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Sample records for absolute mole fractions

  1. Moles

    MedlinePlus

    ... are growths on the skin. They happen when pigment cells in the skin, called melanocytes, grow in clusters. Moles are very common. Most people have between 10 and 40 moles. A person may develop new moles from time to time, usually until about ...

  2. Moles

    MedlinePlus

    ... sizes and shapes. Special cells that contain the pigment melanin cause the brown color. Facial moles are ... They also leave nevus cells behind and the pigment often seems to reappear. Back to Index The ...

  3. Background Mole Fractions of Hydrocarbons in North America Determined from NOAA Global Reference Network Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mielke-Maday, I.

    2015-12-01

    The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) Global Monitoring Division (GMD) maintains a global reference network for over 50 trace gas species and analyzes discrete air samples collected by this network throughout the world at the Earth System Research Laboratory in Boulder, Colorado. In particular, flask samples are analyzed for a number of hydrocarbons with policy and health relevance such as ozone precursors, greenhouse gases, and hazardous air pollutants. Because this global network's sites are remote and therefore minimally influenced by local anthropogenic emissions, these data yield information about background ambient mole fractions and can provide a context for observations collected in intensive field campaigns, such as the Front Range Air Pollution and Photochemistry Experiment (FRAPPE), the Southeast Nexus (SENEX) study, and the DISCOVER-AQ deployments. Information about background mole fractions during field campaigns is critical for calculating hydrocarbon enhancements in the region of study and for assessing the extent to which a particular region's local emissions sources contribute to these enhancements. Understanding the geographic variability of the background and its contribution to regional ambient mole fractions is also crucial for the development of realistic regulations. We present background hydrocarbon mole fractions and their ratios in North America using data from air samples collected in the planetary boundary layer at tall towers and aboard aircraft from 2008 to 2014. We discuss the spatial and seasonal variability in these data. We present trends over the time period of measurements and propose possible explanations for these trends.

  4. Injectant mole-fraction imaging in compressible mixing flows using planar laser-induced iodine fluorescence

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hartfield, Roy J., Jr.; Abbitt, John D., III; Mcdaniel, James C.

    1989-01-01

    A technique is described for imaging the injectant mole-fraction distribution in nonreacting compressible mixing flow fields. Planar fluorescence from iodine, seeded into air, is induced by a broadband argon-ion laser and collected using an intensified charge-injection-device array camera. The technique eliminates the thermodynamic dependence of the iodine fluorescence in the compressible flow field by taking the ratio of two images collected with identical thermodynamic flow conditions but different iodine seeding conditions.

  5. Model-data comparison of MCI field campaign atmospheric CO2 mole fractions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Díaz Isaac, Liza I.; Lauvaux, Thomas; Davis, Kenneth J.; Miles, Natasha L.; Richardson, Scott J.; Jacobson, Andrew R.; Andrews, Arlyn E.

    2014-09-01

    Atmospheric transport model errors are a major contributor to uncertainty in CO2 inverse flux estimates. Our study compares CO2 mole fraction observations from the North American Carbon Program Mid-Continental Intensive (MCI) field campaign and modeled mole fractions from two atmospheric transport models: the global Transport Model 5 from NOAA's CarbonTracker system and the mesoscale Weather Research and Forecasting model. Both models are coupled to identical CO2 fluxes and lateral boundary conditions from CarbonTracker (CT2009 release). Statistical analyses were performed for two periods of 2007 using observed daily daytime average mole fractions of CO2 to test the ability of these models to reproduce the observations and to infer possible causes of the discrepancies. TM5-CT2009 overestimates midsummer planetary boundary layer CO2 for sites in the U.S. corn belt by 10 ppm. Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF)-CT2009 estimates diverge from the observations with similar magnitudes, but the signs of the differences vary from site to site. The modeled mole fractions are highly correlated with the observed seasonal cycle (r ≥ 0.7) but less correlated in the growing season, where weather-related changes in CO2 dominate the observed variability. Spatial correlations in residuals from TM5-CT2009 are higher than WRF-CT2009 perhaps due to TM5's coarse horizontal resolution and shallow vertical mixing. Vertical mixing appears to have influenced CO2 residuals from both models. TM5-CT2009 has relatively weak vertical mixing near the surface limiting the connection between local CO2 surface fluxes and boundary layer. WRF-CT2009 has stronger vertical mixing that may increase the connections between local surface fluxes and the boundary layer.

  6. Raman line imaging for spatially and temporally resolved mole fraction measurements in internal combustion engines.

    PubMed

    Miles, P C

    1999-03-20

    An optical diagnostic system based on line imaging of Raman-scattered light has been developed to study the mixing processes in internal combustion engines. The system permits multipoint, single laser-shot measurements of CO(2), O(2), N(2), C(3)H(8), and H(2)O mole fractions with submillimeter spatial resolution. Selection of appropriate system hardware is discussed, as are subsequent data reduction and analysis procedures. Results are reported for data obtained at multiple crank angles and in two different engine flow fields. Measurements are made at 12 locations simultaneously, each location having measurement volume dimensions of 0.5 mm x 0.5 mm x 0.9 mm. The data are analyzed to obtain statistics of species mole fractions: mean, rms, histograms, and both spatial and cross-species covariance functions. The covariance functions are used to quantify the accuracy of the measured rms mole fraction fluctuations, to determine the integral length scales of the mixture inhomogeneities, and to quantify the cycle-to-cycle fluctuations in bulk mixture composition under well-mixed conditions. PMID:18305796

  7. Study of atmospheric CH4 mole fractions at three WMO/GAW stations in China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fang, Shuang-Xi; Zhou, Ling-Xi; Masarie, Kenneth A.; Xu, Lin; Rella, Chris W.

    2013-05-01

    CH4 mole fractions were continuously measured from 2009 to 2011 at three WMO/GAW stations in China (Lin'an, LAN; Longfengshan, LFS; and Waliguan, WLG) using three Cavity Ring Down Spectroscopy instruments. LAN and LFS are GAW regional measurement stations. LAN is located in China's most economically developed region, and LFS is in a rice production area (planting area > 40,000 km2). WLG is a global measurement station in remote northwest China. At LAN, high methane mole fractions are observed in all seasons. Surface winds from the northeast enhance CH4 values, with a maximum increase of 32 ± 15 ppb in summer. The peak to peak amplitude of the seasonal cycle is 77 ± 35 ppb. At LFS, the diurnal cycle amplitude is approximately constant throughout the year except summer, when a value of 196 ± 65 ppb is observed. CH4 values at LFS reach their peak in July, which is different from seasonal variations typically observed in the northern hemisphere. CH4 mole fractions at WLG show both the smallest values and the lowest variability. Maximum values occur during summer, which is different from other northern hemisphere WMO/GAW global stations. The seasonal cycle amplitude is 17 ± 11 ppb. The linear growth rates at LAN, LFS, and WLG are 8.0 ± 1.2, 7.9 ± 0.9, and 9.4 ± 0.2 ppb yr-1, respectively, which are all larger than the global mean over the same 3 year period. Results from this study attempt to improve our basic understanding of observed atmospheric CH4 in China.

  8. Two-dimensional Raman mole-fraction and temperature measurements for hydrogen-nitrogen mixture analysis.

    PubMed

    Braeuer, Andreas; Leipertz, Alfred

    2009-02-01

    A two-dimensional laser Raman technique was developed and applied to directly probe the population number of selected rotational and vibrational energy levels of hydrogen and nitrogen. Using three cameras simultaneously, temperature and mole fraction images could be detected. Three different combinations of rotational and vibrational Raman signals of hydrogen and nitrogen were analyzed to identify the combination that is most suitable for future mixture analysis in hydrogen internal combustion engines. Here the experiments were conducted in an injection chamber where hot hydrogen was injected into room temperature nitrogen at 1.1 MPa. PMID:19183582

  9. Two-dimensional electron gas (2DEG) mobility affected by the in mole fraction fluctuation in InxAl1-xN/GaN heterostructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Guipeng; Zhang, Jinfeng; Lu, Kunyi; Chen, Wenjie; Tian, Yonghui; Yang, Jianhong

    2016-09-01

    In an InxAl1-xN/GaN heterostructure, we have studied the mobility limited by the In mole fraction fluctuation scattering. The In mole fraction fluctuation characterizes the quality of the InxAl1-xN material with two parameters, one is the mole fraction fluctuation δx and the other is its lateral s Λ. Similar to a roughness scattering, for a fixed mole fraction x, the mobility limited by the In mole fraction fluctuation initially decreases with Λ increasing, reaches a minimum at a certain value of Λ and then increases.

  10. (H2)2 mole-fraction altitude profile in the atmosphere of Jupiter: A computational study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Slanina, Z.; Kim, S. J.; Fox, K.

    1994-02-01

    The mole fraction x2 of (H2)2 in equilibrium mixture with H2 under the atmospheric conditions of Jupiter is evaluated from the dimerization equilibrium constant calculated by quantum-chemical treatments and also from the Lennard-Jones potential. The treatments are of an ab initio type with the second and fourth order Moller-Plesset perturbation techniques and a basis set superposition error evaluation. The computed dimerization equilibrium constant is combined with observed height profiles of temperature and pressure. In six treatments considered it is found that the mole fraction decreases with increasing height. Various approximations suggest the dimeric mole fraction at the Jupiter 1 atm pressure level between 0.04 and 1.06%.

  11. (H2)2 mole-fraction altitude profile in the atmosphere of Jupiter: A computational study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Slanina, Zdenek; Kim, Sang J.; Fox, Kenneth

    1994-01-01

    The mole fraction x(sub 2) of (H2)2 in equilibrium mixture with H2 under the atmospheric conditions of Jupiter is evaluated from the dimerization equilibrium constant calculated by quantum-chemical treatments and also from the Lennard-Jones potential. The treatments are of an ab initio type with the second and fourth order Moller-Plesset perturbation techniques and a basis set superposition error evaluation. The computed dimerization equilibrium constant is combined with observed height profiles of temperature and pressure. In six treatments considered it is found that the mole fraction decreases with increasing height. Various approximations suggest the dimeric mole fraction at the Jupiter 1 atm pressure level between 0.04 and 1.06%.

  12. Titan's Surface Brightness Temperatures and H2 Mole Fraction from Cassini CIRS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jennings, Donald E.; Flasar, F. M.; Kunde, V. G.; Samuelson, R. E.; Pearl, J. C.; Nixon, C. A.; Carlson, R. C.; Mamoutkine, A. A.; Brasunas, J. C.; Guandique, E.; Achterberg, R. K.; Bjoraker, G. L.; Romani, P. N.; Segura, M. E.; Albright, S. A.; Elliott, M. H.; Tingley, J. S.; Calcutt, S.; Coustenis, A.; Bezard, B.; Courtin, R.

    2008-01-01

    The atmosphere of Titan has a spectral window of low opacity around 530/cm in the thermal infrared where radiation from the surface can be detected from space. The Composite Infrared spectrometer1 (CIRS) uses this window to measure the surface brightness temperature of Titan. By combining all observations from the Cassini tour it is possible to go beyond previous Voyager IRIS studies in latitude mapping of surface temperature. CIRS finds an average equatorial surface brightness temperature of 93.7+/-0.6 K, which is close to the 93.65+/-0.25 K value measured at the surface by Huygens HASi. The temperature decreases toward the poles, reaching 91.6+/-0.7 K at 90 S and 90.0+/-1.0 K at 87 N. The temperature distribution is centered in latitude at approximately 12 S, consistent with Titan's season of late northern winter. Near the equator the temperature varies with longitude and is higher in the trailing hemisphere, where the lower albedo may lead to relatively greater surface heating5. Modeling of radiances at 590/cm constrains the atmospheric H2 mole fraction to 0.12+/-0.06 %, in agreement with results from Voyager iris.

  13. Assessing filtering of mountaintop CO2 mole fractions for application to inverse models of biosphere-atmosphere carbon exchange

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brooks, B.-G. J.; Desai, A. R.; Stephens, B. B.; Bowling, D. R.; Burns, S. P.; Watt, A. S.; Heck, S. L.; Sweeney, C.

    2012-02-01

    There is a widely recognized need to improve our understanding of biosphere-atmosphere carbon exchanges in areas of complex terrain including the United States Mountain West. CO2 fluxes over mountainous terrain are often difficult to measure due to unusual and complicated influences associated with atmospheric transport. Consequently, deriving regional fluxes in mountain regions with carbon cycle inversion of atmospheric CO2 mole fraction is sensitive to filtering of observations to those that can be represented at the transport model resolution. Using five years of CO2 mole fraction observations from the Regional Atmospheric Continuous CO2 Network in the Rocky Mountains (Rocky RACCOON), five statistical filters are used to investigate a range of approaches for identifying regionally representative CO2 mole fractions. Test results from three filters indicate that subsets based on short-term variance and local CO2 gradients across tower inlet heights retain nine-tenths of the total observations and are able to define representative diel variability and seasonal cycles even for difficult-to-model sites where the influence of local fluxes is much larger than regional mole fraction variations. Test results from two other filters that consider measurements from previous and following days using spline fitting or sliding windows are overly selective. Case study examples showed that these windowing-filters rejected measurements representing synoptic changes in CO2, which suggests that they are not well suited to filtering continental CO2 measurements. We present a novel CO2 lapse rate filter that uses CO2 differences between levels in the model atmosphere to select subsets of site measurements that are representative on model scales. Our new filtering techniques provide guidance for novel approaches to assimilating mountain-top CO2 mole fractions in carbon cycle inverse models.

  14. Raman Scattering Spectra of the Folded Acoustic Phonon in AlxGa1-xAs/GaAs Superlattices for Various Al Mole Fractions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fukasawa, Ryoichi; Okubo, Yusei; Abe, Osamu; Ohta, Kimihiro

    1992-03-01

    We report the Raman scattering spectra of the folded longitudinal acoustic phonon of AlxGa1-xAs/GaAs superlattices for various aluminium (Al) mole fractions. The effect of Al mole fraction increases on the Raman intensities and the frequencies was studied.

  15. Study of the regional CO2 mole fractions filtering approach at a WMO/GAW regional station in China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fang, S. X.; Tans, P. P.; Steinbacher, M.; Zhou, L. X.; Luan, T.

    2015-07-01

    The identification of atmospheric CO2 observation data which is minimally influenced by very local emissions/removals is essential for the estimation of trend analysis, regional sources and sinks, and for modeling of long-range transport of CO2. In this study, four approaches are used to filter the atmospheric CO2 observation records from 2009 to 2011 at one World Meteorological Organization/Global Atmosphere Watch (WMO/GAW) regional station (Lin'an, LAN) in China. The methods are based on the atmospheric black carbon concentration (BC), on a statistical approach (REBS), on CH4 as auxiliary tracer (AUX) and on meteorological parameters (MET). All approaches do suitably well to capture the seasonal CO2 cycle at LAN. Differences are observed in the average regional mole fractions with annual values in the REBS method at least 1.7 ± 0.2 ppm higher than the other methods. The BC method may underestimate the regional CO2 mole fractions during winter-spring period and should be treated with caution. The REBS method is a purely statistical method and it may also introduce errors on the regional CO2 mole fractions evaluations, as the filtered trend may be deviated by the "noisy" raw data series. Although there are correlations between CH4 and CO2 mole fractions at LAN, the different source/sink regimes may introduce bias on the regional CO2 estimation in the AUX method, typically in summer. Overall, the MET method seems to be the most favorable because it mainly focuses on the influence of potential local sources and sinks and considers diurnal variations, local topography, and meteorological conditions. Using the MET method, the annual growth rate of regional CO2 at LAN is determined to be 3.1 ± 0.01 ppm yr-1 (standard error) from 2009 to 2013.

  16. Comparison of the regional CO2 mole fraction filtering approaches at a WMO/GAW regional station in China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fang, S. X.; Tans, P. P.; Steinbacher, M.; Zhou, L. X.; Luan, T.

    2015-12-01

    The identification of atmospheric CO2 observation data which are minimally influenced by very local emissions/removals is essential for trend analysis, for the estimation of regional sources and sinks, and for the modeling of long-range transport of CO2. In this study, four approaches are used to filter the atmospheric CO2 observation records from 2009 to 2011 at one World Meteorological Organization/Global Atmosphere Watch (WMO/GAW) regional station (Lin'an, LAN) in China. The methods are based on the concentration of atmospheric black carbon (BC), on a statistical approach (robust extraction of baseline signal, REBS), on CH4 as an auxiliary tracer (AUX), and on meteorological parameters (MET). All approaches do suitably well to capture the seasonal CO2 cycle at LAN. Differences are observed in the average regional mole fractions with annual values in the REBS method at least 1.7 ± 0.2 ppm higher than the other methods. The BC method may underestimate the regional CO2 mole fractions during the winter-spring period and should be treated with caution. The REBS method is a purely statistical method and it may also introduce errors on the regional CO2 mole fraction evaluations, as the filtered trend may be influenced by the "noisy" raw data series. Although there are correlations between CH4 and CO2 mole fractions at LAN, the different source/sink regimes may introduce bias on the regional CO2 estimation in the AUX method, typically in summer. Overall, the MET method seems to be the most favorable because it mainly focuses on the influence of potential local sources and sinks, and considers diurnal variations and meteorological conditions. Using the MET method, the annual growth rate of regional CO2 at LAN is determined to be 3.1 ± 0.01 ppm yr-1 (standard error) from 2009 to 2011.

  17. CFD modelling of most probable bubble nucleation rate from binary mixture with estimation of components' mole fraction in critical cluster

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hong, Ban Zhen; Keong, Lau Kok; Shariff, Azmi Mohd

    2016-05-01

    The employment of different mathematical models to address specifically for the bubble nucleation rates of water vapour and dissolved air molecules is essential as the physics for them to form bubble nuclei is different. The available methods to calculate bubble nucleation rate in binary mixture such as density functional theory are complicated to be coupled along with computational fluid dynamics (CFD) approach. In addition, effect of dissolved gas concentration was neglected in most study for the prediction of bubble nucleation rates. The most probable bubble nucleation rate for the water vapour and dissolved air mixture in a 2D quasi-stable flow across a cavitating nozzle in current work was estimated via the statistical mean of all possible bubble nucleation rates of the mixture (different mole fractions of water vapour and dissolved air) and the corresponding number of molecules in critical cluster. Theoretically, the bubble nucleation rate is greatly dependent on components' mole fraction in a critical cluster. Hence, the dissolved gas concentration effect was included in current work. Besides, the possible bubble nucleation rates were predicted based on the calculated number of molecules required to form a critical cluster. The estimation of components' mole fraction in critical cluster for water vapour and dissolved air mixture was obtained by coupling the enhanced classical nucleation theory and CFD approach. In addition, the distribution of bubble nuclei of water vapour and dissolved air mixture could be predicted via the utilisation of population balance model.

  18. Impact of indium mole fraction on the quantum transport of ultra-scaled In x Ga1- x As double-gate Schottky MOSFET: tight-binding approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahangari, Zahra

    2016-02-01

    This paper explores the impact of indium mole fraction on the electrical characteristic of In x Ga1- x As double-gate Schottky MOSFET (SBFET) in nanoscale regime. A 20-band sp 3 d 5 s * tight-binding formalism is applied to compute the bandstructure of ultra-thin body structure as a function of indium mole fraction. The injection velocity of carriers is increased as the indium mole fraction approaches to x = 1. Quantum confinement results in an increment of the effective Schottky barrier height especially for the increased values of indium mole fraction. The ultra-scaled In x Ga1- x As SBFET suffers from a low conduction band DOS in the Γ valley that results in serious degradation of the gate capacitance. The electrical characteristic of this device is considered by solving self-consistent 2D Schrődinger-Poisson equations based on non-equilibrium Green's function formalism. For channel thicknesses where the effect of quantum confinement on the gate capacitance is not dominant, shrinking the channel thickness besides increasing the indium mole fraction improves the electrical characteristic of the device. However, for the ultra-scaled structure, the indium mole fraction enhancement degrades the device performance due to the enhanced value of Schottky barrier height and low DOS.

  19. Theoretical study of the voltage and concentration dependence of the anomalous mole fraction effect in single calcium channels. New insights into the characterization of multi-ion channels.

    PubMed Central

    Campbell, D L; Rasmusson, R L; Strauss, H C

    1988-01-01

    Several recent independent studies on macroscopic Ca currents have demonstrated the anomalous mole fraction effect in mixtures of Ca and Ba at concentrations of 10 mM or less. Recently, Hess and Tsien (1984; Nature 309) proposed a dual binding site model, based upon Eyring rate theory, to account for this effect in L-type cardiac Ca channels. This model predicts that the anomalous mole fraction effect can be accounted for solely in terms of open single channel permeation properties; it was able to adequately reproduce the effect for macroscopic Ca currents recorded in 10 mM solutions. However, the electrochemical gradients under which single Ca channel current recordings are routinely made with the patch clamp technique vary dramatically from those used for macroscopic Ca currents. To properly assess the general validity of the Hess and Tsien model at the single Ca channel level, the effects of both large electrical potentials and elevated divalent concentrations must be understood. Computer simulations were therefore carried out using the original parameters used by Hess and Tsien under conditions designed to mimic those used in patch clamp studies. The permeation behavior generated by this model is quite complex. In particular, hyperpolarization and increased divalent concentration combine to reduce and ultimately abolish the anomalous mole fraction effect. It may therefore be very difficult to observe the anomalous mole fraction effect at the single Ca channel level; the dual-site model displays a relationship between current and mole fraction generally associated with a single-site model under the conditions frequently employed to resolve single Ca channel activity. Nonetheless, analysis of such monotonic mole fraction behavior can still be used as a test for the general validity of the dual-site model. Apparent Kms for Ca and Ba can be extracted from such monotonic behavior, and may not only be functions of membrane potential but may also depend upon the total

  20. Large amplitude spatial and temporal gradients in atmospheric boundary layer CO2 mole fractions detected with a tower-based network in the U.S. upper Midwest

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miles, Natasha L.; Richardson, Scott J.; Davis, Kenneth J.; Lauvaux, Thomas; Andrews, Arlyn E.; West, Tristram O.; Bandaru, Varaprasad; Crosson, Eric R.

    2012-03-01

    This study presents observations of atmospheric boundary layer CO2mole fraction from a nine-tower regional network deployed during the North American Carbon Program's Mid-Continent Intensive (MCI) during 2007-2009. The MCI region is largely agricultural, with well-documented carbon exchange available via agricultural inventories. By combining vegetation maps and tower footprints, we show the fractional influence of corn, soy, grass, and forest biomes varies widely across the MCI. Differences in the magnitude of CO2 flux from each of these biomes lead to large spatial gradients in the monthly averaged CO2mole fraction observed in the MCI. In other words, the monthly averaged gradients are tied to regional patterns in net ecosystem exchange (NEE). The daily scale gradients are more weakly connected to regional NEE, instead being governed by local weather and large-scale weather patterns. With this network of tower-based mole fraction measurements, we detect climate-driven interannual changes in crop growth that are confirmed by satellite and inventory methods. These observations show that regional-scale CO2 mole fraction networks yield large, coherent signals governed largely by regional sources and sinks of CO2.

  1. Long-term validation of tropospheric column-averaged CH4 mole fractions obtained by mid-infrared ground-based FTIR spectrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sepúlveda, E.; Schneider, M.; Hase, F.; García, O. E.; Gomez-Pelaez, A.; Dohe, S.; Blumenstock, T.; Guerra, J. C.

    2012-06-01

    At the Izaña Atmospheric Research Center, high-resolution mid-infrared solar absorption spectra have been recorded for more than 12 yr using Fourier Transform InfraRed (FTIR) spectrometers. We use the spectral fitting algorithm PROFFIT to retrieve long-term time series of methane (CH4) from the measured spectra. We investigate the total column-averaged dry air mole fractions of methane (totXCH4) obtained from a profile scaling and a profile retrieval, and apply two approaches for deriving the tropospheric column-averaged dry air mole fractions: firstly, we use the FTIR hydrogen fluoride (HF) total column amounts as an estimator for the stratospheric CH4 contribution and a posteriori correct the totXCH4 data of a profile scaling retrieval accordingly (troXCH4post); secondly, we directly determine the tropospheric column-averaged dry air mole fractions of methane (troXCH4retr) from retrieved CH4 profiles. Our theoretical estimation indicates that the scaling retrieval leads to totXCH4 amounts that are subject to a large smoothing error, which can be widely avoided by applying a profile retrieval (for the latter we estimate an overall precision of 0.41%). We compare the different FTIR CH4 data to Izaña's Global Atmospheric Watch (GAW) surface in-situ CH4 data (CH4GAW), which in the case of the Izaña Atmospheric Research Center high mountain observatory are very representative for the free tropospheric CH4 amounts. Concerning totXCH4, the agreement between the FTIR data product and the in-situ measurement is rather poor documenting that totXCH4 is not a valid free tropospheric CH4 proxy, as it is significantly affected by the varying stratospheric CH4 contribution and it rather follows the variation in the tropopause altitude. The a posteriori correction method as applied here only removes a part of this stratospheric CH4 contribution. In contrast the profile retrieval allows for a direct estimation of the tropospheric column-averaged CH4 amounts. Results of the

  2. Far-Infrared Reflectance Spectra of AlxGa1-xAs/GaAs Superlattices for Various Al Mole Fractions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fukasawa, Ryoichi; Wakaki, Moriaki; Shirawachi, Kikuo; Nishizawa, Seiji; Ohta, Kimihiro

    1992-08-01

    We report far-infrared reflectance spectra of AlxGa1-xAs/GaAs superlattices with various aluminium (Al) mole fractions (0.1

  3. Seasonality and interannual variability of CH4 fluxes from the eastern Amazon Basin inferred from atmospheric mole fraction profiles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Basso, Luana S.; Gatti, Luciana V.; Gloor, Manuel; Miller, John B.; Domingues, Lucas G.; Correia, Caio S. C.; Borges, Viviane F.

    2016-01-01

    The Amazon Basin is an important region for global CH4 emissions. It hosts the largest area of humid tropical forests, and around 20% of this area is seasonally flooded. In a warming climate it is possible that CH4 emissions from the Amazon will increase both as a result of increased temperatures and precipitation. To examine if there are indications of first signs of such changes we present here a 13 year (2000-2013) record of regularly measured vertical CH4 mole fraction profiles above the eastern Brazilian Amazon, sensitive to fluxes from the region upwind of Santarém (SAN), between SAN and the Atlantic coast. Using a simple mass balance approach, we find substantial CH4 emissions with an annual average flux of 52.8 ± 6.8 mg CH4 m-2 d-1 over an area of approximately 1 × 106 km2. Fluxes are highest in two periods of the year: in the beginning of the wet season and during the dry season. Using a CO:CH4 emission factor estimated from the profile data, we estimated a contribution of biomass burning of around 15% to the total flux in the dry season, indicating that biogenic emissions dominate the CH4 flux. This 13 year record shows that CH4 emissions upwind of SAN varied over the years, with highest emissions in 2008 (around 25% higher than in 2007), mainly during the wet season, representing 19% of the observed global increase in this year.

  4. Performance of N2O and CO analyser for high-precision measurements of atmospheric mole fractions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stanley, Kieran; O'Doherty, Simon

    2016-04-01

    N2O and CO are two important biogenic and anthropogenic greenhouse gases. N2O has a global warming potential approximately 300 times greater than CO2 on a per-molecule basis over a 100 year time horizon and is one of the most important factors affecting stratospheric ozone depletion. CO is a key gas in tropospheric photochemistry, constraining OH concentrations in the unpolluted atmosphere and the oxidising capacity in the troposphere. Due to the importance of N2O and CO as greenhouse and ozone depleting gases, precise high-frequency measurements of the two gases are necessary to better understand atmospheric mixing ratios. A number of different methods are available to measure the two gases, mainly based on chromatographic and reduction methods. The chromatographic method used to quantify atmospheric N2O mole fractions has not yet reached the WMO compatibility goal of ± 0.1 ppb. Over the past few years, new analytical techniques based on optical spectroscopy have been developed and become commercially available, providing near-real time data to high precision. In this presentation, we will give an overview of the performance of an Off Axis-Integrated Cavity Output Spectroscopy analyser with improvements made to temperature and pressure stability by the Scripps Institute of Oceanography. Results of the continuous repeatability measurement (referred to as precision by the manufacturers), short- and long-term repeatability, drift, temperature dependence, instrument linearity and H2O sensitivity will be presented.

  5. Comparison of nitrous oxide (N2O) analyzers for high-precision measurements of atmospheric mole fractions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lebegue, B.; Schmidt, M.; Ramonet, M.; Wastine, B.; Yver Kwok, C.; Laurent, O.; Belviso, S.; Guemri, A.; Philippon, C.; Smith, J.; Conil, S.; Jost, H. J.; Crosson, E. R.

    2015-10-01

    Over the last few decades, in-situ measurements of atmospheric N2O mole fractions have been performed using gas chromatographs (GCs) equipped with electron capture detectors (ECDs). When trying to meet the World Meteorological Organization's (WMO) quality goal, this technique becomes very challenging as the detectors are highly non-linear and the GCs at remote stations require a considerable amount of maintenance by qualified technicians to maintain good short-term and long-term repeatability. With more robust optical spectrometers being now available for N2O measurements, we aim to identify a robust and stable analyzer that can be integrated into atmospheric monitoring networks, such as the Integrated Carbon Observation System (ICOS). In this study, we tested seven analyzers that were developed and commercialized from five different companies and compared the results with established techniques. Each instrument was characterized during a time period of approximately eight weeks. The test protocols included the characterization of the short-term and long-term repeatability, drift, temperature dependence, linearity and sensitivity to water vapor. During the test period, ambient air measurements were compared under field conditions at the Gif-sur-Yvette station. All of the analyzers showed a standard deviation better than 0.1 ppb for the 10 min averages. Some analyzers would benefit from improvements in temperature stability to reduce the instrument drift, which could then help in reducing the frequency of calibrations. For most instruments, the water vapor correction algorithms applied by companies are not sufficient for high-precision atmospheric measurements, which results in the need to dry the ambient air prior to analysis.

  6. Comparison of nitrous oxide (N2O) analyzers for high-precision measurements of atmospheric mole fractions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lebegue, Benjamin; Schmidt, Martina; Ramonet, Michel; Wastine, Benoit; Yver Kwok, Camille; Laurent, Olivier; Belviso, Sauveur; Guemri, Ali; Philippon, Carole; Smith, Jeremiah; Conil, Sebastien

    2016-03-01

    Over the last few decades, in situ measurements of atmospheric N2O mole fractions have been performed using gas chromatographs (GCs) equipped with electron capture detectors. This technique, however, becomes very challenging when trying to detect the small variations of N2O as the detectors are highly nonlinear and the GCs at remote stations require a considerable amount of maintenance by qualified technicians to maintain good short-term and long-term repeatability. With new robust optical spectrometers now available for N2O measurements, we aim to identify a robust and stable analyzer that can be integrated into atmospheric monitoring networks, such as the Integrated Carbon Observation System (ICOS). In this study, we present the most complete comparison of N2O analyzers, with seven analyzers that were developed and commercialized by five different companies. Each instrument was characterized during a time period of approximately 8 weeks. The test protocols included the characterization of the short-term and long-term repeatability, drift, temperature dependence, linearity and sensitivity to water vapor. During the test period, ambient air measurements were compared under field conditions at the Gif-sur-Yvette station. All of the analyzers showed a standard deviation better than 0.1 ppb for the 10 min averages. Some analyzers would benefit from improvements in temperature stability to reduce the instrument drift, which could then help in reducing the frequency of calibrations. For most instruments, the water vapor correction algorithms applied by companies are not sufficient for high-precision atmospheric measurements, which results in the need to dry the ambient air prior to analysis.

  7. Impact of underlap and mole-fraction on RF performance of strained-Si/Si1-xGex/strained-Si DG MOSFETs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dutta, Arka; Koley, Kalyan; Sarkar, Chandan K.

    2014-11-01

    In this paper, a systematic RF performance analysis of double-gate strained silicon (DGSS) nMOSFETs is presented. The analysis is focused upon impact of Germanium mole-fraction variation on RF performance of underlap engineered DGSS nMOSFET. The RF performance of the device is analysed as a function of intrinsic RF figure of merits (FOMs) including non-quasi static effects (NQS). The RF FOMs are represented by the intrinsic gate to source/drain capacitance (Cgs and Cgd) and resistance (Rgs and Rgd), the transport delay (τm), the intrinsic inductance (Lsd), the cut-off frequency (fT), and the maximum oscillation frequency (fMAX). The results of the study suggested a significant improvement in the device performance, up to 40% increase in Germanium mole fraction (χ).

  8. Tunable diode laser absorption spectroscopy-based tomography system for on-line monitoring of two-dimensional distributions of temperature and H2O mole fraction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Lijun; Liu, Chang; Jing, Wenyang; Cao, Zhang; Xue, Xin; Lin, Yuzhen

    2016-01-01

    To monitor two-dimensional (2D) distributions of temperature and H2O mole fraction, an on-line tomography system based on tunable diode laser absorption spectroscopy (TDLAS) was developed. To the best of the authors' knowledge, this is the first report on a multi-view TDLAS-based system for simultaneous tomographic visualization of temperature and H2O mole fraction in real time. The system consists of two distributed feedback (DFB) laser diodes, a tomographic sensor, electronic circuits, and a computer. The central frequencies of the two DFB laser diodes are at 7444.36 cm-1 (1343.3 nm) and 7185.6 cm-1 (1391.67 nm), respectively. The tomographic sensor is used to generate fan-beam illumination from five views and to produce 60 ray measurements. The electronic circuits not only provide stable temperature and precise current controlling signals for the laser diodes but also can accurately sample the transmitted laser intensities and extract integrated absorbances in real time. Finally, the integrated absorbances are transferred to the computer, in which the 2D distributions of temperature and H2O mole fraction are reconstructed by using a modified Landweber algorithm. In the experiments, the TDLAS-based tomography system was validated by using asymmetric premixed flames with fixed and time-varying equivalent ratios, respectively. The results demonstrate that the system is able to reconstruct the profiles of the 2D distributions of temperature and H2O mole fraction of the flame and effectively capture the dynamics of the combustion process, which exhibits good potential for flame monitoring and on-line combustion diagnosis.

  9. Effect of the growth temperature and the AlN mole fraction on In incorporation and properties of quaternary III-nitride layers grown by molecular beam epitaxy

    SciTech Connect

    Fernandez-Garrido, S.; Pereiro, J.; Munoz, E.; Calleja, E.; Gago, R.; Bertram, F.; Christen, J.; Luna, E.; Trampert, A.

    2008-10-15

    Indium incorporation into wurtzite (0001)-oriented In{sub x}Al{sub y}Ga{sub 1-x-y}N layers grown by plasma-assisted molecular beam epitaxy was studied as a function of the growth temperature (565-635 deg. C) and the AlN mole fraction (0.01mole fractions. High resolution x-ray diffraction and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) measurements did not show evidence of phase separation. The mosaicity of the quaternary layers was found to be mainly determined by the growth temperature and independent on alloy composition within the range studied. However, depending on the AlN mole fraction, nanometer-sized composition fluctuations were detected by TEM. Photoluminescence spectra showed a single broad emission at room temperature, with energy and bandwidth S- and W-shaped temperature dependences typical of exciton localization by alloy inhomogeneities. Cathodoluminescence measurements demonstrated that the alloy inhomogeneities, responsible of exciton localization, occur on a lateral length scale below 150 nm, which is corroborated by TEM.

  10. Insights Into the Recent Rise in Atmospheric Methane Inferred from Observed Mole Fractions and Stable Carbon Isotopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    White, J. W. C.; Michel, S. E.; Tans, P. P.; Vaughn, B. H.; Dlugokencky, E. J.; Sherwood, O.; Miller, J. B.; Masarie, K. A.

    2015-12-01

    Methane is a troublesome greenhouse gas. It has multiple natural and anthropogenic sources, including microbial production in low oxygen environments, fossil sources related to coal and natural gas production, and biomass burning, making source attribution difficult. Atmospheric methane concentration rose rapidly in the industrial period, increasing by 250%, only to stall out in the first decade this century, and then rising again after 2007. Its emission is strongly related to variables that are hard to predict, such as precipitation rates, biomass burning, and natural gas use, so future projections remain murky. And unlike CO2, which is strongly tied to energy use, anthropogenic impacts on methane are strongly tied to food production. Finally, methane is expected to be released from a thawing Arctic in large, but largely unknown quantities. Understanding methane as a greenhouse gas is imperative if anthropogenic impacts on the climate system are to be managed in the future. This talk addresses what we can say about the recent rise in methane using mole fractions and 13C data from the existing NOAA Cooperative Global Air Sampling Network. The approach is strongly data based, and while we will present model results, the data itself are clear on several points. While attention is increasingly focused on the Arctic, the north-south gradient of CH4 concentration does not support significant changes to Boreal and Arctic emissions. This finding raises the question of how methane will behave in a warmer, wetter world. We use a simple, three end-member model, run in both forward and inverse modes, to look more deeply into the sources of the recent increase. Evidence exists for recent increases in fossil sources, in line with methane production as a fuel source, although the contribution is small. Better data are needed to constrain the 13C of sources, including the fossil sources, a problem we are working on. Importantly, while the current monitoring network is adequate

  11. Hydatidiform mole

    MedlinePlus

    ... hands , or unexplained weight loss Symptoms similar to preeclampsia that occur in the first trimester or early ... always a sign of a hydatidiform mole, because preeclampsia is extremely rare this early in a normal ...

  12. Spatial and Temporal Variability of Methane Mole Fractions and Exchanges in and Between Soil, Snow, and the Atmosphere in a Tundra System in Northern Alaska

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Agnan, Y.; Obrist, D.; Edwards, G. C.; Moore, C.; Hedge, C.; Helmig, D.; Paxton, D.; Jacques, H.

    2015-12-01

    An important global source of atmospheric methane (CH4) is production in tundra soils (an important global source). To place constraints on the potential role that tundra soils play in global CH4 cycling, we have been continuously measuring mole the air space in soils, snow, and the atmosphere as gradient-based surface-atmosphere fluxes for arctic tundra at Toolik Field Station (68° 38' N) starting in October 2014. We have found that atmospheric CH4 mole fractions were, on average, relatively constant during the first 9 months of sampling (averaging 1.93 µmol mol-1), with pronounced diel patterns starting in May and nighttime exceeding daytime mole fractions. However, gradients measured within the soil profile showed high variability in air withdrawn from different locations of these tundra soils (Typic Aquiturbels), with one soil profile indicating a CH4 sink during fall until January; mole fractions were similar to the atmospheric measurements during winter indicating no source or sink (average 1.89 µmol mol-1). A second soil profile 5 m away showed production of CH4 (average 2.48 µmol mol-1, two-times higher than atmospheric levels), even during mid-winter when soil temperatures were below -10 °C. Measurements of CH4 in interstitial snowpack air also exhibited a similar combination of sources and sinks. We used micrometeorological gradient surface flux measurements to confirm that the area was a net source of CH4 in fall, winter, and spring, with emissions averaging 26.6, 25.2, and 16.8 mg m-2 d-1, respectively. In the summer months, we saw strong diel flux patterns with deposition during day and emission at night, corresponding with observed diel variability in CH4 snowpack mole fractions. Our results indicated a high variability of tundra landscape CH4 fluxes, which locally shift from sources to sinks with high temporal variability. CH4 oxidation by methanotrophic bacteria probably occurs in tundra soils, confirming observations in one soil, snowpack, and

  13. Three years of greenhouse gas column-averaged dry air mole fractions retrieved from satellite - Part 2: Methane

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schneising, O.; Buchwitz, M.; Burrows, J. P.; Bovensmann, H.; Bergamaschi, P.; Peters, W.

    2009-01-01

    Carbon dioxide (CO2) and methane (CH4) are the two most important anthropogenic greenhouse gases. SCIAMACHY on ENVISAT is the first satellite instrument whose measurements are sensitive to concentration changes of the two gases at all altitude levels down to the Earth's surface where the source/sink signals are largest. We have processed three years (2003-2005) of SCIAMACHY near-infrared nadir measurements to simultaneously retrieve vertical columns of CO2 (from the 1.58 μm absorption band), CH4 (1.66 μm) and oxygen (O2 A-band at 0.76 μm) using the scientific retrieval algorithm WFM-DOAS. We show that the latest version of WFM-DOAS, version 1.0, which is used for this study, has been significantly improved with respect to its accuracy compared to the previous versions while essentially maintaining its high processing speed (~1 min per orbit, corresponding to ~6000 single measurements, and per gas on a standard PC). The greenhouse gas columns are converted to dry air column-averaged mole fractions, denoted XCO2 (in ppm) and XCH4 (in ppb), by dividing the greenhouse gas columns by simultaneously retrieved dry air columns. For XCO2 dry air columns are obtained from the retrieved O2 columns. For XCH4 dry air columns are obtained from the retrieved CO2 columns because of better cancellation of light path related errors compared to using O2 columns retrieved from the spectrally distant O2 A-band. Here we focus on a discussion of the XCH4 data set. The XCO2 data set is discussed in a separate paper (Part 1). For 2003 we present detailed comparisons with the TM5 model which has been optimally matched to highly accurate but sparse methane surface observations. After accounting for a systematic low bias of ~2% agreement with TM5 is typically within 1-2%. We investigated to what extent the SCIAMACHY XCH4 is influenced by the variability of atmospheric CO2 using global CO2 fields from NOAA's CO2 assimilation system CarbonTracker. We show that the CO2 corrected and

  14. Three years of greenhouse gas column-averaged dry air mole fractions retrieved from satellite Part 1: Carbon dioxide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schneising, O.; Buchwitz, M.; Burrows, J. P.; Bovensmann, H.; Reuter, M.; Notholt, J.; Macatangay, R.; Warneke, T.

    2008-07-01

    Carbon dioxide (CO2) and methane (CH4) are the two most important anthropogenic greenhouse gases. SCIAMACHY on ENVISAT is the first satellite instrument whose measurements are sensitive to concentration changes of the two gases at all altitude levels down to the Earth's surface where the source/sink signals are largest. We have processed three years (2003 2005) of SCIAMACHY near-infrared nadir measurements to simultaneously retrieve vertical columns of CO2 (from the 1.58 μm absorption band), CH4 (1.66 μm) and oxygen (O2 A-band at 0.76 μm) using the scientific retrieval algorithm WFM-DOAS. We show that the latest version of WFM-DOAS, version 1.0, which is used for this study, has been significantly improved with respect to its accuracy compared to the previous versions while essentially maintaining its high processing speed (~1 min per orbit, corresponding to ~6000 single measurements, and per gas on a standard PC). The greenhouse gas columns are converted to dry air column-averaged mole fractions, denoted XCO2 (in ppm) and XCH4 (in ppb), by dividing the greenhouse gas columns by simultaneously retrieved dry air columns. For XCO2 dry air columns are obtained from the retrieved O2 columns. For XCH4 dry air columns are obtained from the retrieved CO2 columns because of better cancellation of light path related errors compared to using O2 columns retrieved from the spectrally distant O2 A-band. Here we focus on a discussion of the XCO2 data set. The XCH4 data set is discussed in a separate paper (Part 2). In order to assess the quality of the retrieved XCO2 we present comparisons with Fourier Transform Spectroscopy (FTS) XCO2 measurements at two northern hemispheric mid-latitude ground stations. To assess the quality globally, we present detailed comparisons with global XCO2 fields obtained from NOAA's CO2 assimilation system CarbonTracker. For the Northern Hemisphere we find good agreement with the reference data for the CO2 seasonal cycle and the CO2 annual

  15. Absolute Branching Fraction Measurements of Exclusive D{sup +} Semileptonic Decays

    SciTech Connect

    Huang, G.S.; Miller, D.H.; Pavlunin, V.; Sanghi, B.; Shipsey, I.P.J.; Adams, G.S.; Chasse, M.; Cravey, M.; Cummings, J.P.; Danko, I.; Napolitano, J.; He, Q.; Muramatsu, H.; Park, C.S.; Park, W.; Thorndike, E.H.; Coan, T.E.; Gao, Y.S.; Liu, F.; Artuso, M.

    2005-10-28

    Using data collected at the {psi}(3770) resonance with the CLEO-c detector at the Cornell e{sup +}e{sup -} storage ring, we present improved measurements of the absolute branching fractions of D{sup +} decays to K{sup 0}e{sup +}{nu}{sub e}, {pi}{sup 0}e{sup +}{nu}{sub e}, K*{sup 0}e{sup +}{nu}{sub e}, and {rho}{sup 0}e{sup +}{nu}{sub e}, and the first observation and absolute branching fraction measurement of D{sup +}{yields}{omega}e{sup +}{nu}{sub e}. We also report the most precise tests to date of isospin invariance in semileptonic D{sup 0} and D{sup +} decays.

  16. Absolute Measurement of Hadronic Branching Fractions of the D{sub s}{sup +} Meson

    SciTech Connect

    Alexander, J. P.; Berkelman, K.; Cassel, D. G.; Duboscq, J. E.; Ehrlich, R.; Fields, L.; Gibbons, L.; Gray, R.; Gray, S. W.; Hartill, D. L.; Heltsley, B. K.; Hertz, D.; Jones, C. D.; Kandaswamy, J.; Kreinick, D. L.; Kuznetsov, V. E.; Mahlke-Krueger, H.; Mohapatra, D.; Onyisi, P. U. E.; Patterson, J. R.

    2008-04-25

    The branching fractions of D{sub s}{sup {+-}} meson decays serve to normalize many measurements of processes involving charm quarks. Using 298 pb{sup -1} of e{sup +}e{sup -} collisions recorded at a center of mass energy of 4.17 GeV, we determine absolute branching fractions for eight D{sub s}{sup {+-}} decays with a double tag technique. In particular we determine the branching fraction B(D{sub s}{sup +}{yields}K{sup -}K{sup +}{pi}{sup +})=(5.50{+-}0.23{+-}0.16)%, where the uncertainties are statistical and systematic, respectively. We also provide partial branching fractions for kinematic subsets of the K{sup -}K{sup +}{pi}{sup +} decay mode.

  17. TDLAS-based NH3 mole fraction measurement for exhaust diagnostics during selective catalytic reduction using a fiber-coupled 2.2-µm DFB diode laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stritzke, Felix; Diemel, Oliver; Wagner, Steven

    2015-04-01

    A new developed tunable diode laser spectrometer for the measurement of ammonia (NH3) mole fractions in exhaust gas matrices with strong CO2 and H2O background at temperatures up to 800 K is presented. In situ diagnostics in harsh exhaust environments during SCR after treatment are enabled by the use of ammonia transitions in the ν2 + ν3 near-infrared band around 2300 nm. Therefore, three lines have been selected, coinciding near 2200.5 nm (4544.5 cm-1) with rather weak temperature dependency and minimal interference with CO2 and H2O. A fiber-coupled 2.2-μm distributed feedback laser diode was used and attached to the hot gas flow utilizing adjustable gas tight high-temperature fiber ports. The spectrometer spans four coplanar optical channels across the measurement plane and simultaneously detects the direct absorption signal via a fiber-coupled detector unit. An exhaust simulation test rig was used to characterize the spectrometer's performance in ammonia-doped hot gas environments. We achieved a temporal resolution of 13 Hz and temperature-dependent precisions of NH3 mole fraction ranging from 50 to 70 ppmV. There the spectrometer achieved normalized ammonia detection limits of 7-10 and 2-3.

  18. Large Amplitude Spatial and Temporal Gradients in Atmospheric Boundary Layer CO2 Mole Fractions Detected With a Tower-Based Network in the U.S. Upper Midwest

    SciTech Connect

    Miles, Natasha; Richardson, S. J.; Davis, Kenneth J.; Lauvaux, Thomas; Andrews, A.; West, Tristram O.; Bandaru, Varaprasad; Crosson, Eric R.

    2012-02-21

    This study presents observations of atmospheric CO{sub 2} mole fraction from a nine-tower, regional network deployed during the North American Carbon Program's Mid-Continent Intensive during 2007-2009. Within this network in a largely agricultural area, mean atmospheric CO{sub 2} gradients were strongly correlated with both ground-based inventory data and estimates from satellite remote sensing. The average seasonal drawdown for corn-dominated sites (35 ppm) is significantly larger than has been observed at other continental boundary layer sites. Observed growing-season median CO{sub 2} gradients are strongly dependent on local flux. The gradients between cross-vegetation site-pairs, for example, average 2.0 ppm/100 km, four times larger than the similar-vegetation site-pair average. Daily-timescale gradients are as large as 5.5 ppm/100 km, but dominated by advection rather than local flux. Flooding in 2008 led to a region-wide 23 week delay in growing-season minima. The observations show that regional-scale CO{sub 2} mole fraction networks yield large, coherent signals governed largely by regional sources and sinks of CO{sub 2}.

  19. Measurement of the absolute branching fraction of D0-->K-pi+.

    PubMed

    Aubert, B; Bona, M; Boutigny, D; Karyotakis, Y; Lees, J P; Poireau, V; Prudent, X; Tisserand, V; Zghiche, A; Garra Tico, J; Grauges, E; Lopez, L; Palano, A; Eigen, G; Ofte, I; Stugu, B; Sun, L; Abrams, G S; Battaglia, M; Brown, D N; Button-Shafer, J; Cahn, R N; Groysman, Y; Jacobsen, R G; Kadyk, J A; Kerth, L T; Kolomensky, Yu G; Kukartsev, G; Lopes Pegna, D; Lynch, G; Mir, L M; Orimoto, T J; Pripstein, M; Roe, N A; Ronan, M T; Tackmann, K; Wenzel, W A; Del Amo Sanchez, P; Hawkes, C M; Watson, A T; Held, T; Koch, H; Lewandowski, B; Pelizaeus, M; Schroeder, T; Steinke, M; Cottingham, W N; Walker, D; Asgeirsson, D J; Cuhadar-Donszelmann, T; Fulsom, B G; Hearty, C; Knecht, N S; Mattison, T S; McKenna, J A; Khan, A; Saleem, M; Teodorescu, L; Blinov, V E; Bukin, A D; Druzhinin, V P; Golubev, V B; Onuchin, A P; Serednyakov, S I; Skovpen, Yu I; Solodov, E P; Todyshev, K Yu; Bondioli, M; Curry, S; Eschrich, I; Kirkby, D; Lankford, A J; Lund, P; Mandelkern, M; Martin, E C; Stoker, D P; Abachi, S; Buchanan, C; Foulkes, S D; Gary, J W; Liu, F; Long, O; Shen, B C; Zhang, L; Paar, H P; Rahatlou, S; Sharma, V; Berryhill, J W; Campagnari, C; Cunha, A; Dahmes, B; Hong, T M; Kovalskyi, D; Richman, J D; Beck, T W; Eisner, A M; Flacco, C J; Heusch, C A; Kroseberg, J; Lockman, W S; Schalk, T; Schumm, B A; Seiden, A; Williams, D C; Wilson, M G; Winstrom, L O; Chen, E; Cheng, C H; Dvoretskii, A; Fang, F; Hitlin, D G; Narsky, I; Piatenko, T; Porter, F C; Mancinelli, G; Meadows, B T; Mishra, K; Sokoloff, M D; Blanc, F; Bloom, P C; Chen, S; Ford, W T; Hirschauer, J F; Kreisel, A; Nagel, M; Nauenberg, U; Olivas, A; Smith, J G; Ulmer, K A; Wagner, S R; Zhang, J; Gabareen, A M; Soffer, A; Toki, W H; Wilson, R J; Winklmeier, F; Zeng, Q; Altenburg, D D; Feltresi, E; Hauke, A; Jasper, H; Merkel, J; Petzold, A; Spaan, B; Wacker, K; Brandt, T; Klose, V; Lacker, H M; Mader, W F; Nogowski, R; Schubert, J; Schubert, K R; Schwierz, R; Sundermann, J E; Volk, A; Bernard, D; Bonneaud, G R; Latour, E; Lombardo, V; Thiebaux, Ch; Verderi, M; Clark, P J; Gradl, W; Muheim, F; Playfer, S; Robertson, A I; Xie, Y; Andreotti, M; Bettoni, D; Bozzi, C; Calabrese, R; Cecchi, A; Cibinetto, G; Franchini, P; Luppi, E; Negrini, M; Petrella, A; Piemontese, L; Prencipe, E; Santoro, V; Anulli, F; Baldini-Ferroli, R; Calcaterra, A; de Sangro, R; Finocchiaro, G; Pacetti, S; Patteri, P; Peruzzi, I M; Piccolo, M; Rama, M; Zallo, A; Buzzo, A; Contri, R; Lo Vetere, M; Macri, M M; Monge, M R; Passaggio, S; Patrignani, C; Robutti, E; Santroni, A; Tosi, S; Chaisanguanthum, K S; Morii, M; Wu, J; Dubitzky, R S; Marks, J; Schenk, S; Uwer, U; Bard, D J; Dauncey, P D; Flack, R L; Nash, J A; Nikolich, M B; Panduro Vazquez, W; Behera, P K; Chai, X; Charles, M J; Mallik, U; Meyer, N T; Ziegler, V; Cochran, J; Crawley, H B; Dong, L; Eyges, V; Meyer, W T; Prell, S; Rosenberg, E I; Rubin, A E; Gritsan, A V; Guo, Z J; Lae, C K; Denig, A G; Fritsch, M; Schott, G; Arnaud, N; Béquilleux, J; Davier, M; Grosdidier, G; Höcker, A; Lepeltier, V; Le Diberder, F; Lutz, A M; Pruvot, S; Rodier, S; Roudeau, P; Schune, M H; Serrano, J; Sordini, V; Stocchi, A; Wang, W F; Wormser, G; Lange, D J; Wright, D M; Chavez, C A; Forster, I J; Fry, J R; Gabathuler, E; Gamet, R; Hutchcroft, D E; Payne, D J; Schofield, K C; Touramanis, C; Bevan, A J; George, K A; Di Lodovico, F; Menges, W; Sacco, R; Cowan, G; Flaecher, H U; Hopkins, D A; Jackson, P S; McMahon, T R; Salvatore, F; Wren, A C; Brown, D N; Davis, C L; Allison, J; Barlow, N R; Barlow, R J; Chia, Y M; Edgar, C L; Lafferty, G D; West, T J; Yi, J I; Anderson, J; Chen, C; Jawahery, A; Roberts, D A; Simi, G; Tuggle, J M; Blaylock, G; Dallapiccola, C; Hertzbach, S S; Li, X; Moore, T B; Salvati, E; Saremi, S; Cowan, R; Fisher, P H; Sciolla, G; Sekula, S J; Spitznagel, M; Taylor, F; Yamamoto, R K; McLachlin, S E; Patel, P M; Robertson, S H; Lazzaro, A; Palombo, F; Bauer, J M; Cremaldi, L; Eschenburg, V; Godang, R; Kroeger, R; Sanders, D A; Summers, D J; Zhao, H W; Brunet, S; Côté, D; Simard, M; Taras, P; Viaud, F B; Nicholson, H; De Nardo, G; Fabozzi, F; Lista, L; Monorchio, D; Sciacca, C; Baak, M A; Raven, G; Snoek, H L; Jessop, C P; Losecco, J M; Benelli, G; Corwin, L A; Gan, K K; Honscheid, K; Hufnagel, D; Kagan, H; Kass, R; Morris, J P; Rahimi, A M; Regensburger, J J; Ter-Antonyan, R; Wong, Q K; Blount, N L; Brau, J; Frey, R; Igonkina, O; Kolb, J A; Lu, M; Rahmat, R; Sinev, N B; Strom, D; Strube, J; Torrence, E; Gagliardi, N; Gaz, A; Margoni, M; Morandin, M; Pompili, A; Posocco, M; Rotondo, M; Simonetto, F; Stroili, R; Voci, C; Ben-Haim, E; Briand, H; Chauveau, J; David, P; Del Buono, L; de la Vaissière, Ch; Hamon, O; Hartfiel, B L; Leruste, Ph; Malclès, J; Ocariz, J; Perez, A; Gladney, L; Biasini, M; Covarelli, R; Manoni, E; Angelini, C; Batignani, G; Bettarini, S; Calderini, G; Carpinelli, M; Cenci, R; Cervelli, A; Forti, F; Giorgi, M A; Lusiani, A; Marchiori, G; Mazur, M A; Morganti, M; Neri, N; Paoloni, E; Rizzo, G; Walsh, J J; Haire, M; Biesiada, J; Elmer, P; Lau, Y P; Lu, C; Olsen, J; Smith, A J S; Telnov, A V; Baracchini, E; Bellini, F; Cavoto, G; D'Orazio, A; Del Re, D; Di Marco, E; Faccini, R; Ferrarotto, F; Ferroni, F; Gaspero, M; Jackson, P D; Li Gioi, L; Mazzoni, M A; Morganti, S; Piredda, G; Polci, F; Renga, F; Voena, C; Ebert, M; Schröder, H; Waldi, R; Adye, T; Castelli, G; Franek, B; Olaiya, E O; Ricciardi, S; Roethel, W; Wilson, F F; Aleksan, R; Emery, S; Escalier, M; Gaidot, A; Ganzhur, S F; de Monchenault, G Hamel; Kozanecki, W; Legendre, M; Vasseur, G; Yèche, Ch; Zito, M; Chen, X R; Liu, H; Park, W; Purohit, M V; Wilson, J R; Allen, M T; Aston, D; Bartoldus, R; Bechtle, P; Berger, N; Claus, R; Coleman, J P; Convery, M R; Dingfelder, J C; Dorfan, J; Dubois-Felsmann, G P; Dujmic, D; Dunwoodie, W; Field, R C; Glanzman, T; Gowdy, S J; Graham, M T; Grenier, P; Hast, C; Hryn'ova, T; Innes, W R; Kelsey, M H; Kim, H; Kim, P; Leith, D W G S; Li, S; Luitz, S; Luth, V; Lynch, H L; Macfarlane, D B; Marsiske, H; Messner, R; Muller, D R; O'Grady, C P; Perazzo, A; Perl, M; Pulliam, T; Ratcliff, B N; Roodman, A; Salnikov, A A; Schindler, R H; Schwiening, J; Snyder, A; Stelzer, J; Su, D; Sullivan, M K; Suzuki, K; Swain, S K; Thompson, J M; Va'vra, J; van Bakel, N; Wagner, A P; Weaver, M; Wisniewski, W J; Wittgen, M; Wright, D H; Yarritu, A K; Yi, K; Young, C C; Burchat, P R; Edwards, A J; Majewski, S A; Petersen, B A; Wilden, L; Ahmed, S; Alam, M S; Bula, R; Ernst, J A; Jain, V; Pan, B; Saeed, M A; Wappler, F R; Zain, S B; Bugg, W; Krishnamurthy, M; Spanier, S M; Eckmann, R; Ritchie, J L; Ruland, A M; Schilling, C J; Schwitters, R F; Izen, J M; Lou, X C; Ye, S; Bianchi, F; Gallo, F; Gamba, D; Pelliccioni, M; Bomben, M; Bosisio, L; Cartaro, C; Cossutti, F; Della Ricca, G; Lanceri, L; Vitale, L; Azzolini, V; Lopez-March, N; Martinez-Vidal, F; Milanes, D A; Oyanguren, A; Albert, J; Banerjee, Sw; Bhuyan, B; Hamano, K; Kowalewski, R; Nugent, I M; Roney, J M; Sobie, R J; Back, J J; Harrison, P F; Latham, T E; Mohanty, G B; Pappagallo, M; Band, H R; Chen, X; Dasu, S; Flood, K T; Hollar, J J; Kutter, P E; Pan, Y; Pierini, M; Prepost, R; Wu, S L; Yu, Z; Neal, H

    2008-02-01

    We measure the absolute branching fraction for D(0)-->K(-)pi(+) using partial reconstruction of B(0)-->D(*+)Xl(-)nu(l) decays, in which only the charged lepton and the pion from the decay D(*+)-->D(0)pi(+) are used. Based on a data sample of 230 x 10(6) BB pairs collected at the Upsilon(4S) resonance with the BABAR detector at the PEP-II asymmetric-energy B factory at SLAC, we obtain B(D(0)-->K(-)pi(+)) = (4.007+/-0.037+/-0.072)%, where the first uncertainty is statistical and the second is systematic. PMID:18352359

  20. Measurements of the absolute branching fractions of B+/- --> K+/-X(cc).

    PubMed

    Aubert, B; Barate, R; Boutigny, D; Couderc, F; Karyotakis, Y; Lees, J P; Poireau, V; Tisserand, V; Zghiche, A; Grauges, E; Palano, A; Pappagallo, M; Pompili, A; Chen, J C; Qi, N D; Rong, G; Wang, P; Zhu, Y S; Eigen, G; Ofte, I; Stugu, B; Abrams, G S; Battaglia, M; Breon, A B; Brown, D N; Button-Shafer, J; Cahn, R N; Charles, E; Day, C T; Gill, M S; Gritsan, A V; Groysman, Y; Jacobsen, R G; Kadel, R W; Kadyk, J; Kerth, L T; Kolomensky, Yu G; Kukartsev, G; Lynch, G; Mir, L M; Oddone, P J; Orimoto, T J; Pripstein, M; Roe, N A; Ronan, M T; Wenzel, W A; Barrett, M; Ford, K E; Harrison, T J; Hart, A J; Hawkes, C M; Morgan, S E; Watson, A T; Fritsch, M; Goetzen, K; Held, T; Koch, H; Lewandowski, B; Pelizaeus, M; Peters, K; Schroeder, T; Steinke, M; Boyd, J T; Burke, J P; Chevalier, N; Cottingham, W N; Cuhadar-Donszelmann, T; Fulsom, B G; Hearty, C; Knecht, N S; Mattison, T S; McKenna, J A; Khan, A; Kyberd, P; Saleem, M; Teodorescu, L; Blinov, A E; Blinov, V E; Bukin, A D; Druzhinin, V P; Golubev, V B; Kravchenko, E A; Onuchin, A P; Serednyakov, S I; Skovpen, Yu I; Solodov, E P; Yushkov, A N; Best, D; Bondioli, M; Bruinsma, M; Chao, M; Curry, S; Eschrich, I; Kirkby, D; Lankford, A J; Lund, P; Mandelkern, M; Mommsen, R K; Roethel, W; Stoker, D P; Buchanan, C; Hartfiel, B L; Weinstein, A J R; Foulkes, S D; Gary, J W; Long, O; Shen, B C; Wang, K; Zhang, L; del Re, D; Hadavand, H K; Hill, E J; MacFarlane, D B; Paar, H P; Rahatlou, S; Sharma, V; Berryhill, J W; Campagnari, C; Cunha, A; Dahmes, B; Hong, T M; Mazur, M A; Richman, J D; Verkerke, W; Beck, T W; Eisner, A M; Flacco, C J; Heusch, C A; Kroseberg, J; Lockman, W S; Nesom, G; Schalk, T; Schumm, B A; Seiden, A; Spradlin, P; Williams, D C; Wilson, M G; Albert, J; Chen, E; Dubois-Felsmann, G P; Dvoretskii, A; Hitlin, D G; Minamora, J S; Narsky, I; Piatenko, T; Porter, F C; Ryd, A; Samuel, A; Andreassen, R; Mancinelli, G; Meadows, B T; Sokoloff, M D; Blanc, F; Bloom, P; Chen, S; Ford, W T; Hirschauer, J F; Kreisel, A; Nauenberg, U; Olivas, A; Ruddick, W O; Smith, J G; Ulmer, K A; Wagner, S R; Zhang, J; Chen, A; Eckhart, E A; Soffer, A; Toki, W H; Wilson, R J; Zeng, Q; Altenburg, D; Feltresi, E; Hauke, A; Spaan, B; Brandt, T; Brose, J; Dickopp, M; Klose, V; Lacker, H M; Nogowski, R; Otto, S; Petzold, A; Schubert, J; Schubert, K R; Schwierz, R; Sundermann, J E; Bernard, D; Bonneaud, G R; Grenier, P; Schrenk, S; Thiebaux, Ch; Vasileiadis, G; Verderi, M; Bard, D J; Clark, P J; Gradl, W; Muheim, F; Playfer, S; Xie, Y; Andreotti, M; Azzolini, V; Bettoni, D; Bozzi, C; Calabrese, R; Cibinetto, G; Luppi, E; Negrini, M; Piemontese, L; Anulli, F; Baldini-Ferroli, R; Calcaterra, A; de Sangro, R; Finocchiaro, G; Patteri, P; Peruzzi, I M; Piccolo, M; Zallo, A; Buzzo, A; Capra, R; Contri, R; Lo Vetere, M; Macri, M; Monge, M R; Passaggio, S; Patrignani, C; Robutti, E; Santroni, A; Tosi, S; Brandenburg, G; Chaisanguanthum, K S; Morii, M; Won, E; Wu, J; Dubitzky, R S; Langenegger, U; Marks, J; Schenk, S; Uwer, U; Schott, G; Bhimji, W; Bowerman, D A; Dauncey, P D; Egede, U; Flack, R L; Gaillard, J R; Nash, J A; Nikolich, M B; Vazquez, W Panduro; Chai, X; Charles, M J; Mader, W F; Mallik, U; Mohapatra, A K; Ziegler, V; Cochran, J; Crawley, H B; Eyges, V; Meyer, W T; Prell, S; Rosenberg, E I; Rubin, A E; Yi, J; Arnaud, N; Davier, M; Giroux, X; Grosdidier, G; Höcker, A; Le Diberder, F; Lepeltier, V; Lutz, A M; Oyanguren, A; Petersen, T C; Plaszczynski, S; Rodier, S; Roudeau, P; Schune, M H; Stocchi, A; Wormser, G; Cheng, C H; Lange, D J; Simani, M C; Wright, D M; Bevan, A J; Chavez, C A; Forster, I J; Fry, J R; Gabathuler, E; Gamet, R; George, K A; Hutchcroft, D E; Parry, R J; Payne, D J; Schofield, K C; Touramanis, C; Cormack, C M; Di Lodovico, F; Menges, W; Sacco, R; Brown, C L; Cowan, G; Flaecher, H U; Green, M G; Hopkins, D A; Jackson, P S; McMahon, T R; Ricciardi, S; Salvatore, F; Brown, D; Davis, C L; Allison, J; Barlow, N R; Barlow, R J; Edgar, C L; Hodgkinson, M C; Kelly, M P; Lafferty, G D; Naisbit, M T; Williams, J C; Chen, C; Hulsbergen, W D; Jawahery, A; Kovalskyi, D; Lae, C K; Roberts, D A; Simi, G; Blaylock, G; Dallapiccola, C; Hertzbach, S S; Kofler, R; Koptchev, V B; Li, X; Moore, T B; Saremi, S; Staengle, H; Willocq, S; Cowan, R; Koeneke, K; Sciolla, G; Sekula, S J; Spitznagel, M; Taylor, F; Yamamoto, R K; Kim, H; Patel, P M; Robertson, S H; Lazzaro, A; Lombardo, V; Palombo, F; Bauer, J M; Cremaldi, L; Eschenburg, V; Godang, R; Kroeger, R; Reidy, J; Sanders, D A; Summers, D J; Zhao, H W; Brunet, S; Côté, D; Taras, P; Viaud, B; Nicholson, H; Cavallo, N; De Nardo, G; Fabozzi, F; Gatto, C; Lista, L; Monorchio, D; Paolucci, P; Piccolo, D; Sciacca, C; Baak, M; Bulten, H; Raven, G; Snoek, H L; Wilden, L; Jessop, C P; Losecco, J M; Allmendinger, T; Benelli, G; Gan, K K; Honscheid, K; Hufnagel, D; Jackson, P D; Kagan, H; Kass, R; Pulliam, T; Rahimi, A M; Ter-Antonyan, R; Wong, Q K; Brau, J; Frey, R; Igonkina, O; Lu, M; Potter, C T; Sinev, N B; Strom, D; Strube, J; Torrence, E; Galeazzi, F; Margoni, M; Morandin, M; Posocco, M; Rotondo, M; Simonetto, F; Stroili, R; Voci, C; Benayoun, M; Briand, H; Chauveau, J; David, P; Del Buono, L; de la Vaissière, Ch; Hamon, O; John, M J J; Leruste, Ph; Malclès, J; Ocariz, J; Roos, L; Therin, G; Behera, P K; Gladney, L; Guo, Q H; Panetta, J; Biasini, M; Covarelli, R; Pacetti, S; Pioppi, M; Angelini, C; Batignani, G; Bettarini, S; Bucci, F; Calderini, G; Carpinelli, M; Cenci, R; Forti, F; Giorgi, M A; Lusiani, A; Marchiori, G; Morganti, M; Neri, N; Paoloni, E; Rama, M; Rizzo, G; Walsh, J; Haire, M; Judd, D; Wagoner, D E; Biesiada, J; Danielson, N; Elmer, P; Lau, Y P; Lu, C; Olsen, J; Smith, A J S; Telnov, A V; Bellini, F; Cavoto, G; D'Orazio, A; Marco, E Di; Faccini, R; Ferrarotto, F; Ferroni, F; Gaspero, M; Gioi, L Li; Mazzoni, M A; Morganti, S; Piredda, G; Polci, F; Tehrani, F Safai; Voena, C; Schröder, H; Wagner, G; Waldi, R; Adye, T; De Groot, N; Franek, B; Gopal, G P; Olaiya, E O; Wilson, F F; Aleksan, R; Emery, S; Gaidot, A; Ganzhur, S F; Graziani, G; de Monchenault, G Hamel; Kozanecki, W; Legendre, M; London, G W; Mayer, B; Vasseur, G; Yèche, Ch; Zito, M; Purohit, M V; Weidemann, A W; Wilson, J R; Yumiceva, F X; Abe, T; Allen, M T; Aston, D; Bartoldus, R; Berger, N; Boyarski, A M; Buchmueller, O L; Claus, R; Coleman, J P; Convery, M R; Cristinziani, M; Dingfelder, J C; Dong, D; Dorfan, J; Dujmic, D; Dunwoodie, W; Fan, S; Field, R C; Glanzman, T; Gowdy, S J; Hadig, T; Halyo, V; Hast, C; Hryn'ova, T; Innes, W R; Kelsey, M H; Kim, P; Kocian, M L; Leith, D W G S; Libby, J; Luitz, S; Luth, V; Lynch, H L; Marsiske, H; Messner, R; Muller, D R; O'Grady, C P; Ozcan, V E; Perazzo, A; Perl, M; Ratcliff, B N; Roodman, A; Salnikov, A A; Schindler, R H; Schwiening, J; Snyder, A; Stelzer, J; Su, D; Sullivan, M K; Suzuki, K; Swain, S K; Thompson, J M; Va'vra, J; van Bakel, N; Weaver, M; Wisniewski, W J; Wittgen, M; Wright, D H; Yarritu, A K; Yi, K; Young, C C; Burchat, P R; Edwards, A J; Majewski, S A; Petersen, B A; Roat, C; Ahmed, M; Ahmed, S; Alam, M S; Bula, R; Ernst, J A; Saeed, M A; Wappler, F R; Zain, S B; Bugg, W; Krishnamurthy, M; Spanier, S M; Eckmann, R; Ritchie, J L; Satpathy, A; Schwitters, R F; Izen, J M; Kitayama, I; Lou, X C; Ye, S; Bianchi, F; Bona, M; Gallo, F; Gamba, D; Bomben, M; Bosisio, L; Cartaro, C; Cossutti, F; Della Ricca, G; Dittongo, S; Grancagnolo, S; Lanceri, L; Vitale, L; Martinez-Vidal, F; Panvini, R S; Banerjee, Sw; Bhuyan, B; Brown, C M; Fortin, D; Hamano, K; Kowalewski, R; Roney, J M; Sobie, R J; Back, J J; Harrison, P F; Latham, T E; Mohanty, G B; Band, H R; Chen, X; Cheng, B; Dasu, S; Datta, M; Eichenbaum, A M; Flood, K T; Graham, M; Hollar, J J; Johnson, J R; Kutter, P E; Li, H; Liu, R; Mellado, B; Mihalyi, A; Pan, Y; Pierini, M; Prepost, R; Tan, P; Wu, S L; Yu, Z; Neal, H

    2006-02-10

    We study the two-body decays of B+/- mesons to K+/- and a charmonium state X(cc) in a sample of 210.5 fb(-1) of data from the BABAR experiment. We perform measurements of absolute branching fractions beta(B+/- --> K+/-X(cc)) using a missing mass technique, and report several new or improved results. In particular, the upper limit beta(B+/- --> K+/- X(3872)) < 3.2 x 10(-4) at 90% C.L. and the inferred lower limit beta(X(3872)J/psipi+ pi-) > 4.2% will help in understanding the nature of the recently discovered X(3872). PMID:16486923

  1. Analysis of CO2 mole fraction data: first evidence of large-scale changes in CO2 uptake at high northern latitudes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barlow, J. M.; Palmer, P. I.; Bruhwiler, L. M.; Tans, P.

    2015-12-01

    Atmospheric variations of carbon dioxide (CO2) mole fraction reflect changes in atmospheric transport and regional patterns of surface emission and uptake. Here we present a study of changes in the observed high northern latitude CO2 seasonal cycle. We report new estimates for changes in the phase and amplitude of the seasonal variations, indicative of biospheric changes, by spectrally decomposing multi-decadal records of surface CO2 mole fraction using a wavelet transform to isolate the changes in the observed seasonal cycle. We also perform similar analysis of the first derivative of CO2 mole fraction, ΔtCO2, that is a crude proxy for changes in CO2 flux. Using numerical experiments, we quantify the aliasing error associated with independently identifying trends in phase and peak uptake and release to be 10-25 %, with the smallest biases in phase associated with the analysis of ΔtCO2. We report our analysis from Barrow, Alaska (BRW), during 1973-2013, which is representative of the broader Arctic region. We determine an amplitude trend of 0.09 ± 0.02 ppm yr-1, which is consistent with previous work. Using ΔtCO2 we determine estimates for the timing of the onset of net uptake and release of CO2 of -0.14 ± 0.14 and -0.25 ± 0.08 days yr-1 respectively and a corresponding net uptake period of -0.11 ± 0.16 days yr-1, which are significantly different to previously reported estimates. We find that the wavelet transform method has significant skill in characterizing changes in the peak uptake and release. We find a trend of 0.65 ± 0.34 % yr-1 (p < 0.01) and 0.42 ± 0.34 % yr-1 (p < 0.05) for rates of peak uptake and release respectively. Our analysis does not provide direct evidence about the balance between uptake and release of carbon when integrated throughout the year, but the increase in the seasonal amplitude of CO2 together with an invariant net carbon uptake period provides evidence that high northern latitude ecosystems are progressively taking up more

  2. On the reliable analysis of indium mole fraction within In{sub x}Ga{sub 1−x}N quantum wells using atom probe tomography

    SciTech Connect

    Riley, James R.; Lauhon, Lincoln J.; Detchprohm, Theeradetch; Wetzel, Christian

    2014-04-14

    Surface crystallography and polarity are shown to influence the detection probability of In, Ga, and N ions during atom probe tomography analysis of In{sub x}Ga{sub 1−x}N m-plane, c-plane, and (202{sup ¯}1{sup ¯}) quantum wells. A N deficit is observed in regions of the reconstruction generated from Ga-polar surfaces, and the probability of detecting group-III atoms is lower in In{sub x}Ga{sub 1−x}N quantum wells than in GaN barrier layers. Despite these artifacts, the detected In mole fraction is consistent throughout a given quantum well regardless of the crystal orientation of the quantum well or the evaporation surface from which the reconstruction was generated.

  3. On the reliable analysis of indium mole fraction within InxGa1-xN quantum wells using atom probe tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Riley, James R.; Detchprohm, Theeradetch; Wetzel, Christian; Lauhon, Lincoln J.

    2014-04-01

    Surface crystallography and polarity are shown to influence the detection probability of In, Ga, and N ions during atom probe tomography analysis of InxGa1-xN m-plane, c-plane, and (202¯1¯) quantum wells. A N deficit is observed in regions of the reconstruction generated from Ga-polar surfaces, and the probability of detecting group-III atoms is lower in InxGa1-xN quantum wells than in GaN barrier layers. Despite these artifacts, the detected In mole fraction is consistent throughout a given quantum well regardless of the crystal orientation of the quantum well or the evaporation surface from which the reconstruction was generated.

  4. Measurements of Absolute Hadronic Branching Fractions of the Λc+ Baryon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ablikim, M.; Achasov, M. N.; Ai, X. C.; Albayrak, O.; Albrecht, M.; Ambrose, D. J.; Amoroso, A.; An, F. F.; An, Q.; Bai, J. Z.; Baldini Ferroli, R.; Ban, Y.; Bennett, D. W.; Bennett, J. V.; Bertani, M.; Bettoni, D.; Bian, J. M.; Bianchi, F.; Boger, E.; Boyko, I.; Briere, R. A.; Cai, H.; Cai, X.; Cakir, O.; Calcaterra, A.; Cao, G. F.; Cetin, S. A.; Chang, J. F.; Chelkov, G.; Chen, G.; Chen, H. S.; Chen, H. Y.; Chen, J. C.; Chen, M. L.; Chen, S. J.; Chen, X.; Chen, X. R.; Chen, Y. B.; Cheng, H. P.; Chu, X. K.; Cibinetto, G.; Dai, H. L.; Dai, J. P.; Dbeyssi, A.; Dedovich, D.; Deng, Z. Y.; Denig, A.; Denysenko, I.; Destefanis, M.; de Mori, F.; Ding, Y.; Dong, C.; Dong, J.; Dong, L. Y.; Dong, M. Y.; Dou, Z. L.; Du, S. X.; Duan, P. F.; Eren, E. E.; Fan, J. Z.; Fang, J.; Fang, S. S.; Fang, X.; Fang, Y.; Farinelli, R.; Fava, L.; Fedorov, O.; Feldbauer, F.; Felici, G.; Feng, C. Q.; Fioravanti, E.; Fritsch, M.; Fu, C. D.; Gao, Q.; Gao, X. L.; Gao, X. Y.; Gao, Y.; Gao, Z.; Garzia, I.; Goetzen, K.; Gong, L.; Gong, W. X.; Gradl, W.; Greco, M.; Gu, M. H.; Gu, Y. T.; Guan, Y. H.; Guo, A. Q.; Guo, L. B.; Guo, Y.; Guo, Y. P.; Haddadi, Z.; Hafner, A.; Han, S.; Hao, X. Q.; Harris, F. A.; He, K. L.; Held, T.; Heng, Y. K.; Hou, Z. L.; Hu, C.; Hu, H. M.; Hu, J. F.; Hu, T.; Hu, Y.; Huang, G. S.; Huang, J. S.; Huang, X. T.; Huang, Y.; Hussain, T.; Ji, Q.; Ji, Q. P.; Ji, X. B.; Ji, X. L.; Jiang, L. W.; Jiang, X. S.; Jiang, X. Y.; Jiao, J. B.; Jiao, Z.; Jin, D. P.; Jin, S.; Johansson, T.; Julin, A.; Kalantar-Nayestanaki, N.; Kang, X. L.; Kang, X. S.; Kavatsyuk, M.; Ke, B. C.; Kiese, P.; Kliemt, R.; Kloss, B.; Kolcu, O. B.; Kopf, B.; Kornicer, M.; Kuehn, W.; Kupsc, A.; Lange, J. S.; Lara, M.; Larin, P.; Leng, C.; Li, C.; Li, Cheng; Li, D. M.; Li, F.; Li, F. Y.; Li, G.; Li, H. B.; Li, J. C.; Li, Jin; Li, K.; Li, K.; Li, Lei; Li, P. R.; Li, Q. Y.; Li, T.; Li, W. D.; Li, W. G.; Li, X. L.; Li, X. M.; Li, X. N.; Li, X. Q.; Li, Z. B.; Liang, H.; Liang, Y. F.; Liang, Y. T.; Liao, G. R.; Lin, D. X.; Liu, B. J.; Liu, C. X.; Liu, D.; Liu, F. H.; Liu, Fang; Liu, Feng; Liu, H. B.; Liu, H. H.; Liu, H. H.; Liu, H. M.; Liu, J.; Liu, J. B.; Liu, J. P.; Liu, J. Y.; Liu, K.; Liu, K. Y.; Liu, L. D.; Liu, P. L.; Liu, Q.; Liu, S. B.; Liu, X.; Liu, Y. B.; Liu, Z. A.; Liu, Zhiqing; Loehner, H.; Lou, X. C.; Lu, H. J.; Lu, J. G.; Lu, Y.; Lu, Y. P.; Luo, C. L.; Luo, M. X.; Luo, T.; Luo, X. L.; Lyu, X. R.; Ma, F. C.; Ma, H. L.; Ma, L. L.; Ma, Q. M.; Ma, T.; Ma, X. N.; Ma, X. Y.; Ma, Y. M.; Maas, F. E.; Maggiora, M.; Mao, Y. J.; Mao, Z. P.; Marcello, S.; Messchendorp, J. G.; Min, J.; Mitchell, R. E.; Mo, X. H.; Mo, Y. J.; Morales Morales, C.; Muchnoi, N. Yu.; Muramatsu, H.; Nefedov, Y.; Nerling, F.; Nikolaev, I. B.; Ning, Z.; Nisar, S.; Niu, S. L.; Niu, X. Y.; Olsen, S. L.; Ouyang, Q.; Pacetti, S.; Pan, Y.; Patteri, P.; Pelizaeus, M.; Peng, H. P.; Peters, K.; Pettersson, J.; Ping, J. L.; Ping, R. G.; Poling, R.; Prasad, V.; Qi, H. R.; Qi, M.; Qian, S.; Qiao, C. F.; Qin, L. Q.; Qin, N.; Qin, X. S.; Qin, Z. H.; Qiu, J. F.; Rashid, K. H.; Redmer, C. F.; Ripka, M.; Rong, G.; Rosner, Ch.; Ruan, X. D.; Santoro, V.; Sarantsev, A.; Savrié, M.; Schoenning, K.; Schumann, S.; Shan, W.; Shao, M.; Shen, C. P.; Shen, P. X.; Shen, X. Y.; Sheng, H. Y.; Song, W. M.; Song, X. Y.; Sosio, S.; Spataro, S.; Sun, G. X.; Sun, J. F.; Sun, S. S.; Sun, Y. J.; Sun, Y. Z.; Sun, Z. J.; Sun, Z. T.; Tang, C. J.; Tang, X.; Tapan, I.; Thorndike, E. H.; Tiemens, M.; Ullrich, M.; Uman, I.; Varner, G. S.; Wang, B.; Wang, B. L.; Wang, D.; Wang, D. Y.; Wang, K.; Wang, L. L.; Wang, L. S.; Wang, M.; Wang, P.; Wang, P. L.; Wang, S. G.; Wang, W.; Wang, W. P.; Wang, X. F.; Wang, Y. D.; Wang, Y. F.; Wang, Y. Q.; Wang, Z.; Wang, Z. G.; Wang, Z. H.; Wang, Z. Y.; Weber, T.; Wei, D. H.; Wei, J. B.; Weidenkaff, P.; Wen, S. P.; Wiedner, U.; Wolke, M.; Wu, L. H.; Wu, Z.; Xia, L.; Xia, L. G.; Xia, Y.; Xiao, D.; Xiao, H.; Xiao, Z. J.; Xie, Y. G.; Xiu, Q. L.; Xu, G. F.; Xu, L.; Xu, Q. J.; Xu, Q. N.; Xu, X. P.; Yan, L.; Yan, W. B.; Yan, W. C.; Yan, Y. H.; Yang, H. J.; Yang, H. X.; Yang, L.; Yang, Y. X.; Ye, M.; Ye, M. H.; Yin, J. H.; Yu, B. X.; Yu, C. X.; Yu, J. S.; Yuan, C. Z.; Yuan, W. L.; Yuan, Y.; Yuncu, A.; Zafar, A. A.; Zallo, A.; Zeng, Y.; Zeng, Z.; Zhang, B. X.; Zhang, B. Y.; Zhang, C.; Zhang, C. C.; Zhang, D. H.; Zhang, H. H.; Zhang, H. Y.; Zhang, J. J.; Zhang, J. L.; Zhang, J. Q.; Zhang, J. W.; Zhang, J. Y.; Zhang, J. Z.; Zhang, K.; Zhang, L.; Zhang, X. Y.; Zhang, Y.; Zhang, Y. H.; Zhang, Y. N.; Zhang, Y. T.; Zhang, Yu; Zhang, Z. H.; Zhang, Z. P.; Zhang, Z. Y.; Zhao, G.; Zhao, J. W.; Zhao, J. Y.; Zhao, J. Z.; Zhao, Lei; Zhao, Ling; Zhao, M. G.; Zhao, Q.; Zhao, Q. W.; Zhao, S. J.; Zhao, T. C.; Zhao, Y. B.; Zhao, Z. G.; Zhemchugov, A.; Zheng, B.; Zheng, J. P.; Zheng, W. J.; Zheng, Y. H.; Zhong, B.; Zhou, L.; Zhou, X.; Zhou, X. K.; Zhou, X. R.; Zhou, X. Y.; Zhu, K.; Zhu, K. J.; Zhu, S.; Zhu, S. H.; Zhu, X. L.; Zhu, Y. C.; Zhu, Y. S.; Zhu, Z. A.; Zhuang, J.; Zotti, L.; Zou, B. S.; Zou, J. H.; Besiii Collaboration

    2016-02-01

    We report the first measurement of absolute hadronic branching fractions of Λc+ baryon at the Λc+Λ¯c - production threshold, in the 30 years since the Λc+ discovery. In total, 12 Cabibbo-favored Λc+ hadronic decay modes are analyzed with a double-tag technique, based on a sample of 567 pb-1 of e+e- collisions at √{s }=4.599 GeV recorded with the BESIII detector. A global least-squares fitter is utilized to improve the measured precision. Among the measurements for twelve Λc+ decay modes, the branching fraction for Λc+→p K-π+ is determined to be (5.84 ±0.27 ±0.23 )%, where the first uncertainty is statistical and the second is systematic. In addition, the measurements of the branching fractions of the other 11 Cabibbo-favored hadronic decay modes are significantly improved.

  5. Measurements of Absolute Hadronic Branching Fractions of the Λ_{c}^{+} Baryon.

    PubMed

    Ablikim, M; Achasov, M N; Ai, X C; Albayrak, O; Albrecht, M; Ambrose, D J; Amoroso, A; An, F F; An, Q; Bai, J Z; Baldini Ferroli, R; Ban, Y; Bennett, D W; Bennett, J V; Bertani, M; Bettoni, D; Bian, J M; Bianchi, F; Boger, E; Boyko, I; Briere, R A; Cai, H; Cai, X; Cakir, O; Calcaterra, A; Cao, G F; Cetin, S A; Chang, J F; Chelkov, G; Chen, G; Chen, H S; Chen, H Y; Chen, J C; Chen, M L; Chen, S J; Chen, X; Chen, X R; Chen, Y B; Cheng, H P; Chu, X K; Cibinetto, G; Dai, H L; Dai, J P; Dbeyssi, A; Dedovich, D; Deng, Z Y; Denig, A; Denysenko, I; Destefanis, M; De Mori, F; Ding, Y; Dong, C; Dong, J; Dong, L Y; Dong, M Y; Dou, Z L; Du, S X; Duan, P F; Eren, E E; Fan, J Z; Fang, J; Fang, S S; Fang, X; Fang, Y; Farinelli, R; Fava, L; Fedorov, O; Feldbauer, F; Felici, G; Feng, C Q; Fioravanti, E; Fritsch, M; Fu, C D; Gao, Q; Gao, X L; Gao, X Y; Gao, Y; Gao, Z; Garzia, I; Goetzen, K; Gong, L; Gong, W X; Gradl, W; Greco, M; Gu, M H; Gu, Y T; Guan, Y H; Guo, A Q; Guo, L B; Guo, Y; Guo, Y P; Haddadi, Z; Hafner, A; Han, S; Hao, X Q; Harris, F A; He, K L; Held, T; Heng, Y K; Hou, Z L; Hu, C; Hu, H M; Hu, J F; Hu, T; Hu, Y; Huang, G S; Huang, J S; Huang, X T; Huang, Y; Hussain, T; Ji, Q; Ji, Q P; Ji, X B; Ji, X L; Jiang, L W; Jiang, X S; Jiang, X Y; Jiao, J B; Jiao, Z; Jin, D P; Jin, S; Johansson, T; Julin, A; Kalantar-Nayestanaki, N; Kang, X L; Kang, X S; Kavatsyuk, M; Ke, B C; Kiese, P; Kliemt, R; Kloss, B; Kolcu, O B; Kopf, B; Kornicer, M; Kuehn, W; Kupsc, A; Lange, J S; Lara, M; Larin, P; Leng, C; Li, C; Li, Cheng; Li, D M; Li, F; Li, F Y; Li, G; Li, H B; Li, J C; Li, Jin; Li, K; Li, K; Li, Lei; Li, P R; Li, Q Y; Li, T; Li, W D; Li, W G; Li, X L; Li, X M; Li, X N; Li, X Q; Li, Z B; Liang, H; Liang, Y F; Liang, Y T; Liao, G R; Lin, D X; Liu, B J; Liu, C X; Liu, D; Liu, F H; Liu, Fang; Liu, Feng; Liu, H B; Liu, H H; Liu, H H; Liu, H M; Liu, J; Liu, J B; Liu, J P; Liu, J Y; Liu, K; Liu, K Y; Liu, L D; Liu, P L; Liu, Q; Liu, S B; Liu, X; Liu, Y B; Liu, Z A; Liu, Zhiqing; Loehner, H; Lou, X C; Lu, H J; Lu, J G; Lu, Y; Lu, Y P; Luo, C L; Luo, M X; Luo, T; Luo, X L; Lyu, X R; Ma, F C; Ma, H L; Ma, L L; Ma, Q M; Ma, T; Ma, X N; Ma, X Y; Ma, Y M; Maas, F E; Maggiora, M; Mao, Y J; Mao, Z P; Marcello, S; Messchendorp, J G; Min, J; Mitchell, R E; Mo, X H; Mo, Y J; Morales Morales, C; Muchnoi, N Yu; Muramatsu, H; Nefedov, Y; Nerling, F; Nikolaev, I B; Ning, Z; Nisar, S; Niu, S L; Niu, X Y; Olsen, S L; Ouyang, Q; Pacetti, S; Pan, Y; Patteri, P; Pelizaeus, M; Peng, H P; Peters, K; Pettersson, J; Ping, J L; Ping, R G; Poling, R; Prasad, V; Qi, H R; Qi, M; Qian, S; Qiao, C F; Qin, L Q; Qin, N; Qin, X S; Qin, Z H; Qiu, J F; Rashid, K H; Redmer, C F; Ripka, M; Rong, G; Rosner, Ch; Ruan, X D; Santoro, V; Sarantsev, A; Savrié, M; Schoenning, K; Schumann, S; Shan, W; Shao, M; Shen, C P; Shen, P X; Shen, X Y; Sheng, H Y; Song, W M; Song, X Y; Sosio, S; Spataro, S; Sun, G X; Sun, J F; Sun, S S; Sun, Y J; Sun, Y Z; Sun, Z J; Sun, Z T; Tang, C J; Tang, X; Tapan, I; Thorndike, E H; Tiemens, M; Ullrich, M; Uman, I; Varner, G S; Wang, B; Wang, B L; Wang, D; Wang, D Y; Wang, K; Wang, L L; Wang, L S; Wang, M; Wang, P; Wang, P L; Wang, S G; Wang, W; Wang, W P; Wang, X F; Wang, Y D; Wang, Y F; Wang, Y Q; Wang, Z; Wang, Z G; Wang, Z H; Wang, Z Y; Weber, T; Wei, D H; Wei, J B; Weidenkaff, P; Wen, S P; Wiedner, U; Wolke, M; Wu, L H; Wu, Z; Xia, L; Xia, L G; Xia, Y; Xiao, D; Xiao, H; Xiao, Z J; Xie, Y G; Xiu, Q L; Xu, G F; Xu, L; Xu, Q J; Xu, Q N; Xu, X P; Yan, L; Yan, W B; Yan, W C; Yan, Y H; Yang, H J; Yang, H X; Yang, L; Yang, Y X; Ye, M; Ye, M H; Yin, J H; Yu, B X; Yu, C X; Yu, J S; Yuan, C Z; Yuan, W L; Yuan, Y; Yuncu, A; Zafar, A A; Zallo, A; Zeng, Y; Zeng, Z; Zhang, B X; Zhang, B Y; Zhang, C; Zhang, C C; Zhang, D H; Zhang, H H; Zhang, H Y; Zhang, J J; Zhang, J L; Zhang, J Q; Zhang, J W; Zhang, J Y; Zhang, J Z; Zhang, K; Zhang, L; Zhang, X Y; Zhang, Y; Zhang, Y H; Zhang, Y N; Zhang, Y T; Zhang, Yu; Zhang, Z H; Zhang, Z P; Zhang, Z Y; Zhao, G; Zhao, J W; Zhao, J Y; Zhao, J Z; Zhao, Lei; Zhao, Ling; Zhao, M G; Zhao, Q; Zhao, Q W; Zhao, S J; Zhao, T C; Zhao, Y B; Zhao, Z G; Zhemchugov, A; Zheng, B; Zheng, J P; Zheng, W J; Zheng, Y H; Zhong, B; Zhou, L; Zhou, X; Zhou, X K; Zhou, X R; Zhou, X Y; Zhu, K; Zhu, K J; Zhu, S; Zhu, S H; Zhu, X L; Zhu, Y C; Zhu, Y S; Zhu, Z A; Zhuang, J; Zotti, L; Zou, B S; Zou, J H

    2016-02-01

    We report the first measurement of absolute hadronic branching fractions of Λ_{c}^{+} baryon at the Λ_{c}^{+}Λ[over ¯]_{c}^{-} production threshold, in the 30 years since the Λ_{c}^{+} discovery. In total, 12 Cabibbo-favored Λ_{c}^{+} hadronic decay modes are analyzed with a double-tag technique, based on a sample of 567  pb^{-1} of e^{+}e^{-} collisions at sqrt[s]=4.599  GeV recorded with the BESIII detector. A global least-squares fitter is utilized to improve the measured precision. Among the measurements for twelve Λ_{c}^{+} decay modes, the branching fraction for Λ_{c}^{+}→pK^{-}π^{+} is determined to be (5.84±0.27±0.23)%, where the first uncertainty is statistical and the second is systematic. In addition, the measurements of the branching fractions of the other 11 Cabibbo-favored hadronic decay modes are significantly improved. PMID:26894702

  6. Measurement of the Absolute Branching Fraction of D0 to K- pi+

    SciTech Connect

    Aubert, B.; Bona, M.; Boutigny, D.; Karyotakis, Y.; Lees, J.P.; Poireau, V.; Prudent, X.; Tisserand, V.; Zghiche, A.; Garra Tico, J.; Grauges, E.; Lopez, L.; Palano, A.; Eigen, G.; Ofte, I.; Stugu, B.; Sun, L.; Abrams, G.S.; Battaglia, M.; Brown, D.N.; Button-Shafer, J.; /LBL, Berkeley /Birmingham U. /Ruhr U., Bochum /Bristol U. /British Columbia U. /Brunel U. /Novosibirsk, IYF /UC, Irvine /UCLA /UC, Riverside /UC, San Diego /UC, Santa Barbara /UC, Santa Cruz /Caltech /Cincinnati U. /Colorado U. /Colorado State U. /Dortmund U. /Munich, Tech. U. /Ecole Polytechnique /Edinburgh U. /Ferrara U. /Frascati /Genoa U. /Harvard U. /Heidelberg U. /Imperial Coll., London /Iowa U. /Iowa State U. /Johns Hopkins U. /Karlsruhe U. /Orsay, LAL /LLNL, Livermore /Liverpool U. /Queen Mary, U. of London /Royal Holloway, U. of London /Louisville U. /Manchester U. /Maryland U. /Massachusetts U., Amherst /MIT, LNS /McGill U. /Maryland U. /INFN, Milan /Mississippi U. /Montreal U. /Mt. Holyoke Coll. /Naples U. /NIKHEF, Amsterdam /Notre Dame U. /Ohio State U. /Oregon U. /Padua U. /Paris U., VI-VII /Pennsylvania U. /Perugia U. /Pisa U. /Prairie View A-M /Princeton U. /INFN, Rome /Rostock U. /Rutherford /DSM, DAPNIA, Saclay /South Carolina U. /SLAC /Stanford U., Phys. Dept. /SUNY, Albany /Tennessee U. /Texas U. /Texas U., Dallas /Turin U. /Trieste U. /Valencia U., IFIC /Victoria U. /Warwick U. /Wisconsin U., Madison /Yale U.

    2007-04-25

    The authors measure the absolute branching fraction for D{sup 0} {yields} K{sup -} {pi}{sup +} using partial reconstruction of {bar B}{sup 0} {yields} D*{sup +}X{ell}{sup -}{bar {nu}}{sub {ell}} decays, in which only the charged lepton and the pion from the decay D*{sup +} {yields} D{sup 0}{pi}{sup +} are used. Based on a data sample of 230 million B{bar B} pairs collected at the {Upsilon}(4S) resonance with the BABAR detector at the PEP-II asymmetric-energy B Factory at SLAC, they obtain {Beta}(D{sup 0} {yields} K{sup -}{pi}{sup +}) = (4.007 {+-} 0.037 {+-} 0.070)%, where the first error is statistical and the second error is systematic.

  7. Measurement of the Absolute Branching Fractions for $D^-_s\\!\\rightarrow\\!\\ell^-\\bar{\

    SciTech Connect

    del Amo Sanchez, P.; Lees, J.P.; Poireau, V.; Prencipe, E.; Tisserand, V.; Garra Tico, J.; Grauges, E.; Martinelli, M.; Palano, A.; Pappagallo, M.; Eigen, G.; Stugu, B.; Sun, L.; Battaglia, M.; Brown, David Nathan; Hooberman, B.; Kerth, L.T.; Kolomensky, Yu.G.; Lynch, G.; Osipenkov, I.L.; Tanabe, T.; /more authors..

    2010-10-27

    The absolute branching fractions for the decays D{sub s}{sup -} {yields} {ell}{sup -}{bar {nu}}{sub {ell}} ({ell} = e, {mu}, or {tau}) are measured using a data sample corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 521 fb{sup -1} collected at center of mass energies near 10.58 GeV with the BABAR detector at the PEP-II e{sup +}e{sup -} collider at SLAC. The number of D{sub s}{sup -} mesons is determined by reconstructing the recoiling system DKX{gamma} in events of the type e{sup +}e{sup -}DKXD*{sub s}{sup -}, where D*{sub s}{sup -} {yields} D{sub s}{sup -}{gamma} and X represents additional pions from fragmentation. The D{sub s}{sup -} {yields} {ell}{sup 0}{nu}{sub {ell}} events are detected by full or partial reconstruction of the recoiling system DKX{gamma}{ell}. The branching fraction measurements are combined to determine the D{sub s}{sup -} decay constant f{sub D{sub s}} = (258.6 {+-} 6.4 {+-} 7.5) MeV, where the first uncertainty is statistical and the second is systematic.

  8. N2 Mole Fraction Dependence of Plasma Bullet Propagation in Premixed He/N2 Plasma Needle Discharge at Atmospheric Pressure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ni, Gengsong; Qian, Muyang; Yang, Congying; Liu, Sanqiu; Wang, Dezhen

    2016-07-01

    In this work, a computational modeling study on the mechanism of the acceleration behavior of a plasma bullet in needle-plane configuration is presented. Above all, in our model, two sub-models of time-dependent plasma dynamics and laminar flow are connected using a oneway coupled method, and both the working gas and the surrounding gas around the plasma jet are assumed to be the same, which are premixed He/N2 gas. The mole fractions of the N2 (NMF) ingredient are set to be 0.01%, 0.1% and 1% in three cases, respectively. It is found that in each case, the plasma bullet accelerates with time to a peak velocity after it exits the nozzle and then decreases until getting to the treated surface, and that the velocity of the plasma bullet increases at each time moment with the peak value changing from 0.72×106 m/s to 0.80×106 m/s but then drops more sharply when the NMF varies from 0.01% to 1%. Besides, the electron impact ionizations of helium neutrals and nitrogen molecules are found to have key influences on the propagation of a plasma bullet instead of the penning ionization. supported by National Natural Science Foundation of China (No. 11465013), the Natural Science Foundation of Jiangxi Province, China (No. 20151BAB212012), and in part by the International Science and Technology Cooperation Program of China (No. 2015DFA61800)

  9. Mapping intercellular CO2 mole fraction (Ci) in rosa rubiginosa leaves fed with abscisic acid by using chlorophyll fluorescence imaging. Significance Of ci estimated from leaf gas exchange

    PubMed

    Meyer; Genty

    1998-03-01

    Imaging of photochemical yield of photosystem II (PSII) computed from leaf chlorophyll fluorescence images and gas-exchange measurements were performed on Rosa rubiginosa leaflets during abscisic acid (ABA) addition. In air ABA induced a decrease of both the net CO2 assimilation (An) and the stomatal water vapor conductance (gs). After ABA treatment, imaging in transient nonphotorespiratory conditions (0.1% O2) revealed a heterogeneous decrease of PSII photochemical yield. This decline was fully reversed by a transient high CO2 concentration (7400 mol mol-1) in the leaf atmosphere. It was concluded that ABA primarily affected An by decreasing the CO2 supply at ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase. Therefore, the An versus intercellular mole fraction (Ci) relationship was assumed not to be affected by ABA, and images of Ci and gs were constructed from images of PSII photochemical yield under nonphotorespiratory conditions. The distribution of gs remained unimodal following ABA treatment. A comparison of calculations of Ci from images and gas exchange in ABA-treated leaves showed that the overestimation of Ci estimated from gas exchange was only partly due to heterogeneity. This overestimation was also attributed to the cuticular transpiration, which largely affects the calculation of the leaf conductance to CO2, when leaf conductance to water is low. PMID:9501127

  10. Magmatic-hydrothermal evolution in a fractionating granite: a microchemical study of the sn-w-f-mineralized mole granite (Australia)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    A´at, A.; Gn̈ther, D.; Heinrich, C. A.

    2000-10-01

    A large granitic pluton associated with numerous hydrothermal ore deposits (the Mole Granite, northeastern New South Wales, Australia) was used for an integrated study of the chemical evolution of silicate melts and aqueous fluids during the late magmatic to early hydrothermal transition. Major and trace-element compositions were obtained by electron microprobe analysis (EPMA) and laser-ablation iductively coupled plasma mass-spectrometry microanalysis of fluid inclusions and crystallized melt inclusions in magmatic phenocrysts and minerals from miarolitic cavities. Together with fluid-compositional data from the ore veins, these data allowed reconstruction of the evolving silicate melts and therefrom exsolving single-phase (supercritical) or two-phase (brine + vapor) fluids, from the time of initial fluid saturation through to the final solidification of F-rich residual melts. The analytical data and a Rayleigh fractionation model combining experimental partitioning data with constraints from the natural system demonstrate that the phase state, the salinity, and the ore-metal contents of the exsolving fluids vary dramatically with increasing degree of crystallization. Fluid properties vary even without variation of externally imposed parameters such as pressure or temperature, mainly because of the progressive enrichment of F in the melt. Early-saturating fluids are Cl-rich and immediately separate into coexisting brine and vapor phase due to the low pressure of the system (≈1 kbar). Increasing F content of the melt reduces the partitioning of Cl to the fluid, such that later exsolving fluids are single-phase and have low salinity (at unchanged pressure conditions). Due to the contrasting complexation behavior of different ore metals, this evolution leads to a significant change in trace-metal partitioning as magma crystallization proceeds. The resulting variation in fluid compositions in turn controls the major variation in ore-metal ratios observed in the ore

  11. Teaching the Mole.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dierks, Werner

    1981-01-01

    Reviews approximately 300 journal articles to point out fundamental problems resulting from the introduction of the quantity "amount of substance" and the use of the unit "mole." Proposals are made for the solution of these problems in the light of the IUPAC definition of the mole. (Author/CS)

  12. Absolute Branching Fraction Measurements for D+ and D0 Inclusive Semileptonic Decays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adam, N. E.; Alexander, J. P.; Berkelman, K.; Cassel, D. G.; Duboscq, J. E.; Ecklund, K. M.; Ehrlich, R.; Fields, L.; Gibbons, L.; Gray, R.; Gray, S. W.; Hartill, D. L.; Heltsley, B. K.; Hertz, D.; Jones, C. D.; Kandaswamy, J.; Kreinick, D. L.; Kuznetsov, V. E.; Mahlke-Krüger, H.; Meyer, T. O.; Onyisi, P. U. E.; Patterson, J. R.; Peterson, D.; Pivarski, J.; Riley, D.; Ryd, A.; Sadoff, A. J.; Schwarthoff, H.; Shi, X.; Stroiney, S.; Sun, W. M.; Wilksen, T.; Weinberger, M.; Athar, S. B.; Patel, R.; Potlia, V.; Stoeck, H.; Yelton, J.; Rubin, P.; Cawlfield, C.; Eisenstein, B. I.; Karliner, I.; Kim, D.; Lowrey, N.; Naik, P.; Sedlack, C.; Selen, M.; White, E. J.; Wiss, J.; Shepherd, M. R.; Besson, D.; Pedlar, T. K.; Cronin-Hennessy, D.; Gao, K. Y.; Gong, D. T.; Hietala, J.; Kubota, Y.; Klein, T.; Lang, B. W.; Poling, R.; Scott, A. W.; Smith, A.; Dobbs, S.; Metreveli, Z.; Seth, K. K.; Tomaradze, A.; Zweber, P.; Ernst, J.; Severini, H.; Dytman, S. A.; Love, W.; Savinov, V.; Aquines, O.; Li, Z.; Lopez, A.; Mehrabyan, S.; Mendez, H.; Ramirez, J.; Huang, G. S.; Miller, D. H.; Pavlunin, V.; Sanghi, B.; Shipsey, I. P. J.; Xin, B.; Adams, G. S.; Anderson, M.; Cummings, J. P.; Danko, I.; Napolitano, J.; He, Q.; Insler, J.; Muramatsu, H.; Park, C. S.; Thorndike, E. H.; Coan, T. E.; Gao, Y. S.; Liu, F.; Artuso, M.; Blusk, S.; Butt, J.; Li, J.; Menaa, N.; Mountain, R.; Nisar, S.; Randrianarivony, K.; Redjimi, R.; Sia, R.; Skwarnicki, T.; Stone, S.; Wang, J. C.; Zhang, K.; Csorna, S. E.; Bonvicini, G.; Cinabro, D.; Dubrovin, M.; Lincoln, A.; Asner, D. M.; Edwards, K. W.; Briere, R. A.; Brock, I.; Chen, J.; Ferguson, T.; Tatishvili, G.; Vogel, H.; Watkins, M. E.; Rosner, J. L.

    2006-12-01

    We present measurements of the inclusive branching fractions for the decays D+→Xe+νe and D0→Xe+νe, using 281pb-1 of data collected on the ψ(3770) resonance with the CLEO-c detector. We find B(D0→Xe+νe)=(6.46±0.17±0.13)% and B(D+→Xe+νe)=(16.13±0.20±0.33)%. Using the known D meson lifetimes, we obtain the ratio ΓD+sl/ΓD0sl=0.985±0.028±0.015, confirming isospin invariance at the level of 3%. The positron momentum spectra from D+ and D0 have consistent shapes.

  13. Toward absolute quantification of iron oxide nanoparticles as well as cell internalized fraction using multiparametric MRI

    PubMed Central

    Girard, O. M.; Ramirez, R.; McCarty, S.; Mattrey, R. F.

    2012-01-01

    Iron oxide nanoparticles (IONPs) are widely used as MR contrast agents because of their strong magnetic properties and broad range of applications. The contrast induced by IONPs typically depends on concentration, water accessibility, particle size, and heterogeneity of IONP distribution within the microenvironment. Although the latter could be a tool to assess local physiological effects at the molecular level, it renders IONP quantification from relaxation measurements challenging. This study aims to quantify IONP concentration using susceptibility measurements. In addition, further analysis of relaxation data is proposed to extract quantitative information about the IONP spatial distribution. Mesenchymal stem cells were labeled with IONPs and the IONP concentration measured by mass spectroscopy. MR relaxation parameters (T1, T2, T2*) as well as magnetic susceptibility of cylindrical samples containing serial dilutions of mixtures of free and cell-internalized IONPs were measured and correlated with IONP concentration. Unlike relaxation data, magnetic susceptibility was independent of whether IONPs were free or internalized, making it an excellent candidate for IONP quantification. Using IONP concentration derived from mass spectroscopy and measured relaxation times, free and internalized IONP fractions were accurately calculated. Magnetic susceptibility was shown to be a robust technique to measure IONP concentration in this preliminary study. Novel imaging based susceptibility mapping techniques could prove to be valuable tools to quantify IONP concentration directly by MRI, for samples of arbitrarily shape. Combined with relaxation time mapping techniques, especially T2 and T2*, this could be an efficient way to measure both IONP concentration and the internalized IONP fraction in vivo using MRI, to gain insight into tissue function and molecular imaging paradigms. PMID:22649047

  14. Measurement of the Absolute Branching Fractions of$B^\\pm \\to K^\\pm X_{c\\bar c}$

    SciTech Connect

    Aubert, B.; Barate, R.; Boutigny, D.; Couderc, F.; Karyotakis, Y.; Lees, J.P.; Poireau, V.; Tisserand, V.; Zghiche, A.; Grauges, E.; Palano, A.; Pappagallo, M.; Pompili, A.; Chen, J.C.; Qi, N.D.; Rong, G.; Wang, P.; Zhu, Y.S.; Eigen, G.; Ofte, I.; Stugu, B. /Bergen U. /LBL, Berkeley /UC, Berkeley /Birmingham U. /Ruhr U., Bochum /Bristol U. /British Columbia U. /Brunel U. /Novosibirsk, IYF /UC, Irvine /UCLA /UC, Riverside /UC, San Diego /UC, Santa Barbara /UC, Santa Cruz /Caltech /Cincinnati U. /Colorado U. /Colorado State U. /Dortmund U. /Dresden, Tech. U. /Ecole Polytechnique /Edinburgh U. /Ferrara U. /INFN, Ferrara /Frascati /Genoa U. /INFN, Genoa /Harvard U. /Heidelberg U. /Karlsruhe U., EKP /Imperial Coll., London /Iowa U. /Iowa State U. /Orsay, LAL /LLNL, Livermore /Liverpool U. /Queen Mary, U. of London /Royal Holloway, U. of London /Louisville U. /Manchester U. /Maryland U. /Massachusetts U., Amherst /MIT, LNS /McGill U. /Milan U. /INFN, Milan /Mississippi U. /Montreal U. /Mt. Holyoke Coll. /Naples U. /INFN, Naples /NIKHEF, Amsterdam /Notre Dame U. /Ohio State U. /Oregon U. /Padua U. /INFN, Padua /Paris U., VI-VII /Pennsylvania U. /Perugia U. /INFN, Perugia /Pisa U. /INFN, Pisa /Prairie View A-M /Princeton U. /Rome U. /INFN, Rome /Rostock U. /Rutherford /DAPNIA, Saclay /South Carolina U. /SLAC /Stanford U., Phys. Dept. /SUNY, Stony Brook /Tennessee U. /Texas U. /Texas U., Dallas /Turin U. /INFN, Turin /Trieste U. /INFN, Trieste /Valencia U., IFIC /Vanderbilt U. /Victoria U. /Warwick U. /Wisconsin U., Madison /Yale U. /Basilicata U., Potenza

    2005-11-02

    We study the two-body decays of B{sup {+-}} mesons to K{sup {+-}} and a charmonium state, X{sub c{bar c}}, in a sample of 210.5 fb{sup -1} of data from the BABAR experiment. We perform measurements of absolute branching fractions {Beta}(B{sup {+-}} {yields} K{sup {+-}} X{sub c{bar c}}) using a missing mass technique, and report several new or improved results. In particular, the upper limit {Beta}(B{sup {+-}} {yields} K{sup {+-}}(3872)) < 3.2 x 10{sup -4} at 90% CL and the inferred lower limit {Beta}(X(3872) {yields} J/{psi}{pi}{sup +}{pi}{sup -}) > 4.2% will help in understanding the nature of the recently discovered X(3872).

  15. Measurement of absolute branching fractions of inclusive semileptonic decays of charm and charmed-strange mesons

    SciTech Connect

    Asner, D. M.; Edwards, K. W.; Reed, J.; Robichaud, A. N.; Tatishvili, G.; White, E. J.; Briere, R. A.; Vogel, H.; Onyisi, P. U. E.; Rosner, J. L.; Alexander, J. P.; Cassel, D. G.; Das, S.; Ehrlich, R.; Fields, L.; Gibbons, L.; Gray, S. W.; Hartill, D. L.; Heltsley, B. K.; Hunt, J. M.

    2010-03-01

    We have measured the inclusive semileptonic branching fractions of D{sup 0}, D{sup +}, and D{sub s}{sup +} mesons. For these measurements, we have used the full CLEO-c open-charm data samples, 818 pb{sup -1} at E{sub CM}=3.774 GeV, giving D{sup 0}D{sup 0} and D{sup +}D{sup -} events, and 602 pb{sup -1} at E{sub CM}=4.170 GeV, giving D{sub s}*{sup {+-}D}{sub s}{sup {+-}}events. We obtain B(D{sup 0{yields}}Xe{sup +{nu}}{sub e})=(6.46{+-}0.09{+-}0.11)%, B(D{sup +{yields}}Xe{sup +{nu}}{sub e})=(16.13{+-}0.10{+-}0.29)%, and B(D{sub s}{sup +{yields}}Xe{sup +{nu}}{sub e})=(6.52{+-}0.39{+-}0.15)%, where the first uncertainties are statistical and the second are systematic. From these and lifetimes obtained elsewhere, we obtain the ratios of semileptonic decay widths {Gamma}(D{sup +{yields}}Xe{sup +{nu}}{sub e})/{Gamma}(D{sup 0{yields}}Xe{sup +{nu}}{sub e})=0.985{+-}0.015{+-}0.024 and {Gamma}(D{sub s}{sup +{yields}}Xe{sup +{nu}}{sub e})/{Gamma}(D{sup 0{yields}}Xe{sup +{nu}}{sub e})=0.828{+-}0.051{+-}0.025. The ratio of D{sup +} and D{sup 0} is consistent with the isospin symmetry prediction of unity, and the ratio of D{sub s}{sup +} and D{sup 0} differs from unity, as expected.

  16. Mole gun injury.

    PubMed

    Pistré, V; Rezzouk, J

    2013-09-01

    A mole gun is a weapon, which is used to trap and kill moles. This report provides an overview of the state of knowledge of mole gun injuries, comparable to blast injuries caused by fireworks, explosive or gunshot. Over a 2-year period, the authors reported their experience with ten hand injuries caused by mole gun. Radial side of the hand was often concerned, particularly the thumb. The authors explain their choices in the management of such lesions. Surgery was performed primarily and a large debridement currently seemed to offer the best outcome for the patient. Blast, crush, burns and lacerations may explain the higher rate of amputation to the digits. A long period of physiotherapy, specifically of the hand, was needed before the patient could return to work. This ballistic hand trauma encountered by surgeons requires knowledge and understanding of these injuries. It should be in accordance with firearms law because of severe injuries encountered and possible lethal wounds. PMID:23746826

  17. Improved measurement of the absolute branching fraction of D+→ bar{K}^0 μ +ν _{μ }

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ablikim, M.; Achasov, M. N.; Ai, X. C.; Albayrak, O.; Albrecht, M.; Ambrose, D. J.; Amoroso, A.; An, F. F.; An, Q.; Bai, J. Z.; Baldini Ferroli, R.; Ban, Y.; Bennett, D. W.; Bennett, J. V.; Bertani, M.; Bettoni, D.; Bian, J. M.; Bianchi, F.; Boger, E.; Boyko, I.; Briere, R. A.; Cai, H.; Cai, X.; Cakir, O.; Calcaterra, A.; Cao, G. F.; Cetin, S. A.; Chang, J. F.; Chelkov, G.; Chen, G.; Chen, H. S.; Chen, H. Y.; Chen, J. C.; Chen, M. L.; Chen, S.; Chen, S. J.; Chen, X.; Chen, X. R.; Chen, Y. B.; Cheng, H. P.; Chu, X. K.; Cibinetto, G.; Dai, H. L.; Dai, J. P.; Dbeyssi, A.; Dedovich, D.; Deng, Z. Y.; Denig, A.; Denysenko, I.; Destefanis, M.; De Mori, F.; Ding, Y.; Dong, C.; Dong, J.; Dong, L. Y.; Dong, M. Y.; Dou, Z. L.; Du, S. X.; Duan, P. F.; Fan, J. Z.; Fang, J.; Fang, S. S.; Fang, X.; Fang, Y.; Farinelli, R.; Fava, L.; Fedorov, O.; Feldbauer, F.; Felici, G.; Feng, C. Q.; Fioravanti, E.; Fritsch, M.; Fu, C. D.; Gao, Q.; Gao, X. L.; Gao, X. Y.; Gao, Y.; Gao, Z.; Garzia, I.; Goetzen, K.; Gong, L.; Gong, W. X.; Gradl, W.; Greco, M.; Gu, M. H.; Gu, Y. T.; Guan, Y. H.; Guo, A. Q.; Guo, L. B.; Guo, R. P.; Guo, Y.; Guo, Y. P.; Haddadi, Z.; Hafner, A.; Han, S.; Hao, X. Q.; Harris, F. A.; He, K. L.; Held, T.; Heng, Y. K.; Hou, Z. L.; Hu, C.; Hu, H. M.; Hu, J. F.; Hu, T.; Hu, Y.; Huang, G. S.; Huang, J. S.; Huang, X. T.; Huang, X. Z.; Huang, Y.; Huang, Z. L.; Hussain, T.; Ji, Q.; Ji, Q. P.; Ji, X. B.; Ji, X. L.; Jiang, L. W.; Jiang, X. S.; Jiang, X. Y.; Jiao, J. B.; Jiao, Z.; Jin, D. P.; Jin, S.; Johansson, T.; Julin, A.; Kalantar-Nayestanaki, N.; Kang, X. L.; Kang, X. S.; Kavatsyuk, M.; Ke, B. C.; Kiese, P.; Kliemt, R.; Kloss, B.; Kolcu, O. B.; Kopf, B.; Kornicer, M.; Kupsc, A.; Kühn, W.; Lange, J. S.; Lara, M.; Larin, P.; Leng, C.; Li, C.; Li, Cheng; Li, D. M.; Li, F.; Li, F. Y.; Li, G.; Li, H. B.; Li, H. J.; Li, J. C.; Li, Jin; Li, K.; Li, K.; Li, Lei; Li, P. R.; Li, Q. Y.; Li, T.; Li, W. D.; Li, W. G.; Li, X. L.; Li, X. N.; Li, X. Q.; Li, Y. B.; Li, Z. B.; Liang, H.; Liang, Y. F.; Liang, Y. T.; Liao, G. R.; Lin, D. X.; Liu, B.; Liu, B. J.; Liu, C. X.; Liu, D.; Liu, F. H.; Liu, Fang; Liu, Feng; Liu, H. B.; Liu, H. H.; Liu, H. H.; Liu, H. M.; Liu, J.; Liu, J. B.; Liu, J. P.; Liu, J. Y.; Liu, K.; Liu, K. Y.; Liu, L. D.; Liu, P. L.; Liu, Q.; Liu, S. B.; Liu, X.; Liu, Y. B.; Liu, Z. A.; Liu, Zhiqing; Loehner, H.; Lou, X. C.; Lu, H. J.; Lu, J. G.; Lu, Y.; Lu, Y. P.; Luo, C. L.; Luo, M. X.; Luo, T.; Luo, X. L.; Lyu, X. R.; Ma, F. C.; Ma, H. L.; Ma, L. L.; Ma, M. M.; Ma, Q. M.; Ma, T.; Ma, X. N.; Ma, X. Y.; Ma, Y. M.; Maas, F. E.; Maggiora, M.; Mao, Y. J.; Mao, Z. P.; Marcello, S.; Messchendorp, J. G.; Min, J.; Min, T. J.; Mitchell, R. E.; Mo, X. H.; Mo, Y. J.; Morales Morales, C.; Muchnoi, N. Yu.; Muramatsu, H.; Nefedov, Y.; Nerling, F.; Nikolaev, I. B.; Ning, Z.; Nisar, S.; Niu, S. L.; Niu, X. Y.; Olsen, S. L.; Ouyang, Q.; Pacetti, S.; Pan, Y.; Patteri, P.; Pelizaeus, M.; Peng, H. P.; Peters, K.; Pettersson, J.; Ping, J. L.; Ping, R. G.; Poling, R.; Prasad, V.; Qi, H. R.; Qi, M.; Qian, S.; Qiao, C. F.; Qin, L. Q.; Qin, N.; Qin, X. S.; Qin, Z. H.; Qiu, J. F.; Rashid, K. H.; Redmer, C. F.; Ripka, M.; Rong, G.; Rosner, Ch.; Ruan, X. D.; Sarantsev, A.; Savrié, M.; Schoenning, K.; Schumann, S.; Shan, W.; Shao, M.; Shen, C. P.; Shen, P. X.; Shen, X. Y.; Sheng, H. Y.; Shi, M.; Song, W. M.; Song, X. Y.; Sosio, S.; Spataro, S.; Sun, G. X.; Sun, J. F.; Sun, S. S.; Sun, X. H.; Sun, Y. J.; Sun, Y. Z.; Sun, Z. J.; Sun, Z. T.; Tang, C. J.; Tang, X.; Tapan, I.; Thorndike, E. H.; Tiemens, M.; Ullrich, M.; Uman, I.; Varner, G. S.; Wang, B.; Wang, B. L.; Wang, D.; Wang, D. Y.; Wang, K.; Wang, L. L.; Wang, L. S.; Wang, M.; Wang, P.; Wang, P. L.; Wang, W.; Wang, W. P.; Wang, X. F.; Wang, Y.; Wang, Y. D.; Wang, Y. F.; Wang, Y. Q.; Wang, Z.; Wang, Z. G.; Wang, Z. H.; Wang, Z. Y.; Wang, Z. Y.; Weber, T.; Wei, D. H.; Weidenkaff, P.; Wen, S. P.; Wiedner, U.; Wolke, M.; Wu, L. H.; Wu, L. J.; Wu, Z.; Xia, L.; Xia, L. G.; Xia, Y.; Xiao, D.; Xiao, H.; Xiao, Z. J.; Xie, Y. G.; Xiu, Q. L.; Xu, G. F.; Xu, J. J.; Xu, L.; Xu, Q. J.; Xu, Q. N.; Xu, X. P.; Yan, L.; Yan, W. B.; Yan, W. C.; Yan, Y. H.; Yang, H. J.; Yang, H. X.; Yang, L.; Yang, Y. X.; Ye, M.; Ye, M. H.; Yin, J. H.; Yu, B. X.; Yu, C. X.; Yu, J. S.; Yuan, C. Z.; Yuan, W. L.; Yuan, Y.; Yuncu, A.; Zafar, A. A.; Zallo, A.; Zeng, Y.; Zeng, Z.; Zhang, B. X.; Zhang, B. Y.; Zhang, C.; Zhang, C. C.; Zhang, D. H.; Zhang, H. H.; Zhang, H. Y.; Zhang, J.; Zhang, J. J.; Zhang, J. L.; Zhang, J. Q.; Zhang, J. W.; Zhang, J. Y.; Zhang, J. Z.; Zhang, K.; Zhang, L.; Zhang, S. Q.; Zhang, X. Y.; Zhang, Y.; Zhang, Y. H.; Zhang, Y. N.; Zhang, Y. T.; Zhang, Yu; Zhang, Z. H.; Zhang, Z. P.; Zhang, Z. Y.; Zhao, G.; Zhao, J. W.; Zhao, J. Y.; Zhao, J. Z.; Zhao, Lei; Zhao, Ling; Zhao, M. G.; Zhao, Q.; Zhao, Q. W.; Zhao, S. J.; Zhao, T. C.; Zhao, Y. B.; Zhao, Z. G.; Zhemchugov, A.; Zheng, B.; Zheng, J. P.; Zheng, W. J.; Zheng, Y. H.; Zhong, B.; Zhou, L.; Zhou, X.; Zhou, X. K.; Zhou, X. R.; Zhou, X. Y.; Zhu, K.; Zhu, K. J.; Zhu, S.; Zhu, S. H.; Zhu, X. L.; Zhu, Y. C.; Zhu, Y. S.; Zhu, Z. A.; Zhuang, J.; Zotti, L.; Zou, B. S.; Zou, J. H.

    2016-07-01

    By analyzing 2.93 fb^{-1} of data collected at √{s}=3.773 GeV with the BESIII detector, we measure the absolute branching fraction B(D+→ bar{K}^0μ +ν _{μ })=(8.72 ± 0.07_stat. ± 0.18_sys.)%, which is consistent with previous measurements within uncertainties but with significantly improved precision. Combining the Particle Data Group values of B(D^0→ K^-μ ^+ν _μ ), B(D+→ bar{K}^0 e+ν e), and the lifetimes of the D^0 and D^+ mesons with the value of B(D+→ bar{K}^0 μ +ν _{μ }) measured in this work, we determine the following ratios of partial widths: Γ (D^0→ K^-μ ^+ν _μ )/Γ (D+→ bar{K}^0μ +ν _{μ })=0.963± 0.044 and Γ (D+→ bar{K}^0 μ +ν _{μ })/Γ (D+→ bar{K}^0 e+ν e)=0.988± 0.033.

  18. MOLES Information Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ventouras, Spiros; Lawrence, Bryan; Woolf, Andrew; Cox, Simon

    2010-05-01

    The Metadata Objects for Linking Environmental Sciences (MOLES) model has been developed within the Natural Environment Research Council (NERC) DataGrid project [NERC DataGrid] to fill a missing part of the ‘metadata spectrum'. It is a framework within which to encode the relationships between the tools used to obtain data, the activities which organised their use, and the datasets produced. MOLES is primarily of use to consumers of data, especially in an interdisciplinary context, to allow them to establish details of provenance, and to compare and contrast such information without recourse to discipline-specific metadata or private communications with the original investigators [Lawrence et al 2009]. MOLES is also of use to the custodians of data, providing an organising paradigm for the data and metadata. The work described in this paper is a high-level view of the structure and content of a recent major revision of MOLES (v3.3) carried out as part of a NERC DataGrid extension project. The concepts of MOLES v3.3 are rooted in the harmonised ISO model [Harmonised ISO model] - particularly in metadata standards (ISO 19115, ISO 19115-2) and the ‘Observations and Measurements' conceptual model (ISO 19156). MOLES exploits existing concepts and relationships, and specialises information in these standards. A typical sequence of data capturing involves one or more projects under which a number of activities are undertaken, using appropriate tools and methods to produce the datasets. Following this typical sequence, the relevant metadata can be partitioned into the following main sections - helpful in mapping onto the most suitable standards from the ISO 19100 series. • Project section • Activity section (including both observation acquisition and numerical computation) • Observation section (metadata regarding the methods used to obtained the data, the spatial and temporal sampling regime, quality etc.) • Observation collection section The key concepts in

  19. Lattice-engineered MBE growth of high-indium mole fraction InGaAs for low cost MMICs and (1.3--1.55 {micro}m) OEICs

    SciTech Connect

    Childs, T.T.; Sokolov, V.; Sullivan, C.T.

    1997-11-01

    Using molecular beam epitaxy (MBE) and lattice engineering techniques, the feasibility of combining photonic devices applicable to the 1.3 to 1.55 {micro}m wavelength range and monolithic microwave (or mm-wave) integrated circuits (MMICs) on GaAs is demonstrated. A key factor in the MBE growth is incorporation of an InGaAs active layer having an indium arsenide mole fraction of 0.35 or greater and its lattice compatibility with the underlying semi-insulating GaAs substrate. The InGaAs layer used for the photonic devices, can also serve as the active channel for the high electron mobility transistors (HEMTs) for application in MMICs. Several examples of active and passive photonic devices grown by MBE are presented including an optical ridge waveguide, and a photodetector for detection of light in the 1.3 {micro}m range. The material structure includes a 3-layer AlGaAs/GaAs/AlGaAs optical waveguide and a thin InGaAs absorbing layer situated directly above the optical waveguide. Metal-semiconductor-metal (MSM) photodetectors are formed on the top surface of the InGaAs layer for collection of the photo-induced carriers. The optical ridge waveguide is designed for lateral incidence of the light to enhance the MSM photodetector responsivity. Initial measurements on the optical waveguide and photodetector are presented.

  20. Geochemical mole-balance modeling with uncertain data

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Parkhurst, D.L.

    1997-01-01

    Geochemical mole-balance models are sets of chemical reactions that quantitatively account for changes in the chemical and isotopic composition of water along a flow path. A revised mole-balance formulation that includes an uncertainty term for each chemical and isotopic datum is derived. The revised formulation is comprised of mole-balance equations for each element or element redox state, alkalinity, electrons, solvent water, and each isotope; a charge-balance equation and an equation that relates the uncertainty terms for pH, alkalinity, and total dissolved inorganic carbon for each aqueous solution: inequality constraints on the size of the uncertainty terms: and inequality constraints on the sign of the mole transfer of reactants. The equations and inequality constraints are solved by a modification of the simplex algorithm combined with an exhaustive search for unique combinations of aqueous solutions and reactants for which the equations and inequality constraints can be solved and the uncertainty terms minimized. Additional algorithms find only the simplest mole-balance models and determine the ranges of mixing fractions for each solution and mole transfers for each reactant that are consistent with specified limits on the uncertainty terms. The revised formulation produces simpler and more robust mole-balance models and allows the significance of mixing fractions and mole transfers to be evaluated. In an example from the central Oklahoma aquifer, inclusion of up to 5% uncertainty in the chemical data can reduce the number of reactants in mole-balance models from seven or more to as few as three, these being cation exchange, dolomite dissolution, and silica precipitation. In another example from the Madison aquifer; inclusion of the charge-balance constraint requires significant increases in the mole transfers of calcite, dolomite, and organic matter, which reduce the estimated maximum carbon 14 age of the sample by about 10,000 years, from 22,700 years to

  1. Measurement of the B-->pi l nu branching fraction and determination of absolute value of V(ub) with tagged B mesons.

    PubMed

    Aubert, B; Barate, R; Bona, M; Boutigny, D; Couderc, F; Karyotakis, Y; Lees, J P; Poireau, V; Tisserand, V; Zghiche, A; Grauges, E; Palano, A; Chen, J C; Qi, N D; Rong, G; Wang, P; Zhu, Y S; Eigen, G; Ofte, I; Stugu, B; Abrams, G S; Battaglia, M; Brown, D N; Button-Shafer, J; Cahn, R N; Charles, E; Gill, M S; Groysman, Y; Jacobsen, R G; Kadyk, J A; Kerth, L T; Kolomensky, Yu G; Kukartsev, G; Lynch, G; Mir, L M; Orimoto, T J; Pripstein, M; Roe, N A; Ronan, M T; Wenzel, W A; del Amo Sanchez, P; Barrett, M; Ford, K E; Harrison, T J; Hart, A J; Hawkes, C M; Morgan, S E; Watson, A T; Held, T; Koch, H; Lewandowski, B; Pelizaeus, M; Peters, K; Schroeder, T; Steinke, M; Boyd, J T; Burke, J P; Cottingham, W N; Walker, D; Cuhadar-Donszelmann, T; Fulsom, B G; Hearty, C; Knecht, N S; Mattison, T S; McKenna, J A; Khan, A; Kyberd, P; Saleem, M; Sherwood, D J; Teodorescu, L; Blinov, V E; Bukin, A D; Druzhinin, V P; Golubev, V B; Onuchin, A P; Serednyakov, S I; Skovpen, Yu I; Solodov, E P; Todyshev, K Yu; Best, D S; Bondioli, M; Bruinsma, M; Chao, M; Curry, S; Eschrich, I; Kirkby, D; Lankford, A J; Lund, P; Mandelkern, M; Mommsen, R K; Roethel, W; Stoker, D P; Abachi, S; Buchanan, C; Foulkes, S D; Gary, J W; Long, O; Shen, B C; Wang, K; Zhang, L; Hadavand, H K; Hill, E J; Paar, H P; Rahatlou, S; Sharma, V; Berryhill, J W; Campagnari, C; Cunha, A; Dahmes, B; Hong, T M; Kovalskyi, D; Richman, J D; Beck, T W; Eisner, A M; Flacco, C J; Heusch, C A; Kroseberg, J; Lockman, W S; Nesom, G; Schalk, T; Schumm, B A; Seiden, A; Spradlin, P; Williams, D C; Wilson, M G; Albert, J; Chen, E; Dvoretskii, A; Fang, F; Hitlin, D G; Narsky, I; Piatenko, T; Porter, F C; Ryd, A; Samuel, A; Mancinelli, G; Meadows, B T; Mishra, K; Sokoloff, M D; Blanc, F; Bloom, P C; Chen, S; Ford, W T; Hirschauer, J F; Kreisel, A; Nagel, M; Nauenberg, U; Olivas, A; Ruddick, W O; Smith, J G; Ulmer, K A; Wagner, S R; Zhang, J; Chen, A; Eckhart, E A; Soffer, A; Toki, W H; Wilson, R J; Winklmeier, F; Zeng, Q; Altenburg, D D; Feltresi, E; Hauke, A; Jasper, H; Petzold, A; Spaan, B; Brandt, T; Klose, V; Lacker, H M; Mader, W F; Nogowski, R; Schubert, J; Schubert, K R; Schwierz, R; Sundermann, J E; Volk, A; Bernard, D; Bonneaud, G R; Grenier, P; Latour, E; Thiebaux, Ch; Verderi, M; Clark, P J; Gradl, W; Muheim, F; Playfer, S; Robertson, A I; Xie, Y; Andreotti, M; Bettoni, D; Bozzi, C; Calabrese, R; Cibinetto, G; Luppi, E; Negrini, M; Petrella, A; Piemontese, L; Prencipe, E; Anulli, F; Baldini-Ferroli, R; Calcaterra, A; de Sangro, R; Finocchiaro, G; Pacetti, S; Patteri, P; Peruzzi, I M; Piccolo, M; Rama, M; Zallo, A; Buzzo, A; Capra, R; Contri, R; Lo Vetere, M; Macri, M M; Monge, M R; Passaggio, S; Patrignani, C; Robutti, E; Santroni, A; Tosi, S; Brandenburg, G; Chaisanguanthum, K S; Morii, M; Wu, J; Dubitzky, R S; Marks, J; Schenk, S; Uwer, U; Bard, D J; Bhimji, W; Bowerman, D A; Dauncey, P D; Egede, U; Flack, R L; Nash, J A; Nikolich, M B; Panduro Vazquez, W; Behera, P K; Chai, X; Charles, M J; Mallik, U; Meyer, N T; Ziegler, V; Cochran, J; Crawley, H B; Dong, L; Eyges, V; Meyer, W T; Prell, S; Rosenberg, E I; Rubin, A E; Gritsan, A V; Denig, A G; Fritsch, M; Schott, G; Arnaud, N; Davier, M; Grosdidier, G; Höcker, A; Le Diberder, F; Lepeltier, V; Lutz, A M; Oyanguren, A; Pruvot, S; Rodier, S; Roudeau, P; Schune, M H; Stocchi, A; Wang, W F; Wormser, G; Cheng, C H; Lange, D J; Wright, D M; Chavez, C A; Forster, I J; Fry, J R; Gabathuler, E; Gamet, R; George, K A; Hutchcroft, D E; Payne, D J; Schofield, K C; Touramanis, C; Bevan, A J; Di Lodovico, F; Menges, W; Sacco, R; Cowan, G; Flaecher, H U; Hopkins, D A; Jackson, P S; McMahon, T R; Ricciardi, S; Salvatore, F; Wren, A C; Brown, D N; Davis, C L; Allison, J; Barlow, N R; Barlow, R J; Chia, Y M; Edgar, C L; Lafferty, G D; Naisbit, M T; Williams, J C; Yi, J I; Chen, C; Hulsbergen, W D; Jawahery, A; Lae, C K; Roberts, D A; Simi, G; Blaylock, G; Dallapiccola, C; Hertzbach, S S; Li, X; Moore, T B; Saremi, S; Staengle, H; Cowan, R; Sciolla, G; Sekula, S J; Spitznagel, M; Taylor, F; Yamamoto, R K; Kim, H; McLachlin, S E; Patel, P M; Robertson, S H; Lazzaro, A; Lombardo, V; Palombo, F; Bauer, J M; Cremaldi, L; Eschenburg, V; Godang, R; Kroeger, R; Sanders, D A; Summers, D J; Zhao, H W; Brunet, S; Côté, D; Simard, M; Taras, P; Viaud, F B; Nicholson, H; Cavallo, N; De Nardo, G; Fabozzi, F; Gatto, C; Lista, L; Monorchio, D; Paolucci, P; Piccolo, D; Sciacca, C; Baak, M; Raven, G; Snoek, H L; Jessop, C P; Losecco, J M; Allmendinger, T; Benelli, G; Gan, K K; Honscheid, K; Hufnagel, D; Jackson, P D; Kagan, H; Kass, R; Rahimi, A M; Ter-Antonyan, R; Wong, Q K; Blount, N L; Brau, J; Frey, R; Igonkina, O; Lu, M; Rahmat, R; Sinev, N B; Strom, D; Strube, J; Torrence, E; Gaz, A; Margoni, M; Morandin, M; Pompili, A; Posocco, M; Rotondo, M; Simonetto, F; Stroili, R; Voci, C; Benayoun, M; Chauveau, J; Briand, H; David, P; Del Buono, L; de la Vaissière, Ch; Hamon, O; Hartfiel, B L; John, M J J; Leruste, Ph; Malclès, J; Ocariz, J; Roos, L; Therin, G; Gladney, L; Panetta, J; Biasini, M; Covarelli, R; Angelini, C; Batignani, G; Bettarini, S; Bucci, F; Calderini, G; Carpinelli, M; Cenci, R; Forti, F; Giorgi, M A; Lusiani, A; Marchiori, G; Mazur, M A; Morganti, M; Neri, N; Paoloni, E; Rizzo, G; Walsh, J J; Haire, M; Judd, D; Wagoner, D E; Biesiada, J; Danielson, N; Elmer, P; Lau, Y P; Lu, C; Olsen, J; Smith, A J S; Telnov, A V; Bellini, F; Cavoto, G; D'Orazio, A; del Re, D; Di Marco, E; Faccini, R; Ferrarotto, F; Ferroni, F; Gaspero, M; Li Gioi, L; Mazzoni, M A; Morganti, S; Piredda, G; Polci, F; Safai Tehrani, F; Voena, C; Ebert, M; Schröder, H; Waldi, R; Adye, T; De Groot, N; Franek, B; Olaiya, E O; Wilson, F F; Aleksan, R; Emery, S; Gaidot, A; Ganzhur, S F; Hamel de Monchenault, G; Kozanecki, W; Legendre, M; Vasseur, G; Yèche, Ch; Zito, M; Chen, X R; Liu, H; Park, W; Purohit, M V; Wilson, J R; Allen, M T; Aston, D; Bartoldus, R; Bechtle, P; Berger, N; Claus, R; Coleman, J P; Convery, M R; Cristinziani, M; Dingfelder, J C; Dorfan, J; Dubois-Felsmann, G P; Dujmic, D; Dunwoodie, W; Field, R C; Glanzman, T; Gowdy, S J; Graham, M T; Halyo, V; Hast, C; Hryn'ova, T; Innes, W R; Kelsey, M H; Kim, P; Leith, D W G S; Li, S; Luitz, S; Luth, V; Lynch, H L; MacFarlane, D B; Marsiske, H; Messner, R; Muller, D R; O'Grady, C P; Ozcan, V E; Perazzo, A; Perl, M; Pulliam, T; Ratcliff, B N; Roodman, A; Salnikov, A A; Schindler, R H; Schwiening, J; Snyder, A; Stelzer, J; Su, D; Sullivan, M K; Suzuki, K; Swain, S K; Thompson, J M; Va'vra, J; van Bakel, N; Weaver, M; Weinstein, A J R; Wisniewski, W J; Wittgen, M; Wright, D H; Yarritu, A K; Yi, K; Young, C C; Burchat, P R; Edwards, A J; Majewski, S A; Petersen, B A; Roat, C; Wilden, L; Ahmed, S; Alam, M S; Bula, R; Ernst, J A; Jain, V; Pan, B; Saeed, M A; Wappler, F R; Zain, S B; Bugg, W; Krishnamurthy, M; Spanier, S M; Eckmann, R; Ritchie, J L; Satpathy, A; Schilling, C J; Schwitters, R F; Izen, J M; Lou, X C; Ye, S; Bianchi, F; Gallo, F; Gamba, D; Bomben, M; Bosisio, L; Cartaro, C; Cossutti, F; Della Ricca, G; Dittongo, S; Lanceri, L; Vitale, L; Azzolini, V; Martinez-Vidal, F; Banerjee, Sw; Bhuyan, B; Brown, C M; Fortin, D; Hamano, K; Kowalewski, R; Nugent, I M; Roney, J M; Sobie, R J; Back, J J; Harrison, P F; Latham, T E; Mohanty, G B; Pappagallo, M; Band, H R; Chen, X; Cheng, B; Dasu, S; Datta, M; Flood, K T; Hollar, J J; Kutter, P E; Mellado, B; Mihalyi, A; Pan, Y; Pierini, M; Prepost, R; Wu, S L; Yu, Z; Neal, H

    2006-11-24

    We report a measurement of the B-->pi l nu branching fraction based on 211 fb(-1) of data collected with the BABAR detector. We use samples of B0 and B+ mesons tagged by a second B meson reconstructed in a semileptonic or hadronic decay and combine the results assuming isospin symmetry to obtain B(B(0)-->pi- l+ nu) = (1.33+/-0.17stat+/-0.11syst) x 10(-4). We determine the magnitude of the Cabibbo-Kobayashi-Maskawa matrix element absolute value V(ub) by combining the partial branching fractions measured in ranges of the momentum transfer squared and theoretical calculations of the form factor. Using a recent lattice QCD calculation, we find absolute value V(ub) = (4.5+/-0.5stat+/-0.3syst(+0.7) -0.5FF x 10(-3), where the last error is due to the normalization of the form factor. PMID:17155736

  2. Absolute calibration of the intramolecular site preference of 15N fractionation in tropospheric N2O by FT-IR spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Griffith, David W T; Parkes, Stephen D; Haverd, Vanessa; Paton-Walsh, Clare; Wilson, Stephen R

    2009-03-15

    Nitrous oxide (N(2)O) plays important roles in atmospheric chemistry both as a greenhouse gas and in stratospheric ozone depletion. Isotopic measurements of N(2)O have provided an invaluable insight into understanding its atmospheric sources and sinks. The preference for (15)N fractionation between the central and terminal positions (the "site preference") is particularly valuable because it depends principally on the processes involved in N(2)O production or consumption, rather than the (15)N content of the substrate from which it is formed. Despite the value of measurements of the site preference, there is no internationally recognized standard reference material of accurately known and accepted site preference, and there has been some lack of agreement in published studies aimed at providing such a standard. Previous work has been based on isotope ratio mass spectrometry (IRMS); in this work we provide an absolute calibration for the intramolecular site preference of (15)N fractionation of working standard gases used in our laboratory by a completely independent technique--high-resolution Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy. By reference to this absolute calibration, we determine the site preference for 25 samples of tropospheric N(2)O collected under clean air conditions to be 19.8 per thousand +/- 2.1 per thousand. This result is in agreement with that based on the earlier absolute calibration of Toyoda and Yoshida (Toyoda , S. , and Yoshida , N. Anal. Chem. 1999 , 71, 4711-4718 ) who found an average tropospheric site preference of 18.7 per thousand +/- 2.2 per thousand. We now recommend an interlaboratory exchange of working standard N(2)O gases as the next step to providing an international reference standard. PMID:19231842

  3. Common Moles, Atypical Moles (Dysplastic Nevi), and Risk of Melanoma

    MedlinePlus

    ... about 300 million people—have common moles. How big are they? Usually less than 5 millimeters wide, ... one dysplastic nevus ( 3 , 4 , 6 , 7 ). How big are they? Often wider than 5 millimeters (wider ...

  4. Easy Absolute Values? Absolutely

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, Sharon E.; Mittag, Kathleen Cage

    2015-01-01

    The authors teach a problem-solving course for preservice middle-grades education majors that includes concepts dealing with absolute-value computations, equations, and inequalities. Many of these students like mathematics and plan to teach it, so they are adept at symbolic manipulations. Getting them to think differently about a concept that they…

  5. Of Bushwahckers, Termites and Moles.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smelter, Richard W.

    2003-01-01

    Retired school administrator describes five types of school personnel that make an administrator's job difficult: Bushwackers, termites, CIA moles, rumor-mill addicts, and sartorial slobs. For example, termites are staff members who purposely volunteer for committees so they can sabotage the group's efforts from within. (PKP)

  6. Partial hydatidiform mole: ultrasonographic features.

    PubMed

    Woo, J S; Hsu, C; Fung, L L; Ma, H K

    1983-05-01

    Four patients with partial hyatidiform mole managed at the Queen Mary Hospital, Hong Kong, are described. The diagnosis of blighted ovum or missed abortion was made on the sonographic findings prior to suction evacuation. The dominant features in these cases consisted of a relatively large central transonic area bearing the appearance of an empty gestational sac and surrounded by a thick rim of low-level placenta-like echoes; in contrast with the case of the blighted ovum, a well-defined echogenic sac wall is absent. In another 9 patients with molar pregnancy managed during the same period, the more typical 'snow-storm' vesicular appearance was present. It was concluded that the anembryonic appearance described should alert the sonologist and clinician to the possible diagnosis of partial hydatitiform mole. The evacuated material from the uterine cavity should be examined morphologically and if possible cytogenetically. PMID:6578773

  7. Tool to Distinguish Moles from Melanoma

    Cancer.gov

    Moles to Melanoma: Recognizing the ABCDE Features” presents photos that show changes in individual pigmented lesions over time, and describes the different appearances of moles, dysplastic nevi, and melanomas.

  8. Genetics Home Reference: recurrent hydatidiform mole

    MedlinePlus

    ... Rashid Y, Sheridan E, Bonthron DT. Genetic and epigenetic analysis of recurrent hydatidiform mole. Hum Mutat. 2009 ... on PubMed Nguyen NM, Slim R. Genetics and Epigenetics of Recurrent Hydatidiform Moles: Basic Science and Genetic ...

  9. Mold, Mould, Mole-d: The Three M's of Career Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Amundson, Norman E.

    2008-01-01

    The author explores a creative idea development process wherein one begins by applying the image of "breaking the mold" to career development and then extending the process further by considering other related images. In this article, the related images include synonyms for mold such as mould and mole-d (the mole is a small burrowing animal with…

  10. Avogadro Number and Mole: A Royal Confusion.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Emiliani, Cesare

    1991-01-01

    There is a great deal of confusion in physics and chemistry textbooks, dictionaries, manuals, and handbooks about the definition of Avogadro's number and the term "mole." Avogadro's number is defined simply as the number of atomic mass units in one gram. Mole is defined as the mass of one Avogadro number of identical items. (Author/PR)

  11. Measurement of the absolute branching fractions for D0 decays into K - π +, K - π + π + π -, overlineK 0 π + π -

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Albrecht, H.; Hamacher, T.; Hofmann, R. P.; Kirchhoff, T.; Mankel, R.; Nau, A.; Nowak, S.; Reβing, D.; Schröder, H.; Schulz, H. D.; Walter, M.; Wurth, R.; Hast, C.; Kapitza, H.; Kolanoski, H.; Kosche, A.; Lange, A.; Lindner, A.; Schieber, M.; Siegmund, T.; Spaan, B.; Thurn, H.; Töpfer, D.; Wegener, D.; Eckstein, P.; Schmidtler, M.; Schram, M.; Schubert, K. R.; Schwierz, R.; Waldi, R.; Reim, K.; Wegener, H.; Eckmann, R.; Kuipers, H.; Mai, O.; Mundt, R.; Oest, T.; Reiner, R.; Schmidt-Parzefall, W.; Stiewe, J.; Werner, S.; Ehret, K.; Hofmann, W.; Hüpper, A.; Knöpfle, K. T.; Spengler, J.; Krieger, P.; Macfarlane, D. B.; Prentice, J. D.; Saull, P. R. B.; Tzamariudaki, K.; van de Water, R. G.; Yoon, T.-S.; Frankl, C.; Schneider, M.; Weseler, S.; Kernel, G.; Križan, P.; Križnič, E.; Podobnik, T.; Živko, T.; Balagura, V.; Barsuk, S.; Belyaev, I.; Danilov, M.; Droutskoy, A.; Gershtein, E.; Gershtein, Yu.; Golutvin, A.; Korolko, I.; Kostina, G.; Litvintsev, D.; Lubimov, V.; Pakhlov, P.; Semenov, S.; Snizhko, A.; Tichomirov, I.; Zaitsev, Yu.; Argus Collaboration

    1994-12-01

    Using the ARGUS detector at the e+e- storage ring DORIS II we have measured the absolute branching ratios of the D0 meson, Br( D0→ K-π+)=(3.41±0.12±0.28)%, Br( D0→ K-π+π+π-)=(6.80± 0.27±0.57)%, and Br(D 0→ overlineK 0 π + π -)=(5.03±0.39±0.49)% .

  12. Absolute Zero

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Donnelly, Russell J.; Sheibley, D.; Belloni, M.; Stamper-Kurn, D.; Vinen, W. F.

    2006-12-01

    Absolute Zero is a two hour PBS special attempting to bring to the general public some of the advances made in 400 years of thermodynamics. It is based on the book “Absolute Zero and the Conquest of Cold” by Tom Shachtman. Absolute Zero will call long-overdue attention to the remarkable strides that have been made in low-temperature physics, a field that has produced 27 Nobel Prizes. It will explore the ongoing interplay between science and technology through historical examples including refrigerators, ice machines, frozen foods, liquid oxygen and nitrogen as well as much colder fluids such as liquid hydrogen and liquid helium. A website has been established to promote the series: www.absolutezerocampaign.org. It contains information on the series, aimed primarily at students at the middle school level. There is a wealth of material here and we hope interested teachers will draw their student’s attention to this website and its substantial contents, which have been carefully vetted for accuracy.

  13. Moles and Mole Control on British Farms, Amenities and Gardens after Strychnine Withdrawal

    PubMed Central

    Baker, Sandra E.; Ellwood, Stephen A.; Johnson, Paul J.; Macdonald, David W.

    2016-01-01

    Simple Summary Moles are burrowing mammals that are regarded as pests in Britain, and until 2006 they could legally be killed using strychnine poison. When strychnine was withdrawn there were fears that mole populations would increase. We surveyed farmers, amenity managers and householders about moles and mole control on their land in 2007, post strychnine withdrawal. Kill-trapping was by far the preferred control method used and control may be used more than can be justified by damage levels or the effect of control on damage. Mole traps are unregulated, unlike most other spring traps, and some might not meet current welfare standards. We found no evidence that mole activity had increased since a 1992 survey of farms. Abstract Moles are considered pests in Britain, but this issue has been little studied. Lower welfare standards have been tolerated for moles than for most other managed wild mammal species, as use of both the controversial poison, strychnine, and unregulated traps have been permitted. Strychnine was withdrawn in 2006 and there were fears that mole populations would increase as a result. In 2007, we conducted a comprehensive, nationwide survey of land manager perceptions, opinions and behaviour regarding moles and mole control on farms, amenities and domestic gardens in Britain. We surveyed 2150 land managers (achieving a 59% response rate) and ground-truthed 29 responses. Moles were reported to be present on most farms and amenities, and 13% of gardens, and were more common in lighter soils. Where present, moles were usually considered pests, this being more likely in Wales, Scotland and northern England, on livestock and mixed farms, and on large, high-value amenities, e.g., racecourses and golf courses. Mole control followed similar patterns to mole presence. More control may occur than is economically, and therefore potentially ethically, justified. Control should be more carefully considered and, where necessary, more effectively targeted. Kill

  14. Absolute Summ

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Phillips, Alfred, Jr.

    Summ means the entirety of the multiverse. It seems clear, from the inflation theories of A. Guth and others, that the creation of many universes is plausible. We argue that Absolute cosmological ideas, not unlike those of I. Newton, may be consistent with dynamic multiverse creations. As suggested in W. Heisenberg's uncertainty principle, and with the Anthropic Principle defended by S. Hawking, et al., human consciousness, buttressed by findings of neuroscience, may have to be considered in our models. Predictability, as A. Einstein realized with Invariants and General Relativity, may be required for new ideas to be part of physics. We present here a two postulate model geared to an Absolute Summ. The seedbed of this work is part of Akhnaton's philosophy (see S. Freud, Moses and Monotheism). Most important, however, is that the structure of human consciousness, manifest in Kenya's Rift Valley 200,000 years ago as Homo sapiens, who were the culmination of the six million year co-creation process of Hominins and Nature in Africa, allows us to do the physics that we do. .

  15. Moles and Mole Control on British Farms, Amenities and Gardens after Strychnine Withdrawal.

    PubMed

    Baker, Sandra E; Ellwood, Stephen A; Johnson, Paul J; Macdonald, David W

    2016-01-01

    Moles are considered pests in Britain, but this issue has been little studied. Lower welfare standards have been tolerated for moles than for most other managed wild mammal species, as use of both the controversial poison, strychnine, and unregulated traps have been permitted. Strychnine was withdrawn in 2006 and there were fears that mole populations would increase as a result. In 2007, we conducted a comprehensive, nationwide survey of land manager perceptions, opinions and behaviour regarding moles and mole control on farms, amenities and domestic gardens in Britain. We surveyed 2150 land managers (achieving a 59% response rate) and ground-truthed 29 responses. Moles were reported to be present on most farms and amenities, and 13% of gardens, and were more common in lighter soils. Where present, moles were usually considered pests, this being more likely in Wales, Scotland and northern England, on livestock and mixed farms, and on large, high-value amenities, e.g., racecourses and golf courses. Mole control followed similar patterns to mole presence. More control may occur than is economically, and therefore potentially ethically, justified. Control should be more carefully considered and, where necessary, more effectively targeted. Kill-trapping was the favoured recent and future method on farms and amenities, even if strychnine was to be reintroduced; however, because mole traps are currently unregulated, some might not meet current welfare standards if tested. We found no evidence for an increase in moles since a farm questionnaire survey conducted in 1992; this could have wider implications for future wildlife management policy changes. PMID:27338484

  16. Molecular genetic studies of complete hydatidiform moles

    PubMed Central

    Nash, Benjamin M.; Wright, Dale C.

    2015-01-01

    Complete hydatidiform moles (CHM) are abnormal pregnancies with no fetal development resulting from having two paternal genomes with no maternal contribution. It is important to distinguish CHM from partial hydatidiform moles, and non-molar abortuses, due to the increased risk of gestational trophoblastic neoplasia. We evaluated a series of products of conception (POC) (n=643) investigated by genome-wide microarray comparative genomic hybridisation (CGH) with the aim of refining our strategy for the identification of complete moles. Among 32 suspected molar pregnancies investigated by STR genotyping to supplement microarray CGH testing, we found 31.3% (10/32) CHM; all identified among 3.6% (10/272) early first trimester POC. We suggest that when using microarray CGH that genotyping using targeted STR analysis should be performed for all POC referrals to aid in the identification of CHM. PMID:26835372

  17. Molecular genetic studies of complete hydatidiform moles.

    PubMed

    Carey, Louise; Nash, Benjamin M; Wright, Dale C

    2015-04-01

    Complete hydatidiform moles (CHM) are abnormal pregnancies with no fetal development resulting from having two paternal genomes with no maternal contribution. It is important to distinguish CHM from partial hydatidiform moles, and non-molar abortuses, due to the increased risk of gestational trophoblastic neoplasia. We evaluated a series of products of conception (POC) (n=643) investigated by genome-wide microarray comparative genomic hybridisation (CGH) with the aim of refining our strategy for the identification of complete moles. Among 32 suspected molar pregnancies investigated by STR genotyping to supplement microarray CGH testing, we found 31.3% (10/32) CHM; all identified among 3.6% (10/272) early first trimester POC. We suggest that when using microarray CGH that genotyping using targeted STR analysis should be performed for all POC referrals to aid in the identification of CHM. PMID:26835372

  18. Measurement of the Absolute Branching FractionsB to D\\pi, D^*\\pi, D^{**}\\pi with aMissing Mass Method

    SciTech Connect

    Aubert, B.; Bona, M.; Boutigny, D.; Couderc, F.; Karyotakis, Y.; Lees, J.P.; Poireau, V.; Tisserand, V.; Zghiche, A.; Grauges, E.; Palano, A.; Chen, J.C.; Qi, N.D.; Rong, G.; Wang, P.; Zhu, Y.S.; Eigen, G.; Ofte, I.; Stugu, B.; Abrams, G.S.; Battaglia, M.; /LBL, Berkeley /UC, Berkeley /Birmingham U. /Ruhr U., Bochum /Bristol U. /British Columbia U. /Brunel U. /Novosibirsk, IYF /UC, Irvine /UCLA /UC, Riverside /UC, San Diego /UC, Santa Barbara /UC, Santa Cruz /Caltech /Cincinnati U. /Colorado U. /Colorado State U. /Dortmund U. /Dresden, Tech. U. /Ecole Polytechnique /Edinburgh U. /Ferrara U. /INFN, Ferrara /Frascati /Genoa U. /INFN, Genoa /Harvard U. /Heidelberg U. /Imperial Coll., London /Iowa U. /Iowa State U. /Johns Hopkins U. /Karlsruhe U., EKP /LLNL, Livermore /Liverpool U. /Queen Mary, U. of London /Royal Holloway, U. of London /Louisville U. /Manchester U. /Maryland U. /Massachusetts U., Amherst /MIT, LNS /McGill U. /Milan U. /INFN, Milan /Mississippi U. /Montreal U. /Mt. Holyoke Coll. /Naples U. /INFN, Naples /NIKHEF, Amsterdam /Notre Dame U. /Ohio State U. /Oregon U. /Padua U. /INFN, Padua /Pennsylvania U. /Perugia U. /INFN, Perugia /Pisa U. /INFN, Pisa /Prairie View A-M /Princeton U. /Rome U. /INFN, Rome /Rostock U. /Rutherford /DAPNIA, Saclay /South Carolina U. /SLAC /Stanford U., Phys. Dept. /SUNY, Stony Brook /Tennessee U. /Texas U. /Texas U., Dallas /Turin U. /INFN, Turin /Trieste U. /INFN, Trieste /Valencia U., IFIC /Victoria U. /Warwick U. /Wisconsin U., Madison /Yale U.

    2006-11-30

    We present branching fraction measurements of charged and neutral B decays to D{pi}{sup -}, D*{pi}{sup -} and D**{pi}{sup -} with a missing mass method, based on a sample of 231 million {Upsilon}(4S) {yields} B{bar B} pairs collected by the BABAR detector at the PEP-II e{sup +}e{sup -} collider. One of the B mesons is fully reconstructed and the other one decays to a reconstructed charged {pi} and a companion charmed meson identified by its recoil mass, inferred by kinematics. Here D** refers to the sum of all the non-strange charm meson states with masses in the range 2.2-2.8 GeV/c{sup 2}.

  19. The Origin of the Mole Concept

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jensen, William B.

    2004-01-01

    German Chemist, August Wilhelm Hofmann first introduced the term "molar" (from the Latin moles, meaning "a large mass") into chemistry, around 1865. The particular use of the term molar gained currency in the physics literature, where it was in common use at least through the 1940s.

  20. Social Structure Predicts Genital Morphology in African Mole-Rats

    PubMed Central

    Seney, Marianne L.; Kelly, Diane A.; Goldman, Bruce D.; Šumbera, Radim; Forger, Nancy G.

    2009-01-01

    Background African mole-rats (Bathyergidae, Rodentia) exhibit a wide range of social structures, from solitary to eusocial. We previously found a lack of sex differences in the external genitalia and morphology of the perineal muscles associated with the phallus in the eusocial naked mole-rat. This was quite surprising, as the external genitalia and perineal muscles are sexually dimorphic in all other mammals examined. We hypothesized that the lack of sex differences in naked mole-rats might be related to their unusual social structure. Methodology/Principal Findings We compared the genitalia and perineal muscles in three African mole-rat species: the naked mole-rat, the solitary silvery mole-rat, and the Damaraland mole-rat, a species considered to be eusocial, but with less reproductive skew than naked mole-rats. Our findings support a relationship between social structure, mating system, and sexual differentiation. Naked mole-rats lack sex differences in genitalia and perineal morphology, silvery mole-rats exhibit sex differences, and Damaraland mole-rats are intermediate. Conclusions/Significance The lack of sex differences in naked mole-rats is not an attribute of all African mole-rats, but appears to have evolved in relation to their unusual social structure and reproductive biology. PMID:19829697

  1. Ossicular density in golden moles (Chrysochloridae).

    PubMed

    Mason, Matthew J; Lucas, Sarah J; Wise, Erica R; Stein, Robin S; Duer, Melinda J

    2006-12-01

    The densities of middle ear ossicles of golden moles (family Chrysochloridae, order Afrosoricida) were measured using the buoyancy method. The internal structure of the malleus was examined by high-resolution computed tomography, and solid-state NMR was used to determine relative phosphorus content. The malleus density of the desert golden mole Eremitalpa granti (2.44 g/cm3) was found to be higher than that reported in the literature for any other terrestrial mammal, whereas the ossicles of other golden mole species are not unusually dense. The increased density in Eremitalpa mallei is apparently related both to a relative paucity of internal vascularization and to a high level of mineralization. This high density is expected to augment inertial bone conduction, used for the detection of seismic vibrations, while limiting the skull modifications needed to accommodate the disproportionately large malleus. The mallei of the two subspecies of E. granti, E. g. granti and E. g. namibensis, were found to differ considerably from one another in both size and shape. PMID:16944164

  2. The preparation of <100 particles per trial having the same mole fraction of 12 inorganic compounds at diameters of 6.8, 3.8, or 2.6 [mu]m followed by their deposition onto human lung cells (A549) with measurement of the relative downstream differential expression of ICAM-1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eleghasim, Ndukauba M.; Haddrell, Allen E.; van Eeden, Stephen; Agnes, George R.

    2006-12-01

    differential expression of ICAM-1 was greatest for multielement particle types having diameters of 2.6 +/- 0.2 [mu]m for which as few as ~15 particles deposited onto the culture resulted in maximal ICAM-1 expression, whereas with multielement particle types having diameters of 6.8 +/- 0.5 [mu]m, it was necessary to deposit >50 particles in order to effect comparable ICAM-1 expression. This data set indicates that for multi-element particle types comprised of the same mole fraction of inorganic compounds and of sizes within the course fraction of PM10, the 2.6 [mu]m particle type was the most potent with respect to effecting differential expression of ICAM-1.

  3. Insights: A LAP on Moles: Teaching an Important Concept.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ihde, John

    1985-01-01

    Describes a learning activity packet (LAP) designed to help students understand the basic concept of the mole as a chemical unit; know relationships between the mole and atomic weights in the periodic table; and solve basic conversion problems involving moles, atoms, and molecules. (JN)

  4. Teaching Absolute Value Meaningfully

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wade, Angela

    2012-01-01

    What is the meaning of absolute value? And why do teachers teach students how to solve absolute value equations? Absolute value is a concept introduced in first-year algebra and then reinforced in later courses. Various authors have suggested instructional methods for teaching absolute value to high school students (Wei 2005; Stallings-Roberts…

  5. Localized vibrations: moles in structure-land

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van der Maas, John H.

    1992-03-01

    Functional groups reveal specific information about their direct surroundings; in fact, they form the moles, the undercover agents, in molecules. However, as with agents, the information is produced in coded form (spectral data) so one has to know the code in detail before the message is completely understood. The substantially improved accuracy (wavenumber, intensity) and sensitivity brought about by FT-instruments, in combination with computer software, offer extended spectral information. Functional groups can now be examined in great detail. Obviously the amount of deducible structural items is group dependent, implying that one has to pursue the probing qualities of a functionality prior to use. The OH-group, and more in particular the OH-stretching vibration, proves to be an extremely good mole. Its potentials are demonstrated on conformational studies of various saturated alcohols, the presence of OH(DOT)(DOT)(DOT)(pi) bridges, the strength and type of OH(DOT)(DOT)(DOT)O bridges, all in an apolar solvent, and on the disclosure of different hydrogen bonds in some solid samples.

  6. Recurrent familial hydatidiform mole - a rare clinical problem.

    PubMed

    Rai, Lavanya; Shripad, Hebbar; Guruvayare, Shyamala; Prashant, Adiga; Sunil, Anjali

    2012-01-01

    Familial recurrent hydatidiform mole is a rare event; here we report an unusual case of a gravida 5 aged 29 years, with five recurrent hydatidiform moles and no normal pregnancy. After the fourth molar pregnancy, she developed persistent trophoblastic disease that required 7 cycles of single agent chemotherapy. Two years after the treatment, she presented with her fifth molar pregnancy. Her elder sister had seven hydatidiform moles from two different unrelated male partners. As this is familial, and recurrent, with no viable conceptions in both the sisters, it is likely to be biparental in origin. Unlike androgenetic moles, biparental moles arise due to a global inherited failure of maternal imprinting. It is an autosomal recessive defect in the female germ line. Genetic analysis is essential, although it is not available in all centers. Donor Oocyte IVF is the only option for women with biparental moles to have normal offspring. PMID:24592059

  7. Interphase cytogenetic and AgNOR analyses of hydatidiform moles.

    PubMed Central

    Watanabe, M; Ghazizadeh, M; Konishi, H; Araki, T

    1998-01-01

    AIM: To determine the potential value of interphase cytogenetic and argyrophilic nucleolar organiser region (AgNOR) analyses in the diagnosis and classification of hydatidiform moles. METHODS: Serial tissue sections from 37 hydatidiform moles, histologically classified as 11 complete and 15 partial, and from 11 hydropic abortuses were examined by in situ hybridisation using digoxigenin labelled probes specific for chromosomes 1, X, and Y, and a one step silver staining method. The percentages of diploid and triploid nuclei, and the mean number of AgNORs for each tissue were determined. RESULTS: Interphase cytogenetics showed that eight of the 11 cases (73%) each of complete mole and hydropic abortus had diploid pattern and the three remaining cases (27%) of each group were triploid. Two of the triploid complete moles and one of the triploid hydropic abortuses were revised to partial moles and one remaining triploid complete mole was revised to hydropic abortus. Of the 15 partial moles, nine (60%) were triploid, and six (40%) were diploid. These diploid cases were revised to three complete moles and three hydropic abortuses. There was a significant difference (p < 0.0001) between the mean (SD) AgNOR count in partial mole (5.11 (0.91)) versus hydropic abortus (3.79 (0.90)) and complete mole (3.39 (0.97)). The total of 15 triploid cases showed a high mean AgNOR count of 5.24 (0.73). Also, after reclassification, eight of the nine partial moles (89%) had a mean AgNOR count of > or = 5. The results of analyses by the two methods were closely correlated. CONCLUSIONS: Interphasecytogeneticanalysis using chromosome specific probes and AgNOR count provides a valuable approach for ploidy analysis in histological sections of hydatidiform moles and helps to resolve difficult cases. Images PMID:9771442

  8. Structural, magnetic and microwave properties of barium hexaferrite thick films with different Fe/Ba mole ratio

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Verma, Samiksha; Dhawan, S. K.; Paesano, Andrea; Pandey, O. P.; Sharma, Puneet

    2015-12-01

    Barium hexaferrite (BaFe12O19) thick films (∼60 μm) with different BaO·xFe2O3 mole ratio (x=5.0-6.0) were prepared by screen printing method. X-ray diffraction analysis confirmed the formation of single phase BaFe12O19 (BaM). Preferential site occupation of Fe3+ ion at five different crystallographic sites, with varied mole ratio was measured by Mössbauer spectroscopy. Vacancy fraction found to be higher at 4f1, 4f2 and 2b sites for mole ratio 5.5 and 5.0 respectively. Magnetic measurement shows that the magnetization (M) and magnetocrystalline anisotropy field (Ha) depends upon mole ratio. M and Ha are found to be maximum for mole ratio 5.5, while the coercivity (Hc) remains constant. Reflection losses (RL) in the frequency range of 12-18 GHz were also studied. Present investigation demonstrates the effect of mole ratio on structural, magnetic and microwave absorption properties of BaM thick films for microwave device applications.

  9. Eosinophil count - absolute

    MedlinePlus

    Eosinophils; Absolute eosinophil count ... the white blood cell count to give the absolute eosinophil count. ... than 500 cells per microliter (cells/mcL). Normal value ranges may vary slightly among different laboratories. Talk ...

  10. Absolute isotopic abundances of TI in meteorites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Niederer, F. R.; Papanastassiou, D. A.; Wasserburg, G. J.

    1985-03-01

    The absolute isotope abundance of Ti has been determined in Ca-Al-rich inclusions from the Allende and Leoville meteorites and in samples of whole meteorites. The absolute Ti isotope abundances differ by a significant mass dependent isotope fractionation transformation from the previously reported abundances, which were normalized for fractionation using 46Ti/48Ti. Therefore, the absolute compositions define distinct nucleosynthetic components from those previously identified or reflect the existence of significant mass dependent isotope fractionation in nature. The authors provide a general formalism for determining the possible isotope compositions of the exotic Ti from the measured composition, for different values of isotope fractionation in nature and for different mixing ratios of the exotic and normal components.

  11. Moles: Tool-Assisted Environment Isolation with Closures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Halleux, Jonathan; Tillmann, Nikolai

    Isolating test cases from environment dependencies is often desirable, as it increases test reliability and reduces test execution time. However, code that calls non-virtual methods or consumes sealed classes is often impossible to test in isolation. Moles is a new lightweight framework which addresses this problem. For any .NET method, Moles allows test-code to provide alternative implementations, given as .NET delegates, for which C# provides very concise syntax while capturing local variables in a closure object. Using code instrumentation, the Moles framework will redirect calls to provided delegates instead of the original methods. The Moles framework is designed to work together with the dynamic symbolic execution tool Pex to enable automated test generation. In a case study, testing code programmed against the Microsoft SharePoint Foundation API, we achieved full code coverage while running tests in isolation without an actual SharePoint server. The Moles framework integrates with .NET and Visual Studio.

  12. Quantitative histomorphology of the blind mole rat harderian gland.

    PubMed Central

    Shanas, U; Arensburg, B; Hammel, I; Hod, I; Terkel, J

    1996-01-01

    Anatomical, histological and morphometric studies have been performed on the harderian gland and its surroundings in the blind mole rat (Spalax ehrenbergi). The gland is tubuloalveolar with no true duct system. All ducts within the gland are formed by a single epithelial cell type and drain into a wide secretory duct. This opens into the conjunctival sac which serves as a reservoir for harderian secretions. Drainage from the conjunctival sac follows 2 possible routes: one through the nasolacrimal duct to the external nasal cavity, the other through a unique excretory duct that emerges from the anteromedial part of the conjunctival sac and runs through the dermis to the skin, opening at the base of a hair follicle. The function of this newly described duct is discussed. Morphometric studies revealed that the lumen volume fraction in the female, slightly smaller than that of the male during the summer, becomes significantly greater during the winter breeding season. The dimorphism and seasonal variations found in the gland acini suggests that the gland may be implicated in pheromone production. Images Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 PMID:8621332

  13. Development of traceable precision dynamic dilution method to generate dimethyl sulphide gas mixtures at sub-nanomole per mole levels for ambient measurement.

    PubMed

    Kim, Mi Eon; Kim, Yong Doo; Kang, Ji Hwan; Heo, Gwi Suk; Lee, Dong Soo; Lee, Sangil

    2016-04-01

    Dimethyl sulphide (DMS) is an important compound in global atmospheric chemistry and climate change. Traceable international standards are essential for measuring accurately the long-term global trend in ambient DMS. However, developing accurate gas standards for sub-nanomole per mole (nmol/mol) mole fractions of DMS in a cylinder is challenging, because DMS is reactive and unstable. In this study, a dynamic dilution method that is traceable and precise was developed to generate sub-nmol/mol DMS gas mixtures with a dynamic dilution system based on sonic nozzles and a long-term (>5 years) stable 10 μmol/mol parent DMS primary standard gas mixtures (PSMs). The dynamic dilution system was calibrated with traceable methane PSMs, and its estimated dilution factors were used to calculate the mole fractions of the dynamically generated DMS gas mixtures. A dynamically generated DMS gas mixture and a 6 nmol/mol DMS PSM were analysed against each other by gas chromatography with flame-ionisation detection (GC/FID) to evaluate the dilution system. The mole fractions of the dynamically generated DMS gas mixture determined against a DMS PSM and calculated with the dilution factor agreed within 1% at 6 nmol/mol. In addition, the dynamically generated DMS gas mixtures at various mole fractions between 0.4 and 11.7 nmol/mol were analysed by GC/FID and evaluated for their linearity. The analytically determined mole fractions showed good linearity with the mole fractions calculated with the dilution factors. Results showed that the dynamic dilution method generates DMS gas mixtures ranging between 0.4 nmol/mol and 12 nmol/mol with relative expanded uncertainties of less than 2%. Therefore, the newly developed dynamic dilution method is a promising reference method for generating sub-nmol/mol DMS gas standards for accurate ambient measurements. PMID:26838438

  14. Absolute nuclear material assay

    DOEpatents

    Prasad, Manoj K.; Snyderman, Neal J.; Rowland, Mark S.

    2012-05-15

    A method of absolute nuclear material assay of an unknown source comprising counting neutrons from the unknown source and providing an absolute nuclear material assay utilizing a model to optimally compare to the measured count distributions. In one embodiment, the step of providing an absolute nuclear material assay comprises utilizing a random sampling of analytically computed fission chain distributions to generate a continuous time-evolving sequence of event-counts by spreading the fission chain distribution in time.

  15. Absolute nuclear material assay

    DOEpatents

    Prasad, Manoj K.; Snyderman, Neal J.; Rowland, Mark S.

    2010-07-13

    A method of absolute nuclear material assay of an unknown source comprising counting neutrons from the unknown source and providing an absolute nuclear material assay utilizing a model to optimally compare to the measured count distributions. In one embodiment, the step of providing an absolute nuclear material assay comprises utilizing a random sampling of analytically computed fission chain distributions to generate a continuous time-evolving sequence of event-counts by spreading the fission chain distribution in time.

  16. Brain Mass and Cranial Nerve Size in Shrews and Moles

    PubMed Central

    Leitch, Duncan B.; Sarko, Diana K.; Catania, Kenneth C.

    2014-01-01

    We investigated the relationship between body size, brain size, and fibers in selected cranial nerves in shrews and moles. Species include tiny masked shrews (S. cinereus) weighing only a few grams and much larger mole species weighing up to 90 grams. It also includes closely related species with very different sensory specializations – such as the star-nosed mole and the common, eastern mole. We found that moles and shrews have tiny optic nerves with fiber counts not correlated with body or brain size. Auditory nerves were similarly small but increased in fiber number with increasing brain and body size. Trigeminal nerve number was by far the largest and also increased with increasing brain and body size. The star-nosed mole was an outlier, with more than twice the number of trigeminal nerve fibers than any other species. Despite this hypertrophied cranial nerve, star-nosed mole brains were not larger than predicted from body size, suggesting that magnification of their somatosensory systems does not result in greater overall CNS size. PMID:25174995

  17. Partial hydatidiform mole progression into invasive mole with lung metastasis following in vitro fertilization

    PubMed Central

    ZHOU, XI; CHEN, YONGLI; LI, YONGMEI; DUAN, ZHAO

    2011-01-01

    In the present study, the case of a 34-year-old Chinese female who underwent in vitro fertilization resulting in a twin pregnancy was reported. Following in vitro fertilization, the patient was found to have a partial hydatidiform mole (PHM) with a co-existing twin by transvaginal sonography (TVS). At 16 weeks, the pregnancy was terminated and a normal-looking fetus with a HM placenta was delivered, in addition to a normal fetus with a normal placenta. Following termination of the pregnancy, the PHM progressed into an invasive mole with lung metastasis, a rare event. Serum human chorionic gonadotrophin (hCG) concentrations decreased in the first week following delivery, but over the following 21 days hCG levels showed a continuous increase. Following 2 cycles of combinative chemotherapy consisting of fluorouracil (5-FU) and dactinomycin (KSM), hCG concentrations decreased to normal levels. The patient was then administered 1 cycle of repeated chemotherapy and hCG levels remained negative for the following 2 years. PMID:22740971

  18. Results of the mole penetration tests in different materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wawrzaszek, Roman; Seweryn, Karol; Grygorczuk, Jerzy; Banaszkiewicz, Marek; Rybus, Tomasz; Wisniewski, Lukasz; Neal, Clive R.; Huang, Shaopeng

    2010-05-01

    Mole devices are low velocity, medium to high energy, self-driven penetrators, designed as a carrier of different sensors for in situ investigations of subsurface layers of planetary bodies. The maximum insertion depth of such devices is limited by energy of single mole's stroke and soil resistance for the dynamic penetration. A mole penetrator ‘KRET' has been designed, developed, and successfully tested at Space Research Centre PAS in Poland. The principle of operation of the mole bases on the interaction between three masses: the cylindrical casing, the hammer, and the rest of the mass, acting as a support mass. This approach takes advantage of the MUPUS penetrator (a payload of Philae lander on Rosetta mission) insertion tests knowledge. Main parameters of the mole KRET are listed below: - outer diameter: 20.4mm, - length: 330mm, - total mass: 488g, - energy of the driving spring: 2.2J, - average power consumption: 0.28W, - average insertion progress/stroke: 8.5mm, The present works of Space Research Center PAS team are focused on three different activities. First one includes investigations of the mole penetration effectiveness in the lunar analogues (supported by ESA PECS project). Second activity, supported by Polish national fund, is connected with numerical calculation of the heat flow investigations and designing and developing the Heat Flow Probe Hardware Component (HPHC) for L-GIP NASA project. It's worth noting that L-GIP project refers to ILN activity. Last activity focuses on preparing the second version of the mole ready to work in low thermal and pressure conditions. Progress of a mole penetrator in granular medium depends on the mechanical properties of this medium. The mole penetrator ‘KRET' was tested in different materials: dry quartz sand (0.3 - 0.8 grain size), wet quartz sand, wheat flour and lunar regolith mechanical simulant - Chemically Enhanced OB-1 (CHENOBI). Wheat flour was selected due to its high cohesion rate and small grain size

  19. Association between Breus' mole and partial hydatidiform mole: chance or can hydropic villi precipitate placental massive subchorionic thrombosis?

    PubMed

    Kim, Dae Tong; Riddell, D Christie; Welch, J Philip; Scott, Heather; Fraser, Robert B; Wright, James R

    2002-01-01

    Breus' mole (massive subchorionic hematoma) is a rare entity most often found in the placentae of macerated stillborn fetuses. Previously considered to represent a postmortem event, recent evidence suggests that it occurs prior to fetal demise. A 23-week gestation male neonate was delivered of a 23-year-old gravida 3, para 2 woman and survived for 49 min. An autopsy with chromosomal studies resulted in a diagnosis of triploidy. Placental examination showed the presence of both Breus' mole and also partial hydatidiform mole. DNA samples extracted from portions of the fresh hematoma and from the fetal spleen were compared using molecular techniques. PCR analysis showed the presence of Y chromosome specific DNA in the placental clot, but a semiquantitative Southern blot demonstrated that roughly 85% of the clot DNA was of maternal origin. These findings suggest that Breus' mole represents primarily maternal thrombosis rather than fetal hemorrhage. We hypothesize that the partial mole could have contributed to the formation of the Breus' mole as some of the hydropic villi may have focally obstructed the maternal venous return from the intervillus space causing sluggish flow and promoting thrombosis. A review of the literature on Breus' mole shows that the majority of reported cases have not included cytogenetic findings. However, several authors have reported an association with triploidy and other chromosomal anomalies characterized by scattered placental hydropic villi. Thus, we suggest that obstruction of maternal venous return by hydropic villi may have played a contributory role in some of these other reported cases. PMID:12396900

  20. Study Questions Link Between Multiple Moles, Risk for Melanoma

    MedlinePlus

    ... Study Questions Link Between Multiple Moles, Risk for Melanoma Research suggests people with many of the blemishes ... be at heightened risk for skin cancer, including melanoma. But a new study found that patients with ...

  1. Anatomy of mole external genitalia: Setting the record straight.

    PubMed

    Sinclair, Adriane Watkins; Glickman, Stephen E; Baskin, Laurence; Cunha, Gerald R

    2016-03-01

    Anatomy of male and female external genitalia of adult mice (Mus musculus) and broad-footed moles (Scapanus latimanus) was re-examined to provide more meaningful anatomical terminology. In the past the perineal appendage of male broad-footed moles has been called the penis, while the female perineal appendage has been given several terms (e.g. clitoris, penile clitoris, peniform clitoris and others). Histological examination demonstrates that perineal appendages of male and female broad-footed moles are the prepuce, which in both sexes are covered externally with a hair-bearing epidermis and lacks erectile bodies. The inner preputial epithelium is non-hair-bearing and defines the preputial space in both sexes. The penis of broad-footed moles lies deep within the preputial space, is an "internal organ" in the resting state and contains the penile urethra, os penis, and erectile bodies. The clitoris of broad-footed moles is defined by a U-shaped clitoral epithelial lamina. Residing within clitoral stroma encompassed by the clitoral epithelial lamina is the corpus cavernosum, blood-filled spaces and the urethra. External genitalia of male and female mice are anatomically similar to that of broad-footed moles with the exception that in female mice the clitoris contains a small os clitoridis and lacks defined erectile bodies, while male mice have an os penis and a prominent distal cartilaginous structure within the male urogenital mating protuberance (MUMP). Clitori of female broad-footed moles lack an os clitoridis but contain defined erectile bodies, while male moles have an os penis similar to the mouse but lack the distal cartilaginous structure. PMID:26694958

  2. Genetic variants of Cao Bang hantavirus in the Chinese mole shrew (Anourosorex squamipes) and Taiwanese mole shrew (Anourosorex yamashinai).

    PubMed

    Gu, Se Hun; Arai, Satoru; Yu, Hon-Tsen; Lim, Burton K; Kang, Hae Ji; Yanagihara, Richard

    2016-06-01

    To determine the genetic diversity and geographic distribution of Cao Bang virus (CBNV) and to ascertain the existence of CBNV-related hantaviruses, natural history collections of archival tissues from Chinese mole shrews (Anourosorex squamipes) and Taiwanese mole shrews (Anourosorex yamashinai), captured in Guizho Province, People's Republic of China, and in Nantou County, Taiwan, in 2006 and 1989, respectively, were analyzed for hantavirus RNA by RT-PCR. Pair-wise alignment and comparison of the S-, M- and L-segment sequences indicated CBNV in two of five Chinese mole shrews and a previously unrecognized hantavirus, named Xinyi virus (XYIV), in seven of 15 Taiwanese mole shrews. XYIV was closely related to CBNV in Vietnam and China, as well as to Lianghe virus (LHEV), recently reported as a distinct hantavirus species in Chinese mole shrews from Yunnan Province in China. Phylogenetic analyses, using maximum-likelihood and Bayesian methods, showed that XYIV shared a common ancestry with CBNV and LHEV, in keeping with the evolutionary relationship between Anourosorex mole shrews. Until such time that tissue culture isolates of CBNV, LHEV and XYIV can be fully analyzed, XYIV and LHEV should be regarded as genetic variants, or genotypes, of CBNV. PMID:26921799

  3. Absolute biological needs.

    PubMed

    McLeod, Stephen

    2014-07-01

    Absolute needs (as against instrumental needs) are independent of the ends, goals and purposes of personal agents. Against the view that the only needs are instrumental needs, David Wiggins and Garrett Thomson have defended absolute needs on the grounds that the verb 'need' has instrumental and absolute senses. While remaining neutral about it, this article does not adopt that approach. Instead, it suggests that there are absolute biological needs. The absolute nature of these needs is defended by appeal to: their objectivity (as against mind-dependence); the universality of the phenomenon of needing across the plant and animal kingdoms; the impossibility that biological needs depend wholly upon the exercise of the abilities characteristic of personal agency; the contention that the possession of biological needs is prior to the possession of the abilities characteristic of personal agency. Finally, three philosophical usages of 'normative' are distinguished. On two of these, to describe a phenomenon or claim as 'normative' is to describe it as value-dependent. A description of a phenomenon or claim as 'normative' in the third sense does not entail such value-dependency, though it leaves open the possibility that value depends upon the phenomenon or upon the truth of the claim. It is argued that while survival needs (or claims about them) may well be normative in this third sense, they are normative in neither of the first two. Thus, the idea of absolute need is not inherently normative in either of the first two senses. PMID:23586876

  4. STR DNA genotyping of hydatidiform moles in South China

    PubMed Central

    Zheng, Xing-Zheng; Hui, Pei; Chang, Bin; Gao, Zhi-Bin; Li, Yan; Wu, Bing-Quan; Zhang, Bo

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To evacuate whether short-tandem-repeat (STR) DNA genotyping is effective for diagnostic measure to precisely classify hydatidiform moles. Methods: 150 cases were selected based on histologic features that were previously diagnosed or suspected molar pregnancy. All sections were stained with hematoxylin as a quality control method, and guided the microscopic dissection. DNA was extracted from dissected chorionic villi and paired maternal endometrial FFPE tissue sections. Then, STR DNA genotyping was performed by AmpFlSTR® SinofilerTM PCR Amplification system (Applied Biosystems, Inc). Data collection and analysis were carried out using GeneMapper® ID-X version 1.2 (Applied Biosystems, Inc). Results: DNA genotyping was informative in all cases, leading to identification of 129 cases with abnormal genotype, including 95 complete and 34 partial moles, except 4 cases failed in PCR. Among 95 complete moles, 92 cases were monospermic and three were dispermic. Among 34 partial moles, 32 were dispermic and 2 were monospermic. The remaining 17 cases were balanced biallelic gestations. Conclusion: STR DNA genotyping is effective for diagnostic measure to precisely classify hydatidiform moles. And in the absence of laser capture microdissection (LCM), hematoxylin staining plus manual dissection under microscopic guided is a more economic and practical method. PMID:25197342

  5. A case of nephrotic syndrome associated with hydatiform mole

    PubMed Central

    Mohammadjafari, Razieh; Abedi, Parvin; Belady, Syfolah; Hamidehkho, Tarlan; Razi, Taghi

    2010-01-01

    The present case study is on a 16-year-old woman who was suffering from nephrotic syndrome after recovery from complete type of hydatiform mole. She was admitted in hospital because of proteinurea and hematuria. Then she was showing a generalized edema compatible with neprhotic syndrome. In her past medical history she had a suction curettage for hydatiform mole. After she received 4 courses chemotherapy, she completely recovered and βhCG has fallen from 12127 IU/L to under 10 IU/mL. Then she showed generalized edema, proteinurea and hematuria compatible with nephritic syndrome. After six courses chemotherapy the symptoms of nephrotic syndrome and invasive mole diminished, she released from hospital and scheduled for follow-up. PMID:21234253

  6. Metadata Objects for Linking the Environmental Sciences (MOLES)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lawrence, B.; Cox, S.; Ventouras, S.

    2009-04-01

    MOLES is an information model that provides a framework to support interdisciplinary contextual metadata describing instruments, observation platforms, activities, calibrations and other aspects of the environment associated with observations and simulations. MOLES has been designed as a bridge between discovery metadata - the conventional stuff of catalogues - and the sort of metadata which scientists traditionally store alongside data within files (and more rarely, databases) - "header files" and the like. MOLES can also be thought of as both a metadata structure in it's own right, and a framework for describing and recording the relationships between aspects of the context described in other more metadata formats (such as SensorML and the upcoming Metafor Common Information Model). MOLES was originally conceived of during the first NERC DataGrid project, in 2002, and is now at V3 in 2009. V3 differs from previous versions in many significant ways: 1) it has been designed in ISO 19103 compliant UML, and an XML schema implementation is delivered via an automated implementation of the ISO19118/19136 model driven architecture. 2) it is designed to operate in Web2.0 environment with both an atom serialisation and an OGC Web Feature Service (WFS) friendly XML serialisation. 3) it leverages the OGC observations and measurements specification, complements a range of GML application schema (in particular GeoSciML and CSML), and supports export of a subset of information in ISO 19115/19139 compliance. A software implementation exploiting MOLES V3 is under development. This will be seeded with hundreds of enties available from the MOLES V2 service currently deployed in the STFC Centre for Environmental Data Archival.

  7. The absolute path command

    2012-05-11

    The ap command traveres all symlinks in a given file, directory, or executable name to identify the final absolute path. It can print just the final path, each intermediate link along with the symlink chan, and the permissions and ownership of each directory component in the final path. It has functionality similar to "which", except that it shows the final path instead of the first path. It is also similar to "pwd", but it canmore » provide the absolute path to a relative directory from the current working directory.« less

  8. The absolute path command

    SciTech Connect

    Moody, A.

    2012-05-11

    The ap command traveres all symlinks in a given file, directory, or executable name to identify the final absolute path. It can print just the final path, each intermediate link along with the symlink chan, and the permissions and ownership of each directory component in the final path. It has functionality similar to "which", except that it shows the final path instead of the first path. It is also similar to "pwd", but it can provide the absolute path to a relative directory from the current working directory.

  9. Magnetic compass orientation in the blind mole rat Spalax ehrenbergi.

    PubMed

    Kimchi, T; Terkel, J

    2001-02-01

    The blind mole rat Spalax ehrenbergi is a solitary, subterranean rodent that digs and inhabits a system of branching tunnels, with no above-ground exits, which it never leaves unless forced to. To survive, the mole rat must be able to orient efficiently in its tunnel system. The sensory channels available for spatial orientation in the subterranean environment are restricted in comparison with those existing above ground. This study examined the possibility that the mole rat is able to perceive and use the earth's magnetic field to orient in space. Experiments were performed using a device constructed from a pair of electromagnetic 'Helmholtz coils', which create a magnetic field whose direction and strength can be altered. In the first experiment, we tested a group of mole rats (N=33) in an eight-armed maze under the earth's natural magnetic field to determine whether they have directional preferences for the location of their sleeping nest, food chamber and toilet site. A second group of mole rats (N=30) was tested for their directional preference after the earth's magnetic field had been experimentally shifted by 180 degrees. We found that the first group exhibited a significant preference (P<0.001) to build both their sleeping nest and their food store in the southern sector of the maze, whereas the second group shifted the location of their nests (P<0.01) and food store (P<0.05), to the northern sector of the maze, corresponding to the shift in the magnetic field. In the second experiment, we tested whether the magnetic compass orientation found in the first experiment depends on a light stimulus by testing a group of mole rats in the eight-armed maze under total darkness. No significant difference in directional preference between light and dark test conditions was observed. It can be concluded, therefore, that, in contrast to some amphibians and birds, magnetic compass orientation in the mole rat is independent of light stimulation. In the third experiment

  10. A cytosolic protein factor from the naked mole-rat activates proteasomes of other species and protects these from inhibition

    PubMed Central

    Rodriguez, Karl A.; Osmulski, Pawel A.; Pierce, Anson; Weintraub, Susan T.; Gaczynska, Maria; Buffenstein, Rochelle

    2015-01-01

    The naked mole-rat maintains robust proteostasis and high levels of proteasome-mediated proteolysis for most of its exceptional (~31y) life span. Here, we report that the highly active proteasome from the naked mole-rat liver resists attenuation by a diverse suite of proteasome-specific small molecule inhibitors. Moreover, mouse, human, and yeast proteasomes exposed to the proteasome-depleted, naked mole-rat cytosolic fractions, recapitulate the observed inhibition resistance, and mammalian proteasomes also show increased activity. Gel filtration coupled with mass spectrometry and atomic force microscopy indicates that these traits are supported by a protein factor that resides in the cytosol. This factor interacts with the proteasome and modulates its activity. Although HSP72 and HSP40 (Hdj1) are among the constituents of this factor, the observed phenomenon, such as increasing peptidase activity and protecting against inhibition cannot be reconciled with any known chaperone functions. This novel function may contribute to the exceptional protein homeostasis in the naked mole-rat and allow it to successfully defy aging. PMID:25018089

  11. The mole, amount of substance and primary methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Milton, Martin J. T.

    2013-04-01

    This paper is an introduction to the principles developed for the application of metrology to the field of chemistry and particularly to analytical chemistry. It starts with a discussion of the mole, the base unit of the SI that is most relevant to analytical chemistry. The mole has become the subject of particular discussion recently, since the publication of proposals to re-define it along with three other base units of the SI. This discussion has also generated interest in the origin of the term ‘amount of substance’ used as the quantity for which the mole is the unit. This paper reviews the origin of this term and explains why it is not sufficient to replace it with an alternative such as a ‘number of entities’. The paper concludes with some discussion of how the mole is realized through the use of primary methods of measurement. This paper is based on a lecture given at the International School of Physics ‘Enrico Fermi’, Course CLXXXV: Metrology and Physical Constants,held in Varenna on 17-27 July 2012. It will also be published in the proceedings of the school, edited by E Bava, M Kühne and A M Rossi (IOS Press, Amsterdam and SIF, Bologna).

  12. For Mole Problems, Call Avogadro: 602-1023

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uthe, R. E.

    2002-10-01

    General education students who have never encountered Avogadro’s number often have difficulty grasping its magnitude and the resulting implications for sizes and numbers of particles in common materials they see around them. I have surveyed the approaches used by several chemical educators. This article describes the techniques I find best help introductory students in General College at the University of Minnesota become familiar with Avogadro’s number and mole calculations. They involve estimating numbers of common objects and then calculating the length of time needed to count large numbers of them. For example, the immense amount of time required to count a mole of sand grains at one grain per second greatly exceeds the age of the universe. The calculations also reinforce procedures for manipulating exponents and applying problem-solving techniques.

  13. The complete mitogenome of Chinese Mole Shrew, Anourosorex squamipes (Soricidae).

    PubMed

    Li, Qun; Wang, Qiong; Chen, Guiying; Fu, Changkun; Chen, Shunde

    2016-01-01

    The Chinese Mole Shrew, Anourosorex squamipes belongs to the family Soricidae, and widely distributes in central and southern China, northern and south Burma, east India, northern Vietnam and Thailand. In this study, the complete mitochondrial genome sequence of Anourosorex squamipes was determined. The mitogenome is 17,121 base pairs in length and contains 13 protein-coding genes, 2 ribosomal RNA genes, 22 transfer RNA genes, and 1 control region, with base composition of 34.0% A, 31.3% T, 22.0% C, and 12.7% G. The genome organization, nucleotide composition and codon usage did not differ significantly from those of other shrews. The study contributes to illuminating taxonomic status of Chinese Mole Shrew Anourosorex squamipes. PMID:24708118

  14. Electronic Absolute Cartesian Autocollimator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leviton, Douglas B.

    2006-01-01

    An electronic absolute Cartesian autocollimator performs the same basic optical function as does a conventional all-optical or a conventional electronic autocollimator but differs in the nature of its optical target and the manner in which the position of the image of the target is measured. The term absolute in the name of this apparatus reflects the nature of the position measurement, which, unlike in a conventional electronic autocollimator, is based absolutely on the position of the image rather than on an assumed proportionality between the position and the levels of processed analog electronic signals. The term Cartesian in the name of this apparatus reflects the nature of its optical target. Figure 1 depicts the electronic functional blocks of an electronic absolute Cartesian autocollimator along with its basic optical layout, which is the same as that of a conventional autocollimator. Referring first to the optical layout and functions only, this or any autocollimator is used to measure the compound angular deviation of a flat datum mirror with respect to the optical axis of the autocollimator itself. The optical components include an illuminated target, a beam splitter, an objective or collimating lens, and a viewer or detector (described in more detail below) at a viewing plane. The target and the viewing planes are focal planes of the lens. Target light reflected by the datum mirror is imaged on the viewing plane at unit magnification by the collimating lens. If the normal to the datum mirror is parallel to the optical axis of the autocollimator, then the target image is centered on the viewing plane. Any angular deviation of the normal from the optical axis manifests itself as a lateral displacement of the target image from the center. The magnitude of the displacement is proportional to the focal length and to the magnitude (assumed to be small) of the angular deviation. The direction of the displacement is perpendicular to the axis about which the

  15. ABSOLUTE POLARIMETRY AT RHIC.

    SciTech Connect

    OKADA; BRAVAR, A.; BUNCE, G.; GILL, R.; HUANG, H.; MAKDISI, Y.; NASS, A.; WOOD, J.; ZELENSKI, Z.; ET AL.

    2007-09-10

    Precise and absolute beam polarization measurements are critical for the RHIC spin physics program. Because all experimental spin-dependent results are normalized by beam polarization, the normalization uncertainty contributes directly to final physics uncertainties. We aimed to perform the beam polarization measurement to an accuracy Of {Delta}P{sub beam}/P{sub beam} < 5%. The absolute polarimeter consists of Polarized Atomic Hydrogen Gas Jet Target and left-right pairs of silicon strip detectors and was installed in the RHIC-ring in 2004. This system features proton-proton elastic scattering in the Coulomb nuclear interference (CNI) region. Precise measurements of the analyzing power A{sub N} of this process has allowed us to achieve {Delta}P{sub beam}/P{sub beam} = 4.2% in 2005 for the first long spin-physics run. In this report, we describe the entire set up and performance of the system. The procedure of beam polarization measurement and analysis results from 2004-2005 are described. Physics topics of AN in the CNI region (four-momentum transfer squared 0.001 < -t < 0.032 (GeV/c){sup 2}) are also discussed. We point out the current issues and expected optimum accuracy in 2006 and the future.

  16. Unpacking the Meaning of the Mole Concept for Secondary School Teachers and Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fang, Su-Chi; Hart, Christina; Clarke, David

    2014-01-01

    The "mole" is a fundamental concept in quantitative chemistry, yet research has shown that the mole is one of the most perplexing concepts in the teaching and learning of chemistry. This paper provides a survey of the relevant literature, identifies the necessary components of a sound understanding of the mole concept, and unpacks and…

  17. Teaching the Mole Concept Using a Conceptual Change Method at College Level

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Uce, Musa

    2009-01-01

    Chemistry is a subject area that is difficult to understand for some students as it contains abstract concepts, such as mole, molecule and particle. The mole concept is one of the most important topics in which students have difficulty in understanding. There are many studies in the literature on the mole concept. Students who do not fully…

  18. Mole and Chemical Amount: A Discussion of the Fundamental Measurements of Chemistry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gorin, George

    1994-01-01

    Teachers and students alike report difficulties with the measurement unit called mole. This article tries to demonstrate that mole and the corresponding quantity are not exceptional. Mole lacks the context of a given amount because the unit measures the relative number of atoms compared with those present in a standard. Discusses history of…

  19. The Mole. Independent Learning Project for Advanced Chemistry (ILPAC). Unit S1.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Inner London Education Authority (England).

    This unit on the mole is one of 10 first year units produced by the Independent Learning Project for Advanced Chemistry (ILPAC). The unit, designed to help students consolidate some of the ideas about the mole learned in previous courses, consists of two levels. The first level focuses on: (1) relative mass; (2) the concept of the mole as the unit…

  20. Implants as absolute anchorage.

    PubMed

    Rungcharassaeng, Kitichai; Kan, Joseph Y K; Caruso, Joseph M

    2005-11-01

    Anchorage control is essential for successful orthodontic treatment. Each tooth has its own anchorage potential as well as propensity to move when force is applied. When teeth are used as anchorage, the untoward movements of the anchoring units may result in the prolonged treatment time, and unpredictable or less-than-ideal outcome. To maximize tooth-related anchorage, techniques such as differential torque, placing roots into the cortex of the bone, the use of various intraoral devices and/or extraoral appliances have been implemented. Implants, as they are in direct contact with bone, do not possess a periodontal ligament. As a result, they do not move when orthodontic/orthopedic force is applied, and therefore can be used as "absolute anchorage." This article describes different types of implants that have been used as orthodontic anchorage. Their clinical applications and limitations are also discussed. PMID:16463910

  1. Absolute Equilibrium Entropy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shebalin, John V.

    1997-01-01

    The entropy associated with absolute equilibrium ensemble theories of ideal, homogeneous, fluid and magneto-fluid turbulence is discussed and the three-dimensional fluid case is examined in detail. A sigma-function is defined, whose minimum value with respect to global parameters is the entropy. A comparison is made between the use of global functions sigma and phase functions H (associated with the development of various H-theorems of ideal turbulence). It is shown that the two approaches are complimentary though conceptually different: H-theorems show that an isolated system tends to equilibrium while sigma-functions allow the demonstration that entropy never decreases when two previously isolated systems are combined. This provides a more complete picture of entropy in the statistical mechanics of ideal fluids.

  2. A content analysis of the presentation of the mole concept in chemistry textbooks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Staver, John R.; Lumpe, Andrew T.

    The goal of this study was to examine the means used by textbook authors to introduce, define, and explain the mole concept in high school and introductory college chemistry textbooks. The analysis was framed by four questions:1How is the mole defined?2What concepts about the atom are introduced prior to the mole?3Is Avogadro's constant presented as an experimentally determined value?4What is the context for introducing the mole?Twenty-nine high school and introductory college level chemistry texts were examined. After independent reading of appropriate sections of each text, discussion of differences, second or third readings of texts, and subsequent discussions, both authors reach 100% agreement concerning the results. Major conclusions were: Two ways of defining the mole dominate the texts. One way defines the mole as Avogadro's number (6.02 × 1023) particles; the other method defines the mole in terms of carbon-12. All texts that present a definition in terms of C-12 introduce and define concepts about the atom prior to introducing the mole. Most texts at all levels point out that the value 6.02 × 1023 is an experimentally determined quantity. Nearly all texts discuss the mole in relation to die problem of finding a way to count particles that are too small to be directly weighed. Most texts also use a familiar counting unit, such as the dozen, to introduce the mole by analogy. Four issues were discussed: (a) the defining attributes of the mole concept itself and the cognitive requirements for comprehending the two most frequently used definitions; (b) the connection between the definition of the mole presented in the text and the concepts about atoms that are introduced before the mole concept is developed; (c) the experimental nature of Avogadro's number; and (d) the context or setting for developing the mole concept.

  3. Absolute neutrino mass measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wolf, Joachim

    2011-10-01

    The neutrino mass plays an important role in particle physics, astrophysics and cosmology. In recent years the detection of neutrino flavour oscillations proved that neutrinos carry mass. However, oscillation experiments are only sensitive to the mass-squared difference of the mass eigenvalues. In contrast to cosmological observations and neutrino-less double beta decay (0v2β) searches, single β-decay experiments provide a direct, model-independent way to determine the absolute neutrino mass by measuring the energy spectrum of decay electrons at the endpoint region with high accuracy. Currently the best kinematic upper limits on the neutrino mass of 2.2eV have been set by two experiments in Mainz and Troitsk, using tritium as beta emitter. The next generation tritium β-experiment KATRIN is currently under construction in Karlsruhe/Germany by an international collaboration. KATRIN intends to improve the sensitivity by one order of magnitude to 0.2eV. The investigation of a second isotope (137Rh) is being pursued by the international MARE collaboration using micro-calorimeters to measure the beta spectrum. The technology needed to reach 0.2eV sensitivity is still in the R&D phase. This paper reviews the present status of neutrino-mass measurements with cosmological data, 0v2β decay and single β-decay.

  4. Absolute neutrino mass measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Wolf, Joachim

    2011-10-06

    The neutrino mass plays an important role in particle physics, astrophysics and cosmology. In recent years the detection of neutrino flavour oscillations proved that neutrinos carry mass. However, oscillation experiments are only sensitive to the mass-squared difference of the mass eigenvalues. In contrast to cosmological observations and neutrino-less double beta decay (0v2{beta}) searches, single {beta}-decay experiments provide a direct, model-independent way to determine the absolute neutrino mass by measuring the energy spectrum of decay electrons at the endpoint region with high accuracy.Currently the best kinematic upper limits on the neutrino mass of 2.2eV have been set by two experiments in Mainz and Troitsk, using tritium as beta emitter. The next generation tritium {beta}-experiment KATRIN is currently under construction in Karlsruhe/Germany by an international collaboration. KATRIN intends to improve the sensitivity by one order of magnitude to 0.2eV. The investigation of a second isotope ({sup 137}Rh) is being pursued by the international MARE collaboration using micro-calorimeters to measure the beta spectrum. The technology needed to reach 0.2eV sensitivity is still in the R and D phase. This paper reviews the present status of neutrino-mass measurements with cosmological data, 0v2{beta} decay and single {beta}-decay.

  5. The energy costs of sexual dimorphism in mole-rats are morphological not behavioural

    PubMed Central

    Scantlebury, M; Speakman, J.R; Bennett, N.C

    2005-01-01

    Different reproductive strategies of males and females may lead to the evolution of differences in their energetic costs of reproduction, overall energetic requirements and physiological performances. Sexual dimorphism is often associated with costly behaviours (e.g. large males might have a competitive advantage in fighting, which is energetically expensive). However, few studies of mammals have directly compared the energy costs of reproductive activities between sexes. We compared the daily energy expenditure (DEE) and resting metabolic rate (RMR) of males and females of two species of mole-rat, Bathyergus janetta and Georychus capensis (the former is sexually dimorphic in body size and the latter is not) during a period of intense digging when males seek females. We hypothesized that large body size might be indicative of greater digging or fighting capabilities, and hence greater mass-independent DEE values in males of the sexually dimorphic species. In contrast to this prediction, although absolute values of DEE were greater in B. janetta males, mass-independent values were not. No differences were apparent between sexes in G. capensis. By comparison, although RMR values were greater in B. janetta than G. capensis, no differences were apparent between the sexes for either species. The energy cost of dimorphism is most likely to be the cost of maintenance of a large body size, and not the cost of behaviours performed when an individual is large. PMID:16519235

  6. Absolute Identification by Relative Judgment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stewart, Neil; Brown, Gordon D. A.; Chater, Nick

    2005-01-01

    In unidimensional absolute identification tasks, participants identify stimuli that vary along a single dimension. Performance is surprisingly poor compared with discrimination of the same stimuli. Existing models assume that identification is achieved using long-term representations of absolute magnitudes. The authors propose an alternative…

  7. Be Resolute about Absolute Value

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kidd, Margaret L.

    2007-01-01

    This article explores how conceptualization of absolute value can start long before it is introduced. The manner in which absolute value is introduced to students in middle school has far-reaching consequences for their future mathematical understanding. It begins to lay the foundation for students' understanding of algebra, which can change…

  8. Altered Composition of Liver Proteasome Assemblies Contributes to Enhanced Proteasome Activity in the Exceptionally Long-Lived Naked Mole-Rat

    PubMed Central

    Rodriguez, Karl A.; Edrey, Yael H.; Osmulski, Pawel; Gaczynska, Maria; Buffenstein, Rochelle

    2012-01-01

    The longest-lived rodent, the naked mole-rat (Bathyergidae; Heterocephalus glaber), maintains robust health for at least 75% of its 32 year lifespan, suggesting that the decline in genomic integrity or protein homeostasis routinely observed during aging, is either attenuated or delayed in this extraordinarily long-lived species. The ubiquitin proteasome system (UPS) plays an integral role in protein homeostasis by degrading oxidatively-damaged and misfolded proteins. In this study, we examined proteasome activity in naked mole-rats and mice in whole liver lysates as well as three subcellular fractions to probe the mechanisms behind the apparently enhanced effectiveness of UPS. We found that when compared with mouse samples, naked mole-rats had significantly higher chymotrypsin-like (ChT-L) activity and a two-fold increase in trypsin-like (T-L) in both whole lysates as well as cytosolic fractions. Native gel electrophoresis of the whole tissue lysates showed that the 20S proteasome was more active in the longer-lived species and that 26S proteasome was both more active and more populous. Western blot analyses revealed that both 19S subunits and immunoproteasome catalytic subunits are present in greater amounts in the naked mole-rat suggesting that the observed higher specific activity may be due to the greater proportion of immunoproteasomes in livers of healthy young adults. It thus appears that proteasomes in this species are primed for the efficient removal of stress-damaged proteins. Further characterization of the naked mole-rat proteasome and its regulation could lead to important insights on how the cells in these animals handle increased stress and protein damage to maintain a longer health in their tissues and ultimately a longer life. PMID:22567116

  9. MOLE: A new high-energy gamma-ray diagnostic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moran, M. J.; Chang, B.

    1992-01-01

    Continued interest in high-energy gamma rays associated with fusion reactions has motivated an ongoing search for simple, effective measurement techniques. Past experiments have measured 16.7-MeV gamma rays with Compton-magnetic spectrometers. Some measurements have been performed with threshold Cherenkov detectors with enhanced sensitivity to high-energy (gamma) rays. The Compton spectrometers work quite well, but they require extensive calibrations and tend to be expensive and cumbersome. The threshold Cherenkov detectors are simpler to calibrate and physically compact, but have poor spectral definition and are vulnerable to background signals. This report describes a new type of (gamma)-ray detector, the MOLE, that may retain the simplicity of a threshold Cherenkov detector while still having sufficient energy discrimination to be effective for measuring high-energy (gamma)-rays in the presence of lower-energy (gamma)-ray fluxes.

  10. Adult neurogenesis and its anatomical context in the hippocampus of three mole-rat species

    PubMed Central

    Amrein, Irmgard; Becker, Anton S.; Engler, Stefanie; Huang, Shih-hui; Müller, Julian; Slomianka, Lutz; Oosthuizen, Maria K.

    2014-01-01

    African mole-rats (family Bathyergidae) are small to medium sized, long-lived, and strictly subterranean rodents that became valuable animal models as a result of their longevity and diversity in social organization. The formation and integration of new hippocampal neurons in adult mammals (adult hippocampal neurogenesis, AHN) correlates negatively with age and positively with habitat complexity. Here we present quantitative data on AHN in wild-derived mole-rats of 1 year and older, and briefly describe its anatomical context including markers of neuronal function (calbindin and parvalbumin). Solitary Cape mole-rats (Georychus capensis), social highveld mole-rats (Cryptomys hottentotus pretoriae), and eusocial naked mole-rats (Heterocephalus glaber) were assessed. Compared to other rodents, the hippocampal formation in mole-rats is small, but shows a distinct cytoarchitecture in the dentate gyrus and CA1. Distributions of the calcium-binding proteins differ from those seen in rodents; e.g., calbindin in CA3 of naked mole-rats distributes similar to the pattern seen in early primate development, and calbindin staining extends into the stratum lacunosum-moleculare of Cape mole-rats. Proliferating cells and young neurons are found in low numbers in the hippocampus of all three mole-rat species. Resident granule cell numbers are low as well. Proliferating cells expressed as a percentage of resident granule cells are in the range of other rodents, while the percentage of young neurons is lower than that observed in surface dwelling rodents. Between mole-rat species, we observed no difference in the percentage of proliferating cells. The percentages of young neurons are high in social highveld and naked mole-rats, and low in solitary Cape mole-rats. The findings support that proliferation is regulated independently of average life expectancy and habitat. Instead, neuronal differentiation reflects species-specific demands, which appear lower in subterranean rodents. PMID

  11. Development of the cornea of true moles (Talpidae): morphogenesis and expression of PAX6 and cytokeratins

    PubMed Central

    Carmona, F David; Ou, Jingxing; Jiménez, Rafael; Collinson, J Martin

    2010-01-01

    Corneal development and structure were studied in the Iberian mole Talpa occidentalis, which has permanently closed eyelids, and the European mole Talpa europaea, in which the eyes are open. The vertebrate cornea typically maintains a three-layered structure – a stratified epithelium with protective and sensory function, an avascular, hypocellular, collagenous stroma, and an endothelium with both barrier and transport functions that regulates corneal hydration, hence maintaining transparency. Compared to mouse, both mole species had significant corneal specializations, but the Iberian mole had the most divergent phenotype, with no endothelium and a flattened monolayer epithelium. Nevertheless, normal epithelial cell junctions were observed and corneal transparency was maintained. Corneas of European moles have a dysmorphic phenotype that recapitulates the human disorder keratoconus for which no mouse model exists. Mole corneas are vascularized – a situation only previously observed in the manatee Trichechus– and have non-radial patterns of corneal innervation indicative of failure of corneal epithelial cell migration. The transcription factor Pax6 is required for corneal epithelial differentiation in mice, but was found to be dispensable in moles, which had mosaic patterns of PAX6 localization uniquely restricted, in European moles, to the apical epithelial cells. The apparently stalled or abnormal differentiation of corneas in adult moles is supported by their superficial similarity to the corneas of embryonic or neonatal mice, and their abnormal expression of cytokeratin-12 and cytokeratin-5. European moles seem to have maintained some barrier/protective function in their corneas. However, Iberian moles show a more significant corneal regression likely related to the permanent eyelid fusion. In this mole species, adaptation to the arid, harder, Southern European soils could have favoured the transfer of these functions to the permanently sealed eyelids

  12. Development of the cornea of true moles (Talpidae): morphogenesis and expression of PAX6 and cytokeratins.

    PubMed

    Carmona, F David; Ou, Jingxing; Jiménez, Rafael; Collinson, J Martin

    2010-11-01

    Corneal development and structure were studied in the Iberian mole Talpa occidentalis, which has permanently closed eyelids, and the European mole Talpa europaea, in which the eyes are open. The vertebrate cornea typically maintains a three-layered structure - a stratified epithelium with protective and sensory function, an avascular, hypocellular, collagenous stroma, and an endothelium with both barrier and transport functions that regulates corneal hydration, hence maintaining transparency. Compared to mouse, both mole species had significant corneal specializations, but the Iberian mole had the most divergent phenotype, with no endothelium and a flattened monolayer epithelium. Nevertheless, normal epithelial cell junctions were observed and corneal transparency was maintained. Corneas of European moles have a dysmorphic phenotype that recapitulates the human disorder keratoconus for which no mouse model exists. Mole corneas are vascularized - a situation only previously observed in the manatee Trichechus- and have non-radial patterns of corneal innervation indicative of failure of corneal epithelial cell migration. The transcription factor Pax6 is required for corneal epithelial differentiation in mice, but was found to be dispensable in moles, which had mosaic patterns of PAX6 localization uniquely restricted, in European moles, to the apical epithelial cells. The apparently stalled or abnormal differentiation of corneas in adult moles is supported by their superficial similarity to the corneas of embryonic or neonatal mice, and their abnormal expression of cytokeratin-12 and cytokeratin-5. European moles seem to have maintained some barrier/protective function in their corneas. However, Iberian moles show a more significant corneal regression likely related to the permanent eyelid fusion. In this mole species, adaptation to the arid, harder, Southern European soils could have favoured the transfer of these functions to the permanently sealed eyelids. PMID

  13. High-molecular-mass hyaluronan mediates the cancer resistance of the naked mole rat.

    PubMed

    Tian, Xiao; Azpurua, Jorge; Hine, Christopher; Vaidya, Amita; Myakishev-Rempel, Max; Ablaeva, Julia; Mao, Zhiyong; Nevo, Eviatar; Gorbunova, Vera; Seluanov, Andrei

    2013-07-18

    The naked mole rat (Heterocephalus glaber) displays exceptional longevity, with a maximum lifespan exceeding 30 years. This is the longest reported lifespan for a rodent species and is especially striking considering the small body mass of the naked mole rat. In comparison, a similarly sized house mouse has a maximum lifespan of 4 years. In addition to their longevity, naked mole rats show an unusual resistance to cancer. Multi-year observations of large naked mole-rat colonies did not detect a single incidence of cancer. Here we identify a mechanism responsible for the naked mole rat's cancer resistance. We found that naked mole-rat fibroblasts secrete extremely high-molecular-mass hyaluronan (HA), which is over five times larger than human or mouse HA. This high-molecular-mass HA accumulates abundantly in naked mole-rat tissues owing to the decreased activity of HA-degrading enzymes and a unique sequence of hyaluronan synthase 2 (HAS2). Furthermore, the naked mole-rat cells are more sensitive to HA signalling, as they have a higher affinity to HA compared with mouse or human cells. Perturbation of the signalling pathways sufficient for malignant transformation of mouse fibroblasts fails to transform naked mole-rat cells. However, once high-molecular-mass HA is removed by either knocking down HAS2 or overexpressing the HA-degrading enzyme, HYAL2, naked mole-rat cells become susceptible to malignant transformation and readily form tumours in mice. We speculate that naked mole rats have evolved a higher concentration of HA in the skin to provide skin elasticity needed for life in underground tunnels. This trait may have then been co-opted to provide cancer resistance and longevity to this species. PMID:23783513

  14. A Content Analysis of the Presentation of the Mole Concept in Chemistry Textbooks.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Staver, John R.; Lumpe, Andrew T.

    1993-01-01

    Examined the means used by textbook authors to introduce, define, and explain the mole concept in high school and introductory college chemistry textbooks (n=29). Among the conclusions are that the presentation and definitions of moles in the textbooks are most frequently abstract and theoretical in nature. (PR)

  15. Constructing Understandings of the Mole Concept: Interactions of Chemistry Text, Teacher and Learners.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Larson, Jane O.

    Due to its abstract, theoretical nature, the mole concept has been recognized as one of the most difficult topics to teach and learn within the chemistry curriculum. The purpose of this study was to chronicle the development of high school students' conceptions of the mole following a period of instruction in a chemistry class. This investigation…

  16. Whole-Genome Sequence of a Novel Hantavirus Isolated from the European Mole (Talpa europaea).

    PubMed

    Gu, Se Hun; Hejduk, Janusz; Markowski, Janusz; Markowski, Marcin; Liberski, Paweł P; Yanagihara, Richard

    2015-01-01

    The complete genome sequence of Nova virus, a novel hantavirus isolated from a European mole (Talpa europaea) captured in central Poland, was determined. The availability of this sequence will facilitate the search for other mole-borne hantaviruses and will accelerate the acquisition of new knowledge about their phylogeography and evolutionary origin. PMID:26021917

  17. Hypoxic survival differs between two mole rat species (Spalax ehrenbergi) of humid and arid habitats.

    PubMed

    Arieli, R; Nevo, E

    1991-01-01

    1. Two chromosomal species, 2n = 52 and 2n = 60 of the mole rat superspecies (Spalax ehrenbergi), occupy humid (2n = 52) and arid (2n = 60) habitats in Israel. 2. Gas conductivity of the soil of the 2n = 52 mole rat is lower than that of the 2n = 60 mole rat, and the 2n = 52 mole rat is better adapted to hypoxia. 3. The hypothesis that the 2n = 52 mole rat can survive to a lower pO2 than the 2n = 60 mole rat was tested. 4. Terminal pO2 (Torr) of four females 2n = 52 was lower, 18.0 +/- 2.9 (SD), than the terminal pO2 of five females 2n = 60, 28.2 +/- 5.1 (SD). 5. The hypoxic survival of the 2n = 52 mole rat as compared to that of the 2n = 60 mole rat correlates with other physiological traits: breathing and heart frequencies, blood hemoglobin and tissue gas tensions. PMID:1685968

  18. Trading new neurons for status: Adult hippocampal neurogenesis in eusocial Damaraland mole-rats.

    PubMed

    Oosthuizen, M K; Amrein, I

    2016-06-01

    Diversity in social structures, from solitary to eusocial, is a prominent feature of subterranean African mole-rat species. Damaraland mole-rats are eusocial, they live in colonies that are characterized by a reproductive division of labor and a subdivision into castes based on physiology and behavior. Damaraland mole-rats are exceptionally long lived and reproductive animals show delayed aging compared to non-reproductive animals. In the present study, we described the hippocampal architecture and the rate of hippocampal neurogenesis of wild-derived, adult Damaraland mole-rats in relation to sex, relative age and social status or caste. Overall, Damaraland mole-rats were found to have a small hippocampus and low rates of neurogenesis. We found no correlation between neurogenesis and sex or relative age. Social status or caste was the most prominent modulator of neurogenesis. An inverse relationship between neurogenesis and social status was apparent, with queens displaying the lowest neurogenesis while the worker mole-rats had the most. As there is no natural progression from one caste to another, social status within a colony was relatively stable and is reflected in the level of neurogenesis. Our results correspond to those found in the naked mole-rat, and may reflect an evolutionary and environmentally conserved trait within social mole-rat species. PMID:26979050

  19. Complete Genome Sequence of a Papillomavirus Isolated from the European Mole

    PubMed Central

    Sijmons, Steven; Stevens, Hans; Van Ranst, Marc

    2013-01-01

    A papillomavirus was isolated from healthy epithelial tissue of two European moles (Talpa europaea) and the complete genomic sequence was determined. To our knowledge, this is the first papillomavirus to be isolated from a mole. Phylogenetic analysis shows it to be most closely related to viruses of the genus Kappapapillomavirus. PMID:23908280

  20. What's the Diagnosis? An Inquiry-Based Activity Focusing on Mole-Mass Conversions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bruck, Laura B.; Towns, Marcy H.

    2011-01-01

    An inquiry-based mole-to-mass activity is presented associated with the analysis of blood. Students working in groups choose between two medical cases to determine if the "patient" has higher or lower concentrations of minerals than normal. The data are presented such that students must convert moles to mass in order to compare the patient values…

  1. Pacific Mole Crab (Emerita analoga) Abundance in Correlation with Waste Water Effluence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, L.; Dangerfield, L.; Minor, D.; Subedar, R.

    2012-12-01

    Previous studies have shown that pollutants such as ammonia and copper have had negative effects on marine invertebrate lifecycles. Along the Pacific Coast of California, a filter feeding invertebrate, the Pacific mole crab, Emerita analoga, is exposed to such pollutants regularly. In San Francisco, habitats for populations of Pacific mole crabs are located near the Oceanside Water Pollution Control Plant, which dumps waste water 4.5 miles off the coast. Due to this disturbance at the south end of Ocean Beach, we hypothesize that there is a negative correlation between the abundance of mole crabs and the levels of copper, zinc and ammonia in sewage released from the Oceanside plant each year. By analyzing four years of Pacific mole crab abundance data and utilizing yearly waste water discharge figures, we found that there is a slight negative correlation (-0.67057) between mole crab abundances and the total amount of waste water being released annually. The amount of copper released from 2007-2010 and the abundance of E. analoga also has a slight negative correlation (-0.6714). The correlation between Pacific mole crab abundance and the total amount of zinc is also a slightly negative (-0.48434). However, the correlation between the abundance of mole crabs and total amount of ammonia released is positive (0.4497). Further data are needed to ascertain the relationship between the abundance of the Pacific mole crab and the amount of pollutants released from nearby waste water treatment plants.

  2. Partial hydatidiform mole: histologic parameters in correlation with DNA genotyping.

    PubMed

    Buza, Natalia; Hui, Pei

    2013-05-01

    Histologic diagnosis of partial hydatidiform mole (PHM) continues to be problematic, and DNA genotyping has recently become cost-effective for precise separation of PHM from its mimics. We performed a comprehensive reevaluation of histologic parameters of PHM in correlation with DNA genotyping. A total of 143 early abortion specimens were subjected to genotyping as part of the routine workup, resulting in 60 cases of PHM, 52 cases of various chromosomal trisomies, and 31 cases of nonmolar diploid gestations. All available hematoxylin and eosin slides were reviewed retrospectively by 2 gynecologic pathologists blinded to the genotyping results. Significant histologic overlaps were present among genetically confirmed PHM, hydropic abortions, and chromosomal trisomy syndromes. The following morphologic parameters emerged with diagnostic significance for PHM: villus size, presence of 2 villous populations, round or oval pseudoinclusions, at least moderate villous hydrops, cistern formation, and trophoblastic hyperplasia. The most sensitive morphologic features for PHM included villous hydrops (86% sensitivity) or the presence of at least 1 of the following 3 parameters: 2 villous populations, round or oval pseudoinclusions, and cisterns (84% sensitivity). The presence of cisterns and villous size ≥2.5 mm had the highest positive predictive value (90%) for PHM. In conclusion, no single or combined morphologic features are sufficient for definitive diagnosis of PHM. The presence of any one of the following histologic findings should prompt DNA genotyping workup to rule out PHM: round or oval pseudoincludions, cistern formation, 2 populations of villi, and a villous size of ≥2.5 mm. PMID:23518914

  3. Convergence vs. Specialization in the ear region of moles (Mammalia).

    PubMed

    Crumpton, Nick; Kardjilov, Nikolay; Asher, Robert J

    2015-08-01

    We investigated if and how the inner ear region undergoes similar adaptations in small, fossorial, insectivoran-grade mammals, and found a variety of inner ear phenotypes. In our sample, afrotherian moles (Chrysochloridae) and the marsupial Notoryctes differ from most other burrowing mammals in their relatively short radii of semicircular canal curvature; chrysochlorids and fossorial talpids share a relatively long interampullar width. Chrysochlorids are unique in showing a highly coiled cochlea with nearly four turns. Extensive cochlear coiling may reflect their greater ecological dependence on low frequency auditory cues compared to talpids, tenrecids, and the marsupial Notoryctes. Correspondingly, the lack of such extensive coiling in the inner ear of other fossorial species may indicate a greater reliance on other senses to enable their fossorial lifestyle, such as tactile sensation from vibrissae and Eimer's organs. The reliance of chrysochlorids on sound is evident in the high degree of coiling and in the diversity of its mallear types, and may help explain the lack of any semiaquatic members of that group. The simplest mallear types among chrysochlorids are not present in the basal-most members of that clade, but all extant chrysochlorids investigated to date exhibit extensive cochlear coiling. The chrysochlorid ear region thus exhibits mosaic evolution; our data suggest that extensive coiling evolved in chrysochlorids prior to and independently of diversification in middle ear ossicle size and shape. PMID:25858660

  4. MOLE: a Voronoi diagram-based explorer of molecular channels, pores, and tunnels.

    PubMed

    Petrek, Martin; Kosinová, Pavlína; Koca, Jaroslav; Otyepka, Michal

    2007-11-01

    We have developed an algorithm, "MOLE," for the rapid, fully automated location and characterization of molecular channels, tunnels, and pores. This algorithm has been made freely available on the Internet (http://mole.chemi.muni.cz/) and overcomes many of the shortcomings and limitations of the recently developed CAVER software. The core of our MOLE algorithm is a Dijkstra's path search algorithm, which is applied to a Voronoi mesh. Tests on a wide variety of biomolecular systems including gramicidine, acetylcholinesterase, cytochromes P450, potassium channels, DNA quadruplexes, ribozymes, and the large ribosomal subunit have demonstrated that the MOLE algorithm performs well. MOLE is thus a powerful tool for exploring large molecular channels, complex networks of channels, and molecular dynamics trajectories in which analysis of a large number of snapshots is required. PMID:17997961

  5. Acanthocephala Parasite (Profilicollis spp.) Loads in Correlation to Pacific Mole Crab (Emerita analoga) Size

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, T.; Huang, S.; Galathe, M.; Jenkins, M.; Ramirez, A.; Crosby, L.; Barrera, J.; FitzHoward, S.

    2013-12-01

    Since 2002, San Francisco Bay students have been conducting marine ecosystem monitoring through a joint project with the Long-term Monitoring Program and Experiential Training for Students (LiMPETS), in conjunction with the Gulf of Farallones National Marine Sanctuary. Each year students collect population and demographic data on Pacific mole crabs (Emerita analoga), an indicator species that lives in the sandy beach habitat in temperate regions along the Pacific Ocean. Pacific mole crabs are filter feeding crustaceans that inhabit the intertidal swash zone and are known to be an intermediate host for parasitic ';spiny-headed' worms in the phylum Acanthocephala (Profilicollis spp.). Sampling takes place during their reproductive period, which occurs from spring to fall, and includes measuring total body length of the Pacific mole crabs and dissecting them to determine presence of Acanthocephalan parasites. We hypothesize that due to larger body mass, larger Pacific mole crabs will have a greater number of Acanthocephala parasites.We conducted several analyses using the LiMPETS long-term data. Specifically, we compared body length, crab gender, and parasite abundance from Pacific mole crabs sampled from four beaches located in the county and city of San Francisco. Our results indicated that larger Pacific mole crabs do not necessarily have more parasites, but are more likely to have at least one parasite, while female Pacific mole crabs carrying eggs, have more parasites than males or females without eggs. We also found that parasite loads per mole crab was highest in the spring. Further analysis will be conducted to determine factors affecting Pacific mole crab parasite loads. Studying Pacific mole crabs help evaluate the health of California's intertidal systems and how human activities, geologic changes, and climate changes all make huge impacts to the intertidal ecosystems.

  6. Absolute, spatially resolved, in situ CO profiles in atmospheric laminar counter-flow diffusion flames using 2.3 μm TDLAS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wagner, Steven; Klein, Moritz; Kathrotia, Trupti; Riedel, Uwe; Kissel, Thilo; Dreizler, Andreas; Ebert, Volker

    2012-11-01

    We developed a new, spatially traversing, direct tunable diode laser absorption spectrometer (TDLAS) for quantitative, calibration-free, and spatially resolved in situ measurements of CO profiles in atmospheric, laminar, non-premixed CH4/air model flames stabilized at a Tsuji counter-flow burner. The spectrometer employed a carefully characterized, room temperature distributed feedback diode laser to detect the R20 line of CO near 2,313 nm (4,324.4 cm-1), which allows to minimize spectral CH4 interference and detect CO even in very fuel-rich zones of the flame. The burner head was traversed through the 0.5 mm diameter laser beam in order to derive spatially resolved CO profiles in the only 60-mm wide CH4/air flame. Our multiple Voigt line Levenberg-Marquardt fitting algorithm and the use of highly efficient optical disturbance correction algorithms for treating transmission and background emission fluctuations as well as careful fringe interference suppression permitted to achieve a fractional optical resolution of up to 2.4 × 10-4 OD (1σ) in the flame ( T up to 1,965 K). Highly accurate, spatially resolved, absolute gas temperature profiles, needed to compute mole fraction and correct for spectroscopic temperature dependencies, were determined with a spatial resolution of 65 μm using ro-vibrational N2-CARS (Coherent anti-Stokes Raman spectroscopy). With this setup we achieved temperature-dependent CO detection limits at the R20 line of 250-2,000 ppmv at peak CO concentrations of up to 4 vol.%. This permitted local CO detection with signal to noise ratios of more than 77. The CO TDLAS spectrometer was then used to determine absolute, spatially resolved in situ CO concentrations in the Tsuji flame, investigate the strain dependence of the CO Profiles and favorably compare the results to a new flame-chemistry model.

  7. Is evolution of blind mole rats determined by climate oscillations?

    PubMed

    Hadid, Yarin; Németh, Attila; Snir, Sagi; Pavlíček, Tomáš; Csorba, Gábor; Kázmér, Miklós; Major, Agnes; Mezhzherin, Sergey; Rusin, Mikhail; Coşkun, Yüksel; Nevo, Eviatar

    2012-01-01

    The concept of climate variability facilitating adaptive radiation supported by the "Court Jester" hypothesis is disputed by the "Red Queen" one, but the prevalence of one or the other might be scale-dependent. We report on a detailed, comprehensive phylo-geographic study on the ∼4 kb mtDNA sequence in underground blind mole rats of the family Spalacidae (or subfamily Spalacinae) from the East Mediterranean steppes. Our study aimed at testing the presence of periodicities in branching patterns on a constructed phylogenetic tree and at searching for congruence between branching events, tectonic history and paleoclimates. In contrast to the strong support for the majority of the branching events on the tree, the absence of support in a few instances indicates that network-like evolution could exist in spalacids. In our tree, robust support was given, in concordance with paleontological data, for the separation of spalacids from muroid rodents during the first half of the Miocene when open, grass-dominated habitats were established. Marine barriers formed between Anatolia and the Balkans could have facilitated the separation of the lineage "Spalax" from the lineage "Nannospalax" and of the clade "leucodon" from the clade "xanthodon". The separation of the clade "ehrenbergi" occurred during the late stages of the tectonically induced uplift of the Anatolian high plateaus and mountains, whereas the separation of the clade "vasvarii" took place when the rapidly uplifting Taurus mountain range prevented the Mediterranean rainfalls from reaching the Central Anatolian Plateau. The separation of Spalax antiquus and S. graecus occurred when the southeastern Carpathians were uplifted. Despite the role played by tectonic events, branching events that show periodicity corresponding to 400-kyr and 100-kyr eccentricity bands illuminate the important role of orbital fluctuations on adaptive radiation in spalacids. At the given scale, our results supports the "Court Jester

  8. Is Evolution of Blind Mole Rats Determined by Climate Oscillations?

    PubMed Central

    Snir, Sagi; Pavlíček, Tomáš; Csorba, Gábor; Kázmér, Miklós; Mezhzherin, Sergey; Rusin, Mikhail; Coşkun, Yüksel; Nevo, Eviatar

    2012-01-01

    The concept of climate variability facilitating adaptive radiation supported by the “Court Jester” hypothesis is disputed by the “Red Queen” one, but the prevalence of one or the other might be scale-dependent. We report on a detailed, comprehensive phylo-geographic study on the ∼4 kb mtDNA sequence in underground blind mole rats of the family Spalacidae (or subfamily Spalacinae) from the East Mediterranean steppes. Our study aimed at testing the presence of periodicities in branching patterns on a constructed phylogenetic tree and at searching for congruence between branching events, tectonic history and paleoclimates. In contrast to the strong support for the majority of the branching events on the tree, the absence of support in a few instances indicates that network-like evolution could exist in spalacids. In our tree, robust support was given, in concordance with paleontological data, for the separation of spalacids from muroid rodents during the first half of the Miocene when open, grass-dominated habitats were established. Marine barriers formed between Anatolia and the Balkans could have facilitated the separation of the lineage “Spalax” from the lineage “Nannospalax” and of the clade “leucodon” from the clade “xanthodon”. The separation of the clade “ehrenbergi” occurred during the late stages of the tectonically induced uplift of the Anatolian high plateaus and mountains, whereas the separation of the clade “vasvarii” took place when the rapidly uplifting Taurus mountain range prevented the Mediterranean rainfalls from reaching the Central Anatolian Plateau. The separation of Spalax antiquus and S. graecus occurred when the southeastern Carpathians were uplifted. Despite the role played by tectonic events, branching events that show periodicity corresponding to 400-kyr and 100-kyr eccentricity bands illuminate the important role of orbital fluctuations on adaptive radiation in spalacids. At the given scale, our results

  9. Jumping mechanisms and performance of pygmy mole crickets (Orthoptera, Tridactylidae).

    PubMed

    Burrows, M; Picker, M D

    2010-07-15

    Pygmy mole crickets live in burrows at the edge of water and jump powerfully to avoid predators such as the larvae and adults of tiger beetles that inhabit the same microhabitat. Adults are 5-6 mm long and weigh 8 mg. The hind legs are dominated by enormous femora containing the jumping muscles and are 131% longer than the body. The ratio of leg lengths is: 1:2.1:4.5 (front:middle:hind, respectively). The hind tarsi are reduced and their role is supplanted by two pairs of tibial spurs that can rotate through 180 deg. During horizontal walking the hind legs are normally held off the ground. Jumps are propelled by extension of the hind tibiae about the femora at angular velocities of 68,000 deg s(-1) in 2.2 ms, as revealed by images captured at rates of 5000 s(-1). The two hind legs usually move together but can move asynchronously, and many jumps are propelled by just one hind leg. The take-off angle is steep and once airborne the body rotates backwards about its transverse axis (pitch) at rates of 100 Hz or higher. The take-off velocity, used to define the best jumps, can reach 5.4 m s(-1), propelling the insect to heights of 700 mm and distances of 1420 mm with an acceleration of 306 g. The head and pronotum are jerked rapidly as the body is accelerated. Jumping on average uses 116 microJ of energy, requires a power output of 50 mW and exerts a force of 20 mN. In jumps powered by one hind leg the figures are about 40% less. PMID:20581268

  10. Making Mountains out of Molehills: Sediment Transport by the European Mole (Talpa europaea)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Milledge, D.; Loveless, J. C.; Warburton, J.; Densmore, A. L.

    2013-12-01

    Despite its widespread occurrence (across Europe and Eastern North America) the significance of the burrowing activity of the European Mole for sediment transport in the Northern Hemisphere has not been well quantified. In many areas this may have been the dominant mechanism of hillslope sediment transport over the last one to two millenia. The European Mole (Talpa europaea) is prevalent across the UK, particularly in fertile soils. It is highly fossorial, living almost its entire 3-6 year life in a network of tunnels that it maintains to catch prey. Moles can rapidly excavate large amounts of soil (~6 kg in 20 minutes) with waste soil generally pushed to the surface to form molehills. In this study we quantify sediment flux due to mole burrowing based on measured molehill sizes and geometries and estimates of mole hill production rates from time lapse photography. We examine the evolution of the molehills after production through repeat survey of in-situ molehills in the field and rainfall simulation experiments to accelerate degradation in the laboratory. Our initial findings suggest that: 1) molehill masses are generally log-normally distributed with a geometric mean ~1.4 kg; 2) moles move approximately 1.5 times as much soil as earthworms; and 3) the sediment flux due to moles is a non-linear function of the local slope.

  11. Absolute transition probabilities of phosphorus.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, M. H.; Roig, R. A.; Bengtson, R. D.

    1971-01-01

    Use of a gas-driven shock tube to measure the absolute strengths of 21 P I lines and 126 P II lines (from 3300 to 6900 A). Accuracy for prominent, isolated neutral and ionic lines is estimated to be 28 to 40% and 18 to 30%, respectively. The data and the corresponding theoretical predictions are examined for conformity with the sum rules.-

  12. Prediction of absolute infrared intensities for the fundamental vibrations of H2O2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rogers, J. D.; Hillman, J. J.

    1981-01-01

    Absolute infrared intensities are predicted for the vibrational bands of gas-phase H2O2 by the use of a hydrogen atomic polar tensor transferred from the hydroxyl hydrogen atom of CH3OH. These predicted intensities are compared with intensities predicted by the use of a hydrogen atomic polar tensor transferred from H2O. The predicted relative intensities agree well with published spectra of gas-phase H2O2, and the predicted absolute intensities are expected to be accurate to within at least a factor of two. Among the vibrational degrees of freedom, the antisymmetric O-H bending mode nu(6) is found to be the strongest with a calculated intensity of 60.5 km/mole. The torsional band, a consequence of hindered rotation, is found to be the most intense fundamental with a predicted intensity of 120 km/mole. These results are compared with the recent absolute intensity determinations for the nu(6) band.

  13. Pregnancy outcome with coexisting mole after intracytoplasmic sperm injection: A case series

    PubMed Central

    Rao, Asha R.; Dafle, Karishma; Padmashri, G.; Rao, Damodar R.; Sivakumar, N. C.

    2015-01-01

    Partial/complete hydatidiform mole with coexisting fetus is a rare condition. Optimal management is a challenge that remains a dilemma since these pregnancies are associated with maternal as well as fetal complications including hemorrhage, preeclampsia, thromboembolic disease, intra uterine demise and increased risk of persistent trophoblastic disease. Here we report 2 cases of partial mole with live fetus after ICSI and a case of complete mole with coexisting fetus after ICSI in a turner mosaic that resulted in a live birth. PMID:26538863

  14. What Are Students' Initial Ideas about "Amount of Substance"? "Is There a Specific Weight for a Mole?"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Claesgens, Jennifer; Stacy, Angelica

    Analyzes the role of students' prior knowledge in their emerging understanding of the mole. The research question this study seeks to answer is what knowledge, if any, do student have regarding the mole and what prior knowledge do they access when presented problems regarding the nature of the mole. Data collection focuses on student knowledge…

  15. The Mole and Avogadro's Number: A Forced Fusion of Ideas for Teaching Purposes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hawthorne, Robert M., Jr.

    1973-01-01

    Reports a review of existing texts in which it was found that many textbooks exist which do not make any particular connection between Avogadro's number and the mole. Some books do not mention or use Avogadro's number at all. (DF)

  16. Optomechanics for absolute rotation detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davuluri, Sankar

    2016-07-01

    In this article, we present an application of optomechanical cavity for the absolute rotation detection. The optomechanical cavity is arranged in a Michelson interferometer in such a way that the classical centrifugal force due to rotation changes the length of the optomechanical cavity. The change in the cavity length induces a shift in the frequency of the cavity mode. The phase shift corresponding to the frequency shift in the cavity mode is measured at the interferometer output to estimate the angular velocity of absolute rotation. We derived an analytic expression to estimate the minimum detectable rotation rate in our scheme for a given optomechanical cavity. Temperature dependence of the rotation detection sensitivity is studied.

  17. The Absolute Spectrum Polarimeter (ASP)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kogut, A. J.

    2010-01-01

    The Absolute Spectrum Polarimeter (ASP) is an Explorer-class mission to map the absolute intensity and linear polarization of the cosmic microwave background and diffuse astrophysical foregrounds over the full sky from 30 GHz to 5 THz. The principal science goal is the detection and characterization of linear polarization from an inflationary epoch in the early universe, with tensor-to-scalar ratio r much greater than 1O(raised to the power of { -3}) and Compton distortion y < 10 (raised to the power of{-6}). We describe the ASP instrument and mission architecture needed to detect the signature of an inflationary epoch in the early universe using only 4 semiconductor bolometers.

  18. Absolute calibration of optical flats

    DOEpatents

    Sommargren, Gary E.

    2005-04-05

    The invention uses the phase shifting diffraction interferometer (PSDI) to provide a true point-by-point measurement of absolute flatness over the surface of optical flats. Beams exiting the fiber optics in a PSDI have perfect spherical wavefronts. The measurement beam is reflected from the optical flat and passed through an auxiliary optic to then be combined with the reference beam on a CCD. The combined beams include phase errors due to both the optic under test and the auxiliary optic. Standard phase extraction algorithms are used to calculate this combined phase error. The optical flat is then removed from the system and the measurement fiber is moved to recombine the two beams. The newly combined beams include only the phase errors due to the auxiliary optic. When the second phase measurement is subtracted from the first phase measurement, the absolute phase error of the optical flat is obtained.

  19. Hypersensitivity to contact inhibition provides a clue to cancer resistance of naked mole-rat.

    PubMed

    Seluanov, Andrei; Hine, Christopher; Azpurua, Jorge; Feigenson, Marina; Bozzella, Michael; Mao, Zhiyong; Catania, Kenneth C; Gorbunova, Vera

    2009-11-17

    The naked mole-rat is the longest living rodent with a maximum lifespan exceeding 28 years. In addition to its longevity, naked mole-rats have an extraordinary resistance to cancer as tumors have never been observed in these rodents. Furthermore, we show that a combination of activated Ras and SV40 LT fails to induce robust anchorage-independent growth in naked mole-rat cells, while it readily transforms mouse fibroblasts. The mechanisms responsible for the cancer resistance of naked mole-rats were unknown. Here we show that naked mole-rat fibroblasts display hypersensitivity to contact inhibition, a phenomenon we termed "early contact inhibition." Contact inhibition is a key anticancer mechanism that arrests cell division when cells reach a high density. In cell culture, naked mole-rat fibroblasts arrest at a much lower density than those from a mouse. We demonstrate that early contact inhibition requires the activity of p53 and pRb tumor suppressor pathways. Inactivation of both p53 and pRb attenuates early contact inhibition. Contact inhibition in human and mouse is triggered by the induction of p27(Kip1). In contrast, early contact inhibition in naked mole-rat is associated with the induction of p16(Ink4a). Furthermore, we show that the roles of p16(Ink4a) and p27(Kip1) in the control of contact inhibition became temporally separated in this species: the early contact inhibition is controlled by p16(Ink4a), and regular contact inhibition is controlled by p27(Kip1). We propose that the additional layer of protection conferred by two-tiered contact inhibition contributes to the remarkable tumor resistance of the naked mole-rat. PMID:19858485

  20. Biodiesel From Canola Oil Using a 1:1 Mole Mixture of Methanol and Ethanol

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Canola oil was transesterified using a 1:1 mole mixture of methanol and ethanol (M/E) with potassium hydroxide (KOH) catalyst. Effect of catalyst concentration (0.5 to 1.5% wt/wt), mole ratio of M/E to canola oil (3:1 to 20:1) and reaction temperature (25 to 75°C) on the percentage yield measured af...

  1. SHORT COMMUNICATION: Comments on recent proposals for redefining the mole and kilogram

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leonard, B. P.

    2010-06-01

    The fundamental concept of the mole requires the number of entities comprising one mole, i.e. Avogadro's number, to be exactly equal to the gram-to-dalton mass ratio. If this compatibility condition is to be satisfied, the mole, the kilogram and the dalton cannot all be defined independently. This note concerns recent Metrologia publications that do, however, propose independent definitions of all three quantities: the mole by fixing the value of Avogadro's number and the kilogram by fixing the value of the Planck constant, while retaining the current carbon-12-based dalton. Adoption of these incompatible definitions would likely cause serious widespread confusion and might even result in a split in scholarly and technical communication between the quantum physics and chemistry communities. Other entirely compatible alternatives are possible: either retaining the current (inexact) carbon-12-based mole and dalton with an independently redefined kilogram or redefining the mole by fixing the value of Avogadro's number, with a compatible dalton that is exact in terms of the redefined kilogram.

  2. The Mole as an Explanatory Device: How Do You Know a Mole if You See One? A Manual for Chemistry Students. Sample Teaching Materials: The Explanatory Modes Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roberts, Douglas A.

    This booklet is designed to supplement the study of introductory chemistry. It deals particularly with the mole concept but also includes ideas for analyzing the kinds of statements that appear in all science textbooks and scientific writing. The material in the booklet should be studied after the completion of an introductory textbook study of…

  3. The AFGL absolute gravity program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hammond, J. A.; Iliff, R. L.

    1978-01-01

    A brief discussion of the AFGL's (Air Force Geophysics Laboratory) program in absolute gravity is presented. Support of outside work and in-house studies relating to gravity instrumentation are discussed. A description of the current transportable system is included and the latest results are presented. These results show good agreement with measurements at the AFGL site by an Italian system. The accuracy obtained by the transportable apparatus is better than 0.1 microns sq sec 10 microgal and agreement with previous measurements is within the combined uncertainties of the measurements.

  4. Paternal Hemizygosity in 11p15 in Mole-like Conceptuses

    PubMed Central

    Sunde, Lone; Lund, Helle; J Sebire, Neil; Grove, Anni; Fisher, Rosemary A.; Niemann, Isa; Kjeldsen, Eigil; Andreasen, Lotte; Hansen, Estrid Staehr; Bojesen, Anders; Bolund, Lars; Nyegaard, Mette

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Hydatidiform mole is an abnormal human pregnancy characterized by the fetus being absent or nonviable, and the chorionic villi being vesicular and with trophoblastic hyperplasia. Most often, the mole phenotype is seen in conceptuses with an excess of paternally inherited genome set(s) relative to maternally inherited genome set(s), suggesting that the phenotype is caused by an excess of genome with a paternal imprinting pattern. However, it is unknown if correct parental origin of every imprinted gene is crucial for normal early differentiation or if abnormal parental imprinting of only one, or some, gene(s) can cause the mole phenotype. Two conceptuses included in the Danish Mole Project stood out since they presented with vesicular chorionic villi and without signs of fetal differentiation, and had apparently biparental diploid genomes, and no mutations in NLRP7 or KHDC3L were detected in the mothers. These conceptuses were subjected to a centralized histopathological revision and their genetic complements were scrutinized using fluorescence in situ hybridization, and DNA-marker and array comparative genomic hybridization analyses. Both conceptuses showed dysmorphic chorionic villi with some similarities to hydatidiform moles; however, no definite florid trophoblast hyperplasia was observed. Both conceptuses showed paternal hemizygosity of 11pter-11p15.4, most likely in nonmosaic state. Our findings suggest that the product of one (or a few) maternally expressed gene(s) on the tip of chromosome 11 is necessary for normal early embryonic differentiation. However, since the present two cases did not exhibit all features of hydatidiform moles, it is likely that abnormal parental imprinting of genes in other regions contribute to the phenotype of a hydatidiform mole. PMID:26554776

  5. Fractional oscillator.

    PubMed

    Stanislavsky, A A

    2004-11-01

    We consider a fractional oscillator which is a generalization of the conventional linear oscillator in the framework of fractional calculus. It is interpreted as an ensemble average of ordinary harmonic oscillators governed by a stochastic time arrow. The intrinsic absorption of the fractional oscillator results from the full contribution of the harmonic oscillator ensemble: these oscillators differ a little from each other in frequency so that each response is compensated by an antiphase response of another harmonic oscillator. This allows one to draw a parallel in the dispersion analysis for media described by a fractional oscillator and an ensemble of ordinary harmonic oscillators with damping. The features of this analysis are discussed. PMID:15600586

  6. Differences in cooperative behavior among Damaraland mole rats are consequences of an age-related polyethism.

    PubMed

    Zöttl, Markus; Vullioud, Philippe; Mendonça, Rute; Torrents Ticó, Miquel; Gaynor, David; Mitchell, Adam; Clutton-Brock, Tim

    2016-09-13

    In many cooperative breeders, the contributions of helpers to cooperative activities change with age, resulting in age-related polyethisms. In contrast, some studies of social mole rats (including naked mole rats, Heterocephalus glaber, and Damaraland mole rats, Fukomys damarensis) suggest that individual differences in cooperative behavior are the result of divergent developmental pathways, leading to discrete and permanent functional categories of helpers that resemble the caste systems found in eusocial insects. Here we show that, in Damaraland mole rats, individual contributions to cooperative behavior increase with age and are higher in fast-growing individuals. Individual contributions to different cooperative tasks are intercorrelated and repeatability of cooperative behavior is similar to that found in other cooperatively breeding vertebrates. Our data provide no evidence that nonreproductive individuals show divergent developmental pathways or specialize in particular tasks. Instead of representing a caste system, variation in the behavior of nonreproductive individuals in Damaraland mole rats closely resembles that found in other cooperatively breeding mammals and appears to be a consequence of age-related polyethism. PMID:27588902

  7. Evolutionary Insights from a Genetically Divergent Hantavirus Harbored by the European Common Mole (Talpa europaea)

    PubMed Central

    Kang, Hae Ji; Bennett, Shannon N.; Sumibcay, Laarni; Arai, Satoru; Hope, Andrew G.; Mocz, Gabor; Song, Jin-Won; Cook, Joseph A.; Yanagihara, Richard

    2009-01-01

    Background The discovery of genetically distinct hantaviruses in shrews (Order Soricomorpha, Family Soricidae) from widely separated geographic regions challenges the hypothesis that rodents (Order Rodentia, Family Muridae and Cricetidae) are the primordial reservoir hosts of hantaviruses and also predicts that other soricomorphs harbor hantaviruses. Recently, novel hantavirus genomes have been detected in moles of the Family Talpidae, including the Japanese shrew mole (Urotrichus talpoides) and American shrew mole (Neurotrichus gibbsii). We present new insights into the evolutionary history of hantaviruses gained from a highly divergent hantavirus, designated Nova virus (NVAV), identified in the European common mole (Talpa europaea) captured in Hungary. Methodology/Principal Findings Pair-wise alignment and comparison of the full-length S- and L-genomic segments indicated moderately low sequence similarity of 54–65% and 46–63% at the nucleotide and amino acid levels, respectively, between NVAV and representative rodent- and soricid-borne hantaviruses. Despite the high degree of sequence divergence, the predicted secondary structure of the NVAV nucleocapsid protein exhibited the characteristic coiled-coil domains at the amino-terminal end, and the L-segment motifs, typically found in hantaviruses, were well conserved. Phylogenetic analyses, using maximum-likelihood and Bayesian methods, showed that NVAV formed a distinct clade that was evolutionarily distant from all other hantaviruses. Conclusions Newly identified hantaviruses harbored by shrews and moles support long-standing virus-host relationships and suggest that ancestral soricomorphs, rather than rodents, may have been the early or original mammalian hosts. PMID:19582155

  8. Naked mole rats exhibit metabolic but not ventilatory plasticity following chronic sustained hypoxia.

    PubMed

    Chung, Danielle; Dzal, Yvonne A; Seow, Allison; Milsom, William K; Pamenter, Matthew E

    2016-03-30

    Naked mole rats are among the most hypoxia-tolerant mammals identified and live in chronic hypoxia throughout their lives. The physiological mechanisms underlying this tolerance, however, are poorly understood. Most vertebrates hyperventilate in acute hypoxia and exhibit an enhanced hyperventilation following acclimatization to chronic sustained hypoxia (CSH). Conversely, naked mole rats do not hyperventilate in acute hypoxia and their response to CSH has not been examined. In this study, we explored mechanisms of plasticity in the control of the hypoxic ventilatory response (HVR) and hypoxic metabolic response (HMR) of freely behaving naked mole rats following 8-10 days of chronic sustained normoxia (CSN) or CSH. Specifically, we investigated the role of the major inhibitory neurotransmitter γ-amino butyric acid (GABA) in mediating these responses. Our study yielded three important findings. First, naked mole rats did not exhibit ventilatory plasticity following CSH, which is unique among adult animals studied to date. Second, GABA receptor (GABAR) antagonism altered breathing patterns in CSN and CSH animals and modulated the acute HVR in CSN animals. Third, naked mole rats exhibited GABAR-dependent metabolic plasticity following long-term hypoxia, such that the basal metabolic rate was approximately 25% higher in normoxic CSH animals than CSN animals, and GABAR antagonists modulated this increase. PMID:27009224

  9. iMole, a web based image retrieval system from biomedical literature.

    PubMed

    Giordano, Manuela; Natale, Massimo; Cornaz, Moreno; Ruffino, Andrea; Bonino, Dario; Bucci, Enrico M

    2013-07-01

    iMole is a platform that automatically extracts images and captions from biomedical literature. Images are tagged with terms contained in figure captions by means of a sophisticate text-mining tool. Moreover, iMole allows the user to upload directly their own images within the database and manually tag images by curated dictionary. Using iMole the researchers can develop a proper biomedical image database, storing the images extracted from paper of interest, image found on the web repositories, and their own experimental images. In order to show the functioning of the platform, we used iMole to build a 2DE database. Briefly, tagged 2DE gel images were collected and stored in a searchable 2DE gel database, available to users through an interactive web interface. Images were obtained by automatically parsing 16,608 proteomic publications, which yielded more than 16,500 images. The database can be further expanded by users with images of interest trough a manual uploading process. iMole is available with a preloaded set of 2DE gel data at http://imole.biodigitalvalley.com. PMID:23592298

  10. Cosmology with negative absolute temperatures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vieira, J. P. P.; Byrnes, Christian T.; Lewis, Antony

    2016-08-01

    Negative absolute temperatures (NAT) are an exotic thermodynamical consequence of quantum physics which has been known since the 1950's (having been achieved in the lab on a number of occasions). Recently, the work of Braun et al. [1] has rekindled interest in negative temperatures and hinted at a possibility of using NAT systems in the lab as dark energy analogues. This paper goes one step further, looking into the cosmological consequences of the existence of a NAT component in the Universe. NAT-dominated expanding Universes experience a borderline phantom expansion (w < ‑1) with no Big Rip, and their contracting counterparts are forced to bounce after the energy density becomes sufficiently large. Both scenarios might be used to solve horizon and flatness problems analogously to standard inflation and bouncing cosmologies. We discuss the difficulties in obtaining and ending a NAT-dominated epoch, and possible ways of obtaining density perturbations with an acceptable spectrum.

  11. Ovarian complete hydatidiform mole: case study with molecular analysis and review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Sehn, Jennifer K; Kuroki, Lindsay M; Hopeman, Margaret M; Longman, Ryan E; McNicholas, Colleen P; Huettner, Phyllis C

    2013-12-01

    Ectopic complete molar pregnancy in the ovary is an exceptionally rare event. Here we present a case of ovarian complete hydatidiform mole in a 20-year-old gravida 2 para 1 woman. At presentation, the patient underwent excision of a hemorrhagic left ovarian cyst, with routine sections demonstrating a hemorrhagic corpus luteum with a single microscopic focus of detached atypical trophoblast, without chorionic villi. Subsequent left salpingo-oophorectomy for persistently elevated human chorionic gonadotropin led to a final diagnosis of complete hydatidiform mole arising in the ovary. The fallopian tube was unremarkable. Zygosity was determined using short tandem repeat analysis, confirming the diagnosis of monospermic complete mole. In the clinical setting of a markedly elevated human chorionic gonadotropin level and an ovarian mass, histopathologic examination is critical in distinguishing ectopic pregnancy from choriocarcinoma. Short tandem repeat analysis can be a useful adjunct to histologic diagnosis in challenging cases. PMID:24134929

  12. Twin Pregnancy with a Complete Hydatidiform Mole and a Coexisting Live Fetus

    PubMed Central

    Sheik, Shahila; Al-Riyami, Nihal; Mathew, Namitha R.; Al-Sukaiti, Rashid; Qureshi, Asim; Mathew, Mariam

    2015-01-01

    A hydatidiform mole with a coexisting live fetus is a rare occurrence and the optimal management for this condition is not yet known. We report the case of a 32-year-old woman (gravida 3, para 2) who presented to the Sultan Qaboos University Hospital, Muscat, Oman, in March 2012 at 13 gestational weeks with abdominal pain and vaginal bleeding. An ultrasound examination revealed a hydatidiform mole pregnancy coexisting with a live fetus. After extensive counselling, the patient and her husband opted for a conservative management approach. Unfortunately, a hysterotomy had to be performed at 17 gestational weeks due to severe haemorrhage. The postoperative period was uneventful and histopathology results confirmed one complete mole with a coexisting fetus and normal placenta. The patient’s serum β-human chorionic gonadotropin level remained normal for 18 months following her surgery. PMID:26629386

  13. Anesthetic management of a patient with hyperthyroidism due to hydatidiform mole.

    PubMed

    Matsumoto, Shigekiyo; Shingu, Chihiro; Hidaka, Seigo; Goto, Koji; Hagiwara, Satoshi; Iwasaka, Hideo; Noguchi, Takayuki

    2009-01-01

    Secondary hyperthyroidism can often complicate gestational trophoblastic disease, a malignant uterine cancer. We report here the perioperative management of hyperthyroidism due to hydatidiform mole. A 53-year-old woman underwent emergency surgery due to suspicion of hydatidiform mole. Tachycardiac atrial fibrillation was detected by electrocardiography at the preoperative examination. No abnormalities were found in blood count, coagulation, biochemical tests, chest radiographs, or respiratory function. General anesthesia with nitrous oxide, oxygen, and sevoflurane, combined with fentanyl and 1% mepivacaine, was administered intermittently from an epidural catheter. Intraoperative events included hypotension and tachycardia, although in general, tachycardia was prevented with antiarrhythmic agents and transfusion with a plasma expander and crystalloid fluid. Hyperthyroidism was highly suspected from the patient's clinical course and was confirmed by high levels of preoperative serum free triiodothyronine (T3) and thyroxine (T4). The patient became euthyroid within a few days after mole evacuation and did not require an antiarrhythmic agent after her return to the inpatient ward. PMID:19921374

  14. DEM modelling of the penetration process of the HP3 Mole

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poganski, J.; Kargl, G.; Schweiger, H.; Kömle, N.

    2015-10-01

    The NASA InSight Mission will be launched in March 2016 and will reach the surface of Mars roughly nine months later in the Elysium Region. One of the instruments on board is the HP³ Mole to measure the planetary heat flow. For this purpose it needs to penetrate five meters deep into the surface of Mars and thus offers also the possibility to analyse the soil properties. For the reconstruction of the soil behaviour and also to predict the mole performance and maximum reachable depth in advance, numerical simulations are used. The simulation of the soil during the hammering process of the HP³ Mole requires a substantial numerical effort due to the local high dynamics and large soil deformations that occur. After comparing the capability of various simulation methods (FEM, MPM and DEM) a discrete element method (DEM) was chosen.

  15. Mechanical Performance of Rat, Mouse and Mole Spring Traps, and Possible Implications for Welfare Performance

    PubMed Central

    Baker, Sandra E.; Ellwood, Stephen A.; Tagarielli, Vito L.; Macdonald, David W.

    2012-01-01

    Lethal spring traps are widely used for killing small mammals in the UK. Many require government approval, based primarily on humaneness. However, mole traps and break-back traps for rats and mice are exempt; those available vary widely in price and apparent quality. The EU is considering implementing a Trapping Directive that would alter UK legislation, and a recent report advised the EU that trapping legislation should cover all trapped species and encourage improvement of traps. Mechanical trap performance is often used as an indicator of welfare impact. We examined the mechanical evidence for scope to improve the welfare standards of rat, mouse and mole spring traps. We measured mechanical performance among a range of rat, mouse and mole traps. Impact momentum values varied 6-8 fold, and clamping force values 4-5.5 fold, among traps for killing each species. There was considerable overlap in the performance of rat and mouse traps. Trap-opening angle and spring type were related to impact momentum and clamping force in traps for both species. There was no relationship between price and mechanical performance in traps for any species, except talpa mole traps. We are unable to judge the direct welfare impact of the traps tested, but rather the potential welfare threat associated with their exemption from approval. The wide variation in mechanical performance in traps for each species, overlap in performance between rat and mouse traps and increasing availability of weaker plastic rodent traps indicate considerable scope for improving the humaneness of spring traps for rats, mice and moles. We conclude that all such traps should be subject to the UK approval process. New welfare categories might improve trap standards further. Our results could also help improve rodent trap design and assist consumers in selecting more powerful traps. Many thousands of rats, mice and moles might benefit. PMID:22768073

  16. Moles of a Substance per Cell Is a Highly Informative Dosing Metric in Cell Culture

    PubMed Central

    Wagner, Brett A.; Buettner, Garry R.

    2015-01-01

    Background The biological consequences upon exposure of cells in culture to a dose of xenobiotic are not only dependent on biological variables, but also the physical aspects of experiments e.g. cell number and media volume. Dependence on physical aspects is often overlooked due to the unrecognized ambiguity in the dominant metric used to express exposure, i.e. initial concentration of xenobiotic delivered to the culture medium over the cells. We hypothesize that for many xenobiotics, specifying dose as moles per cell will reduce this ambiguity. Dose as moles per cell can also provide additional information not easily obtainable with traditional dosing metrics. Methods Here, 1,4-benzoquinone and oligomycin A are used as model compounds to investigate moles per cell as an informative dosing metric. Mechanistic insight into reactions with intracellular molecules, differences between sequential and bolus addition of xenobiotic and the influence of cell volume and protein content on toxicity are also investigated. Results When the dose of 1,4-benzoquinone or oligomycin A was specified as moles per cell, toxicity was independent of the physical conditions used (number of cells, volume of medium). When using moles per cell as a dose-metric, direct quantitative comparisons can be made between biochemical or biological endpoints and the dose of xenobiotic applied. For example, the toxicity of 1,4-benzoquinone correlated inversely with intracellular volume for all five cell lines exposed (C6, MDA-MB231, A549, MIA PaCa-2, and HepG2). Conclusions Moles per cell is a useful and informative dosing metric in cell culture. This dosing metric is a scalable parameter that: can reduce ambiguity between experiments having different physical conditions; provides additional mechanistic information; allows direct comparison between different cells; affords a more uniform platform for experimental design; addresses the important issue of repeatability of experimental results, and could

  17. Mole ghrelin: cDNA cloning, gene expression, and diverse molecular forms in Mogera imaizumii.

    PubMed

    Satou, Motoyasu; Kaiya, Hiroyuki; Nishi, Yoshihiro; Shinohara, Akio; Kawada, Shin-Ichiro; Miyazato, Mikiya; Kangawa, Kenji; Sugimoto, Hiroyuki

    2016-06-01

    Here, we describe cDNA cloning and purification of the ghrelin gene sequences and ghrelin peptides from the Japanese true mole, Mogera imaizumii. The gene spans >2.9kbp, has four exons and three introns, and shares structural similarity with those of terrestrial animals. Mature mole ghrelin peptide was predicted to be 28 amino acids long (GSSFLSPEHQKVQQRKESKKPPSKPQPR) and processed from a prepropeptide of 116 amino acids. To further elucidate molecular characteristics, we purified ghrelin peptides from mole stomach. By mass spectrometry, we found that the mole ghrelin peptides had higher ratios of the odd-number fatty acids (C9 and C11 as much as C8) attached to the third serine residue than other vertebrate ghrelin. Truncated forms of ghrelins such as [1-27], [1-19], [1-16] and [1-15], and that lacked the 14th glutamine residue (des-Gln14 ghrelin) were produced in the stomach. Marked expression of ghrelin mRNA in lung was observed as in stomach and brain. Phylogenetic analysis indicated that the branch of M. imaizumii has slightly higher dN/dS ratios (the nucleotide substitution rates at non-synonymous and synonymous sites) than did other eulipotyphlans. Peptide length was positively correlated with human ghrelin receptor activation, whereas the length of fatty-acyl chains showed no obvious functional correlation. The basal higher luciferase activities of the 5'-proximal promoter region of mole ghrelin were detected in ghrelin-negative C2C12 cells and hypoxic culture conditions impaired transcriptional activity. These results indicated that moles have acquired diverse species of ghrelin probably through distinctive fatty acid metabolism because of their food preferences. The results provide a gateway to understanding ghrelin metabolism in fossorial animals. PMID:27102942

  18. Ions in a binary asymmetric dipolar mixture: Mole fraction dependent Born energy of solvation and partial solvent polarization structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kashyap, Hemant K.; Biswas, Ranjit

    2007-11-01

    Mean spherical approximation (MSA) for electrolyte solution has been extended to investigate the role of partial solvent polarization densities around an ion in a completely asymmetric binary dipolar mixture. The differences in solvent diameters, dipole moments, and ionic size are incorporated systematically within the MSA framework in the present theory for the first time. In addition to the contributions due to difference in dipole moments, the solvent-solvent and ion-solvent size ratios are found to significantly affect the nonideality in binary dipolar mixtures. Subsequently, the theory is used to investigate the role of ion-solvent and solvent-solvent size ratios in determining the nonideality in Born free energy of solvation of a unipositive rigid ion in alcohol-water and dimethyl sulfoxide-acetonitrile mixtures, where the solvent components are represented only by their molecular diameters and dipole moments. Nonideality in Born free energy of solvation in such simplified mixtures is found to be stronger for smaller ions. The slope of the nonideality for smaller alkali metal ions in methanol-water mixture is found to be opposite to that for larger ion, such as quaternary tertiary butyl ammonium ion. For ethanol-water mixtures, the slopes are in the same direction for all the ions studied here. These results are in qualitative agreement with experiments, which is surprising as the present MSA approach does not include the hydrogen bonding and hydrophobic interactions present in the real mixtures. The calculated partial polarization densities around a unipositive ion also show the characteristic deviation from ideality and reveal the microscopic origin of the ion and solvent size dependent preferential solvation. Also, the excess free energy of mixing (in the absence of any ion) for these binary mixtures has been calculated and a good agreement between theory and experiment has been found.

  19. NMR characterization of sodium carboxymethyl cellulose: Substituent distribution and mole fraction of monomers in the polymer chains.

    PubMed

    Kono, Hiroyuki; Oshima, Kazuhiro; Hashimoto, Hisaho; Shimizu, Yuuichi; Tajima, Kenji

    2016-08-01

    A series of sodium carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC) samples with degrees of substitution (DS) from 0.68 to 2.84 were prepared from cellulose by multistep carboxymethylation. Two-dimensional NMR spectroscopic analyses allowed complete assignment of the (1)H and (13)C chemical shifts of the eight anhydroglucose units (AGUs) found in CMC: 2,3,6-tri-, 2,3-di-, 2,6-di-, 3,6-di-, 2-mono-, 3-mono-, 6-mono-, and unsubstituted AGUs. A comparative analysis of the chemical shift data revealed the substituent effects of the carboxymethyl groups at the 2-, 3-, and 6-positions on the (1)H and (13)C chemical shifts of the AGUs and that additivity could be applied to the (1)H and (13)C chemical shifts of CMC. Quantitative (13)C NMR spectra of the CMC samples allowed determination of the AGU composition, as well as the substituent distribution at the 2-, 3-, and 6-positions of cellulose, which allowed estimation of the reactivity of the hydroxyl groups toward the carboxymethylation. PMID:27112844

  20. Improving HST Pointing & Absolute Astrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lallo, Matthew; Nelan, E.; Kimmer, E.; Cox, C.; Casertano, S.

    2007-05-01

    Accurate absolute astrometry is becoming increasingly important in an era of multi-mission archives and virtual observatories. Hubble Space Telescope's (HST's) Guidestar Catalog II (GSC2) has reduced coordinate error to around 0.25 arcsecond, a factor 2 or more compared with GSC1. With this reduced catalog error, special attention must be given to calibrate and maintain the Fine Guidance Sensors (FGSs) and Science Instruments (SIs) alignments in HST to a level well below this in order to ensure that the accuracy of science product's astrometry keywords and target positioning are limited only by the catalog errors. After HST Servicing Mission 4, such calibrations' improvement in "blind" pointing accuracy will allow for more efficient COS acquisitions. Multiple SIs and FGSs each have their own footprints in the spatially shared HST focal plane. It is the small changes over time in primarily the whole-body positions & orientations of these instruments & guiders relative to one another that is addressed by this work. We describe the HST Cycle 15 program CAL/OTA 11021 which, along with future variants of it, determines and maintains positions and orientations of the SIs and FGSs to better than 50 milli- arcseconds and 0.04 to 0.004 degrees of roll, putting errors associated with the alignment sufficiently below GSC2 errors. We present recent alignment results and assess their errors, illustrate trends, and describe where and how the observer sees benefit from these calibrations when using HST.

  1. Absolute oral bioavailability of ciprofloxacin.

    PubMed

    Drusano, G L; Standiford, H C; Plaisance, K; Forrest, A; Leslie, J; Caldwell, J

    1986-09-01

    We evaluated the absolute bioavailability of ciprofloxacin, a new quinoline carboxylic acid, in 12 healthy male volunteers. Doses of 200 mg were given to each of the volunteers in a randomized, crossover manner 1 week apart orally and as a 10-min intravenous infusion. Half-lives (mean +/- standard deviation) for the intravenous and oral administration arms were 4.2 +/- 0.77 and 4.11 +/- 0.74 h, respectively. The serum clearance rate averaged 28.5 +/- 4.7 liters/h per 1.73 m2 for the intravenous administration arm. The renal clearance rate accounted for approximately 60% of the corresponding serum clearance rate and was 16.9 +/- 3.0 liters/h per 1.73 m2 for the intravenous arm and 17.0 +/- 2.86 liters/h per 1.73 m2 for the oral administration arm. Absorption was rapid, with peak concentrations in serum occurring at 0.71 +/- 0.15 h. Bioavailability, defined as the ratio of the area under the curve from 0 h to infinity for the oral to the intravenous dose, was 69 +/- 7%. We conclude that ciprofloxacin is rapidly absorbed and reliably bioavailable in these healthy volunteers. Further studies with ciprofloxacin should be undertaken in target patient populations under actual clinical circumstances. PMID:3777908

  2. Absolute Instability in Coupled-Cavity TWTs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hung, D. M. H.; Rittersdorf, I. M.; Zhang, Peng; Lau, Y. Y.; Simon, D. H.; Gilgenbach, R. M.; Chernin, D.; Antonsen, T. M., Jr.

    2014-10-01

    This paper will present results of our analysis of absolute instability in a coupled-cavity traveling wave tube (TWT). The structure mode at the lower and upper band edges are respectively approximated by a hyperbola in the (omega, k) plane. When the Briggs-Bers criterion is applied, a threshold current for onset of absolute instability is observed at the upper band edge, but not the lower band edge. The nonexistence of absolute instability at the lower band edge is mathematically similar to the nonexistence of absolute instability that we recently demonstrated for a dielectric TWT. The existence of absolute instability at the upper band edge is mathematically similar to the existence of absolute instability in a gyroton traveling wave amplifier. These interesting observations will be discussed, and the practical implications will be explored. This work was supported by AFOSR, ONR, and L-3 Communications Electron Devices.

  3. Hydatidiform mole in China: a preliminary survey of incidence on more than three million women

    PubMed Central

    Hong-Zhao, Song; Pao-Chen, Wu

    1987-01-01

    A nationwide retrospective survey to determine the incidence of hydatidiform mole has been conducted in China since 1979 by inquiring into the history of past pregnancies. Up to the end of 1983, a total of 3 089 399 women with 10 929 354 pregnancies from 26 provinces, special municipalities and autonomous regions had been investigated. The overall incidence was one mole in 1238 pregnancies (0.81 per 1000 pregnancies). The incidence was higher in five provinces of south-east China than in other parts of the country and higher among the coastal people than inlanders. Ethnic comparisons were made between the major Han and three main minority groups. The incidence was higher among the Zhuang in Guangxi and the Mongolians in Inner Mongolia than among the Han living in the same areas. However, in Ningxia, the incidence among the Hui (Muslims) was almost the same as that of the Han. There was no significant difference in the incidence of hydatidiform mole between urban and rural residents. The traditional view that hydatidiform mole occurs much more frequently among women in China and other Asian countries has to be revised. The present study shows that the incidence in China is higher than that among Caucasian women in some European countries, but it is by no means as high as previously believed. PMID:3500804

  4. The Atomic Mass Unit, the Avogadro Constant, and the Mole: A Way to Understanding

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baranski, Andrzej

    2012-01-01

    Numerous articles have been published that address problems encountered in teaching basic concepts of chemistry such as the atomic mass unit, Avogadro's number, and the mole. The origin of these problems is found in the concept definitions. If these definitions are adjusted for teaching purposes, understanding could be improved. In the present…

  5. Plasticity and constraints on social evolution in African mole-rats: ultimate and proximate factors

    PubMed Central

    Faulkes, Chris G.; Bennett, Nigel C.

    2013-01-01

    Here, we review comparative studies of African mole-rats (family Bathyergidae) to explain how constraints acting at the ultimate (environmental) and proximate (organismal) levels have led to convergent gains and losses of sociality within this extensive adaptive radiation of subterranean rodents endemic to sub-Saharan Africa. At the ultimate level, living in environments that range from mesic through to arid has led to both variation and flexibility in social organization among species, culminating in the pinnacle of social evolution in the eusocial naked and Damaraland mole-rats (Heterocephalus glaber and Fukomys damarensis). The common mole-rat (Cryptomys hottentotus) provides a model example of how plasticity in social traits exists within a single species inhabiting areas with different ecological constraint. At the proximate level, reproductive strategies and cooperative breeding may be constrained by the correlated evolution of a suite of traits including physiological suppression of reproduction, the development of physiological and morphological castes, and the mode of ovulatory control and seasonality in breeding. Furthermore, recent neurobiological advances indicate that differential patterns of neurotransmitter expression within the forebrain may underpin (and limit) either a solitary or group living/cooperative lifestyle not only in mole-rats, but also more widely among disparate mammalian taxa. PMID:23569295

  6. Reading about the Power of Music: "Mole Music" and "Children of the Stone"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cardany, Audrey Berger

    2016-01-01

    In this article, I review two books that address the power of music for the individual and group. Both books address the benefits of making, learning, and listening to music during times of conflict. The first brief review is David McPhail's picture book "Mole Music." The second is "Children of the Stone: The Power of Music in a…

  7. Typhlitis and abdominal cystic lymphangiomatosis in a Mt. Carmel blind mole rat (Nannospalax (ehrenbergi) carmeli).

    PubMed

    Sós, Endre; Molnár, Viktor; Gál, János; Németh, Attila; Perge, Edina; Lajos, Zoltán; Csorba, Gábor

    2012-06-01

    An abdominal cystic lymphangiomatosis in a Mt. Carmel blind mole rat (Nannospalax (ehrenbergi) carmeli) is described. This case was most likely due to a congenital abnormality with long-term compensation by the animal. The case describes the clinical course and subsequent postmortem examination. The death in the animal was caused by an abscess in the peritoneal wall and subsequent peritonitis. PMID:22779253

  8. Identifying the Critical Components for a Conceptual Understanding of the Mole in Secondary Science Classrooms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fang, Su-Chi; Hart, Christina; Clarke, David

    2016-01-01

    The amount of substance and its unit the mole is a basic concept in chemistry. However, previous research has shown that teaching and learning the concept are challenging tasks for both teachers and students. The purpose of this study was to pinpoint the problems which emerge in the teaching and learning process, and provide integrated suggestions…

  9. Blunted Behavioral and C Fos Responses to Acidic Fumes in the African Naked Mole-Rat

    PubMed Central

    LaVinka, Pamela Colleen; Park, Thomas J.

    2012-01-01

    Acidosis in the skin triggers activation of pain pathways and behaviors indicative of pain in vertebrates. The exception is the naked mole-rat, the only known vertebrate to show physiological and behavioral insensitivity to acid pain in the skin. The goal of the present study was to determine behavioral and physiological responses of this species to airborne acidic fumes, which would be expected to affect the trigeminal pain pathway in other species. Behaviorally, naked mole-rats did not avoid fumes from moderately high concentrations of acetic acid (10 and 20%), and c Fos labeling showed no increase in activity in the trigeminal nuclei and nucleus tractus solitarius. In contrast, these concentrations triggered behavioral aversion and increased Fos activity in other laboratory rodents. For a very high concentration of acetic acid (50%), naked mole-rats showed significant avoidance behavior and increased Fos labeling in the nucleus tractus solitarius caudal region, which receives vagal chemosensory information. However, there was no increase in trigeminal labeling, and in fact, activity significantly decreased. This pattern is opposite of that associated with another irritant, ammonia fumes, which elicited an increase in trigeminal but not nucleus tractus solitarius Fos labeling, and no behavioral avoidance. Behavioral avoidance of acidic fumes, but no increased labeling in the trigeminal pain nucleus is consistent with the notion of adaptations to blunt acid pain, which would be advantageous for naked mole-rats as they normally live under chronically high levels of acidosis-inducing CO2. PMID:23028761

  10. The sense of touch in the star-nosed mole: from mechanoreceptors to the brain

    PubMed Central

    Catania, Kenneth C.

    2011-01-01

    Star-nosed moles are somatosensory specialists that explore their environment with 22 appendages that ring their nostrils. The appendages are covered with sensory domes called Eimer's organs. Each organ is associated with a Merkel cell–neurite complex, a lamellated corpuscle, and a series of 5–10 free nerve endings that form a circle of terminal swellings. Anatomy and electrophysiological recordings suggest that Eimer's organs detect small shapes and textures. There are parallels between the organization of the mole's somatosensory system and visual systems of other mammals. The centre of the star is a tactile fovea used for detailed exploration of objects and prey items. The tactile fovea is over-represented in the neocortex, and this is evident in the modular, anatomically visible representation of the star. Multiple maps of the star are visible in flattened cortical preparations processed for cytochrome oxidase or NADPH-diaphorase. Star-nosed moles are the fastest known foragers among mammals, able to identify and consume a small prey item in 120 ms. Together these behavioural and nervous system specializations have made star-nosed moles an intriguing model system for examining general and specialized aspects of mammalian touch. PMID:21969683

  11. Trauma and humanitarian translation in Liberia: the tale of open mole.

    PubMed

    Abramowitz, Sharon Alane

    2010-06-01

    The focus of this paper is the intercultural process through which Open Mole and trauma-related mental illnesses are brought together in the postconflict mental health encounter. In this paper, I explore the historical dimension of this process by reviewing the history of Open Mole, and the ways in which it has been interpreted, acted on, and objectified by external observers over the last half-century. Moving into Liberia's recent war and postconflict period, I examine the process by which Open Mole is transformed from a culture-bound disorder into a local idiom of trauma, and how it has become a gateway diagnosis of PTSD-related mental illnesses, and consider how it is produced as an objectified experience of psychiatric disorder in clinical humanitarian contexts. By studying how Open Mole is transformed in the humanitarian encounter, I address the structure and teleology of the humanitarian encounter and challenge some of the foundational assumptions about cultural sensitivity and community-based mental health care in postconflict settings that are prevalent in scholarship and practice today. PMID:20401629

  12. Somatosensory organ topography across the star of the star-nosed mole (Condylura cristata).

    PubMed

    Sawyer, Eva K; Catania, Kenneth C

    2016-04-01

    Quantifying somatosensory receptor distribution in glabrous skin is usually difficult because of the diversity of skin receptor subtypes and their location within the dermis and epidermis. However, the glabrous noses of moles are an exception. In most species of moles, the skin on the nose is covered with domed mechanosensory units known as an Eimer's organs. Eimer's organs contain a stereotyped array of different mechanosensory neurons, meaning that the distribution of mechanosensitive nerve endings can be inferred by visual inspection of the skin surface. Here we detail the distribution of Eimer's organs on the highly derived somatosensory star on the rostrum of the star-nosed mole (Condylura cristata). The star consists of 22 fleshy appendages, or rays, that are covered in Eimer's organs. We find that the density of Eimer's organs increases from proximal to distal locations along the length of the star's rays with a ratio of 1:2.3:3.1 from the surface nearest to the nostril, to the middle part of ray, to the ray tip, respectively. This ratio is comparable to the increase in receptor unit density reported for the human hand, from the palm, to the middle of the digits, to the distal fingertips. We also note that the tactile fovea of the star-nosed mole, located on the medial ventral ray, does not have increased sensory organ density, and we describe these findings in comparison with other sensory fovea. PMID:26659700

  13. Mole Ratio Dependence of the Mutual Deliquescence Relative Humidity of Aqueous Salts of Atmospheric Importance.

    PubMed

    Fong, Bryant N; Kennon, James T; Ali, Hashim M

    2016-05-26

    The response of the mutual deliquescence relative humidity (MDRH) of several mixed salt systems to changes in mole ratio is presented here. The MDRH values of NH4Cl-NaCl, NH4Cl-(NH4)2SO4, and, for the first time, the NaCl-NaBr systems were acquired as a function of mole ratio. These changes were studied using attenuated total reflectance Fourier transform infrared (ATR-FTIR) spectroscopy. The MDRH values of 1:1 salt mixtures were consistently found to be lower than the values of the individual deliquescence relative humidity (iDRH) of NH4Cl-NaCl and NH4Cl-(NH4)2SO4. The exception was the MDRH of the NaCl-NaBr system, which was found to be higher than the iDRH of NaBr particles, but lower than the iDRH of NaCl particles. When the mole ratio of the mixed system was varied, the MDRH of the mixtures showed a slight dependence on the mole ratio. PMID:27138867

  14. Difficulties in Teaching the Concepts of "Amount of Substance" and "Mole."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Furio, Carlos; Azcona, Rafael; Guisasola, Jenaro; Ratcliffe, Mary

    2000-01-01

    Discusses the origin and evolution of the meanings of the concepts 'amount of substance' and 'mole'. Identifies serious disagreements about these concepts among chemistry teachers and the recommendations of the international scientific community. Also draws attention to the didactic implications that these epistemological difficulties may have for…

  15. Absolute negative mobility of interacting Brownian particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ou, Ya-li; Hu, Cai-tian; Wu, Jian-chun; Ai, Bao-quan

    2015-12-01

    Transport of interacting Brownian particles in a periodic potential is investigated in the presence of an ac force and a dc force. From Brownian dynamic simulations, we find that both the interaction between particles and the thermal fluctuations play key roles in the absolute negative mobility (the particle noisily moves backwards against a small constant bias). When no the interaction acts, there is only one region where the absolute negative mobility occurs. In the presence of the interaction, the absolute negative mobility may appear in multiple regions. The weak interaction can be helpful for the absolute negative mobility, while the strong interaction has a destructive impact on it.

  16. Fraction Reduction through Continued Fractions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carley, Holly

    2011-01-01

    This article presents a method of reducing fractions without factoring. The ideas presented may be useful as a project for motivated students in an undergraduate number theory course. The discussion is related to the Euclidean Algorithm and its variations may lead to projects or early examples involving efficiency of an algorithm.

  17. Unraveling the message: insights into comparative genomics of the naked mole-rat.

    PubMed

    Lewis, Kaitlyn N; Soifer, Ilya; Melamud, Eugene; Roy, Margaret; McIsaac, R Scott; Hibbs, Matthew; Buffenstein, Rochelle

    2016-08-01

    Animals have evolved to survive, and even thrive, in different environments. Genetic adaptations may have indirectly created phenotypes that also resulted in a longer lifespan. One example of this phenomenon is the preternaturally long-lived naked mole-rat. This strictly subterranean rodent tolerates hypoxia, hypercapnia, and soil-based toxins. Naked mole-rats also exhibit pronounced resistance to cancer and an attenuated decline of many physiological characteristics that often decline as mammals age. Elucidating mechanisms that give rise to their unique phenotypes will lead to better understanding of subterranean ecophysiology and biology of aging. Comparative genomics could be a useful tool in this regard. Since the publication of a naked mole-rat genome assembly in 2011, analyses of genomic and transcriptomic data have enabled a clearer understanding of mole-rat evolutionary history and suggested molecular pathways (e.g., NRF2-signaling activation and DNA damage repair mechanisms) that may explain the extraordinarily longevity and unique health traits of this species. However, careful scrutiny and re-analysis suggest that some identified features result from incorrect or imprecise annotation and assembly of the naked mole-rat genome: in addition, some of these conclusions (e.g., genes involved in cancer resistance and hairlessness) are rejected when the analysis includes additional, more closely related species. We describe how the combination of better study design, improved genomic sequencing techniques, and new bioinformatic and data analytical tools will improve comparative genomics and ultimately bridge the gap between traditional model and nonmodel organisms. PMID:27364349

  18. European rodent on the edge: status and distribution of the Vojvodina blind mole rat.

    PubMed

    Németh, Attila; Krnács, György; Krizsik, Virág; Révay, Tamás; Czabán, Dávid; Stojnić, Nikola; Farkas, János; Csorba, Gábor

    2013-12-01

    Recent research of blind mole rats of the species complex Nannospalax (superspecies leucodon) identified a small and fragmented population of these rodents on both sides of the Hungarian-Serbian border. Cytogenetic investigations proved that this population karyologically identical with the Vojvodina blind mole rat described earlier as Nannospalax (leucodon) montanosyrmiensis. Based on cytochrome b gene sequences obtained from three specimens originating from separate locations, these blind mole rats form a discrete phylogenetic clade which, with a difference of about 10%, is well separated from other blind mole rat taxa inhabiting the Carpathian Basin. The taxon has only two extant populations that are 150 km apart from each other. The combined occupied area is estimated to be less than 10 km(2), and the total estimated number of individuals is less than 300. These two remaining populations are heavily fragmented and under imminent threat by the establishment of tree plantations, small-scale and agro-industrial farms and land development. The situation is further aggravated by the fact that 80% of the individuals inhabit unprotected areas. A study of the landscape history of the wider area surrounding one of the populations - based on military maps spanning over the last 200 years - has shown a drastic decrease in the extent and quality of potential habitats. Based on our present knowledge, the Vojvodina blind mole rat is one of the most seriously threatened, rarest mammal in Europe, the remaining population of which can be wiped out within years unless immediate conservation action is taken. PMID:23459680

  19. Dahonggou Creek virus, a divergent lineage of hantavirus harbored by the long-tailed mole (Scaptonyx fusicaudus).

    PubMed

    Kang, Hae Ji; Gu, Se Hun; Cook, Joseph A; Yanagihara, Richard

    2016-01-01

    Novel hantaviruses, recently detected in moles (order Eulipotyphla, family Talpidae) from Europe, Asia, and North America would predict a broader host range and wider ecological diversity. Employing RT-PCR, archival frozen tissues from the Chinese shrew mole (Uropsilus soricipes), broad-footed mole (Scapanus latimanus), coast mole (Scapanus orarius), Townsend's mole (Scapanus townsendii), and long-tailed mole (Scaptonyx fusicaudus) were analyzed for hantavirus RNA. Following multiple attempts, a previously unrecognized hantavirus, designated Dahonggou Creek virus (DHCV), was detected in a long-tailed mole, captured in Shimian County, Sichuan Province, People's Republic of China, in August 1989. Analyses of a 1058-nucleotide region of the RNA-dependent RNA polymerase-encoding L segment indicated that DHCV was genetically distinct from other rodent-, shrew-, mole-, and bat-borne hantaviruses. Phylogenetic trees, using maximum likelihood and Bayesian methods, showed that DHCV represented a divergent lineage comprising crocidurine and myosoricine shrew-borne hantaviruses. Although efforts to obtain the S- and M-genomic segments failed, the L-segment sequence analysis, reported here, expands the genetic database of non-rodent-borne hantaviruses. Also, by further mining natural history collections of archival specimens, the genetic diversity of hantaviruses will elucidate their evolutionary origins. PMID:27433135

  20. No evidence for mutations in NLRP7 and KHDC3L in women with androgenetic hydatidiform moles

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the mutational spectrum of NLRP7 and KHDC3L (C6orf221) in women with sporadic and recurrent androgenetic complete hydatidiform moles (AnCHM) and biparental hydatidiform moles (BiHM) to address the hypothesis that autosomal recessive mutations in these gene...

  1. Search for fractionally charged particles

    SciTech Connect

    Lackner, K.S.; Zweig, G.

    1982-01-01

    Quarks, the constituents of hadrons and fermion fields of quantum chromodynamics, have fractional charges -1/3e and 2/3e. All charges are integral multiples of 1/3e and not e, as was previously believed. Therefore it is natural to ask if isolated particles of fractional charge exist, either as an intrinsic part of matter, or as particles that can be produced at high energy accelerators. This question can only be answered by experiment, and remains interesting even if quantum chromodynamics turns out to be an absolutely confining theory of quarks. For example, small deviations from the standard version of quantum chromodynamics, or the incorporation of quantum chromodynamics into a more comprehensive theory, could require the existence of free fractionally charged particles.

  2. Inequalities, Absolute Value, and Logical Connectives.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parish, Charles R.

    1992-01-01

    Presents an approach to the concept of absolute value that alleviates students' problems with the traditional definition and the use of logical connectives in solving related problems. Uses a model that maps numbers from a horizontal number line to a vertical ray originating from the origin. Provides examples solving absolute value equations and…

  3. Absolute optical metrology : nanometers to kilometers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dubovitsky, Serge; Lay, O. P.; Peters, R. D.; Liebe, C. C.

    2005-01-01

    We provide and overview of the developments in the field of high-accuracy absolute optical metrology with emphasis on space-based applications. Specific work on the Modulation Sideband Technology for Absolute Ranging (MSTAR) sensor is described along with novel applications of the sensor.

  4. Monolithically integrated absolute frequency comb laser system

    DOEpatents

    Wanke, Michael C.

    2016-07-12

    Rather than down-convert optical frequencies, a QCL laser system directly generates a THz frequency comb in a compact monolithically integrated chip that can be locked to an absolute frequency without the need of a frequency-comb synthesizer. The monolithic, absolute frequency comb can provide a THz frequency reference and tool for high-resolution broad band spectroscopy.

  5. Introducing the Mean Absolute Deviation "Effect" Size

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gorard, Stephen

    2015-01-01

    This paper revisits the use of effect sizes in the analysis of experimental and similar results, and reminds readers of the relative advantages of the mean absolute deviation as a measure of variation, as opposed to the more complex standard deviation. The mean absolute deviation is easier to use and understand, and more tolerant of extreme…

  6. Investigating Absolute Value: A Real World Application

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kidd, Margaret; Pagni, David

    2009-01-01

    Making connections between various representations is important in mathematics. In this article, the authors discuss the numeric, algebraic, and graphical representations of sums of absolute values of linear functions. The initial explanations are accessible to all students who have experience graphing and who understand that absolute value simply…

  7. Absolute Income, Relative Income, and Happiness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ball, Richard; Chernova, Kateryna

    2008-01-01

    This paper uses data from the World Values Survey to investigate how an individual's self-reported happiness is related to (i) the level of her income in absolute terms, and (ii) the level of her income relative to other people in her country. The main findings are that (i) both absolute and relative income are positively and significantly…

  8. Absolute instability of the Gaussian wake profile

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hultgren, Lennart S.; Aggarwal, Arun K.

    1987-01-01

    Linear parallel-flow stability theory has been used to investigate the effect of viscosity on the local absolute instability of a family of wake profiles with a Gaussian velocity distribution. The type of local instability, i.e., convective or absolute, is determined by the location of a branch-point singularity with zero group velocity of the complex dispersion relation for the instability waves. The effects of viscosity were found to be weak for values of the wake Reynolds number, based on the center-line velocity defect and the wake half-width, larger than about 400. Absolute instability occurs only for sufficiently large values of the center-line wake defect. The critical value of this parameter increases with decreasing wake Reynolds number, thereby indicating a shrinking region of absolute instability with decreasing wake Reynolds number. If backflow is not allowed, absolute instability does not occur for wake Reynolds numbers smaller than about 38.

  9. Atypical Moles

    MedlinePlus

    ... Sections of the JAOCD JAOCD Archive Published Members Online Dermatology Journals Edit This Favorite Name: Category: Share: Yes ... 2/2017 2017 AOCD Spring Current Concepts in Dermatology Meeting more Latest News ... Surveys About AOCD The AOCD was recognized in ...

  10. Hydatidiform mole

    MedlinePlus

    ... tissue that is supposed to develop into the placenta. The placenta feeds the fetus during pregnancy. With a molar ... masses: Partial molar pregnancy. There is an abnormal placenta and some fetal development. Complete molar pregnancy. There ...

  11. Mole (Nevus)

    MedlinePlus

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  12. Moles (Nevi)

    MedlinePlus

    ... Master Dermatologist Award Members Making a Difference Award Native American Health Service Resident Rotation PICMED Grant Professionalism Award ... Camp Discovery Diversity Mentorship Program Health Volunteers ... American Health Services Resident Rotation Resident International Grant Shade ...

  13. Absolute Calibration of Si iRMs used for Si Paleo-nutrient proxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vocke, Robert; Rabb, Savelas

    2016-04-01

    The Avogadro Project is an ongoing international effort, coordinated by the International Bureau of Weights and Measures (BIPM) and the International Avogadro Coordination (IAC) to redefine the SI unit mole in terms of the Avogadro constant and the SI unit kg in terms of the Planck constant. One of the outgrowths of this effort has been the development of a novel, precise and highly accurate method to measure calibrated (absolute) isotopic ratios that are traceable to the SI (Vocke et al., 2014 Metrologia 51, 361, Azuma et al., 2015 Metrologia 52 360). This approach has also been able to produce absolute Si isotope ratio data with lower levels of uncertainty when compared to the traditional "Atomic Weights" method of absolute isotope ratio measurement. Silicon isotope variations (reported as delta(Si30)and delta(Si29)) in silicic acid dissolved in ocean waters, in biogenic silica and in diatoms are extremely informative paleo-nutrient proxies. The utility and comparability of such measurements however depends on calibration with artifact isotopic Reference Materials (iRMs). We will be reporting new measurements on the iRMs NBS-28 (RM 8546 - Silica Sand), Diatomite, Big Batch and SRM 990 using the Avogadro measurement approach, comparing them with prior assessments of these iRMs.

  14. Seasonal changes in burrow geometry of the common mole rat (Rodentia: Bathyergidae)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thomas, H. G.; Scantlebury, M.; Swanepoel, D.; Bateman, P. W.; Bennett, N. C.

    2013-11-01

    Sociality in mole rats has been suggested to have evolved as a response to the widely dispersed food resources and the limited burrowing opportunities that result from sporadic rainfall events. In the most arid regions, individual foraging efficiency is reduced, and energetic constraints increase. In this study, we investigate seasonal differences in burrow architecture of the social Cryptomys hottentotus hottentotus in a mesic region. We describe burrow geometry in response to seasonal weather conditions for two seasons (wet and dry). Interactions occurred between seasons and colony size for the size of the burrow systems, but not the shape of the burrow systems. The fractal dimension values of the burrow systems did not differ between seasons. Thus, the burrow complexity was dependent upon the number of mole rats present in the social group.

  15. Geographic dialects in blind mole rats: role of vocal communication in active speciation.

    PubMed Central

    Nevo, E; Heth, G; Beiles, A; Frankenberg, E

    1987-01-01

    We compared and contrasted the physical structure of male "courtship" calls of 59 subterranean mole rats belonging to the Spalax ehrenbergi superspecies in Israel, comprising 11 populations of four chromosomal species (2N = 52, 54, 58, and 60). We also conducted behavioral auditory discrimination tests of 144 females of the four species in the laboratory. The results indicate that each chromosomal species has a vocal dialect significantly different from all others, although the call of 2N = 60, the last derivative of speciation, is not yet fully differentiated. Females of 2N = 52, 54, and 58 preferred their homospecific mates' calls, whereas females of 2N = 60 did not. We conclude that call differentiation builds up gradually and provides an efficient ethological reproductive premating isolation mechanism between the emerging species in the active speciation of mole rats in Israel. PMID:3472211

  16. Twin Pregnancy with One Fetus and One Complete Mole – A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Freis, A.; Elsässer, M.; Sohn, C.; Fluhr, H.

    2016-01-01

    Twin pregnancy consisting of one fetus and one complete mole (CMCF, complete hydatidiform mole and a coexistent fetus) is an obstetric rarity with an incidence of 1/22 000 to 1/100 000 pregnancies. Associated risks include prematurity, intrauterine death, vaginal bleeding, preeclampsia, hyperthyroidism, theca lutein cysts, uterine rupture and the development of malignant neoplasia in the form of a trophoblastic tumour (GTD, persistent gestational trophoblastic disease), which is thought to be the most common complication. We report the case of a 33-year-old patient diagnosed with CMCF in the 15th week of pregnancy. After comprehensive counselling the patient chose to proceed with her pregnancy under close observation and prophylactic fetal lung maturation. We were able to extend the pregnancy to 32 weeks gestation when heavy vaginal bleeding forced a decision to deliver by caesarean section. PMID:27453586

  17. Familial atypical multiple mole melanoma (FAMMM) syndrome: history, genetics, and heterogeneity.

    PubMed

    Lynch, Henry T; Shaw, Trudy G

    2016-07-01

    Approximately 5-10 % of cutaneous melanoma occurs in kindreds with a hereditary predisposition. Mutations in the CDKN2A gene are found to occur in approximately 20-40 % of these kindreds. The first historical mention of what is now called the familial atypical multiple mole melanoma syndrome appears to be from 1820, with more reports throughout the 1950s, 1960s, and later years. In 1991, Lynch and Fusaro described an association between familial multiple mole melanoma and pancreatic cancer and work continues to elucidate the syndrome's genotypic and phenotypic heterogeneity. Individuals at risk for familial melanoma need periodic screenings. Unfortunately, adequate screening for pancreatic cancer does not currently exist, but pancreatic cancer's prominence in the hereditary setting will hopefully act as a stimulus for development of novel screening measures. PMID:26892865

  18. Digital dissection of the masticatory muscles of the naked mole-rat, Heterocephalus glaber (Mammalia, Rodentia)

    PubMed Central

    Faulkes, Chris G.

    2014-01-01

    The naked mole-rat, Heterocephalus glaber, of the family Bathyergidae is a subterranean rodent that feeds on underground roots and tubers and digs extensive tunnel systems with its incisors. It is a highly unusual mammal with regard to its social structure, longevity, pain insensitivity and cancer resistance, all of which have made it the subject of a great deal of research in recent years. Yet, much of the basic anatomy of this species remains undocumented. In this paper, we describe the morphology of the jaw-closing musculature of the naked mole-rat, as revealed by contrast-enhanced micro-computed tomography. This technique uses an iodine stain to enable the imaging of soft tissues with microCT. The iodine-enhanced scans were used to create 3D reconstructions of the naked mole-rat masticatory muscles from which muscle masses were calculated. The jaw-closing musculature of Heterocephalus glaber is relatively very large compared to other rodents and is dominated by the superficial masseter, the deep masseter and the temporalis. The temporalis in particular is large for a rodent, covering the entirety of the braincase and much of the rear part of the orbit. The morphology of the masseter complex described here differs from two other published descriptions of bathyergid masticatory muscles, but is more similar to the arrangement seen in other rodent families. The zygomaticomandibularis (ZM) muscle does not protrude through the infraorbital foramen on to the rostrum and thus the naked mole-rat should be considered protrogomorphous rather than hystricomorphous, and the morphology is consistent with secondarily lost hystricomorphy as has been previously suggested for Bathyergidae. Overall, the morphology of the masticatory musculature indicates a species with a high bite force and a wide gape–both important adaptations for a life dominated by digging with the incisors. PMID:25024917

  19. Compartmentation of the cerebellar cortex: adaptation to lifestyle in the star-nosed mole Condylura cristata.

    PubMed

    Marzban, Hassan; Hoy, Nathan; Buchok, Matthew; Catania, Kenneth C; Hawkes, Richard

    2015-04-01

    The adult mammalian cerebellum is histologically uniform. However, concealed beneath the simple laminar architecture, it is organized rostrocaudally and mediolaterally into complex arrays of transverse zones and parasagittal stripes that is both highly reproducible between individuals and generally conserved across mammals and birds. Beyond this conservation, the general architecture appears to be adapted to the animal's way of life. To test this hypothesis, we have examined cerebellar compartmentation in the talpid star-nosed mole Condylura cristata. The star-nosed mole leads a subterranean life. It is largely blind and instead uses an array of fleshy appendages (the "star") to navigate and locate its prey. The hypothesis suggests that cerebellar architecture would be modified to reduce regions receiving visual input and expand those that receive trigeminal afferents from the star. Zebrin II and phospholipase Cß4 (PLCß4) immunocytochemistry was used to map the zone-and-stripe architecture of the cerebellum of the adult star-nosed mole. The general zone-and-stripe architecture characteristic of all mammals is present in the star-nosed mole. In the vermis, the four typical transverse zones are present, two with alternating zebrin II/PLCß4 stripes, two wholly zebrin II+/PLCß4-. However, the central and nodular zones (prominent visual receiving areas) are proportionally reduced in size and conversely, the trigeminal-receiving areas (the posterior zone of the vermis and crus I/II of the hemispheres) are uncharacteristically large. We therefore conclude that cerebellar architecture is generally conserved across the Mammalia but adapted to the specific lifestyle of the species. PMID:25337886

  20. Mole Patrol: Education and medical surveillance for melanoma at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Wald, P.H. California Univ., San Francisco, CA . School of Medicine); Schneider, J.S. California Univ., San Francisco, CA . Dept. of Dermatology)

    1989-01-01

    In March of 1984, the Health Services Department at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory began an aggressive early intervention program aimed at early detection and effective treatment of malignant melanoma. This program utilized a multimedia campaign using a three-pronged approach of employee, management and local provider education; self-examination and mole counting; and an on-site melanoma clinic for dermatological examination and treatment. 16 refs., 7 figs.

  1. Family Wide Molecular Adaptations to Underground Life in African Mole-Rats Revealed by Phylogenomic Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Davies, Kalina T.J.; Bennett, Nigel C.; Tsagkogeorga, Georgia; Rossiter, Stephen J.; Faulkes, Christopher G.

    2015-01-01

    During their evolutionary radiation, mammals have colonized diverse habitats. Arguably the subterranean niche is the most inhospitable of these, characterized by reduced oxygen, elevated carbon dioxide, absence of light, scarcity of food, and a substrate that is energetically costly to burrow through. Of all lineages to have transitioned to a subterranean niche, African mole-rats are one of the most successful. Much of their ecological success can be attributed to a diet of plant storage organs, which has allowed them to colonize climatically varied habitats across sub-Saharan Africa, and has probably contributed to the evolution of their diverse social systems. Yet despite their many remarkable phenotypic specializations, little is known about molecular adaptations underlying these traits. To address this, we sequenced the transcriptomes of seven mole-rat taxa, including three solitary species, and combined new sequences with existing genomic data sets. Alignments of more than 13,000 protein-coding genes encompassed, for the first time, all six genera and the full spectrum of ecological and social variation in the clade. We detected positive selection within the mole-rat clade and along ancestral branches in approximately 700 genes including loci associated with tumorigenesis, aging, morphological development, and sociality. By combining these results with gene ontology annotation and protein–protein networks, we identified several clusters of functionally related genes. This family wide analysis of molecular evolution in mole-rats has identified a suite of positively selected genes, deepening our understanding of the extreme phenotypic traits exhibited by this group. PMID:26318402

  2. Family Wide Molecular Adaptations to Underground Life in African Mole-Rats Revealed by Phylogenomic Analysis.

    PubMed

    Davies, Kalina T J; Bennett, Nigel C; Tsagkogeorga, Georgia; Rossiter, Stephen J; Faulkes, Christopher G

    2015-12-01

    During their evolutionary radiation, mammals have colonized diverse habitats. Arguably the subterranean niche is the most inhospitable of these, characterized by reduced oxygen, elevated carbon dioxide, absence of light, scarcity of food, and a substrate that is energetically costly to burrow through. Of all lineages to have transitioned to a subterranean niche, African mole-rats are one of the most successful. Much of their ecological success can be attributed to a diet of plant storage organs, which has allowed them to colonize climatically varied habitats across sub-Saharan Africa, and has probably contributed to the evolution of their diverse social systems. Yet despite their many remarkable phenotypic specializations, little is known about molecular adaptations underlying these traits. To address this, we sequenced the transcriptomes of seven mole-rat taxa, including three solitary species, and combined new sequences with existing genomic data sets. Alignments of more than 13,000 protein-coding genes encompassed, for the first time, all six genera and the full spectrum of ecological and social variation in the clade. We detected positive selection within the mole-rat clade and along ancestral branches in approximately 700 genes including loci associated with tumorigenesis, aging, morphological development, and sociality. By combining these results with gene ontology annotation and protein-protein networks, we identified several clusters of functionally related genes. This family wide analysis of molecular evolution in mole-rats has identified a suite of positively selected genes, deepening our understanding of the extreme phenotypic traits exhibited by this group. PMID:26318402

  3. Absolute optical instruments without spherical symmetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tyc, Tomáš; Dao, H. L.; Danner, Aaron J.

    2015-11-01

    Until now, the known set of absolute optical instruments has been limited to those containing high levels of symmetry. Here, we demonstrate a method of mathematically constructing refractive index profiles that result in asymmetric absolute optical instruments. The method is based on the analogy between geometrical optics and classical mechanics and employs Lagrangians that separate in Cartesian coordinates. In addition, our method can be used to construct the index profiles of most previously known absolute optical instruments, as well as infinitely many different ones.

  4. Middle ear structure and bone conduction in Spalax, Eospalax, and Tachyoryctes mole-rats (Rodentia: Spalacidae).

    PubMed

    Mason, Matthew J; Lai, Flora W S; Li, Jin-Gang; Nevo, Eviatar

    2010-04-01

    There is evidence that spalacine, tachyoryctine, and myospalacine mole-rats all communicate with conspecifics through a form of seismic signaling, but the route for the detection of these signals is disputed. It has been proposed that two unusual anatomical adaptations in Spalax allow jaw vibrations to pass to the inner ear via the incus and stapes: a pseudoglenoid (=postglenoid) fossa which accomodates the condylar process of the mandible, and a bony cup, supported by a periotic lamina, through which the incus articulates with the skull. In this study, a combination of dissection and computed tomography was used to examine the ear region in more detail in both Spalax and its subterranean relatives Tachyoryctes and Eospalax, about which much less is known. Tachyoryctes was found to lack a pseudoglenoid fossa, while Eospalax lacks a periotic lamina and bony cup. This shows that these structures need not simultaneously be present for the detection of ground vibrations in mole-rats. Based on the observed anatomy, three hypothetical modes of bone conduction are argued to represent more likely mechanisms through which mole-rats can detect ground vibrations: ossicular inertial bone conduction, a pathway involving sound radiation into the external auditory meatus, and a newly-described fluid pathway between pseudoglenoid fossa and cranial cavity. The caudolateral extension of the tympanic cavity and the presence of a bony cup might represent synapomorphies uniting Spalax and Tachyoryctes, while the loss of the tensor tympani muscle in Spalax and Eospalax may be convergently derived. PMID:19941379

  5. Cancer resistance in the blind mole rat is mediated by concerted necrotic cell death mechanism.

    PubMed

    Gorbunova, Vera; Hine, Christopher; Tian, Xiao; Ablaeva, Julia; Gudkov, Andrei V; Nevo, Eviatar; Seluanov, Andrei

    2012-11-20

    Blind mole rats Spalax (BMR) are small subterranean rodents common in the Middle East. BMR is distinguished by its adaptations to life underground, remarkable longevity (with a maximum documented lifespan of 21 y), and resistance to cancer. Spontaneous tumors have never been observed in spalacids. To understand the mechanisms responsible for this resistance, we examined the growth of BMR fibroblasts in vitro of the species Spalax judaei and Spalax golani. BMR cells proliferated actively for 7-20 population doublings, after which the cells began secreting IFN-β, and the cultures underwent massive necrotic cell death within 3 d. The necrotic cell death phenomenon was independent of culture conditions or telomere shortening. Interestingly, this cell behavior was distinct from that observed in another long-lived and cancer-resistant African mole rat, Heterocephalus glaber, the naked mole rat in which cells display hypersensitivity to contact inhibition. Sequestration of p53 and Rb proteins using SV40 large T antigen completely rescued necrotic cell death. Our results suggest that cancer resistance of BMR is conferred by massive necrotic response to overproliferation mediated by p53 and Rb pathways, and triggered by the release of IFN-β. Thus, we have identified a unique mechanism that contributes to cancer resistance of this subterranean mammal extremely adapted to life underground. PMID:23129611

  6. Egg donor pregnancy: a potential pitfall in DNA genotyping diagnosis of hydatidiform moles.

    PubMed

    Buza, Natalia; Hui, Pei

    2014-09-01

    A 34-yr-old woman presented with missed abortion at 10 wk of estimated clinical gestational age and underwent dilation and curettage. Gross and microscopic evaluation of the uterine contents revealed the presence of mildly hydropic, dysmorphic chorionic villi, with occasional trophoblastic pseudo-inclusions. The morphologic features raised the suspicion for partial hydatidiform mole, and DNA genotyping was performed using the AmpFlSTR Identifiler PCR Amplification system. The chorionic villous tissue showed unique alleles - not present in the maternal decidual tissue - at 12 of the 15 short tandem repeat loci, and 8 loci showed 2 unique alleles, suggesting a diandric, paternal-only genome. In contrast, p57 immunohistochemistry demonstrated a normal staining pattern with positive nuclear staining in villous stromal cells and cytotrophoblasts. Review of the patient's medical records revealed that the pregnancy was conceived through in vitro fertilization with egg donor embryos, explaining the presence of unexpected alleles simulating a dispermic complete mole on DNA genotyping. This is the first case report illustrating that an egg donor pregnancy may mimic a complete hydatidiform mole on DNA genotyping. PMID:25083967

  7. Considerations on future redefinitions of the kilogram, the mole and of other units

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Becker, P.; DeBièvre, P.; Fujii, K.; Glaeser, M.; Inglis, B.; Luebbig, H.; Mana, G.

    2007-02-01

    The definitions of some units of the Système International are likely to be revised as early as 2011 by basing them on fixed values of fundamental constants of nature, provided experimental realizations are demonstrated with sufficiently small uncertainties. As regards the kilogram, experiments aiming at linking it to the Planck constant and the atomic mass constant are under way in several laboratories. The other units likely to be redefined are the ampere, the kelvin and the mole. We discuss the advantages and disadvantages of different alternatives for revised definitions of the kilogram and the mole. From physical considerations, metrological consequences and ease of understanding, a definition of the kilogram based on the mass of a particle, such as an atom or the electron, is favoured. One of the proposed definitions fixes the value of the Planck constant through the Compton frequency of a material, though unphysical, particle. Finally, a redefinition of the mole, the counting unit of the amount-of-substance, is proposed which fixes the Avogadro constant as a dimensionless number.

  8. Cutaneous and periodontal inputs to the cerebellum of the naked mole-rat (Heterocephalus glaber)

    PubMed Central

    Sarko, Diana K.; Leitch, Duncan B.; Catania, Kenneth C.

    2013-01-01

    The naked mole-rat (Heterocephalus glaber) is a small fossorial rodent with specialized dentition that is reflected by the large cortical area dedicated to representation of the prominent incisors. Due to naked mole-rats’ behavioral reliance on the incisors for digging and for manipulating objects, as well as their ability to move the lower incisors independently, we hypothesized that expanded somatosensory representations of the incisors would be present within the cerebellum in order to accommodate a greater degree of proprioceptive, cutaneous, and periodontal input. Multiunit electrophysiological recordings targeting the ansiform lobule were used to investigate tactile inputs from receptive fields on the entire body with a focus on the incisors. Similar to other rodents, a fractured somatotopy appeared to be present with discrete representations of the same receptive fields repeated within each folium of the cerebellum. These findings confirm the presence of somatosensory inputs to a large area of the naked mole-rat cerebellum with particularly extensive representations of the lower incisors and mystacial vibrissae. We speculate that these extensive inputs facilitate processing of tactile cues as part of a sensorimotor integration network that optimizes how sensory stimuli are acquired through active exploration and in turn adjusts motor outputs (such as independent movement of the lower incisors). These results highlight the diverse sensory specializations and corresponding brain organizational schemes that have evolved in different mammals to facilitate exploration of and interaction with their environment. PMID:24302898

  9. Under proper control, oxidation of proteins with known chemical structure provides an accurate and absolute method for the determination of their molar concentration.

    PubMed

    Guermant, C; Azarkan, M; Smolders, N; Baeyens-Volant, D; Nijs, M; Paul, C; Brygier, J; Vincentelli, J; Looze, Y

    2000-01-01

    Oxidation at 120 degrees C of inorganic and organic (including amino acids, di- and tripeptides) model compounds by K(2)Cr(2)O(7) in the presence of H(2)SO(4) (mass fraction: 0.572), Ag(2)SO(4) (catalyst), and HgSO(4) results in the quantitative conversion of their C-atoms into CO(2) within 24 h or less. Under these stressed, well-defined conditions, the S-atoms present in cysteine and cystine residues are oxidized into SO(3) while, interestingly, the oxidation states of all the other (including the N-) atoms normally present in a protein do remain quite unchanged. When the chemical structure of a given protein is available, the total number of electrons the protein is able to transfer to K(2)Cr(2)O(7) and thereof, the total number of moles of Cr(3+) ions which the protein is able to generate upon oxidation can be accurately calculated. In such cases, unknown protein molar concentrations can thus be determined through straightforward spectrophotometric measurements of Cr(3+) concentrations. The values of molar absorption coefficients for several well-characterized proteins have been redetermined on this basis and observed to be in excellent agreement with the most precise values reported in the literature, which fully assesses the validity of the method. When applied to highly purified proteins of known chemical structure (more generally of known atomic composition), this method is absolute and accurate (+/-1%). Furthermore, it is well adapted to series measurements since available commercial kits for chemical oxygen demand (COD) measurements can readily be adapted to work under the experimental conditions recommended here for the protein assay. PMID:10610688

  10. Absolute magnitudes of trans-neptunian objects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duffard, R.; Alvarez-candal, A.; Pinilla-Alonso, N.; Ortiz, J. L.; Morales, N.; Santos-Sanz, P.; Thirouin, A.

    2015-10-01

    Accurate measurements of diameters of trans- Neptunian objects are extremely complicated to obtain. Radiomatric techniques applied to thermal measurements can provide good results, but precise absolute magnitudes are needed to constrain diameters and albedos. Our objective is to measure accurate absolute magnitudes for a sample of trans- Neptunian objects, many of which have been observed, and modelled, by the "TNOs are cool" team, one of Herschel Space Observatory key projects grantes with ~ 400 hours of observing time. We observed 56 objects in filters V and R, if possible. These data, along with data available in the literature, was used to obtain phase curves and to measure absolute magnitudes by assuming a linear trend of the phase curves and considering magnitude variability due to rotational light-curve. In total we obtained 234 new magnitudes for the 56 objects, 6 of them with no reported previous measurements. Including the data from the literature we report a total of 109 absolute magnitudes.

  11. A New Gimmick for Assigning Absolute Configuration.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ayorinde, F. O.

    1983-01-01

    A five-step procedure is provided to help students in making the assignment absolute configuration less bothersome. Examples for both single (2-butanol) and multi-chiral carbon (3-chloro-2-butanol) molecules are included. (JN)

  12. Isotope fractionation of water during evaporation without condensation.

    PubMed

    Cappa, Christopher D; Drisdell, Walter S; Smith, Jared D; Saykally, Richard J; Cohen, Ronald C

    2005-12-29

    The microscopic events engendering liquid water evaporation have received much attention over the last century, but remain incompletely understood. We present measurements of isotope fractionation occurring during free molecular evaporation from liquid microjets and show that the isotope ratios of evaporating molecules exhibit dramatic differences from equilibrium vapor values, strong variations with the solution deuterium mole fraction, and a clear temperature dependence. These results indicate the existence of an energetic barrier to evaporation and that the evaporation coefficient of water is less than unity. These new insights into water evaporation promise to advance our understanding of the processes that control the formation and lifetime of clouds in the atmosphere. PMID:16375440

  13. Absolute configuration of acremoxanthone C, a potent calmodulin inhibitor from Purpureocillium lilacinum

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Bioassay-guided fractionation of an extract prepared from the culture medium and mycelium of Purpureocillium lilacinum allowed the isolation of two calmodulin (CaM) inhibitors, namely, acremoxanthone C (1) and acremonidin A (2). The absolute configuration of 1 was established as 2R, 3R, 1'S, 11'S, ...

  14. Jasminum flexile flower absolute from India--a detailed comparison with three other jasmine absolutes.

    PubMed

    Braun, Norbert A; Kohlenberg, Birgit; Sim, Sherina; Meier, Manfred; Hammerschmidt, Franz-Josef

    2009-09-01

    Jasminum flexile flower absolute from the south of India and the corresponding vacuum headspace (VHS) sample of the absolute were analyzed using GC and GC-MS. Three other commercially available Indian jasmine absolutes from the species: J. sambac, J. officinale subsp. grandiflorum, and J. auriculatum and the respective VHS samples were used for comparison purposes. One hundred and twenty-one compounds were characterized in J. flexile flower absolute, with methyl linolate, benzyl salicylate, benzyl benzoate, (2E,6E)-farnesol, and benzyl acetate as the main constituents. A detailed olfactory evaluation was also performed. PMID:19831037

  15. Management of pest mole crickets in Florida and Puerto Rico with a nematode and parasitic wasp

    SciTech Connect

    Leppla, N.C.; Frank, J.H.; Adjei, M.B.; Vicente, N.E.

    2007-03-15

    Non-indigenous invasive mole crickets, Scapteriscus vicinus Scudder (Orthoptera: Gryllotalpidae) in Florida and S. didactylus (Latreille) (the 'changa') in Puerto Rico, are being managed with an entomopathogenic nematode, Steinernema scapterisci (Nguyen and Smart) (Rhabditida: Steinernematidae), and a parasitic wasp, Larra bicolor L. (Hymenoptera: Sphecidae). Pest mole cricket populations have declined by 95% in north central Florida since these specialist natural enemies were released and established in the 1980s. Commercial production of the nematode was initiated, nearly 70 billion were applied in 34 Florida counties, and their establishment, spread, and impact on mole crickets were monitored. The infected mole crickets dispersed the nematode rapidly, so that within 6 months these parasites were present in most of the insects trapped in experimental pastures. Three years later, mole cricket populations were reduced to acceptable levels and the bahiagrass had recovered. The nematode was released for the first time in Puerto Rico during 2001 and has persisted; the wasp was introduced in the late 1930s. The geographical distribution of the wasp is being expanded in Florida and Puerto Rico by planting plots of Spermacoce verticillata (L.), a wildflower indigenous to Puerto Rico and widely distributed in southern Florida. Pastures, sod farms, golf courses, landscapes, and vegetable farms in Florida and Puerto Rico are benefiting from biological control of invasive mole crickets. (author) [Spanish] Los grillotopos invasores no indigenas, Scapteriscus vicinus (Orthoptera: Gryllotalpidae) en el estado de Florida y S. didactylus ('changa') en Puerto Rico, estan siendo manejados por el nematodo entomopathogeno, Steinernema scapterisci (Rhabditida: Steinernematidae) y la avispa parasitica, Larra bicolor (Hymenoptera: Sphecidae). Las poblaciones de los grillotopo plagas han declinado un 95% en el norte central de la Florida desde que estos enemigos naturales especialistas

  16. Universal Cosmic Absolute and Modern Science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kostro, Ludwik

    The official Sciences, especially all natural sciences, respect in their researches the principle of methodic naturalism i.e. they consider all phenomena as entirely natural and therefore in their scientific explanations they do never adduce or cite supernatural entities and forces. The purpose of this paper is to show that Modern Science has its own self-existent, self-acting, and self-sufficient Natural All-in Being or Omni-Being i.e. the entire Nature as a Whole that justifies the scientific methodic naturalism. Since this Natural All-in Being is one and only It should be considered as the own scientifically justified Natural Absolute of Science and should be called, in my opinion, the Universal Cosmic Absolute of Modern Science. It will be also shown that the Universal Cosmic Absolute is ontologically enormously stratified and is in its ultimate i.e. in its most fundamental stratum trans-reistic and trans-personal. It means that in its basic stratum. It is neither a Thing or a Person although It contains in Itself all things and persons with all other sentient and conscious individuals as well, On the turn of the 20th century the Science has begun to look for a theory of everything, for a final theory, for a master theory. In my opinion the natural Universal Cosmic Absolute will constitute in such a theory the radical all penetrating Ultimate Basic Reality and will substitute step by step the traditional supernatural personal Absolute.

  17. Social cues elicit sexual behavior in subordinate Damaraland mole-rats independent of gonadal status.

    PubMed

    Carter, Sara N; Goldman, Bruce D; Goldman, Sharry L; Freeman, David A

    2014-01-01

    Damaraland mole-rats (Fukomys damarensis) are among a small number of eusocial mammals. Eusociality is a social system where only a few individuals within a colony engage in direct reproduction, while remaining subordinate members are non-breeders and support reproductive efforts of breeding individuals. Inbreeding avoidance precludes mating between subordinate siblings and between offspring and parents. Interestingly, non-breeders readily attempt to mate with unrelated opposite-sex individuals. This is unusual since the non-breeding females do not attain puberty while in their natal colony. Based on this finding, the present study investigated the role of the gonads in the regulation of mating behaviors in this species and identified the mechanism of inbreeding avoidance. Gonadal-intact and gonadectomized non-breeders from different colonies were removed from their colonies and tested for the expression of sexual behavior. Results indicated that gonadal status had only minor effects on the expression of sexual behavior in either males or females. In a second experiment, sexual behaviors were absent between opposite-sex siblings so long as they had frequent contact with each other; however, following 5 weeks of separation, sexual behavior between these siblings was robustly expressed. Thus, Damaraland mole-rats avoid establishing mating relationships with familiar individuals but will readily mate with unfamiliar individuals of the opposite sex, with genetic relatedness apparently playing little role. The initiation of sexual behavior in Damaraland mole-rats does not require the presence of the gonads, but does require that the members of the pair have not been in contact with one another for at least several weeks. PMID:24246377

  18. Organization of the spinal trigeminal nucleus in Star-Nosed Moles

    PubMed Central

    Sawyer, Eva K.; Leitch, Duncan B.; Catania, Kenneth C.

    2014-01-01

    Somatosensory inputs from the face project to multiple regions of the trigeminal nuclear complex in the brainstem. In mice and rats three subdivisions contain visible representations of the mystacial vibrissae: the principal sensory nucleus, the spinal trigeminal subnucleus interpolaris and subnucleus caudalis. These regions are considered important for touch with high spatial acuity, active touch, and pain and temperature sensation, respectively. Like mice and rats, the star-nosed mole (Condylura cristata) is a somatosensory specialist. Given the visible star pattern in preparations of the star-nosed mole cortex and the principal sensory nucleus, we hypothesized there were star patterns in the spinal trigeminal nucleus subnuclei interpolaris and caudalis. In sections processed for cytochrome oxidase we found star-like segmentation consisting of lightly stained septa separating darkly stained patches in subnucleus interpolaris (juvenile tissue) and subnucleus caudalis (juvenile and adult tissue). Subnucleus caudalis represented the face in a three-dimensional map with the most anterior part of the face represented more rostrally than posterior parts of the face. Multi-unit electrophysiological mapping was used to map the ipsilateral face. Ray-specific receptive fields in adults matched the CO-segmentation. The mean areas of multiunit receptive fields in subnucleus interpolaris and caudalis were larger than previously mapped receptive fields in the mole's principal sensory nucleus. The proportion of tissue devoted to each ray's representation differed between subnucleus interpolaris and the principal sensory nucleus. Our finding that different trigeminal brainstem maps can exaggerate different parts of the face could provide new insights for the roles of these different somatosensory stations. PMID:24715542

  19. Genetic Signatures for Enhanced Olfaction in the African Mole-Rats

    PubMed Central

    Stathopoulos, Sofia; Bishop, Jacqueline M.; O’Ryan, Colleen

    2014-01-01

    The Olfactory Receptor (OR) superfamily, the largest in the vertebrate genome, is responsible for vertebrate olfaction and is traditionally subdivided into 17 OR families. Recent studies characterising whole-OR subgenomes revealed a ‘birth and death’ model of evolution for a range of species, however little is known about fine-scale evolutionary dynamics within single-OR families. This study reports the first assessment of fine-scale OR evolution and variation in African mole-rats (Bathyergidae), a family of subterranean rodents endemic to sub-Saharan Africa. Because of the selective pressures of life underground, enhanced olfaction is proposed to be fundamental to the evolutionary success of the Bathyergidae, resulting in a highly diversified OR gene-repertoire. Using a PCR-sequencing approach, we analysed variation in the OR7 family across 14 extant bathyergid species, which revealed enhanced levels of functional polymorphisms concentrated across the receptors’ ligand-binding region. We propose that mole-rats are able to recognise a broad range of odorants and that this diversity is reflected throughout their OR7 gene repertoire. Using both classic tests and tree-based methods to test for signals of selection, we investigate evolutionary forces across the mole-rat OR7 gene tree. Four well-supported clades emerged in the OR phylogeny, with varying signals of selection; from neutrality to positive and purifying selection. Bathyergid life-history traits and environmental niche-specialisation are explored as possible drivers of adaptive OR evolution, emerging as non-exclusive contributors to the positive selection observed at OR7 genes. Our results reveal unexpected complexity of evolutionary mechanisms acting within a single OR family, providing insightful perspectives into OR evolutionary dynamics. PMID:24699281

  20. Multidimensional MRI-CT atlas of the naked mole-rat brain (Heterocephalus glaber).

    PubMed

    Seki, Fumiko; Hikishima, Keigo; Nambu, Sanae; Okanoya, Kazuo; Okano, Hirotaka J; Sasaki, Erika; Miura, Kyoko; Okano, Hideyuki

    2013-01-01

    Naked mole-rats have a variety of distinctive features such as the organization of a hierarchical society (known as eusociality), extraordinary longevity, and cancer resistance; thus, it would be worthwhile investigating these animals in detail. One important task is the preparation of a brain atlas database that provide comprehensive information containing multidimensional data with various image contrasts, which can be achievable using a magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Advanced MRI techniques such as diffusion tensor imaging (DTI), which generates high contrast images of fiber structures, can characterize unique morphological properties in addition to conventional MRI. To obtain high spatial resolution images, MR histology, DTI, and X-ray computed tomography were performed on the fixed adult brain. Skull and brain structures were segmented as well as reconstructed in stereotaxic coordinates. Data were also acquired for the neonatal brain to allow developmental changes to be observed. Moreover, in vivo imaging of naked mole-rats was established as an evaluation tool of live animals. The data obtained comprised three-dimensional (3D) images with high tissue contrast as well as stereotaxic coordinates. Developmental differences in the visual system were highlighted in particular by DTI. Although it was difficult to delineate optic nerves in the mature adult brain, parts of them could be distinguished in the immature neonatal brain. From observation of cortical thickness, possibility of high somatosensory system development replaced to the visual system was indicated. 3D visualization of brain structures in the atlas as well as the establishment of in vivo imaging would promote neuroimaging researches towards detection of novel characteristics of eusocial naked mole-rats. PMID:24391551

  1. The complete mitochondrial genome sequence of the Gracile shrew mole, Uropsilus gracilis (Soricomorpha: Talpidae).

    PubMed

    Tu, Feiyun; Fan, Zhenxin; Chen, Shunde; Yin, Yonghua; Li, Peng; Zhang, Xiuyue; Liu, Shaoying; Yue, Bisong

    2012-10-01

    The Gracile shrew mole (Uropsilus gracilis) belongs to the family Talpidae, which distributes in southwestern China, extending to northern Myanmar. In this study, the complete mitochondrial genome of U. gracilis was sequenced. It was determined to be of 16,533 bases. The nucleotide sequence data of 12 heavy-strand protein-coding genes of U. gracilis and other 12 insectivores were used for phylogenetic analysis. Phylogenetic trees were constructed by using Bayesian and maximum likelihood methods, which showed that U. gracilis was clustered together with U. soricipes, and Urotrichus should be prior to Galemys. PMID:22920311

  2. Termination of Twin Pregnancies with Hydatidiform Moles: a Case Series of Four Patients

    PubMed Central

    PENG, Mei; LI, Li; ZHENG, Jingjie; DING, Yiling; YU, Ling; HUANG, Jian

    2014-01-01

    Abstract P A twin pregnancy with a complete hydatidiform mole with a coexistent foetus (CHMF) is a rare condition that typically results in poor pregnancy outcomes. For patients with refractory vaginal bleeding, termination of pregnancy is more appropriate. However, unified methods for termination remain to be explored. In the present study, we reviewed the termination measures in four cases of twin pregnancy with CHMF. Additional understanding of this condition will aid in the treatment of women with this condition and improve their pregnancy outcomes. PMID:25909068

  3. Hydatidiform mole with coexisting twin pregnancy after gamete intra-fallopian transfer.

    PubMed

    van de Geijn, E J; Yedema, C A; Hemrika, D J; Schutte, M F; ten Velden, J J

    1992-04-01

    The pregnancy of a 31-year-old infertility patient is described. After gamete intra-Fallopian transfer, her pregnancy evolved uneventfully until the 18th week of gestation, when vaginal bleeding occurred. Ultrasonographic findings suggested a molar pregnancy with two live fetuses. At 24 weeks gestation, two male infants were spontaneously delivered. Fetal (46 XY) and molar (46 XX) karyotypes and post-mortem findings were consistent with a bizygotic twin pregnancy associated with a complete hydatidiform mole. The pathogenesis and obstetrical management are discussed. PMID:1522205

  4. [Gestational trophoblastic neoplasia after spontaneous normalization of human chorionic gonadotropin in patient with partial hydatidiform mole].

    PubMed

    Matos, Michelle; Ferraz, Leda; Lopes, Patrícia de Fátima; Lozoya, Consuelo; Amim Junior, Joffre; Rezende-Filho, Jorge; Braga, Antonio

    2015-07-01

    We report here a case of gestational trophoblastic neoplasia after spontaneous normalization of human chorionic gonadotropin in a patient with a partial hydatidiform mole. This is the second occurrence of this event to be reported and the first one with proven immunohistochemical evidence. Besides showing the treatment for this pregnancy complication, this case report discusses the possibility of reducing the duration of post-molar follow-up, as well as strategies for early recognition of gestational trophoblastic neoplasia after spontaneous remission of molar pregnancy. PMID:26247255

  5. Mechanisms regulating proteostasis are involved in sympatric speciation of the blind mole rat, Spalax galili

    PubMed Central

    Rodriguez, Karl A.; Li, Kexin; Nevo, Eviatar; Buffenstein, Rochelle

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Genome-wide analysis demonstrates extensive genomic adaptive complexes involved in sympatric speciation between blind mole rats (Spalax galili) in abutting populations living in basalt and chalk soils. Among the gene ontology (GO) enrichment, musculature and metabolism stood out in basalt dwellers while nutrition and neurogenetics were highlighted in chalk residents. Measurements of mechanisms regulating protein homeostasis inspired by these GO terms suggest that at the proteomic level there is also a habitat/soil-type driven divergence with the basalt residents exhibiting higher proteasome activity whereas elevated levels of markers of autophagy are evident in the chalk inhabitants. PMID:27050459

  6. Mechanisms regulating proteostasis are involved in sympatric speciation of the blind mole rat, Spalax galili.

    PubMed

    Rodriguez, Karl A; Li, Kexin; Nevo, Eviatar; Buffenstein, Rochelle

    2016-01-01

    Genome-wide analysis demonstrates extensive genomic adaptive complexes involved in sympatric speciation between blind mole rats (Spalax galili) in abutting populations living in basalt and chalk soils. Among the gene ontology (GO) enrichment, musculature and metabolism stood out in basalt dwellers while nutrition and neurogenetics were highlighted in chalk residents. Measurements of mechanisms regulating protein homeostasis inspired by these GO terms suggest that at the proteomic level there is also a habitat/soil-type driven divergence with the basalt residents exhibiting higher proteasome activity whereas elevated levels of markers of autophagy are evident in the chalk inhabitants. PMID:27050459

  7. Molecular iodine absolute frequencies. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Sansonetti, C.J.

    1990-06-25

    Fifty specified lines of {sup 127}I{sub 2} were studied by Doppler-free frequency modulation spectroscopy. For each line the classification of the molecular transition was determined, hyperfine components were identified, and one well-resolved component was selected for precise determination of its absolute frequency. In 3 cases, a nearby alternate line was selected for measurement because no well-resolved component was found for the specified line. Absolute frequency determinations were made with an estimated uncertainty of 1.1 MHz by locking a dye laser to the selected hyperfine component and measuring its wave number with a high-precision Fabry-Perot wavemeter. For each line results of the absolute measurement, the line classification, and a Doppler-free spectrum are given.

  8. Stimulus probability effects in absolute identification.

    PubMed

    Kent, Christopher; Lamberts, Koen

    2016-05-01

    This study investigated the effect of stimulus presentation probability on accuracy and response times in an absolute identification task. Three schedules of presentation were used to investigate the interaction between presentation probability and stimulus position within the set. Data from individual participants indicated strong effects of presentation probability on both proportion correct and response times. The effects were moderated by the ubiquitous stimulus position effect. The accuracy and response time data were predicted by an exemplar-based model of perceptual cognition (Kent & Lamberts, 2005). The bow in discriminability was also attenuated when presentation probability for middle items was relatively high, an effect that will constrain future model development. The study provides evidence for item-specific learning in absolute identification. Implications for other theories of absolute identification are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:26478959

  9. Absolute calibration in vivo measurement systems

    SciTech Connect

    Kruchten, D.A.; Hickman, D.P.

    1991-02-01

    Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) is currently investigating a new method for obtaining absolute calibration factors for radiation measurement systems used to measure internally deposited radionuclides in vivo. Absolute calibration of in vivo measurement systems will eliminate the need to generate a series of human surrogate structures (i.e., phantoms) for calibrating in vivo measurement systems. The absolute calibration of in vivo measurement systems utilizes magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to define physiological structure, size, and composition. The MRI image provides a digitized representation of the physiological structure, which allows for any mathematical distribution of radionuclides within the body. Using Monte Carlo transport codes, the emission spectrum from the body is predicted. The in vivo measurement equipment is calibrated using the Monte Carlo code and adjusting for the intrinsic properties of the detection system. The calibration factors are verified using measurements of existing phantoms and previously obtained measurements of human volunteers. 8 refs.

  10. Power-law spatial dispersion from fractional Liouville equation

    SciTech Connect

    Tarasov, Vasily E.

    2013-10-15

    A microscopic model in the framework of fractional kinetics to describe spatial dispersion of power-law type is suggested. The Liouville equation with the Caputo fractional derivatives is used to obtain the power-law dependence of the absolute permittivity on the wave vector. The fractional differential equations for electrostatic potential in the media with power-law spatial dispersion are derived. The particular solutions of these equations for the electric potential of point charge in this media are considered.

  11. Precise Measurement of the Absolute Fluorescence Yield

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ave, M.; Bohacova, M.; Daumiller, K.; Di Carlo, P.; di Giulio, C.; San Luis, P. Facal; Gonzales, D.; Hojvat, C.; Hörandel, J. R.; Hrabovsky, M.; Iarlori, M.; Keilhauer, B.; Klages, H.; Kleifges, M.; Kuehn, F.; Monasor, M.; Nozka, L.; Palatka, M.; Petrera, S.; Privitera, P.; Ridky, J.; Rizi, V.; D'Orfeuil, B. Rouille; Salamida, F.; Schovanek, P.; Smida, R.; Spinka, H.; Ulrich, A.; Verzi, V.; Williams, C.

    2011-09-01

    We present preliminary results of the absolute yield of fluorescence emission in atmospheric gases. Measurements were performed at the Fermilab Test Beam Facility with a variety of beam particles and gases. Absolute calibration of the fluorescence yield to 5% level was achieved by comparison with two known light sources--the Cherenkov light emitted by the beam particles, and a calibrated nitrogen laser. The uncertainty of the energy scale of current Ultra-High Energy Cosmic Rays experiments will be significantly improved by the AIRFLY measurement.

  12. Absolutely relative or relatively absolute: violations of value invariance in human decision making.

    PubMed

    Teodorescu, Andrei R; Moran, Rani; Usher, Marius

    2016-02-01

    Making decisions based on relative rather than absolute information processing is tied to choice optimality via the accumulation of evidence differences and to canonical neural processing via accumulation of evidence ratios. These theoretical frameworks predict invariance of decision latencies to absolute intensities that maintain differences and ratios, respectively. While information about the absolute values of the choice alternatives is not necessary for choosing the best alternative, it may nevertheless hold valuable information about the context of the decision. To test the sensitivity of human decision making to absolute values, we manipulated the intensities of brightness stimuli pairs while preserving either their differences or their ratios. Although asked to choose the brighter alternative relative to the other, participants responded faster to higher absolute values. Thus, our results provide empirical evidence for human sensitivity to task irrelevant absolute values indicating a hard-wired mechanism that precedes executive control. Computational investigations of several modelling architectures reveal two alternative accounts for this phenomenon, which combine absolute and relative processing. One account involves accumulation of differences with activation dependent processing noise and the other emerges from accumulation of absolute values subject to the temporal dynamics of lateral inhibition. The potential adaptive role of such choice mechanisms is discussed. PMID:26022836

  13. The absolute frequency of the 87Sr optical clock transition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Campbell, Gretchen K.; Ludlow, Andrew D.; Blatt, Sebastian; Thomsen, Jan W.; Martin, Michael J.; de Miranda, Marcio H. G.; Zelevinsky, Tanya; Boyd, Martin M.; Ye, Jun; Diddams, Scott A.; Heavner, Thomas P.; Parker, Thomas E.; Jefferts, Steven R.

    2008-10-01

    The absolute frequency of the 1S0-3P0 clock transition of 87Sr has been measured to be 429 228 004 229 873.65 (37) Hz using lattice-confined atoms, where the fractional uncertainty of 8.6 × 10-16 represents one of the most accurate measurements of an atomic transition frequency to date. After a detailed study of systematic effects, which reduced the total systematic uncertainty of the Sr lattice clock to 1.5 × 10-16, the clock frequency is measured against a hydrogen maser which is simultaneously calibrated to the US primary frequency standard, the NIST Cs fountain clock, NIST-F1. The comparison is made possible using a femtosecond laser based optical frequency comb to phase coherently connect the optical and microwave spectral regions and by a 3.5 km fibre transfer scheme to compare the remotely located clock signals.

  14. Adaptations to a subterranean environment and longevity revealed by the analysis of mole rat genomes

    PubMed Central

    Fang, Xiaodong; Seim, Inge; Huang, Zhiyong; Gerashchenko, Maxim V.; Xiong, Zhiqiang; Turanov, Anton A.; Zhu, Yabing; Lobanov, Alexei V.; Fan, Dingding; Yim, Sun Hee; Yao, Xiaoming; Ma, Siming; Yang, Lan; Lee, Sang-Goo; Kim, Eun Bae; Bronson, Roderick T.; Šumbera, Radim; Buffenstein, Rochelle; Zhou, Xin; Krogh, Anders; Park, Thomas J.; Zhang, Guojie; Wang, Jun; Gladyshev, Vadim N.

    2014-01-01

    SUMMARY Subterranean mammals spend their lives in dark, unventilated environments rich in carbon dioxide and ammonia, and low in oxygen. Many of these animals are also long-lived and exhibit reduced aging-associated diseases, such as neurodegenerative disorders and cancer. We sequenced the genome of the Damaraland mole rat (DMR, Fukomys damarensis) and improved the genome assembly of the naked mole rat (NMR, Heterocephalus glaber). Comparative genome analysis, along with transcriptomes of related subterranean rodents, reveal candidate molecular adaptations for subterranean life and longevity, including a divergent insulin peptide, expression of oxygen-carrying globins in the brain, prevention of high CO2-induced pain perception, and enhanced ammonia detoxification. Juxtaposition of the genomes of DMR and other more conventional animals with the genome of NMR revealed several truly exceptional NMR features: unusual thermogenesis, aberrant melatonin system, pain insensitivity, and novel processing of 28S rRNA. Together, the new genomes and transcriptomes extend our understanding of subterranean adaptations, stress resistance and longevity. PMID:25176646

  15. Neoplasia and granulomas surrounding microchip transponders in Damaraland mole rats (Cryptomys damarensis).

    PubMed

    Sura, R; French, R A; Goldman, B D; Schwartz, D R

    2011-07-01

    Damaraland mole rats (Cryptomys damarensis) are among the longest-living rodents, with a maximum longevity of approximately 16 years. As one of the few mammals termed eusocial, these animals have been used in behavioral, genetic, metabolic, and physiologic research at the University of Connecticut since 1997. For individual identification at 3 to 4 months of age, mole rats were subcutaneously implanted with microchip transponders (11 mm in length) in the dorsal cervical region. In 2007, 2 of the 90 implanted adults, 10-year-old and 9-year-old females, developed subcutaneous masses at the site of the implant. Histopathological and immunohistochemical examinations revealed amelanotic melanoma and fibrosarcoma, respectively, with metastasis of the amelanotic melanoma. In 2008, a total of 3 adult males were castrated as part of a sex behavior study; 3 months later, all 3 castrated males developed subcutaneous masses around their implants, whereas none of the noncastrated males had masses. After an additional 9 months, these masses were found to be granulomas. To the authors' knowledge, this is the first report of neoplasia in this species. Both the tumors and the granulomas surrounded the microchip transponder. PMID:20724516

  16. Reproduction, aging and mortality rate in social subterranean mole voles (Ellobius talpinus Pall.).

    PubMed

    Novikov, E; Kondratyuk, E; Petrovski, D; Titova, T; Zadubrovskaya, I; Zadubrovskiy, P; Moshkin, M

    2015-12-01

    Eusocial subterranean rodents of the Bathyergidae family have enormous longevity. The long lifespan of these species is associated with negligible senescence, that is, an absence of the signs of age-related deterioration in physical condition. The question arises as to whether these features are unique to eusocial Bathyergids or typical of other social subterranean rodents as well. In the present study, we analysed data from observations of a social subterranean Microtinae rodent, the northern mole vole (Ellobius talpinus Pall.), which, like mole-rats, has reproductive skew. Among the individuals captured in the wild and maintained in captivity, females that reproduced lived significantly longer than non-breeding females. We did not find any changes in muscle strength with age in any of the demographic groups studied. Faecal glucocorticoid concentrations before death were significantly higher in non-breeding females than in breeding females and males. Increased adrenocortical activity may be one mechanism responsible for the decreased lifespan of non-reproducing individuals of social subterranean rodents. We conclude that the patterns of aging, although different in some respects, are generally common for social subterranean rodents of different taxonomic groups. PMID:26208910

  17. Structural Features of the Telomerase RNA Gene in the Naked Mole Rat Heterocephalus glaber

    PubMed Central

    Evfratov, S. A.; Smekalova, E. M.; Golovin, A. V.; Logvina, N. A.; Zvereva, M. I.; Dontsova, O. A.

    2014-01-01

    Telomere length, an important feature of life span control, is dependent on the activity of telomerase (a key enzyme of the telomere-length-maintaining system). Telomerase RNA is a component of telomerase and, thus, is crucial for its activity. The structures of telomerase RNA genes and their promoter regions were compared for the long-living naked mole rat and different organisms. Two rare polymorphisms in Heterocephalus glaber telomerase RNA (hgTER) were identified: A→G in the first loop of pseudoknot P2b-p3 (an equivalent of 111nt in hTR) and G→A in the scaRNA domain CR7-p8b (an equivalent of 421nt in hTR). Analysis of TER promoter regions allowed us to identify two new transcription factor binding sites. The first one is the ETS family site, which was found to be a conserved element for all the analyzed TER promoters. The second site is unique for the promoter region of TER of the naked mole rat and is a binding site for the SOX17 transcription factor. The absence of one Sp1 site in the TER promoter region of the naked small rat is an additional specific feature of the promoter area of hgTER. Such variation in the hgTER transcription regulation region and hgTER itself could provide increased telomerase activity in stem cells and an extended lifespan to H. glaber. PMID:25093110

  18. Complete Hydatidiform Mole Coexisting with Three Viable Fetuses in a Quadruplet Pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Tariq, Nabia; Ghazali, Usman; Uddin, Zeeshan; Rasheed, Kamran; Tariq, Hina

    2016-04-01

    We hereby report a case of quadruplet pregnancy with delivery of 3 viable infants and a complete mole. This was an induced conception with clomiphene citrate. At 22 weeks, cystic structures were noticed in one of the placentae and a suspicion of co-existant molar pregnancy was made. The case discussed with oncologist and pregnancy was continued with close monitoring of β-hCG and Ultrasound. Her β-hCG at 23 weeks was 748 mIU/ml, which continued to rise until the 29th week of gestation to a level of 305881.68 mIU/ml and declined gradually thereafter. Similarly, hydropic change in placenta also continued to increase progressively. She was given steroid cover at 32 weeks and delivery was aimed at 34 weeks of gestation. The patient went into preterm labour at 33 weeks and 3 female infants delivered by lower segment cesarean section (LSCS) followed by removal of 3 placentae along with copious molar tissue at the end. The newborns were kept in the nursery, non-requiring assisted ventilation and discharged in satisfactory condition. The histopathologyand immunohistochemistry confirmed the diagnosis of a quadruplet pregnancy comprising of one complete mole with 3 normal placentae. PMID:27097708

  19. Absolute partial photoionization cross sections of ozone.

    SciTech Connect

    Berkowitz, J.; Chemistry

    2008-04-01

    Despite the current concerns about ozone, absolute partial photoionization cross sections for this molecule in the vacuum ultraviolet (valence) region have been unavailable. By eclectic re-evaluation of old/new data and plausible assumptions, such cross sections have been assembled to fill this void.

  20. Solving Absolute Value Equations Algebraically and Geometrically

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shiyuan, Wei

    2005-01-01

    The way in which students can improve their comprehension by understanding the geometrical meaning of algebraic equations or solving algebraic equation geometrically is described. Students can experiment with the conditions of the absolute value equation presented, for an interesting way to form an overall understanding of the concept.

  1. Teaching Absolute Value Inequalities to Mature Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sierpinska, Anna; Bobos, Georgeana; Pruncut, Andreea

    2011-01-01

    This paper gives an account of a teaching experiment on absolute value inequalities, whose aim was to identify characteristics of an approach that would realize the potential of the topic to develop theoretical thinking in students enrolled in prerequisite mathematics courses at a large, urban North American university. The potential is…

  2. Increasing Capacity: Practice Effects in Absolute Identification

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dodds, Pennie; Donkin, Christopher; Brown, Scott D.; Heathcote, Andrew

    2011-01-01

    In most of the long history of the study of absolute identification--since Miller's (1956) seminal article--a severe limit on performance has been observed, and this limit has resisted improvement even by extensive practice. In a startling result, Rouder, Morey, Cowan, and Pfaltz (2004) found substantially improved performance with practice in the…

  3. On Relative and Absolute Conviction in Mathematics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weber, Keith; Mejia-Ramos, Juan Pablo

    2015-01-01

    Conviction is a central construct in mathematics education research on justification and proof. In this paper, we claim that it is important to distinguish between absolute conviction and relative conviction. We argue that researchers in mathematics education frequently have not done so and this has lead to researchers making unwarranted claims…

  4. Absolute Points for Multiple Assignment Problems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adlakha, V.; Kowalski, K.

    2006-01-01

    An algorithm is presented to solve multiple assignment problems in which a cost is incurred only when an assignment is made at a given cell. The proposed method recursively searches for single/group absolute points to identify cells that must be loaded in any optimal solution. Unlike other methods, the first solution is the optimal solution. The…

  5. Nonequilibrium equalities in absolutely irreversible processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murashita, Yuto; Funo, Ken; Ueda, Masahito

    2015-03-01

    Nonequilibrium equalities have attracted considerable attention in the context of statistical mechanics and information thermodynamics. Integral nonequilibrium equalities reveal an ensemble property of the entropy production σ as = 1 . Although nonequilibrium equalities apply to rather general nonequilibrium situations, they break down in absolutely irreversible processes, where the forward-path probability vanishes and the entropy production diverges. We identify the mathematical origins of this inapplicability as the singularity of probability measure. As a result, we generalize conventional integral nonequilibrium equalities to absolutely irreversible processes as = 1 -λS , where λS is the probability of the singular part defined based on Lebesgue's decomposition theorem. The acquired equality contains two physical quantities related to irreversibility: σ characterizing ordinary irreversibility and λS describing absolute irreversibility. An inequality derived from the obtained equality demonstrates the absolute irreversibility leads to the fundamental lower bound on the entropy production. We demonstrate the validity of the obtained equality for a simple model.

  6. Stimulus Probability Effects in Absolute Identification

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kent, Christopher; Lamberts, Koen

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated the effect of stimulus presentation probability on accuracy and response times in an absolute identification task. Three schedules of presentation were used to investigate the interaction between presentation probability and stimulus position within the set. Data from individual participants indicated strong effects of…

  7. Precision absolute positional measurement of laser beams.

    PubMed

    Fitzsimons, Ewan D; Bogenstahl, Johanna; Hough, James; Killow, Christian J; Perreur-Lloyd, Michael; Robertson, David I; Ward, Henry

    2013-04-20

    We describe an instrument which, coupled with a suitable coordinate measuring machine, facilitates the absolute measurement within the machine frame of the propagation direction of a millimeter-scale laser beam to an accuracy of around ±4 μm in position and ±20 μrad in angle. PMID:23669658

  8. Community structure variability of Uropodina mites (Acari: Mesostigmata) in nests of the common mole, Talpa europaea, in Central Europe.

    PubMed

    Napierała, Agnieszka; Mądra, Anna; Leszczyńska-Deja, Kornelia; Gwiazdowicz, Dariusz J; Gołdyn, Bartłomiej; Błoszyk, Jerzy

    2016-04-01

    Underground nests of Talpa europaea, known as the common mole, are very specific microhabitats, which are also quite often inhabited by various groups of arthropods. Mites from the suborder Uropodina (Acari: Mesostigmata) are only one of them. One could expect that mole nests that are closely located are inhabited by communities of arthropods with similar species composition and structure. However, results of empirical studies clearly show that even nests which are close to each other can be different both in terms of the species composition and abundance of Uropodina communities. So far, little is known about the factors that can cause these differences. The major aim of this study was to identify factors determining species composition, abundance, and community structure of Uropodina communities in mole nests. The study is based on material collected during a long-term investigation conducted in western parts of Poland. The results indicate that the two most important factors influencing species composition and abundance of Uropodina communities in mole nests are nest-building material and depth at which nests are located. Composition of Uropodina communities in nests of moles was also compared with that of other microhabitats (e.g. rotten wood, forest litter, soil) based on data from 4421 samples collected in Poland. Communities of this habitat prove most similar to these of open areas, especially meadows, as well as some forest types. PMID:26861069

  9. Combined Use of Absolute and Differential Seismic Arrival Time Data to Improve Absolute Event Location

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Myers, S.; Johannesson, G.

    2012-12-01

    Arrival time measurements based on waveform cross correlation are becoming more common as advanced signal processing methods are applied to seismic data archives and real-time data streams. Waveform correlation can precisely measure the time difference between the arrival of two phases, and differential time data can be used to constrain relative location of events. Absolute locations are needed for many applications, which generally requires the use of absolute time data. Current methods for measuring absolute time data are approximately two orders of magnitude less precise than differential time measurements. To exploit the strengths of both absolute and differential time data, we extend our multiple-event location method Bayesloc, which previously used absolute time data only, to include the use of differential time measurements that are based on waveform cross correlation. Fundamentally, Bayesloc is a formulation of the joint probability over all parameters comprising the multiple event location system. The Markov-Chain Monte Carlo method is used to sample from the joint probability distribution given arrival data sets. The differential time component of Bayesloc includes scaling a stochastic estimate of differential time measurement precision based the waveform correlation coefficient for each datum. For a regional-distance synthetic data set with absolute and differential time measurement error of 0.25 seconds and 0.01 second, respectively, epicenter location accuracy is improved from and average of 1.05 km when solely absolute time data are used to 0.28 km when absolute and differential time data are used jointly (73% improvement). The improvement in absolute location accuracy is the result of conditionally limiting absolute location probability regions based on the precise relative position with respect to neighboring events. Bayesloc estimates of data precision are found to be accurate for the synthetic test, with absolute and differential time measurement

  10. Heavy metal accumulation in the mole, Talpa europea, and earthworms as an indicator of metal bioavailability in terrestrial environments

    SciTech Connect

    Ma, W.

    1987-12-01

    Bioaccumulation studies in animals can supply valuable information to supplement the data obtained by chemical analysis of pollutants in abiotic samples. With respect to the terrestrial ecosystem, suitable indicator species in the decomposer subsystem can be identified on the basis of functional characteristics and trophic level. Investigations on metal behavior at the first trophic level, done in lumbricid earthworms showed that the potential for bioaccumulation depends on the degree of contamination as well as on the metal-binding capacity of the soil. The present study was performed to investigate metal behavior at a higher trophic level, and the mole (Talpa europea) was chosen a representative of the terrestrial decomposer subsystem. As earthworms are the preferred food of moles, they provide the major source of ingested metals to these animals. The food chain involving earthworms and moles provides an example of a critical pathway for potentially toxic non-essential metals such as cadmium and lead.

  11. Whack-A-Mole Model: Towards a Unified Description of Biological Effects Caused by Radiation Exposure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manabe, Yuichiro; Wada, Takahiro; Tsunoyama, Yuichi; Nakajima, Hiroo; Nakamura, Issei; Bando, Masako

    2015-04-01

    We present a novel model to for estimating biological effects caused by artificial radiation exposure, i.e., the Whack-A-Mole (WAM) model. It is important to take into account the recovery effects during the time course of cellular reactions. The inclusion of dose-rate dependence is essential in the risk estimation of low-dose radiation, while nearly all the existing theoretical models rely on the total dose dependence only. By analyzing experimental data of the relationship between the radiation dose and the induced mutation frequency of five organisms, namely, mouse, Drosophila, chrysanthemum, maize, Tradescantia, we found that all the data can be reproduced by the WAM model. Most remarkably, a scaling function, which is derived from the WAM model, consistently accounts for the observed mutation frequencies of the five organisms. This is the first rationale to account for the dose rate dependence as well as to provide a unified understanding of a general feature of organisms.

  12. Hyaluronan in cancer - from the naked mole rat to nanoparticle therapy.

    PubMed

    Rankin, Kenneth S; Frankel, Daniel

    2016-05-01

    Hyaluronan, a glycosaminoglycan, abundant in the tumour microenvironment, is a key player in many processes associated with cancer. Recently the cancer resistance of the naked mole rat has been attributed to the presence of an ultra-high molecular weight form of this molecule. The physical properties of this multifunctional biopolymer have been extensively studied in the context of synovial joints. However, relatively little has been reported with regard to the soft matter properties of hyaluronan in relation to cancer. In this review we examine the role of hyaluronan in cancer, paying particular attention to its mechanical interactions with malignant cells and its soft matter properties. In addition we discuss the use of hyaluronan based gels to study cancer invasion as well as nanoparticle based strategies for disease treatment. PMID:27079782

  13. Genome-wide adaptive complexes to underground stresses in blind mole rats Spalax.

    PubMed

    Fang, Xiaodong; Nevo, Eviatar; Han, Lijuan; Levanon, Erez Y; Zhao, Jing; Avivi, Aaron; Larkin, Denis; Jiang, Xuanting; Feranchuk, Sergey; Zhu, Yabing; Fishman, Alla; Feng, Yue; Sher, Noa; Xiong, Zhiqiang; Hankeln, Thomas; Huang, Zhiyong; Gorbunova, Vera; Zhang, Lu; Zhao, Wei; Wildman, Derek E; Xiong, Yingqi; Gudkov, Andrei; Zheng, Qiumei; Rechavi, Gideon; Liu, Sanyang; Bazak, Lily; Chen, Jie; Knisbacher, Binyamin A; Lu, Yao; Shams, Imad; Gajda, Krzysztof; Farré, Marta; Kim, Jaebum; Lewin, Harris A; Ma, Jian; Band, Mark; Bicker, Anne; Kranz, Angela; Mattheus, Tobias; Schmidt, Hanno; Seluanov, Andrei; Azpurua, Jorge; McGowen, Michael R; Ben Jacob, Eshel; Li, Kexin; Peng, Shaoliang; Zhu, Xiaoqian; Liao, Xiangke; Li, Shuaicheng; Krogh, Anders; Zhou, Xin; Brodsky, Leonid; Wang, Jun

    2014-01-01

    The blind mole rat (BMR), Spalax galili, is an excellent model for studying mammalian adaptation to life underground and medical applications. The BMR spends its entire life underground, protecting itself from predators and climatic fluctuations while challenging it with multiple stressors such as darkness, hypoxia, hypercapnia, energetics and high pathonecity. Here we sequence and analyse the BMR genome and transcriptome, highlighting the possible genomic adaptive responses to the underground stressors. Our results show high rates of RNA/DNA editing, reduced chromosome rearrangements, an over-representation of short interspersed elements (SINEs) probably linked to hypoxia tolerance, degeneration of vision and progression of photoperiodic perception, tolerance to hypercapnia and hypoxia and resistance to cancer. The remarkable traits of the BMR, together with its genomic and transcriptomic information, enhance our understanding of adaptation to extreme environments and will enable the utilization of BMR models for biomedical research in the fight against cancer, stroke and cardiovascular diseases. PMID:24892994

  14. On the dimensionality of the Avogadro constant and the definition of the mole

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wheatley, Nigel

    2011-06-01

    There is a common misconception among educators, and even some metrologists, that the Avogadro constant NA is (or should be) a pure number, and not a constant of dimension N-1 (where N is the dimension amount of substance). Amount of substance is (and always has been) measured as a ratio of other physical quantities, and not in terms of a specified pure number of elementary entities. Hence the Avogadro constant has always been defined in terms of the unit of amount of substance, and not vice versa. The proposed redefinition of the mole in terms of a fixed value of the Avogadro constant is examined, and it is shown that such a redefinition would not bring any significant metrological benefit. It is contended that such a redefinition would only add to the confusion in this field, and so should be rejected.

  15. Determinants of helminth infection in a subterranean rodent, the Cape dune mole-rat ( Bathyergus suillus ).

    PubMed

    Lutermann, Heike; Bennett, Nigel C

    2012-06-01

    The helminth fauna of the largest bathyergid, the Cape mole-rat ( Bathyergus suillus ) was studied throughout an entire calendar year. The species richness encountered was low, with only 3 species of nematodes ( Longistriata bathyergi , Mammalakis macrospiculum, and Trichostrongylus sp.) and 2 species of cestodes ( Taenia sp. and Rodentolepis sp.). At less than 10%, the prevalence for all helminths species was similarly low and may be a result of the solitary lifestyle and the subterranean habitat exploited by this rodent. Clear seasonal patterns were apparent for the most common nematode ( L. bathyergi ), and prevalence and abundance were highest among non-pregnant females compared to males and pregnant females. Dispersal patterns associated with the mating system of the host could explain this pattern. In contrast, the prevalence of the most common cestode ( Taenia sp.) was neither determined by season nor host sex, suggesting that foraging habits may constantly expose B. suillus to this parasite. PMID:22263622

  16. Ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome in a spontaneous pregnancy with invasive mole: report of a case.

    PubMed

    Rachad, Myriam; Chaara, Hikmat; Zahra Fdili, Fatim; Bouguern, Hakima; Melhouf, Abdilah

    2011-01-01

    It is known that most cases of Ovarian Hyperstimulation Syndrome (OHSS) are associated with the therapies for ovulation induction. However, OHSS may rarely be associated with a spontaneous ovulatory cycle, usually in the case of multiple gestations, hypothyroidism or polycystic ovary syndrome. We report a case of severe OHSS in spontaneous pregnancy with invasive mole in a 34 years old woman. The clinical picture showed abdominal pain, massive ascites, nausea, dyspnea and amenorrhea. After imaging examinations and laboratory tests, the diagnosis was established. The patient was managed expectantly with no complications. Although spontaneous ovarian hyperstimulation is a rare entity, it is important that the physician recognizes this condition. Prompt diagnosis and successful management is likely to avoid serious complications, which may develop rapidly. PMID:22355432

  17. Ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome in a spontaneous pregnancy with invasive mole: report of a case

    PubMed Central

    Rachad, Myriam; Chaara, Hikmat; Zahra Fdili, Fatim; Bouguern, Hakima; Melhouf, Abdilah

    2011-01-01

    It is known that most cases of Ovarian Hyperstimulation Syndrome (OHSS) are associated with the therapies for ovulation induction. However, OHSS may rarely be associated with a spontaneous ovulatory cycle, usually in the case of multiple gestations, hypothyroidism or polycystic ovary syndrome. We report a case of severe OHSS in spontaneous pregnancy with invasive mole in a 34 years old woman. The clinical picture showed abdominal pain, massive ascites, nausea, dyspnea and amenorrhea. After imaging examinations and laboratory tests, the diagnosis was established. The patient was managed expectantly with no complications. Although spontaneous ovarian hyperstimulation is a rare entity, it is important that the physician recognizes this condition. Prompt diagnosis and successful management is likely to avoid serious complications, which may develop rapidly. PMID:22355432

  18. Fingerprinting: Modelling and mapping physical top soil properties with the Mole

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Loonstra, Eddie; van Egmond, Fenny

    2010-05-01

    The Mole is a passive gamma ray soil sensor system. It is designed for the mobile collection of radioactive energy stemming from soil. As the system is passive, it only measures energy that reaches the surface of soil. In general, this energy comes from upto 30 to 40 cm deep, which can be considered topsoil. The gathered energy spectra are logged every second, are processed with the method of Full Spectrum Analysis. This method uses all available spectral data and processes it with a Chi square optimalisation using a set of standard spectra into individual nuclide point data. A standard spectrum is the measured full spectrum of a specific detector derived when exposed to 1 Bq/kg of a nuclide. With this method the outcome of the surveys become quantitative.The outcome of a field survey with the Mole results in a data file containing point information of position, Total Counts and the decay products of 232Th, 238U, 40K and 137Cs. Five elements are therefor available for the modelling of soil properties. There are several ways for the modelling of soil properties with sensor derived gamma ray data. The Mole generates ratio scale output. For modelling a quantitative deterministic approach is used based on sample locations. This process is called fingerprinting. Fingerprinting is a comparison of the concentration of the radioactive trace elements and the lab results (pH, clay content, etc.) by regression analysis. This results in a mathematical formula describing the relationship between a dependent and independent property. The results of the sensor readings are interpolated into a nuclide map with GIS software. With the derived formula a soil property map is composed. The principle of fingerprinting can be applied on large geographical areas for physical soil properties such as clay, loam or sand (50 micron), grain size and organic matter. Collected sample data of previous field surveys within the same region can be used for the prediction of soil properties elsewhere

  19. Absolute and relative dosimetry for ELIMED

    SciTech Connect

    Cirrone, G. A. P.; Schillaci, F.; Scuderi, V.; Cuttone, G.; Candiano, G.; Musumarra, A.; Pisciotta, P.; Romano, F.; Carpinelli, M.; Presti, D. Lo; Raffaele, L.; Tramontana, A.; Cirio, R.; Sacchi, R.; Monaco, V.; Marchetto, F.; Giordanengo, S.

    2013-07-26

    The definition of detectors, methods and procedures for the absolute and relative dosimetry of laser-driven proton beams is a crucial step toward the clinical use of this new kind of beams. Hence, one of the ELIMED task, will be the definition of procedures aiming to obtain an absolute dose measure at the end of the transport beamline with an accuracy as close as possible to the one required for clinical applications (i.e. of the order of 5% or less). Relative dosimetry procedures must be established, as well: they are necessary in order to determine and verify the beam dose distributions and to monitor the beam fluence and the energetic spectra during irradiations. Radiochromic films, CR39, Faraday Cup, Secondary Emission Monitor (SEM) and transmission ionization chamber will be considered, designed and studied in order to perform a fully dosimetric characterization of the ELIMED proton beam.

  20. Probing absolute spin polarization at the nanoscale.

    PubMed

    Eltschka, Matthias; Jäck, Berthold; Assig, Maximilian; Kondrashov, Oleg V; Skvortsov, Mikhail A; Etzkorn, Markus; Ast, Christian R; Kern, Klaus

    2014-12-10

    Probing absolute values of spin polarization at the nanoscale offers insight into the fundamental mechanisms of spin-dependent transport. Employing the Zeeman splitting in superconducting tips (Meservey-Tedrow-Fulde effect), we introduce a novel spin-polarized scanning tunneling microscopy that combines the probing capability of the absolute values of spin polarization with precise control at the atomic scale. We utilize our novel approach to measure the locally resolved spin polarization of magnetic Co nanoislands on Cu(111). We find that the spin polarization is enhanced by 65% when increasing the width of the tunnel barrier by only 2.3 Å due to the different decay of the electron orbitals into vacuum. PMID:25423049

  1. Absolute-magnitude distributions of supernovae

    SciTech Connect

    Richardson, Dean; Wright, John; Jenkins III, Robert L.; Maddox, Larry

    2014-05-01

    The absolute-magnitude distributions of seven supernova (SN) types are presented. The data used here were primarily taken from the Asiago Supernova Catalogue, but were supplemented with additional data. We accounted for both foreground and host-galaxy extinction. A bootstrap method is used to correct the samples for Malmquist bias. Separately, we generate volume-limited samples, restricted to events within 100 Mpc. We find that the superluminous events (M{sub B} < –21) make up only about 0.1% of all SNe in the bias-corrected sample. The subluminous events (M{sub B} > –15) make up about 3%. The normal Ia distribution was the brightest with a mean absolute blue magnitude of –19.25. The IIP distribution was the dimmest at –16.75.

  2. Absolute radiometry and the solar constant

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Willson, R. C.

    1974-01-01

    A series of active cavity radiometers (ACRs) are described which have been developed as standard detectors for the accurate measurement of irradiance in absolute units. It is noted that the ACR is an electrical substitution calorimeter, is designed for automatic remote operation in any environment, and can make irradiance measurements in the range from low-level IR fluxes up to 30 solar constants with small absolute uncertainty. The instrument operates in a differential mode by chopping the radiant flux to be measured at a slow rate, and irradiance is determined from two electrical power measurements together with the instrumental constant. Results are reported for measurements of the solar constant with two types of ACRs. The more accurate measurement yielded a value of 136.6 plus or minus 0.7 mW/sq cm (1.958 plus or minus 0.010 cal/sq cm per min).

  3. Asteroid absolute magnitudes and slope parameters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tedesco, Edward F.

    1991-01-01

    A new listing of absolute magnitudes (H) and slope parameters (G) has been created and published in the Minor Planet Circulars; this same listing will appear in the 1992 Ephemerides of Minor Planets. Unlike previous listings, the values of the current list were derived from fits of data at the V band. All observations were reduced in the same fashion using, where appropriate, a single basis default value of 0.15 for the slope parameter. Distances and phase angles were computed for each observation. The data for 113 asteroids was of sufficiently high quality to permit derivation of their H and G. These improved absolute magnitudes and slope parameters will be used to deduce the most reliable bias-corrected asteroid size-frequency distribution yet made.

  4. Absolute calibration of TFTR helium proportional counters

    SciTech Connect

    Strachan, J.D.; Diesso, M.; Jassby, D.; Johnson, L.; McCauley, S.; Munsat, T.; Roquemore, A.L.; Barnes, C.W. |; Loughlin, M. |

    1995-06-01

    The TFTR helium proportional counters are located in the central five (5) channels of the TFTR multichannel neutron collimator. These detectors were absolutely calibrated using a 14 MeV neutron generator positioned at the horizontal midplane of the TFTR vacuum vessel. The neutron generator position was scanned in centimeter steps to determine the collimator aperture width to 14 MeV neutrons and the absolute sensitivity of each channel. Neutron profiles were measured for TFTR plasmas with time resolution between 5 msec and 50 msec depending upon count rates. The He detectors were used to measure the burnup of 1 MeV tritons in deuterium plasmas, the transport of tritium in trace tritium experiments, and the residual tritium levels in plasmas following 50:50 DT experiments.

  5. Absolute enantioselective separation: optical activity ex machina.

    PubMed

    Bielski, Roman; Tencer, Michal

    2005-11-01

    The paper describes methodology of using three independent macroscopic factors affecting molecular orientation to accomplish separation of a racemic mixture without the presence of any other chiral compounds, i. e., absolute enantioselective separation (AES) which is an extension of a concept of applying these factors to absolute asymmetric synthesis. The three factors may be applied simultaneously or, if their effects can be retained, consecutively. The resulting three mutually orthogonal or near orthogonal directors constitute a true chiral influence and their scalar triple product is the measure of the chirality of the system. AES can be executed in a chromatography-like microfluidic process in the presence of an electric field. It may be carried out on a chemically modified flat surface, a monolithic polymer column made of a mesoporous material, each having imparted directional properties. Separation parameters were estimated for these media and possible implications for the natural homochirality are discussed. PMID:16342798

  6. An absolute measure for a key currency

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oya, Shunsuke; Aihara, Kazuyuki; Hirata, Yoshito

    It is generally considered that the US dollar and the euro are the key currencies in the world and in Europe, respectively. However, there is no absolute general measure for a key currency. Here, we investigate the 24-hour periodicity of foreign exchange markets using a recurrence plot, and define an absolute measure for a key currency based on the strength of the periodicity. Moreover, we analyze the time evolution of this measure. The results show that the credibility of the US dollar has not decreased significantly since the Lehman shock, when the Lehman Brothers bankrupted and influenced the economic markets, and has increased even relatively better than that of the euro and that of the Japanese yen.

  7. From Hubble's NGSL to Absolute Fluxes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heap, Sara R.; Lindler, Don

    2012-01-01

    Hubble's Next Generation Spectral Library (NGSL) consists of R-l000 spectra of 374 stars of assorted temperature, gravity, and metallicity. Each spectrum covers the wavelength range, 0.18-1.00 microns. The library can be viewed and/or downloaded from the website, http://archive.stsci.edu/prepds/stisngsll. Stars in the NGSL are now being used as absolute flux standards at ground-based observatories. However, the uncertainty in the absolute flux is about 2%, which does not meet the requirements of dark-energy surveys. We are therefore developing an observing procedure that should yield fluxes with uncertainties less than 1 % and will take part in an HST proposal to observe up to 15 stars using this new procedure.

  8. Middle ear dynamics in response to seismic stimuli in the Cape golden mole (Chrysochloris asiatica).

    PubMed

    Willi, U B; Bronner, G N; Narins, P M

    2006-01-01

    The hypertrophied malleus in the middle ear of some golden moles has been assumed to be an adaptation for sensing substrate vibrations by inertial bone conduction, but this has never been conclusively demonstrated. The Cape golden mole (Chrysochloris asiatica) exhibits this anatomical specialization, and the dynamic properties of its middle ear response to vibrations were the subjects of this study. Detailed three-dimensional middle ear anatomy was obtained by x-ray microcomputed tomography (muCT) at a resolution of 12 microm. The ossicular chain exhibits large malleus mass, selective reduction of stiffness and displacement of the center of mass from the suspension points, all favoring low-frequency tuning of the middle ear response. Orientation of the stapes relative to the ossicular chain and the structure of the stapes footplate enable transmission of substrate vibrations arriving from multiple directions to the inner ear. With the long axes of the mallei aligned parallel to the surface, the animal's head was stimulated by a vibration exciter in the vertical and lateral directions over a frequency range from 10 to 600 Hz. The ossicular chain was shown to respond to both vertical and lateral vibrations. Resonant frequencies were found between 71 and 200 Hz and did not differ significantly between the two stimulation directions. Below resonance, the ossicular chain moves in phase with the skull. Near resonance and above, the malleus moves at a significantly larger mean amplitude (5.8+/-2.8 dB) in response to lateral vs vertical stimuli and is 180 degrees out of phase with the skull in both cases. A concise summary of the propagation characteristics of both seismic body (P-waves) and surface (R-waves) is provided. Potential mechanisms by which the animal might exploit the differential response of the ossicular chain to vertical and lateral excitation are discussed in relation to the properties of surface seismic waves. PMID:16391352

  9. Social and Hormonal Triggers of Neural Plasticity in Naked Mole-Rats

    PubMed Central

    Holmes, Melissa M.; Seney, Marianne L.; Goldman, Bruce D.; Forger, Nancy G.

    2010-01-01

    Naked mole-rats are eusocial rodents that live in large social groups with a strict reproductive hierarchy. In each colony only a few individuals breed; all others are non-reproductive subordinates. We previously showed that breeders have increased volume of several brain regions linked to reproduction: the paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus (PVN), the principal nucleus of the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (BSTp), and the medial amygdala (MeA). Breeders also have more large motoneurons in Onuf’s nucleus (ON) in the spinal cord, a cell group innervating perineal muscles that attach to the genitalia. Here, we sought to determine triggers for the neural changes seen in breeders. Specifically, we compared four groups of animals: subordinates, paired animals that did not reproduce, gonadally intact breeders, and gonadectomized breeders. We find that pairing alone is sufficient to cause breeder-like changes in volume of the PVN and cell size distribution in ON. In contrast, increases in BSTp volume were seen only in animals that actually reproduced. Those changes that were seen in successful breeders appear to be independent of gonadal steroids because long-term gonadectomy did not reverse the breeder-like neural changes in the PVN, BSTp or ON, although a trend for gonadectomized animals having larger MeA volumes was detected. Thus, neural changes associated with breeding status in naked mole-rats may be triggered by different aspects of the social and reproductive environment; once changes occur they are largely independent of gonadal hormones and may be permanent. PMID:21130812

  10. Molecular basis of a novel adaptation to hypoxic-hypercapnia in a strictly fossorial mole

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Elevated blood O2 affinity enhances survival at low O2 pressures, and is perhaps the best known and most broadly accepted evolutionary adjustment of terrestrial vertebrates to environmental hypoxia. This phenotype arises by increasing the intrinsic O2 affinity of the hemoglobin (Hb) molecule, by decreasing the intracellular concentration of allosteric effectors (e.g., 2,3-diphosphoglycerate; DPG), or by suppressing the sensitivity of Hb to these physiological cofactors. Results Here we report that strictly fossorial eastern moles (Scalopus aquaticus) have evolved a low O2 affinity, DPG-insensitive Hb - contrary to expectations for a mammalian species that is adapted to the chronic hypoxia and hypercapnia of subterranean burrow systems. Molecular modelling indicates that this functional shift is principally attributable to a single charge altering amino acid substitution in the β-type δ-globin chain (δ136Gly→Glu) of this species that perturbs electrostatic interactions between the dimer subunits via formation of an intra-chain salt-bridge with δ82Lys. However, this replacement also abolishes key binding sites for the red blood cell effectors Cl-, lactate and DPG (the latter of which is virtually absent from the red cells of this species) at δ82Lys, thereby markedly reducing competition for carbamate formation (CO2 binding) at the δ-chain N-termini. Conclusions We propose this Hb phenotype illustrates a novel mechanism for adaptively elevating the CO2 carrying capacity of eastern mole blood during burst tunnelling activities associated with subterranean habitation. PMID:20637064

  11. Adaptation of Pelage Color and Pigment Variations in Israeli Subterranean Blind Mole Rats, Spalax Ehrenbergi

    PubMed Central

    Singaravelan, Natarajan; Raz, Shmuel; Tzur, Shay; Belifante, Shirli; Pavlicek, Tomas; Beiles, Avigdor; Ito, Shosuke; Wakamatsu, Kazumasa; Nevo, Eviatar

    2013-01-01

    Background Concealing coloration in rodents is well established. However, only a few studies examined how soil color, pelage color, hair-melanin content, and genetics (i.e., the causal chain) synergize to configure it. This study investigates the causal chain of dorsal coloration in Israeli subterranean blind mole rats, Spalax ehrenbergi. Methods We examined pelage coloration of 128 adult animals from 11 populations belonging to four species of Spalax ehrenbergi superspecies (Spalax galili, Spalax golani, Spalax carmeli, and Spalax judaei) and the corresponding coloration of soil samples from the collection sites using a digital colorimeter. Additionally, we quantified hair-melanin contents of 67 animals using HPLC and sequenced the MC1R gene in 68 individuals from all four mole rat species. Results Due to high variability of soil colors, the correlation between soil and pelage color coordinates was weak and significant only between soil hue and pelage lightness. Multiple stepwise forward regression revealed that soil lightness was significantly associated with all pelage color variables. Pelage color lightness among the four species increased with the higher southward aridity in accordance to Gloger's rule (darker in humid habitats and lighter in arid habitats). Darker and lighter pelage colors are associated with darker basalt and terra rossa, and lighter rendzina soils, respectively. Despite soil lightness varying significantly, pelage lightness and eumelanin converged among populations living in similar soil types. Partial sequencing of the MC1R gene identified three allelic variants, two of which were predominant in northern species (S. galili and S. golani), and the third was exclusive to southern species (S. carmeli and S. judaei), which might have caused the differences found in pheomelanin/eumelanin ratio. Conclusion/Significance Darker dorsal pelage in darker basalt and terra rossa soils in the north and lighter pelage in rendzina and loess soils in the

  12. Transcriptome, genetic editing, and microRNA divergence substantiate sympatric speciation of blind mole rat, Spalax.

    PubMed

    Li, Kexin; Wang, Liuyang; Knisbacher, Binyamin A; Xu, Qinqin; Levanon, Erez Y; Wang, Huihua; Frenkel-Morgenstern, Milana; Tagore, Satabdi; Fang, Xiaodong; Bazak, Lily; Buchumenski, Ilana; Zhao, Yang; Lövy, Matěj; Li, Xiangfeng; Han, Lijuan; Frenkel, Zeev; Beiles, Avigdor; Cao, Yi Bin; Wang, Zhen Long; Nevo, Eviatar

    2016-07-01

    Incipient sympatric speciation in blind mole rat, Spalax galili, in Israel, caused by sharp ecological divergence of abutting chalk-basalt ecologies, has been proposed previously based on mitochondrial and whole-genome nuclear DNA. Here, we present new evidence, including transcriptome, DNA editing, microRNA, and codon usage, substantiating earlier evidence for adaptive divergence in the abutting chalk and basalt populations. Genetic divergence, based on the previous and new evidence, is ongoing despite restricted gene flow between the two populations. The principal component analysis, neighbor-joining tree, and genetic structure analysis of the transcriptome clearly show the clustered divergent two mole rat populations. Gene-expression level analysis indicates that the population transcriptome divergence is displayed not only by soil divergence but also by sex. Gene ontology enrichment of the differentially expressed genes from the two abutting soil populations highlights reproductive isolation. Alternative splicing variation of the two abutting soil populations displays two distinct splicing patterns. L-shaped FST distribution indicates that the two populations have undergone divergence with gene flow. Transcriptome divergent genes highlight neurogenetics and nutrition characterizing the chalk population, and energetics, metabolism, musculature, and sensory perception characterizing the abutting basalt population. Remarkably, microRNAs also display divergence between the two populations. The GC content is significantly higher in chalk than in basalt, and stress-response genes mostly prefer nonoptimal codons. The multiple lines of evidence of ecological-genomic and genetic divergence highlight that natural selection overrules the gene flow between the two abutting populations, substantiating the sharp ecological chalk-basalt divergence driving sympatric speciation. PMID:27339131

  13. Metallic Magnetic Calorimeters for Absolute Activity Measurement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Loidl, M.; Leblanc, E.; Rodrigues, M.; Bouchard, J.; Censier, B.; Branger, T.; Lacour, D.

    2008-05-01

    We present a prototype of metallic magnetic calorimeters that we are developing for absolute activity measurements of low energy emitting radionuclides. We give a detailed description of the realization of the prototype, containing an 55Fe source inside the detector absorber. We present the analysis of first data taken with this detector and compare the result of activity measurement with liquid scintillation counting. We also propose some ways for reducing the uncertainty on the activity determination with this new technique.

  14. Absolute photoionization cross sections of atomic oxygen

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Samson, J. A. R.; Pareek, P. N.

    1985-01-01

    The absolute values of photoionization cross sections of atomic oxygen were measured from the ionization threshold to 120 A. An auto-ionizing resonance belonging to the 2S2P4(4P)3P(3Do, 3So) transition was observed at 479.43 A and another line at 389.97 A. The experimental data is in excellent agreement with rigorous close-coupling calculations that include electron correlations in both the initial and final states.

  15. Absolute photoionization cross sections of atomic oxygen

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Samson, J. A. R.; Pareek, P. N.

    1982-01-01

    The absolute values of photoionization cross sections of atomic oxygen were measured from the ionization threshold to 120 A. An auto-ionizing resonance belonging to the 2S2P4(4P)3P(3Do, 3So) transition was observed at 479.43 A and another line at 389.97 A. The experimental data is in excellent agreement with rigorous close-coupling calculations that include electron correlations in both the initial and final states.

  16. Silicon Absolute X-Ray Detectors

    SciTech Connect

    Seely, John F.; Korde, Raj; Sprunck, Jacob; Medjoubi, Kadda; Hustache, Stephanie

    2010-06-23

    The responsivity of silicon photodiodes having no loss in the entrance window, measured using synchrotron radiation in the 1.75 to 60 keV range, was compared to the responsivity calculated using the silicon thickness measured using near-infrared light. The measured and calculated responsivities agree with an average difference of 1.3%. This enables their use as absolute x-ray detectors.

  17. Blood pressure targets and absolute cardiovascular risk.

    PubMed

    Odutayo, Ayodele; Rahimi, Kazem; Hsiao, Allan J; Emdin, Connor A

    2015-08-01

    In the Eighth Joint National Committee guideline on hypertension, the threshold for the initiation of blood pressure-lowering treatment for elderly adults (≥60 years) without chronic kidney disease or diabetes mellitus was raised from 140/90 mm Hg to 150/90 mm Hg. However, the committee was not unanimous in this decision, particularly because a large proportion of adults ≥60 years may be at high cardiovascular risk. On the basis of Eighth Joint National Committee guideline, we sought to determine the absolute 10-year risk of cardiovascular disease among these adults through analyzing the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (2005-2012). The primary outcome measure was the proportion of adults who were at ≥20% predicted absolute cardiovascular risk and above goals for the Seventh Joint National Committee guideline but reclassified as at target under the Eighth Joint National Committee guideline (reclassified). The Framingham General Cardiovascular Disease Risk Score was used. From 2005 to 2012, the surveys included 12 963 adults aged 30 to 74 years with blood pressure measurements, of which 914 were reclassified based on the guideline. Among individuals reclassified as not in need of additional treatment, the proportion of adults 60 to 74 years without chronic kidney disease or diabetes mellitus at ≥20% absolute risk was 44.8%. This corresponds to 0.8 million adults. The proportion at high cardiovascular risk remained sizable among adults who were not receiving blood pressure-lowering treatment. Taken together, a sizable proportion of reclassified adults 60 to 74 years without chronic kidney disease or diabetes mellitus was at ≥20% absolute cardiovascular risk. PMID:26056340

  18. Relative errors can cue absolute visuomotor mappings.

    PubMed

    van Dam, Loes C J; Ernst, Marc O

    2015-12-01

    When repeatedly switching between two visuomotor mappings, e.g. in a reaching or pointing task, adaptation tends to speed up over time. That is, when the error in the feedback corresponds to a mapping switch, fast adaptation occurs. Yet, what is learned, the relative error or the absolute mappings? When switching between mappings, errors with a size corresponding to the relative difference between the mappings will occur more often than other large errors. Thus, we could learn to correct more for errors with this familiar size (Error Learning). On the other hand, it has been shown that the human visuomotor system can store several absolute visuomotor mappings (Mapping Learning) and can use associated contextual cues to retrieve them. Thus, when contextual information is present, no error feedback is needed to switch between mappings. Using a rapid pointing task, we investigated how these two types of learning may each contribute when repeatedly switching between mappings in the absence of task-irrelevant contextual cues. After training, we examined how participants changed their behaviour when a single error probe indicated either the often-experienced error (Error Learning) or one of the previously experienced absolute mappings (Mapping Learning). Results were consistent with Mapping Learning despite the relative nature of the error information in the feedback. This shows that errors in the feedback can have a double role in visuomotor behaviour: they drive the general adaptation process by making corrections possible on subsequent movements, as well as serve as contextual cues that can signal a learned absolute mapping. PMID:26280315

  19. Absolute distance measurements by variable wavelength interferometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bien, F.; Camac, M.; Caulfield, H. J.; Ezekiel, S.

    1981-02-01

    This paper describes a laser interferometer which provides absolute distance measurements using tunable lasers. An active feedback loop system, in which the laser frequency is locked to the optical path length difference of the interferometer, is used to tune the laser wavelengths. If the two wavelengths are very close, electronic frequency counters can be used to measure the beat frequency between the two laser frequencies and thus to determine the optical path difference between the two legs of the interferometer.

  20. Absolute dosimetry for extreme-ultraviolet lithography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berger, Kurt W.; Campiotti, Richard H.

    2000-06-01

    The accurate measurement of an exposure dose reaching the wafer on an extreme ultraviolet (EUV) lithographic system has been a technical challenge directly applicable to the evaluation of candidate EUV resist materials and calculating lithography system throughputs. We have developed a dose monitoring sensor system that can directly measure EUV intensities at the wafer plane of a prototype EUV lithographic system. This sensor system, located on the wafer stage adjacent to the electrostatic chuck used to grip wafers, operates by translating the sensor into the aerial image, typically illuminating an 'open' (unpatterned) area on the reticle. The absolute signal strength can be related to energy density at the wafer, and thus used to determine resist sensitivity, and the signal as a function of position can be used to determine illumination uniformity at the wafer plane. Spectral filtering to enhance the detection of 13.4 nm radiation was incorporated into the sensor. Other critical design parameters include the packaging and amplification technologies required to place this device into the space and vacuum constraints of a EUV lithography environment. We describe two approaches used to determine the absolute calibration of this sensor. The first conventional approach requires separate characterization of each element of the sensor. A second novel approach uses x-ray emission from a mildly radioactive iron source to calibrate the absolute response of the entire sensor system (detector and electronics) in a single measurement.

  1. The possibility of constructing the hydrogen scale of the absolute atomic masses of the elements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuz'min, I. I.

    2009-12-01

    The paper presents a scheme for the experimental-empirical construction of the existing chemical, physical, and carbon scales of the relative nonintegral atomic masses of the elements. The quantitative interrelation between the nonintegral relative atomic masses, their minimized fractional positive and negative natural deviations from integral numbers, and their integral parts are reproduced mathematically. Nonisotopic fractional deviations are shown to be a consequence of methodological side effects of the scheme for theoretical processing of the data of thorough physical and chemical measurements performed by Stas and Aston in constructing scales of relative atomic masses. In conformity with the Prout hypothesis, the absolute atomic mass unit and the corresponding Avogadro’s number value are suggested for the construction of the hydrogen scale of absolute atomic masses of nonisotopic elements, individual isotopes, and isotope-containing elements.

  2. Fractional vector calculus and fractional Maxwell's equations

    SciTech Connect

    Tarasov, Vasily E.

    2008-11-15

    The theory of derivatives and integrals of non-integer order goes back to Leibniz, Liouville, Grunwald, Letnikov and Riemann. The history of fractional vector calculus (FVC) has only 10 years. The main approaches to formulate a FVC, which are used in the physics during the past few years, will be briefly described in this paper. We solve some problems of consistent formulations of FVC by using a fractional generalization of the Fundamental Theorem of Calculus. We define the differential and integral vector operations. The fractional Green's, Stokes' and Gauss's theorems are formulated. The proofs of these theorems are realized for simplest regions. A fractional generalization of exterior differential calculus of differential forms is discussed. Fractional nonlocal Maxwell's equations and the corresponding fractional wave equations are considered.

  3. Initialized Fractional Calculus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lorenzo, Carl F.; Hartley, Tom T.

    2000-01-01

    This paper demonstrates the need for a nonconstant initialization for the fractional calculus and establishes a basic definition set for the initialized fractional differintegral. This definition set allows the formalization of an initialized fractional calculus. Two basis calculi are considered; the Riemann-Liouville and the Grunwald fractional calculi. Two forms of initialization, terminal and side are developed.

  4. Tempered fractional calculus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sabzikar, Farzad; Meerschaert, Mark M.; Chen, Jinghua

    2015-07-01

    Fractional derivatives and integrals are convolutions with a power law. Multiplying by an exponential factor leads to tempered fractional derivatives and integrals. Tempered fractional diffusion equations, where the usual second derivative in space is replaced by a tempered fractional derivative, govern the limits of random walk models with an exponentially tempered power law jump distribution. The limiting tempered stable probability densities exhibit semi-heavy tails, which are commonly observed in finance. Tempered power law waiting times lead to tempered fractional time derivatives, which have proven useful in geophysics. The tempered fractional derivative or integral of a Brownian motion, called a tempered fractional Brownian motion, can exhibit semi-long range dependence. The increments of this process, called tempered fractional Gaussian noise, provide a useful new stochastic model for wind speed data. A tempered fractional difference forms the basis for numerical methods to solve tempered fractional diffusion equations, and it also provides a useful new correlation model in time series.

  5. Tempered fractional calculus

    SciTech Connect

    Sabzikar, Farzad; Meerschaert, Mark M.; Chen, Jinghua

    2015-07-15

    Fractional derivatives and integrals are convolutions with a power law. Multiplying by an exponential factor leads to tempered fractional derivatives and integrals. Tempered fractional diffusion equations, where the usual second derivative in space is replaced by a tempered fractional derivative, govern the limits of random walk models with an exponentially tempered power law jump distribution. The limiting tempered stable probability densities exhibit semi-heavy tails, which are commonly observed in finance. Tempered power law waiting times lead to tempered fractional time derivatives, which have proven useful in geophysics. The tempered fractional derivative or integral of a Brownian motion, called a tempered fractional Brownian motion, can exhibit semi-long range dependence. The increments of this process, called tempered fractional Gaussian noise, provide a useful new stochastic model for wind speed data. A tempered fractional difference forms the basis for numerical methods to solve tempered fractional diffusion equations, and it also provides a useful new correlation model in time series.

  6. A recurrent intragenic genomic duplication, other novel mutations in NLRP7 and imprinting defects in recurrent biparental hydatidiform moles

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A complete hydatidiform mole (CHM) is an abnormal pregnancy with hyperproliferative vesicular trophoblast and no fetal development. Most CHM are sporadic and androgenetic, but recurrent HM have biparental inheritance (BiHM) with disrupted DNA methylation at differentially methylated regions (DMRs) o...

  7. A Study Comparing the Efficacy of a Mole Ratio Flow Chart to Dimensional Analysis for Teaching Reaction Stoichiometry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wagner, Eugene P.

    2001-01-01

    Reaction stoichiometry calculations have always been difficult for students. Offers the use of a mole ratio flow chart (MRFC) as a logistical sequence of steps that incorporates molar proportions as alternative problem solving techniques to improve student understanding. Indicates that MRFC users performed as well on exam problems covering…

  8. Habitat and Burrow System Characteristics of the Blind Mole Rat Spalax galili in an Area of Supposed Sympatric Speciation

    PubMed Central

    Lövy, Matěj; Šklíba, Jan; Hrouzková, Ema; Dvořáková, Veronika; Nevo, Eviatar; Šumbera, Radim

    2015-01-01

    A costly search for food in subterranean rodents resulted in various adaptations improving their foraging success under given ecological conditions. In Spalax ehrenbergi superspecies, adaptations to local ecological conditions can promote speciation, which was recently supposed to occur even in sympatry at sites where two soil types of contrasting characteristics abut each other. Quantitative description of ecological conditions in such a site has been, nevertheless, missing. We measured characteristics of food supply and soil within 16 home ranges of blind mole rats Spalax galili in an area subdivided into two parts formed by basaltic soil and pale rendzina. We also mapped nine complete mole rat burrow systems to compare burrowing patterns between the soil types. Basaltic soil had a higher food supply and was harder than rendzina even under higher moisture content and lower bulk density. Population density of mole rats was five-times lower in rendzina, possibly due to the lower food supply and higher cover of Sarcopoterium shrubs which seem to be avoided by mole rats. A combination of food supply and soil parameters probably influences burrowing patterns resulting in shorter and more complex burrow systems in basaltic soil. PMID:26192762

  9. Shared Ancestry between a Newfound Mole-Borne Hantavirus and Hantaviruses Harbored by Cricetid Rodents ▿†

    PubMed Central

    Kang, Hae Ji; Bennett, Shannon N.; Hope, Andrew G.; Cook, Joseph A.; Yanagihara, Richard

    2011-01-01

    Discovery of genetically distinct hantaviruses in multiple species of shrews (order Soricomorpha, family Soricidae) and moles (family Talpidae) contests the conventional view that rodents (order Rodentia, families Muridae and Cricetidae) are the principal reservoir hosts and suggests that the evolutionary history of hantaviruses is far more complex than previously hypothesized. We now report on Rockport virus (RKPV), a hantavirus identified in archival tissues of the eastern mole (Scalopus aquaticus) collected in Rockport, TX, in 1986. Pairwise comparison of the full-length S, M, and L genomic segments indicated moderately low sequence similarity between RKPV and other soricomorph-borne hantaviruses. Phylogenetic analyses, using maximum-likelihood and Bayesian methods, showed that RKPV shared a most recent common ancestor with cricetid-rodent-borne hantaviruses. Distributed widely across the eastern United States, the fossorial eastern mole is sympatric and syntopic with cricetid rodents known to harbor hantaviruses, raising the possibility of host-switching events in the distant past. Our findings warrant more-detailed investigations on the dynamics of spillover and cross-species transmission of present-day hantaviruses within communities of rodents and moles. PMID:21632770

  10. A Modified Mole Cricket Lure and Description of Scapteriscus borellii (Orthoptera: Gryllotalpidae) Range Expansion and Calling Song in California

    PubMed Central

    Dillman, Adler R.; Cronin, Christopher J.; Tang, Joseph; Gray, David A.; Sternberg, Paul W.

    2014-01-01

    Invasive mole cricket species in the genus Scapteriscus have become significant agricultural pests and are continuing to expand their range in North America. Though largely subterranean, adults of some species such as S. borellii are capable of long dispersive flights and phonotaxis to male calling songs to find suitable habitats and mates. Mole crickets in the genus Scapteriscus are known to be attracted to and can be caught by audio lure traps that broadcast synthesized or recorded calling songs. We report improvements in the design and production of electronic controllers for the automation of semi-permanent mole cricket trap lures as well as highly portable audio trap collection designs. Using these improved audio lure traps we collected the first reported individuals of the pest mole cricket S. borellii in California. We describe several characteristic features of the calling song of the California population including that the pulse rate is a function of soil temperature, similar to Florida populations of S. borellii. Further, we show that other calling song characteristics (carrier frequency, intensity, and pulse rate) are significantly different between the populations. PMID:24472207

  11. Habitat and Burrow System Characteristics of the Blind Mole Rat Spalax galili in an Area of Supposed Sympatric Speciation.

    PubMed

    Lövy, Matěj; Šklíba, Jan; Hrouzková, Ema; Dvořáková, Veronika; Nevo, Eviatar; Šumbera, Radim

    2015-01-01

    A costly search for food in subterranean rodents resulted in various adaptations improving their foraging success under given ecological conditions. In Spalax ehrenbergi superspecies, adaptations to local ecological conditions can promote speciation, which was recently supposed to occur even in sympatry at sites where two soil types of contrasting characteristics abut each other. Quantitative description of ecological conditions in such a site has been, nevertheless, missing. We measured characteristics of food supply and soil within 16 home ranges of blind mole rats Spalax galili in an area subdivided into two parts formed by basaltic soil and pale rendzina. We also mapped nine complete mole rat burrow systems to compare burrowing patterns between the soil types. Basaltic soil had a higher food supply and was harder than rendzina even under higher moisture content and lower bulk density. Population density of mole rats was five-times lower in rendzina, possibly due to the lower food supply and higher cover of Sarcopoterium shrubs which seem to be avoided by mole rats. A combination of food supply and soil parameters probably influences burrowing patterns resulting in shorter and more complex burrow systems in basaltic soil. PMID:26192762

  12. Twin gestation with complete hydatidiform mole and a coexisting live fetus: case report and brief review of literature

    PubMed Central

    Makary, Raafat; Mohammadi, Amir; Rosa, Marilin; Shuja, Sania

    2010-01-01

    Complete hydatidiform (also referred to as hydatiform) mole with coexisting live fetus is an exceedingly rare event. The fetus usually has a normal karyotype, and approximately 25–40% chance of survival, if pregnancy is allowed to continue until reasonable fetal lung maturity is achieved. However, risk of maternal complications including preeclampsia and subsequent trophoblastic disease are significant. We report a case of a 19-year-old primigravida, at 25 weeks gestation with a complete hydatidiform mole and a coexisting live fetus. She developed severe preeclampsia with uncontrolled hypertension, and pregnancy was terminated by caesarean section, after a short course of dexamethasone to accelerate fetal lung maturity. A morphologically normal live female fetus and placenta were delivered without complications, along with a separate mass of complete mole. The postpartum course was complicated by uterine choriocarcinoma with metastases to lung and left kidney, which responded to chemotherapy. Our case is a rare example of a twin gestation composed of a complete hydatidiform mole with a coexisting live fetus, and illustrates the associated spectrum of maternal complications that mandate close pre- and post-natal surveillance.

  13. Clock time is absolute and universal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shen, Xinhang

    2015-09-01

    A critical error is found in the Special Theory of Relativity (STR): mixing up the concepts of the STR abstract time of a reference frame and the displayed time of a physical clock, which leads to use the properties of the abstract time to predict time dilation on physical clocks and all other physical processes. Actually, a clock can never directly measure the abstract time, but can only record the result of a physical process during a period of the abstract time such as the number of cycles of oscillation which is the multiplication of the abstract time and the frequency of oscillation. After Lorentz Transformation, the abstract time of a reference frame expands by a factor gamma, but the frequency of a clock decreases by the same factor gamma, and the resulting multiplication i.e. the displayed time of a moving clock remains unchanged. That is, the displayed time of any physical clock is an invariant of Lorentz Transformation. The Lorentz invariance of the displayed times of clocks can further prove within the framework of STR our earth based standard physical time is absolute, universal and independent of inertial reference frames as confirmed by both the physical fact of the universal synchronization of clocks on the GPS satellites and clocks on the earth, and the theoretical existence of the absolute and universal Galilean time in STR which has proved that time dilation and space contraction are pure illusions of STR. The existence of the absolute and universal time in STR has directly denied that the reference frame dependent abstract time of STR is the physical time, and therefore, STR is wrong and all its predictions can never happen in the physical world.

  14. Achieving Climate Change Absolute Accuracy in Orbit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wielicki, Bruce A.; Young, D. F.; Mlynczak, M. G.; Thome, K. J; Leroy, S.; Corliss, J.; Anderson, J. G.; Ao, C. O.; Bantges, R.; Best, F.; Bowman, K.; Brindley, H.; Butler, J. J.; Collins, W.; Dykema, J. A.; Doelling, D. R.; Feldman, D. R.; Fox, N.; Huang, X.; Holz, R.; Huang, Y.; Jennings, D.; Jin, Z.; Johnson, D. G.; Jucks, K.; Kato, S.; Kratz, D. P.; Liu, X.; Lukashin, C.; Mannucci, A. J.; Phojanamongkolkij, N.; Roithmayr, C. M.; Sandford, S.; Taylor, P. C.; Xiong, X.

    2013-01-01

    The Climate Absolute Radiance and Refractivity Observatory (CLARREO) mission will provide a calibration laboratory in orbit for the purpose of accurately measuring and attributing climate change. CLARREO measurements establish new climate change benchmarks with high absolute radiometric accuracy and high statistical confidence across a wide range of essential climate variables. CLARREO's inherently high absolute accuracy will be verified and traceable on orbit to Système Internationale (SI) units. The benchmarks established by CLARREO will be critical for assessing changes in the Earth system and climate model predictive capabilities for decades into the future as society works to meet the challenge of optimizing strategies for mitigating and adapting to climate change. The CLARREO benchmarks are derived from measurements of the Earth's thermal infrared spectrum (5-50 micron), the spectrum of solar radiation reflected by the Earth and its atmosphere (320-2300 nm), and radio occultation refractivity from which accurate temperature profiles are derived. The mission has the ability to provide new spectral fingerprints of climate change, as well as to provide the first orbiting radiometer with accuracy sufficient to serve as the reference transfer standard for other space sensors, in essence serving as a "NIST [National Institute of Standards and Technology] in orbit." CLARREO will greatly improve the accuracy and relevance of a wide range of space-borne instruments for decadal climate change. Finally, CLARREO has developed new metrics and methods for determining the accuracy requirements of climate observations for a wide range of climate variables and uncertainty sources. These methods should be useful for improving our understanding of observing requirements for most climate change observations.

  15. The National Geodetic Survey absolute gravity program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peter, George; Moose, Robert E.; Wessells, Claude W.

    1989-03-01

    The National Geodetic Survey absolute gravity program will utilize the high precision afforded by the JILAG-4 instrument to support geodetic and geophysical research, which involves studies of vertical motions, identification and modeling of other temporal variations, and establishment of reference values. The scientific rationale of these objectives is given, the procedures used to collect gravity and environmental data in the field are defined, and the steps necessary to correct and remove unwanted environmental effects are stated. In addition, site selection criteria, methods of concomitant environmental data collection and relative gravity observations, and schedule and logistics are discussed.

  16. An absolute radius scale for Saturn's rings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nicholson, Philip D.; Cooke, Maren L.; Pelton, Emily

    1990-01-01

    Radio and stellar occultation observations of Saturn's rings made by the Voyager spacecraft are discussed. The data reveal systematic discrepancies of almost 10 km in some parts of the rings, limiting some of the investigations. A revised solution for Saturn's rotation pole has been proposed which removes the discrepancies between the stellar and radio occultation profiles. Corrections to previously published radii vary from -2 to -10 km for the radio occultation, and +5 to -6 km for the stellar occultation. An examination of spiral density waves in the outer A Ring supports that the revised absolute radii are in error by no more than 2 km.

  17. Characterization of the DARA solar absolute radiometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Finsterle, W.; Suter, M.; Fehlmann, A.; Kopp, G.

    2011-12-01

    The Davos Absolute Radiometer (DARA) prototype is an Electrical Substitution Radiometer (ESR) which has been developed as a successor of the PMO6 type on future space missions and ground based TSI measurements. The DARA implements an improved thermal design of the cavity detector and heat sink assembly to minimize air-vacuum differences and to maximize thermal symmetry of measuring and compensating cavity. The DARA also employs an inverted viewing geometry to reduce internal stray light. We will report on the characterization and calibration experiments which were carried out at PMOD/WRC and LASP (TRF).

  18. Absolute calibration of the Auger fluorescence detectors

    SciTech Connect

    Bauleo, P.; Brack, J.; Garrard, L.; Harton, J.; Knapik, R.; Meyhandan, R.; Rovero, A.C.; Tamashiro, A.; Warner, D.

    2005-07-01

    Absolute calibration of the Pierre Auger Observatory fluorescence detectors uses a light source at the telescope aperture. The technique accounts for the combined effects of all detector components in a single measurement. The calibrated 2.5 m diameter light source fills the aperture, providing uniform illumination to each pixel. The known flux from the light source and the response of the acquisition system give the required calibration for each pixel. In the lab, light source uniformity is studied using CCD images and the intensity is measured relative to NIST-calibrated photodiodes. Overall uncertainties are presently 12%, and are dominated by systematics.

  19. Absolute angular positioning in ultrahigh vacuum

    SciTech Connect

    Schief, H.; Marsico, V.; Kern, K.

    1996-05-01

    Commercially available angular resolvers, which are routinely used in machine tools and robotics, are modified and adapted to be used under ultrahigh-vacuum (UHV) conditions. They provide straightforward and reliable measurements of angular positions for any kind of UHV sample manipulators. The corresponding absolute reproducibility is on the order of 0.005{degree}, whereas the relative resolution is better than 0.001{degree}, as demonstrated by high-resolution helium-reflectivity measurements. The mechanical setup and possible applications are discussed. {copyright} {ital 1996 American Institute of Physics.}

  20. Absolute method of measuring magnetic susceptibility

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Thorpe, A.; Senftle, F.E.

    1959-01-01

    An absolute method of standardization and measurement of the magnetic susceptibility of small samples is presented which can be applied to most techniques based on the Faraday method. The fact that the susceptibility is a function of the area under the curve of sample displacement versus distance of the magnet from the sample, offers a simple method of measuring the susceptibility without recourse to a standard sample. Typical results on a few substances are compared with reported values, and an error of less than 2% can be achieved. ?? 1959 The American Institute of Physics.

  1. Absolute Priority for a Vehicle in VANET

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shirani, Rostam; Hendessi, Faramarz; Montazeri, Mohammad Ali; Sheikh Zefreh, Mohammad

    In today's world, traffic jams waste hundreds of hours of our life. This causes many researchers try to resolve the problem with the idea of Intelligent Transportation System. For some applications like a travelling ambulance, it is important to reduce delay even for a second. In this paper, we propose a completely infrastructure-less approach for finding shortest path and controlling traffic light to provide absolute priority for an emergency vehicle. We use the idea of vehicular ad-hoc networking to reduce the imposed travelling time. Then, we simulate our proposed protocol and compare it with a centrally controlled traffic light system.

  2. HP3 on ExoMars - Cutting airbag cloths with the sharp tip of a mechanical mole

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krause, C.; Izzo, M.; Re, E.; Mehls, C.; Richter, L.; Coste, P.

    2009-04-01

    The HP3 - Heat Flow and Physical Properties Package - is planned to be one of the Humboldt lander-based instruments on the ESA ExoMars mission. HP3 will allow the measurement of the subsurface temperature gradient and physical as well as thermophysical properties of the subsurface regolith of Mars down to a depth of 5 meters. From these measurements, the planetary heat flux can be inferred. The HP³ instrument package consists of a mole trailing a package of thermal and electrical sensors into the regolith. Beside the payload elements Thermal Excitation and Measurement Suite and a Permittivity Probe the HP3 experiment includes sensors to detect the forward motion and the tilt of the HP3 payload compartment. The HP3 experiment will be integrated into the lander platform of the ExoMars mission. The original accommodation featured a deployment device or a robotic arm to place HP3 onto the soil outside the deflated lander airbags. To avoid adding such deployment devices, it was suggested that the HP3 mole should be capable of piercing the airbags under the lander. The ExoMars lander airbag is made of 4 Kevlar layers (2 abrasive and 2 bladders). A double fold of the airbag (a worst case) would represent a pile of 12 layers. An exploratory study has examined the possibility of piercing airbag cloths by adding sharp cutting blades on the tip of a penetrating mole. In the experimental setup representative layers were laid over a Mars soil simulant. Initial tests used a hammer-driven cutting tip and had moderate to poor results. More representative tests used a prototype of the HP3 mole and were fully successful: the default 4 layer configuration was pierced as well as the 12 layer configuration, the latter one within 3 hours and about 3000 mole strokes This improved behaviour is attributed to the use of representative test hardware where guidance and suppression of mole recoil were concerned. The presentation will provide an explanation of the technical requirements on

  3. Determination of the absolute contours of optical flats

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Primak, W.

    1969-01-01

    Emersons procedure is used to determine true absolute contours of optical flats. Absolute contours of standard flats are determined and a comparison is then made between standard and unknown flats. Contour differences are determined by deviation of Fizeau fringe.

  4. Standardization of the cumulative absolute velocity

    SciTech Connect

    O'Hara, T.F.; Jacobson, J.P. )

    1991-12-01

    EPRI NP-5930, A Criterion for Determining Exceedance of the Operating Basis Earthquake,'' was published in July 1988. As defined in that report, the Operating Basis Earthquake (OBE) is exceeded when both a response spectrum parameter and a second damage parameter, referred to as the Cumulative Absolute Velocity (CAV), are exceeded. In the review process of the above report, it was noted that the calculation of CAV could be confounded by time history records of long duration containing low (nondamaging) acceleration. Therefore, it is necessary to standardize the method of calculating CAV to account for record length. This standardized methodology allows consistent comparisons between future CAV calculations and the adjusted CAV threshold value based upon applying the standardized methodology to the data set presented in EPRI NP-5930. The recommended method to standardize the CAV calculation is to window its calculation on a second-by-second basis for a given time history. If the absolute acceleration exceeds 0.025g at any time during each one second interval, the earthquake records used in EPRI NP-5930 have been reanalyzed and the adjusted threshold of damage for CAV was found to be 0.16g-set.

  5. Absolute rates of hole transfer in DNA.

    PubMed

    Senthilkumar, Kittusamy; Grozema, Ferdinand C; Guerra, Célia Fonseca; Bickelhaupt, F Matthias; Lewis, Frederick D; Berlin, Yuri A; Ratner, Mark A; Siebbeles, Laurens D A

    2005-10-26

    Absolute rates of hole transfer between guanine nucleobases separated by one or two A:T base pairs in stilbenedicarboxamide-linked DNA hairpins were obtained by improved kinetic analysis of experimental data. The charge-transfer rates in four different DNA sequences were calculated using a density-functional-based tight-binding model and a semiclassical superexchange model. Site energies and charge-transfer integrals were calculated directly as the diagonal and off-diagonal matrix elements of the Kohn-Sham Hamiltonian, respectively, for all possible combinations of nucleobases. Taking into account the Coulomb interaction between the negative charge on the stilbenedicarboxamide linker and the hole on the DNA strand as well as effects of base pair twisting, the relative order of the experimental rates for hole transfer in different hairpins could be reproduced by tight-binding calculations. To reproduce quantitatively the absolute values of the measured rate constants, the effect of the reorganization energy was taken into account within the semiclassical superexchange model for charge transfer. The experimental rates could be reproduced with reorganization energies near 1 eV. The quantum chemical data obtained were used to discuss charge carrier mobility and hole-transport equilibria in DNA. PMID:16231945

  6. Transient absolute robustness in stochastic biochemical networks.

    PubMed

    Enciso, German A

    2016-08-01

    Absolute robustness allows biochemical networks to sustain a consistent steady-state output in the face of protein concentration variability from cell to cell. This property is structural and can be determined from the topology of the network alone regardless of rate parameters. An important question regarding these systems is the effect of discrete biochemical noise in the dynamical behaviour. In this paper, a variable freezing technique is developed to show that under mild hypotheses the corresponding stochastic system has a transiently robust behaviour. Specifically, after finite time the distribution of the output approximates a Poisson distribution, centred around the deterministic mean. The approximation becomes increasingly accurate, and it holds for increasingly long finite times, as the total protein concentrations grow to infinity. In particular, the stochastic system retains a transient, absolutely robust behaviour corresponding to the deterministic case. This result contrasts with the long-term dynamics of the stochastic system, which eventually must undergo an extinction event that eliminates robustness and is completely different from the deterministic dynamics. The transiently robust behaviour may be sufficient to carry out many forms of robust signal transduction and cellular decision-making in cellular organisms. PMID:27581485

  7. Absolute Electron Extraction Efficiency of Liquid Xenon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kamdin, Katayun; Mizrachi, Eli; Morad, James; Sorensen, Peter

    2016-03-01

    Dual phase liquid/gas xenon time projection chambers (TPCs) currently set the world's most sensitive limits on weakly interacting massive particles (WIMPs), a favored dark matter candidate. These detectors rely on extracting electrons from liquid xenon into gaseous xenon, where they produce proportional scintillation. The proportional scintillation from the extracted electrons serves to internally amplify the WIMP signal; even a single extracted electron is detectable. Credible dark matter searches can proceed with electron extraction efficiency (EEE) lower than 100%. However, electrons systematically left at the liquid/gas boundary are a concern. Possible effects include spontaneous single or multi-electron proportional scintillation signals in the gas, or charging of the liquid/gas interface or detector materials. Understanding EEE is consequently a serious concern for this class of rare event search detectors. Previous EEE measurements have mostly been relative, not absolute, assuming efficiency plateaus at 100%. I will present an absolute EEE measurement with a small liquid/gas xenon TPC test bed located at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory.

  8. Sentinel-2/MSI absolute calibration: first results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lonjou, V.; Lachérade, S.; Fougnie, B.; Gamet, P.; Marcq, S.; Raynaud, J.-L.; Tremas, T.

    2015-10-01

    Sentinel-2 is an optical imaging mission devoted to the operational monitoring of land and coastal areas. It is developed in partnership between the European Commission and the European Space Agency. The Sentinel-2 mission is based on a satellites constellation deployed in polar sun-synchronous orbit. It will offer a unique combination of global coverage with a wide field of view (290km), a high revisit (5 days with two satellites), a high resolution (10m, 20m and 60m) and multi-spectral imagery (13 spectral bands in visible and shortwave infra-red domains). CNES is involved in the instrument commissioning in collaboration with ESA. This paper reviews all the techniques that will be used to insure an absolute calibration of the 13 spectral bands better than 5% (target 3%), and will present the first results if available. First, the nominal calibration technique, based on an on-board sun diffuser, is detailed. Then, we show how vicarious calibration methods based on acquisitions over natural targets (oceans, deserts, and Antarctica during winter) will be used to check and improve the accuracy of the absolute calibration coefficients. Finally, the verification scheme, exploiting photometer in-situ measurements over Lacrau plain, is described. A synthesis, including spectral coherence, inter-methods agreement and temporal evolution, will conclude the paper.

  9. Absolute Spectrophotometry of 237 Open Cluster Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clampitt, L.; Burstein, D.

    1994-12-01

    We present absolute spectrophotometry of 237 stars in 7 nearby open clusters: Hyades, Pleiades, Alpha Persei, Praesepe, Coma Berenices, IC 4665, and M 39. The observations were taken using the Wampler single-channel scanner (Wampler 1966) on the Crossley 0.9m telescope at Lick Observatory from July 1973 through December 1974. 21 bandpasses spanning the spectral range 3500 Angstroms to 7780 Angstroms were observed for each star, with bandwiths ranging from 32Angstroms to 64 Angstroms. Data are standardized to the Hayes--Latham (1975) system. Our measurements are compared to filter colors on the Johnson BV, Stromgren ubvy, and Geneva U V B_1 B_2 V_1 G systems, as well as to spectrophotometry of a few stars published by Gunn, Stryker & Tinsley and in the Spectrophotometric Standards Catalog (Adelman; as distributed by the NSSDC). Both internal and external comparisons to the filter systems indicate a formal statistical accuracy per bandpass of 0.01 to 0.02 mag, with apparent larger ( ~ 0.03 mag) differences in absolute calibration between this data set and existing spectrophotometry. These data will comprise part of the spectrophotometry that will be used to calibrate the Beijing-Arizona-Taipei-Connecticut Color Survey of the Sky (see separate paper by Burstein et al. at this meeting).

  10. TEMPERED FRACTIONAL CALCULUS

    PubMed Central

    MEERSCHAERT, MARK M.; SABZIKAR, FARZAD; CHEN, JINGHUA

    2014-01-01

    Fractional derivatives and integrals are convolutions with a power law. Multiplying by an exponential factor leads to tempered fractional derivatives and integrals. Tempered fractional diffusion equations, where the usual second derivative in space is replaced by a tempered fractional derivative, govern the limits of random walk models with an exponentially tempered power law jump distribution. The limiting tempered stable probability densities exhibit semi-heavy tails, which are commonly observed in finance. Tempered power law waiting times lead to tempered fractional time derivatives, which have proven useful in geophysics. The tempered fractional derivative or integral of a Brownian motion, called a tempered fractional Brownian motion, can exhibit semi-long range dependence. The increments of this process, called tempered fractional Gaussian noise, provide a useful new stochastic model for wind speed data. A tempered difference forms the basis for numerical methods to solve tempered fractional diffusion equations, and it also provides a useful new correlation model in time series. PMID:26085690

  11. A Conceptual Approach to Absolute Value Equations and Inequalities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ellis, Mark W.; Bryson, Janet L.

    2011-01-01

    The absolute value learning objective in high school mathematics requires students to solve far more complex absolute value equations and inequalities. When absolute value problems become more complex, students often do not have sufficient conceptual understanding to make any sense of what is happening mathematically. The authors suggest that the…

  12. Using, Seeing, Feeling, and Doing Absolute Value for Deeper Understanding

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ponce, Gregorio A.

    2008-01-01

    Using sticky notes and number lines, a hands-on activity is shared that anchors initial student thinking about absolute value. The initial point of reference should help students successfully evaluate numeric problems involving absolute value. They should also be able to solve absolute value equations and inequalities that are typically found in…

  13. 20 CFR 404.1205 - Absolute coverage groups.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Absolute coverage groups. 404.1205 Section... INSURANCE (1950- ) Coverage of Employees of State and Local Governments What Groups of Employees May Be Covered § 404.1205 Absolute coverage groups. (a) General. An absolute coverage group is a...

  14. FRACTIONAL INTEGRATION TOOLBOX

    PubMed Central

    Marinov, Toma M.; Ramirez, Nelson; Santamaria, Fidel

    2014-01-01

    The problems formulated in the fractional calculus framework often require numerical fractional integration/differentiation of large data sets. Several existing fractional control toolboxes are capable of performing fractional calculus operations, however, none of them can efficiently perform numerical integration on multiple large data sequences. We developed a Fractional Integration Toolbox (FIT), which efficiently performs fractional numerical integration/differentiation of the Riemann-Liouville type on large data sequences. The toolbox allows parallelization and is designed to be deployed on both CPU and GPU platforms. PMID:24812536

  15. Cryptic sex? Estimates of genome exchange in unisexual mole salamanders (Ambystoma sp.).

    PubMed

    Gibbs, H Lisle; Denton, Robert D

    2016-06-01

    Cryptic sex has been argued to explain the exceptional longevity of certain parthenogenetic vertebrate lineages, yet direct measurements of genetic exchange between sexual and apparently parthenogenetic forms are rare. Female unisexual mole salamanders (Ambystoma sp.) are the oldest known unisexual vertebrate lineage (~5 million years), and one hypothesis for their persistence is that allopolyploid female unisexuals periodically exchange haploid genomes 'genome exchange' during gynogenetic reproduction with males from sympatric sexual species. We test this hypothesis by using genome-specific microsatellite DNA markers to estimate the rates of genome exchange between sexual males and unisexual females in two ponds in NE Ohio. We also test the prediction that levels of gene flow should be higher for 'sympatric' (sexual males present) genomes in unisexuals compared to 'allopatric' (sexual males absent) unisexual genomes. We used a model testing framework in the coalescent-based program MIGRATE-N to compare models where unidirectional gene flow is present and absent between sexual species and unisexuals. As predicted, our results show higher levels of gene flow between sexuals and sympatric unisexual genomes compared to lower (likely artefactual) levels of gene flow between sexuals and allopatric unisexual genomes. Our results provide direct evidence that genome exchange between sexual and unisexual Ambystoma occurs and demonstrate that the magnitude depends on which sexual species are present. The relatively high levels of gene flow suggest that unisexuals must be at a selective advantage over sexual forms so as to avoid extinction due to genetic swamping through genome exchange. PMID:27100619

  16. Two novel mutations in the KHDC3L gene in Asian patients with recurrent hydatidiform mole.

    PubMed

    Rezaei, Maryam; Nguyen, Ngoc Minh Phuong; Foroughinia, Leila; Dash, Pratima; Ahmadpour, Fatemeh; Verma, Ishwar Chandra; Slim, Rima; Fardaei, Majid

    2016-01-01

    Recurrent hydatidiform mole (RHM) is defined by the occurrence of repeated molar pregnancies in affected women. Two genes, NLRP7 and KHDC3L, play a causal role in RHM and are responsible for 48-80% and 5% of cases, respectively. Here, we report the results of screening these two genes for mutations in one Iranian and one Indian patient with RHM. No mutations in NLRP7 were identified in the two patients. KHDC3L sequencing identified two novel protein-truncating mutations in a homozygous state, a 4-bp deletion, c.17_20delGGTT (p.Arg6Leufs*7), in the Iranian patient and a splice mutation, c.349+1G>A, that affects the invariant donor site at the junction of exon 2 and intron 2 in the Indian patient. To date, only four mutations in KHDC3L have been reported. The identification of two additional mutations provides further evidence for the important role of KHDC3L in the pathophysiology of RHM and increases the diversity of mutations described in Asian populations. PMID:27621838

  17. Malignant melanoma in relation to moles, pigmentation, and exposure to fluorescent and other lighting sources.

    PubMed Central

    Elwood, J. M.; Williamson, C.; Stapleton, P. J.

    1986-01-01

    Interviews were performed on 83 patients with malignant melanoma, being 74% of all new NHS patients over a 33 month period who were resident in a defined area of Nottingham, and on age and sex matched controls chosen from all outpatients and inpatients of the same hospitals with the same area of residence. Significantly increased risks of melanoma were found in subjects with 3 or more raised moles on the upper arms (relative risk = 17.0), in association with heavy freckling of the face and arms, and with a tendency to sunburn easily and tan poorly, these factors having independent effects. While no significant and consistent association with exposure to fluorescent light was seen, the observed risks were higher in subjects with greater exposure, and higher in association with exposure to undiffused than to diffused light. Cases had a significantly greater number of hours' exposure to undiffused light than did controls. The associations with fluorescent light exposure were stronger when based on interview data than on a subsequent postal questionnaire. Twenty-one cases and 11 controls reported exposure to unusual occupational lighting sources which may have had an ultraviolet component; these included various intense lighting sources and lamps used in printing and dyeline copying. PMID:3947517

  18. Tumour resistance in induced pluripotent stem cells derived from naked mole-rats.

    PubMed

    Miyawaki, Shingo; Kawamura, Yoshimi; Oiwa, Yuki; Shimizu, Atsushi; Hachiya, Tsuyoshi; Bono, Hidemasa; Koya, Ikuko; Okada, Yohei; Kimura, Tokuhiro; Tsuchiya, Yoshihiro; Suzuki, Sadafumi; Onishi, Nobuyuki; Kuzumaki, Naoko; Matsuzaki, Yumi; Narita, Minoru; Ikeda, Eiji; Okanoya, Kazuo; Seino, Ken-Ichiro; Saya, Hideyuki; Okano, Hideyuki; Miura, Kyoko

    2016-01-01

    The naked mole-rat (NMR, Heterocephalus glaber), which is the longest-lived rodent species, exhibits extraordinary resistance to cancer. Here we report that NMR somatic cells exhibit a unique tumour-suppressor response to reprogramming induction. In this study, we generate NMR-induced pluripotent stem cells (NMR-iPSCs) and find that NMR-iPSCs do not exhibit teratoma-forming tumorigenicity due to the species-specific activation of tumour-suppressor alternative reading frame (ARF) and a disruption mutation of the oncogene ES cell-expressed Ras (ERAS). The forced expression of Arf in mouse iPSCs markedly reduces tumorigenicity. Furthermore, we identify an NMR-specific tumour-suppression phenotype-ARF suppression-induced senescence (ASIS)-that may protect iPSCs and somatic cells from ARF suppression and, as a consequence, tumorigenicity. Thus, NMR-specific ARF regulation and the disruption of ERAS regulate tumour resistance in NMR-iPSCs. Our findings obtained from studies of NMR-iPSCs provide new insight into the mechanisms of tumorigenicity in iPSCs and cancer resistance in the NMR. PMID:27161380

  19. Ectoparasite Burdens of the Damaraland Mole-Rat (Fukomys damarensis) from Southern Africa.

    PubMed

    Lutermann, Heike; Carpenter-Kling, Tegan; Ueckermann, Edward A; Gutjahr, Gundula; Bennett, Nigel C

    2015-12-01

    Damaraland mole-rats (Fukomys damarensis) of the family Bathyergidae are widely distributed subterranean rodents in sub-Saharan Africa. No parasites have ever been reported for this species and only 1 ectoparasite is described for the entire genus. In the current study ectoparasites were collected from individuals captured at 3 localities in South Africa and Namibia to document the ectoparasite community of F. damarensis, investigate their aggregation patterns, and evaluate the influence of season on ectoparasite burden. A total of 2,071 arthropods from 9 mite taxa and 1 louse species (Eulinognathus hilli) were collected from 293 hosts sampled. Of these, 5 mite species (Androlaelaps scapularis, Androlaelaps capensis, Androlaelaps tauffliebi, Radfordia sp., and unidentified chiggers) and the louse were parasites while the remainder was soil mites. All ectoparasites were highly aggregated and the species richness as well as the prevalence and abundance of 4 of them were significantly greater in summer compared to winter, possibly as a result of seasonal changes in rainfall patterns affecting the ectoparasites, host behavior, or both. PMID:26249137

  20. Single nucleotide polymorphism-based microarray analysis for the diagnosis of hydatidiform moles

    PubMed Central

    XIE, YINGJUN; PEI, XIAOJUAN; DONG, YU; WU, HUIQUN; WU, JIANZHU; SHI, HUIJUAN; ZHUANG, XUYING; SUN, XIAOFANG; HE, JIALING

    2016-01-01

    In clinical diagnostics, single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP)-based microarray analysis enables the detection of copy number variations (CNVs), as well as copy number neutral regions, that are absent of heterozygosity throughout the genome. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effectiveness and sensitivity of SNP-based microarray analysis in the diagnosis of hydatidiform mole (HM). By using whole-genome SNP microarray analysis, villous genotypes were detected, and the ploidy of villous tissue was determined to identify HMs. A total of 66 villous tissues and two twin tissues were assessed in the present study. Among these samples, 11 were triploid, one was tetraploid, 23 were abnormal aneuploidy, three were complete genome homozygosity, and the remaining ones were normal ploidy. The most noteworthy finding of the present study was the identification of six partial HMs and three complete HMs from those samples that were not identified as being HMs on the basis of the initial diagnosis of experienced obstetricians. This study has demonstrated that the application of an SNP-based microarray analysis was able to increase the sensitivity of diagnosis for HMs with partial and complete HMs, which makes the identification of these diseases at an early gestational age possible. PMID:27151252

  1. Adaptive methylation regulation of p53 pathway in sympatric speciation of blind mole rats, Spalax

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Yang; Tang, Jia-Wei; Yang, Zhi; Cao, Yi-Bin; Ren, Ji-Long; Ben-Abu, Yuval; Li, Kexin; Chen, Xue-Qun; Du, Ji-Zeng; Nevo, Eviatar

    2016-01-01

    Epigenetic modifications play significant roles in adaptive evolution. The tumor suppressor p53, well known for controlling cell fate and maintaining genomic stability, is much less known as a master gene in environmental adaptation involving methylation modifications. The blind subterranean mole rat Spalax eherenbergi superspecies in Israel consists of four species that speciated peripatrically. Remarkably, the northern Galilee species Spalax galili (2n = 52) underwent adaptive ecological sympatric speciation, caused by the sharply divergent chalk and basalt ecologies. This was demonstrated by mitochondrial and nuclear genomic evidence. Here we show that the expression patterns of the p53 regulatory pathway diversified between the abutting sympatric populations of S. galili in sharply divergent chalk–basalt ecologies. We identified higher methylation on several sites of the p53 promoter in the population living in chalk soil (chalk population). Site mutagenesis showed that methylation on these sites linked to the transcriptional repression of p53 involving Cut-Like Homeobox 1 (Cux1), paired box 4 (Pax 4), Pax 6, and activator protein 1 (AP-1). Diverse expression levels of p53 between the incipiently sympatrically speciating chalk–basalt abutting populations of S. galili selectively affected cell-cycle arrest but not apoptosis. We hypothesize that methylation modification of p53 has adaptively shifted in supervising its target genes during sympatric speciation of S. galili to cope with the contrasting environmental stresses of the abutting divergent chalk–basalt ecologies. PMID:26858405

  2. Single nucleotide polymorphism-based microarray analysis for the diagnosis of hydatidiform moles.

    PubMed

    Xie, Yingjun; Pei, Xiaojuan; Dong, Yu; Wu, Huiqun; Wu, Jianzhu; Shi, Huijuan; Zhuang, Xuying; Sun, Xiaofang; He, Jialing

    2016-07-01

    In clinical diagnostics, single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP)-based microarray analysis enables the detection of copy number variations (CNVs), as well as copy number neutral regions, that are absent of heterozygosity throughout the genome. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effectiveness and sensitivity of SNP‑based microarray analysis in the diagnosis of hydatidiform mole (HM). By using whole‑genome SNP microarray analysis, villous genotypes were detected, and the ploidy of villous tissue was determined to identify HMs. A total of 66 villous tissues and two twin tissues were assessed in the present study. Among these samples, 11 were triploid, one was tetraploid, 23 were abnormal aneuploidy, three were complete genome homozygosity, and the remaining ones were normal ploidy. The most noteworthy finding of the present study was the identification of six partial HMs and three complete HMs from those samples that were not identified as being HMs on the basis of the initial diagnosis of experienced obstetricians. This study has demonstrated that the application of an SNP‑based microarray analysis was able to increase the sensitivity of diagnosis for HMs with partial and complete HMs, which makes the identification of these diseases at an early gestational age possible. PMID:27151252

  3. Two novel mutations in the KHDC3L gene in Asian patients with recurrent hydatidiform mole

    PubMed Central

    Rezaei, Maryam; Nguyen, Ngoc Minh Phuong; Foroughinia, Leila; Dash, Pratima; Ahmadpour, Fatemeh; Verma, Ishwar Chandra; Slim, Rima; Fardaei, Majid

    2016-01-01

    Recurrent hydatidiform mole (RHM) is defined by the occurrence of repeated molar pregnancies in affected women. Two genes, NLRP7 and KHDC3L, play a causal role in RHM and are responsible for 48–80% and 5% of cases, respectively. Here, we report the results of screening these two genes for mutations in one Iranian and one Indian patient with RHM. No mutations in NLRP7 were identified in the two patients. KHDC3L sequencing identified two novel protein-truncating mutations in a homozygous state, a 4-bp deletion, c.17_20delGGTT (p.Arg6Leufs*7), in the Iranian patient and a splice mutation, c.349+1G>A, that affects the invariant donor site at the junction of exon 2 and intron 2 in the Indian patient. To date, only four mutations in KHDC3L have been reported. The identification of two additional mutations provides further evidence for the important role of KHDC3L in the pathophysiology of RHM and increases the diversity of mutations described in Asian populations. PMID:27621838

  4. Tumour resistance in induced pluripotent stem cells derived from naked mole-rats

    PubMed Central

    Miyawaki, Shingo; Kawamura, Yoshimi; Oiwa, Yuki; Shimizu, Atsushi; Hachiya, Tsuyoshi; Bono, Hidemasa; Koya, Ikuko; Okada, Yohei; Kimura, Tokuhiro; Tsuchiya, Yoshihiro; Suzuki, Sadafumi; Onishi, Nobuyuki; Kuzumaki, Naoko; Matsuzaki, Yumi; Narita, Minoru; Ikeda, Eiji; Okanoya, Kazuo; Seino, Ken-ichiro; Saya, Hideyuki; Okano, Hideyuki; Miura, Kyoko

    2016-01-01

    The naked mole-rat (NMR, Heterocephalus glaber), which is the longest-lived rodent species, exhibits extraordinary resistance to cancer. Here we report that NMR somatic cells exhibit a unique tumour-suppressor response to reprogramming induction. In this study, we generate NMR-induced pluripotent stem cells (NMR-iPSCs) and find that NMR-iPSCs do not exhibit teratoma-forming tumorigenicity due to the species-specific activation of tumour-suppressor alternative reading frame (ARF) and a disruption mutation of the oncogene ES cell-expressed Ras (ERAS). The forced expression of Arf in mouse iPSCs markedly reduces tumorigenicity. Furthermore, we identify an NMR-specific tumour-suppression phenotype—ARF suppression-induced senescence (ASIS)—that may protect iPSCs and somatic cells from ARF suppression and, as a consequence, tumorigenicity. Thus, NMR-specific ARF regulation and the disruption of ERAS regulate tumour resistance in NMR-iPSCs. Our findings obtained from studies of NMR-iPSCs provide new insight into the mechanisms of tumorigenicity in iPSCs and cancer resistance in the NMR. PMID:27161380

  5. Influence of the mole penetrator on measurements of heat flow in lunar subsurface layers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wawrzaszek, Roman; Drogosz, Michal; Seweryn, Karol; Banaszkiewicz, Marek; Grygorczuk, Jerzy

    Measuring the thermal gradient in subsurface layers is a basic method of determination the heat flux from the interior of a planetary body to its surface. In case of the Moon, such measurements complemented with the results of theoretical analysis and modeling can significantly improve our understanding of the thermal and geological evolution of the Moon. In practice, temperature gradient measurements are performed by at least two sensors located at different depths under the surface. These sensors will be attached to a penetrator [1] or to a cable pulled behind the penetrator. In both cases the object that carries the sensors, e.g. penetrator, perturb temperature measurements. In our study we analyze a case of two thermal sensors attached to the ends of 350mm long penetrator made of a composite material. In agreement with the studies of other authors we have found that the penetrator should be placed at the depth of 2-3 meters, where periodic changes of the temperature due to variation of solar flux at the surface are significantly smaller than the error of temperature measurement. The most important result of our analysis is to show how to deconvolve the real gradient of the temperature from the measurements perturbed by the penetrator body. In this way it will be possible to more accurately determine heat flux in the lunar regolith. [1] Grygorczuk J., Seweryn K., Wawrzaszek R., Banaszkiewicz M., Insertion of a Mole Pene-trator -Experimental Results, /39th Lunar and Planetary Science Conference /League City, Texas 2008

  6. Adaptive methylation regulation of p53 pathway in sympatric speciation of blind mole rats, Spalax.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Yang; Tang, Jia-Wei; Yang, Zhi; Cao, Yi-Bin; Ren, Ji-Long; Ben-Abu, Yuval; Li, Kexin; Chen, Xue-Qun; Du, Ji-Zeng; Nevo, Eviatar

    2016-02-23

    Epigenetic modifications play significant roles in adaptive evolution. The tumor suppressor p53, well known for controlling cell fate and maintaining genomic stability, is much less known as a master gene in environmental adaptation involving methylation modifications. The blind subterranean mole rat Spalax eherenbergi superspecies in Israel consists of four species that speciated peripatrically. Remarkably, the northern Galilee species Spalax galili (2n = 52) underwent adaptive ecological sympatric speciation, caused by the sharply divergent chalk and basalt ecologies. This was demonstrated by mitochondrial and nuclear genomic evidence. Here we show that the expression patterns of the p53 regulatory pathway diversified between the abutting sympatric populations of S. galili in sharply divergent chalk-basalt ecologies. We identified higher methylation on several sites of the p53 promoter in the population living in chalk soil (chalk population). Site mutagenesis showed that methylation on these sites linked to the transcriptional repression of p53 involving Cut-Like Homeobox 1 (Cux1), paired box 4 (Pax 4), Pax 6, and activator protein 1 (AP-1). Diverse expression levels of p53 between the incipiently sympatrically speciating chalk-basalt abutting populations of S. galili selectively affected cell-cycle arrest but not apoptosis. We hypothesize that methylation modification of p53 has adaptively shifted in supervising its target genes during sympatric speciation of S. galili to cope with the contrasting environmental stresses of the abutting divergent chalk-basalt ecologies. PMID:26858405

  7. Macroalgal fouling on the intertidal mole crab Emerita analoga facilitates bird predation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hidalgo, Fernando J.; Firstater, Fausto N.; Lomovasky, Betina J.; Gallegos, Percy; Gamero, Patricia; Iribarne, Oscar O.

    2010-12-01

    In this work, we studied the effects of predation by birds on the intertidal mole crab Emerita analoga fouled by macroalgae in a sandy beach of central Peru (11° S). The epibiosis affected mostly the larger animals, especially adult females. Epibiosis prevalence for the entire intertidal population was relatively low (1-2%), however, within the size range affected by epibiosis in the intertidal zone (18-23 mm in carapace length), 20-38% of the animals were fouled. Focal observations of birds showed that fouled animals are preferred over those non-fouled of the same size class and hence the same sex, being consumed at a higher rate than their proportion in the intertidal (Chesson’s alpha index of prey selection >0.96), and estimations of mortality rates indicated that more than 35% of the intertidal fouled animals are removed everyday by birds. The effect of epibiosis may be mainly attributed to a higher burrowing time or an increased visual attractive effect of the algae, which make fouled animals more conspicuous to predatory birds, or because of fouling enhances profitability of the animals. The results show that epibiosis has negative effects on E. analoga through increasing predation by birds, which in turn restricts the distribution and abundance of fouled E. analoga in the intertidal zone.

  8. Mice and moles inhabiting mountainous areas of Shimane Peninsula as sources of infection with Yersinia pseudotuberculosis.

    PubMed Central

    Fukushima, H; Gomyoda, M; Kaneko, S

    1990-01-01

    A total of 1,835 Yersinia spp. were isolated from 925 (60.5%) of 1,530 wild mice and from 139 (79.9%) of 174 moles living in mountainous areas of eastern Shimane Prefecture, Japan. The Yersinia spp. included 1,106 Yersinia enterocolitica, 26 Y. enterocolitica-like, 176 Yersinia mollaretii, 149 Yersinia frederiksenii, 70 Yersinia intermedia, 231 Yersinia kristensenii, 5 Yersinia aldovae, and 72 Yersinia pseudotuberculosis. Human pathogenic Y. enterocolitica was not isolated. Y. pseudotuberculosis was divided into 10 virulent 40- to 50-MDa plasmid-positive (P+) strains (serotypes 1b, 4b, and untypeable) and 62 plasmid-negative (P-) strains (serotypes 1b, 2b, 2c, 4a, 5a, 5b, 6, 7, and untypeable). P+ strains of serotypes 1b (two strains), 4b (seven strains), and untypeable (one strain) were isolated from nine Apodemus specious and one Apodemus argenteus. The isolates of Yersinia spp. were more frequently detected in newborn mice and during the breeding season. The P+ Y. pseudotuberculosis strains were recovered at less than 10(4) cells per g of the cecal contents. Thus, the prevalence of Yersinia spp. in small wild animals depends on the newborn animals born during the cold months, and wild mice in mountainous areas are important reservoirs of Y. pseudotuberculosis. Images PMID:2254420

  9. Individualistic approach to the management of complete hydatidiform mole with coexisting live fetus.

    PubMed

    Rohilla, Minakshi; Singh, Purnima; Kaur, Jaswinder; Jain, Vanita; Gupta, Nalini; Prasad, G R V

    2015-08-01

    Complete hydatidiform mole with a coexisting live fetus (CHMCF) is a rare obstetric occurrence. So far, approximately 177 cases have been documented in the literature with consequent 66 live births. We report a review article along with two cases of CHMCF, one presenting as incomplete abortion and other continued as CHMCF but terminated because of antepartum hemorrhage. Both had histopathologically proven one normal and other complete molar placenta with coexisting normal fetus. No evidence of persistent trophoblastic disease was observed. The dilemma of continuation versus termination of pregnancy is being emphasized in the review of literature. Pregnancy complicated by CHMCF may result in a viable live born infant in approximately one third of the cases. A potentially viable fetus with CHMCF may result in normal live birth with antecedent high risk maternal complications. A decision of termination of pregnancy in all CHMCF will however nullify all the chances of a live birth. An individualistic approach and an informed doctor patient consensus may improve the likely outcome. Appropriate counseling of the mother regarding high incidence of antenatal complications plays an integral part of decision of continuation of such pregnancies. PMID:26070126

  10. Use of Absolute and Comparative Performance Feedback in Absolute and Comparative Judgments and Decisions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moore, Don A.; Klein, William M. P.

    2008-01-01

    Which matters more--beliefs about absolute ability or ability relative to others? This study set out to compare the effects of such beliefs on satisfaction with performance, self-evaluations, and bets on future performance. In Experiment 1, undergraduate participants were told they had answered 20% correct, 80% correct, or were not given their…

  11. Absolute calibration of ultraviolet filter photometry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bless, R. C.; Fairchild, T.; Code, A. D.

    1972-01-01

    The essential features of the calibration procedure can be divided into three parts. First, the shape of the bandpass of each photometer was determined by measuring the transmissions of the individual optical components and also by measuring the response of the photometer as a whole. Secondly, each photometer was placed in the essentially-collimated synchrotron radiation bundle maintained at a constant intensity level, and the output signal was determined from about 100 points on the objective. Finally, two or three points on the objective were illuminated by synchrotron radiation at several different intensity levels covering the dynamic range of the photometers. The output signals were placed on an absolute basis by the electron counting technique described earlier.

  12. MAGSAT: Vector magnetometer absolute sensor alignment determination

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Acuna, M. H.

    1981-01-01

    A procedure is described for accurately determining the absolute alignment of the magnetic axes of a triaxial magnetometer sensor with respect to an external, fixed, reference coordinate system. The method does not require that the magnetic field vector orientation, as generated by a triaxial calibration coil system, be known to better than a few degrees from its true position, and minimizes the number of positions through which a sensor assembly must be rotated to obtain a solution. Computer simulations show that accuracies of better than 0.4 seconds of arc can be achieved under typical test conditions associated with existing magnetic test facilities. The basic approach is similar in nature to that presented by McPherron and Snare (1978) except that only three sensor positions are required and the system of equations to be solved is considerably simplified. Applications of the method to the case of the MAGSAT Vector Magnetometer are presented and the problems encountered discussed.

  13. Absolute geostrophic currents in global tropical oceans

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Lina; Yuan, Dongliang

    2016-03-01

    A set of absolute geostrophic current (AGC) data for the period January 2004 to December 2012 are calculated using the P-vector method based on monthly gridded Argo profiles in the world tropical oceans. The AGCs agree well with altimeter geostrophic currents, Ocean Surface Current Analysis-Real time currents, and moored current-meter measurements at 10-m depth, based on which the classical Sverdrup circulation theory is evaluated. Calculations have shown that errors of wind stress calculation, AGC transport, and depth ranges of vertical integration cannot explain non-Sverdrup transport, which is mainly in the subtropical western ocean basins and equatorial currents near the Equator in each ocean basin (except the North Indian Ocean, where the circulation is dominated by monsoons). The identified non-Sverdrup transport is thereby robust and attributed to the joint effect of baroclinicity and relief of the bottom (JEBAR) and mesoscale eddy nonlinearity.

  14. Absolute Measurement of Electron Cloud Density

    SciTech Connect

    Covo, M K; Molvik, A W; Cohen, R H; Friedman, A; Seidl, P A; Logan, G; Bieniosek, F; Baca, D; Vay, J; Orlando, E; Vujic, J L

    2007-06-21

    Beam interaction with background gas and walls produces ubiquitous clouds of stray electrons that frequently limit the performance of particle accelerator and storage rings. Counterintuitively we obtained the electron cloud accumulation by measuring the expelled ions that are originated from the beam-background gas interaction, rather than by measuring electrons that reach the walls. The kinetic ion energy measured with a retarding field analyzer (RFA) maps the depressed beam space-charge potential and provides the dynamic electron cloud density. Clearing electrode current measurements give the static electron cloud background that complements and corroborates with the RFA measurements, providing an absolute measurement of electron cloud density during a 5 {micro}s duration beam pulse in a drift region of the magnetic transport section of the High-Current Experiment (HCX) at LBNL.

  15. Absolute instability of a viscous hollow jet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gañán-Calvo, Alfonso M.

    2007-02-01

    An investigation of the spatiotemporal stability of hollow jets in unbounded coflowing liquids, using a general dispersion relation previously derived, shows them to be absolutely unstable for all physical values of the Reynolds and Weber numbers. The roots of the symmetry breakdown with respect to the liquid jet case, and the validity of asymptotic models are here studied in detail. Asymptotic analyses for low and high Reynolds numbers are provided, showing that old and well-established limiting dispersion relations [J. W. S. Rayleigh, The Theory of Sound (Dover, New York, 1945); S. Chandrasekhar, Hydrodynamic and Hydromagnetic Stability (Dover, New York, 1961)] should be used with caution. In the creeping flow limit, the analysis shows that, if the hollow jet is filled with any finite density and viscosity fluid, a steady jet could be made arbitrarily small (compatible with the continuum hypothesis) if the coflowing liquid moves faster than a critical velocity.

  16. Stitching interferometry: recent results and absolute calibration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bray, Michael

    2004-02-01

    Stitching Interferometry is a method of analysing large optical components using a standard "small" interferometer. This result is obtained by taking multiple overlapping images of the large component, and numerically "stitching" these sub-apertures together. We have already reported the industrial use our Stitching Interferometry systems (Previous SPIE symposia), but experimental results had been lacking because this technique is still new, and users needed to get accustomed to it before producing reliable measurements. We now have more results. We will report user comments and show new, unpublished results. We will discuss sources of error, and show how some of these can be reduced to arbitrarily small values. These will be discussed in some detail. We conclude with a few graphical examples of absolute measurements performed by us.

  17. Swarm's Absolute Scalar Magnetometer metrological performances

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leger, J.; Fratter, I.; Bertrand, F.; Jager, T.; Morales, S.

    2012-12-01

    The Absolute Scalar Magnetometer (ASM) has been developed for the ESA Earth Observation Swarm mission, planned for launch in November 2012. As its Overhauser magnetometers forerunners flown on Oersted and Champ satellites, it will deliver high resolution scalar measurements for the in-flight calibration of the Vector Field Magnetometer manufactured by the Danish Technical University. Latest results of the ground tests carried out to fully characterize all parameters that may affect its accuracy, both at instrument and satellite level, will be presented. In addition to its baseline function, the ASM can be operated either at a much higher sampling rate (burst mode at 250 Hz) or in a dual mode where it also delivers vector field measurements as a by-product. The calibration procedure and the relevant vector performances will be discussed.

  18. Absolute nonlocality via distributed computing without communication

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Czekaj, Ł.; Pawłowski, M.; Vértesi, T.; Grudka, A.; Horodecki, M.; Horodecki, R.

    2015-09-01

    Understanding the role that quantum entanglement plays as a resource in various information processing tasks is one of the crucial goals of quantum information theory. Here we propose an alternative perspective for studying quantum entanglement: distributed computation of functions without communication between nodes. To formalize this approach, we propose identity games. Surprisingly, despite no signaling, we obtain that nonlocal quantum strategies beat classical ones in terms of winning probability for identity games originating from certain bipartite and multipartite functions. Moreover we show that, for a majority of functions, access to general nonsignaling resources boosts success probability two times in comparison to classical ones for a number of large enough outputs. Because there are no constraints on the inputs and no processing of the outputs in the identity games, they detect very strong types of correlations: absolute nonlocality.

  19. Gray- and white-matter anatomy of absolute pitch possessors.

    PubMed

    Dohn, Anders; Garza-Villarreal, Eduardo A; Chakravarty, M Mallar; Hansen, Mads; Lerch, Jason P; Vuust, Peter

    2015-05-01

    Absolute pitch (AP), the ability to identify a musical pitch without a reference, has been examined behaviorally in numerous studies for more than a century, yet only a few studies have examined the neuroanatomical correlates of AP. Here, we used MRI and diffusion tensor imaging to investigate structural differences in brains of musicians with and without AP, by means of whole-brain vertex-wise cortical thickness (CT) analysis and tract-based spatial statistics (TBSS) analysis. APs displayed increased CT in a number of areas including the bilateral superior temporal gyrus (STG), the left inferior frontal gyrus, and the right supramarginal gyrus. Furthermore, we found higher fractional anisotropy in APs within the path of the inferior fronto-occipital fasciculus, the uncinate fasciculus, and the inferior longitudinal fasciculus. The findings in gray matter support previous studies indicating an increased left lateralized posterior STG in APs, yet they differ from previous findings of thinner cortex for a number of areas in APs. Finally, we found a relation between the white-matter results and the CT in the right parahippocampal gyrus. In this study, we present novel findings in AP research that may have implications for the understanding of the neuroanatomical underpinnings of AP ability. PMID:24304583

  20. DIY Fraction Pack.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Graham, Alan; Graham, Louise

    2003-01-01

    Describes a very successful attempt to teach fractions to year 5 pupils based on pupils making their own fraction pack. Children decided for themselves how to make the fractional slices used in the activity using colored cardboard sheets and templates of a paper circle consisting of 24 equal slices. (Author/NB)

  1. Molecular weight distribution of soluble fiber fractions and short chain fatty acids in ileal digesta of growing pigs.

    PubMed

    Ivarsson, E; Andersson, R; Lindberg, J E

    2012-12-01

    The effect of dietary fiber source on molecular weight (MW) distribution of soluble fiber fractions and short chain fatty acids (SCFA) in ileal digesta of 7 post valve T-cecum (PVTC) cannulated growing pigs was studied. Pigs were fed semisynthetic diets with sugar beet (Beta vulgaris) pulp (SBP) or chicory (Cichorium intybus) forage (CFO) as fiber sources of which the soluble nonstarch polysaccharide (NSP) fraction originated mainly from pectin. Three MW intervals were selected-large MW (MWL): 10,000,000 to 1,000,000 g/mol, medium MW (MWM): 1,000,000 to 200,000 g/mol, and small MW (MWS): 200,000 to 10,000 g/mol-and the relative distribution (% of total) of molecules in each interval was calculated. The MWM fraction was higher (P < 0.05) in ileal digesta of pigs fed diet SBP and the MWS fraction was higher (P < 0.05) in ileal digesta of pigs fed diet CFO. The mole/100 mole of propionic acid (HPr) was higher (P < 0.010) in pigs fed diet SBP whereas pigs fed diet CFO had higher (P < 0.010) mole/100 mole of acetic acid (HAc). The proportion of the MWL and MWM fractions in ileal digesta were negatively correlated to HAc (r = -0.52, P = 0.05, and r = -0.62, P = 0.02, respectively). The proportion of MWM in ileal digesta was positively correlated to HPr (r = 0.83; P = 0.001) whereas MWS and HPr were negatively correlated (r = -0.76; P = 0.002). In conclusion, the bacterial degradation of the soluble NSP fraction is selective and MW distribution may explain differences in SCFA production. PMID:23365284

  2. Chiroptical characterization of homopolymeric block fractions in alginates.

    PubMed

    Martínez-Gómez, Fabián; Mansilla, Andrés; Matsuhiro, Betty; Matulewicz, María C; Troncoso-Valenzuela, Marcos A

    2016-08-01

    Homopolymannuronic and homopolyguluronic fractions were obtained by partial hydrolysis of the alkaline extracts from the brown seaweeds Ascoseira mirabilis, Desmarestia menziessi, Desmarestia ligulata and Durvillaea sp. collected in southern Chile. Full characterization of the fractions was achieved by FT-IR and NMR spectroscopy. Total hydrolysis with 90% formic acid of the homopolymeric fractions allowed the preparation of mannuronic and guluronic acids. Both monomers and homopolymeric fractions as neutral salts were studied by CD and ORD. Chiroptical spectra were similar in shape and sign to those previously published in the literature, and permitted to assign D configuration to mannuronic acid and L configuration to guluronic acid in alginic acids. Specific optical rotation values at the sodium D light for the homopolymannuronic (∼-100°) and homopolyguluronic (∼-110°) acid fractions were obtained. These high negative values are proposed for the assignment of the absolute configuration of monomers in homopolymeric fractions. PMID:27112854

  3. Absolute age of lunar regolith material from the Sea of Fertility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vinogradov, A. P.; Artemov, Y. M.

    1974-01-01

    By averaging the absolute age of lunar regolith materials from the Sea of Fertility for the fine regolith fraction from the core zone V, an age of 4.65 10 to the 9th power + 0.4 10 to the 9th power years was obtained, employing as the primordial Sr-87/Sr-86 ratio 0.69884 (ADOR). Also close to this age value is the age estimate based on the Pb-207/Pb-206 ratio. Using the value 0.69898 (BABI) as a primordial Sr-87/Sr-86 ratio reduces the calculated age of the fine regolith fraction to 4.25 X 10 to the 9th power years. The fine fraction of lunar regolith from the Sea of Fertility is also characterized by a minimum addition of radiogenic Sr-87, a minimum Rb/Sr ratio, and a maximum K/Rb ratio compared with analogous lunar material from other points.

  4. Determination of absolute threshold and just noticeable difference in the sensory perception of pungency.

    PubMed

    Orellana-Escobedo, L; Ornelas-Paz, J J; Olivas, G I; Guerrero-Beltran, J A; Jimenez-Castro, J; Sepulveda, D R

    2012-03-01

    Absolute threshold and just noticeable difference (JND) were determined for the perception of pungency using chili pepper in aqueous solutions. Absolute threshold and JND were determined using 2 alternative forced-choice sensory tests tests. High-performance liquid chromatography technique was used to determine capsaicinoids concentration in samples used for sensory analysis. Sensory absolute threshold was 0.050 mg capsaicinoids/kg sample. Five JND values were determined using 5 reference solutions with different capsaicinoids concentration. JND values changed proportionally as capsaicinoids concentration of the reference sample solutions changed. Weber fraction remained stable for the first 4 reference capsaicinoid solutions (0.05, 0.11, 0.13, and 0.17 mg/kg) but changed when the most concentrated reference capsaicinoids solution was used (0.23 mg/kg). Quantification limit for instrumental analysis was 1.512 mg/kg capsaicinoids. Sensory methods employed in this study proved to be more sensitive than instrumental methods. Practical Application: A better understanding of the process involved in the sensory perception of pungency is currently required because "hot" foods are becoming more popular in western cuisine. Absolute thresholds and differential thresholds are useful tools in the formulation and development of new food products. These parameters may help in defining how much chili pepper is required in a formulated product to ensure a perceptible level of pungency, as well as in deciding how much more chili pepper is required in a product to produce a perceptible increase in its pungency. PMID:22384966

  5. The Insulin-Like Growth Factor System in the Long-Lived Naked Mole-Rat

    PubMed Central

    Brohus, Malene; Gorbunova, Vera; Faulkes, Chris G.; Overgaard, Michael T.; Conover, Cheryl A.

    2015-01-01

    Naked mole-rats (Heterocephalus glaber) (NMRs) are the longest living rodents known. They show negligible senescence, and are resistant to cancers and certain damaging effects associated with aging. The insulin-like growth factors (IGFs) have pluripotent actions, influencing growth processes in virtually every system of the body. They are established contributors to the aging process, confirmed by the demonstration that decreased IGF signaling results in life-extending effects in a variety of species. The IGFs are likewise involved in progression of cancers by mediating survival signals in malignant cells. This report presents a full characterization of the IGF system in the NMR: ligands, receptors, IGF binding proteins (IGFBPs), and IGFBP proteases. A particular emphasis was placed on the IGFBP protease, pregnancy-associated plasma protein-A (PAPP-A), shown to be an important lifespan modulator in mice. Comparisons of IGF-related genes in the NMR with human and murine sequences indicated no major differences in essential parts of the IGF system, including PAPP-A. The protease was shown to possess an intact active site despite the report of a contradictory genome sequence. Furthermore, PAPP-A was expressed and translated in NMRs cells and retained IGF-dependent proteolytic activity towards IGFBP-4 and IGF-independent activity towards IGFBP-5. However, experimental data suggest differential regulatory mechanisms for PAPP-A expression in NMRs than those described in humans and mice. This overall description of the IGF system in the NMR represents an initial step towards elucidating the complex molecular mechanisms underlying longevity, and how these animals have evolved to ensure a delayed and healthy aging process. PMID:26694858

  6. The Insulin-Like Growth Factor System in the Long-Lived Naked Mole-Rat.

    PubMed

    Brohus, Malene; Gorbunova, Vera; Faulkes, Chris G; Overgaard, Michael T; Conover, Cheryl A

    2015-01-01

    Naked mole-rats (Heterocephalus glaber) (NMRs) are the longest living rodents known. They show negligible senescence, and are resistant to cancers and certain damaging effects associated with aging. The insulin-like growth factors (IGFs) have pluripotent actions, influencing growth processes in virtually every system of the body. They are established contributors to the aging process, confirmed by the demonstration that decreased IGF signaling results in life-extending effects in a variety of species. The IGFs are likewise involved in progression of cancers by mediating survival signals in malignant cells. This report presents a full characterization of the IGF system in the NMR: ligands, receptors, IGF binding proteins (IGFBPs), and IGFBP proteases. A particular emphasis was placed on the IGFBP protease, pregnancy-associated plasma protein-A (PAPP-A), shown to be an important lifespan modulator in mice. Comparisons of IGF-related genes in the NMR with human and murine sequences indicated no major differences in essential parts of the IGF system, including PAPP-A. The protease was shown to possess an intact active site despite the report of a contradictory genome sequence. Furthermore, PAPP-A was expressed and translated in NMRs cells and retained IGF-dependent proteolytic activity towards IGFBP-4 and IGF-independent activity towards IGFBP-5. However, experimental data suggest differential regulatory mechanisms for PAPP-A expression in NMRs than those described in humans and mice. This overall description of the IGF system in the NMR represents an initial step towards elucidating the complex molecular mechanisms underlying longevity, and how these animals have evolved to ensure a delayed and healthy aging process. PMID:26694858

  7. Single haplotype assembly of the human genome from a hydatidiform mole.

    PubMed

    Steinberg, Karyn Meltz; Schneider, Valerie A; Graves-Lindsay, Tina A; Fulton, Robert S; Agarwala, Richa; Huddleston, John; Shiryev, Sergey A; Morgulis, Aleksandr; Surti, Urvashi; Warren, Wesley C; Church, Deanna M; Eichler, Evan E; Wilson, Richard K

    2014-12-01

    A complete reference assembly is essential for accurately interpreting individual genomes and associating variation with phenotypes. While the current human reference genome sequence is of very high quality, gaps and misassemblies remain due to biological and technical complexities. Large repetitive sequences and complex allelic diversity are the two main drivers of assembly error. Although increasing the length of sequence reads and library fragments can improve assembly, even the longest available reads do not resolve all regions. In order to overcome the issue of allelic diversity, we used genomic DNA from an essentially haploid hydatidiform mole, CHM1. We utilized several resources from this DNA including a set of end-sequenced and indexed BAC clones and 100× Illumina whole-genome shotgun (WGS) sequence coverage. We used the WGS sequence and the GRCh37 reference assembly to create an assembly of the CHM1 genome. We subsequently incorporated 382 finished BAC clone sequences to generate a draft assembly, CHM1_1.1 (NCBI AssemblyDB GCA_000306695.2). Analysis of gene, repetitive element, and segmental duplication content show this assembly to be of excellent quality and contiguity. However, comparison to assembly-independent resources, such as BAC clone end sequences and PacBio long reads, indicate misassembled regions. Most of these regions are enriched for structural variation and segmental duplication, and can be resolved in the future. This publicly available assembly will be integrated into the Genome Reference Consortium curation framework for further improvement, with the ultimate goal being a completely finished gap-free assembly. PMID:25373144

  8. Single haplotype assembly of the human genome from a hydatidiform mole

    PubMed Central

    Steinberg, Karyn Meltz; Schneider, Valerie A.; Graves-Lindsay, Tina A.; Fulton, Robert S.; Agarwala, Richa; Huddleston, John; Shiryev, Sergey A.; Morgulis, Aleksandr; Surti, Urvashi; Warren, Wesley C.; Church, Deanna M.; Eichler, Evan E.; Wilson, Richard K.

    2014-01-01

    A complete reference assembly is essential for accurately interpreting individual genomes and associating variation with phenotypes. While the current human reference genome sequence is of very high quality, gaps and misassemblies remain due to biological and technical complexities. Large repetitive sequences and complex allelic diversity are the two main drivers of assembly error. Although increasing the length of sequence reads and library fragments can improve assembly, even the longest available reads do not resolve all regions. In order to overcome the issue of allelic diversity, we used genomic DNA from an essentially haploid hydatidiform mole, CHM1. We utilized several resources from this DNA including a set of end-sequenced and indexed BAC clones and 100× Illumina whole-genome shotgun (WGS) sequence coverage. We used the WGS sequence and the GRCh37 reference assembly to create an assembly of the CHM1 genome. We subsequently incorporated 382 finished BAC clone sequences to generate a draft assembly, CHM1_1.1 (NCBI AssemblyDB GCA_000306695.2). Analysis of gene, repetitive element, and segmental duplication content show this assembly to be of excellent quality and contiguity. However, comparison to assembly-independent resources, such as BAC clone end sequences and PacBio long reads, indicate misassembled regions. Most of these regions are enriched for structural variation and segmental duplication, and can be resolved in the future. This publicly available assembly will be integrated into the Genome Reference Consortium curation framework for further improvement, with the ultimate goal being a completely finished gap-free assembly. PMID:25373144

  9. Local and Regional Scale Genetic Variation in the Cape Dune Mole-Rat, Bathyergus suillus

    PubMed Central

    Visser, Jacobus H.; Bennett, Nigel C.; Jansen van Vuuren, Bettine

    2014-01-01

    The distribution of genetic variation is determined through the interaction of life history, morphology and habitat specificity of a species in conjunction with landscape structure. While numerous studies have investigated this interplay of factors in species inhabiting aquatic, riverine, terrestrial, arboreal and saxicolous systems, the fossorial system has remained largely unexplored. In this study we attempt to elucidate the impacts of a subterranean lifestyle coupled with a heterogeneous landscape on genetic partitioning by using a subterranean mammal species, the Cape dune mole-rat (Bathyergus suillus), as our model. Bathyergus suillus is one of a few mammal species endemic to the Cape Floristic Region (CFR) of the Western Cape of South Africa. Its distribution is fragmented by rivers and mountains; both geographic phenomena that may act as geographical barriers to gene-flow. Using two mitochondrial fragments (cytochrome b and control region) as well as nine microsatellite loci, we determined the phylogeographic structure and gene-flow patterns at two different spatial scales (local and regional). Furthermore, we investigated genetic differentiation between populations and applied Bayesian clustering and assignment approaches to our data. Nearly every population formed a genetically unique entity with significant genetic structure evident across geographic barriers such as rivers (Berg, Verlorenvlei, Breede and Gourits Rivers), mountains (Piketberg and Hottentots Holland Mountains) and with geographic distance at both spatial scales. Surprisingly, B. suillus was found to be paraphyletic with respect to its sister species, B. janetta–a result largely overlooked by previous studies on these taxa. A systematic revision of the genus Bathyergus is therefore necessary. This study provides a valuable insight into how the biology, life-history and habitat specificity of animals inhabiting a fossorial system may act in concert with the structure of the surrounding

  10. Naked mole-rats: behavioural phenotyping and comparison with C57BL/6 mice.

    PubMed

    Deacon, R M J; Dulu, T D; Patel, N B

    2012-05-16

    Naked mole-rats (NMR) live underground in large eusocial colonies in East Africa. They are extremely long-lived, some individuals having a lifespan of over 30 years. This has attracted research into longevity and possibly neurodegenerative disorders. However, very little is known about their basic behaviour, particularly in tests commonly used to characterise the behaviour of the laboratory rat and mouse, for which there is an enormous database. Recently the authors carried out comprehensive behavioural phenotyping on NMRs, comparing them on most tasks directly with C57BL/6 mice, the strain for which there is the largest behavioural database. The NMR colony had been obtained from the wild originally, but housed in an animal facility for about two years. Large inter-species differences in behaviour were seen between the mice and the NMRs. The latter had generally poor sensorimotor function, including cutaneous sensation, strength and even grasp reflexes. They were often reluctant to enter or head-dip into small holes that mice readily entered. Their vision (generally considered to be very poor) was sufficient to distinguish the two zones of a light-dark box. Although, as expected, the NMRs were capable of burrowing and digging, when individually housed they did not shred cotton material to make nests. Shredding was seen in a colony cage containing a queen, but no nests were made there even when a nesting box was provided. In cognitive testing, although, unlike mice and rats, they did not spontaneously alternate in a T-maze, they learnt rewarded alternation and a cued position task well. This study demonstrates how behaviour uniquely reflects the natural environment in which these unusual animals have evolved and live, and provides baseline data for future work. PMID:22440234

  11. Initial Case Reports of Cancer in Naked Mole-rats (Heterocephalus glaber).

    PubMed

    Delaney, M A; Ward, J M; Walsh, T F; Chinnadurai, S K; Kerns, K; Kinsel, M J; Treuting, P M

    2016-05-01

    Naked mole-rats (NMRs;Heterocephalus glaber) are highly adapted, eusocial rodents renowned for their extreme longevity and resistance to cancer. Because cancer has not been formally described in this species, NMRs have been increasingly utilized as an animal model in aging and cancer research. We previously reported the occurrence of several age-related diseases, including putative pre-neoplastic lesions, in zoo-housed NMR colonies. Here, we report for the first time 2 cases of cancer in zoo-housed NMRs. In Case No. 1, we observed a subcutaneous mass in the axillary region of a 22-year-old male NMR, with histologic, immunohistochemical (pancytokeratin positive, rare p63 immunolabeling, and smooth muscle actin negative), and ultrastructural characteristics of an adenocarcinoma possibly of mammary or salivary origin. In Case No. 2, we observed a densely cellular, poorly demarcated gastric mass of polygonal cells arranged in nests with positive immunolabeling for synaptophysin and chromogranin indicative of a neuroendocrine carcinoma in an approximately 20-year-old male NMR. We also include a brief discussion of other proliferative growths and pre-cancerous lesions diagnosed in 1 zoo colony. Although these case reports do not alter the longstanding observation of cancer resistance, they do raise questions about the scope of cancer resistance and the interpretation of biomedical studies in this model. These reports also highlight the benefit of long-term disease investigations in zoo-housed populations to better understand naturally occurring disease processes in species used as models in biomedical research. PMID:26846576

  12. Challenging the inbreeding hypothesis in a eusocial mammal: population genetics of the naked mole-rat, Heterocephalus glaber.

    PubMed

    Ingram, Colleen M; Troendle, Nicholas J; Gill, Clare A; Braude, Stanton; Honeycutt, Rodney L

    2015-10-01

    The role of genetic relatedness in the evolution of eusociality has been the topic of much debate, especially when contrasting eusocial insects with vertebrates displaying reproductive altruism. The naked mole-rat, Heterocephalus glaber, was the first described eusocial mammal. Although this discovery was based on an ecological constraints model of eusocial evolution, early genetic studies reported high levels of relatedness in naked mole-rats, providing a compelling argument that low dispersal rates and consanguineous mating (inbreeding as a mating system) are the driving forces for the evolution of this eusocial species. One caveat to accepting this long-held view is that the original genetic studies were based on limited sampling from the species' geographic distribution. A growing body of evidence supports a contrary view, with the original samples not representative of the species-rather reflecting a single founder event, establishing a small population south of the Athi River. Our study is the first to address these competing hypotheses by examining patterns of molecular variation in colonies sampled from north and south of the Athi and Tana rivers, which based on our results, serve to isolate genetically distinct populations of naked mole-rats. Although colonies south of the Athi River share a single mtDNA haplotype and are fixed at most microsatellite loci, populations north of the Athi River are considerably more variable. Our findings support the position that the low variation observed in naked mole-rat populations south of the Athi River reflects a founder event, rather than a consequence of this species' unusual mating system. PMID:26407630

  13. Multiple primary cutaneous melanomas in patients with FAMMM syndrome and sporadic atypical mole syndrome (AMS): what's worse?

    PubMed

    Tchernev, Georgi; Ananiev, Julian; Cardoso, José-Carlos; Chokoeva, Anastasiya Atanasova; Philipov, Stanislav; Penev, Plamen Kolev; Lotti, Torello; Wollina, Uwe

    2014-08-01

    Atypical Mole Syndrome is the most important phenotypic risk factor for cutaneous melanoma, a malignancy that accounts for about 80% of deaths from skin cancer. Since early diagnosis of melanoma is of great prognostic relevance, the identification of Atypical Mole Syndrome carriers (sporadic and familial) is essential, as well as the recommendation of preventative measures that must be undertaken by these patients.We report two rare cases concerning patients with multiple primary skin melanomas in the setting of a familial and a sporadic syndrome of dysplastic nevi: the first patient is a 67-year-old patient with a history of multiple superficial spreading melanomas localized on his back. The second patient presented with multiple primary melanomas in advanced stage in the context of the so-called sporadic form of the syndrome of dysplastic nevi-AMS (atypical mole syndrome). In the first case, excision of the melanomas was carried out with an uneventful post-operative period. In the second case, disseminated metastases were detected, involving the right fibula, the abdominal cavity as well as multiple lesions in the brain. The patient declined BRAF mutation tests as well as chemotherapy or targeted therapies, and suffered a rapid deterioration in his general condition leading to death. We classified the second case as a sporadic form of the atypical mole syndrome, associated with one nodular and two superficial spreading melanomas.There are no data in the literature to allow us to understand if, in patients with multiple primary melanomas, there is any difference in terms of prognosis between those with and without a family history of a similar phenotype. To answer this and other questions related to these rare cases, further studies with a significant number of patients should be carried out. PMID:25096163

  14. A bilogarithmic method for the spectrophotometric evaluation of stability constants of 1:1 weak complexes from mole ratio data.

    PubMed

    Boccio, Maravillas; Sayago, Ana; Asuero, Agustín G

    2006-08-01

    The absorbance changes that occur when the mole ratio of the components of ligand complex equilibria is varied while the concentration of one component is kept constant (mole ratio method) allow evaluating stability constants in favourable conditions. Values of the corresponding stability (association) constants are normally assigned on the basis of spectrophotometric analysis. Determination of stability constants can be performed by a number of linear procedures, but most of these, suffer from theoretical and practical drawbacks, e.g., linear transformation of the rectangular hyperbola type of binding constants, is valid only when one of the two species is present in a large excess. A rigorous treatment of the experimental mole ratio data for 1:1 weak complexes is carried out in this paper with the aim of eliminating some of the assumptions involved in the other methods usually applied for evaluating stability constants. Orthogonal regression is required in order to take into account the error in both axes. The method has been applied to literature data for the iron(III)-thiocyanate and nickel(II)-selenocyanate systems, as well as to a number of host-guest cyclodextrin complexes. PMID:16647826

  15. Isolation and partial characterization of a highly divergent lineage of hantavirus from the European mole (Talpa europaea).

    PubMed

    Gu, Se Hun; Kumar, Mukesh; Sikorska, Beata; Hejduk, Janusz; Markowski, Janusz; Markowski, Marcin; Liberski, Paweł P; Yanagihara, Richard

    2016-01-01

    Genetically distinct hantaviruses have been identified in five species of fossorial moles (order Eulipotyphla, family Talpidae) from Eurasia and North America. Here, we report the isolation and partial characterization of a highly divergent hantavirus, named Nova virus (NVAV), from lung tissue of a European mole (Talpa europaea), captured in central Poland in August 2013. Typical hantavirus-like particles, measuring 80-120 nm in diameter, were found in NVAV-infected Vero E6 cells by transmission electron microscopy. Whole-genome sequences of the isolate, designated NVAV strain Te34, were identical to that amplified from the original lung tissue, and phylogenetic analysis of the full-length L, M and S segments, using maximum-likelihood and Bayesian methods, showed that NVAV was most closely related to hantaviruses harbored by insectivorous bats, consistent with an ancient evolutionary origin. Infant Swiss Webster mice, inoculated with NVAV by the intraperitoneal route, developed weight loss and hyperactivity, beginning at 16 days, followed by hind-limb paralysis and death. High NVAV RNA copies were detected in lung, liver, kidney, spleen and brain by quantitative real-time RT-PCR. Neuropathological examination showed astrocytic and microglial activation and neuronal loss. The first mole-borne hantavirus isolate will facilitate long-overdue studies on its infectivity and pathogenic potential in humans. PMID:26892544

  16. Neuroanatomical evidence for segregation of nerve fibers conveying light touch and pain sensation in Eimer's organ of the mole.

    PubMed

    Marasco, Paul D; Tsuruda, Pamela R; Bautista, Diana M; Julius, David; Catania, Kenneth C

    2006-06-13

    Talpid moles are small insectivores that live in dark underground tunnels. They depend heavily on touch to navigate and find food. Most species have an array of complex epidermal sensory structures called Eimer's organs that cover the tip of the nose. In this study, the anatomy of Eimer's organ was examined in the coast mole and star-nosed mole by using the fluorescent styryl pyridinium dye AM1-43 and immunocytochemical staining for neurofilament 200 and substance P. In addition, DiI was used to label neural components of Eimer's organ. AM1-43 labeled all of the Eimer's organ receptors after systemic injection, suggesting a role in mechanotransduction. Immunostaining with neurofilament 200 and substance P labeled distinct subtypes of sensory fibers. Substance P labeled a group of free nerve endings along the outer edge of Eimer's organ, indicating a nociceptive role for these fibers. In contrast, neurofilament 200 labeled a more central set of nerve endings, suggesting that these fibers function as low-threshold mechanoreceptors. By labeling subsets of trigeminal afferents distant from the receptor array with DiI, we revealed innervation patterns indicating that one afferent supplies the outer, substance P-positive set of free nerve endings, whereas several afferents differentially innervate the central free nerve endings. Our results suggest that the free nerve endings innervating Eimer's organ are largely mechanosensitive and may play an important role in the rapid sensory discrimination observed in these species. PMID:16751268

  17. Ectoparasite burdens of the common mole-rat (Cryptomys hottentotus hottentotus) from the Cape Provinces of South Africa.

    PubMed

    Archer, Elizabeth K; Bennett, Nigel C; Ueckermann, Edward A; Lutermann, Heike

    2014-02-01

    The members of the African mole-rat family Bathyergidae are widely distributed across sub-Saharan Africa. Despite their well-studied biology and reproductive physiology, the current knowledge of their ectoparasite fauna is limited and ambiguous due to recent revisions of the bathyergid taxonomy. The common mole-rat (Cryptomys hottentotus hottentotus) is 1 of the most widely distributed species of these subterranean rodents. Ectoparasites were collected from 268 common mole-rats at 2 localities (Western and Northern Cape provinces) in South Africa over the course of 18 mo with the aim to document species richness, prevalence, and abundance of these ectoparasites. The aggregation of parasite species, sex bias within a species, and seasonal variation in ectoparasite burdens were investigated. A total of 4,830 individual parasites from 4 mite species (Androlaelaps scapularis, Androlaelaps capensis, Radfordia ensifera, and 1 undetermined chigger [family Trombiculidae]), 1 flea species (Cryptopsylla ingrami), and 1 louse species (Eulinognathus hilli) were collected. With the exception of R. ensifera and the chigger, all of these ectoparasites appear to be host specific either for the host species or the Bathyergidae. Aggregation indices indicated that with the exception of E. hilli, the distribution of all parasite species was highly aggregated among hosts and sex biased. Seasonal variation in prevalence, abundance, and species richness was apparent, with greater burdens in the rainy winter season. This is likely related to seasonal variation in abiotic factors but may also be affected by the timing of host reproduction and dispersal behavior. PMID:24171714

  18. Isolation and partial characterization of a highly divergent lineage of hantavirus from the European mole (Talpa europaea)

    PubMed Central

    Gu, Se Hun; Kumar, Mukesh; Sikorska, Beata; Hejduk, Janusz; Markowski, Janusz; Markowski, Marcin; Liberski, Paweł P.; Yanagihara, Richard

    2016-01-01

    Genetically distinct hantaviruses have been identified in five species of fossorial moles (order Eulipotyphla, family Talpidae) from Eurasia and North America. Here, we report the isolation and partial characterization of a highly divergent hantavirus, named Nova virus (NVAV), from lung tissue of a European mole (Talpa europaea), captured in central Poland in August 2013. Typical hantavirus-like particles, measuring 80–120 nm in diameter, were found in NVAV-infected Vero E6 cells by transmission electron microscopy. Whole-genome sequences of the isolate, designated NVAV strain Te34, were identical to that amplified from the original lung tissue, and phylogenetic analysis of the full-length L, M and S segments, using maximum-likelihood and Bayesian methods, showed that NVAV was most closely related to hantaviruses harbored by insectivorous bats, consistent with an ancient evolutionary origin. Infant Swiss Webster mice, inoculated with NVAV by the intraperitoneal route, developed weight loss and hyperactivity, beginning at 16 days, followed by hind-limb paralysis and death. High NVAV RNA copies were detected in lung, liver, kidney, spleen and brain by quantitative real-time RT-PCR. Neuropathological examination showed astrocytic and microglial activation and neuronal loss. The first mole-borne hantavirus isolate will facilitate long-overdue studies on its infectivity and pathogenic potential in humans. PMID:26892544

  19. Variability of whipworm infection and humoral immune response in a wild population of mole voles (Ellobius talpinus Pall.).

    PubMed

    Novikov, Eugene; Petrovski, Dmitry; Mak, Viktoria; Kondratuk, Ekaterina; Krivopalov, Anton; Moshkin, Mikhail

    2016-08-01

    Restricted mobility and spatial isolation of social units in gregarious subterranean mammals ensure good defence mechanisms against parasites, which in turn allows for a reduction of immunity components. In contrast, a parasite invasion may cause an increased adaptive immune response. Therefore, it can be expected that spatial and temporal distribution of parasites within a population will correlate with the local variability in the host's immunocompetence. To test this hypothesis, the intra-population variability of a whipworm infestation and the humoral immune response to non-replicated antigens in mole voles (Ellobius talpinus Pall.), social subterranean rodents, was estimated. Whipworm prevalence in mole voles increased from spring to autumn, and this tendency was more pronounced in settlements living in natural meadows compared to settlements in man-made meadows. However, humoral immune response was lowest in animals from natural meadows trapped in autumn. Since whipworm infestation does not directly affect the immunity of mole voles, the reciprocal tendencies in seasonal dynamics and spatial distribution of whipworm abundance and host immunocompetence may be explained by local deterioration of habitat conditions, which increases the probability of an infestation. PMID:27079461

  20. Relative and absolute level populations in beam-foil-excited neutral helium

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davidson, J.

    1975-01-01

    Relative and absolute populations of 19 levels in beam-foil-excited neutral helium at 0.275 MeV have been measured. The singlet angular-momentum sequences show dependences on principal quantum number consistent with n to the -3rd power, but the triplet sequences do not. Singlet and triplet angular-momentum sequences show similar dependences on level excitation energy. Excitation functions for six representative levels were measured in the range from 0.160 to 0.500 MeV. The absolute level populations increase with energy, whereas the neutral fraction of the beam decreases with energy. Further, the P angular-momentum levels are found to be overpopulated with respect to the S and D levels. The overpopulation decreases with increasing principal quantum number.

  1. Gyrokinetic Statistical Absolute Equilibrium and Turbulence

    SciTech Connect

    Jian-Zhou Zhu and Gregory W. Hammett

    2011-01-10

    A paradigm based on the absolute equilibrium of Galerkin-truncated inviscid systems to aid in understanding turbulence [T.-D. Lee, "On some statistical properties of hydrodynamical and magnetohydrodynamical fields," Q. Appl. Math. 10, 69 (1952)] is taken to study gyrokinetic plasma turbulence: A finite set of Fourier modes of the collisionless gyrokinetic equations are kept and the statistical equilibria are calculated; possible implications for plasma turbulence in various situations are discussed. For the case of two spatial and one velocity dimension, in the calculation with discretization also of velocity v with N grid points (where N + 1 quantities are conserved, corresponding to an energy invariant and N entropy-related invariants), the negative temperature states, corresponding to the condensation of the generalized energy into the lowest modes, are found. This indicates a generic feature of inverse energy cascade. Comparisons are made with some classical results, such as those of Charney-Hasegawa-Mima in the cold-ion limit. There is a universal shape for statistical equilibrium of gyrokinetics in three spatial and two velocity dimensions with just one conserved quantity. Possible physical relevance to turbulence, such as ITG zonal flows, and to a critical balance hypothesis are also discussed.

  2. Absolute surface energy for zincblende semiconductors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, S. B.; Wei, Su-Huai

    2003-03-01

    Recent advance in nanosciences requires the determination of surface (or facet) energy of semiconductors, which is often difficult due to the polar nature of some of the most important surfaces such as the (111)A/(111)B surfaces. Several approaches have been developed in the past [1-3] to deal with the problem but an unambiguous division of the polar surface energies is yet to come [2]. Here we show that an accurate division is indeed possible for the zincblende semiconductors and will present the results for GaAs, ZnSe, and CuInSe2 [4], respectively. A general trend emerges, relating the absolute surface energy to the ionicity of the bulk materials. [1] N. Chetty and R. M. Martin, Phys. Rev. B 45, 6074 (1992). [2] N. Moll, et al., Phys. Rev. B 54, 8844 (1996). [3] S. Mankefors, Phys. Rev. B 59, 13151 (1999). [4] S. B. Zhang and S.-H. Wei, Phys. Rev. B 65, 081402 (2002).

  3. Climate Absolute Radiance and Refractivity Observatory (CLARREO)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leckey, John P.

    2015-01-01

    The Climate Absolute Radiance and Refractivity Observatory (CLARREO) is a mission, led and developed by NASA, that will measure a variety of climate variables with an unprecedented accuracy to quantify and attribute climate change. CLARREO consists of three separate instruments: an infrared (IR) spectrometer, a reflected solar (RS) spectrometer, and a radio occultation (RO) instrument. The mission will contain orbiting radiometers with sufficient accuracy, including on orbit verification, to calibrate other space-based instrumentation, increasing their respective accuracy by as much as an order of magnitude. The IR spectrometer is a Fourier Transform spectrometer (FTS) working in the 5 to 50 microns wavelength region with a goal of 0.1 K (k = 3) accuracy. The FTS will achieve this accuracy using phase change cells to verify thermistor accuracy and heated halos to verify blackbody emissivity, both on orbit. The RS spectrometer will measure the reflectance of the atmosphere in the 0.32 to 2.3 microns wavelength region with an accuracy of 0.3% (k = 2). The status of the instrumentation packages and potential mission options will be presented.

  4. Absolute decay width measurements in 16O

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wheldon, C.; Ashwood, N. I.; Barr, M.; Curtis, N.; Freer, M.; Kokalova, Tz; Malcolm, J. D.; Spencer, S. J.; Ziman, V. A.; Faestermann, Th; Krücken, R.; Wirth, H.-F.; Hertenberger, R.; Lutter, R.; Bergmaier, A.

    2012-09-01

    The reaction 126C(63Li, d)168O* at a 6Li bombarding energy of 42 MeV has been used to populate excited states in 16O. The deuteron ejectiles were measured using the high-resolution Munich Q3D spectrograph. A large-acceptance silicon-strip detector array was used to register the recoil and break-up products. This complete kinematic set-up has enabled absolute α-decay widths to be measured with high-resolution in the 13.9 to 15.9 MeV excitation energy regime in 16O; many for the first time. This energy region spans the 14.4 MeV four-α breakup threshold. Monte-Carlo simulations of the detector geometry and break-up processes yield detection efficiencies for the two dominant decay modes of 40% and 37% for the α+12C(g.s.) and a+12C(2+1) break-up channels respectively.

  5. Absolute calibration of forces in optical tweezers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dutra, R. S.; Viana, N. B.; Maia Neto, P. A.; Nussenzveig, H. M.

    2014-07-01

    Optical tweezers are highly versatile laser traps for neutral microparticles, with fundamental applications in physics and in single molecule cell biology. Force measurements are performed by converting the stiffness response to displacement of trapped transparent microspheres, employed as force transducers. Usually, calibration is indirect, by comparison with fluid drag forces. This can lead to discrepancies by sizable factors. Progress achieved in a program aiming at absolute calibration, conducted over the past 15 years, is briefly reviewed. Here we overcome its last major obstacle, a theoretical overestimation of the peak stiffness, within the most employed range for applications, and we perform experimental validation. The discrepancy is traced to the effect of primary aberrations of the optical system, which are now included in the theory. All required experimental parameters are readily accessible. Astigmatism, the dominant effect, is measured by analyzing reflected images of the focused laser spot, adapting frequently employed video microscopy techniques. Combined with interface spherical aberration, it reveals a previously unknown window of instability for trapping. Comparison with experimental data leads to an overall agreement within error bars, with no fitting, for a broad range of microsphere radii, from the Rayleigh regime to the ray optics one, for different polarizations and trapping heights, including all commonly employed parameter domains. Besides signaling full first-principles theoretical understanding of optical tweezers operation, the results may lead to improved instrument design and control over experiments, as well as to an extended domain of applicability, allowing reliable force measurements, in principle, from femtonewtons to nanonewtons.

  6. Absolute spectrophotometry of northern compact planetary nebulae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wright, S. A.; Corradi, R. L. M.; Perinotto, M.

    2005-06-01

    We present medium-dispersion spectra and narrowband images of six northern compact planetary nebulae (PNe): BoBn 1, DdDm 1, IC 5117, M 1-5, M 1-71, and NGC 6833. From broad-slit spectra, total absolute fluxes and equivalent widths were measured for all observable emission lines. High signal-to-noise emission line fluxes of Hα, Hβ, [Oiii], [Nii], and HeI may serve as emission line flux standards for northern hemisphere observers. From narrow-slit spectra, we derive systemic radial velocities. For four PNe, available emission line fluxes were measured with sufficient signal-to-noise to probe the physical properties of their electron densities, temperatures, and chemical abundances. BoBn 1 and DdDm 1, both type IV PNe, have an Hβ flux over three sigma away from previous measurements. We report the first abundance measurements of M 1-71. NGC 6833 measured radial velocity and galactic coordinates suggest that it is associated with the outer arm or possibly the galactic halo, and its low abundance ([O/H]=1.3× 10-4) may be indicative of low metallicity within that region.

  7. Dividing Fractions: A Pedagogical Technique

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lewis, Robert

    2016-01-01

    When dividing one fraction by a second fraction, invert, that is, flip the second fraction, then multiply it by the first fraction. To multiply fractions, simply multiply across the denominators, and multiply across the numerators to get the resultant fraction. So by inverting the division of fractions it is turned into an easy multiplication of…

  8. Sufficient Condition on the Fractional Integral for the Convergence of a Function

    PubMed Central

    Duarte-Mermoud, Manuel A.; Aguila-Camacho, Norelys; Gallegos, Javier A.

    2013-01-01

    A sufficient condition on the fractional integral of the absolute value of a function is given in this paper, which allows to assure the convergence of the function to zero. This result can be useful to assure the convergence of a function when it is hard to know its exact evolution, but conditions on its fractional integral can be stated. PMID:24453850

  9. Absolute nuclear material assay using count distribution (LAMBDA) space

    DOEpatents

    Prasad, Mano K.; Snyderman, Neal J.; Rowland, Mark S.

    2015-12-01

    A method of absolute nuclear material assay of an unknown source comprising counting neutrons from the unknown source and providing an absolute nuclear material assay utilizing a model to optimally compare to the measured count distributions. In one embodiment, the step of providing an absolute nuclear material assay comprises utilizing a random sampling of analytically computed fission chain distributions to generate a continuous time-evolving sequence of event-counts by spreading the fission chain distribution in time.

  10. Absolute nuclear material assay using count distribution (LAMBDA) space

    DOEpatents

    Prasad, Manoj K.; Snyderman, Neal J.; Rowland, Mark S.

    2012-06-05

    A method of absolute nuclear material assay of an unknown source comprising counting neutrons from the unknown source and providing an absolute nuclear material assay utilizing a model to optimally compare to the measured count distributions. In one embodiment, the step of providing an absolute nuclear material assay comprises utilizing a random sampling of analytically computed fission chain distributions to generate a continuous time-evolving sequence of event-counts by spreading the fission chain distribution in time.

  11. FRACTIONAL PEARSON DIFFUSIONS

    PubMed Central

    Leonenko, Nikolai N.; Meerschaert, Mark M.

    2013-01-01

    Pearson diffusions are governed by diffusion equations with polynomial coefficients. Fractional Pearson diffusions are governed by the corresponding time-fractional diffusion equation. They are useful for modeling sub-diffusive phenomena, caused by particle sticking and trapping. This paper provides explicit strong solutions for fractional Pearson diffusions, using spectral methods. It also presents stochastic solutions, using a non-Markovian inverse stable time change. PMID:23626377

  12. Invasive Complete Hydatidiform Moles: Analysis of a Case Series With Genotyping.

    PubMed

    Bynum, Jennifer; Murphy, Kathleen M; DeScipio, Cheryl; Beierl, Katie; Adams, Emily; Anderson, Derek; Vang, Russell; Ronnett, Brigitte M

    2016-03-01

    Complete hydatidiform moles (CHM) are purely androgenetic conceptions, with most (∼85%) arising from fertilization of an egg lacking maternal DNA by a single sperm that duplicates (homozygous/monospermic 46,XX) and a small subset arising via fertilization by 2 sperms (heterozygous/dispermic 46,XY or 46,XX). It remains controversial if heterozygous/dispermic CHMs have a significantly greater risk of persistent gestational trophoblastic disease. Analysis of zygosity of CHMs with and without invasion at presentation, including invasive CHMs with concurrent atypical trophoblastic proliferations concerning for or consistent with choriocarcinoma, has not been specifically addressed. In a prospective series of 1024 products of conception specimens subjected to immunohistochemical analysis of p57 expression and molecular genotyping with short tandem-repeat markers, 288 CHMs were diagnosed, of which 126 were genotyped, including 16 invasive CHMs. Zygosity was compared between those with and without invasion. Of the 16 study cases, 12 (75%) were homozygous/monospermic XX and 4 (25%) were heterozygous/dispermic (3 XY and 1 XX). Of the 110 genotyped noninvasive CHMs, 96 (87%) were homozygous/monospermic XX and 14 (13%) were heterozygous/dispermic (12 XY, 2 XX). Comparison of the zygosity results for the invasive CHMs (study group) with the noninvasive CHMs in the database did not demonstrate a statistically significant difference (P=0.24, Fisher exact test). In addition, of the 3 cases associated with metastatic gestational trophoblastic disease (pulmonary nodules) at presentation, 2 were homozygous/monospermic XX, indicating that this form is not without risk of significant gestational trophoblastic disease. Thus, the current study has demonstrated a higher frequency of heterozygous/dispermic CHMs among invasive cases compared with those lacking invasion, but does not support the use of zygosity data for risk assessment of CHMs. A persistent, unresolved diagnostic challenge

  13. The absolute disparity anomaly and the mechanism of relative disparities.

    PubMed

    Chopin, Adrien; Levi, Dennis; Knill, David; Bavelier, Daphne

    2016-06-01

    There has been a long-standing debate about the mechanisms underlying the perception of stereoscopic depth and the computation of the relative disparities that it relies on. Relative disparities between visual objects could be computed in two ways: (a) using the difference in the object's absolute disparities (Hypothesis 1) or (b) using relative disparities based on the differences in the monocular separations between objects (Hypothesis 2). To differentiate between these hypotheses, we measured stereoscopic discrimination thresholds for lines with different absolute and relative disparities. Participants were asked to judge the depth of two lines presented at the same distance from the fixation plane (absolute disparity) or the depth between two lines presented at different distances (relative disparity). We used a single stimulus method involving a unique memory component for both conditions, and no extraneous references were available. We also measured vergence noise using Nonius lines. Stereo thresholds were substantially worse for absolute disparities than for relative disparities, and the difference could not be explained by vergence noise. We attribute this difference to an absence of conscious readout of absolute disparities, termed the absolute disparity anomaly. We further show that the pattern of correlations between vergence noise and absolute and relative disparity acuities can be explained jointly by the existence of the absolute disparity anomaly and by the assumption that relative disparity information is computed from absolute disparities (Hypothesis 1). PMID:27248566

  14. The absolute disparity anomaly and the mechanism of relative disparities

    PubMed Central

    Chopin, Adrien; Levi, Dennis; Knill, David; Bavelier, Daphne

    2016-01-01

    There has been a long-standing debate about the mechanisms underlying the perception of stereoscopic depth and the computation of the relative disparities that it relies on. Relative disparities between visual objects could be computed in two ways: (a) using the difference in the object's absolute disparities (Hypothesis 1) or (b) using relative disparities based on the differences in the monocular separations between objects (Hypothesis 2). To differentiate between these hypotheses, we measured stereoscopic discrimination thresholds for lines with different absolute and relative disparities. Participants were asked to judge the depth of two lines presented at the same distance from the fixation plane (absolute disparity) or the depth between two lines presented at different distances (relative disparity). We used a single stimulus method involving a unique memory component for both conditions, and no extraneous references were available. We also measured vergence noise using Nonius lines. Stereo thresholds were substantially worse for absolute disparities than for relative disparities, and the difference could not be explained by vergence noise. We attribute this difference to an absence of conscious readout of absolute disparities, termed the absolute disparity anomaly. We further show that the pattern of correlations between vergence noise and absolute and relative disparity acuities can be explained jointly by the existence of the absolute disparity anomaly and by the assumption that relative disparity information is computed from absolute disparities (Hypothesis 1). PMID:27248566

  15. Effect of Al-mole fraction in Al{sub x}Ga{sub 1−x}N grown by MOCVD

    SciTech Connect

    Jayasakthi, M. Ramesh, R. Prabakaran, K. Loganathan, R. Kuppulingam, B. Balaji, M. Arivazhagan, P. Sankaranarayanan, S. Singh, Shubra Baskar, K.

    2014-04-24

    AlGaN/AlN layers were grown by metalorganic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD) on sapphire substrates. The Al{sub x}Ga{sub 1−x}N layer composition was varied from 15% to 25%. The crystalline quality, thickness and aluminum (Al) composition of AlGaN were determined using high resolution X-ray diffraction (HRXRD). The growth rate decreases on increasing Al composition. Reciprocal space mapping (RSM) was used to estimate the strain and relaxation between AlGaN and AlN. The optical properties of AlGaN layers were investigated by room temperature Photoluminescence (PL). The AlGaN peak shifts towards lower wavelength with Al composition. The surface morphology of AlGaN was studied by atomic force microscopy (AFM). Root mean square (RMS) roughness values were found to be increased in AlGaN layers with composition.

  16. Measurements of N2O and SF6 mole fraction between 1977 and 1998 in archived air samples from Cape Meares, Oregon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rolfe, T.; Rice, A. L.; Radda, J.

    2015-12-01

    The quantification of greenhouse gas concentrations in the atmosphere is important for monitoring imbalances in their global budgets between sources and sinks and their changes in time. Nitrous oxide (N2O) is a strong radiative trace gas with a GWP of ~300 times CO2 over a 100 year period and an atmospheric lifetime of ~100 years. The preindustrial revolution background concentration of N2O was ~270 ppb. Today, the concentration is ~330 ppb. Sulfur hexafluoride (SF6) is another potent greenhouse gas with a long lifetime (800 to 3200 years) and very large GWP (~23000 times CO2 over a 100 year period). Its current atmospheric concentration is low (~8 ppt today). Direct measurements of N2O and SF6 in air prior to the mid-1990s are few. Over 200 archived atmospheric gas samples collected at Cape Meares, Oregon between 1977 and 1998 were analyzed for their N2O and SF6 concentrations using an Agilent (model 6890 N) gas chromatograph fitted with an electron capture detector using a two column "heart-cut" technique. Precision of measurement of N2O and SF6 is calculated at 0.13% (1σ) and 1.35% (1σ) respectively. N2O concentrations in the late 1970s and early 1980s average around 303 ppb, rising to 309 ppb in the early 1990s. Between 1980 and 1990, the increase in N2O concentrations is found to be ~0.5 ppb/yr. SF6 concentrations during the late 1970s and early 1980s average around 0.9 ppt and rise slowly, reaching 1.6 ppt in the 1990s. We find that the increase in SF6 between 1980 and 1990 to be ~0.07 ppt/yr. We also discuss sample integrity in storage and observed temporal trends of N2O and SF6.

  17. The Absolute Rate of LGRB Formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Graham, J. F.; Schady, P.

    2016-06-01

    We estimate the long-duration gamma-ray burst (LGRB) progenitor rate using our recent work on the effects of environmental metallically on LGRB formation in concert with supernovae (SNe) statistics via an approach patterned loosely off the Drake equation. Beginning with the cosmic star formation history, we consider the expected number of broad-line Type Ic events (the SNe type associated with LGRBs) that are in low-metallicity host environments adjusted by the contribution of high-metallicity host environments at a much reduced rate. We then compare this estimate to the observed LGRB rate corrected for instrumental selection effects to provide a combined estimate of the efficiency fraction of these progenitors to produce LGRBs and the fraction of which are beamed in our direction. From this we estimate that an aligned LGRB occurs for approximately every 4000 ± 2000 low-metallically broad-lined SNe Ic. Therefore, if one assumes a semi-nominal beaming factor of 100, then only about one such supernova out of 40 produce an LGRB. Finally, we propose an off-axis LGRB search strategy of targeting only broad-line Type Ic events that occur in low-metallicity hosts for radio observation.

  18. Orion Absolute Navigation System Progress and Challenge

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holt, Greg N.; D'Souza, Christopher

    2012-01-01

    The absolute navigation design of NASA's Orion vehicle is described. It has undergone several iterations and modifications since its inception, and continues as a work-in-progress. This paper seeks to benchmark the current state of the design and some of the rationale and analysis behind it. There are specific challenges to address when preparing a timely and effective design for the Exploration Flight Test (EFT-1), while still looking ahead and providing software extensibility for future exploration missions. The primary onboard measurements in a Near-Earth or Mid-Earth environment consist of GPS pseudo-range and delta-range, but for future explorations missions the use of star-tracker and optical navigation sources need to be considered. Discussions are presented for state size and composition, processing techniques, and consider states. A presentation is given for the processing technique using the computationally stable and robust UDU formulation with an Agee-Turner Rank-One update. This allows for computational savings when dealing with many parameters which are modeled as slowly varying Gauss-Markov processes. Preliminary analysis shows up to a 50% reduction in computation versus a more traditional formulation. Several state elements are discussed and evaluated, including position, velocity, attitude, clock bias/drift, and GPS measurement biases in addition to bias, scale factor, misalignment, and non-orthogonalities of the accelerometers and gyroscopes. Another consideration is the initialization of the EKF in various scenarios. Scenarios such as single-event upset, ground command, and cold start are discussed as are strategies for whole and partial state updates as well as covariance considerations. Strategies are given for dealing with latent measurements and high-rate propagation using multi-rate architecture. The details of the rate groups and the data ow between the elements is discussed and evaluated.

  19. Evaluation of the Absolute Regional Temperature Potential

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shindell, D. T.

    2012-01-01

    The Absolute Regional Temperature Potential (ARTP) is one of the few climate metrics that provides estimates of impacts at a sub-global scale. The ARTP presented here gives the time-dependent temperature response in four latitude bands (90-28degS, 28degS-28degN, 28-60degN and 60-90degN) as a function of emissions based on the forcing in those bands caused by the emissions. It is based on a large set of simulations performed with a single atmosphere-ocean climate model to derive regional forcing/response relationships. Here I evaluate the robustness of those relationships using the forcing/response portion of the ARTP to estimate regional temperature responses to the historic aerosol forcing in three independent climate models. These ARTP results are in good accord with the actual responses in those models. Nearly all ARTP estimates fall within +/-20%of the actual responses, though there are some exceptions for 90-28degS and the Arctic, and in the latter the ARTP may vary with forcing agent. However, for the tropics and the Northern Hemisphere mid-latitudes in particular, the +/-20% range appears to be roughly consistent with the 95% confidence interval. Land areas within these two bands respond 39-45% and 9-39% more than the latitude band as a whole. The ARTP, presented here in a slightly revised form, thus appears to provide a relatively robust estimate for the responses of large-scale latitude bands and land areas within those bands to inhomogeneous radiative forcing and thus potentially to emissions as well. Hence this metric could allow rapid evaluation of the effects of emissions policies at a finer scale than global metrics without requiring use of a full climate model.

  20. Absolute optical surface measurement with deflectometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Wansong; Sandner, Marc; Gesierich, Achim; Burke, Jan

    Deflectometry utilises the deformation and displacement of a sample pattern after reflection from a test surface to infer the surface slopes. Differentiation of the measurement data leads to a curvature map, which is very useful for surface quality checks with sensitivity down to the nanometre range. Integration of the data allows reconstruction of the absolute surface shape, but the procedure is very error-prone because systematic errors may add up to large shape deviations. In addition, there are infinitely many combinations for slope and object distance that satisfy a given observation. One solution for this ambiguity is to include information on the object's distance. It must be known very accurately. Two laser pointers can be used for positioning the object, and we also show how a confocal chromatic distance sensor can be used to define a reference point on a smooth surface from which the integration can be started. The used integration algorithm works without symmetry constraints and is therefore suitable for free-form surfaces as well. Unlike null testing, deflectometry also determines radius of curvature (ROC) or focal lengths as a direct result of the 3D surface reconstruction. This is shown by the example of a 200 mm diameter telescope mirror, whose ROC measurements by coordinate measurement machine and deflectometry coincide to within 0.27 mm (or a sag error of 1.3μm). By the example of a diamond-turned off-axis parabolic mirror, we demonstrate that the figure measurement uncertainty comes close to a well-calibrated Fizeau interferometer.

  1. Absolute determination of local tropospheric OH concentrations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Armerding, Wolfgang; Comes, Franz-Josef

    1994-01-01

    Long path absorption (LPA) according to Lambert Beer's law is a method to determine absolute concentrations of trace gases such as tropospheric OH. We have developed a LPA instrument which is based on a rapid tuning of the light source which is a frequency doubled dye laser. The laser is tuned across two or three OH absorption features around 308 nm with a scanning speed of 0.07 cm(exp -1)/microsecond and a repetition rate of 1.3 kHz. This high scanning speed greatly reduces the fluctuation of the light intensity caused by the atmosphere. To obtain the required high sensitivity the laser output power is additionally made constant and stabilized by an electro-optical modulator. The present sensitivity is of the order of a few times 10(exp 5) OH per cm(exp 3) for an acquisition time of a minute and an absorption path length of only 1200 meters so that a folding of the optical path in a multireflection cell was possible leading to a lateral dimension of the cell of a few meters. This allows local measurements to be made. Tropospheric measurements have been carried out in 1991 resulting in the determination of OH diurnal variation at specific days in late summer. Comparison with model calculations have been made. Interferences are mainly due to SO2 absorption. The problem of OH self generation in the multireflection cell is of minor extent. This could be shown by using different experimental methods. The minimum-maximum signal to noise ratio is about 8 x 10(exp -4) for a single scan. Due to the small size of the absorption cell the realization of an open air laboratory is possible in which by use of an additional UV light source or by additional fluxes of trace gases the chemistry can be changed under controlled conditions allowing kinetic studies of tropospheric photochemistry to be made in open air.

  2. Absolute Radiometric Calibration of KOMPSAT-3A

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahn, H. Y.; Shin, D. Y.; Kim, J. S.; Seo, D. C.; Choi, C. U.

    2016-06-01

    This paper presents a vicarious radiometric calibration of the Korea Multi-Purpose Satellite-3A (KOMPSAT-3A) performed by the Korea Aerospace Research Institute (KARI) and the Pukyong National University Remote Sensing Group (PKNU RSG) in 2015.The primary stages of this study are summarized as follows: (1) A field campaign to determine radiometric calibrated target fields was undertaken in Mongolia and South Korea. Surface reflectance data obtained in the campaign were input to a radiative transfer code that predicted at-sensor radiance. Through this process, equations and parameters were derived for the KOMPSAT-3A sensor to enable the conversion of calibrated DN to physical units, such as at-sensor radiance or TOA reflectance. (2) To validate the absolute calibration coefficients for the KOMPSAT-3A sensor, we performed a radiometric validation with a comparison of KOMPSAT-3A and Landsat-8 TOA reflectance using one of the six PICS (Libya 4). Correlations between top-of-atmosphere (TOA) radiances and the spectral band responses of the KOMPSAT-3A sensors at the Zuunmod, Mongolia and Goheung, South Korea sites were significant for multispectral bands. The average difference in TOA reflectance between KOMPSAT-3A and Landsat-8 image over the Libya 4, Libya site in the red-green-blue (RGB) region was under 3%, whereas in the NIR band, the TOA reflectance of KOMPSAT-3A was lower than the that of Landsat-8 due to the difference in the band passes of two sensors. The KOMPSAT-3Aensor includes a band pass near 940 nm that can be strongly absorbed by water vapor and therefore displayed low reflectance. Toovercome this, we need to undertake a detailed analysis using rescale methods, such as the spectral bandwidth adjustment factor.

  3. Carbon and oxygen isotope fractionation in dense interstellar clouds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Langer, W. D.; Graedel, T. E.; Frerking, M. A.; Armentrout, P. B.

    1984-01-01

    It is pointed out that isotope fractionation as a result of chemical reactions is due to the small zero-point energy differences between reactants and products of isotopically distinct species. Only at temperatures near absolute zero does this energy difference become significant. Favorable conditions for isotope fractionation on the considered basis exist in space within dense interstellar clouds. Temperatures of approximately 10 K may occur in these clouds. Under such conditions, ion-molecule reactions have the potential to distribute isotopes of hydrogen, carbon, oxygen unequally among the interstellar molecules. The present investigation makes use of a detailed model of the time-dependent chemistry of dense interstellar clouds to study cosmological isotope fractionation. Attention is given to fractionation chemistry and the calculation of rate parameters, the isotope fractionation results, and a comparison of theoretical results with observational data.

  4. Mid-infrared absolute spectral responsivity scale based on an absolute cryogenic radiometer and an optical parametric oscillator laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Kun; Shi, Xueshun; Chen, Haidong; Liu, Yulong; Liu, Changming; Chen, Kunfeng; Li, Ligong; Gan, Haiyong; Ma, Chong

    2016-06-01

    We are reporting on a laser-based absolute spectral responsivity scale in the mid-infrared spectral range. By using a mid-infrared tunable optical parametric oscillator as the laser source, the absolute responsivity scale has been established by calibrating thin-film thermopile detectors against an absolute cryogenic radiometer. The thin-film thermopile detectors can be then used as transfer standard detectors. The extended uncertainty of the absolute spectral responsivity measurement has been analyzed to be 0.58%–0.68% (k  =  2).

  5. Subcellular fractionation of human liver reveals limits in global proteomic quantification from isolated fractions.

    PubMed

    Wiśniewski, Jacek R; Wegler, Christine; Artursson, Per

    2016-09-15

    The liver plays an important role in metabolism and elimination of xenobiotics, including drugs. Determination of concentrations of proteins involved in uptake, distribution, metabolism, and excretion of xenobiotics is required to understand and predict elimination mechanisms in this tissue. In this work, we have fractionated homogenates of snap-frozen human liver by differential centrifugation and performed quantitative mass spectrometry-based proteomic analysis of each fraction. Concentrations of proteins were calculated by the "total protein approach". A total of 4586 proteins were identified by at least five peptides and were quantified in all fractions. We found that the xenobiotics transporters of the canalicular and basolateral membranes were differentially enriched in the subcellular fractions and that phase I and II metabolizing enzymes, the cytochrome P450s and the UDP-glucuronyl transferases, have complex subcellular distributions. These findings show that there is no simple way to scale the data from measurements in arbitrarily selected membrane fractions using a single scaling factor for all the proteins of interest. This study also provides the first absolute quantitative subcellular catalog of human liver proteins obtained from frozen tissue specimens. Our data provide quantitative insights into the subcellular distribution of proteins and can be used as a guide for development of fractionation procedures. PMID:27311553

  6. Radiative lifetimes, branching rations, and absolute transition probabilities in Cr II and Zn II

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bergeson, S. D.; Lawler, J. E.

    1993-01-01

    New absolute atomic transition probability measurements are reported for 12 transitions in Cr II and two transitions in Zn II. These transition probabilities are determined by combining branching ratios measured by classical techniques and radiative lifetimes measured by time-resolved laser-induced fluorescence. The measurements are compared with branching fractions, radiative lifetimes, and transition probabilities in the literature. The 206 nm resonance multiplets in Cr II and Zn II are included in this work. These multiplets are very useful in determining the distribution of the elements in the gas versus grain phases in the interstellar medium.

  7. An Appetite for Fractions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilkerson, Trena L.; Bryan, Tommy; Curry, Jane

    2012-01-01

    This article describes how using candy bars as models gives sixth-grade students a taste for learning to represent fractions whose denominators are factors of twelve. Using paper models of the candy bars, students explored and compared fractions. They noticed fewer different representations for one-third than for one-half. The authors conclude…

  8. Can Kindergartners Do Fractions?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cwikla, Julie

    2014-01-01

    Mathematics professor Julie Cwikla decided that she needed to investigate young children's understandings and see what precurricular partitioning notions young minds bring to the fraction table. Cwikla realized that only a handful of studies have examined how preschool-age and early elementary school-age students solve fraction problems…

  9. The Future of Fractions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Usiskin, Zalman P.

    2007-01-01

    In the 1970s, the movement to the metric system (which has still not completely occurred in the United States) and the advent of hand-held calculators led some to speculate that decimal representation of numbers would render fractions obsolete. This provocative proposition stimulated Zalman Usiskin to write "The Future of Fractions" in 1979. He…

  10. (Carbon isotope fractionation inplants)

    SciTech Connect

    O'Leary, M.H.

    1990-01-01

    The objectives of this research are: To develop a theoretical and experimental framework for understanding isotope fractionations in plants; and to develop methods for using this isotope fractionation for understanding the dynamics of CO{sub 2} fixation in plants. Progress is described.

  11. Supplementary and Enrichment Series: Absolute Value. Teachers' Commentary. SP-25.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bridgess, M. Philbrick, Ed.

    This is one in a series of manuals for teachers using SMSG high school supplementary materials. The pamphlet includes commentaries on the sections of the student's booklet, answers to the exercises, and sample test questions. Topics covered include addition and multiplication in terms of absolute value, graphs of absolute value in the Cartesian…

  12. Supplementary and Enrichment Series: Absolute Value. SP-24.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bridgess, M. Philbrick, Ed.

    This is one in a series of SMSG supplementary and enrichment pamphlets for high school students. This series is designed to make material for the study of topics of special interest to students readily accessible in classroom quantity. Topics covered include absolute value, addition and multiplication in terms of absolute value, graphs of absolute…

  13. Novalis' Poetic Uncertainty: A "Bildung" with the Absolute

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mika, Carl

    2016-01-01

    Novalis, the Early German Romantic poet and philosopher, had at the core of his work a mysterious depiction of the "absolute." The absolute is Novalis' name for a substance that defies precise knowledge yet calls for a tentative and sensitive speculation. How one asserts a truth, represents an object, and sets about encountering things…

  14. Absolute Humidity and the Seasonality of Influenza (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shaman, J. L.; Pitzer, V.; Viboud, C.; Grenfell, B.; Goldstein, E.; Lipsitch, M.

    2010-12-01

    Much of the observed wintertime increase of mortality in temperate regions is attributed to seasonal influenza. A recent re-analysis of laboratory experiments indicates that absolute humidity strongly modulates the airborne survival and transmission of the influenza virus. Here we show that the onset of increased wintertime influenza-related mortality in the United States is associated with anomalously low absolute humidity levels during the prior weeks. We then use an epidemiological model, in which observed absolute humidity conditions temper influenza transmission rates, to successfully simulate the seasonal cycle of observed influenza-related mortality. The model results indicate that direct modulation of influenza transmissibility by absolute humidity alone is sufficient to produce this observed seasonality. These findings provide epidemiological support for the hypothesis that absolute humidity drives seasonal variations of influenza transmission in temperate regions. In addition, we show that variations of the basic and effective reproductive numbers for influenza, caused by seasonal changes in absolute humidity, are consistent with the general timing of pandemic influenza outbreaks observed for 2009 A/H1N1 in temperate regions. Indeed, absolute humidity conditions correctly identify the region of the United States vulnerable to a third, wintertime wave of pandemic influenza. These findings suggest that the timing of pandemic influenza outbreaks is controlled by a combination of absolute humidity conditions, levels of susceptibility and changes in population mixing and contact rates.

  15. Karst Water System Investigated by Absolute Gravimetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Quinif, Y.; Meus, P.; van Camp, M.; Kaufmann, O.; van Ruymbeke, M.; Vandiepenbeeck, M.; Camelbeeck, T.

    2006-12-01

    The highly anisotropic and heterogeneous hydrogeological characteristics of karst aquifers are difficult to characterize and present challenges for modeling of storage capacities. Little is known about the surface and groundwater interconnection, about the connection between the porous formations and the draining cave and conduits, and about the variability of groundwater volume within the system. Usually, an aquifer is considered as a black box, where water fluxes are monitored as input and output. However, water inflow and outflow are highly variable and cannot be measured directly. A recent project, begun in 2006 sought to constrain the water budget in a Belgian karst aquifer and to assess the porosity and water dynamics, combining absolute gravity (AG) measurements and piezometric levels around the Rochefort cave. The advantage of gravity measurements is that they integrate all the subsystems in the karst system. This is not the case with traditional geophysical tools like boring or monitoring wells, which are soundings affected by their near environment and its heterogeneity. The investigated cave results from the meander cutoff system of the Lomme River. The main inputs are swallow holes of the river crossing the limestone massif. The river is canalized and the karst system is partly disconnected from the hydraulic system. In February and March 2006, when the river spilled over its dyke and sank into the most important swallow hole, this resulted in dramatic and nearly instantaneous increases in the piezometric levels in the cave, reaching up to 13 meters. Meanwhile, gravity increased by 50 and 90 nms-2 in February and March, respectively. A first conclusion is that during these sudden floods, the pores and fine fissures were poorly connected with the enlarged fractures, cave, and conduits. With a rise of 13 meters in the water level and a 5% porosity, a gravity change of 250 nms-2 should have been expected. This moderate gravity variation suggests either a

  16. Absolute radiometric calibration of advanced remote sensing systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Slater, P. N.

    1982-01-01

    The distinction between the uses of relative and absolute spectroradiometric calibration of remote sensing systems is discussed. The advantages of detector-based absolute calibration are described, and the categories of relative and absolute system calibrations are listed. The limitations and problems associated with three common methods used for the absolute calibration of remote sensing systems are addressed. Two methods are proposed for the in-flight absolute calibration of advanced multispectral linear array systems. One makes use of a sun-illuminated panel in front of the sensor, the radiance of which is monitored by a spectrally flat pyroelectric radiometer. The other uses a large, uniform, high-radiance reference ground surface. The ground and atmospheric measurements required as input to a radiative transfer program to predict the radiance level at the entrance pupil of the orbital sensor are discussed, and the ground instrumentation is described.

  17. Testing the quasi-absolute method in photon activation analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Sun, Z. J.; Wells, D.; Starovoitova, V.; Segebade, C.

    2013-04-19

    In photon activation analysis (PAA), relative methods are widely used because of their accuracy and precision. Absolute methods, which are conducted without any assistance from calibration materials, are seldom applied for the difficulty in obtaining photon flux in measurements. This research is an attempt to perform a new absolute approach in PAA - quasi-absolute method - by retrieving photon flux in the sample through Monte Carlo simulation. With simulated photon flux and database of experimental cross sections, it is possible to calculate the concentration of target elements in the sample directly. The QA/QC procedures to solidify the research are discussed in detail. Our results show that the accuracy of the method for certain elements is close to a useful level in practice. Furthermore, the future results from the quasi-absolute method can also serve as a validation technique for experimental data on cross sections. The quasi-absolute method looks promising.

  18. Learning in the temporal bisection task: Relative or absolute?

    PubMed

    de Carvalho, Marilia Pinheiro; Machado, Armando; Tonneau, François

    2016-01-01

    We examined whether temporal learning in a bisection task is absolute or relational. Eight pigeons learned to choose a red key after a t-seconds sample and a green key after a 3t-seconds sample. To determine whether they had learned a relative mapping (short→Red, long→Green) or an absolute mapping (t-seconds→Red, 3t-seconds→Green), the pigeons then learned a series of new discriminations in which either the relative or the absolute mapping was maintained. Results showed that the generalization gradient obtained at the end of a discrimination predicted the pattern of choices made during the first session of a new discrimination. Moreover, most acquisition curves and generalization gradients were consistent with the predictions of the learning-to-time model, a Spencean model that instantiates absolute learning with temporal generalization. In the bisection task, the basis of temporal discrimination seems to be absolute, not relational. PMID:26752233

  19. Fractional calculus in bioengineering.

    PubMed

    Magin, Richard L

    2004-01-01

    Fractional calculus (integral and differential operations of noninteger order) is not often used to model biological systems. Although the basic mathematical ideas were developed long ago by the mathematicians Leibniz (1695), Liouville (1834), Riemann (1892), and others and brought to the attention of the engineering world by Oliver Heaviside in the 1890s, it was not until 1974 that the first book on the topic was published by Oldham and Spanier. Recent monographs and symposia proceedings have highlighted the application of fractional calculus in physics, continuum mechanics, signal processing, and electromagnetics, but with few examples of applications in bioengineering. This is surprising because the methods of fractional calculus, when defined as a Laplace or Fourier convolution product, are suitable for solving many problems in biomedical research. For example, early studies by Cole (1933) and Hodgkin (1946) of the electrical properties of nerve cell membranes and the propagation of electrical signals are well characterized by differential equations of fractional order. The solution involves a generalization of the exponential function to the Mittag-Leffler function, which provides a better fit to the observed cell membrane data. A parallel application of fractional derivatives to viscoelastic materials establishes, in a natural way, hereditary integrals and the power law (Nutting/Scott Blair) stress-strain relationship for modeling biomaterials. In this review, I will introduce the idea of fractional operations by following the original approach of Heaviside, demonstrate the basic operations of fractional calculus on well-behaved functions (step, ramp, pulse, sinusoid) of engineering interest, and give specific examples from electrochemistry, physics, bioengineering, and biophysics. The fractional derivative accurately describes natural phenomena that occur in such common engineering problems as heat transfer, electrode/electrolyte behavior, and sub

  20. Multiple daily fractionation schedules

    SciTech Connect

    Peschel, R.E.; Fischer, J.J.

    1982-10-01

    Although conventional fractionation schedules have been satisfactory for the treatment of some tumors, there is reason to believe that the results of radiation therapy could be improved in some cases by appropriate alterations in treatment schedules. The pharmacological characteristics of some of the electron affinic radiation sensitizers have provided added incentive to investigate newer fractionation schemes, particularly ones which deliver the majority of the radiation dose in short periods of time. This editorial discusses three papers describing preliminary clinical studies using multi-daily fractionated (MDF) radiation therapy. Two of these studies also make use of the radiation sensitizer misonidazole. (KRM)

  1. Absolute Abundance Measurements in Solar Flares

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Warren, Harry

    2014-06-01

    We present measurements of elemental abundances in solar flares with EVE/SDO and EIS/Hinode. EVE observes both high temperature Fe emission lines Fe XV-XXIV and continuum emission from thermal bremsstrahlung that is proportional to the abundance of H. By comparing the relative intensities of line and continuum emission it is possible to determine the enrichment of the flare plasma relative to the composition of the photosphere. This is the first ionization potential or FIP bias (F). Since thermal bremsstrahlung at EUV wavelengths is relatively insensitive to the electron temperature it is important to account for the distribution of electron temperatures in the emitting plasma. We accomplish this by using the observed spectra to infer the differential emission measure distribution and FIP bias simultaneously. In each of the 21 flares that we analyze we find that the observed composition is close to photospheric. The mean FIP bias in our sample is F=1.17+-0.22. Furthermore, we have compared the EVE measurements with corresponding flare observations of intermediate temperature S, Ar, Ca, and Fe emission lines taken with EIS. Our initial calculations also indicate a photospheric composition for these observations. This analysis suggests that the bulk of the plasma evaporated during a flare comes from deep in the chromosphere, below the region where elemental fractionation in the non-flaring corona occurs.

  2. Measurements of Absolute Abundances in Solar Flares

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Warren, Harry P.

    2014-05-01

    We present measurements of elemental abundances in solar flares with the EUV Variability Experiment (EVE) on the Solar Dynamics Observatory. EVE observes both high temperature Fe emission lines (Fe XV-Fe XXIV) and continuum emission from thermal bremsstrahlung that is proportional to the abundance of H. By comparing the relative intensities of line and continuum emission it is possible to determine the enrichment of the flare plasma relative to the composition of the photosphere. This is the first ionization potential or FIP bias (f). Since thermal bremsstrahlung at EUV wavelengths is relatively insensitive to the electron temperature, it is important to account for the distribution of electron temperatures in the emitting plasma. We accomplish this by using the observed spectra to infer the differential emission measure distribution and FIP bias simultaneously. In each of the 21 flares that we analyze we find that the observed composition is close to photospheric. The mean FIP bias in our sample is f = 1.17 ± 0.22. This analysis suggests that the bulk of the plasma evaporated during a flare comes from deep in the chromosphere, below the region where elemental fractionation occurs.

  3. MEASUREMENTS OF ABSOLUTE ABUNDANCES IN SOLAR FLARES

    SciTech Connect

    Warren, Harry P.

    2014-05-01

    We present measurements of elemental abundances in solar flares with the EUV Variability Experiment (EVE) on the Solar Dynamics Observatory. EVE observes both high temperature Fe emission lines (Fe XV-Fe XXIV) and continuum emission from thermal bremsstrahlung that is proportional to the abundance of H. By comparing the relative intensities of line and continuum emission it is possible to determine the enrichment of the flare plasma relative to the composition of the photosphere. This is the first ionization potential or FIP bias (f). Since thermal bremsstrahlung at EUV wavelengths is relatively insensitive to the electron temperature, it is important to account for the distribution of electron temperatures in the emitting plasma. We accomplish this by using the observed spectra to infer the differential emission measure distribution and FIP bias simultaneously. In each of the 21 flares that we analyze we find that the observed composition is close to photospheric. The mean FIP bias in our sample is f = 1.17 ± 0.22. This analysis suggests that the bulk of the plasma evaporated during a flare comes from deep in the chromosphere, below the region where elemental fractionation occurs.

  4. Glassy Carbon as an Absolute Intensity Calibration Standard for Small-Angle Scattering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Fan; Ilavsky, Jan; Long, Gabrielle G.; Quintana, John P. G.; Allen, Andrew J.; Jemian, Pete R.

    2010-05-01

    Absolute calibration of small-angle scattering (SAS) intensity data (measured in terms of the differential scattering cross section per unit sample volume per unit solid angle) is essential for many important aspects of quantitative SAS analysis, such as obtaining the number density, volume fraction, and specific surface area of the scatterers. It also enables scattering data from different instruments (light, X-ray, or neutron scattering) to be combined, and it can even be useful to detect the existence of artifacts in the experimental data. Different primary or secondary calibration methods are available. In the latter case, absolute intensity calibration requires a stable artifact with the necessary scattering profile. Glassy carbon has sometimes been selected as this intensity calibration standard. Here we review the spatial homogeneity and temporal stability of one type of commercially available glassy carbon that is being used as an intensity calibration standard at a number of SAS facilities. We demonstrate that glassy carbon is sufficiently homogeneous and stable during routine use to be relied upon as a suitable standard for absolute intensity calibration of SAS data.

  5. Method to calibrate the absolute energy scale of air showers with ultrahigh energy photons.

    PubMed

    Homola, Piotr; Risse, Markus

    2014-04-18

    Calibrating the absolute energy scale of air showers initiated by ultrahigh energy (UHE) cosmic rays is an important experimental issue. Currently, the corresponding systematic uncertainty amounts to 14%-21% using the fluorescence technique. Here, we describe a new, independent method which can be applied if ultrahigh energy photons are observed. While such photon-initiated showers have not yet been identified, the capabilities of present and future cosmic-ray detectors may allow their discovery. The method makes use of the geomagnetic conversion of UHE photons (preshower effect), which significantly affects the subsequent longitudinal shower development. The conversion probability depends on photon energy and can be calculated accurately by QED. The comparison of the observed fraction of converted photon events to the expected one allows the determination of the absolute energy scale of the observed photon air showers and, thus, an energy calibration of the air shower experiment. We provide details of the method and estimate the accuracy that can be reached as a function of the number of observed photon showers. Already a very small number of UHE photons may help to test and fix the absolute energy scale. PMID:24785024

  6. Glassy carbon as an absolute intensity calibration standard for small-angle scattering.

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, F.; Ilavsky, J.; Long, G.; Allen, A.; Quintana, J.; Jemian, P.; NIST

    2010-05-01

    Absolute calibration of small-angle scattering (SAS) intensity data (measured in terms of the differential scattering cross section per unit sample volume per unit solid angle) is essential for many important aspects of quantitative SAS analysis, such as obtaining the number density, volume fraction, and specific surface area of the scatterers. It also enables scattering data from different instruments (light, X-ray, or neutron scattering) to be combined, and it can even be useful to detect the existence of artifacts in the experimental data. Different primary or secondary calibration methods are available. In the latter case, absolute intensity calibration requires a stable artifact with the necessary scattering profile. Glassy carbon has sometimes been selected as this intensity calibration standard. Here we review the spatial homogeneity and temporal stability of one type of commercially available glassy carbon that is being used as an intensity calibration standard at a number of SAS facilities. We demonstrate that glassy carbon is sufficiently homogeneous and stable during routine use to be relied upon as a suitable standard for absolute intensity calibration of SAS data.

  7. Lunar absolute reflectance as observed by Chang'E-1 Imaging Interferometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Jiang; Ling, ZongCheng; Liu, JianZhong; Wu, ZhongChen; Li, Bo; Ni, YuHeng

    2015-08-01

    Lunar absolute reflectance, which describes the fraction of solar radiation reflected by the Moon, is fundamental for the Chang'E-1 Imaging Interferometer (IIM) to map lunar mineralogical and elemental distributions. Recent observations made by the Spectral Irradiance Monitor (SIM) onboard the Solar Radiation and Climate Experiment (SORCE) spacecraft indicate that temporal variation in the solar radiation might have non-negligible influence on reflectance calculation, and the SIM measurements are different from the two previously used solar irradiances, i.e., ATLAS3 and Newkur. To provide reliable science results, we examined solar irradiance variability with the SIM daily observations, derived lunar absolute reflectances from the IIM 2A radiance with the SIM, ATLAS3 and Newkur data, and compared them with the Chandrayaan-1 Moon Mineralogy Mapper (M3), the Robotic Lunar Observatory (ROLO) and the Kaguya Multispectral Imager (MI) results. The temporal variability of the SIM solar irradiance is 0.25%-1.1% in the IIM spectral range, and less than 0.2% during the IIM observations. Nevertheless, the differences between the SIM measurements and the ATLAS3 and Newkur data can respectively rise up to 8% and 5% at particular IIM bands, resulting in discrepancy between which might affect compositional mapping. The IIM absolute reflectance we derived for the Moon using the SIM data, except for the last two bands, is consistent with the ROLO and the MI observations, although it is lower.

  8. Some triple-filament lead isotope ratio measurements and an absolute growth curve for single-stage leads

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stacey, J.S.; Delevaux, M.E.; Ulrych, T.J.

    1969-01-01

    Triple-filament analyses of three standard lead samples are used to calibrate a mass spectrometer in an absolute sense. The bias we measure is 0.0155 percent per mass unit, and the precision (for 95% confidence limits) is ??0.13% or less for all ratios relative to 204Pb. Although its precision is not quite so good as that of the lead-tetramethyl method in the analysis of large samples, the triple-filament method is less complex and is an attractive alternative for smaller sample sizes down to 500 ??g. Triple-filament data are presented for six possibly single-stage lead ores and one feldspar. These new data for ores are combined with corrected tetramethyl data for stratiform lead deposits to compute absolute parameters for a universal single-stage lead isotope growth curve. Absolute isotopic ratios for primeval lead have been determined by Oversby and because all the previous data for both meteorites and lead ores were similarly fractionated, the absolute value of 238U 204Pb = 9.09 ?? 0.06 for stratiform leads is little different from the value 8.99 ?? 0.05 originally computed by Ostic, Russell and Stanton. Absolute values for lead isotope ratios for all interlaboratory standard samples presently available from the literature are tabulated. ?? 1969.

  9. FCC main fractionator revamps

    SciTech Connect

    Golden, S.W.; Martin, G.R.; Sloley, A.W. )

    1993-03-01

    Structured packing use in fluid catalytic cracker (FCC) main fractionators significantly impacts unit pressure profile. Unit pressure balance links the FCC main fractionator, reactor, regenerator, air compressor and wet gas compressor. Unit pressure balance should be viewed as a design variable when evaluating FCC unit revamps. Depending upon limitations of the particular FCC unit, capacity increases of 12.5% to 22.5% have been achieved without modifications to major rotating equipment, by revamping FCC main fractionators with structured packing. An examination of three FCC main fractionator revamps show improvements to pressure profiles and unit capacity. The three revamps described included a wet gas compressor volume limit; an air blower limitation; and a wet gas compressor motor limitation.

  10. Intracellular Cadmium Isotope Fractionation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Horner, T. J.; Lee, R. B.; Henderson, G. M.; Rickaby, R. E.

    2011-12-01

    Recent stable isotope studies into the biological utilization of transition metals (e.g. Cu, Fe, Zn, Cd) suggest several stepwise cellular processes can fractionate isotopes in both culture and nature. However, the determination of fractionation factors is often unsatisfactory, as significant variability can exist - even between different organisms with the same cellular functions. Thus, it has not been possible to adequately understand the source and mechanisms of metal isotopic fractionation. In order to address this problem, we investigated the biological fractionation of Cd isotopes within genetically-modified bacteria (E. coli). There is currently only one known biological use or requirement of Cd, a Cd/Zn carbonic anhydrase (CdCA, from the marine diatom T. weissfloggii), which we introduce into the E. coli genome. We have also developed a cleaning procedure that allows for the treating of bacteria so as to study the isotopic composition of different cellular components. We find that whole cells always exhibit a preference for uptake of the lighter isotopes of Cd. Notably, whole cells appear to have a similar Cd isotopic composition regardless of the expression of CdCA within the E. coli. However, isotopic fractionation can occur within the genetically modified E. coli during Cd use, such that Cd bound in CdCA can display a distinct isotopic composition compared to the cell as a whole. Thus, the externally observed fractionation is independent of the internal uses of Cd, with the largest Cd isotope fractionation occurring during cross-membrane transport. A general implication of these experiments is that trace metal isotopic fractionation most likely reflects metal transport into biological cells (either actively or passively), rather than relating to expression of specific physiological function and genetic expression of different metalloenzymes.

  11. Symmetric continued fractions

    SciTech Connect

    Panprasitwech, Oranit; Laohakosol, Vichian; Chaichana, Tuangrat

    2010-11-11

    Explicit formulae for continued fractions with symmetric patterns in their partial quotients are constructed in the field of formal power series. Similar to the work of Cohn in 1996, which generalized the so-called folding lemma to {kappa}-fold symmetry, the notion of {kappa}-duplicating symmetric continued fractions is investigated using a modification of the 1995 technique due to Clemens, Merrill and Roeder.

  12. The absolute CBF response to activation is preserved during elevated perfusion: Implications for neurovascular coupling measures

    PubMed Central

    Whittaker, Joseph R.; Driver, Ian D.; Bright, Molly G.; Murphy, Kevin

    2016-01-01

    Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) techniques in which the blood oxygenation level dependent (BOLD) and cerebral blood flow (CBF) response to a neural stimulus are measured, can be used to estimate the fractional increase in the cerebral metabolic rate of oxygen consumption (CMRO2) that accompanies evoked neural activity. A measure of neurovascular coupling is obtained from the ratio of fractional CBF and CMRO2 responses, defined as n, with the implicit assumption that relative rather than absolute changes in CBF and CMRO2 adequately characterise the flow-metabolism response to neural activity. The coupling parameter n is important in terms of its effect on the BOLD response, and as potential insight into the flow-metabolism relationship in both normal and pathological brain function. In 10 healthy human subjects, BOLD and CBF responses were measured to test the effect of baseline perfusion (modulated by a hypercapnia challenge) on the coupling parameter n during graded visual stimulation. A dual-echo pulsed arterial spin labelling (PASL) sequence provided absolute quantification of CBF in baseline and active states as well as relative BOLD signal changes, which were used to estimate CMRO2 responses to the graded visual stimulus. The absolute CBF response to the visual stimuli were constant across different baseline CBF levels, meaning the fractional CBF responses were reduced at the hyperperfused baseline state. For the graded visual stimuli, values of n were significantly reduced during hypercapnia induced hyperperfusion. Assuming the evoked neural responses to the visual stimuli are the same for both baseline CBF states, this result has implications for fMRI studies that aim to measure neurovascular coupling using relative changes in CBF. The coupling parameter n is sensitive to baseline CBF, which would confound its interpretation in fMRI studies where there may be significant differences in baseline perfusion between groups. The absolute change in

  13. Sleep and wake in rhythmic versus arrhythmic chronotypes of a microphthalmic species of African mole rat (Fukomys mechowii).

    PubMed

    Bhagwandin, Adhil; Gravett, Nadine; Lyamin, Oleg I; Oosthuizen, Maria K; Bennett, Nigel C; Siegel, Jerome M; Manger, Paul R

    2011-01-01

    The giant Zambian mole rat (Fukomys mechowii) is a subterranean Afrotropical rodent noted for its regressed visual system and unusual patterns of circadian rhythmicity--within this species some individuals exhibit distinct regular circadian patterns of locomotor activity while others have arrhythmic circadian patterns. The current study was aimed at understanding whether differences in circadian chronotypes in this species affect the patterns and proportions of the different phases of the sleep-wake cycle. Physiological parameters of sleep (electroencephalogram and electromyogram) and behaviour (video recording) were recorded continuously for 72 h from 6 mole rats (3 rhythmic and 3 arrhythmic) using a telemetric system and a low-light CCTV camera connected to a DVD recorder. The results indicate that the arrhythmic individuals spend more time in waking with a longer average duration of a waking episode, less time in non-rapid eye movement (NREM) with a shorter average duration of an NREM episode though a greater NREM sleep intensity, and similar sleep cycle lengths. The time spent in rapid eye movement (REM) and the average duration of an REM episode were similar between the chronotypes. PMID:21952092

  14. Walking the Oxidative Stress Tightrope: A Perspective from the Naked Mole-Rat, the Longest-Living Rodent

    PubMed Central

    Rodriguez, Karl A.; Wywial, Ewa; Perez, Viviana I.; Lambert, Adrian J.; Edrey, Yael H.; Lewis, Kaitlyn N.; Grimes, Kelly; Lindsey, Merry L.; Brand, Martin D.; Buffenstein, Rochelle

    2014-01-01

    Reactive oxygen species (ROS), by-products of aerobic metabolism, cause oxidative damage to cells and tissue and not surprisingly many theories have arisen to link ROS-induced oxidative stress to aging and health. While studies clearly link ROS to a plethora of divergent diseases, their role in aging is still debatable. Genetic knock-down manipulations of antioxidants alter the levels of accrued oxidative damage, however, the resultant effect of increased oxidative stress on lifespan are equivocal. Similarly the impact of elevating antioxidant levels through transgenic manipulations yield inconsistent effects on longevity. Furthermore, comparative data from a wide range of endotherms with disparate longevity remain inconclusive. Many long-living species such as birds, bats and mole-rats exhibit high-levels of oxidative damage, evident already at young ages. Clearly, neither the amount of ROS per se nor the sensitivity in neutralizing ROS are as important as whether or not the accrued oxidative stress leads to oxidative-damage-linked age-associated diseases. In this review we examine the literature on ROS, its relation to disease and the lessons gleaned from a comparative approach based upon species with widely divergent responses. We specifically focus on the longest lived rodent, the naked mole-rat, which maintains good health and provides novel insights into the paradox of maintaining both an extended healthspan and lifespan despite high oxidative stress from a young age. PMID:21736541

  15. Ecology of the tawny mole cricket, Scapteriscus vicinus (Orthoptera: Gryllotalpidae): population estimation, spatial distribution, movement, and host relationships

    SciTech Connect

    Hudson, W.G.

    1985-01-01

    Scapteriscus vicinus is the most important pest of turf and pasture grasses in Florida. This study develops a method of correlating sample results with true population density and provides the first quantitative information on spatial distribution and movement patterns of mole crickets. Three basic techniques for sampling mole crickets were compared: soil flushes, soil corer, and pitfall trapping. No statistical difference was found between the soil corer and soil flushing. Soil flushing was shown to be more sensitive to changes in population density than pitfall trapping. No technique was effective for sampling adults. Regression analysis provided a means of adjusting for the effects of soil moisture and showed soil temperature to be unimportant in predicting efficiency of flush sampling. Cesium-137 was used to label females for subsequent location underground. Comparison of mean distance to nearest neighbor with the distance predicted by a random distribution model showed that the observed distance in the spring was significantly greater than hypothesized (Student's T-test, p < 0.05). Fall adult nearest neighbor distance was not different than predicted by the random distribution hypothesis.

  16. Mini-implants and miniplates generate sub-absolute and absolute anchorage

    PubMed Central

    Consolaro, Alberto

    2014-01-01

    The functional demand imposed on bone promotes changes in the spatial properties of osteocytes as well as in their extensions uniformly distributed throughout the mineralized surface. Once spatial deformation is established, osteocytes create the need for structural adaptations that result in bone formation and resorption that happen to meet the functional demands. The endosteum and the periosteum are the effectors responsible for stimulating adaptive osteocytes in the inner and outer surfaces.Changes in shape, volume and position of the jaws as a result of skeletal correction of the maxilla and mandible require anchorage to allow bone remodeling to redefine morphology, esthetics and function as a result of spatial deformation conducted by orthodontic appliances. Examining the degree of changes in shape, volume and structural relationship of areas where mini-implants and miniplates are placed allows us to classify mini-implants as devices of subabsolute anchorage and miniplates as devices of absolute anchorage. PMID:25162561

  17. Absolute brightness temperature measurements at 2.1-mm wavelength

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ulich, B. L.

    1974-01-01

    Absolute measurements of the brightness temperatures of the Sun, new Moon, Venus, Mars, Jupiter, Saturn, and Uranus, and of the flux density of DR21 at 2.1-mm wavelength are reported. Relative measurements at 3.5-mm wavelength are also preented which resolve the absolute calibration discrepancy between The University of Texas 16-ft radio telescope and the Aerospace Corporation 15-ft antenna. The use of the bright planets and DR21 as absolute calibration sources at millimeter wavelengths is discussed in the light of recent observations.

  18. Absolute Antenna Calibration at the US National Geodetic Survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mader, G. L.; Bilich, A. L.

    2012-12-01

    Geodetic GNSS applications routinely demand millimeter precision and extremely high levels of accuracy. To achieve these accuracies, measurement and instrument biases at the centimeter to millimeter level must be understood. One of these biases is the antenna phase center, the apparent point of signal reception for a GNSS antenna. It has been well established that phase center patterns differ between antenna models and manufacturers; additional research suggests that the addition of a radome or the choice of antenna mount can significantly alter those a priori phase center patterns. For the more demanding GNSS positioning applications and especially in cases of mixed-antenna networks, it is all the more important to know antenna phase center variations as a function of both elevation and azimuth in the antenna reference frame and incorporate these models into analysis software. Determination of antenna phase center behavior is known as "antenna calibration". Since 1994, NGS has computed relative antenna calibrations for more than 350 antennas. In recent years, the geodetic community has moved to absolute calibrations - the IGS adopted absolute antenna phase center calibrations in 2006 for use in their orbit and clock products, and NGS's CORS group began using absolute antenna calibration upon the release of the new CORS coordinates in IGS08 epoch 2005.00 and NAD 83(2011,MA11,PA11) epoch 2010.00. Although NGS relative calibrations can be and have been converted to absolute, it is considered best practice to independently measure phase center characteristics in an absolute sense. Consequently, NGS has developed and operates an absolute calibration system. These absolute antenna calibrations accommodate the demand for greater accuracy and for 2-dimensional (elevation and azimuth) parameterization. NGS will continue to provide calibration values via the NGS web site www.ngs.noaa.gov/ANTCAL, and will publish calibrations in the ANTEX format as well as the legacy ANTINFO

  19. Direct comparisons between absolute and relative geomagnetic paleointensities: Absolute calibration of a relative paleointensity stack

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mochizuki, N.; Yamamoto, Y.; Hatakeyama, T.; Shibuya, H.

    2013-12-01

    Absolute geomagnetic paleointensities (APIs) have been estimated from igneous rocks, while relative paleomagnetic intensities (RPIs) have been reported from sediment cores. These two datasets have been treated separately, as correlations between APIs and RPIs are difficult on account of age uncertainties. High-resolution RPI stacks have been constructed from globally distributed sediment cores with high sedimentation rates. Previous studies often assumed that the RPI stacks have a linear relationship with geomagnetic axial dipole moments, and calibrated the RPI values to API values. However, the assumption of a linear relationship between APIs and RPIs has not been evaluated. Also, a quantitative calibration method for the RPI is lacking. We present a procedure for directly comparing API and RPI stacks, thus allowing reliable calibrations of RPIs. Direct comparisons between APIs and RPIs were conducted with virtually no associated age errors using both tephrochronologic correlations and RPI minima. Using the stratigraphic positions of tephra layers in oxygen isotope stratigraphic records, we directly compared the RPIs and APIs reported from welded tuffs contemporaneously extruded with the tephra layers. In addition, RPI minima during geomagnetic reversals and excursions were compared with APIs corresponding to the reversals and excursions. The comparison of APIs and RPIs at these exact points allowed a reliable calibration of the RPI values. We applied this direct comparison procedure to the global RPI stack PISO-1500. For six independent calibration points, virtual axial dipole moments (VADMs) from the corresponding APIs and RPIs of the PISO-1500 stack showed a near-linear relationship. On the basis of the linear relationship, RPIs of the stack were successfully calibrated to the VADMs. The direct comparison procedure provides an absolute calibration method that will contribute to the recovery of temporal variations and distributions of geomagnetic axial dipole

  20. soil organic matter fractionation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Osat, Maryam; Heidari, Ahmad

    2010-05-01

    Carbon is essential for plant growth, due to its effects on other soil properties like aggregation. Knowledge of dynamics of organic matter in different locations in the soil matrix can provide valuable information which affects carbon sequestration and soil the other soil properties. Extraction of soil organic matter (SOM) fractions has been a long standing approach to elucidating the roles of soil organic matter in soil processes. Several kind fractionation methods are used and all provide information on soil organic matter function. Physical fractionation capture the effects on SOM dynamics of the spatial arrangement of primary and secondary organomineral particles in soil while chemical fractionation can not consider the spatial arrangement but their organic fractions are suitable for advanced chemical characterization. Three method of physical separation of soil have been used, sieving, sedimentation and densitometry. The distribution of organic matter within physical fractions of the soil can be assessed by sieving. Sieving separates soil particles based strictly on size. The study area is located on north central Iran, between 35° 41'- 36° 01' N and 50° 42'- 51° 14' E. Mean annual precipitation about 243.8 mm and mean annual air temperature is about 14.95 °C. The soil moisture and temperature regime vary between aridic-thermic in lower altitudes to xeric-mesic in upper altitudes. More than 36 surface soil samples (0-20 cm) were collected according to land-use map units. After preliminary analyzing of samples 10 samples were selected for further analyses in five size fractions and three different time intervals in September, January and April 2008. Fractionation carried out by dry sieving in five classes, 1-2 mm, 0.5-1 mm, 270 μm-0.5mm, 53-270 μm and <53 μm. Organic matter and C/N ratio were determined for all fractions at different time intervals. Chemical fractionation of organic matter also carried out according to Tan (2003), also Mineralogical

  1. Modern plasma fractionation.

    PubMed

    Burnouf, Thierry

    2007-04-01

    Protein products fractionated from human plasma are an essential class of therapeutics used, often as the only available option, in the prevention, management, and treatment of life-threatening conditions resulting from trauma, congenital deficiencies, immunologic disorders, or infections. Modern plasma product production technology remains largely based on the ethanol fractionation process, but much has evolved in the last few years to improve product purity, to enhance the recovery of immunoglobulin G, and to isolate new plasma proteins, such as alpha1-protease inhibitor, von Willebrand factor, and protein C. Because of the human origin of the starting material and the pooling of 10,000 to 50,000 donations required for industrial processing, the major risk associated to plasma products is the transmission of blood-borne infectious agents. A complete set of measures--and, most particularly, the use of dedicated viral inactivation and removal treatments--has been implemented throughout the production chain of fractionated plasma products over the last 20 years to ensure optimal safety, in particular, and not exclusively, against HIV, hepatitis B virus, and hepatitis C virus. In this review, we summarize the practices of the modern plasma fractionation industry from the collection of the raw plasma material to the industrial manufacture of fractionated products. We describe the quality requirements of plasma for fractionation and the various treatments applied for the inactivation and removal of blood-borne infectious agents and provide examples of methods used for the purification of the various classes of plasma protein therapies. We also highlight aspects of the good manufacturing practices and the regulatory environment that govern the whole chain of production. In a regulated and professional environment, fractionated plasma products manufactured by modern processes are certainly among the lowest-risk therapeutic biological products in use today. PMID:17397761

  2. A discrete fractional random transform

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Zhengjun; Zhao, Haifa; Liu, Shutian

    2005-11-01

    We propose a discrete fractional random transform based on a generalization of the discrete fractional Fourier transform with an intrinsic randomness. Such discrete fractional random transform inheres excellent mathematical properties of the fractional Fourier transform along with some fantastic features of its own. As a primary application, the discrete fractional random transform has been used for image encryption and decryption.

  3. Absolute calibration of sniffer probes on Wendelstein 7-X.

    PubMed

    Moseev, D; Laqua, H P; Marsen, S; Stange, T; Braune, H; Erckmann, V; Gellert, F; Oosterbeek, J W

    2016-08-01

    Here we report the first measurements of the power levels of stray radiation in the vacuum vessel of Wendelstein 7-X using absolutely calibrated sniffer probes. The absolute calibration is achieved by using calibrated sources of stray radiation and the implicit measurement of the quality factor of the Wendelstein 7-X empty vacuum vessel. Normalized absolute calibration coefficients agree with the cross-calibration coefficients that are obtained by the direct measurements, indicating that the measured absolute calibration coefficients and stray radiation levels in the vessel are valid. Close to the launcher, the stray radiation in the empty vessel reaches power levels up to 340 kW/m(2) per MW injected beam power. Furthest away from the launcher, i.e., half a toroidal turn, still 90 kW/m(2) per MW injected beam power is measured. PMID:27587121

  4. Absolute Value Boundedness, Operator Decomposition, and Stochastic Media and Equations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Adomian, G.; Miao, C. C.

    1973-01-01

    The research accomplished during this period is reported. Published abstracts and technical reports are listed. Articles presented include: boundedness of absolute values of generalized Fourier coefficients, propagation in stochastic media, and stationary conditions for stochastic differential equations.

  5. The conditions of absolute summability of multiple trigonometric series

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bitimkhan, Samat; Akishev, Gabdolla

    2015-09-01

    In this work necessary and sufficient conditions of absolute summability of multiple trigonometric Fourier series of functions from anisotropic spaces of Lebesque are found in terms of its best approximation, the module of smoothness and the mixed smoothness module.

  6. Absolute calibration of sniffer probes on Wendelstein 7-X

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moseev, D.; Laqua, H. P.; Marsen, S.; Stange, T.; Braune, H.; Erckmann, V.; Gellert, F.; Oosterbeek, J. W.

    2016-08-01

    Here we report the first measurements of the power levels of stray radiation in the vacuum vessel of Wendelstein 7-X using absolutely calibrated sniffer probes. The absolute calibration is achieved by using calibrated sources of stray radiation and the implicit measurement of the quality factor of the Wendelstein 7-X empty vacuum vessel. Normalized absolute calibration coefficients agree with the cross-calibration coefficients that are obtained by the direct measurements, indicating that the measured absolute calibration coefficients and stray radiation levels in the vessel are valid. Close to the launcher, the stray radiation in the empty vessel reaches power levels up to 340 kW/m2 per MW injected beam power. Furthest away from the launcher, i.e., half a toroidal turn, still 90 kW/m2 per MW injected beam power is measured.

  7. Absolute and Convective Instability of a Liquid Jet in Microgravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lin, Sung P.; Vihinen, I.; Honohan, A.; Hudman, Michael D.

    1996-01-01

    The transition from convective to absolute instability is observed in the 2.2 second drop tower of the NASA Lewis Research Center. In convective instability the disturbance grows spatially as it is convected downstream. In absolute instability the disturbance propagates both downstream and upstream, and manifests itself as an expanding sphere. The transition Reynolds numbers are determined for two different Weber numbers by use of Glycerin and a Silicone oil. Preliminary comparisons with theory are made.

  8. Absolute biphoton meter of the quantum efficiency of photomultipliers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ginzburg, V. M.; Keratishvili, N. G.; Korzhenevich, E. L.; Lunev, G. V.; Sapritskii, V. I.

    1992-07-01

    An biphoton absolute meter of photomultiplier quantum efficiency is presented which is based on spontaneous parametric down-conversion. Calculation and experiment results were obtained which made it possible to choose the parameters of the setup that guarantee a linear dependence of wavelength on the Z coordinate (along the axicon axis). Results of a series of absolute measurements of the quantum efficiency of a specific photomultiplier (FEU-136) are presented.

  9. Absolute/convective instability of planar viscoelastic jets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ray, Prasun K.; Zaki, Tamer A.

    2015-01-01

    Spatiotemporal linear stability analysis is used to investigate the onset of local absolute instability in planar viscoelastic jets. The influence of viscoelasticity in dilute polymer solutions is modeled with the FENE-P constitutive equation which requires the specification of a non-dimensional polymer relaxation time (the Weissenberg number, We), the maximum polymer extensibility, L, and the ratio of solvent and solution viscosities, β. A two-parameter family of velocity profiles is used as the base state with the parameter, S, controlling the amount of co- or counter-flow while N-1 sets the thickness of the jet shear layer. We examine how the variation of these fluid and flow parameters affects the minimum value of S at which the flow becomes locally absolutely unstable. Initially setting the Reynolds number to Re = 500, we find that the first varicose jet-column mode dictates the presence of absolute instability, and increasing the Weissenberg number produces important changes in the nature of the instability. The region of absolute instability shifts towards thin shear layers, and the amount of back-flow needed for absolute instability decreases (i.e., the influence of viscoelasticity is destabilizing). Additionally, when We is sufficiently large and N-1 is sufficiently small, single-stream jets become absolutely unstable. Numerical experiments with approximate equations show that both the polymer and solvent contributions to the stress become destabilizing when the scaled shear rate, η = /W e dU¯1/dx 2L ( /d U ¯ 1 d x 2 is the base-state velocity gradient), is sufficiently large. These qualitative trends are largely unchanged when the Reynolds number is reduced; however, the relative importance of the destabilizing stresses increases tangibly. Consequently, absolute instability is substantially enhanced, and single-stream jets become absolutely unstable over a sizable portion of the parameter space.

  10. Heat capacity and absolute entropy of iron phosphides

    SciTech Connect

    Dobrokhotova, Z.V.; Zaitsev, A.I.; Litvina, A.D.

    1994-09-01

    There is little or no data on the thermodynamic properties of iron phosphides despite their importance for several areas of science and technology. The information available is of a qualitative character and is based on assessments of the heat capacity and absolute entropy. In the present work, we measured the heat capacity over the temperature range of 113-873 K using a differential scanning calorimeter (DSC) and calculated the absolute entropy.

  11. New Operational Matrices for Solving Fractional Differential Equations on the Half-Line

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, the fractional-order generalized Laguerre operational matrices (FGLOM) of fractional derivatives and fractional integration are derived. These operational matrices are used together with spectral tau method for solving linear fractional differential equations (FDEs) of order ν (0 < ν < 1) on the half line. An upper bound of the absolute errors is obtained for the approximate and exact solutions. Fractional-order generalized Laguerre pseudo-spectral approximation is investigated for solving nonlinear initial value problem of fractional order ν. The extension of the fractional-order generalized Laguerre pseudo-spectral method is given to solve systems of FDEs. We present the advantages of using the spectral schemes based on fractional-order generalized Laguerre functions and compare them with other methods. Several numerical examples are implemented for FDEs and systems of FDEs including linear and nonlinear terms. We demonstrate the high accuracy and the efficiency of the proposed techniques. PMID:25996369

  12. Global absolut gravity reference system as replacement of IGSN 71

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilmes, Herbert; Wziontek, Hartmut; Falk, Reinhard

    2015-04-01

    The determination of precise gravity field parameters is of great importance in a period in which earth sciences are achieving the necessary accuracy to monitor and document global change processes. This is the reason why experts from geodesy and metrology joined in a successful cooperation to make absolute gravity observations traceable to SI quantities, to improve the metrological kilogram definition and to monitor mass movements and smallest height changes for geodetic and geophysical applications. The international gravity datum is still defined by the International Gravity Standardization Net adopted in 1971 (IGSN 71). The network is based upon pendulum and spring gravimeter observations taken in the 1950s and 60s supported by the early free fall absolute gravimeters. Its gravity values agreed in every case to better than 0.1 mGal. Today, more than 100 absolute gravimeters are in use worldwide. The series of repeated international comparisons confirms the traceability of absolute gravity measurements to SI quantities and confirm the degree of equivalence of the gravimeters in the order of a few µGal. For applications in geosciences where e.g. gravity changes over time need to be analyzed, the temporal stability of an absolute gravimeter is most important. Therefore, the proposition is made to replace the IGSN 71 by an up-to-date gravity reference system which is based upon repeated absolute gravimeter comparisons and a global network of well controlled gravity reference stations.

  13. Revisiting absolute and relative judgments in the WITNESS model.

    PubMed

    Fife, Dustin; Perry, Colton; Gronlund, Scott D

    2014-04-01

    The WITNESS model (Clark in Applied Cognitive Psychology 17:629-654, 2003) provides a theoretical framework with which to investigate the factors that contribute to eyewitness identification decisions. One key factor involves the contributions of absolute versus relative judgments. An absolute contribution is determined by the degree of match between an individual lineup member and memory for the perpetrator; a relative contribution involves the degree to which the best-matching lineup member is a better match to memory than the remaining lineup members. In WITNESS, the proportional contributions of relative versus absolute judgments are governed by the values of the decision weight parameters. We conducted an exploration of the WITNESS model's parameter space to determine the identifiability of these relative/absolute decision weight parameters, and compared the results to a restricted version of the model that does not vary the decision weight parameters. This exploration revealed that the decision weights in WITNESS are difficult to identify: Data often can be fit equally well by setting the decision weights to nearly any value and compensating with a criterion adjustment. Clark, Erickson, and Breneman (Law and Human Behavior 35:364-380, 2011) claimed to demonstrate a theoretical basis for the superiority of lineup decisions that are based on absolute contributions, but the relationship between the decision weights and the criterion weakens this claim. These findings necessitate reconsidering the role of the relative/absolute judgment distinction in eyewitness decision making. PMID:23943556

  14. FRACTIONAL CRYSTALLIZATION FEED ENVELOPE

    SciTech Connect

    HERTING DL

    2008-03-19

    Laboratory work was completed on a set of evaporation tests designed to establish a feed envelope for the fractional crystallization process. The feed envelope defines chemical concentration limits within which the process can be operated successfully. All 38 runs in the half-factorial design matrix were completed successfully, based on the qualitative definition of success. There is no feed composition likely to be derived from saltcake dissolution that would cause the fractional crystallization process to not meet acceptable performance requirements. However, some compositions clearly would provide more successful operation than other compositions.

  15. Multipartite Fully Entangled Fraction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Jianwei

    2016-06-01

    Fully entangled fraction is a definition for bipartite states, which is tightly related to bipartite maximally entangled states, and has clear experimental and theoretical significance. In this work, we generalize it to multipartite case, we call the generalized version multipartite fully entangled fraction (MFEF). MFEF measures the closeness of a state to GHZ states. The analytical expressions of MFEF are very difficult to obtain except for very special states, however, we show that, the MFEF of any state is determined by a system of finite-order polynomial equations. Therefore, the MFEF can be efficiently numerically computed.

  16. Release Fraction Evaluation

    SciTech Connect

    Bamberger, Judith A.; Glissmeyer, John A.

    2004-01-01

    This document presents results of experiments conducted to measure release fractions during certain tank retrieval processes. The tests were performed in a 1/4 scale model of a waste storage tank. The retrieval processes simulated were: (1) Discharging liquid or slurry from the mouth of a vertically oriented two-in. Schedule 40 pipe. The discharging material was in free-fall from the mouth of the pipe near the top of the tank into a liquid or slurry pool at the bottom of the tank. (2) The jet from a 9/16-in.-diameter nozzle transferring liquid or slurry waste from one side of the tank to the other. The discharging liquid was aimed at the opposite side of the tank from the nozzle and either impacted the tank wall or fell into a liquid or slurry pool in the bottom of the tank. (3) A high pressure fan jet of liquid striking a steel plate or simulated waste from a stand-off distance of a few inches. For each process, a water-soluble fluorescent dye was added to the liquid fraction as a tracer. Kaolin clay was used to represent the solids. The tank was covered and there was no forced ventilation in the tank during the tests. Six air samples were collected during each test. The air samples were collected at fixed positions in the tank. The air sample filters were dried and weighed to determine the solids collection. The fluorescent dye was then leached from each filter and quantified with a fluorometer to determine the collection of liquid. Samples of the slurry and liquid simulants were also collected to determine the quantities of simulant used in each test. To calculate the release fraction, the quantity collected on each air sample was adjusted for the fraction of the tank volume sampled and divided by the quantity of material exposed in the simulation. The method was not as sensitive for the solids content as it was for the liquid content, but in those instances where a solids release fraction was determined, it was in relatively good agreement with that of the

  17. Sweet Work with Fractions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vinogradova, Natalya; Blaine, Larry

    2013-01-01

    Almost everyone loves chocolate. However, the same cannot be said about fractions, which are loved by markedly fewer. Middle school students tend to view them with wary respect, but little affection. The authors attempt to sweeten the subject by describing a type of game involving division of chocolate bars. The activity they describe provides a…

  18. Momentum fractionation on superstrata

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bena, Iosif; Martinec, Emil; Turton, David; Warner, Nicholas P.

    2016-05-01

    Superstrata are bound states in string theory that carry D1, D5, and momentum charges, and whose supergravity descriptions are parameterized by arbitrary functions of (at least) two variables. In the D1-D5 CFT, typical three-charge states reside in high-degree twisted sectors, and their momentum charge is carried by modes that individually have fractional momentum. Understanding this momentum fractionation holographically is crucial for understanding typical black-hole microstates in this system. We use solution-generating techniques to add momentum to a multi-wound supertube and thereby construct the first examples of asymptotically-flat superstrata. The resulting supergravity solutions are horizonless and smooth up to well-understood orbifold singularities. Upon taking the AdS3 decoupling limit, our solutions are dual to CFT states with momentum fractionation. We give a precise proposal for these dual CFT states. Our construction establishes the very nontrivial fact that large classes of CFT states with momentum fractionation can be realized in the bulk as smooth horizonless supergravity solutions.

  19. Fraction collector for electrophoresis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bier, M.

    1977-01-01

    Rotating-tube electrophoresis apparatus employs rotating jet of eluting buffer to reduce effects of convection during separation. Designed for separation of microorganisms and biological species, system combines gravity/gradient compensating of lumen with buffer flush at fraction outlet to increase separation efficiency.

  20. Fractionation of Soil Phosphorus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    An understanding of the qualitative and quantitative information provided by soil phosphorus (P) fractionation methods is important for addressing agronomic and water quality problems, as well as evaluating P biogeochemistry in extreme environments. This chapter provides a schematic overview of and ...

  1. Field-Flow Fractionation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Caldwell, Karin D.

    1988-01-01

    Describes a technique for separating samples that range over 15 orders of magnitude in molecular weight. Discusses theory, apparatus, and sample preparation techniques. Lists several types of field-flow fractionation (FFF) and their uses: sedimentation FFF, thermal FFF, flow FFF, electrical FFF, and steric FFF. (ML)

  2. Fractional statistics and confinement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gaete, P.; Wotzasek, C.

    2005-02-01

    It is shown that a pointlike composite having charge and magnetic moment displays a confining potential for the static interaction while simultaneously obeying fractional statistics in a pure gauge theory in three dimensions, without a Chern-Simons term. This result is distinct from the Maxwell-Chern-Simons theory that shows a screening nature for the potential.

  3. Theoretical chemistry. Ab initio determination of the crystalline benzene lattice energy to sub-kilojoule/mole accuracy.

    PubMed

    Yang, Jun; Hu, Weifeng; Usvyat, Denis; Matthews, Devin; Schütz, Martin; Chan, Garnet Kin-Lic

    2014-08-01

    Computation of lattice energies to an accuracy sufficient to distinguish polymorphs is a fundamental bottleneck in crystal structure prediction. For the lattice energy of the prototypical benzene crystal, we combined the quantum chemical advances of the last decade to attain sub-kilojoule per mole accuracy, an order-of-magnitude improvement in certainty over prior calculations that necessitates revision of the experimental extrapolation to 0 kelvin. Our computations reveal the nature of binding by improving on previously inaccessible or inaccurate multibody and many-electron contributions and provide revised estimates of the effects of temperature, vibrations, and relaxation. Our demonstration raises prospects for definitive first-principles resolution of competing polymorphs in molecular crystal structure prediction. PMID:25104379

  4. Interglacial refugia preserved high genetic diversity of the Chinese mole shrew in the mountains of southwest China.

    PubMed

    He, K; Hu, N-Q; Chen, X; Li, J-T; Jiang, X-L

    2016-01-01

    The mountains of southwest China (MSC) harbor extremely high species diversity; however, the mechanism behind this diversity is unknown. We investigated to what degree the topography and climate change shaped the genetic diversity and diversification in these mountains, and we also sought to identify the locations of microrefugia areas in these mountains. For these purposes, we sampled extensively to estimate the intraspecific phylogenetic pattern of the Chinese mole shrew (Anourosorex squamipes) in southwest China throughout its range of distribution. Two mitochondrial genes, namely, cytochrome b (CYT B) and NADH dehydrogenase subunit 2 (ND2), from 383 archived specimens from 43 localities were determined for phylogeographic and demographic analyses. We used the continuous-diffusion phylogeographic model, extensive Bayesian skyline plot species distribution modeling (SDM) and approximate Bayesian computation (ABC) to explore the changes in population size and distribution through time of the species. Two phylogenetic clades were identified, and significantly higher genetic diversity was preserved in the southern subregion of the mountains. The results of the SDM, continuous-diffusion phylogeographic model, extensive Bayesian skyline plot and ABC analyses were congruent and supported that the Last Interglacial Maximum (LIG) was an unfavorable period for the mole shrews because of a high degree of seasonality; A. squamipes survived in isolated interglacial refugia mainly located in the southern subregion during the LIG and rapidly expanded during the last glacial period. These results furnished the first evidence for major Pleistocene interglacial refugia and a latitudinal effect in southwest China, and the results shedding light on the higher level of species richness in the southern subregion. PMID:26286667

  5. Immunohistochemical Analysis of E-Cadherin, p53 and Inhibin-α Expression in Hydatidiform Mole and Hydropic Abortion.

    PubMed

    Erol, Onur; Süren, Dinç; Tutuş, Birsel; Toptaş, Tayfun; Gökay, Ahmet Arda; Derbent, Aysel Uysal; Özel, Mustafa Kemal; Sezer, Cem

    2016-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the role of E-cadherin, p53, and inhibin-α immunostaining in the differential diagnosis of hydropic abortion (HA), partial hydatidiform mole (PHM), and complete hydatidiform mole (CHM). E-cadherin, p53, and inhibin-α protein expression patterns were investigated immunohistochemically using paraffin -embedded tissue sections from histologically diagnosed cases of HA (n = 23), PHM (n = 24), and CHM (n = 23). Expression patterns of these markers were scored semi-quantitatively according to the staining intensity, percentage of positive cells, and immunoreactivity score. Classification of cases was established on histologic criteria and supported by the molecular genotyping. Immunostaining allowed the identification of specific cell types with E-cadherin, p53, and inhibin-α expression in all cases. E-cadherin expression was detected on the cell surface of villous cytotrophoblasts. We observed a marked decline in the expression of E-cadherin from HAs to PHMs to CHMs. The p53-positive reaction was restricted to the nucleus of villous cytotrophoblasts. Significantly increased p53 expression was observed in CHMs, compared with HAs and PHMs. The expression of inhibin-α was localised in the cytoplasm of villous syncytiotrophoblasts, and the expression of this marker was significantly higher in PHMs and CHMs than HAs. In conclusion, immunohistochemical analysis of E-cadherin, p53, and inhibin-α expression could serve as a useful adjunct to conventional methods in the differential diagnosis of HA, PHM, and CHM. PMID:26683836

  6. The Mars Underground Mole (MUM): A Subsurface Penetration Device with Infrared Reflectance and Raman Spectroscopic Sensing Capability

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stoker, C. R.; Richter, L.; Smith, W. H.; Lemke, L. G.; Hammer, P.; Dalton, J. B.; Glass, B.; Zent, A.

    2003-01-01

    Searching for evidence of life on Mars will probably require access to the subsurface. The Martian surface is bathed in ultraviolet radiation which decomposes organic compounds, destroying possible evidence for life. Also, experiments performed by the Viking Landers imply the presence of several strongly oxidizing compounds at the Martian surface that may also play a role in destroying organic compounds near the surface. While liquid water is unstable on the Martian surface, and ice is unstable at the surface at low latitudes, recent results from the Mars Odyssey Gamma Ray Spectrometer experiment indicate that water ice is widely distributed near the surface under a thin cover of dry soil. Organic compounds created by an ancient Martian biosphere might be preserved in such ice-rich layers. Furthermore, accessing the subsurface provides a way to identify unique stratigraphy such as small-scale layering associated with lacustrine sediments. Subsurface access might also provide new insights into the Mars climate record that may be preserved in the Polar Layered Deposits. Recognizing the importance of accessing the subsurface of Mars to the future scientific exploration of the planet, the Mars Surveyor 2007 Science Definition Team called for drilling beneath the surface soils. Subsurface measurements are also cited as high priority in by MEPAG. Recognizing the importance of accessing the Martian subsurface to search for life, the European Space Agency has incorporated a small automated burrowing device called a subsurface penetrometer or Mole onto the Beagle 2 lander planned for 2003 launch. This device, called the Planetary Underground Tool (PLUTO), is a pointed slender cylinder 2 cm wide and 28 cm long equipped with a small sampling device at the pointed end that collects samples and brings them to the surface for analysis. Drawing on the PLUTO design, we are developing a larger Mole carrying sensors for identifying mineralogy, organic compounds, and water.

  7. Redefinition of the kilogram, ampere, kelvin and mole: a proposed approach to implementing CIPM recommendation 1 (CI-2005)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mills, Ian M.; Mohr, Peter J.; Quinn, Terry J.; Taylor, Barry N.; Williams, Edwin R.

    2006-06-01

    The International System of Units (SI) is founded on seven base units, the metre, kilogram, second, ampere, kelvin, mole and candela corresponding to the seven base quantities of length, mass, time, electric current, thermodynamic temperature, amount of substance and luminous intensity. At its 94th meeting in October 2005, the International Committee for Weights and Measures (CIPM) adopted a recommendation on preparative steps towards redefining the kilogram, ampere, kelvin and mole so that these units are linked to exactly known values of fundamental constants. We propose here that these four base units should be given new definitions linking them to exactly defined values of the Planck constant h, elementary charge e, Boltzmann constant k and Avogadro constant NA, respectively. This would mean that six of the seven base units of the SI would be defined in terms of true invariants of nature. In addition, not only would these four fundamental constants have exactly defined values but also the uncertainties of many of the other fundamental constants of physics would be either eliminated or appreciably reduced. In this paper we present the background and discuss the merits of these proposed changes, and we also present possible wordings for the four new definitions. We also suggest a novel way to define the entire SI explicitly using such definitions without making any distinction between base units and derived units. We list a number of key points that should be addressed when the new definitions are adopted by the General Conference on Weights and Measures (CGPM), possibly by the 24th CGPM in 2011, and we discuss the implications of these changes for other aspects of metrology.

  8. Subcaste differences in neural activation suggest a prosocial role for oxytocin in eusocial naked mole-rats.

    PubMed

    Hathaway, Georgia A; Faykoo-Martinez, Mariela; Peragine, Deane E; Mooney, Skyler J; Holmes, Melissa M

    2016-03-01

    The neuropeptide oxytocin (OT) influences prosocial behavior(s), aggression, and stress responsiveness, and these diverse effects are regulated in a species- and context-specific manner. The naked mole-rat (Heterocephalus glaber) is a unique species with which to study context-dependent effects of OT, exhibiting a strict social hierarchy with behavioral specialization within the subordinate caste: soldiers are aggressive and defend colonies against unfamiliar conspecifics while workers are prosocial and contribute to in-colony behaviors such as pup care. To determine if OT is involved in subcaste-specific behaviors, we compared behavioral responses between workers and soldiers of both sexes during a modified resident/intruder paradigm, and quantified activation of OT neurons in the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus (PVN) and supraoptic nucleus (SON) using the immediate-early-gene marker c-fos co-localized with OT neurons. Resident workers and soldiers were age-matched with unfamiliar worker stimulus animals as intruders, and encounters were videorecorded and scored for aggressive behaviors. Colony-matched controls were left in their home colony for the duration of the encounters. Brains were extracted and cell counts were conducted for OT immunoreactive (ir), c-fos-ir, and percentage of OT-c-fos double-labeled cells. Results indicate that resident workers were less aggressive but showed greater OT neural activity than soldiers. Furthermore, a linear model including social treatment, cortisol, and subcaste revealed that subcaste was the only significant predictor of OT-c-fos double-labeled cells in the PVN. These data suggest that in naked mole-rats OT promotes prosocial behaviors rather than aggression and that even within subordinates status exerts robust effects on brain and behavior. PMID:26718226

  9. Hydroxylamine hydrochloride-acetic acid-soluble and -insoluble fractions of pelagic sediment: Readsorption revisited

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Piper, D.Z.; Wandless, G.A.

    1992-01-01

    The extraction of the rare earth elements (REE) from deep-ocean pelagic sediment, using hydroxylamine hydrochloride-acetic acid, leads to the separation of approximately 70% of the bulk REE content into the soluble fraction and 30% into the insoluble fraction. The REE pattern of the soluble fraction, i.e., the content of REE normalized to average shale on an element-by-element basis and plotted against atomic number, resembles the pattern for seawater, whereas the pattern, as well as the absolute concentrations, in the insoluble fraction resembles the North American shale composite. These results preclude significant readsorption of the REE by the insoluble phases during the leaching procedure.

  10. Absolute irradiance of the Moon for on-orbit calibration

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stone, T.C.; Kieffer, H.H.

    2002-01-01

    The recognized need for on-orbit calibration of remote sensing imaging instruments drives the ROLO project effort to characterize the Moon for use as an absolute radiance source. For over 5 years the ground-based ROLO telescopes have acquired spatially-resolved lunar images in 23 VNIR (Moon diameter ???500 pixels) and 9 SWIR (???250 pixels) passbands at phase angles within ??90 degrees. A numerical model for lunar irradiance has been developed which fits hundreds of ROLO images in each band, corrected for atmospheric extinction and calibrated to absolute radiance, then integrated to irradiance. The band-coupled extinction algorithm uses absorption spectra of several gases and aerosols derived from MODTRAN to fit time-dependent component abundances to nightly observations of standard stars. The absolute radiance scale is based upon independent telescopic measurements of the star Vega. The fitting process yields uncertainties in lunar relative irradiance over small ranges of phase angle and the full range of lunar libration well under 0.5%. A larger source of uncertainty enters in the absolute solar spectral irradiance, especially in the SWIR, where solar models disagree by up to 6%. Results of ROLO model direct comparisons to spacecraft observations demonstrate the ability of the technique to track sensor responsivity drifts to sub-percent precision. Intercomparisons among instruments provide key insights into both calibration issues and the absolute scale for lunar irradiance.

  11. Absolute luminosity measurements with the LHCb detector at the LHC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    LHCb Collaboration

    2012-01-01

    Absolute luminosity measurements are of general interest for colliding-beam experiments at storage rings. These measurements are necessary to determine the absolute cross-sections of reaction processes and are valuable to quantify the performance of the accelerator. Using data taken in 2010, LHCb has applied two methods to determine the absolute scale of its luminosity measurements for proton-proton collisions at the LHC with a centre-of-mass energy of 7 TeV. In addition to the classic ``van der Meer scan'' method a novel technique has been developed which makes use of direct imaging of the individual beams using beam-gas and beam-beam interactions. This beam imaging method is made possible by the high resolution of the LHCb vertex detector and the close proximity of the detector to the beams, and allows beam parameters such as positions, angles and widths to be determined. The results of the two methods have comparable precision and are in good agreement. Combining the two methods, an overal precision of 3.5% in the absolute luminosity determination is reached. The techniques used to transport the absolute luminosity calibration to the full 2010 data-taking period are presented.

  12. An Introduction to Continued Fractions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moore, Charles G.

    Provided is an introduction to the properties of continued fractions for the intellectually curious high school student. Among the topics included are (1) Expansion of Rational Numbers into Simple Continued Fractions, (2) Convergents, (3) Continued Fractions and Linear Diophantine Equations of the Type am + bn = c, (4) Continued Fractions and…

  13. Goal Sketches in Fraction Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sophian, Catherine; Madrid, Samara

    2003-01-01

    To examine how conceptual knowledge about fraction magnitudes changes as students' learning progresses, 5th and 7th-grade students were asked to solve fraction magnitude problems that entailed finding a fraction between two given fractions and then to evaluate solutions for similar problems that were modeled for them. When the given fractions…

  14. Testing fractional action cosmology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shchigolev, V. K.

    2016-08-01

    The present work deals with a combined test of the so-called Fractional Action Cosmology (FAC) on the example of a specific model obtained by the author earlier. In this model, the effective cosmological term is proportional to the Hubble parameter squared through the so-called kinematic induction. The reason of studying this cosmological model could be explained by its ability to describe two periods of accelerated expansion, that is in agreement with the recent observations and the cosmological inflation paradigm. First of all, we put our model through the theoretical tests, which gives a general conception of the influence of the model parameters on its behavior. Then, we obtain some restrictions on the principal parameters of the model, including the fractional index, by means of the observational data. Finally, the cosmography parameters and the observational data compared to the theoretical predictions are presented both analytically and graphically.

  15. New Dry Fractionation Methods

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McKay, David S.; Cooper, Bonnie L.

    2010-01-01

    This slide presentation describes new fractionation methods that are used to create dust that is respirable for testing the effects of inhalation of lunar dust in preparation for future manned lunar exploration. Because lunar dust is a very limited commodity, a method that does not result in loss of the material had to be developed. The dust separation system that is described incorporates some traditional methods, while preventing the dust from being contaminated or changed in reactivity properties while also limiting losses.

  16. Fractional Galilean symmetries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hosseiny, Ali; Rouhani, Shahin

    2016-09-01

    We generalize the differential representation of the operators of the Galilean algebras to include fractional derivatives. As a result a whole new class of scale invariant Galilean algebras are obtained. The first member of this class has dynamical index z = 2 similar to the Schrödinger algebra. The second member of the class has dynamical index z = 3 / 2, which happens to be the dynamical index Kardar-Parisi-Zhang equation.

  17. System and method for calibrating a rotary absolute position sensor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davis, Donald R. (Inventor); Permenter, Frank Noble (Inventor); Radford, Nicolaus A (Inventor)

    2012-01-01

    A system includes a rotary device, a rotary absolute position (RAP) sensor generating encoded pairs of voltage signals describing positional data of the rotary device, a host machine, and an algorithm. The algorithm calculates calibration parameters usable to determine an absolute position of the rotary device using the encoded pairs, and is adapted for linearly-mapping an ellipse defined by the encoded pairs to thereby calculate the calibration parameters. A method of calibrating the RAP sensor includes measuring the rotary position as encoded pairs of voltage signals, linearly-mapping an ellipse defined by the encoded pairs to thereby calculate the calibration parameters, and calculating an absolute position of the rotary device using the calibration parameters. The calibration parameters include a positive definite matrix (A) and a center point (q) of the ellipse. The voltage signals may include an encoded sine and cosine of a rotary angle of the rotary device.

  18. Method and apparatus for two-dimensional absolute optical encoding

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leviton, Douglas B. (Inventor)

    2004-01-01

    This invention presents a two-dimensional absolute optical encoder and a method for determining position of an object in accordance with information from the encoder. The encoder of the present invention comprises a scale having a pattern being predetermined to indicate an absolute location on the scale, means for illuminating the scale, means for forming an image of the pattern; and detector means for outputting signals derived from the portion of the image of the pattern which lies within a field of view of the detector means, the field of view defining an image reference coordinate system, and analyzing means, receiving the signals from the detector means, for determining the absolute location of the object. There are two types of scale patterns presented in this invention: grid type and starfield type.

  19. Absolute and Convective Instability in Fluid-Conveying Flexible Pipes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Langre, E.; Ouvrard, A. E.

    1998-11-01

    The effect of internal plug flow on the lateral stability of fluid conveying flexible pipes is investigated by determining the absolute/convective nature of the instability from the analytically derived linear dispersion relation. The fluid-structure interaction is modeled following the work of Gregory and Paidoussis (1966). The different domains of stability, convective instability, and absolute instability are explicitly derived in parameter space. The effect of flow velocity, mass ratio between the fluid and the structure, stiffness of the elastic foundation and axial tension is considered. Absolute instability prevails over a wide range of parameters. Convective instability only takes place at very high mass ratio, small stiffness and small axial tension. Relation is made with previous work of Brazier-Smith & Scott (1984) and Crighton (1991), considered here as a short wave approximation.

  20. Absolute surface metrology by rotational averaging in oblique incidence interferometry.

    PubMed

    Lin, Weihao; He, Yumei; Song, Li; Luo, Hongxin; Wang, Jie

    2014-06-01

    A modified method for measuring the absolute figure of a large optical flat surface in synchrotron radiation by a small aperture interferometer is presented. The method consists of two procedures: the first step is oblique incidence measurement; the second is multiple rotating measurements. This simple method is described in terms of functions that are symmetric or antisymmetric with respect to reflections at the vertical axis. Absolute deviations of a large flat surface could be obtained when mirror antisymmetric errors are removed by N-position rotational averaging. Formulas are derived for measuring the absolute surface errors of a rectangle flat, and experiments on high-accuracy rectangle flats are performed to verify the method. Finally, uncertainty analysis is carried out in detail. PMID:24922410

  1. Model Fractional Chern Insulators.

    PubMed

    Behrmann, Jörg; Liu, Zhao; Bergholtz, Emil J

    2016-05-27

    We devise local lattice models whose ground states are model fractional Chern insulators-Abelian and non-Abelian topologically ordered states characterized by exact ground state degeneracies at any finite size and infinite entanglement gaps. Most saliently, we construct exact parent Hamiltonians for two distinct families of bosonic lattice generalizations of the Z_{k} parafermion quantum Hall states: (i) color-entangled fractional Chern insulators at band filling fractions ν=k/(C+1) and (ii) nematic states at ν=k/2, where C is the Chern number of the lowest band. In spite of a fluctuating Berry curvature, our construction is partially frustration free: the ground states reside entirely within the lowest band and exactly minimize a local (k+1) body repulsion term by term. In addition to providing the first known models hosting intriguing states such as higher Chern number generalizations of the Fibonacci anyon quantum Hall states, the remarkable stability and finite-size properties make our models particularly well suited for the study of novel phenomena involving, e.g., twist defects and proximity induced superconductivity, as well as being a guide for designing experiments. PMID:27284668

  2. Model Fractional Chern Insulators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Behrmann, Jörg; Liu, Zhao; Bergholtz, Emil J.

    2016-05-01

    We devise local lattice models whose ground states are model fractional Chern insulators—Abelian and non-Abelian topologically ordered states characterized by exact ground state degeneracies at any finite size and infinite entanglement gaps. Most saliently, we construct exact parent Hamiltonians for two distinct families of bosonic lattice generalizations of the Zk parafermion quantum Hall states: (i) color-entangled fractional Chern insulators at band filling fractions ν =k /(C +1 ) and (ii) nematic states at ν =k /2 , where C is the Chern number of the lowest band. In spite of a fluctuating Berry curvature, our construction is partially frustration free: the ground states reside entirely within the lowest band and exactly minimize a local (k +1 ) body repulsion term by term. In addition to providing the first known models hosting intriguing states such as higher Chern number generalizations of the Fibonacci anyon quantum Hall states, the remarkable stability and finite-size properties make our models particularly well suited for the study of novel phenomena involving, e.g., twist defects and proximity induced superconductivity, as well as being a guide for designing experiments.

  3. Non-Invasive Method of Determining Absolute Intracranial Pressure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yost, William T. (Inventor); Cantrell, John H., Jr. (Inventor); Hargens, Alan E. (Inventor)

    2004-01-01

    A method is presented for determining absolute intracranial pressure (ICP) in a patient. Skull expansion is monitored while changes in ICP are induced. The patient's blood pressure is measured when skull expansion is approximately zero. The measured blood pressure is indicative of a reference ICP value. Subsequently, the method causes a known change in ICP and measured the change in skull expansion associated therewith. The absolute ICP is a function of the reference ICP value, the known change in ICP and its associated change in skull expansion; and a measured change in skull expansion.

  4. Measurements of the reactor neutron power in absolute units

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lebedev, G. V.

    2015-12-01

    The neutron power of the reactor of the Yenisei space nuclear power plant is measured in absolute units using the modernized method of correlation analysis during the ground-based tests of the Yenisei prototypes. Results of the experiments are given. The desired result is obtained in a series of experiments carried out at the stage of the plant preparation for tests. The acceptability of experimental data is confirmed by the results of measuring the reactor neutron power in absolute units at the nominal level by the thermal balance during the life cycle tests of the ground prototypes.

  5. In-flight absolute radiometric calibration of the thematic mapper

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Castle, K. R.; Holm, R. G.; Kastner, C. J.; Palmer, J. M.; Slater, P. N.; Dinguirard, M.; Ezra, C. E.; Jackson, R. D.; Savage, R. K.

    1983-01-01

    The TM multispectral scanner system was calibrated in an absolute manner before launch. To determine the temporal changes of the absolute radiometric calibration of the entire system, spectroradiometric measurements of the ground and the atmosphere were made simultaneously with TM collections over White Sands, New Mexico. By entering the measured values in an atmospheric radiative transfer program, the radiance levels of the in four of the spectral bands of the TM were determined. Tables show values for the reflectance of snow at White Sands measured by a modular 8 channel radiometer, and values for exoatmospheric irradiance within the TM passbands, calculated for the Earth-Sun distance using a solar radiometer.

  6. Absolute photon-flux measurements in the vacuum ultraviolet

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Samson, J. A. R.; Haddad, G. N.

    1974-01-01

    Absolute photon-flux measurements in the vacuum ultraviolet have extended to short wavelengths by use of rare-gas ionization chambers. The technique involves the measurement of the ion current as a function of the gas pressure in the ion chamber. The true value of the ion current, and hence the absolute photon flux, is obtained by extrapolating the ion current to zero gas pressure. Examples are given at 162 and 266 A. The short-wavelength limit is determined only by the sensitivity of the current-measuring apparatus and by present knowledge of the photoionization processes that occur in the rate gases.

  7. Notes on Van der Meer scan for absolute luminosity measurement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balagura, Vladislav

    2011-10-01

    The absolute luminosity can be measured in an accelerator by sweeping beams transversely across each other in the so-called van der Meer scan. We prove that the method can be applied in the general case of arbitrary beam directions and a separation scan plane. A simple method to develop an image of the beam in its transverse plane from spatial distributions of interaction vertexes is also proposed. From the beam images one can determine their overlap and the absolute luminosity. This provides an alternative way of the luminosity measurement during van der Meer scan.

  8. Measurements of the reactor neutron power in absolute units

    SciTech Connect

    Lebedev, G. V.

    2015-12-15

    The neutron power of the reactor of the Yenisei space nuclear power plant is measured in absolute units using the modernized method of correlation analysis during the ground-based tests of the Yenisei prototypes. Results of the experiments are given. The desired result is obtained in a series of experiments carried out at the stage of the plant preparation for tests. The acceptability of experimental data is confirmed by the results of measuring the reactor neutron power in absolute units at the nominal level by the thermal balance during the life cycle tests of the ground prototypes.

  9. Absolute Stability Analysis of a Phase Plane Controlled Spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jang, Jiann-Woei; Plummer, Michael; Bedrossian, Nazareth; Hall, Charles; Jackson, Mark; Spanos, Pol

    2010-01-01

    Many aerospace attitude control systems utilize phase plane control schemes that include nonlinear elements such as dead zone and ideal relay. To evaluate phase plane control robustness, stability margin prediction methods must be developed. Absolute stability is extended to predict stability margins and to define an abort condition. A constrained optimization approach is also used to design flex filters for roll control. The design goal is to optimize vehicle tracking performance while maintaining adequate stability margins. Absolute stability is shown to provide satisfactory stability constraints for the optimization.

  10. A general relativistic model for free-fall absolute gravimeters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tan, Yu-Jie; Shao, Cheng-Gang; Li, Jia; Hu, Zhong-Kun

    2016-04-01

    Although the relativistic manifestations of gravitational fields in gravimetry were first studied 40 years ago, the relativistic effects combined with free-fall absolute gravimeters have rarely been considered. In light of this, we present a general relativistic model for free-fall absolute gravimeters in a local-Fermi coordinates system, where we focus on effects related to the measuring devices: relativistic transverse Doppler effects, gravitational redshift effects and Earth’s rotation effects. Based on this model, a general relativistic expression of the measured gravity acceleration is obtained.

  11. Adenosine receptors mediate the hypoxic ventilatory response but not the hypoxic metabolic response in the naked mole rat during acute hypoxia.

    PubMed

    Pamenter, Matthew E; Dzal, Yvonne A; Milsom, William K

    2015-02-01

    Naked mole rats are the most hypoxia-tolerant mammals identified; however, the mechanisms underlying this tolerance are poorly understood. Using whole-animal plethysmography and open-flow respirometry, we examined the hypoxic metabolic response (HMR), hypoxic ventilatory response (HVR) and hypoxic thermal response in awake, freely behaving naked mole rats exposed to 7% O₂ for 1 h. Metabolic rate and ventilation each reversibly decreased 70% in hypoxia (from 39.6 ± 2.9 to 12.1 ± 0.3 ml O₂ min(-1) kg(-1), and 1412 ± 244 to 417 ± 62 ml min(-1) kg(-1), respectively; p < 0.05), whereas body temperature was unchanged and animals remained awake and active. Subcutaneous injection of the general adenosine receptor antagonist aminophylline (AMP; 100 mg kg(-1), in saline), but not control saline injections, prevented the HVR but had no effect on the HMR. As a result, AMP-treated naked mole rats exhibited extreme hyperventilation in hypoxia. These animals were also less tolerant to hypoxia, and in some cases hypoxia was lethal following AMP injection. We conclude that in naked mole rats (i) hypoxia tolerance is partially dependent on profound hypoxic metabolic and ventilatory responses, which are equal in magnitude but occur independently of thermal changes in hypoxia, and (ii) adenosine receptors mediate the HVR but not the HMR. PMID:25520355

  12. Size variation in Tachyoryctes splendens (East African mole-rat) and its implications for late Quaternary temperature change in equatorial East Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Faith, J. Tyler; Patterson, David B.; Blegen, Nick; O'Neill, Chris J.; Marean, Curtis W.; Peppe, Daniel J.; Tryon, Christian A.

    2016-05-01

    This study develops a new proxy for Quaternary temperature change in tropical Africa through analysis of size variation in East African mole-rat (Tachyoryctes splendens). In modern mole-rats, mandibular alveolar length is unrelated to annual precipitation, precipitation seasonality, temperature seasonality, or primary productivity. However, it is inversely correlated with mean annual temperature, in agreement with Bergmann's rule. This relationship is observed at temperatures below ∼17.3 °C, but not at higher temperatures. We apply these observations to late Quaternary mole-rats from Wakondo (∼100 ka) and Kisaaka (∼50 ka) in the Lake Victoria region and Enkapune ya Muto (EYM; ∼7.2-3.2 ka) in Kenya's central rift. The Lake Victoria mole-rats are larger than expected for populations from warm climates typical of the area today, implying cooler temperatures in the past. The magnitude of temperature decline needed to drive the size shift is substantial (∼4-6 °C), similar in magnitude to the degree of change between the Last Glacial Maximum and Holocene, but is consistent with regional temperature records and with scenarios linking equatorial African temperature to northern hemisphere summer insolation. Size changes through time at EYM indicate that rising temperatures during the middle Holocene accompanied and potentially contributed to a decline in Lake Naivasha and expansion of grassland vegetation.

  13. Relationships among Four Learner Variables and the Performance of Selected Jamaican 11th-Graders on Some Structured Questions on the Mole Concept

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ellis-Hall, Nadine; Soyibo, Kola

    2004-01-01

    This study sought to find out if (a) the performance of 113 Jamaican 11th-graders on a mole concept test was satisfactory or not; (b) there were significant differences in their performance linked to their chemical and mathematical abilities, gender and socioeconomic background (SEB); and, (c) there were significant relationships among the four…

  14. A CPG ISLAND AT THE PROMOTER OF THE PDE8B GENE IS METHYLATED IN PLACENTA AND HYDATIDIFORM MOLES, BUT NOT IN CONTROL DNA

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Objective: We used a genome-wide CpG methylation screen, restriction landmark genome scanning (RLGS) to identify CpG islands that have altered methylation in complete hydatidiform moles (CHM), compared to control genomic DNA. Because CHM are diploid, but of uniparental parental inheritance and uniq...

  15. Adenosine receptors mediate the hypoxic ventilatory response but not the hypoxic metabolic response in the naked mole rat during acute hypoxia

    PubMed Central

    Pamenter, Matthew E.; Dzal, Yvonne A.; Milsom, William K.

    2015-01-01

    Naked mole rats are the most hypoxia-tolerant mammals identified; however, the mechanisms underlying this tolerance are poorly understood. Using whole-animal plethysmography and open-flow respirometry, we examined the hypoxic metabolic response (HMR), hypoxic ventilatory response (HVR) and hypoxic thermal response in awake, freely behaving naked mole rats exposed to 7% O2 for 1 h. Metabolic rate and ventilation each reversibly decreased 70% in hypoxia (from 39.6 ± 2.9 to 12.1 ± 0.3 ml O2 min−1 kg−1, and 1412 ± 244 to 417 ± 62 ml min−1 kg−1, respectively; p < 0.05), whereas body temperature was unchanged and animals remained awake and active. Subcutaneous injection of the general adenosine receptor antagonist aminophylline (AMP; 100 mg kg−1, in saline), but not control saline injections, prevented the HVR but had no effect on the HMR. As a result, AMP-treated naked mole rats exhibited extreme hyperventilation in hypoxia. These animals were also less tolerant to hypoxia, and in some cases hypoxia was lethal following AMP injection. We conclude that in naked mole rats (i) hypoxia tolerance is partially dependent on profound hypoxic metabolic and ventilatory responses, which are equal in magnitude but occur independently of thermal changes in hypoxia, and (ii) adenosine receptors mediate the HVR but not the HMR. PMID:25520355

  16. An intragenic genomic duplication resulting in loss of function and other novel mutations in NLRP7 in women with recurrent biparental hydatidiform moles

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Hydatidiform mole (HM) is an abnormal development of the placenta with hyperproliferative trophoblast. Biparentally inherited HM (BiHM) have normal diploid biparental inheritance and are not androgenetic. Linkage using consanguineous pedigrees of women with BiHM refined a major locus to chromosome...

  17. Absolute radical densities in etching plasmas determined by broad-band UV absorption spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Booth, Jean-Paul; Cunge, Gilles; Neuilly, François; Sadeghi, Nader

    1998-08-01

    Broad-band UV absorption spectroscopy was used to determine radical densities in reactive gas plasmas generated in a 13.56 MHz capacitively coupled parallel plate reactor. Five radical species were detected: 0963-0252/7/3/021/img1, CF, AlF, 0963-0252/7/3/021/img2 and 0963-0252/7/3/021/img3. Absolute (line-integrated) 0963-0252/7/3/021/img1 densities were determined in 0963-0252/7/3/021/img5 and 0963-0252/7/3/021/img6 plasmas, as were the 0963-0252/7/3/021/img1 vibrational and rotational temperatures in the latter case. In 0963-0252/7/3/021/img5 plasmas the CF radical was also detected, along with the etch products AlF (from the Al powered electrode) and 0963-0252/7/3/021/img2 (when an Si substrate was present). The fraction that 0963-0252/7/3/021/img2 comprises of the total etch products was estimated. Finally, the 0963-0252/7/3/021/img3 dimer was detected in an 0963-0252/7/3/021/img12 plasma in the presence of an Si substrate. This simple technique allows absolute concentrations of many key reactive species to be determined in reactive plasmas, without the need to analyse the complex rotational spectra of these polyatomic molecules.

  18. Mass spectrometry based proteomics for absolute quantification of proteins from tumor cells

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Hong; Hanash, Sam

    2015-01-01

    In-depth quantitative profiling of the proteome and sub-proteomes of tumor cells has relevance to tumor classification, the development of novel therapeutics, and of prognostic and predictive markers and to disease monitoring. In particular the tumor cell surface represents a highly relevant compartment for the development of targeted therapeutics and immunotherapy. We have developed a proteomic platform to profile tumor cells that encompasses enrichment of surface membrane proteins, intact protein fractionation and label-free mass spectrometry based absolute quantification. Here we describe the methodology for capture, identification and quantification of cell surface proteins using biotinylation for labeling of the cell surface, avidin for capture of biotinylated proteins and ion mobility mass spectrometry for protein identification and quantification. PMID:25794949

  19. Membrane electroporation: The absolute rate equation and nanosecond time scale pore creation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vasilkoski, Zlatko; Esser, Axel T.; Gowrishankar, T. R.; Weaver, James C.

    2006-08-01

    The recent applications of nanosecond, megavolt-per-meter electric field pulses to biological systems show striking cellular and subcellular electric field induced effects and revive the interest in the biophysical mechanism of electroporation. We first show that the absolute rate theory, with experimentally based parameter input, is consistent with membrane pore creation on a nanosecond time scale. Secondly we use a Smoluchowski equation-based model to formulate a self-consistent theoretical approach. The analysis is carried out for a planar cell membrane patch exposed to a 10ns trapezoidal pulse with 1.5ns rise and fall times. Results demonstrate reversible supraelectroporation behavior in terms of transmembrane voltage, pore density, membrane conductance, fractional aqueous area, pore distribution, and average pore radius. We further motivate and justify the use of Krassowska’s asymptotic electroporation model for analyzing nanosecond pulses, showing that pore creation dominates the electrical response and that pore expansion is a negligible effect on this time scale.

  20. Absolute OH density determination by laser induced fluorescence spectroscopy in an atmospheric pressure RF plasma jet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiong, Q.; Nikiforov, A. Yu.; Li, L.; Vanraes, P.; Britun, N.; Snyders, R.; Lu, X. P.; Leys, C.

    2012-11-01

    In this paper, the ground state OH density is measured in high pressure plasma by laser-induced fluorescence (LIF) spectroscopy. The OH density determination is based on the simulation of the intensity fraction of fluorescence from the laser-excited level of OH (A) in the total detected LIF signal. The validity of this approach is verified in an atmospheric pressure Ar + H2O plasma jet sustained by a 13.56 MHz power supply. The transition line P1 (4) from OH (A, v' = 1, J' = 3) → OH (X, v'' = 0, J'' = 4) is used for the LIF excitation. The absolute OH density is determined to be 2.5 × 1019 m-3 at 1 mm away from the jet nozzle. It corresponds to a dissociation of 0.06% of the water vapor in the working gas. Different mechanisms of OH (X) production in the core of the plasma jet are discussed and analyzed.