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Sample records for absolute mortality rates

  1. Indirectly estimated absolute lung cancer mortality rates by smoking status and histological type based on a systematic review

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background National smoking-specific lung cancer mortality rates are unavailable, and studies presenting estimates are limited, particularly by histology. This hinders interpretation. We attempted to rectify this by deriving estimates indirectly, combining data from national rates and epidemiological studies. Methods We estimated study-specific absolute mortality rates and variances by histology and smoking habit (never/ever/current/former) based on relative risk estimates derived from studies published in the 20th century, coupled with WHO mortality data for age 70–74 for the relevant country and period. Studies with populations grossly unrepresentative nationally were excluded. 70–74 was chosen based on analyses of large cohort studies presenting rates by smoking and age. Variations by sex, period and region were assessed by meta-analysis and meta-regression. Results 148 studies provided estimates (Europe 59, America 54, China 22, other Asia 13), 54 providing estimates by histology (squamous cell carcinoma, adenocarcinoma). For all smoking habits and lung cancer types, mortality rates were higher in males, the excess less evident for never smokers. Never smoker rates were clearly highest in China, and showed some increasing time trend, particularly for adenocarcinoma. Ever smoker rates were higher in parts of Europe and America than in China, with the time trend very clear, especially for adenocarcinoma. Variations by time trend and continent were clear for current smokers (rates being higher in Europe and America than Asia), but less clear for former smokers. Models involving continent and trend explained much variability, but non-linearity was sometimes seen (with rates lower in 1991–99 than 1981–90), and there was regional variation within continent (with rates in Europe often high in UK and low in Scandinavia, and higher in North than South America). Conclusions The indirect method may be questioned, because of variations in definition of smoking and

  2. Mortality rates decline in Malaysia.

    PubMed

    1991-11-01

    Experiencing remarkable decreases in mortality rates over the past 3 decades, Malaysia currently has one of the lowest mortality rates among developing countries, a rate that compares favorably with those of developed countries. Between 1957 and 1989, the crude death rate dropped from 12.4/1000 population to 4.6. Over the same period, Malaysia recorded even greater decreases in the infant mortality rate, from 75.5/1000 births to 15.2. The Maternal mortality rate also declined from 1.48 in 1970 to 0.24 in 1988. The data indicates that mortality rates vary from state to state, and that rural areas have a higher mortality than urban areas. According to a study by the National Population and Family Development Board, the use of maternal and child health services has played an important role in reducing neonatal, perinatal, infant, child, and maternal mortality rates. Nearly all women in Malaysia receive antenatal services. While the country has achieved great gains on mortality rates, programs focusing on specific age and socioeconomic groups could lead to even greater reductions. The Minister for National Unity and Social Development, Dato Napsiah Omar, has called for the development of programs designed to improve the population's quality of life. PMID:12284509

  3. Child Mortality Rate in Ethiopia

    PubMed Central

    Susuman, A Sathiya

    2012-01-01

    Ethiopia’s childhood mortality has continued to decline although at a swift pace. The drop in urban childhood mortality decline, duration of breastfeeding is the principle reason for the overall decline in mortality trends in Ethiopia. Data from the Ethiopian Demographic and Health Surveys 2000 and 2005 were used. Indirect estimation of Brass and Trussell’s methods were adopted. Selected demographic and socio-economic variables were included in the analysis with statistically significant effects. Findings clearly show neonatal and post neonatal mortality decline gradually. Even though, Ethiopia’s childhood mortality rates are still high. The result shows less than 2 years birth interval have higher infant mortality rates than higher birth interval (113 deaths per 1000). The proper spacing of births allows more time for childcare to make more maternal resources available for the care of the child and mother. Therefore, further research is urgent for regional level and national level investigation. PMID:23113145

  4. Absolute rates of hole transfer in DNA.

    PubMed

    Senthilkumar, Kittusamy; Grozema, Ferdinand C; Guerra, Célia Fonseca; Bickelhaupt, F Matthias; Lewis, Frederick D; Berlin, Yuri A; Ratner, Mark A; Siebbeles, Laurens D A

    2005-10-26

    Absolute rates of hole transfer between guanine nucleobases separated by one or two A:T base pairs in stilbenedicarboxamide-linked DNA hairpins were obtained by improved kinetic analysis of experimental data. The charge-transfer rates in four different DNA sequences were calculated using a density-functional-based tight-binding model and a semiclassical superexchange model. Site energies and charge-transfer integrals were calculated directly as the diagonal and off-diagonal matrix elements of the Kohn-Sham Hamiltonian, respectively, for all possible combinations of nucleobases. Taking into account the Coulomb interaction between the negative charge on the stilbenedicarboxamide linker and the hole on the DNA strand as well as effects of base pair twisting, the relative order of the experimental rates for hole transfer in different hairpins could be reproduced by tight-binding calculations. To reproduce quantitatively the absolute values of the measured rate constants, the effect of the reorganization energy was taken into account within the semiclassical superexchange model for charge transfer. The experimental rates could be reproduced with reorganization energies near 1 eV. The quantum chemical data obtained were used to discuss charge carrier mobility and hole-transport equilibria in DNA. PMID:16231945

  5. The Absolute Rate of LGRB Formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Graham, J. F.; Schady, P.

    2016-06-01

    We estimate the long-duration gamma-ray burst (LGRB) progenitor rate using our recent work on the effects of environmental metallically on LGRB formation in concert with supernovae (SNe) statistics via an approach patterned loosely off the Drake equation. Beginning with the cosmic star formation history, we consider the expected number of broad-line Type Ic events (the SNe type associated with LGRBs) that are in low-metallicity host environments adjusted by the contribution of high-metallicity host environments at a much reduced rate. We then compare this estimate to the observed LGRB rate corrected for instrumental selection effects to provide a combined estimate of the efficiency fraction of these progenitors to produce LGRBs and the fraction of which are beamed in our direction. From this we estimate that an aligned LGRB occurs for approximately every 4000 ± 2000 low-metallically broad-lined SNe Ic. Therefore, if one assumes a semi-nominal beaming factor of 100, then only about one such supernova out of 40 produce an LGRB. Finally, we propose an off-axis LGRB search strategy of targeting only broad-line Type Ic events that occur in low-metallicity hosts for radio observation.

  6. Trends in absolute socioeconomic inequalities in mortality in Sweden and New Zealand. A 20-year gender perspective

    PubMed Central

    Wamala, Sarah; Blakely, Tony; Atkinson, June

    2006-01-01

    Background Both trends in socioeconomic inequalities in mortality, and cross-country comparisons, may give more information about the causes of health inequalities. We analysed trends in socioeconomic differentials by mortality from early 1980s to late 1990s, comparing Sweden with New Zealand. Methods The New Zealand Census Mortality Study (NZCMS) consisting of over 2 million individuals and the Swedish Survey of Living Conditions (ULF) comprising over 100, 000 individuals were used for analyses. Education and household income were used as measures of socioeconomic position (SEP). The slope index of inequality (SII) was calculated to estimate absolute inequalities in mortality. Analyses were based on 3–5 year follow-up and limited to individuals aged 25–77 years. Age standardised mortality rates were calculated using the European population standard. Results Absolute inequalities in mortality on average over the 1980s and 1990s for both men and women by education were similar in Sweden and New Zealand, but by income were greater in Sweden. Comparing trends in absolute inequalities over the 1980s and 1990s, men's absolute inequalities by education decreased by 66% in Sweden and by 17% in New Zealand (p for trend <0.01 in both countries). Women's absolute inequalities by education decreased by 19% in Sweden (p = 0.03) and by 8% in New Zealand (p = 0.53). Men's absolute inequalities by income decreased by 51% in Sweden (p for trend = 0.06), but increased by 16% in New Zealand (p = 0.13). Women's absolute inequalities by income increased in both countries: 12% in Sweden (p = 0.03) and 21% in New Zealand (p = 0.04). Conclusion Trends in socioeconomic inequalities in mortality were clearly most favourable for men in Sweden. Trends also seemed to be more favourable for men than women in New Zealand. Assuming the trends in male inequalities in Sweden were not a statistical chance finding, it is not clear what the substantive reason(s) was for the pronounced decrease

  7. The healthy immigrant effect and mortality rates.

    PubMed

    Ng, Edward

    2011-12-01

    According to the 2006 Census, almost the Canadian population were foreign-born, a percentage that is projected to reach at least 25% by 2031. Studies based on age-standardized mortality rates (ASMR) have found a healthy immigrant effect, with lower overall rates among immigrants. A duration effect has also been observed-immigrants' mortality advantage lessened as their time in Canada increased. ASMRs based on the 1991 to 2001 census mortality follow-up study indicate a healthy immigrant effect and a duration effect at the national level for all-cause mortality for both sexes. However, at the national level, the mortality rate among women from the United States and from Sub-Saharan Africa was similar to that of Canadian-born women. For the three largest Census Metropolitan Areas (Toronto, Montreal and Vancouver), a healthy immigrant effect was not observed among women or among most men from the United States or Sub-Saharan Africa. PMID:22352149

  8. Liver cancer mortality rate model in Thailand

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sriwattanapongse, Wattanavadee; Prasitwattanaseree, Sukon

    2013-09-01

    Liver Cancer has been a leading cause of death in Thailand. The purpose of this study was to model and forecast liver cancer mortality rate in Thailand using death certificate reports. A retrospective analysis of the liver cancer mortality rate was conducted. Numbering of 123,280 liver cancer causes of death cases were obtained from the national vital registration database for the 10-year period from 2000 to 2009, provided by the Ministry of Interior and coded as cause-of-death using ICD-10 by the Ministry of Public Health. Multivariate regression model was used for modeling and forecasting age-specific liver cancer mortality rates in Thailand. Liver cancer mortality increased with increasing age for each sex and was also higher in the North East provinces. The trends of liver cancer mortality remained stable in most age groups with increases during ten-year period (2000 to 2009) in the Northern and Southern. Liver cancer mortality was higher in males and increase with increasing age. There is need of liver cancer control measures to remain on a sustained and long-term basis for the high liver cancer burden rate of Thailand.

  9. Flow rate calibration for absolute cell counting rationale and design.

    PubMed

    Walker, Clare; Barnett, David

    2006-05-01

    There is a need for absolute leukocyte enumeration in the clinical setting, and accurate, reliable (and affordable) technology to determine absolute leukocyte counts has been developed. Such technology includes single platform and dual platform approaches. Derivations of these counts commonly incorporate the addition of a known number of latex microsphere beads to a blood sample, although it has been suggested that the addition of beads to a sample may only be required to act as an internal quality control procedure for assessing the pipetting error. This unit provides the technical details for undertaking flow rate calibration that obviates the need to add reference beads to each sample. It is envisaged that this report will provide the basis for subsequent clinical evaluations of this novel approach. PMID:18770842

  10. Infant mortality rates declining, but still high.

    PubMed

    Hoffman, M

    1992-10-01

    Family planning can improve infant survival. Specifically, use of family planning methods can minimize family size, increase birth spacing, and reduce the likelihood of pregnancy for teenagers and women aged 40 or older. Immunizations and oral rehydration are responsible for the falling infant mortality rats since 1977 in developing countries, especially among 1-12 month old infants. Yet, neonatal mortality in developing countries had not changed. WHO intends to step up efforts to improve newborn survival. Accurate data are needed, however. Even in developed countries which keep good statistics, infant mortality bias exists. For example, in Japan, some infant deaths are called fetal deaths. In developing countries, much of the data come from hospitals, yet most birth do not occur in hospitals. Even in surveys, bias exists, such as problems with recall. Many researchers use traditional birth attendants (TBAs) to follow up on all births in an area which may eliminate some biases. Such a prospective and longitudinal study in Trairi county in northeastern Brazil shows the infant mortality rate to be less than half of the official rate (65 vs. 142). The major causes of infant death in developed countries, which tends to occur in the neonatal period, are low birth weight, prematurity, birth complications, and congenital defects; developing countries; they are vaccine preventable infectious diseases, diarrhea and dehydration, and respiratory illnesses, all complicated by malnutrition. To make further strides in reducing infant mortality, public health workers must concentrate on the neonatal period. Training TBAs in sterile techniques, appropriate technology, resuscitation of infants, and identification of potential problems is a positive step. Yet, unpredictable conditions (e.g., AIDS) exist and/or will arise which erode improvements. For example, in Nicaragua, within 1 year after the new government introduced health budget cuts which resulted in the poor paying for

  11. Choosing a standard for adjusted mortality rates.

    PubMed

    Seltzer, F

    1996-01-01

    For over half a century, the standard for age-adjustment in mortality studies has been based on the total population according to the 1940 census. The question periodically arises, however, whether a more recent census population might now be more appropriate. Thus, a study using the six censuses from 1940 to 1990 was conducted to see the effect each of these populations would have on the age-adjusted (standardized) death rates. While the size of the age-adjusted rates was affected by the censal standard populations from 1940 to 1990, these populations hardly changed the proportional mortality by age, sex, cause-of-death and geographic area. It appears that a shift from the 1940 standard will not be necessary, although if more detailed comparisons are needed, age-specific death rates can always be used. The 1940 standard also has the advantage of being consistent with many earlier studies. PMID:8744891

  12. Female breast cancer mortality rates in Turkey.

    PubMed

    Dogan, Nurhan; Toprak, Dilek

    2014-01-01

    The main objective of this study was to analyze the mortality trends of female breast cancer in Turkey between the years 1987-2008. The rates per 100,000 age-standardized to the European standard population were assessed and time trends presented using joinpoint regression analysis. Average annual percent change (AAPC), anual percent change (APC) and 95% confidence interval (CI) was calculated. Nearly 23,000 breast cancer deaths occurred in Turkey during the period 1987-2008, with the average annual age-standardized mortality rate (ASR) being 11.9 per 100,000 women. In the last five years, significant increases were observed in all age groups, but there was no significant change over the age of 65. In this period, the biggest significant increase was in the 45-54 age group (AAPC=4.3, 95%CI=2.6 to 6.0). PMID:25292030

  13. Size-dependent mortality rate profiles.

    PubMed

    Roa-Ureta, Ruben H

    2016-08-01

    Knowledge of mortality rates is crucial to the understanding of population dynamics in populations of free-living fish and invertebrates in marine and freshwater environments, and consequently to sustainable resource management. There is a well developed theory of population dynamics based on age distributions that allow direct estimation of mortality rates. However, for most cases the aging of individuals is difficult or age distributions are not available for other reasons. The body size distribution is a widely available alternative although the theory underlying the formation of its shape is more complicated than in the case of age distributions. A solid theory of the time evolution of a population structured by any physiological variable has been developed in 1960s and 1970s by adapting the Hamilton-Jacobi formulation of classical mechanics, and equations to estimate the body size-distributed mortality profile have been derived for simple cases. Here I extend those results with regards to the size-distributed mortality profile to complex cases of non-stationary populations, individuals growing according to a generalised growth model and seasonally patterned recruitment pulses. I apply resulting methods to two cases in the marine environment, a benthic crustacean population that was growing during the period of observation and whose individuals grow with negative acceleration, and a sea urchin coastal population that is undergoing a stable cycle of two equilibrium points in population size whose individuals grow with varying acceleration that switches sign along the size range. The extension is very general and substantially widens the applicability of the theory. PMID:27164999

  14. Urban poverty and infant mortality rate disparities.

    PubMed Central

    Sims, Mario; Sims, Tammy L.; Bruce, Marino A.

    2007-01-01

    This study examined whether the relationship between high poverty and infant mortality rates (IMRs) varied across race- and ethnic-specific populations in large urban areas. Data were drawn from 1990 Census and 1992-1994 Vital Statistics for selected U.S. metropolitan areas. High-poverty areas were defined as neighborhoods in which > or = 40% of the families had incomes below the federal poverty threshold. Bivariate models showed that high poverty was a significant predictor of IMR for each group; however, multivariate analyses demonstrate that maternal health and regional factors explained most of the variance in the group-specific models of IMR. Additional analysis revealed that high poverty was significantly associated with minority-white IMR disparities, and country of origin is an important consideration for ethnic birth outcomes. Findings from this study provide a glimpse into the complexity associated with infant mortality in metropolitan areas because they suggest that the factors associated with infant mortality in urban areas vary by race and ethnicity. PMID:17444423

  15. Variations of Radon Risk with Changing Mortality Rates

    SciTech Connect

    Chen Jing

    2008-08-07

    This study examines the variation of radon risks with changing mortality rates. The Canadian age-specific mortality rates averaged over five year periods from 1986 to 1990 and from 1996 to 2000 were used in the risk calculations. Because of the synergistic interaction between smoking and radon, the risk of radon induced lung cancer for Canadian men decreased with the declining lung cancer mortality rates while for Canadian women the radon risks increased with the rising lung cancer mortality rates.

  16. Variations of Radon Risk with Changing Mortality Rates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Jing

    2008-08-01

    This study examines the variation of radon risks with changing mortality rates. The Canadian age-specific mortality rates averaged over five year periods from 1986 to 1990 and from 1996 to 2000 were used in the risk calculations. Because of the synergistic interaction between smoking and radon, the risk of radon induced lung cancer for Canadian men decreased with the declining lung cancer mortality rates while for Canadian women the radon risks increased with the rising lung cancer mortality rates

  17. Mortality Rates in a Genetically Heterogeneous Population of Caenorhabditis elegans

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brooks, Anne; Lithgow, Gordon J.; Johnson, Thomas E.

    1994-02-01

    Age-specific mortality rates in isogenic populations of the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans increase exponentially throughout life. In genetically heterogeneous populations, age-specific mortality increases exponentially until about 17 days and then remains constant until the last death occurs at about 60 days. This period of constant age-specific mortality results from genetic heterogeneity. Subpopulations differ in mean life-span, but they all exhibit near exponential, albeit different, rates of increase in age-specific mortality. Thus, much of the observed heterogeneity in mortality rates later in life could result from genetic heterogeneity and not from an inherent effect of aging.

  18. Trends in Infectious Disease Mortality Rates, Spain, 1980–2011

    PubMed Central

    Llácer, Alicia; Palmera-Suárez, Rocio; Gómez-Barroso, Diana; Savulescu, Camelia; González-Yuste, Paloma; Fernández-Cuenca, Rafael

    2014-01-01

    Using mortality data from National Institute of Statistics in Spain, we analyzed trends of infectious disease mortality rates in Spain during 1980–2011 to provide information on surveillance and control of infectious diseases. During the study period, 628,673 infectious disease–related deaths occurred, the annual change in the mortality rate was −1.6%, and the average infectious disease mortality rate was 48.5 deaths/100,000 population. Although the beginning of HIV/AIDS epidemic led to an increased mortality rate, a decreased rate was observed by the end of the twentieth century. By codes from the International Classification of Diseases, 9th revision, the most frequent underlying cause of death was pneumonia. Emergence and reemergence of infectious diseases continue to be public health problems despite reduced mortality rates produced by various interventions. Therefore, surveillance and control systems should be reinforced with a goal of providing reliable data for useful decision making. PMID:24750997

  19. Studies of the mortality rate of Culicoides imicola in Morocco.

    PubMed

    Baylis, M; Touti, J; Bouayoune, H; Moudni, L; Taoufiq, B; el Hasnaoui, H

    1998-01-01

    Daily mortality rates of female Culicoides imicola were found for eight sites in Morocco in 1994 and for six sites in 1995. The mortality rates were found by operating Pirbright-type light traps for a number of consecutive nights in late summer or autumn and finding the parous rate assuming a feeding interval of 3 to 5 days. The mortality rates were calculated according to established methods. In Morocco the daily mortality rates were found to vary from about 5% per day (Arbaoua, 1994, 1995 and Sidi Moussa 1995) up to 20-25% per day (Berkane, Marrakech, Tangier). In general, estimates of daily mortality rate were consistent between the two years of study. Among sites, daily mortality rate was significantly correlated with the average night-time minimum wind speed but not mean or maximum night-time wind speeds, or with temperature, humidity or saturation deficit. The observed mortality rates suggest that at Arbaoua, were 1,000 flies to become infected with African horse sickness virus, at least 330 would live long enough to take 3 or more infective blood meals on hosts. At Berkane, the survival rate per 1,000 is less than 10. In general, the pattern observed for daily mortality rate, combined with the relative population sizes of C. imicola in Morocco, agree well with the observed distribution of African horse sickness in the country during the 1989-1991 epizootic. PMID:9785502

  20. Estimating cause-specific mortality rates using recovered carcasses.

    PubMed

    Joly, Damien O; Heisey, Dennis M; Samuel, Michael D; Ribic, Christine A; Thomas, Nancy J; Wright, Scott D; Wright, Irene E

    2009-01-01

    Stranding networks, in which carcasses are recovered and sent to diagnostic laboratories for necropsy and determination of cause of death, have been developed to monitor the health of marine mammal and bird populations. These programs typically accumulate comprehensive, long-term datasets on causes of death that can be used to identify important sources of mortality or changes in mortality patterns that lead to management actions. However, the utility of these data in determining cause-specific mortality rates has not been explored. We present a maximum likelihood-based approach that partitions total mortality rate, estimated by independent sources, into cause-specific mortality rates. We also demonstrate how variance estimates are derived for these rates. We present examples of the method using mortality data for California sea otters (Enhydra lutris nereis) and Florida manatees (Trichechus manatus latirostris). PMID:19204341

  1. Slowing of mortality rates at older ages in large medfly cohorts.

    PubMed

    Carey, J R; Liedo, P; Orozco, D; Vaupel, J W

    1992-10-16

    It is generally assumed for most species that mortality rates increase monotonically at advanced ages. Mortality rates were found to level off and decrease at older ages in a population of 1.2 million medflies maintained in cages of 7,200 and in a group of approximately 48,000 adults maintained in solitary confinement. Thus, life expectancy in older individuals increased rather than decreased with age. These results cast doubt on several central concepts in gerontology and the biology of aging: (i) that senescence can be characterized by an increase in age-specific mortality, (ii) that the basic pattern of mortality in nearly all species follows the same unitary pattern at older ages, and (iii) that species have absolute life-span limits. PMID:1411540

  2. [Causes of adult mortality in developing and developed countries with low mortality rates].

    PubMed

    Vallin, J

    1995-06-01

    "In a certain number of developing countries, life expectancy levels now approach those of the developed world. But, though life expectancies at birth may be similar, the infant mortality rate in developing countries remains higher, but is compensated by a lower rate of mortality for adults. Is it to be expected that as infant mortality rates continue to decline, the developing countries will maintain their advantageous adult mortality rates and that life expectancy will forge ahead of the level achieved in developed countries?... To answer this question, recent trends in adult cause-specific mortality rates in four developing countries (Chile, Hong Kong, Mexico, and Costa Rica) were compared with those in three industrialized countries (France, Germany and Japan). The results were inconclusive. Whilst life expectancies in some of these countries may be expected to forge ahead (Chile, Hong Kong), in others the margin between their life expectancies and those of developed countries have already narrowed." (SUMMARY IN ENG) PMID:12347045

  3. Prediction of mortality rates in the presence of missing values

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tan, Chon Sern; Pooi, Ah Hin

    2015-12-01

    A time series model based on multivariate power-normal distribution has been applied in the past literature on the United States (US) mortality data from the years 1933 to 2000 to forecast the future age-specific mortality rates of the years 2001 to 2010. In this paper, we show that the method based on multivariate power-normal distribution can still be used for an incomplete US mortality dataset that contains some missing values. The prediction intervals based on this incomplete training data are found to still have good ability of covering the observed future mortality rates although the interval lengths may become wider for long-range prediction.

  4. Newborn calf welfare: a review focusing on mortality rates.

    PubMed

    Uetake, Katsuji

    2013-02-01

    Calf mortality control is vitally important for farmers, not only to improve animal welfare, but also to increase productivity. High calf mortality rates can be related to larger numbers of calves in a herd, employee performance, severe weather, and the neonatal period covering the first 4 weeks of life. Although the basic premise of preventing newborn calf mortality is early detection and treatment of calves at risk for failure of passive transfer of immunoglobulins, calf mortality due to infectious diseases such as acute diarrhea increases in the presence of these physical and psychological stressors. This suggests that farmers should not ignore the effects of secondary environmental factors. For prevention rather than cure, the quality of the environment should be improved, which will improve not only animal welfare but also productivity. This paper presents a review of the literature on newborn calf mortality and discusses its productivity implications. PMID:23384350

  5. Why have ovarian cancer mortality rates declined? Part I. Incidence.

    PubMed

    Sopik, Victoria; Iqbal, Javaid; Rosen, Barry; Narod, Steven A

    2015-09-01

    The age-adjusted mortality rate from ovarian cancer in the United States has declined over the past several decades. The decline in mortality might be the consequence of a reduced number of cases (incidence) or a reduction in the proportion of patients who die from their cancer (case-fatality). In part I of this three-part series, we examine rates of ovarian cancer incidence and mortality from the Surveillance Epidemiology and End Results (SEER) registry database and we explore to what extent the observed decline in mortality can be explained by a downward shift in the stage distribution of ovarian cancer (i.e. due to early detection) or by fewer cases of ovarian cancer (i.e. due to a change in risk factors). The proportion of localized ovarian cancers did not increase, suggesting that a stage-shift did not contribute to the decline in mortality. The observed decline in mortality paralleled a decline in incidence. The trends in ovarian cancer incidence coincided with temporal changes in the exposure of women from different birth cohorts to various reproductive risk factors, in particular, to changes in the use of the oral contraceptive pill and to declining parity. Based on recent changes in risk factor propensity, we predict that the trend of the declining age-adjusted incidence rate of ovarian cancer in the United States will reverse and rates will increase in coming years. PMID:26080287

  6. Mortality Rates during Cholera Epidemic, Haiti, 2010-2011.

    PubMed

    Luquero, Francisco J; Rondy, Marc; Boncy, Jacques; Munger, André; Mekaoui, Helmi; Rymshaw, Ellen; Page, Anne-Laure; Toure, Brahima; Degail, Marie Amelie; Nicolas, Sarala; Grandesso, Francesco; Ginsbourger, Maud; Polonsky, Jonathan; Alberti, Kathryn P; Terzian, Mego; Olson, David; Porten, Klaudia; Ciglenecki, Iza

    2016-03-01

    The 2010 cholera epidemic in Haiti was one of the largest cholera epidemics ever recorded. To estimate the magnitude of the death toll during the first wave of the epidemic, we retrospectively conducted surveys at 4 sites in the northern part of Haiti. Overall, 70,903 participants were included; at all sites, the crude mortality rates (19.1-35.4 deaths/1,000 person-years) were higher than the expected baseline mortality rate for Haiti (9 deaths/1,000 person-years). This finding represents an excess of 3,406 deaths (2.9-fold increase) for the 4.4% of the Haiti population covered by these surveys, suggesting a substantially higher cholera mortality rate than previously reported. PMID:26886511

  7. Mortality Rates during Cholera Epidemic, Haiti, 2010–2011

    PubMed Central

    Rondy, Marc; Boncy, Jacques; Munger, André; Mekaoui, Helmi; Rymshaw, Ellen; Page, Anne-Laure; Toure, Brahima; Degail, Marie Amelie; Nicolas, Sarala; Grandesso, Francesco; Ginsbourger, Maud; Polonsky, Jonathan; Alberti, Kathryn P.; Terzian, Mego; Olson, David; Porten, Klaudia; Ciglenecki, Iza

    2016-01-01

    The 2010 cholera epidemic in Haiti was one of the largest cholera epidemics ever recorded. To estimate the magnitude of the death toll during the first wave of the epidemic, we retrospectively conducted surveys at 4 sites in the northern part of Haiti. Overall, 70,903 participants were included; at all sites, the crude mortality rates (19.1–35.4 deaths/1,000 person-years) were higher than the expected baseline mortality rate for Haiti (9 deaths/1,000 person-years). This finding represents an excess of 3,406 deaths (2.9-fold increase) for the 4.4% of the Haiti population covered by these surveys, suggesting a substantially higher cholera mortality rate than previously reported. PMID:26886511

  8. Benchmarking clinical practice in surgery: looking beyond traditional mortality rates.

    PubMed

    Castro, Ricardo A S; Oliveira, Pedro N; Silva Portela, Conceição; Camanho, Ana S; Queiroz e Melo, João

    2015-12-01

    This paper proposes two new measures to assess performance of surgical practice based on observed mortality: reliability, measured as the area under the ROC curve and a living score, the sum of individual risk among surviving patients, divided by the total number of patients. A Monte Carlo simulation of surgeons' practice was used for conceptual validation and an analysis of a real-world hospital department was used for managerial validation. We modelled surgical practice as a bivariate distribution function of risk and final state. We sampled 250 distributions, varying the maximum risk each surgeon faced, the distribution of risk among dead patients, the mortality rate and the number of surgeries performed yearly. We applied the measures developed to a Portuguese cardiothoracic department. We found that the joint use of the reliability and living score measures overcomes the limitations of risk adjusted mortality rates, as it enables a different valuation of deaths, according to their risk levels. Reliability favours surgeons with casualties, predominantly, in high values of risk and penalizes surgeons with deaths in relatively low levels of risk. The living score is positively influenced by the maximum risk for which a surgeon yields surviving patients. These measures enable a deeper understanding of surgical practice and, as risk adjusted mortality rates, they rely only on mortality and risk scores data. The case study revealed that the performance of the department analysed could be improved with enhanced policies of risk management, involving the assignment of surgeries based on surgeon's reliability and living score. PMID:24633958

  9. Alcohol availability and cirrhosis mortality rates by gender and race.

    PubMed Central

    Colón, I

    1981-01-01

    This study test whether the availability of alcoholic beverages is a simple integrated dimension as implied by certain policy models and in its treatment by researchers. Factor analysis reveals two independent availability factors: on-premise and retail availability. A correlation analysis found that on-premise availability was related to cirrhosis mortality rates for the total population, White males, non-White males, and White females. It was not related to non-White female cirrhosis mortality. In contrast, retail availability was not related to any of cirrhosis mortality rates. Examination of the states with extremes of high and low on-premise availability indicates that this type of availability is not a manipulable control variable but an index of extant norms toward drinking. It is recommended that differential prevention strategies be adopted rather than a uniform policy prevention model. PMID:7315996

  10. Sensitivity to relative reinforcer rate in concurrent schedules: independence from relative and absolute reinforcer duration.

    PubMed Central

    McLean, A P; Blampied, N M

    2001-01-01

    Twelve pigeons responded on two keys under concurrent variable-interval (VI) schedules. Over several series of conditions, relative and absolute magnitudes of reinforcement were varied. Within each series, relative rate of reinforcement was varied and sensitivity of behavior ratios to reinforcer-rate ratios was assessed. When responding at both alternatives was maintained by equal-sized small reinforcers, sensitivity to variation in reinforcer-rate ratios was the same as when large reinforcers were used. This result was observed when the overall rate of reinforcement was constant over conditions, and also in another series of concurrent schedules in which one schedule was kept constant at VI ached 120 s. Similarly, reinforcer magnitude did not affect the rate at which response allocation approached asymptote within a condition. When reinforcer magnitudes differred between the two responses and reinforcer-rate ratios were varied, sensitivity of behavior allocation was unaffected although response bias favored the schedule that arranged the larger reinforcers. Analysis of absolute response rates ratio sensitivity to reinforcement occurrred on the two keys showed that this invariance of response despite changes in reinforcement interaction that were observed in absolute response rates on the constant VI 120-s schedule. Response rate on the constant VI 120-s schedule was inversely related to reinforcer rate on the varied key and the strength of this relation depended on the relative magnitude of reinforcers arranged on varied key. Independence of sensitivity to reinforcer-rate ratios from relative and absolute reinforcer magnitude is consistent with the relativity and independence assumtions of the matching law. PMID:11256865

  11. Absolute and Relative Reliability of Percentage of Syllables Stuttered and Severity Rating Scales

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Karimi, Hamid; O'Brian, Sue; Onslow, Mark; Jones, Mark

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: Percentage of syllables stuttered (%SS) and severity rating (SR) scales are measures in common use to quantify stuttering severity and its changes during basic and clinical research conditions. However, their reliability has not been assessed with indices measuring both relative and absolute reliability. This study was designed to provide…

  12. End of the Spectacular Decrease in Fall-Related Mortality Rate: Men Are Catching Up

    PubMed Central

    Hartholt, Klaas A.; Polinder, Suzanne; van Beeck, Ed F.; van der Velde, Nathalie; van Lieshout, Esther M. M.; Patka, Peter

    2012-01-01

    Objectives. We determined time trends in numbers and rates of fall-related mortality in an aging population, for men and women. Methods. We performed secular trend analysis of fall-related deaths in the older Dutch population (persons aged 65 years or older) from 1969 to 2008, using the national Official-Cause-of-Death-Statistics. Results. Between 1969 and 2008, the age-adjusted fall-related mortality rate decreased from 202.1 to 66.7 per 100 000 older persons (decrease of 67%). However, the annual percentage change (change per year) in mortality rates was not constant, and could be divided into 3 phases: (1) a rapid decrease until the mid-1980s (men −4.1%; 95% confidence interval [CI] = −4.9, −3.2; women −6.5%; 95% CI, −7.1, −5.9), (2) flattening of the decrease until the mid-1990s (men −1.4%; 95% CI = −2.4, −0.4; women −2.0%; 95% CI = −3.4, −0.6), and (3) stable mortality rates for women (0.0%; 95% CI = −1.2, 1.3) and rising rates for men (1.9%; 95% CI = 0.6, 3.2) over the last decade. Conclusions. The spectacular decrease in fall-related mortality ended in the mid-1990s and is currently increasing in older men at similar rates to those seen in women. Because of the aging society, absolute numbers in fall-related deaths are increasing rapidly. PMID:22401528

  13. Mortality and implant revision rates of hip arthroplasty in patients with osteoarthritis: registry based cohort study

    PubMed Central

    McMinn, D J W; Snell, K I E; Daniel, J; Treacy, R B C; Pynsent, P B

    2012-01-01

    Objectives To examine mortality and revision rates among patients with osteoarthritis undergoing hip arthroplasty and to compare these rates between patients undergoing cemented or uncemented procedures and to compare outcomes between men undergoing stemmed total hip replacements and Birmingham hip resurfacing. Design Cohort study. Setting National Joint Registry. Population About 275 000 patient records. Main outcome measures Hip arthroplasty procedures were linked to the time to any subsequent mortality or revision (implant failure). Flexible parametric survival analysis methods were used to analyse time to mortality and also time to revision. Comparisons between procedure groups were adjusted for age, sex, American Society of Anesthesiologists (ASA) grade, and complexity. Results As there were large baseline differences in the characteristics of patients receiving cemented, uncemented, or resurfacing procedures, unadjusted comparisons are inappropriate. Multivariable survival analyses identified a higher mortality rate for patients undergoing cemented compared with uncemented total hip replacement (adjusted hazard ratio 1.11, 95% confidence interval 1.07 to 1.16); conversely, there was a lower revision rate with cemented procedures (0.53, 0.50 to 0.57). These translate to small predicted differences in population averaged absolute survival probability at all time points. For example, compared with the uncemented group, at eight years after surgery the predicted probability of death in the cemented group was 0.013 higher (0.007 to 0.019) and the predicted probability of revision was 0.015 lower (0.012 to 0.017). In multivariable analyses restricted to men, there was a higher mortality rate in the cemented group and the uncemented group compared with the Birmingham hip resurfacing group. In terms of revision, the Birmingham hip resurfacings had a similar revision rate to uncemented total hip replacements. Both uncemented total hip replacements and Birmingham hip

  14. Are infant mortality rate declines exponential? The general pattern of 20th century infant mortality rate decline

    PubMed Central

    Bishai, David; Opuni, Marjorie

    2009-01-01

    Background Time trends in infant mortality for the 20th century show a curvilinear pattern that most demographers have assumed to be approximately exponential. Virtually all cross-country comparisons and time series analyses of infant mortality have studied the logarithm of infant mortality to account for the curvilinear time trend. However, there is no evidence that the log transform is the best fit for infant mortality time trends. Methods We use maximum likelihood methods to determine the best transformation to fit time trends in infant mortality reduction in the 20th century and to assess the importance of the proper transformation in identifying the relationship between infant mortality and gross domestic product (GDP) per capita. We apply the Box Cox transform to infant mortality rate (IMR) time series from 18 countries to identify the best fitting value of lambda for each country and for the pooled sample. For each country, we test the value of λ against the null that λ = 0 (logarithmic model) and against the null that λ = 1 (linear model). We then demonstrate the importance of selecting the proper transformation by comparing regressions of ln(IMR) on same year GDP per capita against Box Cox transformed models. Results Based on chi-squared test statistics, infant mortality decline is best described as an exponential decline only for the United States. For the remaining 17 countries we study, IMR decline is neither best modelled as logarithmic nor as a linear process. Imposing a logarithmic transform on IMR can lead to bias in fitting the relationship between IMR and GDP per capita. Conclusion The assumption that IMR declines are exponential is enshrined in the Preston curve and in nearly all cross-country as well as time series analyses of IMR data since Preston's 1975 paper, but this assumption is seldom correct. Statistical analyses of IMR trends should assess the robustness of findings to transformations other than the log transform. PMID:19698144

  15. FFTF (Fast Flux Test Facility) Reactor Characterization Program: Absolute Fission-rate Measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Fuller, J.L.; Gilliam, D.M.; Grundl, J.A.; Rawlins, J.A.; Daughtry, J.W.

    1981-05-01

    Absolute fission rate measurements using modified National Bureau of Standards fission chambers were performed in the Fast Flux Test Facility at two core locations for isotopic deposits of {sup 232}Th, {sup 233}U, {sup 235}U, {sup 238}U, {sup 237}Np, {sup 239}Pu, {sup 240}Pu, and {sup 241}Pu. Monitor chamber results at a third location were analyzed to support other experiments involving passive dosimeter fission rate determinations.

  16. FFTF (FAST FLUX TEST FACILITY) REACTOR CHARACTERIZATION PROGRAM ABSOLUTE FISSION RATE MEASUREMENTS

    SciTech Connect

    FULLER JL; GILLIAM DM; GRUNDL JA; RAWLINS JA; DAUGHTRY JW

    1981-05-01

    Absolute fission rate measurements using modified National Bureau of Standards fission chambers were performed in the Fast Flux Test Facility at two core locations for isotopic deposits of {sup 232}Th, {sup 233}U, {sup 235}U, {sup 238}U, {sup 237}Np, {sup 239}Pu, {sup 240}Pu, and {sup 241}Pu. Monitor chamber results at a third location were analyzed to support other experiments involving passive dosimeter fission rate determinations.

  17. Infectious Disease Mortality Rates, Thailand, 1958–2009

    PubMed Central

    McCarron, Margaret; Lertiendumrong, Jongkol; Olsen, Sonja J.; Bundhamcharoen, Kanitta

    2012-01-01

    To better define infectious diseases of concern in Thailand, trends in the mortality rate during 1958–2009 were analyzed by using data from public health statistics reports. From 1958 to the mid-1990s, the rate of infectious disease–associated deaths declined 5-fold (from 163.4 deaths/100,000 population in 1958 to 29.5/100,000 in 1997). This average annual reduction of 3.2 deaths/100,000 population was largely attributed to declines in deaths related to malaria, tuberculosis, pneumonia, and gastrointestinal infections. However, during 1998–2003, the mortality rate increased (peak of 70.0 deaths/100,000 population in 2003), coinciding with increases in mortality rate from AIDS, tuberculosis, and pneumonia. During 2004–2009, the rate declined to 41.0 deaths/100,000 population, coinciding with a decrease in AIDS-related deaths. The emergence of AIDS and the increase in tuberculosis- and pneumonia-related deaths in the late twentieth century emphasize the need to direct resources and efforts to the control of emerging and re-emerging infectious diseases. PMID:23092558

  18. Suicide mortality rates in Louisiana, 1999-2010.

    PubMed

    Straif-Bourgeois, Susanne; Ratard, Raoult

    2012-01-01

    This report is a descriptive study on suicide deaths in Louisiana occurring in the years 1999 to 2010. Mortality data was collected from death certificates from this 12-year period to describe suicide mortality by year, race, sex, age group, and methods of suicide. Data were also compared to national data. Rates and methods used to commit suicide vary greatly according to sex, race, and age. The highest rates were observed in white males, followed by black males, white females, and black females. Older white males had the highest suicide rates. The influence of age was modulated by the sex and race categories. Firearm was the most common method used in all four categories. Other less common methods were hanging/strangulation/suffocation (HSS) and drugs/alcohol. Although no parish-level data were systematically analyzed, a comparison of suicide rates post-Katrina versus pre-Katrina was done for Orleans Parish, the rest of the Greater New Orleans area, and a comparison group. It appears that rates observed among whites, particularly males, were higher after Katrina. Data based on mortality do not give a comprehensive picture of the burden of suicide, and their interpretation should be done with caution. PMID:23362593

  19. Effective light absorption and absolute electron transport rates in the coral Pocillopora damicornis.

    PubMed

    Szabó, Milán; Wangpraseurt, Daniel; Tamburic, Bojan; Larkum, Anthony W D; Schreiber, Ulrich; Suggett, David J; Kühl, Michael; Ralph, Peter J

    2014-10-01

    Pulse Amplitude Modulation (PAM) fluorometry has been widely used to estimate the relative photosynthetic efficiency of corals. However, both the optical properties of intact corals as well as past technical constrains to PAM fluorometers have prevented calculations of the electron turnover rate of PSII. We used a new Multi-colour PAM (MC-PAM) in parallel with light microsensors to determine for the first time the wavelength-specific effective absorption cross-section of PSII photochemistry, σII(λ), and thus PAM-based absolute electron transport rates of the coral photosymbiont Symbiodinium both in culture and in hospite in the coral Pocillopora damicornis. In both cases, σII of Symbiodinium was highest in the blue spectral region and showed a progressive decrease towards red wavelengths. Absolute values for σII at 440 nm were up to 1.5-times higher in culture than in hospite. Scalar irradiance within the living coral tissue was reduced by 20% in the blue when compared to the incident downwelling irradiance. Absolute electron transport rates of P. damicornis at 440 nm revealed a maximum PSII turnover rate of ca. 250 electrons PSII(-1) s(-1), consistent with one PSII turnover for every 4 photons absorbed by PSII; this likely reflects the limiting steps in electron transfer between PSII and PSI. Our results show that optical properties of the coral host strongly affect light use efficiency of Symbiodinium. Therefore, relative electron transport rates do not reflect the productivity rates (or indeed how the photosynthesis-light response is parameterised). Here we provide a non-invasive approach to estimate absolute electron transport rates in corals. PMID:25146689

  20. 29 CFR Appendix A to Part 4044 - Mortality Rate Tables

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ....500000 115 0.500000 116 0.500000 117 0.500000 118 0.500000 119 0.500000 120 1.000000 Table 4—Projection... 1994, when using Table 1 or Table 3) will not survive to attain age x + 1. The projection scales in this appendix set forth for each age x the annual reduction AAX in the mortality rate at age x. Table...

  1. 29 CFR Appendix A to Part 4044 - Mortality Rate Tables

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ....500000 115 0.500000 116 0.500000 117 0.500000 118 0.500000 119 0.500000 120 1.000000 Table 4—Projection... 1994, when using Table 1 or Table 3) will not survive to attain age x + 1. The projection scales in this appendix set forth for each age x the annual reduction AAX in the mortality rate at age x. Table...

  2. Absolute rate of the reaction of hydrogen atoms with ozone from 219-360 K

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, J. H.; Michael, J. V.; Payne, W. A.; Stief, L. J.

    1978-01-01

    Absolute rate constants for the reaction of atomic hydrogen with ozone were obtained over the temperature range 219-360 K by the flash photolysis-resonance fluorescence technique. The results can be expressed in Arrhenius form by K = (1.33 plus or minus 0.32)x10 to the minus 10 power exp (-449 plus or minus 58/T) cu cm/molecule/s (two standard deviations). The present work is compared to two previous determinations and is discussed theoretically.

  3. Absolute Density Calibration Cell for Laser Induced Fluorescence Erosion Rate Measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Domonkos, Matthew T.; Stevens, Richard E.

    2001-01-01

    Flight qualification of ion thrusters typically requires testing on the order of 10,000 hours. Extensive knowledge of wear mechanisms and rates is necessary to establish design confidence prior to long duration tests. Consequently, real-time erosion rate measurements offer the potential both to reduce development costs and to enhance knowledge of the dependency of component wear on operating conditions. Several previous studies have used laser-induced fluorescence (LIF) to measure real-time, in situ erosion rates of ion thruster accelerator grids. Those studies provided only relative measurements of the erosion rate. In the present investigation, a molybdenum tube was resistively heated such that the evaporation rate yielded densities within the tube on the order of those expected from accelerator grid erosion. This work examines the suitability of the density cell as an absolute calibration source for LIF measurements, and the intrinsic error was evaluated.

  4. Partitioning loss rates of early juvenile blue crabs from seagrass habitats into mortality and emigration

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Etherington, L.L.; Eggleston, D.B.; Stockhausen, W.T.

    2003-01-01

    in which crab loss from seagrass due to mortality was greater than losses due to emigration was not significantly different from 50%. Thus, mortality and emigration appear to contribute equally to juvenile loss in seagrass habitats. The difference in magnitude (absolute amount of loss) between mean emigration and mean mortality varied between size classes, such that differences between emigration and mortality were relatively small for J1-J2 crabs, but much larger for J3-J5 crabs. Further, mortality rates were density-dependent for J3-J5 juvenile stages but not for J1-J2 crabs, whereas emigration was inversely density-dependent among J3-J5 stages but not for J1-J2 instars. The co-dependency of mortality and emigration suggests that the loss term (emigration or mortality) which has the relatively stronger contribution to total loss may dictate the patterns of loss under different conditions. For older juveniles (J3-J5), emigration may only have a large impact on juvenile loss where densities are low, since the contribution of mortality appears to be much greater than emigration at high densities. The size-specific pattern of density-dependent mortality supports the notion of an ontogenetic habitat shift by early juvenile blue crabs from seagrass to unvegetated habitats, since larger individuals may experience increased mortality at high densities within seagrass beds. Qualitative comparisons between this study and a concurrent study of planktonic emigration of J1-J5 blue crabs (Blackmon and Eggleston, 2001) suggests that benthic emigration among J1-J2 blue crabs was greater than planktonic emigration; for J3-J5 stages benthic and planktonic emigration were nearly equal. This study demonstrates the potentially large role of emigration in recruitment processes and patterns of early juvenile blue crabs, and illustrates how juvenile size, juvenile density, and time of day can affect mortality and emigration rates as well as total loss and colonization. The components of

  5. Dietary restriction of rodents decreases aging rate without affecting initial mortality rate -- a meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Simons, Mirre J P; Koch, Wouter; Verhulst, Simon

    2013-06-01

    Dietary restriction (DR) extends lifespan in multiple species from various taxa. This effect can arise via two distinct but not mutually exclusive ways: a change in aging rate and/or vulnerability to the aging process (i.e. initial mortality rate). When DR affects vulnerability, this lowers mortality instantly, whereas a change in aging rate will gradually lower mortality risk over time. Unraveling how DR extends lifespan is of interest because it may guide toward understanding the mechanism(s) mediating lifespan extension and also has practical implications for the application of DR. We reanalyzed published survival data from 82 pairs of survival curves from DR experiments in rats and mice by fitting Gompertz and also Gompertz-Makeham models. The addition of the Makeham parameter has been reported to improve the estimation of Gompertz parameters. Both models separate initial mortality rate (vulnerability) from an age-dependent increase in mortality (aging rate). We subjected the obtained Gompertz parameters to a meta-analysis. We find that DR reduced aging rate without affecting vulnerability. The latter contrasts with the conclusion of a recent analysis of a largely overlapping data set, and we show how the earlier finding is due to a statistical artifact. Our analysis indicates that the biology underlying the life-extending effect of DR in rodents likely involves attenuated accumulation of damage, which contrasts with the acute effect of DR on mortality reported for Drosophila. Moreover, our findings show that the often-reported correlation between aging rate and vulnerability does not constrain changing aging rate without affecting vulnerability simultaneously. PMID:23438200

  6. Disentangling Effects of Vector Birth Rate, Mortality Rate, and Abundance on Spread of Plant Pathogens.

    PubMed

    Sisterson, Mark S; Stenger, Drake C

    2016-04-01

    Models on the spread of insect-transmitted plant pathogens often fix vector population size by assuming that deaths are offset by births. Although such mathematical simplifications are often justified, deemphasizing parameters that govern vector population size is problematic, as reproductive biology and mortality schedules of vectors of plant pathogens receive little empirical attention. Here, the importance of explicitly including parameters for vector birth and death rates was evaluated by comparing results from models with fixed vector population size with models with logistic vector population growth. In fixed vector population size models, increasing vector mortality decreased percentage of inoculative vectors, but had no effect on vector population size, as deaths were offset by births. In models with logistic vector population growth, increasing vector mortality decreased percentage of inoculative vectors and decreased vector population size. Consequently, vector mortality had a greater effect on pathogen spread in models with logistic vector population growth than in models with fixed vector population size. Further, in models with logistic vector population growth, magnitude of vector birth rate determined time required for vector populations to reach large size, thereby determining when pathogen spread occurred quickly. Assumptions regarding timing of vector mortality within a time step also affected model outcome. A greater emphasis of vector entomologists on studying reproductive biology and mortality schedules of insect species that transmit plant pathogens will facilitate identification of conditions associated with rapid growth of vector populations and could lead to development of novel control strategies. PMID:26637536

  7. Absolute rate parameters for the reaction of atomic hydrogen with hydrazine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stief, L. J.; Payne, W. A.

    1976-01-01

    Absolute rate parameters for the reaction of atomic hydrogen with hydrazine H + N2H4 yields H2 + N2H3 have been determined in a direct manner using flash photolysis of dilute mixtures of hydrazine in helium and time dependent observation of H via resonance fluorescence. By measuring the H-atom decay under pseudo-first-order conditions, the bimolecular rate constant K sub 1 was obtained over the temperature range 228-400 K. The data were fitted with good linearity to the Arrhenius expression K sub 1 = (9.87 plus or minus 1.17) x 10 to the -12th exp(-2380 plus or minus 100/RT) cu cm/molecule/s. The data were shown to be free of any contributions from secondary reactions involving H as a reactant or product.

  8. Membrane electroporation: The absolute rate equation and nanosecond time scale pore creation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vasilkoski, Zlatko; Esser, Axel T.; Gowrishankar, T. R.; Weaver, James C.

    2006-08-01

    The recent applications of nanosecond, megavolt-per-meter electric field pulses to biological systems show striking cellular and subcellular electric field induced effects and revive the interest in the biophysical mechanism of electroporation. We first show that the absolute rate theory, with experimentally based parameter input, is consistent with membrane pore creation on a nanosecond time scale. Secondly we use a Smoluchowski equation-based model to formulate a self-consistent theoretical approach. The analysis is carried out for a planar cell membrane patch exposed to a 10ns trapezoidal pulse with 1.5ns rise and fall times. Results demonstrate reversible supraelectroporation behavior in terms of transmembrane voltage, pore density, membrane conductance, fractional aqueous area, pore distribution, and average pore radius. We further motivate and justify the use of Krassowska’s asymptotic electroporation model for analyzing nanosecond pulses, showing that pore creation dominates the electrical response and that pore expansion is a negligible effect on this time scale.

  9. Differences between Older Men and Women in the Self-Rated Health-Mortality Relationship

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bath, Peter A.

    2003-01-01

    Purpose: The aims of this study were to examine differences between older men and women: (a) in the ability of self-rated health to predict mortality, (b) in the effect of different follow-up periods on the self-rated health mortality relationship, and (c) in the relative importance of self-rated health and self-rated change in health in…

  10. Effects of type of ownership of skilled nursing facilities on residents' mortality rates in Illinois.

    PubMed

    Bell, R; Krivich, M

    1990-01-01

    The effect of ownership on the quality and cost of care in skilled nursing facilities (SNFs) was examined using unadjusted and adjusted mortality rates for such facilities in Illinois for the 1986-87 reporting year. Results indicated that when using unadjusted mortality rates, for-profit facilities had much lower rates than either government-owned or nonprofit SNFs. When mortality rates were adjusted, using available measures of intervening variables, differences by type of ownership disappeared. The higher percentage of discharges to general hospitals exhibited by for-profit facilities, compared with other types of facility ownership, appears to have the strongest effect on SNF mortality rates. PMID:2120730

  11. Causes and rates of mortality of swift foxes in western Kansas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sovada, M.A.; Roy, C.C.; Bright, J.B.; Gillis, J.R.

    1998-01-01

    Knowledge of mortality factors is important for developing strategies to conserve the swift fox (Vulpes velox), a species being considered for listing under the Endangered Species Act, but available information about swift fox mortality is inadequate. We used radiotelemetry techniques to examine the magnitude and causes of mortality of swift fox populations in 2 study areas in western Kansas. One study area was predominantly cropland, the other rangeland. Mortality rates, calculated using Kaplan-Meier estimation techniques in a staggered entry design, were 0.55 ?? 0.08 (5 ?? SE) for adult and 0.67 ?? 0.08 for juvenile swift foxes. We did not detect differences between study areas in mortality rates for adults or juveniles. Predation by coyotes (Canis latrans) was the major cause of mortality for adult and juvenile swift foxes in both study areas, and vehicle collision was an important mortality factor for juveniles in the cropland study area. No mortality was attributed to starvation or disease.

  12. Subjective evaluation of HDTV stereoscopic videos in IPTV scenarios using absolute category rating

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, K.; Barkowsky, M.; Cousseau, R.; Brunnström, K.; Olsson, R.; Le Callet, P.; Sjöström, M.

    2011-03-01

    Broadcasting of high definition (HD) stereobased 3D (S3D) TV are planned, or has already begun, in Europe, the US, and Japan. Specific data processing operations such as compression and temporal and spatial resampling are commonly used tools for saving network bandwidth when IPTV is the distribution form, as this results in more efficient recording and transmission of 3DTV signals, however at the same time it inevitably brings quality degradations to the processed video. This paper investigated observers quality judgments of state of the art video coding schemes (simulcast H.264/AVC or H.264/MVC), with or without added temporal and spatial resolution reduction of S3D videos, by subjective experiments using the Absolute Category Rating method (ACR) method. The results showed that a certain spatial resolution reduction working together with high quality video compressing was the most bandwidth efficient way of processing video data when the required video quality is to be judged as "good" quality. As the subjective experiment was performed in two different laboratories in two different countries in parallel, a detailed analysis of the interlab differences was performed.

  13. Causes and implications of the correlation between forest productivity and tree mortality rates

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stephenson, Nathan L.; van Mantgem, Philip J.; Bunn, Andrew G.; Bruner, Howard; Harmon, Mark E.; O'Connell, Kari B.; Urban, Dean L.; Franklin, Jerry F.

    2011-01-01

    For only one of these four mechanisms, competition, can high mortality rates be considered to be a relatively direct consequence of high NPP. The remaining mechanisms force us to adopt a different view of causality, in which tree growth rates and probability of mortality can vary with at least a degree of independence along productivity gradients. In many cases, rather than being a direct cause of high mortality rates, NPP may remain high in spite of high mortality rates. The independent influence of plant enemies and other factors helps explain why forest biomass can show little correlation, or even negative correlation, with forest NPP.

  14. Child Mortality Estimation: Consistency of Under-Five Mortality Rate Estimates Using Full Birth Histories and Summary Birth Histories

    PubMed Central

    Silva, Romesh

    2012-01-01

    Background Given the lack of complete vital registration data in most developing countries, for many countries it is not possible to accurately estimate under-five mortality rates from vital registration systems. Heavy reliance is often placed on direct and indirect methods for analyzing data collected from birth histories to estimate under-five mortality rates. Yet few systematic comparisons of these methods have been undertaken. This paper investigates whether analysts should use both direct and indirect estimates from full birth histories, and under what circumstances indirect estimates derived from summary birth histories should be used. Methods and Findings Usings Demographic and Health Surveys data from West Africa, East Africa, Latin America, and South/Southeast Asia, I quantify the differences between direct and indirect estimates of under-five mortality rates, analyze data quality issues, note the relative effects of these issues, and test whether these issues explain the observed differences. I find that indirect estimates are generally consistent with direct estimates, after adjustment for fertility change and birth transference, but don't add substantial additional insight beyond direct estimates. However, choice of direct or indirect method was found to be important in terms of both the adjustment for data errors and the assumptions made about fertility. Conclusions Although adjusted indirect estimates are generally consistent with adjusted direct estimates, some notable inconsistencies were observed for countries that had experienced either a political or economic crisis or stalled health transition in their recent past. This result suggests that when a population has experienced a smooth mortality decline or only short periods of excess mortality, both adjusted methods perform equally well. However, the observed inconsistencies identified suggest that the indirect method is particularly prone to bias resulting from violations of its strong

  15. Simultaneous estimation of lithospheric uplift rates and absolute sea level change in southwest Scandinavia from inversion of sea level data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nielsen, Lars; Hansen, Jens Morten; Hede, Mikkel Ulfeldt; Clemmensen, Lars B.; Pejrup, Morten; Noe-Nygaard, Nanna

    2014-11-01

    Relative sea level curves contain coupled information about absolute sea level change and vertical lithospheric movement. Such curves may be constructed based on, for example tide gauge data for the most recent times and different types of geological data for ancient times. Correct account for vertical lithospheric movement is essential for estimation of reliable values of absolute sea level change from relative sea level data and vise versa. For modern times, estimates of vertical lithospheric movement may be constrained by data (e.g. GPS-based measurements), which are independent from the relative sea level data. Similar independent data do not exist for ancient times. The purpose of this study is to test two simple inversion approaches for simultaneous estimation of lithospheric uplift rates and absolute sea level change rates for ancient times in areas where a dense coverage of relative sea level data exists and well-constrained average lithospheric movement values are known from, for example glacial isostatic adjustment (GIA) models. The inversion approaches are tested and used for simultaneous estimation of lithospheric uplift rates and absolute sea level change rates in southwest Scandinavia from modern relative sea level data series that cover the period from 1900 to 2000. In both approaches, a priori information is required to solve the inverse problem. A priori information about the average vertical lithospheric movement in the area of interest is critical for the quality of the obtained results. The two tested inversion schemes result in estimated absolute sea level rise of ˜1.2/1.3 mm yr-1 and vertical uplift rates ranging from approximately -1.4/-1.2 mm yr-1 (subsidence) to about 5.0/5.2 mm yr-1 if an a priori value of 1 mm yr-1 is used for the vertical lithospheric movement throughout the study area. In case the studied time interval is broken into two time intervals (before and after 1970), absolute sea level rise values of ˜0.8/1.2 mm yr-1 (before

  16. Contribution of Climate and Air Pollution to Variation in Coronary Heart Disease Mortality Rates in England

    PubMed Central

    Scarborough, Peter; Allender, Steven; Rayner, Mike; Goldacre, Michael

    2012-01-01

    There are substantial geographic variations in coronary heart disease (CHD) mortality rates in England that may in part be due to differences in climate and air pollution. An ecological cross-sectional multi-level analysis of male and female CHD mortality rates in all wards in England (1999–2004) was conducted to estimate the relative strength of the association between CHD mortality rates and three aspects of the physical environment - temperature, hours of sunshine and air quality. Models were adjusted for deprivation, an index measuring the healthiness of the lifestyle of populations, and urbanicity. In the fully adjusted model, air quality was not significantly associated with CHD mortality rates, but temperature and sunshine were both significantly negatively associated (p<0.05), suggesting that CHD mortality rates were higher in areas with lower average temperature and hours of sunshine. After adjustment for the unhealthy lifestyle of populations and deprivation, the climate variables explained at least 15% of large scale variation in CHD mortality rates. The results suggest that the climate has a small but significant independent association with CHD mortality rates in England. PMID:22427884

  17. Occupational injury mortality rates in the United States: changes from 1980 to 1989.

    PubMed

    Stout, N A; Jenkins, E L; Pizatella, T J

    1996-01-01

    Changes in occupational injury mortality rates over the 1980s were examined through analysis of the National Traumatic Occupational Fatalities surveillance system. The US occupational injury mortality rate decreased 37% over the decade, with decreases seen in nearly every demographic and employment sector. Greater declines were among men, Blacks, and younger workers, as well as among agricultural, trade, and service workers. Electrocutions, machine-related incidents, and homicides showed the greatest decreases. Changes in occupational mortality rates by demography, industry, and cause of death indicate the areas in which the most progress has been made and those that are prime targets for prevention efforts. PMID:8561247

  18. Women Chemists Mortality Study Finds High Suicide Rate.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chemical and Engineering News, 1984

    1984-01-01

    A study of white women members (N=347) of the American Chemical Society who died between 1925 and 1979 finds five times the expected rate of suicide, a higher risk for some forms of cancer, and a lower rate of heart disease. These and other findings are discussed. (JN)

  19. Captive Reptile Mortality Rates in the Home and Implications for the Wildlife Trade

    PubMed Central

    Robinson, Janine E.; St. John, Freya A. V.; Griffiths, Richard A.; Roberts, David L.

    2015-01-01

    The trade in wildlife and keeping of exotic pets is subject to varying levels of national and international regulation and is a topic often attracting controversy. Reptiles are popular exotic pets and comprise a substantial component of the live animal trade. High mortality of traded animals raises welfare concerns, and also has implications for conservation if collection from the wild is required to meet demand. Mortality of reptiles can occur at any stage of the trade chain from collector to consumer. However, there is limited information on mortality rates of reptiles across trade chains, particularly amongst final consumers in the home. We investigated mortality rates of reptiles amongst consumers using a specialised technique for asking sensitive questions, additive Randomised Response Technique (aRRT), as well as direct questioning (DQ). Overall, 3.6% of snakes, chelonians and lizards died within one year of acquisition. Boas and pythons had the lowest reported mortality rates of 1.9% and chameleons had the highest at 28.2%. More than 97% of snakes, 87% of lizards and 69% of chelonians acquired by respondents over five years were reported to be captive bred and results suggest that mortality rates may be lowest for captive bred individuals. Estimates of mortality from aRRT and DQ did not differ significantly which is in line with our findings that respondents did not find questions about reptile mortality to be sensitive. This research suggests that captive reptile mortality in the home is rather low, and identifies those taxa where further effort could be made to reduce mortality rates. PMID:26556237

  20. Rate of ESRD Exceeds Mortality among African Americans with Hypertensive Nephrosclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Xuelei; Wright, Jackson T.; Appel, Lawrence J.; Greene, Tom; Norris, Keith; Lewis, Julia

    2010-01-01

    In several studies, patients with CKD seemed to be at greater risk for dying from cardiovascular disease (CVD) than reaching ESRD. The purpose of this study was to compare incident ESRD rates with rates of total mortality, CVD death, and a CVD composite (CVD mortality and CVD hospitalization) among participants who had hypertensive nephrosclerosis and were enrolled in the African American Study of Kidney Disease and Hypertension (AASK). The study period included the AASK trial phase (1996 through 2001) and a subsequent cohort phase (2002 through 2007). The AASK enrolled 1094 participants. Of the 764 participants who completed the trial phase without an event, 691 (90%) enrolled in the cohort phase. During 11 years of follow-up, there were 59 CVD-related deaths and 118 non–CVD-related deaths. The rate of ESRD (3.9/100 patient-years) was significantly higher than the rates of total mortality (2.2/100 patient-years), CVD mortality (0.8/100 patient-years), and the CVD composite (3.2/100 patient-years). The incidence rate ratio of ESRD to CVD mortality was 5.0. The rate of ESRD consistently exceeded the various mortality rates across most of the subgroups defined by age, gender, income, education, previous CVD, baseline urine protein excretion, and baseline estimated GFR. In conclusion, AASK participants were more likely to reach ESRD than to die. PMID:20651163

  1. Rate and Time Trend of Perinatal, Infant, Maternal Mortality, Natality and Natural Population Growth in Kosovo

    PubMed Central

    Azemi, Mehmedali; Gashi, Sanije; Berisha, Majlinda; Kolgeci, Selim; Ismaili-Jaha, Vlora

    2012-01-01

    Aim: The aim of work has been the presentation of the rate and time trends of some indicators of the heath condition of mothers and children in Kosovo: fetal mortality, early neonatal mortality, perinatal mortality, infant mortality, natality, natural growth of population etc. The treated patients were the newborn and infants in the post neonatal period, women during their pregnancy and those 42 days before and after the delivery. Methods: The data were taken from: register of the patients treated in the Pediatric Clinic of Prishtina, World Health Organization, Mother and Child Health Care, Reproductive Health Care, Ministry of Health of the Republic of Kosovo, Statistical Department of Kosovo, the National Institute of Public Health and several academic texts in the field of pediatrics. Some indicators were analyzed in a period between year 1945-2010 and 1950-2010, whereas some others were analyzed in a time period between year 2000 and 2011. Results: The perinatal mortality rate in 2000 was 29.1‰, whereas in 2011 it was 18.7‰. The fetal mortality rate was 14.5‰ during the year 2000, whereas in 2011 it was 11.0‰, in 2000 the early neonatal mortality was 14.8‰, in 2011 it was 7.5‰. The infant mortality in Kosovo was 164‰ in 1950, whereas in 2010 it was 20.5‰. The most frequent causes of infant mortality have been: lower respiratory tract infections, acute infective diarrhea, perinatal causes, congenital malformations and unclassified conditions. Maternal death rate varied during this time period. Maternal death in 2000 was 23 whereas in 2010 only two cases were reported. Regarding the natality, in 1950 it reached 46.1 ‰, whereas in 2010 it reached 14‰, natural growth of population rate in Kosovo was 29.1‰ in 1950, whereas in 2011 it was 11.0‰. Conclusion: Perinatal mortality rate in Kosovo is still high in comparison with other European countries (Turkey and Kyrgyzstan have the highest perinatal mortality rate), even though it is in a

  2. Understanding Racial and Ethnic Disparities in U.S. Infant Mortality Rates

    MedlinePlus

    ... specific infant mortality rates, by race and Hispanic origin of mother: United States, 2007 Gestational age (weeks) ... ethnic groups is higher than in other developed countries, all U.S. racial and ethnic groups might benefit ...

  3. Comparisons of prostate cancer mortality rates with dietary practices in the United States.

    PubMed

    Colli, Janet Laura; Colli, Albert

    2005-01-01

    From 1930 to 1992, prostate cancer mortality rates in the United States doubled and then declined somewhat until 2000. The objective of this study is to determine whether variations in prostate cancer mortality rates correlate with dietary changes that occurred over that period. Simple linear regression models were applied to age-adjusted prostate cancer mortality rates and per-capita consumption rates for 18 foods from 1930 to 2000. Correlation coefficients were calculated while comparing food consumption rates to prostate cancer mortality rates for the same year. Correlation coefficients were then recalculated when the prostate cancer mortality rates were compared with food consumption rates that occurred: 1 yr; 2 yr; 3 yr; and continuing in progression for 21 yr before the occurrence of the prostate cancer mortality. The largest positive correlation coefficients were associated with the consumption of: total meat (red meat, poultry and fish) (R = 0.83, T between 0 and 1); added fats and oils (R = 0.83, T = 21); ice cream (R = 0.83, T = 20); margarine (R = 0.81, T = 4); salad/cooking oil (R = 0.82, T between 3 and 4) and; vegetable shortening (R = 0.81, T between 1 and 2) where R is the correlation coefficient and T is the time in years between consumption and mortality. In conclusion, this study found strong positive correlations between prostate cancer mortality and the consumption of: total meat; added fats and oils, ice cream, salad/cooking oils, margarine, and vegetable shortening. The connection between total meat consumption and prostate cancer risk is consistent with previous studies in the literature. The link between salad/cooking oil consumption and prostate cancer risk may be consistent with past studies which suggest that mu-linolenic acid (a component of salad/cooking oils) is a suspected risk factor for prostate cancer. PMID:16301115

  4. Absolute rate constant of the reaction between chlorine /2P/ atoms and hydrogen peroxide from 298 to 424 K

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Keyser, L. F.

    1980-01-01

    The absolute rate constant of the reaction between chlorine (2P) atoms and hydrogen peroxide was determined from 298 to 424 K, using the discharge flow resonance fluorescence technique. Pseudo-first-order conditions were used with hydrogen peroxide in large excess. A fast flow-sampling procedure limited hydrogen peroxide decomposition to less than 5% over the temperature range studied. At 298 K, the rate constant is (4.1 plus or minus 0.2) x 10 to the minus 13th cu cm/molecule-sec.

  5. Exploring geographic variation in US mortality rates using a spatial Durbin approach

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Tse-Chuan; Noah, Aggie; Shoff, Carla

    2015-01-01

    Previous studies focused on identifying the determinants of mortality in US counties have examined the relationships between mortality and explanatory covariates within a county only, and have ignored the well-documented spatial dependence of mortality. We challenge earlier literature by arguing that the mortality rate of a certain county may also be associated with the features of its neighboring counties beyond its own features. Drawing from both the spillover (i.e., same direction effect) and social relativity (i.e., opposite direction effect) perspectives, our spatial Durbin modeling results indicate that both theoretical perspectives provide valuable frameworks to guide the modeling of mortality variation in US counties. Our empirical findings support that mortality rate of a certain county is associated with the features of its neighbors beyond its own features. Specifically, we found support for the spillover perspective in which the percentage of the Hispanic population, concentrated disadvantage, and the social capital of a specific county are negatively associated with the mortality rate in the specific county and also in neighboring counties. On the other hand, the following covariates fit the social relativity process: health insurance coverage, percentage of non-Hispanic other races, and income inequality. Their direction of the associations with mortality in the specific county is opposite to that of the relationships with mortality in neighboring counties. Methodologically, spatial Durbin modeling addresses the shortcomings of traditional analytic approaches used in ecological mortality research such as ordinary least squares, spatial error, and spatial lag regression. Our results produce new insights drawn from unbiased estimates. PMID:25642156

  6. [Survey of suicidal mortality rate in several districts of Sichuan province].

    PubMed

    Hu, Z; Liu, X; Huo, K; Zhang, W

    1992-09-01

    A survey of the suicidal mortality rates in two cities and six districts in Sichuan province was carried out from 1980 to 1988 by the authors. The average suicidal mortality rate (ASMR) in these districts from 1980 to 1988 was 15.5/10(5), and the population and suicidal mortality rate positively correlated, r = 0.53. The ASMR in the male was 14.9/10(5), in the female 17.1/10(5), in the urban area 9.4/10(5), in the rural area 21/10(5), and the ASMR in the urban area was higher than that in the rural area (P < 0.05). The peak age of suicidal mortality was around twenty years. PMID:1304550

  7. Absolute Rate Constants for the Reaction of OH with [|#11#|]Cyclopentane and Cycloheptane from 230-350 K

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dransfield, T. J.; Gennaco, M. M.; Huang, Y.; Hannun, R. A.

    2011-12-01

    We report absolute measurements of the rate constants of the reaction of hydroxyl radical (OH) with cyclopentane and cycloheptane in 6-8 Torr of nitrogen from 230-350 K using Harvard's High Pressure Flow System. Ethane's reactivity was simultaneously measured as a test of experimental performance. Hydroxyl concentrations were measured using Laser-Induced Fluorescence, and alkane concentrations were measured using Fourier-Transform Infrared Spectroscopy. Recent work on this flow system has suggested that cyclohexane has a significantly higher activation energy to reaction with OH than does cyclo-octane, a result which is not suggested by our understanding of hydrocarbon reactivity nor predicted by structure-activity relationships. This work examines the temperature dependent rates for two other similarly-sized cycloalkanes to determine whether they behave as cyclohexane or as cyclooctane. While several previous experiments have studied the reaction with cyclopentane, there is significant scatter in the room temperature rates, and only four absolute rate measurements are available at non-ambient temperatures. There are only two absolute rate measurements available for the reaction with cycloheptane; only one of these reports a temperature dependence, and that study is limited to temperatures above 298 K. Thus, this work significantly expands the available data set for both reactions. The data for the reactions of OH with ethane, cyclopentane, cyclohexane, and cycloheptane are all modeled using a simple Arrhenius fit, and also with a modified Arrhenius equation based on transition state theory, ignoring tunneling. Results from the latter fit indicate that the activation barriers for both title reactions are greater than that of OH + cyclo-octane. The measured activation energy for OH + cyclopentane actually exceeds that of OH + cyclohexane.

  8. Do intersections of mortality-rate and survival functions have significance?

    PubMed

    Hirsch, H R

    1995-01-01

    Common points of intersections have frequently been reported among members of families of linearized mortality-rate and survival functions. A general condition for the existence of such intersections is derived. It is shown that a common point of intersection between straight-line functions exists if and only if the intercepts of the functions are linearly related to their slopes. This slope-intercept condition is applied to a didactic model to illustrate its generality and to three models, the Gompertz-Makeham, the Weibull, and the logistic, which are often used in the analysis of mortality data. The slope-intercept condition for the Gompertz-Makeham mortality-rate model proves to be the well-known Strehler-Mildvan correlation. Families of mortality-rate functions or of the corresponding survival functions but not both may display common points of intersection. Differences between the ages at which survival functions intersect and those at which the associated mortality-rate functions intersect are calculated to be of the order of magnitude of 10 to 20 years. Survival function intersections lie close to the limit of human life span but often arise in consequence of unsupported extrapolations of data obtained at younger ages. These and other results lead to the conclusion that, in themselves, the intersections of survival and mortality-rate functions are not of great importance. To the extent that significance can be attributed to the intersections, it lies in the existence of linear relationships between their slopes and intercepts. PMID:8591809

  9. Mortality rates by occupation in Korea: a nationwide, 13-year follow-up study

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Hye-Eun; Kim, Hyoung-Ryoul; Chung, Yun Kyung; Kang, Seong-Kyu; Kim, Eun-A

    2016-01-01

    Objective The present study sought to identify inequalities in cause-specific mortality across different occupational groups in Korea. Methods The cohort included Korean workers enrolled in the national employment insurance programme between 1995 and 2000. Mortality was determined by matching death between 1995 and 2008 according to a nationwide registry of the Korea National Statistical Office. The cohort was divided into nine occupational groups according to the Korean Standard Occupational Classification (KSOC). Age-standardised mortality rates of each subcohort were calculated. Results The highest age-standardised mortality rate was identified in KSOC 6 (agricultural, forestry and fishery workers; male (M): 563.0 per 100 000, female (F): 206.0 per 100 000), followed by KSOC 9 (elementary occupations; M: 499.0, F: 163.4) and KSOC 8 (plant, machine operators and assemblers; M: 380.3, F: 157.8). The lowest rate occurred in KSOC 2 (professionals and related workers; M: 209.1, F: 93.3). Differences in mortality rates between KSOC 2 and KSOC 9 (M: 289.9, F: 70.1) and the rate ratio of KSCO9 to KSCO2 (M: 2.39, F: 1.75) were higher in men. The most prominent mortality rate difference was observed in external causes of death (M: 96.9, F: 21.6) and liver disease in men (38.3 per 100 000). Mental disease showed the highest rate ratio (M: 6.31, F: 13.00). Conclusions Substantial differences in mortality rates by occupation were identified. Main causes of death were injury, suicide and male liver disease. Development of policies to support occupations linked with a lower socioeconomic position should be prioritised. PMID:26920855

  10. Modelling small-area inequality in premature mortality using years of life lost rates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Congdon, Peter

    2013-04-01

    Analysis of premature mortality variations via standardized expected years of life lost (SEYLL) measures raises questions about suitable modelling for mortality data, especially when developing SEYLL profiles for areas with small populations. Existing fixed effects estimation methods take no account of correlations in mortality levels over ages, causes, socio-ethnic groups or areas. They also do not specify an underlying data generating process, or a likelihood model that can include trends or correlations, and are likely to produce unstable estimates for small-areas. An alternative strategy involves a fully specified data generation process, and a random effects model which "borrows strength" to produce stable SEYLL estimates, allowing for correlations between ages, areas and socio-ethnic groups. The resulting modelling strategy is applied to gender-specific differences in SEYLL rates in small-areas in NE London, and to cause-specific mortality for leading causes of premature mortality in these areas.

  11. Calculating the Rate of Senescence From Mortality Data: An Analysis of Data From the ERA-EDTA Registry.

    PubMed

    Koopman, Jacob J E; Rozing, Maarten P; Kramer, Anneke; Abad, José M; Finne, Patrik; Heaf, James G; Hoitsma, Andries J; De Meester, Johan M J; Palsson, Runolfur; Postorino, Maurizio; Ravani, Pietro; Wanner, Christoph; Jager, Kitty J; van Bodegom, David; Westendorp, Rudi G J

    2016-04-01

    The rate of senescence can be inferred from the acceleration by which mortality rates increase over age. Such a senescence rate is generally estimated from parameters of a mathematical model fitted to these mortality rates. However, such models have limitations and underlying assumptions. Notably, they do not fit mortality rates at young and old ages. Therefore, we developed a method to calculate senescence rates from the acceleration of mortality directly without modeling the mortality rates. We applied the different methods to age group-specific mortality data from the European Renal Association-European Dialysis and Transplant Association Registry, including patients with end-stage renal disease on dialysis, who are known to suffer from increased senescence rates (n = 302,455), and patients with a functioning kidney transplant (n = 74,490). From age 20 to 70, senescence rates were comparable when calculated with or without a model. However, when using non-modeled mortality rates, senescence rates were yielded at young and old ages that remained concealed when using modeled mortality rates. At young ages senescence rates were negative, while senescence rates declined at old ages. In conclusion, the rate of senescence can be calculated directly from non-modeled mortality rates, overcoming the disadvantages of an indirect estimation based on modeled mortality rates. PMID:25887122

  12. Growth rate predicts mortality of Abies concolor in both burned and unburned stands

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    van Mantgem, P.J.; Stephenson, N.L.; Mutch, L.S.; Johnson, V.G.; Esperanza, A.M.; Parsons, D.J.

    2003-01-01

    Tree mortality is often the result of both long-term and short-term stress. Growth rate, an indicator of long-term stress, is often used to estimate probability of death in unburned stands. In contrast, probability of death in burned stands is modeled as a function of short-term disturbance severity. We sought to narrow this conceptual gap by determining (i) whether growth rate, in addition to crown scorch, is a predictor of mortality in burned stands and (ii) whether a single, simple model could predict tree death in both burned and unburned stands. Observations of 2622 unburned and 688 burned Abies concolor (Gord. & Glend.) Lindl. (white fir) in the Sierra Nevada of California, U.S.A., indicated that growth rate was a significant predictor of mortality in the unburned stands, while both crown scorch and radial growth were significant predictors of mortality in the burned stands. Applying the burned stand model to unburned stands resulted in an overestimation of the unburned stand mortality rate. While failing to create a general model of tree death for A. concolor, our findings underscore the idea that similar processes may affect mortality in disturbed and undisturbed stands.

  13. Variable selection and regression analysis for the prediction of mortality rates associated with foodborne diseases.

    PubMed

    Amene, E; Hanson, L A; Zahn, E A; Wild, S R; Döpfer, D

    2016-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to apply a novel statistical method for variable selection and a model-based approach for filling data gaps in mortality rates associated with foodborne diseases using the WHO Vital Registration mortality dataset. Correlation analysis and elastic net regularization methods were applied to drop redundant variables and to select the most meaningful subset of predictors. Whenever predictor data were missing, multiple imputation was used to fill in plausible values. Cluster analysis was applied to identify similar groups of countries based on the values of the predictors. Finally, a Bayesian hierarchical regression model was fit to the final dataset for predicting mortality rates. From 113 potential predictors, 32 were retained after correlation analysis. Out of these 32 predictors, eight with non-zero coefficients were selected using the elastic net regularization method. Based on the values of these variables, four clusters of countries were identified. The uncertainty of predictions was large for countries within clusters lacking mortality rates, and it was low for a cluster that had mortality rate information. Our results demonstrated that, using Bayesian hierarchical regression models, a data-driven clustering of countries and a meaningful subset of predictors can be used to fill data gaps in foodborne disease mortality. PMID:26785774

  14. Easy Absolute Values? Absolutely

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, Sharon E.; Mittag, Kathleen Cage

    2015-01-01

    The authors teach a problem-solving course for preservice middle-grades education majors that includes concepts dealing with absolute-value computations, equations, and inequalities. Many of these students like mathematics and plan to teach it, so they are adept at symbolic manipulations. Getting them to think differently about a concept that they…

  15. Trends in under-5 mortality rates and the HIV/AIDS epidemic.

    PubMed Central

    Adetunji, J.

    2000-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: The prevalence of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) among adults and mortality rates among under-5-year-olds have increased or stagnated in many countries. The objective of this study was to investigate whether there is a link between under-5 mortality trends and the prevalence of HIV among adults and, if so, to assess the magnitude of the effect of adult HIV prevalence on under-5 mortality rates. METHOD: Data from Demographic and Health Surveys were used to establish the trends in under-5 mortality rates for 25 countries for which there are data for at least two points in time. Countries were ranked according to the most recent adult HIV prevalence data and grouped in three categories: those with very high HIV prevalence (> or = 5%); those with moderately high prevalence (1-4.9%); and those with low prevalence (< 1%). A mathematical model was fitted to obtain an estimate of the contribution of HIV/AIDS to the level of under-5 mortality in each country. RESULTS: Under-5 mortality rates showed an increase in most countries with high adult HIV prevalence, but a decrease in almost every country with moderately high or low prevalence. The estimated contribution of adult HIV prevalence to the observed level of under-5 mortality was highest (up to 61%) in Zimbabwe (where HIV prevalence was highest) and tended to decrease with the level of HIV prevalence. DISCUSSION: The contribution of HIV/AIDS to childhood mortality therefore appears to be most noticeable in settings where the epidemic is most severe. PMID:11100615

  16. Geographic Disparity in Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) Mortality Rates among the Taiwan Population

    PubMed Central

    Chan, Ta-Chien; Chiang, Po-Huang; Su, Ming-Daw; Wang, Hsuan-Wen; Liu, Michael Shi-yung

    2014-01-01

    Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) causes a high disease burden among the elderly worldwide. In Taiwan, the long-term temporal trend of COPD mortality is declining, but the geographical disparity of the disease is not yet known. Nationwide COPD age-adjusted mortality at the township level during 1999–2007 is used for elucidating the geographical distribution of the disease. With an ordinary least squares (OLS) model and geographically weighted regression (GWR), the ecologic risk factors such as smoking rate, area deprivation index, tuberculosis exposure, percentage of aborigines, density of health care facilities, air pollution and altitude are all considered in both models to evaluate their effects on mortality. Global and local Moran’s I are used for examining their spatial autocorrelation and identifying clusters. During the study period, the COPD age-adjusted mortality rates in males declined from 26.83 to 19.67 per 100,000 population, and those in females declined from 8.98 to 5.70 per 100,000 population. Overall, males’ COPD mortality rate was around three times higher than females’. In the results of GWR, the median coefficients of smoking rate, the percentage of aborigines, PM10 and the altitude are positively correlated with COPD mortality in males and females. The median value of density of health care facilities is negatively correlated with COPD mortality. The overall adjusted R-squares are about 20% higher in the GWR model than in the OLS model. The local Moran’s I of the GWR’s residuals reflected the consistent high-high cluster in southern Taiwan. The findings indicate that geographical disparities in COPD mortality exist. Future epidemiological investigation is required to understand the specific risk factors within the clustering areas. PMID:24845852

  17. Apparent climatically induced increase of tree mortality rates in a temperate forest.

    PubMed

    van Mantgem, Phillip J; Stephenson, Nathan L

    2007-10-01

    We provide a first detailed analysis of long-term, annual-resolution demographic trends in a temperate forest. After tracking the fates of 21,338 trees in a network of old-growth forest plots in the Sierra Nevada of California, we found that mortality rate, but not the recruitment rate, increased significantly over the 22 years of measurement (1983-2004). Mortality rates increased in both of two dominant taxonomic groups (Abies and Pinus) and in different forest types (different elevational zones). The increase in overall mortality rate resulted from an increase in tree deaths attributed to stress and biotic causes, and coincided with a temperature-driven increase in an index of drought. Our findings suggest that these forests (and by implication, other water-limited forests) may be sensitive to temperature-driven drought stress, and may be poised for die-back if future climates continue to feature rising temperatures without compensating increases in precipitation. PMID:17845291

  18. Fishing mortality rates of giant clams (Family Tridacnidae) from the Sulu Archipelago and Southern Palawan, Philippines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Villanoy, Cesar L.; Juinio, Antoinette R.; Meñez, Lambert Anthony

    1988-05-01

    Average size frequency distributions of Tridacna squamosa, T. gigas, Hippopus hippopus and H. porcellanus harvested from the Sulu Archipelago and Southern Palawan areas from 1978 1985 were derived from export records and a warehouse inventory of giant clam shells. Average species mortality rates ( Z) were estimated and were used to approximate average fishing mortality rates ( F) over the period 1978 1985. Crude estimates of exploitation rates ( F/Z) indicate that populations of these species are already overexploited. These findings have serious implications in view of the fact that the Sulu Archipelago and Southern Palawan are thought to be the last strongholds of giant clams in Philippine waters.

  19. Judging hospitals by severity-adjusted mortality rates: the influence of the severity-adjustment method.

    PubMed Central

    Iezzoni, L I; Ash, A S; Shwartz, M; Daley, J; Hughes, J S; Mackiernan, Y D

    1996-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: This research examined whether judgments about a hospital's risk-adjusted mortality performance are affected by the severity-adjustment method. METHODS: Data came from 100 acute care hospitals nationwide and 11880 adults admitted in 1991 for acute myocardial infarction. Ten severity measures were used in separate multivariable logistic models predicting in-hospital death. Observed-to-expected death rates and z scores were calculated with each severity measure for each hospital. RESULTS: Unadjusted mortality rates for the 100 hospitals ranged from 4.8% to 26.4%. For 32 hospitals, observed mortality rates differed significantly from expected rates for 1 or more, but not for all 10, severity measures. Agreement between pairs of severity measures on whether hospitals were flagged as statistical mortality outliers ranged from fair to good. Severity measures based on medical records frequently disagreed with measures based on discharge abstracts. CONCLUSIONS: Although the 10 severity measures agreed about relative hospital performance more often than would be expected by chance, assessments of individual hospital mortality rates varied by different severity-adjustment methods. PMID:8876505

  20. In Sickness but Not in Health: Self-Ratings, Identity, and Mortality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Idler, Ellen; Leventhal, Howard; McLaughlin, Julie; Leventhal, Elaine

    2004-01-01

    Self-rated health as a predictor of mortality has been studied primarily in large, representative populations, with relatively little progress toward understanding the information processing that individuals use to arrive at these ratings. With subsamples of National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) Epidemiologic Follow-up Study…

  1. Detecting absolute human knee angle and angular velocity using accelerometers and rate gyroscopes.

    PubMed

    Williamson, R; Andrews, B J

    2001-05-01

    Knee joint angle and angular velocity were calculated in real time during standing up and sitting down. Two small modules comprising rate gyroscopes and accelerometers were attached to the thigh and shank of two able-bodied volunteers and one T5 ASIA(A) paraplegic assisted by functional electrical stimulation (FES). The offset and drift of the rate gyroscopes was compensated for by auto-resetting and auto-nulling algorithms. The tilt of the limb segments was calculated by combining the signals of the accelerometer and the rate gyroscope. The joint angle was calculated as the difference in tilt of the segments. The modules were also tested on a two-dimensional model. The mean differences between the rate gyroscope-accelerometer system and the reference goniometer for the model, able-bodied and paraplegic standing trials were 2.1 degrees, 2.4 degrees and 2.3 degrees respectively for knee angle and 2.3 degrees s(-1), 5.0 degrees s(-1) and 11.8 degrees s(-1) respectively for knee velocity. The rate gyroscope-accelerometer system was more accurate than using the accelerometer as a tilt meter, possibly due to the greater bandwidth of the rate gyroscope-accelerometer system. PMID:11465883

  2. Differential Neonatal and Postneonatal Infant Mortality Rates across US Counties: The Role of Socioeconomic Conditions and Rurality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sparks, P. Johnelle; McLaughlin, Diane K.; Stokes, C. Shannon

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: To examine differences in correlates of neonatal and postneonatal infant mortality rates, across counties, by degree of rurality. Methods: Neonatal and postneonatal mortality rates were calculated from the 1998 to 2002 Compressed Mortality Files from the National Center for Health Statistics. Bivariate analyses assessed the relationship…

  3. Investigating the Decline of Fetal and Infant Mortality Rates in Alaska During 2010 and 2011.

    PubMed

    Prince, Cheryl B; Young, Margaret B; Sappenfield, William; Parrish, Jared W

    2016-04-01

    Introduction The U.S. infant mortality rate has been steadily declining since 2007. Although the downward trend has been notable in Alaska since 2006 when the rate was 6.9 infant deaths per 1000 live births, a dramatic drop in infant mortality occurred in 2010 and 2011 when the infant mortality rate fell to 3.8 infant deaths per 1000 live births during both years. The purpose of this study was to investigate the sudden decrease in fetal and infant mortality rates (FIMR) using the perinatal periods of risk (PPOR) method, an approach that has not been used previously in Alaska. Methods The study was conducted for 251 fetal and infant deaths in 2004-2006, 265 deaths in 2007-2009, and 129 deaths in 2010-2011. Data were stratified by Alaska Native (AN) and White maternal race and urban/rural residence. Results Among both urban and rural White women, the rate ratios (RR) for FIMRs between the earlier and later time periods were not significantly different. The postneonatal mortality rate (PNMR) among AN infants living in rural areas decreased significantly (RR 0.40; 95 % confidence interval 0.21-0.76) between 2007-2009 and 2010-2011. An unexplained increase in sudden unexplained infant death was noted in 2009, followed by a precipitous decrease in 2010-2011. No other unusual distribution of the cause specific mortality rates was observed. Discussion The decrease in the Alaska Native FIMR might have been due to focused efforts for preventing postneonatal sleep associated deaths. Education for prevention of sleep related deaths, particularly in rural communities, is necessary to maintain Alaska's low PNMR. PMID:26754348

  4. Asbestos in Belgium: an underestimated health risk. The evolution of mesothelioma mortality rates (1969–2009)

    PubMed Central

    Van den Borre, Laura; Deboosere, Patrick

    2014-01-01

    Background: Although Belgium was once a major international manufacturer of asbestos products, asbestos-related diseases in the country have remained scarcely researched. Objectives: The aim of this study is to provide a descriptive analysis of Belgian mesothelioma mortality rates in order to improve the understanding of asbestos health hazards from an international perspective. Methods: Temporal and geographical analyses were performed on cause-specific mortality data (1969–2009) using quantitative demographic measures. Results were compared to recent findings on global mesothelioma deaths. Results: Belgium has one of the highest mesothelioma mortality rates in the world, following the UK, Australia, and Italy. With a progressive increase of male mesothelioma deaths in the mid-1980s, large differences in mortality rates between sexes are apparent. Mesothelioma deaths are primarily concentrated in geographic areas with proximity to former asbestos industries. Conclusions: Asbestos mortality in Belgium has been underestimated for decades. Our findings suggest that the location of asbestos industries is correlated with rates of mesothelioma, underlining the need to avert future asbestos exposure by thorough screening of potential contaminated sites and by pursuing a global ban on asbestos. PMID:24999848

  5. Trends in corrected lung cancer mortality rates in Brazil and regions

    PubMed Central

    Malta, Deborah Carvalho; de Abreu, Daisy Maria Xavier; de Moura, Lenildo; Lana, Gustavo C; Azevedo, Gulnar; França, Elisabeth

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE To describe the trend in cancer mortality rates in Brazil and regions before and after correction for underreporting of deaths and redistribution of ill-defined and nonspecific causes. METHODS The study used data of deaths from lung cancer among the population aged from 30 to 69 years, notified to the Mortality Information System between 1996 and 2011, corrected for underreporting of deaths, non-registered sex and age , and causes with ill-defined or garbage codes according to sex, age, and region. Standardized rates were calculated by age for raw and corrected data. An analysis of time trend in lung cancer mortality was carried out using the regression model with autoregressive errors. RESULTS Lung cancer in Brazil presented higher rates among men compared to women, and the South region showed the highest death risk in 1996 and 2011. Mortality showed a trend of reduction for males and increase for women. CONCLUSIONS Lung cancer in Brazil presented different distribution patterns according to sex, with higher rates among men and a reduction in the mortality trend for men and increase for women. PMID:27355467

  6. Which is the best deprivation predictor of foetal and infant mortality rates?

    PubMed

    Joyce, R; Webb, R; Peacock, J L; Stirland, H

    2000-01-01

    This study investigates which, if any, population-based indicator of deprivation best predicts foetal and infant mortality rates in England. For the year 1995, the deprivation levels of 364 English Local Authorities were compared; using the three commonly used indicators, Jarman score, Townsend score and percentage unemployed. The predictive value of these for stillbirth, neonatal and infant mortality rates was then calculated. The three deprivation indicators were highly inter-correlated (r=0.866-0.924). For each mortality rate, the correlation with deprivation did not differ significantly for the three indicators of deprivation. We conclude, when comparing these outcomes in different areas of England, that any of the three deprivation indicators may be used to adjust for deprivation. PMID:10787021

  7. Noninvasive optical quantification of absolute blood flow, blood oxygenation, and oxygen consumption rate in exercising skeletal muscle.

    PubMed

    Gurley, Katelyn; Shang, Yu; Yu, Guoqiang

    2012-07-01

    This study investigates a method using novel hybrid diffuse optical spectroscopies [near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) and diffuse correlation spectroscopy (DCS)] to obtain continuous, noninvasive measurement of absolute blood flow (BF), blood oxygenation, and oxygen consumption rate (V̇O(2)) in exercising skeletal muscle. Healthy subjects (n=9) performed a handgrip exercise to increase BF and V̇O(2) in forearm flexor muscles, while a hybrid optical probe on the skin surface directly monitored oxy-, deoxy-, and total hemoglobin concentrations ([HbO(2)], [Hb], and THC), tissue oxygen saturation (S(t)O(2)), relative BF (rBF), and relative oxygen consumption rate (rV̇O(2)). The rBF and rV̇O(2) signals were calibrated with absolute baseline BF and V̇O(2) obtained through venous and arterial occlusions, respectively. Known problems with muscle-fiber motion artifacts in optical measurements during exercise were mitigated using a novel gating algorithm that determined muscle contraction status based on control signals from a dynamometer. Results were consistent with previous findings in the literature. This study supports the application of NIRS/DCS technology to quantitatively evaluate hemodynamic and metabolic parameters in exercising skeletal muscle and holds promise for improving diagnosis and treatment evaluation for patients suffering from diseases affecting skeletal muscle and advancing fundamental understanding of muscle and exercise physiology. PMID:22894482

  8. Noninvasive optical quantification of absolute blood flow, blood oxygenation, and oxygen consumption rate in exercising skeletal muscle

    PubMed Central

    Gurley, Katelyn; Shang, Yu

    2012-01-01

    Abstract. This study investigates a method using novel hybrid diffuse optical spectroscopies [near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) and diffuse correlation spectroscopy (DCS)] to obtain continuous, noninvasive measurement of absolute blood flow (BF), blood oxygenation, and oxygen consumption rate (V˙O2) in exercising skeletal muscle. Healthy subjects (n=9) performed a handgrip exercise to increase BF and V˙O2 in forearm flexor muscles, while a hybrid optical probe on the skin surface directly monitored oxy-, deoxy-, and total hemoglobin concentrations ([HbO2], [Hb], and THC), tissue oxygen saturation (StO2), relative BF (rBF), and relative oxygen consumption rate (rV˙O2). The rBF and rV˙O2 signals were calibrated with absolute baseline BF and V˙O2 obtained through venous and arterial occlusions, respectively. Known problems with muscle-fiber motion artifacts in optical measurements during exercise were mitigated using a novel gating algorithm that determined muscle contraction status based on control signals from a dynamometer. Results were consistent with previous findings in the literature. This study supports the application of NIRS/DCS technology to quantitatively evaluate hemodynamic and metabolic parameters in exercising skeletal muscle and holds promise for improving diagnosis and treatment evaluation for patients suffering from diseases affecting skeletal muscle and advancing fundamental understanding of muscle and exercise physiology. PMID:22894482

  9. Noninvasive optical quantification of absolute blood flow, blood oxygenation, and oxygen consumption rate in exercising skeletal muscle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gurley, Katelyn; Shang, Yu; Yu, Guoqiang

    2012-07-01

    This study investigates a method using novel hybrid diffuse optical spectroscopies [near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) and diffuse correlation spectroscopy (DCS)] to obtain continuous, noninvasive measurement of absolute blood flow (BF), blood oxygenation, and oxygen consumption rate (\\Vdot O2) in exercising skeletal muscle. Healthy subjects (n=9) performed a handgrip exercise to increase BF and \\Vdot O2 in forearm flexor muscles, while a hybrid optical probe on the skin surface directly monitored oxy-, deoxy-, and total hemoglobin concentrations ([HbO2], [Hb], and THC), tissue oxygen saturation (StO2), relative BF (rBF), and relative oxygen consumption rate (r\\Vdot O2). The rBF and r\\Vdot O2 signals were calibrated with absolute baseline BF and \\Vdot O2 obtained through venous and arterial occlusions, respectively. Known problems with muscle-fiber motion artifacts in optical measurements during exercise were mitigated using a novel gating algorithm that determined muscle contraction status based on control signals from a dynamometer. Results were consistent with previous findings in the literature. This study supports the application of NIRS/DCS technology to quantitatively evaluate hemodynamic and metabolic parameters in exercising skeletal muscle and holds promise for improving diagnosis and treatment evaluation for patients suffering from diseases affecting skeletal muscle and advancing fundamental understanding of muscle and exercise physiology.

  10. Absolute rate coefficients for photorecombination of beryllium-like and boron-like silicon ions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bernhardt, D.; Becker, A.; Brandau, C.; Grieser, M.; Hahn, M.; Krantz, C.; Lestinsky, M.; Novotný, O.; Repnow, R.; Savin, D. W.; Spruck, K.; Wolf, A.; Müller, A.; Schippers, S.

    2016-04-01

    We report measured rate coefficients for electron-ion recombination of Si10+ forming Si9+ and of Si9+ forming Si8+, respectively. The measurements were performed using the electron-ion merged-beams technique at a heavy-ion storage ring. Electron-ion collision energies ranged from 0 to 50 eV for Si9+ and from 0 to 2000 eV for Si10+, thus, extending previous measurements for Si10+ (Orban et al 2010 Astrophys. J. 721 1603) to much higher energies. Experimentally derived rate coefficients for the recombination of Si9+ and Si10+ ions in a plasma are presented along with simple parameterizations. These rate coefficients are useful for the modeling of the charge balance of silicon in photoionized plasmas (Si9+ and Si10+) and in collisionally ionized plasmas (Si10+ only). In the corresponding temperature ranges, the experimentally derived rate coefficients agree with the latest corresponding theoretical results within the experimental uncertainties.

  11. Canadian suicide mortality rates: first-generation immigrants versus Canadian-born.

    PubMed

    Strachan, J; Johansen, H; Nair, C; Nargundkar, M

    1990-01-01

    This article examines suicide mortality rates and trends in Canada for first-generation immigrants and the Canadian-born population. Data are analyzed by age, sex and country of birth. Since 1950, suicide rates worldwide for both men and women have been increasing. In North America and most of Europe, suicide has been one of the major causes of death for many years. In Canada, suicide rates are also rising. However, this increase is due entirely to a rise in the rate for men; the rate for women has remained relatively stable. Several differences are apparent between the rates for the Canadian-born population and those for first-generation immigrants. For example, three times as many Canadian-born men as women commit suicide. For first-generation immigrants, the ratio is two to one. Suicide mortality rates for the Canadian-born are higher than those for first-generation immigrants in every age group except for the 65 and over groups. Canadian born males have higher ASMR than first generation immigrant males. The rates for women show that first-generation immigrant women have higher suicide mortality rates than their Canadian-born counterparts, and that the highest rate for all women is for immigrants born in Asia. PMID:1713798

  12. Mortality and heart rate in the elderly: role of cognitive impairment.

    PubMed

    Cacciatore, Francesco; Mazzella, Francesca; Abete, Pasquale; Viati, Luisa; Galizia, Gianluigi; D'Ambrosio, Daniele; Gargiulo, Gaetano; Russo, Salvatore; Visconti, Claudia; Della Morte, David; Ferrara, Nicola; Rengo, Franco

    2007-01-01

    Mortality related to heart rate (HR) increase in the elderly has not yet been well established. To ascertain the relationships among cognitive impairment (CI), mortality, and HR increase, the authors prospectively studied a random sample of elderly subjects stratified according to presence or absence of CI. Elderly subjects randomly selected in 1991 (n = 1332) were followed up for 12 years. Mortality was established in 98.1% of the subjects. When HR was stratified in quartiles (< 69, 70-75, 76-80, and > 80 bpm), mortality was linearly associated with increased HR in all (from 47.7 to 57.0; r2 = .43, p = .019) and in subjects without (from 41.7 to 51.1%; r2 = .50, p = .043) but not in those with CI (from 57.5 to 66.1; r2 = .20, p = .363). Cox regression analysis, adjusted for several variables, shows that HR doesn't predict mortality in all subjects (RR 0.69; 95% CI = 0.27-1.73) or in those with CI (RR 0.91; 95% CI = 0.81-1.02). In contrast, HR predicts mortality in subjects without CI (RR 1.10; 95% CI = 1.00-1.22). Hence, HR increase is a predictor of mortality in elderly subjects without CI. However, when considering all elderly subjects and those with CI, HR increase seems to have no effect on mortality. Thus, CI should be considered when focusing on HR increase as risk factor for mortality in the elderly. PMID:17364903

  13. Absolute depth-dose-rate measurements for an {sup 192}Ir HDR brachytherapy source in water using MOSFET detectors

    SciTech Connect

    Zilio, Valery Olivier; Joneja, Om Parkash; Popowski, Youri; Rosenfeld, Anatoly; Chawla, Rakesh

    2006-06-15

    Reported MOSFET measurements concern mostly external radiotherapy and in vivo dosimetry. In this paper, we apply the technique for absolute dosimetry in the context of HDR brachytherapy using an {sup 192}Ir source. Measured radial dose rate distributions in water for different planes perpendicular to the source axis are presented and special attention is paid to the calibration of the R and K type detectors, and to the determination of appropriate correction factors for the sensitivity variation with the increase of the threshold voltage and the energy dependence. The experimental results are compared with Monte Carlo simulated dose rate distributions. The experimental results show a good agreement with the Monte Carlo simulations: the discrepancy between experimental and Monte Carlo results being within 5% for 82% of the points and within 10% for 95% of the points. Moreover, all points except two are found to lie within the experimental uncertainties, confirming thereby the quality of the results obtained.

  14. Absolute rate constant for the O plus NO chemiluminescence in the near infrared

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Golde, M. F.; Roche, A. E.; Kaufman, F.

    1973-01-01

    Infrared chemiluminescence from the process O + NO (+M) NO2 + hv (+M) has been studied between 1.3 and 4.1 micrometer. The wavelength dependence of the continuum between 1.3 and 3.3 micrometer is in fair agreement with previous studies and the measured radiative rate constant at 1.51 micrometer establishes the NO-O glow in this spectral range as a secondary emission standard. Comparison with previous studies of the visible region of the glow implies that the overall radiative rate constant lies in the range (9.4 to 11.2) x 10 to the minus 17 power cu cm sec/1. In the region 3.3 to 4.1 micrometer, the previously observed broad band, peaking at 3.7 micrometer, shows a complex kinetic dependence on O and M.

  15. Absolute rate of the reaction of bromine atoms with ozone from 200-360 K

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Michael, J. V.; Lee, J. H.; Payne, W. A.; Stief, L. J.

    1978-01-01

    The rate constant for the reaction Br + O3 yields BrO + O2 was measured from 200 to 360 K by the technique of flash photolysis coupled to time resolved detection of bromine atoms by resonance fluorescence (FP-RF). Br atoms were produced by the flash photolysis of CH3Br at lambda 165nm.O3 was monitored continuously under reaction conditions by absorption at 253.7 nm. At each of five temperatures the results were independent of substantial variations in O3, total pressure and limited variations in flash intensity. The measured rate constants obeyed the Arrhenius expression, where the error quoted is two standard deviations. Results are compared with previous determinations which employed the discharge flow-mass spectrometric technique.

  16. Absolute rate constants for the reaction of atomic hydrogen with ketene from 298 to 500 K

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Michael, J. V.; Nava, D. F.; Payne, W. A.; Stief, L. J.

    1979-01-01

    Rate constants for the reaction of atomic hydrogen with ketene have been measured at room temperature by two techniques, flash photolysis-resonance fluorescence and discharge flow-resonance fluorescence. The measured values are (6.19 + or - 1.68) x 10 to the -14th and (7.3 + or - 1.3) x 10 to the -14th cu cm/molecule/s, respectively. In addition, rate constants as a function of temperature have been measured over the range 298-500 K using the FP-RF technique. The results are best represented by the Arrhenius expression k = (1.88 + or - 1.12) x 10 to the -11th exp(-1725 + or - 190/T) cu cm/molecule/s, where the indicated errors are at the two standard deviation level.

  17. Absolute rate of the reaction of bromine atoms with ozone from 200 to 360 K

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Michael, J. V.; Lee, J. H.; Payne, W. A.; Stief, L. J.

    1978-01-01

    The rate constant for the reaction Br + O3 yields BrO + O2 has been measured from 200 to 360 K by the technique of flash photolysis coupled to time resolved detection of bromine atoms by resonance fluorescence (FP-RF). Br atoms were produced by the flash photolysis of CH3Br at a wavelength of 165 nm. O3 concentration was monitored continuously under reaction conditions by absorption at 253.7 nm. At each of five temperatures the results were independent of substantial variations in O3 concentration, total pressure (Ar), and limited variations in flash intensity (i.e., initial Br concentration). The measured rate constants obey the Arrhenius expression, k = (7.74 plus or minus 0.50) x 10 to the -12th exp(-603 plus or minus 16/T) cu cm/molecule/sec, where the error quoted is two standard deviations.

  18. A model study with light-dependent mortality rates of copepod stages

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neumann, Thomas; Kremp, Christine

    2005-06-01

    This paper is based on an advanced ecosystem model of the Baltic Sea (ERGOM [ J. Mar. Sys. 25 (3-4) (2005) 405]), but with an increased resolution of the zooplankton stage variable [ J. Plankton Res. 23 (2001) 1217; ICES Marine Science 219 (2003) 208]. The model copepods are represented by five stages: eggs, an aggregated variable of nauplii, two aggregated groups of copepodites and adults. The transfer among the stages, i.e., hatching, molting and reproduction, is controlled by food availability and temperature. As usual, the model food web is truncated at the level of zooplankton. The study explores the effects of different parametrization of zooplankton mortality and looks in particular on light-dependent rates. The light climate may serve a proxy for the effects of visual feeding of fish larvae and fish. Different choices of the mortality parameters can result in remarkable differences in abundances and biomass of the model zooplankton and in the timing of its development. It is found that the different choices of mortality affect the development of populations in several ways: Relative small initial differences of abundances at the beginning of the spring bloom are important for the development of the model populations. Higher mortality rates are less important at food rich conditions than at scarce resources. At low phytoplankton levels, the individual development of the copepods through the stages can be faster for elevated mortality rates because then less animals have to share the available food.

  19. Comparison of Turkish and US haemodialysis patient mortality rates: an observational cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Asci, Gulay; Marcelli, Daniele; Celtik, Aygul; Grassmann, Aileen; Gunestepe, Kutay; Yaprak, Mustafa; Tamer, Abdulkerim Furkan; Turan, Mehmet Nuri; Sever, Mehmet Sukru; Ok, Ercan

    2016-01-01

    Background There are significant differences between countries in the mortality rates of haemodialysis (HD) patients. The extent of these differences and possible contributing factors are worthy of investigation. Methods As of March 2009, all patients undergoing HD or haemodiafiltration for >3 months (n = 4041) in the Turkish clinics of the NephroCare network were enrolled. Data were prospectively collected for 2 years through the European Clinical Dialysis Database. Mean age ± standard deviation was 58.7 ± 14.7 years, 45.9% were female and 22.9% were diabetic. Comparison with US data was performed by applying an indirect standardization technique, using specific mortality rates for patients on HD by age, gender, race and primary diagnosis as provided by the 2012 US Renal Data System Annual Data Report as reference. Results The crude mortality rate in Turkey was 95.1 per 1000 patient-years. Compared with the US reference population, the annual mortality rate for Turkey was significantly lower, irrespective of gender, age and diabetes. After adjustments for age, gender and diabetes, the mortality risk in the Turkish cohort was 50% lower than US whites [95% confidence interval (CI) 0.46–0.54, P < 0.001], 44% lower than US African-Americans (95% CI 0.52–0.61, P < 0.001) and 20% lower than Asian-Americans (95% CI 0.74–0.86, P < 0.05). Conclusions The annual mortality rate of prevalent HD patients was found to be significantly lower in the studied Turkish cohort compared with that published by the US Renal Data System Annual Data Report. Differences in practice patterns may contribute to the divergence. PMID:27274836

  20. Absolute vertical uplift rates in western Washington inferred from historical leveling and tide gauge data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alba, S.; Weldon, R.; Livelybrooks, D.; Schmidt, D. A.

    2009-12-01

    We present a new uplift rate map for western Washington based on reanalysis of water levels from the 12 major NOAA tide gauges, three new water level series that combine NOAA’s historical records and our temporarily deployed gauges (at Cape Disappointment, Olympia, and Point Grenville), and reinterpretation of repeated 1st and 2nd order NGS leveling lines. As previous studies have concluded, EW gradients in the vertical deformation field are consistent with strain accumulation across the Cascadia subduction zone interface; however, uplift rates are highly variable along the outer Washington coast, ranging from approximately +4 to -2 mm/yr, suggesting significant changes in the depth of locking along strike. Improved measure of uplift rates from water level changes are accomplished by aggressively editing available hourly data and applying a transfer function approach to better remove tides, ocean and atmospheric “noise”. The analysis allows uplift to be determined from shorter and less complete records and in some cases permits the identification of transients like slow earthquakes. As we found in a similar study in Oregon (Burgette et al, JGR, 2009), releveled lines need to be anchored to as many tide gauges as possible to remove systematic error, and repeated releveling (especially of tidal benchmarks) is required to identify the few stable benchmarks that link water levels at the tidal stations to each other through time and to the regional NGS leveling lines. A portion of the westernmost Washington coast, from an approximate latitude of 47.4 to 47.9 N, is subsiding, and tilts suggest that the peak in uplift rate is well onshore, indicating that the locked zone extends onshore, in contrast to most previous studies. To the north, the peak in uplift approximately passes through Neah Bay (the NW corner of the Olympic Peninsula, lat. 48.3 N), and to the south the peak is offshore from Grays Harbor (lat. 47 N) to the Columbia River (lat. 46.2 N). A north

  1. Absolute rate parameters for the reaction of ground state atomic oxygen with dimethyl sulfide and episulfide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, J. H.; Timmons, R. B.; Stief, L. J.

    1976-01-01

    It is pointed out that the investigated reaction of oxygen with dimethyl sulfide may play an important role in photochemical smog formation and in the chemical evolution of dense interstellar clouds. Kinetic data were obtained with the aid of the flash photolysis-resonance fluorescence method. The photodecomposition of molecular oxygen provided the oxygen atoms for the experiments. The decay of atomic oxygen was studied on the basis of resonance fluorescence observations. Both reactions investigated were found to be fast processes. A negative temperature dependence of the rate constants for reactions with dimethyl sulfide was observed.

  2. High Basal Metabolic Rate Is a Risk Factor for Mortality: The Baltimore Longitudinal Study of Aging

    PubMed Central

    Ruggiero, Carmelinda; Metter, E. Jeffrey; Melenovsky, Vojtech; Cherubini, Antonio; Najjar, Samer S.; Ble, Alessandro; Senin, Umberto; Longo, Dan L.; Ferrucci, Luigi

    2016-01-01

    Background Despite longstanding controversies from animal studies on the relationship between basal metabolic rate (BMR) and longevity, whether BMR is a risk factor for mortality has never been tested in humans. We evaluate the longitudinal changes in BMR and the relationship between BMR and mortality in the Baltimore Longitudinal Study of Aging (BLSA) participants. Methods BMR and medical information were collected at the study entry and approximately every 2 years in 1227 participants (972 men) over a 40-year follow-up. BMR, expressed as kcal/m2/h, was estimated from the basal O2 consumption and CO2 production measured by open-circuit method. Data on all-cause and specific-cause mortality were also obtained. Result BMR declined with age at a rate that accelerated at older ages. Independent of age, participants who died had a higher BMR compared to those who survived. BMR was a significant risk factor for mortality independent of secular trends in mortality and other well-recognized risk factors for mortality, such as age, body mass index, smoking, white blood cell count, and diabetes. BMR was nonlinearly associated with mortality. The lowest mortality rate was found in the BMR range 31.3–33.9 kcal/m2/h. Participants with BMR in the range 33.9–36.4 kcal/m2/h and above the threshold of 36.4 kcal/m2/h experienced 28% (hazard ratio: 1.28; 95% confidence interval, 1.02–1.61) and 53% (hazard ratio: 1.53; 95% confidence interval, 1.19–1.96) higher mortality risk compared to participants with BMR 31.3–33.9 kcal/m2/h. Conclusion We confirm previous findings of an age-related decline of BMR. In our study, a blunted age-related decline in BMR was associated with higher mortality, suggesting that such condition reflects poor health status. PMID:18693224

  3. Absolute rate constants of alkoxyl radical reactions in aqueous solution. [Tert-butyl hydroperoxide

    SciTech Connect

    Erben-Russ, M.; Michel, C.; Bors, W.; Saran, M.

    1987-04-23

    The pulse radiolysis technique was used to generate the alkoxyl radical derived from tert-butyl hydroperoxide (/sup t/BuOOH) in aqueous solution. The reactions of this radical with 2,2'-azinobis(3-ethyl-6-benzothiazolinesulfonate) (ABTS) and promethazine were monitored by kinetic spectroscopy. The unimolecular decay rate constant of the tert-butoxyl radical (/sup t/BuO) was determined to be 1.4 x 10/sup 6/ s/sup -1/. On the basis of this value, the rate constants for /sup t/BuO attack on quercetin, crocin, crocetin, ascorbate, isoascorbate, trolox c, glutathione, thymidine, adenosine, guanosine, and unsaturated fatty acids were determined. In addition, the reaction of /sup t/BuO with the polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) was observed by directly monitoring the formation of the fatty acid pentadienyl radicals. Interestingly, the attack of /sup t/BuO on PUFA was found to be faster by about one order of magnitude as compared to the same reaction in a nonpolar solvent.

  4. Physician impact on hospital admission and on mortality rates in the Medicare population.

    PubMed Central

    Krakauer, H; Jacoby, I; Millman, M; Lukomnik, J E

    1996-01-01

    OBJECTIVE. We assess the effect of variations in the supply and specialty distribution of physicians on admission rates for ambulatory care-sensitive conditions (ACS) and for all causes, and on mortality rates among Medicare beneficiaries of various health care service areas (HCSA). DATA SOURCES. For the Medicare beneficiaries, sources were the Health Care Financing Administration's 1992 enrollment and impatient (Part A) files for a 5 percent sample of that population; for the overall populations and for the medical resources of the HCSAs, the Area Resource File. STUDY DESIGN. This observational, cross-sectional study employed multiple linear regression to assess the influence of population characteristics and of the supply of physicians on hospital admissions, and Poisson regression in the analysis of the factors that affect mortality. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS. Physician supply levels vary nearly fourfold or more when comparing the top and bottom deciles of the HCSAs, Medicare admissions for ACS conditions vary about threefold, and admission rates for all causes and mortality rates vary about 1.5-fold. Physician supply levels and distributions have very little influence on ACS admission rates, and even less on the admissions for all causes and on mortality, except in HCSAs with very low physician supply levels (one-fourth the national average or less). However, these HCSAs account for only about 1 percent of the U.S. population. CONCLUSIONS. Physician supply levels and the proportions of specialists and generalists have negligible effects on health status as measured by mortality rates and by rates of admission for all causes and for conditions presumed to be sensitive to the adequacy of ambulatory care. Reductions in admissions for such conditions are not likely to be achieved through broadening of insurance to levels that exist under Medicare, nor through increases in the supply of physicians, nor, conversely, through a reduction in any presumed oversupply of

  5. Temperature and pressure dependence of the absolute rate constant for the reactions of NH2 radicals with acetylene and ethylene

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bosco, S. R.; Nava, D. F.; Brobst, W. D.; Stief, L. J.

    1984-01-01

    The absolute rate constants for the reaction between the NH2 free radical and acetylene and ethylene is measured experimentally using a flash photolysis technique. The constant is considered to be a function of temperature and pressure. At each temperature level of the experiment, the observed pseudo-first-order rate constants were assumed to be independent of flash intensity. The results of the experiment indicate that the bimolecular rate constant for the NH2 + C2H2 reaction increases with pressure at 373 K and 459 K but not at lower temperatures. Results near the pressure limit conform to an Arrhenius expression of 1.11 (+ or -) 0.36 x 10 to the -13th over the temperature range from 241 to 459 K. For the reaction NH2 + C2H4, a smaller rate of increase in the bimolecular rate constant was observed over the temperature range 250-465 K. The implications of these results for current theoretical models of NH2 + C2H2 (or H4) reactions in the atmospheres of Jupiter and Saturn are discussed.

  6. A Hierarchical Distance Sampling Approach to Estimating Mortality Rates from Opportunistic Carcass Surveillance Data

    PubMed Central

    Bellan, Steve E.; Gimenez, Olivier; Choquet, Rémi; Getz, Wayne M.

    2012-01-01

    Summary Distance sampling is widely used to estimate the abundance or density of wildlife populations. Methods to estimate wildlife mortality rates have developed largely independently from distance sampling, despite the conceptual similarities between estimation of cumulative mortality and the population density of living animals. Conventional distance sampling analyses rely on the assumption that animals are distributed uniformly with respect to transects and thus require randomized placement of transects during survey design. Because mortality events are rare, however, it is often not possible to obtain precise estimates in this way without infeasible levels of effort. A great deal of wildlife data, including mortality data, is available via road-based surveys. Interpreting these data in a distance sampling framework requires accounting for the non-uniformity sampling. Additionally, analyses of opportunistic mortality data must account for the decline in carcass detectability through time. We develop several extensions to distance sampling theory to address these problems.We build mortality estimators in a hierarchical framework that integrates animal movement data, surveillance effort data, and motion-sensor camera trap data, respectively, to relax the uniformity assumption, account for spatiotemporal variation in surveillance effort, and explicitly model carcass detection and disappearance as competing ongoing processes.Analysis of simulated data showed that our estimators were unbiased and that their confidence intervals had good coverage.We also illustrate our approach on opportunistic carcass surveillance data acquired in 2010 during an anthrax outbreak in the plains zebra of Etosha National Park, Namibia.The methods developed here will allow researchers and managers to infer mortality rates from opportunistic surveillance data. PMID:24224079

  7. A Hierarchical Distance Sampling Approach to Estimating Mortality Rates from Opportunistic Carcass Surveillance Data.

    PubMed

    Bellan, Steve E; Gimenez, Olivier; Choquet, Rémi; Getz, Wayne M

    2013-04-01

    Distance sampling is widely used to estimate the abundance or density of wildlife populations. Methods to estimate wildlife mortality rates have developed largely independently from distance sampling, despite the conceptual similarities between estimation of cumulative mortality and the population density of living animals. Conventional distance sampling analyses rely on the assumption that animals are distributed uniformly with respect to transects and thus require randomized placement of transects during survey design. Because mortality events are rare, however, it is often not possible to obtain precise estimates in this way without infeasible levels of effort. A great deal of wildlife data, including mortality data, is available via road-based surveys. Interpreting these data in a distance sampling framework requires accounting for the non-uniformity sampling. Additionally, analyses of opportunistic mortality data must account for the decline in carcass detectability through time. We develop several extensions to distance sampling theory to address these problems.We build mortality estimators in a hierarchical framework that integrates animal movement data, surveillance effort data, and motion-sensor camera trap data, respectively, to relax the uniformity assumption, account for spatiotemporal variation in surveillance effort, and explicitly model carcass detection and disappearance as competing ongoing processes.Analysis of simulated data showed that our estimators were unbiased and that their confidence intervals had good coverage.We also illustrate our approach on opportunistic carcass surveillance data acquired in 2010 during an anthrax outbreak in the plains zebra of Etosha National Park, Namibia.The methods developed here will allow researchers and managers to infer mortality rates from opportunistic surveillance data. PMID:24224079

  8. Factors Influencing The Six-Month Mortality Rate In Patients With A Hip Fracture

    PubMed Central

    Ristic, Branko; Rancic, Nemanja; Bukumiric, Zoran; Zeljko, Stepanovic; Ignjatovic-Ristic, Dragana

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Background There are several potential risk factors in patients with a hip fracture for a higher rate of mortality that include: comorbid disorders, poor general health, age, male gender, poor mobility prior to injury, type of fracture, poor cognitive status, place of residence. The aim of this study was to assess the influence of potential risk factors for six-month mortality in hip fracture patients. Methods The study included all patients with a hip fracture older than 65 who had been admitted to the Clinic for orthopaedic surgery during one year. One hundred and ninety-two patients were included in the study. Results Six months after admission due to a hip fracture, 48 patients had died (6-month mortality rate was 25%). The deceased were statistically older than the patients who had survived. Univariate regression analysis indicated that six variables had a significant effect on hip fracture patients’ survival: age, mobility prior to the fracture, poor cognitive status, activity of daily living, comorbidities and the place where they had fallen. Multivariate regression modelling showed that the following factors were independently associated with mortality at 6 months post fracture: poor cognitive status, poor mobility prior to the fracture, comorbid disease. Conclusion Poor cognitive status appeared to be the strongest mortality predictor. The employment of brief tests for cognitive status evaluation would enable orthopaedists to have good criteria for the choice of treatment for each patient screened. PMID:27284379

  9. Concepts of Self-Rated Health: Specifying the Gender Difference in Mortality Risk

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Deeg, Dorly J. H.; Kriegsman, Didi M. W.

    2003-01-01

    Purpose: This study addresses the question of how the relation between self-rated health (SRH) and mortality differs between genders. In addition to the general question, four specific concepts of SRH are distinguished: SRH in comparison with age peers, SRH in comparison with one's own health 10 years ago, and current and future health…

  10. Sex Ratio at Birth and Infant Mortality Rate in China: An Empirical Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lai, Denjian

    2005-01-01

    In this article, we used the data from the last three population censuses of China in 1982, 1990 and 2000, to study the dynamics of the sex ratio at birth and the infant mortality rate in China. In the late 1970s, China started its economic reform and implemented many family planning programs. Since then there has been great economic development…

  11. Estimating mortality rates of adult fish from entrainment through the propellers of river towboats

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gutreuter, S.; Dettmers, J.M.; Wahl, David H.

    2003-01-01

    We developed a method to estimate mortality rates of adult fish caused by entrainment through the propellers of commercial towboats operating in river channels. The method combines trawling while following towboats (to recover a fraction of the kills) and application of a hydrodynamic model of diffusion (to estimate the fraction of the total kills collected in the trawls). The sampling problem is unusual and required quantifying relatively rare events. We first examined key statistical properties of the entrainment mortality rate estimators using Monte Carlo simulation, which demonstrated that a design-based estimator and a new ad hoc estimator are both unbiased and converge to the true value as the sample size becomes large. Next, we estimated the entrainment mortality rates of adult fishes in Pool 26 of the Mississippi River and the Alton Pool of the Illinois River, where we observed kills that we attributed to entrainment. Our estimates of entrainment mortality rates were 2.52 fish/km of towboat travel (80% confidence interval, 1.00-6.09 fish/km) for gizzard shad Dorosoma cepedianum, 0.13 fish/km (0.00-0.41) for skipjack herring Alosa chrysochloris, and 0.53 fish/km (0.00-1.33) for both shovelnose sturgeon Scaphirhynchus platorynchus and smallmouth buffalo Ictiobus bubalus. Our approach applies more broadly to commercial vessels operating in confined channels, including other large rivers and intracoastal waterways.

  12. Changes in U.S. Hospitalization and Mortality Rates following Smoking Bans

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shetty, Kanaka D.; DeLeire, Thomas; White, Chapin; Bhattacharya, Jayanta

    2011-01-01

    U.S. state and local governments have increasingly adopted restrictions on smoking in public places. This paper analyzes nationally representative databases, including the Nationwide Inpatient Sample, to compare short-term changes in mortality and hospitalization rates in smoking-restricted regions with control regions. In contrast with smaller…

  13. Mortality rate acceleration and post-reproductive lifespan in matrilineal whale species.

    PubMed

    Foote, Andrew D

    2008-04-23

    The strength of selection to increase the span of a life stage is dependent upon individuals at that stage being able to contribute towards individual fitness and the probability of their surviving to that stage. Complete reproductive cessation and a long post-reproductive female lifespan as found in humans are also found in killer whale (Orcinus orca) and short-finned pilot whale (Globicephala macrorhynchus), but not in the long-finned pilot whale (Globicephala melaena). Each species forms kin-based, stable matrilineal groups and exhibits kin-directed behaviours that could increase inclusive fitness. Here, the initial mortality rate and mortality rate-doubling time of females of these three closely related whale species are compared. The initial mortality rate shows little variation among pilot whale species; however mortality rate accelerates almost twice as fast in the long-finned pilot whale as it does in killer whale and short-finned pilot whale. Selection for a long post-reproductive female lifespan in matrilineal whales may therefore be determined by the proportion of females surviving past the point of reproductive cessation. PMID:18252662

  14. Geostatistical Analysis of County-Level Lung Cancer Mortality Rates in the Southeastern United States

    PubMed Central

    Goovaerts, Pierre

    2009-01-01

    The analysis of health data and putative covariates, such as environmental, socioeconomic, demographic, behavioral, or occupational factors, is a promising application for geostatistics. Transferring methods originally developed for the analysis of earth properties to health science, however, presents several methodological and technical challenges. These arise because health data are typically aggregated over irregular spatial supports (e.g., counties) and consist of a numerator and a denominator (i.e., rates). This article provides an overview of geostatistical methods tailored specifically to the characteristics of areal health data, with an application to lung cancer mortality rates in 688 U.S. counties of the southeast (1970–1994). Factorial Poisson kriging can filter short-scale variation and noise, which can be large in sparsely populated counties, to reveal similar regional patterns for male and female cancer mortality that correlate well with proximity to shipyards. Rate uncertainty was transferred through local cluster analysis using stochastic simulation, allowing the computation of the likelihood of clusters of low or high cancer mortality. Accounting for population size and rate uncertainty led to the detection of new clusters of high mortality around Oak Ridge National Laboratory for both sexes, in counties with high concentrations of pig farms and paper mill industries for males (occupational exposure) and in the vicinity of Atlanta for females. PMID:20445829

  15. Pollution Sources and Mortality Rates across Rural-Urban Areas in the United States

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hendryx, Michael; Fedorko, Evan; Halverson, Joel

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: To conduct an assessment of rural environmental pollution sources and associated population mortality rates. Methods: The design is a secondary analysis of county-level data from the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), Department of Agriculture, National Land Cover Dataset, Energy Information Administration, Centers for Disease Control…

  16. Solid-state track recorder dosimetry device to measure absolute reaction rates and neutron fluence as a function of time

    DOEpatents

    Gold, Raymond; Roberts, James H.

    1989-01-01

    A solid state track recording type dosimeter is disclosed to measure the time dependence of the absolute fission rates of nuclides or neutron fluence over a period of time. In a primary species an inner recording drum is rotatably contained within an exterior housing drum that defines a series of collimating slit apertures overlying windows defined in the stationary drum through which radiation can enter. Film type solid state track recorders are positioned circumferentially about the surface of the internal recording drum to record such radiation or its secondary products during relative rotation of the two elements. In another species both the recording element and the aperture element assume the configuration of adjacent disks. Based on slit size of apertures and relative rotational velocity of the inner drum, radiation parameters within a test area may be measured as a function of time and spectra deduced therefrom.

  17. Mortality rates and risk factors for asymptomatic deep vein thrombosis in medical patients.

    PubMed

    Vaitkus, Paul T; Leizorovicz, Alain; Cohen, Alexander T; Turpie, Alexander G G; Olsson, Carl-Gustav; Goldhaber, Samuel Z

    2005-01-01

    The clinical importance of asymptomatic proximal and distal deep vein thrombosis (DVT) remains uncertain and controversial. The aim of this retrospective, post-hoc analysis was to examine mortality and risk factors for development of proximal DVT in hospitalized patients with acute medical illness who were recruited into a randomized, prospective clinical trial of thromboprophylaxis with dalteparin (PREVENT). We analyzed 1738 patients who had not sustained a symptomatic venous thromboembolic event by Day 21 and who had a complete compression ultrasound of the proximal and distal leg veins on Day 21. We examined the 90-day mortality rates in patients with asymptomatic proximal DVT (Group I, N=80), asymptomatic distal DVT (Group II, N=118) or no DVT (Group III, N=1540). The 90-day mortality rates were 13.75%, 3.39%, and 1.92% for Groups I-III, respectively. The difference in mortality between Group I and Group III was significant (hazard ratio 7.63, 95% CI=3.8-15.3; p <0.0001), whereas the difference between Groups II and III did not reach significance (hazard ratio 1.36, 95% CI=0.41-4.45). The association of asymptomatic proximal DVT with increased mortality remained highly significant after adjusting for differences in baseline demographics and clinical variables. Risk factors significantly associated with the development of proximal DVT included advanced age (p=0.0005), prior DVT (p=0.001), and varicose veins (p=0.04). In conclusion, the high mortality rate in patients with asymptomatic proximal DVT underscores its clinical relevance and supports targeting of asymptomatic proximal DVT as an appropriate endpoint in clinical trials of thromboprophylaxis. PMID:15630494

  18. An Administrative Claims Model for Profiling Hospital 30-Day Mortality Rates for Pneumonia Patients

    PubMed Central

    Bratzler, Dale W.; Normand, Sharon-Lise T.; Wang, Yun; O'Donnell, Walter J.; Metersky, Mark; Han, Lein F.; Rapp, Michael T.; Krumholz, Harlan M.

    2011-01-01

    Background Outcome measures for patients hospitalized with pneumonia may complement process measures in characterizing quality of care. We sought to develop and validate a hierarchical regression model using Medicare claims data that produces hospital-level, risk-standardized 30-day mortality rates useful for public reporting for patients hospitalized with pneumonia. Methodology/Principal Findings Retrospective study of fee-for-service Medicare beneficiaries age 66 years and older with a principal discharge diagnosis of pneumonia. Candidate risk-adjustment variables included patient demographics, administrative diagnosis codes from the index hospitalization, and all inpatient and outpatient encounters from the year before admission. The model derivation cohort included 224,608 pneumonia cases admitted to 4,664 hospitals in 2000, and validation cohorts included cases from each of years 1998–2003. We compared model-derived state-level standardized mortality estimates with medical record-derived state-level standardized mortality estimates using data from the Medicare National Pneumonia Project on 50,858 patients hospitalized from 1998–2001. The final model included 31 variables and had an area under the Receiver Operating Characteristic curve of 0.72. In each administrative claims validation cohort, model fit was similar to the derivation cohort. The distribution of standardized mortality rates among hospitals ranged from 13.0% to 23.7%, with 25th, 50th, and 75th percentiles of 16.5%, 17.4%, and 18.3%, respectively. Comparing model-derived risk-standardized state mortality rates with medical record-derived estimates, the correlation coefficient was 0.86 (Standard Error = 0.032). Conclusions/Significance An administrative claims-based model for profiling hospitals for pneumonia mortality performs consistently over several years and produces hospital estimates close to those using a medical record model. PMID:21532758

  19. Disparities in Cervical Cancer Mortality Rates as Determined by the Longitudinal Hyperbolastic Mixed-Effects Type II Model

    PubMed Central

    Tabatabai, Mohammad A.; Kengwoung-Keumo, Jean-Jacques; Eby, Wayne M.; Bae, Sejong; Guemmegne, Juliette T.; Manne, Upender; Fouad, Mona; Partridge, Edward E.; Singh, Karan P.

    2014-01-01

    Background The main purpose of this study was to model and analyze the dynamics of cervical cancer mortality rates for African American (Black) and White women residing in 13 states located in the eastern half of the United States of America from 1975 through 2010. Methods The cervical cancer mortality rates of the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) were used to model and analyze the dynamics of cervical cancer mortality. A longitudinal hyperbolastic mixed-effects type II model was used to model the cervical cancer mortality data and SAS PROC NLMIXED and Mathematica were utilized to perform the computations. Results Despite decreasing trends in cervical cancer mortality rates for both races, racial disparities in mortality rates still exist. In all 13 states, Black women had higher mortality rates at all times. The degree of disparities and pace of decline in mortality rates over time differed among these states. Determining the paces of decline over 36 years showed that Tennessee had the most rapid decline in cervical cancer mortality for Black women, and Mississippi had the most rapid decline for White Women. In contrast, slow declines in cervical cancer mortality were noted for Black women in Florida and for White women in Maryland. Conclusions In all 13 states, cervical cancer mortality rates for both racial groups have fallen. Disparities in the pace of decline in mortality rates in these states may be due to differences in the rates of screening for cervical cancers. Of note, the gap in cervical cancer mortality rates between Black women and White women is narrowing. PMID:25226583

  20. Wind Speed and Mortality Rate of a Marine Fish, the Northern Anchovy (Engraulis mordax).

    PubMed

    Peterman, R M; Bradford, M J

    1987-01-16

    Large variability in recruitment of marine fishes creates challenging management problems. In northern anchovy (Engraulis mordax), there is a significant linear relation between larval mortality rate and the frequency of calm, low wind speed periods during the spawning season, possibly because calm winds permit maintenance of concentrated patches of larval food. Neither cannibalism on larvae nor offshore transport contributed significantly to interannual variation in early larval mortality. These results are consistent with the hypothesis that wind-driven turbulent mixing affects variability in survival of young fish larvae. However, abundance of recruits does not necessarily reflect abundance of larvae surviving through this early stage. PMID:17750387

  1. Cross-Temporal and Cross-National Poverty and Mortality Rates among Developed Countries

    PubMed Central

    Fritzell, Johan; Kangas, Olli; Bacchus Hertzman, Jennie; Blomgren, Jenni; Hiilamo, Heikki

    2013-01-01

    A prime objective of welfare state activities is to take action to enhance population health and to decrease mortality risks. For several centuries, poverty has been seen as a key social risk factor in these respects. Consequently, the fight against poverty has historically been at the forefront of public health and social policy. The relationship between relative poverty rates and population health indicators is less self-evident, notwithstanding the obvious similarity to the debated topic of the relationship between population health and income inequality. In this study we undertake a comparative analysis of the relationship between relative poverty and mortality across 26 countries over time, with pooled cross-sectional time series analysis. We utilize data from the Luxembourg Income Study to construct age-specific poverty rates across countries and time covering the period from around 1980 to 2005, merged with data on age- and gender-specific mortality data from the Human Mortality Database. Our results suggest not only an impact of relative poverty but also clear differences by welfare regime that partly goes beyond the well-known differences in poverty rates between welfare regimes. PMID:23840235

  2. Intersections of mortality-rate and survival functions: model-independent considerations.

    PubMed

    Hirsch, H R

    1997-01-01

    In work reported previously (Hirsch, 1995), it was shown that families of straight lines intersect at a single point if and only if the slopes of the lines are linearly related to their intercepts. This slope-intercept relation was applied to several mathematical mortality models including the Gompertz-Makeham and the Weibull. In all cases, survival functions intersected at greater ages than the corresponding mortality-rate functions. It was further demonstrated that a common point of intersection can exist for members of a family of survival functions or for members of the corresponding family of mortality-rate functions but not for both. Here the same results are obtained with respect to intersections of general model-independent survival and mortality-rate functions. The generality of the results strengthens the conclusion reached earlier that these intersections imply only the existence of a valid slope-intercept relation and have little other significance with regard to the biology of aging. PMID:9193896

  3. Health Human Capital in Sub-Saharan Africa: Conflicting Evidence from Infant Mortality Rates and Adult Heights

    PubMed Central

    Akachi, Yoko; Canning, David

    2011-01-01

    We investigate trends in cohort infant mortality rates and adult heights in 39 developing countries since 1960. In most regions of the world improved nutrition, and reduced childhood exposure to disease, have lead to improvements in both infant mortality and adult stature. In Sub-Saharan Africa, however, despite declining infant mortality rates, adult heights have not increased. We argue that in Sub-Saharan Africa the decline in infant mortality may have been due to interventions that prevent infant deaths rather than improved nutrition and childhood morbidity. Despite declining infant mortality, Sub-Saharan Africa may not be experiencing increases in health human capital. PMID:20634153

  4. Heart Rate at Hospital Discharge in Patients With Heart Failure Is Associated With Mortality and Rehospitalization

    PubMed Central

    Laskey, Warren K.; Alomari, Ihab; Cox, Margueritte; Schulte, Phillip J.; Zhao, Xin; Hernandez, Adrian F.; Heidenreich, Paul A.; Eapen, Zubin J.; Yancy, Clyde; Bhatt, Deepak L.; Fonarow, Gregg C.

    2015-01-01

    Background Whether heart rate upon discharge following hospitalization for heart failure is associated with long‐term adverse outcomes and whether this association differs between patients with sinus rhythm (SR) and atrial fibrillation (AF) have not been well studied. Methods and Results We conducted a retrospective cohort study from clinical registry data linked to Medicare claims for 46 217 patients participating in Get With The Guidelines®–Heart Failure. Cox proportional‐hazards models were used to estimate the association between discharge heart rate and all‐cause mortality, all‐cause readmission, and the composite outcome of mortality/readmission through 1 year. For SR and AF patients with heart rate ≥75, the association between heart rate and mortality (expressed as hazard ratio [HR] per 10 beats‐per‐minute increment) was significant at 0 to 30 days (SR: HR 1.30, 95% CI 1.22 to 1.39; AF: HR 1.23, 95% CI 1.16 to 1.29) and 31 to 365 days (SR: HR 1.15, 95% CI 1.12 to 1.20; AF: HR 1.05, 95% CI 1.01 to 1.08). Similar associations between heart rate and all‐cause readmission and the composite outcome were obtained for SR and AF patients from 0 to 30 days but only in the composite outcome for SR patients over the longer term. The HR from 0 to 30 days exceeded that from 31 to 365 days for both SR and AF patients. At heart rates <75, an association was significant for mortality only for both SR and AF patients. Conclusions Among older patients hospitalized with heart failure, higher discharge heart rate was associated with increased risks of death and rehospitalization, with higher risk in the first 30 days and for SR compared with AF. PMID:25904590

  5. Absolute Humidity and the Seasonality of Influenza (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shaman, J. L.; Pitzer, V.; Viboud, C.; Grenfell, B.; Goldstein, E.; Lipsitch, M.

    2010-12-01

    Much of the observed wintertime increase of mortality in temperate regions is attributed to seasonal influenza. A recent re-analysis of laboratory experiments indicates that absolute humidity strongly modulates the airborne survival and transmission of the influenza virus. Here we show that the onset of increased wintertime influenza-related mortality in the United States is associated with anomalously low absolute humidity levels during the prior weeks. We then use an epidemiological model, in which observed absolute humidity conditions temper influenza transmission rates, to successfully simulate the seasonal cycle of observed influenza-related mortality. The model results indicate that direct modulation of influenza transmissibility by absolute humidity alone is sufficient to produce this observed seasonality. These findings provide epidemiological support for the hypothesis that absolute humidity drives seasonal variations of influenza transmission in temperate regions. In addition, we show that variations of the basic and effective reproductive numbers for influenza, caused by seasonal changes in absolute humidity, are consistent with the general timing of pandemic influenza outbreaks observed for 2009 A/H1N1 in temperate regions. Indeed, absolute humidity conditions correctly identify the region of the United States vulnerable to a third, wintertime wave of pandemic influenza. These findings suggest that the timing of pandemic influenza outbreaks is controlled by a combination of absolute humidity conditions, levels of susceptibility and changes in population mixing and contact rates.

  6. Is Self-Rated Health an Independent Index for Mortality among Older People in Indonesia?

    PubMed Central

    Ng, Nawi; Hakimi, Mohammad; Santosa, Ailiana; Byass, Peter; Wilopo, Siswanto Agus; Wall, Stig

    2012-01-01

    Background Empirical studies on the association between self-rated health (SRH) and subsequent mortality are generally lacking in low- and middle-income countries. The evidence on whether socio-economic status and education modify this association is inconsistent. This study aims to fill these gaps using longitudinal data from a Health and Demographic Surveillance System (HDSS) site in Indonesia. Methods In 2010, we assessed the mortality status of 11,753 men and women aged 50+ who lived in Purworejo HDSS and participated in the INDEPTH WHO SAGE baseline in 2007. Information on self-rated health, socio-demographic indicators, disability and chronic disease were collected through face-to-face interview at baseline. We used Cox-proportional hazards regression for mortality and included all variables measured at baseline, including interaction terms between SRH and both education and socio-economic status (SES). Results During an average of 36 months follow-up, 11% of men and 9.5% of women died, resulting in death rates of 3.1 and 2.6 per 1,000 person-months, respectively. The age-adjusted Hazard Ratio (HR) for mortality was 17% higher in men than women (HR = 1.17; 95% CI = 1.04–1.31). After adjustment for covariates, the hazard ratios for mortality in men and women reporting bad health were 3.0 (95% CI = 2.0–4.4) and 4.9 (95% CI = 3.2–7.4), respectively. Education and SES did not modify this association for either sex. Conclusions This study supports the predictive power of bad self-rated health for subsequent mortality in rural Indonesian men and women 50 years old and over. In these analyses, education and household socio-economic status do not modify the relationship between SRH and mortality. This means that older people who rate their own health poorly should be an important target group for health service interventions. PMID:22523584

  7. The reaction H + C4H2 - Absolute rate constant measurement and implication for atmospheric modeling of Titan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nava, D. F.; Mitchell, M. B.; Stief, L. J.

    1986-04-01

    The absolute rate constant for the reaction H + C4H2 has been measured over the temperature (T) interval 210-423 K, using the technique of flash photolysis-resonance fluorescence. At each of the five temperatures employed, the results were independent of variations in C4H2 concentration, total pressure of Ar or N2, and flash intensity (i.e., the initial H concentration). The rate constant, k, was found to be equal to 1.39 x 10 to the -10th exp (-1184/T) cu cm/s, with an error of one standard deviation. The Arrhenius parameters at the high pressure limit determined here for the H + C4H2 reaction are consistent with those for the corresponding reactions of H with C2H2 and C3H4. Implications of the kinetic carbon chemistry results, particularly those at low temperature, are considered for models of the atmospheric carbon chemistry of Titan. The rate of this reaction, relative to that of the analogous, but slower, reaction of H + C2H2, appears to make H + C4H2 a very feasible reaction pathway for effective conversion of H atoms to molecular hydrogen in the stratosphere of Titan.

  8. Pressure dependence of the absolute rate constant for the reaction OH + C2H2 from 228 to 413K

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Michael, J. V.; Nava, D. F.; Borokowski, R. P.; Payne, W. A.; Stief, L. J.

    1980-01-01

    The pressure dependence of absolute rate constants for the reaction of OH + C2H2 yields products has been examined at five temperatures ranging from 228 to 413 K. The experimental techniques which was used is flash photolysis-resonance fluoresence. OH was produced by water photolysis and hydroxyl resonance fluorescent photons were measured by multiscaling techniques. The results indicate that the low pressure bimolecular rate constant is 4 x 10 the the minus 13th power cu cm molecule (-1) s(-1) over the temperature range studied. A substantial increase in the bimolecular rate constant with an increase in pressure was observed at all temperatures except 228 K. This indicates the importance of initial adduct formation and subsequent stablization. The high pressure results are well represented by the Arrhenius expression (k sub bi) sub infinity = (6.83 + or - 1.19) x 10 to the minus 12th power exp(-646 + or - 47/T)cu cm molecule (-1) s(-1). The results are compared to previous investigated and are theoretically discussed. The implications of these results on modeling of terrestrial and planetary atmospheres and also in combustion chemistry are discussed.

  9. An ecological analysis of PM2.5 concentrations and lung cancer mortality rates in China

    PubMed Central

    Fu, Jingying; Jiang, Dong; Lin, Gang; Liu, Kun; Wang, Qiao

    2015-01-01

    Objective To explore the association between Particulate Matter (PM)2.5 (particles with an aerodynamic diameter less than 2.5 µm) and lung cancer mortality rates and to estimate the potential risk of lung cancer mortality related to exposure to high PM2.5 concentrations. Design Geographically weighted regression was performed to evaluate the relation between PM2.5 concentrations and lung cancer mortality for males, females and for both sexes combined, in 2008, based on newly available long-term data. Lung cancer fatalities from long-term exposure to PM2.5 were calculated according to studies by Pope III et al and the WHO air quality guidelines (AQGs). Setting 31 provinces in China. Results PM2.5 was associated with the lung cancer mortality of males, females and both sexes combined, in China, although there were exceptions in several regions, for males and females. The number of lung cancer fatalities calculated by the WHO AQGs ranged from 531 036 to 532 004, whereas the number calculated by the American Cancer Society (ACS) reached 614 860 after long-term (approximately 3–4 years) exposure to PM2.5 concentrations since 2008. Conclusions There is a positive correlation between PM2.5 and lung cancer mortality rate, and the relationship between them varies across the entire country of China. The number of lung cancer fatalities estimated by ACS was closer to the actual data than those of the WHO AQGs. Therefore, the ACS estimate of increased risk of lung cancer mortality from long-term exposure to PM2.5 might be more applicable for evaluating lung cancer fatalities in China than the WHO estimate. PMID:26603253

  10. A rare gas optics-free absolute photon flux and energy analyzer to provide absolute photoionization rates of inflowing interstellar neutrals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Judge, Darrell L.

    1994-01-01

    A prototype spectrometer has been developed for space applications requiring long term absolute EUV photon flux measurements. The energy spectrum of the incoming photons is transformed directly into an electron energy spectrum by taking advantage of the photoelectric effect in one of several rare gases at low pressures. Using an electron energy spectrometer, followed by an electron multiplier detector, pulses due to individual electrons are counted. The overall efficiency of this process can be made essentially independent of gain drifts in the signal path, and the secular degradation of optical components which is often a problem in other techniques is avoided. A very important feature of this approach is its freedom from the problem of overlapping spectral orders that plagues grating EUV spectrometers. An instrument with these features has not been flown before, but is essential to further advances in our understanding of solar EUV flux dynamics, and the coupled dynamics of terrestrial and planetary atmospheres. The detailed characteristics of this optics-free spectrometer are presented in the publications section.

  11. Data, collaboration reduce sepsis mortality rates, improve use of ICU resources.

    PubMed

    2016-01-01

    Two different hospital systems have made sizable dents in their sepsis mortality rates through a collaborative process between emergency and ICU staff. At Northwest Hospital in Randallstown, MD, success occurred, in part, by lowering the threshold for transfer of emergency patients with signs of sepsis to the ICU. Voorhees, NJ-based Kennedy Health has lowered sepsis mortality rates by taking steps to integrate the care of sepsis patients between the ED and the ICU, and slashing the time required to deliver bundle-oriented care. Research conducted at Northwest Hospital shows that sepsis mortality decreased by nearly half, going from 14.38% before intervention to 7.85% following implementation of the lower ICU thresholds. Clinical leaders at Kennedy Health report that they have lowered sepsis mortality from the mid-20% range to less than 12% through a collaborative approach involving all stakeholders. Sources from both hospitals stress the importance of using data to achieve buy-in to improvement efforts, and giving interventions enough time to take hold. PMID:26731929

  12. Growth and mortality rates of bigeye tuna Thunnus obesus (Perciformes: Scombridae) in the central Atlantic Ocean.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Guoping; Xu, Liuxiong; Zhou, Yingqi; Chen, Xinjun

    2009-01-01

    Age and growth parameters were estimated for bigeye tuna Thunnus obesus Lowe, 1839 sampled from China longline fisheries in the central Atlantic Ocean from October 2002 to July 2003 and from August 2004 to March 2005. The von Bertalanffy growth parameters were estimated at L(infinity)=217.9 cm fork length, k=0.23 year(-1), and t(0)=-0.44 year. The total mortality rate (Z) was estimated to be from 0.82 to 1.02, the fishing mortality (F) and the natural mortality were 0.54 year(-1) and 0.39 year(-1), respectively. The exploitation ratio (E) was 0.35. This study provides the detailed estimates of growth and mortality rate for bigeye tuna in the central Atlantic Ocean, which can be used as biological input parameters in further stock evaluations in this region. However, age analysis, additional validation of the size composition and stock structure are needed for future studies. PMID:19637690

  13. Apparent climatically induced increase of tree mortality rates in a temperate forest

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    van Mantgem, P.J.; Stephenson, N.L.

    2007-01-01

    We provide a first detailed analysis of long-term, annual-resolution demographic trends in a temperate forest. After tracking the fates of 21 338 trees in a network of old-growth forest plots in the Sierra Nevada of California, we found that mortality rate, but not the recruitment rate, increased significantly over the 22 years of measurement (1983-2004). Mortality rates increased in both of two dominant taxonomic groups (Abies and Pinus) and in different forest types (different elevational zones). The increase in overall mortality rate resulted from an increase in tree deaths attributed to stress and biotic causes, and coincided with a temperature-driven increase in an index of drought. Our findings suggest that these forests (and by implication, other water-limited forests) may be sensitive to temperature-driven drought stress, and may be poised for die-back if future climates continue to feature rising temperatures without compensating increases in precipitation. ?? 2007 Blackwell Publishing Ltd/CNRS.

  14. Larval mortality rates and population dynamics of Lesser Sandeel ( Ammodytes marinus) in the northwestern North Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heath, Michael R.; Rasmussen, Jens; Bailey, Martin C.; Dunn, John; Fraser, John; Gallego, Alejandro; Hay, Stephen J.; Inglis, Michelle; Robinson, Susan

    2012-05-01

    Intense fishing of a stock of sandeels ( Ammodytes marinus) on the sand banks off the Firth of Forth, northeast Scotland, during the 1990s led to a decline in catch per unit effort to uneconomic levels and collateral failures of piscivorous seabird breeding success at nearby colonies. A prohibition on fishing in 1999 was followed by a short-term recovery of stock biomass, but then a sustained decline to very low levels of abundance. Demographic survey data show that despite the decline in stock, recruit abundance was maintained implying an increasing larval survival rate, and that the stock decline was not due to recruitment failure. To verify this hypothesis we analysed a 10-year long data set of weekly catches of sandeel larvae at a nearby plankton monitoring site to determine the patterns of larval mortality and dispersal. We found that the loss rate of larvae up to 20 d age decreased over time, corresponding with the trend in survival rate implied by the stock demography data. The pattern of loss rate in relation to hatchling abundance implied that mortality may have been density dependent. Our study rules out increased larval mortality as the primary cause of decline in the sandeel stock.

  15. Resting heart rate as a prognostic factor for mortality in patients with breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Lee, Dong Hoon; Park, Seho; Lim, Sung Mook; Lee, Mi Kyung; Giovannucci, Edward L; Kim, Joo Heung; Kim, Seung Il; Jeon, Justin Y

    2016-09-01

    Although elevated resting heart rate (RHR) has been shown to be associated with mortality in the general population and patients with certain diseases, no study has examined this association in patients with breast cancer. A total of 4786 patients with stage I-III breast cancer were retrospectively selected from the Severance hospital breast cancer registry in Seoul, Korea. RHR was measured at baseline and the mean follow-up time for all patients was 5.0 ± 2.5 years. Hazard ratios (HRs) with 95 % confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated using Cox regression models. After adjustment for prognostic factors, patients in the highest quintile of RHR (≥85 beat per minute (bpm)) had a significantly higher risk of all-cause mortality (HR: 1.57; 95 %CI 1.05-2.35), breast cancer-specific mortality (HR: 1.69; 95 %CI 1.07-2.68), and cancer recurrence (HR: 1.49; 95 %CI 0.99-2.25), compared to those in the lowest quintile (≤67 bpm). Moreover, every 10 bpm increase in RHR was associated with 15, 22, and 6 % increased risk of all-cause mortality, breast cancer-specific mortality, and cancer recurrence, respectively. However, the association between RHR and cancer recurrence was not statistically significant (p = 0.26). Elevated RHR was associated with an increased risk of mortality in patients with breast cancer. The findings from this study suggest that RHR may be used as a prognostic factor for patients with breast cancer in clinical settings. PMID:27544225

  16. Sex ratio at birth and mortality rates are negatively related in humans.

    PubMed

    Dama, Madhukar Shivajirao

    2011-01-01

    Evolutionary theory posits that resource availability and parental investment ability could signal offspring sex selection, in order to maximize reproductive returns. Non-human studies have provided evidence for this phenomenon, and maternal condition around the time of conception has been identified as most important factor that influence offspring sex selection. However, studies on humans have reported inconsistent results, mostly due to use of disparate measures as indicators of maternal condition. In the present study, the cross-cultural differences in human natal sex ratio were analyzed with respect to indirect measures of condition namely, life expectancy and mortality rate. Multiple regression modeling suggested that mortality rates have distinct predictive power independent of cross-cultural differences in fertility, wealth and latitude that were earlier shown to predict sex ratio at birth. These findings suggest that sex ratio variation in humans may relate to differences in parental and environmental conditions. PMID:21887320

  17. Sex Ratio at Birth and Mortality Rates Are Negatively Related in Humans

    PubMed Central

    Dama, Madhukar Shivajirao

    2011-01-01

    Evolutionary theory posits that resource availability and parental investment ability could signal offspring sex selection, in order to maximize reproductive returns. Non-human studies have provided evidence for this phenomenon, and maternal condition around the time of conception has been identified as most important factor that influence offspring sex selection. However, studies on humans have reported inconsistent results, mostly due to use of disparate measures as indicators of maternal condition. In the present study, the cross-cultural differences in human natal sex ratio were analyzed with respect to indirect measures of condition namely, life expectancy and mortality rate. Multiple regression modeling suggested that mortality rates have distinct predictive power independent of cross-cultural differences in fertility, wealth and latitude that were earlier shown to predict sex ratio at birth. These findings suggest that sex ratio variation in humans may relate to differences in parental and environmental conditions. PMID:21887320

  18. Simultaneous estimates of synechococcus spp. Growth and grazing mortality rates in the English Channel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ning, Xiu-Ren; Vaulot, Daniel

    1996-03-01

    The marine chroococooid phycoerythrin-containing Synechococcus spp. cyanobacterium has been implicated as a substantial component of the photosynthetic picoplankton in the ocean. Although its importance as food source for heterotrophic nanoplankton is now recognized, information about the cycling of Synechococcus biomass and its diel pattern is limited and study methodology varies among authors. The selective metabolic inhibitor method was used to simultaneously estimate growth and grazing disappearance rates of Synechococcus in the English Channel where growth rates ranged from 0.25 to 0.72/d (mean ±SD=0.51±0.17/d) and grazing mortality rates ranged from 0.19 to 0.64/d (mean ±SD=0.48±0.17/d). Size-fractionated experiments demonstrated that up to 70% of Synechococcus disappearance could be attributed to grazers going through a 2 μm Nuclepore filter. Synechococcus grazing mortality rates (mean=0.74 ±0.25/d) during the day were always higher than that (mean=0.2±0.20/d) during the night, while growth rates showed no clear diel pattern. A positive correlation was observed between growth rates and in situ temperature ranging from 9 to 17°C, while in contrast grazing was independent of temperature. The close similatiry between average growth and grazing rates suggests a rapid recycling of Synechococcus biomass in English Channel coastal waters.

  19. Abnormal Heart Rate Turbulence Predicts Cardiac Mortality in Low, Intermediate and High Risk Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    Stein, Phyllis K.; Barzilay, Joshua I.

    2011-01-01

    Introduction We examined whether heart rate turbulence (HRT) adds to traditional risk factors for cardiac mortality in older adults at low, intermediate and high risk. Methods and Results N=1298, age ≥65 years, with 24-hour Holter recordings were studied. HRT, which quantifies heart rate response to ventricular premature contractions, was categorized as: both turbulence onset (TO) and turbulence slope (TS) normal; TO abnormal; TS abnormal; or both abnormal. Independent risks for cardiac mortality associated with HRT or, for comparison, elevated C-reactive protein (CRP) (>3.0 mg/L), were calculated using Cox regression analysis adjusted for traditional cardiovascular disease risk factors and stratified by the presence of no, isolated subclinical (i.e., intermediate risk) or clinical CVD. Having both TS and TO abnormal compared to both normal was associated with cardiac mortality in the low risk group [HR 7.9, 95% CI 2.8–22.5, (p<0.001)]. In the high and intermediate risk groups, abnormal TS and TO ([HR 2.2, 95% CI 1.5–4.0, p=0.016] and [HR 2.7, 95% CI 1.2–5.9, p=0.012]), respectively, were also significantly associated with cardiac mortality. In contrast, elevated CRP was associated with increased cardiac mortality risk only in low risk individuals [HR 2.5, 95% CI 1.3–5.1, p=0.009]. In the low risk group, the c-statistic was 0.706 for the base model, 0.725 for the base model with CRP, and 0.767 for the base model with HRT. Conclusions Abnormal HRT independently adds to risk stratification of low, intermediate and high risk individuals but appears to add especially to the stratification of those considered at low risk. PMID:21134026

  20. Significantly Increased Medical Expenditure on Breast Cancer Failing to Bring Down Its Mortality and Incidence Rate

    PubMed Central

    Ho, Ming-Lin; Liaw, Yung-Po; Lai, Chien-Hsu; Chen, Yen-Yu; Tsai, Horng-Der; Chou, Ming-Chih; Hsiao, Yi-Hsuan

    2013-01-01

    Background: The direct impact of medical expenses on breast cancer incidence and mortality rate has not been sufficiently addressed. The purpose of this study is to investigate the potential correlation between the incidence and mortality rate of breast cancer and the medical expenses in Taiwan. Materials and Methods: Breast cancer cases were identified from the National Health Insurance Research Database (NHIRD) with corresponding to International Classification of Diseases, and the Ninth Revision (ICD-9) code 174, 1740-1749, 175, 1750 and 1759 from January 1999 to December 2006. Age-specific incidences were estimated by population data obtained from the Department of Statistics, Ministry of the Interior. Medical expenses, including outpatient and inpatient services, were also retrieved from the NHIRD. Results: The incidence increased from 20.06 per 100,000 in 1999 to 30.34 per 100,000 in 2006; the total expenses increased from 1,449,333,521 in 1999 to 4,350,400,592 Taiwan dollars in 2006. The age-standardized mortality rate for female breast cancer remained essentially unchanged, while the age-standardized incidence increased steadily (except 2002-2003). Among the top 20 coexisting ICD-9 codes for expenses, four are directly on cancers, while 16 are on other diseases or symptoms, which are not necessarily caused by breast cancer. Conclusions: Significantly increased medical expenditure on breast cancer failed to bring down its mortality and incidence rate. The finding has implications for healthcare policy planners in proposing strategies for breast cancer control and allocating the resources. PMID:23983817

  1. Hepatic Parenchymal Preservation Surgery: Decreasing Morbidity and Mortality Rates in 4,152 Resections for Malignancy

    PubMed Central

    Kingham, T Peter; Correa-Gallego, Camilo; D'Angelica, Michael I; Gönen, Mithat; DeMatteo, Ronald P; Fong, Yuman; Allen, Peter J; Blumgart, Leslie H; Jarnagin, William R

    2015-01-01

    Background Liver resection is used to treat primary and secondary malignancies. Historically, these procedures were associated with significant complications, which may affect cancer-specific outcome. This study analyzes the changes in morbidity and mortality after hepatic resection over time. Study Design Records of all patients undergoing liver resection for a malignant diagnosis from 1993 to 2012 at Memorial Sloan Kettering were analyzed. Patients were divided into early (1993-1999), middle (2000-2006), and recent (2007-2012) eras. Major hepatectomy was defined as resection of 3 or more segments. Univariate and multivariate analyses were made with t-tests or Mann-Whitney tests. Results 3,875 patients underwent 4,152 resections for malignancy. The most common diagnosis was metastatic colorectal cancer (n=2,476, 64% of patients). Over the study period, 90-day mortality rate decreased from 5% to 1.6% (p<0.001). Perioperative morbidity decreased from 53% to 20% (p<0.001). The percentage of major hepatectomies decreased from 66% to 36% (p<0.001). The rate of perioperative transfusion decreased from 51% to 21% (p<0.001). The spectrum of perioperative morbidity changed markedly over time, with abdominal infections (43% of complications) overtaking cardiopulmonary complications (22% of complications). Peak postoperative bilirubin (OR 1.1, p<0.001), blood loss (OR 1.5, p=0.001), major hepatectomy (OR 1.3, p=0.031), and concurrent partial colectomy (OR 2.4, p<0.001) were independent predictors of perioperative morbidity. The mortality associated with trisectionectomy (6%) and right hepatectomy (3%) remained unchanged over time. Conclusions Morbidity and mortality rates after partial hepatectomy for cancer have decreased substantially as the major hepatectomy rate dropped. Encouraging parenchymal preservation and preventing abdominal infections are vital for continued improvement of liver resection outcomes. PMID:25667141

  2. Chemical characterization of indoor air of homes from communes in Xuan Wei, China, with high lung cancer mortality rates

    EPA Science Inventory

    In a rural county, Xuan Wei, China, the lung cancer mortality rate is among China's highest, especially in women. This mortality rate is more associated with indoor air burning of smoky coal, as opposed to smokeless coal or wood, for cooking and heating under unvented conditions....

  3. Changes and determinants in under-five mortality rate in Turkey since 1988.

    PubMed

    Yalçin, S Songül; Tezel, Başak; Köse, Mehmet Rifat; Tugay, Deniz; Mollahaliloğlu, Salih; Erkoç, Yasin

    2013-06-01

    Child survival is the focus of the fourth Millenium Developmental Goal (MDG4). This paper describes levels, trends, and differentials in Under-Five Mortality Rate (U5MR) and also summarizes state programmes in Turkey between 1988 and 2010. Turkey is among only a few countries that have already surpassed MDG4 and have reduced their under-five mortality rate by more than two-thirds. In 2010, 13 out of every 1,000 children died before their fifth birthday. Low birth weight, high-birth order, short birth intervals, rural residence, low level of maternal education and lowest wealth quintile have affected negatively children's chances of survival. Expanding the scope of free vaccination programmes for children, improving screening and disease prevention schemes aimed at children, encouraging breastfeeding, implementing an emergency obstetric care programme, improving the services provided to newborns (a newborn intensive care programme) have brought about a significant decrease in the rate of infant and under-five mortality. The implementation of state and region specific action plans should be necessary to increase the chance of an access to the Continuum of Care for each mother and infant and to surpass MDG4. PMID:24053063

  4. Exacerbation rate, health status and mortality in COPD – a review of potential interventions

    PubMed Central

    Seemungal, Terence AR; Hurst, John R; Wedzicha, Jadwiga A

    2009-01-01

    COPD is prevalent in Western society and its incidence is rising in the developing world. Acute exacerbations of COPD, about 50% of which are unreported, lead to deterioration in quality of life and contribute significantly to disease burden. Quality of life deteriorates with time; thus, most of the health burden occurs in more severe disease. COPD severity and frequent and more severe exacerbations are all related to an increased risk of mortality. Inhaled corticosteroids (ICS) have similar effects on quality of life but ICS/long-acting bronchodilator combinations and the long-acting antimuscarinic tiotropium all improve health status and exacerbation rates and are likely to have an effect on mortality but perhaps only with prolonged use. Erythromycin has been shown to decrease the rate of COPD exacerbations. Pulmonary rehabilitation and regular physical activity are indicated in all severities of COPD and improve quality of life. Noninvasive ventilation is associated with improved quality of life. Long-term oxygen therapy improves mortality but only in hypoxic COPD patients. The choice of an inhaler device is a key component of COPD therapy and this requires more attention from physicians than perhaps we are aware of. Disease management programs, characterized as they are by patient centeredness, improve quality of life and decrease hospitalization rates. Most outcomes in COPD can be modified by interventions and these are well tolerated and have acceptable safety profiles. PMID:19554195

  5. Geomagnetic storms link to the mortality rate in the Smolyan region for the period 1988--2009

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simeonova, Siyka G. 1; Georgieva, Radostina C. 2; Dimitrova, Boryana H. 2; Slavcheva, Radka G. 2; Kerimova, Bojena P. 2; Georgiev, Tsvetan B. 34

    We present correlations and trends of 10 parameters of annual mortality rate (1 to common mortality rate, 5 to cardiovascular reasons and 4 to "accidental" reasons (car accidents, suicides, infections)) with respect to 6 parameters of annual solar and geomagnetic activity (Wolf index, number of geomagnetic storms, duration of the storms, amplitude of the storms). During the period of observation, characterized by a 3-4-fold decrease of the mean geomagnetic activity (in terms of the number and the duration of the storms) and with a strong variations of the amplitude of the storms (about an almost constant mean values for the period), there is a 1.3-fold decrease in the urban population, a 1.5-fold increase of the common mortality rate, a 1.8-fold increase of the cardiovascular mortality rate and a 1.1-fold decrease of the "accidental" mortality rates. During the years 2003-2005 we observe about 2-fold temporary increase in the storm amplitudes. During the years 2007-2008, characterized by extremely low geomagnetic activity, we observe a surprising temporary increase of the common and the cardiovascular mortality rates 1.1 and 1.3-fold, respectively (Figures 1-4). We point out 3 main results. (1) The available data shows notable increase in the mortality rates while there is generally a decrease of the solar or geomagnetic activity during the studied period (Figures 5-9). We explain this anti-correlation with the domination of the increasing mortality rates as an effect of the advance in the mean age of the population (due to immigration of young people and decrease of new-borns), hiding an eventual display of the solar and geomagnetic influence on the mortality rates. Using this data we can not reveal influence of the long-time (10-20 years) change of the average solar and geomagnetic activity on the mortality rate. (2) Excluding the unusual years 2007 and 2008, we establish that with respect to the years with low geomagnetic activity (1993, 1995, 1996, 1999), in

  6. Reducing high maternal mortality rates in western China: a novel approach.

    PubMed

    Gyaltsen Gongque Jianzan, Kunchok; Gyal Li Xianjia, Lhusham; Gipson, Jessica D; Kyi Cai Rangji, Tsering; Pebley, Anne R

    2014-11-01

    Among the Millennium Development Goals, maternal mortality reduction has proven especially difficult to achieve. Unlike many countries, China is on track to meeting these goals on a national level, through a programme of institutionalizing deliveries. Nonetheless, in rural, disadvantaged, and ethnically diverse areas of western China, maternal mortality rates remain high. To reduce maternal mortality in western China, we developed and implemented a three-level approach as part of a collaboration between a regional university, a non-profit organization, and local health authorities. Through formative research, we identified seven barriers to hospital delivery in a rural Tibetan county of Qinghai Province: (1) difficulty in travel to hospitals; (2) hospitals lack accommodation for accompanying families; (3) the cost of hospital delivery; (4) language and cultural barriers; (5) little confidence in western medicine; (6) discrepancy in views of childbirth; and (7) few trained community birth attendants. We implemented a three-level intervention: (a) an innovative Tibetan birth centre, (b) a community midwife programme, and (c) peer education of women. The programme appears to be reaching a broad cross-section of rural women. Multilevel, locally-tailored approaches may be essential to reduce maternal mortality in rural areas of western China and other countries with substantial regional, socioeconomic, and ethnic diversity. PMID:25555773

  7. Temporal Trends in Incidence and Mortality Rates for Colorectal Cancer by Tumor Location: 1975–2007

    PubMed Central

    Scoggins, John; Rossing, Mary Anne; Li, Christopher I.; Newcomb, Polly A.

    2012-01-01

    Objectives. We evaluated changes in colorectal cancer (CRC) incidence and mortality by anatomic site to assess the possible impact of CRC screening. Methods. Using data from 9 Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results cancer registries, we estimated trends in 1975–2007 CRC incidence and 1985–2007 incidence-based mortality. We evaluated trends separately for proximal and distal CRC, overall and by stage, tumor site, and race. Results. Between 1975 and 2007, 323 237 adults in the study area were diagnosed with CRC. For most tumor and population subgroups, incidence rates increased between 1975 and 1985 and subsequently declined markedly. Declines were most rapid between 1999 and 2007 and were greater for distal than proximal CRC. Declines in incidence were greater for White than Black adults and greatest for regional-stage disease. There was little difference in trends across subsites within the proximal and distal colorectum. Declines in incidence-based mortality mirrored those for incidence. Conclusions. Recent declines in CRC incidence and mortality are greater for distal than proximal CRC. Differing trends across populations may reflect variations in screening prevalence; distinct trends by tumor characteristics likely reflect differences in screening efficacy. PMID:22873481

  8. Cause-specific mortality rates in sub-Saharan Africa and Bangladesh.

    PubMed Central

    Adjuik, Martin; Smith, Tom; Clark, Sam; Todd, Jim; Garrib, Anu; Kinfu, Yohannes; Kahn, Kathy; Mola, Mitiki; Ashraf, Ali; Masanja, Honorati; Adazu, Kubaje; Adazu, Ubaje; Sacarlal, Jahit; Alam, Nurul; Marra, Adama; Gbangou, Adjima; Mwageni, Eleuther; Binka, Fred

    2006-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To provide internationally comparable data on the frequencies of different causes of death. METHODS: We analysed verbal autopsies obtained during 1999 -2002 from 12 demographic surveillance sites in sub-Saharan Africa and Bangladesh to find cause-specific and age-specific mortality rates. The cause-of-death codes used by the sites were harmonized to conform to the ICD-10 system, and summarized with the classification system of the Global Burden of Disease 2000 (Version 2). FINDINGS: Causes of death in the African sites differ strongly from those in Bangladesh, where there is some evidence of a health transition from communicable to noncommunicable diseases, and little malaria. HIV dominates in causes of mortality in the South African sites, which contrast with those in highly malaria endemic sites elsewhere in sub-Saharan Africa (even in neighbouring Mozambique). The contributions of measles and diarrhoeal diseases to mortality in sub-Saharan Africa are lower than has been previously suggested, while malaria is of relatively greater importance. CONCLUSION: The different patterns of mortality we identified may be a result of recent changes in the availability and effectiveness of health interventions against childhood cluster diseases. PMID:16583076

  9. Disentangling effects of vector birth rate, mortality rate, and abundance on spread of a plant pathogen

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    For insect-transmitted plant pathogens, rates of pathogen spread are a function of vector abundance. While vector abundance is recognized to be important, parameters that govern vector population size receive little attention. For example, epidemiological models often fix vector population size by a...

  10. Continuous, online measurement of the absolute plasma refill rate during hemodialysis using feedback regulated ultrafiltration: preliminary results.

    PubMed

    Brummelhuis, Walter J; van Schelven, Leonard J; Boer, Walther H

    2008-01-01

    Methods to continuously measure absolute refill during dialysis are not available. It would be useful to have such a method because it would allow investigating the mechanism of refill the effect of interventions. We designed a feedback algorithm that adjusts ultrafiltration rate (QUF) according to hemoglobin (Hb) concentration changes in such a way that relative blood volume (BV) remains constant within a narrow target range. In this situation, the generated QUF quantitatively reflects refill. Refill patterns were studied in five hypotension prone patients. In addition, on separate occasions, we studied the effect of antiembolism stockings (AES) and infusion of hydroxy-ethylated starch (HAES) on refill in these patients. Refill during the first hour fell significantly from 21 +/- 3 ml/min to 9 +/- 2 ml/min (p < 0.05). In the second hour, refill decreased further and became zero in four out of five patients. Neither AES nor HAES measurably affected refill. The marked and rapid fall in refill in the early stages of dialysis suggests untimely depletion of the interstitial compartment and underestimation of dry weight. We propose that continuous, online measurement of refill patterns may be of value for accurate estimation of dry weight in dialysis patients. PMID:18204322

  11. Mortality rate estimation for eelgrass Zostera marina (Potamogetonaceae) using projections from Leslie matrices.

    PubMed

    Flores Uzeta, Olga; Solana Arellano, Elena; Echavarría Heras, Héctor

    2008-09-01

    The main goal of this study is to provide estimations of mean mortality rate of vegetative shoots of the seagrass Zostera marina in a meadow near Ensenada Baja California, using a technique that minimizes destructive sampling. Using cohorts and Leslie matrices, three life tables were constructed, each representing a season within the period of monthly sampling (April 1999 to April 2000). Ages for the cohorts were established in terms of Plastochrone Interval (PI). The matrices were projected through time to estimate the mean total number of individuals at time t, n(t) as well as mortality. We found no statistical differences between observed and predicted mean values for these variables (t = -0.11, p = 0.92 for n(t) and t = 0.69, p = 0.5 for mean rate of mortality). We found high correlation coefficient values between observed and projected values for monthly number of individuals (r = 0.70, p = 0.007) and monthly mortality rates (r = 0.81, p = 0.001). If at a certain time t a sudden environmental change occurs, and as long as the perturbation does not provoke the killing of all the individuals of a given age i for 0 < or = i < or = x - 1, there will be a prevailing number of individuals of age or stage x at a time t+1. This nondestructive technique reduces the number of field visits and samples needed for the demographic analysis of Z. marina, and therefore decreases the disturbance caused by researches to the ecosystem. PMID:19419024

  12. A Review of Morbidity and Mortality Rates and Disease Occurrence in North American Feedlot Cattle

    PubMed Central

    Kelly, Andrew P.; Janzen, Eugene D.

    1986-01-01

    A review of veterinary literature on morbidity or mortality rates in feedlot cattle was performed. Incidence (attack) rates were the only types of rates reviewed. Differences in the definition of terms made reports difficult to compare. Case-definitions were often poorly defined and most were based on chemotherapeutic treatment as a criterion. A summary was made of 14 comparable studies containing disease incidence rates in calves in the first few weeks following arrival in feedlots. The incidence of morbidity ranged from 0% to 69% with most reports between 15% and 45%. The mortality rate in the same period ranged from 0% to 15% with most reports between 1% and 5%. The peak incidence of disease was within the first three weeks after the arrival of calves in the feedlots. Few other epidemiological descriptions (season, day of the week, geographical, age, sex, or breed) had been objectively described. The most common clinical and necropsy diagnoses were respiratory infections, often described as shipping fever. PMID:17422726

  13. Mortality rates and division of labor in the leaf-cutting ant, Atta colombica

    PubMed Central

    Brown, Mark J F.; Bot, A N M.; Hart, Adam G.

    2006-01-01

    Division of labor in social groups is affected by the relative costs and benefits of conducting different tasks. However, most studies have examined the dynamics of division of labor, rather than the costs and benefits that presumably underlie the evolution of such systems. In social insects, division of labor may be simplistically described as a source-sink system, with external tasks, such as foraging, acting as sinks for the work force. The implications of two distinct sinks – foraging and waste-heap working – for division of labor were examined in the leaf-cutting ant Atta colombica. Intrinsic mortality rates were similar across external task groups. Exposure to waste (a task-related environment) led to a 60% increase in the mortality rate of waste-heap workers compared to workers not exposed to waste. Given the small number of workers present in the waste-heap task group, such increases in mortality are unlikely to affect division of labor and task allocation dramatically, except perhaps under conditions of stress. PMID:19537995

  14. Co-infection with Multiple Respiratory Pathogens Contributes to Increased Mortality Rates in Algerian Poultry Flocks.

    PubMed

    Sid, Hicham; Benachour, Karine; Rautenschlein, Silke

    2015-09-01

    Respiratory infections are a common cause for increased mortality rates in poultry worldwide. To improve intervention strategies, circulating pathogens have to be identified and further characterized. Because of the lack of diagnostic tools, it was not known what pathogens contribute to the high mortality rates in association with respiratory disease in Algeria. Our objective was to determine if primary pathogens including Mycoplasma gallisepticum (MG), Mycoplasma synoviae (MS), avian influenza virus (AIV), infectious bronchitis virus (IBV), and avian metapneumovirus (aMPV), known to be present in neighboring countries, can also be detected in Algerian chicken and turkey flocks. Results demonstrate the circulation of the investigated pathogens in Algerian poultry flocks as multi-infections. Phylogenetic characterization of the Algerian IBV strains confirmed the circulation of nephropathogenic viruses that are different from the strains isolated in neighboring countries. This could suggest the existence of a new IBV genotype in North Africa. Additionally, we detected for the first time an aMPV subtype B field strain and avian influenza virus. Interestingly, all viral pathogens were present in co-infections with MG, which could exacerbate clinical disease. Additional pathogens may be present and should be investigated in the future. Our results suggest that multiple respiratory infections may be responsible for high mortality in Algerian poultry flocks and very probably also in other regions of the world, which demonstrates the need for the establishment of more comprehensive control strategies. PMID:26478165

  15. Effect of marital status on death rates. Part 2: Transient mortality spikes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Richmond, Peter; Roehner, Bertrand M.

    2016-05-01

    We examine what happens in a population when it experiences an abrupt change in surrounding conditions. Several cases of such "abrupt transitions" for both physical and living social systems are analyzed from which it can be seen that all share a common pattern. First, a steep rising death rate followed by a much slower relaxation process during which the death rate decreases as a power law. This leads us to propose a general principle which can be summarized as follows: "Any abrupt change in living conditions generates a mortality spike which acts as a kind of selection process". This we term the Transient Shock conjecture. It provides a qualitative model which leads to testable predictions. For example, marriage certainly brings about a major change in personal and social conditions and according to our conjecture one would expect a mortality spike in the months following marriage. At first sight this may seem an unlikely proposition but we demonstrate (by three different methods) that even here the existence of mortality spikes is supported by solid empirical evidence.

  16. Rates of Complications and Mortality in Older Diabetes Patients: The Diabetes and Aging Study

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Elbert S.; Laiteerapong, Neda; Liu, Jennifer Y.; John, Priya M.; Moffet, Howard H.; Karter, Andrew J.

    2014-01-01

    Importance In the coming decades, the population of older adults with diabetes is expected to grow substantially. Understanding the clinical course of diabetes in this population is critical for establishing evidence-based clinical practice recommendations, research priorities, allocating resources, and setting health policies. Objective Contrast rates of diabetes complications and mortality across age and diabetes duration categories. Design, Setting, Participants This cohort study (2004–2010) included 72,310 older (≥60 years of age) patients with type 2 diabetes enrolled in a large, integrated healthcare delivery system. Incidence densities (events per 1000 person-years (pys)) were calculated for each age category (60s, 70s, 80+ years) and duration of diabetes (shorter: 0–9 years vs. longer: 10+ years). Main Outcome Measures Incident acute hyperglycemic events, acute hypoglycemic events (hypoglycemia), microvascular complications [end-stage renal disease (ESRD), peripheral vascular disease, lower extremity amputation, advanced eye disease], cardiovascular complications [coronary artery disease (CAD), cerebrovascular disease (CVD), congestive heart failure (CHF)], and all-cause mortality. Results Among older adults with diabetes of short duration, cardiovascular complications followed by hypoglycemia were the most common non-fatal complications. For example, among 70–79 year olds with short duration of diabetes, CAD and hypoglycemia rates were higher (11.5 and 5.0/1000 pys respectively), compared to ESRD (2.6/1000), amputation (1.3/1000), and acute hyperglycemic events (0.8/1000). We observed a similar pattern among subjects in the same age group with long diabetes duration where CAD and hypoglycemia had some of the highest incidence rates (19.0 and 15.9 /1000 pys respectively), compared to ESRD (7.6/1000), amputation (4.3/1000), and acute hyperglycemic events (1.8/1000). For a given age group, rates of each outcome, particularly hypoglycemia and

  17. Infant Stool Color Card Screening Helps Reduce the Hospitalization Rate and Mortality of Biliary Atresia

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Min; Chen, Solomon Chih-Cheng; Yang, Hsin-Yi; Huang, Jui-Hua; Yeung, Chun-Yan; Lee, Hung-Chang

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Biliary atresia (BA) is a significant liver disease in children. Since 2004, Taiwan has implemented a national screening program that uses an infant stool color card (SCC) for the early detection of BA. The purpose of this study was to examine the outcomes of BA cases before and after the launch of this screening program. The objectives of this study were to evaluate the rates of hospitalization, liver transplantation (LT), and mortality of BA cases before and after the program, and to examine the association between the hospitalization rate and survival outcomes. This was a population-based cohort study. BA cases born during 1997 to 2010 were identified from the Taiwan National Health Insurance Research Database. Sex, birth date, hospitalization date, LT, and death data were collected and analyzed. The hospitalization rate by 2 years of age (Hosp/2yr) was calculated to evaluate its association with the outcomes of LT or death. Among 513 total BA cases, 457 (89%) underwent the Kasai procedure. Of these, the Hosp/2yr was significantly reduced from 6.0 to 6.9/case in the earlier cohort (1997–2004) to 4.9 to 5.3/case in the later cohort (2005–2010). This hospitalization rate reduction was followed by a reduction in mortality from 26.2% to 15.9% after 2006. The Cox proportional hazards model showed a significant increase in the risk for both LT (hazard ratio [HR] = 1.14, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.10–1.18) and death (HR = 1.05, 95% CI = 1.01–1.08) for each additional hospitalization. A multivariate logistic regression model found that cases with a Hosp/2yr >6 times had a significantly higher risk for both LT (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] = 4.35, 95% CI = 2.82–6.73) and death (aOR = 1.75, 95% CI = 1.17–2.62). The hospitalization and mortality rates of BA cases in Taiwan were significantly and coincidentally reduced after the launch of the SCC screening program. There was a significant association between the

  18. Estimated Glomerular Filtration Rate and Mortality among Patients with Coronary Heart Disease

    PubMed Central

    Ding, Ding; Xia, Min; Li, Dan; Yang, Yunou; Li, Qing; Liu, Jiaxing; Chen, Xuechen; Hu, Gang; Ling, Wenhua

    2016-01-01

    Objective The association between estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) and the risk of mortality among patients with coronary heart disease (CHD) is complex and still unclear. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of eGFR on the risk prediction of all-cause and cardiovascular disease (CVD) mortality with a long follow-up period among patients with CHD in China. Methods We conducted a prospective cohort study of 3276 Chinese patients with CHD. Cox proportional hazards regression models were used to estimate the association of different levels of eGFR with the risks of mortality. Results During a mean follow-up period of 4.9 years, 293 deaths were identified. The multivariable-adjusted hazard ratios associated with different levels of eGFR (≥90 [reference group], 60–89, 30–59, 15–29 ml/min per 1.73m2) at baseline were 1.00, 1.28 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.87–1.88), 1.96 (95% CI, 1.31–2.94), and 3.91 (95% CI, 2.15–7.13) (P <0.001) for all-cause mortality, and 1.00, 1.26 (95% CI, 0.78–2.04), 1.94 (95% CI, 1.17–3.20), and 3.77 (95% CI, 1.80–7.89) (P <0.001) for CVD mortality, respectively. After excluding subjects who died during the first 2 years of follow-up (n = 113), the graded associations of eGFR with the risks of all-cause and CVD morality were still present. The addition of eGFR to a model including traditional cardiovascular risk factors resulted in significant improvement in the prediction of all-cause and CVD mortality. Conclusions Reduced eGFR (< 60 ml/min per 1.73 m2) at baseline is associated with increased risks of all-cause and CVD mortality among Chinese patients with CHD. PMID:27537335

  19. Relationship of HbA1c variability, absolute changes in HbA1c, and all-cause mortality in type 2 diabetes: a Danish population-based prospective observational study

    PubMed Central

    Skriver, Mette V; Sandbæk, Annelli; Kristensen, Jette K; Støvring, Henrik

    2015-01-01

    Objective We assessed the relationship of mortality with glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) variability and with absolute change in HbA1c. Design A population-based prospective observational study with a median follow-up time of 6 years. Methods Based on a validated algorithm, 11 205 Danish individuals with type 2 diabetes during 2001–2006 were identified from public data files, with at least three HbA1c measurements: one index measure, one closing measure 22–26 months later, and one measurement in-between. Medium index HbA1c was 7.3%, median age was 63.9 years, and 48% were women. HbA1c variability was defined as the mean absolute residual around the line connecting index value with closing value. Cox proportional hazard models with restricted cubic splines were used, with all-cause mortality as the outcome. Results Variability between 0 and 0.5 HbA1c percentage point was not associated with mortality, but for index HbA1c ≤8% (64 mmol/mol), a variability above 0.5 was associated with increased mortality (HR of 1 HbA1c percentage point variability was 1.3 (95% CI 1.1 to 1.5) for index HbA1c 6.6–7.4%). For index HbA1c≤8%, mortality increased when HbA1c declined, but was stable when HbA1c rose. For index HbA1c>8%, change in HbA1c was associated with mortality, with the lowest mortality for greatest decline (HR=0.9 (95% CI 0.80 to 0.98) for a 2-percentage point decrease). Conclusions For individuals with an index HbA1c below 8%, both high HbA1c variability and a decline in HbA1c were associated with increased mortality. For individuals with index HbA1c above 8%, change in HbA1c was associated with mortality, whereas variability was not. PMID:25664182

  20. Observational Study of 1-Year Mortality Rates Before and After a Major Earthquake Among Chinese Nonagenarians

    PubMed Central

    Dong, Birong; Wu, Hongmei; Zhang, Yanling; Guralnik, Jack M.; Malmstrom, Theodore K.; Morley, John E.

    2011-01-01

    Background. Little is known about mortality among nonagenarians after an earthquake. Methods. Using secondary data analyses from the 2005 study called the Project of Longevity and Aging in Dujiangyan(n = 870), 1-year mortality rates were compared among a pre-earthquake group and a post-earthquake group of nonagenarians. All participants were from Dujiangyan, 50 km from the epicenter of the May 12, 2008 earthquake, in China. The pre-earthquake group was a subset of the 870 Project of Longevity and Aging in Dujiangyan participants, ages 93–95 years at the beginning of “Time Frame 1” (July 2005 through June 2006; n = 228). The post-earthquake group was a different subset of the 870 Project of Longevity and Aging in Dujiangyan participants, ages 93–95 years and alive at the beginning of Time Frame 2 (July 2008 through June 2009; n = 235). Time Frame 2 excluded a 7-week period following the earthquake in order to account for deaths due to trauma. Pre-earthquake health assessment data from the 2005 Project of Longevity and Aging in Dujiangyan study were used to calculate unadjusted/adjusted hazard ratios (HRs) for mortality. Results. One-year mortality rates were 8.3% (19/228) and 16.2% (38/235) in the pre-earthquake group and the post-earthquake group, respectively (p =.01). In unadjusted analyses, only “being in the post-earthquake group” was associated with death (HR = 2.04; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.17–3.53; p = .011). In the multivariable Cox regression model, being in the post-earthquake group continued to be the strongest risk factor associated with mortality (HR = 2.47; 95% CI, 1.39–4.40; p = .002). Other significant risk factors included impaired cognition (HR = 1.97; 95% CI, 1.10–3.53; p = .024), serum albumin (HR = 0.90; 95% CI, 0.82–0.98; p < .015), and serum triglycerides (HR = 1.51; 95% CI, 1.15–1.99; p = .003). Conclusion. The May 12, 2008 earthquake in Wenchuan, China, was associated with a twofold increase in the 1-year

  1. Concordance of effects of medical interventions on hospital admission and readmission rates with effects on mortality

    PubMed Central

    Hemkens, Lars G.; Contopoulos-Ioannidis, Despina G.; Ioannidis, John P.A.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Many clinical trials examine a composite outcome of admission to hospital and death, or infer a relationship between hospital admission and survival benefit. This assumes concordance of the outcomes “hospital admission” and “death.” However, whether the effects of a treatment on hospital admissions and readmissions correlate to its effect on serious outcomes such as death is unknown. We aimed to assess the correlation and concordance of effects of medical interventions on admission rates and mortality. Methods: We searched the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews from its inception to January 2012 (issue 1, 2012) for systematic reviews of treatment comparisons that included meta-analyses for both admission and mortality outcomes. For each meta-analysis, we synthesized treatment effects on admissions and death, from respective randomized trials reporting those outcomes, using random-effects models. We then measured the concordance of directions of effect sizes and the correlation of summary estimates for the 2 outcomes. Results: We identified 61 meta-analyses including 398 trials reporting mortality and 182 trials reporting admission rates; 125 trials reported both outcomes. In 27.9% of comparisons, the point estimates of treatment effects for the 2 outcomes were in opposite directions; in 8.2% of trials, the 95% confidence intervals did not overlap. We found no significant correlation between effect sizes for admission and death (Pearson r = 0.07, p = 0.6). Our results were similar when we limited our analysis to trials reporting both outcomes. Interpretation: In this metaepidemiological study, admission and mortality outcomes did not correlate, and discordances occurred in about one-third of the treatment comparisons included in our analyses. Both outcomes convey useful information and should be reported separately, but extrapolating the benefits of admission to survival is unreliable and should be avoided. PMID:24144601

  2. Impact of acquired comorbidities on all-cause mortality rates among older breast cancer survivors

    PubMed Central

    Ahern, Thomas P.; Lash, Timothy L.; Thwin, Soe Soe; Silliman, Rebecca A.

    2010-01-01

    Background Breast cancer survivors with higher numbers of comorbidities at the time of primary treatment suffer higher rates of all-cause mortality than comparatively healthier survivors. The effect of time-varying comorbidity status on mortality in breast cancer survivors, however, has not been well investigated. Objective We examined longitudinal comorbidity in a cohort of women treated for primary breast cancer to determine whether accounting for comorbidities acquired after baseline assessment influenced the hazard ratio of all-cause mortality compared with an analysis using only baseline comorbidity. Methods Cox proportional hazards adjusted for age, race/ethnicity, and exercise habits were modeled using (1) only a baseline Charlson index; (2) four Charlson index values collected longitudinally and entered as time-varying covariates, with missing values addressed by carrying forward the prior observation; and (3) the four longitudinal Charlson scores entered as time-varying covariates, with missing values multiply imputed. Results The three modeling strategies yielded similar results; Model 1 HR: 1.4 per unit increase in Charlson index, 95% CI: 1.2, 1.7; Model 2 HR: 1.3, 95% CI: 1.1, 1.5 and Model 3 HR: 1.4, 95% CI: 1.2, 1.6. Conclusions Our findings indicate that a unit increase in the Charlson comorbidity index raises the hazard rate for all-cause mortality by approximately 1.4-fold in older women treated for primary breast cancer. The conclusion is essentially the same whether accounting only for baseline comorbidity or accounting for acquired comorbidity over a median follow-up period of 85 months. PMID:19106734

  3. [The relationship between provider volume and mortality rate: volume data of German centres of excellence].

    PubMed

    Gandjour, A; Lauterbach, K W

    2001-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the percentage of centres of excellence (COEs) in Germany that achieved, for selected diagnoses and interventions, annual hospital or surgeon threshold volumes associated with a lower mortality rate. A systematic review and evaluation of the literature identified the most relevant study for each diagnosis and intervention selected. Each diagnosis and intervention was only considered if the most relevant source yielded a threshold volume associated with a reduced mortality rate. COEs received questionnaires on the annual volume of such diagnoses and interventions for each department, providing physician (median), and senior consultant in 1999. For most of the diagnoses and interventions considered, the percentage of COEs meeting their respective threshold volumes exceeded 50%. Exceptions were carotid endarterectomy (performed in departments of general cardiac surgery) and liver transplantation. The percentage of providing physicians and senior consultants performing to the desired standard remained above 75% for most of the diagnoses and interventions. Exceptions were surgeons dealing with carotid endarterectomy, correcting congenital heart disease (both performed in departments of general cardiac surgery), and correcting primary hyperparathyroidism. That a smaller percentage of centres for general cardiac surgery, liver transplantation, and primary hyperparathyroidism operates at their threshold volumes may be due to a relative oversupply of centres specialising in these treatments as well as a the lack of regional centres with a high referral rate. Due to the country-specificity of studies performed on the relationship between volume and mortality rate, it is highly recommended that Germany-specific volume-outcome studies be performed particularly in specialties with relatively low case volumes. PMID:11677797

  4. An ecological study of cancer mortality rates in California, 1950–64, with respect to solar UVB and smoking indices

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: This paper addresses whether nonmelanoma skin cancer (NMSC) mortality rates can serve as a useful index of population ultraviolet-B (UVB) irradiance and vitamin D production in a manner that affects the risk of internal cancers Methods: This analysis uses the ecological study approach with cancer mortality rate data from 19 state economic areas in California. This paper uses age-adjusted data for those aged 40 y or older. Two additional indices for solar UVB doses were also used: latitude and surface UVB doses for July 1992 from the total ozone mapping spectrometer. Lung cancer mortality rates served as the index of the health effects of smoking Results: Significant inverse correlations with NMSC mortality rate in multiple linear regression analyses were found during the period 1950–64 for eight types of cancer for males: bladder, brain, colon, gastric, prostate, and rectal cancer; multiple myeloma; and non-Hodgkin lymphoma. No similar results emerged for females with respect to all three UVB indices. Their NMSC mortality rates averaged 60% lower than those for males. Lung cancer mortality rates were directly correlated with three types of cancer for males: laryngeal, oral, and renal. No significant correlations with NMSC mortality rates appeared for later periods Conclusions: NMSC mortality rates were found inversely correlated with internal cancers for males in the period 1950–64. After that period, no further such correlations were found. The reasons may hypothetically include reduced NMSC mortality rates, high immigration rates, movement from rural to urban locations and reduced solar UVB irradiance. PMID:22928074

  5. Patterns and trends of pancreatic cancer mortality rates in Arkansas, 1969-2002: a comparison with the US population.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jianjun; Dhakal, Ishwori; Ning, Baitang; Kesteloot, Hugo

    2008-02-01

    Little is known about trends in pancreatic cancer mortality in individual states of the US and its whole population. This study aimed to describe the patterns and trends of pancreatic cancer mortality in Arkansas, 1969-2002, using the US national rates as a reference. Joinpoint regression analyses were performed to evaluate trends in age-standardized mortality rates of pancreatic cancer by age group, sex, and race, using data obtained from the National Center for Health Statistics. Throughout the period examined, mortality decreased in young and middle-aged people (<60 years) and men but increased in old people (>/=60 years) and women. A continuous fall in mortality occurred among whites except for a transient rise in the late 1970s. For blacks, mortality rates did not cease to increase until 1995. Unlike in Arkansas, a monotonic upward or downward trend in mortality by age group and sex was not observed in the US. A decline of mortality stopped in 1997 for US whites. Recent decreasing trends were more pronounced in Arkansas blacks than in US blacks. Changes of pancreatic cancer mortality in the last three decades in Arkansas remarkably differed by age, sex, and race and were different in patterns from those of the US population. PMID:18090906

  6. Cyclosporin A does not affect the absolute rate of cortical bone resorption at the organ level in the growing rat.

    PubMed

    Klein, L; Lemel, M S; Wolfe, M S; Shaffer, J

    1994-10-01

    The weanling rat, an animal model of rapid bone turnover, was used to evaluate the effects of various doses of cyclosporin A (CsA) on various bones during different time periods. Sprague-Dawley male rats were extensively prelabeled with 3H-tetracycline during 1-3 weeks of age. At 4 weeks of age, four groups of rats were given daily subcutaneous injections: vehicle or CsA--low dose (10 mg/kg), intermediary dose (20 mg/kg), or high dose (30 mg/kg) for 7, 14, or 28 days. Three different whole bones--the femur (low turnover), scapula (moderate turnover), and lumbar-6 vertebra (high turnover) were harvested intact at 4, 5, 6, and 8 weeks of age. The whole bones were assayed weekly for total dry defatted weight, calcium mass (formation), and loss of 3H-tetracycline (bone resorption) following treatment with CsA. Serum CsA levels, calcium creatinine, and alkaline phosphatase were measured weekly. Significant decreases in serum calcium and alkaline phosphatase were observed at 1 and 2 weeks, and were normalized by 4 weeks of treatment. No significant changes in serum creatinine were noted. For all three doses of CsA, no effect was observed on the absolute rate of cortical bone resorption of three different, whole bones over three time periods. Body weight and bone formation in treated animals was significantly smaller in a dose- and time-related fashion compared with control animals at sacrifice. However, compared with the initial control animals, body weights and bone masses of the final treated animals were much larger, suggesting that the smaller bone masses were due to insufficient growth and slow gain in bone mass.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:7820781

  7. Mortality, Rehospitalisation and Violent Crime in Forensic Psychiatric Patients Discharged from Hospital: Rates and Risk Factors

    PubMed Central

    Fazel, Seena; Wolf, Achim; Fimińska, Zuzanna; Larsson, Henrik

    2016-01-01

    Objectives To determine rates and risk factors for adverse outcomes in patients discharged from forensic psychiatric services. Method We conducted a historical cohort study of all 6,520 psychiatric patients discharged from forensic psychiatric hospitals between 1973 and 2009 in Sweden. We calculated hazard ratios for mortality, rehospitalisation, and violent crime using Cox regression to investigate the effect of different psychiatric diagnoses and two comorbidities (personality or substance use disorder) on outcomes. Results Over mean follow-up of 15.6 years, 30% of patients died (n = 1,949) after discharge with an average age at death of 52 years. Over two-thirds were rehospitalised (n = 4,472, 69%), and 40% violently offended after discharge (n = 2,613) with a mean time to violent crime of 4.2 years. The association between psychiatric diagnosis and outcome varied—substance use disorder as a primary diagnosis was associated with highest risk of mortality and rehospitalisation, and personality disorder was linked with the highest risk of violent offending. Furthermore comorbid substance use disorder typically increased risk of adverse outcomes. Conclusion Violent offending, premature mortality and rehospitalisation are prevalent in patients discharged from forensic psychiatric hospitals. Individualised treatment plans for such patients should take into account primary and comorbid psychiatric diagnoses. PMID:27196309

  8. Trends in amenable mortality rate in the Mongolian population, 2007-2014.

    PubMed

    Surenjav, Enkhjin; Sovd, Tugsdelger; Yoshida, Yoshitoku; Yamamoto, Eiko; Reyer, Joshua A; Hamajima, Nobuyuki

    2016-02-01

    Amenable mortality (AM) is an indicator of medical care quality. This study aimed to assess the trend and magnitude of AM in Mongolia, with the purpose of providing evidence for decisions on resource allocation. This is the first study on AM trends in Mongolia. Retrospective analysis was done on mortality statistics for the period 2007-2014. Causes of death were coded according to the 10th revision of the International Classification of Diseases (ICD-10). Nolte & McKee's classification of AM was used for the estimation of amenable mortality rates (AMRs) in Mongolia. During the study period, a total of 130,402 deaths were registered in Mongolia, of which 44,800 (34.4%) deaths were classified as being amenable. The age-standardized AMR per 100,000 population was highest in 2007 (226.6), and declined continuously until the level of 169.2 in 2014. The rate remained consistently higher in males than in females. Cerebrovascular diseases, ischemic heart diseases, perinatal deaths, influenza/pneumonia/asthma and tuberculosis were the leading causes of AM in the past eight years in Mongolia. The AMR was higher in remote western provinces with harsh weather conditions, high poverty rates, lack of human resources for health, and poor infrastructure. In addition, the provinces where Mongolia's ethnic minorities live tended to have a higher AMR. The government of Mongolia needs to critically look at the regional differences in AM in order to allocate health resources, including human resources, effectively. Further studies are needed to look into the causes of regional disparities in AM, individual-level risk factors to amenable deaths, and validity of death coding in health sector. PMID:27019528

  9. Trends in amenable mortality rate in the Mongolian population, 2007–2014

    PubMed Central

    Surenjav, Enkhjin; Sovd, Tugsdelger; Yoshida, Yoshitoku; Yamamoto, Eiko; Reyer, Joshua A.; Hamajima, Nobuyuki

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Amenable mortality (AM) is an indicator of medical care quality. This study aimed to assess the trend and magnitude of AM in Mongolia, with the purpose of providing evidence for decisions on resource allocation. This is the first study on AM trends in Mongolia. Retrospective analysis was done on mortality statistics for the period 2007–2014. Causes of death were coded according to the 10th revision of the International Classification of Diseases (ICD-10). Nolte & McKee’s classification of AM was used for the estimation of amenable mortality rates (AMRs) in Mongolia. During the study period, a total of 130,402 deaths were registered in Mongolia, of which 44,800 (34.4%) deaths were classified as being amenable. The age-standardized AMR per 100,000 population was highest in 2007 (226.6), and declined continuously until the level of 169.2 in 2014. The rate remained consistently higher in males than in females. Cerebrovascular diseases, ischemic heart diseases, perinatal deaths, influenza/pneumonia/asthma and tuberculosis were the leading causes of AM in the past eight years in Mongolia. The AMR was higher in remote western provinces with harsh weather conditions, high poverty rates, lack of human resources for health, and poor infrastructure. In addition, the provinces where Mongolia’s ethnic minorities live tended to have a higher AMR. The government of Mongolia needs to critically look at the regional differences in AM in order to allocate health resources, including human resources, effectively. Further studies are needed to look into the causes of regional disparities in AM, individual-level risk factors to amenable deaths, and validity of death coding in health sector. PMID:27019528

  10. The Impact of Data Suppression on Local Mortality Rates: The Case of CDC WONDER

    PubMed Central

    Beyer, Kirsten; Rushton, Gerard

    2014-01-01

    CDC WONDER (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Wide-Ranging Online Data for Epidemiologic Research) is the nation’s primary data repository for health statistics. Before WONDER data are released to the public, data cells with fewer than 10 case counts are suppressed. We showed that maps produced from suppressed data have predictable geographic biases that can be removed by applying population data in the system and an algorithm that uses regional rates to estimate missing data. By using CDC WONDER heart disease mortality data, we demonstrated that effects of suppression could be largely overcome. PMID:24922161

  11. Morbidity and mortality rates in major blunt trauma to the upper chest.

    PubMed Central

    Poole, G V; Myers, R T

    1981-01-01

    It is widely believed that fractures of the first rib are associated with more severe injuries than fractures of other ribs. To confirm or refute that belief, we conducted a retrospective review of 168 patients with major blunt trauma resulting in fractures of the upper ribs treated at the North Carolina Baptist Hospital. A comparison of morbidity and mortality rates in relation to highest rib fractured showed essentially no correlation. We concluded that all patients with deceleration or crushing injuries involving upper-rib fractures must be suspected of having significant multiple organ system trauma and evaluated accordingly. PMID:7458452

  12. Postnatal growth rates covary weakly with embryonic development rates and do not explain adult mortality probability among songbirds on four continents.

    PubMed

    Martin, Thomas E; Oteyza, Juan C; Mitchell, Adam E; Potticary, Ahva L; Lloyd, Penn

    2015-03-01

    Growth and development rates may result from genetic programming of intrinsic processes that yield correlated rates between life stages. These intrinsic rates are thought to affect adult mortality probability and longevity. However, if proximate extrinsic factors (e.g., temperature, food) influence development rates differently between stages and yield low covariance between stages, then development rates may not explain adult mortality probability. We examined these issues based on study of 90 songbird species on four continents to capture the diverse life-history strategies observed across geographic space. The length of the embryonic period explained little variation (ca. 13%) in nestling periods and growth rates among species. This low covariance suggests that the relative importance of intrinsic and extrinsic influences on growth and development rates differs between stages. Consequently, nestling period durations and nestling growth rates were not related to annual adult mortality probability among diverse songbird species within or among sites. The absence of a clear effect of faster growth on adult mortality when examined in an evolutionary framework across species may indicate that species that evolve faster growth also evolve physiological mechanisms for ameliorating costs on adult mortality. Instead, adult mortality rates of species in the wild may be determined more strongly by extrinsic environmental causes. PMID:25674692

  13. Postnatal growth rates covary weakly with embryonic development rates and do not explain adult mortality probability among songbirds on four continents

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Martin, Thomas E.; Oteyza, Juan C.; Mitchell, Adam E.; Potticary, Ahva L.; Lloyd, P.

    2016-01-01

    Growth and development rates may result from genetic programming of intrinsic processes that yield correlated rates between life stages. These intrinsic rates are thought to affect adult mortality probability and longevity. However, if proximate extrinsic factors (e.g., temperature, food) influence development rates differently between stages and yield low covariance between stages, then development rates may not explain adult mortality probability. We examined these issues based on study of 90 songbird species on four continents to capture the diverse life-history strategies observed across geographic space. The length of the embryonic period explained little variation (ca. 13%) in nestling periods and growth rates among species. This low covariance suggests that the relative importance of intrinsic and extrinsic influences on growth and development rates differs between stages. Consequently, nestling period durations and nestling growth rates were not related to annual adult mortality probability among diverse songbird species within or among sites. The absence of a clear effect of faster growth on adult mortality when examined in an evolutionary framework across species may indicate that species that evolve faster growth also evolve physiological mechanisms for ameliorating costs on adult mortality. Instead, adult mortality rates of species in the wild may be determined more strongly by extrinsic environmental causes.

  14. Modeling Atmospheric Emissions and Calculating Mortality Rates Associated with High Volume Hydraulic Fracturing Transportation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mathews, Alyssa

    Emissions from the combustion of fossil fuels are a growing pollution concern throughout the global community, as they have been linked to numerous health issues. The freight transportation sector is a large source of these emissions and is expected to continue growing as globalization persists. Within the US, the expanding development of the natural gas industry is helping to support many industries and leading to increased transportation. The process of High Volume Hydraulic Fracturing (HVHF) is one of the newer advanced extraction techniques that is increasing natural gas and oil reserves dramatically within the US, however the technique is very resource intensive. HVHF requires large volumes of water and sand per well, which is primarily transported by trucks in rural areas. Trucks are also used to transport waste away from HVHF well sites. This study focused on the emissions generated from the transportation of HVHF materials to remote well sites, dispersion, and subsequent health impacts. The Geospatial Intermodal Freight Transport (GIFT) model was used in this analysis within ArcGIS to identify roadways with high volume traffic and emissions. High traffic road segments were used as emissions sources to determine the atmospheric dispersion of particulate matter using AERMOD, an EPA model that calculates geographic dispersion and concentrations of pollutants. Output from AERMOD was overlaid with census data to determine which communities may be impacted by increased emissions from HVHF transport. The anticipated number of mortalities within the impacted communities was calculated, and mortality rates from these additional emissions were computed to be 1 in 10 million people for a simulated truck fleet meeting stricter 2007 emission standards, representing a best case scenario. Mortality rates due to increased truck emissions from average, in-use vehicles, which represent a mixed age truck fleet, are expected to be higher (1 death per 341,000 people annually).

  15. Uneven futures of human lifespans: reckonings from Gompertz mortality rates, climate change, and air pollution.

    PubMed

    Finch, Caleb E; Beltrán-Sánchez, Hiram; Crimmins, Eileen M

    2014-01-01

    The past 200 years have enabled remarkable increases in human lifespans through improvements in the living environment that have nearly eliminated infections as a cause of death through improved hygiene, public health, medicine, and nutrition. We argue that the limit to lifespan may be approaching. Since 1997, no one has exceeded Jeanne Calment's record of 122.5 years, despite an exponential increase of centenarians. Moreover, the background mortality may be approaching a lower limit. We calculate from Gompertz coefficients that further increases in longevity to approach a life expectancy of 100 years in 21st century cohorts would require 50% slower mortality rate accelerations, which would be a fundamental change in the rate of human aging. Looking into the 21st century, we see further challenges to health and longevity from the continued burning of fossil fuels that contribute to air pollution as well as global warming. Besides increased heat waves to which elderly are vulnerable, global warming is anticipated to increase ozone levels and facilitate the spread of pathogens. We anticipate continuing socioeconomic disparities in life expectancy. PMID:24401556

  16. Uneven Futures of Human Lifespans: Reckonings from Gompertz Mortality Rates, Climate Change, and Air Pollution

    PubMed Central

    Finch, Caleb E; Beltrán-Sánchez, Hiram; Crimmins, Eileen M

    2014-01-01

    The past 200 years have enabled remarkable increases in human lifespans thru improvements of the living environment that have nearly eliminated infections as a cause of death through improved hygiene- public health, medicine, and nutrition. We argue that the limit to lifespan may be approaching. Since 1997, no one has exceeded Jean Calment's record of 122.5 years, despite an exponential increase of centenarians. Moreover, the background mortality may be approaching a lower limit. We calculate from Gompertz coefficients that further increases in longevity to approach a life expectancy of 100 years in 21st C cohorts would require 50% slower mortality rate accelerations, which would be a fundamental change in the rate of human aging. Looking into the 21st C, we see further challenges to health and longevity from the continued burning of fossil fuels that contribute to air pollution, as well as global warming. Besides increased heat waves to which elderly are vulnerable, global warming is anticipated to increase ozone levels and to favor the spread of pathogens. We anticipate continuing socio-economic disparities of life expectancy. PMID:24401556

  17. Mortality rates of pathogen indicator microorganisms discharged from point and non-point sources in an urban area.

    PubMed

    Kim, Geonha; Hur, Jin

    2010-01-01

    This research measured the mortality rates of pathogen indicator microorganisms discharged from various point and non-point sources in an urban area. Water samples were collected from a domestic sewer, a combined sewer overflow, the effluent of a wastewater treatment plant, and an urban river. Mortality rates of indicator microorganisms in sediment of an urban river were also measured. Mortality rates of indicator microorganisms in domestic sewage, estimated by assuming first order kinetics at 20 degrees C were 0.197 day(-1), 0.234 day(-1), 0.258 day(-1) and 0.276 day(-1) for total coliform, fecal coliform, Escherichia coli, and fecal streptococci, respectively. Effects of temperature, sunlight irradiation and settlement on the mortality rate were measured. Results of this research can be used as input data for water quality modeling or can be used as design factors for treatment facilities. PMID:20923108

  18. Brain cancer mortality rates increase with Toxoplasma gondii seroprevalence in France

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Vittecoq, Marion; Elguero, Eric; Lafferty, Kevin D.; Roche, Benjamin; Brodeur, Jacques; Gauthier-Clerc, Michel; Missé, Dorothée; Thomas, Frédéric

    2012-01-01

    The incidence of adult brain cancer was previously shown to be higher in countries where the parasite Toxoplasma gondii is common, suggesting that this brain protozoan could potentially increase the risk of tumor formation. Using countries as replicates has, however, several potential confounding factors, particularly because detection rates vary with country wealth. Using an independent dataset entirely within France, we further establish the significance of the association between T. gondii and brain cancer and find additional demographic resolution. In adult age classes 55 years and older, regional mortality rates due to brain cancer correlated positively with the local seroprevalence of T. gondii. This effect was particularly strong for men. While this novel evidence of a significant statistical association between T. gondii infection and brain cancer does not demonstrate causation, these results suggest that investigations at the scale of the individual are merited.

  19. Why has under-5 mortality decreased at such different rates in different countries?

    PubMed

    Jamison, Dean T; Murphy, Shane M; Sandbu, Martin E

    2016-07-01

    Controlling for socioeconomic and geographic factors, under-5 mortality (5q0) in developing countries has been declining at about 2.7% per year, a high rate of 'technical progress'. This paper adduces theoretical and empirical reasons for rejecting the usual specification of homogeneous technical progress across countries and uses a panel of 95 developing countries for the period 1970-2000 to explore the consequences of heterogeneity. Allowing country-specific rates of technical progress sharply reduces the estimated income elasticity of 5q0 and points to country variation in technical progress as the principal source of the (large) cross-country variation in 5q0 decline. Education levels and physician coverage also contribute and are less affected than income of allowing country variation in technical progress. The paper concludes by decomposing 1970-2000 5q0 decline into its different sources for each country. PMID:27046447

  20. Testosterone Deficiency Increases Hospital Readmission and Mortality Rates in Male Patients with Heart Failure

    PubMed Central

    dos Santos, Marcelo Rodrigues; Sayegh, Ana Luiza Carrari; Groehs, Raphaela Vilar Ramalho; Fonseca, Guilherme; Trombetta, Ivani Credidio; Barretto, Antônio Carlos Pereira; Arap, Marco Antônio; Negrão, Carlos Eduardo; Middlekauff, Holly R.; Alves, Maria-Janieire de Nazaré Nunes

    2015-01-01

    Background Testosterone deficiency in patients with heart failure (HF) is associated with decreased exercise capacity and mortality; however, its impact on hospital readmission rate is uncertain. Furthermore, the relationship between testosterone deficiency and sympathetic activation is unknown. Objective We investigated the role of testosterone level on hospital readmission and mortality rates as well as sympathetic nerve activity in patients with HF. Methods Total testosterone (TT) and free testosterone (FT) were measured in 110 hospitalized male patients with a left ventricular ejection fraction < 45% and New York Heart Association classification IV. The patients were placed into low testosterone (LT; n = 66) and normal testosterone (NT; n = 44) groups. Hypogonadism was defined as TT < 300 ng/dL and FT < 131 pmol/L. Muscle sympathetic nerve activity (MSNA) was recorded by microneurography in a subpopulation of 27 patients. Results Length of hospital stay was longer in the LT group compared to in the NT group (37 ± 4 vs. 25 ± 4 days; p = 0.008). Similarly, the cumulative hazard of readmission within 1 year was greater in the LT group compared to in the NT group (44% vs. 22%, p = 0.001). In the single-predictor analysis, TT (hazard ratio [HR], 2.77; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.58–4.85; p = 0.02) predicted hospital readmission within 90 days. In addition, TT (HR, 4.65; 95% CI, 2.67–8.10; p = 0.009) and readmission within 90 days (HR, 3.27; 95% CI, 1.23–8.69; p = 0.02) predicted increased mortality. Neurohumoral activation, as estimated by MSNA, was significantly higher in the LT group compared to in the NT group (65 ± 3 vs. 51 ± 4 bursts/100 heart beats; p < 0.001). Conclusion These results support the concept that LT is an independent risk factor for hospital readmission within 90 days and increased mortality in patients with HF. Furthermore, increased MSNA was observed in patients with LT. PMID:26200897

  1. Declines in stillbirth and neonatal mortality rates in Europe between 2004 and 2010: results from the Euro-Peristat project

    PubMed Central

    Zeitlin, Jennifer; Mortensen, Laust; Cuttini, Marina; Lack, Nicholas; Nijhuis, Jan; Haidinger, Gerald; Blondel, Béatrice; Hindori-Mohangoo, Ashna D

    2016-01-01

    Background Stillbirth and neonatal mortality rates declined in Europe between 2004 and 2010. We hypothesised that declines might be greater for countries with higher mortality in 2004 and disproportionally affect very preterm infants at highest risk. Methods Data about live births, stillbirths and neonatal deaths by gestational age (GA) were collected using a common protocol by the Euro-Peristat project in 2004 and 2010. We analysed stillbirths at ≥28 weeks GA in 22 countries and live births ≥24 weeks GA for neonatal mortality in 18 countries. Per cent changes over time were assessed by calculating risk ratios (RR) for stillbirth, neonatal mortality and preterm birth rates in 2010 vs 2004. We used meta-analysis techniques to derive pooled RR using random-effects models overall, by GA subgroups and by mortality level in 2004. Results Between 2004 and 2010, stillbirths declined by 17% (95% CI 10% to 23%), with a range from 1% to 39% by country. Neonatal mortality declined by 29% (95% CI 23% to 35%) with a range from 9% to 67%. Preterm birth rates did not change: 0% (95% CI −3% to 3%). Mortality declines were of a similar magnitude at all GA; mortality levels in 2004 were not associated with RRs. Conclusions Stillbirths and neonatal deaths declined at all gestational ages in countries with both high and low levels of mortality in 2004. These results raise questions about how low-mortality countries achieve continued declines and highlight the importance of improving care across the GA spectrum. PMID:26719590

  2. Effects of local extrinsic mortality rate, crime and sex ratio on preventable death in Northern Ireland

    PubMed Central

    Uggla, Caroline; Mace, Ruth

    2015-01-01

    Background and objectives: Individual investment in health varies greatly within populations and results in significant differences in the risk of preventable death. Life history theory predicts that individuals should alter their investment in health (somatic maintenance) in response to ecological cues that shift the perceived fitness payoffs to such investments. However, previous research has failed to isolate the effects of different ecological factors on preventable death, and has often relied on macro-level data without individual controls. Here, we test some key predictions concerning the local ecology—that higher extrinsic mortality rate (EMR), crime rate and mate-scarcity (male/female-biased sex ratio) at the ward-level—will be associated with a higher risk of preventable death. Methodology: We use census-based data from Northern Ireland (n = 927 150) on preventable death during an 8.7-year period from the 2001 Census and run Cox regressions for (i) accident/suicide or alcohol-related death and (ii) deaths from preventable diseases, for men and women separately, controlling for a wide range of individual variables. Results: We find evidence of ward-level EMR and crime rate being positively associated with preventable death among men, particularly men with low socioeconomic position. There was a tentative relationship between male-biased sex ratio and preventable death among women, but not among men. Conclusion and implications: Both behaviours that might lead to ‘risky’ death and health neglect might be adaptive responses to local ecologies. Efforts to reduce crime might be as effective as those to reduce extrinsic mortality, and both could have positive effects on various health behaviours. PMID:26338679

  3. Is the United States Maternal Mortality Rate Increasing? Disentangling trends from measurement issues Short title: U.S. Maternal Mortality Trends

    PubMed Central

    Declercq, Eugene; Cabral, Howard; Morton, Christine

    2016-01-01

    Background A pregnancy question was added to the U.S. standard death certificate in 2003 to improve ascertainment of maternal deaths. The delayed adoption of this question among states led to data incompatibilities, and impeded accurate trend analysis. Our objectives were to develop methods for trend analysis, and to provide an overview of U.S. maternal mortality trends from 2000–2014. Methods This observational study analyzed vital statistics maternal mortality data from all U.S. states in relation to the format and year-of-adoption of the pregnancy question. Correction factors were developed to adjust data from before the standard pregnancy question was adopted, to promote accurate trend analysis. Joinpoint regression was used to analyze trends for groups of states with similar pregnancy questions. Results The estimated maternal mortality rate (per 100,000 live births) for 48 states and Washington D.C. (excluding California and Texas, analyzed separately) increased by 26.6%, from 18.8 in 2000 to 23.8 in 2014. California showed a declining trend, while Texas had a sudden increase in 2011–2012. Analysis of the measurement change suggests that U.S. rates in the early 2000s were higher than previously reported. Discussion Despite the United Nations Millennium Development Goal for a 75% reduction in maternal mortality by 2015, the estimated maternal mortality rate for 48 states and Washington D.C. increased from 2000–2014, while the international trend was in the opposite direction. There is a need to redouble efforts to prevent maternal deaths and improve maternity care for the 4 million U.S. women giving birth each year. PMID:27500333

  4. Determining the Independent Risk Factors and Mortality Rate of Nosocomial Infections in Pediatric Patients.

    PubMed

    Aktar, Fesih; Tekin, Recep; Güneş, Ali; Ülgen, Cevat; Tan, İlhan; Ertuğrul, Sabahattin; Köşker, Muhammet; Balık, Hasan; Karabel, Duran; Yolbaş, Ilyas

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the rate, independent risk factors, and outcomes of healthcare-associated infections in pediatric patients. This study was performed between 2011 and 2014 in pediatric clinic and intensive care unit. 86 patients and 86 control subjects were included in the study. Of 86 patients with nosocomial infections (NIs), there were 100 NIs episodes and 90 culture growths. The median age was 32.0 months. The median duration of hospital stay of the patients was 30.0 days. The most frequent pathogens were Coagulase-negative Staphylococcus, Acinetobacter spp., Klebsiella spp., and Candida spp. Unconsciousness, prolonged hospitalization, transfusion, mechanical ventilation, use of central venous catheter, enteral feeding via a nasogastric tube, urinary catheter, and receiving carbapenems and glycopeptides were found to be significantly higher in NIs patients. Multivariate logistic regression analysis showed prolonged hospitalization, neutropenia, and use of central venous catheter and carbapenems as the independent risk factors for NIs. In the univariate analysis, unconsciousness, mechanical ventilation, enteral feeding, use of enteral feeding via a nasogastric tube, H2 receptor blockers, and port and urinary catheter were significantly associated with mortality. In the multiple logistic regression analysis, only mechanical ventilation was found as an independent predictor of mortality in patients with NIs. PMID:26981536

  5. Determining the Independent Risk Factors and Mortality Rate of Nosocomial Infections in Pediatric Patients

    PubMed Central

    Aktar, Fesih; Tekin, Recep; Güneş, Ali; Ülgen, Cevat; Tan, İlhan; Ertuğrul, Sabahattin; Köşker, Muhammet; Balık, Hasan; Karabel, Duran; Yolbaş, Ilyas

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the rate, independent risk factors, and outcomes of healthcare-associated infections in pediatric patients. This study was performed between 2011 and 2014 in pediatric clinic and intensive care unit. 86 patients and 86 control subjects were included in the study. Of 86 patients with nosocomial infections (NIs), there were 100 NIs episodes and 90 culture growths. The median age was 32.0 months. The median duration of hospital stay of the patients was 30.0 days. The most frequent pathogens were Coagulase-negative Staphylococcus, Acinetobacter spp., Klebsiella spp., and Candida spp. Unconsciousness, prolonged hospitalization, transfusion, mechanical ventilation, use of central venous catheter, enteral feeding via a nasogastric tube, urinary catheter, and receiving carbapenems and glycopeptides were found to be significantly higher in NIs patients. Multivariate logistic regression analysis showed prolonged hospitalization, neutropenia, and use of central venous catheter and carbapenems as the independent risk factors for NIs. In the univariate analysis, unconsciousness, mechanical ventilation, enteral feeding, use of enteral feeding via a nasogastric tube, H2 receptor blockers, and port and urinary catheter were significantly associated with mortality. In the multiple logistic regression analysis, only mechanical ventilation was found as an independent predictor of mortality in patients with NIs. PMID:26981536

  6. Associations of estimated glomerular filtration rate and albuminuria with mortality and renal failure by sex: a meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Nitsch, Dorothea; Grams, Morgan; Sang, Yingying; Black, Corri; Cirillo, Massimo; Djurdjev, Ognjenka; Iseki, Kunitoshi; Jassal, Simerjot K; Kimm, Heejin; Kronenberg, Florian; Øien, Cecilia M; Levin, Adeera; Woodward, Mark; Hemmelgarn, Brenda R

    2013-01-01

    Objective To assess for the presence of a sex interaction in the associations of estimated glomerular filtration rate and albuminuria with all-cause mortality, cardiovascular mortality, and end stage renal disease. Design Random effects meta-analysis using pooled individual participant data. Setting 46 cohorts from Europe, North and South America, Asia, and Australasia. Participants 2 051 158 participants (54% women) from general population cohorts (n=1 861 052), high risk cohorts (n=151 494), and chronic kidney disease cohorts (n=38 612). Eligible cohorts (except chronic kidney disease cohorts) had at least 1000 participants, outcomes of either mortality or end stage renal disease of ≥50 events, and baseline measurements of estimated glomerular filtration rate according to the Chronic Kidney Disease Epidemiology Collaboration equation (mL/min/1.73 m2) and urinary albumin-creatinine ratio (mg/g). Results Risks of all-cause mortality and cardiovascular mortality were higher in men at all levels of estimated glomerular filtration rate and albumin-creatinine ratio. While higher risk was associated with lower estimated glomerular filtration rate and higher albumin-creatinine ratio in both sexes, the slope of the risk relationship for all-cause mortality and for cardiovascular mortality were steeper in women than in men. Compared with an estimated glomerular filtration rate of 95, the adjusted hazard ratio for all-cause mortality at estimated glomerular filtration rate 45 was 1.32 (95% CI 1.08 to 1.61) in women and 1.22 (1.00 to 1.48) in men (Pinteraction<0.01). Compared with a urinary albumin-creatinine ratio of 5, the adjusted hazard ratio for all-cause mortality at urinary albumin-creatinine ratio 30 was 1.69 (1.54 to 1.84) in women and 1.43 (1.31 to 1.57) in men (Pinteraction<0.01). Conversely, there was no evidence of a sex difference in associations of estimated glomerular filtration rate and urinary albumin-creatinine ratio with end stage renal

  7. When heart goes “BOOM” to fast. Heart rate greater than 80 as mortality predictor in acute myocardial infarction

    PubMed Central

    Davidovic, Goran; Iric-Cupic, Violeta; Milanov, Srdjan; Dimitijevic, Aleksandra; Petrovic-Janicijevic, Mirjana

    2013-01-01

    Many prospective studies established association between high heart rate and increased cardiovascular morbidity and mortality, independently of other risk factors. Heart rate over 80 beats per minute more often leads to atherosclerotic plaque disruption, the main step in developing acute coronary syndrome. Purpose was to investigate the incidence of higher heart rate levels in patients with anterior wall acute myocardial infarction with ST-segment elevation and the influence of heart rate on mortality. Research included 140 patients with anterior wall acute myocardial infarction with ST-segment elevation treated in Coronary Unit, Clinical Center Kragujevac in the period from January 2001-June 2006. Heart rate was calculated as the mean value of baseline and heart rate in the first 30 minutes after admission. Other risk factors were also followed to determine their connection with elevated heart rate. Results showed that the majority of patients survived (over 70%). In a total number of patients, more than 75% had a heart rate levels greater than 80 beats per minute. There was a significant difference in heart rate on addmision between survivors and patients who died, with a greater levels in patients with fatal outcome. Both, univariate and multivariate regression analysis singled out heart rate greater than 80 beats per minute as independent mortality predictor in these patients. Heart rate greater than 80 beats per minute is a major, independent risk factor for morbidity and important predictor of mortality in patients with acute myocardial infarction. PMID:23991346

  8. Short-Term Effect of Coarse Particles on Daily Mortality Rate in A Tropical City, Kaohsiung, Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Tsai, Shang-Shyue; Weng, Yi-Hao; Chiu, Ya-Wen; Yang, Chun-Yuh

    2015-01-01

    Many studies examined the short-term effects of air pollution on frequency of daily mortality over the past two decades. However, information on the relationship between exposure to levels of coarse particles (PM(2.5-10)) and daily mortality rate is relatively sparse due to limited availability of monitoring data and findings are inconsistent. This study was undertaken to determine whether an association exists between PM(2.5-10) levels and rate of daily mortality in Kaohsiung, Taiwan, a large industrial city with a tropical climate. Daily mortality rate, air pollution parameters, and weather data for Kaohsiung were obtained for the period 2006-2008. The relative risk (RR) of daily mortality occurrence was estimated using a time-stratified case-crossover approach, controlling for (1) weather variables, (2) day of the week, (3) seasonality, and (4) long-term time trends. For the single-pollutant model without adjustment for other pollutants, PM(2.5-10) exposure levels showed significant correlation with total mortality rate both on warm and cool days, with an interquartile range increase associated with a 14% (95% CI = 5-23%) and 12% (95% CI = 5-20%) rise in number of total deaths, respectively. In two-pollutant models, PM(2.5-10) exerted significant influence on total mortality frequency after inclusion of sulfur dioxide (SO(2)) on warm days. On cool days, PM(2.5-10) induced significant elevation in total mortality rate when SO(2) or ozone (O(3)) was added in the regression model. There was no apparent indication of an association between PM(2.5-10) exposure and deaths attributed to respiratory and circulatory diseases. This study provided evidence of correlation between short-term exposure to PM(2.5-10) and increased risk of death for all causes. PMID:26580668

  9. Longitudinal Changes in Vascular Risk Markers and Mortality Rates among a Latino Population with Hypertension

    PubMed Central

    Pflederer, Matthew C.; Long, Carlin S.; Beaty, Brenda; Havranek, Edward P.; Mehler, Philip S.; Keniston, Angela

    2016-01-01

    Vascular markers such as pulse-wave velocity and carotid intima-media thickness (CIMT) might improve the prediction of incident cardiovascular disease beyond traditional risk factors. These vascular markers have not been well characterized in minority populations and might be more useful than inflammatory biomarkers. We conducted a prospective, longitudinal cohort study among hypertensive patients in an urban safety-net hospital. We evaluated inflammatory biomarkers, arterial pulse-wave velocity, and carotid intima-media thickness at baseline, 1 year, and 2 years. The primary outcome variable was CIMT. Generalized linear mixed-effects models were used to evaluate associations between CIMT and predictive variables accounting for the correlation of multiple measurements within subjects over time. For our secondary outcome, we used administrative and National Death Index data to determine all-cause death, and univariate relationships were evaluated. Among 175 subjects, 117 were Latino (67%) and 117 were female (67%). Pulse-wave velocity and CIMT regressed over time (both P <0.001) and were highly correlated (P <0.001). Only pulse-wave velocity (P=0.002) and total cholesterol (P=0.03) were associated with CIMT in time-varying covariate analysis. At a median follow-up period of 80 months, 17 of 175 subjects had died (10%). Higher baseline CIMT and pulse-wave velocity were associated with increased mortality rates (both P <0.01). No serum inflammatory marker was significantly correlated with longitudinal changes in CIMT or death. In conclusion, both arterial stiffness and preclinical carotid atherosclerosis were associated with increased mortality rates and might be useful risk-stratification markers among this minority population. PMID:27127427

  10. Longitudinal Changes in Vascular Risk Markers and Mortality Rates among a Latino Population with Hypertension.

    PubMed

    Pflederer, Matthew C; Long, Carlin S; Beaty, Brenda; Havranek, Edward P; Mehler, Philip S; Keniston, Angela; Krantz, Mori J

    2016-04-01

    Vascular markers such as pulse-wave velocity and carotid intima-media thickness (CIMT) might improve the prediction of incident cardiovascular disease beyond traditional risk factors. These vascular markers have not been well characterized in minority populations and might be more useful than inflammatory biomarkers. We conducted a prospective, longitudinal cohort study among hypertensive patients in an urban safety-net hospital. We evaluated inflammatory biomarkers, arterial pulse-wave velocity, and carotid intima-media thickness at baseline, 1 year, and 2 years. The primary outcome variable was CIMT. Generalized linear mixed-effects models were used to evaluate associations between CIMT and predictive variables accounting for the correlation of multiple measurements within subjects over time. For our secondary outcome, we used administrative and National Death Index data to determine all-cause death, and univariate relationships were evaluated. Among 175 subjects, 117 were Latino (67%) and 117 were female (67%). Pulse-wave velocity and CIMT regressed over time (both P <0.001) and were highly correlated (P <0.001). Only pulse-wave velocity (P=0.002) and total cholesterol (P=0.03) were associated with CIMT in time-varying covariate analysis. At a median follow-up period of 80 months, 17 of 175 subjects had died (10%). Higher baseline CIMT and pulse-wave velocity were associated with increased mortality rates (both P <0.01). No serum inflammatory marker was significantly correlated with longitudinal changes in CIMT or death. In conclusion, both arterial stiffness and preclinical carotid atherosclerosis were associated with increased mortality rates and might be useful risk-stratification markers among this minority population. PMID:27127427

  11. Post-Exercise Heart Rate Recovery Independently Predicts Mortality Risk in Patients with Chronic Heart Failure

    PubMed Central

    Tang, Yi-Da; Dewland, Thomas A.; Wencker, Detlef; Katz, Stuart D.

    2009-01-01

    Background Post-exercise heart rate recovery (HRR) is an index of parasympathetic function associated with clinical outcomes in populations with and without documented coronary heart disease. Decreased parasympathetic activity is thought to be associated with disease progression in chronic heart failure (HF), but an independent association between post-exercise HRR and clinical outcomes among such patients has not been established. Methods and Results We measured HRR (calculated as the difference between heart rate at peak exercise and after 1 minute of recovery) in 202 HF subjects and recorded 17 mortality and 15 urgent transplantation outcome events over 624 days of follow-up. Reduced post-exercise HRR was independently associated with increased event risk after adjusting for other exercise-derived variables (peak oxygen uptake and VE/VCO2 slope), for the Heart Failure Survival Score (adjusted HR 1.09 for one beat/min reduction, 95% CI 1.05-1.13, p<0.0001) and the Seattle Heart Failure Model score (adjusted HR 1.08 for one beat/min reduction, 95% CI 1.05-1.12, p<0.0001). Subjects in the lowest risk tertile based on post-exercise HRR (≥30 beats/min) had low risk of events irrespective of the risk predicted by the survival scores. In a subgroup of 15 subjects, reduced post-exercise HRR was associated with increased serum markers of inflammation (interleukin-6 r=0.58, p=0.024, high sensitivity C-reactive protein r=0.66, p=0.007). Conclusions Post-exercise HRR predicts mortality risk in patients with HF and provides prognostic information independent of previously described survival models. Pathophysiologic links between autonomic function and inflammation may be mediators of this association. PMID:19944361

  12. Digoxin Use to Control Ventricular Rate in Patients with Atrial Fibrillation and Heart Failure Is Not Associated with Increased Mortality

    PubMed Central

    Dominic, Paari

    2015-01-01

    Introduction. Digoxin is used to control ventricular rate in atrial fibrillation (AF). There is conflicting evidence regarding safety of digoxin. We aimed to evaluate the risk of mortality with digoxin use in patients with AF using meta-analyses. Methods. PubMed was searched for studies comparing outcomes of patients with AF taking digoxin versus no digoxin, with or without heart failure (HF). Studies were excluded if they reported only a point estimate of mortality, duplicated patient populations, and/or did not report adjusted hazard ratios (HR). The primary endpoint was all-cause mortality. Adjusted HRs were combined using generic inverse variance and log hazard ratios. A multivariate metaregression model was used to explore heterogeneity in studies. Results. Twelve studies with 321,944 patients were included in the meta-analysis. In all AF patients, irrespective of heart failure status, digoxin is associated with increased all-cause mortality (HR [1.23], 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.16–1.31). However, digoxin is not associated with increased mortality in patients with AF and HF (HR [1.08], 95% CI 0.99–1.18). In AF patients without HF digoxin is associated with increased all-cause mortality (HR [1.38], 95% CI 1.12–1.71). Conclusion. In patients with AF and HF, digoxin use is not associated with an increased risk of all-cause mortality when used for rate control. PMID:26788401

  13. EVALUATION OF THE MORTALITY RATE ONE YEAR AFTER HIP FRACTURE AND FACTORS RELATING TO DIMINISHED SURVIVAL AMONG ELDERLY PEOPLE

    PubMed Central

    Ricci, Guilherme; Longaray, Maurício Portal; Gonçalves, Ramiro Zilles; Neto, Ary da Silva Ungaretti; Manente, Marislei; Barbosa, Luíza Barbosa Horta

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the mortality rate after one year and correlated preoperative factors, among patients with hip fractures. Methods: We prospectively studied 202 out of a total of 376 patients with a diagnosis of hip fracture who were admitted to the Hospital Cristo Redentor, between October 2007 and March 2009. The database with the epidemiological analysis was set up during their hospitalization, and follow–up data were obtained preferentially by phone. Results: The overall mortality rate after one year of follow-up was 28.7% or 58 deaths, among which 11 (5.45%) occurred during hospitalization. Fractures were more prevalent among women (71.3%) and rare among blacks (5%). Among the comorbidities, dementia and depression showed a statistically significant reduction in survival (p = 0.018 and 0.007, respectively). Conclusion: The mortality rate after one year of follow-up was 28.7%. Dementia and depression increased this rate. PMID:27042638

  14. Quality Indicators but Not Admission Volumes of Neonatal Intensive Care Units Are Effective in Reducing Mortality Rates of Preterm Infants

    PubMed Central

    Rochow, Niels; Lee, Sauyoung; Schünemann, Holger; Fusch, Christoph

    2016-01-01

    Aim To investigate how two different strategies to form larger neonatal intensive care units (NICU) impact neonatal mortality rates. Methods Cross-sectional study modeling admission volumes and mortality rates of 177,086 VLBW infants aggregated into 862 NICUs. Cumulative 3-year data was abstracted from Vermont Oxford Network. The model simulated a reduction in number of NICUs by stepwise exclusion using either admission volume (VOL) or quality (QUAL) cut-offs. After randomly redirecting infants of excluded to remaining NICUs resulting system mortality rates were calculated with and without adjusting for effects of experience levels (EL) using published data to reflect effects of different team-to-patient exposure. Results The quality-based strategy is more effective in reducing mortality; while VOL alone was not able to reduce system mortality, QUAL already achieved a 5% improvement after reducing 8% of NICUs and redirecting 6% of infants. Including “EL”, a 5% improvement of mortality was achieved by reducing 77% (VOL) vs. 7% (QUAL) of NICUs and redirecting 54% (VOL) vs. 5% (QUAL) of VLBW infants, respectively. Conclusion While a critical number of admissions is needed to maintain skills this study emphasizes the importance of including quality parameters to restructure neonatal care. The findings can be generalized to other medical fields. PMID:27508499

  15. Salivary Immunoglobulin A Secretion Rate Is Negatively Associated with Cancer Mortality: The West of Scotland Twenty-07 Study.

    PubMed

    Phillips, Anna C; Carroll, Douglas; Drayson, Mark T; Der, Geoff

    2015-01-01

    Immunoglobulins are essential for combating infectious disease although very high levels can indicate underlying pathology. The present study examined associations between secretory immunoglobulin A (sIgA) in saliva and mortality rates in the general population. Participants were 639 adults from the eldest cohort of the West of Scotland Twenty-07 Study aged 63 years at the time of saliva sampling in 1995. From unstimulated 2-minute saliva samples, saliva volume and S-IgA concentration were measured, and S-IgA secretion rate determined as their product. Mortality data were tracked for 19 years. Cox proportional hazard models were applied to compute hazard ratios (HR) for all-cause mortality from sIgA secretion rate. Associations were adjusted for gender, assay batch, household occupational group, smoking, medication usage, and self-reported health. There was a negative association between log sIgA secretion rate and all-cause mortality, HR = 0.81, 95%CI = 0.73-0.91, p < .001. Further analysis of specific causes of mortality revealed that the all-cause association was due to an underlying association with cancer mortality and in particular with cancers other than lung cancer. The HR for non-lung cancer was 0.68 (95%CI = 0.54 to 0.85) implying a 32% reduction in mortality risk per standard deviation rise in log sIgA secretion rate. Effects were stronger for men than women. For deaths from respiratory diseases, sIgA secretion had a non-linear relationship with mortality risk whereby only the very lowest levels of secretion were associated with elevated risk. SIgA concentration revealed a similar but weaker pattern of association. In the present study, higher secretion rates of sIgA were associated with a decreased risk of death from cancer, specifically non-lung cancer, as well as from respiratory disease. Thus, it appears that sIgA plays a protective role among older adults, and could serve as a marker of mortality risk, specifically cancer mortality. PMID:26699127

  16. Salivary Immunoglobulin A Secretion Rate Is Negatively Associated with Cancer Mortality: The West of Scotland Twenty-07 Study

    PubMed Central

    Carroll, Douglas; Drayson, Mark T.

    2015-01-01

    Immunoglobulins are essential for combating infectious disease although very high levels can indicate underlying pathology. The present study examined associations between secretory immunoglobulin A (sIgA) in saliva and mortality rates in the general population. Participants were 639 adults from the eldest cohort of the West of Scotland Twenty-07 Study aged 63 years at the time of saliva sampling in 1995. From unstimulated 2-minute saliva samples, saliva volume and S-IgA concentration were measured, and S-IgA secretion rate determined as their product. Mortality data were tracked for 19 years. Cox proportional hazard models were applied to compute hazard ratios (HR) for all-cause mortality from sIgA secretion rate. Associations were adjusted for gender, assay batch, household occupational group, smoking, medication usage, and self-reported health. There was a negative association between log sIgA secretion rate and all-cause mortality, HR = 0.81, 95%CI = 0.73–0.91, p < .001. Further analysis of specific causes of mortality revealed that the all-cause association was due to an underlying association with cancer mortality and in particular with cancers other than lung cancer. The HR for non-lung cancer was 0.68 (95%CI = 0.54 to 0.85) implying a 32% reduction in mortality risk per standard deviation rise in log sIgA secretion rate. Effects were stronger for men than women. For deaths from respiratory diseases, sIgA secretion had a non-linear relationship with mortality risk whereby only the very lowest levels of secretion were associated with elevated risk. SIgA concentration revealed a similar but weaker pattern of association. In the present study, higher secretion rates of sIgA were associated with a decreased risk of death from cancer, specifically non-lung cancer, as well as from respiratory disease. Thus, it appears that sIgA plays a protective role among older adults, and could serve as a marker of mortality risk, specifically cancer mortality. PMID:26699127

  17. Agricultural adjuvants: acute mortality and effects on population growth rate of Daphnia pulex after chronic exposure.

    PubMed

    Stark, John D; Walthall, William K

    2003-12-01

    Acute and chronic toxicity of eight agricultural adjuvants (Bond, Kinetic, Plyac, R-11, Silwet L-77, Sylgard 309, X-77, and WaterMaxx) to Daphnia pulex were evaluated with 48-h acute lethal concentration estimates (LC50) and a 10-d population growth-rate measurement, the instantaneous rate of increase (r1). Based on LC50, the order of toxicity was R-11 > X-77 = Sylgard 309 = Silwet L-77 > Kinetic > Bond > Plyac > WaterMaxx; all LC50 estimates were higher than the expected environmental concentration (EEC) of 0.79 mg/L, indicating that none of these adjuvants should cause high levels of mortality in wild D. pulex populations. Extinction, defined as negative population growth rate, occurred after exposure to 0.9 mg/L R-11, 13 mg/L X-77, 25 mg/L Kinetic, 28 mg/L Silwet, 18 mg/L Sylgard, 450 mg/L Bond, 610 mg/L Plyac, and 1,600 mg/L WaterMaxx. Concentrations that caused extinction were substantially below the acute LC50 for R-11, Kinetic, Plyac, X-77, and Bond. The no-observable-effects concentration (NOEC) and lowest-observable-effects concentration (LOEC) for the number of offspring per surviving female after exposure to R-11 were 0.5 and 0.75 mg/L, respectively. The NOEC and LOEC for population size after exposure to R-11 were (1.25 and 0.5 mg/L, respectively. Both of these values were lower than the EEC, indicating that R-11 does have the potential to cause damage to D. pulex populations after application at recommended field rates. The wide range of concentrations causing extinction makes it difficult to generalize about the potential impacts that agricultural adjuvants might have on aquatic ecosystems. Therefore, additional studies that examine effects on other nontarget organisms and determine residues in aquatic ecosystems may be warranted. PMID:14713050

  18. Differences in Age-Standardized Mortality Rates for Avoidable Deaths Based on Urbanization Levels in Taiwan, 1971–2008

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Brian K.; Yang, Chun-Yuh

    2014-01-01

    The World is undergoing rapid urbanization, with 70% of the World population expected to live in urban areas by 2050. Nevertheless, nationally representative analysis of the health differences in the leading causes of avoidable mortality disaggregated by urbanization level is lacking. We undertake a study of temporal trends in mortality rates for deaths considered avoidable by the Concerted Action of the European Community on Avoidable Mortality for four different levels of urbanization in Taiwan between 1971 and 2008. We find that for virtually all causes of death, age-standardized mortality rates (ASMRs) were lower in more urbanized than less urbanized areas, either throughout the study period, or by the end of the period despite higher rates in urbanized areas initially. Only breast cancer had consistently higher AMSRs in more urbanized areas throughout the 38-year period. Further, only breast cancer, lung cancer, and ischemic heart disease witnessed an increase in ASMRs in one or more urbanization categories. More urbanized areas in Taiwan appear to enjoy better indicators of health outcomes in terms of mortality rates than less urbanized areas. Access to and the availability of rich healthcare resources in urban areas may have contributed to this positive result. PMID:24503974

  19. [Growth, mortality and exploitation rate of Priacanthus arenatus (Perciformes: Priacanthidae), in the trawl fisheries of northeast Venezuela].

    PubMed

    Toledo, J; Mendoza, J; Marcano, L

    2000-12-01

    We analyzed growth, mortality and exploitation rate of Priacanhus arenatus, captured by the shrimp trawling fishery (1989-1996), in northeastern Venezuela. The growth coefficient (K) and the asymptotic length (L8) were estimated by length-frequency data using the Battacharya method and other routines of the FISAT program. Total mortality (Z) and exploitation (E) rates were obtained by length-converted catch curve analysis, based on length-frequency data, and the Berverton and Holt's yield per recruit model, respectively. The mean growth parameters L and K were estimated as 474.7 mm and 0.69 year(-1), respectively. Mean total mortality was 4.03 and the exploitation rate range was 0.70-0.80. Results indicated that the population is overexploited. PMID:15272462

  20. Determination of subjective similarity for pairs of masses and pairs of clustered microcalcifications on mammograms: Comparison of similarity ranking scores and absolute similarity ratings

    SciTech Connect

    Muramatsu, Chisako; Li Qiang; Schmidt, Robert A.; Shiraishi, Junji; Suzuki, Kenji; Newstead, Gillian M.; Doi, Kunio

    2007-07-15

    The presentation of images that are similar to that of an unknown lesion seen on a mammogram may be helpful for radiologists to correctly diagnose that lesion. For similar images to be useful, they must be quite similar from the radiologists' point of view. We have been trying to quantify the radiologists' impression of similarity for pairs of lesions and to establish a ''gold standard'' for development and evaluation of a computerized scheme for selecting such similar images. However, it is considered difficult to reliably and accurately determine similarity ratings, because they are subjective. In this study, we compared the subjective similarities obtained by two different methods, an absolute rating method and a 2-alternative forced-choice (2AFC) method, to demonstrate that reliable similarity ratings can be determined by the responses of a group of radiologists. The absolute similarity ratings were previously obtained for pairs of masses and pairs of microcalcifications from five and nine radiologists, respectively. In this study, similarity ranking scores for eight pairs of masses and eight pairs of microcalcifications were determined by use of the 2AFC method. In the first session, the eight pairs of masses and eight pairs of microcalcifications were grouped and compared separately for determining the similarity ranking scores. In the second session, another similarity ranking score was determined by use of mixed pairs, i.e., by comparison of the similarity of a mass pair with that of a calcification pair. Four pairs of masses and four pairs of microcalcifications were grouped together to create two sets of eight pairs. The average absolute similarity ratings and the average similarity ranking scores showed very good correlations in the first study (Pearson's correlation coefficients: 0.94 and 0.98 for masses and microcalcifications, respectively). Moreover, in the second study, the correlations between the absolute ratings and the ranking scores were also

  1. Variation in bird-window collision mortality and scavenging rates within an urban landscape

    EPA Science Inventory

    Annual avian mortality from collisions with windows and buildings is estimated to range from a million to a billion birds in the United States alone. However, estimates of mortality based on carcass counts suffer from bias due to imperfect detection and carcass scavenging. We stu...

  2. Absolute Zero

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Donnelly, Russell J.; Sheibley, D.; Belloni, M.; Stamper-Kurn, D.; Vinen, W. F.

    2006-12-01

    Absolute Zero is a two hour PBS special attempting to bring to the general public some of the advances made in 400 years of thermodynamics. It is based on the book “Absolute Zero and the Conquest of Cold” by Tom Shachtman. Absolute Zero will call long-overdue attention to the remarkable strides that have been made in low-temperature physics, a field that has produced 27 Nobel Prizes. It will explore the ongoing interplay between science and technology through historical examples including refrigerators, ice machines, frozen foods, liquid oxygen and nitrogen as well as much colder fluids such as liquid hydrogen and liquid helium. A website has been established to promote the series: www.absolutezerocampaign.org. It contains information on the series, aimed primarily at students at the middle school level. There is a wealth of material here and we hope interested teachers will draw their student’s attention to this website and its substantial contents, which have been carefully vetted for accuracy.

  3. An Ecological Study of the Determinants of Differences in 2009 Pandemic Influenza Mortality Rates between Countries in Europe

    PubMed Central

    Nikolopoulos, Georgios; Bagos, Pantelis; Lytras, Theodoros; Bonovas, Stefanos

    2011-01-01

    Background Pandemic A (H1N1) 2009 mortality rates varied widely from one country to another. Our aim was to identify potential socioeconomic determinants of pandemic mortality and explain between-country variation. Methodology Based on data from a total of 30 European countries, we applied random-effects Poisson regression models to study the relationship between pandemic mortality rates (May 2009 to May 2010) and a set of representative environmental, health care-associated, economic and demographic country-level parameters. The study was completed by June 2010. Principal Findings Most regression approaches indicated a consistent, statistically significant inverse association between pandemic influenza-related mortality and per capita government expenditure on health. The findings were similar in univariable [coefficient: –0.00028, 95% Confidence Interval (CI): –0.00046, –0.00010, p = 0.002] and multivariable analyses (including all covariates, coefficient: –0.00107, 95% CI: –0.00196, –0.00018, p = 0.018). The estimate was barely insignificant when the multivariable model included only significant covariates from the univariate step (coefficient: –0.00046, 95% CI: –0.00095, 0.00003, p = 0.063). Conclusions Our findings imply a significant inverse association between public spending on health and pandemic influenza mortality. In an attempt to interpret the estimated coefficient (–0.00028) for the per capita government expenditure on health, we observed that a rise of 100 international dollars was associated with a reduction in the pandemic influenza mortality rate by approximately 2.8%. However, further work needs to be done to unravel the mechanisms by which reduced government spending on health may have affected the 2009 pandemic influenza mortality. PMID:21589928

  4. High Neonatal Mortality Rates in Rural India: What Options to Explore?

    PubMed Central

    Upadhyay, Ravi Prakash; Chinnakali, Palanivel; Odukoya, Oluwakemi; Yadav, Kapil; Sinha, Smita; Rizwan, S. A.; Daral, Shailaja; Chellaiyan, Vinoth G.; Silan, Vijay

    2012-01-01

    The neonatal mortality rate in India is amongst the highest in the world and skewed towards rural areas. Nonavailability of trained manpower along with poor healthcare infrastructure is one of the major hurdles in ensuring quality neonatal care. We reviewed case studies and relevant literature from low and middle income countries and documented alternative strategies that have proved to be favourable in improving neonatal health. The authors reiterate the fact that recruiting and retaining trained manpower in rural areas by all means is essential to improve the quality of neonatal care services. Besides this, other strategies such as training of local rural healthcare providers and traditional midwives, promoting home-based newborn care, and creating community awareness and mobilization also hold enough potential to influence the neonatal health positively and efforts should be made to implement them on a larger scale. More research is demanded for innovations such as “m-health” and public-private partnerships as they have been shown to offer potential in terms of improving the standards of care. The above proposed strategy is likely to reduce morbidity among neonatal survivors as well. PMID:23213561

  5. Hospital Strategies for Reducing Risk-Standardized Mortality Rates in Acute Myocardial Infarction

    PubMed Central

    Bradley, Elizabeth H.; Curry, Leslie A.; Spatz, Erica S.; Herrin, Jeph; Cherlin, Emily J.; Curtis, Jeptha P.; Thompson, Jennifer W.; Ting, Henry H.; Wang, Yongfei; Krumholz, Harlan M.

    2012-01-01

    Background Despite recent improvements in survival after acute myocardial infarction (AMI), U.S. hospitals vary 2-fold in their 30-day risk-standardized mortality rates (RSMRs). Nevertheless, information is limited on hospital-level factors that may be associated with RSMRs. Objective To identify hospital strategies that were associated with lower RSMRs. Design Cross-sectional survey of 537 hospitals (91% response rate) and weighted multivariate regression by using data from the Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services to determine the associations between hospital strategies and hospital RSMRs. Setting Acute care hospitals with an annualized AMI volume of at least 25 patients. Participants Patients hospitalized with AMI between 1 January 2008 and 31 December 2009. Measurements Hospital performance improvement strategies, characteristics, and 30-day RSMRs. Results In multivariate analysis, several hospital strategies were significantly associated with lower RSMRs and in aggregate were associated with clinically important differences in RSMRs. These strategies included holding monthly meetings to review AMI cases between hospital clinicians and staff who transported patients to the hospital (RSMR lower by 0.70 percentage points), having cardiologists always on site (lower by 0.54 percentage points), fostering an organizational environment in which clinicians are encouraged to solve problems creatively (lower by 0.84 percentage points), not cross-training nurses from intensive care units for the cardiac catheterization laboratory (lower by 0.44 percentage points), and having physician and nurse champions rather than nurse champions alone (lower by 0.88 percentage points). Fewer than 10% of hospitals reported using at least 4 of these 5 strategies. Limitation The cross-sectional design demonstrates statistical associations but cannot establish causal relationships. Conclusion Several strategies, which are currently implemented by relatively few hospitals, are

  6. Heart rate multiscale entropy at three hours predicts hospital mortality in 3,154 trauma patients.

    PubMed

    Norris, Patrick R; Anderson, Steven M; Jenkins, Judith M; Williams, Anna E; Morris, John A

    2008-07-01

    Complexity is a measure of variation and randomness potentially indicating improvement or deterioration in critically ill patients. Previously, we have shown integer heart rate (HR) multiscale entropy (MSE), an indicator of complexity, predicts death based on long duration (12 h) and dense (>or=0.4 Hz) windows of HR data. However, such restrictions reduce the use of MSE in the clinical setting. We hypothesized MSE predicts death using HR data of shorter duration and lower density. During the initial 24 h of intensive care unit stay, 3,154 patients had at least 3 h of continuous integer HR sampled. The first continuous window of 3, 6, 9, and 12 h was selected for each patient regardless of density, and an open-source MSE algorithm was applied (M. Costa, www.physionet.org; m = 2; r = 0.15). Risk of death based on MSE, alone and with covariates (age, sex, injury severity score), was assessed using randomly selected logistic regression in half of the cases. Area under the receiver operator curve (AUC) was computed in the other half in subgroups having various durations and densities of HR data. At days 2.3 (median) and 4.9 (mean), 441 patients (14%) died. Multiscale entropy stratified patients by mortality and was an independent predictor of death using 3 h or more of data. Multiscale entropy alone (AUC = 0.66 - 0.71) predicted death comparably to covariates alone (AUC = 0.72). We conclude: (1) Heart rate MSE within hours of admission predicts death occurring days later. (2) Multiscale entropy is robust to variation in bedside data duration and density occurring in a working intensive care unit. (3) Complexity may be a new clinical biomarker of outcome. PMID:18323736

  7. Interactions between hatch dates, growth rates, and mortality of Age-0 native Rainbow Smelt and nonnative Alewife in Lake Champlain

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Parrish, Donna; Simonin, Paul W.; Rudstam, Lars G.; Pientka, Bernard; Sullivan, Patrick J.

    2016-01-01

    Timing of hatch in fish populations can be critical for first-year survival and, therefore, year-class strength and subsequent species interactions. We compared hatch timing, growth rates, and subsequent mortality of age-0 Rainbow Smelt Osmerus mordax and Alewife Alosa pseudoharengus, two common open-water fish species of northern North America. In our study site, Lake Champlain, Rainbow Smelt hatched (beginning May 26) almost a month earlier than Alewives (June 20). Abundance in the sampling area was highest in July for age-0 Rainbow Smelt and August for age-0 Alewives. Late-hatching individuals of both species grew faster than those hatching earlier (0.6 mm/d versus 0.4 for Rainbow Smelt; 0.7 mm/d versus 0.6 for Alewives). Mean mortality rate during the first 45 d of life was 3.4%/d for age-0 Rainbow Smelt and was 5.5%/d for age-0 Alewives. Alewife mortality rates did not differ with hatch timing but daily mortality rates of Rainbow Smelt were highest for early-hatching fish. Cannibalism is probably the primary mortality source for age-0 Rainbow Smelt in this lake. Therefore, hatching earlier may not be advantageous because the overlap of adult and age-0 Rainbow Smelt is highest earlier in the season. However, Alewives, first documented in Lake Champlain in 2003, may increase the mortality of age-0 Rainbow Smelt in the summer, which should favor selection for earlier hatching.

  8. Trends in Mortality Rate from Cardiovascular Disease in Brazil, 1980-2012

    PubMed Central

    Mansur, Antonio de Padua; Favarato, Desidério

    2016-01-01

    Background Studies have questioned the downward trend in mortality from cardiovascular diseases (CVD) in Brazil in recent years. Objective to analyze recent trends in mortality from ischemic heart disease (IHD) and stroke in the Brazilian population. Methods Mortality and population data were obtained from the Brazilian Institute of Geography and Statistics and the Ministry of Health. Risk of death was adjusted by the direct method, using as reference the world population of 2000. We analyzed trends in mortality from CVD, IHD and stroke in women and men in the periods of 1980-2006 and 2007-2012. Results there was a decrease in CVD mortality and stroke in women and men for both periods (p < 0.001). Annual mortality variations for periods 1980-2006 and 2007-2012 were, respectively: CVD (total): -1.5% and -0.8%; CVD men: -1.4% and -0.6%; CVD women: -1.7% and -1.0%; DIC (men): -1.1% and 0.1%; stroke (men): -1.7% and -1.4%; DIC (women): -1.5% and 0.4%; stroke (women): -2.0% and -1.9%. From 1980 to 2006, there was a decrease in IHD mortality in men and women (p < 0.001), but from 2007 to 2012, changes in IHD mortality were not significant in men [y = 151 + 0.04 (R2 = 0.02; p = 0.779)] and women [y = 88-0.54 (R2 = 0.24; p = 0.320). Conclusion Trend in mortality from IHD stopped falling in Brazil from 2007 to 2012. PMID:27223642

  9. The Relationship between Toxics Release Inventory Discharges and Mortality Rates in Rural and Urban Areas of the United States

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hendryx, Michael; Fedorko, Evan

    2011-01-01

    Background: Potential environmental exposures from chemical manufacturing or industrial sites have not been well studied for rural populations. The current study examines whether chemical releases from facilities monitored through the Toxics Release Inventory (TRI) program are associated with population mortality rates for both rural and urban…

  10. Association of soil arsenic and nickel exposure with cancer mortality rates, a town-scale ecological study in Suzhou, China.

    PubMed

    Chen, Kai; Liao, Qi Lin; Ma, Zong Wei; Jin, Yang; Hua, Ming; Bi, Jun; Huang, Lei

    2015-04-01

    Heavy metals and arsenic are well-known carcinogens. However, few studies have examined whether soil heavy metals and arsenic concentrations associate with cancer in the general population. In this ecological study, we aimed to evaluate the association of heavy metals and arsenic in soil with cancer mortality rates during 2005-2010 in Suzhou, China, after controlling for education and smoking prevalence. In 2005, a total of 1683 soil samples with a sampling density of one sample every 4 km(2) were analyzed. Generalized linear model with a quasi-Poisson regression was applied to evaluate the association between town-scale cancer mortality rates and soil heavy metal concentrations. Results showed that soil arsenic exposure had a significant relationship with colon, gastric, kidney, lung, and nasopharyngeal cancer mortality rates and soil nickel exposure was significantly associated with liver and lung cancer. The associations of soil arsenic and nickel exposure with colon, gastric, kidney, and liver cancer in male were higher than those in female. The observed associations of soil arsenic and nickel with cancer mortality rates were less sensitive to alternative exposure metrics. Our findings would contribute to the understanding of the carcinogenic effect of soil arsenic and nickel exposure in general population. PMID:25410308

  11. An ecologic study of cancer mortality rates in Spain with respect to indices of solar UVB irradiance and smoking.

    PubMed

    Grant, William B

    2007-03-01

    There is increasing evidence that vitamin D reduces the risk of many types of cancer. Geographic variations in cancer mortality rates in Spain are apparently linked to variations in solar ultraviolet (UV) irradiances and other factors. Cancer mortality rates for 48 continental Spanish provinces for 1978-1992 were used in linear regression analyses with respect to mortality rates for latitude (an index of solar UVB levels), skin cancer (an index of high cumulative UVB irradiance), melanoma (an index related to solar UV irradiance and several other factors) and lung cancer (an index of cumulative effects of smoking). The 9 cancers with mortality rates significantly correlated with latitude for 1 or both sexes were brain, gastric, melanoma, nonmelanoma skin cancer (NMSC), non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL), pancreatic, pleural, rectal and thyroid cancer. Inverse correlations with latitude were found for laryngeal, lung and uterine corpus cancer. The 17 cancers inversely correlated with NMSC are bladder, brain, breast, colon, esophageal, gallbladder, Hodgkin's lymphoma, lung, melanoma, multiple myeloma, NHL, ovarian, pancreatic, pleural, rectal, thyroid and uterine corpus cancer. The 16 correlated with melanoma are bladder, brain, breast, colon, gallbladder, leukemia, lung, multiple myeloma, NHL, ovarian, pancreatic, pleural, prostate, rectal, renal and uterine corpus cancer. The results for lung cancer were in accordance with the literature. These results provide more support for the UVB/vitamin D/cancer hypothesis and indicate a new way to investigate the role of solar UV irradiance on cancer risk. They also provide more evidence that melanoma and NMSC have different etiologies. PMID:17149699

  12. A Study of the Gender-Specific Mortality Rates in Korea and Japan for the Formation of Health Promotion Policy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nam, Eun-Woo; Song, Yea-Li-A

    2007-01-01

    Objective: This study attempts to provide fundamental information to help with the development of health policy and health services by looking at the trends of the gender-specific mortality rates in Korea and Japan. Design: The death statistics of Korea and Japan over the 21-year period from 1983 to 2003 are analyzed. Setting: We used the death…

  13. Melanoma incidence mortality rates and clinico-pathological types in the Siberian area of the Russian Federation.

    PubMed

    Gyrylova, Svetlana Nikolaevna; Aksenenko, Mariya Borisovna; Gavrilyuk, Dmitriy Vladimirovich; Palkina, Nadezda Vladimirovna; Dyhno, Yuriy Alexandrovich; Ruksha, Tatiana Gennadievna; Artyukhov, Ivan Pavlovich

    2014-01-01

    Russian rates for melanoma incidence and mortality are relatively low as compared to some other white populations but the tumor is of increasing importance. In this paper, data are based on a retrospective descriptive analysis of melanoma epidemiology and clinicopathological characteristics in Krasnoyarsk Territory belonging to the Siberian Federal District of the Russian Federation. The age-adjusted incidence and mortality rates for the period 1996-2009 were determined with subsequent retrospective analysis of clinicopathological data of 103 primary melanoma cases. Our results showed that incidence and mortality rates in the region under consideration match the Russian national trends and correspond to epidemiological data of the countries of Eastern Europe. Stratification of melanoma cases by age, sex, clinicopathological state and localization revealed a prevalence of lesions on the trunk and lower extremities. Most melanomas diagnosed were of superficial spreading type and the third Clark's level of tumor invasion and stage II according to AJCC. In spite of comparatively low rates of incidence and mortality the trend to increase of melanoma cases in the region under consideration obviously calls for more attention and further investigation. PMID:24716957

  14. Misery Loves Company? A Meta-Regression Examining Aggregate Unemployment Rates and the Unemployment-Mortality Association

    PubMed Central

    Roelfs, David J.; Shor, Eran; Blank, Aharon; Schwartz, Joseph E.

    2015-01-01

    PURPOSE Individual-level unemployment has been consistently linked to poor health and higher mortality, but some scholars have suggested that the negative effect of job loss may be lower during times and in places where aggregate unemployment rates are high. We review three logics associated with this moderation hypothesis: health selection, social isolation, and unemployment stigma. We then test whether aggregate unemployment rates moderate the individual-level association between unemployment and all-cause mortality. METHODS We use 6 meta-regression models (each utilizing a different measure of the aggregate unemployment rate) based on 62 relative all-cause mortality risk estimates from 36 studies (from 15 nations). RESULTS We find that the magnitude of the individual-level unemployment-mortality association is approximately the same during periods of high and low aggregate-level unemployment. Model coefficients (exponentiated) were 1.01 for the crude unemployment rate (p = 0.27), 0.94 for the change in unemployment rate from the previous year (p = 0.46), 1.01 for the deviation of the unemployment rate from the 5-year running average (p = 0.87), 1.01 for the deviation of the unemployment rate from the 10-year running average (p = 0.73), 1.01 for the deviation of the unemployment rate from the overall average (measured as a continuous variable; p = 0.61), and showed no variation across unemployment levels when the deviation of the unemployment rate from the overall average was measured categorically. Heterogeneity between studies was significant (p < .001), supporting the use of the random effects model. CONCLUSIONS We found no strong evidence to suggest that unemployment experiences change when macro-economic conditions change. Efforts to ameliorate the negative social and economic consequences of unemployment should continue to focus on the individual and should be maintained regardless of periodic changes in macro-economic conditions. PMID:25795225

  15. Recombination of W19 + ions with electrons: Absolute rate coefficients from a storage-ring experiment and from theoretical calculations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Badnell, N. R.; Spruck, K.; Krantz, C.; Novotný, O.; Becker, A.; Bernhardt, D.; Grieser, M.; Hahn, M.; Repnow, R.; Savin, D. W.; Wolf, A.; Müller, A.; Schippers, S.

    2016-05-01

    Experimentally measured and theoretically calculated rate coefficients for the recombination of W19 +([Kr ] 4 d10 4 f9 ) ions with free electrons (forming W18 +) are presented. At low electron-ion collision energies, the merged-beam rate coefficient is dominated by strong, mutually overlapping, recombination resonances as already found previously for the neighboring charge-state ions W18 + and W20 +. In the temperature range where W19 + is expected to form in a collisionally ionized plasma, the experimentally derived recombination rate coefficient deviates by up to a factor of about 20 from the theoretical rate coefficient obtained from the Atomic Data and Analysis Structure database. The present calculations, which employ a Breit-Wigner redistributive partitioning of autoionizing widths for dielectronic recombination via multi-electron resonances, reproduce the experimental findings over the entire temperature range.

  16. Absolute rate of the reaction of atomic hydrogen with ethylene from 198 to 320 K at high pressure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, J. H.; Michael, J. V.; Payne, W. A.; Stief, L. J.

    1978-01-01

    The rate constant for the H+C2H4 reaction has been measured as a function of temperature. Experiments were performed with high pressures of Ar heat bath gas at seven temperatures from 198 to 320 K with the flash photolysis-resonance fluorescence (FP-RF) technique. Pressures were chosen so as to isolate the addition rate constant k1. The results are well represented by an Arrhenius expression. The results are compared with other studies and are theoretically discussed.

  17. Absolute rate of the reaction of Cl(p-2) with molecular hydrogen from 200 - 500 K

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whytock, D. A.; Lee, J. H.; Michael, J. V.; Payne, W. A.; Stief, L. J.

    1976-01-01

    Rate constants for the reaction of atomic chlorine with hydrogen are measured from 200 - 500 K using the flash photolysis-resonance fluorescence technique. The results are compared with previous work and are discussed with particular reference to the equilibrium constant for the reaction and to relative rate data for chlorine atom reactions. Theoretical calculations, using the BEBO method with tunneling, give excellent agreement with experiment.

  18. Incidence and mortality rate of esophageal cancer has decreased during past 40 years in Hebei Province, China

    PubMed Central

    He, Yutong; Wu, Yan; Song, Guohui; Li, Yongwei; Liang, Di; Jin, Jing; Wen, Denggui

    2015-01-01

    Background Hebei province is located in North of China with of approximately 6% of whole national population. It is known as a high-risk area for esophageal cancer in China and worldwide. The aim of our study was to estimate the esophageal cancer burden and trend in Hebei Province. Methods Eight cancer registries in Hebei Province submitted cancer registry data to the Hebei Provincial Cancer Registry Center. All data were qualified and compiled for cancer statistics in 2011. The pooled data were stratified by gender and age group (0, 1-4, 5-9, 10-14…80+). Incidence and mortality rates were age-standardized to World Segi’s population standard and expressed per 100,000 persons. In addition, proportions and cumulative incidence/mortality rates for esophageal cancer were calculated. Esophageal cancer mortality data during the periods 1973-1975, 1990-1992, and 2004-2005 were extracted from the national death surveys. Mortality and incidence rate data from Cixian and Shexian were obtained from population-based cancer registries in each county. Results The estimated number of newly diagnosed esophageal cancer cases and deaths in 2011 in Hebei Province was 24,318 and 18,226, respectively. The crude incidence rate of esophageal cancer was 33.37/100,000 (males, 42.18/100,000 and females, 24.31/100,000). The age-standardized rate by world standard population (ASRW) was 28.09/100,000, ranking third among all cancers. The esophageal cancer mortality rate was 25.01/100,000 (males, 31.40/100,000 and females, 18.45/100,000), ranking third in deaths among all cancers. The mortality rates of esophageal cancer displayed a significant decreasing trend in Hebei Province from 1973-1975 (ASRW =48.69/100,000) to 2004-2005 (ASRW =28.02/100,000), with a decreased rate of 42.45%. In Cixian, the incidence of esophageal cancer decreased from 250.76/100,000 to 106.74/100,000 in males and from 153.86/100,000 to 75.41/100,000 in females, with annual percentage changes (APC) of 2.13 and 2

  19. Absolute Summ

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Phillips, Alfred, Jr.

    Summ means the entirety of the multiverse. It seems clear, from the inflation theories of A. Guth and others, that the creation of many universes is plausible. We argue that Absolute cosmological ideas, not unlike those of I. Newton, may be consistent with dynamic multiverse creations. As suggested in W. Heisenberg's uncertainty principle, and with the Anthropic Principle defended by S. Hawking, et al., human consciousness, buttressed by findings of neuroscience, may have to be considered in our models. Predictability, as A. Einstein realized with Invariants and General Relativity, may be required for new ideas to be part of physics. We present here a two postulate model geared to an Absolute Summ. The seedbed of this work is part of Akhnaton's philosophy (see S. Freud, Moses and Monotheism). Most important, however, is that the structure of human consciousness, manifest in Kenya's Rift Valley 200,000 years ago as Homo sapiens, who were the culmination of the six million year co-creation process of Hominins and Nature in Africa, allows us to do the physics that we do. .

  20. Worldwide variation in life-span sexual dimorphism and sex-specific environmental mortality rates.

    PubMed

    Teriokhin, Anatoly T; Budilova, Elena V; Thomas, Frederic; Guegan, Jean-Francois

    2004-08-01

    In all human populations mean life span of women generally exceeds that of men, but the extent of this sexual dimorphism varies across different regions of the world. Our purpose here is to study, using global demographic and environmental data, the general tendency of this variation and local deviations from it. We used data on male and female life history traits and environmental conditions for 227 countries and autonomous territories; for each country or territory the life-span dimorphism was defined as the difference between mean life spans of women and men. The general tendency is an increase of life-span dimorphism with increasing average male-female life span; this tendency can be explained using a demographic model based on the Makeham-Gompertz equation. Roughly, the life-span dimorphism increases with the average life span because of an increase in the duration of expressing sex- and age-dependent mortality described by the second (exponential) term of the Makeham-Gompertz equation. Thus we investigated the differences in male and female environmental mortality described by the first term of the Makeham-Gompertz equation fitted to the data. The general pattern that resulted was an increase in male mortality at the highest and lowest latitudes. One plausible explanation is that specific factors tied to extreme latitudes influence males more strongly than females. In particular, alcohol consumption increases with increasing latitude and, on the contrary, infection pressures increase with decreasing latitude. This finding agrees with other observations, such as an increase in male mortality excess in Europe and Christian countries and an increase in female mortality excess in Asia and Muslim countries. An increase in the excess of female mortality may also be due to increased maternal mortality caused by an increase in fertility. However, this relation is not linear: In regions with the highest fertility (e.g., in Africa) the excess of female mortality is

  1. Absolute rate constant of the reaction OH + H2O2 yields HO2 + H2O from 245 to 423 K

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Keyser, L. F.

    1980-01-01

    The absolute rate constant of the reaction between the hydroxyl radical and hydrogen peroxide was measured by using the discharge-flow resonance fluorescence technique at total pressure between 1 and 4 torr. At 298 K the result is (1.64 + or - 0.32) x 10 to the -12th cu cm/molecule s. The observed rate constant is independent of pressure, surface-to-volume ratio, the addition of vibrational quenchers, and the source of OH. The temperature dependence has also been determined between 245 and 423 K; the resulting Arrhenius expression is k cu cm/molecule s is equal to (2.51 + or - 0.6) x 10 to the -12th exp(-126 + or - 76/T).

  2. Experimental warming and precipitation interactively modulate the mortality rate and timing of spring emergence of a gallmaking Tephritid fly

    PubMed Central

    Xi, Xinqiang; Li, Dongbo; Peng, Youhong; Eisenhauer, Nico; Sun, Shucun

    2016-01-01

    Global climate change is mostly characterized by temperature increase and fluctuating precipitation events, which may affect the spring phenology and mortality rate of insects. However, the interaction effect of temperature and precipitation on species performance has rarely been examined. Here we studied the response of the gall-making Tephritid fly Urophora stylata (Diptera: Tephritidae) to artificial warming, changes in precipitation, and the presence of galls. Our results revealed a significant interaction effect of warming, precipitation, and galls on the life-history traits of the focal species. Specifically, when the galls were intact, warming had no effect on the phenology and increased the mortality of the fly under decreased precipitation, but it significantly advanced the timing of adult emergence and had no effect on the mortality under increased precipitation. When galls were removed, warming significantly advanced the timing of emergence and increased fly mortality, but precipitation showed no effect on the phenology and mortality. In addition, gall removal significantly increased adult fresh mass for both females and males. Our results indicate that the effect of elevated temperature on the performance of species may depend on other environmental conditions, such as variations in precipitation, and species traits like the formation of galls. PMID:27578601

  3. Experimental warming and precipitation interactively modulate the mortality rate and timing of spring emergence of a gallmaking Tephritid fly.

    PubMed

    Xi, Xinqiang; Li, Dongbo; Peng, Youhong; Eisenhauer, Nico; Sun, Shucun

    2016-01-01

    Global climate change is mostly characterized by temperature increase and fluctuating precipitation events, which may affect the spring phenology and mortality rate of insects. However, the interaction effect of temperature and precipitation on species performance has rarely been examined. Here we studied the response of the gall-making Tephritid fly Urophora stylata (Diptera: Tephritidae) to artificial warming, changes in precipitation, and the presence of galls. Our results revealed a significant interaction effect of warming, precipitation, and galls on the life-history traits of the focal species. Specifically, when the galls were intact, warming had no effect on the phenology and increased the mortality of the fly under decreased precipitation, but it significantly advanced the timing of adult emergence and had no effect on the mortality under increased precipitation. When galls were removed, warming significantly advanced the timing of emergence and increased fly mortality, but precipitation showed no effect on the phenology and mortality. In addition, gall removal significantly increased adult fresh mass for both females and males. Our results indicate that the effect of elevated temperature on the performance of species may depend on other environmental conditions, such as variations in precipitation, and species traits like the formation of galls. PMID:27578601

  4. Associated influence of hypertension and heart rate greater than 80 beats per minute on mortality rate in patients with anterior wall STEMI

    PubMed Central

    Davidovic, Goran; Iric-Cupic, Violeta; Milanov, Srdjan

    2013-01-01

    Acute myocardial infarction as a form of coronary heart disease is characterized by permanent damage/loss of anatomical and functional cardiac tissue. Diagnosis of STEMI includes data on anginal pain and persistent ST-segment elavation. According to the numerous epidemiological studies, arterial blood pressure and heart rate are offten increased especially during the first hours of pain due to domination of sympathetic response. We wanted to investigate the associated influence of heart rate greater than 80 beats per minute and hypertension on the mortality in patients with anterior wall STEMI. Research included 140 patients treated in Coronary Unit, Clinical Center Kragujevac form January 2001 to June 2006. Heart rate was calculated as the mean value of baseline and heart rate in the first 30 minutes after admission, recorded on monitor and electrocardiogram. Data for history of hypertension were collected and blood pressure levels were measured in a lying position after 5 minutes of rest, and classified according to the VII JNC recommendations as confirmation of hypertension. Collected data were analyzed in SPSS 13.0 for Windows. Heart rate greater than 80 bpm influences the hospital mortality. Systolic blood pressure levels were higher in the survivors, while for the diastolic there was no difference. History of hypertension was singled out as a significant predictor of mortality without difference between the respondents with heart rate greater and lower than 80 bpm in the survivors and fatal. Increased heart rate and hypertension at admission are significant predictors of mortality in patients with anterior wall STEMI. PMID:23724155

  5. Neonatal and Infant Mortality in Korea, Japan, and the U.S.: Effect of Birth Weight Distribution and Birth Weight-Specific Mortality Rates.

    PubMed

    Kim, Do Hyun; Jeon, Jihyun; Park, Chang Gi; Sriram, Sudhir; Lee, Kwang Sun

    2016-09-01

    Difference in crude neonatal and infant mortality rates (NMR and IMR) among different countries is due to the differences in its two determinants: birth weight distribution (BWD) and birth weight-specific mortality rates (BW-SMRs). We aimed to determine impact of BWD and BW-SMRs on differences in crude NMR and IMR among Korea, Japan, and the U.S. Our study used the live birth data of the period 2009 through 2010. Crude NMR/IMR are the lowest in Japan, 1.1/2.1, compared to 1.8/3.2, in Korea, and 4.1/6.2, in the U.S., respectively. Japanese had the best BW-SMRs of all birth weight groups compared to the Koreans and the U.S. The U.S. BWD was unfavorable with very low birth weight (< 1,500 g) rate of 1.4%, compared to 0.6% in Korea, and 0.8% in Japan. If Koreans and Japanese had the same BWD as in the U.S., their crude NMR/IMR would be 3.9/6.1 for the Koreans and 1.5/2.5 for the Japanese. If both Koreans and Japanese had the same BW-SMRs as in the U.S., the crude NMR/IMR would be 2.0/3.8 for the Koreans and 2.7/5.0 for the Japanese. In conclusion, compared to the U.S., lower crude NMR or IMR in Japan is mainly attributable to its better BW-SMRs. Koreans had lower crude NMR and IMR, primarily from its favorable BWD. Comparing crude NMR or IMR among different countries should include further exploration of its two determinants, BW-SMRs reflecting medical care, and BWD reflecting socio-demographic conditions. PMID:27510390

  6. A combined telemetry - tag return approach to estimate fishing and natural mortality rates of an estuarine fish

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bacheler, N.M.; Buckel, J.A.; Hightower, J.E.; Paramore, L.M.; Pollock, K.H.

    2009-01-01

    A joint analysis of tag return and telemetry data should improve estimates of mortality rates for exploited fishes; however, the combined approach has thus far only been tested in terrestrial systems. We tagged subadult red drum (Sciaenops ocellatus) with conventional tags and ultrasonic transmitters over 3 years in coastal North Carolina, USA, to test the efficacy of the combined telemetry - tag return approach. There was a strong seasonal pattern to monthly fishing mortality rate (F) estimates from both conventional and telemetry tags; highest F values occurred in fall months and lowest levels occurred during winter. Although monthly F values were similar in pattern and magnitude between conventional tagging and telemetry, information on F in the combined model came primarily from conventional tags. The estimated natural mortality rate (M) in the combined model was low (estimated annual rate ?? standard error: 0.04 ?? 0.04) and was based primarily upon the telemetry approach. Using high-reward tagging, we estimated different tag reporting rates for state agency and university tagging programs. The combined telemetry - tag return approach can be an effective approach for estimating F and M as long as several key assumptions of the model are met.

  7. Thirty-day in-hospital revascularization and mortality rates after acute myocardial infarction in seven Canadian provinces

    PubMed Central

    Johansen, Helen; Brien, Susan E; Finès, Philippe; Bernier, Julie; Humphries, Karin; Stukel, Therese A; Ghali, William A

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Recent clinical trials have demonstrated benefit with early revascularization following acute myocardial infarction (AMI). Trends in and the association between early revascularization after (ie, 30 days or fewer) AMI and early death were determined. METHODS AND RESULTS: The Statistics Canada Health Person-Oriented Information Database, consisting of hospital discharge records for seven provinces from the Canadian Institute for Health Information Hospital Morbidity Database, was used. If there was no AMI in the preceding year, the first AMI visit within a fiscal year for a patient 20 years of age or older was included. Times to death in hospital and to revascularization procedures were counted from the admission date of the first AMI visit. Mixed model regression analyses with random slopes were used to assess the relationship between early revascularization and mortality. The overall rate of revascularization within 30 days of AMI increased significantly from 12.5% in 1995 to 37.4% in 2003, while the 30-day mortality rate decreased significantly from 13.5% to 10.6%. There was a linearly decreasing relationship – higher regional use of revascularization was associated with lower mortality in both men and women. CONCLUSIONS: These population-based utilization and outcome findings are consistent with clinical trial evidence of improved 30-day in-hospital mortality with increased early revascularization after AMI. PMID:20847971

  8. Forced migration and mortality in the very long term: did perestroika affect death rates also in Finland?

    PubMed

    Saarela, Jan; Finnäs, Fjalar

    2009-08-01

    In this article, we analyze mortality rates of Finns born in areas that were ceded to the Soviet Union after World War II and from which the entire population was evacuated. These internally displaced persons are observed during the period 1971-2004 and compared with people born in the same region but on the adjacent side of the new border. We find that in the 1970s and 1980s, the forced migrants had mortality rates that were on par with those of people in the comparison group. In the late 1980s, the mortality risk of internally displaced men increased by 20% in relation to the expected time trend. This deviation, which manifests particularly in cardiovascular mortality, coincides with perestroika and the demise of the Soviet Union, which were events that resulted in an intense debate in civil society about restitution of the ceded areas. Because state actors were reluctant to engage, the debate declined after some few years, and after the mid-1990s, the death risk again approached the long-term trend. Our findings indicate that when internally displaced persons must adjust to situations for which appropriate coping behaviors are unknown, psychosocial stress might arise several decades after their evacuation. PMID:19771945

  9. Forced Migration and Mortality in the Very Long Term: Did Perestroika Affect Death Rates Also in Finland?

    PubMed Central

    SAARELA, JAN; FINNÄS, FJALAR

    2009-01-01

    In this article, we analyze mortality rates of Finns born in areas that were ceded to the Soviet Union after World War II and from which the entire population was evacuated. These internally displaced persons are observed during the period 1971–2004 and compared with people born in the same region but on the adjacent side of the new border. We find that in the 1970s and 1980s, the forced migrants had mortality rates that were on par with those of people in the comparison group. In the late 1980s, the mortality risk of internally displaced men increased by 20% in relation to the expected time trend. This deviation, which manifests particularly in cardiovascular mortality, coincides with perestroika and the demise of the Soviet Union, which were events that resulted in an intense debate in civil society about restitution of the ceded areas. Because state actors were reluctant to engage, the debate declined after some few years, and after the mid-1990s, the death risk again approached the long-term trend. Our findings indicate that when internally displaced persons must adjust to situations for which appropriate coping behaviors are unknown, psychosocial stress might arise several decades after their evacuation. PMID:19771945

  10. Transfer of cattle embryos produced with sex-sorted semen results in impaired pregnancy rate and increased male calf mortality.

    PubMed

    Mikkola, M; Andersson, M; Taponen, J

    2015-10-15

    This study investigated the pregnancy rate and calf mortality after transfer of embryos produced using sex-sorted semen. Data for 12,438 embryo transfers performed on dairy farms were analyzed. Of these, 10,697 embryos were produced using conventional semen (CONV embryos) and 1741 using sex-sorted semen from 97 bulls (SEX embryos), predominantly of Ayrshire and Holstein breeds. Of the CONV embryos, 27.4% were transferred fresh, whereas of the SEX embryos, 55.7% were fresh. Recipient attributes (breed, parity, number of previous breeding attempts, and interval from calving to transfer) were comparable for both embryo types, heifers representing 57.8% of recipients in the CONV group and 54.8% in the SEX group. Recipients that were not artificially inseminated or did not undergo a new embryo transfer after the initial embryo transfer and had registered calving in fewer than 290 days after the transfer were considered pregnant. Pregnancy rate for recipients receiving CONV embryos was 44.1%, and for those receiving SEX embryos, it was 38.8%. The odds ratio for pregnancy in recipients receiving CONV embryos was 1.34 compared with SEX embryos (P < 0.001). The proportion of female calves was 49.6% and 92.3% in CONV and SEX groups, respectively. Overall, calf mortality was comparable in both groups. Mortality was similar in CONV and SEX groups (6.6% and 7.7%, respectively) for female calves. For male calves, mortality was 9.2% in the CONV group but significantly higher, 16.0% (P < 0.05), in the SEX group. This study showed that transfer of embryos produced with sex-sorted semen decreased the pregnancy rate by about 12% compared with embryos produced using conventional semen. Mortality of male calves born from SEX embryos was higher than for those born from CONV embryos. PMID:26174034

  11. Absolute rate constants for O + NO + M /= He, Ne, Ar, Kr/ yields NO2 + M from 217-500 K

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Michael, J. V.; Payne, W. A.; Whytock, D. A.

    1976-01-01

    Rate constants for the reaction O + NO + M yields NO2 + M have been obtained at temperatures from 217-500 K in four different rare gases by a method combining flash photolysis with time resolved detection of O(3-P) by resonance fluorescence. The measured rate constants in Arrhenius form are (10.8 plus or minus 1.2) x 10 to the -33rd exp(1040 plus or minus 60/1.987 T) for helium; (9.01 plus or minus 1.16) x 10 to the -33rd exp(1180 plus or minus 70/1.987 T) for argon; (9.33 plus or minus 1.10) x 10 to the -33rd exp(1030 plus or minus 60/1.987 T) for neon; and (9.52 plus or minus 1.10) x 10 to the -33rd exp(1140 plus or minus 70/1.987 T) for krypton in units of cm to the 6th/sq molecule/s.

  12. HbA1c measured in stored erythrocytes and mortality rate among middle-aged and older women

    PubMed Central

    Liu, S.; Stampfer, M. J.; Cook, N. R.; Rexrode, K. M.; Ridker, P. M.; Buring, J. E.; Manson, J. E.

    2009-01-01

    Aims/hypothesis Diabetes is known to increase mortality rate, but the degree to which mild hyperglycaemia may be associated with the risk of death is uncertain. We examined the association between HbA1c measured in stored erythrocytes and mortality rate in women with and without diabetes. Methods We conducted a cohort study of 27,210 women ≥45 years old with no history of cardiovascular disease or cancer who participated in the Women’s Health Study, a randomised trial of vitamin E and aspirin. Results Over a median of 10 years of follow-up, 706 women died. Proportional hazards models adjusted for age, smoking, hypertension, blood lipids, exercise, postmenopausal hormone use, multivitamin use and C-reactive protein were used to estimate the relative risk of mortality. Among women without a diagnosis of diabetes and HbA1c <5.60%, those in the top quintile (HbA1c 5.19–5.59%) had a relative risk of mortality of 1.28 (95% CI 0.98–1.69, p value for linear trend=0.14) compared with those with HbA1c 2.27–4.79%. Women with HbA1c 5.60–5.99% and no diagnosis of diabetes had a 54% increased risk of mortality (95% CI 1–136%) compared with those with HbA1c 2.27–4.79%. HbA1c was significantly associated with mortality across the range 4.50–7.00% (p value for linear trend=0.02); a test of deviation from linearity was not statistically significant (p=0.67). Diabetic women had more than twice the mortality risk of non-diabetic women. Conclusions/interpretation This study provides further evidence that chronic mild hyperglycaemia, even in the absence of diagnosed diabetes, is associated with increased risk of mortality. PMID:18043905

  13. Esophageal cancer epidemiology in blacks and whites: racial and gender disparities in incidence, mortality, survival rates and histology.

    PubMed Central

    Baquet, Claudia R.; Commiskey, Patricia; Mack, Kelly; Meltzer, Stephen; Mishra, Shiraz I.

    2005-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Esophageal cancer rate disparities are pronounced for blacks and whites. This study presents black-white esophageal cancer incidence, mortality, relative survival rates, histology and trends for two five-year time periods--1991-1995 and 1996-2000--and for the time period 1991-2000. METHODS: The study used data from the National Cancer Institute's population-based Surveillance Epidemiology End Results (SEER) program with submission dates 1991-2000. Age-adjusted incidence, mortality, relative survival rates and histology for esophageal carcinoma were calculated for nine SEER cancer registries for 1991-2000. Rates were analyzed by race and gender for changes over specified time periods. RESULTS: Esophageal cancer age-adjusted incidence of blacks was about twice that of whites (8.63 vs. 4.39/100,000, p < 0.05). Age-adjusted mortality for blacks, although showing a declining trend, was nearly twice that of whites (7.79 vs. 3.96, p < 0.05). Although survival was poor for all groups, it was significantly poorer in blacks than in whites. Squamous cell carcinoma was more commonly diagnosed in blacks and white females, whereas adenocarcinoma was more common among white males (p < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: Racial disparities in esophageal cancer incidence, mortality, survival and histology exist. Survival rates from this disease have not significantly improved over the decade. These data support the need for advances in prevention, early detection biomarker research and research on new, more effective treatment modalities for this disease. Images Figure 1 PMID:16334494

  14. Medicaid prenatal program reducing rates of low birth weight, infant mortality.

    PubMed

    1997-11-01

    Medicaid prenatal program reduces low birth weight and infant mortality: Christiana Care Health System in Wilmington, DE, rejects the free baby stroller and gift certificate approach to motivating members and instead employs peer moms in the community to mentor pregnant Medicaid members and help them make life-long health improvements. PMID:10175564

  15. Why do child mortality rates fall? An analysis of the Nicaraguan experience.

    PubMed Central

    Sandiford, P; Morales, P; Gorter, A; Coyle, E; Smith, G D

    1991-01-01

    A comprehensive review of available sources of mortality data was undertaken to document the changes that have occurred in infant mortality in Nicaragua over the last three decades. It was found that a rapid fall in infant mortality commenced in the early 1970s and has continued steadily since. Trends in several different factors which might have led to this breakthrough were examined including: income, nutrition, breastfeeding practices, maternal education, immunizations, access to health services, provision of water supplies and sanitation, and anti-malarial programs. Of these, improved access to health services appears to have been the most important factor. At a time when the number of hospital beds per capita was dropping, increasing numbers of health care professionals, particularly nurses, were becoming available to staff primary health care facilities built in the 1960s. These were provided at least partly in response to the growing political turmoil enveloping the nation at that time. Certain Nicaraguan cultural attributes may have added to the impact of the reforms. Efforts in the field of public health made since the 1979 insurrection appear to have maintained the decline in child mortality. PMID:1983913

  16. Self-Rated Health and Mortality: Does the Relationship Extend to a Low Income Setting?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frankenberg, Elizabeth; Jones, Nathan R.

    2004-01-01

    Although a relationship between poor self-reported health status and excess mortality risk has been well-established for industrialized countries, almost no research considers developing countries. We use data from Indonesia to show that in a low-income setting, as in more advantaged parts of the world, individuals who perceive their health to be…

  17. Trends in 30-day mortality rate and case mix for paediatric cardiac surgery in the UK between 2000 and 2010

    PubMed Central

    Brown, Katherine L; Crowe, Sonya; Franklin, Rodney; McLean, Andrew; Cunningham, David; Barron, David; Tsang, Victor; Pagel, Christina; Utley, Martin

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To explore changes over time in the 30-day mortality rate for paediatric cardiac surgery and to understand the role of attendant changes in the case mix. Methods, setting and participants Included were: all mandatory submissions to the National Institute of Cardiovascular Outcomes Research (NICOR) relating to UK cardiac surgery in patients aged <16 years. The χ2 test for trend was used to retrospectively analyse the proportion of surgical episodes ending in 30-day mortality and with various case mix indicators, in 10 consecutive time periods, from 2000 to 2010. Comparisons were made between two 5-year eras of: 30-day mortality, period prevalence and mean age for 30 groups of specific operations. Main outcome measure 30-day mortality for an episode of surgical management. Results Our analysis includes 36 641 surgical episodes with an increase from 2283 episodes in 2000 to 3939 in 2009 (p<0.01). The raw national 30-day mortality rate fell over the period of review from 4.3% (95% CI 3.5% to 5.1%) in 2000 to 2.6% (95% CI 2.2% to 3.0%) in 2009/2010 (p<0.01). The case mix became more complex in terms of the percentage of patients <2.5 kg (p=0.05), with functionally univentricular hearts (p<0.01) and higher risk diagnoses (p<0.01). In the later time era, there was significant improvement in 30-day mortality for arterial switch with ventricular septal defect (VSD) repair, patent ductus arteriosus ligation, Fontan-type operation, tetralogy of Fallot and VSD repair, and the mean age of patients fell for a range of operations performed in infancy. Conclusions The raw 30-day mortality rate for paediatric cardiac surgery fell over a decade despite a rise in the national case mix complexity, and compares well with international benchmarks. Definitive repair is now more likely at a younger age for selected infants with congenital heart defects. PMID:25893099

  18. Effect of ambient air pollution on daily mortality rates in Guangzhou, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Ignatius Tak Sun; Zhang, Yong hui; San Tam, Wilson Wai; Yan, Qing Hua; Xu, Yan jun; Xun, Xiao jun; Wu, Wei; Ma, Wen Jun; Tian, Lin Wei; Tse, Lap Ah; Lao, Xiang Qian

    2012-01-01

    We aimed to investigate the effects of ambient air pollutants on daily mortality in a relatively stable and homogeneous population in Guangzhou, China. Daily mortality, air pollution, and weather data between 2006 and 2009 were collected. The generalized additive model with poison regression was used to estimate the excessive risks (ERs) of air pollutants (PM 10, SO 2, and NO 2) on total, cardiovascular and respiratory mortality. The effects of lag0-1 were the greatest for total non-accidental and cardiovascular deaths. The increments of 10 μg m -3 in SO 2, NO 2, and PM 10 were associated with ERs of 1.54% (95%CI: 1.03-2.06%), 1.42% (95%CI: 1.06-1.78%), and 1.26% (95%CI: 0.86-1.66%) respectively for total non-accidental deaths, and 2.28% (95%CI: 1.40-3.16%), 1.81% (95%CI: 1.20-2.41%), and 1.79% (95%CI: 1.11-2.47%) respectively for cardiovascular deaths. For persons who died from respiratory disease, however, the maximum effects occurred at lag0. The ERs for SO 2, NO 2, and PM 10 were 1.36% (95%CI: 0.23-2.50%), 1.47% (95%CI: 0.66-2.29%) and 0.93% (95%CI: 0.03-1.83%), respectively. The effects of the three air pollutants on mortality were stronger in elderly and in women. The ERs in the present study were higher than those reported in Europe, the U.S., and most other Asian cities. Our findings show relatively higher ERs of daily mortality by ambient air pollutants in the center of Guangzhou, China, compared with estimates in other cities. Further studies with accurate exposure measurement among homogeneous population are needed to evaluate the precise magnitudes of the effects of the air pollutants.

  19. Optically based quantification of absolute cerebral metabolic rate of oxygen (CMRO2) with high spatial resolution in rodents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yaseen, Mohammad A.; Srinivasan, Vivek J.; Sakadžić, Sava; Vinogradov, Sergei A.; Boas, David A.

    2010-02-01

    Measuring oxygen delivery in brain tissue is important for identifying the pathophysiological changes associated with brain injury and various diseases such as cancer, stroke, and Alzheimer's disease. We have developed a multi-modal imaging system for minimally invasive measurement of cerebral oxygenation and blood flow in small animals with high spatial resolution. The system allows for simultaneous measurement of blood flow using Fourier-domain optical coherence tomography, and oxygen partial pressure (pO2) using either confocal or multiphoton phosphorescence lifetime imaging with exogenous porphyrin-based dyes sensitive to dissolved oxygen. Here we present the changes in pO2 and blood flow in superficial cortical vessels of Sprague Dawley rats in response to conditions such as hypoxia, hyperoxia, and functional stimulation. pO2 measurements display considerable heterogeneity over distances that cannot be resolved with more widely used oxygen-monitoring techniques such as BOLD-fMRI. Large increases in blood flow are observed in response to functional stimulation and hypoxia. Our system allows for quantification of cerebral metabolic rate of oxygen (CMRO2) with high spatial resolution, providing a better understanding of metabolic dynamics during functional stimulation and under various neuropathologies. Ultimately, better insight into the underlying mechanisms of neuropathologies will facilitate the development of improved therapeutic strategies to minimize damage to brain tissue.

  20. Pressure dependence of the absolute rate constant for the reaction Cl + C2H2 from 210-361 K

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brunning, J.; Stief, L. J.

    1985-01-01

    In recent years, considerable attention has been given to the role of chlorine compounds in the catalytic destruction of stratospheric ozone. However, while some reactions have been studied extensively, the kinetic data for the reaction of Cl with C2H2 is sparse with only three known determinations of the rate constant k3. The reactions involved are Cl + C2H2 yields reversibly ClC2H2(asterisk) (3a) and ClC2H2(asterisk) + M yields ClC2H2 + M (3b). In the present study, flash photolysis coupled with chlorine atomic resonance fluorescence have been employed to determine the pressure and temperature dependence of k3 with the third body M = Ar. Room temperature values are also reported for M = N2. The pressure dependence observed in the experiments confirms the expectation that the reaction involves addition of Cl to the unsaturated C2H2 molecule followed by collisional stabilization of the resulting adduct radical.

  1. Baseline Residual Kidney Function and Its Ensuing Rate of Decline Interact to Predict Mortality of Peritoneal Dialysis Patients

    PubMed Central

    Pérez Fontán, Miguel; Remón Rodríguez, César; da Cunha Naveira, Marta; Borràs Sans, Mercè; Rodríguez Suárez, Carmen; Quirós Ganga, Pedro; Sánchez Alvarez, Emilio; Rodríguez-Carmona, Ana

    2016-01-01

    Background Baseline residual kidney function (RKF) and its rate of decline during follow-up are purported to be reliable outcome predictors of patients undergoing Peritoneal Dialysis (PD). The independent contribution of each of these factors has not been elucidated. Method We report a multicenter, longitudinal study of 493 patients incident on PD and satisfying two conditions: a glomerular filtration rate (GFR) ≥1 mL/minute and a daily diuresis ≥300 mL. The main variables were the GFR (mean of urea and creatinine clearances) at PD inception and the GFR rate of decline during follow-up. The main outcome variable was patient mortality. The secondary outcome variables were: PD technique failure and risk of peritoneal infection. The statistical analysis was based on a multivariate approach, placing an emphasis on the interactions between the two main study variables. Main Results Baseline GFR and its rate of decline performed well as independent predictors of both patient mortality and risk of peritoneal infection. These two main study variables maintained a moderate correlation with each other (r2 = 0.12, p<0.0005), and interacted clearly, as predictors of patient mortality. A low baseline GFR followed by a fast decline portended the worst survival outcome (adjusted HR 3.84, 95%CI 1.81–8.14, p<0.0005)(Ref. baseline GFR above median plus rate of decline below median). In general, the rate of decline of RKF had a greater effect on mortality than baseline GFR, which had no detectable effect on survival when the decline of RKF was slow (HR 1.17, 95% CI 0.81–2.22, p = 0.22). Conversely, a relatively high GFR at the start of PD still carried a significant risk of mortality, when RKF declined rapidly (HR 1.89, 95% CI 1.05–3.72, p = 0.028). Conclusion The risk-benefit balance of an early versus late start of PD cannot be evaluated without taking into consideration the rate of decline of RKF. This circumstance may contribute to explain the controversial results

  2. Examining mortality risk and rate of ageing among Polish Olympic athletes: a survival follow-up from 1924 to 2012

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Yuhui; Gajewski, Antoni; Poznańska, Anna

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Population-based studies have shown that an active lifestyle reduces mortality risk. Therefore, it has been a longstanding belief that individuals who engage in frequent exercise will experience a slower rate of ageing. It is uncertain whether this widely-accepted assumption holds for intense wear-and-tear. Here, using the 88 years survival follow-up data of Polish Olympic athletes, we report for the first time on whether frequent exercise alters the rate of ageing. Design Longitudinal survival data of male elite Polish athletes who participated in the Olympic Games from year 1924 to 2010 were used. Deaths occurring before the end of World War II were excluded for reliable estimates. Setting and participants Recruited male elite athletes N=1273 were preassigned to two categorical birth cohorts—Cohort I 1890–1919; Cohort II 1920–1959—and a parametric frailty survival analysis was conducted. An event-history analysis was also conducted to adjust for medical improvements from year 1920 onwards: Cohort II. Results Our findings suggest (1) in Cohort I, for every threefold reduction in mortality risk, the rate of ageing decelerates by 1%; (2) socioeconomic transitions and interventions contribute to a reduction in mortality risk of 29% for the general population and 50% for Olympic athletes; (3) an optimum benefit gained for reducing the rate of ageing from competitive sports (Cohort I 0.086 (95% CI 0.047 to 0.157) and Cohort II 0.085 (95% CI 0.050 to 0.144)). Conclusions This study further suggests that intensive physical training during youth should be considered as a factor to improve ageing and mortality risk parameters. PMID:27091824

  3. Decadal-scale rates of reef erosion following El Niño-related mass coral mortality.

    PubMed

    Roff, George; Zhao, Jian-Xin; Mumby, Peter J

    2015-12-01

    As the frequency and intensity of coral mortality events increase under climate change, understanding how declines in coral cover may affect the bioerosion of reef frameworks is of increasing importance. Here, we explore decadal-scale rates of bioerosion of the framework building coral Orbicella annularis by grazing parrotfish following the 1997/1998 El Niño-related mass mortality event at Long Cay, Belize. Using high-precision U-Th dating and CT scan analysis, we quantified in situ rates of external bioerosion over a 13-year period (1998-2011). Based upon the error-weighted average U-Th age of dead O. annularis skeletons, we estimate the average external bioerosion between 1998 and 2011 as 0.92 ± 0.55 cm depth. Empirical observations of herbivore foraging, and a nonlinear numerical response of parrotfish to an increase in food availability, were used to create a model of external bioerosion at Long Cay. Model estimates of external bioerosion were in close agreement with U-Th estimates (0.85 ± 0.09 cm). The model was then used to quantify how rates of external bioerosion changed across a gradient of coral mortality (i.e., from few corals experiencing mortality following coral bleaching to complete mortality). Our results indicate that external bioerosion is remarkably robust to declines in coral cover, with no significant relationship predicted between the rate of external bioerosion and the proportion of O. annularis that died in the 1998 bleaching event. The outcome was robust because the reduction in grazing intensity that follows coral mortality was compensated for by a positive numerical response of parrotfish to an increase in food availability. Our model estimates further indicate that for an O. annularis-dominated reef to maintain a positive state of reef accretion, a necessity for sustained ecosystem function, live cover of O. annularis must not drop below a ~5-10% threshold of cover. PMID:26113199

  4. Absolute level-to-level rate constants for inelastic collisions and exchange reactions in lithium + gaseous lithium(v,j) going to gaseous lithium(v',j') + lithium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coppage, Steven Danforth

    We report 644 absolute level-to-level inelastic and reactive constants for the L7i*2 A1S+u (nui, ji) + 7Li → L7i*2 A1S+u (nu', j') + 7Li system with initial molecular quantum numbers nui = 2 and ji = 3, 11, and 19. We collected 87 rate constants for rotationally inelastic and vibrationally elastic collisions, 281 rate constants for vibrationally inelastic collisions, and 276 constants for exchange reactions with final vibrational levels from nu f = 0 to nuf = 3. Inelastic collisions are characterized by even changes in rotational quantum number, j , and exchange reactions are identified by odd Deltaj. Level-to-level rate constants for even Deltaj inelastic collisions show distributions similar to those in rare gas collisions with the excited Li2 molecule. The ECS (energy corrected sudden) scaling law of DePristo, et al., fit the vibrationally elastic data well. Reactive rate constant results are characterized by a statistical distribution for Deltanu of 0, -1, and -2 at a substantially reduced effective temperature consistent with a kinematic model proposed by Picconatto et al. Fitting quasiclassical trajectory studies to the data using a modified LEPS potential surface provide first insights into the parameters of the excited-state Li3* three-body potential.

  5. Chemical characterization of indoor air of homes from communes in Xuan Wei, China, with high lung cancer mortality rate

    SciTech Connect

    Chuang, J.; Cao, S.; Xian, Y.; Harris, B.; Mumford, J.

    1992-01-01

    In a rural county, Xuan Wei, China, the lung cancer mortality rate is among China's highest, especially in women. This mortality rate is more associated with indoor air burning of smoky coal, as opposed to smokeless coal or wood, for cooking and heating under unvented conditions. Homes using different fuels from communes with high and low lung cancer mortality rates were sampled for particulate matter (<10 micrometers) and semivolatile organics. The fine particles obtained from homes using smoky coal contained highest concentrations of organic matter (> 70%), including PAH, followed by homes using wood and smokeless coal. The major components present in the smoky coal filter samples were PAH and alkylated PAH. The smokeless coal filter samples exhibited profiles which were similar to the smoky coal samples except that some sulfur compounds were found. The estimated concentration levels of PAH in the smokeless coal samples were about one to two orders of magnitude lower than those of the smoky coal samples. In addition to PAH, aliphatic compounds and fatty acids were the major components found in the wood samples. Selected sample extracts from homes using smoky coal were fractionated into four fractions, and the results showed that the PAH and polar fractions have high mutagenic activity. Chemical characterization of the PAH fraction indicated that concentrations of some alkylated PAH were higher than those of their parent compounds. Chemical characterization of the polar fractions showed that nitrogen heterocyclic compounds are present.

  6. Chemical characterization of indoor air of homes from communes in Xuan Wei, China, with high lung cancer mortality rate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chuang, J. C.; Cao, S. R.; Xian, Y. L.; Harris, D. B.; Mumford, J. L.

    In a rural county, Xuan Wei, China, the lung cancer mortality rate is among China's highest, especially in women. This mortality rate is more associated with indoor air burning of smoky coal, as opposed to smokeless coal or wood, for cooking and heating under unvented conditions. Homes using different fuels from communes with high and low lung cancer mortality rates were sampled for particulate matter (< 10 μm) and semivolatile organics. The fine particles obtained from homes using smoky coal contained highest concentrations of organic matter (> 70%), including PAH, followed by homes using wood and smokeless coal. The major components present in the smoky coal filter samples were PAH and alkylated PAH. The smokeless coal filter samples exhibited profiles which were similar to the smoky coal samples except that some sulfur compounds were found. The estimated concentration levels of PAH in the smokeless coal samples were about one to two orders of magnitude lower than those of the smoky coal samples. In addition to PAH, aliphatic compounds and fatty acids were the major components found in the wood samples. Selected sample extracts from homes using smoky coal were fractionated into four fractions, and the results showed that the PAH and polar fractions have high mutagenic activity. Chemical characterization of the PAH fraction indicated that concentrations of some alkylated PAH were higher than those of their parent compounds. Chemical characterization of the polar fractions showed that nitrogen heterocyclic compounds are present.

  7. The impact of fiscal decentralization on infant mortality rates: evidence from OECD countries.

    PubMed

    Jiménez-Rubio, Dolores

    2011-11-01

    This study re-examines the hypothesis that shifts towards more decentralization would be accompanied by improvements in population health on a panel of 20 OECD countries over a thirty year period (1970-2001). Decentralization is proxied using a conventional indicator of revenue decentralization and a new measure of fiscal decentralization that reflects better than previous measures the existence of autonomy in the decision-making authority of lower tiers of government, a crucial issue in the decentralization process. The results show a considerable and positive effect of fiscal decentralization on infant mortality only if a substantial degree of autonomy in the sources of revenue is devolved to local governments. The proportion of health care expenditure on GDP and, in particular, education, were found to have a larger contribution to the reduction of infant mortality in the sample of OECD countries analysed over the period of study. PMID:21920653

  8. Heart Rate Variability Change Before and After Hemodialysis is Associated with Overall and Cardiovascular Mortality in Hemodialysis

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Szu-Chia; Huang, Jiun-Chi; Tsai, Yi-Chun; Hsiu-Chin Mai, R. N.; Jui-Hsin Chen, R. N.; Kuo, Po-Lin; Chang, Jer-Ming; Hwang, Shang-Jyh; Chen, Hung-Chun

    2016-01-01

    Low heart rate variability (HRV) has been recognized to correlate with adverse cardiovascular (CV) outcomes in hemodialysis (HD) patients. It has been reported that HRV might be improved after HD, but whether the improved HRV after HD predicts a better CV prognosis remains to be determined. This study examined the ability of the change in HRV before and after HD in predicting overall and CV mortality in HD patients. This study enrolled 182 patients under maintenance HD. HRV was examined to assess changes before and after HD. The change in HRV (ΔHRV) was defined as post-HD HRV minus pre-HD HRV. During a median follow-up period of 35.2 months, 29 deaths (15.9%) were recorded. Multivariate analysis showed that decreased ΔLF% was associated with increased overall (hazard ratios [HR], 0.978; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.961–0.996; p = 0.019) and CV mortality (HR, 0.941; 95% CI, 0.914–0.970; p < 0.001), respectively. Moreover, adding ΔLF% to a clinical model provided an additional benefit in the prediction of overall (p = 0.002) and CV mortality (p < 0.001). HRV change before and after HD (ΔHRV) is an useful clinical marker, and it is stronger than HRV before HD in predicting overall and CV mortality. PMID:26854202

  9. Mortality rates associated with crown health for eastern forest tree species.

    PubMed

    Morin, Randall S; Randolph, KaDonna C; Steinman, Jim

    2015-03-01

    The condition of tree crowns is an important indicator of tree and forest health. Crown conditions have been evaluated during inventories of the US Forest Service Forest Inventory and Analysis (FIA) program since 1999. In this study, remeasured data from 55,013 trees on 2616 FIA plots in the eastern USA were used to assess the probability of survival among various tree species using the suite of FIA crown condition variables. Logistic regression procedures were employed to develop models for predicting tree survival. Results of the regression analyses indicated that crown dieback was the most important crown condition variable for predicting tree survival for all species combined and for many of the 15 individual species in the study. The logistic models were generally successful in representing recent tree mortality responses to multiyear infestations of beech bark disease and hemlock woolly adelgid. Although our models are only applicable to trees growing in a forest setting, the utility of models that predict impending tree mortality goes beyond forest inventory or traditional forestry growth and yield models and includes any application where managers need to assess tree health or predict tree mortality including urban forest, recreation, wildlife, and pest management. PMID:25655130

  10. Elevated Erythrocyte Sedimentation Rate Is Predictive of Interstitial Lung Disease and Mortality in Dermatomyositis: a Korean Retrospective Cohort Study.

    PubMed

    Go, Dong Jin; Lee, Eun Young; Lee, Eun Bong; Song, Yeong Wook; Konig, Maximilian Ferdinand; Park, Jin Kyun

    2016-03-01

    Interstitial lung disease (ILD) is a major cause of death in patients with dermatomyositis (DM). This study was aimed to examine the utility of the erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR) as a predictor of ILD and prognostic marker of mortality in patients with DM. One hundred-and-fourteen patients with DM were examined, including 28 with clinically amyopathic DM (CADM). A diagnosis of ILD was made based on high resolution computed tomography (HRCT) scans. The association between elevated ESR and pulmonary impairment and mortality was then examined. ILD was diagnosed in 53 (46.5%) of 114 DM patients. Cancer was diagnosed in 2 (3.8%) of 53 DM patients with ILD and in 24 (92.3%) of those without ILD (P < 0.001). The median ESR (50.0 mm/hour) in patients with ILD was significantly higher than that in patients without ILD (29.0 mm/hour; P < 0.001). ESR was inversely correlated with forced vital capacity (Spearman ρ = - 0.303; P = 0.007) and carbon monoxide diffusing capacity (ρ = - 0.319; P = 0.006). DM patients with baseline ESR ≥ 30 mm/hour had significantly higher mortality than those with ESR < 30 mm/hour (P = 0.002, log-rank test). Patients with a persistently high ESR despite immunosuppressive therapy was associated with higher mortality than those with a normalized ESR (P = 0.039, log-rank test). Elevated ESR is associated with increased mortality in patients with DM due to respiratory failure. Thus, monitoring ESR should be an integral part of the clinical care of DM patients. PMID:26955239

  11. Elevated Erythrocyte Sedimentation Rate Is Predictive of Interstitial Lung Disease and Mortality in Dermatomyositis: a Korean Retrospective Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Interstitial lung disease (ILD) is a major cause of death in patients with dermatomyositis (DM). This study was aimed to examine the utility of the erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR) as a predictor of ILD and prognostic marker of mortality in patients with DM. One hundred-and-fourteen patients with DM were examined, including 28 with clinically amyopathic DM (CADM). A diagnosis of ILD was made based on high resolution computed tomography (HRCT) scans. The association between elevated ESR and pulmonary impairment and mortality was then examined. ILD was diagnosed in 53 (46.5%) of 114 DM patients. Cancer was diagnosed in 2 (3.8%) of 53 DM patients with ILD and in 24 (92.3%) of those without ILD (P < 0.001). The median ESR (50.0 mm/hour) in patients with ILD was significantly higher than that in patients without ILD (29.0 mm/hour; P < 0.001). ESR was inversely correlated with forced vital capacity (Spearman ρ = - 0.303; P = 0.007) and carbon monoxide diffusing capacity (ρ = - 0.319; P = 0.006). DM patients with baseline ESR ≥ 30 mm/hour had significantly higher mortality than those with ESR < 30 mm/hour (P = 0.002, log-rank test). Patients with a persistently high ESR despite immunosuppressive therapy was associated with higher mortality than those with a normalized ESR (P = 0.039, log-rank test). Elevated ESR is associated with increased mortality in patients with DM due to respiratory failure. Thus, monitoring ESR should be an integral part of the clinical care of DM patients. PMID:26955239

  12. Multi-scale heart rate dynamics detected by phase-rectified signal averaging predicts mortality after acute myocardial infarction

    PubMed Central

    Kisohara, Masaya; Stein, Phyllis K.; Yoshida, Yutaka; Suzuki, Mari; Iizuka, Narushi; Carney, Robert M.; Watkins, Lana L.; Freedland, Kenneth E.; Blumenthal, James A.; Hayano, Junichiro

    2013-01-01

    Aims Acceleration and deceleration capacity (AC and DC) for beat-to-beat short-term heart rate dynamics are powerful predictors of mortality after acute myocardial infarction (AMI). We examined if AC and DC for minute-order long-term heart rate dynamics also have independent predictive value. Methods and results We studied 24-hr Holter electrcardiograms in 708 post-AMI patients who were followed up for up to 30 months thereafter. Acceleration capacity and DC was calculated with the time scales of T (window size defining heart rate) and s (wavelet scale) from 1 to 500 s and compared their prognostic values with conventional measures (ACconv and DCconv) that were calculated with (T,s) = [1,2 (beat)]. During the follow-up, 47 patients died. Both increased ACconv and decreased DCconv predicted mortality (C statistic, 0.792 and 0.797). Concordantly, sharp peaks of C statistics were observed at (T,s) = [2,7 (sec)] for both increased AC and decreased DC (0.762 and 0.768), but there were larger peaks of C statistics at around [30,60 (sec)] for both (0.783 and 0.796). The C statistic was greater for DC than AC at (30,60) (P = 0.0012). Deceleration capacity at (30,60) was a significant predictor even after adjusted for ACconv (P = 0.020) and DCconv (P = 0.028), but the predictive power of AC at (30,60) was no longer significant. Conclusion A decrease in DC for minute-order long-term heart rate dynamics is a strong predictor for post-AMI mortality and the predictive power is independent of ACconv and DCconv for beat-to-beat short-term heart rate dynamics. PMID:23248218

  13. Fine Root Mortality Rates in a Temperate Forest: Estimates using Radiocarbon Data and Numerical Modeling

    SciTech Connect

    Riley, William J.; Gaudinski, Julia B.; Torn, Margaret S.; JoslinJr., John D.; Hanson, Paul J

    2009-01-01

    Carbon (C) fluxes through roots are the most uncertain of all C exchanges between the atmosphere, plants, and soil. Yet the three dominant methods to characterize root C fluxes (minirhizotron, sequential coring, and isotopes) yield significantly different estimates of temperate forest root mortality turnover times. We contend that these discrepancies result from limitations in interpreting these very distinct types of observations. In this study we used a whole-ecosystem 14C label to develop, parameterize, and test a model (Radix1.0) of fine-root mortality and decomposition. Radix simulates two live roots pools (one with structural and non-structural C components), two dead root pools, non-normally distributed root mortality turnover times, a stored C pool, seasonal growth and respiration patterns, a best-fit to measurements approach to estimate model parameters, and Monte Carlo uncertainty analysis. We applied Radix at a temperate forest in Oak Ridge Tennessee using 14C measurements from two root size classes (<0.5 mm and 0.5−2.0 mm) and three soil depth increments (O horizon, 0−15, and 30−60 cm). Predicted root lifetimes were 0.1-0.9 y and 11-14 y for fast and slow live root pools respectively, and 0.1-4 y and 11-14 y for fast and slow dead root pool decomposition turnover times, respectively. We estimated that C fluxes through fine roots <2 mm diameter are ~40, 220, and 90 g C m-2 y 1 in the O horizon, 0−15 cm, and 30−60 cm depth intervals, respectively. We conclude that accurate characterization of C flows through fine roots required a model with two live fine-root pools, two dead fine-root pools, and root respiration. Further, root turnover times on the order of a decade imply different response times in biomass and growth than are currently predicted by models with a single annual turnover pool.

  14. Effects of vaccination against viral haemorrhagic disease and myxomatosis on long-term mortality rates of European wild rabbits.

    PubMed

    Calvete, C; Estrada, R; Lucientes, J; Osacar, J J; Villafuerte, R

    2004-09-25

    The effects of vaccination against myxomatosis and viral haemorrhagic disease (VHD) on long-term mortality rates in European rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus) were studied from 1993 to 1996 by radiotracking a free-living population of wild rabbits. During the three months after immunisation, unvaccinated young rabbits weighing between 180 and 600 g were 13.6 times more likely to die than vaccinated young rabbits. In adult rabbits, vaccination did not significantly decrease mortality, mainly owing to the high proportion of rabbits which had previously been exposed to the antigens of both diseases. Compared with adult rabbits with natural antibodies to VHD, rabbits without these antibodies were 5.2 times more likely to die of VHD during annual outbreaks. PMID:15499810

  15. Assessing and Mapping Spatial Associations among Oral Cancer Mortality Rates, Concentrations of Heavy Metals in Soil, and Land Use Types Based on Multiple Scale Data

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Wei-Chih; Lin, Yu-Pin; Wang, Yung-Chieh; Chang, Tsun-Kuo; Chiang, Li-Chi

    2014-01-01

    In this study, a deconvolution procedure was used to create a variogram of oral cancer (OC) rates. Based on the variogram, area-to-point (ATP) Poisson kriging and p-field simulation were used to downscale and simulate, respectively, the OC rate data for Taiwan from the district scale to a 1 km × 1 km grid scale. Local cluster analysis (LCA) of OC mortality rates was then performed to identify OC mortality rate hot spots based on the downscaled and the p-field-simulated OC mortality maps. The relationship between OC mortality and land use was studied by overlapping the maps of the downscaled OC mortality, the LCA results, and the land uses. One thousand simulations were performed to quantify local and spatial uncertainties in the LCA to identify OC mortality hot spots. The scatter plots and Spearman’s rank correlation yielded the relationship between OC mortality and concentrations of the seven metals in the 1 km cell grid. The correlation analysis results for the 1 km scale revealed a weak correlation between OC mortality rate and concentrations of the seven studied heavy metals in soil. Accordingly, the heavy metal concentrations in soil are not major determinants of OC mortality rates at the 1 km scale at which soils were sampled. The LCA statistical results for local indicator of spatial association (LISA) revealed that the sites with high probability of high-high (high value surrounded by high values) OC mortality at the 1 km grid scale were clustered in southern, eastern, and mid-western Taiwan. The number of such sites was also significantly higher on agricultural land and in urban regions than on land with other uses. The proposed approach can be used to downscale and evaluate uncertainty in mortality data from a coarse scale to a fine scale at which useful additional information can be obtained for assessing and managing land use and risk. PMID:24566045

  16. Restructuring fundamental predator-prey models by recognising prey-dependent conversion efficiency and mortality rates.

    PubMed

    Li, Jiqiu; Montagnes, David J S

    2015-05-01

    Incorporating protozoa into population models (from simple predator-prey explorations to complex food web simulations) is of conceptual, ecological, and economic importance. From theoretical and empirical perspectives, we expose unappreciated complexity in the traditional predator-prey model structure and provide a parsimonious solution, especially for protistologists. We focus on how prey abundance alters two key components of models: predator conversion efficiency (e, the proportion of prey converted to predator, before mortality loss) and predator mortality (δ, the portion of the population lost though death). Using a well-established model system (Paramecium and Didinium), we collect data to parameterize a range of existing and novel population models that differ in the functional forms of e and δ. We then compare model simulations to an empirically obtained time-series of predator-prey population dynamics. The analysis indicates that prey-dependent e and δ should be considered when structuring population models and that both prey and predator biomass also vary with prey abundance. Both of these impact the ability of the model to predict population dynamics and, therefore, should be included in theoretical model evaluations and assessment of ecosystem dynamics associated with biomass flux. PMID:25819465

  17. A full-dimensional model of ozone forming reaction: the absolute value of the recombination rate coefficient, its pressure and temperature dependencies.

    PubMed

    Teplukhin, Alexander; Babikov, Dmitri

    2016-07-28

    Rigorous calculations of scattering resonances in ozone are carried out for a broad range of rotational excitations. The accurate potential energy surface of Dawes is adopted, and a new efficient method for calculations of ro-vibrational energies, wave functions and resonance lifetimes is employed (which uses hyper-spherical coordinates, the sequential diagonalization/truncation approach, grid optimization and complex absorbing potential). A detailed analysis is carried out to characterize distributions of resonance energies and lifetimes, their rotational/vibrational content and their positions with respect to the centrifugal barrier. Emphasis is on the contribution of these resonances to the recombination process that forms ozone. It is found that major contributions come from localized resonances at energies near the top of the barrier. Delocalized resonances at higher energies should also be taken into account, while very narrow resonances at low energies (trapped far behind the centrifugal barrier) should be treated as bound states. The absolute value of the recombination rate coefficient, its pressure and temperature dependencies are obtained using the energy-transfer model developed in the earlier work. Good agreement with experimental data is obtained if one follows the suggestion of Troe, who argued that the energy transfer mechanism of recombination is responsible only for 55% of the recombination rate (with the remaining 45% coming from the competing chaperon mechanism). PMID:27364351

  18. Mortality, Recurrence, and Dependency Rates Are Higher after Acute Ischemic Stroke in Elderly Patients with Diabetes Compared to Younger Patients

    PubMed Central

    Long, Xue; Lou, Yongzhong; Gu, Hongfei; Guo, Xiaofei; Wang, Tao; Zhu, Yanxia; Zhao, Wenjuan; Ning, Xianjia; Li, Bin; Wang, Jinghua; An, Zhongping

    2016-01-01

    Stroke has a greater effect on the elderly than on younger patients. However, the long-term outcomes associated with stroke among elderly patients with diabetes are unknown. We aimed to assess the differences in long-term outcomes between young and elderly stroke patients with diabetes. A total of 3,615 acute ischemic stroke patients with diabetes were recruited for this study between 2006 and 2014. Outcomes at 12 and 36 months after stroke (including mortality, recurrence, and dependency) were compared between younger (age <75 years) and elderly (age ≥75 years) patients. The elderly group included 692 patients (19.1%) overall. Elderly patients were more likely than younger patients to have a Trial of Org 10172 in Acute Stroke Treatment classification of stroke due to cardioembolism, moderate and severe stroke, and atrial fibrillation, but less likely to have hypertension and dyslipidemia, current smokers, and alcohol consumers. Mortality, dependency, and recurrence rates at 12 months after stroke were 19.0, 48.5, and 20.9% in the elderly group and 7.4, 30.9, and 15.4% in the younger group, respectively (all P < 0.05). Corresponding rates at 36 months after stroke were 35.4, 78.7, and 53.8% in the elderly group and 13.7, 61.7, and 43.0% in the younger group, respectively (all P < 0.001). The mortality, dependency, and recurrence rates at 12 and 36 months after stroke were significantly higher in the elderly group than in the younger group after adjusting for stroke subtypes, stroke severity, and risk factors. Odds ratios (95% confidence interval) at 12 and 36 months after stroke were 2.18 (1.64–2.89) and 3.10 (2.35–4.08), respectively, for mortality, all P < 0.001; 1.81 (1.49–2.20) and 2.04 (1.57–2.34), respectively, for dependency, all P < 0.001; and 1.37 (1.06–1.76) and 1.40 (1.07–1.85), respectively, for recurrence, P = 0.016. The findings from this study suggest that management and secondary prevention should be emphasized in elderly patients with

  19. Mortality, Recurrence, and Dependency Rates Are Higher after Acute Ischemic Stroke in Elderly Patients with Diabetes Compared to Younger Patients.

    PubMed

    Long, Xue; Lou, Yongzhong; Gu, Hongfei; Guo, Xiaofei; Wang, Tao; Zhu, Yanxia; Zhao, Wenjuan; Ning, Xianjia; Li, Bin; Wang, Jinghua; An, Zhongping

    2016-01-01

    Stroke has a greater effect on the elderly than on younger patients. However, the long-term outcomes associated with stroke among elderly patients with diabetes are unknown. We aimed to assess the differences in long-term outcomes between young and elderly stroke patients with diabetes. A total of 3,615 acute ischemic stroke patients with diabetes were recruited for this study between 2006 and 2014. Outcomes at 12 and 36 months after stroke (including mortality, recurrence, and dependency) were compared between younger (age <75 years) and elderly (age ≥75 years) patients. The elderly group included 692 patients (19.1%) overall. Elderly patients were more likely than younger patients to have a Trial of Org 10172 in Acute Stroke Treatment classification of stroke due to cardioembolism, moderate and severe stroke, and atrial fibrillation, but less likely to have hypertension and dyslipidemia, current smokers, and alcohol consumers. Mortality, dependency, and recurrence rates at 12 months after stroke were 19.0, 48.5, and 20.9% in the elderly group and 7.4, 30.9, and 15.4% in the younger group, respectively (all P < 0.05). Corresponding rates at 36 months after stroke were 35.4, 78.7, and 53.8% in the elderly group and 13.7, 61.7, and 43.0% in the younger group, respectively (all P < 0.001). The mortality, dependency, and recurrence rates at 12 and 36 months after stroke were significantly higher in the elderly group than in the younger group after adjusting for stroke subtypes, stroke severity, and risk factors. Odds ratios (95% confidence interval) at 12 and 36 months after stroke were 2.18 (1.64-2.89) and 3.10 (2.35-4.08), respectively, for mortality, all P < 0.001; 1.81 (1.49-2.20) and 2.04 (1.57-2.34), respectively, for dependency, all P < 0.001; and 1.37 (1.06-1.76) and 1.40 (1.07-1.85), respectively, for recurrence, P = 0.016. The findings from this study suggest that management and secondary prevention should be emphasized in elderly patients with diabetes in

  20. Changes in bacterial community composition and dynamics and viral mortality rates associated with enhanced flagellate grazing in a mesoeutrophic reservoir.

    PubMed

    Simek, K; Pernthaler, J; Weinbauer, M G; Hornák, K; Dolan, J R; Nedoma, J; Masín, M; Amann, R

    2001-06-01

    Bacterioplankton from a meso-eutrophic dam reservoir was size fractionated to reduce (<0.8-microm treatment) or enhance (<5-microm treatment) protistan grazing and then incubated in situ for 96 h in dialysis bags. Time course samples were taken from the bags and the reservoir to estimate bacterial abundance, mean cell volume, production, protistan grazing, viral abundance, and frequency of visibly infected cells. Shifts in bacterial community composition (BCC) were examined by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE), cloning and sequencing of 16S rDNA genes from the different treatments, and fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) with previously employed and newly designed oligonucleotide probes. Changes in bacterioplankton characteristics were clearly linked to changes in mortality rates. In the reservoir, where bacterial production about equaled protist grazing and viral mortality, community characteristics were nearly invariant. In the "grazer-free" (0.8-microm-filtered) treatment, subject only to a relatively low mortality rate (approximately 17% day(-1)) from viral lysis, bacteria increased markedly in concentration. While the mean bacterial cell volume was invariant, DGGE indicated a shift in BCC and FISH revealed an increase in the proportion of one lineage within the beta proteobacteria. In the grazing-enhanced treatment (5-microm filtrate), grazing mortality was approximately 200% and viral lysis resulted in mortality of 30% of daily production. Cell concentrations declined, and grazing-resistant flocs and filaments eventually dominated the biomass, together accounting for >80% of the total bacteria by the end of the experiment. Once again, BCC changed strongly and a significant fraction of the large filaments was detected using a FISH probe targeted to members of the Flectobacillus lineage. Shifts of BCC were also reflected in DGGE patterns and in the increases in the relative importance of both beta proteobacteria and members of the Cytophaga

  1. Mortality rate and overweight: Overblown or underestimated? A commentary on a recent meta-analysis of the associations of BMI and mortality

    PubMed Central

    Keith, Scott W.; Fontaine, Kevin R.; Allison, David B.

    2013-01-01

    In this review, we discuss strengths and limitations of a recent rigorous systematic review and meta-analysis of the literature on associations of all-cause mortality with overweight and obesity. A perspective on its meaning and potential implications are provided. To move this field forward, we suggest modeling BMI as a continuous variable, switching to modeling longevity instead of mortality, and generating large publicly available datasets in broad and diverse populations for discerning the extent to which the BMI–mortality relationship differs between groups and over time. Randomized studies of obesity-related interventions that provide assessments of their actual effects on lifespan or mortality would have great value for helping to establish valid clinical and public health recommendations around weight loss and mortality. PMID:24199152

  2. [Estimates and trends of obesity prevalence through mortality rates associated of chronic diseases in Mexico].

    PubMed

    Villa, Antonio R; Escobedo, Michelle H; Méndez-Sánchez, Nahum

    2004-01-01

    The pandemy of obesity is affecting more than 300 millions of adults in the world. The trend is increasing. Diabetes, coronary hearth disease, hypertension, cerebrovascular disease and dyslipidemia are chronic diseases associated with obesity. The methodology of this paper is proposed as an alternative resource based in mortality data to quantify the magnitude of chronic diseases in developing countries. Deaths for Mexico registered in 2000, according to selected causes, were taken to derive indirectly the prevalence of obesity in years 2000, 2005, and 2010, both males and females > or = 35 years-old. In 2010, an estimation of 8 million of Mexican with obesity is made. This methodology is referred to be probed in the quantification and projection of chronic diseases. According with our estimation, we hope in Mexico at 2010 to have between 8 and 14 millions of people > or = 35 years-old with obesity. PMID:15641468

  3. Child Mortality Estimation: A Comparison of UN IGME and IHME Estimates of Levels and Trends in Under-Five Mortality Rates and Deaths

    PubMed Central

    Alkema, Leontine; You, Danzhen

    2012-01-01

    Background Millennium Development Goal 4 calls for a reduction in the under-five mortality rate (U5MR) by two-thirds between 1990 and 2015. In 2011, estimates were published by the United Nations Inter-agency Group for Child Mortality Estimation (UN IGME) and the Institute for Health Metrics and Evaluation (IHME). The difference in the U5MR estimates produced by the two research groups was more than 10% and corresponded to more than ten deaths per 1,000 live births for 10% of all countries in 1990 and 20% of all countries in 2010, which can lead to conflicting conclusions with respect to countries' progress. To understand what caused the differences in estimates, we summarised differences in underlying data and modelling approaches used by the two groups, and analysed their effects. Methods and Findings UN IGME and IHME estimation approaches differ with respect to the construction of databases and the pre-processing of data, trend fitting procedures, inclusion and exclusion of data series, and additional adjustment procedures. Large differences in U5MR estimates between the UN IGME and the IHME exist in countries with conflicts or civil unrest, countries with high HIV prevalence, and countries where the underlying data used to derive the estimates were different, especially if the exclusion of data series differed between the two research groups. A decomposition of the differences showed that differences in estimates due to using different data (inclusion of data series and pre-processing of data) are on average larger than the differences due to using different trend fitting methods. Conclusions Substantial country-specific differences between UN IGME and IHME estimates for U5MR and the number of under-five deaths exist because of various differences in data and modelling assumptions used. Often differences are illustrative of the lack of reliable data and likely to decrease as more data become available. Improved transparency on methods and data used will help to

  4. Impact of resuscitation and thrombolysis on mortality rate from acute myocardial infarction.

    PubMed

    Trent, R; Adams, J; Jennings, K; Rawles, J

    1995-03-24

    Our objective was to estimate the saving of life by thrombolysis and resuscitation in acute myocardial infarction (AMI) before and after hospital admission. We studied all 1516 patients admitted to a Scottish teaching hospital in 1990 and 1992 who had a final diagnosis of AMI, and 311 patients enrolled in the Grampian region early anistreplase trial (GREAT). Cardiac arrest occurred in 250/1516 (16%) hospital patients. Of these, 77 (31%) were discharged alive--a saving of 51 lives per thousand cases. 797 (53%) patients received thrombolysis, of whom 114 (14%) died. Assuming the same relative reduction in mortality as in the second international study of infarct survival (ISIS-2; 23%), 34 lives were saved by thrombolytic therapy, representing 22 lives per thousand cases. Of 311 patients in GREAT, 15 (5%) had prehospital cardiac arrest, with 7 patients surviving to discharge (48%)--a saving of 23 lives per thousand cases. Those patients given domiciliary thrombolysis had a one month mortality of 6.7% (11/163) compared with 12.2% (18/148) for those receiving hospital thrombolysis--a saving of 55 lives per thousand cases for prehospital thrombolysis. This is additional to 28 lives per thousand estimated for thrombolytic therapy in hospital, totalling 83 lives saved per thousand cases of AMI receiving thrombolytic therapy prehospital. In hospital, more lives were saved by resuscitation than by thrombolytic therapy, but this ratio was reversed in the period before hospital admission. These results emphasise the paramount importance of resuscitation in hospital, and the enhanced efficacy of thrombolysis when given at the earliest opportunity. PMID:7607764

  5. Desiccation as a mitigation tool to manage biofouling risks: trials on temperate taxa to elucidate factors influencing mortality rates.

    PubMed

    Hopkins, Grant A; Prince, Madeleine; Cahill, Patrick L; Fletcher, Lauren M; Atalah, Javier

    2016-01-01

    The desiccation tolerance of biofouling taxa (adults and early life-stages) was determined under both controlled and 'realistic' field conditions. Adults of the ascidian Ciona spp. died within 24 h. Mortality in the adult blue mussel Mytilus galloprovincialis occurred within 11 d under controlled conditions, compared with 7 d when held outside. The Pacific oyster Crassostrea gigas was the most desiccation-tolerant taxon tested (up to 34 d under controlled conditions). Biofouling orientated to direct sunlight showed faster mortality rates for all the taxa tested. Mortality in Mytilus juveniles took up to 24 h, compared with 8 h for Ciona, with greater survival at the higher temperature (18.5°C) and humidity (~95% RH) treatment combination. This study demonstrated that desiccation can be an effective mitigation method for a broad range of fouling taxa, especially their early life-stages. Further work is necessary to assess risks from other high-risk species such as algae and cyst forming species. PMID:26691450

  6. Disparities in Rates of Inpatient Mortality and Adverse Events: Race/Ethnicity and Language as Independent Contributors

    PubMed Central

    Hines, Anika L.; Andrews, Roxanne M.; Moy, Ernest; Barrett, Marguerite L.; Coffey, Rosanna M.

    2014-01-01

    Patients with limited English proficiency have known limitations accessing health care, but differences in hospital outcomes once access is obtained are unknown. We investigate inpatient mortality rates and obstetric trauma for self-reported speakers of English, Spanish, and languages of Asia and the Pacific Islands (API) and compare quality of care by language with patterns by race/ethnicity. Data were from the United States Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality, Healthcare Cost and Utilization Project, 2009 State Inpatient Databases for California. There were 3,757,218 records. Speaking a non-English principal language and having a non-White race/ethnicity did not place patients at higher risk for inpatient mortality; the exception was significantly higher stroke mortality for Japanese-speaking patients. Patients who spoke API languages or had API race/ethnicity had higher risk for obstetric trauma than English-speaking White patients. Spanish-speaking Hispanic patients had more obstetric trauma than English-speaking Hispanic patients. The influence of language on obstetric trauma and the potential effects of interpretation services on inpatient care are discussed. The broader context of policy implications for collection and reporting of language data is also presented. Results from other countries with and without English as a primary language are needed for the broadest interpretation and generalization of outcomes. PMID:25514153

  7. Association between risk factors for coronary heart disease in schoolboys and adult mortality rates in the same localities.

    PubMed Central

    Freeman, W; Weir, D C; Whitehead, J E; Rogers, D I; Sapiano, S B; Floyd, C A; Kirk, P M; Stalker, C R; Field, N J; Cayton, R M

    1990-01-01

    Risk factors for coronary heart disease were compared in fifth year boys (15-16 years old) from two schools that were chosen from localities with a fourfold difference in adult mortality from coronary heart disease. One school was in an underprivileged urban locality in the area of increased incidence of heart disease ('high risk') and the other in a semi-rural affluent locality with an incidence of heart disease similar to the national average ('low risk'). Smoking, hypertension, hypercholesterolaemia, obesity, physical fitness, and inactivity were evaluated as risk factors for coronary heart disease. Smoking, increased body fat, poor diet, and physical inactivity were found increased among pupils from the school in the high risk area compared with those in the low risk area. Lipids, maximum oxygen uptake, and hypertension were similar in both schools. The risk of coronary heart disease seems to reflect the adult mortality rates in the area. To reduce the overall incidence of coronary heart disease, health education should be directed towards prevention of smoking, improving diets, and increasing amounts of activity among school children, with special attention directed toward children in regions where there is a high mortality from coronary heart disease among adults. PMID:2301987

  8. Prostate Cancer in South Africa: Pathology Based National Cancer Registry Data (1986–2006) and Mortality Rates (1997–2009)

    PubMed Central

    Babb, Chantal; Urban, Margaret; Kielkowski, Danuta; Kellett, Patricia

    2014-01-01

    Prostate cancer is one of the most common male cancers globally; however little is known about prostate cancer in Africa. Incidence data for prostate cancer in South Africa (SA) from the pathology based National Cancer Registry (1986–2006) and data on mortality (1997–2009) from Statistics SA were analysed. World standard population denominators were used to calculate age specific incidence and mortality rates (ASIR and ASMR) using the direct method. Prostate cancer was the most common male cancer in all SA population groups (excluding basal cell carcinoma). There are large disparities in the ASIR between black, white, coloured, and Asian/Indian populations: 19, 65, 46, and 19 per 100 000, respectively, and ASMR was 11, 7, 52, and 6 per 100 000, respectively. Prostate cancer was the second leading cause of cancer death, accounting for around 13% of male deaths from a cancer. The average age at diagnosis was 68 years and 74 years at death. For SA the ASIR increased from 16.8 in 1986 to 30.8 in 2006, while the ASMR increased from 12.3 in 1997 to 16.7 in 2009. There has been a steady increase of incidence and mortality from prostate cancer in SA. PMID:24955252

  9. Prostate cancer in South Africa: pathology based national cancer registry data (1986-2006) and mortality rates (1997-2009).

    PubMed

    Babb, Chantal; Urban, Margaret; Kielkowski, Danuta; Kellett, Patricia

    2014-01-01

    Prostate cancer is one of the most common male cancers globally; however little is known about prostate cancer in Africa. Incidence data for prostate cancer in South Africa (SA) from the pathology based National Cancer Registry (1986-2006) and data on mortality (1997-2009) from Statistics SA were analysed. World standard population denominators were used to calculate age specific incidence and mortality rates (ASIR and ASMR) using the direct method. Prostate cancer was the most common male cancer in all SA population groups (excluding basal cell carcinoma). There are large disparities in the ASIR between black, white, coloured, and Asian/Indian populations: 19, 65, 46, and 19 per 100 000, respectively, and ASMR was 11, 7, 52, and 6 per 100 000, respectively. Prostate cancer was the second leading cause of cancer death, accounting for around 13% of male deaths from a cancer. The average age at diagnosis was 68 years and 74 years at death. For SA the ASIR increased from 16.8 in 1986 to 30.8 in 2006, while the ASMR increased from 12.3 in 1997 to 16.7 in 2009. There has been a steady increase of incidence and mortality from prostate cancer in SA. PMID:24955252

  10. Trends in the Attack Rates, Incidence, and Mortality of Stroke during 1986–2012: Data of Kaunas (Lithuania) Stroke Registry

    PubMed Central

    Radisauskas, Ricardas; Malinauskiene, Vilija; Milinaviciene, Egle; Kranciukaite-Butylkiniene, Daina; Tamosiunas, Abdonas; Bernotiene, Gailute; Luksiene, Dalia; Milasauskiene, Zemyna; Sopagiene, Diana; Rastenyte, Daiva

    2016-01-01

    Background There is a lack of reliable epidemiological data on longitudinal trends in stroke attack rates, incidence, and mortality in the countries of the Baltic region. Aims The aim of the present study was to explore the longitudinal trends of stroke in middle-aged urban population of Lithuania during the period of 1986 through 2012. Methods All stroke events in the studied population were ascertained and validated according to the standardized criteria outlined by the WHO MONICA Project. The study included all patients in Kaunas (Lithuania) city aged 25 to 64 years who experienced a stroke between 1986 and 2012. Estimates of time-trends of the annual percentage change in stroke attack rates, incidence of stroke, and mortality from this condition were made by applying the Joinpoint regression analysis. Results During the study period, 9,992 stroke events were registered. The overall proportion of recurrent events was 25.7%. Overall, 18.9% of the events (20.0% in men, and 17.4% in women) were fatal within 28 days. During the period of 1986 to 2012, a flat trend in the incidence of stroke was observed among both male and female middle-aged inhabitants of Kaunas city, while attack rates were increasing due to the increase in recurrent strokes. Both mortality and 28-day case fatality of stroke declined significantly over the study period in both sexes. Conclusions An increase both in the incidence and recurrence of stroke among middle-aged men residing in Kaunas city and in the recurrence of stroke among women denotes the inefficiency of measures applied both for primary and secondary prevention of stroke in Lithuania. The revision of current prevention strategies and the introduction of new ones are of paramount importance in order to fight the epidemic of stroke. PMID:27124412

  11. Absolute Determination for the Sodium-22(p,gamma)Magnesium-23 Reaction Rate: Consequences for Nucleosynthesis of Sodium-22 in Novae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sallaska, Anne L.

    2010-11-01

    Hydrodynamic simulations of classical novae on ONe white dwarfs predict substantial production of 22Na. Observation of 22Na decay should be correlated with the corresponding nova because the half life of 22Na is only 2.6 years. The 1275-keV gamma ray from the beta decay of 22Na is, therefore, an excellent diagnostic for the nova phenomenon and a long-sought target of gamma-ray telescopes. Nova simulations determine the maximum 22Na-detection distance to be < 1 kpc for the INTEGRAL spectrometer SPI, consistent with its non-observation to date. However, model estimates are strongly dependent on the thermonuclear rate of the 22Na(p, gamma)23Mg reaction, which is the main destruction mechanism of 22Na in novae. The 22Na(p,gamma)23Mg rate is expected to be dominated by narrow, isolated resonances with Ep < 300 key. The currently employed rate is based on a single set of absolute resonance-strength measurements with Ep ≥ 290 keV, and one relative measurement of resonances with Ep ≥ 214 keV. Recently, a new level has been found in 23Mg which would correspond to a resonance at Ep = 198 keV that might dominate the reaction rate at nova temperatures. We have measured the 22Na(p, gamma) 23Mg resonance strengths directly and absolutely, in addition to resonance energies and branches. Proton beams were produced at the University of Washington and delivered to a specially designed beam line that included rastering and cold vacuum protection of the 22Na-implanted targets (fabricated at TRIUMF-ISAC). Two high-purity germanium detectors were employed and surrounded by anticoincidence shields to reduce cosmic backgrounds. Measurements were made on known 22Na+p resonances, which we observed at laboratory energies Ep = 213, 288, 454, 610 keV and on proposed resonances at Ep = 198, 209, and 232 key. The proposed resonances were not observed, and the upper limit placed on the 198-keV resonance strength indicates that the resonance at Ep = 213 keV still dominates the reaction rate

  12. A Propensity Score Analysis Shows that Empirical Treatment with Linezolid Does Not Increase the Thirty-Day Mortality Rate in Patients with Gram-Negative Bacteremia

    PubMed Central

    Ternavasio-de la Vega, Hugo-Guillermo; Mateos-Díaz, Ana-María; Martinez, Jose-Antonio; Almela, Manel; Cobos-Trigueros, Nazaret; Morata, Laura; De-la-Calle, Cristina; Sala, Marta; Mensa, Josep; Soriano, Alex

    2014-01-01

    The role of linezolid in empirical therapy of suspected bacteremia remains unclear. The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of empirical use of linezolid or glycopeptides in addition to other antibiotics on the 30-day mortality rates in patients with Gram-negative bacteremia. For this purpose, 1,126 patients with Gram-negative bacteremia in the Hospital Clinic of Barcelona from 2000 to 2012 were included in this study. In order to compare the mortality rates between patients who received linezolid or glycopeptides, the propensity scores on baseline variables were used to balance the treatment groups, and both propensity score matching and propensity-adjusted logistic regression were used to compare the 30-day mortality rates between the groups. The overall 30-day mortality rate was 16.0% during the study period. Sixty-eight patients received empirical treatment with linezolid, and 1,058 received glycopeptides. The propensity score matching included 64 patients in each treatment group. After matching, the mortality rates were 14.1% (9/64) in patients who received glycopeptides and 21.9% (14/64) in those who received linezolid, and a nonsignificant association between empirical linezolid treatment and mortality rate (odds ratio [OR], 1.63; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.69 to 3.82; P = 0.275, McNemar's test) was found. This association remained nonsignificant when variables that remained unbalanced after matching were included in a conditional logistic regression model. Further, the stratified propensity score analysis did not show any significant relationship between empirical linezolid treatment and the mortality rate after adjustment by propensity score quintiles or other variables potentially associated with mortality. In conclusion, the propensity score analysis showed that empirical treatment with linezolid compared with that with glycopeptides was not associated with 30-day mortality rates in patients with Gram-negative bacteremia. PMID:25199780

  13. Association of resting heart rate and hypertension stages on all-cause and cardiovascular mortality among elderly Koreans: the Kangwha Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Ryu, Mikyung; Bayasgalan, Gombojav; Kimm, Heejin; Nam, Chung Mo; Ohrr, Heechoul

    2016-01-01

    Background Elevated resting heart rate and hypertension independently increase the risk of mortality. However, their combined effect on mortality in stages of hypertension according to updated clinical guidelines among elderly population is unclear. Methods We followed a cohort of 6100 residents (2600 males and 3500 females) of Kangwha County, Korea, ranging from 55 to 99 year-olds as of March 1985, for all-cause and cardiovascular mortality for 20.8 years until December 31, 2005. Mortality data were collected through telephone calls and visits (to 1991), and were confirmed by death record matching with the National Statistical Office (1992−2005). Hazard ratios were calculated for all-cause and cardiovascular mortality by resting heart rate and hypertension defined by Eighth Joint National Committee criteria using the Cox proportional hazard model after controlling for confounding factors. Results The hazard ratios associated with resting heart rate > 80 beats/min were higher in hypertensive men compared with normotensives with heart rate of 61–79 beats/min, with hazard ratios values of 1.43 (95% CI: 1.00−1.92) on all-cause mortality for prehypertension, 3.01 (95% CI: 1.07–8.28) on cardiovascular mortality for prehypertension, and 8.34 (95% CI: 2.52−28.19) for stage 2 hypertension. Increased risk (HR: 3.54, 95% CI: 1.16–9.21) was observed among those with both a resting heart rate ≥ 80 beats/min and prehypertension on cardiovascular mortality in women. Conclusions Individuals with coexisting elevated resting heart rate and hypertension, even in prehypertension, have a greater risk for all-cause and cardiovascular mortality compared to those with elevated resting heart rate or hypertension alone. These findings suggest that elevated resting heart rate should not be regarded as a less serious risk factor in elderly hypertensive patients. PMID:27605937

  14. Trends in Pneumonia Mortality Rates and Hospitalizations by Organism, United States, 2002–20111

    PubMed Central

    Wuerth, Brandon A.; Bonnewell, John P.; Wiemken, Timothy L.

    2016-01-01

    Because the epidemiology of pneumonia is changing, we performed an updated, population-based analysis of hospitalization and case-fatality rates for pneumonia patients in the United States. From 2002 to 2011, hospitalization rates decreased significantly for pneumonia caused by pneumococcus and Haemophilus influenzae but increased significantly for Pseudomonas spp., Staphylococcus aureus, and influenza virus. PMID:27532154

  15. Trends in Pneumonia Mortality Rates and Hospitalizations by Organism, United States, 2002-2011(1).

    PubMed

    Wuerth, Brandon A; Bonnewell, John P; Wiemken, Timothy L; Arnold, Forest W

    2016-09-01

    Because the epidemiology of pneumonia is changing, we performed an updated, population-based analysis of hospitalization and case-fatality rates for pneumonia patients in the United States. From 2002 to 2011, hospitalization rates decreased significantly for pneumonia caused by pneumococcus and Haemophilus influenzae but increased significantly for Pseudomonas spp., Staphylococcus aureus, and influenza virus. PMID:27532154

  16. Measures of racial/ethnic health disparities in cancer mortality rates and the influence of socioeconomic status.

    PubMed Central

    Chu, Kenneth C.; Miller, Barry A.; Springfield, Sanya A.

    2007-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: In the 1990s, U.S. cancer mortality rates declined due to reductions in tobacco use among men and beneficial cancer interventions, such as mammography and Pap smears. We examined the cancer rates by racial/ethnic group, socioeconomic status and time period to identify disparities underlying the overall mortality trend. METHODS: We examined racial/ethnic disparities by measuring excess cancer burden [rate ratio (RR) and ratio differences (RD)] and trends in their cancer rates for nine cancer sites. The trend (T) is calculated as a ratio of the average annual cancer mortality rate for 1995-2000 relative to the rate for 1990-1994 for three levels of poverty (counties with <10% living below the poverty level, 10% - <20% and > or =20%) for the major racial/ethnic populations. We also compared the trend for each racial/ethnic SES group to the trend for lowest SES white group (TD). RESULTS: Blacks have RR disparities relative to whites for each cancer site examined, except for female lung cancer, while the other minorities had RR disparities for cervical cancer (RR>1). There are increases in RR disparities from 1990-1994 to 1995-2000 (RD>0) for colorectal cancer, prostate cancer and breast cancer for each racial/ethnic minority. Whites and blacks had declining trends for every SES group (T<1) and positive high SES gradients (the highest SES group had the best trend and the lowest SES group had the worst trend) at each cancer site, except female lung cancer (T>1). In contrast, American Indians/Alaska natives, Hispanics and Asians/ Pacific Islanders had increasing trends for some of their cancer sites, and their trends did not have the SES gradients. CONCLUSIONS: Increases in racial/ethnic disparities (RD>0) for colorectal, breast and prostate cancer were largest in the lowest SES groups. At some cancer sites, the highest SES group for minorities had worse trend results than the trends for the lowest SES white group (TD>0). PMID:17987912

  17. A trait-based trade-off between growth and mortality: evidence from 15 tropical tree species using size-specific relative growth rates

    PubMed Central

    Philipson, Christopher D; Dent, Daisy H; O’Brien, Michael J; Chamagne, Juliette; Dzulkifli, Dzaeman; Nilus, Reuben; Philips, Sam; Reynolds, Glen; Saner, Philippe; Hector, Andy

    2014-01-01

    A life-history trade-off between low mortality in the dark and rapid growth in the light is one of the most widely accepted mechanisms underlying plant ecological strategies in tropical forests. Differences in plant functional traits are thought to underlie these distinct ecological strategies; however, very few studies have shown relationships between functional traits and demographic rates within a functional group. We present 8 years of growth and mortality data from saplings of 15 species of Dipterocarpaceae planted into logged-over forest in Malaysian Borneo, and the relationships between these demographic rates and four key functional traits: wood density, specific leaf area (SLA), seed mass, and leaf C:N ratio. Species-specific differences in growth rates were separated from seedling size effects by fitting nonlinear mixed-effects models, to repeated measurements taken on individuals at multiple time points. Mortality data were analyzed using binary logistic regressions in a mixed-effects models framework. Growth increased and mortality decreased with increasing light availability. Species differed in both their growth and mortality rates, yet there was little evidence for a statistical interaction between species and light for either response. There was a positive relationship between growth rate and the predicted probability of mortality regardless of light environment, suggesting that this relationship may be driven by a general trade-off between traits that maximize growth and traits that minimize mortality, rather than through differential species responses to light. Our results indicate that wood density is an important trait that indicates both the ability of species to grow and resistance to mortality, but no other trait was correlated with either growth or mortality. Therefore, the growth mortality trade-off among species of dipterocarp appears to be general in being independent of species crossovers in performance in different light environments

  18. Brugada syndrome in a family with a high mortality rate: a case report

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Brugada syndrome is a hereditary arrhythmia characterized by a specific electrocardiographic pattern and an increased risk of sudden cardiac death, with an apparent absence of structural abnormalities or ischemic heart disease. To date, mutations in the sodium channel, voltage-gated, type V, alpha subunit gene and glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase 1-like gene are estimated to account for approximately 28% of Brugada syndrome probands. Case presentation We report the case of a 32-year-old mixed-race Brazilian man who is sodium channel, voltage-gated, type V, alpha subunit gene and glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase 1-like gene mutation-negative with a type 1 Brugada electrocardiographic pattern and a history of high family mortality, including five sudden deaths among relatives of whom four were first-degree relatives. Conclusion To the best of our knowledge, this is the first case of a patient who has Brugada syndrome and a history of sudden death in four first-degree family members. This case report reinforces the evidence that genetic studies are of limited use while determining risk but remain helpful for diagnosis, and that diagnosis via electrocardiography is of great importance in preventing adverse events and stratifying risk. Although there are several technologically advanced diagnostic tools, they might not be accessible in small towns and hospitals; however, a basic diagnostic tool like electrocardiography is easily accessible. PMID:23506330

  19. Fine-root mortality rates in a temperate forest: Estimates using radiocarbon data and numerical modeling

    SciTech Connect

    Riley, W.J.; Gaudinski, J.B.; Torn, M.S.; Joslin, J.D.; Hanson, P.J.

    2009-09-01

    We used an inadvertent whole-ecosystem {sup 14}C label at a temperate forest in Oak Ridge, Tennessee, USA to develop a model (Radix1.0) of fine-root dynamics. Radix simulates two live-root pools, two dead-root pools, non-normally distributed root mortality turnover times, a stored carbon (C) pool, and seasonal growth and respiration patterns. We applied Radix to analyze measurements from two root size classes (< 0.5 and 0.5-2.0 mm diameter) and three soil-depth increments (O horizon, 0-15 cm and 30-60 cm). Predicted live-root turnover times were < 1 yr and 10 yr for short- and long-lived pools, respectively. Dead-root pools had decomposition turnover times of 2 yr and 10 yr. Realistic characterization of C flows through fine roots requires a model with two live fine-root populations, two dead fine-root pools, and root respiration. These are the first fine-root turnover time estimates that take into account respiration, storage, seasonal growth patterns, and non-normal turnover time distributions. The presence of a root population with decadal turnover times implies a lower amount of belowground net primary production used to grow fine-root tissue than is currently predicted by models with a single annual turnover pool.

  20. The Effect of Application Rate of GF-120 (Spinosad) and Malathion on the Mortality of Apis mellifera (Hymenoptera: Apidae) Foragers.

    PubMed

    Cabrera-Marín, Nina Vanessa; Liedo, Pablo; Sánchez, Daniel

    2016-04-01

    Beneficial organisms like the honey bee, Apis mellifera L. (Hymenoptera: Apidae), are heavily affected by pest control practices that incorporate insecticides. Safer alternatives as the spinosad-based formulation GF-120 have been developed to overcome this issue. Though both the low concentration of spinosad and the ultra-low-volume application rate of GF-120 are supposed to have a low acute toxicity in honey bee foragers, to our knowledge such claims have not been explicitly proven. We thus carried out a series of experiments to assess the effect of GF-120, malathion, and Spintor (spinosad) on honey bee foragers when applied at two concentrations (80 and 1,500 ppm) and two application rates (low density rate [LDR]—80 drops of 5 mm diameter per square meter; high density rate [HDR]—thousands of 200 -µm-diameter droplets per square meter). Interestingly, the three pesticides caused low mortality on foragers when applied at LDR-80, LDR-1,500, or HDR-80. However, HDR-1,500 caused a very high mortality. Based upon these results, we developed a computer program to estimate the average number of foragers that are exposed at LDR and HDR. We found that more foragers receive a lethal dose when exposed at HDR than at the other rates. Our results support the hypothesis that the impact of GF-120 and malathion upon honey bees is minimal when applied at LDR and that computer simulation can help greatly in understanding the effects of pesticides upon nontarget species. PMID:26739308

  1. LOW PRETERM BIRTH RATE WITH DECREASING EARLY NEONATAL MORTALITY IN BOSNIA AND HERZEGOVINA DURING 2007-2014

    PubMed Central

    Hudic, Igor; Stray-Pedersen, Babill; Skokic, Fahrija; Fatusic, Zlatan; Zildzic-Moralic, Aida; Skokic, Maida; Fatusic, Jasenko

    2016-01-01

    The aim: of the study was to determine the situation of preterm births and early neonatal mortality during 2007-2014 in Tuzla Canton, Bosnia and Herzegovina. Methods: The study covers a 8-year period and is based on the protocols at the Tuzla Clinic for Gynecology and Obstetrics that covers all birth in Tuzla Canton area. We analyzed the gestational age of all newborns and recorded the number of neonatal deaths in the first week after birth. Demographics, pregnancy and birth characteristics were collected from the maternal records. Results: The total number of births in the period was 32738. Preterm birth was identified in 2401 (7.3%) cases with 12,5% occurring before 32 gestational weeks and 64% in 35-36 gestational weeks. The mothers of the 24-31 gws preterm group were significantly younger that those in the 32-36 group. In the 32-36 group there were significantly greater proportions of mothers with assisted reproductive technology and pre-eclampsia and 16.7% was medical induced preterm births versus 11.4 % in the 24-31 PTB group, p<0.05. The incidence of PTB did no vary significantly during the period, the lowest rate was found in 2010 (6.4%). A total of 221 children died giving a early mortality rate of 6.8 per 1000 live born over the 8 years. The majority 156 dying infants (70.6%) were preterm, only 5.7% died being born in the 35-36 gestational week (5.9 per 1000). Overall the preterm early mortality (7.3 per 1000) has shown a decreasing tendency during the latter years. Conclusion: During the last 8 years there have been no significant decline in preterm birth in the Tuzla region while a decline in early neonatal death has been registered. PMID:27047264

  2. Do deficits in cardiac care influence high mortality rates in schizophrenia? A systematic review and pooled analysis

    PubMed Central

    Mitchell, Alex J; Lord, Oliver

    2010-01-01

    We have previously documented inequalities in the quality of medical care provided to those with mental ill health but the implications for mortality are unclear. We aimed to test whether disparities in medical treatment of cardiovascular conditions, specifically receipt of medical procedures and receipt of prescribed medication, are linked with elevated rates of mortality in people with schizophrenia and severe mental illness. We undertook a systematic review of studies that examined medical procedures and a pooled analysis of prescribed medication in those with and without comorbid mental illness, focusing on those which recruited individuals with schizophrenia and measured mortality as an outcome. From 17 studies of treatment adequacy in cardiovascular conditions, eight examined cardiac procedures and nine examined adequacy of prescribed cardiac medication. Six of eight studies examining the adequacy of cardiac procedures found lower than average provision of medical care and two studies found no difference. Meta-analytic pooling of nine medication studies showed lower than average rates of prescribing evident for the following individual classes of medication; angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors (n = 6, aOR = 0.779, 95% CI = 0.638–0.950, p = 0.0137), beta-blockers (n = 9, aOR = 0.844, 95% CI = 0.690–1.03, p = 0.1036) and statins (n = 5, aOR = 0.604, 95% CI = 0.408–0.89, p = 0.0117). No inequality was evident for aspirin (n = 7, aOR = 0.986, 95% CI = 0.7955–1.02, p = 0.382). Interestingly higher than expected prescribing was found for older non-statin cholesterol-lowering agents (n = 4, aOR = 1.55, 95% CI = 1.04–2.32, p = 0.0312). A search for outcomes in this sample revealed ten studies linking poor quality of care and possible effects on mortality in specialist settings. In half of the studies there was significantly higher mortality in those with mental ill health

  3. Trends in mortality rates from coronary heart disease in Belgrade (Serbia) during the period 1990–2010: a joinpoint regression analysis

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Coronary heart disease (CHD) causes an estimated 7 million deaths worldwide each year. In the last few decades, mortality from CHD has been decreasing in many countries. The aim of this study was to analyze the trends of mortality from CHD and myocardial infarction (MI) in the population of Belgrade during the period 1990–2010. Methods Mortality data for CHD and MI were obtained from the Municipal Institute of Statistics in Belgrade and used to calculate age- and sex-specific and age-adjusted mortality rates. Joinpoint regression analysis was used to estimate annual percent changes (APCs) in mortality and to identify points in time where significant changes in trend occur. Results Trends in CHD mortality rates showed significant decline in men during the period studied (APC -0.5%, no joinpoints detected), but no significant change among women (APC +0.4%, no joinpoints detected). While we observed significant declines in CHD mortality in men aged 35–44, 55–64 and 65–74 and women aged 55–64, there was a significant increase in mortality in men aged ≥85 and women aged 75–84 and ≥85. Trends in MI mortality rates showed similar patterns in both genders, with a significant decline from the mid-1990s. Significant decline in MI mortality was observed in almost all age groups, except the two oldest (75–84 and ≥85) in women population. Conclusions Given that CHD and MI mortality trends showed different patterns during the period studied, especially in women, our results imply that further observation of trend is needed. PMID:24320937

  4. Exploring scale-dependent correlations between cancer mortality rates using factorial kriging and population-weighted semivariograms.

    PubMed

    Goovaerts, Pierre; Jacquez, Geoffrey M; Greiling, Dunrie

    2005-04-01

    This paper presents a geostatistical methodology which accounts for spatially varying population size in the processing of cancer mortality data. The approach proceeds in two steps: (1) spatial patterns are first described and modeled using population-weighted semivariogram estimators, (2) spatial components corresponding to nested structures identified on semivariograms are then estimated and mapped using a variant of factorial kriging. The main benefit over traditional spatial smoothers is that the pattern of spatial variability (i.e. direction-dependent variability, range of correlation, presence of nested scales of variability) is directly incorporated into the computation of weights assigned to surrounding observations. Moreover, besides filtering the noise in the data the procedure allows the decomposition of the structured component into several spatial components (i.e. local versus regional variability) on the basis of semivariogram models. A simulation study demonstrates that maps of spatial components are closer to the underlying risk maps in terms of prediction errors and provide a better visualization of regional patterns than the original maps of mortality rates or the maps smoothed using weighted linear averages. The proposed approach also attenuates the underestimation of the magnitude of the correlation between various cancer rates resulting from noise attached to the data. This methodology has great potential to explore scale-dependent correlation between risks of developing cancers and to detect clusters at various spatial scales, which should lead to a more accurate representation of geographic variation in cancer risk, and ultimately to a better understanding of causative relationships. PMID:16915345

  5. Exploring scale-dependent correlations between cancer mortality rates using factorial kriging and population-weighted semivariograms

    PubMed Central

    Goovaerts, Pierre; Jacquez, Geoffrey M.; Greiling, Dunrie

    2006-01-01

    This paper presents a geostatistical methodology which accounts for spatially varying population size in the processing of cancer mortality data. The approach proceeds in two steps: (1) spatial patterns are first described and modeled using population-weighted semivariogram estimators, (2) spatial components corresponding to nested structures identified on semivariograms are then estimated and mapped using a variant of factorial kriging. The main benefit over traditional spatial smoothers is that the pattern of spatial variability (i.e. direction-dependent variability, range of correlation, presence of nested scales of variability) is directly incorporated into the computation of weights assigned to surrounding observations. Moreover, besides filtering the noise in the data the procedure allows the decomposition of the structured component into several spatial components (i.e. local versus regional variability) on the basis of semivariogram models. A simulation study demonstrates that maps of spatial components are closer to the underlying risk maps in terms of prediction errors and provide a better visualization of regional patterns than the original maps of mortality rates or the maps smoothed using weighted linear averages. The proposed approach also attenuates the underestimation of the magnitude of the correlation between various cancer rates resulting from noise attached to the data. This methodology has great potential to explore scale-dependent correlation between risks of developing cancers and to detect clusters at various spatial scales, which should lead to a more accurate representation of geographic variation in cancer risk, and ultimately to a better understanding of causative relationships. PMID:16915345

  6. Factors associated with declining under-five mortality rates from 2000 to 2013: an ecological analysis of 46 African countries

    PubMed Central

    Kipp, Aaron M; Blevins, Meridith; Haley, Connie A; Mwinga, Kasonde; Habimana, Phanuel; Shepherd, Bryan E; Aliyu, Muktar H; Ketsela, Tigest; Vermund, Sten H

    2016-01-01

    Objective Inadequate overall progress has been made towards the 4th Millennium Development Goal of reducing under-five mortality rates by two-thirds between 1990 and 2015. Progress has been variable across African countries. We examined health, economic and social factors potentially associated with reductions in under-five mortality (U5M) from 2000 to 2013. Setting Ecological analysis using publicly available data from the 46 nations within the WHO African Region. Outcome measures We assessed the annual rate of change (ARC) of 70 different factors and their association with the annual rate of reduction (ARR) of U5M rates using robust linear regression models. Results Most factors improved over the study period for most countries, with the largest increases seen for economic or technological development and external financing factors. The median (IQR) U5M ARR was 3.6% (2.8 to 5.1%). Only 4 of 70 factors demonstrated a strong and significant association with U5M ARRs, adjusting for potential confounders. Higher ARRs were associated with more rapidly increasing coverage of seeking treatment for acute respiratory infection (β=0.22 (ie, a 1% increase in the ARC was associated with a 0.22% increase in ARR); 90% CI 0.09 to 0.35; p=0.01), increasing health expenditure relative to gross domestic product (β=0.26; 95% CI 0.11 to 0.41; p=0.02), increasing fertility rate (β=0.54; 95% CI 0.07 to 1.02; p=0.07) and decreasing maternal mortality ratio (β=−0.47; 95% CI −0.69 to −0.24; p<0.01). The majority of factors showed no association or raised validity concerns due to missing data from a large number of countries. Conclusions Improvements in sociodemographic, maternal health and governance and financing factors were more likely associated with U5M ARR. These underscore the essential role of contextual factors facilitating child health interventions and services. Surveillance of these factors could help monitor which countries need additional support in reducing U5M

  7. Mortality rates among 5321 patients with burns admitted to a burn unit in China: 1980-1998.

    PubMed

    Jie, Xiao; Baoren, Cai

    2003-05-01

    A retrospective study was conducted on 5321 burn patients hospitalized in a burn center in Jinzhou, China during the period 1980-1998. Of the 5321 patients, 57.8% were between 15 and 44 years old and 3.4% were > or =60 years old. Ninety-six percent had burns covering less than half of body surface area and 31.7% had only full thickness skin burn. The number of patients in the 1990s was three times that of the 1980s. Overall mortality rate was 0.86%. LA(50) for total body burn area (TBSA) and only full thickness skin burn (FTSB) was 94 and 87%, respectively. The high survival rate, may relate primarily to the low percentages of older patients and of patients with severe burns. Inhalation injuries, infection and MOD are the main causes of deaths in our patients and would be key targets to improve clinical care and in future study. PMID:12706617

  8. Bias From Using Occupational Smoking Prevalence to Adjust Occupational Incidence Cohort Lung Cancer Mortality Rates

    PubMed Central

    Roth, H. Daniel

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To describe how smoking correction factors based on comparing worker smoking prevalence with population smoking prevalence are biased if applied to an occupational incidence cohort. Methods: Relative rates of smoking for shorter-tenure workers derived from occupational cohort lung cancer studies were applied to incidence and prevalence population tenure distributions to calculate relative smoking estimates. Results: High smoking rates in short-tenure workers have little effect on prevalent worker rates (relative smoking estimates, 1.04 and 1.02) and much larger effect in occupational incidence populations (relative smoking estimates, 1.58 and 1.21), which have a much higher proportion of short tenure-workers. Conclusions: Smoking correction estimates derived from surveys of smoking habits in prevalent workers may introduce bias when applied to incidence workers because of very different proportions of short-tenure workers (length-time biased sampling). PMID:25427172

  9. Adolescent Inpatient Psychiatric Admission Rates and Subsequent One-Year Mortality in England: 1998-2004

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    James, Anthony; Clacey, Joe; Seagroatt, Valerie; Goldacre, Michael

    2010-01-01

    Background: Adolescence is a time of very rapid change not only in physical but also psychological development. During the teenage years there is a reported rise in the prevalence of psychiatric disorders. The aim of this study was to investigate age- and sex-specific National Health Service (NHS) hospital inpatient admission rates for psychiatric…

  10. Understanding the effects of age, period, and cohort on incidence and mortality rates.

    PubMed

    Holford, T R

    1991-01-01

    Time trends for population-based disease rates often are summarized by using direct adjustment by period of diagnosis or death. Similarly, the effect of age often is presented graphically as age-specific rates for a given period of diagnosis. These approaches may be necessary if there is an absence of long-term data, as they provide a natural way for annually updating information when monitoring trends, or they may be a convenient way of summarizing a large amount of data (7, 10, 11, 39, 45). However, these summaries only can adjust for the effect of age in a given period; they implicitly ignore the cohort effect. The effect of cohort is an important factor in understanding time trends for many diseases. Thus, it is not advisable to use data analytic strategies that routinely ignore it. Another alternative to modeling is to give a graphical presentation of the age-specific rates themselves. As I noted in the introduction, some of the first analyses to identify the effect of cohort on diseases, such as tuberculosis and lung cancer, relied entirely on a graphical analysis. Although graphs certainly are an important part of the interpretation of time trends, it would be a mistake to limit your analysis to impressions of points on a graph. For example, such a perusal would not give an objective indication of the statistical significance of a particular pattern. Regression analysis forces us to recognize a fundamental problem with interpreting time trends in disease rates--a problem that you should remember, even when trying to understand a graphical display of time trends in age-specific rates. PMID:2049144

  11. Measurement of a drowning incidence rate combining direct observation of an exposed population with mortality statistics.

    PubMed

    Morgan, Damian; Ozanne-Smith, Joan

    2015-01-01

    Drowning risk factors may be identified by comparing drowning incidence rates for comparable at-risk populations but precise methods are lacking. To address this knowledge gap, an ecological study extrapolated crude time-duration exposure to water for a specified at-risk sample of surf bathers to estimate the bather population for all wave-dominated beaches in Victoria, Australia, over a four-year summer season period. An incidence rate was calculated using surf bather drowning deaths frequencies matched for time and location. For the sample, 47,341 hours of surf bathing were estimated from 177,528 bathing episodes. Generalising these results to Victoria, the crude drowning deaths incidence rate in the summer season was 0.41 per 1,000,000 person-hours of surf bathing (95% CI 0.37-0.45). Further application of the method, particularly in open water settings, may be used to identify candidate drowning risk factors to advance drowning prevention strategies. PMID:24758173

  12. Problem of small numbers in reporting of cancer incidence and mortality rates in Indian cancer registries.

    PubMed

    Takiar, Ramnath; Nadayil, Deenu; Nandakumar, A

    2009-01-01

    The present paper examines the problem of small numbers (<20 cases) associated with many sites of cancers in Indian cancer registries. The cancer incidence data of 14 Population Based Cancer Registries for the periods of 2001-03 and 2004-05 were utilized for the analysis. Nine out of 14 registries had more than 50% of their sites being associated with small numbers while seven registries had 50% of their sites having as low as 5 cases. Sites associated with small numbers showed a lot of variation and significant differences in their incidence rates within two years duration which are not feasible. The percentage age distribution was also found to vary with different periods. The paper has effectively shown the effect of population size on incidence rates. For a registry of population size 300,000, the incidence rate of 6 can very well be unstable. There are many registries in the world with their population size less than 200,000. Even in the case of registries with high population (>or= 500,000) the practice is to report the cancer incidence by different ethnic groups with populations less than 200,000 and thereby introduce the problem of small numbers in reporting the incidences of various cancer sites. To overcome this problem, pooling of data over broad age groups or ten years age groups or 3 to 5 years periods is one immediate solution. PMID:19827889

  13. The choice of self-rated health measures matter when predicting mortality: evidence from 10 years follow-up of the Australian longitudinal study of ageing

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Self-rated health (SRH) measures with different wording and reference points are often used as equivalent health indicators in public health surveys estimating health outcomes such as healthy life expectancies and mortality for older adults. Whilst the robust relationship between SRH and mortality is well established, it is not known how comparable different SRH items are in their relationship to mortality over time. We used a dynamic evaluation model to investigate the sensitivity of time-varying SRH measures with different reference points to predict mortality in older adults over time. Methods We used seven waves of data from the Australian Longitudinal Study of Ageing (1992 to 2004; N = 1733, 52.6% males). Cox regression analysis was used to evaluate the relationship between three time-varying SRH measures (global, age-comparative and self-comparative reference point) with mortality in older adults (65+ years). Results After accounting for other mortality risk factors, poor global SRH ratings increased mortality risk by 2.83 times compared to excellent ratings. In contrast, the mortality relationship with age-comparative and self-comparative SRH was moderated by age, revealing that these comparative SRH measures did not independently predict mortality for adults over 75 years of age in adjusted models. Conclusions We found that a global measure of SRH not referenced to age or self is the best predictor of mortality, and is the most reliable measure of self-perceived health for longitudinal research and population health estimates of healthy life expectancy in older adults. Findings emphasize that the SRH measures are not equivalent measures of health status. PMID:20403203

  14. A 6-year comparative economic evaluation of healthcare costs and mortality rates of Dutch patients from conventional and CAM GPs

    PubMed Central

    Baars, Erik W; Kooreman, Peter

    2014-01-01

    Objectives To compare healthcare costs and mortality rates of Dutch patients with a conventional (CON) general practitioner (GP) and patients with a GP who has additionally completed training in complementary and alternative medicine (CAM). Design Comparative economic evaluation. Setting Database from the Dutch insurance company Agis. Participants 1 521 773 patients (98.8%) from a CON practice and 18 862 patients (1.2%) from a CAM practice. Main outcome measures Annual information on five types of healthcare costs for the years 2006–2011: care by GP, hospital care, pharmaceutical care, paramedic care and care covered by supplementary insurance. Healthcare costs in the last year of life. Mortality rates. Results The mean annual compulsory and supplementary healthcare costs of CON patients are respectively €1821 (95% CI 1813 to 1828) and €75.3 (95% CI 75.1 to 75.5). Compulsory healthcare costs of CAM patients are €225 (95% CI 169 to 281; p<0.001; 12.4%) lower and result mainly from lower hospital care costs (€165; 95% CI 118 to 212; p<0.001) and lower pharmaceutical care costs (€58; 95% CI 41 to 75; p<0.001), especially in the age categories 25–49 and 50–74 years. The costs in the last year of life of patients with CAM, GPs are €1161 (95% CI −138 to 2461; p<0.1) lower. This difference is entirely due to lower hospital costs (€1250; 95% CI 19 to 2481; p<0.05). The mean annual supplementary costs of CAM patients are €33 (95% CI 30 to 37; p<0.001; 44%) higher. CAM patients do not have lower or higher mortality rates than CON patients. Conclusions Dutch patients whose GP additionally completed training in CAM on average have €192 (10.1%) lower annual total compulsory and supplementary healthcare costs and do not live longer or shorter than CON patients. PMID:25164536

  15. Age, differential growth and mortality rates in unexploited populations of Florida gar, an apex predator in the Florida Everglades

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Murie, D.J.; Parkyn, D.C.; Nico, L.G.; Herod, J.J.; Loftus, W.F.

    2009-01-01

    Florida gar, Lepisosteus platyrhincus DeKay, were sampled in two canal systems in south Florida during 2000-2001 to estimate age, growth and mortality as part of the Everglades ecosystem-restoration effort. Tamiami (C-4) and L-31W canal systems had direct connections to natural wetlands of the Everglades and harboured large Florida gar populations. Of 476 fish aged, maximum ages were 19 and 10years for females and males, respectively. Maximum sizes were also larger for females compared with males (817 vs 602 mm total length). Overall, female Florida gar from both Tamiami and L-31W were larger at age than males from L-31W that, in turn, were larger at any given age than males from Tamiami. Females also had lower rates of annual mortality (Z = 0.21) than males from L-31W (Z = 0.31) or males from Tamiami (Z = 0.54). As a large and long-lived apex predator in the Everglades, Florida gar may structure lower trophic levels. Regional- and sex-specific population parameters for Florida gar will contribute to the simulation models designed to evaluate Everglades restoration alternatives. ?? 2009 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  16. Impact of Starting an Emergency Medicine Residency Program on Overall Mortality Rate in a Regional Trauma Center

    PubMed Central

    McLaughlin, Thomas; Blow, Osbert; Herrick, John; Richman, Peter

    2016-01-01

    Background CHRISTUS Spohn Hospital Corpus Christi - Memorial began an Emergency Medicine Residency Program in March 2007. During each of the three years of their residency, residents are required to complete a trauma surgery rotation. These emergency medicine residents are the only residents participating on this rotation as there is no surgical residency. The Department of Acute Care Surgery, Trauma and Surgical Critical Care analyzed the impact of the residents on trauma patient care outcomes with the hypothesis that there were no differences. Methods Data including length of stay in the hospital, length of stay in the intensive care unit, time spent in the emergency department (ED), morbidities and mortalities were compiled from the trauma registry for patients from the year before the residents began (March 1, 2006 to February 28, 2007) and compared with patients from the first year the residents began their trauma rotations (March 1, 2007 to February 29, 2008). T-tests and Mann-Whitney U tests were used to compare continuous variables and a Chi-square test was used to analyze the categorical variable (mortality). Linear and logistic regression analyses were also performed in order to adjust for potential confounding factors. Results Trauma patient admission rates were 1,316 before and 1,391 after the residents began. No statistically significant differences were found among all of the outcome variables during the two time periods except for time spent in the ED (P = 0.00), which increased during the year the residents began (236.83 ± 4.53 minutes in 2006 compared to 297.40 ± 5.55 minutes in 2007). Linear and logistic regression analyses confirmed these results with the exception of a statistically significant decrease in mortality with the residents on the trauma service (2.8% in 2006 and 2.1% in 2007, P = 0.00) after adjustment for multiple confounding factors. Conclusion The addition of emergency medicine residents to the trauma care service did increase

  17. Age effects in monetary valuation of reduced mortality risks: the relevance of age-specific hazard rates.

    PubMed

    Leiter, Andrea M

    2011-08-01

    This paper highlights the relevance of age-specific hazard rates in explaining the age variation in "value of statistical life" (VSL) figures. The analysis-which refers to a stated preference framework-contributes to the ongoing discussion of whether benefits resulting from reduced mortality risk should be valued differently depending on the age of the beneficiaries. By focussing on a life-threatening environmental phenomenon I show that the consideration of the individual's age-specific hazard rate is important. If a particular risk affects all individuals regardless of their age so that their hazard rate is age-independent, VSL is rather constant for people at different age; if hazard rate varies with age, VSL estimates are sensitive to age. The results provide an explanation for the mixed outcomes in empirical studies and illustrate in which cases an adjustment to age may or may not be justified. Efficient provision of live-saving measures requires that such differences to be taken into account. PMID:20376521

  18. Teaching Absolute Value Meaningfully

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wade, Angela

    2012-01-01

    What is the meaning of absolute value? And why do teachers teach students how to solve absolute value equations? Absolute value is a concept introduced in first-year algebra and then reinforced in later courses. Various authors have suggested instructional methods for teaching absolute value to high school students (Wei 2005; Stallings-Roberts…

  19. Estrous length, pregnancy rate, gestation and parturition lengths, litter size, and juvenile mortality in the domestic cat.

    PubMed

    Root, M V; Johnston, S D; Olson, P N

    1995-01-01

    Reproductive performance in a feline research colony of 14 queens is reported. Average estrous length in 38 cycles was 5.8 +/- 3.3 days, with a range of two to 19 days. Estrous length in 23 bred cycles was not shorter (p greater than 0.05) than in 15 nonbred cycles, suggesting that induction of ovulation does not decrease estrous length. Pregnancy rate in 23 bred cycles was 73.9%. Gestation length averaged 66.9 +/- 2.9 days with a range of 62 to 71 days (n = 15). Average parturition length was 16.1 +/- 14.3 hours (n = 7), with a range of four to 42 hours. Litter size ranged from one to five kittens, with an average of 3.7 kittens per litter (n = 15). Percent mortality by eight weeks of age was 29.1%, with 4.7% stillbirths. PMID:8542362

  20. [Differences between neonatal mortality and stillbirth rates in Brazil: a study based on the Unified Health System (SIH/SUS) Hospital Information System].

    PubMed

    de Andrade Schramm, J M; Szwarcwald, C L

    2000-01-01

    The main objective of this article is to estimate stillbirth and neonatal mortality rates in Brazilian States based upon the country's Hospital Information System. Analysis of 1995 data reveals contrasting rates between the various regions of the country. In order to elucidate the States' different rates, we focused on the association between indicators of coverage, utilization, and access to the Unified Health System (SUS). The results for the neonatal period mostly showed higher early neonatal mortality rates when compared to late neonatal mortality rates, higher neonatal mortality rates in the States comprising the South and Southeast regions, less variable rates between those States, and extremely low rates in some States of the North, Central-West, and Northeast regions. The limited supply of SUS services and low access to same are relevant constraints on health care for the population in the North and Northeast. Aspects related to quality of childbirth and neonatal care are also reflected in the rates studied. The findings suggest that spatial and temporal monitoring of these rates could provide analytical support for organizing the Maternal and Child Health Program. PMID:11175526

  1. Phycocyanobilin accelerates liver regeneration and reduces mortality rate in carbon tetrachloride-induced liver injury mice

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Jie; Zhang, Qing-Yu; Yu, Li-Ming; Liu, Bin; Li, Ming-Yi; Zhu, Run-Zhi

    2015-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the hepatoprotective effects of phycocyanobilin (PCB) in reducing hepatic injury and accelerating hepatocyte proliferation following carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) treatment. METHODS: C57BL/6 mice were orally administered PCB 100 mg/kg for 4 d after CCl4 injection, and then the serum and liver tissue of the mice were collected at days 1, 2, 3, 5 and 7 after CCl4 treatment. A series of evaluations were performed to identify the curative effects on liver injury and recovery. Aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), albumin and superoxide dismutase (SOD) were detected to indirectly assess the anti-inflammatory effects of PCB. Meanwhile, we detected the expressions of hepatocyte growth factor, transforming growth factor alpha (TGF-α), TGF-β, tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) and interleukin-6 (IL-6), the factors which are associated with inflammation and liver regeneration. The protein expressions of proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA), TNF-α and cytochrome C were detected by western blot. Furthermore, the survival rates were analyzed of mice which were administered a lethal dose of CCl4 (2.6 mg/kg) with or without PCB. RESULTS: In our research, PCB showed a strongly anti-inflammatory effect on CCl4-induced liver injury in mice. The ALT was significantly decreased after CCl4 treatment from day 1 (P < 0.01) and the AST was significantly decreased from day 2 (P < 0.001). Both albumin and liver SOD were increased from day 2 (P < 0.001 and P < 0.01), but serum SOD levels did not show a significant increase (P > 0.05). PCB protected the structure of liver from the injury by CCl4. TUNEL assay showed that PCB dramatically reduced the number of apoptotic cells after CCl4 treatment compared to the control (101.0 ± 25.4 vs 25.7 ± 6.4, P < 0.01). The result of western blotting showed that PCB could increase PCNA expression, decrease TNF-α and cytochrome C expression. Furthermore, data shows that PCB could improve the

  2. Validation of absolute axial neutron flux distribution calculations with MCNP with 197Au(n,γ)198Au reaction rate distribution measurements at the JSI TRIGA Mark II reactor.

    PubMed

    Radulović, Vladimir; Štancar, Žiga; Snoj, Luka; Trkov, Andrej

    2014-02-01

    The calculation of axial neutron flux distributions with the MCNP code at the JSI TRIGA Mark II reactor has been validated with experimental measurements of the (197)Au(n,γ)(198)Au reaction rate. The calculated absolute reaction rate values, scaled according to the reactor power and corrected for the flux redistribution effect, are in good agreement with the experimental results. The effect of different cross-section libraries on the calculations has been investigated and shown to be minor. PMID:24316530

  3. Inequalities in Alcohol-Related Mortality in 17 European Countries: A Retrospective Analysis of Mortality Registers

    PubMed Central

    Mackenbach, Johan P.; Kulhánová, Ivana; Bopp, Matthias; Borrell, Carme; Deboosere, Patrick; Kovács, Katalin; Looman, Caspar W. N.; Leinsalu, Mall; Mäkelä, Pia; Martikainen, Pekka; Menvielle, Gwenn; Rodríguez-Sanz, Maica; Rychtaříková, Jitka; de Gelder, Rianne

    2015-01-01

    Background Socioeconomic inequalities in alcohol-related mortality have been documented in several European countries, but it is unknown whether the magnitude of these inequalities differs between countries and whether these inequalities increase or decrease over time. Methods and Findings We collected and harmonized data on mortality from four alcohol-related causes (alcoholic psychosis, dependence, and abuse; alcoholic cardiomyopathy; alcoholic liver cirrhosis; and accidental poisoning by alcohol) by age, sex, education level, and occupational class in 20 European populations from 17 different countries, both for a recent period and for previous points in time, using data from mortality registers. Mortality was age-standardized using the European Standard Population, and measures for both relative and absolute inequality between low and high socioeconomic groups (as measured by educational level and occupational class) were calculated. Rates of alcohol-related mortality are higher in lower educational and occupational groups in all countries. Both relative and absolute inequalities are largest in Eastern Europe, and Finland and Denmark also have very large absolute inequalities in alcohol-related mortality. For example, for educational inequality among Finnish men, the relative index of inequality is 3.6 (95% CI 3.3–4.0) and the slope index of inequality is 112.5 (95% CI 106.2–118.8) deaths per 100,000 person-years. Over time, the relative inequality in alcohol-related mortality has increased in many countries, but the main change is a strong rise of absolute inequality in several countries in Eastern Europe (Hungary, Lithuania, Estonia) and Northern Europe (Finland, Denmark) because of a rapid rise in alcohol-related mortality in lower socioeconomic groups. In some of these countries, alcohol-related causes now account for 10% or more of the socioeconomic inequality in total mortality. Because our study relies on routinely collected underlying causes of

  4. Estimating natural mortality rates and simulating fishing scenarios for Gulf of Mexico red grouper (Epinephelus morio) using the ecosystem model OSMOSE-WFS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grüss, Arnaud; Schirripa, Michael J.; Chagaris, David; Velez, Laure; Shin, Yunne-Jai; Verley, Philippe; Oliveros-Ramos, Ricardo; Ainsworth, Cameron H.

    2016-02-01

    The ecosystem model OSMOSE-WFS was employed to evaluate natural mortality rates and fishing scenarios for Gulf of Mexico (GOM) red grouper (Epinephelus morio). OSMOSE-WFS represents major high trophic level (HTL) groups of species of the West Florida Shelf, is forced by the biomass of plankton and benthos groups, and has a monthly time step. The present application of the model uses a recently developed 'stochastic mortality algorithm' to resolve the mortality processes of HTL groups. OSMOSE-WFS predictions suggest that the natural mortality rate of juveniles of GOM red grouper is high and essentially due to predation, while the bulk of the natural mortality of adult red grouper results from causes not represented in OSMOSE-WFS such as, presumably, red tides. These results were communicated to GOM red grouper stock assessments. Moreover, OSMOSE-WFS indicate that altering the fishing mortality of GOM red grouper may have no global impact on the biomass of the major prey of red grouper, due to the high complexity and high redundancy of the modeled system. By contrast, altering the fishing mortality of GOM red grouper may have a large impact on the biomass of its major competitors. Increasing the fishing mortality of red grouper would increase the biomass of major competitors, due to reduced competition for food. Conversely, decreasing the fishing mortality of red grouper would diminish the biomass of major competitors, due to increased predation pressure on the juveniles of the major competitors by red grouper. The fishing scenarios that we evaluated may have slightly different impacts in the real world, due to some discrepancies between the diets of red grouper and its major competitors predicted by OSMOSE-WFS and the observed ones. Modifications in OSMOSE-WFS are suggested to reduce these discrepancies.

  5. Lower mortality rates at cardiac specialty hospitals traceable to healthier patients and to doctors' performing more procedures.

    PubMed

    O'Neill, Liam; Hartz, Arthur J

    2012-04-01

    Physician-owned cardiac specialty hospitals advertise that they have outstanding physicians and results. To test this assertion, we examined who gets referred to these hospitals, as well as whether different results occur when specialty physicians split their caseloads among specialty and general hospitals in the same markets. Using data on 210,135 patients who underwent percutaneous coronary interventions in Texas during 2004-07, we found that the risk-adjusted in-hospital mortality rate for patients treated at specialty hospitals was significantly below the rate for all hospitals in the state (0.68 percent versus 1.50 percent). However, the rate was significantly higher when physicians who owned cardiac specialty hospitals treated patients in general hospitals (2.27 percent versus 1.50 percent). In addition, several patient characteristics were associated with a lower likelihood of being admitted to a cardiac hospital for cardiac care, such as being African American or Hispanic and having Medicaid or no health insurance. After adjustment for patient severity and number of procedures performed, the overall outcomes for cardiologists who owned specialty hospitals were not significantly different from the "average outcomes" obtained at noncardiac hospitals. In contrast to previous studies, patient outcomes were found to be highly dependent on the type of hospital where the procedure was performed. To remove a potential source of bias and achieve a more balanced comparison, the quality statistics reported by physician-owned cardiac hospitals should be adjusted to incorporate the high rates of poor outcomes for the many procedures done by their cardiologists at nearby noncardiac hospitals. PMID:22492898

  6. Greater absolute rates of N2O production and consumption with soil warming dwarf variations in denitrification enzyme temperature sensitivities across seasons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tiemann, L. K.; Billings, S. A.

    2010-12-01

    Investigators appreciate the important role that nitrate (NO3-) and soil moisture availability can play in governing net N2O production from soils. However, a large knowledge gap remains surrounding the drivers of soil N2O consumption and the role of microbial adaptation to changing environmental conditions in governing both N2O production and consumption. Net N2O soil efflux can be correlated with temperature, but little is known about the influence of temperature on gross rates of N2O production vs. consumption. Further, we do not understand how microbial communities responsible for these processes adapt or acclimate to soil warming. To investigate whether temperature alters the denitrifier-mediated fate of NO3- lost via N2O or N2, and if any such effect changes across seasons, we incubated soil collected in three seasons at four temperatures with and without 15N-enriched nitrate for 26 hours. Incubations were conducted in an anaerobic environment flushed with helium to permit detection of N2O and N2, and those gases’ δ15N. Temperature positively influenced CO2 production resulting from anaerobic processes. Maximum values of net N2O production were positively influenced by incubation and seasonal temperature, and the maximum rate of net N2O production occurred relatively early at warmer incubation temperatures. We also observed greater N2O:N2 ratios early in the incubations at warmer incubation temperatures. Isotope data are consistent with these trends. For those soils receiving the 15N label, differences in δ15N2O between early and late in the incubations were increasingly negative, and differences in δ15N2 increasingly positive, as temperature increased. Q10 values for N2O production and consumption exhibited increasing similarities as seasons progressed, with June N2O production and consumption Q10 values being nearly identical. These data provide convincing evidence that: a) increasing temperatures can induce denitrifying communities to perform complete

  7. Eosinophil count - absolute

    MedlinePlus

    Eosinophils; Absolute eosinophil count ... the white blood cell count to give the absolute eosinophil count. ... than 500 cells per microliter (cells/mcL). Normal value ranges may vary slightly among different laboratories. Talk ...

  8. Mortality in over 350,000 Insured Swedish dogs from 1995–2000: I. Breed-, Gender-, Age- and Cause-specific Rates

    PubMed Central

    Bonnett, BN; Egenvall, A; Hedhammar, Å; Olson, P

    2005-01-01

    This study presents data on over 350,000 insured Swedish dogs up to 10 years of age contributing to over one million dog-years at risk (DYAR) during 1995–2000. A total of 43,172 dogs died or were euthanised and of these 72% had a claim with a diagnosis for the cause of death. The overall total mortality was 393 deaths per 10,000 DYAR. Mortality rates are calculated for the 10 most common breeds, 10 breeds with high mortality and a group including all other breeds, crudely and for general causes of death. Proportional mortality is presented for several classifications. Five general causes accounted for 62% of the deaths with a diagnosis (i.e. tumour (18%), trauma (17%), locomotor (13%), heart (8%) and neurological (6%)). Mortality rates for the five most common diagnoses within the general causes of death are presented. These detailed statistics on mortality can be used in breed-specific strategies as well as for general health promotion programs. Further details on survival and relative risk by breed and age are presented in the companion paper [14]. PMID:16261924

  9. Inclusion of non-viable neonates in the birth record and its impact on infant mortality rates in Shelby County, Tennessee, USA

    PubMed Central

    Williams, Bryan L.; Magsumbol, Melina S.

    2010-01-01

    Rates of infant death are one of the most common indicators of a population's overall health status. Infant mortality rates (IMRs) are used to make broad inferences about the quality of health care, effects of health policies and even environmental quality. The purpose of our study was threefold: i) to examine the characteristics of births in the area in relation to gestational age and birthweight; ii) to estimate infant mortality using variable gestational age and/or birthweight criteria for live birth, and iii) to calculate proportional mortality ratios for each cause of death using variable gestational age and/or birthweight criteria for live birth. We conducted a retrospective analysis of all Shelby County resident-linked birth and infant death certificates during the years 1999 to 2004. Descriptive test statistics were used to examine infant mortality rates in relation to specific maternal and infant risk factors. Through careful examination of 1999–2004 resident-linked birth and infant death data sets, we observed a disproportionate number of non-viable live births (≤20 weeks gestation or ≤350 grams) in Shelby County. Issuance of birth certificates to these non-viable neonates is a factor that contributes to an inflated IMR. Our study demonstrates the complexity and the appropriateness of comparing infant mortality rates in smaller geographic units, given the unique characteristics of live births in Shelby County. The disproportionate number of pre-viable infants born in Shelby County greatly obfuscates neonatal mortality and de-emphasizes the importance of post-neonatal mortality. PMID:21589834

  10. Recanalization and Mortality Rates of Thrombectomy With Stent-Retrievers in Octogenarian Patients with Acute Ischemic Stroke

    SciTech Connect

    Parrilla, G.; Carreón, E.; Zamarro, J.; Espinosa de Rueda, M.; García-Villalba, B.; Marín, F.; Hernández-Fernández, F.; Morales, A.; Fernández-Vivas, M.; Núñez, R.; Moreno, A.

    2015-04-15

    BackgroundOur objective was to evaluate the effect of treatment with stent-retrievers in octogenarians suffering an acute ischemic stroke.MethodsA total of 150 consecutive patients with acute stroke who were treated with stent-retrievers between April 2010 and June 2012 were retrospectively reviewed. Patients were divided into those <80 years old (n = 116) and those ≥80 (n = 34). Baseline characteristics, procedure data, and endpoints (postprocedural NIHSS, death, and mRS at 3 months) were compared.ResultsHigh blood pressure, atrial fibrillation, and anticoagulation were more frequent in octogenarians (p = 0.01, 0.003, and 0.04 respectively). There were no differences between both groups regarding previous intravenous thrombolysis (32.4 vs. 48.3 %, p = 0.1), preprocedural NIHSS (18.1 vs. 16.8, p = 0.3), procedure time (74.5 (40–114) min vs. 63 (38–92) min, p = 0.2), revascularization time (380.5 (298–526.3) min vs. 350 (296.3–452.8), p = 0.3), TICI ≥ 2B (88.2 vs. 93.9 %, p = 0.1), and symptomatic haemorrhage (5.9 vs. 2.6 %, p = 0.3). Discharge NIHSS was higher in octogenarians (9.7 vs. 6.5, p = 0.03). Death and 3-month mRS ≥3 were more frequent in octogenarians (35.3 vs. 17.2 %, p = 0.02 and 73.5 vs. 37.1 %, p = 0.02). ICA-involvement and prolonged revascularization involved higher mortality (66.7 vs. 27.6 %, p = 0.03) and worse mRS (50 vs. 24.4 %, p = 0.06) in octogenarians.ConclusionsIn our series, treatment with stent-retrievers in octogenarians with acute ischemic stroke achieved good rates of recanalization but with a high mortality rate. ICA involvement and revascularization times beyond 6 hours associated to a worse prognosis. These data might be of value in the design of prospective studies evaluating the clinical efficacy of the endovascular treatments in octogenarians.

  11. Evaluation of annual survival and mortality rates and longevity of bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus) at the United States Navy Marine Mammal Program from 2004 through 2013.

    PubMed

    Venn-Watson, Stephanie K; Jensen, Eric D; Smith, Cynthia R; Xitco, Mark; Ridgway, Sam H

    2015-04-15

    Objective-To evaluate annual survival and mortality rates and the longevity of a managed population of bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus). Design-Retrospective cohort study. Animals-103 bottlenose dolphins at the US Navy Marine Mammal Program (MMP). Procedures-Population age structures, annual survival and crude mortality rates, and median age at death for dolphins > 30 days old were determined from 2004 through 2013. Results-During 2004 through 2013, the annual survival rates for MMP dolphins ranged from 0.98 to 1.0, and the annual crude mortality rates ranged from 0% to 5%, with a mean of 2.7%. The median age at death was 30.1 years from 2004 through 2008 and increased to 32 years from 2009 through 2013. The maximum age for a dolphin in the study was 52 years. Conclusions and Clinical Relevance-Results indicated that the annual mortality rates were low and survival rates were high for dolphins in the MMP from 2004 through 2013 and that the median age at death for MMP dolphins during that time was over 10 years greater than that reported in free-ranging dolphins. These findings were likely attributable to the continually improving care and husbandry of managed dolphin populations. PMID:25835174

  12. Morbidity and mortality in motor neuron disease: comparison with multiple sclerosis and Parkinson's disease: age and sex specific rates and cohort analyses.

    PubMed Central

    Li, T M; Swash, M; Alberman, E

    1985-01-01

    The cause of motor neuron disease (MND) remains unknown although recent reports have suggested a possible rise in mortality rate. The present account describes age-specific patterns in morbidity rate and cross-sectional and cohort analyses of mortality rate, and compares these with those in multiple sclerosis and Parkinson's disease. First hospital admission rate for motor neuron disease (a proxy for incidence rates) rose steadily with age in males and females until the age of 75 years or more, but then fell, but only in females. This irregular pattern suggested the possibility of an environmental effect on certain older birth cohorts. The validity of the results was supported by a similar pattern in the two hospital regional authorities studied and the difference between this pattern and that found in multiple sclerosis and Parkinson's disease. Age-specific mortality rates of motor neuron disease between 15 and 64 years for males and females in England and Wales from 1940 to 1982 rose steadily with age. Mortality rates after the age of 65 fell in all female cohorts studied, but only in the earlier male cohorts. Unlike Parkinson's disease there was no strong birth cohort effect. However an analysis of Office of Population Censuses and Surveys (Registrar General) reports has revealed a slight increase in the age-specific mortality rate in both males and females aged 65 and over for successive birth cohorts born since 1900. Neither changes in ICD coding or in diagnostic habits could account for this pattern, which differed from that seen in Parkinson's disease. No such effect was seen in multiple sclerosis. PMID:3873517

  13. Does absorption of ultraviolet B by stratospheric ozone and urban aerosols influence colon and breast cancer mortality rates? Contributions from NASA and NOAA data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gorham, Edward D.; Garland, Frank C.; Mohr, Sharif B.; Grant, William B.; Garland, Cedric F.

    2005-08-01

    Although most ultraviolet B (UVB) radiation is absorbed by stratospheric ozone, dense anthropogenic sulfate aerosols in the troposphere may further attenuate UVB in some regions. Mortality rates from colon and breast cancer tend to be much higher in areas with low levels of UVB radiation. These high rates may be due in part to inadequate cutaneous photosynthesis of vitamin D. Satellite data on atmospheric aerosols, stratospheric ozone, and cloud cover were obtained from the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) and the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA). These data were combined with age-adjusted mortality rates from 175 countries reporting to the World Health Organization. Regression was used to assess the relationship of stratospheric ozone thickness, aerosol optical depth, cloud cover, solar UVB irradiance at the top of the atmosphere, average skin exposure, and a dietary factor with colon and breast cancer mortality rates. Solar UVB irradiance at the top of the atmosphere, total cloud cover, and atmospheric aerosols had the strongest associations with mortality rates, apart from a strong influence of diet. Since 95% of circulating vitamin D is derived from current or stored products of photosynthesis, which may be nonexistent or minimal much of the year above 37°N or below 37°S, attenuation of UVB by atmospheric aerosols and clouds may have a greater than expected adverse effect on human health.

  14. The logic of comparative life history studies for estimating key parameters, with a focus on natural mortality rate

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hoenig, John M; Then, Amy Y.-H.; Babcock, Elizabeth A.; Hall, Norman G.; Hewitt, David A.; Hesp, Sybrand A.

    2016-01-01

    There are a number of key parameters in population dynamics that are difficult to estimate, such as natural mortality rate, intrinsic rate of population growth, and stock-recruitment relationships. Often, these parameters of a stock are, or can be, estimated indirectly on the basis of comparative life history studies. That is, the relationship between a difficult to estimate parameter and life history correlates is examined over a wide variety of species in order to develop predictive equations. The form of these equations may be derived from life history theory or simply be suggested by exploratory data analysis. Similarly, population characteristics such as potential yield can be estimated by making use of a relationship between the population parameter and bio-chemico–physical characteristics of the ecosystem. Surprisingly, little work has been done to evaluate how well these indirect estimators work and, in fact, there is little guidance on how to conduct comparative life history studies and how to evaluate them. We consider five issues arising in such studies: (i) the parameters of interest may be ill-defined idealizations of the real world, (ii) true values of the parameters are not known for any species, (iii) selecting data based on the quality of the estimates can introduce a host of problems, (iv) the estimates that are available for comparison constitute a non-random sample of species from an ill-defined population of species of interest, and (v) the hierarchical nature of the data (e.g. stocks within species within genera within families, etc., with multiple observations at each level) warrants consideration. We discuss how these issues can be handled and how they shape the kinds of questions that can be asked of a database of life history studies.

  15. Association of Carcinogenic Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbon Emissions and Smoking with Lung Cancer Mortality Rates on a Global Scale

    PubMed Central

    Motorykin, Oleksii; Matzke, Melissa M.; Waters, Katrina M.; Massey Simonich, Staci L.

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this research was to investigate the relationship between lung cancer mortality rates, carcinogenic polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) emissions, and smoking on a global scale, as well as for different socioeconomic country groups. The estimated lung cancer deaths per 100,000 people (ED100000) and age standardized lung cancer death rate per 100,000 people (ASDR100000) in 2004 were regressed on PAH emissions in benzo[a]pyrene equivalence (BaPeq), smoking prevalence, cigarette price, gross domestic product per capita, percentage of people with diabetes, and average body mass index using simple and multiple linear regression for 136 countries. Using stepwise multiple linear regression, a statistically significant positive linear relationship was found between loge(ED100000) and loge(BaPeq) emissions for high (p-value<0.01) and for the combination of upper middle and high (p-value<0.05) socioeconomic country groups. A similar relationship was found between loge(ASDR100000) and loge(BaPeq) emissions for the combination of upper middle and high (p-value<0.01) socioeconomic country groups. Conversely, for loge(ED100000) and loge(ASDR100000), smoking prevalence was the only significant independent variable in the low socioeconomic country group (p-value<0.001). These results suggest that reducing BaPeq emissions in the U.S., Canada, Australia, France, Germany, Brazil, South Africa, Poland, Mexico, and Malaysia could reduce ED100000, while reducing smoking prevalence in Democratic People’s Republic of Korea, Nepal, Mongolia, Cambodia, and Bangladesh could significantly reduce the ED100000 and ASDR100000. PMID:23472838

  16. The effect of excess fluid balance on the mortality rate of surgical patients: a multicenter prospective study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Introduction In some studies including small populations of patients undergoing specific surgery, an intraoperative liberal infusion of fluids was associated with increasing morbidity when compared to restrictive strategies. Therefore, to evaluate the role of excessive fluid infusion in a general population with high-risk surgery is very important. The aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of intraoperative fluid balance on the postoperative organ dysfunction, infection and mortality rate. Methods We conducted a prospective cohort study during one year in four ICUs from three tertiary hospitals, which included patients aged 18 years or more who required postoperative ICU after undergoing major surgery. Patients who underwent palliative surgery and whose fluid balance could change in outcome were excluded. The calculation of fluid balance was based on preoperative fasting, insensible losses from surgeries and urine output minus fluid replacement intraoperatively. Results The study included 479 patients. Mean age was 61.2 ± 17.0 years and 8.8% of patients died at the hospital during the study. The median duration of surgery was 4.0 (3.2 to 5.5) h and the value of the Simplified Acute Physiology Score (SAPS) 3 score was 41.8 ± 14.5. Comparing survivors and non-survivors, the intraoperative fluid balance from non-survivors was higher (1,950 (1,400 to 3,400) mL vs. 1,400 (1,000 to 1,600) mL, P <0.001). Patients with fluid balance above 2,000 mL intraoperatively had a longer ICU stay (4.0 (3.0 to 8.0) vs. 3.0 (2.0 to 6.0), P <0.001) and higher incidence of infectious (41.9% vs. 25.9%, P = 0.001), neurological (46.2% vs. 13.2%, P <0.001), cardiovascular (63.2% vs. 39.6%, P <0.001) and respiratory complications (34.3% vs. 11.6%, P <0.001). In multivariate analysis, the fluid balance was an independent factor for death (OR per 100 mL = 1.024; P = 0.006; 95% CI 1.007 to 1.041). Conclusions Patients with excessive intraoperative fluid balance have more ICU

  17. US infant mortality and the President’s party

    PubMed Central

    Rodriguez, Javier M; Bound, John; Geronimus, Arline T

    2014-01-01

    Background Infant mortality rates in the US exceed those in all other developed countries and in many less developed countries, suggesting political factors may contribute. Methods Annual time series on overall, White and Black infant mortality rates in the US were analysed over the 1965–2010 time period to ascertain whether infant mortality rates varied across presidential administrations. Data were de-trended using cubic splines and analysed using both graphical and time series regression methods. Results Across all nine presidential administrations, infant mortality rates were below trend when the President was a Democrat and above trend when the President was a Republican. This was true for overall, neonatal and postneonatal mortality. Regression estimates show that, relative to trend, Republican administrations were characterized by infant mortality rates that were, on average, 3% higher than Democratic administrations. In proportional terms, effect size is similar for US Whites and Blacks. US Black rates are more than twice as high as White, implying substantially larger absolute effects for Blacks. Conclusions We found a robust, quantitatively important association between net of trend US infant mortality rates and the party affiliation of the president. There may be overlooked ways by which macro-dynamics of policy impact microdynamics of physiology, suggesting the political system is a component of the underlying mechanism generating health inequality in the USA. PMID:24381011

  18. Incidence and Mortality Rates of Disasters and Mass Casualty Incidents in Korea: A Population-Based Cross-Sectional Study, 2000-2009

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Soo Jin; Shin, Sang Do; Lee, Seung Chul; Park, Ju Ok; Sung, Joohon

    2013-01-01

    The objective of study was to evaluate the incidence and mortality rates of disasters and mass casualty incidents (MCIs) over the past 10 yr in the administrative system of Korea administrative system and to examine their relationship with population characteristics. This was a population-based cross-sectional study. We calculated the nationwide incidence, as well as the crude mortality and injury incidence rates, of disasters and MCIs. The data were collected from the administrative database of the National Emergency Management Agency (NEMA) and from provincial fire departments from January 2000 to December 2009. A total of 47,169 events were collected from the NEMA administrative database. Of these events, 115 and 3,079 cases were defined as disasters and MCIs that occurred in Korea, respectively. The incidence of technical disasters/MCIs was approximately 12.7 times greater than that of natural disasters/MCIs. Over the past 10 yr, the crude mortality rates for disasters and MCIs were 2.36 deaths per 100,000 persons and 6.78 deaths per 100,000 persons, respectively. The crude injury incidence rates for disasters and MCIs were 25.47 injuries per 100,000 persons and 152 injuries per 100,000 persons, respectively. The incidence and mortality of disasters/MCIs in Korea seem to be low compared to that of trend around the world. PMID:23678255

  19. Are Gender Differences in the Relationship between Self-Rated Health and Mortality Enduring? Results from Three Birth Cohorts in Melton Mowbray, United Kingdom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spiers, Nicola; Jagger, Carol; Clarke, Michael; Arthur, Antony

    2003-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to assess whether there is an enduring gender difference in the ability of self-rated health to predict mortality and investigate whether self-reported physical health problems account for this difference. Design and Methods: Cox models for 4-year survival were fitted to data from successive cohorts aged…

  20. The effects of strong shock waves on mortality rates and percentages of pulmonary lesions in rats as a function of the number of exposures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vassout, P.; Parmentier, G.

    1978-01-01

    The results of the study reveal that with regard to the pulmonary lesions, twice the number of exposures is compensated for by quartering the overpressure of the wave crest. With regard to the mortality rates, it reveals that halving the overpressure of the wave crest is offset by a 20-fold increase in the number of exposures.

  1. CORRELATIONS BETWEEN AGE-ADJUSTED MORTALITY RATES FOR WHITE MALES AND FEMALES IN THE UNITED STATES BY COUNTY, 1968-1972

    EPA Science Inventory

    Intercorrelations among county mortality rates for about 50 causes of death were investigated for white males (WM) and white females (WF) for the 5-year period between 1968 and 1972. All possible pairwise correlations (1128 for WM and 1275 for WF) were calculated; those correlati...

  2. Trends and Variations in the Rates of Hospital Complications, Failure-to-Rescue and 30-Day Mortality in Surgical Patients in New South Wales, Australia, 2002-2009

    PubMed Central

    Ou, Lixin; Chen, Jack; Assareh, Hassan; Hollis, Stephanie J.; Hillman, Ken; Flabouris, Arthas

    2014-01-01

    Background Despite the increased acceptance of failure-to-rescue (FTR) as an important patient safety indicator (defined as the percentage of deaths among surgical patients with treatable complications), there has not been any large epidemiological study reporting FTR in an Australian setting nor any evaluation on its suitability as a performance indicator. Methods We conducted a population-based study on elective surgical patients from 82 public acute hospitals in New South Wales, Australia between 2002 and 2009, exploring the trends and variations in rates of hospital complications, FTR and 30-day mortality. We used Poisson regression models to derive relative risk ratios (RRs) after adjusting for a range of patient and hospital characteristics. Results The average rates of complications, FTR and 30-day mortality were 13.8 per 1000 admissions, 14.1% and 6.1 per 1000 admission, respectively. The rates of complications and 30-day mortality were stable throughout the study period however there was a significant decrease in FTR rate after 2006, coinciding with the establishment of national and state-level peak patient safety agencies. There were marked variations in the three rates within the top 20% of hospitals (best) and bottom 20% of hospitals (worst) for each of the four peer-hospital groups. The group comprising the largest volume hospitals (principal referral/teaching hospitals) had a significantly higher rate of FTR in comparison to the other three groups of smaller-sized peer hospital groups (RR = 0.78, 0.57, and 0.61, respectively). Adjusted rates of complications, FTR and 30-day mortality varied widely for individual surgical procedures between the best and worst quintile hospitals within the principal referral hospital group. Conclusions The decrease in FTR rate over the study period appears to be associated with a wide range of patient safety programs. The marked variations in the three rates between- and within- peer hospital groups highlight the

  3. Predicting 1-Year Mortality Rate for Patients Admitted With an Acute Exacerbation of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease to an Intensive Care Unit: An Opportunity for Palliative Care

    PubMed Central

    Batzlaff, Cassandra M.; Karpman, Craig; Afessa, Bekele; Benzo, Roberto P.

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was to develop a model to aid clinicians in better predicting 1-year mortality rate for patients with an acute exacerbation of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease admitted to the medical intensive care unit (ICU) with the goal of earlier initiation of palliative care and end-of-life communications in this patient population. This retrospective cohort study included patients from a medical ICU from April 1, 1995, to November 30, 2009. Data collected from the Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation III database included demographic characteristics; severity of illness scores; noninvasive and invasive mechanical ventilation time; ICU and hospital length of stay; and ICU, hospital, and 1-year mortality. Statistically significant univariate variables for 1-year mortality were entered into a multivariate model, and the independent variables were used to generate a scoring system to predict 1-year mortality rate. At 1-year follow-up, 295 of 591 patients died (50%). Age and hospital length of stay were identified as independent determinants of mortality at 1 year by using multivariate analysis, and the predictive model developed had an area under the operating curve of 0.68. Bootstrap analysis with 1000 iterations validated the model, age, and hospital length of stay, entered the model 100% of the time (area under the operating curve=0.687; 95% CI, 0.686–0.688). A simple model using age and hospital length of stay may be informative for providers willing to identify patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease with high 1-year mortality rate who may benefit from end-of-life communications and from palliative care. PMID:24656805

  4. Evaluating the predictive performance of empirical estimators of natural mortality rate using information on over 200 fish species

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Then, Amy Y.; Hoenig, John M; Hall, Norman G.; Hewitt, David A.

    2015-01-01

    Many methods have been developed in the last 70 years to predict the natural mortality rate, M, of a stock based on empirical evidence from comparative life history studies. These indirect or empirical methods are used in most stock assessments to (i) obtain estimates of M in the absence of direct information, (ii) check on the reasonableness of a direct estimate of M, (iii) examine the range of plausible M estimates for the stock under consideration, and (iv) define prior distributions for Bayesian analyses. The two most cited empirical methods have appeared in the literature over 2500 times to date. Despite the importance of these methods, there is no consensus in the literature on how well these methods work in terms of prediction error or how their performance may be ranked. We evaluate estimators based on various combinations of maximum age (tmax), growth parameters, and water temperature by seeing how well they reproduce >200 independent, direct estimates of M. We use tenfold cross-validation to estimate the prediction error of the estimators and to rank their performance. With updated and carefully reviewed data, we conclude that a tmax-based estimator performs the best among all estimators evaluated. The tmax-based estimators in turn perform better than the Alverson–Carney method based on tmax and the von Bertalanffy K coefficient, Pauly's method based on growth parameters and water temperature and methods based just on K. It is possible to combine two independent methods by computing a weighted mean but the improvement over the tmax-based methods is slight. Based on cross-validation prediction error, model residual patterns, model parsimony, and biological considerations, we recommend the use of a tmax-based estimator (M=4.899t−0.916max, prediction error = 0.32) when possible and a growth-based method (M=4.118K0.73L−0.33∞ , prediction error = 0.6) otherwise.

  5. Does transport time help explain the high trauma mortality rates in rural areas? New and traditional predictors assessed by new and traditional statistical methods

    PubMed Central

    Røislien, Jo; Lossius, Hans Morten; Kristiansen, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    Background Trauma is a leading global cause of death. Trauma mortality rates are higher in rural areas, constituting a challenge for quality and equality in trauma care. The aim of the study was to explore population density and transport time to hospital care as possible predictors of geographical differences in mortality rates, and to what extent choice of statistical method might affect the analytical results and accompanying clinical conclusions. Methods Using data from the Norwegian Cause of Death registry, deaths from external causes 1998–2007 were analysed. Norway consists of 434 municipalities, and municipality population density and travel time to hospital care were entered as predictors of municipality mortality rates in univariate and multiple regression models of increasing model complexity. We fitted linear regression models with continuous and categorised predictors, as well as piecewise linear and generalised additive models (GAMs). Models were compared using Akaike's information criterion (AIC). Results Population density was an independent predictor of trauma mortality rates, while the contribution of transport time to hospital care was highly dependent on choice of statistical model. A multiple GAM or piecewise linear model was superior, and similar, in terms of AIC. However, while transport time was statistically significant in multiple models with piecewise linear or categorised predictors, it was not in GAM or standard linear regression. Conclusions Population density is an independent predictor of trauma mortality rates. The added explanatory value of transport time to hospital care is marginal and model-dependent, highlighting the importance of exploring several statistical models when studying complex associations in observational data. PMID:25972600

  6. Absolute nuclear material assay

    DOEpatents

    Prasad, Manoj K.; Snyderman, Neal J.; Rowland, Mark S.

    2012-05-15

    A method of absolute nuclear material assay of an unknown source comprising counting neutrons from the unknown source and providing an absolute nuclear material assay utilizing a model to optimally compare to the measured count distributions. In one embodiment, the step of providing an absolute nuclear material assay comprises utilizing a random sampling of analytically computed fission chain distributions to generate a continuous time-evolving sequence of event-counts by spreading the fission chain distribution in time.

  7. Absolute nuclear material assay

    DOEpatents

    Prasad, Manoj K.; Snyderman, Neal J.; Rowland, Mark S.

    2010-07-13

    A method of absolute nuclear material assay of an unknown source comprising counting neutrons from the unknown source and providing an absolute nuclear material assay utilizing a model to optimally compare to the measured count distributions. In one embodiment, the step of providing an absolute nuclear material assay comprises utilizing a random sampling of analytically computed fission chain distributions to generate a continuous time-evolving sequence of event-counts by spreading the fission chain distribution in time.

  8. A Model of Racial Residential History and Its Association with Self-Rated Health and Mortality Among Black and White Adults in the United States

    PubMed Central

    Ruel, Erin; Robert, Stephanie A.

    2009-01-01

    We construct a dynamic racial residential history typology and examine its association with self-rated health and mortality among black and white adults. Data are from a national survey of U.S. adults, combined with census tract data from 1970–1990. Results show that racial disparities in health and mortality are explained by both neighborhood contextual and individual socioeconomic factors. Results suggest that living in an established black neighborhood or in an established interracial neighborhood may actually be protective of health, once neighborhood poverty is controlled. Examining the dynamic nature of neighborhoods contributes to an understanding of health disparities. PMID:20161138

  9. Association of Age, Systolic Blood Pressure, and Heart Rate with Adult Morbidity and Mortality after Urgent Care Visits

    PubMed Central

    Hart, James; Woodruff, Michael; Joy, Elizabeth; Dalto, Joseph; Snow, Gregory; Srivastava, Rajendu; Isaacson, Brad; Allen, Todd

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Little data exists to help urgent care (UC) clinicians predict morbidity and mortality risk. Age, systolic blood pressure (SBP), and heart rate (HR) are easily obtainable and have been used in other settings to predict short-term risk of deterioration. We hypothesized that there is a relationship between advancing age, SBP, HR, and short-term health outcomes in the UC setting. Methods We collected retrospective data from 28 UC clinics and 22 hospitals in the Intermountain Healthcare system between years 2008–2013. Adult patients (≥18 years) were included if they had a unique UC visit and HR or SBP data. Three endpoints following UC visit were assessed: emergency department (ED) visit within three days, hospitalization within three days, and death within seven days. We analyzed associations between age, SBP, HR and endpoints using local regression with a binomial likelihood. Five age groups were chosen from previously published national surveys. Vital sign (VS) distributions were determined for each age group, and the central tendency was compared against previously published norms (90–120mmHg for SBP and 60–100bpm for HR.) Results A total of 1,720,207 encounters (714,339 unique patients) met the inclusion criteria; 51,446 encounters (2.99%) had ED visit within three days; 12,397 (0.72%) experienced hospitalization within three days; 302 (0.02%) died within seven days of UC visit. Heart rate and SBP combined with advanced age predicted the probability of ED visit (p<0.0001) and hospitalization (p<0.0001) following UC visit. Significant associations between advancing age and death (p<0.0001), and VS and death (p<0.0001) were observed. Odds ratios of risk were highest for elderly patients with lower SBP or higher HR. Observed distributions of SBP were higher than published normal ranges for all age groups. Conclusion Among adults seeking care in the UC, associations between HR and SBP and likelihood of ED visits and hospitalization were more

  10. Improving size, lymph node metastatic rate, breast conservation, and mortality of invasive breast cancer in Rhode Island women, a well-screened population.

    PubMed

    Coburn, Natalie G; Cady, Blake; Fulton, John P; Law, Calvin; Chung, Maureen A

    2012-10-01

    The beneficial impact of screening mammography on breast cancer outcome continues to be debated as demonstrated by guidelines published by the United States Preventive Services Task Force. A previous report from Rhode Island, which has a very high rate of mammographic screening, demonstrated significant improvements in invasive breast cancer presentation and mortality through 2001. This report updates data through 2008 to determine whether previous favorable trends continued. Rhode Island Cancer Registry data regarding invasive breast cancer presentation and mortality in 17,522 female residents diagnosed between 1987 and 2008, inclusive, were analyzed for demographic and pathological factors. Data were analyzed by four time periods: 1987-1992, 1993-1998, 1999-2003, and 2004-2008 and overall. Statistically significant improvements occurred over the four successive time periods, in mean cancer size (23.7, 20.9, 19.6, and 19.3 mm, p < 0.0001), pathologic grade (Grade I: 12, 15, 19, and 17 %; Grade III 57, 41, 36, and 35 %, p < 0.0001), breast conserving surgery (38, 56, 67, and 71 %, p < 0.0001) and mortality (37.3, 31.4, 25.1, and 22.6 per 100,000/year, p < 0.0001). The results showed that high screening rates favorably impacted presentation of and mortality from invasive breast cancer in Rhode Island. From 1987 to 2008, there has been a 39 % decline in breast cancer mortality considering 5 year periods (37.3 vs. 22.6 deaths per 100,000) and 41 % comparing the period from 1990 to 2008, which may exceed the goal of 50 % mortality reduction by 2015 established by the American Cancer Society. PMID:22933028

  11. Changes in mortality inequalities over two decades: register based study of European countries

    PubMed Central

    Kulhánová, Ivana; Artnik, Barbara; Bopp, Matthias; Borrell, Carme; Clemens, Tom; Costa, Giuseppe; Dibben, Chris; Kalediene, Ramune; Lundberg, Olle; Martikainen, Pekka; Menvielle, Gwenn; Östergren, Olof; Prochorskas, Remigijus; Rodríguez-Sanz, Maica; Strand, Bjørn Heine; Looman, Caspar W N; de Gelder, Rianne

    2016-01-01

    Objective To determine whether government efforts in reducing inequalities in health in European countries have actually made a difference to mortality inequalities by socioeconomic group. Design Register based study. Data source Mortality data by level of education and occupational class in the period 1990-2010, usually collected in a census linked longitudinal study design. We compared changes in mortality between the lowest and highest socioeconomic groups, and calculated their effect on absolute and relative inequalities in mortality (measured as rate differences and rate ratios, respectively). Setting All European countries for which data on socioeconomic inequalities in mortality were available for the approximate period between years 1990 and 2010. These included Finland, Norway, Sweden, Scotland, England and Wales (data applied to both together), France, Switzerland, Spain (Barcelona), Italy (Turin), Slovenia, and Lithuania. Results Substantial mortality declines occurred in lower socioeconomic groups in most European countries covered by this study. Relative inequalities in mortality widened almost universally, because percentage declines were usually smaller in lower socioeconomic groups. However, as absolute declines were often smaller in higher socioeconomic groups, absolute inequalities narrowed by up to 35%, particularly among men. Narrowing was partly driven by ischaemic heart disease, smoking related causes, and causes amenable to medical intervention. Progress in reducing absolute inequalities was greatest in Spain (Barcelona), Scotland, England and Wales, and Italy (Turin), and absent in Finland and Norway. More detailed studies preferably using individual level data are necessary to identify the causes of these variations. Conclusions Over the past two decades, trends in inequalities in mortality have been more favourable in most European countries than is commonly assumed. Absolute inequalities have decreased in several countries, probably

  12. Prehospital heart rate and blood pressure increase the positive predictive value of the Glasgow Coma Scale for high-mortality traumatic brain injury.

    PubMed

    Reisner, Andrew; Chen, Xiaoxiao; Kumar, Kamal; Reifman, Jaques

    2014-05-15

    We hypothesized that vital signs could be used to improve the association between a trauma patient's prehospital Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) score and his or her clinical condition. Previously, abnormally low and high blood pressures have both been associated with higher mortality for patients with traumatic brain injury (TBI). We undertook a retrospective analysis of 1384 adult prehospital trauma patients. Vital-sign data were electronically archived and analyzed. We examined the relative risk of severe head Abbreviated Injury Scale (AIS) 5-6 as a function of the GCS, systolic blood pressure (SBP), heart rate (HR), and respiratory rate (RR). We created multi-variate logistic regression models and, using DeLong's test, compared their area under receiver operating characteristic curves (ROC AUCs) for three outcomes: head AIS 5-6, all-cause mortality, and either head AIS 5-6 or neurosurgical procedure. We found significant bimodal relationships between head AIS 5-6 versus SBP and HR, but not RR. When the GCS was <15, ROC AUCs were significantly higher for a multi-variate regression model (GCS, SBP, and HR) versus GCS alone. In particular, patients with abnormalities in all parameters (GCS, SBP, and HR) were significantly more likely to have high-mortality TBI versus those with abnormalities in GCS alone. This could be useful for mobilizing resources (e.g., neurosurgeons and operating rooms at the receiving hospital) and might enable new prehospital management protocols where therapies are selected based on TBI mortality risk. PMID:24372334

  13. Sources and rates of mortality of the San Joaquin kit fox, Naval Petroleum Reserve No. 1, Kern County, California, 1980-1986. [Vulpes macrotis mutica

    SciTech Connect

    Berry, W.H.; Scrivner, J.H.; O'Farrell, T.P.; Harris, C.E.; Kato, T.T.; McCue, P.M.

    1987-03-01

    Sources and rates of mortality of the San Joaquin kit fox (Vulpes macrotis mutica) were studied from 1980 to 1986. Of 270 foxes radiocollared, 225 were recovered dead. Of the 225 recovered dead 53.8% (121) were killed by predators, 10.7% (24) were killed by vehicles, 4.4% (10) died from causes other than predation, and 31.1% (70) died from unknown causes. Contingency-table analysis was used to assess the relationship between cause of death and sex, age class (juvenile and adult), habitat type (undeveloped and developed), and year of death (1980-1986). More adults in undeveloped habitat were killed by vehicles than were juveniles; more female juveniles in developed habitat were killed by vehicles than female adults; more juveniles were killed by vehicles in developed habitat than in undeveloped habitat; and more adults in developed habitat were killed by predators in later years of the study than in early years. Over 90% of the foxes collared as juveniles were recovered in their first or second year. Fourteen mortality rates based on age class and year of death were estimated using maximum-likelihood estimation. Mortality rates were higher for juvenile foxes (x-bar = 0.74) than for adult foxes (x-bar = 0.52). For foxes collared as juveniles, there was no significant difference in survival between the two habitat types or between the sexes. Mortality of adults increased between 1980 and 1986. Because coyote predation was a major cause of kit fox mortality the coyote control program implemented in 1985 should be continued and its effectiveness should be evaluated by continued monitoring of kit fox, coyote, and prey populations.

  14. Contribution of exposure, risk of crash and fatality to explain age- and sex-related differences in traffic-related cyclist mortality rates.

    PubMed

    Martínez-Ruiz, Virginia; Jiménez-Mejías, Eladio; Amezcua-Prieto, Carmen; Olmedo-Requena, Rocío; Luna-del-Castillo, Juan de Dios; Lardelli-Claret, Pablo

    2015-03-01

    This study was designed to quantify the percent contribution of exposure, risk of collision and fatality rate to the association of age and sex with the mortality rates among cyclists in Spain, and to track the changes in these contributions with time. Data were analyzed for 50,042 cyclists involved in road crashes in Spain from 1993 to 2011, and also for a subset of 13,119 non-infractor cyclists involved in collisions with a vehicle whose driver committed an infraction (used as a proxy sample of all cyclists on the road). We used decomposition and quasi-induced exposure methods to obtain the percent contributions of these three components to the mortality rate ratios for each age and sex group compared to males aged 25-34 years. Death rates increased with age, and the main component of this increase was fatality (around 70%). Among younger cyclists, however, the main component of increased death rates was risk of a collision. Males had higher death rates than females in every age group: this rate increased from 6.4 in the 5-14 year old group to 18.8 in the 65-79 year old group. Exposure, the main component of this increase, ranged between 70% and 90% in all age categories, although the fatality component also contributed to this increase. The contributions of exposure, risk of crash and fatality to cyclist death rates were strongly associated with age and sex. Young male cyclists were a high-risk group because all three components tended to increase their mortality rate. PMID:25658669

  15. Association of estimated glomerular filtration rate and albuminuria with all-cause and cardiovascular mortality: a collaborative meta-analysis of general population cohorts

    PubMed Central

    Matsushita, Kunihiro; van der Velde, Marije; Astor, Brad C; Woodward, Mark; Levey, Andrew S; de Jong, Paul E; Coresh, Josef; Gansevoort, Ron T

    2014-01-01

    Background A comprehensive evaluation of the independent and combined associations of estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) and albuminuria with mortality is required for assessment of the impact of kidney function on risk in the general population, with implications for improving the definition and staging of chronic kidney disease (CKD). Methods A collaborative meta-analysis of general population cohorts was undertaken to pool standardized data for all-cause and cardiovascular mortality. The two kidney measures and potential confounders from 14 studies (105,872 participants; 730,577 person-years) with urine albumin-to-creatinine ratio (ACR) measurements and seven studies (1,128,310 participants; 4,732,110 person-years) with urine protein dipstick measurements were modeled. Findings In ACR studies, mortality risk was unrelated to eGFR between 75-105 ml/min/1·73 m2 and increased at lower eGFR. Adjusted hazard ratios (HRs) for all-cause mortality at eGFR 60, 45, and 15 (versus 95) ml/min/1·73 m2 were 1·18 (95% CI: 1·05-1·32), 1·57 (1·39-1·78), and 3·14 (2·39-4·13), respectively. ACR was associated with mortality risk linearly on the log-log scale without threshold effects. Adjusted HRs for all-cause mortality at ACR 10, 30, and 300 (versus 5) mg/g were 1·20 (1·15-1·26), 1·63 (1·50-1·77), and 2·22 (1·97-2·51). eGFR and ACR were multiplicatively associated with mortality without evidence of interaction. Similar findings were observed for cardiovascular mortality and in dipstick studies. Interpretation Lower eGFR (<60 ml/min/1·73 m2) and higher albuminuria (ACR ≥10 mg/g) were independent predictors of mortality risk in the general population. This study provides quantitative data for using both kidney measures for risk evaluation and CKD definition and staging. PMID:20483451

  16. Efficiency of Intergeneric Recombinants Between Bacillus Thuringiensis and Bacillus Subtilis for Increasing Mortality Rate in Cotten Leaf Worm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    AlOtaibi, Saad Aied

    2012-12-01

    In this study , two strains of Bacillus belonging to two serotypes and four of their transconjugants were screened with respect to their toxicity against lepidopterous cotton pest. . Bacterial transconjugants isolated from conjugation between both strains were evaluated for their transconjugant efficiency caused mortality in Spodoptera littoralis larvae . Two groups of bioinsecticides ; crystals , crystals and spores have been isolated from Bacillusstrains and their transconjugants . Insecticidal crystal protein ( ICP ) was specific for lepidopteran insects because of the toxin sufficient both for insect specificity and toxicity . The toxicities of these two groups against larvae of Spodoptera littoralis was expressed as transconjugant efficiency , which related to the mean number of larvae died expressed as mortality percentage . The results showed transconjugant efficiency in reducing the mean number of Spodoptera littoralis larvae feeding on leaves of Ricinus communis sprayed with bioinsecticides of Bt transconjugants. Most values of positive transconjugant efficiency related to increasing mortality percentage are due to toxicological effects appeared in response to the treatments with crystals + endospores than that of crystals alone .This indicated that crystals + endospores was more effective for increasing mortality percentage than that resulted by crystals . Higher positive transconjugant efficiency in relation to the mid parents and better parent was appeared at 168 h of treatment . The results indicated that recombinant Bacillus thuringiensis are important control agents for lepidopteran pests , as well as , susceptibility decreased with larval development . The results also suggested a potential for the deployment of these recominant entomopathogens in the management of Spodoptera. littoralis larvae .

  17. Mortality Rates in the General Irish Population Compared to Those with an Intellectual Disability from 2003 to 2012

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCarron, Mary; Carroll, Rachael; Kelly, Caraiosa; McCallion, Philip

    2015-01-01

    Background:Historically, there has been higher and earlier mortality among people with intellectual disability as compared to the general population, but there have also been methodological problems and differences in the available studies. Method: Data were drawn from the 2012 National Intellectual Disability Database and the Census in Ireland. A…

  18. Determination of florfenicol dose rate in feed for control of mortality in nile tilapia Oreochromis nilotica infected with streptococcus iniae

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A dose titration study was conducted to determine the dosage of florfenicol (FFC) in feed to control Streptococcus iniae-associated mortality in Nile tilapia Oreochromis niloticus. Six tanks were assigned to each of five treatments: (1) not challenged with S. iniae and fed unmedicated feed; (2) chal...

  19. Average County-Level IQ Predicts County-Level Disadvantage and Several County-Level Mortality Risk Rates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barnes, J. C.; Beaver, Kevin M.; Boutwell, Brian B.

    2013-01-01

    Research utilizing individual-level data has reported a link between intelligence (IQ) scores and health problems, including early mortality risk. A growing body of evidence has found similar associations at higher levels of aggregation such as the state- and national-level. At the same time, individual-level research has suggested the…

  20. Lung cancer mortality between 1950 and 1987 after exposure to fractionated moderate-dose-rate ionizing radiation in the Canadian fluoroscopy cohort study and a comparison with lung cancer mortality in the atomic bomb survivors study

    SciTech Connect

    Howe, G.R.

    1995-06-01

    Current lung cancer risk estimates after exposure to low-linear energy transfer radiation such as X rays are based on studies of people exposed to such radiation at high dose rates, for example the atomic bomb survivors. Radiobiology and animal experiments suggest that risks from exposure at low to moderate dose rates, for example medical diagnostic procedures, may be overestimated by such risk models, but data for humans to examine this issue are limited. In this paper we report on lung cancer mortality between 1950 and 1987 in a cohort of 64,172 Canadian tuberculosis patients, of whom 39% were exposed to highly fractionated multiple chest fluoroscopies leading to a mean lung radiation dose of 1.02 Sv received at moderate dose rates. These data have been used to estimate the excess relative risk per sievert of lung cancer mortality, and this is compared directly to estimates derived from 75,991 atomic bomb survivors. Based on 1,178 lung cancer deaths in the fluoroscopy study, there was no evidence of any positive association between risk and dose, with the relative risk at 1 Sv being 1.00 (95% confidence interval 0.94, 1.07), which contrasts with that based on the atomic bomb survivors, 1.60 (1.27, 1.99). The difference in effect between the two studies almost certainly did not arise by chance (P = 0.0001). This study provides strong support from data for humans for a substantial fractionation/dose-rate effect for low-linear energy transfer radiation and lung cancer risk. This implies that lung cancer risk from exposures to such radiation at present-day dose rates is likely to be lower than would be predicted by current radiation risk models based on studies of high-dose-rate exposures. 25 refs., 8 tabs.

  1. All-Cause, Cardiovascular, and Cancer Mortality Rates in Postmenopausal White, Black, Hispanic, and Asian Women With and Without Diabetes in the United States

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Yunsheng; Hébert, James R.; Balasubramanian, Raji; Wedick, Nicole M.; Howard, Barbara V.; Rosal, Milagros C.; Liu, Simin; Bird, Chloe E.; Olendzki, Barbara C.; Ockene, Judith K.; Wactawski-Wende, Jean; Phillips, Lawrence S.; LaMonte, Michael J.; Schneider, Kristin L.; Garcia, Lorena; Ockene, Ira S.; Merriam, Philip A.; Sepavich, Deidre M.; Mackey, Rachel H.; Johnson, Karen C.; Manson, JoAnn E.

    2013-01-01

    Using data from the Women's Health Initiative (1993–2009; n = 158,833 participants, of whom 84.1% were white, 9.2% were black, 4.1% were Hispanic, and 2.6% were Asian), we compared all-cause, cardiovascular, and cancer mortality rates in white, black, Hispanic, and Asian postmenopausal women with and without diabetes. Cox proportional hazard models were used for the comparison from which hazard ratios and 95% confidence intervals were computed. Within each racial/ethnic subgroup, women with diabetes had an approximately 2–3 times higher risk of all-cause, cardiovascular, and cancer mortality than did those without diabetes. However, the hazard ratios for mortality outcomes were not significantly different between racial/ethnic subgroups. Population attributable risk percentages (PARPs) take into account both the prevalence of diabetes and hazard ratios. For all-cause mortality, whites had the lowest PARP (11.1, 95% confidence interval (CI): 10.1, 12.1), followed by Asians (12.9, 95% CI: 4.7, 20.9), blacks (19.4, 95% CI: 15.0, 23.7), and Hispanics (23.2, 95% CI: 14.8, 31.2). To our knowledge, the present study is the first to show that hazard ratios for mortality outcomes were not significantly different between racial/ethnic subgroups when stratified by diabetes status. Because of the “amplifying” effect of diabetes prevalence, efforts to reduce racial/ethnic disparities in the rate of death from diabetes should focus on prevention of diabetes. PMID:24045960

  2. Relationship between Estimated Glomerular Filtration Rate and Cardiovascular Mortality in a Japanese Cohort with Long-Term Follow-Up

    PubMed Central

    Nagai, Kei; Sairenchi, Toshimi; Irie, Fujiko; Watanabe, Hiroshi; Ota, Hitoshi; Yamagata, Kunihiro

    2016-01-01

    Background Patients with renal impairment are at risk of not only end-stage kidney disease but also cardiovascular disease (CVD). The current definition of CKD stage G3a is eGFR 45–59 ml/min/1.73 m2 and of G3b is 30–44 ml/min/1.73 m2, and subjects in the CKD 3a category are considered to be at lower risk of mortality than are those in CKD 3b. Methods We evaluated the outcome of 97,043 people (33,131 men and 63,912 women) living in Ibaraki Prefecture who underwent annual community-based health checkups beginning in 1993 at age 40–80 years and who were followed for a mean of 17.1 years. Results The number of all-causes deaths was 20,534 (10,375 men and 10,159 women), of which 5,995 (2,695 men and 3,300 women) were deaths due to CVD. Multivariable-adjusted hazard ratio for CVD death in the eGFR 45–49 ml/min/1.73 m2 category was significantly increased (1.82; 95% confidential interval, 1.23–2.69) in non-elderly men, whereas all-cause mortality and CVD mortality in elderly men with eGFR 45–49 ml/min/1.73m2 were non significant. In contrast, both in non-elderly women and in elderly women with eGFR 45–49 ml/min/1.73 m2 showed small, but significant, increases in the risks of all-cause mortality and CVD. Conclusions We demonstrated proportionate increases in mortality with decreasing eGFR in a Japanese CKD population. Like patients in the CKD G3b subgroup, non-elderly men and women with an eGFR of 45–49 ml/min/1.73 m2 (i.e. a part of CKD G3a) are at considerable risk of CVD mortality. Age dependent and eGFR dependent finer risk recognition were required for CVD prevention in clinical practice with regard to CKD patients. PMID:27272675

  3. Infant Mortality and Asians and Pacific Islanders

    MedlinePlus

    ... Infant Heath & Mortality Infant Mortality and Asians and Pacific Islanders Among Asian/Pacific Islanders, Sudden Infant Death Syndrome (SIDS) is the fourth leading cause of infant mortality. Asian/Pacific Islanders women generally have lower infant mortality rates ...

  4. The suicide mortality rates between 1997-1998 and 2000-2001 in Nantou County of Taiwan following the earthquake of September 21 in 1999.

    PubMed

    Liaw, Yung-Po; Wang, Po-Wen; Huang, Chiu-Chin; Chang, Chia-Ming; Lee, Wen-Chung

    2008-01-01

    The paper aims to show the different suicide mortality rate between 1997-1998 and 2000-2001 in Nantou County of Taiwan with earthquake on September 21 (often referred to as the "9-21 earthquake") in 1999. In additional, it also identifies the preventive strategies for the high-risk suicide population. The age-standardized mortality rates for suicide in Nantou County were calculated for the years 1997-1998 and 2000-2001. The suicide standardized mortality ratio (SMR for townships in Nantou were calculated by "type of township" as the standard rate). There is a statistically significant difference in male suicide rates for the years prior to the earthquake (1997-1998) when pooled and compared to the suicide rates for the years after the earthquake (2000-2001). The rate for four age groups (under 25, 25-44, 45-64, 65 and above) all increased, yet all but one (the group of age 45-64) was not statistically significant. The male SMR has slightly increased after the 9-21 earthquake. Yet there are no statistical significances in most townships, except in Kaohsiung and Puli after the 9-21 earthquake. The Kaohsiung SMRs were 1.36 (95% CI: 0.54-2.80) before the earthquake (1997-1998) and 2.01 (95% CI: 1.04-3.52) after the earthquake (2000-2001). The SMRs before and after the earthquake in the Puli Township were 1.51 (95% CI: 0.95-2.29) to 1.56 (95% CI: 1.03-2.27). This study suggests that monitoring high-risk population, especially males or 45-64 years of age who experienced the highest statistically significant suicide rate in this study. The study provides support for providing both the psychological restoration program and, to the extent feasible, financial support for the unemployed as useful public health strategies for suicide prevention in Taiwan. PMID:18005008

  5. Ten-years of bariatric surgery in Brazil: in-hospital mortality rates for patients assisted by universal health system or a health maintenance organization

    PubMed Central

    KELLES, Silvana Márcia Bruschi; MACHADO, Carla Jorge; BARRETO, Sandhi Maria

    2014-01-01

    Background Bariatric surgery is an option for sustained weight loss for the morbidly obese patient. In Brazil coexists the Unified Health System (SUS) with universal coverage and from which depend 150 million Brazilians and supplemental health security, predominantly private, with 50 million beneficiaries. Aim To compare access, in-hospital mortality, length of stay and costs for patients undergoing bariatric surgery, assisted in one or another system. Methods Data from DATASUS and IBGE were used for SUS patients' and database from one health plan of southeastern Brazil for the health insurance patients. Results Between 2001 and 2010 there were 24,342 and 4,356 surgeries performed in SUS and in the health insurance company, respectively. The coverage rates for surgeries performed in 2010 were 5.3 and 91/100.000 individuals in SUS and health insurance respectively. The rate of in-hospital mortality in SUS, considering the entire country, was 0.55 %, 0.44 % considering SUS Southeast, and 0.30 % for the health insurance. The costs of surgery in the SUS and in the health insurance trend to equalization over the years. Conclusion Despite differences in access and characteristics that may compromise the outcome of bariatric surgery, patients treated at the Southeast SUS had similar rate of in-hospital mortality compared to the health insurance patients. PMID:25626935

  6. Educational inequalities in tuberculosis mortality in sixteen European populations

    PubMed Central

    Álvarez, J. L.; Kunst, A. E.; Leinsalu, M.; Bopp, M.; Strand, B. H.; Menvielle, Gwenn; Lundberg, O.; Martikainen, P.; Deboosere, P.; Kalediene, R.; Artnik, B.; Mackenbach, J. P.; Richardus, J. H.

    2011-01-01

    Objective We aim to describe the magnitude of socioeconomic inequalities in tuberculosis (TB) mortality by level of education in male, female, urban, and rural populations in several European countries. Design Data were obtained from the Eurothine project covering 16 populations between 1990 and 2003. Age- and sex-standardized mortality rates, the Relative Index of Inequality, and the slope index of inequality were used to assess educational inequalities. Results The number of TB deaths reported was 8530, with a death rate of 3 per 100 000 per year, of which 73% were males. Educational inequalities in TB mortality were present in all European populations. Inequalities in TB mortality were larger than in total mortality. Relative and absolute inequalities were large in Eastern Europe, and Baltic countries but relatively small in Southern countries and in Norway, Finland, and Sweden. Mortality inequalities were observed among both men and women, and in both rural and urban populations. Conclusions Socioeconomic inequalities in TB mortality exist in all European countries. Firm political commitment is required to reduce inequalities in the social determinants of TB incidence. Targeted public health measures are called for to improve vulnerable groups’ access to treatment and thereby reduce TB mortality. PMID:22008757

  7. Maternal and child mortality indicators across 187 countries of the world: converging or diverging.

    PubMed

    Goli, Srinivas; Arokiasamy, Perianayagam

    2014-01-01

    This study reassessed the progress achieved since 1990 in maternal and child mortality indicators to test whether the progress is converging or diverging across countries worldwide. The convergence process is examined using standard parametric and non-parametric econometric models of convergence. The results of absolute convergence estimates reveal that progress in maternal and child mortality indicators is diverging for the entire period of 1990-2010 [maternal mortality ratio (MMR) - β = .00033, p < .574; neonatal mortality rate (NNMR) - β = .04367, p < .000; post-neonatal mortality rate (PNMR) - β = .02677, p < .000; under-five mortality rate (U5MR) - β = .00828, p < .000)]. In the recent period, such divergence is replaced with convergence for MMR but diverged for all the child mortality indicators. The results of Kernel density estimate reveal considerable reduction in divergence of MMR for the recent period; however, the Kernel density distribution plots show more than one 'peak' which indicates the emergence of convergence clubs based on their mortality levels. For child mortality indicators, the Kernel estimates suggest that divergence is in progress across the countries worldwide but tended to converge for countries with low mortality levels. A mere progress in global averages of maternal and child mortality indicators among a global cross-section of countries does not warranty convergence unless there is a considerable reduction in variance, skewness and range of change. PMID:24593038

  8. Impact of Janani Suraksha Yojana on institutional delivery rate and maternal morbidity and mortality: an observational study in India.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Sanjeev K; Pal, Dinesh K; Tiwari, Rajesh; Garg, Rajesh; Shrivastava, Ashish K; Sarawagi, Radha; Patil, Rajkumar; Agarwal, Lokesh; Gupta, Prashant; Lahariya, Chandrakant

    2012-12-01

    The Government of India initiated a cash incentive scheme--Janani Suraksha Yojana (JSY)--to promote institutional deliveries with an aim to reduce maternal mortality ratio (MMR). An observational study was conducted in a tertiary-care hospital of Madhya Pradesh, India, before and after implementation of JSY, with a sample of women presenting for institutional delivery. The objectives of this study were to: (i) determine the total number of institutional deliveries before and after implementation of JSY, (ii) determine the MMR, and (iii) compare factors associated with maternal mortality and morbidity. The data were analyzed for two years before implementation of JSY (2003-2005) and compared with two years following implementation of JSY (2005-2007). Overall, institutional deliveries increased by 42.6% after implementation, including those among rural, illiterate and primary-literate persons of lower socioeconomic strata. The main causes of maternal mortality were eclampsia, pre-eclampsia and severe anaemia both before and after implementation of JSY. Anaemia was the most common morbidity factor observed in this study. Among those who had institutional deliveries, there were significant increases in cases of eclampsia, pre-eclampsia, polyhydramnios, oligohydramnios, antepartum haemorrhage (APH), postpartum haemorrhage (PPH), and malaria after implementation of JSY. The scheme appeared to increase institutional delivery by at-risk mothers, which has the potential to reduce maternal morbidity and mortality, improve child survival, and ensure equity in maternal healthcare in India. The lessons from this study and other available sources should be utilized to improve the performance and implementation of JSY scheme in India. PMID:23304913

  9. In Hospital and 3-Month Mortality and Functional Recovery Rate in Patients Treated for Hip Fracture by a Multidisciplinary Team

    PubMed Central

    Rostagno, Carlo; Buzzi, Roberto; Campanacci, Domenico; Boccacini, Alberto; Cartei, Alessandro; Virgili, Gianni; Belardinelli, Andrea; Matarrese, Daniela; Ungar, Andrea; Rafanelli, Martina; Gusinu, Roberto; Marchionni, Niccolò

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Medical comorbidities affect outcome in elderly patients with hip fracture. This study was designed to preliminarily evaluate the usefulness of a hip-fracture unit led by an internal medicine specialist. Methods In-hospital and 3-month outcomes in patients with hip fracture were prospectively evaluated in 121 consecutive patients assessed before and followed after surgery by a multidisciplinary team led by internal medicine specialist; 337 consecutive patients were recalled from ICD-9 discharge records and considered for comparison regarding in-hospital mortality. Results In the intervention period, patients treated within 48 hours were 54% vs. 26% in the historical cohort (P<0.0001). In-hospital mortality remained stable at about 2.3 per 1000 person-days. At 3 months, 10.3% of discharged patients had died, though less than 8% of patients developed postoperative complications (mainly pneumonia and respiratory failure). The presence of more than 2 major comorbidities and the loss of 3 or more BADL were independent predictors of death. 50/105 patients recovered previous functional capacity, but no independent predictor of functional recovery could be identified. Mean length of hospital stay significantly decreased in comparison to the historical cohort (13.6± 4.7 vs 17 ± 5 days, p = 0.0001). Combined end-point of mortality and length of hospitalization < 12 days was significantly lower in study period (27 vs 34%, p <0.0132). Conclusions Identification and stabilization of concomitant clinical problems by internal medicine specialists may safely decrease time to surgery in frail subjects with hip fracture. Moreover, integrated perioperative clinical management may shorten hospital stay with no apparent increase in in-hospital mortality and ultimately improve the outcome. These results are to be confirmed by a larger study presently ongoing at our institution. PMID:27389193

  10. Absolute biological needs.

    PubMed

    McLeod, Stephen

    2014-07-01

    Absolute needs (as against instrumental needs) are independent of the ends, goals and purposes of personal agents. Against the view that the only needs are instrumental needs, David Wiggins and Garrett Thomson have defended absolute needs on the grounds that the verb 'need' has instrumental and absolute senses. While remaining neutral about it, this article does not adopt that approach. Instead, it suggests that there are absolute biological needs. The absolute nature of these needs is defended by appeal to: their objectivity (as against mind-dependence); the universality of the phenomenon of needing across the plant and animal kingdoms; the impossibility that biological needs depend wholly upon the exercise of the abilities characteristic of personal agency; the contention that the possession of biological needs is prior to the possession of the abilities characteristic of personal agency. Finally, three philosophical usages of 'normative' are distinguished. On two of these, to describe a phenomenon or claim as 'normative' is to describe it as value-dependent. A description of a phenomenon or claim as 'normative' in the third sense does not entail such value-dependency, though it leaves open the possibility that value depends upon the phenomenon or upon the truth of the claim. It is argued that while survival needs (or claims about them) may well be normative in this third sense, they are normative in neither of the first two. Thus, the idea of absolute need is not inherently normative in either of the first two senses. PMID:23586876

  11. Comparing UK and 20 Western countries' efficiency in reducing adult (55–74) cancer and total mortality rates 1989–2010: Cause for cautious celebration? A population-based study

    PubMed Central

    Hickish, Tamas; Rosenorn-Lanng, Emily; Wallace, Mark

    2016-01-01

    Objective Every Western nation expends vast sums on health, especially for cancer; thus, the question is how efficient is the UK in reducing adult (55–74) cancer mortality rates and total mortality rates (TMR) compared to the other Western nations in the context of economic-input to health, the percentage of Gross-Domestic-Product-expenditure-on-Health. Design WHO mortality rates for baseline 3 years 1989–1991 and 2008–2010 were analysed, and confidence intervals determine any significant differences between the UK and other countries in reducing the mortalities. Efficiency ratios are calculated by dividing reduced mortality over the period by the average % of national income. Setting Twenty-one similar socio-economic Western countries. Participants The 21 countries’ general population. Main outcome measures Cancer mortality rates, total mortality rates Gross Domestic Product and Efficiency Ratios. Results Economic Input: In 1980, UK national income was 5.6% and the European average was 7.1%. By 2010, UK national income was 9.4% being equal 17th of 21 averaging 7.1% over the period. Europe’s 1980–2010 average of 8.4% yields a UK to Europe ratio of 1:1.18. Clinical output 1989–2010: UK Cancer Mortality Rates was the sixth highest, but equal sixth biggest fall, significantly greater than 14 other countries. UK Total Mortality Rates was the fifth highest but third biggest decline, significantly greater than 17 countries. UK’s cancer Efficiency Ratios is largest at 1:301 and second biggest for Total Mortality Rates at 1.1341; the USA ratios were 1:152 and 1:525, respectively. Conclusions UK reduced mortalities indicate that the NHS achieves proportionally more with relatively less, but UK needs to match European average Gross-Domestic-Product-expenditure-on-Health to meet future challenges. PMID:27293774

  12. Mortality rate and gross pathology due to tuberculosis in wild brushtail possums (Trichosurus vulpecula) following low dose subcutaneous injection of Mycobacterium bovis.

    PubMed

    Nugent, Graham; Yockney, Ivor; Whitford, Jackie; Cross, Martin L

    2013-04-01

    Gross pathology due to tuberculosis can be established experimentally in brushtail possums (Trichosurus vulpecula) within 7 weeks of injection of virulent Mycobacterium bovis into subcutaneous connective tissues of the peripheral limbs. This pathology involves lymphadenomegaly and development of gross lesions in peripheral lymph nodes, with subsequent gross lesions in the lungs and reticuloendothelial organs. Using this artificial infection model, we here assessed the mortality rate for possums in the wild, to provide new information on the likely survival period for New Zealand's major wildlife host. Possums were trapped and inoculated with <50 CFU of M. bovis, then fitted with mortality signal emitting radio tracking collars, released and re-tracked for 6 months. Possum survival probability was 89% up to 12 weeks post-injection (p.i.), but cumulative mortality was rapid from then on. The median survival period, based on study of 38 possums, was 18 weeks p.i.; this corresponds with a predicted time interval of 11 weeks between first presentation of TB as palpable lymphadenomegaly and death for an average possum, shorter than period values currently used in possum TB epidemiological modelling. We also examined gross pathology in 11 possums by post mortem necropsy, and confirmed lymphadenomegaly and tuberculous lesions at 7 and 12 weeks p.i. Extra-peripheral gross lesions were more frequent among possums at 12 weeks p.i. than at 7 weeks, while the occurrence of lung lesions (the most likely cause of disease-induced mortality) was apparent in animals at 12 weeks but not at 7 weeks p.i. Our results suggest that the time course of TB from development of gross lesions to mortality may be shorter than previously estimated from field studies of naturally tuberculous possums. PMID:23063260

  13. Absolute rate constant for the reaction of atomic chlorine with hydrogen peroxide vapor over the temperature range 265-400 K

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Michael, J. V.; Whytock, D. A.; Lee, J. H.; Payne, W. A.; Stief, L. J.

    1977-01-01

    Rate constants for the reaction of atomic chlorine with hydrogen peroxide were measured from 265-400 K using the flash photolysis-resonance fluorescence technique. Analytical techniques were developed to measure H2O2 under reaction conditions. Due to ambiguity in the interpretation of the analytical results, the data combine to give two equally acceptable representations of the temperature dependence. The results are compared to previous work at 298 K and are theoretically discussed in terms of the mechanism of the reaction. Additional experiments on the H + H2O2 reaction at 298 and 359 K are compared with earlier results from this laboratory and give a slightly revised bimolecular rate constant.

  14. ASSESSMENT OF THE RATES OF INJURY AND MORTALITY IN WATERFOWL CAPTURED WITH FIVE METHODS OF CAPTURE AND TECHNIQUES FOR MINIMIZING RISKS.

    PubMed

    O'Brien, Michelle F; Lee, Rebecca; Cromie, Ruth; Brown, Martin J

    2016-04-01

    Swan pipes, duck decoys, cage traps, cannon netting, and roundups are widely used to capture waterfowl in order to monitor populations. These methods are often regulated in countries with national ringing or banding programs and are considered to be safe, and thus justifiable given the benefits to conservation. However, few published studies have addressed how frequently injuries and mortalities occur, or the nature of any injuries. In the present study, rates of mortality and injury during captures with the use of these methods carried out by the Wildfowl & Wetlands Trust as part of conservation programs were assessed. The total rate of injury (including mild dermal abrasions) was 0.42% across all species groups, whereas total mortality was 0.1% across all capture methods. Incidence of injury varied among species groups (ducks, geese, swans, and rails), with some, for example, dabbling ducks, at greater risk than others. We also describe techniques used before, during, and after a capture to reduce stress and injury in captured waterfowl. Projects using these or other capture methods should monitor and publish their performance to allow sharing of experience and to reduce risks further. PMID:26845303

  15. Infant Stool Color Card Screening Helps Reduce the Hospitalization Rate and Mortality of Biliary Atresia: A 14-Year Nationwide Cohort Study in Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Lee, Min; Chen, Solomon Chih-Cheng; Yang, Hsin-Yi; Huang, Jui-Hua; Yeung, Chun-Yan; Lee, Hung-Chang

    2016-03-01

    Biliary atresia (BA) is a significant liver disease in children. Since 2004, Taiwan has implemented a national screening program that uses an infant stool color card (SCC) for the early detection of BA. The purpose of this study was to examine the outcomes of BA cases before and after the launch of this screening program. The objectives of this study were to evaluate the rates of hospitalization, liver transplantation (LT), and mortality of BA cases before and after the program, and to examine the association between the hospitalization rate and survival outcomes.This was a population-based cohort study. BA cases born during 1997 to 2010 were identified from the Taiwan National Health Insurance Research Database. Sex, birth date, hospitalization date, LT, and death data were collected and analyzed. The hospitalization rate by 2 years of age (Hosp/2yr) was calculated to evaluate its association with the outcomes of LT or death.Among 513 total BA cases, 457 (89%) underwent the Kasai procedure. Of these, the Hosp/2yr was significantly reduced from 6.0 to 6.9/case in the earlier cohort (1997-2004) to 4.9 to 5.3/case in the later cohort (2005-2010). This hospitalization rate reduction was followed by a reduction in mortality from 26.2% to 15.9% after 2006. The Cox proportional hazards model showed a significant increase in the risk for both LT (hazard ratio [HR] = 1.14, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.10-1.18) and death (HR = 1.05, 95% CI = 1.01-1.08) for each additional hospitalization. A multivariate logistic regression model found that cases with a Hosp/2yr >6 times had a significantly higher risk for both LT (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] = 4.35, 95% CI = 2.82-6.73) and death (aOR = 1.75, 95% CI = 1.17-2.62).The hospitalization and mortality rates of BA cases in Taiwan were significantly and coincidentally reduced after the launch of the SCC screening program. There was a significant association between the hospitalization rate and final

  16. Optomechanics for absolute rotation detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davuluri, Sankar

    2016-07-01

    In this article, we present an application of optomechanical cavity for the absolute rotation detection. The optomechanical cavity is arranged in a Michelson interferometer in such a way that the classical centrifugal force due to rotation changes the length of the optomechanical cavity. The change in the cavity length induces a shift in the frequency of the cavity mode. The phase shift corresponding to the frequency shift in the cavity mode is measured at the interferometer output to estimate the angular velocity of absolute rotation. We derived an analytic expression to estimate the minimum detectable rotation rate in our scheme for a given optomechanical cavity. Temperature dependence of the rotation detection sensitivity is studied.

  17. [Infant mortality in Peru].

    PubMed

    Ramos Padilla, M A

    1987-01-01

    Bolivia, Haiti, and Peru have infant mortality levels as high as those of the developed countries a century ago. The decline of general and especially infant mortality experienced in Latin America beginning in the 1940s was uneven throughout the continent. Cuba's infant mortality rate declined by 86% between 1940-80, but Peru's declined by only 48% despite its higher initial level. In 1984, 34% of all deaths in Peru were to children under 1 year and about 21% were to children 1-5 years old. Socioeconomic factors are the major explanation of Peru's poor infant mortality levels. Regional and social disparities in access to housing, food, urban infrastructure, and other vital goods and services are reflected in infant mortality statistics. Infant mortality has declined in both rural and urban areas, but the magnitude of the decline was much greater in urban areas. Between 1960-75, the infant mortality rate declined from 133 to 80/1000 live births in urban areas, but only from 180 to 150/1000 in rural areas. Investment in the infrastructure and services of the cities during the 1950s and 60s was not matched by any significant investment in rural infrastructure. Rural-urban mortality differentials are not as profound in countries which distribute public investment more evenly between rural and urban areas. Cuba's rural infant mortality rate is only 16% greater than its urban rate, while Peru's rural rate is 47% higher. The rural-urban differential in Peru hides a steep gap between the metropolitan zone of Lima-Callao, which has an infant mortality rate of 55/1000, and that of all cities, which have a rate 45% higher. Metropolitan Lima has the highest levels of living in Peru, including the highest incomes and best housing and service infrastructure. A majority of Peru's economic and industrial development has been concentrated in Lima. Peru's infant mortality differentials are also striking at the departmental level. The 5 departments with the highest infant mortality

  18. Unequal Trends in Coronary Heart Disease Mortality by Socioeconomic Circumstances, England 1982–2006: An Analytical Study

    PubMed Central

    Bajekal, Madhavi; Scholes, Shaun; O’Flaherty, Martin; Raine, Rosalind; Norman, Paul; Capewell, Simon

    2013-01-01

    Background Coronary heart disease (CHD) remains a major public health burden, causing 80,000 deaths annually in England and Wales, with major inequalities. However, there are no recent analyses of age-specific socioeconomic trends in mortality. We analysed annual trends in inequalities in age-specific CHD mortality rates in small areas in England, grouped into deprivation quintiles. Methods We calculated CHD mortality rates for 10-year age groups (from 35 to ≥85 years) using three year moving averages between 1982 and 2006. We used Joinpoint regression to identify significant turning points in age- sex- and deprivation-specific time trends. We also analysed trends in absolute and relative inequalities in age-standardised rates between the least and most deprived areas. Results Between 1982 and 2006, CHD mortality fell by 62.2% in men and 59.7% in women. Falls were largest for the most deprived areas with the highest initial level of CHD mortality. However, a social gradient in the pace of fall was apparent, being steepest in the least deprived quintile. Thus, while absolute inequalities narrowed over the period, relative inequalities increased. From 2000, declines in mortality rates slowed or levelled off in the youngest groups, notably in women aged 45–54 in the least deprived groups. In contrast, from age 55 years and older, rates of fall in CHD mortality accelerated in the 2000s, likewise falling fastest in the least deprived quintile. Conclusions Age-standardised CHD mortality rates have declined substantially in England, with the steepest falls in the most affluent quintiles. However, this concealed contrasting patterns in underlying age-specific rates. From 2000, mortality rates levelled off in the youngest groups but accelerated in middle aged and older groups. Mortality analyses by small areas could provide potentially valuable insights into possible drivers of inequalities, and thus inform future strategies to reduce CHD mortality across all social

  19. The absolute path command

    2012-05-11

    The ap command traveres all symlinks in a given file, directory, or executable name to identify the final absolute path. It can print just the final path, each intermediate link along with the symlink chan, and the permissions and ownership of each directory component in the final path. It has functionality similar to "which", except that it shows the final path instead of the first path. It is also similar to "pwd", but it canmore » provide the absolute path to a relative directory from the current working directory.« less

  20. The absolute path command

    SciTech Connect

    Moody, A.

    2012-05-11

    The ap command traveres all symlinks in a given file, directory, or executable name to identify the final absolute path. It can print just the final path, each intermediate link along with the symlink chan, and the permissions and ownership of each directory component in the final path. It has functionality similar to "which", except that it shows the final path instead of the first path. It is also similar to "pwd", but it can provide the absolute path to a relative directory from the current working directory.

  1. Association of estimated glomerular filtration rate with all‐cause and cardiovascular mortality: the role of malnutrition–inflammation–cachexia syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Ou, Shuo‐Ming; Chen, Yung‐Tai; Hung, Szu‐Chun; Shih, Chia‐Jen; Lin, Chi‐Hung; Chiang, Chih‐Kang

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Background Previous studies have demonstrated that high estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) is paradoxically associated with an increased risk of mortality, and the association becomes more predominant in older people. However, the role of malnutrition–inflammation–cachexia syndrome (MICS) in the association between eGFR and mortality has never been explored. Methods We conducted a community‐based cohort study using data from the Taipei City Elderly Health Examination Database, collected during the period 2001–10. All participants aged ≥65 years were included and stratified by the absence or presence of MICS, which is defined as the presence of at least one of the following markers: body mass index <22 kg/m2, serum albumin <3.0 mg/dL, or Geriatric Nutritional Risk Index (GNRI) <98. The study endpoints were all‐cause and cardiovascular mortality. Results A total of 131 354 participants were identified and categorized according to the chronic kidney disease stage based on eGFR. Compared with the reference eGFR of 60–89 mL/min/1.73 m2, the overall and cardiovascular mortality risks were markedly high in the groups with eGFR of <30 mL/min/1.73 m2 [overall: adjusted hazard ratio (aHR), 1.86; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.72–2.00; cardiovascular: aHR, 1.87; 95% CI, 1.60–2.19] and ≥90 mL/min/1.73 m2 (overall: aHR, 1.23; 95% CI, 1.13–1.34; cardiovascular: aHR, 1.28; 95% CI, 1.06–1.54). In the absence of MICS, high eGFR was associated with lower mortality risk (aHR, 0.71; 95% CI, 0.62–0.80), and the U‐shaped relationship disappeared. Subgroup analyses produced consistent results. Conclusions MICS could influence the association observed between high eGFR and mortality in older people, particularly in those with low body mass index, albumin level, GNRI, and very low serum creatinine level. PMID:27493868

  2. Urinary Albumin-Creatinine Ratio, Estimated Glomerular Filtration Rate, and All-Cause Mortality Among US Adults With Obstructive Lung Function

    PubMed Central

    Ford, Earl S.

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND Elevated urinary albumin-creatinine ratio (UACR) and decreased estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) predict all-cause mortality, but whether these markers of kidney damage and function do so in adults with obstructive lung function (OLF) is unclear. The objective of this study was to examine the associations between UACR and eGFR and all-cause mortality in adults with OLF. METHODS Data of 5,711 US adults aged 40 to 79 years, including 1,390 adults with any OLF who participated in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey III (1988–1994), were analyzed. Mortality follow-up was conducted through 2006. RESULTS During the median follow-up of 13.7 years, 650 adults with OLF died. After maximal adjustment, mean levels of UACR were higher in adults with moderate-severe OLF (7.5 mg/g; 95% CI, 6.7–8.5) than in adults with normal pulmonary function (6.2 mg/g; 95% CI, 5.8–6.6) (P = .003) and mild OLF (6.2 mg/g; 95% CI, 5.5–6.9) (P = .014). Adjusted mean levels of eGFR were lower in adults with moderate-severe OLF (87.6 mL/min/1.73 m2; < 95% CI, 86.0–89.1) than in adults with normal lung function (89.6 mL/min/1.73 m2; < 95% CI, 88.9–90.3) (P = .015). Among adults with OLF, hazard ratios for all-cause mortality increased as levels of UACR, modeled as categorical or continuous variables, increased (maximally adjusted hazard ratio for quintile 5 vs 1: 2.23; 95% CI, 1.56–3.18). eGFR, modeled as a continuous variable but not as quintiles, was significantly associated with mortality. CONCLUSIONS UACR and eGFR, in continuous form, were associated with all-cause mortality among US adults with OLF. PMID:25079336

  3. Mortality Prediction in the Oldest Old with Five Different Equations to Estimate Glomerular Filtration Rate: The Health and Anemia Population-based Study

    PubMed Central

    Mandelli, Sara; Riva, Emma; Tettamanti, Mauro; Detoma, Paolo; Giacomin, Adriano; Lucca, Ugo

    2015-01-01

    Background Kidney function declines considerably with age, but little is known about its clinical significance in the oldest-old. Objectives To study the association between reduced glomerular filtration rate (GFR) estimated according to five equations with mortality in the oldest-old. Design Prospective population-based study. Setting Municipality of Biella, Piedmont, Italy. Participants 700 subjects aged 85 and older participating in the “Health and Anemia” Study in 2007–2008. Measurements GFR was estimated using five creatinine-based equations: the Cockcroft-Gault (C-G), Modification of Diet in Renal Disease (MDRD), MAYO Clinic, Chronic Kidney Disease Epidemiology Collaboration (CKD-EPI) and Berlin Initiative Study-1 (BIS-1). Survival analysis was used to study mortality in subjects with reduced eGFR (<60 mL/min/1.73m2) compared to subjects with eGFR ≥60 mL/min/1.73m2. Results Prevalence of reduced GFR was 90.7% with the C-G, 48.1% with MDRD, 23.3% with MAYO, 53.6% with CKD-EPI and 84.4% with BIS-1. After adjustment for confounders, two-year mortality was significantly increased in subjects with reduced eGFR using BIS-1 and C-G equations (adjusted HRs: 2.88 and 3.30, respectively). Five-year mortality was significantly increased in subjects with eGFR <60 mL/min/1.73m2 using MAYO, CKD-EPI and, in a graduated fashion in reduced eGFR categories, MDRD. After 5 years, oldest old with an eGFR <30 mL/min/1.73m2 showed a significantly higher risk of death whichever equation was used (adjusted HRs between 2.04 and 2.70). Conclusion In the oldest old, prevalence of reduced eGFR varies noticeably depending on the equation used. In this population, risk of mortality was significantly higher for reduced GFR estimated with the BIS-1 and C-G equations over the short term. Though after five years the MDRD appeared on the whole a more consistent predictor, differences in mortality prediction among equations over the long term were less apparent. Noteworthy, subjects with

  4. Trends in child mortality in India.

    PubMed

    Behl, A S

    2013-01-01

    To assess Indias recent trends in child mortality rates and disparities and identify ways to reduce child mortality and wealth-related health disparities, we analyzed three years of data from Indias National Family Health Survey related to child mortality. Nationally, declines in average child mortality were statistically significant, but declines in inequality were not. Urban areas had lower child mortality rates than rural areas but higher inequalities. Interstate differences in child mortality rates were significant, with rates in the highest-mortality states four to six times higher than in the lowest-mortality states. However, child mortality in most states declined. PMID:23396786

  5. Modal analysis of the deep-water solitary scleractinian, Desmophyllum dianthus, on SW Pacific seamounts: inferred recruitment periodicity, growth, and mortality rates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thresher, R. E.; Adkins, J.; Thiagarajan, N.

    2011-12-01

    Little is known about the demography of corals inhabiting deep-sea features due to the logistical difficulties of working at the extreme depths they inhabit. To obtain basic information about growth, mortality, and recruitment dynamics for such a coral, we applied modal analysis to the size frequency distributions of live-caught and sub-fossil specimens of the widely distributed solitary cup coral, Desmophyllum dianthus, collected on SW Pacific seamounts. Comparison of live-caught material collected in 1997 and 2007-2009 indicated modal progression over time and an implied maximum age of approximately 190 years, which is similar to ages determined previously for D. dianthus using radiometric techniques. A log-linear decline in the number of individuals with increasing size further implies a constant adult mortality rate, of 15.1% per annum in 1997 and 9.2% per annum in 2007-2009. The spacing of size modes in the 2007-2009 samples suggests regularly episodic recruitment events, at 22- to 32-year intervals, which may relate to periodic variability in large-scale Southern Ocean circulation. Preliminary analyses of size frequency distributions of the sub-fossil material suggest that the trophodynamics, growth, and adult mortality schedules of D. dianthus in the SW Pacific have remained basically similar throughout the Holocene.

  6. The Effectiveness of a Geriatric Hip Fracture Clinical Pathway in Reducing Hospital and Rehabilitation Length of Stay and Improving Short-Term Mortality Rates

    PubMed Central

    Lau, Tak-Wing; Fang, Christian; Leung, Frankie

    2013-01-01

    Background: A geriatric hip fracture clinical pathway, led by an orthopedic surgeon, was developed in 2007. This clinical pathway team is multidisciplinary and consists of surgeons, physicians, anesthetists, nurses, physiotherapists, occupational therapists, medical social workers, dieticians as well as voluntary support groups. Methods: From early 2007 onward, all patients older than 65 years with acute isolated hip fractures were included. During the whole inpatient treatment, all relevant data were captured prospectively. The data in 2006, before the implementation of the clinical pathway, were collected retrospectively through computer record system. A study of the length of stay in acute and rehabilitation hospital and also the short-term mortality rate was carried out to compare the difference before and after the implementation of the pathway. Results: From 2007 onward, more than 1300 hip fractures were treated. After the implementation of the pathway, the preoperative length of stay was markedly shortened by 4 days, from an average of 6.1 days in 2006 to 1.5 days in 2011 (P < .05). The postoperative length of stay and the overall acute hospital length of stay also improved significantly. The length of stay in rehabilitation hospital was also significantly shorter in the 4-year period. Although the number of hip fractures increased annually with increased age and number of comorbidities each year, the inpatient mortality rate showed a gradual decrease from 2.7% in 2006 to 1.25% in 2010. The 30 days mortality rate also showed a decrease from 3.65% in 2006 to 2.75% in 2010. Conclusion: Geriatric hip fracture clinical pathway is an excellent approach to the geriatric hip fracture service. The most significant improvement is the dramatic shortening of the length of hospital stay. Our success in the past 5 years has proven its value and sustainability. PMID:23936733

  7. Mortality rates at 10 years after metal-on-metal hip resurfacing compared with total hip replacement in England: retrospective cohort analysis of hospital episode statistics

    PubMed Central

    Kendal, Adrian R; Prieto-Alhambra, Daniel; Arden, Nigel K; Judge, Andrew

    2013-01-01

    Objectives To compare 10 year mortality rates among patients undergoing metal-on-metal hip resurfacing and total hip replacement in England. Design Retrospective cohort study. Setting English hospital episode statistics database linked to mortality records from the Office for National Statistics. Population All adults who underwent primary elective hip replacement for osteoarthritis from April 1999 to March 2012. The exposure of interest was prosthesis type: cemented total hip replacement, uncemented total hip replacement, and metal-on-metal hip resurfacing. Confounding variables included age, sex, Charlson comorbidity index, rurality, area deprivation, surgical volume, and year of operation. Main outcome measures All cause mortality. Propensity score matching was used to minimise confounding by indication. Kaplan-Meier plots estimated the probability of survival up to 10 years after surgery. Multilevel Cox regression modelling, stratified on matched sets, described the association between prosthesis type and time to death, accounting for variation across hospital trusts. Results 7437 patients undergoing metal-on-metal hip resurfacing were matched to 22 311 undergoing cemented total hip replacement; 8101 patients undergoing metal-on-metal hip resurfacing were matched to 24 303 undergoing uncemented total hip replacement. 10 year rates of cumulative mortality were 271 (3.6%) for metal-on-metal hip resurfacing versus 1363 (6.1%) for cemented total hip replacement, and 239 (3.0%) for metal-on-metal hip resurfacing versus 999 (4.1%) for uncemented total hip replacement. Patients undergoing metal-on-metal hip resurfacing had an increased survival probability (hazard ratio 0.51 (95% confidence interval 0.45 to 0.59) for cemented hip replacement; 0.55 (0.47 to 0.65) for uncemented hip replacement). There was no evidence for an interaction with age or sex. Conclusions Patients with hip osteoarthritis undergoing metal-on-metal hip resurfacing have reduced mortality in

  8. Fractal analysis of heart rate dynamics as a predictor of mortality in patients with depressed left ventricular function after acute myocardial infarction. TRACE Investigators. TRAndolapril Cardiac Evaluation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Makikallio, T. H.; Hoiber, S.; Kober, L.; Torp-Pedersen, C.; Peng, C. K.; Goldberger, A. L.; Huikuri, H. V.

    1999-01-01

    A number of new methods have been recently developed to quantify complex heart rate (HR) dynamics based on nonlinear and fractal analysis, but their value in risk stratification has not been evaluated. This study was designed to determine whether selected new dynamic analysis methods of HR variability predict mortality in patients with depressed left ventricular (LV) function after acute myocardial infarction (AMI). Traditional time- and frequency-domain HR variability indexes along with short-term fractal-like correlation properties of RR intervals (exponent alpha) and power-law scaling (exponent beta) were studied in 159 patients with depressed LV function (ejection fraction <35%) after an AMI. By the end of 4-year follow-up, 72 patients (45%) had died and 87 (55%) were still alive. Short-term scaling exponent alpha (1.07 +/- 0.26 vs 0.90 +/- 0.26, p <0.001) and power-law slope beta (-1.35 +/- 0.23 vs -1.44 +/- 0.25, p <0.05) differed between survivors and those who died, but none of the traditional HR variability measures differed between these groups. Among all analyzed variables, reduced scaling exponent alpha (<0.85) was the best univariable predictor of mortality (relative risk 3.17, 95% confidence interval 1.96 to 5.15, p <0.0001), with positive and negative predictive accuracies of 65% and 86%, respectively. In the multivariable Cox proportional hazards analysis, mortality was independently predicted by the reduced exponent alpha (p <0.001) after adjustment for several clinical variables and LV function. A short-term fractal-like scaling exponent was the most powerful HR variability index in predicting mortality in patients with depressed LV function. Reduction in fractal correlation properties implies more random short-term HR dynamics in patients with increased risk of death after AMI.

  9. [Mortality. The behavior of mortality through 1987].

    PubMed

    Jimenez, R

    1988-01-01

    Mexico's crude death rate has declined from 33/1000 in the early 20th century to about 6/1000 in 1985-87. Mortality declined sharply from 1640-60. more slowly from 1960-77, and rapidly again beginning around 1980. The explanation for the mortality decline lies both in advances in medical and health care and in economic growth of the country. The mortality declines in the late 1970s and early 1980s probably resulted primarily from extension of primary health care programs in rural areas. The infant mortality rate has declined from 288.6/1000 live births in 1900 to 73.8 in 1960 and 42 in 1986-87. At present 30% of deaths in Mexico are to children under 5, but little is known of the impact of the country's economic crisis on mortality in this age group. The strong mortality decline between 1950-70 was in the economically active age group of 15-64 years. Excess male mortality in this group reached a maximum in 1980: for each death of woman there were 150 male deaths. Between 1960-80 the rate of deaths due to infection, parasfitism, and respiratory disease declined by 5%, the rate of death from cancer remained almost unchanged, and the rate of death from cardiovascular diseases increased by 9%. Deaths from accidents, homicide, suicide, and other violence increased by 38%. Male general mortality rates were 25% higher than female in 1980. Mexican life expectancy increased from 49.6 years in 195 to 67 in 1987. Life expectancy was 65.6 for males and 71.7 for females. Average life expectancy was 69 for the more privileged social sectors and 56.7 for agricultural workers in 1965-79. The life expectancy of urban women was 3 years longer than that of rural women and 10.4 years longer than that of rural men. PMID:12158030

  10. A short-term sublethal toxicity assay with zebra fish based on preying rate and its integration with mortality.

    PubMed

    Abdel-moneim, Ahmed; Moreira-Santos, Matilde; Ribeiro, Rui

    2015-02-01

    Contaminant-induced feeding inhibition has direct and immediate consequences at higher levels of biological organization, by depressing the population consumption and thus hampering ecosystem functioning (e.g. grazing, organic matter decomposition). Thus, similarly to lethality and avoidance, feeding is mechanistically linked to ecosystem processes and is therefore an unequivocal ecologically meaningful response. The objective of the present study was to develop a short-term assay with the small freshwater fish Danio rerio, based on feeding. For this, a methodology to easily and precisely quantify feeding was first optimized: each fish was allowed to prey on ten live Daphnia magna juveniles, for 1h, just before the end of a 48-h exposure test period. Secondly, copper sensitivity of feeding relatively to survival and growth was evaluated. At the growth EC20 (40 μg L(-1)), feeding was inhibited by 53%, and at the feeding EC50 (36 μg L(-1)), mortality was negligible (1.3%). Integrating feeding and survival revealed a 97% depression in the population consumption at the LC50 (61 μg L(-1)). Thirdly, the influence of pH, conductivity and hardness on the feeding background variability was assessed by assaying waters collected at eight reference sites and was found to be negligible, within tested ranges. Fourthly, feeding assays with natural waters contaminated with acid mine drainage confirmed the integration of lethality and feeding to be pertinent at estimating contaminant effects at higher levels of biological organization. PMID:25462299

  11. Cancer mortality in Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Barbosa, Isabelle R.; de Souza, Dyego L.B.; Bernal, María M.; Costa, Íris do C.C.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Cancer is currently in the spotlight due to their heavy responsibility as main cause of death in both developed and developing countries. Analysis of the epidemiological situation is required as a support tool for the planning of public health measures for the most vulnerable groups. We analyzed cancer mortality trends in Brazil and geographic regions in the period 1996 to 2010 and calculate mortality predictions for the period 2011 to 2030. This is an epidemiological, demographic-based study that utilized information from the Mortality Information System on all deaths due to cancer in Brazil. Mortality trends were analyzed by the Joinpoint regression, and Nordpred was utilized for the calculation of predictions. Stability was verified for the female (annual percentage change [APC] = 0.4%) and male (APC = 0.5%) sexes. The North and Northeast regions present significant increasing trends for mortality in both sexes. Until 2030, female mortality trends will not present considerable variations, but there will be a decrease in mortality trends for the male sex. There will be increases in mortality rates until 2030 for the North and Northeast regions, whereas reductions will be verified for the remaining geographic regions. This variation will be explained by the demographic structure of regions until 2030. There are pronounced regional and sex differences in cancer mortality in Brazil, and these discrepancies will continue to increase until the year 2030, when the Northeast region will present the highest cancer mortality rates in Brazil. PMID:25906105

  12. The Absolute Rates of the Solution Phase Addition of Atomic Hydrogen to a Vinyl Ether and a Vinyl Ester. The Effect of Oxygen Substitution on Hydrogen Atom Reactivity with Olefins

    SciTech Connect

    Tanner, D. D.; Kandanarachchi, P.; Das, N. C.; Franz, James A.

    2003-04-08

    The reactions of vinyl butyl ether and vinyl butyrate with atomic hydrogen and deuterium lead to addition of atomic hydrogen to the terminal position of the olefins. This observation is consistent with the reactions carried out earlier with other olefins. Both the absolute rates of addition to vinylbutyl ether and vinyl butyrate in acetone and hexane were carried out at several temperatures. The relative rates are consistent with only modest stabilization of the transition state of the radical adduct by the ??-o substituent compared with hydrogen atom addition to 1-octene. The relative rates measured in acetone and hexane indicate no significant differential solvation of ground state relative to the transition structures of the hydrogen atom addition. The kinetics reveal that the early transition states of hydrogen atom addition exhibit little selectivity (vinyl ether versus simple olefin) in either abstraction of hydrogen ??- to the oxygen or by terminal addition to the olefinic ether, reflecting the modest influence of the increased enthalpy of reaction associated with resonance stabilization by the oxygen substituent at the developing radical site.

  13. Absolute Rates of the Solution-Phase Addition of Atomic Hydrogen to a Vinyl Ether and a Vinyl Ester: Effect of Oxygen Substitution on Hydrogen Atom Reactivity with Olefins

    SciTech Connect

    Tanner, D D.; Kandanarachchi, P; Das, N. C.; Franz, James A.

    2003-04-08

    The reactions of vinyl butyl ether and vinyl butyrate with atomic hydrogen and deuterium lead to addition at the terminal position of the olefins. This observation is consistent with the reactions carried out earlier with other olefins. Both of the absolute rates of addition to vinylbutyl ether and vinyl butyrate, in acetone and hexane, were measured at several temperatures. The relative rates are consistent with only modest stabilization of the transition state of the radical adduct by the R-O substituent compared with that of hydrogen atom addition to 1-octene. The relative rates measured in acetone and hexane indicate no significant differential solvation of the ground state relative to the transition structures of the hydrogen atom addition. The kinetics reveal that the early transition states for hydrogen atom addition exhibit little selectivity (vinyl ether versus simple olefin) in either the abstraction of hydrogen R to the oxygen or by terminal addition to the olefinic ether and reflects the modest influence of the increased enthalpy of reaction associated with resonance stabilization by the oxygen substituent at the developing radical site.

  14. Mortality and survival of lung cancer in Denmark: Results from the Danish Lung Cancer Group 2000-2012.

    PubMed

    Jakobsen, Erik; Rasmussen, Torben Riis; Green, Anders

    2016-06-01

    Background In the 1990s outcomes in Danish lung cancer patients were poor compared with the other Nordic countries. The five-year survival was only about 5%, only 10% of patients were operated on and less than 60% received active surgical or oncologic treatment. This paper describes trends in mortality and survival of lung cancer in Denmark from 2000 to 2012. Methods The study population comprised 52 435 patients with a diagnosis of cancer of the trachea and the lung, primarily ascertained from the Danish Lung Cancer Register and grouped into three cohorts by year of diagnosis. The outcome measures covered the first year as well as the first full five-year period after diagnosis and comprised absolute mortality rate (per 100 patient years), absolute survival, and the relative survival. All outcomes were estimated for the overall patient population as well as after stratification by covariates. Results Overall, the mortality rates have declined significantly over time from 117 per 100 patient years to 88 for the one-year mortality and from 75 to 65 for the five-year mortality rates, respectively. With the exception of patients with advanced stage, declining mortality was observed for all strata by gender, comorbidity, stage and surgery status and was accompanied by corresponding improvements in both absolute and relative survival. Conclusions The mortality has been significantly declining and the prognosis correspondingly improving in lung cancer in Denmark since the turn of the millennium. As of today, survival after lung cancer in Denmark is probably in line with the international standard. Based on our results we recommend introducing mortality indicators based on all-cause mortality within the patient population in international benchmarking studies as comparisons based on cancer-specific mortality relative to the total general population may be misleading when interpreted in the context of outcomes and quality of care. PMID:27056247

  15. Infant Mortality

    MedlinePlus

    ... Infant Mortality Infant Mortality: What is CDC Doing? Sudden Infant Death Syndrome Teen Pregnancy Contraception CDC Contraceptive Guidance for ... and low birth weight Maternal complications of pregnancy Sudden Infant Death Syndrome (SIDS) Injuries (e.g., suffocation). The top ...

  16. War and Children's Mortality.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carlton-Ford, Steve; Houston, Paula; Hamill, Ann

    2000-01-01

    Examines impact of war on young children's mortality in 137 countries. Finds that years recently at war (1990-5) interact with years previously at war (1946-89) to elevate mortality rates. Religious composition interacts with years recently at war to reduce effect. Controlling for women's literacy and access to safe water eliminates effect for…

  17. Effect of supplemental heat on mortality rate, growth performance, and blood biochemical profiles of Ghungroo piglets in Indian sub-tropical climate

    PubMed Central

    Nath, Hemanta; Hazorika, Mousumi; Rajkhowa, Dipjyoti; Datta, Mrinmoy; Haldar, Avijit

    2016-01-01

    Aim: The present study was conducted to explore the effect of supplemental heat on mortality rate, growth performance, and blood biochemical profiles of indigenous Ghungroo piglets in sub-tropical cold and humid climatic conditions of Tripura, a state of the north eastern hill (NEH) region of India. Materials and Methods: The experiment was conducted on 38 indigenous Ghungroo piglets from birth up to 60 days of age. Among the 38 piglets, 19 piglets were provided with supplemental heat ranging between 17.0°C and 21.1°C for the period of the first 30 days and thereafter between 24.1°C and 29.9°C for the next 30 days. The other 19 piglets were exposed to natural environmental minimum temperatures ranging between 7.2°C and 15.0°C during the first 30 days and then between 18.5°C and 25.5°C for the next 30 days. Results: The supplemental heat resulted in 10.6% reduction of piglet mortality from the 2nd till the 7th day of age. These beneficial effects could be related with the lower (p<0.05) plasma glutamate pyruvate transaminase (GPT) and cortisol levels and higher (p<0.05) plasma alkaline phosphatase (AP) concentrations in heat supplemented group compared to control group. Plasma AP, GPT, glucose, triiodothyronine, and luteinizing hormone concentrations decreased (p<0.05) gradually with the advancement of age in both control and supplemental heat treated piglets. Conclusion: Supplemental heat could be beneficial since it is related to a reduction of piglet mortality during the first week of life under farm management system in the sub-tropical climate of NEH region of India. PMID:27182136

  18. Effects of low doses and low dose rates of external ionizing radiation: Cancer mortality among nuclear industry workers in three countries

    SciTech Connect

    Cardis, E.; Kato, I.; Lave, C.; Gilbert, E.S.; Fix., J.; Carpenter, L.; Howe, D.; Armstrong, B.K.; Bereal, V.

    1995-05-01

    Studies of the mortality among nuclear industry workforces have been carried out, and nationally combined analyses performed, in the U.S., the UK and Canada. This paper presents the results of internationally combined analyses of mortality data on 95,673 workers (85.4% men) monitored for external exposure to ionizing radiation and employed for 6 months or longer in the nuclear industry of one of the three countries. These analyses were undertaken to obtain a more precise direct assessment of the carcinogenic effects of protracted low-level exposure to external, predominantly {gamma}, radiation. The combination of the data from the various studies increases the power to study associations between radiation dose and mortality from all causes or from all cancers. Mortality from leukemia, excluding chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL)-the cause of death most strongly and consistently related to radiation dose in studies of atomic bomb survivors and other populations exposed at high dose rates-was significantly associated with cumulative external radiation dose (one-sided P value = 0.046; 119 deaths). Among the 31 other specific types of cancer studied, a significant association was observed only for multiple myeloma (one-sided P value = 0.037; 44 deaths), and this was attributable primarily to the associations reported previously between this disease and radiation dose in the Hanford (U.S.) and Sellafield (UK) cohorts. The excess relative risk (ERR) estimates for all cancers excluding leukemia, and leukemia excluding CLL, the two main groupings of causes of death for which risk estimates have been derived from studies of atomic bomb survivors, were -0.07 per Sv [90% confidence interval (CI):-0.4,0.3] and 2.18 per Sv (90% CI:0.1,5.7), respectively. These values correspond to a relative risk of 0.99 for all cancers excluding leukemia and 1.22 for leukemia excluding CLL for a cumulative protracted dose of 100 mSv compared to O mSv. 53 refs., 1 fig., 8 tabs.

  19. Electronic Absolute Cartesian Autocollimator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leviton, Douglas B.

    2006-01-01

    An electronic absolute Cartesian autocollimator performs the same basic optical function as does a conventional all-optical or a conventional electronic autocollimator but differs in the nature of its optical target and the manner in which the position of the image of the target is measured. The term absolute in the name of this apparatus reflects the nature of the position measurement, which, unlike in a conventional electronic autocollimator, is based absolutely on the position of the image rather than on an assumed proportionality between the position and the levels of processed analog electronic signals. The term Cartesian in the name of this apparatus reflects the nature of its optical target. Figure 1 depicts the electronic functional blocks of an electronic absolute Cartesian autocollimator along with its basic optical layout, which is the same as that of a conventional autocollimator. Referring first to the optical layout and functions only, this or any autocollimator is used to measure the compound angular deviation of a flat datum mirror with respect to the optical axis of the autocollimator itself. The optical components include an illuminated target, a beam splitter, an objective or collimating lens, and a viewer or detector (described in more detail below) at a viewing plane. The target and the viewing planes are focal planes of the lens. Target light reflected by the datum mirror is imaged on the viewing plane at unit magnification by the collimating lens. If the normal to the datum mirror is parallel to the optical axis of the autocollimator, then the target image is centered on the viewing plane. Any angular deviation of the normal from the optical axis manifests itself as a lateral displacement of the target image from the center. The magnitude of the displacement is proportional to the focal length and to the magnitude (assumed to be small) of the angular deviation. The direction of the displacement is perpendicular to the axis about which the

  20. Has the Rate of Reduction in Infant Mortality Increased in India Since the Launch of National Rural Health Mission? Analysis of Time Trends 2000-2009 with Projection to 2015

    PubMed Central

    Narwal, Rajesh; Gram, Lu

    2013-01-01

    Objectives: National Rural Health Mission (NRHM) - India was launched in 2005 to tackle urban-rural health inequalities, especially in maternal and child health. We examined national and state level trends in Infant Mortality Rates (IMR) from 2000 through 2009 to: 1) assess whether the NRHM had increased the average annual reduction rate (AARR) of IMR 2) evaluate state-wise progress towards Millennium Development Goals (MDG4) and estimate required AARRs for ‘off track’ states. Methods: Log-linear regression models were applied to national and state IMR data collated from the Sample Registration System (SRS)-India to estimate average annual reduction rates and compare AAARs before and after introduction of NRHM. The log-linear trend of infant mortality rates was also projected forward to 2015. Results: The infant mortality rate in rural India declined from 74 to 55/1000 live births between 2000 and 2009, with AARR of 3.0% (95% CI=2.6%-3.4%) and the urban-rural gap in infant mortality narrowed (p =0.036). However there was no evidence (p=0.49) that AARR in rural India increased post NRHM (3.4%, 95% CI 2.0-4.7%) compared to pre NRHM (2.8%, 95% CI 2.1%-3.5%). States varied widely in rates of infant mortality reduction. Projections of infant mortality rates suggested that only eight states might be on track to help India achieve MDG4 by 2015. Conclusions and Public Health Implications: Despite a narrowing urban-rural gap and high AARRs in some states, there was no evidence that the rate of reduction in infant mortality has increased in rural India post NRHM introduction. India appears unlikely to achieve child survival-related NRHM and millennium development goals. Government should revisit the child survival related NRHM strategies and ensure equitable access to health services. More robust monitoring and evaluation mechanisms must be inbuilt for following years.

  1. Effect of a constant rate infusion of cytosine arabinoside on mortality in dogs with meningoencephalitis of unknown origin.

    PubMed

    Lowrie, M; Thomson, S; Smith, P; Garosi, L

    2016-07-01

    Administration of cytosine arabinoside (CA) by continuous rate infusion (CRI) has pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic advantages over traditional intermittent dosing. Whether these advantages translate into clinical efficacy remains unknown. The aim of this study was to assess the efficacy and safety of CRI of CA in dogs with meningoencephalitis of unknown origin (MUO) and to compare outcomes with a group of historical control dogs treated with conventional intermittent subcutaneous (SC) administration of CA; both groups received adjunctive prednisolone. It was hypothesised that a CRI of CA for 24 h at 100 mg/m(2) would improve survival and lesion resolution compared with conventional SC delivery of 50 mg/m(2) every 12 h for 48 h. Eighty dogs with suspected MUO were recruited from consecutive dogs presenting with suspected MUO from 2006 to 2015. All dogs underwent routine clinical evaluation, magnetic resonance imaging of the brain and cerebrospinal fluid analysis. There were 39 dogs in the SC group and 41 dogs in the CRI group; baseline characteristics were similar in both groups. Survival at 3 months was 22/39 (44%) with SC delivery versus 37/41 (90%) with CRI. No dose-limiting toxicities were noted for either group. The resolution rate of magnetic resonance imaging and cerebrospinal fluid abnormalities at the 3 month re-examination were substantially improved in the CRI group versus the SC group. The CRI regimen produced a survival advantage over the SC route of administration without clinically significant toxicity. These data supports the routine use of CRI at first presentation for the treatment of MUO in dogs. PMID:27240905

  2. Neonatal mortality in Meerut district.

    PubMed

    Garg, S K; Mishra, V N; Singh, J V; Bhatnagar, M; Chopra, H; Singh, R B

    1993-09-01

    A study of neonatal mortality in Meerut district revealed an infant mortality rate of 50.1 per 1000 live births. Neonatal mortality accounted for 37.8% of infant mortality with a neonatal mortality rate of 19.0 per 1000 live births. 90.5% of these neonates were delivered at home largely by untrained personnel (57.2%). Only 28.6% of these neonates were treated by qualified doctors and only 30.9% of their mothers were fully immunized against tetanus. At least 2/3rd of neonatal mortality was due to exogenous factors with tetanus neonatorum and septicaemia being the principal causes of mortality each accounting for a mortality rate of 4.7 per 1000 live births. PMID:8112786

  3. ABSOLUTE POLARIMETRY AT RHIC.

    SciTech Connect

    OKADA; BRAVAR, A.; BUNCE, G.; GILL, R.; HUANG, H.; MAKDISI, Y.; NASS, A.; WOOD, J.; ZELENSKI, Z.; ET AL.

    2007-09-10

    Precise and absolute beam polarization measurements are critical for the RHIC spin physics program. Because all experimental spin-dependent results are normalized by beam polarization, the normalization uncertainty contributes directly to final physics uncertainties. We aimed to perform the beam polarization measurement to an accuracy Of {Delta}P{sub beam}/P{sub beam} < 5%. The absolute polarimeter consists of Polarized Atomic Hydrogen Gas Jet Target and left-right pairs of silicon strip detectors and was installed in the RHIC-ring in 2004. This system features proton-proton elastic scattering in the Coulomb nuclear interference (CNI) region. Precise measurements of the analyzing power A{sub N} of this process has allowed us to achieve {Delta}P{sub beam}/P{sub beam} = 4.2% in 2005 for the first long spin-physics run. In this report, we describe the entire set up and performance of the system. The procedure of beam polarization measurement and analysis results from 2004-2005 are described. Physics topics of AN in the CNI region (four-momentum transfer squared 0.001 < -t < 0.032 (GeV/c){sup 2}) are also discussed. We point out the current issues and expected optimum accuracy in 2006 and the future.

  4. Total versus subtotal gastrectomy: surgical morbidity and mortality rates in a multicenter Italian randomized trial. The Italian Gastrointestinal Tumor Study Group.

    PubMed Central

    Bozzetti, F; Marubini, E; Bonfanti, G; Miceli, R; Piano, C; Crose, N; Gennari, L

    1997-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to analyze postoperative morbidity and mortality of patients included in a randomized trial comparing total versus subtotal gastrectomy for gastric cancer. SUMMARY BACKGROUND DATA: There is controversy as to whether the optimal surgery for gastric cancer in the distal half of the stomach is subtotal or total gastrectomy. Although only a randomized trial can resolve this oncologic dilemma, the first step is to demonstrate whether the two procedures are penalized by different postoperative morbidity and mortality rates. METHODS: A total of 624 patients with cancer in the distal half of the stomach were randomized to subtotal gastrectomy (320) or total gastrectomy (304), both associated with a second-level lymphadenectomy, in a multicenter trial aimed at assessing the oncologic outcome after the two procedures. The end points considered were the occurrence of a postoperative event, complication, or death and length of postoperative stay. RESULTS: Nonfatal complications and death occurred in 9% and 1% of subtotal gastrectomy patients and in 13% and 2% of total gastrectomy patients, respectively. Multivariate analysis of postoperative events showed that splenectomy or resection of adjacent organs was associated with a twofold risk of postoperative complications. Random surgery and extension of surgery influenced the length of stay. The mean length of stay, adjusted for extension of surgery, was 13.8 days for subtotal gastrectomy and 15.4 days for total gastrectomy. CONCLUSIONS: Our data show that subtotal and total gastrectomies, with second-level lymphadenectomy, performed as an elective procedure have a similar postoperative complication rate and surgical outcome. A conclusive long-term evaluation of the two operations and an accurate estimate of the oncologic impact of surgery on long-term survival, not penalized by excess surgical risk of one of the two operations, are consequently feasible. PMID:9389395

  5. Comparative study of two anesthesia methods according to postoperative complications and one month mortality rate in the candidates of hip surgery

    PubMed Central

    Heidari, Saied Morteza; Soltani, Hasanali; Hashemi, Saied Jalal; Talakoub, Reihanak; Soleimani, Bahram

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Surgery for hip fractures can be done under general or neuraxial anesthesia. This study aimed to compare these two methods concerning their postoperative complications, duration of operation, hospitalization and the mortality rate within a period of one month after surgery. METHODS: 400 patients aged more than 30 years old and scheduled for elective operative fixation of fractured hip, randomly enrolled in two equal groups of general (GA) and neuraxial (NA) anesthesia. Hemoglobin level was measured before and 6 hours, 2, 3 and 5 days after the surgery. The intra and postoperative blood loss, duration of surgery, the severity of pain at the time of discharge from recovery and at the 2nd, 3rd and 5th postoperative days were recorded. Statistical analysis was performed using SPSS version 12.0 by Mann-Whitney, chi-square, and t tests. P < 0.05 was considered significant. RESULTS: Both groups were similar regarding age, weight, and gender ratio. There was no significant difference in baseline hemoglobin, duration of surgery, length of hospitalization before surgery and the type of surgery. The mean of intraoperative blood loss and visual analogue score (VAS) in recovery and at the 3rd postoperative day, and also the length of hospitalization after surgery were significantly less in neuraxial anesthesia group. Both groups showed a significant decrease in hemoglobin values on the 2nd and 3rd postoperative days comparing to the baseline (p < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: The morbidity and mortality rates of patients undergoing hip surgery were similar in both methods of anesthesia, but postoperative pain, blood loss, and duration of hospitalization were more in patients undergoing general anesthesia. PMID:22091252

  6. Mortality rates above emergency threshold in population affected by conflict in North Kivu, Democratic Republic of Congo, July 2012-April 2013.

    PubMed

    Carrión Martín, Antonio Isidro; Bil, Karla; Salumu, Papy; Baabo, Dominique; Singh, Jatinder; Kik, Corry; Lenglet, Annick

    2014-09-01

    The area of Walikale in North Kivu, Democratic Republic of Congo, is intensely affected by conflict and population displacement. Médecins-Sans-Frontières (MSF) returned to provide primary healthcare in July 2012. To better understand the impact of the ongoing conflict and displacement on the population, a retrospective mortality survey was conducted in April 2013. A two-stage randomized cluster survey using 31 clusters of 21 households was conducted. Heads of households provided information on their household make-up, ownership of non-food items (NFIs), access to healthcare and information on deaths and occurrence of self-reported disease in the household during the recall period. The recall period was of 325 days (July 2012-April 2013). In total, 173 deaths were reported during the recall period. The crude mortality rate (CMR) was of 1.4/10,000 persons/day (CI95%: 1.2-1.7) and the under-five- mortality rate (U5MR) of 1.9/10,000 persons per day (CI95%: 1.3-2.5). The most frequently reported cause of death was fever/malaria 34.1% (CI95%: 25.4-42.9). Thirteen deaths were due to intentional violence. Over 70% of all households had been displaced at some time during the recall period. Out of households with someone sick in the last two weeks, 63.8% sought health care; the main reason not to seek health care was the lack of money (n = 134, 63.8%, CI95%: 52.2-75.4). Non Food Items (NFI) ownership was low: 69.0% (CI95%: 53.1-79.7) at least one 10 liter jerry can, 30.1% (CI95%: 24.3-36.5) of households with visible soap available and 1.6 bednets per household. The results from this survey in Walikale clearly illustrate the impact that ongoing conflict and displacement are having on the population in this part of DRC. The gravity of their health status was highlighted by a CMR that was well above the emergency threshold of 1 person/10,000/day and an U5MR that approaches the 2 children/10,000/day threshold for the recall period. PMID:25233090

  7. Modelling the impact of improving screening and treatment of chronic hepatitis C virus infection on future hepatocellular carcinoma rates and liver-related mortality

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The societal, clinical and economic burden imposed by the complications of chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection - including cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) - is expected to increase over the coming decades. However, new therapies may improve sustained virological response (SVR) rates and shorten treatment duration. This study aimed to estimate the future burden of HCV-related disease in England if current management strategies remain the same and the impact of increasing diagnosis and treatment of HCV as new therapies become available. Methods A previously published model was adapted for England using published literature and government reports, and validated through an iterative process of three meetings of HCV experts. The impact of increasing diagnosis and treatment of HCV as new therapies become available was modelled and compared to the base-case scenario of continuing current management strategies. To assess the ‘best case’ clinical benefit of new therapies, the number of patients treated was increased by a total of 115% by 2018. Results In the base-case scenario, total viraemic (HCV RNA-positive) cases of HCV in England will decrease from 144,000 in 2013 to 76,300 in 2030. However, due to the slow progression of chronic HCV, the number of individuals with cirrhosis, decompensated cirrhosis and HCC will continue to increase over this period. The model suggests that the ‘best case’ substantially reduces HCV-related hepatic disease and HCV-related liver mortality by 2020 compared to the base-case scenario. The number of HCV-related HCC cases would decrease 50% by 2020 and the number progressing from infection to decompensated cirrhosis would decline by 65%. Therefore, compared to projections of current practices, increasing treatment numbers by 115% by 2018 would reduce HCV-related mortality by 50% by 2020. Conclusions This analysis suggests that with current treatment practices the number of patients developing HCV

  8. Mortality Rates above Emergency Threshold in Population Affected by Conflict in North Kivu, Democratic Republic of Congo, July 2012–April 2013

    PubMed Central

    Carrión Martín, Antonio Isidro; Bil, Karla; Salumu, Papy; Baabo, Dominique; Singh, Jatinder; Kik, Corry; Lenglet, Annick

    2014-01-01

    The area of Walikale in North Kivu, Democratic Republic of Congo, is intensely affected by conflict and population displacement. Médecins-Sans-Frontières (MSF) returned to provide primary healthcare in July 2012. To better understand the impact of the ongoing conflict and displacement on the population, a retrospective mortality survey was conducted in April 2013. A two-stage randomized cluster survey using 31 clusters of 21 households was conducted. Heads of households provided information on their household make-up, ownership of non-food items (NFIs), access to healthcare and information on deaths and occurrence of self-reported disease in the household during the recall period. The recall period was of 325 days (July 2012–April 2013). In total, 173 deaths were reported during the recall period. The crude mortality rate (CMR) was of 1.4/10,000 persons/day (CI95%: 1.2–1.7) and the under-five- mortality rate (U5MR) of 1.9/10,000 persons per day (CI95%: 1.3–2.5). The most frequently reported cause of death was fever/malaria 34.1% (CI95%: 25.4–42.9). Thirteen deaths were due to intentional violence. Over 70% of all households had been displaced at some time during the recall period. Out of households with someone sick in the last two weeks, 63.8% sought health care; the main reason not to seek health care was the lack of money (n = 134, 63.8%, CI95%: 52.2–75.4). Non Food Items (NFI) ownership was low: 69.0% (CI95%: 53.1–79.7) at least one 10 liter jerry can, 30.1% (CI95%: 24.3–36.5) of households with visible soap available and 1.6 bednets per household. The results from this survey in Walikale clearly illustrate the impact that ongoing conflict and displacement are having on the population in this part of DRC. The gravity of their health status was highlighted by a CMR that was well above the emergency threshold of 1 person/10,000/day and an U5MR that approaches the 2 children/10,000/day threshold for the recall period. PMID:25233090

  9. Relationship between Kidney Dysfunction and Ischemic Stroke Outcomes: Albuminuria, but Not Estimated Glomerular Filtration Rate, Is Associated with the Risk of Further Vascular Events and Mortality after Stroke

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Dong-Geun

    2016-01-01

    Background and Objective Estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) and albuminuria are known to be associated with ischemic stroke outcomes. In this study, we investigated the longitudinal relationships of the two markers with mortality, vascular events and functional outcomes in a stroke cohort. Methods A total of 295 patients with acute ischemic stroke were prospectively recruited in a single center between May 2012 and February 2015. Renal dysfunction was defined as a decreased eGFR (<60 mL/min/1.73 m2) or albuminuria (urine albumin-to-creatinine ratio ≥ 30 mg/g). Good functional outcome at 6 months was defined as a modified Rankin scale score ≤ 2, and the occurrence of major vascular events (stroke, acute coronary syndrome or peripheral artery occlusion) or death was monitored. The associations between renal dysfunction and mortality, major vascular events, and 6-month functional outcome were evaluated by the Cox proportional hazards model and logistic regression analysis. Unadjusted and adjusted hazards ratios (HRs), odds ratios (ORs), and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were obtained. A Kaplan–Meier survival curve for composite adverse events (major vascular events or death) was also computed according to the presence or absence of albuminuria. Results Albuminuria, not eGFR, was significantly associated with mortality (P = 0.028; HR 2.15; 95% CI 1.09–4.25) and major vascular events (P = 0.044; HR 2.24; 95% CI 1.02–4.94) in the multivariate Cox proportional hazards models adjusting for age, sex, diabetes, hypertension, current smoking, atrial fibrillation, previous stroke, alcohol history, initial National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS) score and eGFR. In addition, albuminuria was negatively associated with 6-month functional outcome in the multivariate logistic regression analysis adjusting for age, sex, diabetes, hypertension, current smoking, atrial fibrillation, previous stroke, alcohol history and eGFR (P = 0.001; OR 0.36; 95% CI 0

  10. Seasonal and spatial comparisons of phytoplankton growth and mortality rates due to microzooplankton grazing in the northern South China Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, B.; Zheng, L.; Huang, B.; Song, S.; Liu, H.

    2013-04-01

    We conducted a comprehensive investigation on the microzooplankton herbivory effect on phytoplankton in the northern South China Sea (SCS) using the seawater dilution technique at surface and deep chlorophyll maximum (DCM) layers on two cruises (July-August of 2009 and January of 2010). We compared vertical (surface vs. DCM), spatial (onshore vs. offshore), and seasonal (summer vs. winter) differences of phytoplankton growth (μ0) and microzooplankton grazing rates (m). During summer, both μ0 and m were significantly higher at the surface than at the DCM layer, which was below the mixed layer. During winter, surface μ0 was significantly higher than at the DCM, while m was not significantly different between the two layers, both of which were within the mixed layer. Surface μ0 was, on average, significantly higher in summer than in winter, while average surface m was not different between the two seasons. There were no cross-shelf gradients of μ0 in summer or winter surface waters. In surface waters, μ0 was not correlated with ambient nitrate concentrations, and the effect of nutrient enrichment on phytoplankton growth was not pronounced. There was a decreasing trend of m from shelf to basin surface waters in summer, but not in winter. Microzooplankton grazing effect on phytoplankton (m/μ0) was relatively small in the summer basin waters, indicating a decoupling of microzooplankton grazing and phytoplankton growth at this time. On average, microzooplankton grazed 73% and 65% of the daily primary production in summer and winter, respectively.

  11. Overcoming Stagnation in the Levels and Distribution of Child Mortality: The Case of the Philippines

    PubMed Central

    Bermejo, Raoul; Firth, Sonja; Hodge, Andrew; Jimenez-Soto, Eliana; Zeck, Willibald

    2015-01-01

    Background Health-related within-country inequalities continue to be a matter of great interest and concern to both policy makers and researchers. This study aims to assess the level and the distribution of child mortality outcomes in the Philippines across geographical and socioeconomic indicators. Methodology Data on 159,130 children ever borne were analysed from five waves of the Philippine Demographic and Health Survey. Direct estimation was used to construct under-five and neonatal mortality rates for the period 1980–2013. Rate differences and ratios, and where possible, slope and relative indices of inequality were calculated to measure disparities on absolute and relative scales. Stratification was undertaken by levels of rural/urban location, island groups and household wealth. Findings National under-five and neonatal mortality rates have shown considerable albeit differential reductions since 1980. Recently released data suggests that neonatal mortality has declined following a period of stagnation. Declines in under-five mortality have been accompanied by decreases in wealth and geography-related absolute inequalities. However, relative inequalities for the same markers have remained stable over time. For neonates, mixed evidence suggests that absolute and relative inequalities have remained stable or may have risen. Conclusion In addition to continued reductions in under-five mortality, new data suggests that the Philippines have achieved success in addressing the commonly observed stagnated trend in neonatal mortality. This success has been driven by economic improvement since 2006 as well as efforts to implement a nationwide universal health care campaign. Yet, such patterns, nonetheless, accorded with persistent inequalities, particularly on a relative scale. A continued focus on addressing universal coverage, the influence of decentralisation and armed conflict, and issues along the continuum of care is advocated. PMID:26431409

  12. Mortality from alcohol related disease in Italy.

    PubMed Central

    La Vecchia, C; Decarli, A; Mezzanotte, G; Cislaghi, C

    1986-01-01

    Trends in death certification rates from the five major alcohol related causes of death in Italy (cancers of the mouth or pharynx, oesophagus, larynx, liver and cirrhosis of the liver) were analysed over a period (1955-79) in which per capita alcohol consumption almost trebled. Age standardised mortality from liver cirrhosis almost doubled in males and increased over 70% in females. In males, mortality from cancers of the upper digestive or respiratory tract showed increases of between 27% and 44%, and liver cancer increased by over 100%. In the late 1970s, the four alcohol related cancer sites accounted for about 12% of all cancer deaths in males and 4.5% in females. Mortality from liver cirrhosis alone accounted for 4.8% of all deaths in males (9.2% of manpower years lost) and 2.3% in females (6.3% manpower years lost) in females. These figures were even higher in selected areas of north eastern Italy, where alcohol consumption is greater. In absolute terms, the upward trends observed correspond to about 10,000 excess deaths per year in the late 1970s compared with rates observed two decades earlier and are thus second only to the increase in tobacco related causes of death over the same calendar period. PMID:3772284

  13. Mortality risk coefficients for radiation-induced cancer at high doses and dose-rates, and extrapolation to the low dose domain.

    PubMed

    Liniecki, J

    1989-01-01

    Risk coefficients for life-long excessive mortality due to radiation-induced cancers are presented, as derived in 1988 by the U.N. Scientific Committee on the Effects of Atomic Radiation (UNSCEAR), principally on the basis of follow-up from A-bomb survivors in Japan, over the period from 1950 through 1985. The data are based on the new, revised dosimetry (DS 86) in the two cities, and reflect the effects of high and intermediate doses of basically low LET radiation delivered instantaneously. The author presents arguments relevant to the extrapolation of the risk to the low dose (dose rate) domain, as outlined by UNSCEAR in its 1986, and the NCRP (USA) in its 1980, (no 64), reports. The arguments are based on models and dose-response relationships for radiation action, derived from data on cellular radiobiology, animal experiments on radiation-induced cancers and life shortening, as well as the available limited human epidemiological evidence. The available information points to the lower effectiveness of sparsely ionizing radiation at low doses and low dose-rates, as compared with that observed for high, acutely delivered doses. The possible range of the reduction values (DREF) is presented. For high LET radiations, the evidence is less extensive and sometimes contradictory; however, it does not point to a reduction of the effectiveness at low doses/dose-rates, relative to the high dose domain. Practical consequences of these facts are considered. PMID:2489419

  14. Implants as absolute anchorage.

    PubMed

    Rungcharassaeng, Kitichai; Kan, Joseph Y K; Caruso, Joseph M

    2005-11-01

    Anchorage control is essential for successful orthodontic treatment. Each tooth has its own anchorage potential as well as propensity to move when force is applied. When teeth are used as anchorage, the untoward movements of the anchoring units may result in the prolonged treatment time, and unpredictable or less-than-ideal outcome. To maximize tooth-related anchorage, techniques such as differential torque, placing roots into the cortex of the bone, the use of various intraoral devices and/or extraoral appliances have been implemented. Implants, as they are in direct contact with bone, do not possess a periodontal ligament. As a result, they do not move when orthodontic/orthopedic force is applied, and therefore can be used as "absolute anchorage." This article describes different types of implants that have been used as orthodontic anchorage. Their clinical applications and limitations are also discussed. PMID:16463910

  15. Absolute Equilibrium Entropy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shebalin, John V.

    1997-01-01

    The entropy associated with absolute equilibrium ensemble theories of ideal, homogeneous, fluid and magneto-fluid turbulence is discussed and the three-dimensional fluid case is examined in detail. A sigma-function is defined, whose minimum value with respect to global parameters is the entropy. A comparison is made between the use of global functions sigma and phase functions H (associated with the development of various H-theorems of ideal turbulence). It is shown that the two approaches are complimentary though conceptually different: H-theorems show that an isolated system tends to equilibrium while sigma-functions allow the demonstration that entropy never decreases when two previously isolated systems are combined. This provides a more complete picture of entropy in the statistical mechanics of ideal fluids.

  16. Increased Mortality in Narcolepsy

    PubMed Central

    Ohayon, Maurice M.; Black, Jed; Lai, Chinglin; Eller, Mark; Guinta, Diane; Bhattacharyya, Arun

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the mortality rate in patients with narcolepsy. Design: Data were derived from a large database representative of the US population, which contains anonymized patient-linked longitudinal claims for 173 million individuals. Setting: Symphony Health Solutions (SHS) Source Lx, an anonymized longitudinal patient dataset. Patients/Participants: All records of patients registered in the SHS database between 2008 and 2010. Interventions: None Measurements and Results: Identification of patients with narcolepsy was based on ≥ 1 medical claim with the diagnosis of narcolepsy (ICD-9 347.xx) from 2002 to 2012. Dates of death were acquired from the Social Security Administration via a third party; the third party information was encrypted in the same manner as the claims data such that anonymity is ensured prior to receipt by SHS. Annual all-cause mortality rates for 2008, 2009, and 2010 were calculated retrospectively for patients with narcolepsy and patients without narcolepsy in the database, and standardized mortality ratios (SMR) were calculated. Mortality rates were also compared with the general US population (Centers for Disease Control data). SMRs of the narcolepsy population were consistent over the 3-year period and showed an approximate 1.5-fold excess mortality relative to those without narcolepsy. The narcolepsy population had consistently higher mortality rates relative to those without narcolepsy across all age groups, stratified by age decile, from 25-34 years to 75+ years of age. The SMR for females with narcolepsy was lower than for males with narcolepsy. Conclusions: Narcolepsy was associated with approximately 1.5-fold excess mortality relative to those without narcolepsy. While the cause of this increased mortality is unknown, these findings warrant further investigation. Citation: Ohayon MM; Black J; Lai C; Eller M; Guinta D; Bhattacharyya A. Increased mortality in narcolepsy. SLEEP 2014;37(3):439-444. PMID:24587565

  17. Heart rate variables in the Vascular Quality Initiative are not reliable predictors of adverse cardiac outcomes or mortality after major elective vascular surgery

    PubMed Central

    Scali, Salvatore; Bertges, Daniel; Neal, Daniel; Patel, Virendra; Eldrup-Jorgensen, Jens; Cronenwett, Jack; Beck, Adam

    2015-01-01

    Objective Heart rate (HR) parameters are known indicators of cardiovascular complications after cardiac surgery, but there is little evidence of their role in predicting outcome after major vascular surgery. The purpose of this study was to determine whether arrival HR (AHR) and highest intraoperative HR are associated with mortality or major adverse cardiac events (MACEs) after elective vascular surgery in the Vascular Quality Initiative (VQI). Methods Patients undergoing elective lower extremity bypass (LEB), aortofemoral bypass (AFB), and open abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) repair in the VQI were analyzed. MACE was defined as any postoperative myocardial infarction, dysrhythmia, or congestive heart failure. Controlled HR was defined as AHR <75 beats/min on operating room arrival. Delta HR (DHR) was defined as highest intraoperative HR – AHR Procedure-specific MACE models were derived for risk stratification, and generalized estimating equations were used to account for clustering of center effects. HR, beta-blocker exposure, cardiac risk, and their interactions were explored to determine association with MACE or 30-day mortality. A Bonferroni correction with P < .004 was used to declare significance. Results There were 13,291 patients reviewed (LEB, n = 8155 [62%]; AFB, n = 2629 [18%]; open AAA, n = 2629 [20%]). Rates of any preoperative beta-blocker exposure were as follows: LEB, 66.5% (n = 5412); AFB, 57% (n = 1342); and open AAA, 74.2% (n = 1949). AHR and DHR outcome association was variable across patients and procedures. AHR <75 beats/min was associated with increased postoperative myocardial infarction risk for LEB patients across all risk strata (odds ratio [OR], 1.4; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.03–1.9; P = .03), whereas AHR<75 beats/min was associated with decreased dysrhythmia risk (OR, 0.42; 95% CI, 0.28–0.63; P = .0001) and 30-day death (OR, 0.50; 95% CI, 0.33–0.77; P = .001) in patients at moderate and high cardiac risk. These HR

  18. Drowning Mortality and Morbidity Rates in Children and Adolescents 0-19yrs: A Population-Based Study in Queensland, Australia

    PubMed Central

    Wallis, Belinda A.; Watt, Kerrianne; Franklin, Richard C.; Nixon, James W.; Kimble, Roy M.

    2015-01-01

    Objective To redress the lack of Queensland population incidence mortality and morbidity data associated with drowning in those aged 0-19yrs, and to understand survival and patient care. Design, Setting and Participants Retrospective population-based study used data linkage to capture both fatal and non-fatal drowning cases (N = 1299) among children aged 0-19years in Queensland, from 2002-2008 inclusive. Patient data were accessed from pre-hospital, emergency department, hospital admission and death data, and linked manually to collate data across the continuum of care. Main Outcome Measures Incidence rates were calculated separately by age group and gender for events resulting in death, hospital admission, and non-admission. Trends over time were analysed. Results Drowning death to survival ratio was 1:10, and two out of three of those who survived were admitted to hospital. Incidence rates for fatal and non-fatal drowning increased over time, primarily due to an increase in non-fatal drowning. There were non-significant reductions in fatal and admission rates. Rates for non-fatal drowning that did not result in hospitalisation more than doubled over the seven years. Children aged 5-9yrs and 10-14yrs incurred the lowest incidence rates 6.38 and 4.62 (expressed as per 100,000), and the highest rates were among children aged 0-4yrs (all drowning events 43.90; fatal 4.04; non-fatal 39.85–comprising admission 26.69 and non-admission 13.16). Males were over-represented in all age groups except 10-14yrs. Total male drowning events increased 44% over the seven years (P<0.001). Conclusion This state-wide data collection has revealed previously unknown incidence and survival ratios. Increased trends in drowning survival rates may be viewed as both positive and challenging for drowning prevention and the health system. Males are over-represented, and although infants and toddlers did not have increased fatality rates, they had the greatest drowning burden demonstrating

  19. Macrophage elimination increases bacterial translocation and gut-origin septicemia but attenuates symptoms and mortality rate in a model of systemic inflammation.

    PubMed Central

    Nieuwenhuijzen, G A; Haskel, Y; Lu, Q; Berg, R D; van Rooijen, N; Goris, R J; Deitch, E A

    1993-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The central question tested in this study was whether dichloromethylene-diphosphonate (CL2MDP) liposome-mediated elimination of hepatic and splenic macrophages would influence zymosan-induced bacterial translocation and the zymosan-induced generalized inflammatory response. SUMMARY BACKGROUND DATA: Both an uncontrolled activation of macrophages and the loss of intestinal barrier function have been implicated in the development of adult respiratory distress syndrome and multiple organ failure. METHODS: Macrophage elimination was accomplished by intravenous injection of 200 microL of CL2MDP-liposome suspension. Control mice received an intravenous injection of 200 microL of phosphate-buffered saline. Two days later, the animals were challenged intraperitoneally with zymosan suspended in paraffin to determine a dose-response curve (0.1, 0.5, or 1.0 mg/g body weight). Twenty-four hours after zymosan challenge, signs of systemic stress were determined, and bacterial translocation to the mesenteric lymph node, liver, spleen, and blood was measured. A separate mortality study was performed with a dose of 1.0 mg/g of zymosan suspension. RESULTS: The incidence of the systemic spread of bacteria was significantly increased in the macrophage-depleted mice. Although systemic bacterial translocation was promoted by macrophage elimination, the systemic toxic response was significantly decreased in all macrophage-depleted groups (p < or = 0.01). The 12-day mortality rate was 0% in the macrophage-depleted groups and 27% in the control group (p = 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: The lethal and toxic effects of zymosan appear to be related more to the excessive activation of macrophages than to the systemic spread of bacteria. Images Figure 1. Figure 2. PMID:8257230

  20. Statin Effects on Exacerbation Rates, Mortality, and Inflammatory Markers in Patients with Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease: A Review of Prospective Studies.

    PubMed

    Howard, Meredith L; Vincent, Ashley H

    2016-05-01

    Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a debilitating, irreversible disease with currently available therapies targeting symptom control and exacerbation reduction. A need for alternative disease-modifying therapies remains, specifically those that may have antiinflammatory and immunomodulatory properties that impact the pathophysiologic components of COPD. Statin drugs, the current gold standard for the treatment of dyslipidemia and prevention of cardiovascular disease (CVD), contain properties that affect the inflammatory disease processes seen in COPD. Several retrospective studies have demonstrated that statins may have a benefit in the reduction of morbidity and mortality in patients with COPD. This has led to prospective trials evaluating the impact of statins on various COPD-related outcomes. This article reviews the current body of prospective evidence for use of statins in patients with COPD. A search of the PubMed/Medline database of English-language articles was conducted from 1964 through November 2015; references of relevant articles were also reviewed for qualifying studies. Prospective studies of all types relating to statin use in patients with COPD were included if they had COPD- or respiratory-related outcomes; ultimately, eight studies were identified for this review. Statin effects on exacerbation rates, mortality, and inflammatory markers in patients with COPD are discussed. Strong prospective evidence does not currently exist to suggest that statins provide a clinical benefit in patients with COPD who do not have other CVD risk factors. Benefits from statins that have been illustrated are likely explained by their impact on underlying CVD risk factors rather than the COPD disease process. An opportunity exists for unanswered questions to be addressed in future studies. PMID:26990316

  1. The State of Health in Older Adults in Japan: Trends in Disability, Chronic Medical Conditions and Mortality

    PubMed Central

    Ishii, Shinya; Ogawa, Sumito; Akishita, Masahiro

    2015-01-01

    Both life expectancy and healthy life expectancy in Japan have been increasing and are among the highest in the world, but the gap between them has also been widening. To examine the recent trends in old age disability, chronic medical conditions and mortality in Japan, we retrospectively analyzed three nationally representative datasets: Comprehensive Survey of Living Conditions (2001–2013), Patient Survey (1996–2011) and Vital Statistics (1995–2010). We obtained the sex- and age-stratified trends in disability rate, treatment rates of nine selected chronic medical conditions (cerebrovascular diseases, joint disorders, fractures, osteoporosis, ischemic heart disease, diabetes mellitus, hypertension, pneumonia and malignant neoplasms), total mortality rate and mortality rates from specific causes (cerebrovascular diseases, heart diseases, pneumonia and malignant neoplasms) in both sexes in four age strata (65–69, 70–74, 75–79, 80–84 years). Disability rates declined significantly in both sexes. Treatment rates of all selected medical conditions also decreased significantly, except for fractures in women and pneumonia. Both total mortality rate and cause-specific mortality rates decreased in both sexes. We concluded that the recent decline in disability rates, treatment rates of chronic medical conditions and mortality rates points toward overall improvement in health conditions in adults over the age of 65 years in Japan. Nonetheless, considering the increase in the number of older adults, the absolute number of older adults with disability or chronic medical conditions will continue to increase and challenge medical and long-term care systems. PMID:26431468

  2. Similar decline in mortality rate of older persons with and without type 2 diabetes between 1993 and 2004 the Icelandic population-based Reykjavik and AGES-Reykjavik cohort studies

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background A decline in mortality rates due to cardiovascular diseases and all-cause mortality has led to increased life expectancy in the Western world in recent decades. At the same time, the prevalence of type 2 diabetes, a disease associated with a twofold excess risk of cardiovascular disease and mortality, has been increasing. The objective of this study was to estimate the secular trend of cardiovascular and all-cause mortality rates in two population-based cohorts of older persons, with and without type 2 diabetes, examined 11 years apart. Methods 1506 participants (42% men) from the population-based Reykjavik Study, examined during 1991–1996 (median 1993), mean age 75.0 years, and 4814 participants (43% men) from the AGES-Reykjavik Study, examined during 2002–2006 (median 2004), mean age 77.2 years, age range in both cohorts 70–87 years. The main outcome measures were age-specific mortality rates due to cardiovascular disease and all causes, over two consecutive 5.7- and 5.3-year follow-up periods. Results A 32% decline in cardiovascular mortality rate and a 19% decline in all-cause mortality rate were observed between 1993 and 2004. The decline was greater in those with type 2 diabetes, as illustrated by the decline in the adjusted hazard ratio of cardiovascular mortality in individuals with diabetes compared to those without diabetes, from 1.88 (95% CI 1.24-2.85) in 1993 to 1.46 (95% CI 1.11-1.91) in 2004. We also observed a concurrent decrease in major cardiovascular risk factors in both those with and without diabetes. A higher proportion of persons with diabetes received glucose-lowering, hypertensive and lipid-lowering medication in 2004. Conclusions A decline in cardiovascular and all-cause mortality rates was observed in older persons during the period 1993–2004, in both those with and without type 2 diabetes. This decline may be partly explained by improvements in cardiovascular risk factors and medical treatment over the period

  3. The association between price of regular-grade gasoline and injury and mortality rates among occupants involved in motorcycle- and automobile-related motor vehicle collisions.

    PubMed

    Hyatt, Eddie; Griffin, Russell; Rue, Loring W; McGwin, Gerald

    2009-09-01

    Motorcyclists have been reported to be more likely to die in a motor vehicle collision (MVC) than automobile occupants. With the recent increase in the pump price of gasoline, it has been reported that people are switching to motorcycles as main modes of transportation. This study evaluated the association between motor vehicle collision-related injury and mortality rates and increases in gasoline prices for occupants of automobiles and riders of motorcycles. There were an estimated 1,270,512 motorcycle MVC and 238,390,853 automobile MVC involved occupants in the U.S. from 1992 to 2007. Higher gasoline prices were associated with increased motorcycle-related injuries and deaths; however, this association no longer remained after accounting for changes in the number of registered vehicles. The current study observed that, while the number of injuries and fatalities in motorcycle-related MVCs increase with increasing gasoline price, rates remained largely unchanged. This suggests that the observed increase in motorcycle-related injuries and fatalities with increasing gasoline price is more a factor of the number of motorcycles on the road rather than operator characteristics. PMID:19664448

  4. Absolute oral bioavailability of ciprofloxacin.

    PubMed

    Drusano, G L; Standiford, H C; Plaisance, K; Forrest, A; Leslie, J; Caldwell, J

    1986-09-01

    We evaluated the absolute bioavailability of ciprofloxacin, a new quinoline carboxylic acid, in 12 healthy male volunteers. Doses of 200 mg were given to each of the volunteers in a randomized, crossover manner 1 week apart orally and as a 10-min intravenous infusion. Half-lives (mean +/- standard deviation) for the intravenous and oral administration arms were 4.2 +/- 0.77 and 4.11 +/- 0.74 h, respectively. The serum clearance rate averaged 28.5 +/- 4.7 liters/h per 1.73 m2 for the intravenous administration arm. The renal clearance rate accounted for approximately 60% of the corresponding serum clearance rate and was 16.9 +/- 3.0 liters/h per 1.73 m2 for the intravenous arm and 17.0 +/- 2.86 liters/h per 1.73 m2 for the oral administration arm. Absorption was rapid, with peak concentrations in serum occurring at 0.71 +/- 0.15 h. Bioavailability, defined as the ratio of the area under the curve from 0 h to infinity for the oral to the intravenous dose, was 69 +/- 7%. We conclude that ciprofloxacin is rapidly absorbed and reliably bioavailable in these healthy volunteers. Further studies with ciprofloxacin should be undertaken in target patient populations under actual clinical circumstances. PMID:3777908

  5. Maternal mortality in Sirur.

    PubMed

    Shrotri, A; Pratinidhi, A; Shah, U

    1990-01-01

    The research aim was 1) to determine the incidence of maternal mortality in a rural health center area in Sirur, Maharashtra state, India; 2) to determine the relative risk; and 3) to make suggestions about reducing maternal mortality. The data on deliveries was obtained between 1981 and 1984. Medical care at the Rural Training Center was supervised by the Department of Preventive and Social Medicine, the B.J. Medical College in Pune. Deliveries numbered 5994 singleton births over the four years; 5919 births were live births. 15 mothers died: 14 after delivery and 1 predelivery. The maternal mortality rate was 2.5/1000 live births. The maternal causes of death included 9 direct obstetric causes, 3 from postpartum hemorrhage of anemic women, and 3 from puerperal sepsis of anemic women with prolonged labor. 2 deaths were due to eclampsia, and 1 death was unexplained. There were 5 (33.3%) maternal deaths due to indirect causes (3 from hepatitis and 2 from thrombosis). One woman died of undetermined causes. Maternal jaundice during pregnancy was associated with the highest relative risk of maternal death: 106.4. Other relative risk factors were edema, anemia, and prolonged labor. Attributable risk was highest for anemia, followed by jaundice, edema, and maternal age of over 30 years. Maternal mortality at 30 years and older was 3.9/1000 live births. Teenage maternal mortality was 3.3/1000. Maternal mortality among women 20-29 years old was lowest at 2.1/1000. Maternal mortality for women with a parity of 5 or higher was 3.6/1000. Prima gravida women had a maternal mortality rate of 2.9/1000. Parities between 1 and 4 had a maternal mortality rate of 2.3/1000. The lowest maternal mortality was at parity of 3. Only 1 woman who died had received more than 3 prenatal visits. 11 out of 13 women medically examined prenatally were identified with the following risk factors: jaundice, edema, anemia, young or old maternal age, parity, or poor obstetric history. The local

  6. Occupational Class Inequalities in All-Cause and Cause-Specific Mortality among Middle-Aged Men in 14 European Populations during the Early 2000s

    PubMed Central

    Toch-Marquardt, Marlen; Menvielle, Gwenn; Eikemo, Terje A.; Kulhánová, Ivana; Kulik, Margarete C.; Bopp, Matthias; Esnaola, Santiago; Jasilionis, Domantas; Mäki, Netta; Martikainen, Pekka; Regidor, Enrique; Lundberg, Olle; Mackenbach, Johan P.

    2014-01-01

    This study analyses occupational class inequalities in all-cause mortality and four specific causes of death among men, in Europe in the early 2000s, and is the most extensive comparative analysis of occupational class inequalities in mortality in Europe so far. Longitudinal data, obtained from population censuses and mortality registries in 14 European populations, from around the period 2000–2005, were used. Analyses concerned men aged 30–59 years and included all-cause mortality and mortality from all cancers, all cardiovascular diseases (CVD), all external, and all other causes. Occupational class was analysed according to five categories: upper and lower non-manual workers, skilled and unskilled manual workers, and farmers and self-employed combined. Inequalities were quantified with mortality rate ratios, rate differences, and population attributable fractions (PAF). Relative and absolute inequalities in all-cause mortality were more pronounced in Finland, Denmark, France, and Lithuania than in other populations, and the same countries (except France) also had the highest PAF values for all-cause mortality. The main contributing causes to these larger inequalities differed strongly between countries (e.g., cancer in France, all other causes in Denmark). Relative and absolute inequalities in CVD mortality were markedly lower in Southern European populations. We conclude that relative and absolute occupational class differences in all-cause and cause specific mortality have persisted into the early 2000's, although the magnitude differs strongly between populations. Comparisons with previous studies suggest that the relative gap in mortality between occupational classes has further widened in some Northern and Western European populations. PMID:25268702

  7. Absolute neutrino mass measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wolf, Joachim

    2011-10-01

    The neutrino mass plays an important role in particle physics, astrophysics and cosmology. In recent years the detection of neutrino flavour oscillations proved that neutrinos carry mass. However, oscillation experiments are only sensitive to the mass-squared difference of the mass eigenvalues. In contrast to cosmological observations and neutrino-less double beta decay (0v2β) searches, single β-decay experiments provide a direct, model-independent way to determine the absolute neutrino mass by measuring the energy spectrum of decay electrons at the endpoint region with high accuracy. Currently the best kinematic upper limits on the neutrino mass of 2.2eV have been set by two experiments in Mainz and Troitsk, using tritium as beta emitter. The next generation tritium β-experiment KATRIN is currently under construction in Karlsruhe/Germany by an international collaboration. KATRIN intends to improve the sensitivity by one order of magnitude to 0.2eV. The investigation of a second isotope (137Rh) is being pursued by the international MARE collaboration using micro-calorimeters to measure the beta spectrum. The technology needed to reach 0.2eV sensitivity is still in the R&D phase. This paper reviews the present status of neutrino-mass measurements with cosmological data, 0v2β decay and single β-decay.

  8. Absolute neutrino mass measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Wolf, Joachim

    2011-10-06

    The neutrino mass plays an important role in particle physics, astrophysics and cosmology. In recent years the detection of neutrino flavour oscillations proved that neutrinos carry mass. However, oscillation experiments are only sensitive to the mass-squared difference of the mass eigenvalues. In contrast to cosmological observations and neutrino-less double beta decay (0v2{beta}) searches, single {beta}-decay experiments provide a direct, model-independent way to determine the absolute neutrino mass by measuring the energy spectrum of decay electrons at the endpoint region with high accuracy.Currently the best kinematic upper limits on the neutrino mass of 2.2eV have been set by two experiments in Mainz and Troitsk, using tritium as beta emitter. The next generation tritium {beta}-experiment KATRIN is currently under construction in Karlsruhe/Germany by an international collaboration. KATRIN intends to improve the sensitivity by one order of magnitude to 0.2eV. The investigation of a second isotope ({sup 137}Rh) is being pursued by the international MARE collaboration using micro-calorimeters to measure the beta spectrum. The technology needed to reach 0.2eV sensitivity is still in the R and D phase. This paper reviews the present status of neutrino-mass measurements with cosmological data, 0v2{beta} decay and single {beta}-decay.

  9. Socioeconomic and geographical disparities in under-five and neonatal mortality in Uttar Pradesh, India.

    PubMed

    Dettrick, Zoe; Jimenez-Soto, Eliana; Hodge, Andrew

    2014-05-01

    As a part of the Millennium Development Goals, India seeks to substantially reduce its burden of childhood mortality. The success or failure of this goal may depend on outcomes within India's most populous state, Uttar Pradesh. This study examines the level of disparities in under-five and neonatal mortality across a range of equity markers within the state. Estimates of under-five and neonatal mortality rates were computed using five datasets, from three available sources: sample registration system, summary birth histories in surveys, and complete birth histories. Disparities were evaluated via comparisons of mortality rates by rural-urban location, ethnicity, wealth, and districts. While Uttar Pradesh has experienced declines in both rates of under-five (162-108 per 1,000 live births) and neonatal (76-49 per 1,000 live births) mortality, the rate of decline has been slow (averaging 2 % per annum). Mortality trends in rural and urban areas are showing signs of convergence, largely due to the much slower rate of change in urban areas. While the gap between rich and poor households has decreased in both urban and rural areas, trends suggest that differences in mortality will remain. Caste-related disparities remain high and show no signs of diminishing. Of concern are also the signs of stagnation in mortality amongst groups with greater ability to access services, such as the urban middle class. Notwithstanding the slow but steady reduction of absolute levels of childhood mortality within Uttar Pradesh, the distribution of the mortality by sub-state populations remains unequal. Future progress may require significant investment in quality of care provided to all sections of the community. PMID:23807718

  10. Mortality in Asia.

    PubMed

    1981-01-01

    Although the general trend in mortality between 1950 and 1975 in South and East Asia has been downward, there is considerable country-to-country variation in the rate of decline. In countries where combined economic, social, and political circumstances resulted in controlling the disease spectrum (e.g., China, Malaysia, Sri Lanka), mortality levels declined to those seen in low-mortality countries. In most of the large countries of the region however, mortality declined at a slower rate, even slowing down considerably in the 1970's while the death rates remained high (e.g., India, Bangladesh, Thailand, Philippines); this slowing down of mortality level is attributed essentially to the poverty-stricken masses of society which were not able to take advantage of social, technological, and health-promoting behavioral changes conducive to mortality decline. Infant mortality levels, although declining since 1950, followed the same dismal pattern of the general mortality level. The rate varies from less than 10/1000 live births (Japan) to more than 140/1000 (Bangladesh, Laos, Nepal). Generally, rural areas exhibited higher infant mortality than urban areas. The level of child mortality declines with increases in the mother's educational level in Bangladesh, India, Indonesia, Sri Lanka, and Thailand. The largest decline in child mortality occurs when at least 1 parent has secondary education. The premature retardation of mortality decline is caused by several factors: economic development, nutrition and food supply, provision and adequacy of health services, and demographic trends. The outlook for the year 2000 for most of Asia's countries will depend heavily on significant population increases. In most countries, particularly in South Asia, population is expected to increase by 75%, much of it in rural areas and among poorer socioeconomic groups. In view of this, Asia's health planners and policymakers will have to develop health policies which will strike a balance

  11. Mortality rates or sociomedical indicators? The work of the League of Nations on standardizing the effects of the Great Depression on health.

    PubMed

    Garcia, Monica

    2014-01-01

    This article explores the first international effort by the League of Nations Health Organization (LNHO) to standardize the study of the effects of the economic crisis of the 1930s on health. Instead of analysing this effort with the benefit of hindsight, this article takes into account the actors' perspectives and, therefore, it relies on the documents produced by the LNHO and public health experts of the 1930s, as well as on the historical scholarship on this subject. This article shows that, despite the declining death rates in Europe and in the US during the crisis, the LNHO considered that death rates concealed a more subtle effect of the crisis on health; hence, they launched a project aimed at making the effect visible. It describes the LNHO programme and the guidelines and methods set out by the organization in 1932 to observe this subtle effect through sociomedical investigations. The results of these surveys are summarized and the article discusses how the eugenic arguments used to explain them were not accepted by the LNHO. The article also shows how some members of the LNHO considered the results of the sociomedical surveys inconclusive and questioned the usefulness of socioeconomic indicators; in so doing, they raised concerns about the intervention of the LNHO in national matters and about the risks of crossing the established limits between science and politics. This article shows that an historical analysis, which takes into account the points of view of the actors involved, illuminates the factors that led the LNHO to conclude that mortality rates were the best method for measuring the effects of the economic crisis on health and that, as they were declining, the Great Depression was not having any deleterious effect on public health. PMID:23132917

  12. A finite-state continuous-time approach for inferring regional migration and mortality rates from archival tagging and conventional tag-recovery experiments.

    PubMed

    Miller, Timothy J; Andersen, Per K

    2008-12-01

    Spatially structured population dynamics models are important management tools for harvested, highly mobile species and although conventional tag recovery experiments remain useful for estimation of various demographic parameters of these models, archival tagging experiments are becoming an important data source for analyzing migratory behavior of mobile marine species. We provide a likelihood-based approach for estimating the regional migration and mortality rate parameters intrinsic to these models that may use information obtained from conventional tag recovery and archival tagging experiments. Specifically, we assume that the regional location and survival of animals through time is a finite-state continuous-time stochastic process. The stochastic process is the basis of probability models for observations provided by the different types of tags. Results from application to simulated tagging experiments for western Atlantic bluefin tuna show that maximum likelihood estimators based on archival tagging observations and corresponding confidence intervals perform similar to conventional tagging observations for a given number of tag releases and releasing tags in each region can improve the behavior of maximum likelihood estimators regardless of tag type. We provide an example application with Atlantic bluefin tuna released with conventional tags in 1990-1992. PMID:18325073

  13. Studies of the mortality of A-bomb survivors. 8. Cancer mortality, 1950-1982

    SciTech Connect

    Preston, D.L.; Kato, H.; Kopecky, K.; Fujita, S.

    1987-07-01

    This study extends an earlier one by 4 years (1979-1982) and includes mortality data on 11,393 additional Nagasaki survivors. Significant dose responses are observed for leukemia, multiple myeloma, and cancers of the lung, female breast, stomach, colon, esophagus, and urinary tract. Due to diagnostic difficulties, results for liver and ovarian cancers, while suggestive of significant dose responses, do not provide convincing evidence for radiogenic effects. No significant dose responses are seen for cancers of the gallbladder, prostate, rectum, pancreas, or uterus, or for lymphoma. For solid tumors, largely due to sex-specific differences in the background rates, the relative risk of radiation-induced mortality is greater for women than for men. For nonleukemic cancers the relative risk seen in those who were young when exposed has decreased with time, while the smaller risks for those who were older at exposure have tended to increase. While the absolute excess risks of radiation-induced mortality due to nonleukemic cancer have increased with time for all age-at-exposure groups, both excess and relative risks of leukemia have generally decreased with time. For leukemia, the rate of decrease in risk and the initial level of risk are inversely related to age at exposure.

  14. Early noninvasive measurement of the indocyanine green plasma disappearance rate accurately predicts early graft dysfunction and mortality after deceased donor liver transplantation.

    PubMed

    Olmedilla, Luis; Pérez-Peña, José María; Ripoll, Cristina; Garutti, Ignacio; de Diego, Roberto; Salcedo, Magdalena; Jiménez, Consuelo; Bañares, Rafael

    2009-10-01

    Early diagnosis of graft dysfunction in liver transplantation is essential for taking appropriate action. Indocyanine green clearance is closely related to liver function and can be measured noninvasively by spectrophotometry. The objectives of this study were to prospectively analyze the relationship between the indocyanine green plasma disappearance rate (ICGPDR) and early graft function after liver transplantation and to evaluate the role of ICGPDR in the prediction of severe graft dysfunction (SGD). One hundred seventy-two liver transplants from deceased donors were analyzed. Ten patients had SGD: 6 were retransplanted, and 4 died while waiting for a new graft. The plasma disappearance rate was measured 1 hour (PDRr60) and within the first 24 hours (PDR1) after reperfusion, and it was significantly lower in the SGD group. PDRr60 and PDR1 were excellent predictors of SGD. A threshold PDRr60 value of 10.8%/minute and a PDR1 value of 10%/minute accurately predicted SGD with areas under the receiver operating curve of 0.94 (95% confidence interval, 0.89-0.97) and 0.96 (95% confidence interval, 0.92-0.98), respectively. In addition, survival was significantly lower in patients with PDRr60 values below 10.8%/minute (53%, 47%, and 47% versus 95%, 94%, and 90% at 3, 6, and 12 months, respectively) and with PDR1 values below 10%/minute (62%, 62%, and 62% versus 94%, 92%, and 88%). In conclusion, very early noninvasive measurement of ICGPDR can accurately predict early severe graft dysfunction and mortality after liver transplantation. PMID:19790138

  15. Ambulatory ECG-based T-wave alternans and heart rate turbulence can predict cardiac mortality in patients with myocardial infarction with or without diabetes mellitus

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Many patients who survive a myocardial infarction (MI) remain at risk of sudden cardiac death despite revascularization and optimal medical treatment. We used the modified moving average (MMA) method to assess the utility of T-wave alternans (TWA) and heart rate turbulence (HRT) as risk markers in MI patients with or without diabetes mellitus (DM). Methods We prospectively enrolled 248 consecutive patients: 96 with MI (post-MI patients); 77 MI with DM (post-MI + DM patients); 75 controls without cardiovascular disease (group control). Both TWA and HRT were measured on ambulatory electrocardiograms (AECGs). HRT was assessed by two parameters ─ turbulence onset (TO) and turbulence slope (TS). HRT was considered positive when both TO ≥0% and TS ≤2.5 ms/R-R interval were met. The endpoint was cardiac mortality. Results TWA values differed significantly between MI and controls. Post-MI + DM patients had higher TWA values than post-MI patients (58 ± 21 μV VS 52 ± 18 μV, P = 0.029). Impaired HRT--increased TO and decreased TS were observed in MI patients with or without DM. During follow-up of 578 ± 146 days, cardiac death occurred in ten patients and three of them suffered sudden cardiac death (SCD). Multivariate analysis determined that a HRT-positive outcome [HR (95% CI): 5.01, 1.33–18.85; P = 0.017], as well as the combination of abnormal TWA (≥47 μV) and positive HRT had significant association with the endpoint [HR (95% CI): 9.08, 2.21–37.2; P = 0.002)]. Conclusion This study indicates that AECGs-based TWA and HRT can predict cardiac mortality in MI patients with or without DM. Combined analysis TWA and HRT may be a convenient and useful method of identifying patients at high risk for cardiovascular death. PMID:22950360

  16. Oxidative DNA damage measured in human lymphocytes: large differences between sexes and between countries, and correlations with heart disease mortality rates.

    PubMed

    Collins, A R; Gedik, C M; Olmedilla, B; Southon, S; Bellizzi, M

    1998-10-01

    The 'antioxidant hypothesis' proposes that vitamin C, vitamin E, carotenoids, and other antioxidants occurring in fruit and vegetables afford protection against heart disease and cancer by preventing oxidative damage to lipids and to DNA, respectively. To test elements of this hypothesis, we have measured blood levels of dietary antioxidants, and 8-oxodeoxyguanosine (8-oxo-dG) concentrations in lymphocyte DNA, in healthy men and women from five European countries: France, Ireland, The Netherlands, Spain, and the U.K. Volunteers, aged 25 45, all nonsmokers, gave blood samples before and after a 12-wk carotenoid supplementation regime. Vitamin C was measured in plasma and vitamin E and carotenoids were measured in serum by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). 8-oxo-dG was assayed by HPLC (with coulometric detection) in DNA isolated from lymphocytes from the same blood samples. Mean values were calculated for groups of volunteers at each sampling time according to country, sex, and supplementation (between 9 and 24 individual samples contributing to each mean). We found that 8-oxo-dG levels in lymphocyte DNA vary significantly according to sex and country. A low mean 8-oxo-dG concentration is seen in DNA of women from all five countries, and of men from France and Spain. 8-oxo-dG is significantly higher (up to about threefold) in lymphocyte DNA from men in Ireland and the U.K. Oxidative DNA damage is not significantly affected by carotenoid supplementation; nor is there any association with mean baseline levels of antioxidants, which are generally similar in the five countries. The five countries sampled lie on an axis from northern to southern Europe with a steep gradient in terms of premature heart disease. There is a strong association between premature coronary heart disease mortality in men and the mean levels of 8-oxo-dG for the five countries (r = 0.95, P < 0.01). Women have low coronary heart disease mortality rates, which do not correlate with 8-oxo

  17. Absolute Identification by Relative Judgment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stewart, Neil; Brown, Gordon D. A.; Chater, Nick

    2005-01-01

    In unidimensional absolute identification tasks, participants identify stimuli that vary along a single dimension. Performance is surprisingly poor compared with discrimination of the same stimuli. Existing models assume that identification is achieved using long-term representations of absolute magnitudes. The authors propose an alternative…

  18. Be Resolute about Absolute Value

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kidd, Margaret L.

    2007-01-01

    This article explores how conceptualization of absolute value can start long before it is introduced. The manner in which absolute value is introduced to students in middle school has far-reaching consequences for their future mathematical understanding. It begins to lay the foundation for students' understanding of algebra, which can change…

  19. The ability of self-rated health to predict mortality among community-dwelling elderly individuals differs according to the specific cause of death: data from the NEDICES Cohort

    PubMed Central

    Fernández-Ruiz, Mario; Guerra-Vales, Juan M.; Trincado, Rocío; Fernández, Rebeca; Medrano, María José; Villarejo, Alberto; Benito-León, Julián; Bermejo-Pareja, Félix

    2013-01-01

    Background The biomedical and psychosocial mechanisms underlying the relationship between self-rated health (SRH) and mortality in elderly individuals remain unclear. Objective To assess the association between different measurements of subjective health (global, age-comparative, and time-comparative SRH) and cause-specific mortality. Methods Neurological Disorders in Central Spain (NEDICES) is a prospective population-based survey of the prevalence and incidence of major age-associated conditions. Data on demographic and health-related variables were collected from 5,278 subjects (≥65 years) at the baseline questionnaire. Thirteen-year mortality and cause of death were obtained from the National Death Registry. Adjusted hazard ratios (aHR) for SRH and all-cause and cause-specific mortality were estimated by Cox proportional hazard models. Results At baseline, 4,958 participants (93.9%) answered the SRH questionnaire. At the end of follow-up 2,468 (49.8%) participants had died (of whom 723 [29.2%] died from cardiovascular diseases, 609 [24.7%] from cancer, and 359 [14.5%] from respiratory diseases). Global SRH predicted independently all-cause mortality (aHR for “poor or very poor” vs. “very good” category: 1.39; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.15–1.69). Analysis of cause-specific mortality revealed that global SRH was an independent predictor for death due to respiratory diseases (aHR for “poor or very poor” vs. “very good” category: 2.61; 95% CI: 1.55–4.39), whereas age-comparative SRH exhibited a gradient effect on the risk of death due to stroke. Time-comparative SRH provided small additional predictive value. Conclusions The predictive ability of SRH for mortality largely differs according to the specific cause of death, with the strongest associations found for respiratory disease and stroke mortality. PMID:23615509

  20. Reinfestation analysis to estimate ectoparasite population size, emergence, and mortality.

    PubMed

    Lehmann, T

    1994-03-01

    The key components of ectoparasite vectorial capacity are poorly known, and no estimates of absolute population size for nest ectoparasites nor average longevity under natural conditions are available. A simple method to estimate these and other population parameters is suggested here, using body infestation data obtained by a specific host sampling design and the reproductive status of female ectoparasites. In contrast to mark-release-recapture techniques, this method requires minimal effort. Data on fleas, Synosternus cleopatrae (Rothschild), infesting gerbils, Gerbilus anderosoni allenbyi Thomas, were used as a preliminary test of this method. Thus, the average absolute density of female S. cleopatrae per host varied from seven in June to 24 in September; average female longevity varied from 17 to 5 d in that period. The quality of the parameter estimates was assessed by computer simulations to evaluate their variance and by comparison with the data available on fleas. The simulation indicated that estimates of absolute population size and proportion of the corporeal subpopulation were robust, but estimates of emergence rate, mortality rate, and average longevity were considerably less. The method's efficiency depends on the infestation rate and was considered suitable for medium to high counts of ectoparasites infesting solitary hosts. PMID:8189416

  1. Cancer mortality among Techa River residents and their offspring

    SciTech Connect

    Kossenko, M.M.

    1996-07-01

    This paper analyzes the data on leukemia and solid cancers of all types among 28,000 people exposed due to discharges of radioactive waste into the Techa River in the South Urals. Cancer mortality rates for the 33-y period since the beginning of the exposure have been estimated. In addition, the paper discusses malignancy cases among the first generation offspring of the exposed people. In comparison with matched control groups, an increased incidence of malignant neoplasms was observed among the exposed population. The leukemia risk, estimated on the basis of the linear model of absolute risk, was 0.85 per 10,000 person-y Gy of the dose accumulated in red bone marrow. Solid cancer risk (except osteosarcoma), estimated using linear model of relative risk, was 0.65 per Gy of dose accumulated in soft tissues. No increase in cancer mortality has been documented for the offspring of the exposed individuals. 10 refs., 4 figs., 4 tabs.

  2. Oral Administration of Faecalibacterium prausnitzii Decreased the Incidence of Severe Diarrhea and Related Mortality Rate and Increased Weight Gain in Preweaned Dairy Heifers

    PubMed Central

    Foditsch, Carla; Pereira, Richard Van Vleck; Ganda, Erika Korzune; Gomez, Marilia Souza; Marques, Eduardo Carvalho; Santin, Thiago; Bicalho, Rodrigo Carvalho

    2015-01-01

    Probiotics are a promising alternative to improve food animal productivity and health. However, scientific evidence that specific microbes can be used to benefit animal health and performance is limited. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of administering a live culture of Faecalibacterium prausnitzii to newborn dairy calves on subsequent growth, health, and fecal microbiome. Initially, a safety trial was conducted using 30 newborn bull calves to assess potential adverse effects of the oral and rectal administration of F. prausnitzii to neonatal calves. No adverse reactions, such as increased body temperature or heart and respiratory rates, were observed after the administration of the treatments. All calves survived the experimental period, and there was no difference in fecal consistency score, attitude, appetite or dehydration between the treatment groups. The rectal route was not an efficient practice while the oral route ensures that the full dose is administered to the treated calves. Subsequently, a randomized field trial was completed in a commercial farm with preweaned calves. A total of 554 Holstein heifers were assigned to one of two treatment groups: treated calves (FPTRT) and non-treated calves (control). Treated calves received two oral doses of F. prausnitzii, one at treatment assignment (1st week) and another one week later. The FPTRT group presented significantly lower incidence of severe diarrhea (3.1%) compared with the control group (6.8%). Treated calves also had lower mortality rate associated with severe diarrhea (1.5%) compared to control calves (4.4%). Furthermore, FPTRT calves gained significantly more weight, 4.4 kg over the preweaning period, than controls calves. The relative abundance of F. prausnitzii in the fecal microbiota was significantly higher in the 3rd and 5th weeks of life of FPTRT calves than of the control calves, as revealed by sequencing of the 16S rRNA gene. Our findings showed that oral

  3. Oral Administration of Faecalibacterium prausnitzii Decreased the Incidence of Severe Diarrhea and Related Mortality Rate and Increased Weight Gain in Preweaned Dairy Heifers.

    PubMed

    Foditsch, Carla; Pereira, Richard Van Vleck; Ganda, Erika Korzune; Gomez, Marilia Souza; Marques, Eduardo Carvalho; Santin, Thiago; Bicalho, Rodrigo Carvalho

    2015-01-01

    Probiotics are a promising alternative to improve food animal productivity and health. However, scientific evidence that specific microbes can be used to benefit animal health and performance is limited. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of administering a live culture of Faecalibacterium prausnitzii to newborn dairy calves on subsequent growth, health, and fecal microbiome. Initially, a safety trial was conducted using 30 newborn bull calves to assess potential adverse effects of the oral and rectal administration of F. prausnitzii to neonatal calves. No adverse reactions, such as increased body temperature or heart and respiratory rates, were observed after the administration of the treatments. All calves survived the experimental period, and there was no difference in fecal consistency score, attitude, appetite or dehydration between the treatment groups. The rectal route was not an efficient practice while the oral route ensures that the full dose is administered to the treated calves. Subsequently, a randomized field trial was completed in a commercial farm with preweaned calves. A total of 554 Holstein heifers were assigned to one of two treatment groups: treated calves (FPTRT) and non-treated calves (control). Treated calves received two oral doses of F. prausnitzii, one at treatment assignment (1st week) and another one week later. The FPTRT group presented significantly lower incidence of severe diarrhea (3.1%) compared with the control group (6.8%). Treated calves also had lower mortality rate associated with severe diarrhea (1.5%) compared to control calves (4.4%). Furthermore, FPTRT calves gained significantly more weight, 4.4 kg over the preweaning period, than controls calves. The relative abundance of F. prausnitzii in the fecal microbiota was significantly higher in the 3rd and 5th weeks of life of FPTRT calves than of the control calves, as revealed by sequencing of the 16S rRNA gene. Our findings showed that oral

  4. The mortality of companies.

    PubMed

    Daepp, Madeleine I G; Hamilton, Marcus J; West, Geoffrey B; Bettencourt, Luís M A

    2015-05-01

    The firm is a fundamental economic unit of contemporary human societies. Studies on the general quantitative and statistical character of firms have produced mixed results regarding their lifespans and mortality. We examine a comprehensive database of more than 25 000 publicly traded North American companies, from 1950 to 2009, to derive the statistics of firm lifespans. Based on detailed survival analysis, we show that the mortality of publicly traded companies manifests an approximately constant hazard rate over long periods of observation. This regularity indicates that mortality rates are independent of a company's age. We show that the typical half-life of a publicly traded company is about a decade, regardless of business sector. Our results shed new light on the dynamics of births and deaths of publicly traded companies and identify some of the necessary ingredients of a general theory of firms. PMID:25833247

  5. The mortality of companies

    PubMed Central

    Daepp, Madeleine I. G.; Hamilton, Marcus J.; West, Geoffrey B.; Bettencourt, Luís M. A.

    2015-01-01

    The firm is a fundamental economic unit of contemporary human societies. Studies on the general quantitative and statistical character of firms have produced mixed results regarding their lifespans and mortality. We examine a comprehensive database of more than 25 000 publicly traded North American companies, from 1950 to 2009, to derive the statistics of firm lifespans. Based on detailed survival analysis, we show that the mortality of publicly traded companies manifests an approximately constant hazard rate over long periods of observation. This regularity indicates that mortality rates are independent of a company's age. We show that the typical half-life of a publicly traded company is about a decade, regardless of business sector. Our results shed new light on the dynamics of births and deaths of publicly traded companies and identify some of the necessary ingredients of a general theory of firms. PMID:25833247

  6. Seven-Day Mortality Can Be Predicted in Medical Patients by Blood Pressure, Age, Respiratory Rate, Loss of Independence, and Peripheral Oxygen Saturation (the PARIS Score): A Prospective Cohort Study with External Validation

    PubMed Central

    Brabrand, Mikkel; Lassen, Annmarie Touborg; Knudsen, Torben; Hallas, Jesper

    2015-01-01

    Background Most existing risk stratification systems predicting mortality in emergency departments or admission units are complex in clinical use or have not been validated to a level where use is considered appropriate. We aimed to develop and validate a simple system that predicts seven-day mortality of acutely admitted medical patients using routinely collected variables obtained within the first minutes after arrival. Methods and Findings This observational prospective cohort study used three independent cohorts at the medical admission units at a regional teaching hospital and a tertiary university hospital and included all adult (≥15 years) patients. Multivariable logistic regression analysis was used to identify the clinical variables that best predicted the endpoint. From this, we developed a simplified model that can be calculated without specialized tools or loss of predictive ability. The outcome was defined as seven-day all-cause mortality. 76 patients (2.5%) met the endpoint in the development cohort, 57 (2.0%) in the first validation cohort, and 111 (4.3%) in the second. Systolic blood Pressure, Age, Respiratory rate, loss of Independence, and peripheral oxygen Saturation were associated with the endpoint (full model). Based on this, we developed a simple score (range 0–5), ie, the PARIS score, by dichotomizing the variables. The ability to identify patients at increased risk (discriminatory power and calibration) was excellent for all three cohorts using both models. For patients with a PARIS score ≥3, sensitivity was 62.5–74.0%, specificity 85.9–91.1%, positive predictive value 11.2–17.5%, and negative predictive value 98.3–99.3%. Patients with a score ≤1 had a low mortality (≤1%); with 2, intermediate mortality (2–5%); and ≥3, high mortality (≥10%). Conclusions Seven-day mortality can be predicted upon admission with high sensitivity and specificity and excellent negative predictive values. PMID:25867881

  7. Association between resting heart rate across the life course and all-cause mortality: longitudinal findings from the Medical Research Council (MRC) National Survey of Health and Development (NSHD)

    PubMed Central

    Hartaigh, Bríain Ó; Gill, Thomas M; Shah, Imran; Hughes, Alun D; Deanfield, John E; Kuh, Diana; Hardy, Rebecca

    2014-01-01

    Background Resting heart rate (RHR) is an independent risk factor for mortality. Nevertheless, it is unclear whether elevations in childhood and mid-adulthood RHR, including changes over time, are associated with mortality later in life. We sought to evaluate the association between RHR across the life course, along with its changes and all-cause mortality. Methods We studied 4638 men and women from the Medical Research Council (MRC) National Survey of Health and Development (NSHD) cohort born during 1 week in 1946. RHR was obtained during childhood at ages 6, 7 and 11, and in mid-adulthood at ages 36 and 43. Using multivariable Cox regression, we calculated the HR for incident mortality according to RHR measured at each time point, along with changes in mid-adulthood RHR. Results At age 11, those in the top fifth of the RHR distribution (≥97 bpm) had an increased adjusted hazard of 1.42 (95% CI 1.04 to 1.93) for all-cause mortality. A higher adjusted risk (HR, 95% CI 2.17, 1.40 to 3.36) of death was also observed for those in the highest fifth (≥81 bpm) at age 43. For a > 25 bpm increased change in the RHR over the course of 7 years (age 36–43), the adjusted hazard was elevated more than threefold (HR, 95% CI 3.26, 1.54 to 6.90). After adjustment, RHR at ages 6, 7 and 36 were not associated with all-cause mortality. Conclusions Elevated RHR during childhood and midlife, along with greater changes in mid-adulthood RHR, are associated with an increased risk of all-cause mortality. PMID:24850484

  8. Trends in Educational Differentials in Suicide Mortality between 1993 - 2006 in Korea

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Weon Young; Khang, Young-Ho; Noh, Manegseok; Ryu, Jae-In; Son, Mia

    2009-01-01

    Purpose This study aims to examine how inequalities in suicide by education changed during and after macroeconomic restructuring following the economic crisis of 1997 in South Korea. Materials and Methods Using Korea's 1995, 2000, and 2005 census data aggregately linked to mortality data (1993 - 2006), relative and absolute differentials in suicide mortality by education were calculated by gender and age among Korean population aged 35 and over. Results Average annual suicide mortality rates have steadily increased from 1993 - 1997 to 2003 - 2006 in almost all sociodemographic groups stratified by gender, age, and education. Based on the relative index of inequality (RII) and slope index of inequality (SII), educational differentials in suicide mortality generally increased over time in men and women aged 45 years +. Although RII did not increase with year among men and women aged 35 - 44 years, SII showed a significantly increasing trend in this age group. Conclusion These worsening absolute inequalities in suicide mortality indicate that the governmental suicide prevention policy should be directed toward socially disadvantaged groups of the Korean population. PMID:19718395

  9. [Geriatrics: an absolute necessity].

    PubMed

    Oostvogel, F J

    1982-02-01

    The medical care for elderly people could be greatly improved. If no specific attention is paid immediately, namely through the various training courses and by way of further and part-time schooling, then this medical care will remain unsatisfactory. This situation worsens continually due to the growing number of elderly people and, within this group, a much higher rate of very aged people. Increasing the care in institutions is altogether unsatisfactory. The problem should be dealt with structurally and the emphasis placed upon prevention and early-diagnosis. There is an urgent need for an integrated method, keeping in mind the limits of the elderly person, from the physical, psychological and social aspects. This demands teamwork in a multidisciplinary system inside as well as outside the institutions. It demands a thorough knowledge of geriatrics based upon gerontology. Geriatricians are urgently needed in this development together with doctors in nursing homes, general practitioners and specialists, so that the necessary care may be established as quickly as possible. PMID:7101393

  10. Serbia within the European context: An analysis of premature mortality

    PubMed Central

    Santric Milicevic, Milena; Bjegovic, Vesna; Terzic, Zorica; Vukovic, Dejana; Kocev, Nikola; Marinkovic, Jelena; Vasic, Vladimir

    2009-01-01

    Background Based on the global predictions majority of deaths will be collectively caused by cancer, cardiovascular diseases, and traffic accidents over the coming 25 years. In planning future national health policy actions, inter – regional assessments play an important role. The purpose of the study was to analyze similarities and differences in premature mortality between Serbia, EURO A, EURO B, and EURO C regions in 2000. Methods Mortality and premature mortality patterns were analysed according to cause of death, by gender and seven age intervals. The study results are presented in relative (%) and absolute terms (age-specific and age-standardized death rates per 100,000 population, and age-standardized rates of years of life lost – YLL per 1,000). Direct standardization of rates was undertaken using the standard population of Europe. The inter-regional comparison was based on a calculation of differences in YLL structures and with a ratio of age-standardized YLL rates per 1,000. A multivariate generalized linear model was used to explore mortality of Serbia and Europe sub-regions with ln age-specific death rates. The dissimilarity was achieved with a p ≤ 0.05. Results According to the mortality pattern, Serbia was similar to EURO B, but with a lower average YLL per death case. YLL patterns indicated similarities between Serbia and EURO A, while SRR YLL had similarities between Serbia and EURO B. Compared to all Europe sub-regions, Serbia had a major excess of premature mortality in neoplasms and diabetes mellitus. Serbia had lost more years of life than EURO A due to cardiovascular, genitourinary diseases, and intentional injuries. Yet, Serbia was not as burdened with communicable diseases and injuries as were EURO B and EURO C. Conclusion With a premature mortality pattern, Serbia is placed in the middle position of the Europe triangle. The main excess of YLL in Serbia was due to cardiovascular, malignant diseases, and diabetes mellitus. The results

  11. Advance Report of Final Mortality Statistics, 1985.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Monthly Vital Statistics Report, 1987

    1987-01-01

    This document presents mortality statistics for 1985 for the entire United States. Data analysis and discussion of these factors is included: death and death rates; death rates by age, sex, and race; expectation of life at birth and at specified ages; causes of death; infant mortality; and maternal mortality. Highlights reported include: (1) the…

  12. Absolute radiometry and the solar constant

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Willson, R. C.

    1974-01-01

    A series of active cavity radiometers (ACRs) are described which have been developed as standard detectors for the accurate measurement of irradiance in absolute units. It is noted that the ACR is an electrical substitution calorimeter, is designed for automatic remote operation in any environment, and can make irradiance measurements in the range from low-level IR fluxes up to 30 solar constants with small absolute uncertainty. The instrument operates in a differential mode by chopping the radiant flux to be measured at a slow rate, and irradiance is determined from two electrical power measurements together with the instrumental constant. Results are reported for measurements of the solar constant with two types of ACRs. The more accurate measurement yielded a value of 136.6 plus or minus 0.7 mW/sq cm (1.958 plus or minus 0.010 cal/sq cm per min).

  13. Absolute calibration of TFTR helium proportional counters

    SciTech Connect

    Strachan, J.D.; Diesso, M.; Jassby, D.; Johnson, L.; McCauley, S.; Munsat, T.; Roquemore, A.L.; Barnes, C.W. |; Loughlin, M. |

    1995-06-01

    The TFTR helium proportional counters are located in the central five (5) channels of the TFTR multichannel neutron collimator. These detectors were absolutely calibrated using a 14 MeV neutron generator positioned at the horizontal midplane of the TFTR vacuum vessel. The neutron generator position was scanned in centimeter steps to determine the collimator aperture width to 14 MeV neutrons and the absolute sensitivity of each channel. Neutron profiles were measured for TFTR plasmas with time resolution between 5 msec and 50 msec depending upon count rates. The He detectors were used to measure the burnup of 1 MeV tritons in deuterium plasmas, the transport of tritium in trace tritium experiments, and the residual tritium levels in plasmas following 50:50 DT experiments.

  14. Modelling Future Coronary Heart Disease Mortality to 2030 in the British Isles

    PubMed Central

    Hughes, John; Kabir, Zubair; Bennett, Kathleen; Hotchkiss, Joel W.; Kee, Frank; Leyland, Alastair H.; Davies, Carolyn; Bandosz, Piotr; Guzman-Castillo, Maria; O’Flaherty, Martin; Capewell, Simon; Critchley, Julia

    2015-01-01

    Objective Despite rapid declines over the last two decades, coronary heart disease (CHD) mortality rates in the British Isles are still amongst the highest in Europe. This study uses a modelling approach to compare the potential impact of future risk factor scenarios relating to smoking and physical activity levels, dietary salt and saturated fat intakes on future CHD mortality in three countries: Northern Ireland (NI), Republic of Ireland (RoI) and Scotland. Methods CHD mortality models previously developed and validated in each country were extended to predict potential reductions in CHD mortality from 2010 (baseline year) to 2030. Risk factor trends data from recent surveys at baseline were used to model alternative future risk factor scenarios: Absolute decreases in (i) smoking prevalence and (ii) physical inactivity rates of up to 15% by 2030; relative decreases in (iii) dietary salt intake of up to 30% by 2030 and (iv) dietary saturated fat of up to 6% by 2030. Probabilistic sensitivity analyses were then conducted. Results Projected populations in 2030 were 1.3, 3.4 and 3.9 million in NI, RoI and Scotland respectively (adults aged 25–84). In 2030: assuming recent declining mortality trends continue: 15% absolute reductions in smoking could decrease CHD deaths by 5.8–7.2%. 15% absolute reductions in physical inactivity levels could decrease CHD deaths by 3.1–3.6%. Relative reductions in salt intake of 30% could decrease CHD deaths by 5.2–5.6% and a 6% reduction in saturated fat intake might decrease CHD deaths by some 7.8–9.0%. These projections remained stable under a wide range of sensitivity analyses. Conclusions Feasible reductions in four cardiovascular risk factors (already achieved elsewhere) could substantially reduce future coronary deaths. More aggressive polices are therefore needed in the British Isles to control tobacco, promote healthy food and increase physical activity. PMID:26422012

  15. Changes in Age-Adjusted Mortality Rates and Disparities for Rural Physician Shortage Areas Staffed by the National Health Service Corps: 1984-1998

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pathman, Donald E.; Fryer, George E.; Green, Larry A.; Phillips, Robert L.

    2005-01-01

    Objective: This study assesses whether the National Health Service Corps's legislated goals to see health improve and health disparities lessen are being met in rural health professional shortage areas for a key population health indicator: age-adjusted mortality. Methods: In a descriptive study using a pre-post design with comparison groups, the…

  16. Changes in Age-Adjusted Mortality Rates and Disparities for Rural Physician Shortage Areas Staffed by the National Health Service Corps: 1984-1998

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pathman, Donald E.; Fryer, George E.; Green, Larry A.; Phillips, Robert L.

    2005-01-01

    This study assesses whether the National Health Service Corps's legislated goals to see health improve and health disparities lessen are being met in rural health professional shortage areas for a key population health indicator: age-adjusted mortality. In a descriptive study using a pre-post design with comparison groups, the authors calculated…

  17. High urinary homoarginine excretion is associated with low rates of all-cause mortality and graft failure in renal transplant recipients.

    PubMed

    Frenay, Anne-Roos S; Kayacelebi, Arslan Arinc; Beckmann, Bibiana; Soedamah-Muhtu, Sabita S; de Borst, Martin H; van den Berg, Else; van Goor, Harry; Bakker, Stephan J L; Tsikas, Dimitrios

    2015-09-01

    Renal transplant recipients (RTR) have an increased cardiovascular risk profile. Low levels of circulating homoarginine (hArg) are a novel risk factor for mortality and the progression of atherosclerosis. The kidney is known as a major source of hArg, suggesting that urinary excretion of hArg (UhArg) might be associated with mortality and graft failure in RTR. hArg was quantified by mass spectrometry in 24-h urine samples of 704 RTR (functioning graft ≥1 year) and 103 healthy subjects. UhArg determinants were identified with multivariable linear regression models. Associations of UhArg with all-cause mortality and graft failure were assessed using multivariable Cox regression analyses. UhArg excretion was significantly lower in RTR compared to healthy controls [1.62 (1.09-2.61) vs. 2.46 (1.65-4.06) µmol/24 h, P < 0.001]. In multivariable linear regression models, body surface area, diastolic blood pressure, eGFR, pre-emptive transplantation, serum albumin, albuminuria, urinary excretion of urea and uric acid and use of sirolimus were positively associated with UhArg, while donor age and serum phosphate were inversely associated (model R (2) = 0.43). During follow-up for 3.1 (2.7-3.9) years, 83 (12 %) patients died and 45 (7 %) developed graft failure. UhArg was inversely associated with all-cause mortality [hazard risk (HR) 0.52 (95 % CI 0.40-0.66), P < 0.001] and graft failure [HR 0.58 (0.42-0.81), P = 0.001]. These associations remained independent of potential confounders. High UhArg levels are associated with reduced all-cause mortality and graft failure in RTR. Kidney-derived hArg is likely to be of particular importance for proper maintenance of cardiovascular and renal systems. PMID:26142633

  18. Peritoneal solute transport rate as an independent risk factor for total and cardiovascular mortality in a population of peritoneal dialysis patients.

    PubMed

    Janda, Katarzyna; Krzanowski, Marcin; Dumnicka, Paulina; Kuśnierz-Cabala, Beata; Miarka, Przemysław; Sułowicz, Władysław

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to assess the influence of peritoneal permeability expressed as the dialysate-to-plasma ratio of creatinine (D/P Cr) on total and cardiovascular (CV) mortality in a population of peritoneal dialysis (PD) patients during a 6-year observation period. The study recruited 55 patients (mean age: 53 years) treated with PD for a median of 24 months. Hematology parameters and serum albumin were determined using routine methods. Tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha) and transforming growth factor beta (TGF-beta1) were determined by high-sensitivity ELISA. Peritoneal transport characteristics were identified using D/P Cr reference values after a peritoneal equilibration test. During the 6-year observation period, 22 patients (40%) died, mostly from CV complications (77% of deaths). In multiple Cox regression, D/P Cr and dialysate volume at PD initiation predicted total [hazard ratio (HR): 1.57; p = 0.02; and HR: 1.20; p = 0.04 respectively] and CV mortality (HR: 1.65; p = 0.02; and HR: 1.23; p = 0.05 respectively) independent of age, dialysis therapy duration, serum albumin concentration, dialysis adequacy measures, TGF-beta1, and TNF-alpha. Additionally, TNF-alpha was independently associated with all-cause and CV mortality, and albumin, with all-cause mortality. Baseline D/P Cr was a strong independent marker of survival in PD patients. Baseline D/P Cr and dialysate volume were independent risk factors for total and CV mortality in the PD population and could be significant for assessing CV risk in this population. PMID:25338416

  19. Climatic correlates of tree mortality in water- and energy-limited forests

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Das, Adrian J.; Stephenson, Nathan L.; Flint, Alan; Das, Tapash; van Mantgem, Phillip J.

    2013-01-01

    Recent increases in tree mortality rates across the western USA are correlated with increasing temperatures, but mechanisms remain unresolved. Specifically, increasing mortality could predominantly be a consequence of temperature-induced increases in either (1) drought stress, or (2) the effectiveness of tree-killing insects and pathogens. Using long-term data from California’s Sierra Nevada mountain range, we found that in water-limited (low-elevation) forests mortality was unambiguously best modeled by climatic water deficit, consistent with the first mechanism. In energy-limited (high-elevation) forests deficit models were only equivocally better than temperature models, suggesting that the second mechanism is increasingly important in these forests. We could not distinguish between models predicting mortality using absolute versus relative changes in water deficit, and these two model types led to different forecasts of mortality vulnerability under future climate scenarios. Our results provide evidence for differing climatic controls of tree mortality in water- and energy-limited forests, while highlighting the need for an improved understanding of tree mortality processes.

  20. Climatic correlates of tree mortality in water- and energy-limited forests.

    PubMed

    Das, Adrian J; Stephenson, Nathan L; Flint, Alan; Das, Tapash; van Mantgem, Phillip J

    2013-01-01

    Recent increases in tree mortality rates across the western USA are correlated with increasing temperatures, but mechanisms remain unresolved. Specifically, increasing mortality could predominantly be a consequence of temperature-induced increases in either (1) drought stress, or (2) the effectiveness of tree-killing insects and pathogens. Using long-term data from California's Sierra Nevada mountain range, we found that in water-limited (low-elevation) forests mortality was unambiguously best modeled by climatic water deficit, consistent with the first mechanism. In energy-limited (high-elevation) forests deficit models were only equivocally better than temperature models, suggesting that the second mechanism is increasingly important in these forests. We could not distinguish between models predicting mortality using absolute versus relative changes in water deficit, and these two model types led to different forecasts of mortality vulnerability under future climate scenarios. Our results provide evidence for differing climatic controls of tree mortality in water- and energy-limited forests, while highlighting the need for an improved understanding of tree mortality processes. PMID:23936118

  1. Climatic Correlates of Tree Mortality in Water- and Energy-Limited Forests

    PubMed Central

    Das, Adrian J.; Stephenson, Nathan L.; Flint, Alan; Das, Tapash; van Mantgem, Phillip J.

    2013-01-01

    Recent increases in tree mortality rates across the western USA are correlated with increasing temperatures, but mechanisms remain unresolved. Specifically, increasing mortality could predominantly be a consequence of temperature-induced increases in either (1) drought stress, or (2) the effectiveness of tree-killing insects and pathogens. Using long-term data from California’s Sierra Nevada mountain range, we found that in water-limited (low-elevation) forests mortality was unambiguously best modeled by climatic water deficit, consistent with the first mechanism. In energy-limited (high-elevation) forests deficit models were only equivocally better than temperature models, suggesting that the second mechanism is increasingly important in these forests. We could not distinguish between models predicting mortality using absolute versus relative changes in water deficit, and these two model types led to different forecasts of mortality vulnerability under future climate scenarios. Our results provide evidence for differing climatic controls of tree mortality in water- and energy-limited forests, while highlighting the need for an improved understanding of tree mortality processes. PMID:23936118

  2. Bladder cancer mortality of workers exposed to aromatic amines: a 58-year follow-up.

    PubMed

    Pira, Enrico; Piolatto, Giorgio; Negri, Eva; Romano, Canzio; Boffetta, Paolo; Lipworth, Loren; McLaughlin, Joseph K; La Vecchia, Carlo

    2010-07-21

    We previously investigated bladder cancer risk in a cohort of dyestuff workers who were heavily exposed to aromatic amines from 1922 through 1972. We updated the follow-up by 14 years (through 2003) for 590 exposed workers to include more than 30 years of follow-up since last exposure to aromatic amines. Expected numbers of deaths from bladder cancer and other causes were computed by use of national mortality rates from 1951 to 1980 and regional mortality rates subsequently. There were 394 deaths, compared with 262.7 expected (standardized mortality ratio = 1.50, 95% confidence interval = 1.36 to 1.66). Overall, 56 deaths from bladder cancer were observed, compared with 3.4 expected (standardized mortality ratio = 16.5, 95% confidence interval = 12.4 to 21.4). The standardized mortality ratio for bladder cancer increased with younger age at first exposure and increasing duration of exposure. Although the standardized mortality ratio for bladder cancer steadily decreased with time since exposure stopped, the absolute risk remained approximately constant at 3.5 deaths per 1000 man-years up to 29 years after exposure stopped. Excess risk was apparent 30 years or more after last exposure. PMID:20548022

  3. [Changes in infant mortality].

    PubMed

    Aguirre, A

    1997-01-01

    Mexico's infant mortality rate is estimated to have declined from 189 in 1930 to 129 in 1950 and 30 in 1995. The infant mortality rate has continued its decline despite the economic crisis of recent years. The use of oral rehydration therapy has reduced mortality from diarrhea, and the spread of family planning has reduced the numbers of births at high risk due to maternal age, parity, or short birth intervals. The types of causes of infant death have changed as the numbers have decreased. They can be grouped in ascending order according to the difficulty of prevention: diseases preventable by immunization, acute diarrhea, acute respiratory infections, perinatal disorders, and congenital anomalies. Over two-thirds of infant deaths recorded since 1950 have been due to these causes. Infectious diseases, including diarrhea, acute respiratory infections, and conditions preventable by immunization predominated as causes of infant mortality before 1930. As the epidemiological transition progresses, diseases preventable by immunization lose importance, and diarrhea and respiratory infections occupy the first two places, with perinatal disorders being third. Between 1980 and 1990, in Mexico, diarrhea and acute respiratory infections dropped to second and third place after perinatal disorders, with congenital anomalies in fourth place. In most developed countries, perinatal disorders and congenital anomalies are the two most frequent causes of death, while diarrhea and respiratory infections no longer appear in the top five. In 1995, the four main causes in Mexico in descending order were perinatal disorders, congenital anomalies, acute respiratory infections, and diarrhea. PMID:12158082

  4. Absolute transition probabilities of phosphorus.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, M. H.; Roig, R. A.; Bengtson, R. D.

    1971-01-01

    Use of a gas-driven shock tube to measure the absolute strengths of 21 P I lines and 126 P II lines (from 3300 to 6900 A). Accuracy for prominent, isolated neutral and ionic lines is estimated to be 28 to 40% and 18 to 30%, respectively. The data and the corresponding theoretical predictions are examined for conformity with the sum rules.-

  5. Infant Mortality and Native Hawaiians/Pacific Islanders

    MedlinePlus

    ... Infant Heath & Mortality Infant Mortality and Native Hawaiians/Pacific Islanders While the overall infant mortality rate for Asians/Pacific Islanders is comparable to the white population, disparities ...

  6. Hodgkin's disease mortality in Europe.

    PubMed Central

    La Vecchia, C.; Levi, F.; Lucchini, F.; Kaye, S. B.; Boyle, P.

    1991-01-01

    Trends in mortality from Hodgkin's disease between mid 1950s and the late 1980s have been analysed for 16 western European and seven eastern European countries. In all western countries there were substantial falls in mortality from the late 1960s onwards, for an overall mean decline of 50% in both sexes, although these falls were somewhat larger in Nordic countries (approaching 70% in Denmark and Sweden), and more limited (20 to 30%) in Portugal, Spain and Greece. The reductions in Hodgkin's disease mortality were evident both in younger (under 35) and middle age (35 to 64 years), as well as in children under 15 and, in several countries, in the elderly (above 65), too. They were persistent up to the most recent calendar periods, with no evidence of flattening off. The pattern of trends in Hodgkin's disease mortality was largely different in Eastern Europe. Among seven countries examined, some fall was observed only in Bulgaria and Czechoslovakia, but other countries showed no consistent pattern and there was some increase, too. In absolute terms, the reductions in Hodgkin's disease mortality in Western Europe correspond to the avoidance of over 3,000 deaths per year. This stresses the importance and urgency of improving the availability of currently defined knowledge and resources for treatment of Hodgkin's disease in Eastern Europe. PMID:1911221

  7. Mortal assets

    SciTech Connect

    Howe, Geoffrey R.; Zablotska, Lydia B.; Fix, John J.; Egel, John N.; Buchanan, Jeffrey A.

    2005-11-01

    Workers employed in 15 utilities that generate nuclear power in the United States have been followed for up to 18 years between 1979 and 1997. Their cumulative dose from whole-body ionizing radiation has been determined from the dose records maintained by the facilities themselves and the REIRS and REMS systems maintained by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission and the Department of Energy, respectively. Mortality in the cohort from a number of causes has been analyzed with respect to individual radiation doses. The cohort displays a very substantial healthy worker effect, i.e. considerably lower cancer and noncancer mortality than the general population. Based on 26 and 368 deaths, respectively, positive though statistically nonsignificant associations were seen for mortality from leukemia (excluding chronic lymphocytic leukemia) and all solid cancers combined, with excess relative risks per sievert of 5.67 (95% confidence interval (CI) -2.56, 30.4) and 0.596 (95% CI -2.01, 4.64), respectively. These estimates are very similar to those from the atomic bomb survivors study, though the wide confidence intervals are also consistent with lower or higher risk estimates. A strong positive and statistically significant association between radiation dose and deaths from arteriosclerotic heart disease including coronary heart disease was also observed in the cohort, with an ERR of 8.78 (95% CI 2.10, 20.0). Whle associations with heart disease have been reported in some other occupational studies, the magnitude of the present association is not consistent with them and therefore needs cautious interpretation and merits further attention. At present, the relatively small number of deaths and the young age of the cohort (mean age at end of follow-up is 45 years) limit the power of the study, but further follow-up is 45 years) limit the power of the study, but further follow-up and the inclusion of the present data in an ongoing IARC combined analysis of nuclear workers from 15

  8. The effect of osteoporotic treatment on the functional outcome, re-fracture rate, quality of life and mortality in patients with hip fractures: a prospective functional and clinical outcome study on 520 patients.

    PubMed

    Makridis, Konstantinos G; Karachalios, Theofilos; Kontogeorgakos, Vasilios A; Badras, Leonidas S; Malizos, Konstantinos N

    2015-02-01

    Numerous high quality studies have shown the positive effects of various osteoporotic medical treatment regimens on bone mass and on the reduction of risk for new spinal, hip and non-spinal fractures in osteoporotic patients. However, the effect of osteoporotic treatment on the functional and clinical outcome of patients who have sustained hip fractures and been treated surgically has not yet been addressed. Five hundred and twenty patients out of 611 who were admitted (2009-2011), operated on due to a hip fracture and completed their follow-up evaluations were included in this study. Data related to functional outcome scores, re-fracture rate, quality of life and mortality rate were prospectively recorded, analysed and correlated to osteoporotic medical treatment. There were 151 (25%) men and 369 (71%) women with a mean age of 80.7 years (range, 60 to 90 years). At a mean follow-up of 27.5 months (range, 24 to 36 months) a mortality rate of 23.6% at 2 years was recorded. Mean values of functional and quality of life scores were found to have progressively improved within two years after surgery. Seventy-eight (15%) patients were taking osteoporotic treatment before their hip fracture and 89 (17.1%) started afterwards. Osteoporotic treatment proved to be an important predictor of functional recovery (all p values<0.05), re-fracture rate (p=0.028) and quality of life (EQ-5D, all dimensions, p values<0.05). Osteoporotic treatment did not affect post-fracture mortality rates. Osteoporotic treatment taken before or initiated after fracture is a strong predictor of functional and clinical outcome in patients with hip fractures treated surgically. PMID:25541417

  9. [The mortality rate for homicide among women in Italy: a historical and geographical analysis as a contribution to the study of femicide].

    PubMed

    Montinari, Maria Rosa; Petrella, Marco; Vigotti, Maria Angela

    2015-01-01

    As 70% of the killings of women takes place in the context of relational dynamics and in 80% of the cases the perpetrator is a man, we can presume that femicide constitutes much of the homicide mortality among women. Epidemiological surveillance of the killings of women can, therefore, provide indicators on the trends and geographical distribution of femicide and, indirectly, of the more general phenomenon of harassment and violence against women. The analysis of 40 years of mortality shows only a slight decrease of the murders of women nationwide. This suggests that the factors that underline this phenomenon are deeply rooted in the relationship between men and women. The decrease has taken place mainly in the South and Islands and the percentage SMRs point to a reversal of the relationship between geographic areas: thus, at the end of the observation period the North-West assumes a greater weight than the South and Islands. So we cannot exclude that part of the decrease in murders of women can be attributed to the overall decrease in homicides related to criminal activity, most pronounced in the South and Islands. PMID:26036742

  10. Rates of obstetric intervention and associated perinatal mortality and morbidity among low-risk women giving birth in private and public hospitals in NSW (2000–2008): a linked data population-based cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Dahlen, Hannah G; Tracy, Sally; Tracy, Mark; Bisits, Andrew; Brown, Chris; Thornton, Charlene

    2014-01-01

    Objectives To examine the rates of obstetric intervention and associated perinatal mortality and morbidity in the first 28 days among low-risk women giving birth in private and public hospitals in NSW (2000–2008). Design Linked data population-based retrospective cohort study involving five data sets. Setting New South Wales, Australia. Participants 691 738 women giving birth to a singleton baby during the period 2000–2008. Main outcome measures Rates of neonatal resuscitation, perinatal mortality, neonatal admission following birth and readmission to hospital in the first 28 days of life in public and private obstetric units. Results Rates of obstetric intervention among low-risk women were higher in private hospitals, with primiparous women 20% less likely to have a normal vaginal birth compared to the public sector. Neonates born in private hospitals were more likely to be less than 40 weeks; more likely to have some form of resuscitation; less likely to have an Apgar <7 at 5 min. Neonates born in private hospitals to low-risk mothers were more likely to have a morbidity attached to the birth admission and to be readmitted to hospital in the first 28 days for birth trauma (5% vs 3.6%); hypoxia (1.7% vs 1.2%); jaundice (4.8% vs 3%); feeding difficulties (4% vs 2.4%) ; sleep/behavioural issues (0.2% vs 0.1%); respiratory conditions (1.2% vs 0.8%) and circumcision (5.6 vs 0.3%) but they were less likely to be admitted for prophylactic antibiotics (0.2% vs 0.6%) and for socioeconomic circumstances (0.1% vs 0.7%). Rates of perinatal mortality were not statistically different between the two groups. Conclusions For low-risk women, care in a private hospital, which includes higher rates of intervention, appears to be associated with higher rates of morbidity seen in the neonate and no evidence of a reduction in perinatal mortality. PMID:24848087

  11. The Absolute Spectrum Polarimeter (ASP)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kogut, A. J.

    2010-01-01

    The Absolute Spectrum Polarimeter (ASP) is an Explorer-class mission to map the absolute intensity and linear polarization of the cosmic microwave background and diffuse astrophysical foregrounds over the full sky from 30 GHz to 5 THz. The principal science goal is the detection and characterization of linear polarization from an inflationary epoch in the early universe, with tensor-to-scalar ratio r much greater than 1O(raised to the power of { -3}) and Compton distortion y < 10 (raised to the power of{-6}). We describe the ASP instrument and mission architecture needed to detect the signature of an inflationary epoch in the early universe using only 4 semiconductor bolometers.

  12. Absolute calibration of optical flats

    DOEpatents

    Sommargren, Gary E.

    2005-04-05

    The invention uses the phase shifting diffraction interferometer (PSDI) to provide a true point-by-point measurement of absolute flatness over the surface of optical flats. Beams exiting the fiber optics in a PSDI have perfect spherical wavefronts. The measurement beam is reflected from the optical flat and passed through an auxiliary optic to then be combined with the reference beam on a CCD. The combined beams include phase errors due to both the optic under test and the auxiliary optic. Standard phase extraction algorithms are used to calculate this combined phase error. The optical flat is then removed from the system and the measurement fiber is moved to recombine the two beams. The newly combined beams include only the phase errors due to the auxiliary optic. When the second phase measurement is subtracted from the first phase measurement, the absolute phase error of the optical flat is obtained.

  13. Community Types and Mortality in Georgia Counties

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young, Frank W.

    2012-01-01

    Using an "ecological regional analysis" methodology for defining types of communities and their associated mortality rates, this study of Georgia's 159 counties finds that the suburban and town centered counties have low mortality while the city-centered type predicts low mortality for the whites. The military-centered counties do not predict. The…

  14. Maternal and perinatal mortality.

    PubMed

    Krishna Menon, M K

    1972-01-01

    A brief analysis of data from the records of the Government Hospital for Women and Children in Madras for a 36-year period (1929-1964) is presented. India with a population of over 550 million has only 1 doctor for each 6000 population. For the 80% of the population which is rural, the doctor ratio is only 88/1 million. There is also a shortage of paramedical personnel. During the earlier years of this study period, abortions, puerperal infections; hemorrhage, and toxemia accounted for nearly 75% of all meternal deaths, while in later years deaths from these causes were 40%. Among associated factors in maternal mortality, anemia was the most frequent, it still accounts for 20% and is a contributory factor in another 20%. The mortality from postpartum hemorrhage was 9.3% but has now decreased to 2.8%. Eclampsia is a preventable disease and a marked reduction in maternal and perinatal mortality from this cause has been achieved. Maternal deaths from puerperal infections have dropped from 25% of all maternal deaths to 7%. Uterine rupture has been reduced from 75% to 9.3% due to modern facilities. Operative deliveries still have an incidence of 2.1% and a mortality rate of 1.4% of all deliveries. These rates would be further reduced by more efficient antenatal and intranatal care. Reported perinatal mortality of infants has been reduced from 182/1000 births to an average of 78/1000 in all areas, but is 60.6/1000 in the city of Madras. Socioeconomic standards play an important role in perinatal mortality, 70% of such deaths occurring in the lowest economic groups. Improvement has been noted in the past 25 years but in rural areas little progress has been made. Prematurity and low birth weights are still larger factors in India than in other countries, with acute infectious diseases, anemia, and general malnutrition among mothers the frequent causes. Problems requiring further efforts to reduce maternal and infant mortality are correct vital statistics, improved

  15. An Ecological Study of Community-Level Correlates of Suicide Mortality Rates in the Flemish Region of Belgium, 1996-2005

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hooghe, Marc; Vanhoutte, Bram

    2011-01-01

    An ecological study of age-standardized suicide rates in Belgian communities (1996-2005) was conducted using spatial regression techniques. Community characteristics were significantly related to suicide rates. There was mixed support for the social integration perspective: single person households were associated with higher suicide rates, while…

  16. Relationship of Self-Rated Health to Stroke Incidence and Mortality in Older Individuals with and without a History of Stroke: A Longitudinal Study of the MRC Cognitive Function and Ageing (CFAS) Population

    PubMed Central

    Mavaddat, Nahal; van der Linde, Rianne; Parker, Richard; Savva, George; Kinmonth, Ann Louise; Brayne, Carol; Mant, Jonathan

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Poor self-rated health (SRH) has been associated with increased risk of death and poor health outcomes even after adjusting for confounders. However its’ relationship with disease-specific mortality and morbidity has been less studied. SRH may also be particularly predictive of health outcomes in those with pre-existing conditions. We studied whether SRH predicts new stroke in older people who have never had a stroke, or a recurrence in those with a prior history of stroke. Methods MRC CFAS I is a multicentre cohort study of a population representative sample of people in their 65th year and older. A comprehensive interview at baseline included questions about presence of stroke, self-rated health and functional disability. Follow-up at 2 years included self-report of stroke and stroke death obtained from death certificates. Multiple logistical regression determined odds of stroke at 2 years adjusting for confounders including disability and health behaviours. Survival analysis was performed until June 2014 with follow-up for up to 13 years. Results 11,957 participants were included, of whom 11,181 (93.8%) had no history of stroke and 776 (6.2%) one or more previous strokes. Fewer with no history of stroke reported poor SRH than those with stroke (5 versus 21%). In those with no history of stroke, poor self-rated health predicted stroke incidence (OR 1.5 (1.1–1.9)), but not stroke mortality (OR 1.2 (0.8–1.9)) at 2 years nor for up to 13 years (OR 1.2(0.9–1.7)). In those with a history of stroke, self-rated health did not predict stroke incidence (OR 0.9(0.6–1.4)), stroke mortality (OR 1.1(0.5–2.5)), or survival (OR 1.1(0.6–2.1)). Conclusions Poor self-rated health predicts risk of stroke at 2 years but not stroke mortality among the older population without a previous history of stroke. SRH may be helpful in predicting who may be at risk of developing a stroke in the near future. PMID:26928666

  17. Mortality in Prader-Willi Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Einfeld, Stewart L.; Kavanagh, Sophie J.; Smith, Arabella; Evans, Elizabeth J.; Tonge, Bruce J.; Taffe, John

    2006-01-01

    Persons with Prader-Willi syndrome have been known to have a high mortality rate. However, intellectual disability, which usually accompanies Prader-Willi syndrome, is also associated with a higher mortality rate than in the general population. In this study, the death rates in a longitudinal cohort of people with Prader-Willi syndrome are…

  18. Genomic Ancestry, Self-Rated Health and Its Association with Mortality in an Admixed Population: 10 Year Follow-Up of the Bambui-Epigen (Brazil) Cohort Study of Ageing

    PubMed Central

    Lima-Costa, M. Fernanda; Macinko, James; Mambrini, Juliana Vaz de Melo; Cesar, Cibele C.; Peixoto, Sérgio V.; Magalhães, Wagner C. S.; Horta, Bernardo L.; Barreto, Mauricio; Castro-Costa, Erico; Firmo, Josélia O. A.; Proietti, Fernando A.; Leal, Thiago Peixoto; Rodrigues, Maira R.; Pereira, Alexandre; Tarazona-Santos, Eduardo

    2015-01-01

    Background Self-rated health (SRH) has strong predictive value for mortality in different contexts and cultures, but there is inconsistent evidence on ethnoracial disparities in SRH in Latin America, possibly due to the complexity surrounding ethnoracial self-classification. Materials/Methods We used 370,539 Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms (SNPs) to examine the association between individual genomic proportions of African, European and Native American ancestry, and ethnoracial self-classification, with baseline and 10-year SRH trajectories in 1,311 community dwelling older Brazilians. We also examined whether genomic ancestry and ethnoracial self-classification affect the predictive value of SRH for subsequent mortality. Results European ancestry predominated among participants, followed by African and Native American (median = 84.0%, 9.6% and 5.3%, respectively); the prevalence of Non-White (Mixed and Black) was 39.8%. Persons at higher levels of African and Native American genomic ancestry, and those self-identified as Non-White, were more likely to report poor health than other groups, even after controlling for socioeconomic conditions and an array of self-reported and objective physical health measures. Increased risks for mortality associated with worse SRH trajectories were strong and remarkably similar (hazard ratio ~3) across all genomic ancestry and ethno-racial groups. Conclusions Our results demonstrated for the first time that higher levels of African and Native American genomic ancestry—and the inverse for European ancestry—were strongly correlated with worse SRH in a Latin American admixed population. Both genomic ancestry and ethnoracial self-classification did not modify the strong association between baseline SRH or SRH trajectory, and subsequent mortality. PMID:26680774

  19. Evolution of Minimum Mortality Temperature in Stockholm, Sweden, 1901–2009

    PubMed Central

    Åström, Daniel Oudin; Tornevi, Andreas; Ebi, Kristie L.; Rocklöv, Joacim; Forsberg, Bertil

    2015-01-01

    Background: The mortality impacts of hot and cold temperatures have been thoroughly documented, with most locations reporting a U-shaped relationship with a minimum mortality temperature (MMT) at which mortality is lowest. How MMT may have evolved over previous decades as the global mean surface temperature has increased has not been thoroughly explored. Objective: We used observations of daily mean temperatures to investigate whether MMT changed in Stockholm, Sweden, from the beginning of the 20th century until 2009. Methods: Daily mortality and temperature data for the period 1901–2009 in Stockholm, Sweden, were used to model the temperature–mortality relationship. We estimated MMT using distributed lag nonlinear Poisson regression models considering lags up to 21 days of daily mean temperature as the exposure variable. To avoid large influences on the MMT from intra- and interannual climatic variability, we estimated MMT based on 30-year periods. Furthermore, we investigated whether there were trends in the absolute value of the MMT and in the relative value of the MMT (the corresponding percentile of the same-day temperature distribution) over the study period. Results: Our findings suggest that both the absolute MMT and the relative MMT increased in Stockholm, Sweden, over the course of the 20th century. Conclusions: The increase in the MMT over the course of the 20th century suggests autonomous adaptation within the context of the large epidemiological, demographical, and societal changes that occurred. Whether the rate of increase will be sustained with climate change is an open question. Citation: Oudin Åström D, Tornevi A, Ebi KL, Rocklöv J, Forsberg B. 2016. Evolution of minimum mortality temperature in Stockholm, Sweden, 1901–2009. Environ Health Perspect 124:740–744; http://dx.doi.org/10.1289/ehp.1509692 PMID:26566270

  20. Recent mortality patterns in California.