nitric acid, superphosphoric acid, upgraded phosphoric acids, normal superphosphate, elemental phosphorus, potassium sulfate, and sulfate of potash/magnesia.

  11. Heat capacity of molten halides.

    PubMed

    Redkin, Alexander A; Zaikov, Yurii P; Korzun, Iraida V; Reznitskikh, Olga G; Yaroslavtseva, Tatiana V; Kumkov, Sergey I

    2015-01-15

    The heat capacities of molten salts are very important for their practical use. Experimental investigation of this property is challenging because of the high temperatures involved and the corrosive nature of these materials. It is preferable to combine experimental investigations with empirical relationships, which allows for the evaluation of the heat capacity of molten salt mixtures. The isobaric molar heat capacities of all molten alkali and alkaline-earth halides were found to be constant for each group of salts. The value depends on the number of atoms in the salt, and the molar heat capacity per atom is constant for all molten halide salts with the exception of the lithium halides. The molar heat capacities of molten halides do not change when the anions are changed. PMID:25530462

  12. Updated Absolute Flux Calibration of the COS FUV Modes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Massa, D.; Ely, J.; Osten, R.; Penton, S.; Aloisi, A.; Bostroem, A.; Roman-Duval, J.; Proffitt, C.

    2014-03-01

    We present newly derived point source absolute flux calibrations for the COS FUV modes at both the original and second lifetime positions. The analysis includes observa- tions through the Primary Science Aperture (PSA) of the standard stars WD0308-565, GD71, WD1057+729 and WD0947+857 obtained as part of two calibration programs. Data were were obtained for all of the gratings at all of the original CENWAVE settings at both the original and second lifetime positions and for the G130M CENWAVE = 1222 at the second lifetime position. Data were also obtained with the FUVB segment for the G130M CENWAVE = 1055 and 1096 setting at the second lifetime position. We also present the derivation of L-flats that were used in processing the data and show that the internal consistency of the primary standards is 1%. The accuracy of the absolute flux calibrations over the UV are estimated to be 1-2% for the medium resolution gratings, and 2-3% over most of the wavelength range of the G140L grating, although the uncertainty can be as large as 5% or more at some G140L wavelengths. We note that these errors are all relative to the optical flux near the V band and small additional errors may be present due to inaccuracies in the V band calibration. In addition, these error estimates are for the time at which the flux calibration data were obtained; the accuracy of the flux calibration at other times can be affected by errors in the time dependent sensitivity (TDS) correction.

  13. Observing absolute gravity change in the Fennoscandian postglacial rebound area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mäkinen, J.; Engfeldt, A.; Gitlein, O.; Kaminskis, J.; Klopping, F.; Oja, T.; Paršeliunas, E.; Pettersen, B. R.; Strykowski, G.; Wilmes, H.

    2009-04-01

    Absolute gravity measurements in the Fennoscandian postglacial rebound area started already in 1976 when a team from Istituto di Metrología "G. Colonnetti" (Torino) measured six stations with the rise-and-fall gravimeter IMGC (Cannizzo et al., 1978). In 1980 two stations were measured by the team of the AN SSSR from Novosibirsk, using the gravimeter GABL (Arnautov et al., 1982). From the beginning the goal was to establish reference values for future remeasurement in order to detect gravity change due to the postglacial rebound. The maximum uplift rates are 1 cm/yr, which implies a surface gravity change of about -2 microgal/yr. In 1988, regular repeat measurements were began by the Finnish Geodetic Institute (FGI) with the JILAg-5. An important advance was the introduction of FG5 gravimeters into the work by BKG (Frankfurt a/M) and NOAA (Boulder, CO) in 1993. In 2003 annual large-scale campaigns with FG5 gravimeters started, coordinated by the Working Group for Geodynamics of the Nordic Geodetic Commission (NKG). This was prompted by the launch of the GRACE satellite gravity mission, which made it important to collect a comprehensive set of ground-truth values of gravity change during the lifetime of the satellite pair. The initial participation by gravimeter teams of Leibniz Universität Hannover, FGI and BKG has since expanded to include the University of Life Sciences (Ås, Norway) and Lantmäteriet (Gävle, Sweden). At present some 50 sites have repeated absolute measurements and most of them are co-located with continuous GPS. We give an overview of the sites, instrumentation and campaigns, and show examples of results achieved so far.

  14. Absolute quantification of carnosine in human calf muscle by proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Özdemir, Mahir S.; Reyngoudt, Harmen; DeDeene, Yves; Sazak, Hakan S.; Fieremans, Els; Delputte, Steven; D'Asseler, Yves; Derave, Wim; Lemahieu, Ignace; Achten, Eric

    2007-12-01

    Carnosine has been shown to be present in the skeletal muscle and in the brain of a variety of animals and humans. Despite the various physiological functions assigned to this metabolite, its exact role remains unclear. It has been suggested that carnosine plays a role in buffering in the intracellular physiological pHi range in skeletal muscle as a result of accepting hydrogen ions released in the development of fatigue during intensive exercise. It is thus postulated that the concentration of carnosine is an indicator for the extent of the buffering capacity. However, the determination of the concentration of this metabolite has only been performed by means of muscle biopsy, which is an invasive procedure. In this paper, we utilized proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (1H MRS) in order to perform absolute quantification of carnosine in vivo non-invasively. The method was verified by phantom experiments and in vivo measurements in the calf muscles of athletes and untrained volunteers. The measured mean concentrations in the soleus and the gastrocnemius muscles were found to be 2.81 ± 0.57/4.8 ± 1.59 mM (mean ± SD) for athletes and 2.58 ± 0.65/3.3 ± 0.32 mM for untrained volunteers, respectively. These values are in agreement with previously reported biopsy-based results. Our results suggest that 1H MRS can provide an alternative method for non-invasively determining carnosine concentration in human calf muscle in vivo.

  15. A new way of measuring apoptosis by absolute quantitation of inter-nucleosomally fragmented genomic DNA

    PubMed Central

    Hooker, David J.; Mobarok, Masqura; Anderson, Jenny L.; Rajasuriar, Reena; Gray, Lachlan R.; Ellett, Anne M.; Lewin, Sharon R.; Gorry, Paul R.; Cherry, Catherine L.

    2012-01-01

    Several critical events of apoptosis occur in the cell nucleus, including inter-nucleosomal DNA fragmentation (apoptotic DNA) and eventual chromatin condensation. The generation of apoptotic DNA has become a biochemical hallmark of apoptosis because it is a late ‘point of no return’ step in both the extrinsic (cell-death receptor) and intrinsic (mitochondrial) apoptotic pathways. Despite investigators observing apoptotic DNA and understanding its decisive role as a marker of apoptosis for over 20 years, measuring it has proved elusive. We have integrated ligation-mediated PCR and qPCR to design a new way of measuring apoptosis, termed ApoqPCR, which generates an absolute value for the amount (picogram) of apoptotic DNA per cell population. ApoqPCR’s advances over current methods include a 1000-fold linear dynamic range yet sensitivity to distinguish subtle low-level changes, measurement with a 3- to 4-log improvement in sample economy, and capacity for archival or longitudinal studies combined with high-throughput capability. We demonstrate ApoqPCR’s utility in both in vitro and in vivo contexts. Considering the fundamental role apoptosis has in vertebrate and invertebrate health, growth and disease, the reliable measurement of apoptotic nucleic acid by ApoqPCR will be of value in cell biology studies in basic and applied science. PMID:22544708

  16. Absolute Cavity Pyrgeometer to Measure the Absolute Outdoor Longwave Irradiance with Traceability to International System of Units, SI

    SciTech Connect

    Reda, I.; Zeng, J.; Scheuch, J.; Hanssen, L.; Wilthan, B.; Myers, D.; Stoffel, T.

    2012-03-01

    This article describes a method of measuring the absolute outdoor longwave irradiance using an absolute cavity pyrgeometer (ACP), U.S. Patent application no. 13/049, 275. The ACP consists of domeless thermopile pyrgeometer, gold-plated concentrator, temperature controller, and data acquisition. The dome was removed from the pyrgeometer to remove errors associated with dome transmittance and the dome correction factor. To avoid thermal convection and wind effect errors resulting from using a domeless thermopile, the gold-plated concentrator was placed above the thermopile. The concentrator is a dual compound parabolic concentrator (CPC) with 180{sup o} view angle to measure the outdoor incoming longwave irradiance from the atmosphere. The incoming irradiance is reflected from the specular gold surface of the CPC and concentrated on the 11 mm diameter of the pyrgeometer's blackened thermopile. The CPC's interior surface design and the resulting cavitation result in a throughput value that was characterized by the National Institute of Standards and Technology. The ACP was installed horizontally outdoor on an aluminum plate connected to the temperature controller to control the pyrgeometer's case temperature. The responsivity of the pyrgeometer's thermopile detector was determined by lowering the case temperature and calculating the rate of change of the thermopile output voltage versus the changing net irradiance. The responsivity is then used to calculate the absolute atmospheric longwave irradiance with an uncertainty estimate (U{sub 95}) of {+-}3.96 W m{sup 02} with traceability to the International System of Units, SI. The measured irradiance was compared with the irradiance measured by two pyrgeometers calibrated by the World Radiation Center with traceability to the Interim World Infrared Standard Group, WISG. A total of 408 readings were collected over three different nights. The calculated irradiance measured by the ACP was 1.5 W/m{sup 2} lower than that

  17. An absolute cavity pyrgeometer to measure the absolute outdoor longwave irradiance with traceability to international system of units, SI

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reda, Ibrahim; Zeng, Jinan; Scheuch, Jonathan; Hanssen, Leonard; Wilthan, Boris; Myers, Daryl; Stoffel, Tom

    2012-03-01

    This article describes a method of measuring the absolute outdoor longwave irradiance using an absolute cavity pyrgeometer (ACP), U.S. Patent application no. 13/049, 275. The ACP consists of domeless thermopile pyrgeometer, gold-plated concentrator, temperature controller, and data acquisition. The dome was removed from the pyrgeometer to remove errors associated with dome transmittance and the dome correction factor. To avoid thermal convection and wind effect errors resulting from using a domeless thermopile, the gold-plated concentrator was placed above the thermopile. The concentrator is a dual compound parabolic concentrator (CPC) with 180° view angle to measure the outdoor incoming longwave irradiance from the atmosphere. The incoming irradiance is reflected from the specular gold surface of the CPC and concentrated on the 11 mm diameter of the pyrgeometer's blackened thermopile. The CPC's interior surface design and the resulting cavitation result in a throughput value that was characterized by the National Institute of Standards and Technology. The ACP was installed horizontally outdoor on an aluminum plate connected to the temperature controller to control the pyrgeometer's case temperature. The responsivity of the pyrgeometer's thermopile detector was determined by lowering the case temperature and calculating the rate of change of the thermopile output voltage versus the changing net irradiance. The responsivity is then used to calculate the absolute atmospheric longwave irradiance with an uncertainty estimate (U95) of ±3.96 W m-2 with traceability to the International System of Units, SI. The measured irradiance was compared with the irradiance measured by two pyrgeometers calibrated by the World Radiation Center with traceability to the Interim World Infrared Standard Group, WISG. A total of 408 readings were collected over three different nights. The calculated irradiance measured by the ACP was 1.5 W/m2 lower than that measured by the two

  18. On the Error Sources in Absolute Individual Antenna Calibrations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aerts, Wim; Baire, Quentin; Bilich, Andria; Bruyninx, Carine; Legrand, Juliette

    2013-04-01

    field) multi path errors, both during calibration and later on at the station, absolute sub-millimeter positioning with GPS is not (yet) possible. References [1] G. Wübbena, M. Schmitz, G. Boettcher, C. Schumann, "Absolute GNSS Antenna Calibration with a Robot: Repeatability of Phase Variations, Calibration of GLONASS and Determination of Carrier-to-Noise Pattern", International GNSS Service: Analysis Center workshop, 8-12 May 2006, Darmstadt, Germany. [2] P. Zeimetz, H. Kuhlmann, "On the Accuracy of Absolute GNSS Antenna Calibration and the Conception of a New Anechoic Chamber", FIG Working Week 2008, 14-19 June 2008, Stockholm, Sweden. [3] P. Zeimetz, H. Kuhlmann, L. Wanninger, V. Frevert, S. Schön and K. Strauch, "Ringversuch 2009", 7th GNSS-Antennen-Workshop, 19-20 March 2009, Dresden, Germany.

  19. The Swarm Absolute Scalar Magnetometers now operating in orbit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fratter, Isabelle; Leger, Jean-Michel; Bertrand, François; Jager, Thomas; Hulot, Gauthier

    2014-05-01

    Swarm is one of the Earth Explorer Missions run by the European Space Agency. Its principal goal is to make the best ever survey of the Earth's magnetic field and ionosphere and to study how they vary over space and time. This will be achieved by a constellation of three identical satellites, launched on the 22nd of November 2013. In order to observe the magnetic field thoroughly, each satellite carries two magnetometers: a Vector Field Magnetometer coupled with a star tracker camera, to measure the direction of the magnetic field in space, and an Absolute Scalar Magnetometer (ASM), to measure its intensity. The ASM is the French contribution to the Swarm mission. This new generation instrument, based on the atomic spectroscopy of the helium 4 metastable state, was developed by CEA-Leti (1) in Grenoble with technical assistance and financing from CNES (2) and scientific support from IPGP (3). As the Swarm magnetic reference, the ASM scalar performances are crucial for the mission's success. Thanks to a new dedicated design, the ASM offers the best precision and absolute accuracy ever attained in space, with similar performances all along the orbit. The ASM will thus deliver high resolution scalar measurements at 1 Hz for the in-flight calibration of the vector field data over the 4 year mission. It can also be operated at a much higher sampling rate ("burst" mode at 250 Hz). In addition, on an experimental basis, this instrument also takes vector field measurements, which are being validated jointly by CEA-Leti and IPGP, with support from CNES. This poster presents the capabilities and working principle of this instrument as well as the results of the in-flight verifications carried out during the 3 first months in orbit, including the performances, the last status and future prospects. 1 CEA-Leti : French Atomic Energy and Alternative Energies Commission - Electronics and Information Technology Laboratory 2 CNES : Centre National d'Etudes Spatiales - French Space

  20. THE ABSOLUTE MAGNITUDE OF RRc VARIABLES FROM STATISTICAL PARALLAX

    SciTech Connect

    Kollmeier, Juna A.; Burns, Christopher R.; Thompson, Ian B.; Preston, George W.; Crane, Jeffrey D.; Madore, Barry F.; Morrell, Nidia; Prieto, José L.; Shectman, Stephen; Simon, Joshua D.; Villanueva, Edward; Szczygieł, Dorota M.; Gould, Andrew; Sneden, Christopher; Dong, Subo

    2013-09-20

    We present the first definitive measurement of the absolute magnitude of RR Lyrae c-type variable stars (RRc) determined purely from statistical parallax. We use a sample of 242 RRc variables selected from the All Sky Automated Survey for which high-quality light curves, photometry, and proper motions are available. We obtain high-resolution echelle spectra for these objects to determine radial velocities and abundances as part of the Carnegie RR Lyrae Survey. We find that M{sub V,RRc} = 0.59 ± 0.10 at a mean metallicity of [Fe/H] = –1.59. This is to be compared with previous estimates for RRab stars (M{sub V,RRab} = 0.76 ± 0.12) and the only direct measurement of an RRc absolute magnitude (RZ Cephei, M{sub V,RRc} = 0.27 ± 0.17). We find the bulk velocity of the halo relative to the Sun to be (W{sub π}, W{sub θ}, W{sub z} ) = (12.0, –209.9, 3.0) km s{sup –1} in the radial, rotational, and vertical directions with dispersions (σ{sub W{sub π}},σ{sub W{sub θ}},σ{sub W{sub z}}) = (150.4, 106.1, 96.0) km s{sup -1}. For the disk, we find (W{sub π}, W{sub θ}, W{sub z} ) = (13.0, –42.0, –27.3) km s{sup –1} relative to the Sun with dispersions (σ{sub W{sub π}},σ{sub W{sub θ}},σ{sub W{sub z}}) = (67.7,59.2,54.9) km s{sup -1}. Finally, as a byproduct of our statistical framework, we are able to demonstrate that UCAC2 proper-motion errors are significantly overestimated as verified by UCAC4.

  1. The Absolute Calibration of the HiRes Detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matthews, J. N.; Thomas, S. B.; HiRes Collaboration

    2003-07-01

    The HiRes experiment studies ultra high energy cosmic rays using the air fluorescence technique. The experiment uses large mirrors that collect the fluorescence light and fo cus it onto arrays of photomultiplier tubes (PMTs). The PMTs measure the intensity and time of arrival of the collected light. Our primary system for in situ calibration of the PMTs uses a high stability (<1%) portable light source. This source is transferred from the lab to the field where it is employed as a standard candle to calibrate the 64 detectors (>16,000 PMTs). To determine the absolute response it is necessary to understand the absolute light output of this source. We have measured the source irradiance using a hybrid photo dio de system, two NIST calibrated photo-dio des, and by observing the photo electron statistics of the PMTs. 2. Introduction The goal of the High Resolution Fly's Eye (HiRes) project is to study cosmic rays at the highest energies. An ultra high energy cosmic ray entering the earth's atmosphere collides with atmospheric nuclei triggering the development of an Extensive Air Shower (EAS). The EAS emits fluorescence light as it develops. HiRes uses the air fluorescence signal to measure properties of the primary cosmic ray particle. The fundamental detector elements in HiRes are photomultiplier tubes (PMTs). The light from an EAS is collected by large mirrors and fo cused into cameras each consisting of 256 PMTs [1]. Routine monitoring and calibration of the PMTs and associated electronics are crucial to the proper interpretation of the data. The primary system for in situ calibration of the PMTs involves the use of a high stability portable xenon flash lamp. The Roving Xenon Flasher (RXF) offers several advantages. The pulse-to-pulse variation in intensity is very small ˜0.3% and the stability over a night is better than 2%. The emission spectrum of the RXF is sufficiently broad to allow calibration over a wide range of wavelengths. It is also readily transported

  2. Absolute Thermal SST Measurements over the Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Good, W. S.; Warden, R.; Kaptchen, P. F.; Finch, T.; Emery, W. J.

    2010-12-01

    Climate monitoring and natural disaster rapid assessment require baseline measurements that can be tracked over time to distinguish anthropogenic versus natural changes to the Earth system. Disasters like the Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill require constant monitoring to assess the potential environmental and economic impacts. Absolute calibration and validation of Earth-observing sensors is needed to allow for comparison of temporally separated data sets and provide accurate information to policy makers. The Ball Experimental Sea Surface Temperature (BESST) radiometer was designed and built by Ball Aerospace to provide a well calibrated measure of sea surface temperature (SST) from an unmanned aerial system (UAS). Currently, emissive skin SST observed by satellite infrared radiometers is validated by shipborne instruments that are expensive to deploy and can only take a few data samples along the ship track to overlap within a single satellite pixel. Implementation on a UAS will allow BESST to map the full footprint of a satellite pixel and perform averaging to remove any local variability due to the difference in footprint size of the instruments. It also enables the capability to study this sub-pixel variability to determine if smaller scale effects need to be accounted for in models to improve forecasting of ocean events. In addition to satellite sensor validation, BESST can distinguish meter scale variations in SST which could be used to remotely monitor and assess thermal pollution in rivers and coastal areas as well as study diurnal and seasonal changes to bodies of water that impact the ocean ecosystem. BESST was recently deployed on a conventional Twin Otter airplane for measurements over the Gulf of Mexico to access the thermal properties of the ocean surface being affected by the oil spill. Results of these measurements will be presented along with ancillary sensor data used to eliminate false signals including UV and Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR

  3. HST Stellar Standards with 1% Accuracy in Absolute Flux

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bohlin, R. C.

    2007-04-01

    Free of any atmospheric contamination, the {Hubble Space Telescope} provides the best available spectrophotometry from the far-UV to the near-IR for stars as faint as V˜16. The HST CALSPEC standard star network is based on three standard candles: the hot, pure hydrogen white dwarf (WD) stars G 191B2B, GD 153, and GD 71, which have Hubeny NLTE flux calculations that require the atomic physics for only one atom. These model flux distributions are normalized to the absolute flux for Vega of 3.46×10-9 erg cm-2 s-1 Å-1 at 5556 Å using precise Landolt V band photometry and the V bandpass function corrected for atmospheric transmission by M. Cohen. The three primary WD standards provide absolute flux calibrations for FOS, STIS and NICMOS spectrophotometry from these instruments on the HST. About 32 stellar spectral energy distributions (SEDs) have been constructed with a primary pedigree from the STIS data, which extends from 1150 Å for the hot stars to a long wavelength limit of 1 μm. NICMOS grism spectrophotometry provides an extension to 1.9 μm in the IR for 17 of the HST standards and longward to 2.5 μm for a few of the brighter stars. Included among these HST standards are Vega, the Sloan standard BD+17 4708, three bright solar analog candidates, three cool stars of type M or later, and five hot WDs. In addition, four K giants and four main sequence A-stars have NICMOS spectrophotometry from 0.8-2.5 μm. The WD fluxes are compared to their modeled SEDs and demonstrate an internal precision of 1-2%, while the A-stars agree with the Cohen IR fluxes to ˜2%. Three solar analog candidate stars differ from the solar spectrum by up to 10% in the region of heavy line blanketing from 3000-4000 Å and show differences in shape of ˜5% in the IR around 1.8 μm.

  4. To build capacity, build confidence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hewitson, Bruce

    2015-07-01

    The history of attempts to spread scientific know-how beyond western centres of excellence is littered with failures. Capacity building needs long-term commitment, a critical mass of trainees, and a supportive home environment.

  5. Neuropsychological assessment of mental capacity.

    PubMed

    Sullivan, Karen

    2004-09-01

    The assessment of mental capacity to assist legal determinations of competency is potentially a growth area for neuropsychology, although to date neuropsychologists have published relatively little in this area. In this paper a systematic review of methods used to assess capacity is presented, including coverage of specialized tests and interviews used for this purpose. A neuropsychological model for conducting capacity assessments is proposed. This model involves comprehensive assessment of a wide range of cognitive abilities as well as assessment of specific skills and knowledge related to the type of capacity being assessed. The purpose of proposing this model is to stimulate further discussion and debate about the contribution neuropsychologists might make in this area. PMID:15673234

  6. Capacity Markets and Market Stability

    SciTech Connect

    Stauffer, Hoff

    2006-04-15

    The good news is that market stability can be achieved through a combination of longer-term contracts, auctions for far enough in the future to permit new entry, a capacity management system, and a demand curve. The bad news is that if and when stable capacity markets are designed, the markets may seem to be relatively close to where we started - with integrated resource planning. Market ideologues will find this anathema. (author)

  7. Absolute configuration of a chiral CHD group via neutron diffraction: confirmation of the absolute stereochemistry of the enzymatic formation of malic acid

    SciTech Connect

    Bau, R.; Brewer, I.; Chiang, M.Y.; Fujita, S.; Hoffman, J.; Watkins, M.I.; Koetzle, T.F.

    1983-09-30

    Neutron diffraction has been used to monitor the absolute stereochemistry of an enzymatic reaction. (-)(2S)malic-3-d acid was prepared by the action of fumarase on fumaric acid in D/sub 2/O. After a large number of cations were screened, it was found that (+)(R)..cap alpha..-phenylethylamine forms the large crystals necessary for a neutron diffraction analysis. The subsequent structure determination showed that (+)(R)..cap alpha..-phenylethylammonium (-)(2S)malate-3-d has an absolute configuration of R at the CHD site. This result confirms the absolute stereochemistry of fumarate-to-malate transformation as catalyzed by the enzyme fumarase.

  8. Maximizing the optical network capacity

    PubMed Central

    Bayvel, Polina; Maher, Robert; Liga, Gabriele; Shevchenko, Nikita A.; Lavery, Domaniç; Killey, Robert I.

    2016-01-01

    Most of the digital data transmitted are carried by optical fibres, forming the great part of the national and international communication infrastructure. The information-carrying capacity of these networks has increased vastly over the past decades through the introduction of wavelength division multiplexing, advanced modulation formats, digital signal processing and improved optical fibre and amplifier technology. These developments sparked the communication revolution and the growth of the Internet, and have created an illusion of infinite capacity being available. But as the volume of data continues to increase, is there a limit to the capacity of an optical fibre communication channel? The optical fibre channel is nonlinear, and the intensity-dependent Kerr nonlinearity limit has been suggested as a fundamental limit to optical fibre capacity. Current research is focused on whether this is the case, and on linear and nonlinear techniques, both optical and electronic, to understand, unlock and maximize the capacity of optical communications in the nonlinear regime. This paper describes some of them and discusses future prospects for success in the quest for capacity. PMID:26809572

  9. Maximizing the optical network capacity.

    PubMed

    Bayvel, Polina; Maher, Robert; Xu, Tianhua; Liga, Gabriele; Shevchenko, Nikita A; Lavery, Domaniç; Alvarado, Alex; Killey, Robert I

    2016-03-01

    Most of the digital data transmitted are carried by optical fibres, forming the great part of the national and international communication infrastructure. The information-carrying capacity of these networks has increased vastly over the past decades through the introduction of wavelength division multiplexing, advanced modulation formats, digital signal processing and improved optical fibre and amplifier technology. These developments sparked the communication revolution and the growth of the Internet, and have created an illusion of infinite capacity being available. But as the volume of data continues to increase, is there a limit to the capacity of an optical fibre communication channel? The optical fibre channel is nonlinear, and the intensity-dependent Kerr nonlinearity limit has been suggested as a fundamental limit to optical fibre capacity. Current research is focused on whether this is the case, and on linear and nonlinear techniques, both optical and electronic, to understand, unlock and maximize the capacity of optical communications in the nonlinear regime. This paper describes some of them and discusses future prospects for success in the quest for capacity. PMID:26809572

  10. Method and apparatus for making absolute range measurements

    DOEpatents

    Allison, Stephen W.; Cates, Michael R.; Key, William S.; Sanders, Alvin J.; Earl, Dennis D.

    1999-01-01

    This invention relates to a method and apparatus for making absolute distance or ranging measurements using Fresnel diffraction. The invention employs a source of electromagnetic radiation having a known wavelength or wavelength distribution, which sends a beam of electromagnetic radiation through an object which causes it to be split (hereinafter referred to as a "beamsplitter"), and then to a target. The beam is reflected from the target onto a screen containing an aperture spaced a known distance from the beamsplitter. The aperture is sized so as to produce a Fresnel diffraction pattern. A portion of the beam travels through the aperture to a detector, spaced a known distance from the screen. The detector detects the central intensity of the beam. The distance from the object which causes the beam to be split to the target can then be calculated based upon the known wavelength, aperture radius, beam intensity, and distance from the detector to the screen. Several apparatus embodiments are disclosed for practicing the method embodiments of the present invention.

  11. Absolute and relative pitch: Global versus local processing of chords

    PubMed Central

    Ziv, Naomi; Radin, Shulamit

    2014-01-01

    Absolute pitch (AP) is the ability to identify or produce notes without any reference note. An ongoing debate exists regarding the benefits or disadvantages of AP in processing music. One of the main issues in this context is whether the categorical perception of pitch in AP possessors may interfere in processing tasks requiring relative pitch (RP). Previous studies, focusing mainly on melodic and interval perception, have obtained inconsistent results. The aim of the present study was to examine the effect of AP and RP separately, using isolated chords. Seventy-three musicians were categorized into four groups of high and low AP and RP, and were tested on two tasks: identifying chord types (Task 1), and identifying a single note within a chord (Task 2). A main effect of RP on Task 1 and an interaction between AP and RP in reaction times were found. On Task 2 main effects of AP and RP, and an interaction were found, with highest performance in participants with both high AP and RP. Results suggest that AP and RP should be regarded as two different abilities, and that AP may slow down reaction times for tasks requiring global processing. PMID:24855499

  12. Precision absolute value amplifier for a precision voltmeter

    SciTech Connect

    Hearn, W. E.; Rondeau, D. J.

    1985-05-21

    Bipolar inputs are afforded by the plus inputs of first and second differential input amplifiers. A first gain determining resister is connected between the minus inputs of the differential amplifiers. First and second diodes are connected between the respective minus inputs and the respective outputs of the differential amplifiers. First and second FETs have their gates connected to the outputs of the amplifiers, while their respective source and drain circuits are connected between the respective minus inputs and an output lead extending to a load resister. The output current through the load resister is proportional to the absolute value of the input voltage difference between the bipolar input terminals. A third differential amplifier has its plus input terminal connected to the load resister. A second gain determining resister is connected between the minus input of the third differential amplifier and a voltage source. A third FET has its gate connected to the output of the third amplifier. The source and drain circuit of the third transistor is connected between the minus input of the third amplifier and a voltage-frequency converter, constituting an output device. A polarity detector is also provided, comprising a pair of transistors having their inputs connected to the outputs of the first and second differential amplifiers. The outputs of the polarity detector are connected to gates which switch the output of the voltage-frequency converter between up and down counting outputs.

  13. Dichotomy and perceptual distortions in absolute pitch ability

    PubMed Central

    Athos, E. Alexandra; Levinson, Barbara; Kistler, Amy; Zemansky, Jason; Bostrom, Alan; Freimer, Nelson; Gitschier, Jane

    2007-01-01

    Absolute pitch (AP) is the rare ability to identify the pitch of a tone without the aid of a reference tone. Understanding both the nature and genesis of AP can provide insights into neuroplasticity in the auditory system. We explored factors that may influence the accuracy of pitch perception in AP subjects both during the development of the trait and in later age. We used a Web-based survey and a pitch-labeling test to collect perceptual data from 2,213 individuals, 981 (44%) of whom proved to have extraordinary pitch-naming ability. The bimodal distribution in pitch-naming ability signifies AP as a distinct perceptual trait, with possible implications for its genetic basis. The wealth of these data has allowed us to uncover unsuspected note-naming irregularities suggestive of a “perceptual magnet” centered at the note “A.” In addition, we document a gradual decline in pitch-naming accuracy with age, characterized by a perceptual shift in the “sharp” direction. These findings speak both to the process of acquisition of AP and to its stability. PMID:17724340

  14. INTERPRETATION OF THE ARCADE 2 ABSOLUTE SKY BRIGHTNESS MEASUREMENT

    SciTech Connect

    Seiffert, M.; Levin, S. M.; Fixsen, D. J.; Kogut, A.; Wollack, E.; Limon, M.; Lubin, P. M.; Mirel, P.; Singal, J.; Villela, T.; Wuensche, C. A.

    2011-06-10

    We use absolutely calibrated data between 3 and 90 GHz from the 2006 balloon flight of the ARCADE 2 instrument, along with previous measurements at other frequencies, to constrain models of extragalactic emission. Such emission is a combination of the cosmic microwave background (CMB) monopole, Galactic foreground emission, the integrated contribution of radio emission from external galaxies, any spectral distortions present in the CMB, and any other extragalactic source. After removal of estimates of foreground emission from our own Galaxy, and an estimated contribution of external galaxies, we present fits to a combination of the flat-spectrum CMB and potential spectral distortions in the CMB. We find 2{sigma} upper limits to CMB spectral distortions of {mu} < 6 x 10{sup -4} and |Y{sub ff}| < 1 x 10{sup -4}. We also find a significant detection of a residual signal beyond that, which can be explained by the CMB plus the integrated radio emission from galaxies estimated from existing surveys. This residual signal may be due to an underestimated galactic foreground contribution, an unaccounted for contribution of a background of radio sources, or some combination of both. The residual signal is consistent with emission in the form of a power law with amplitude 18.4 {+-} 2.1 K at 0.31 GHz and a spectral index of -2.57 {+-} 0.05.

  15. Absolute absorption on the potassium D lines: theory and experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hanley, Ryan K.; Gregory, Philip D.; Hughes, Ifan G.; Cornish, Simon L.

    2015-10-01

    We present a detailed study of the absolute Doppler-broadened absorption of a probe beam scanned across the potassium D lines in a thermal vapour. Spectra using a weak probe were measured on the 4S \\to 4P transition and compared to the theoretical model of the electric susceptibility detailed by Zentile et al (2015 Comput. Phys. Commun. 189 162-74) in the code named ElecSus. Comparisons were also made on the 4S \\to 5P transition with an adapted version of ElecSus. This is the first experimental test of ElecSus on an atom with a ground state hyperfine splitting smaller than that of the Doppler width. An excellent agreement was found between ElecSus and experimental measurements at a variety of temperatures with rms errors ˜ {10}-3. We have also demonstrated the use of ElecSus as an atomic vapour thermometry tool, and present a possible new measurement technique of transition decay rates which we predict to have a precision of ˜3 {kHz}.

  16. Spaced retrieval: absolute spacing enhances learning regardless of relative spacing.

    PubMed

    Karpicke, Jeffrey D; Bauernschmidt, Althea

    2011-09-01

    Repeated retrieval enhances long-term retention, and spaced repetition also enhances retention. A question with practical and theoretical significance is whether there are particular schedules of spaced retrieval (e.g., gradually expanding the interval between tests) that produce the best learning. In the present experiment, subjects studied and were tested on items until they could recall each one. They then practiced recalling the items on 3 repeated tests that were distributed according to one of several spacing schedules. Increasing the absolute (total) spacing of repeated tests produced large effects on long-term retention: Repeated retrieval with long intervals between each test produced a 200% improvement in long-term retention relative to repeated retrieval with no spacing between tests. However, there was no evidence that a particular relative spacing schedule (expanding, equal, or contracting) was inherently superior to another. Although expanding schedules afforded a pattern of increasing retrieval difficulty across repeated tests, this did not translate into gains in long-term retention. Repeated spaced retrieval had powerful effects on retention, but the relative schedule of repeated tests had no discernible impact. PMID:21574747

  17. Robust absolute magnetometry with organic thin-film devices

    PubMed Central

    Baker, W.J.; Ambal, K.; Waters, D.P.; Baarda, R.; Morishita, H.; van Schooten, K.; McCamey, D.R.; Lupton, J.M.; Boehme, C.

    2012-01-01

    Magnetic field sensors based on organic thin-film materials have attracted considerable interest in recent years as they can be manufactured at very low cost and on flexible substrates. However, the technological relevance of such magnetoresistive sensors is limited owing to their narrow magnetic field ranges (∼30 mT) and the continuous calibration required to compensate temperature fluctuations and material degradation. Conversely, magnetic resonance (MR)-based sensors, which utilize fundamental physical relationships for extremely precise measurements of fields, are usually large and expensive. Here we demonstrate an organic magnetic resonance-based magnetometer, employing spin-dependent electronic transitions in an organic diode, which combines the low-cost thin-film fabrication and integration properties of organic electronics with the precision of a MR-based sensor. We show that the device never requires calibration, operates over large temperature and magnetic field ranges, is robust against materials degradation and allows for absolute sensitivities of <50 nT Hz−1/2. PMID:22692541

  18. An absolute interval scale of order for point patterns

    PubMed Central

    Protonotarios, Emmanouil D.; Baum, Buzz; Johnston, Alan; Hunter, Ginger L.; Griffin, Lewis D.

    2014-01-01

    Human observers readily make judgements about the degree of order in planar arrangements of points (point patterns). Here, based on pairwise ranking of 20 point patterns by degree of order, we have been able to show that judgements of order are highly consistent across individuals and the dimension of order has an interval scale structure spanning roughly 10 just-notable-differences (jnd) between disorder and order. We describe a geometric algorithm that estimates order to an accuracy of half a jnd by quantifying the variability of the size and shape of spaces between points. The algorithm is 70% more accurate than the best available measures. By anchoring the output of the algorithm so that Poisson point processes score on average 0, perfect lattices score 10 and unit steps correspond closely to jnds, we construct an absolute interval scale of order. We demonstrate its utility in biology by using this scale to quantify order during the development of the pattern of bristles on the dorsal thorax of the fruit fly. PMID:25079866

  19. Voyager absolute far-ultraviolet spectrophotometry of hot stars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holberg, J. B.; Forrester, W. T.; Shemansky, D. E.; Barry, D. C.

    1982-01-01

    Voyager observations in the 912-1200 A spectral region are used to indirectly intercompare absolute stellar spectrophotometry from previous experiments. Measurements of hot stars obtained by the Voyager 1 and 2 ultraviolet spectrometers show considerably higher 912-1200 A continuum fluxes than the recent observations of Brune et al. (1979) and Carruthers et al. (1981). The intercomparisons show all observations in basic agreement near 1200 A. The Carruthers et al. flux measurements are preferred down to 1050 A at which point the Voyager and Brune et al. values are respectively 60% higher and 60% lower. Below 1050 A the diasgreement among the observations becomes very large and the fluxes predicted by model atmospheres have been adopted. The pure hydrogen line-blanketed model atmosphere calculations of Wesemael et al. 1980) in comparison with Voyager observations of HZ 43 are used to adjust the Voyager calibration below 1050 A. This adjusted Voyager calibration, which is in good agreement with current model atmosphere fluxes for both early-type stars and DA white dwarfs, will be used for Voyager astronomical observations.

  20. Absolute and relative pitch: Global versus local processing of chords.

    PubMed

    Ziv, Naomi; Radin, Shulamit

    2014-01-01

    Absolute pitch (AP) is the ability to identify or produce notes without any reference note. An ongoing debate exists regarding the benefits or disadvantages of AP in processing music. One of the main issues in this context is whether the categorical perception of pitch in AP possessors may interfere in processing tasks requiring relative pitch (RP). Previous studies, focusing mainly on melodic and interval perception, have obtained inconsistent results. The aim of the present study was to examine the effect of AP and RP separately, using isolated chords. Seventy-three musicians were categorized into four groups of high and low AP and RP, and were tested on two tasks: identifying chord types (Task 1), and identifying a single note within a chord (Task 2). A main effect of RP on Task 1 and an interaction between AP and RP in reaction times were found. On Task 2 main effects of AP and RP, and an interaction were found, with highest performance in participants with both high AP and RP. Results suggest that AP and RP should be regarded as two different abilities, and that AP may slow down reaction times for tasks requiring global processing. PMID:24855499

  1. An empirical reevaluation of absolute pitch: behavioral and electrophysiological measurements.

    PubMed

    Elmer, Stefan; Sollberger, Silja; Meyer, Martin; Jäncke, Lutz

    2013-10-01

    Here, we reevaluated the "two-component" model of absolute pitch (AP) by combining behavioral and electrophysiological measurements. This specific model postulates that AP is driven by a perceptual encoding ability (i.e., pitch memory) plus an associative memory component (i.e., pitch labeling). To test these predictions, during EEG measurements AP and non-AP (NAP) musicians were passively exposed to piano tones (first component of the model) and additionally instructed to judge whether combinations of tones and labels were conceptually associated or not (second component of the model). Auditory-evoked N1/P2 potentials did not reveal differences between the two groups, thus indicating that AP is not necessarily driven by a differential pitch encoding ability at the processing level of the auditory cortex. Otherwise, AP musicians performed the conceptual association task with an order of magnitude better accuracy and shorter RTs than NAP musicians did, this result clearly pointing to distinctive conceptual associations in AP possessors. Most notably, this behavioral superiority was reflected by an increased N400 effect and accompanied by a subsequent late positive component, the latter not being distinguishable in NAP musicians. PMID:23647515

  2. Absolute measures of the completeness of the fossil record

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Foote, M.; Sepkoski, J. J. Jr; Sepkoski JJ, J. r. (Principal Investigator)

    1999-01-01

    Measuring the completeness of the fossil record is essential to understanding evolution over long timescales, particularly when comparing evolutionary patterns among biological groups with different preservational properties. Completeness measures have been presented for various groups based on gaps in the stratigraphic ranges of fossil taxa and on hypothetical lineages implied by estimated evolutionary trees. Here we present and compare quantitative, widely applicable absolute measures of completeness at two taxonomic levels for a broader sample of higher taxa of marine animals than has previously been available. We provide an estimate of the probability of genus preservation per stratigraphic interval, and determine the proportion of living families with some fossil record. The two completeness measures use very different data and calculations. The probability of genus preservation depends almost entirely on the Palaeozoic and Mesozoic records, whereas the proportion of living families with a fossil record is influenced largely by Cenozoic data. These measurements are nonetheless highly correlated, with outliers quite explicable, and we find that completeness is rather high for many animal groups.

  3. Precision absolute value amplifier for a precision voltmeter

    DOEpatents

    Hearn, William E.; Rondeau, Donald J.

    1985-01-01

    Bipolar inputs are afforded by the plus inputs of first and second differential input amplifiers. A first gain determining resister is connected between the minus inputs of the differential amplifiers. First and second diodes are connected between the respective minus inputs and the respective outputs of the differential amplifiers. First and second FETs have their gates connected to the outputs of the amplifiers, while their respective source and drain circuits are connected between the respective minus inputs and an output lead extending to a load resister. The output current through the load resister is proportional to the absolute value of the input voltage difference between the bipolar input terminals. A third differential amplifier has its plus input terminal connected to the load resister. A second gain determining resister is connected between the minus input of the third differential amplifier and a voltage source. A third FET has its gate connected to the output of the third amplifier. The source and drain circuit of the third transistor is connected between the minus input of the third amplifier and a voltage-frequency converter, constituting an output device. A polarity detector is also provided, comprising a pair of transistors having their inputs connected to the outputs of the first and second differential amplifiers. The outputs of the polarity detector are connected to gates which switch the output of the voltage-frequency converter between up and down counting outputs.

  4. Precision absolute-value amplifier for a precision voltmeter

    DOEpatents

    Hearn, W.E.; Rondeau, D.J.

    1982-10-19

    Bipolar inputs are afforded by the plus inputs of first and second differential input amplifiers. A first gain determining resistor is connected between the minus inputs of the differential amplifiers. First and second diodes are connected between the respective minus inputs and the respective outputs of the differential amplifiers. First and second FETs have their gates connected to the outputs of the amplifiers, while their respective source and drain circuits are connected between the respective minus inputs and an output lead extending to a load resistor. The output current through the load resistor is proportional to the absolute value of the input voltage difference between the bipolar input terminals. A third differential amplifier has its plus input terminal connected to the load resistor. A second gain determining resistor is connected between the minus input of the third differential amplifier and a voltage source. A third FET has its gate connected to the output of the third amplifier. The source and drain circuit of the third transistor is connected between the minus input of the third amplifier and a voltage-frequency converter, constituting an output device. A polarity detector is also provided, comprising a pair of transistors having their inputs connected to the outputs of the first and second differential amplifiers. The outputs of the polarity detector are connected to gates which switch the output of the voltage-frequency converter between up and down counting outputs.

  5. Numerical aspects of searching convective/absolute instability transition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suslov, Sergey A.

    2006-02-01

    An overview of various numerical techniques used to determine the spatio-temporal character of instabilities in fluid flows is given. The advantageous features of various previously known individual techniques are discussed and a practical procedure combining them is suggested for a specific task of determining the complete boundary between linearly convectively and absolutely unstable regimes in a multi-parameter space in problems with a fully numerical dispersion relation. Special attention is paid to aspects of automatization of computations as this is a crucial condition for their efficiency. The suggested procedure is successfully used and is shown to provide a high degree of automatism in the physical example of non-Boussinesq mixed convection in a vertical channel. This example comprises most of the major numerical difficulties found in various spatio-temporal instability studies of two-dimensional fluid flows which previously could not be handled without frequent human intervention and visual inspection of intermediate results. This paper focuses on the general numerical aspects of the computations leaving the detailed discussion of the obtained physical results for a separate publication.

  6. Using absolute gravimeter data to determine vertical gravity gradients

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Robertson, D.S.

    2001-01-01

    The position versus time data from a free-fall absolute gravimeter can be used to estimate the vertical gravity gradient in addition to the gravity value itself. Hipkin has reported success in estimating the vertical gradient value using a data set of unusually good quality. This paper explores techniques that may be applicable to a broader class of data that may be contaminated with "system response" errors of larger magnitude than were evident in the data used by Hipkin. This system response function is usually modelled as a sum of exponentially decaying sinusoidal components. The technique employed here involves combining the x0, v0 and g parameters from all the drops made during a site occupation into a single least-squares solution, and including the value of the vertical gradient and the coefficients of system response function in the same solution. The resulting non-linear equations must be solved iteratively and convergence presents some difficulties. Sparse matrix techniques are used to make the least-squares problem computationally tractable.

  7. Gravitational acceleration as a cue for absolute size and distance?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hecht, H.; Kaiser, M. K.; Banks, M. S.

    1996-01-01

    When an object's motion is influenced by gravity, as in the rise and fall of a thrown ball, the vertical component of acceleration is roughly constant at 9.8 m/sec2. In principle, an observer could use this information to estimate the absolute size and distance of the object (Saxberg, 1987a; Watson, Banks, von Hofsten, & Royden, 1992). In five experiments, we examined people's ability to utilize the size and distance information provided by gravitational acceleration. Observers viewed computer simulations of an object rising and falling on a trajectory aligned with the gravitational vector. The simulated objects were balls of different diameters presented across a wide range of simulated distances. Observers were asked to identify the ball that was presented and to estimate its distance. The results showed that observers were much more sensitive to average velocity than to the gravitational acceleration pattern. Likewise, verticality of the motion and visibility of the trajectory's apex had negligible effects on the accuracy of size and distance judgments.

  8. Absolute Quantification of Individual Biomass Concentrations in a Methanogenic Coculture

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Identification of individual biomass concentrations is a crucial step towards an improved understanding of anaerobic digestion processes and mixed microbial conversions in general. The knowledge of individual biomass concentrations allows for the calculation of biomass specific conversion rates which form the basis of anaerobic digestion models. Only few attempts addressed the absolute quantification of individual biomass concentrations in methanogenic microbial ecosystems which has so far impaired the calculation of biomass specific conversion rates and thus model validation. This study proposes a quantitative PCR (qPCR) approach for the direct determination of individual biomass concentrations in methanogenic microbial associations by correlating the native qPCR signal (cycle threshold, Ct) to individual biomass concentrations (mg dry matter/L). Unlike existing methods, the proposed approach circumvents error-prone conversion factors that are typically used to convert gene copy numbers or cell concentrations into actual biomass concentrations. The newly developed method was assessed and deemed suitable for the determination of individual biomass concentrations in a defined coculture of Desulfovibrio sp. G11 and Methanospirillum hungatei JF1. The obtained calibration curves showed high accuracy, indicating that the new approach is well suited for any engineering applications where the knowledge of individual biomass concentrations is required. PMID:24949269

  9. Monochromator-Based Absolute Calibration of a Standard Radiation Thermometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mantilla, J. M.; Hernanz, M. L.; Campos, J.; Martín, M. J.; Pons, A.; del Campo, D.

    2014-04-01

    Centro Español de Metrología (CEM) is disseminating the International Temperature Scale (ITS-90), at high temperatures, by using the fixed points of Ag and Cu and a standard radiation thermometer. However, the future mise-en-pratique for the definition of the kelvin ( MeP-K) will include the dissemination of the kelvin by primary methods and by indirect approximations capable of exceptionally low uncertainties or increased reliability. Primary radiometry is, at present, able to achieve uncertainties competitive with the ITS-90 above the silver point with one of the possible techniques the calibration for radiance responsivity of an imaging radiometer (radiance method). In order to carry out this calibration, IO-CSIC (Spanish Designated Institute for luminous intensity and luminous flux) has collaborated with CEM, allowing traceability to its cryogenic radiometer. A monochromator integrating sphere-based spectral comparator facility has been used to calibrate one of the CEM standard radiation thermometers. The absolute calibrated standard radiation thermometer has been used to determine the temperatures of the fixed points of Cu, Co-C, Pt-C, and Re-C. The results obtained are 1357.80 K, 1597.10 K, 2011.66 K, and 2747.64 K, respectively, with uncertainties ranging from 0.4 K to 1.1 K.

  10. An Absolute Phase Space for the Physicality of Matter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Valentine, John S.

    2010-12-01

    We define an abstract and absolute phase space ("APS") for sub-quantum intrinsic wave states, in three axes, each mapping directly to a duality having fundamental ontological basis. Many aspects of quantum physics emerge from the interaction algebra and a model deduced from principles of `unique solvability' and `identifiable entity', and we reconstruct previously abstract fundamental principles and phenomena from these new foundations. The physical model defines bosons as virtual continuous waves pairs in the APS, and fermions as real self-quantizing snapshots of those waves when simple conditions are met. The abstraction and physical model define a template for the constitution of all fermions, a template for all the standard fundamental bosons and their local interactions, in a common framework and compactified phase space for all forms of real matter and virtual vacuum energy, and a distinct algebra for observables and unobservables. To illustrate our scheme's potential, we provide examples of slit experiment variations (where the model finds theoretical basis for interference only occurring between two final sources), QCD (where we may model most attributes known to QCD, and a new view on entanglement), and we suggest approaches for other varied applications. We believe this is a viable candidate for further exploration as a foundational proposition for physics.

  11. An Absolute Phase Space for the Physicality of Matter

    SciTech Connect

    Valentine, John S.

    2010-12-22

    We define an abstract and absolute phase space (''APS'') for sub-quantum intrinsic wave states, in three axes, each mapping directly to a duality having fundamental ontological basis. Many aspects of quantum physics emerge from the interaction algebra and a model deduced from principles of 'unique solvability' and 'identifiable entity', and we reconstruct previously abstract fundamental principles and phenomena from these new foundations. The physical model defines bosons as virtual continuous waves pairs in the APS, and fermions as real self-quantizing snapshots of those waves when simple conditions are met. The abstraction and physical model define a template for the constitution of all fermions, a template for all the standard fundamental bosons and their local interactions, in a common framework and compactified phase space for all forms of real matter and virtual vacuum energy, and a distinct algebra for observables and unobservables. To illustrate our scheme's potential, we provide examples of slit experiment variations (where the model finds theoretical basis for interference only occurring between two final sources), QCD (where we may model most attributes known to QCD, and a new view on entanglement), and we suggest approaches for other varied applications. We believe this is a viable candidate for further exploration as a foundational proposition for physics.

  12. Method and apparatus for making absolute range measurements

    DOEpatents

    Allison, S.W.; Cates, M.R.; Key, W.S.; Sanders, A.J.; Earl, D.D.

    1999-06-22

    This invention relates to a method and apparatus for making absolute distance or ranging measurements using Fresnel diffraction. The invention employs a source of electromagnetic radiation having a known wavelength or wavelength distribution, which sends a beam of electromagnetic radiation through an object which causes it to be split (hereinafter referred to as a beam splitter''), and then to a target. The beam is reflected from the target onto a screen containing an aperture spaced a known distance from the beam splitter. The aperture is sized so as to produce a Fresnel diffraction pattern. A portion of the beam travels through the aperture to a detector, spaced a known distance from the screen. The detector detects the central intensity of the beam. The distance from the object which causes the beam to be split to the target can then be calculated based upon the known wavelength, aperture radius, beam intensity, and distance from the detector to the screen. Several apparatus embodiments are disclosed for practicing the method embodiments of the present invention. 9 figs.

  13. Absolute properties of the eclipsing binary star AP Andromedae

    SciTech Connect

    Sandberg Lacy, Claud H.; Torres, Guillermo; Fekel, Francis C.; Muterspaugh, Matthew W. E-mail: gtorres@cfa.harvard.edu E-mail: matthew1@coe.tsuniv.edu

    2014-06-01

    AP And is a well-detached F5 eclipsing binary star for which only a very limited amount of information was available before this publication. We have obtained very extensive measurements of the light curve (19,097 differential V magnitude observations) and a radial velocity curve (83 spectroscopic observations) which allow us to fit orbits and determine the absolute properties of the components very accurately: masses of 1.277 ± 0.004 and 1.251 ± 0.004 M {sub ☉}, radii of 1.233 ± 0.006 and 1.1953 ± 0.005 R {sub ☉}, and temperatures of 6565 ± 150 K and 6495 ± 150 K. The distance to the system is about 400 ± 30 pc. Comparison with the theoretical properties of the stellar evolutionary models of the Yonsei-Yale series of Yi et al. shows good agreement between the observations and the theory at an age of about 500 Myr and a slightly sub-solar metallicity.

  14. Luminous-flux measurements by an absolute integrating sphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rastello, Maria Luisa; Miraldi, Elio; Pisoni, Paolo

    1996-08-01

    We present an original implementation of the absolute-sphere method recently proposed by Ohno. The luminous-flux unit, the lumen, is realized by means of an integrating sphere with an opening calibrated by a luminous-intensity standard placed outside. The adapted experimental setup permits one to measure luminous-flux values between 5 and 2500 lm with a significant improvement with respect to the simulated performances reported in the literature. Traditionally, the luminous-flux unit, the lumen, is realized by goniophotometric techniques in which the luminous-intensity distribution is measured and integrated over the whole solid angle. Thus sphere results are compared with those obtained with the Istituto Elettrotecnico Nazionale goniophotometer. In particular, a set of standards, characterized by luminous-flux values of approximately 2000 lm, has been calibrated with both techniques. We highlight some of the problems encountered. Experimental results show that the agreement between the two methods is within the estimated uncertainty and suggest promising areas for future research.

  15. Absolute paleointensity from Hawaiian lavas younger than 35 ka

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Valet, J.-P.; Tric, E.; Herrero-Bervera, E.; Meynadier, L.; Lockwood, J.P.

    1998-01-01

    Paleointensity studies have been conducted in air and in argon atmosphere on nine lava flows with radiocarbon ages distributed between 3.3 and 28.2 ka from the Mauna Loa volcano in the big island of Hawaii. Determinations of paleointensity obtained at eight sites depict the same overall pattern as the previous results for the same period in Hawaii, although the overall average field intensity appears to be lower. Since the present results were determined at higher temperatures than in the previous studies, this discrepancy raises questions regarding the selection of low versus high-temperature segments that are usually made for absolute paleointensity. The virtual dipole moments are similar to those displayed by the worldwide data set obtained from dated lava flows. When averaged within finite time intervals, the worldwide values match nicely the variations of the Sint-200 synthetic record of relative paleointensity and confirm the overall decrease of the dipole field intensity during most of this period. The convergence between the existing records at Hawaii and the rest of the world does not favour the presence of persistent strong non-dipole components beneath Hawaii for this period.

  16. Absolute and relative bioavailability of oral acetaminophen preparations.

    PubMed

    Ameer, B; Divoll, M; Abernethy, D R; Greenblatt, D J; Shargel, L

    1983-08-01

    Eighteen healthy volunteers received single 650-mg doses of acetaminophen by 5-min intravenous infusion, in tablet form by mouth in the fasting state, and in elixir form orally in the fasting state in a three-way crossover study. An additional eight subjects received two 325-mg tablets from two commercial vendors in a randomized crossover fashion. Concentrations of acetaminophen in multiple plasma samples collected during the 12-hr period after each dose were determined by high-performance liquid chromatography. Following a lag time averaging 3-4 min, absorption of oral acetaminophen was first order, with apparent absorption half-life values averaging 8.4 (elixir) and 11.4 (tablet) min. The mean time-to-peak concentration was significantly longer after tablet (0.75 hr) than after elixir (0.48 hr) administration. Peak plasma concentrations and elimination half-lives were similar following both preparations. Absolute systemic availability of the elixir (87%) was significantly greater than for the tablets (79%). Two commercially available tablet formulations did not differ significantly in peak plasma concentrations, time-to-peak, or total area under the plasma concentration curve and therefore were judged to be bioequivalent. PMID:6688635

  17. Quest for absolute zero in the presence of external noise

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Torrontegui, E.; Kosloff, R.

    2013-09-01

    A reciprocating quantum refrigerator is analyzed with the intention to study the limitations imposed by external noise. In particular we focus on the behavior of the refrigerator when it approaches the absolute zero. The cooling cycle is based on the Otto cycle with a working medium constituted by an ensemble of noninteracting harmonic oscillators. The compression and expansion segments are generated by changing an external parameter in the Hamiltonian. In this case the force constant of the harmonic oscillators mω2 is modified from an initial to a final value. As a result, the kinetic and potential energy of the system do not commute causing frictional losses. By proper choice of scheduling function ω(t) frictionless solutions can be obtained in the noiseless case. We examine the performance of a refrigerator subject to noise. By expanding from the adiabatic limit we find that the external noise, Gaussian phase, and amplitude noises reduce the amount of heat that can be extracted but nevertheless the zero temperature can be approached.

  18. Weighted Wilcoxon-type Smoothly Clipped Absolute Deviation Method

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Lan; Li, Runze

    2009-01-01

    Summary Shrinkage-type variable selection procedures have recently seen increasing applications in biomedical research. However, their performance can be adversely influenced by outliers in either the response or the covariate space. This paper proposes a weighted Wilcoxon-type smoothly clipped absolute deviation (WW-SCAD) method, which deals with robust variable selection and robust estimation simultaneously. The new procedure can be conveniently implemented with the statistical software R. We establish that the WW-SCAD correctly identifies the set of zero coefficients with probability approaching one and estimates the nonzero coefficients with the rate n−1/2. Moreover, with appropriately chosen weights the WW-SCAD is robust with respect to outliers in both the x and y directions. The important special case with constant weights yields an oracle-type estimator with high efficiency at the presence of heavier-tailed random errors. The robustness of the WW-SCAD is partly justified by its asymptotic performance under local shrinking contamination. We propose a BIC-type tuning parameter selector for the WW-SCAD. The performance of the WW-SCAD is demonstrated via simulations and by an application to a study that investigates the effects of personal characteristics and dietary factors on plasma beta-carotene level. PMID:18647294

  19. Gray- and white-matter anatomy of absolute pitch possessors.

    PubMed

    Dohn, Anders; Garza-Villarreal, Eduardo A; Chakravarty, M Mallar; Hansen, Mads; Lerch, Jason P; Vuust, Peter

    2015-05-01

    Absolute pitch (AP), the ability to identify a musical pitch without a reference, has been examined behaviorally in numerous studies for more than a century, yet only a few studies have examined the neuroanatomical correlates of AP. Here, we used MRI and diffusion tensor imaging to investigate structural differences in brains of musicians with and without AP, by means of whole-brain vertex-wise cortical thickness (CT) analysis and tract-based spatial statistics (TBSS) analysis. APs displayed increased CT in a number of areas including the bilateral superior temporal gyrus (STG), the left inferior frontal gyrus, and the right supramarginal gyrus. Furthermore, we found higher fractional anisotropy in APs within the path of the inferior fronto-occipital fasciculus, the uncinate fasciculus, and the inferior longitudinal fasciculus. The findings in gray matter support previous studies indicating an increased left lateralized posterior STG in APs, yet they differ from previous findings of thinner cortex for a number of areas in APs. Finally, we found a relation between the white-matter results and the CT in the right parahippocampal gyrus. In this study, we present novel findings in AP research that may have implications for the understanding of the neuroanatomical underpinnings of AP ability. PMID:24304583

  20. A nonmusical paradigm for identifying absolute pitch possessors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ross, David A.; Olson, Ingrid R.; Marks, Lawrence E.; Gore, John C.

    2004-09-01

    The ability to identify and reproduce sounds of specific frequencies is remarkable and uncommon. The etiology and defining characteristics of this skill, absolute pitch (AP), have been very controversial. One theory suggests that AP requires a specific type of early musical training and that the ability to encode and remember tones depends on these learned musical associations. An alternate theory argues that AP may be strongly dependent on hereditary factors and relatively independent of musical experience. To date, it has been difficult to test these hypotheses because all previous paradigms for identifying AP have required subjects to employ knowledge of musical nomenclature. As such, these tests are insensitive to the possibility of discovering AP in either nonmusicians or musicians of non-Western training. Based on previous literature in pitch memory, a paradigm is presented that is intended to distinguish between AP possessors and nonpossessors independent of the subjects' musical experience. The efficacy of this method is then tested with 20 classically defined AP possessors and 22 nonpossessors. Data from these groups strongly support the validity of the paradigm. The use of a nonmusical paradigm to identify AP may facilitate research into many aspects of this phenomenon.

  1. ABSOLUTE PROPERTIES OF THE ECLIPSING BINARY STAR BF DRACONIS

    SciTech Connect

    Sandberg Lacy, Claud H.; Torres, Guillermo; Fekel, Francis C.; Sabby, Jeffrey A.; Claret, Antonio E-mail: gtorres@cfa.harvard.edu E-mail: jsabby@siue.edu

    2012-06-15

    BF Dra is now known to be an eccentric double-lined F6+F6 binary star with relatively deep (0.7 mag) partial eclipses. Previous studies of the system are improved with 7494 differential photometric observations from the URSA WebScope and 9700 from the NFO WebScope, 106 high-resolution spectroscopic observations from the Tennessee State University 2 m automatic spectroscopic telescope and the 1 m coude-feed spectrometer at Kitt Peak National Observatory, and 31 accurate radial velocities from the CfA. Very accurate (better than 0.6%) masses and radii are determined from analysis of the two new light curves and four radial velocity curves. Theoretical models match the absolute properties of the stars at an age of about 2.72 Gyr and [Fe/H] = -0.17, and tidal theory correctly confirms that the orbit should still be eccentric. Our observations of BF Dra constrain the convective core overshooting parameter to be larger than about 0.13 H{sub p}. We find, however, that standard tidal theory is unable to match the observed slow rotation rates of the components' surface layers.

  2. Cosmic backgrounds of relic gravitons and their absolute normalization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giovannini, Massimo

    2014-11-01

    Provided the consistency relations are not violated, the recent BICEP2 observations pin down the absolute normalization, the spectral slope and the maximal frequency of the cosmic graviton background produced during inflation. The properly normalized spectra are hereby computed from the lowest frequencies (of the order of the present Hubble rate) up to the highest frequency range in the GHz region. Deviations from the conventional paradigm cannot be excluded and are examined by allowing for different physical possibilities including, in particular, a running of the tensor spectral index, an explicit breaking of the consistency relations and a spike in the high-frequency tail of the spectrum coming either from a post-inflationary phase dominated by a stiff fluid or from the contribution of waterfall fields in a hybrid inflationary context. The direct determinations of the tensor to scalar ratio at low frequencies, if confirmed by the forthcoming observations, will also affect and constrain the high-frequency uncertainties. The limits on the cosmic graviton backgrounds coming from wide-band interferometers (such as LIGO/Virgo, LISA and BBO/DECIGO) together with a more accurate scrutiny of the tensor B-mode polarization at low frequencies will set direct bounds on the post-inflationary evolution and on other unconventional completions of the standard lore.

  3. Absolute position total internal reflection microscopy with an optical tweezer

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Lulu; Woolf, Alexander; Rodriguez, Alejandro W.; Capasso, Federico

    2014-01-01

    A noninvasive, in situ calibration method for total internal reflection microscopy (TIRM) based on optical tweezing is presented, which greatly expands the capabilities of this technique. We show that by making only simple modifications to the basic TIRM sensing setup and procedure, a probe particle’s absolute position relative to a dielectric interface may be known with better than 10 nm precision out to a distance greater than 1 μm from the surface. This represents an approximate 10× improvement in error and 3× improvement in measurement range over conventional TIRM methods. The technique’s advantage is in the direct measurement of the probe particle’s scattering intensity vs. height profile in situ, rather than relying on assumptions, inexact system analogs, or detailed knowledge of system parameters for calibration. To demonstrate the improved versatility of the TIRM method in terms of tunability, precision, and range, we show our results for the hindered near-wall diffusion coefficient for a spherical dielectric particle. PMID:25512542

  4. Large eddy simulation predictions of absolutely unstable round hot jet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boguslawski, A.; Tyliszczak, A.; Wawrzak, K.

    2016-02-01

    The paper presents a novel view on the absolute instability phenomenon in heated variable density round jets. As known from literature the global instability mechanism in low density jets is released when the density ratio is lower than a certain critical value. The existence of the global modes was confirmed by an experimental evidence in both hot and air-helium jets. However, some differences in both globally unstable flows were observed concerning, among others, a level of the critical density ratio. The research is performed using the Large Eddy Simulation (LES) method with a high-order numerical code. An analysis of the LES results revealed that the inlet conditions for the velocity and density distributions at the nozzle exit influence significantly the critical density ratio and the global mode frequency. Two inlet velocity profiles were analyzed, i.e., the hyperbolic tangent and the Blasius profiles. It was shown that using the Blasius velocity profile and the uniform density distribution led to a significantly better agreement with the universal scaling law for global mode frequency.

  5. A high-precision mechanical absolute-rotation sensor.

    PubMed

    Venkateswara, Krishna; Hagedorn, Charles A; Turner, Matthew D; Arp, Trevor; Gundlach, Jens H

    2014-01-01

    We have developed a mechanical absolute-rotation sensor capable of resolving ground rotation angle of less than 1 nrad/√Hz above 30 mHz and 0.2 nrad/√Hz above 100 mHz about a single horizontal axis. The device consists of a meter-scale beam balance, suspended by a pair of flexures, with a resonance frequency of 10.8 mHz. The center of mass is located 3 μm above the pivot, giving an excellent horizontal displacement rejection of better than 3 × 10(-5) rad/m. The angle of the beam is read out optically using a high-sensitivity autocollimator. We have also built a tiltmeter with better than 1 nrad/√Hz sensitivity above 30 mHz. Co-located measurements using the two instruments allowed us to distinguish between background rotation signal at low frequencies and intrinsic instrument noise. The rotation sensor is useful for rotational seismology and for rejecting background rotation signal from seismometers in experiments demanding high levels of seismic isolation, such as Advanced Laser Interferometer Gravitational-wave Observatory. PMID:24517804

  6. Populus nigra (Salicaceae) absolute rich in phenolic acids, phenylpropanoïds and flavonoids as a new potent tyrosinase inhibitor.

    PubMed

    Maack, A; Pegard, A

    2016-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the tyrosinase inhibitory capacity of Populus nigra buds absolute (PBA) and compare it to kojic acid (KA), controversial reference tyrosinase inhibitor. Populus nigra buds were extracted with hexane and ethanol to obtain PBA. The inhibitory effect of this absolute was first tested on the mushroom Agaricus bisporus tyrosinase. Then the depigmenting potential of PBA was tested on B16F10 murine melanocytes by assaying the activity of tyrosinase and melanin content. Consecutively, a microscopic analysis of intracellular melanin granules was performed. Finally, melanised reconstructed human epidermis (RHE) were used to assess the lightening potential activity of this PBA on human skin. Results show that PBA inhibits A. bisporus tyrosinase (IC50=77±8ppm) and inhibits melanocytes B16F10 tyrosinase (IC50=27±1ppm). PBA decreases intracellular melanin levels, with 50% loss at 39±9ppm. Finally, PBA at 1000ppm lightens RHE and decreases their melanin content of 20%. PBA is a strong inhibitor of tyrosinase and reduces melanogenesis in melanocytes B16F10. Thus, PBA has potential applications in skin-lightening cosmetics. PMID:27091790

  7. Cerebral perfusion and oxygenation are impaired by folate deficiency in rat: absolute measurements with noninvasive near-infrared spectroscopy

    PubMed Central

    Hallacoglu, Bertan; Sassaroli, Angelo; Fantini, Sergio; Troen, Aron M

    2011-01-01

    Brain microvascular pathology is a common finding in Alzheimer's disease and other dementias. However, the extent to which microvascular abnormalities cause or contribute to cognitive impairment is unclear. Noninvasive near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) can address this question, but its use for clarifying the role of microvascular dysfunction in dementia has been limited due to theoretical and practical considerations. We developed a new noninvasive NIRS method to obtain quantitative, dynamic measurements of absolute brain hemoglobin concentration and oxygen saturation and used it to show significant cerebrovascular impairments in a rat model of diet-induced vascular cognitive impairment. We fed young rats folate-deficient (FD) and control diets and measured absolute brain hemoglobin and hemodynamic parameters at rest and during transient mild hypoxia and hypercapnia. With respect to control animals, FD rats featured significantly lower brain hemoglobin concentration (72±4 μmol/L versus 95±6 μmol/L) and oxygen saturation (54%±3% versus 65%±2%). By contrast, resting arterial oxygen saturation was the same for both groups (96%±4%), indicating that decrements in brain hemoglobin oxygenation were independent of blood oxygen carrying capacity. Vasomotor reactivity in response to hypercapnia was also impaired in FD rats. Our results implicate microvascular abnormality and diminished oxygen delivery as a mechanism of cognitive impairment. PMID:21386853

  8. Restrictions on linear heat capacities from Joule-Brayton maximum-work cycle efficiency

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Angulo-Brown, F.; Gonzalez-Ayala, Julian; Arias-Hernandez, L. A.

    2014-02-01

    This paper discusses the possibility of using the Joule-Brayton cycle to determine the accessible value range for the coefficients a and b of the heat capacity at constant pressure Cp, expressed as Cp=a+bT (with T the absolute temperature) by using the Carnot theorem. This is made for several gases which operate as the working fluids. Moreover, the landmark role of the Curzon-Ahlborn efficiency for this type of cycle is established.

  9. Extension of the absolute flux density scale to 22.285 GHz. [radio astronomy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Janssen, M. A.; Golden, L. M.; Welch, W. J.

    1974-01-01

    Extending the absolute flux density scale at microwave wavelengths, the absolute flux densities at 22.285 GHz of several standard sources were determined using the absolute calibrations of the 6.1 meter antenna of the Hat Creek Observatory. Interpolation formulas for each nonthermal standard source have been derived by combining these data with those determined at lower frequencies. The suitability of employing the standard sources for calibrating other antennas is discussed.

  10. Individual differences in working memory capacity and workload capacity

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Ju-Chi; Chang, Ting-Yun; Yang, Cheng-Ta

    2014-01-01

    We investigated the relationship between working memory capacity (WMC) and workload capacity (WLC). Each participant performed an operation span (OSPAN) task to measure his/her WMC and three redundant-target detection tasks to measure his/her WLC. WLC was computed non-parametrically (Experiments 1 and 2) and parametrically (Experiment 2). Both levels of analyses showed that participants high in WMC had larger WLC than those low in WMC only when redundant information came from visual and auditory modalities, suggesting that high-WMC participants had superior processing capacity in dealing with redundant visual and auditory information. This difference was eliminated when multiple processes required processing for only a single working memory subsystem in a color-shape detection task and a double-dot detection task. These results highlighted the role of executive control in integrating and binding information from the two working memory subsystems for perceptual decision making. PMID:25566143

  11. Documentation for the machine-readable version of the Absolute Calibration of Stellar Spectrophotometry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Warren, W. H., Jr.

    1982-01-01

    The machine-readable data file of The Absolute Calibration of Stellar Spectrophotometry as distributed by the Astronomical Data Center is described. The data file contains the absolute fluxes for 16 stars published in Tables 1 and 2 of Johnson (1980). The absolute calibrations were accomplished by combining the 13-color photometry calibrations of Johnson and Mitchell (1975) with spectra obtained with a Michelson spectrophotometer and covering the wavelength range 4000 to 10300 A (Johnson 1977). The agreement between this absolute calibration and another recent one based upon data for a Lyr and 109 Vir by Tug, White and Lockwood (1977) is shown by Johnson (1980) to be quite good.

  12. Multiple-integrating sphere spectrophotometer for measuring absolute spectral reflectance and transmittance.

    PubMed

    Zerlaut, G A; Anderson, T E

    1981-11-01

    A spectroreflectometer/transmissometer is described that permits determination of absolute optical characteristics in the 300-2600-nm wavelength region (which is essentially the complete solar spectrum). The uniqueness of the instrument derives from use of three rapidly interchangeable 20-cm (8-in.) integrating spheres to measure (1) absolute hemispherical spectral reflectance as a function of angles of incidence from -40 to +40 degrees employing an Edwards-type integrating sphere with a center-mounted sample [using small 2.5-cm (1-in.) diam specimens], (2) absolute hemispherical and absolute diffuse spectral reflectance at an angle of incidence of 20 degrees employing a sphere with a wall-mounted sample (for large specimens) and a screened detector, and (3) absolute hemispherical and absolute directional (near-normal exitance) transmittance employing a complete integrating sphere with the only ports being for the sample and reference beams. Data are presented that demonstrate the ability to measure the spectral reflectance of nonmirror surfaces to an absolute accuracy of 0.995 (an uncertainty of +/-0.005 reflectance units) in both reflectance spheres and of highly specular mirrors to an absolute accuracy of 0.993 (an uncertainty of +/-0.007 reflectance units). Spectral transmittance can be measured to an absolute accuracy of better than 0.995 (an uncertainty of +/-0.005 transmittance units). PMID:20372262

  13. Capacity sharing of water reservoirs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dudley, Norman J.; Musgrave, Warren F.

    1988-05-01

    The concept of a water use property right is developed which does not apply to water volumes as such but to a share of the capacity (not contents) of river storage reservoirs and their inflows. The shareholders can withdraw water from their share over time in accordance with their preferences for stability of water deliveries. The reservoir authority does not manage reservoir releases but keeps record of individual shareholder's withdrawals and net inflows to monitor the quantity of water in each shareholder's capacity share. A surplus of total reservoir contents over the sum of the contents of the individual shareholder's capacity shares will accrue over time. Two different criteria for its periodic distribution among shareholders are compared. A previous paper Dudley (this issue(b)) noted a loss of short-run economic efficiency as reservoir and farm management decision making become separated. This is largely overcome by capacity sharing which allows each user to integrate the management of their portion of the reservoir and their farming operations. The nonattenuated nature of the capacity sharing water rights also promotes long-run economic efficiency.

  14. Strong thermal leptogenesis and the absolute neutrino mass scale

    SciTech Connect

    Bari, Pasquale Di; King, Sophie E.; Fiorentin, Michele Re E-mail: sk1806@soton.ac.uk

    2014-03-01

    We show that successful strong thermal leptogenesis, where the final asymmetry is independent of the initial conditions and in particular a large pre-existing asymmetry is efficiently washed-out, favours values of the lightest neutrino mass m{sub 1}∼>10 meV for normal ordering (NO) and m{sub 1}∼>3 meV for inverted ordering (IO) for models with orthogonal matrix entries respecting |Ω{sub ij}{sup 2}|∼<2. We show analytically why lower values of m{sub 1} require a higher level of fine tuning in the seesaw formula and/or in the flavoured decay parameters (in the electronic for NO, in the muonic for IO). We also show how this constraint exists thanks to the measured values of the neutrino mixing angles and could be tightened by a future determination of the Dirac phase. Our analysis also allows us to place a more stringent constraint for a specific model or class of models, such as SO(10)-inspired models, and shows that some models cannot realise strong thermal leptogenesis for any value of m{sub 1}. A scatter plot analysis fully supports the analytical results. We also briefly discuss the interplay with absolute neutrino mass scale experiments concluding that they will be able in the coming years to either corner strong thermal leptogenesis or find positive signals pointing to a non-vanishing m{sub 1}. Since the constraint is much stronger for NO than for IO, it is very important that new data from planned neutrino oscillation experiments will be able to solve the ambiguity.

  15. Absolute homogeneity test of Kelantan catchment precipitation series

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ros, Faizah Che; Tosaka, Hiroyuki; Sasaki, Kenji; Sidek, Lariyah Mohd; Basri, Hidayah

    2015-05-01

    Along the Kelantan River in north east of Malaysia Peninsular, there are several areas often damaged by flood during north-east monsoon season every year. It is vital to predict the expected behavior of precipitation and river runoff for reducing flood damages of the area under rapid urbanization and future planning. Nevertheless, the accuracy and reliability of any hydrological and climate studies vary based on the quality of the data used. The factors causing variations on these data are the method of gauging and data collection, stations environment, station relocation and the reliability of the measurement tool affect the homogenous precipitation records. Hence in this study, homogeneity of long precipitation data series is checked via the absolute homogeneity test consisting of four methods namely Pettitt test, standard normal homogeneity test (SNHT), Buishand range test and Von Neumann ratio test. For homogeneity test, the annual rainfall amount from the daily precipitation records at stations located in Kelantan operated by Department of Irrigation and Drainage Malaysia were considered in this study. The missing values were completed using the correlation and regression and inverse distance method. The data network consists of 103 precipitation gauging stations where 31 points are inactive, 6 gauging stations had missing precipitation values more than five years in a row and 16 stations have records less than twenty years. So total of 50 stations gauging stations were evaluated in this analysis. With the application of the mentioned methods and further graphical analysis, inhomogeneity was detected at 4 stations and 46 stations are found to be homogeneous.

  16. Preliminary OARE absolute acceleration measurements on STS-50

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blanchard, Robert C.; Nicholson, John Y.; Ritter, James

    1993-01-01

    On-orbit Orbital Acceleration Research Experiment (OARE) data on STS-50 was examined in detail during a 2-day time period. Absolute acceleration levels were derived at the OARE location, the orbiter center-of-gravity, and at the STS-50 spacelab Crystal Growth Facility. The tri-axial OARE raw acceleration measurements (i.e., telemetered data) during the interval were filtered using a sliding trimmed mean filter in order to remove large acceleration spikes (e.g., thrusters) and reduce the noise. Twelve OARE measured biases in each acceleration channel during the 2-day interval were analyzed and applied to the filtered data. Similarly, the in situ measured x-axis scale factors in the sensor's most sensitive range were also analyzed and applied to the data. Due to equipment problem(s) on this flight, both y- and z- axis sensitive range scale factors were determined in a separate process (using the OARE maneuver data) and subsequently applied to the data. All known significant low-frequency corrections at the OARE location (i.e., both vertical and horizontal gravity-gradient, and rotational effects) were removed from the filtered data in order to produce the acceleration components at the orbiter's center-of-gravity, which are the aerodynamic signals along each body axes. Results indicate that there is a force of unknown origin being applied to the Orbiter in addition to the aerodynamic forces. The OARE instrument and all known gravitational and electromagnetic forces were reexamined, but none produce the observed effect. Thus, it is tentatively concluded that the Orbiter is creating the environment observed.

  17. Absolute Timing of the Crab Pulsar with RXTE

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rots, Arnold H.; Jahoda, Keith; Lyne, Andrew G.

    2004-01-01

    We have monitored the phase of the main X-ray pulse of the Crab pulsar with the Rossi X-ray Timing Explorer (RXTE) for almost eight years, since the start of the mission in January 1996. The absolute time of RXTE's clock is sufficiently accurate to allow this phase to be compared directly with the radio profile. Our monitoring observations of the pulsar took place bi-weekly (during the periods when it was at least 30 degrees from the Sun) and we correlated the data with radio timing ephemerides derived from observations made at Jodrell Bank. We have determined the phase of the X-ray main pulse for each observation with a typical error in the individual data points of 50 microseconds. The total ensemble is consistent with a phase that is constant over the monitoring period, with the X-ray pulse leading the radio pulse by 0.01025 plus or minus 0.00120 period in phase, or 344 plus or minus 40 microseconds in time. The error estimate is dominated by a systematic error of 40 microseconds, most likely constant, arising from uncertainties in the instrumental calibration of the radio data. The statistical error is 0.00015 period, or 5 microseconds. The separation of the main pulse and interpulse appears to be unchanging at time scales of a year or less, with an average value of 0.4001 plus or minus 0.0002 period. There is no apparent variation in these values with energy over the 2-30 keV range. The lag between the radio and X-ray pulses ma be constant in phase (i.e., rotational in nature) or constant in time (i.e., due to a pathlength difference). We are not (yet) able to distinguish between these two interpretations.

  18. Non-invasive quantification of brain glycogen absolute concentration

    PubMed Central

    van Heeswijk, Ruud B.; Xin, Lijing; Laus, Sabrina; Frenkel, Hanne; Lei, Hongxia; Gruetter, Rolf

    2009-01-01

    The only currently available method to measure brain glycogen in vivo is 13C NMR spectroscopy. Incorporation of 13C-labeled glucose (Glc) is necessary to allow glycogen measurement, but might be affected by turnover changes. Our aim was to measure glycogen absolute concentration in the rat brain by eliminating label turnover as variable. The approach is based on establishing an increased, constant 13C isotopic enrichment (IE). 13C-Glc infusion is then performed at the IE of brain glycogen. As glycogen IE cannot be assessed in vivo, we validated that it can be inferred from that of N-acetyl-aspartate IE in vivo: After [1-13C]-Glc ingestion, glycogen IE was 2.2 ± 0.1 fold that of N-acetyl-aspartate (n = 11, R2 = 0.77). After subsequent Glc infusion, glycogen IE equaled brain Glc IE (n = 6, paired t-test, p = 0.37), implying isotopic steady-state achievement and complete turnover of the glycogen molecule. Glycogen concentration measured in vivo by 13C NMR (mean ± SD: 5.8 ± 0.7 μmol/g) was in excellent agreement with that in vitro (6.4 ± 0.6 μmol/g, n = 5). When insulin was administered, the stability of glycogen concentration was analogous to previous biochemical measurements implying that glycogen turnover is activated by insulin. We conclude that the entire glycogen molecule is turned over and that insulin activates glycogen turnover. PMID:19013831

  19. Characterizing flow in oil reservoir rock using SPH: absolute permeability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holmes, David W.; Williams, John R.; Tilke, Peter; Leonardi, Christopher R.

    2016-04-01

    In this paper, a three-dimensional smooth particle hydrodynamics (SPH) simulator for modeling grain scale fluid flow in porous rock is presented. The versatility of the SPH method has driven its use in increasingly complex areas of flow analysis, including flows related to permeable rock for both groundwater and petroleum reservoir research. While previous approaches to such problems using SPH have involved the use of idealized pore geometries (cylinder/sphere packs etc), in this paper we detail the characterization of flow in models with geometries taken from 3D X-ray microtomographic imaging of actual porous rock; specifically 25.12 % porosity dolomite. This particular rock type has been well characterized experimentally and described in the literature, thus providing a practical `real world' means of verification of SPH that will be key to its acceptance by industry as a viable alternative to traditional reservoir modeling tools. The true advantages of SPH are realized when adding the complexity of multiple fluid phases, however, the accuracy of SPH for single phase flow is, as yet, under developed in the literature and will be the primary focus of this paper. Flow in reservoir rock will typically occur in the range of low Reynolds numbers, making the enforcement of no-slip boundary conditions an important factor in simulation. To this end, we detail the development of a new, robust, and numerically efficient method for implementing no-slip boundary conditions in SPH that can handle the degree of complexity of boundary surfaces, characteristic of an actual permeable rock sample. A study of the effect of particle density is carried out and simulation results for absolute permeability are presented and compared to those from experimentation showing good agreement and validating the method for such applications.

  20. Uranium isotopic composition and absolute ages of Allende chondrules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brennecka, G. A.; Budde, G.; Kleine, T.

    2015-11-01

    A handful of events, such as the condensation of refractory inclusions and the formation of chondrules, represent important stages in the formation and evolution of the early solar system and thus are critical to understanding its development. Compared to the refractory inclusions, chondrules appear to have a protracted period of formation that spans millions of years. As such, understanding chondrule formation requires a catalog of reliable ages, free from as many assumptions as possible. The Pb-Pb chronometer has this potential; however, because common individual chondrules have extremely low uranium contents, obtaining U-corrected Pb-Pb ages of individual chondrules is unrealistic in the vast majority of cases at this time. Thus, in order to obtain the most accurate 238U/235U ratio possible for chondrules, we separated and pooled thousands of individual chondrules from the Allende meteorite. In this work, we demonstrate that no discernible differences exist in the 238U/235U compositions between chondrule groups when separated by size and magnetic susceptibility, suggesting that no systematic U-isotope variation exists between groups of chondrules. Consequently, chondrules are likely to have a common 238U/235U ratio for any given meteorite. A weighted average of the six groups of chondrule separates from Allende results in a 238U/235U ratio of 137.786 ± 0.004 (±0.016 including propagated uncertainty on the U standard [Richter et al. 2010]). Although it is still possible that individual chondrules have significant U isotope variation within a given meteorite, this value represents our best estimate of the 238U/235U ratio for Allende chondrules and should be used for absolute dating of these objects, unless such chondrules can be measured individually.

  1. a Portable Apparatus for Absolute Measurements of the Earth's Gravity.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zumberge, Mark Andrew

    We have developed a new, portable apparatus for making absolute measurements of the acceleration due to the earth's gravity. We use the method of interferometrically determining the acceleration of a freely falling corner -cube prism. The falling object is surrounded by a chamber which is driven vertically inside a fixed vacuum chamber. This falling chamber is servoed to track the falling corner -cube to shield it from drag due to background gas. In addition, the drag-free falling chamber removes the need for a magnetic release, shields the falling object from electrostatic forces, and provides a means of both gently arresting the falling object and quickly returning it to its start position, to allow rapid acquisition of data. A synthesized long period isolation device reduces the noise due to seismic oscillations. A new type of Zeeman laser is used as the light source in the interferometer, and is compared with the wavelength of an iodine stabilized laser. The times of occurrence of 45 interference fringes are measured to within 0.2 nsec over a 20 cm drop and are fit to a quadratic by an on-line minicomputer. 150 drops can be made in ten minutes resulting in a value of g having a precision of 3 to 6 parts in 10('9). Systematic errors have been determined to be less than 5 parts in 10('9) through extensive tests. Three months of gravity data have been obtained with a reproducibility ranging from 5 to 10 parts in 10('9). The apparatus has been designed to be easily portable. Field measurements are planned for the immediate future. An accuracy of 6 parts in 10('9) corresponds to a height sensitivity of 2 cm. Vertical motions in the earth's crust and tectonic density changes that may precede earthquakes are to be investigated using this apparatus.

  2. Absolute Proper Motions of Nearby Dwarf Spheroidal Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olszewski, Edward

    1997-07-01

    We propose to measure precise absolute proper motions for four dwarf spheroidal satellites of the Milky Way using spectroscopically-confirmed background QSOs to define a zero- velocity reference frame. Two epochs separated by 2 yrs will yield systemic tangential velocities of UMi, Car, Scl, {and For} to +/- 78 kms {+/- 130 kms}. These are worst-case velocity precisions and they are likely to be 2-4* smaller. Our long-term goal is to reduce them by an additional factor of several by obtaining data over the lifetime of WFPC2. With 2-3 QSOs per galaxy, we will still be confident of our motions with only 2 epochs. We will test whether the halo contains a small number of massive streams containing several dwarf galaxies, or whether the individual halo dwarfs are traveling along independent orbits. HST is essential to achieving the high precisions needed to conclusively compare the projected orbital motions of the individual galaxies; even with our conservative uncertainties, we are competitive with the best ground-based efforts with only a 2 year baseline. We will also use our results to improve our estimate of the mass of the Galaxy interior to 100 kpc. We believe that our project will show that astrometry has been a much ignored resource and power of HST. If HST performs as well as we suspect it can, it will be possible to measure the internal motions of stars in the dwarf spheroidals and the proper motions of all of the Local Group members over a timespan of 5 - 10 years.

  3. Embedded north-seeker for automatic absolute magnetic DI measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gonsette, Alexandre; Rasson, Jean

    2014-05-01

    In magnetic observatory Earth magnetic field is recorded with a resolution of 0.1nT for 1min sampling (new standards impose 1pT for 1s sampling). The method universally adopted for measuring it is a combination of three instruments. Vectorial magnetometer (variometer) records variations of the three components around a reference value or a baseline. A proton or an overhauser magnetometer is an absolute instrument able to measure the modulus of the field and used to determine the F component baseline of the variometer. The declination and inclination baselines require a manual procedure to be computed. An operator manipulates a non-magnetic theodolite (also called a DIFlux) to measure the D and I angles in different configurations with a resolution of a few arcsec. The AutoDIF is a non-magnetic automatic DIFlux using the same protocol as the manual procedure. The declination defined according to the true north is determined by means of a target pointing system. Even if the technique is fast and accurate, it becomes problematic in case of unmanned deployment. In particular the area between the target and the DIFlux is out of control. Snow storm, fog, vegetation or condensation on windows are examples of perturbation preventing for finding the target. It is obvious in case of (future) seafloor observatories. A FOG based north-seeker has been implemented and mounted on the AutoDIF. The first results using a low cost gyro don't meet the Intermagnet specifications yet but are however hopeful. A 0.1° standard deviation has been reached and statistically reduced to 0.01° after less than two days in laboratory. The magnetic disturbance of the sensor is taken into account and compensated by the measurement protocol.

  4. Preliminary OARE absolute acceleration measurements on STS-50

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blanchard, Robert C.; Nicholson, John Y.; Ritter, James

    1993-02-01

    On-orbit Orbital Acceleration Research Experiment (OARE) data on STS-50 was examined in detail during a 2-day time period. Absolute acceleration levels were derived at the OARE location, the orbiter center-of-gravity, and at the STS-50 spacelab Crystal Growth Facility. The tri-axial OARE raw acceleration measurements (i.e., telemetered data) during the interval were filtered using a sliding trimmed mean filter in order to remove large acceleration spikes (e.g., thrusters) and reduce the noise. Twelve OARE measured biases in each acceleration channel during the 2-day interval were analyzed and applied to the filtered data. Similarly, the in situ measured x-axis scale factors in the sensor's most sensitive range were also analyzed and applied to the data. Due to equipment problem(s) on this flight, both y- and z- axis sensitive range scale factors were determined in a separate process (using the OARE maneuver data) and subsequently applied to the data. All known significant low-frequency corrections at the OARE location (i.e., both vertical and horizontal gravity-gradient, and rotational effects) were removed from the filtered data in order to produce the acceleration components at the orbiter's center-of-gravity, which are the aerodynamic signals along each body axes. Results indicate that there is a force of unknown origin being applied to the Orbiter in addition to the aerodynamic forces. The OARE instrument and all known gravitational and electromagnetic forces were reexamined, but none produce the observed effect. Thus, it is tentatively concluded that the Orbiter is creating the environment observed.

  5. Absolute Pitch: Effects of Timbre on Note-Naming Ability

    PubMed Central

    Vanzella, Patrícia; Schellenberg, E. Glenn

    2010-01-01

    Background Absolute pitch (AP) is the ability to identify or produce isolated musical tones. It is evident primarily among individuals who started music lessons in early childhood. Because AP requires memory for specific pitches as well as learned associations with verbal labels (i.e., note names), it represents a unique opportunity to study interactions in memory between linguistic and nonlinguistic information. One untested hypothesis is that the pitch of voices may be difficult for AP possessors to identify. A musician's first instrument may also affect performance and extend the sensitive period for acquiring accurate AP. Methods/Principal Findings A large sample of AP possessors was recruited on-line. Participants were required to identity test tones presented in four different timbres: piano, pure tone, natural (sung) voice, and synthesized voice. Note-naming accuracy was better for non-vocal (piano and pure tones) than for vocal (natural and synthesized voices) test tones. This difference could not be attributed solely to vibrato (pitch variation), which was more pronounced in the natural voice than in the synthesized voice. Although starting music lessons by age 7 was associated with enhanced note-naming accuracy, equivalent abilities were evident among listeners who started music lessons on piano at a later age. Conclusions/Significance Because the human voice is inextricably linked to language and meaning, it may be processed automatically by voice-specific mechanisms that interfere with note naming among AP possessors. Lessons on piano or other fixed-pitch instruments appear to enhance AP abilities and to extend the sensitive period for exposure to music in order to develop accurate AP. PMID:21085598

  6. Recommended volumetric capacity definitions and protocols for accurate, standardized and unambiguous metrics for hydrogen storage materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parilla, Philip A.; Gross, Karl; Hurst, Katherine; Gennett, Thomas

    2016-03-01

    The ultimate goal of the hydrogen economy is the development of hydrogen storage systems that meet or exceed the US DOE's goals for onboard storage in hydrogen-powered vehicles. In order to develop new materials to meet these goals, it is extremely critical to accurately, uniformly and precisely measure materials' properties relevant to the specific goals. Without this assurance, such measurements are not reliable and, therefore, do not provide a benefit toward the work at hand. In particular, capacity measurements for hydrogen storage materials must be based on valid and accurate results to ensure proper identification of promising materials for further development. Volumetric capacity determinations are becoming increasingly important for identifying promising materials, yet there exists controversy on how such determinations are made and whether such determinations are valid due to differing methodologies to count the hydrogen content. These issues are discussed herein, and we show mathematically that capacity determinations can be made rigorously and unambiguously if the constituent volumes are well defined and measurable in practice. It is widely accepted that this occurs for excess capacity determinations and we show here that this can happen for the total capacity determination. Because the adsorption volume is undefined, the absolute capacity determination remains imprecise. Furthermore, we show that there is a direct relationship between determining the respective capacities and the calibration constants used for the manometric and gravimetric techniques. Several suggested volumetric capacity figure-of-merits are defined, discussed and reporting requirements recommended. Finally, an example is provided to illustrate these protocols and concepts.

  7. On risk and decisional capacity.

    PubMed

    Checkland, D

    2001-02-01

    Limits to paternalism are, in the liberal democracies, partially defined by the concepts of decision-making capacity/incapacity (mental competence/incompetence). The paper is a response to Ian Wilks's (1997) recent attempt to defend the idea that the standards for decisional capacity ought to vary with the degree of risk incurred by certain choices. Wilks's defense is based on a direct appeal to the logical features of examples and analogies, thus attempting to by-pass earlier criticisms (e.g., Culver & Gert, 1990) of risk-based standards. Wilks's argument is found wanting on the grounds that he misconstrues the logic of such capacity, especially in accounting for conceptual and pragmatic ties with issues of decisional authority. A diagnosis is offered as to the source of Wilks's error (the assumption that mental competence is a species of wider genus of "competence"), and an alternative way of accounting for risk within the predominant contemporary legal framework is sketched. PMID:11262640

  8. Buffer Capacity: An Undergraduate Laboratory Experiment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Russo, Steven O.; Hanania, George I. H.

    1987-01-01

    Describes a quantitative experiment designed to demonstrate buffer action and the measurement of buffer capacity. Discusses how to make acetate buffers, determine their buffer capacity, plot the capacity/pH curve, and interpret the data obtained. (TW)

  9. Spray dryer capacity stretched 50%

    SciTech Connect

    Paraskevas, J.

    1983-01-01

    This article describes plant equipment modifications which has resulted in a 50% increase in spray drying capacity. The installation of a new atomizer and screening system in NL Chemicals' Newberry Springs plant which produces natural clays for use as rheological additives in industrial coatings, cosmetics and other products, resulted in a 50% increase in spray drying capacity. Energy consumption per pound of product was reduced by 7%, and product quality improved. This was achieved in less than three months at an investment of less than 10% of what an additional spray dryer would have cost.

  10. Absolute polycythemia in a bald eagle (Haliaeetus leucocephalus).

    PubMed

    Fernandes, Andreia F; Fenton, Heather; Martinson, Shannon; Desmarchelier, Marion; Ferrell, Shannon T

    2014-12-01

    An approximately 6-mo-old female bald eagle (Haliaeetus leucocephalus) was presented for an inability to fly and bilateral drooped wings. Pectoral muscle atrophy with a moderate polycythemia was present. Over the course of 3 wk, there were no improvements in flight capacity, although the bird gained substantial weight. Further investigation revealed a prominent cyanosis that was responsive to oxygen therapy, a chronic respiratory acidosis with hypoxia, a cardiac murmur, and a persistent polycythemia. No obvious antemortem etiology for the clinical findings was discovered on computerized tomography, angiography, or echocardiography. The bird was euthanatized as a result of the poor prognosis. Necropsy and histopathology revealed no significant cardiovascular or pulmonary pathology. No myopathy was evident on electron microscopy of formalin-fixed tissues. Based on these diagnostics, a neuromuscular disorder is suspected as the cause for the blood gas abnormalities, with a resulting polycythemia from the hypoxia. PMID:25632692

  11. Specificity is rarely absolute in coral–algal symbiosis: implications for coral response to climate change

    PubMed Central

    Silverstein, Rachel N.; Correa, Adrienne M. S.; Baker, Andrew C.

    2012-01-01

    Some reef-building corals have been shown to respond to environmental change by shifting the composition of their algal symbiont (genus Symbiodinium) communities. These shifts have been proposed as a potential mechanism by which corals might survive climate stressors, such as increased temperatures. Conventional molecular methods suggest this adaptive capacity may not be widespread because few (∼25%) coral species have been found to associate with multiple Symbiodinium clades. However, these methods can fail to detect low abundance symbionts (typically less than 10–20% of the total algal symbiont community). To determine whether additional Symbiodinium clades are present, but are not detected using conventional techniques, we applied a high-resolution, real-time PCR assay to survey Symbiodinium (in clades A–D) from 39 species of phylogenetically and geographically diverse scleractinian corals. This survey included 26 coral species thought to be restricted to hosting a single Symbiodinium clade (‘symbiotic specialists’). We detected at least two Symbiodinium clades (C and D) in at least one sample of all 39 coral species tested; all four Symbiodinium clades were detected in over half (54%) of the 26 symbiotic specialist coral species. Furthermore, on average, 68 per cent of all sampled colonies within a given coral species hosted two or more symbiont clades. We conclude that the ability to associate with multiple symbiont clades is common in scleractinian (stony) corals, and that, in coral–algal symbiosis, ‘specificity’ and ‘flexibility’ are relative terms: specificity is rarely absolute. The potential for reef corals to adapt or acclimatize to environmental change via symbiont community shifts may therefore be more phylogenetically widespread than has previously been assumed. PMID:22367985

  12. Absolute Humidity Influences the Seasonal Persistence and Infectivity of Human Norovirus.

    PubMed

    Colas de la Noue, Alexandre; Estienney, Marie; Aho, Serge; Perrier-Cornet, Jean-Marie; de Rougemont, Alexis; Pothier, Pierre; Gervais, Patrick; Belliot, Gaël

    2014-12-01

    Norovirus (NoV) is one of the main causative agents of acute gastroenteritis worldwide. In temperate climates, outbreaks peak during the winter season. The mechanism by which climatic factors influence the occurrence of NoV outbreaks is unknown. We hypothesized that humidity is linked to NoV seasonality. Human NoV is not cultivatable, so we used cultivatable murine norovirus (MNV) as a surrogate to study its persistence when exposed to various levels of relative humidity (RH) from low (10% RH) to saturated (100% RH) conditions at 9 and 25°C. In addition, we conducted similar experiments with virus-like particles (VLPs) from the predominant GII-4 norovirus and studied changes in binding patterns to A, B, and O group carbohydrates that might reflect capsid alterations. The responses of MNV and VLP to humidity were somewhat similar, with 10 and 100% RH exhibiting a strong conserving effect for both models, whereas 50% RH was detrimental for MNV infectivity and VLP binding capacity. The data analysis suggested that absolute humidity (AH) rather than RH is the critical factor for keeping NoV infectious, with an AH below 0.007 kg water/kg air being favorable to NoV survival. Retrospective surveys of the meteorological data in Paris for the last 14 years showed that AH average values have almost always been below 0.007 kg water/kg air during the winter (i.e., 0.0046 ± 0.0014 kg water/kg air), and this finding supports the fact that low AH provides an ideal condition for NoV persistence and transmission during cold months. PMID:25217015

  13. Absolute Humidity Influences the Seasonal Persistence and Infectivity of Human Norovirus

    PubMed Central

    Colas de la Noue, Alexandre; Estienney, Marie; Aho, Serge; Perrier-Cornet, Jean-Marie; de Rougemont, Alexis; Pothier, Pierre

    2014-01-01

    Norovirus (NoV) is one of the main causative agents of acute gastroenteritis worldwide. In temperate climates, outbreaks peak during the winter season. The mechanism by which climatic factors influence the occurrence of NoV outbreaks is unknown. We hypothesized that humidity is linked to NoV seasonality. Human NoV is not cultivatable, so we used cultivatable murine norovirus (MNV) as a surrogate to study its persistence when exposed to various levels of relative humidity (RH) from low (10% RH) to saturated (100% RH) conditions at 9 and 25°C. In addition, we conducted similar experiments with virus-like particles (VLPs) from the predominant GII-4 norovirus and studied changes in binding patterns to A, B, and O group carbohydrates that might reflect capsid alterations. The responses of MNV and VLP to humidity were somewhat similar, with 10 and 100% RH exhibiting a strong conserving effect for both models, whereas 50% RH was detrimental for MNV infectivity and VLP binding capacity. The data analysis suggested that absolute humidity (AH) rather than RH is the critical factor for keeping NoV infectious, with an AH below 0.007 kg water/kg air being favorable to NoV survival. Retrospective surveys of the meteorological data in Paris for the last 14 years showed that AH average values have almost always been below 0.007 kg water/kg air during the winter (i.e., 0.0046 ± 0.0014 kg water/kg air), and this finding supports the fact that low AH provides an ideal condition for NoV persistence and transmission during cold months. PMID:25217015

  14. Reconnaissance shallow seismic investigation of depth-to-bedrock and possible methane-bearing coalbeds, Galena, Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stephenson, William J.; Williams, Robert A.; Odum, Jack K.; Worley, David M.; Barker, Charles E.; Clark, Arthur C.; Clough, James G.

    2002-01-01

    A reconnaissance shallow seismic reflection/refraction investigation in and around the city of Galena, Alaska suggests that Tertiary and/or Cretaceous bedrock, and possible coalbeds within the Cretaceous, is at least as deep as 550 feet in the immediate vicinity of town. Rock could be deeper than 1000 feet under alternate interpretations. Reflections recorded in these data are believed to be from the sediment/bedrock interface. Analysis of these reflections and associated refractions indicates that this interface, interpreted at most of the six profile locations, has a high seismic velocity, possibly indicating non-sedimentary rock (e.g. volcanic or igneous).

  15. Assessing Epistemic Sophistication by Considering Domain-Specific Absolute and Multiplicistic Beliefs Separately

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peter, Johannes; Rosman, Tom; Mayer, Anne-Kathrin; Leichner, Nikolas; Krampen, Günter

    2016-01-01

    Background: Particularly in higher education, not only a view of science as a means of finding absolute truths (absolutism), but also a view of science as generally tentative (multiplicism) can be unsophisticated and obstructive for learning. Most quantitative epistemic belief inventories neglect this and understand epistemic sophistication as…

  16. The Relation between the Absolute Level of Parenting and Differential Parental Treatment with Adolescent Siblings' Adjustment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tamrouti-Makkink, Ilse D.; Dubas, Judith Semon; Gerris, Jan R. M.; van Aken, Marcel A. G.

    2004-01-01

    Background: The present study extends existing studies on the role of differential parental treatment in explaining individual differences in adolescent problem behaviors above the absolute level of parenting and clarifies the function of gender of the child, birth rank and gender constellation of the sibling dyads. Method: The absolute level of…

  17. Changing the Tune: The Structure of the Input Affects Infants' Use of Absolute and Relative Pitch

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saffran, Jenny R.; Reeck, Karelyn; Niebuhr, Aimee; Wilson, Diana

    2005-01-01

    Sequences of notes contain several different types of pitch cues, including both absolute and relative pitch information. What factors determine which of these cues are used when learning about tone sequences? Previous research suggests that infants tend to preferentially process absolute pitch patterns in continuous tone sequences, while other…

  18. An Integrated Model of Choices and Response Times in Absolute Identification

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Scott D.; Marley, A. A. J.; Donkin, Christopher; Heathcote, Andrew

    2008-01-01

    Recent theoretical developments in the field of absolute identification have stressed differences between relative and absolute processes, that is, whether stimulus magnitudes are judged relative to a shorter term context provided by recently presented stimuli or a longer term context provided by the entire set of stimuli. The authors developed a…

  19. Development of Absolute and Relative Concepts of Number in Preschool Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Michie, Susan

    1985-01-01

    Three-, four-, and five-year-olds were given problems to test their ability to recognize absolute number and relative order. Results suggest that children understand number as an absolute amount before they understand it as part of a progressive sequence in contradiction to the "ordinal theory of number." (Author/DST)

  20. On the precision of absolute sensitivity calibration and specifics of spectroscopic quantities interpretation in tokamaks.

    PubMed

    Naydenkova, D I; Weinzettl, V; Stockel, J; Matějíček, J

    2014-12-01

    Typical situations, which can be met during the process of absolute calibration, are shown in the case of a visible light observation system for the COMPASS tokamak. Technical issues and experimental limitations of absolute measurements connected with tokamak operation are discussed. PMID:25607972

  1. Confidence-Accuracy Calibration in Absolute and Relative Face Recognition Judgments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weber, Nathan; Brewer, Neil

    2004-01-01

    Confidence-accuracy (CA) calibration was examined for absolute and relative face recognition judgments as well as for recognition judgments from groups of stimuli presented simultaneously or sequentially (i.e., simultaneous or sequential mini-lineups). When the effect of difficulty was controlled, absolute and relative judgments produced…

  2. Articulated Multimedia Physics, Lesson 14, Gases, The Gas Laws, and Absolute Temperature.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New York Inst. of Tech., Old Westbury.

    As the fourteenth lesson of the Articulated Multimedia Physics Course, instructional materials are presented in this study guide with relation to gases, gas laws, and absolute temperature. The topics are concerned with the kinetic theory of gases, thermometric scales, Charles' law, ideal gases, Boyle's law, absolute zero, and gas pressures. The…

  3. 47 CFR 64.1160 - Absolution procedures where the subscriber has not paid charges.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Absolution procedures where the subscriber has... Preferred Telecommunications Service Providers § 64.1160 Absolution procedures where the subscriber has not paid charges. (a) This section shall only apply after a subscriber has determined that an...

  4. Human intravenous pharmacokinetics and absolute oral bioavailability of cefatrizine.

    PubMed Central

    Pfeffer, M; Gaver, R C; Ximenez, J

    1983-01-01

    Cefatrizine was administered intravenously and orally at dose levels of 250, 500, and 1,000 mg to normal male volunteers in a crossover study. Intravenous pharmacokinetics were dose linear over this range; mean peak plasma concentrations at the end of 30-min infusions were, respectively, 18, 37, and 75 micrograms/ml, total body clearance was 218 ml/min per 1.73 m2, renal clearance was 176 ml/min per 1.73 m2, and mean retention time in the body was 1.11 h. Cumulative urinary excretion of intact cefatrizine was 80% of the dose, and half-lives ranged from 1 to 1.4 h. Steady-state volume of distribution was 0.22 liters/kg. On oral administration, the absolute bioavailabilities of cefatrizine were 75% at 250 and 500 mg and 50% at 1,000 mg. The mean peak plasma concentrations and peak times were, respectively, 4.9, 8.6, and 10.2 micrograms/ml at 1.4, 1.6, and 2.0 h, mean residence times were 2.4, 2.6, and 3.1 h, and mean absorption times were 1.3, 1.6, and 1.9 h. Oral renal clearance and half-life values corresponded well to the intravenous values. Cumulative urinary excretion of intact cefatrizine (as percentage of dose) was 60 at 250 mg, 56 at 500 mg, and 42 at 1,000 mg. It is hypothesized that the lack of oral dose linearity between the 500- and 1,000-mg doses is due to a component of cefatrizine absorption by a saturable transport process. Relative absorption at the high dose would be sufficiently slow that an absorption "window" would be passed before maximum bioavailability could be attained. It is not expected that the observed bioavailability decrease at doses exceeding 500 mg will have any therapeutic significance, since clinical studies are establishing efficacy for a recommended unit dosage regimen of 500 mg. PMID:6660858

  5. Age Dependent Absolute Plate and Plume Motion Modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heaton, D. E.; Koppers, A. A. P.

    2015-12-01

    Current absolute plate motion (APM) models from 80 - 0 Ma are constrained by the location of mantle plume related hotspot seamounts, in particular those of the Hawaiian-Emperor and Louisville seamount trails. Originally the 'fixed' hotspot hypothesis was developed to explain past plate motion based on linear age progressive intra-plate volcanism. However, now that 'moving' hotspots are accepted, it is becoming clear that APM models need to be corrected for individual plume motion vectors. For older seamount trails that were active between roughly 50 and 80 Ma the APM models that use 'fixed' hotspots overestimate the measured age progression in those trails, while APM models corrected for 'moving' hotspots underestimate those age progressions. These mismatches are due to both a lack of reliable ages in the older portions of both the Hawaii and Louisville seamount trails and insufficient APM modeling constraints from other seamount trails in the Pacific Basin. Seamounts are difficult to sample and analyze because many are hydrothermally altered and have low potassium concentrations. New 40Ar/39Ar Age results from International Ocean Drilling Project (IODP) Expedition 330 Sites U1372 (n=18), U1375 (n=3), U1376 (n=15) and U1377 (n=7) aid in constraining the oldest end of the Louisville Seamount trail. A significant observation in this study is that the age range recovered in the drill cores match the range of ages that were acquired on dredging cruises at the same seamounts (e.g. Koppers et al., 2011). This is important for determining the inception age of a seamount. The sections recovered from IODP EXP 330 are in-situ volcanoclastic breccia and lava flows. Comparing the seismic interpretations of Louisville guyots (Contreras-Reyes et al., 2010), Holes U1372, U1373 and U1374 penetrated the extrusive and volcanoclastic sections of the seamount. The ages obtained are consistent over stratigraphic intervals >100-450 m thick, providing evidence that these seamounts

  6. Human intravenous pharmacokinetics and absolute oral bioavailability of cefatrizine.

    PubMed

    Pfeffer, M; Gaver, R C; Ximenez, J

    1983-12-01

    Cefatrizine was administered intravenously and orally at dose levels of 250, 500, and 1,000 mg to normal male volunteers in a crossover study. Intravenous pharmacokinetics were dose linear over this range; mean peak plasma concentrations at the end of 30-min infusions were, respectively, 18, 37, and 75 micrograms/ml, total body clearance was 218 ml/min per 1.73 m2, renal clearance was 176 ml/min per 1.73 m2, and mean retention time in the body was 1.11 h. Cumulative urinary excretion of intact cefatrizine was 80% of the dose, and half-lives ranged from 1 to 1.4 h. Steady-state volume of distribution was 0.22 liters/kg. On oral administration, the absolute bioavailabilities of cefatrizine were 75% at 250 and 500 mg and 50% at 1,000 mg. The mean peak plasma concentrations and peak times were, respectively, 4.9, 8.6, and 10.2 micrograms/ml at 1.4, 1.6, and 2.0 h, mean residence times were 2.4, 2.6, and 3.1 h, and mean absorption times were 1.3, 1.6, and 1.9 h. Oral renal clearance and half-life values corresponded well to the intravenous values. Cumulative urinary excretion of intact cefatrizine (as percentage of dose) was 60 at 250 mg, 56 at 500 mg, and 42 at 1,000 mg. It is hypothesized that the lack of oral dose linearity between the 500- and 1,000-mg doses is due to a component of cefatrizine absorption by a saturable transport process. Relative absorption at the high dose would be sufficiently slow that an absorption "window" would be passed before maximum bioavailability could be attained. It is not expected that the observed bioavailability decrease at doses exceeding 500 mg will have any therapeutic significance, since clinical studies are establishing efficacy for a recommended unit dosage regimen of 500 mg. PMID:6660858

  7. The absolute magnitude distribution of Kuiper Belt objects

    SciTech Connect

    Fraser, Wesley C.; Brown, Michael E.; Morbidelli, Alessandro; Parker, Alex; Batygin, Konstantin

    2014-02-20

    Here we measure the absolute magnitude distributions (H-distribution) of the dynamically excited and quiescent (hot and cold) Kuiper Belt objects (KBOs), and test if they share the same H-distribution as the Jupiter Trojans. From a compilation of all useable ecliptic surveys, we find that the KBO H-distributions are well described by broken power laws. The cold population has a bright-end slope, α{sub 1}=1.5{sub −0.2}{sup +0.4}, and break magnitude, H{sub B}=6.9{sub −0.2}{sup +0.1} (r'-band). The hot population has a shallower bright-end slope of, α{sub 1}=0.87{sub −0.2}{sup +0.07}, and break magnitude H{sub B}=7.7{sub −0.5}{sup +1.0}. Both populations share similar faint-end slopes of α{sub 2} ∼ 0.2. We estimate the masses of the hot and cold populations are ∼0.01 and ∼3 × 10{sup –4} M {sub ⊕}. The broken power-law fit to the Trojan H-distribution has α{sub 1} = 1.0 ± 0.2, α{sub 2} = 0.36 ± 0.01, and H {sub B} = 8.3. The Kolmogorov-Smirnov test reveals that the probability that the Trojans and cold KBOs share the same parent H-distribution is less than 1 in 1000. When the bimodal albedo distribution of the hot objects is accounted for, there is no evidence that the H-distributions of the Trojans and hot KBOs differ. Our findings are in agreement with the predictions of the Nice model in terms of both mass and H-distribution of the hot and Trojan populations. Wide-field survey data suggest that the brightest few hot objects, with H{sub r{sup ′}}≲3, do not fall on the steep power-law slope of fainter hot objects. Under the standard hierarchical model of planetesimal formation, it is difficult to account for the similar break diameters of the hot and cold populations given the low mass of the cold belt.

  8. Absolute partial decay-branch measurements in 13C

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wheldon, C.; Ashwood, N. I.; Barr, M.; Curtis, N.; Freer, M.; Kokalova, Tz.; Malcolm, J. D.; Ziman, V. A.; Faestermann, Th.; Wirth, H.-F.; Hertenberger, R.; Lutter, R.

    2012-10-01

    The 9Be(6Li,d)13C* reaction at a beam energy of 42 MeV has been investigated using a large-acceptance silicon-strip detector array and the high-resolution Q3D magnetic spectrograph. The Q3D facilitated the unambiguous determination of the reaction channel via identification of the deuteron ejectile, thereby providing the spectrum of excited states in 13C in the range from 10.7 to 15.0 MeV. The silicon array was used to detect and identify the 13C recoil-breakup products with efficiencies of up to 49%. The results obtained for the absolute partial branching ratios represent the first complete measurements for states in this energy region and allow the extraction of reduced widths. The quantities measured for Γn0/Γtot and Γn1/Γtot are 0.91±0.11 and ≤0.13 (10.753 MeV), 0.51±0.04 and 0.51±0.04 (10.818 MeV), 0.68±0.03 and 0.42±0.02 (10.996 MeV), 0.49±0.08 and 0.71±0.11 (11.848 MeV), and 0.49±0.08 and 0.53±0.08 (12.130 MeV), respectively. For the two observed higher-lying energy levels, Γα0/Γtot and Γn1/Γtot have been measured as 0.54±0.02 and 0.45±0.02 (13.760 MeV) and 0.94±0.03 and 0.13±0.02 (14.582 MeV), respectively. The consequences for the proposed molecular structures in 13C are explored following the extraction of reduced widths.

  9. North American fertilizer capacity data

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-12-01

    This listing of producers and their fertilizer production capacities was compiled in October 1991 with the cooperation of the US and Canadian fertilizer industry. Fertilizers production is reported or forecasted for the years 1987 through 1997. The fertilizers reported on are: ammonia, ammonium nitrate, nitrogen solutions, urea, phosphate rock, wet-process phosphoric acid, ammonium phosphates, concentrated superphosphates, and potash.

  10. North American fertilizer capacity data

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-12-01

    This listing of producers and their fertilizer production capacities was compiled in October 1991 with the cooperation of the US and Canadian fertilizer industries. Yearly production and forecasts are given for 1987 through 1997. Fertilizers reported on include: ammonium sulfate, nitric acid, wet-process superphosphoric acid, normal superphosphate, elemental phosphorus, potassium sulfate, and sulfate of potash/magnesia.

  11. AccessSTEM: Building Capacity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DO-IT, 2009

    2009-01-01

    A series of activities were undertaken to understand the underrepresentation of people with disabilities in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) careers and increase their participation in these fields. "AccessSTEM" collaborated with key stakeholders to conduct a "Capacity-Building Institute" ("CBI") in April 2009; share…

  12. What limits working memory capacity?

    PubMed

    Oberauer, Klaus; Farrell, Simon; Jarrold, Christopher; Lewandowsky, Stephan

    2016-07-01

    We review the evidence for the 3 principal theoretical contenders that vie to explain why and how working memory (WM) capacity is limited. We examine the possibility that capacity limitations arise from temporal decay; we examine whether they might reflect a limitation in cognitive resources; and we ask whether capacity might be limited because of mutual interference of representations in WM. We evaluate each hypothesis against a common set of findings reflecting the capacity limit: The set-size effect and its modulation by domain-specificity and heterogeneity of the memory set; the effects of unfilled retention intervals and of distractor processing in the retention interval; and the pattern of correlates of WM tests. We conclude that-at least for verbal memoranda-a decay explanation is untenable. A resource-based view remains tenable but has difficulty accommodating several findings. The interference approach has its own set of difficulties but accounts best for the set of findings, and therefore, appears to present the most promising approach for future development. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:26950009

  13. Capacity Issue Looms for Vouchers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zehr, Mary Ann

    2011-01-01

    State-level momentum in support of vouchers and tax credits that help students go to private schools highlights what has been a largely theoretical issue: private school capacity to support voucher-financed enrollment. Academics say the national supply of seats in secular and religious private schools is sufficient to meet short-term demand from…

  14. Quantum channel capacities: Multiparty communication

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Demianowicz, Maciej; Horodecki, Paweł

    2006-10-01

    We analyze different aspects of multiparty communication over quantum memoryless channels and generalize some of the key results known from bipartite channels to the multiparty scenario. In particular, we introduce multiparty versions of subspace and entanglement transmission fidelities. We also provide alternative, local, versions of fidelities and show their equivalence to the global ones in context of capacity regions defined. An equivalence of two different capacity notions with respect to two types of fidelities is proven. In analogy to the bipartite case it is shown, via sufficiency of isometric encoding theorem, that additional classical forward side channel does not increase capacity region of any quantum channel with k senders and m receivers which represents a compact unit of general quantum networks theory. The result proves that recently provided capacity region of a multiple access channel [M. Horodecki , Nature 436, 673 (2005); J. Yard , e-print quant-ph/0501045], is optimal also in a scenario of an additional support of forward classical communication.

  15. Usage tests of oak moss absolutes containing high and low levels of atranol and chloroatranol.

    PubMed

    Mowitz, Martin; Svedman, Cecilia; Zimerson, Erik; Bruze, Magnus

    2014-07-01

    Atranol and chloroatranol are strong contact allergens in oak moss absolute, a lichen extract used in perfumery. Fifteen subjects with contact allergy to oak moss absolute underwent a repeated open application test (ROAT) using solutions of an untreated oak moss absolute (sample A) and an oak moss absolute with reduced content of atranol and chloroatranol (sample B). All subjects were in addition patch-tested with serial dilutions of samples A and B. Statistically significantly more subjects reacted to sample A than to sample B in the patch tests. No corresponding difference was observed in the ROAT, though there was a significant difference in the time required to elicit a positive reaction. Still, the ROAT indicates that the use of a cosmetic product containing oak moss absolute with reduced levels of atranol and chloroatranol is capable of eliciting an allergic reaction in previously sensitised individuals. PMID:24287679

  16. Potential Skin Regeneration Activity and Chemical Composition of Absolute from Pueraria thunbergiana Flower.

    PubMed

    Kim, Do-Yoon; Won, Kyung-Jong; Hwang, Dae-Il; Yoon, Seok Won; Lee, Su Jin; Park, Joo-Hoon; Yoon, Myeong Sik; Kim, Bokyung; Lee, Hwan Myung

    2015-11-01

    The flower of Pueraria thunbergiana BENTH (PTBF) contains isoflavonoids and essential oil components. It has many biological and pharmacological activities, including anti-diabetes, anti-oxidant, and weight loss. However, its effect on skin regeneration remains unknown. In the present study, we isolated the absolute from PTBF through solvent extraction and determined the role of the absolute on skin regeneration-associated responses in human epidermal-keratinocytes (HaCats). The PTBF absolute, which contained 10 compounds, stimulated migration and proliferation and increased the phosphorylation of serine/threonine-specific protein kinase and extracellular signal-regulated kinasel/2 in HaCats. It induced type I and IV collagen synthesis in HaCats. In addition, treatment with PTBF absolute resulted in increased sprout outgrowth in HaCats. These findings suggest that PTBF absolute may participate in skin regeneration, probably through promotion of migration, proliferation, and collagen synthesis. PMID:26749850

  17. Short-Term Forecasting of Loads and Wind Power for Latvian Power System: Accuracy and Capacity of the Developed Tools

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Radziukynas, V.; Klementavičius, A.

    2016-04-01

    The paper analyses the performance results of the recently developed short-term forecasting suit for the Latvian power system. The system load and wind power are forecasted using ANN and ARIMA models, respectively, and the forecasting accuracy is evaluated in terms of errors, mean absolute errors and mean absolute percentage errors. The investigation of influence of additional input variables on load forecasting errors is performed. The interplay of hourly loads and wind power forecasting errors is also evaluated for the Latvian power system with historical loads (the year 2011) and planned wind power capacities (the year 2023).

  18. On the absolute calibration of SO2 cameras

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lübcke, P.; Bobrowski, N.; Illing, S.; Kern, C.; Alvarez Nieves, J. M.; Vogel, L.; Zielcke, J.; Delgado Granados, H.; Platt, U.

    2012-09-01

    Sulphur dioxide emission flux measurements are an important tool for volcanic monitoring and eruption risk assessment. The SO2 camera technique remotely measures volcanic emissions by analysing the ultraviolet absorption of SO2 in a narrow spectral window between 305 nm and 320 nm using solar radiation scattered in the atmosphere. The SO2 absorption is selectively detected by mounting band-pass interference filters in front of a two-dimensional, UV-sensitive CCD detector. While this approach is simple and delivers valuable insights into the two-dimensional SO2 distribution, absolute calibration has proven to be difficult. An accurate calibration of the SO2 camera (i.e., conversion from optical density to SO2 column density, CD) is crucial to obtain correct SO2 CDs and flux measurements that are comparable to other measurement techniques and can be used for volcanological applications. The most common approach for calibrating SO2 camera measurements is based on inserting quartz cells (cuvettes) containing known amounts of SO2 into the light path. It has been found, however, that reflections from the windows of the calibration cell can considerably affect the signal measured by the camera. Another possibility for calibration relies on performing simultaneous measurements in a small area of the camera's field-of-view (FOV) by a narrow-field-of-view Differential Optical Absorption Spectroscopy (NFOV-DOAS) system. This procedure combines the very good spatial and temporal resolution of the SO2 camera technique with the more accurate column densities obtainable from DOAS measurements. This work investigates the uncertainty of results gained through the two commonly used, but quite different calibration methods (DOAS and calibration cells). Measurements with three different instruments, an SO2 camera, a NFOV-DOAS system and an Imaging DOAS (IDOAS), are presented. We compare the calibration-cell approach with the calibration from the NFOV-DOAS system. The respective

  19. Remarks on entanglement assisted classical capacity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fan, Heng

    2003-06-01

    The property of the optimal signal ensembles of entanglement assisted channel capacity is studied. A relationship between entanglement assisted channel capacity and one-shot capacity of unassisted channel is obtained. The data processing inequalities, convexity and additivity of the entanglement assisted channel capacity are reformulated by simple methods.

  20. High capacity carbon dioxide sorbent

    SciTech Connect

    Dietz, Steven Dean; Alptekin, Gokhan; Jayaraman, Ambalavanan

    2015-09-01

    The present invention provides a sorbent for the removal of carbon dioxide from gas streams, comprising: a CO.sub.2 capacity of at least 9 weight percent when measured at 22.degree. C. and 1 atmosphere; an H.sub.2O capacity of at most 15 weight percent when measured at 25.degree. C. and 1 atmosphere; and an isosteric heat of adsorption of from 5 to 8.5 kilocalories per mole of CO.sub.2. The invention also provides a carbon sorbent in a powder, a granular or a pellet form for the removal of carbon dioxide from gas streams, comprising: a carbon content of at least 90 weight percent; a nitrogen content of at least 1 weight percent; an oxygen content of at most 3 weight percent; a BET surface area from 50 to 2600 m.sup.2/g; and a DFT micropore volume from 0.04 to 0.8 cc/g.